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Sample records for adult weight gain

  1. Healthy Diet as Teen, Less Weight Gain as Adult

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161134.html Healthy Diet as Teen, Less Weight Gain as Adult Study suggests food choices made at 15 ... researchers report. Encouraging more young people to eat a variety of fruits and vegetables as well as ...

  2. Preventing weight gain in adults: the pound of prevention study.

    PubMed Central

    Jeffery, R W; French, S A

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined whether weight gain with age could be prevented through the use of a low-intensity intervention. METHODS: Participants, 228 men and 998 women recruited from diverse sources, were randomized to one of the following groups: (1) no-contact control, (2) education through monthly newsletters, or (3) education plus incentives for participation. All participants were weighed and completed questionnaires about behaviors and attitudes related to weight at baseline and annually for 3 years thereafter. RESULTS: Individuals in intervention groups reported favorable changes over time in frequency of weighting and healthy dieting practices relative to those in the control group. These behavior changes were in turn related to a reduced rate of weight gain over time. However, weight gain over 3 years did not differ significantly by treatment group. CONCLUSIONS: This low-intensity educational approach to weight gain prevention sustained interest over a lengthy time period and was associated positively with behavior change, but it was not strong enough to significantly reduce weight gain with age. PMID:10224988

  3. Designing a Weight Gain Prevention Trial for Young Adults: The CHOICES Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lytle, Leslie A.; Moe, Stacey G.; Nanney, M. Susie; Laska, Melissa N.; Linde, Jennifer A.; Petrich, Christine A.; Sevcik, Sarah M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Young adults are at risk for weight gain. Little is known about how to design weight control programs to meet the needs of young adults and few theory-based interventions have been evaluated in a randomized control trial. The Choosing Healthy Options in College Environments and Settings (CHOICES) study was funded to create a…

  4. Beliefs about weight gain among young adults: potential challenges to prevention.

    PubMed

    Gokee LaRose, Jessica; Gorin, Amy A; Clarke, Megan M; Wing, Rena R

    2011-09-01

    This study assessed young adults' beliefs about weight gain with the goal of improving intervention efforts with this high-risk group. A total of 1,347 incoming freshman (45% male; 81% non-Hispanic white; 18.6 ± 1.7 years; BMI = 23.3 ± 2.3 kg/m2) at a large state university in the Northeast completed a survey designed to assess: (i) degree of concern about weight gain, (ii) level of interest in weight control programs, and (iii) the most acceptable setting for an intervention. Perceptions about freshman weight gain were consistent across gender, with men and women reporting that the average student gains 5.4 ± 1.9 kg and 5.6 ± 1.9 kg respectively. Men in general were less concerned about weight gain (P < 0.001) and reported they would have to gain 6.2 ± 4.2 kg before becoming concerned compared to 3.1 ± 1.7 kg among women (P < 0.001). Overweight (OW) men were more concerned about gaining weight than normal weight (NW) men (P < 0.001) and indicated they would have to gain less weight before becoming concerned (5.0 ± 3.0 kg vs. 6.7 ± 4.5 kg, P < 0.001). Fewer men reported they would join a program to prevent weight gain (17% men vs. 40% women, P < 0.001); the percentage of men willing to join a prevention program did not vary by weight status (P = 0.59). Both men and women were most likely to report a willingness to attend classes on a local college campus compared to other settings. Findings highlight the challenges of engaging young adults in weight gain prevention programs, particularly young men, and are discussed in terms of implications for improving recruitment efforts and intervention development with this population.

  5. Weight gain prevention in young adults: design of the study of novel approaches to weight gain prevention (SNAP) randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Weight gain during young adulthood is common and is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Preventing this weight gain from occurring may be critical to improving long-term health. Few studies have focused on weight gain prevention, and these studies have had limited success. SNAP (Study of Novel Approaches to Weight Gain Prevention) is an NIH-funded randomized clinical trial examining the efficacy of two novel self-regulation approaches to weight gain prevention in young adults compared to a minimal treatment control. The interventions focus on either small, consistent changes in eating and exercise behaviors, or larger, periodic changes to buffer against expected weight gains. Methods/Design SNAP targets recruitment of six hundred young adults (18–35 years) with a body mass index between 21.0-30.0 kg/m2, who will be randomly assigned with equal probability to: (1) minimal intervention control; (2) self-regulation with Small Changes; or (3) self-regulation with Large Changes. Both interventions receive 8 weekly face-to-face group sessions, followed by 2 monthly sessions, with two 4-week refresher courses in each of subsequent years. Participants are instructed to report weight via web at least monthly thereafter, and receive monthly email feedback. Participants in Small Changes are taught to make small daily changes (~100 calorie changes) in how much or what they eat and to accumulate 2000 additional steps per day. Participants in Large Changes are taught to create a weight loss buffer of 5–10 pounds once per year to protect against anticipated weight gains. Both groups are encouraged to self-weigh daily and taught a self-regulation color zone system that specifies action depending on weight gain prevention success. Individualized treatment contact is offered to participants who report weight gains. Participants are assessed at baseline, 4 months, and then annually. The primary outcome is weight gain over an average of 3 years of follow

  6. Designing a Weight Gain Prevention Trial for Young Adults: The CHOICES Study

    PubMed Central

    Lytle, Leslie A.; Moe, Stacey G.; Nanney, M. Susie; Laska, Melissa N.; Linde, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Young adults are at risk for weight gain. Little is known about how to design weight control programs to meet the needs of young adults and few theory-based interventions have been evaluated in a randomized control trial. The Choosing Healthy Options in College Environments and Settings (CHOICES) study was funded to create a technology-based program for 2-year community college students to help prevent unhealthy weight gain. The purpose of this paper is to: 1) provide a brief background on weight-related interventions in young adults; 2) describe the study design for the CHOICES study, the conceptual model guiding the research and the CHOICES intervention; and 3) discuss implications of this research for health educators. Translation to Health Education Practice Our experiences from the CHOICES study will be useful in suggesting other theory-based models and intervention strategies that might be helpful in programs attempting to prevent unhealthy weight gain in young adults. In addition, this paper discusses important considerations for working with 2-year colleges on this type of health promotion work. PMID:24910855

  7. Job-loss and weight gain in British adults: Evidence from two longitudinal studies

    PubMed Central

    Monsivais, Pablo; Martin, Adam; Suhrcke, Marc; Forouhi, Nita G.; Wareham, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    Overweight and obesity have been associated with unemployment but less is known about changes in weight associated with changes in employment. We examined weight changes associated with job-loss, retirement and maintaining employment in two samples of working adults in the United Kingdom. This was a prospective study of 7201 adults in the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk study (aged 39–76 years) and 4539 adults in the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS) who were followed up over 43 months and 26 months, respectively. In both samples, changes in measured (EPIC) and self-reported (BHPS) weight were computed for each participant and assessed in relation to three employment transitions: maintaining paid employment, retirement and job-loss. Regression models adjusted for potential confounders. Further analyses evaluated the contribution of diet, physical activity and smoking to weight gain. In EPIC-Norfolk, weight change differed across the three employment transitions for women but not men. The mean (95% CI) annualised change in weight for women who became unemployed over the follow-up period was 0.70 (0.55, 0.85) kg/y while those who maintained employment gained 0.49 (0.43, 0.55) kg/y (P = 0.007). Accounting for changes in smoking, diet and physical activity did not substantially alter the difference in weight gain among groups. In BHPS, job-loss was associated with weight gain of 1.56 (0.89, 2.23) kg/y, while those who maintained employment 0.60 (0.53, 0.68) kg/y (P < 0.001). In both samples, weight changes associated with retirement were similar to those staying in work. In BHPS, job-loss was also associated with significant declines in self-reported well-being and increases in sleep-loss. Two UK-based samples of working adults reveal strong associations between job-loss and excess weight gain. The mediating behaviours are so far unclear but psychosocial mechanisms and sleep-loss may contribute to the excess weight gain among

  8. Weight gain - unintentional

    MedlinePlus

    ... as much as 25 to 30 pounds. This weight gain is not simply due to eating more. ... or a dietitian about how to make a healthy eating plan and set ... be causing the weight gain without talking with your provider.

  9. Body Mass Index and Adult Weight Gain Among Reproductive Age Women with Migraine

    PubMed Central

    Vo, Michelle; Ainalem, Abinnet; Qiu, Chunfang; Peterlin, B. Lee; Aurora, Sheena K.; Williams, Michelle A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the cross-sectional relationship between migraine and pre-gravid obesity; and to assess the risk of adult weight gain among women with history of a pediatric diagnosis of migraine. Background Obesity, comorbid with pain disorders including migraine, shares common pathophysiological characteristics including systemic inflammation, and derangements in adipose-tissue derived cytokines. Despite biochemical and epidemiological commonalities, obesity-migraine associations have been inconsistently observed. Methods A cohort of 3,733 women was interviewed during early pregnancy. We ascertained participants’ self-reported history of physician-diagnosed migraine and collected self-reported information about pre-gravid weight, adult height and net weight change from age 18 to the 3-monthsperiodpriorto pregnancy. Using pre-gravid body mass index, we categorized participants as follows: lean (<18.5 kg/m2); normal (18.5–24.9 kg/m2); overweight (25–29.9 kg/m2), obese (30–34.9 kg/m2), severely obese (35–39.9 kg/m2), and morbidly obese (≥ 40 kg/m2). Logistic regression procedures were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results After adjusting for confounders, relative to normal weight women, obese women had a 1.48-fold increased odds of migraine(OR=1.48; 95%CI 1.12–1.96). Severely obese (OR=2.07; 95%CI 1.27–3.39) and morbidly obese (OR=2.75; 95%CI 1.60–4.70) had the highest odds of migraines. Women with a history of diagnosed pediatric migraine had a 1.67-fold higher odds of gaining ≥10.0 kg above their weight at age 18, as compared with non-migraineurs (OR=1.67; 95%CI 1.13–2.47). Conclusion These data support earlier observations of migraine-obesity association among women, and extend the literature to include evidence of adult weight gain among women with a history of pediatric migraine. PMID:21269300

  10. Adoption of American Heart Association 2020 ideal healthy diet recommendations prevents weight gain in young adults.

    PubMed

    Forget, Geneviève; Doyon, Myriam; Lacerte, Guillaume; Labonté, Mélissa; Brown, Christine; Carpentier, André C; Langlois, Marie-France; Hivert, Marie-France

    2013-11-01

    In 2010, the American Heart Association established the concept of ideal cardiovascular health. Nationally representative data estimated that <1% of Americans meet the seven health metrics required for achieving ideal cardiovascular health, with the main challenge residing in meeting the criteria for an ideal Healthy Diet Score. In a cohort of young adults (N=196), we aimed to investigate the prevalence of ideal cardiovascular health and ideal Healthy Diet Score and its association to weight gain over a 4-year follow-up period. Anthropometric measures, blood pressure, and blood samples were taken according to standardized procedures. Dietary intake was measured by a 3-day food diary and verified by a registered dietitian. We observed that only 0.5% of our sample met the criteria for ideal cardiovascular health and only 4.1% met the criteria for an ideal Healthy Diet Score. The components of the Healthy Diet Score with the lowest observance were consumption of fruits and vegetables (9.7%) and whole grains (14.8%). Meeting zero or one out of five of the Healthy Diet Score components was associated with increased risk of weight gain over 4 years compared with meeting at least two components (P=0.03). With the exception of dietary criteria, prevalence was high for achieving ideal levels of the remaining six cardiovascular health metrics. In conclusion, in this sample of young adults, a very low prevalence of ideal overall cardiovascular health was observed, mainly driven by poor dietary habits, and a poor Healthy Diet Score was associated with increased weight gain.

  11. Association between adult weight gain and colorectal cancer: a dose-response meta-analysis of observational studies.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qi; Wang, Jing; Yang, Jinghui; Jin, Zhichao; Shi, Wentao; Qin, Yingyi; Yu, Feifei; He, Jia

    2015-06-15

    This study investigated the association between adult weight gain and risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Using terms related to weight gain and CRC, we searched PubMed, Embase and Web of Science for relevant studies published before June 2014. Two evaluators independently selected studies according to the selection criteria, and eight studies were included (three case-control and five cohort studies). Summary estimates were obtained using fixed- or random-effects models. The relative risk (RR) of the association between adult weight gain and CRC was 1.25 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10-1.43); the RR was 1.30 (95% CI, 1.14-1.49) for colon cancer (CC) and 1.27 (95% CI, 1.02-1.58) for rectal cancer (RC) for the highest versus lowest category. For every 5-kg increase in adult weight, the risk increased by 5% (RR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.02-1.09) for CRC, 6% (RR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.02-1.11) for CC and 6% (RR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.03-1.08) for RC. The subgroup analyses showed a positive association between adult weight gain and risk of CRC only in men, and the RR was 1.65 (95% CI, 1.42-1.92) for the highest versus lowest category of adult weight gain and 1.10 (95% CI, 1.06-1.15) for a 5-kg increase in adult weight. In conclusion, there is evidence that adult weight gain is associated with an increased risk of CRC. However, the positive association between adult weight gain and risk of CRC is stronger among men than among women.

  12. Preventing Weight Gain

    MedlinePlus

    ... If this is the case, preventing further weight gain is a worthy goal. As people age, their body composition gradually shifts — the proportion of muscle decreases and the proportion of fat increases. This ...

  13. Gain weighted eigenspace assignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, John B.; Andrisani, Dominick, II

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the development of the gain weighted eigenspace assignment methodology. This provides a designer with a systematic methodology for trading off eigenvector placement versus gain magnitudes, while still maintaining desired closed-loop eigenvalue locations. This is accomplished by forming a cost function composed of a scalar measure of error between desired and achievable eigenvectors and a scalar measure of gain magnitude, determining analytical expressions for the gradients, and solving for the optimal solution by numerical iteration. For this development the scalar measure of gain magnitude is chosen to be a weighted sum of the squares of all the individual elements of the feedback gain matrix. An example is presented to demonstrate the method. In this example, solutions yielding achievable eigenvectors close to the desired eigenvectors are obtained with significant reductions in gain magnitude compared to a solution obtained using a previously developed eigenspace (eigenstructure) assignment method.

  14. Osmotic Release Oral System Methylphenidate Prevents Weight Gain during a Smoking-Cessation Attempt in Adults with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Heffner, Jaimee L

    2013-01-01

    Background: Adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for both cigarette smoking and being overweight or obese. Although smoking cessation tends to result in weight increase, potentially initiating or exacerbating weight problems, adults with ADHD who are treated with osmotic release oral system methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) tend to lose weight. It is unclear how the use of OROS-MPH during a smoking-cessation attempt might affect the typical weight gain that accompanies cessation. Method: We examined changes in weight and hunger during a smoking-cessation attempt in 215 adults with ADHD who completed a multisite, randomized, controlled trial and were randomized to either OROS-MPH (n = 107) or placebo (n = 108) (NCT #00253747). Both groups also received open-label transdermal nicotine replacement and counseling. Results: Participants who received OROS-MPH lost an average of 1.6% of their body weight during the 11-week study, whereas those who received placebo gained an average of 1.3% of their weight (p < .001). Hunger ratings were lower in the OROS-MPH group (M = 1.1, SD = 0.8) than in the placebo group (M = 1.6, SD = 0.9; p < .001). Conclusions: The use of OROS-MPH during a smoking-cessation attempt prevents weight gain in adults with ADHD who substantially reduce or quit smoking. The potential utility of OROS-MPH in individuals with ADHD who are attempting to quit smoking and for whom weight gain would be problematic warrants further research. PMID:22955246

  15. Smoking Cessation and Weight Gain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Sharon M.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Investigated determinants of weight gain after quitting smoking in two smoking treatment outcome studies. Results indicated abstinence resulted in weight gain, and postquitting weight gain was predicted by pretreatment tobacco use, a history of weight problems, and eating patterns. Relapse to smoking did not follow weight gain. (Author/BL)

  16. Frequent self-weighing with electronic graphic feedback to prevent age-related weight gain in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Bertz, Fredrik; Pacanowski, Carly R.; Levitsky, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Young adults display substantial weight gain. Preventing this age-related weight gain would reduce overweight and obesity. Objective We evaluated an internet based intervention using Internet-connected scales and graphic email feedback; the Caloric Titration Method (CTM), to reduce age-related weight gain over the course of 1 y among first-year college students. Design First-year college students (n=167) were randomized to (CTM) or control (C) group. Both groups were provided Internet-connected scales. CTM group was instructed to weigh daily, view a weight graph emailed to them after weighing, and try to maintain their weight as indicated in the graph. The C group could weigh at any time, but did not receive feedback. At six months and 1 year the C group were notified to provide weights. Intention to treat analysis, using a mixed model adjusted for baseline weight, BMI and gender was used to analyze the effect of the intervention. Results Baseline Body Mass Index was 22.9 ± 3.0 kg/m2. Frequency of self-weighing (median) was 5 times/week in the CTM group, compared to 1 time/week in C (p<0.001). Ninety-five percent of the CTM participants weighed ≥3 times/week, compared to 15% in C group (p<0.001). After 1 year the C group had gained 1.1 ± 4.4 kg whereas the CTM group lost 0.5 ± 3.7 kg, yielding a significant overall time*group interaction (F=3.39, p=0.035). The difference in weight change between the two groups at 1 year was significant (p=0.004). Weight change of the CTM group was not different from zero whereas weight gain in C group was significant. Retention was 81%. Conclusions The internet based frequent self-weighing CTM system was effective in preventing age-related weight gain in young adults over one year and thus offers promise to reduce overweight and obesity. PMID:26414563

  17. Changes in the rates of weight and waist circumference gain in Australian adults over time: a longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Peeters, Anna; Magliano, Dianna J; Backholer, Kathryn; Zimmet, Paul; Shaw, Jonathan E

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess in a single cohort whether annual weight and waist circumference (WC) change has varied over time. Design Longitudinal cohort study with three surveys (1) 1999/2000; (2) 2004/2005 and (3) 2011/2012. Generalised linear mixed models with random effects were used to compare annualised weight and WC change between surveys 1 and 2 (period 1) with that between surveys 2 and 3 (period 2). Models were adjusted for age to analyse changes with time rather than age. Models were additionally adjusted for sex, education status, area-level socioeconomic disadvantage, ethnicity, body mass index, diabetes status and smoking status. Setting The Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle study (AusDiab)—a population-based, stratified-cluster survey of 11247 adults aged ≥25 years. Participants 3351 Australian adults who attended each of three surveys and had complete measures of weight, WC and covariates. Primary outcome measures Weight and WC were measured at each survey. Change in weight and WC was annualised for comparison between the two periods. Results Mean weight and WC increased in both periods (0.34 kg/year, 0.43 cm/year period 1; 0.13 kg/year, 0.46 cm/year period 2). Annualised weight gain in period 2 was 0.11 kg/year (95% CI 0.06 to 0.15) less than period 1. Lesser annual weight gain between the two periods was not seen for those with greatest area-level socioeconomic disadvantage, or in men over the age of 55. In contrast, the annualised WC increase in period 2 was greater than period 1 (0.07 cm/year, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.12). The increase was greatest in men aged 55+ years and those with a greater area-level socioeconomic disadvantage. Conclusions Between 2004/2005 and 2011/2012, Australian adults in a national study continued to gain weight, but more slowly than 1999/2000–2004/2005. While weight gain may be slowing, this was not observed for older men or those in more disadvantaged groups, and the same cannot be said for WC. PMID

  18. Weight Gain during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... Zika virus and pregnancy Microcephaly Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  19. Relationship of the Dietary Phytochemical Index to Weight Gain, Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Overweight Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Heather K.; Bourguignon, Cheryl M.; Taylor, Ann Gill

    2013-01-01

    Background Phytochemicals are bioactive nutrients that help reduce disease risk. High intake of these compounds is important for optimal health and prevention of disease, but quantification of these nutrients in vivo is costly and time consuming. It was examined whether an alternative, simple “phytochemical index” (PI) ratio calculation (PI=the ratio of the energy from high-nutrient phytochemical-rich foods to overall daily energy consumed [kJ phytochemical rich foods/total kJ consumed]) was related to several precursors of future disease: annual weight gain, adiposity, oxidative stress and inflammation. Methods This was a cross-sectional, quantitative, descriptive study (N=54, age range 18–30 years). Participants were stratified into normal weight and overweight groups. Three-day dietary records were analysed for food items, food groups, energy and the PI score at repeated time points. Blood plasma samples were analysed by colorimetric or ELISA method for cholesterol subfractions, glycated hemoglobin, total antioxidant status, lipid hydroperoxides, cytokines (interleukins 1β and 6) and C-reactive protein). Results PI values were higher in the overweight-obese group. Correlation values between the PI score and BMI, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio and plasma oxidative stress were significant. The PI score did not correlate with any cytokine levels. The PI score was a significant contributor to yearly weight gain. Conclusions The PI is inversely related to adiposity and oxidative stress in healthy young adults, is responsive to body weight changes. This simple, easy to administer index might be useful as a dietary target for appropriate proportion consumption of nutrient-rich foods in weight reduction or management programs. PMID:19735350

  20. High fat diet causes rebound weight gain.

    PubMed

    McNay, David E G; Speakman, John R

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is at epidemic proportions but treatment options remain limited. Treatment of obesity by calorie restriction (CR) despite having initial success often fails due to rebound weight gain. One possibility is that this reflects an increased body weight (BW) set-point. Indeed, high fat diets (HFD) reduce adult neurogenesis altering hypothalamic neuroarchitecture. However, it is uncertain if these changes are associated with weight rebound or if long-term weight management is associated with reversing this. Here we show that obese mice have an increased BW set-point and lowering this set-point is associated with rescuing hypothalamic remodelling. Treating obesity by CR using HFD causes weight loss, but not rescued remodelling resulting in rebound weight gain. However, treating obesity by CR using non-HFD causes weight loss, rescued remodelling and attenuates rebound weight gain. We propose that these phenomena may explain why successful short-term weight loss improves obesity in some people but not in others.

  1. Saccharin and aspartame, compared with sucrose, induce greater weight gain in adult Wistar rats, at similar total caloric intake levels.

    PubMed

    Feijó, Fernanda de Matos; Ballard, Cíntia Reis; Foletto, Kelly Carraro; Batista, Bruna Aparecida Melo; Neves, Alice Magagnin; Ribeiro, Maria Flávia Marques; Bertoluci, Marcello Casaccia

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the use of nonnutritive sweeteners (NNSs) can lead to weight gain, but evidence regarding their real effect in body weight and satiety is still inconclusive. Using a rat model, the present study compares the effect of saccharin and aspartame to sucrose in body weight gain and in caloric intake. Twenty-nine male Wistar rats received plain yogurt sweetened with 20% sucrose, 0.3% sodium saccharin or 0.4% aspartame, in addition to chow and water ad libitum, while physical activity was restrained. Measurements of cumulative body weight gain, total caloric intake, caloric intake of chow and caloric intake of sweetened yogurt were performed weekly for 12 weeks. Results showed that addition of either saccharin or aspartame to yogurt resulted in increased weight gain compared to addition of sucrose, however total caloric intake was similar among groups. In conclusion, greater weight gain was promoted by the use of saccharin or aspartame, compared with sucrose, and this weight gain was unrelated to caloric intake. We speculate that a decrease in energy expenditure or increase in fluid retention might be involved.

  2. Strategies for successful recruitment of young adults to healthy lifestyle programmes for the prevention of weight gain: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lam, E; Partridge, S R; Allman-Farinelli, M

    2016-02-01

    Recruiting healthy young adults, aged 18-35, to lifestyle programmes for prevention of weight gain is challenging but important given their increasing rates of obesity. This review aimed to examine the success of different recruitment strategies. A systematic literature search identified 26 separate studies using 10 electronic databases. Participant characteristics and efficacy of interventions were well reported in all studies, but reporting of recruitment procedures, costs, times and effectiveness was minimal. Of those reporting recruitment, both active (e.g. face-to-face) and passive (e.g. print-media and mass-mailings) approaches were identified with the latter most frequently employed. Novel strategies such as social media and marketing approaches were identified. Television and radio have potentially high reach but low efficiency with high cost compared with mass-mailings which yield high numbers of participants. Marketing campaigns appeared to be a promising approach. Incentives demonstrated enhanced recruitment. The use of formative research to guide recruitment strategies for interventions is recommended. Reporting of success, cost and timelines for recruitment should be included in reporting of future trials. This first synthesis of recruitment information can be used to inform recruitment frameworks for lifestyle programmes seeking to attract young adults. PMID:26663091

  3. Rising Obesity Prevalence and Weight Gain Among Adults Starting Antiretroviral Therapy in the United States and Canada.

    PubMed

    Koethe, John R; Jenkins, Cathy A; Lau, Bryan; Shepherd, Bryan E; Justice, Amy C; Tate, Janet P; Buchacz, Kate; Napravnik, Sonia; Mayor, Angel M; Horberg, Michael A; Blashill, Aaron J; Willig, Amanda; Wester, C William; Silverberg, Michael J; Gill, John; Thorne, Jennifer E; Klein, Marina; Eron, Joseph J; Kitahata, Mari M; Sterling, Timothy R; Moore, Richard D

    2016-01-01

    The proportion of overweight and obese adults in the United States and Canada has increased over the past decade, but temporal trends in body mass index (BMI) and weight gain on antiretroviral therapy (ART) among HIV-infected adults have not been well characterized. We conducted a cohort study comparing HIV-infected adults in the North America AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design (NA-ACCORD) to United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) controls matched by sex, race, and age over the period 1998 to 2010. Multivariable linear regression assessed the relationship between BMI and year of ART initiation, adjusting for sex, race, age, and baseline CD4(+) count. Temporal trends in weight on ART were assessed using a generalized least-squares model further adjusted for HIV-1 RNA and first ART regimen class. A total of 14,084 patients from 17 cohorts contributed data; 83% were male, 57% were nonwhite, and the median age was 40 years. Median BMI at ART initiation increased from 23.8 to 24.8 kg/m(2) between 1998 and 2010 in NA-ACCORD, but the percentage of those obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m(2)) at ART initiation increased from 9% to 18%. After 3 years of ART, 22% of individuals with a normal BMI (18.5-24.9 kg/m(2)) at baseline had become overweight (BMI 25.0-29.9 kg/m(2)), and 18% of those overweight at baseline had become obese. HIV-infected white women had a higher BMI after 3 years of ART as compared to age-matched white women in NHANES (p = 0.02), while no difference in BMI after 3 years of ART was observed for HIV-infected men or non-white women compared to controls. The high prevalence of obesity we observed among ART-exposed HIV-infected adults in North America may contribute to health complications in the future.

  4. Diet quality and weight gain among black and white young adults: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study (1985–2005)1234

    PubMed Central

    Zamora, Daisy; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Jacobs, David R

    2010-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the long-term health consequences of following the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA; Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 2005). Objective: The objective was to examine the longitudinal association between diets consistent with the 2005 DGA and subsequent weight gain. Design: We used data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study, a cohort of black and white men and women aged 18–30 y at baseline who attended ≤7 examinations from 1985–1986 to 2005–2006 (n = 4913). We created a 100-point Diet Quality Index (2005 DQI) to rate participants’ diets based on meeting the 2005 DGA key recommendations. Longitudinal models of weight gain were adjusted for physical activity, smoking, energy intake, age, education, sex, and initial body mass index (BMI) and included interaction terms of DQI by race and initial BMI (if statistically significant). Results: We found effect modification by race (likelihood ratio test, P < 0.03 in all models). The mean adjusted 20-y weight change was +19.4 kg for blacks and +11.2 kg for whites with high diet quality (DQI >70) and +17.8 for blacks and +13.9 for whites with a DQI <50 (P < 0.05). In race-specific Cox models (with interaction terms for DQI × initial BMI, P < 0.05), a 10-point increase in DQI score was associated with a 10% lower risk of gaining 10 kg in whites with an initial BMI (in kg/m2) <25 but with a 15% higher risk in blacks with baseline obesity (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Our findings do not support the hypothesis that a diet consistent with the 2005 DGA benefits long-term weight maintenance in American young adults. Greater need for attention to obesity prevention in future DGAs is warranted. PMID:20685947

  5. Targeting Binge Eating for the Prevention of Excessive Weight Gain: Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Adolescents at High-Risk for Adult Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Wilfley, Denise E.; Young, Jami F.; Mufson, Laura; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Glasofer, Deborah R.; Salaita, Christine G.

    2007-01-01

    The most prevalent disordered eating pattern described in overweight youth is loss of control (LOC) eating, during which individuals experience an inability to control the type or amount of food they consume. LOC eating is associated cross-sectionally with greater adiposity in children and adolescents, and appears to predispose youth to gain weight or body fat above that expected during normal growth, thus likely contributing to obesity in susceptible individuals. No prior studies have examined whether LOC eating can be decreased by interventions in children or adolescents without full-syndrome eating disorders, or whether programs reducing LOC eating prevent inappropriate weight gain attributable to LOC eating. Interpersonal psychotherapy, a form of therapy that was designed to treat depression and has been adapted for the treatment of eating disorders, has demonstrated efficacy in reducing binge eating episodes and inducing weight stabilization among adults diagnosed with binge eating disorder. In this paper, we propose a theoretical model of excessive weight gain in adolescents at high-risk for adult obesity who engage in LOC eating and associated overeating patterns. A rationale is provided for interpersonal psychotherapy as an intervention to slow the trajectory of weight gain in at-risk youth, with the aim of preventing or ameliorating obesity in adulthood. PMID:17557971

  6. Total body sodium depletion and poor weight gain in children and young adults with an ileostomy: a case series.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Megan; Teitelbaum, Daniel H; Harris, Mary Beth

    2014-06-01

    Patients with high-output small bowel ostomies are at risk for total body sodium depletion (TBSD), defined as a urine sodium level <10 mmol/L. Failure to thrive (FTT) as a consequence of TBSD has been reported in neonates with ileostomies; however, this has not been well described in older children. The records of all children beyond the age of infancy with a small bowel ostomy cared for in our Children's Intestinal Rehabilitation Program from 2010-2012 were reviewed. Four patients between the ages of 18 months and 19 years were identified as having TBSD. All 4 patients experienced unintentional weight loss, despite adequate energy intake based on calculated needs, which was associated with a urine sodium level ≤10 mmol/L. With the supplementation of sodium, either enteral or intravenous, all patients demonstrated improved weight gain and correction of TBSD. The following cases suggest that the relationship between TBSD and FTT may extend well beyond the neonatal period and possibly into adulthood. We advise that patients of all ages with high stoma output have routine urine sodium levels checked, particularly in the setting of weight loss or poor gain. Furthermore, instances of TBSD should be treated with sodium supplementation. Further research is needed to better understand the relationship between TBSD and FTT and to establish intervention guidelines.

  7. The effects of different levels of peppermint alcoholic extract on body-weight gain and blood biochemical parameters of adult male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Mesbahzadeh, Behzad; Akbari, Mohsen; kor, Nasroallah Moradi; Zadeh, Jalal Bayati

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Peppermint is an efficient medicinal plant for the treatment of diseases, and it also can be used to produce raw materials in the pharmaceutical industry. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effects of various levels of peppermint alcoholic extract on body-weight gain and blood biochemical parameters in adult male Wistar rats. Methods This experiment was conducted using a completely randomized design (CRD). Fifty adult, healthy, male Wistar rats (ages of 2.5–3 months; weights of 190–210 g) were allocated randomly into five groups. T1 was the control group in which the rats received 0.3 ml of distilled water). Groups T2, T3, T4, and T5 received 75, 150, 300, and 600 mg/kg of peppermint extract, respectively. The rats received daily pretreatment by oral gavages for 21 days. We recorded body weights at the beginning and at the end of the study to determine the changes in the body weights. Blood samples were collected for the measurement of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL, albumin, globulin, and total protein. Statistical analysis of the data was done by SAS software. The data statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), which was conducted through Dennett’s multiple comparison post-test. Results The results indicated that the rats treated with peppermint gained more weight (p < 0.05) and also decreased the serum concentrations of triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL, and glucose in T3, T4 and T5 than the other groups (p < 0.05). Conclusion Peppermint extract had a positive effect on body-weight gain and some blood parameters in adult male Wistar rats. The findings showed that peppermint is a crucial substance at high temperature, and future research should be focused on determining the details of the mechanisms involved in producing the observed effects of peppermint extract. PMID:26516445

  8. Effect of phosphorus supplementation on weight gain and waist circumference of overweight/obese adults: a randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Ayoub, J J; Samra, M J A; Hlais, S A; Bassil, M S; Obeid, O A

    2015-01-01

    Background: Phosphorus status is inversely correlated with body weight; however, the effect of phosphorus supplementation on body weight in a controlled design has not been studied. Methods: This is a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of 63 adults aged 18–45 years with a body mass index (BMI) of ⩾25 kg m−2 and normal kidney function at the American University of Beirut. Participants were randomly assigned to the placebo or phosphorus group where daily placebo or phosphorus supplements were ingested with three main meals (breakfast, lunch and dinner) for a period of 12 weeks. Primary outcomes were changes in anthropometric measures, blood metabolites (including lipid profile, glucose and insulin) and subjective appetite scores. The trial is registered with Clinical Trial.gov, NCT02329990. Results: Body weight was significantly lower in the phosphorus group when compared with the placebo group (−0.65 kg (95% confidence interval (CI) −1.69 to 0.40) vs 1.13 kg (95% CI 0.19 to 2.06), P=0.01). Similarly, BMI and waist circumference were significantly lower in the phosphorus group when compared with the placebo group (−0.24 kg m−2 (95% CI −0.59 to 0.12) vs 0.42 kg m−2 (95% CI 0.05 to 0.78), P=0.01; −3.62 cm (95% CI−4.90 to −2.33) vs 0.38 cm ( 95% CI−0.44 to 1.20), P<0.001; respectively). Several parameters of subjective appetite scores were decreased in the phosphorus-supplemented group. Conclusions: Phosphorus supplementation for 12 weeks significantly decreases body weight, BMI, waist circumference and subjective appetite scores. These findings support a promising role of the mineral phosphorus in the prevention and management of obesity, especially abdominal adiposity. The exact mechanisms of action and longer-term effects still need to be elucidated. PMID:26690287

  9. Gestational weight gain among Hispanic women.

    PubMed

    Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Lam, Kim; Raine, Susan P

    2014-01-01

    To describe gestational weight gain among Hispanic women and to examine psychological, social, and cultural contexts affecting weight gain. A total of 282 Hispanic women were surveyed post-partum before leaving the hospital. Women were queried about their prepregnancy weight and weight gained during pregnancy. Adequacy of gestational weight gain was based on guidelines set by the Institute of Medicine in 2009. Independent risk factors for excessive or insufficient weight gain were examined by logistic regression. Most women were unmarried (59 %), with a mean age of 28.4 ± 6.6 years and an average weight gain of 27.9 ± 13.3 lbs. Approximately 45 % of women had gained too much, 32 % too little, and only 24 % had an adequate amount of weight gain. The mean birth weight was 7.3, 7.9, and 6.8 lbs among the adequate, excessive, and insufficient weight gain groups. Among women who exercised before pregnancy, two-thirds continued to do so during pregnancy; the mean gestational weight gain of those who continued was lower than those who stopped (26.8 vs. 31.4 lbs, p = 0.04). Independent risk factors for excessive weight gain were being unmarried, U.S. born, higher prepregnancy body mass index, and having indifferent or negative views about weight gain. Independent risk factors for insufficient weight gain were low levels of support and late initiation of prenatal care. Depression, stress, and a woman's or her partner's happiness regarding pregnancy were unrelated to weight gain. The results of this study can be used by prenatal programs to identify Hispanic women at risk for excessive or insufficient gestational weight gain.

  10. Intellect, Perceptual Characteristics, and Weight Gain in Anorexia Nervosa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Arnold; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Studied weight-gain 127 primary anorexics by examining the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and the Rorschach for indices that may predict improvement. Results showed that cognitive-focusing skills, measured by the Wechsler, account for roughly half of the variance and were good predictors of weight gain. (WAS)

  11. Nicotine Replacement: Effects on Postcessation Weight Gain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Janet; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined nicotine replacement effects on postcessation weight gain in smoking cessation volunteers. Randomly assigned abstinent subjects to active nicotine or placebo gum conditions for 10 weeks. Analyses revealed strong evidence for gum effect on weight gain, with active gum users gaining mean total of 3.8 pounds compared with 7.8 pounds for…

  12. Effectiveness of a mHealth Lifestyle Program With Telephone Support (TXT2BFiT) to Prevent Unhealthy Weight Gain in Young Adults: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Partridge, Stephanie R; McGeechan, Kevin; Hebden, Lana; Balestracci, Kate; Wong, Annette TY; Denney-Wilson, Elizabeth; Harris, Mark F; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Bauman, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Background Weight gained in young adulthood often persists throughout later life with associated chronic disease risk. Despite this, current population prevention strategies are not specifically designed for young adults. Objective We designed and assessed the efficacy of an mHealth prevention program, TXT2BFiT, in preventing excess weight gain and improving dietary and physical activity behaviors in young adults at increased risk of obesity and unhealthy lifestyle choices. Methods A two-arm, parallel-group randomized controlled trial was conducted. Subjects and analyzing researchers were blinded. A total of 250 18- to 35-year-olds with a high risk of weight gain, a body mass index (BMI) of 23.0 to 24.9 kg/m2 with at least 2 kg of weight gain in the previous 12 months, or a BMI of 25.0 to 31.9 kg/m2 were randomized to the intervention or control group. In the 12-week intervention period, the intervention group received 8 text messages weekly based on the transtheoretical model of behavior change, 1 email weekly, 5 personalized coaching calls, a diet booklet, and access to resources and mobile phone apps on a website. Control group participants received only 4 text messages and printed dietary and physical activity guidelines. Measured body weight and height were collected at baseline and at 12 weeks. Outcomes were assessed via online surveys at baseline and at 12 weeks, including self-reported weight and dietary and physical activity measures. Results A total of 214 participants—110 intervention and 104 control—completed the 12-week intervention period. A total of 10 participants out of 250 (4.0%)—10 intervention and 0 control—dropped out, and 26 participants (10.4%)—5 intervention and 21 control—did not complete postintervention online surveys. Adherence to coaching calls and delivery of text messages was over 90%. At 12 weeks, the intervention group were 2.2 kg (95% CI 0.8-3.6) lighter than controls (P=.005). Intervention participants consumed more

  13. Weight gain associated with taking psychotropic medication: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    McCloughen, Andrea; Foster, Kim

    2011-06-01

    People with serious mental illness have higher morbidity and mortality rates than general populations, and overweight/obesity-related conditions are prevalent. Psychotropic medications are a primary factor in significant weight gain. Adolescents and young adults, particularly those with first-episode psychoses taking atypical antipsychotics, are susceptible to weight gain. This paper reports findings from an integrative review of research investigating the impact and treatment of psychotropic-induced weight gain. Four databases were searched, yielding 522 papers. From these and hand-searched papers, 36 research reports were systematically classified and analysed. The review revealed people experiencing psychotropic-induced weight gain perceive it as distressing. It impacts on quality of life and contributes to treatment non-adherence. Weight management and prevention strategies have primarily targeted adults with existing/chronic illness rather than those with first-episode psychoses and/or drug naiveté. Single and multimodal interventions to prevent or manage weight gain produced comparable, modest results. This review highlights that the effectiveness of weight management interventions is not fully known, and there is a lack of information regarding weight gain prevention for young people taking psychotropics. Future research directions include exploring the needs of young people regarding psychotropic-related weight gain and long-term, follow-up studies of lifestyle interventions to prevent psychotropic-related weight gain.

  14. Gestational weight gain trajectories in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Piccinini-Vallis, Helena; Lee-Baggley, Dayna; Stewart, Moira; Ryan, Bridget

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify gestational weight gain trajectories, stratified by prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), of women with singleton pregnancies who received prenatal care in a primary care setting, and to compare these trajectories with the 2009 Institute of Medicine gestational weight gain recommendations. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Halifax, NS. Participants Women who received prenatal care at the Dalhousie Family Medicine clinics in Halifax from 2009 to 2013. Main outcome measures For each prenatal visit, gestational age and weight measurements were obtained. Multilevel modeling was used to analyze the gestational weight gain trajectories. The upper limit of the guideline-recommended weekly gestational weight gain was compared with the 95% CI of the observed mean weekly gestational weight gain for each prepregnancy BMI category. Results A total of 280 women were included in the analyses. There was a significant interaction between prepregnancy BMI category and gestational weight gain over time (P < .001), with gestational weight gain being significantly lower among women with prepregnancy BMI of 30.0 kg/m2 or greater compared with those with BMI of 18.5 to less than 25.0 kg/m2 and 25.0 to less than 30.0 kg/m2. When comparing women’s weight gain with the recommendations, women with prepregnancy BMI of 25.0 to less than 30.0 kg/m2 had the most guideline discordance, deviating from the weight gain recommendations at 20 weeks’ gestation. Conclusion These results are relevant and of benefit to women and clinicians wishing to address excess gestational weight gain, and to researchers and policy makers developing interventions aimed at curbing gestational weight gain in primary care. Although our results showed women with prepregnancy BMI of 25.0 to less than 30.0 kg/m2 gained the most excess, guideline-discordant weight, interventions should target all women planning or experiencing a pregnancy.

  15. A Mobile Health Lifestyle Program for Prevention of Weight Gain in Young Adults (TXT2BFiT): Nine-Month Outcomes of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Partridge, Stephanie Ruth; McGeechan, Kevin; Balestracci, Kate; Hebden, Lana; Wong, Annette; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Denney-Wilson, Elizabeth; Harris, Mark F; Bauman, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Background The unprecedented rise in obesity among young adults, who have limited interaction with health services, has not been successfully abated. Objective The objective of this study was to assess the maintenance outcomes of a 12-week mHealth intervention on prevention of weight gain in young adults and lifestyle behaviors at 9 months from baseline. Methods A two-arm, parallel, randomized controlled trial (RCT) with subjects allocated to intervention or control 1:1 was conducted in a community setting in Greater Sydney, Australia. From November 2012 to July 2014, 18- to 35-year-old overweight individuals with a body mass index (BMI) of 25-31.99 kg/m2 and those with a BMI ≥ 23 kg/m2 and a self-reported weight gain of ≥ 2 kg in the past 12 months were recruited. A 12-week mHealth program “TXT2BFiT” was administered to the intervention arm. This included 5 coaching calls, 96 text messages, 12 emails, apps, and downloadable resources from the study website. Lifestyle behaviors addressed were intake of fruits, vegetables, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), take-out meals, and physical activity. The control group received 1 phone call to introduce them to study procedures and 4 text messages over 12 weeks. After 12 weeks, the intervention arm received 2 further coaching calls, 6 text messages, and 6 emails with continued access to the study website during 6-month follow-up. Control arm received no further contact. The primary outcome was weight change (kg) with weight measured at baseline and at 12 weeks and self-report at baseline, 12 weeks, and 9 months. Secondary outcomes were change in physical activity (metabolic equivalent of task, MET-mins) and categories of intake for fruits, vegetables, SSBs, and take-out meals. These were assessed via Web-based surveys. Results Two hundred and fifty young adults enrolled in the RCT. Intervention participants weighed less at 12 weeks compared with controls (model β=−3.7, 95% CI −6.1 to −1.3) and after 9 months

  16. Adolescent drug addiction treatment and weight gain.

    PubMed

    Hodgkins, Candace C; Cahill, Kevin S; Seraphine, Anne E; Frost-Pineda, Kimberly; Gold, Mark S

    2004-01-01

    Neurotransmitter release in the nucleus accumbens use has been linked to self-administration and learning following drug use. This endogenous reward system is also activated following food intake or sex. Therefore, rebound hyperphagia following abstinence may be a mechanism to replenish the release of neurotransmitters in this reward system, leading to increased weight gain and a rise in body mass index during recovery from substance abuse. In this report, we examined the relationship between supervised drug abstinence and increased weight gain among adolescents at a residential substance abuse treatment center. Mean weight change over time was followed by repeated analysis of weight and body mass index. Significant weight gain and body mass index increase was observed during supervised and confirmed abstinence from drug use. Furthermore, significant interactions between tobacco use and primary substance use disorder with weight gain was demonstrated by multivariate analysis of variance.

  17. Effective Strategies to Recruit Young Adults Into the TXT2BFiT mHealth Randomized Controlled Trial for Weight Gain Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Balestracci, Kate; Wong, Annette TY; Hebden, Lana; McGeechan, Kevin; Denney-Wilson, Elizabeth; Harris, Mark F; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Bauman, Adrian; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Background Younger adults are difficult to engage in preventive health, yet in Australia they are gaining more weight and increasing in waist circumference faster than middle-to-older adults. A further challenge to engaging 18- to 35-year-olds in interventions is the limited reporting of outcomes of recruitment strategies. Objective This paper describes the outcomes of strategies used to recruit young adults to a randomized controlled trial (RCT), healthy lifestyle mHealth program, TXT2BFiT, for prevention of weight gain. The progression from enquiry through eligibility check to randomization into the trial and the costs of recruitment strategies are reported. Factors associated with nonparticipation are explored. Methods Participants were recruited either via letters of invitation from general practitioners (GPs) or via electronic or print advertisements, including Facebook and Google—social media and advertising—university electronic newsletters, printed posters, mailbox drops, and newspapers. Participants recruited from GP invitation letters had an appointment booked with their GP for eligibility screening. Those recruited from other methods were sent an information pack to seek approval to participate from their own GP. The total number and source of enquiries were categorized according to eligibility and subsequent completion of steps to enrolment. Cost data and details of recruitment strategies were recorded. Results From 1181 enquiries in total from all strategies, 250 (21.17%) participants were randomized. A total of 5311 invitation letters were sent from 12 GP practices—16 participating GPs. A total of 131 patients enquired with 68 participants randomized (68/74 of those eligible, 92%). The other recruitment methods yielded the remaining 182 randomized participants. Enrolment from print media was 26% of enquiries, from electronic media was 20%, and from other methods was 3%. Across all strategies the average cost of recruitment was Australian Dollar

  18. Organic Causes of Weight Gain and Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Organic Causes of Weight Gain and Obesity Page Content ... as children, before they became heavy. Still other organic factors partly determine which kids can eat anything ...

  19. Provider advice about pregnancy weight gain and adequacy of weight gain.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Renée M; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria

    2013-02-01

    To explore the association between health care provider advice about weight gain and gestational weight gain. Using data from a prospective cohort study, we explored the association between provider advice about weight gain in pregnancy with weight gain adequacy among 1,454 pregnant women. Provider advice was measured by maternal self-report at 27-30 weeks' gestation. Linear and Poisson regression were used to explore associations. Seventy-eight percent of the women gained outside current recommendations. Fifty-one percent reported receiving weight gain advice from a health care provider. Adjusted Generalized Linear Model (GLM) estimates showed weak effect of provider advice on inadequate or excessive gain (Relative Risk (RR) 0.96, 95% CI 0.74, 1.26 for inadequate gain and RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.97, 1.06 for excessive gain). There is a need for more women to hear about their targeted weight gains during pregnancy and the present advice that exists does little to influence actual gains. Further studies are warranted to find better strategies for providers to motivate their patients to gain weight within the appropriate ranges.

  20. The effects of physical activity interventions on preventing weight gain and the effects on body composition in young adults with intellectual disabilities: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Harris, L; Hankey, C; Murray, H; Melville, C

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the literature on randomized controlled trials examining the efficacy of physical activity interventions to prevent weight gain and the effects on body composition in young adults with intellectual disabilities.A systematic search of Medline, Emabse, CINHAL, PsychINFO, Cochrane library and ERIC was conducted from 1946 to September 2014. Eligibility criteria included; randomized controlled trials of a physical activity intervention: objective measure of body weight and body composition; young adults (age range 16-24 years) with intellectual disabilities. Six studies met the eligibility criteria. The interventions varied in their prescription of physical activity including aerobic and strength-based activities. The mean duration of the interventions was 15.3 (range 10-21 weeks). There was no significant effect of physical activity interventions on body weight (weighted mean difference: -0.17 kg, 95% confidence interval, -1.04 kg to 0.72 kg) and body composition outcomes. The meta-analysis showed that physical activity interventions did not prevent weight gain in young adults with intellectual disabilities. Published studies are inadequate to form firm conclusions. Future longer term studies of interventions specifically designed for this population group are required to elucidate the effects of physical activity interventions on body composition and the prevention of weight gain in young adults with intellectual disabilities.

  1. Aspects of eating behaviors disinhibition and restraint are related to weight gain and BMI in women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: The causes of adult weight gain leading to obesity are uncertain. We examined the association of adult weight gain and obesity with subscales of eating behavior characteristics in older women. Research Methods and Procedures: Current height and weight, eating behavior subscales (Disinh...

  2. Sleep Is Increased By Weight Gain and Decreased By Weight Loss in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Zhiwei; Vgontzas, Alexandros N.; Bixler, Edward O.; Fang, Jidong

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether weight loss could reverse excessive sleep in high-fat diet-induced obesity. Design: Three groups of mice participated in the study. A weight gain/loss group was fed with high-fat food for 6 weeks (weight gain), and regular food again for 4 weeks (weight loss). A control group and a weight gain only group were fed with regular food and high-fat food, respectively, for 10 weeks after the baseline. Participants: Adult male C57BL/6 mice. Measurements: The amounts of wake, rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) and non-REM sleep (NREMS) were determined at week 0 (baseline), week 6, and week 10. Results: The weight gain/loss group displayed a significant decrease in wakefulness and increases in NREMS and episodes of NREMS during 6 weeks of weight gain, which were reversed during subsequent 4 weeks of weight loss. The weight gain only group displayed significant decrease in wakefulness and increase of NREMS and REMS at both week 6 and week 10. The control group did not show significant sleep alterations during the experiment. Conclusion: These observations indicate that sleep alterations induced by weight gain are reversed by weight loss in obese animals. These data may shed light on the mechanisms underlying the well-established association between obesity and sleepiness in humans and may lead to new therapeutic strategies for these 2 increasingly prevalent problems in the modern societies. Citation: Guan Z; Vgontzas AN; Bixler EO; Fang J. Sleep is increased by weight gain and decreased by weight loss in mice. SLEEP 2008;31(5):627-633. PMID:18517033

  3. Evaluating a small change approach to preventing long term weight gain in overweight and obese adults--Study rationale, design, and methods.

    PubMed

    Ross, Robert; Hill, James O; Latimer, Amy; Day, Andrew G

    2016-03-01

    Despite the rapid rise in obesity worldwide, few strategies have been effective in treating this epidemic. An emerging strategy is to focus on preventing excessive weight gain rather than weight reduction. The proposed intervention, small change approach (SCA), is an innovative weight gain prevention strategy in which individuals monitor their usual nutrition and physical activity patterns and then make modest but sustainable alterations through behavioral intervention techniques (self-regulation, goal setting) enough to reduce overall energy balance by 100 to 200 kcal per day (e.g., reduce caloric intake by 100 kcal per day and/or increase daily step count by ~2000 steps (~100 kcal) per day). The primary aim of the trial is to determine whether small changes in energy expenditure and/or energy intake prevent weight gain in overweight and obese men and women long-term. The pre-specified primary and secondary assessments are at 2 and 3 years post-randomization respectively. The primary outcome is change in body weight. Secondary outcomes include body composition variables (adipose tissue distribution and lean mass distribution) and cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak). We randomized 320 primarily White (n=305) overweight and obese men and women to one of 2 conditions: 1) usual care (UC), 2) small change approach (SCA). Participant involvement in the study is 3 years; 2 year intervention with a 1 year follow-up. Our study findings will indicate whether there is value in clinicians adopting a SCA to lifestyle counseling for their patients who are overweight and obese.

  4. Weight maintenance from young adult weight predicts better health outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Votruba, Susanne B; Thearle, Marie S; Piaggi, Paolo; Knowler, William C; Hanson, Robert L; Krakoff, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Objective Defining groups of individuals within a larger population with similar patterns of weight change over time may provide insight into influences of weight stability or gain. Methods Latent class growth modeling was used to define subgroups of weight change in adult members of the Gila River Indian Community participating in at least 4 non-diabetic health exams including OGTTs (N=1157, 762F/395M; 78.4±19.0 kg). In a separate study, 152 individuals had 24-hr EE measured in a respiratory chamber. Results Eight groups with baseline weights of 54.6±7.3 (n=124), 64.2±7.7 (n=267), 73.6±7.8 (n=298), 86.1±10.2 (n=194), 95.5±6.7 (n=90), 97.9±10.4 (n=92), 110.9±11.9 (n=61), and 122.1±13.6 (n=31) kg (P<0.001) were delineated. Group 5, (initial weight=95.5±6.7 kg) maintained a comparatively stable weight over time (+3.3±10.3 kg, +3.8±11.2% of initial weight; median follow-up time: 13.1 years). All other groups gained weight over time (+29.9±21.1% of initial weight; median follow-up time: 16.3 years). Higher starting weight defined weight gain in most groups, but higher 2hr glucose predicted membership in the lower weight trajectories. The weight stable group had higher rates of impaired glucose regulation at baseline and higher 24-hr EE. Conclusions Weight in young adulthood defined weight gain trajectory underscoring the importance of intervening early to prevent weight gain. PMID:25131650

  5. Effect of caging variables on body weight and weight gain in mice.

    PubMed

    Doolittle, D P; Wilson, S P; Gieseking, D

    1976-08-01

    The effects on body weight of mixing litters to attain constant density of mice per cage, as opposed to housing litters in separate cages, was studied. Mixing litters resulted in a decreased weight gain between 21 and 42 da of age and a decreased adult body weight at 63 da of age compared to housing litters in separate cages, whether the separately housed litters were allowed to vary in density or not. Mixed litter housing also increased the variance of the body weight measures among males. Housing litters separately, even if it entails variable density of housing, appears to be the preferred method for studies involving inheritance of body weight.

  6. Beliefs about causes of weight gain, effective weight gain prevention strategies, and barriers to weight management in the Australian population

    PubMed Central

    Dryer, Rachel; Ware, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To identify beliefs held by the general public regarding causes of weight gain, weight prevention strategies, and barriers to weight management; and to examine whether such beliefs predict the actual body mass of participants. Methods: A questionnaire-based survey was administered to participants recruited from regional and metropolitan areas of Australia. This questionnaire obtained demographic information, height, weight; as well as beliefs about causes of weight gain, weight prevention strategies, and barriers to weight management. Results: The sample consisted of 376 participants (94 males, 282 females) between the ages of 18 years and 88 years (mean age = 43.25, SD = 13.64). The range and nature of the belief dimensions identified suggest that the Australian public have an understanding of the interaction between internal and external factors that impact on weight gain but also prevent successful weight management. Beliefs about prevention strategies and barriers to effective weight management were found to predict the participants’ actual body mass, even after controlling for demographic characteristics. Conclusions: The general public have a good understanding of the multiple contributing factors to weight gain and successful weight management. However, this understanding may not necessarily lead to individuals adopting the required lifestyle changes that result in achievement or maintenance of healthy weight levels. PMID:25750768

  7. Associations of linear growth and relative weight gain during early life with adult health and human capital in countries of low and middle income: findings from five birth cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Adair, Linda S; Fall, Caroline HD; Osmond, Clive; Stein, Aryeh D; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Sachdev, Harshpal Singh; Dahly, Darren L; Bas, Isabelita; Norris, Shane A; Micklesfield, Lisa; Hallal, Pedro; Victora, Cesar G

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Fast weight gain and linear growth in children in low-income and middle-income countries are associated with enhanced survival and improved cognitive development, but might increase risk of obesity and related adult cardiometabolic diseases. We investigated how linear growth and relative weight gain during infancy and childhood are related to health and human capital outcomes in young adults. Methods We used data from five prospective birth cohort studies from Brazil, Guatemala, India, the Philippines, and South Africa. We investigated body-mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, plasma glucose concentration, height, years of attained schooling, and related categorical indicators of adverse outcomes in young adults. With linear and logistic regression models, we assessed how these outcomes relate to birthweight and to statistically independent measures representing linear growth and weight gain independent of linear growth (relative weight gain) in three age periods: 0–2 years, 2 years to mid-childhood, and mid-childhood to adulthood. Findings We obtained data for 8362 participants who had at least one adult outcome of interest. A higher birthweight was consistently associated with an adult body-mass index of greater than 25 kg/m2 (odds ratio 1·28, 95% CI 1·21–1·35) and a reduced likelihood of short adult stature (0·49, 0·44–0·54) and of not completing secondary school (0·82, 0·78–0·87). Faster linear growth was strongly associated with a reduced risk of short adult stature (age 2 years: 0·23, 0·20–0·52; mid-childhood: 0·39, 0·36–0·43) and of not completing secondary school (age 2 years: 0·74, 0·67–0·78; mid-childhood: 0·87, 0·83–0·92), but did raise the likelihood of overweight (age 2 years: 1·24, 1·17–1·31; mid-childhood: 1·12, 1·06–1·18) and elevated blood pressure (age 2 years: 1·12, 1·06–1·19; mid-childhood: 1·07, 1·01–1·13). Faster relative weight gain was associated with

  8. Genetic causal attributions for weight status and weight loss during a behavioral weight gain prevention intervention

    PubMed Central

    McVay, Megan A.; Steinberg, Dori M.; Askew, Sandy; Kaphingst, Kimberly A.; Bennett, Gary G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Emerging evidence suggests that attributing one’s weight to genetics may contribute to the adoption of obesogenic behaviors. We examined if weight-related genetic attributions were associated with weight change during a weight gain prevention intervention. Methods Participants (n=185) were from a randomized clinical trial of a digital health weight gain prevention intervention for Black women age 25–44 with BMI 25.0–34.9kg/m2. Weight-related genetic attributions (weight status attribution and weight loss attributions) were measured at baseline and 12 months. Results Among intervention participants, high genetic attribution for weight loss was associated with greater weight loss at 12 months (−2.7 kg vs 0.5 kg) and 18 months (−3.0 kg vs 0.9 kg). Among usual care participants, high genetic attribution for weight status was associated with greater 18-month weight gain (2.9 kg vs 0.3 kg). The intervention reduced likelihood of high genetic attribution for weight loss at 12 months (p=0.05). Change in likelihood of genetic attribution was not associated with weight change over 12 months. Conclusion Impact of genetic attributions on weight differs for those enrolled and not enrolled in an intervention. However, weight gain prevention intervention may reduce genetic attribution for weight loss. PMID:26291598

  9. Biological determinants of pregnancy weight gain in a Filipino population.

    PubMed

    Siega-Riz, A M; Adair, L S

    1993-03-01

    Patterns of pregnancy weight gain and predictors of first trimester and total weight gain were investigated in a sample of 1367 women from Cebu, Philippines, with pregnancy intervals of < 2 y. The mean total weight gain based on actual measurements of prepregnant weight was 8.4 kg. Controlling for gestational week when weight was measured, multivariate-regression models predicted higher first trimester weight gain with higher parity, lower prepregnant body mass index (BMI), and longer nonpregnant intervals. Higher total weight gain was associated with longer nonpregnant intervals, lower prepregnant BMI, taller maternal stature, and relatively high dietary energy intakes. Lactation into the third trimester of pregnancy and maternal age over 35 y had significant negative effects on total weight gain. Given the importance of maternal weight gain in predicting birth outcome, this study provides information on modifiable risk factors that should be considered when developing maternal-infant health policy and programs.

  10. Psychological Adjustment of Adolescents Attempting to Lose or Gain Weight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, James C.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Compared the psychological adjustment of high school boys and girls trying to reduce or gain weight. Reducers of both sexes and male gainers exhibited lower physical self-esteem. Girls trying to change weight in either direction showed depression and lower global self-esteem. Girls' decisions to gain or lose weight were influenced by psychological…

  11. Dieting: proxy or cause of future weight gain?

    PubMed

    Lowe, M R

    2015-02-01

    The relationship between dieting and body mass has a long and controversial history. This paper aims to help resolve this issue by making two key distinctions. The first is between dieting as a cause of weight gain/regain and as a proxy risk factor for identifying non-obese individuals prone to weight gain for reasons other than dieting. The second is between the body mass that is attained following one or more weight loss/regain cycles and the body mass that might have been reached had dieting never been undertaken. Evidence is reviewed on the relation between recent diet-induced weight loss and sustained weight loss (weight suppression), on the one hand, and weight regain, on the other hand. Furthermore, the reason that a history of dieting in non-obese individuals reflects a susceptibility to future weight gain is explained. It is concluded that (i) diet-induced weight loss hastens weight regain but a history of weight loss diets does not cause weight gain beyond that which would occur in the absence of dieting, and (ii) weight loss dieting in non-obese individuals does not cause future weight gain but is simply a proxy risk factor reflecting a personal vulnerability to weight gain and living in an obesogenic environment. PMID:25614200

  12. Factors that influence excessive gestational weight gain: moving beyond assessment and counselling.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Emily E; Dworatzek, Paula D N; Penava, Debbie; de Vrijer, Barbra; Gilliland, Jason; Matthews, June I; Seabrook, Jamie A

    2016-11-01

    One in four Canadian adults is obese, and more women are entering pregnancy with a higher body mass index (BMI) than in the past. Pregnant women who are overweight or obese have a higher risk of pregnancy-related complications than women of normal weight. Gestational weight gain (GWG) is also associated with childhood obesity. Although the factors influencing weight gain during pregnancy are multifaceted, little is known about the social inequality of GWG. This review will address some of the socioeconomic factors and maternal characteristics influencing weight gain and the impact that excessive GWG has on health outcomes such as post-partum weight retention. The effects of an overweight or obese pre-pregnancy BMI on GWG and neonatal outcomes will also be addressed. The timing of weight gain is also important, as recommendations now include trimester-specific guidelines. While not conclusive, preliminary evidence suggests that excessive weight gain during the first trimester is most detrimental.

  13. Diverse women's beliefs about weight gain in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Groth, Susan W; Kearney, Margaret H

    2009-01-01

    This research was conducted to describe ethnically diverse new mothers' perceptions of gestational weight gain. Forty-nine low-income women of diverse racial and ethnic origins who birthed an infant within the past year completed a semistructured interview in a pediatric clinic waiting room. The interviews were designed to elicit views on gestational weight gain, including expectations and perceived consequences. Data were analyzed using content analysis techniques. Women believed that others like themselves were concerned about pregnancy weight gain. Many focused on the effects of insufficient pregnancy weight gain on the infant but were not aware of the infant risks of excessive gain. Several had inaccurate knowledge of appropriate gestational weight gain, and many suggested an amount below the current recommendations. One-third of the women believed women will weigh more following pregnancy, yet others assumed that even with excessive weight gain there would be a return to prepregnant weight following pregnancy. Pregnancy-related weight gain is disturbing to women. Health care providers have the opportunity to intervene by acknowledging these concerns and providing information and support to help women make positive choices and achieve appropriate weight gain. PMID:19879517

  14. Weight Gain Through Self-Control Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulanick, Nancy; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Underweight subjects were assigned to either a self-reinforcement condition, a self-punishment condition, or to a discussion/reflection control condition. The subjects received one treatment session per week over a five-week period. After treatment, the self-reinforcement groups gained significantly more pounds (kilograms) than either of the other…

  15. Weight Management in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Gill, Lydia E; Bartels, Stephen J; Batsis, John A

    2015-09-01

    As the number of older adults increases rapidly, the national epidemic of obesity is also affecting our aging population. This is particularly concerning given the numerous health risks and increased costs associated with this condition. Weight management is extremely important for older adults given the risks associated with abdominal adiposity, which is a typical fat redistribution during aging, and the prevalence of comorbid conditions in this age group. However, approaches to weight loss must be considered critically given the dangers of sarcopenia (a condition that occurs when muscle mass and quality are lost), the increased risk of hip fracture with weight loss, and the association between reduced mortality and increased BMI in older adults. This overview highlights the challenges and implications of measuring adiposity in older adults and the dangers and benefits of weight loss in this population and provides an overview of the new Medicare Obesity Benefit. In addition, we provide a summary of outcomes from successful weight loss interventions for older adults and discuss implications for advancing clinical practice. PMID:26627496

  16. Marital status and body weight, weight perception, and weight management among U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Klos, Lori A; Sobal, Jeffery

    2013-12-01

    Married individuals often have higher body weights than unmarried individuals, but it is unclear how marital roles affect body weight-related perceptions, desires, and behaviors. This study analyzed cross-sectional data for 4,089 adult men and 3,989 adult women using multinomial logistic regression to examine associations between marital status, perceived body weight, desired body weight, and weight management approach. Controlling for demographics and current weight, married or cohabiting women and divorced or separated women more often perceived themselves as overweight and desired to weigh less than women who had never married. Marital status was unrelated to men's weight perception and desired weight change. Marital status was also generally unrelated to weight management approach, except that divorced or separated women were more likely to have intentionally lost weight within the past year compared to never married women. Additionally, never married men were more likely to be attempting to prevent weight gain than married or cohabiting men and widowed men. Overall, married and formerly married women more often perceived themselves as overweight and desired a lower weight. Men's marital status was generally unassociated with weight-related perceptions, desires, and behaviors. Women's but not men's marital roles appear to influence their perceived and desired weight, suggesting that weight management interventions should be sensitive to both marital status and gender differences.

  17. Neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage and gestational weight gain and loss

    PubMed Central

    Mendez, Dara D.; Doebler, Donna Almario; Kim, Kevin H.; Amutah, Ndidi N.; Fabio, Anthony; Bodnar, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We explored the relationship between neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage (NSED) and gestational weight gain and loss and if the association differed by race. Methods A census tract level NSED index (categorized as low, mid-low, mid-high, and high) was generated from 12 measures from the 2000 US Census data. Gestational weight gain and other individual-level characteristics were derived from vital birth records for Allegheny County, PA for 2003–2010 (n=55,608). Crude and adjusted relative risks were estimated using modified multilevel Poisson regression models to estimate the association between NSED and excessive and inadequate gestational weight gain (GWG) and weight loss (versus adequate GWG). Results Black women lived in neighborhoods that were more likely to be socioeconomically disadvantaged compared to white women. Almost 55% of women gained an excessive amount of weight during pregnancy, and 2% lost weight during pregnancy. Black women were more likely than white women to have inadequate weight gain or weight loss. Mid-high (aRR=1.3, 95% CI: 1.2, 1.3) and high (aRR=1.5, 95% CI: 1.5, 1.6) NSED compared to low NSED was associated with inadequate weight gain while NSED was not associated with excessive weight gain. Among black women, high versus low NSED was associated with weight loss during pregnancy (RR=1.6; 95% CI: 1.1, 2.5). Among white women, each level of NSED compared to low NSED was associated with weight loss during pregnancy. Conclusion This study demonstrates how neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics can contribute to our understanding of inadequate weight gain and weight loss during pregnancy, having implications for future research and interventions designed to advance pregnancy outcomes. PMID:24026397

  18. Antipsychotic induced weight gain in schizophrenia:mechanisms and management.

    PubMed

    Rege, Sanil

    2008-05-01

    The aim of the present paper was to describe the mechanisms and management of antipsychotic-induced weight gain in schizophrenia patients. A comprehensive literature review of all available articles on the mechanisms and management of antipsychotic-induced weight gain was done by searching databases PsychINFO and PubMed. A summary of the available guidelines for monitoring of antipsychotic-induced weight gain and metabolic syndrome is also provided. There has been a substantial increase in the number of studies investigating the mechanisms and management of antipsychotic-induced weight gain after 2002. These include advances in the understanding of pharmacogenomics of weight gain and several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating pharmacological and psychological treatments to promote weight loss. The most effective strategy for prevention of weight gain is the choice of antipsychotic medication with low weight gain potential. In individuals with established weight gain and metabolic issues, switching to an antipsychotic agent with lower weight gain potential and/or lifestyle modifications with physical activity are most effective in promoting weight loss. Pharmacological agents such as orlistat and sibutramine are effective in general obesity but have not been sufficiently evaluated in antipsychotic-induced weight gain. The case to prescribe routine pharmacological treatment to promote weight loss is weak. Long-term, pragmatic studies are required to inform clinical practice. Weight gain in schizophrenia is associated with significant physical and psychological morbidity. Achieving an optimal trade-off between effectiveness and side-effects of antipsychotic agents, although difficult, is achievable. This should be based on three main principles: (i) a shared decision-making model between the patient, clinician and carer(s) when choosing an antipsychotic; (ii) a commitment to baseline and follow-up monitoring with explicit identification of the responsible

  19. Relating weight gain and feed:gain of male and female broilers to rearing temperature.

    PubMed

    May, J D; Lott, B D

    2001-05-01

    The effects of environmental temperature on growth and feed:gain were studied in three trials each for male and female broilers. Chicks were reared in a common environment to 21 d of age. At 21 d, they were randomly allocated to 10 environmental chambers. Each chamber was maintained at a constant temperature; the chambers ranged from 12 to 30 C in two-degree increments. The dewpoint was maintained at 18 C, except that relative humidity was not permitted to exceed 82.9%. Body weight was determined at 21 d. Weight gain and feed:gain were determined at 28, 35, 42, and 49 d. The data were analyzed statistically, and regression equations were obtained for weight gain and feed:gain for each sex. Equations were based on body weight and temperature, and the body weight equations were plotted as grams gained per bird per day. Feed:gain increased with increasing weight. The temperature that resulted in the most favorable feed:gain decreased with increasing weight. These results support lower rearing temperatures for optimum growth and feed:gain by large broilers than those of other reports in the literature.

  20. Dieting and restrained eating as prospective predictors of weight gain.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Michael R; Doshi, Sapna D; Katterman, Shawn N; Feig, Emily H

    2013-09-02

    Research in normal weight individuals paradoxically suggests that measures of attempted eating restriction might represent robust predictors of weight gain. This review examined the extent to which measures of dieting (e.g., self-reported weight loss dieting in the past year) and dietary restraint (e.g., the Cognitive Restraint scale from the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire) have prospectively predicted weight change. We located and reviewed 25 prospective studies containing 40 relevant comparisons. Studies were limited to those in which participants were non-obese (with a mean BMI between 18.5 and 30) and averaged at least 12 years old. Neither measure predicted future weight loss. Fifteen of the 20 comparisons (75%) that examined measures of dieting significantly predicted future weight gain whereas only 1 of 20 (5%) that examined restrained eating measures did so. Two plausible explanations for these findings are that: (1) dieters and restrained eaters do not differ in terms of an underlying proneness toward weight gain, but restrained eating represents a more effective means of preventing it; and (2) normal weight individuals who diet do so because they are resisting a powerful predisposition toward weight gain which dieting ultimately fails to prevent. Recent dieting in non-obese individuals may be a valuable proxy of susceptibility to weight gain. This easily assessed characteristic could identify individuals for whom obesity prevention interventions would be particularly appropriate.

  1. Body Weight Gain during Altered Gravity: Spaceflight, Centrifugation and Transitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, Charles E.; Harper, J. S.; Daunton, N. G.; Corcoran, M. L.; Morey-Holton, E.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Gravity is a force that influences all living systems, and is often disregarded in the study of environment on growth and development. To assess the effect of gravity exposure on growth, immature rats (130-200 g) were evaluated during chronic altered gravity exposure and during transition between gravity fields. The effects of 14 days of spaceflight on body weight gain were evaluated (n=12) and compared to controls. Spaceflight did not affect weight gain. In 6 rats, the transition from spaceflight to 1 G showed a significant (p less than 0.05) post flight weight loss over 48 hr of 13 g compared to controls. Over subsequent days this loss was compensated for with no difference noted after 5 days. Exposure to hypergravity, 2 G for 16 days, was evaluated in groups of n=6 (Control; On Center Control (OCC); Centrifuged). With centrifugation or OCC there was a reduction in body weight within 24 hr. The OCC regained control weights within 13 days. The weight difference, 26 +/- 1 g, persisted with 2 G with no subsequent difference in weight gain over days 3-16 compared to controls; 3.7 +/- 0.1 versus 3.9 +/- 0.1 g/day respectively. Transition from centrifugation to 1 G resulted in a weight increase within 48 hours. Over 16 days the rate of gain was increased 3.1 +/- 0.1 g/day for centrifuge compared to 2.1 +/- 0.1 g/day for controls between Day 3 to 16. However, differences from control were still noted on Day 16. Transition from one gravity field to another causes acute changes in body weight. Transition to microgravity or 1 G, following the acute changes, results in adjustments to attain a normal weight. In hypergravity the acute reduction in body weight persist, but weight gain is normal. Transitioning from hypergravity to 1G results in an increased weight gain to compensate for the persistent reduction during exposure.

  2. Weight gain in smokers after quitting cigarettes: meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Farley, Amanda; Lycett, Deborah; Lahmek, Pierre; Aveyard, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Objective To describe weight gain and its variation in smokers who achieve prolonged abstinence for up to 12 months and who quit without treatment or use drugs to assist cessation. Design Meta-analysis. Data sources We searched the Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and trials listed in Cochrane reviews of smoking cessation interventions (nicotine replacement therapy, nicotinic partial agonists, antidepressants, and exercise) for randomised trials of first line treatments (nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion, and varenicline) and exercise that reported weight change. We also searched CENTRAL for trials of interventions for weight gain after cessation. Review methods Trials were included if they recorded weight change from baseline to follow-up in abstinent smokers. We used a random effects inverse variance model to calculate the mean and 95% confidence intervals and the mean of the standard deviation for weight change from baseline to one, two, three, six, and 12 months after quitting. We explored subgroup differences using random effects meta-regression. Results 62 studies were included. In untreated quitters, mean weight gain was 1.12 kg (95% confidence interval 0.76 to 1.47), 2.26 kg (1.98 to 2.54), 2.85 kg (2.42 to 3.28), 4.23 kg (3.69 to 4.77), and 4.67 kg (3.96 to 5.38) at one, two, three, six, and 12 months after quitting, respectively. Using the means and weighted standard deviations, we calculated that at 12 months after cessation, 16%, 37%, 34%, and 13% of untreated quitters lost weight, and gained less than 5 kg, gained 5-10 kg, and gained more than 10 kg, respectively. Estimates of weight gain were similar for people using different pharmacotherapies to support cessation. Estimates were also similar between people especially concerned about weight gain and those not concerned. Conclusion Smoking cessation is associated with a mean increase of 4-5 kg in body weight after 12 months of abstinence, and most weight gain occurs within three

  3. Multiple socioeconomic determinants of weight gain: the Helsinki Health Study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic differences in weight gain have been found, but several socioeconomic determinants have not been simultaneously studied using a longitudinal design. The aim of this study was to examine multiple socioeconomic determinants of weight gain. Methods Mail surveys were conducted in 2000–2002 among 40 to 60-year old employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland (n = 8 960, response rate 67%). A follow-up survey was conducted among the baseline respondents in 2007 with a mean follow-up of 5 to 7 years (n = 7 332, response rate 83%). The outcome measure was weight gain of 5 kg or more over the follow-up. Socioeconomic position was measured by parental education, childhood economic difficulties, own education, occupational class, household income, home ownership and current economic difficulties. Multivariable logistic regression models were fitted adjusting simultaneously for all covariates in the final model. Results Of women 27% and of men 24% gained 5 kg or more in weight over the follow-up. Among women, after adjusting for age, baseline weight and all socioeconomic determinants, those with basic (OR 1.40 95% CI 1.11-1.76) or intermediate education (OR 1.43 95% CI 1.08-1.90), renters (OR 1.18 95% CI 1.03-1.36) and those with occasional (OR 1.19 95% CI 1.03-1.38) or frequent (OR 1.50 95% CI 1.26-1.79) economic difficulties had increased risk of weight gain. Among men, after full adjustment, having current frequent economic difficulties (OR 1.70 95% CI 1.15-2.49) remained associated with weight gain. Conclusions Current economic difficulties among both women and men, and among women low education and renting, were associated with weight gain. Prevention of weight gain among ageing people would benefit from focusing in particular on those with economic difficulties. PMID:23517457

  4. College weight gain and behavior transitions: male and female differences.

    PubMed

    Cluskey, Mary; Grobe, Deana

    2009-02-01

    College-student weight gain has been well-documented. However, little is known about the sex differences in weight gain and related behaviors during the transition to college. A repeated-measure study design was used to reveal measured weight changes from October to December 2005 among male and female college students. Three-hundred seventy-nine college students (60% males) participated in both weight assessments and revealed weight gains occurring early in college. Weight gains were found to be of greater incidence and magnitude among college males in the study. More than 25% of both college males and females gained >2.3 kg body weight in an 8-week period. Females starting the study with overweight and obese body mass index (calculated as kg/m(2)) scores were less likely to gain than either obese or overweight body mass index males or low to healthy body mass index students of both sexes. A life-course perspective was used to analyze focus group discussions conducted among students who participated in the weight assessments and explored their perceptions of the transition in eating and exercise behaviors when coming to college. Students described struggles in adapting healthful eating and exercise behaviors to college life. Comments indicated that while college student activity levels differed from the past, there was consistent agreement that eating healthful diets was perceived to be a greater challenge in the transition to college. Male students were less concerned about weight and used fewer strategies to control weight gain than females. More work is needed to understand the transition of behaviors and in developing healthful lifestyles during college.

  5. Weight gain after quitting smoking: What to do

    MedlinePlus

    ... are a couple of reasons why people gain weight when they give up cigarettes. Some have to do with the way nicotine affects your body. The nicotine in cigarettes speeds up your metabolism. Nicotine increases the amount of ...

  6. Effect of surfactants on weight gain in mice.

    PubMed

    Kaneene, J B; Ross, R W

    1986-03-01

    A study was conducted to determine if four surfactants can induce increased weight gain in the mouse. Basic-H, Triton X-100, Amway All Purpose Adjuvant and X-77 were put in water and fed to various groups of ICR 21 day old female mice for a period of 43 days. All the mice were clinically normal throughout the study period. Pathological examination of a random sample of the mice revealed no gross pathological changes. Similarly, histopathological examination of the lungs, livers and intestines did not reveal any visible lesions. Basic-H and Amway surfactants induced weight gain, though not significantly, better at 0.1% (V/V) concentration while X-77 and Triton X-100 induced weight gain better at 0.4% (V/V) concentration. Overall results show that none of the surfactants tested induced significant weight gain.

  7. Nutritional status and weight gain in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Sato, Ana Paula Sayuri; Fujimori, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This study described the nutritional status of 228 pregnant women and the influence of this on birth weight. This is a retrospective study, developed in a health center in the municipality of São Paulo, with data obtained from medical records. Linear regression analysis was carried out. An association was verified between the initial and final nutritional status (p<0.001). The mean of total weight gain in the pregnant women who began the pregnancy underweight was higher compared those who started overweight/obese (p=0.005). Weight gain was insufficient for 43.4% of the pregnant women with adequate initial weight and for 36.4% of all the pregnant women studied. However, 37.1% of those who began the pregnancy overweight/obese finished with excessive weight gain, a condition that ultimately affected almost a quarter of the pregnant women. Anemia and low birth weight were uncommon, however, in the linear regression analysis, birth weight was associated with weight gain (p<0.05). The study highlights the importance of nutritional care before and during pregnancy to promote maternal-infant health.

  8. Dynamic energy-balance model predicting gestational weight gain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gestational weight gains (GWGs) that exceed the 2009 Institute of Medicine recommended ranges increase risk of long-term postpartum weight retention; conversely, GWGs within the recommended ranges are more likely to result in positive maternal and fetal outcomes. Despite this evidence, recent epide...

  9. Gestational weight gain and medical outcomes of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, Zachary M; Contador, Fernanda; Tawfiq, Afaf; Adamo, Kristi B; Gaudet, Laura

    2015-09-01

    This narrative review discusses gestational weight gain (GWG) and medical outcomes of pregnancy, including metabolic, cardiovascular, respiratory, musculoskeletal and psychiatric systems. Taken as a whole, the available evidence shows that excessive GWG increases the risk of all medical complications of pregnancy, and negatively impacts the long-term health and weight of both mothers and their offspring. Briefly, interventions to encourage appropriate GWG are discussed and readers are directed to resources to facilitate discussion of pregnancy weight. PMID:27512468

  10. Maternal Prenatal Weight Gain and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bakian, Amanda V.; Viskochil, Joseph; Clark, Erin A.S.; Botts, Elizabeth L.; Smith, Ken R.; Pimentel, Richard; McMahon, William M.; Coon, Hilary

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The rising population of individuals identified with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) calls for further investigation of its underlying etiology. A disturbance in the fetal steroid hormone environment may be a mechanism in which environmental and genetic risk factors interact. The mother, fetus, and placenta collectively create the fetal steroid environment. Prepregnancy BMI and pregnancy weight gain have served as markers for fetal steroid hormone exposure in other disease states. This study’s objective is to determine whether prepregnancy BMI and pregnancy weight gain are associated with increased ASD risk across study designs and cohorts while controlling for important confounding variables. METHODS: A population-based Utah ASD cohort (n = 128) was ascertained in a 3-county surveillance area and gender- and age-matched to 10 920 control subjects. A second, research-based ASD cohort of Utah children (n = 288) and their unaffected siblings (n = 493) were ascertained through participation in an ASD genetics study. Prenatal variables were obtained from birth certificate records. RESULTS: ASD risk was significantly associated with pregnancy weight gain (adjusted odds ratio = 1.10, 95% confidence interval: 1.03 to 1.17; adjusted odds ratio = 1.17, 95% confidence interval: 1.01 to 1.35 for each 5 pounds of weight gained), but not prepregnancy BMI, in population and research-based cohorts, respectively. When analyses were restricted to ASD cases with normal IQ, these associations remained significant. CONCLUSIONS: ASD risk associated with a modest yet consistent increase in pregnancy weight gain suggests that pregnancy weight gain may serve as an important marker for autism’s underlying gestational etiology. This justifies an investigation into phenomena that link pregnancy weight gain and ASD independent of prepregnancy BMI. PMID:24167172

  11. Do low-calorie sweeteners promote weight gain in rodents?

    PubMed

    Glendinning, John I

    2016-10-01

    Low-calorie sweeteners (LCSs) are used globally to increase the palatability of foods and beverages, without the calories of sugar. Recently, however, there have been claims that LCSs promote obesity. Here, I review the literature linking LCS consumption to elevated body weight in rodents. A recent systematic review found when the LCSs were presented in water or chow, only a minority of the studies reported elevated weight gain. In contrast, when the LCSs were presented in yogurt, the majority of the studies reported elevated weight gain. This review focuses on this latter subset of studies, and asks why the combination of LCSs and yogurt promoted weight gain. First, LCSs have been hypothesized to induce metabolic derangement because they uncouple sweet taste and calories. However, the available evidence indicates that the LCS-treated yogurts did not actually taste sweet to rats in the published studies. Without a sweet taste, the concerns about uncoupling sweet taste and calories would not be relevant. Second, in several studies, the LCS-treated yogurt increased weight gain without increasing caloric intake. This indicates that caloric intake alone cannot explain the elevated weight gain. Third, there is evidence that LCSs and yogurt can each alter the gut microbiota of rodents. Given recent work indicating that changes in gut microbiota can modulate body weight, it is possible that the combination of LCS and yogurt alters the gut microbiota in ways that promote weight gain. While this hypothesis remains speculative, it is consistent with the observed rodent data. In human studies, LCSs are usually presented in beverages. Based on the rodent work, it might be worthwhile to evaluate the impact of LCS-treated yogurt in humans.

  12. Optimal Weight Gain During Pregnancy in Japanese Women

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Shunji

    2016-01-01

    Background In order to examine the optimal weight gain during pregnancy in Japanese women, we analyzed the perinatal outcomes in Japanese women with the optimal range of weight gain during pregnancy according to the Japanese (the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare: JMHLW and the Japan Society for the Study of Obesity: JASSO) guidelines compared with those according to the USA (the Institute of Medicine: IOM) guideline. Methods We compared the obstetric outcomes in two groups of gestational weight gain within the optimal range based on the IOM and Japanese guidelines in women of pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) categories of underweight, normal, overweight and obese. Results In the underweight and normal-weight women, the incidences of preterm delivery and low-birth-weight infant in the JMHLW group were significantly higher than those in the IOM group; however, the incidence of some other perinatal complications in the JMHLW group was significantly lower than that in the IOM group. In the overweight women, the incidences of preterm delivery and low-birth-weight infant in the JSSO group were significantly higher than those in the IOM group; however, there were no significant differences in the obstetric outcomes between the obese women in the JSSO and IOM groups. Conclusion Based on the current results, we should be more tolerant for the weight gain during pregnancy in Japanese woman than ever, especially in overweight women.

  13. Interventions for preventing excessive weight gain during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Muktabhant, Benja; Lumbiganon, Pisake; Ngamjarus, Chetta; Dowswell, Therese

    2014-01-01

    Background Excessive weight gain during pregnancy is associated with multiple maternal and neonatal complications. However, interventions to prevent excessive weight gain during pregnancy have not been adequately evaluated. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of interventions for preventing excessive weight gain during pregnancy and associated pregnancy complications. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (20 October 2011) and MEDLINE (1966 to 20 October 2011). Selection criteria All randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials of interventions for preventing excessive weight gain during pregnancy. Data collection and analysis We assessed for inclusion all potential studies we identified as a result of the search strategy. At least two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We resolved discrepancies through discussion. We have presented results using risk ratio (RR) for categorical data and mean difference for continuous data. We analysed data using a fixed-effect model. Main results We included 28 studies involving 3976 women; 27 of these studies with 3964 women contributed data to the analyses. Interventions focused on a broad range of interventions. However, for most outcomes we could not combine data in a meta-analysis, and where we did pool data, no more than two or three studies could be combined for a particular intervention and outcome. Overall, results from this review were mainly not statistically significant, and where there did appear to be differences between intervention and control groups, results were not consistent. For women in general clinic populations one (behavioural counselling versus standard care) of three interventions examined was associated with a reduction in the rate of excessive weight gain (RR 0.72, 95% confidence interval 0.54 to 0.95); for women in high-risk groups no intervention appeared to reduce excess weight gain. There were

  14. Interventions for Weight Gain Prevention During the Transition to Young Adulthood: A review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Laska, Melissa N.; Pelletier, Jennifer E.; Larson, Nicole I.; Story, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To review studies examining weight gain prevention interventions among young adults. Methods A snowball strategy was used to identify relevant studies, beginning with systematic PubMed, MEDLINE, PsychInfo, ERIC, and CINAHL searches. Included studies: (a) were published from 1985-2011, (b) were completed in the US or Canada, (a) focused on weight gain prevention among young adults ages 18-35 years, assessing weight, body mass index (BMI), body composition, diet or physical activity as an outcome, and (d) included pre- and post-intervention assessments. Results Thirty-seven interventions were identified. Ten interventions assessed weight, BMI, or body composition; twenty-seven addressed other relevant outcomes (e.g., diet, physical activity). Of the studies examining weight or body composition, six evaluated university courses or seminar-based interventions. Overall, many studies focused on individual-level intervention delivery and changes in weight-related knowledge and/or skills, though some incorporated relatively unique aspects (e.g., focusing on eating disorders and obesity simultaneously, using online technology, providing personalized feedback on weight change). Most showed promising results as small-scale pilot studies but lacked data from fully-powered randomized trials. Conclusions There is an urgent need to develop effective young adult-focused weight gain prevention strategies. This review identified promising areas for future work, though much additional research is needed. PMID:22443834

  15. Weight Gain following Pallidal Deep Brain Stimulation: A PET Study.

    PubMed

    Sauleau, Paul; Drapier, Sophie; Duprez, Joan; Houvenaghel, Jean-François; Dondaine, Thibaut; Haegelen, Claire; Drapier, Dominique; Jannin, Pierre; Robert, Gabriel; Le Jeune, Florence; Vérin, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms behind weight gain following deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery seem to be multifactorial and suspected depending on the target, either the subthalamic nucleus (STN) or the globus pallidus internus (GPi). Decreased energy expenditure following motor improvement and behavioral and/or metabolic changes are possible explanations. Focusing on GPi target, our objective was to analyze correlations between changes in brain metabolism (measured with PET) and weight gain following GPi-DBS in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Body mass index was calculated and brain activity prospectively measured using 2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose PET four months before and four months after the start of GPi-DBS in 19 PD patients. Dopaminergic medication was included in the analysis to control for its possible influence on brain metabolism. Body mass index increased significantly by 0.66 ± 1.3 kg/m2 (p = 0.040). There were correlations between weight gain and changes in brain metabolism in premotor areas, including the left and right superior gyri (Brodmann area, BA 6), left superior gyrus (BA 8), the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (right middle gyrus, BAs 9 and 46), and the left and right somatosensory association cortices (BA 7). However, we found no correlation between weight gain and metabolic changes in limbic and associative areas. Additionally, there was a trend toward a correlation between reduced dyskinesia and weight gain (r = 0.428, p = 0.067). These findings suggest that, unlike STN-DBS, motor improvement is the major contributing factor for weight gain following GPi-DBS PD, confirming the motor selectivity of this target. PMID:27070317

  16. Weight Gain following Pallidal Deep Brain Stimulation: A PET Study

    PubMed Central

    Sauleau, Paul; Drapier, Sophie; Duprez, Joan; Houvenaghel, Jean-François; Dondaine, Thibaut; Haegelen, Claire; Drapier, Dominique; Jannin, Pierre; Robert, Gabriel; Le Jeune, Florence; Vérin, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms behind weight gain following deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery seem to be multifactorial and suspected depending on the target, either the subthalamic nucleus (STN) or the globus pallidus internus (GPi). Decreased energy expenditure following motor improvement and behavioral and/or metabolic changes are possible explanations. Focusing on GPi target, our objective was to analyze correlations between changes in brain metabolism (measured with PET) and weight gain following GPi-DBS in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Body mass index was calculated and brain activity prospectively measured using 2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose PET four months before and four months after the start of GPi-DBS in 19 PD patients. Dopaminergic medication was included in the analysis to control for its possible influence on brain metabolism. Body mass index increased significantly by 0.66 ± 1.3 kg/m2 (p = 0.040). There were correlations between weight gain and changes in brain metabolism in premotor areas, including the left and right superior gyri (Brodmann area, BA 6), left superior gyrus (BA 8), the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (right middle gyrus, BAs 9 and 46), and the left and right somatosensory association cortices (BA 7). However, we found no correlation between weight gain and metabolic changes in limbic and associative areas. Additionally, there was a trend toward a correlation between reduced dyskinesia and weight gain (r = 0.428, p = 0.067). These findings suggest that, unlike STN-DBS, motor improvement is the major contributing factor for weight gain following GPi-DBS PD, confirming the motor selectivity of this target. PMID:27070317

  17. Emotional eating as a mediator between depression and weight gain.

    PubMed

    van Strien, Tatjana; Konttinen, Hanna; Homberg, Judith R; Engels, Rutger C M E; Winkens, Laura H H

    2016-05-01

    Depression is often associated with weight gain but underlying mechanisms are unclear. This study assessed whether three psychological eating styles (emotional eating, external eating and restrained eating) act as mediators between depression and weight gain. We used structural equation modelling to test the hypothesized mediation models in a sample of 298 fathers and 294 mothers by assessing self-reported eating styles (Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire), depressive feelings (Depressive Mood List) and body mass index (BMI) at baseline and BMI after five years. In the model with emotional eating we also assessed the moderation effect of 5-HTTLPR genotype in a sub-sample of 520 Caucasians. All analyses were performed separately for the two sexes. Although the overall effect of depression on weight gain was statistically non-significant in both sexes, there was a causal chain between depression, emotional eating and weight gain in the mothers. Depressive symptoms were related to higher emotional eating and emotional eating predicted greater increases in BMI independently of depression. Moreover, the indirect effect (via emotional eating) of depression on BMI change was significant (Beta = 0.18, P = 0.026). This mediation effect was found to be independent of 5-HTTLPR genotype. No such mediation effect was found for the fathers. Further, external eating and restrained eating did not act as mediators between depression and weight gain in either sex. The finding that emotional eating acted as mediator between depression and weight gain in the mothers suggests that obesity interventions should take emotional eating into account. PMID:26911261

  18. Neural Vulnerability Factors that Increase Risk for Future Weight Gain

    PubMed Central

    Stice, Eric; Yokum, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    Theorists have proposed several neural vulnerability factors that may increase overeating and consequent weight gain. Early cross-sectional imaging studies could not determine whether aberrant neural responsivity was a precursor or consequence of overeating. However, recent prospective imaging studies examining predictors of future weight gain and response to obesity treatment, and repeated-measures imaging studies before and after weight gain and loss have advanced knowledge of etiologic processes and neural plasticity resulting from weight change. The present article reviews evidence from prospective studies using imaging and behavioral measures reflecting neural function, as well as randomized experiments with humans and animals that are consistent or inconsistent with five neural vulnerability theories for excessive weight gain. Extant data provide strong support for the incentive sensitization theory of obesity and moderate support for the reward surfeit theory, inhibitory control deficit theory, and dynamic vulnerability model of obesity, which attempted to synthesize the former theories into a single etiologic model. However, existing data provide only minimal support for the reward deficit theory. Findings are synthesized into a new working etiologic model that is based on current scientific knowledge. Important directions for future studies, which have the potential to support or refute this working etiologic model, are delineated. PMID:26854866

  19. Predictors of weight variation and weight gain in peri- and post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Filipa; Maroco, João; Ramos, Catarina; Leal, Isabel

    2014-08-01

    This research encompasses a community sample of 497 women in peri- and post-menopause and uses structural equation modelling to investigate the structural models of weight variation and weight gain. Variables such as body shape concerns, depression, stress and life events are explored. Weight gain (from pre-menopause to current menopausal status) was observed in 69 per cent of participants. The predictors of weight gain were lower education level (β = -.146, p = .017), less or no physical exercise (β = -.111, p = .021), having a recent psychological problem (β = .191, p < .001), transition from peri- to post-menopause (β = .147, p = .013) and more frequent body shape concerns (β = .313, p < .001). Prevention of weight gain in pre-menopause is recommended; risk groups should be targeted considering the predictors of weight increase.

  20. Change in Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status and Weight Gain

    PubMed Central

    Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M.; Cooper-McCann, Rebecca; Ayers, Colby; Berrigan, David; Lian, Min; McClurkin, Michael; Barbash, Rachel Ballard; Das, Sandeep R.; Hoehner, Christine M.; Leonard, Tammy

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Despite a proposed connection between neighborhood environment and obesity, few longitudinal studies have examined the relationship between change in neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation, as defined by moving between neighborhoods, and change in body weight. The purpose of this study is to examine the longitudinal relationship between moving to more socioeconomically deprived neighborhoods and weight gain as a cardiovascular risk factor. Methods Weight (kg) was measured in the Dallas Heart Study (DHS), a multiethnic cohort aged 18–65 years, at baseline (2000–2002) and 7-year follow-up (2007–2009, N=1,835). Data were analyzed in 2013–2014. Geocoded addresses were linked to Dallas County, TX census block groups. A block group-level neighborhood deprivation index (NDI) was created. Multilevel difference-in-difference models with random effects and a Heckman correction factor (HCF) determined weight change relative to NDI change. Results Forty-nine percent of the DHS population moved (263 to higher NDI, 586 to lower NDI, 47 within same NDI), with blacks more likely to move than whites or Hispanics (p<0.01), but similar baseline BMI and waist circumference were observed in movers vs. non-movers (p>0.05). Adjusting for HCF, sex, race, and time-varying covariates, those who moved to areas of higher NDI gained more weight compared to those remaining in the same or moving to a lower NDI (0.64 kg per 1-unit NDI increase, 95% CI=0.09, 1.19). Impact of NDI change on weight gain increased with time (p=0.03). Conclusions Moving to more–socioeconomically deprived neighborhoods was associated with weight gain among DHS participants. PMID:25960394

  1. Weight gain increases human aromatase expression in mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dong; Zhao, Hong; Coon, John S; Ono, Masanori; Pearson, Elizabeth K; Bulun, Serdar E

    2012-05-15

    Adulthood weight gain predicts estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Because local estrogen excess in the breast likely contributes to cancer development, and aromatase is the key enzyme in estrogen biosynthesis, we investigated the role of local aromatase expression in weight gain-associated breast cancer risk in a humanized aromatase (Arom(hum)) mouse model containing the coding region and the 5'-regulatory region of the human aromatase gene. Compared with littermates on normal chow, female Arom(hum) mice on a high fat diet gained more weight, and had a larger mammary gland mass with elevated total human aromatase mRNA levels via promoters I.4 and II associated with increased levels of their regulators TNFα and C/EBPβ. There was no difference in total human aromatase mRNA levels in gonadal white adipose tissue. Our data suggest that diet-induced weight gain preferentially stimulates local aromatase expression in the breast, which may lead to local estrogen excess and breast cancer risk.

  2. Maternal Behavior and Infant Weight Gain in the First Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worobey, John; Lopez, Maria Islas; Hoffman, Daniel J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relative contributions of maternal characteristics and behaviors in predicting infant weight gain over the first year of postpartum life. Design: Longitudinal study of maternal feeding style throughout infancy. Setting: A Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children center. Participants:…

  3. A behavioral intervention to reduce excessive gestational weight gain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) is a key modifiable risk factor for negative maternal and child health. We examined the efficacy of a behavioral intervention in preventing excessive GWG. 230 participants (87.8% Caucasian, mean age= 29.1 years; second parity) completed the 36 week gestational...

  4. Marijuana safety study completed: weight gain, no safety problems.

    PubMed

    James, J S

    2000-08-01

    No safety problems specific to HIV or protease inhibitors were found in a study in which volunteers stayed in a research hospital 24 hours a day and were randomly assigned to either smoke marijuana, take oral THC, or take an oral placebo. Marijuana and THC use was associated with weight gain. PMID:12170987

  5. Prospective associations of eating behaviors with weight gain in infants

    PubMed Central

    Shepard, Desti N.; Chandler-Laney, Paula C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine whether maternal reports of infant eating behaviors are stable over time and whether eating behaviors are prospectively associated with weight gain. Methods In an ongoing study of infant growth, weight and length were measured at 2-weeks, 3-months, and 5-months of age. Food responsiveness (FR), satiety responsiveness (SR), enjoyment of feeding (EF), and slow eating (SE) were assessed with the Baby Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Repeated measures ANOVA were used to examine changes in eating behaviors from 2-weeks to 5-months. Simple Pearson correlations examined associations among eating behaviors across time, and associations of eating behaviors with subsequent change in weight-for-length z-scores. Results Among 31 infants studied from 2-weeks to 3-months, FR and SR remained consistent (P<0.05), and among 21 infants studied from 3- to 5-months, FR, EF, and SE were consistent (P<0.01). Infants ate more quickly (P<0.01), and tended to have greater SR with age (P=0.09). Only SE at 3-months was associated with subsequent gain in weight-for-length (P<0.05). Conclusions Consistent with previous research, SE was predictive of weight gain during infancy. Given that eating behaviors were largely consistent after 3-months of age, it may be important to encourage the development of healthy eating behaviors during early infancy. PMID:26242892

  6. The consequences of obesity and excess weight gain in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Norman, Jane E; Reynolds, Rebecca M; Reynolds, Rebecca

    2011-11-01

    The prevalence of obesity in pregnancy is rising exponentially; about 15-20% of pregnant women now enter pregnancy with a BMI which would define them as obese. This paper provides a review of the strong links between obesity and adverse pregnancy outcome which operate across a range of pregnancy complications. For example, obesity is associated with an increased risk of maternal mortality, gestational diabetes mellitus, thromboembolism, pre-eclampsia and postpartum haemorrhage. Obesity also complicates operative delivery; it makes operative delivery more difficult, increases complications and paradoxically increases the need for operative delivery. The risk of the majority of these complications is amplified by excess weight gain in pregnancy and increases in proportion to the degree of obesity, for example, women with extreme obesity have OR of 7·89 for gestational diabetes and 3·84 for postpartum haemorrhage compared to their lean counterparts. The consequences of maternal obesity do not stop once the baby is born. Maternal obesity programmes a variety of long-term adverse outcomes, including obesity in the offspring at adulthood. Such an effect is mediated at least in part via high birthweight; a recent study has suggested that the odds of adult obesity are two-fold greater in babies weighing more than 4 kg at birth. The mechanism by which obesity causes adverse pregnancy outcome is uncertain. This paper reviews the emerging evidence that hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance may both play a role: the links between hyperglycaemia in pregnancy and both increased birthweight and insulin resistance have been demonstrated in two large studies. Lastly, we discuss the nature and rationale for possible intervention strategies in obese pregnant women.

  7. Gestational Weight Gain and Obesity: Is 20 Pounds Too Much?

    PubMed Central

    Kominiarek, Michelle A.; Seligman, Neil S.; Dolin, Cara; Gao, Weihua; Berghella, Vincenzo; Hoffman, Matthew; Hibbard, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare maternal and neonatal outcomes in obese women according to weight change and obesity class. Study design Cohort study from the Consortium on Safe Labor of 20,950 obese women with a singleton, term, livebirth from 2002–2008. Risk for adverse outcomes was calculated by multiple logistic regression analysis for weight change categories [weight loss (<0kg), low (0−4.9kg), normal (5.0−9.0kg), high weight gain (>9.0 kg)] in each obesity class (I 30.0−34.9kg/m2, II 35.0−39.9kg/m2, and III ≥40 kg/m2) and by predicted probabilities with weight change as a continuous variable. Results Weight loss was associated with decreased cesareans for class I women (nulliparas OR 0.21, 95%CI 0.11−0.42; multiparas OR 0.61, 95%CI 0.45−.83) and increased small for gestational age (SGA) infants (class I OR 1.8, 95%CI 1.3−2.5; class II OR 2.2, 95%CI 1.5−3.2; class III OR 1.7, 95%CI 1.1−2.6). High weight gain was associated with increased large for gestational age (LGA) infants (class I OR 2.4, 95%CI 1.9−2.9; class II OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.3−2.1; class III OR 1.6, 95%CI 1.3−2.1). As weight change increased, the predicted probability for cesareans and LGA infants increased. The predicted probability of low birth weight never exceeded 4% for all obesity classes, but SGA increased with decreased weight change. The lowest average predicted probability of adverse outcomes (cesarean, postpartum hemorrhage, SGA, LGA, NICU admission) occurred when women (class I,II,III) lost weight. Conclusion Optimal maternal and neonatal outcomes appear to occur when weight gain is less than current IOM recommendations for obese women. Further study of long-term outcomes is needed with respect to gestational weight changes. PMID:23635421

  8. Preventing weight gain through exercise and physical activity in the elderly: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Stehr, Mareike D; von Lengerke, Thomas

    2012-05-01

    This review examines the role of exercise and physical activity for preventing weight gain in older people. A structured search using MeSH-vocabulary and Title/Abstract-searches was conducted in PubMed for January 2000 to June 2011, identifying weight gain and exercise or physical activity as study topics, and aged adults as target group. In study selection, all types of exercise and physical activity and any measure of weight change in aged adults (≥65 years) or postmenopausal women were considered. N=9 primary studies were identified. All were conducted in the US, with one study additionally including samples from Canada and the UK. Three studies focused on aged adults, while six concentrated specifically on postmenopausal women. Forms of exercise or physical activity comprised self-reported exercise history in four studies and low, moderate or high intensity exercise interventions in five studies. Four studies combined exercise with a hypocaloric diet and included comparison groups receiving either diet only, health education, stretching or a delayed intervention (one study each). Exercise was associated with weight loss (1.1-6 kg) in all intervention studies, all of which studied an overweight sample, and with weight maintenance in most observational studies, all of which studied a general population or otherwise overweight-unspecific sample. In sum, exercise and physical activity can effectively prevent weight gain in older adults and postmenopausal women either in terms of weight loss or maintenance. They can preserve lean body mass and thus are important for the balance between potentially positive and negative effects of weight reduction in later life. In addition, since all intervention studies were conducted with an overweight sample, it seems that primordial prevention (in terms of preventing the development of risk factors such as excess weight in the first place) might be a neglected issue in geriatric and postmenopausal prevention.

  9. The effect of diet on weight gain in infancy.

    PubMed

    Ferris, A G; Laus, M J; Hosmer, D W; Beal, V A

    1980-12-01

    Data from a longitudinal survey of 92 mothers and their female infants supported the hypothesis that the method of feeding had an effect on weight gain. Nutritionists visited the homes monthly during the first 6 months after parturition and obtained both dietary and anthropometric information. The infants were grouped according to the method of feeding at 2 months. A two-factor experiment with repeated measures on one factor as the experimental design was used to test for the effects of diet on weight gain, length increment, and weight/length pattern. The difference between group mean weights adjusted for birthweight was significant with .05 < P < 0.1. One difference was between infants fed formula and solids and infants fed breast milk and food supplements but not between infants fed breast milk or formula alone. No significant differences among the feeding groups were noted in length and weight/length, but there was a tendency for higher weight in relation to height in the infants fed formula and solids.

  10. Hygroscopic weight gain of pollen grains from Juniperus species.

    PubMed

    Bunderson, Landon D; Levetin, Estelle

    2015-05-01

    Juniperus pollen is highly allergenic and is produced in large quantities across Texas, Oklahoma, and New Mexico. The pollen negatively affects human populations adjacent to the trees, and since it can be transported hundreds of kilometers by the wind, it also affects people who are far from the source. Predicting and tracking long-distance transport of pollen is difficult and complex. One parameter that has been understudied is the hygroscopic weight gain of pollen. It is believed that juniper pollen gains weight as humidity increases which could affect settling rate of pollen and thus affect pollen transport. This study was undertaken to examine how changes in relative humidity affect pollen weight, diameter, and settling rate. Juniperus ashei, Juniperus monosperma, and Juniperus pinchotii pollen were applied to greased microscope slides and placed in incubation chambers under a range of temperature and humidity levels. Pollen on slides were weighed using an analytical balance at 2- and 6-h intervals. The size of the pollen was also measured in order to calculate settling rate using Stokes' Law. All pollen types gained weight as humidity increased. The greatest settling rate increase was exhibited by J. pinchotii which increased by 24 %.

  11. Infant difficulty and early weight gain: does fussing promote overfeeding?

    PubMed

    Worobey, John; Peña, Jamila; Ramos, Isabel; Espinosa, Carolina

    2014-04-01

    Authors have recently suggested that difficult temperament in infancy may be associated with rapid weight gain, but no previous studies actually report associations between temperament and feeding as a response to infant distress. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether greater infant difficulty elicits more feeding, which in turn leads to more rapid weight gain in early infancy. One hundred fifty-four mother-infant pairs were visited at 3 and 6 months in their homes. Besides anthropometric measures, mothers kept a 24-h diary of their infants' sleep, cry and feed patterns, and answered questions regarding feeding and infant difficultness. The results showed that feeding occurred as a response to nearly half (48%) of the crying intervals recorded, though it more often occurred in the absence of crying (83%). Mothers were most likely to report holding or rocking their infant as the first strategy they would employ if their baby fussed or cried. A regression analysis that included crying, feeding, weaning, sleep and infant weight revealed maternal reports of numbers of feeds per day as the only variable that predicted weight gain from 3 to 6 months. Infant crying is often followed by feeding, and more frequent feeding may promote more rapid weight gain. However, feeding frequency in the first few months appears to be more a matter of maternal discretion than a yoked response to temperamental difficulty. This does not preclude the possibility that overfeeding in later infancy could be tied to temperamental difficulty and subsequently related to overweight in early childhood.

  12. Timing of Voice Breaking in Males Associated with Growth and Weight Gain Across the Life Course

    PubMed Central

    Bann, David; Wills, Andrew K.; Ward, Kate; Adams, Judith E.; Hardy, Rebecca; Kuh, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Background: In contrast to the many studies in females, there are few data in males on the relationships between childhood growth and weight gain and the timing of pubertal maturation and its relevance to adult body mass index (BMI) and body composition. Methods: A total of 2008 males in the 1946 British Birth Cohort Study had assessment of pubertal status including voice-breaking status (no change, starting, or complete) at age 14 yr. These responses were related to growth measurements at birth (weight only) and at 2, 4, 6, 7, 11, 14, 20, 26, 36, 43, 53, and 60–64 yr. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry at 60–64 yr. Results: Males with more advanced voice-breaking status at age 14 yr had similar birth weights compared with other males; they showed faster weight gain from 0–2 yr and had higher mean weight and BMI at age 2 yr. Subsequently, they continued to accelerate in weight and BMI, and also in height, and maximum differences in body size were seen at age 14 yr. Adult height did not differ between groups, but males with advanced voice breaking had higher adult BMI and greater whole-body lean mass and greater android fat mass at 60–64 yr. Conclusion: Similar to females with earlier menarche, the trajectory to earlier sexual maturation in males is manifested by faster early postnatal growth and weight gain and leads to higher adult BMI. Timing of pubertal maturation has potential relevance to adult disease risks in males. We also describe conditional height difference in sd score as a proxy marker of pubertal timing in males. PMID:22654120

  13. Avoiding Weight Gain in Cardiometabolic Disease: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Maruthur, Nisa M.; Fawole, Oluwakemi A.; Wilson, Renee F.; Lau, Brandyn D.; Anderson, Cheryl A. M.; Bleich, Sara N.; Segal, Jodi

    2014-01-01

    Patients with cardiometabolic disease are at higher risk for obesity-related adverse effects. Even without weight loss, weight maintenance may be beneficial. We performed a systematic review to identify the effect of nonweight loss-focused lifestyle interventions in adults with cardiometabolic disease. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials to identify comparative studies of lifestyle interventions (self-management, diet, exercise, or their combination) without a weight loss focus in adults with or at risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Weight, BMI, and waist circumference at ≥12 months were the primary outcomes. Of 24,870 citations, we included 12 trials (self-management, n = 2; diet, n = 2; exercise, n = 2; combination, n = 6) studying 4,206 participants. Self-management plus physical activity ± diet versus minimal/no intervention avoided meaningful weight (−0.65 to −1.3 kg) and BMI (−0.4 to −0.7 kg/m2) increases. Self-management and/or physical activity prevented meaningful waist circumference increases versus control (−2 to −4 cm). In patients with cardiometabolic disease, self-management plus exercise may prevent weight and BMI increases and self-management and/or exercise may prevent waist circumference increases versus minimal/no intervention. Future studies should confirm these findings and evaluate additional risk factors and clinical outcomes. PMID:25610639

  14. Inadequate gestational weight gain and adverse pregnancy outcomes among normal weight women in China

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Tingyuan; Lv, Yanwei

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the paper is to find the association between inadequate gestational weight gain and pregnancy outcomes in normal weight women in China. Method: A retrospective study was conducted among 13,776 normal weight pregnant women who received antenatal care and delivered singleton infants at the participating hospital during August, 2009 to July, 2013. Adverse pregnancy outcomes like low birth weight (LBW), preterm birth, birth asphyxia, neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission and length of hospital stay were compared and analyzed between two groups with inadequate and adequate gestational weight gain. Results: According to the IOM recommendations, inadequate gestational weight gain was found to be 14.7% in this study. Women with inadequate gestational weight gain (GWG) were found to be at a higher risk for LBW (aOR = 2.13, 95% CI: 1.75, 2.86) and preterm birth (aOR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.21, 1.67) than those in the adequate gestational weight gain group, after adjusting for monthly family income, maternal education, occupation, and whether they received any advice regarding benefits of gestational weight gain and residential area. However, inadequate GWG was not associated with longer hospital stay (aOR = 1.13, 95% CI: 0.91-1.43) in adjusted model. In addition, the rate of birth asphyxia and NICU admission were similar in both groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Normal weight pregnant women with GWG below the recommended AIOM 2009 guidelines were found to be at an increased risk of low birth weight and preterm birth. PMID:25932249

  15. Pregnancy weight gain: marmoset and tamarin dads show it too

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, Toni E; Prudom, Shelley L; Schultz-Darken, Nancy J; Kurian, Aimee V; Snowdon, Charles T

    2006-01-01

    Paternal behaviour is critical for the survival of offspring in many monogamous species. Common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) and cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus) fathers spend as much or more time caring for infants than mothers. Expectant males of both species showed significant increases in weight across the pregnancy whereas control males did not (five consecutive months for marmoset males and six months for cotton-top tamarin males). Expectant fathers might be preparing for the energetic cost of fatherhood by gaining weight during their mate's pregnancy. PMID:16810338

  16. Maternal obesity: pregnancy complications, gestational weight gain and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Guelinckx, I; Devlieger, R; Beckers, K; Vansant, G

    2008-03-01

    The obesity epidemic affects all, including women of reproductive age. One in five women attending prenatal care in the UK is obese. Prepregnancy obesity is associated with serious short- and long-term complications for mother and child. Furthermore, gestational weight gain (GWG) of obese pregnant women generally exceeds the Institute of Medicine recommended ranges. This observation can partially be explained by an unbalanced diet and lack of daily physical activity. Despite this, few lifestyle intervention trials in obese pregnant women are available. Two out of seven intervention trials focusing on GWG, nutrition and physical activity, reached a significant decrease in GWG. Developing guidelines to promote appropriated weight gain and healthy lifestyle in overweight and obese pregnant women remains a challenge. This review aims to summarize the complications associated with maternal prepregnancy overweight and obesity and to discuss possible strategies to improve the lifestyle habits of pregnant women.

  17. Obesity and weight gain in adulthood and telomere length.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangmi; Parks, Christine G; DeRoo, Lisa A; Chen, Honglei; Taylor, Jack A; Cawthon, Richard M; Sandler, Dale P

    2009-03-01

    Obesity and weight gain in adulthood are associated with an increased risk of several cancers. Telomeres play a critical role in maintaining genomic integrity and may be involved in carcinogenesis. Using data from 647 women ages 35 to 74 years in the United States and Puerto Rico (2003-2004), we examined the association between current and past anthropometric characteristics and telomere length in blood. In a multivariate linear regression model, higher current body mass index (BMI) and hip circumference were inversely associated with telomere length. Higher BMI in the 30s was associated with shorter telomere length among women ages>or=40 years (Ptrend<0.01). Weight gain since the age 30s (Ptrend=0.07) and weight cycling (Ptrend=0.04) were also inversely associated with telomere length. When current BMI and BMI at ages 30 to 39 years were considered together, the most marked decrease in telomere length was found for women who had overweight or obese BMI at both time points (mean telomere repeat copy number to single-copy gene copy number ratio=1.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.21-1.30) compared with women who had normal BMI at both times (mean telomere repeat copy number to single-copy gene copy number ratio=1.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.30-1.36). These findings support the hypothesis that obesity may accelerate aging, and highlight the importance of maintaining a desirable weight in adulthood.

  18. Ribose Accelerates Gut Motility and Suppresses Mouse Body Weight Gaining

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan; Li, Tong-Ruei R; Xu, Cong; Xu, Tian

    2016-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of obesity is closely related to excessive energy consumption. Clinical intervention of energy intake is an attractive strategy to fight obesity. However, the current FDA-approved weight-loss drugs all have significant side effects. Here we show that ribose upregulates gut motility and suppresses mice body weight gain. Ribokinase, which is encoded by Rbks gene, is the first enzyme for ribose metabolism in vivo. Rbks mutation resulted in ribose accumulation in the small intestine, which accelerated gut movement. Ribose oral treatment in wild type mice also enhanced bowel motility and rendered mice resistance to high fat diets. The suppressed weight gain was resulted from enhanced ingested food excretion. In addition, the effective dose of ribose didn't cause any known side effects (i.e. diarrhea and hypoglycemia). Overall, our results show that ribose can regulate gut motility and energy homeostasis in mice, and suggest that administration of ribose and its analogs could regulate gastrointestinal motility, providing a novel therapeutic approach for gastrointestinal dysfunction and weight control. PMID:27194947

  19. Persistent financial hardship, 11-year weight gain, and health behaviors in the Whitehall II study

    PubMed Central

    Conklin, Annalijn I; Forouhi, Nita G; Brunner, Eric J; Monsivais, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Objective To ascertain prospectively gender-specific associations between types and amounts of financial hardship and weight gain, and investigate potential behavioral mechanisms. Methods Prospective study of 3701 adult British civil servants with repeated measures of difficulty paying bills or insufficient money to afford adequate for food/clothing (1985-1988; 1989-1990; 1991-1993; 1997-1999), and weight (1985-1988; 1997-1999). Results Persistent hardships were associated with adjusted mean weight change in women over 10.9 years, but no consistent pattern was seen in men. During follow-up, 46% of women gained ≥5 kg. Women reporting persistent insufficient money for food/clothing had a significantly greater odds of gaining ≥5 kg (1.42 [1.05, 1.92]) compared to no hardship history, which remained after socioeconomic status (SES) adjustment (1.45 [1.05, 2.01]). The association between persistent difficulty paying bills and odds of excess weight gain was also significant (1.42 [1.03, 1.97]) but attenuated after considering SES (1.39 [0.98, 1.97]). Four health behaviors as single measures or change variables did not attenuate associations. Conclusions Results suggested strategies to tackle obesity must address employed women's everyday financial troubles which may influence weight through more biological pathways than classical correlates of economic disadvantage and weight. PMID:25155547

  20. The association between quitting smoking and weight gain: a systemic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Tian, J; Venn, A; Otahal, P; Gall, S

    2015-10-01

    This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to quantify weight gain after smoking cessation and the difference in weight gain between quitters and continuing smokers. Five electronic databases were searched before January 2015. Population-based prospective cohort studies were included if they recorded the weight change of adult smokers from baseline (before smoking cessation) to follow-up (at least 3 months after cessation). Thirty-five cohort studies were identified, including 63,403 quitters and 388,432 continuing smokers. The mean weight gain was 4.10 kg (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.69, 5.51) and body mass index (BMI) gain was 1.14 kg m(-2) (95% CI: 0.50, 1.79) among quitters. Compared with continuing smoking, quitting smoking was significantly associated with absolute weight (adjusted mean difference [MD]: 2.61 kg; 95% CI: 1.61, 3.60) and BMI gain (adjusted MD: 0.63 kg m(-2) ; 95% CI: 0.46, 0.80). Subgroup analyses using geographic region found that the difference in weight gain was considerably greater in studies from North America than from Asia. Follow-up length was identified as a source of heterogeneity, such that studies with longer follow-up showed greater difference in weight gain. Effective strategies are needed to encourage smokers to quit irrespective of potential weight gain and to help quitters avoid excess weight gain.

  1. Socioeconomic Disparities in Emerging Adult Weight and Weight Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanKim, Nicole A.; Laska, Melissa N.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To explore weight, weight behaviors, and tobacco and alcohol use among emerging adults by parental education and financial strain. Methods: Cross-sectional analyses of 2010 survey data from an urban Minnesota public 4-year university and 2-year community college (n=1201). Results: Low parental education was associated with lower…

  2. Descriptive epidemiology of body weight and weight change in U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Williamson, D F

    1993-10-01

    Data on body weight and weight change collected from nationally representative samples of U.S. adults are reviewed. The body mass index (weight [kg]/height [m2]) has a low correlation with height and is used to compare body weights between persons of differing heights. The BMI varies to a greater degree in women than in men. Below the 75th percentile of the BMI distribution, women have lower BMIs than men, whereas at the 75th percentile and above, women have higher BMIs than men. Overweight is defined as a BMI of 27.8 or more in men and of 27.3 or more in women, corresponding to approximately 20% or more above desirable weight in the 1983 Metropolitan Life Insurance Company tables. For persons of average height (men, 5'9"; women, 5'4") this definition is equivalent to a body weight above 85 kg (187 pounds) in men and above 72 kg (158 pounds) in women. Among adults 20 to 74 years of age, 24% of men and 27% of women are overweight, yielding an estimated total of 34 million persons in the United States. The prevalence of overweight increases with age, for both men and women but to a greater degree in women. Blacks and Hispanics have a higher prevalence of overweight than do whites, especially among women. Between 1960 and 1980, the prevalence of overweight among whites increased by 3% in women and by 6% in men. In blacks, however, the prevalence of overweight increased by 7% in women and by 28% in men. Longitudinal body weight measurements taken 10 years apart show that adults younger than 55 years tend to gain weight, whereas those 55 years and older tend to lose weight. The youngest adults gain the most weight, and the oldest adults lose the most weight. In all age groups, women have substantially greater variation in their 10-year weight change than do men.

  3. Interpersonal psychotherapy for the prevention of excess weight gain and eating disorders: A brief case study.

    PubMed

    Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Shomaker, Lauren B; Young, Jami F; Wilfley, Denise E

    2016-06-01

    This article presents a brief case study of "Jane Doe," a 13-year-old, non-Hispanic White girl 2 participating in a clinical research trial of interpersonal psychotherapy-weight gain (IPT-WG). Girls at-risk for adult obesity and binge eating disorder (BED) were randomly assigned to take part in 12 weeks of preventative group treatment. Jane's IPT-WG group included five other early adolescent girls (mostly aged 12-13) at risk for adult obesity and BED. The case of Jane illustrates a successful example of IPT-WG for the prevention of excessive weight gain and for the prevention of BED. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27267503

  4. The weight gain response to stress during adulthood is conditioned by both sex and prenatal stress exposure.

    PubMed

    García-Cáceres, Cristina; Diz-Chaves, Yolanda; Lagunas, Natalia; Calmarza-Font, Isabel; Azcoitia, Iñigo; Garcia-Segura, Luis M; Frago, Laura M; Argente, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A

    2010-04-01

    Food intake and weight gain are known to be affected by stress. However, the type and duration of the stress may have variable effects, with males and females responding differently. We report the short-term and long-term effects of prenatal and adult immobilization stress, as well as the combination of these two stresses, on weight gain and food intake in male and female rats and the role of post-pubertal gonadal hormones in this process. No long-term effect of prenatal stress on food intake or weight gain was found in either sex. However, during the period of adult stress [at postnatal day (P) 90; 10 days duration] stressed male rats gained significantly less weight than controls and previous exposure to prenatal stress attenuated this effect (control: 31.2+/-2.1g; prenatal stress: 24.6+/-3.8g; adult stress: 8.1+/-3.4g; prenatal and adult stress: 18.2+/-3.3g; p<0.0001). There was no change in food intake in response to either prenatal or adult stress. Adult stress increased circulating corticosterone levels during the initial part of the stress period, in both male and female rats with this rise being greater in male rats. No effect on corticosterone levels was observed on the last day of stress in either sex. No effect on weight gain or food intake was observed in female rats. Following adult stress, male rats increased their weight gain, with no change in food intake, such that 1 month later they reached control levels. At the time of sacrifice (P180), there were no differences in weight or circulating metabolic hormone levels between any of the male groups. Although castration alone modulated body weight in both male and female rats, it did not affect their weight gain response to adult stress. These results indicate that the weight gain response to adult stress is sexually dimorphic and that this is not dependent on post-pubertal gonadal steroids. Furthermore, the outcome of this response closely depends on the time at which the change in weight is analyzed

  5. Comparison of gestational weight gain z-scores and traditional weight gain measures in relation to perinatal outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Bodnar, Lisa M.; Hutcheon, Jennifer A.; Parisi, Sara M.; Pugh, Sarah J.; Abrams, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Background Conventional measures of gestational weight gain (GWG) are correlated with pregnancy duration, and may induce bias to studies of GWG and perinatal outcomes. A maternal weight-gain-for-gestational-age z-score chart is a new tool that allows total GWG to be classified as a standardized z-score that is independent of gestational duration. Our objective was to compare associations with perinatal outcomes when GWG was assessed using gestational age-standardized z-scores and conventional GWG measures. Methods We studied normal-weight (n=522,120) and overweight (n=237,923) women who delivered live-born, singleton infants in Pennsylvania, 2003-2011. GWG was expressed using gestational age-standardized z-scores and three traditional measures: total GWG (kg), rate of GWG (kg per week of gestation) and the GWG adequacy ratio (observed GWG/GWG recommended by the Institute of Medicine). Log-binomial regression models were used to assess associations between GWG and preterm birth and small- and large-for-gestational-age births while adjusting for race/ethnicity, education, smoking, and other confounders. Results The association between GWG z-score and preterm birth was approximately U-shaped. The risk of preterm birth associated with weight gain <10th percentile of each measure was substantially overestimated when GWG was classified using total kg and was moderately overestimated using rate of GWG or GWG adequacy ratio. All GWG measures had similar associations with small- or large-for-gestational-age birth. Conclusions Our findings suggest that studies of gestational age-dependent outcomes misspecify associations if total GWG, rate of GWG, or GWG adequacy ratio are used. The potential for gestational age-related bias can be eliminated by using z-score charts to classify total GWG. PMID:25492396

  6. Obesity, weight gain, and ovarian cancer risk in African American women.

    PubMed

    Bandera, Elisa V; Qin, Bo; Moorman, Patricia G; Alberg, Anthony J; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Bondy, Melissa; Cote, Michele L; Funkhouser, Ellen; Peters, Edward S; Schwartz, Ann G; Terry, Paul; Schildkraut, Joellen M

    2016-08-01

    Although there is growing evidence that higher adiposity increases ovarian cancer risk, little is known about its impact in African American (AA) women, the racial/ethnic group with the highest prevalence of obesity. We evaluated the impact of body mass index (BMI) 1 year before diagnosis and weight gain since age 18 years on ovarian cancer risk in a population-based case-control study in AA women in 11 geographical areas in the US. Cases (n = 492) and age and site matched controls (n = 696) were identified through rapid case ascertainment and random-digit-dialing, respectively. Information was collected on demographic and lifestyle factors, including self-reported height, weight at age 18 and weight 1 year before diagnosis/interview. Multivariable logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusting for potential covariates. Obese women had elevated ovarian cancer risk, particularly for BMI ≥ 40 kg/m(2) compared to BMI <25 (OR = 1.72, 95% CI: 1.12-2.66; p for trend: 0.03). There was also a strong association with weight gain since age 18 (OR: 1.52; 95% CI: 1.07-2.16; p for trend: 0.02) comparing the highest to lowest quartile. In stratified analyses by menopausal status, the association with BMI and weight gain was limited to postmenopausal women, with a 15% (95% CI: 1.05-1.23) increase in risk per 5 kg/m(2) of BMI and 6% (95% CI: 1.01-1.10) increase in risk per 5 kg of weight gain. Excluding hormone therapy users essentially did not change results. Obesity and excessive adult weight gain may increase ovarian cancer risk in post-menopausal AA women.

  7. Percentage of Adults with a Healthy Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... small sample sizes for NHANES data, 95% confidence intervals are provided, which are important for interpreting the ... Percentage of Adults with a Healthy Weight by Education Level euvy-mq8a Download these data » Click on ...

  8. Sociocultural influences on strategies to lose weight, gain weight, and increase muscles among ten cultural groups.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Marita P; Busija, Lucy; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Ricciardelli, Lina; Mellor, David; Mussap, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    This study determined how sociocultural messages to change one's body are perceived by adolescents from different cultural groups. In total, 4904 adolescents, including Australian, Chilean, Chinese, Indo-Fijian, Indigenous Fijian, Greek, Malaysian, Chinese Malaysian, Tongans in New Zealand, and Tongans in Tonga, were surveyed about messages from family, peers, and the media to lose weight, gain weight, and increase muscles. Groups were best differentiated by family pressure to gain weight. Girls were more likely to receive the messages from multiple sociocultural sources whereas boys were more likely to receive the messages from the family. Some participants in a cultural group indicated higher, and others lower, levels of these sociocultural messages. These findings highlight the differences in sociocultural messages across cultural groups, but also that adolescents receive contrasting messages within a cultural group. These results demonstrate the difficulty in representing a particular message as being characteristic of each cultural group.

  9. Treatment with iron increases weight gain and psychomotor development.

    PubMed Central

    Aukett, M A; Parks, Y A; Scott, P H; Wharton, B A

    1986-01-01

    Previous work at this hospital and elsewhere has shown that anaemia in toddlers is common and is associated with psychomotor delay. It seemed unclear, however, whether this association was cause and effect or merely due to the same underprivileged environment. A double blind randomised intervention study was, therefore, performed. After an initial assessment 97 children with anaemia (haemoglobin 8-11 g/dl) aged 17-19 months received either iron and vitamin C or vitamin C only (control group) for two months and were then reassessed. The children who received the iron had an increased rate of weight gain and more of them achieved the expected rate of development. While iron deficiency anaemia is unlikely to be the only factor in the slower development of children living in underprivileged circumstances, it can at least be easily identified and treated. Routine child health surveillance in such areas should include a haemoglobin determination. PMID:2429622

  10. Prospect theory and body mass: characterizing psychological parameters for weight-related risk attitudes and weight-gain aversion.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seung-Lark; Bruce, Amanda S

    2015-01-01

    We developed a novel decision-making paradigm that allows us to apply prospect theory in behavioral economics to body mass. 67 healthy young adults completed self-report measures and two decision-making tasks for weight-loss, as well as for monetary rewards. We estimated risk-related preference and loss aversion parameters for each individual, separately for weight-loss and monetary rewards choice data. Risk-seeking tendency for weight-loss was positively correlated with body mass index in individuals who desired to lose body weight, whereas the risk-seeking for momentary rewards was not. Risk-seeking for weight-loss was correlated to excessive body shape preoccupations, while aversion to weight-gain was correlated with self-reports of behavioral involvement for successful weight-loss. We demonstrated that prospect theory can be useful in explaining the decision-making process related to body mass. Applying prospect theory is expected to advance our understanding of decision-making mechanisms in obesity, which might prove helpful for improving healthy choices.

  11. Weight-gain misperceptions and the third-person effect in Black and White college-bound females: potential implications for healthy weight management.

    PubMed

    Webb, Jennifer B; Butler-Ajibade, Phoebe; Robinson, Seronda A; Lee, Shanique J

    2013-08-01

    Elements of social norm theory and communication theory on the third-person effect may prove useful in efforts to prevent excessive weight gain among emerging adults entering college. The present study explored the associations of race/ethnicity and BMI status with these socio-cognitive factors that may affect first-year weight regulation in a sample of Black (N = 247) and White (N = 94) college-bound females. Participants completed an online survey assessing first-year weight-gain perceived norms along with weight-change expectations and concerns. Results provided evidence of the persistence of the myth of the "Freshman 15", belief in the typicality of gaining weight during the first year of college, and significant concern about first-year weight gain. Initial findings further revealed a robust third-person effect whereby despite nearly 90% of the sample endorsing that first-year weight gain was common, only 12% expected they would experience weight gain. Main effects of race/ethnicity, BMI status, and their interaction further uncovered distinct patterns of findings. Preliminary results highlight the need for college health officials at both predominantly White as well as minority-serving institutions to adequately address the significant concern over first-year weight gain in conjunction with the desire to lose weight expressed by an appreciable number of incoming college females. Findings also advocate the utility of evaluating social norm theory and the third-person perceptual bias in the context of first-year weight gain to potentially enhance the design and effectiveness of healthy weight management initiatives among ethnically-diverse young women entering college. PMID:23910760

  12. Gestational weight gain and offspring longitudinal growth in early life

    PubMed Central

    Diesel, Jill C.; Eckhardt, Cara L.; Day, Nancy L.; Brooks, Maria M.; Arslanian, Silva A.; Bodnar, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) increases the risk of childhood obesity, but little is known about its association with infant growth patterns. Aim To examine the GWG-infant growth association. Methods Pregnant women (n=743) self-reported GWG at delivery, which we classified as inadequate, adequate, or excessive based on current guidelines. Offspring weight-for-age z-scores (WAZ), length-for-age z-scores (LAZ (with height-for-age (HAZ) in place of length at 36 months)), and body mass index z-scores (BMIZ) were calculated at birth, 8, 18, and 36 months using the 2006 WHO growth standards. Linear mixed models estimated the change in z-scores from birth to 36 months by GWG. Results The mean (SD) WAZ was −0.22 (1.20) at birth. Overall, WAZ and BMIZ increased from birth to approximately 24 months and decreased from 24 to 36 months, while LAZ/HAZ decreased from birth through 36 months. Excessive GWG was associated with higher offspring WAZ and BMIZ at birth, 8, and 36 months, and higher HAZ at 36 months, compared with adequate GWG. Compared with the same referent, inadequate GWG was associated with smaller WAZ and BMIZ at birth and 8 months. Conclusion Excessive GWG may predispose infants to obesogenic growth patterns while inadequate GWG may not have a lasting impact on infant growth. PMID:26279171

  13. Peer effects, fast food consumption and adolescent weight gain.

    PubMed

    Fortin, Bernard; Yazbeck, Myra

    2015-07-01

    This paper aims at opening the black box of peer effects in adolescent weight gain. Using Add Health data on secondary schools in the U.S., we investigate whether these effects partly flow through the eating habits channel. Adolescents are assumed to interact through a friendship social network. We propose a two-equation model. The first equation provides a social interaction model of fast food consumption. To estimate this equation we use a quasi maximum likelihood approach that allows us to control for common environment at the network level and to solve the simultaneity (reflection) problem. Our second equation is a panel dynamic weight production function relating an individual's Body Mass Index z-score (zBMI) to his fast food consumption and his lagged zBMI, and allowing for irregular intervals in the data. Results show that there are positive but small peer effects in fast food consumption among adolescents belonging to a same friendship school network. Based on our preferred specification, the estimated social multiplier is 1.15. Our results also suggest that, in the long run, an extra day of weekly fast food restaurant visits increases zBMI by 4.45% when ignoring peer effects and by 5.11%, when they are taken into account. PMID:25935739

  14. Quantitative relationship between body weight gain in adulthood and incident type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kodama, S; Horikawa, C; Fujihara, K; Yoshizawa, S; Yachi, Y; Tanaka, S; Ohara, N; Matsunaga, S; Yamada, T; Hanyu, O; Sone, H

    2014-03-01

    This meta-analysis quantified the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) preceded by body weight (BW) gain in the general population. Systematic literature searches retrieved 15 eligible studies. The BW gain was divided into early weight-gain, which was defined as BW gain from early adulthood (18-24 years of age) to cohort entry (≥25 years of age), and late weight-gain, which was defined as BW gain from cohort entry. The pooled relative risk (RR; 95% confidence interval [CI]) of T2DM for an increment of BW gain standardized into a 5-kg m(-2) increment in the body mass index (BMI) was 3.07 (2.49-2.79) for early weight-gain and 2.12 (1.74-2.58) for late weight-gain. When limiting analysis to studies that concurrently examined T2DM risk for current BMI (defined in both groups as BMI at cohort entry), a larger magnitude of T2DM risk was revealed for early weight-gain compared with current BMI (RR [95% CI], 3.38 [2.20-5.18] vs. 2.39 [1.58-3.62]), while there was little difference between late weight-gain (RR [95% CI], 2.21 [1.91-2.56]) and current BMI (RR [95% CI], 2.47 [1.97-3.30]). The meta-analysis suggested that BW gain was a quantifiable predictor of T2DM, as well as current obesity in adults. Particularly, BW gain in early rather than middle-to-late adulthood played an important role in developing T2DM.

  15. Are geographic regions with high income inequality associated with risk of abdominal weight gain?

    PubMed

    Kahn, H S; Tatham, L M; Pamuk, E R; Heath, C W

    1998-07-01

    Geographic regions characterized by income inequality are associated with adverse mortality statistics, but the pathophysiologic mechanisms that mediate this ecologic relationship have not been elucidated. This study used a United States mail survey of 34158 male and 42741 female healthy-adult volunteers to test the association between residence in geographic regions with relative income inequality and the likelihood of weight gain at the waist. Respondents came from 21 states that were characterized by the household income inequality (HII) index, a measure reflecting the proportion of total income received by the more well off 50% of households in the state. The main outcome measure was self-reported weight gain mainly at the waist as opposed to weight gain at other anatomic sites. After controlling for age, other individual-level factors, and each state's median household income, men's likelihood of weight gain at the waist was positively associated (p = 0.0008) with the HII index. Men from states with a high HII (households above the median receive 81.6% to 82.6% of the income) described weight gain at the waist more often than men from states with a low HII (households above the median receive 77.0% to 78.5% of the income) (odds ratio = 1.12, 95% confidence interval 1.03 to 1.22). Women's results showed a non-significant trend in the same direction. An association between ecologically defined socio-environmental stress and abdominal obesity may help to clarify the pathophysiologic pathways leading to several major chronic diseases.

  16. Weight change and all-cause mortality in older adults: A meta-analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This meta-analysis of observational cohort studies examined the association between weight change (weight loss, weight gain, and weight fluctuation) and all-cause mortality among older adults. We used PubMed (MEDLINE), Web of Science, and Cochrane Library to identify prospective studies published in...

  17. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain and breastfeeding

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, H; Santos, I S; Matijasevich, A

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The aims were to investigate the association of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) with breastfeeding (BF) duration and BF pattern at 3 months of age. Subjects/Methods: This was a prospective cohort study of 4231 children who were enrolled at birth and were followed-up at 3, 12, 24 and 48 months of age to gather information on maternal and offspring characteristics including BF patterns and BF duration. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI was categorized according to the WHO classification and GWG according to the 2009 Institute of Medicine recommendations. Cox's proportional hazards model was used to assess whether pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG were associated with BF and exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) duration. Predicted probabilities of BF patterns at 3 months were estimated by multinomial logistic regression. Results: Information on BF was available to 4011 infants. The total BF and EBF median durations were 7.0 months and 1.5 months, respectively. There were no differences in duration of any BF or EBF according to pre-pregnancy BMI or GWG categories. There was an increased predicted probability for weaning before the age of 3 months among infants from obese women, compared with those from mothers with normal pre-pregnancy BMI, with margins adjusted predictions of 0.36 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.31–0.41) and 0.23 (95% CI 0.21–0.25), respectively. Conclusions: Infants from pre-pregnancy overweight/obese mothers presented higher probability of early weaning compared with infants from normal-weight mothers. Obese/overweight pregnant women need supplementary guidance about BF benefits to infant health during prenatal and postnatal care. PMID:26813940

  18. Rapid weight gain after birth predicts life history and reproductive strategy in Filipino males.

    PubMed

    Kuzawa, Christopher W; McDade, Thomas W; Adair, Linda S; Lee, Nanette

    2010-09-28

    Ecological cues during prenatal and postnatal development may allow organisms to adjust reproductive strategy. The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis is a prime candidate for adaptive plasticity as a result of its critical period of birth to 6 mo (B6M) in humans and the role of testosterone in the development and maintenance of costly sexually dimorphic somatic and behavioral traits. We hypothesized that weight velocity specific to B6M would predict male life history characteristics, including maturational timing, reproductive hormones, adult size, strength, and sexual activity. Data come from 770 Filipino men (age 20.5-22.5 y) followed since birth, with predictor variables including birth weight and weight velocities calculated at 6-mo intervals during the first 2 y of life. As expected, infants who were breastfed experienced less diarrhea, lived in wealthier households with better hygiene, and grew faster from B6M. Males with rapid B6M growth reached puberty earlier and, as young adults, had higher testosterone levels, were taller, more muscular, and had higher grip strength. They also had sex earlier and were more likely to report having had sex in the past month, resulting in more lifetime sex partners. Relationships between B6M weight gain and physical outcomes were generally not present or weaker in female subjects. We conclude that rapid weight gain specific to the brief postnatal hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal critical period predicts early maturation and sexual activity, elevated hormone production, and more costly adult somatic characteristics among the male subjects in this sample. These findings provide evidence for early life developmental plasticity in male life history and reproductive strategy in humans.

  19. Rapid weight gain after birth predicts life history and reproductive strategy in Filipino males

    PubMed Central

    Kuzawa, Christopher W.; McDade, Thomas W.; Adair, Linda S.; Lee, Nanette

    2010-01-01

    Ecological cues during prenatal and postnatal development may allow organisms to adjust reproductive strategy. The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis is a prime candidate for adaptive plasticity as a result of its critical period of birth to 6 mo (B6M) in humans and the role of testosterone in the development and maintenance of costly sexually dimorphic somatic and behavioral traits. We hypothesized that weight velocity specific to B6M would predict male life history characteristics, including maturational timing, reproductive hormones, adult size, strength, and sexual activity. Data come from 770 Filipino men (age 20.5–22.5 y) followed since birth, with predictor variables including birth weight and weight velocities calculated at 6-mo intervals during the first 2 y of life. As expected, infants who were breastfed experienced less diarrhea, lived in wealthier households with better hygiene, and grew faster from B6M. Males with rapid B6M growth reached puberty earlier and, as young adults, had higher testosterone levels, were taller, more muscular, and had higher grip strength. They also had sex earlier and were more likely to report having had sex in the past month, resulting in more lifetime sex partners. Relationships between B6M weight gain and physical outcomes were generally not present or weaker in female subjects. We conclude that rapid weight gain specific to the brief postnatal hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal critical period predicts early maturation and sexual activity, elevated hormone production, and more costly adult somatic characteristics among the male subjects in this sample. These findings provide evidence for early life developmental plasticity in male life history and reproductive strategy in humans. PMID:20837542

  20. Thirst distress and interdialytic weight gain: how do they relate?

    PubMed

    Jacob, Sheena; Locking-Cusolito, Heather

    2004-01-01

    Thirst is a frequent and stressful symptom experienced by hemodialysis patients. Several studies have noted a positive relationship between thirst and interdialytic weight gain (IDWG). These factors prompted us to consider ways that we could intervene to reduce thirst and IDWG through an educative, supportive nursing intervention. This paper presents the results of a pilot research project, the purpose of which was to: examine the relationship between thirst distress (the negative symptoms associated with thirst) and IDWG in a sample of our patients, describe patients' strategies for management of thirst, and establish the necessary sample size for the planned intervention study. The pilot research project results showed that in a small sample of 20, there was a mildly positive, though not statistically significant, correlation between thirst distress and IDWG (r = 0.117). Subjects shared a wide variety of thirst management strategies including: limiting salt intake, using ice chips, measuring daily allotment, performing mouth care, eating raw fruits and vegetables, sucking on hard candy and chewing gum. This pilot research project showed that given an alpha of 0.05 and a power of 80%, we will require a sample of 39 subjects to detect a 20% change in IDWG. We will employ these results to plan our intervention study, first by establishing the appropriate sample size and second by incorporating identified patient strategies into an educational pamphlet that will form the basis of our intervention.

  1. High Risk of Obesity and Weight Gain for HIV-Infected Uninsured Minorities

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Barbara S.; Liang, Yuanyuan; Garduño, L. Sergio; Walter, Elizabeth A.; Gerardi, Margit; Anstead, Gregory M.; Bullock, Delia; Turner, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Obesity and HIV disproportionately affect minorities and have significant health risks, but few studies have examined disparities in weight change in HIV-seropositive (HIV+) cohorts. Objective To determine racial and health insurance disparities in significant weight gain in a predominately Hispanic HIV+ cohort. Methods Our observational cohort study of 1,214 non-underweight HIV+ adults from 2007-2010 had significant weight gain (≥3% annual BMI increase) as primary outcome. The secondary outcome was continuous BMI over time. A four-level race-ethnicity/insurance predictor reflected the interaction between race-ethnicity and insurance: insured white (non-Hispanic), uninsured white, insured minority (Hispanic or black), or uninsured minority. Logistic and mixed effects models adjusted for: baseline BMI; age; gender; household income; HIV transmission category; antiretroviral therapy type; CD4+ count; plasma HIV-1 RNA; observation months; and visit frequency. Results The cohort was 63% Hispanic and 14% black; 13.3% were insured white, 10.0% uninsured white, 40.9% insured minority, and 35.7% uninsured minority. At baseline, 37.5% were overweight, 22.1% obese. Median observation was 3.25 years. 24.0% had significant weight gain, which was more likely for uninsured minority patients than insured whites (adjusted odds ratio=2.85 , 95%CI: 1.66, 4.90). The rate of BMI increase in mixed effects models was greatest for uninsured minorities. Of 455 overweight at baseline, 29% were projected to become obese in 4 years. Conclusions and Relevance In this majority Hispanic HIV+ cohort, 60% were overweight or obese at baseline, and uninsured minority patients gained weight more rapidly. These data should prompt greater attention by HIV providers to prevention of obesity. PMID:24121754

  2. Excessive Body Weight in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Porter Starr, Kathryn N; Bales, Connie W

    2015-08-01

    The health challenges prompted by obesity in the older adult population are poorly recognized and understudied. A defined treatment of geriatric obesity is difficult to establish, as it must take into account biological heterogeneity, age-related comorbidities, and functional limitations (sarcopenia/dynapenia). This retrospective article highlights the current understanding of the optimal body mass index (BMI) in later life, addressing appropriate recommendations based on BMI category, age, and health history. The findings of randomized control trials of weight loss/maintenance interventions help one to move closer to evidence-based and appropriately individualized recommendations for body weight management in older adults.

  3. Maintaining a High Physical Activity Level Over 20 Years and Weight Gain

    PubMed Central

    Hankinson, Arlene L.; Daviglus, Martha L.; Bouchard, Claude; Carnethon, Mercedes; Lewis, Cora E.; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Liu, Kiang; Sidney, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Context Data supporting physical activity guidelines to prevent long-term weight gain are sparse, particularly during the period when the highest risk of weight gain occurs. Objective To evaluate the relationship between habitual activity levels and changes in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference over 20 years. Design, Setting, and Participants The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study is a prospective longitudinal study with 20 years of follow-up, 1985-86 to 2005-06. Habitual activity was defined as maintaining high, moderate, and low activity levels based on sex-specific tertiles of activity scores at baseline. Participants comprised a population-based multi-center cohort (Chicago, Illinois; Birmingham, Alabama; Minneapolis, Minnesota; and Oakland, California) of 3554 men and women aged 18 to 30 years at baseline. Main Outcome Measures Average annual changes in BMI and waist circumference Results Over 20 years, maintaining high levels of activity was associated with smaller gains in BMI and waist circumference compared with low activity levels after adjustment for race, baseline BMI, age, education, cigarette smoking status, alcohol use, and energy intake. Men maintaining high activity gained 2.6 fewer kilograms (+ 0.15 BMI units per year; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.11-0.18 vs +0.20 in the lower activity group; 95% CI, 0.17-0.23) and women maintaining higher activity gained 6.1 fewer kilograms (+0.17 BMI units per year; 95 % CI, 0.12-0.21 vs. +0.30 in the lower activity group; 95 % CI, 0.25-0.34). Men maintaining high activity gained 3.1 fewer centimeters in waist circumference (+0.52 cm per year; 95 % CI, 0.43-0.61 cm vs 0.67 cm in the lower activity group; 95 % CI, 0.60-0.75) and women maintaining higher activity gained 3.8 fewer centimeters (+0.49 cm per year; 95 % CI, 0.39-0.58 vs 0.67 cm in the lower activity group; 95 % CI, 0.60-0.75). Conclusion Maintaining high activity levels through young adulthood may lessen

  4. Factors Associated With Excessive Gestational Weight Gain: Review of Current Literature

    PubMed Central

    Steer, Jonathan; Michelis, L. Daniela; Carroll, Lisa; Holland, Erica; Perkins, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Background: Excessive gestational weight gain (EGWG) places women at increased risk for complications during pregnancy and also increases the likelihood that they will remain overweight after pregnancy. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) has recommended weight gain guidelines based on pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), but evidence-based strategies to achieve these goals are limited. Objective: This review discusses factors associated with EGWG with the goal of identifying targets for future intervention. Methods: A search was performed using the PubMed database to identify all English-language papers published between 1995 and 2014 related to excessive weight gain in pregnancy. Papers were grouped by theme: preconception BMI, sociodemographics, diet and exercise, psychosocial characteristics, and type of prenatal care. Results: Studies found that women who were overweight or obese at the time of conception were at higher risk of EGWG and that increased physical activity protected against EGWG. Studies on diet and sociodemographic characteristics were inconclusive. Psychological factors, specifically accurate perceptions of BMI, also appear to play a role in EGWG. Limited studies on methods of prenatal care delivery did not show improvement of weight parameters with group compared to one-on-one visits. Conclusion: Pre-pregnancy BMI is most strongly associated with EGWG, indicating that healthy weight habits throughout adult life may be especially important in periods of expected weight change, such as pregnancy. To decrease EGWG, providers should focus on improving pre-conception BMI through appropriate counseling on healthy eating and increased physical activity as well as encouraging pregnant women to continue moderate exercise during pregnancy when appropriate. PMID:26937318

  5. Consuming fire ants reduces northern bobwhite survival and weight gain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myers, P.E.; Allen, Craig R.; Birge, Hannah E.

    2014-01-01

    Northern bobwhite quail, Colinus virginianus (L.) (Galliformes: Odontophoridae), population declines are well documented, but pinpointing the reasons for these decreases has proven elusive. Bobwhite population declines are attributed primarily to loss of habitat and land use changes. This, however, does not entirely explain population declines in areas intensively managed for bobwhites. Although previous research demonstrates the negative impact of red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on northern bobwhites, the mechanisms underlying this effect are largely unknown. To meet the protein demands of early growth and development, bobwhite chicks predominantly consume small insects, of which ants are a substantial proportion. Fire ants alter ant community dynamics by often reducing native ant diversity and abundance while concurrently increasing the abundance of individuals. Fire ants have negative effects on chicks, but they are also a large potential protein source, making it difficult to disentangle their net effect on bobwhite chicks. To help investigate these effects, we conducted a laboratory experiment to understand (1) whether or not bobwhites consume fire ants, and (2) how the benefits of this consumption compare to the deleterious impacts of bobwhite chick exposure to fire ants. Sixty bobwhite chicks were separated into two groups of 30; one group was provided with starter feed only and the second group was provided with feed and fire ants. Bobwhite chicks were observed feeding on fire ants. Chicks that fed on fire ants had reduced survival and weight gain. Our results show that, while fire ants increase potential food sources for northern bobwhite, their net effect on bobwhite chicks is deleterious. This information will help inform land managers and commercial bobwhite rearing operations.

  6. Weight-related SMS texts promoting appropriate pregnancy weight gain: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Pollak, Kathryn I.; Alexander, Stewart C.; Bennett, Gary; Lyna, Pauline; Coffman, Cynthia J.; Bilheimer, Alicia; Farrell, David; Bodner, Michael E.; Swamy, Geeta K.; Østbye, Truls

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) puts women and children at risk of obesity. We piloted an SMS-texting intervention to promote healthy GWG among overweight and obese women. Methods We recruited 35 women and randomized them in a 2:1 fashion to: a tailored SMS-texting intervention (Preg CHAT) vs. a generic texting intervention (Txt4baby). Preg CHAT texts provided personalized feedback based on women's intake of sweetened beverages, fruits and vegetables, fast food, daily steps taken, and weight. We abstracted women's weights from charts and surveyed women at baseline and 32 weeks gestation. Results Few women refused the study; many (30%) did not complete the study, however. Of those in the Preg CHAT arm, 86% responded to texts, and 80% said they would recommend this program to a friend. For women who completed the surveys (n=23), those in the Preg CHAT arm had a mean gain of 6 less pounds than women in the Txt4Baby arm (95% CI -15.9, 4.0; p=0.24). Conclusions This pilot study shows feasibility, acceptability, and potential efficacy of a low-intensity and disseminable intervention to help overweight and obese women reduce GWG. Practice implications An SMS texting program might help overweight women reduce excessive GWG. PMID:25153313

  7. Phonological Memory Predicts Second Language Oral Fluency Gains in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Irena; Segalowitz, Norman; Freed, Barbara; Collentine, Joe

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between phonological memory and second language (L2) fluency gains in native English-speaking adults learning Spanish in two learning contexts: at their home university or abroad in an immersion context. Phonological memory (operationalized as serial nonword recognition) and Spanish oral fluency…

  8. Almost All Antipsychotics Result in Weight Gain: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bak, Maarten; Fransen, Annemarie; Janssen, Jouke; van Os, Jim; Drukker, Marjan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Antipsychotics (AP) induce weight gain. However, reviews and meta-analyses generally are restricted to second generation antipsychotics (SGA) and do not stratify for duration of AP use. It is hypothesised that patients gain more weight if duration of AP use is longer. Method A meta-analysis was conducted of clinical trials of AP that reported weight change. Outcome measures were body weight change, change in BMI and clinically relevant weight change (7% weight gain or loss). Duration of AP-use was stratified as follows: ≤6 weeks, 6–16 weeks, 16–38 weeks and >38 weeks. Forest plots stratified by AP as well as by duration of use were generated and results were summarised in figures. Results 307 articles met inclusion criteria. The majority were AP switch studies. Almost all AP showed a degree of weight gain after prolonged use, except for amisulpride, aripiprazole and ziprasidone, for which prolonged exposure resulted in negligible weight change. The level of weight gain per AP varied from discrete to severe. Contrary to expectations, switch of AP did not result in weight loss for amisulpride, aripiprazole or ziprasidone. In AP-naive patients, weight gain was much more pronounced for all AP. Conclusion Given prolonged exposure, virtually all AP are associated with weight gain. The rational of switching AP to achieve weight reduction may be overrated. In AP-naive patients, weight gain is more pronounced. PMID:24763306

  9. Healthy Weight Gain for Teens: A Guide for Parents

    MedlinePlus

    ... to have your teen’s health care provider or nutritionist check his weight at clinic appointments. Checking weight ... will see progress over time. A counselor or nutritionist can help your teen if he is struggling ...

  10. Predictors of Gestational Weight Gain among White and Latina Women and Associations with Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Monica L.; Bodenlos, Jamie S.; Sankey, Heather Z.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined racial/ethnic differences in gestational weight gain (GWG) predictors and association of first-trimester GWG to overall GWG among 271 White women and 300 Latina women. Rates of within-guideline GWG were higher among Latinas than among Whites (28.7% versus 24.4%, p < 0.016). Adjusted odds of above-guideline GWG were higher among prepregnancy overweight (OR = 3.4, CI = 1.8–6.5) and obese (OR = 4.5, CI = 2.3–9.0) women than among healthy weight women and among women with above-guideline first-trimester GWG than among those with within-guideline first-trimester GWG (OR = 4.9, CI = 2.8–8.8). GWG was positively associated with neonate birth size (p < 0.001). Interventions targeting prepregnancy overweight or obese women and those with excessive first-trimester GWG are needed.

  11. The "Freshman 15": Facts and Fantasies about Weight Gain in College Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Carole Nhu'y; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Investigates weight gain among 61 female first-year college students weighed in their first month at college and 6 months later. The majority remained the same weight. Favorable body image was related to weight loss for those who lost weight, but no other characteristics studied were related to weight change. (SLD)

  12. Associations of Gestational Weight Gain with Preterm Birth among Underweight and Normal Weight Women.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Andrea J; Vesco, Kimberly K; Bulkley, Joanna; Callaghan, William M; Bruce, F Carol; Staab, Jenny; Hornbrook, Mark C; Berg, Cynthia J

    2015-09-01

    Studies report increased risk of preterm birth (PTB) among underweight and normal weight women with low gestational weight gain (GWG). However, most studies examined GWG over gestational periods that differ by term and preterm which may have biased associations because GWG rate changes over the course of pregnancy. Furthermore, few studies have specifically examined the amount and pattern of GWG early in pregnancy as a predictor of PTB. Within one integrated health care delivery system, we examined 12,526 singleton pregnancies between 2000 and 2008 among women with a body mass index <25 kg/m(2), who began prenatal care in the first trimester and delivered a live-birth >28 weeks gestation. Using self-reported pregravid weight and serial measured antenatal weights, we estimated GWG and the area under the GWG curve (AUC; an index of pattern of GWG) during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy (≤28 weeks). Using logistic regression adjusted for covariates, we examined associations between each GWG measure, categorized into quartiles, and PTB (<37 weeks gestation). We additionally examined associations according to the reason for PTB by developing a novel algorithm using diagnoses and procedure codes. Low GWG in the first and second trimesters was not associated with PTB [aOR 1.11, (95% CI 0.90, 1.38) with GWG <8.2 kg by 28 weeks compared to pregnancies with GWG >12.9]. Similarly, pattern of GWG was not associated with PTB. Our findings do not support an association between GWG in the first and second trimester and PTB among underweight and normal weight women.

  13. Weighted Genetic Risk Scores and Prediction of Weight Gain in Solid Organ Transplant Populations

    PubMed Central

    Saigi-Morgui, Núria; Quteineh, Lina; Bochud, Pierre-Yves; Crettol, Severine; Kutalik, Zoltán; Wojtowicz, Agnieszka; Bibert, Stéphanie; Beckmann, Sonja; Mueller, Nicolas J; Binet, Isabelle; van Delden, Christian; Steiger, Jürg; Mohacsi, Paul; Stirnimann, Guido; Soccal, Paola M.; Pascual, Manuel; Eap, Chin B

    2016-01-01

    Background Polygenic obesity in Solid Organ Transplant (SOT) populations is considered a risk factor for the development of metabolic abnormalities and graft survival. Few studies to date have studied the genetics of weight gain in SOT recipients. We aimed to determine whether weighted genetic risk scores (w-GRS) integrating genetic polymorphisms from GWAS studies (SNP group#1 and SNP group#2) and from Candidate Gene studies (SNP group#3) influence BMI in SOT populations and if they predict ≥10% weight gain (WG) one year after transplantation. To do so, two samples (nA = 995, nB = 156) were obtained from naturalistic studies and three w-GRS were constructed and tested for association with BMI over time. Prediction of 10% WG at one year after transplantation was assessed with models containing genetic and clinical factors. Results w-GRS were associated with BMI in sample A and B combined (BMI increased by 0.14 and 0.11 units per additional risk allele in SNP group#1 and #2, respectively, p-values<0.008). w-GRS of SNP group#3 showed an effect of 0.01 kg/m2 per additional risk allele when combining sample A and B (p-value 0.04). Models with genetic factors performed better than models without in predicting 10% WG at one year after transplantation. Conclusions This is the first study in SOT evaluating extensively the association of w-GRS with BMI and the influence of clinical and genetic factors on 10% of WG one year after transplantation, showing the importance of integrating genetic factors in the final model. Genetics of obesity among SOT recipients remains an important issue and can contribute to treatment personalization and prediction of WG after transplantation. PMID:27788139

  14. Pharmacological management of atypical antipsychotic-induced weight gain.

    PubMed

    Baptista, Trino; ElFakih, Yamily; Uzcátegui, Euderruh; Sandia, Ignacio; Tálamo, Eduardo; Araujo de Baptista, Enma; Beaulieu, Serge

    2008-01-01

    Excessive bodyweight gain was reported during the 1950s as an adverse effect of typical antipsychotic drug treatment, but the magnitude of bodyweight gain was found to be higher with the atypical antipsychotic drugs that were introduced after 1990. Clozapine and olanzapine produce the greatest bodyweight gain, ziprasidone and aripiprazole have a neutral influence, and quetiapine and risperidone cause an intermediate effect. In the CATIE study, the percentage of patients with bodyweight gain of >7% compared with baseline differed significantly between the antipsychotic drugs, i.e. 30%, 16%, 14%, 12% and 7% for olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, perphenazine (a typical antipsychotic) and ziprasidone, respectively (p<0.001). Appetite stimulation is probably a key cause of bodyweight gain, but genetic polymorphisms modify the bodyweight response during treatment with atypical antipsychotics. In addition to nutritional advice, programmed physical activity, cognitive-behavioural training and atypical antipsychotic switching, pharmacological adjunctive treatments have been assessed to counteract excessive bodyweight gain. In some clinical trials, nizatidine, amantadine, reboxetine, topiramate, sibutramine and metformin proved effective in preventing or reversing atypical antipsychotic-induced bodyweight gain; however, the results are inconclusive since few randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials have been conducted. Indeed, most studies were short-term trials without adequate statistical power and, in the case of metformin, nizatidine and sibutramine, the results are contradictory. The tolerability profile of these agents is adequate. More studies are needed before formal recommendations on the use of these drugs can be made. Meanwhile, clinicians are advised to use any of these adjunctive treatments according to their individual pharmacological and tolerability profiles, and the patient's personal and family history of bodyweight gain and metabolic dysfunction.

  15. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs Regarding Weight Gain During Pregnancy Among Hispanic Women

    PubMed Central

    Chasan-Taber, Lisa; Bermudez, Odilia I.; Hyatt, Raymond R.; Must, Aviva

    2012-01-01

    Pregnancy weight gain may be a risk factor for the development of obesity highlighting the importance of identifying psychosocial risk factors for pregnancy weight gain. The goal of this qualitative pilot study was to evaluate knowledge, attitudes and beliefs regarding weight gain during pregnancy among predominantly Puerto Rican women, a group with higher rates of obesity as compared to non-Hispanic white women. We conducted four focus groups stratified by level of acculturation and BMI. Women reported receiving advice about pregnancy weight gain predominantly from nutritionists and family members rather than from their physicians. The majority of overweight/obese women reported that they had not received any recommendations for weight gain during pregnancy from physicians. Pregnancy weight gain advice was not consistent with the 1990 Institute of Medicine Guidelines. Overall, attitudes towards weight gain recommendations differed by weight status, whereas feelings and dietary beliefs about weight gain differed according to level of acculturation. Our findings inform behavior change strategies for meeting pregnancy weight gain recommendations. PMID:19760160

  16. Predictors of Gestational Weight Gain among White and Latina Women and Associations with Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Monica L.; Bodenlos, Jamie S.; Sankey, Heather Z.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined racial/ethnic differences in gestational weight gain (GWG) predictors and association of first-trimester GWG to overall GWG among 271 White women and 300 Latina women. Rates of within-guideline GWG were higher among Latinas than among Whites (28.7% versus 24.4%, p < 0.016). Adjusted odds of above-guideline GWG were higher among prepregnancy overweight (OR = 3.4, CI = 1.8–6.5) and obese (OR = 4.5, CI = 2.3–9.0) women than among healthy weight women and among women with above-guideline first-trimester GWG than among those with within-guideline first-trimester GWG (OR = 4.9, CI = 2.8–8.8). GWG was positively associated with neonate birth size (p < 0.001). Interventions targeting prepregnancy overweight or obese women and those with excessive first-trimester GWG are needed. PMID:27688913

  17. Association of Proton Pump Inhibitor (PPI) Use with Energy Intake, Physical Activity, and Weight Gain

    PubMed Central

    Czwornog, Jennifer L.; Austin, Gregory L.

    2015-01-01

    Studies suggest proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use impacts body weight regulation, though the effect of PPIs on energy intake, energy extraction, and energy expenditure is unknown. We used data on 3073 eligible adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Medication use, energy intake, diet composition, and physical activity were extracted from NHANES. Multivariate regression models included confounding variables. Daily energy intake was similar between PPI users and non-users (p = 0.41). Diet composition was similar between the two groups, except that PPI users consumed a slightly greater proportion of calories from fat (34.5% vs. 33.2%; p = 0.02). PPI users rated themselves as being as physically active as their age/gender-matched peers and reported similar frequencies of walking or biking. However, PPI users were less likely to have participated in muscle-strengthening activities (OR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.30–0.95). PPI users reported similar sedentary behaviors to non-users. Male PPI users had an increase in weight (of 1.52 ± 0.59 kg; p = 0.021) over the previous year compared to non-users, while female PPI users had a non-significant increase in weight. The potential mechanisms for PPI-associated weight gain are unclear as we did not find evidence for significant differences in energy intake or markers of energy expenditure. PMID:26492268

  18. Association of Second and Third Trimester Weight Gain in Pregnancy with Maternal and Fetal Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Drehmer, Michele; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Kac, Gilberto; Schmidt, Maria Inês

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between weekly weight gain, during the second and third trimesters, classified according to the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM/NRC) recommendations, and maternal and fetal outcomes. Methods Gestational weight gain was evaluated in 2,244 pregnant women of the Brazilian Study of Gestational Diabetes (Estudo Brasileiro do Diabetes Gestacional – EBDG). Outcomes were cesarean delivery, preterm birth and small or large for gestational age birth (SGA, LGA). Associations between inadequate weight gain and outcomes were estimated using robust Poisson regression adjusting for pre-pregnancy body mass index, trimester-specific weight gain, age, height, skin color, parity, education, smoking, alcohol consumption, gestational diabetes and hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. Results In fully adjusted models, in the second trimester, insufficient weight gain was associated with SGA (relative risk [RR] 1.72, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.26–2.33), and excessive weight gain with LGA (RR 1.64, 95% CI 1.16–2.31); in third trimester, excessive weight gain with preterm birth (RR 1.70, 95% CI 1.08–2.70) and cesarean delivery (RR 1.21, 95% CI 1.03–1.44). Women with less than recommended gestational weight gain in the 2nd trimester had a lesser risk of cesarean deliveries (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.71–0.96) than women with adequate gestational weight gain in this trimester. Conclusion Though insufficient weight gain in the 3rd trimester was not associated with adverse outcomes, other deviations from recommended weight gain during second and third trimester were associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. These findings support, in part, the 2009 IOM/NRC recommendations for nutritional monitoring during pregnancy. PMID:23382944

  19. Impact of insufficient sleep on total daily energy expenditure, food intake, and weight gain.

    PubMed

    Markwald, Rachel R; Melanson, Edward L; Smith, Mark R; Higgins, Janine; Perreault, Leigh; Eckel, Robert H; Wright, Kenneth P

    2013-04-01

    Insufficient sleep is associated with obesity, yet little is known about how repeated nights of insufficient sleep influence energy expenditure and balance. We studied 16 adults in a 14- to 15-d-long inpatient study and quantified effects of 5 d of insufficient sleep, equivalent to a work week, on energy expenditure and energy intake compared with adequate sleep. We found that insufficient sleep increased total daily energy expenditure by ∼5%; however, energy intake--especially at night after dinner--was in excess of energy needed to maintain energy balance. Insufficient sleep led to 0.82 ± 0.47 kg (±SD) weight gain despite changes in hunger and satiety hormones ghrelin and leptin, and peptide YY, which signaled excess energy stores. Insufficient sleep delayed circadian melatonin phase and also led to an earlier circadian phase of wake time. Sex differences showed women, not men, maintained weight during adequate sleep, whereas insufficient sleep reduced dietary restraint and led to weight gain in women. Our findings suggest that increased food intake during insufficient sleep is a physiological adaptation to provide energy needed to sustain additional wakefulness; yet when food is easily accessible, intake surpasses that needed. We also found that transitioning from an insufficient to adequate/recovery sleep schedule decreased energy intake, especially of fats and carbohydrates, and led to -0.03 ± 0.50 kg weight loss. These findings provide evidence that sleep plays a key role in energy metabolism. Importantly, they demonstrate physiological and behavioral mechanisms by which insufficient sleep may contribute to overweight and obesity.

  20. Impact of insufficient sleep on total daily energy expenditure, food intake, and weight gain

    PubMed Central

    Markwald, Rachel R.; Melanson, Edward L.; Smith, Mark R.; Higgins, Janine; Perreault, Leigh; Eckel, Robert H.; Wright, Kenneth P.

    2013-01-01

    Insufficient sleep is associated with obesity, yet little is known about how repeated nights of insufficient sleep influence energy expenditure and balance. We studied 16 adults in a 14- to 15-d-long inpatient study and quantified effects of 5 d of insufficient sleep, equivalent to a work week, on energy expenditure and energy intake compared with adequate sleep. We found that insufficient sleep increased total daily energy expenditure by ∼5%; however, energy intake—especially at night after dinner—was in excess of energy needed to maintain energy balance. Insufficient sleep led to 0.82 ± 0.47 kg (±SD) weight gain despite changes in hunger and satiety hormones ghrelin and leptin, and peptide YY, which signaled excess energy stores. Insufficient sleep delayed circadian melatonin phase and also led to an earlier circadian phase of wake time. Sex differences showed women, not men, maintained weight during adequate sleep, whereas insufficient sleep reduced dietary restraint and led to weight gain in women. Our findings suggest that increased food intake during insufficient sleep is a physiological adaptation to provide energy needed to sustain additional wakefulness; yet when food is easily accessible, intake surpasses that needed. We also found that transitioning from an insufficient to adequate/recovery sleep schedule decreased energy intake, especially of fats and carbohydrates, and led to −0.03 ± 0.50 kg weight loss. These findings provide evidence that sleep plays a key role in energy metabolism. Importantly, they demonstrate physiological and behavioral mechanisms by which insufficient sleep may contribute to overweight and obesity. PMID:23479616

  1. A Case Report of a Breastfed Infant's Excessive Weight Gains over 14 Months.

    PubMed

    Perrella, Sharon Lisa; Geddes, Donna Tracy

    2016-05-01

    High infant weight gain is associated with subsequent overweight and obesity and so may contribute to related comorbidities such as metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. The growth acceleration hypothesis proposes that early and rapid growth in infancy can shape the metabolic profile to increase susceptibility to obesity. Although breastfeeding reduces the infant's risk of subsequent overweight and obesity, high infant weight gains are observed in this population. We report the case of an infant with excessive weight gains that persisted throughout 6 months of exclusive breastfeeding. The mother chose to continue breastfeeding despite medical advice to wean, and high weight gains continued for a further 8 months of breastfeeding and complementary foods. This is the first reported case of an exclusively breastfed infant with excessive weight gains (> 97th percentile) with contemporaneous measures of 24-hour breast milk intake and doses and concentrations of protein, fat, and energy. We found a high breast milk protein dose, which is associated with increased weight gain and lean body mass but not necessarily adiposity. It is likely that other influences also contributed to the high infant weight gain. High infant weight gain is multifactorial, with evolving evidence for the role of adipokines and genetic markers. Advice to replace breast milk with formula affects the dose-dependent protection from noncommunicable diseases afforded by breast milk and may not be an effective strategy for reducing adiposity. PMID:26470877

  2. Hormonal Correlates of Clozapine-Induced Weight Gain in Psychotic Children: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sporn, Alexandra L.; Bobb, Aaron J.; Gogtay, Nitin; Stevens, Hanna; Greenstein, Deanna K.; Clasen, Liv S.; Tossell, Julia W.; Nugent, Thomas; Gochman, Peter A.; Sharp, Wendy S.; Mattai, Anand; Lenane, Marge C.; Yanovski, Jack A.; Rapoport, Judith L.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Weight gain is a serious side effect of atypical antipsychotics, especially in childhood. In this study, the authors examined six weight gain-related hormones in patients with childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS) after 6 weeks of clozapine treatment. Method: Fasting serum samples for 24 patients with COS and 21 matched healthy controls…

  3. A Case Report of a Breastfed Infant's Excessive Weight Gains over 14 Months.

    PubMed

    Perrella, Sharon Lisa; Geddes, Donna Tracy

    2016-05-01

    High infant weight gain is associated with subsequent overweight and obesity and so may contribute to related comorbidities such as metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. The growth acceleration hypothesis proposes that early and rapid growth in infancy can shape the metabolic profile to increase susceptibility to obesity. Although breastfeeding reduces the infant's risk of subsequent overweight and obesity, high infant weight gains are observed in this population. We report the case of an infant with excessive weight gains that persisted throughout 6 months of exclusive breastfeeding. The mother chose to continue breastfeeding despite medical advice to wean, and high weight gains continued for a further 8 months of breastfeeding and complementary foods. This is the first reported case of an exclusively breastfed infant with excessive weight gains (> 97th percentile) with contemporaneous measures of 24-hour breast milk intake and doses and concentrations of protein, fat, and energy. We found a high breast milk protein dose, which is associated with increased weight gain and lean body mass but not necessarily adiposity. It is likely that other influences also contributed to the high infant weight gain. High infant weight gain is multifactorial, with evolving evidence for the role of adipokines and genetic markers. Advice to replace breast milk with formula affects the dose-dependent protection from noncommunicable diseases afforded by breast milk and may not be an effective strategy for reducing adiposity.

  4. The "Freshman 5": A Meta-Analysis of Weight Gain in the Freshman Year of College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vella-Zarb, Rachel A.; Elgar, Frank J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: (1) To use the available research to estimate the amount of weight gained by college freshman during their first year of college. (2) To identify potential predictors of freshman weight gain. Methods: A meta-analysis was conducted in November 2008. The analysis focused on articles published in English scientific journals between 1985…

  5. Prenatal air pollution exposure induces neuroinflammation and predisposes offspring to weight gain in adulthood in a sex-specific manner.

    PubMed

    Bolton, Jessica L; Smith, Susan H; Huff, Nicole C; Gilmour, M Ian; Foster, W Michael; Auten, Richard L; Bilbo, Staci D

    2012-11-01

    Emerging evidence suggests environmental chemical exposures during critical windows of development may contribute to the escalating prevalence of obesity. We tested the hypothesis that prenatal air pollution exposure would predispose the offspring to weight gain in adulthood. Pregnant mice were exposed to filtered air (FA) or diesel exhaust (DE) on embryonic days (E) 9-17. Prenatal DE induced a significant fetal brain cytokine response at E18 (46-390% over FA). As adults, offspring were fed either a low-fat diet (LFD) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 6 wk. Adult DE male offspring weighed 12% more and were 35% less active than FA male offspring at baseline, whereas there were no differences in females. Following HFD, DE males gained weight at the same rate as FA males, whereas DE females gained 340% more weight than FA females. DE-HFD males had 450% higher endpoint insulin levels than FA-HFD males, and all males on HFD showed decreased activity and increased anxiety, whereas females showed no differences. Finally, both DE males and females fed HFD showed increased microglial activation (30-66%) within several brain regions. Thus, prenatal air pollution exposure can "program" offspring for increased susceptibility to diet-induced weight gain and neuroinflammation in adulthood in a sex-specific manner.

  6. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Inadequate Gestational Weight Gain Differ by Pre-pregnancy Weight

    PubMed Central

    Headen, Irene; Mujahid, Mahasin S.; Cohen, Alison K.; Rehkopf, David H.; Abrams, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) varies by race/ethnicity and modifies the association between gestational weight gain (GWG) and adverse pregnancy outcomes, which disproportionately affect racial/ethnic minorities. Yet studies investigating whether racial/ethnic disparities in GWG vary by pre-pregnancy BMI are inconsistent, and none studied nationally representative populations. Methods Using categorical measures of GWG adequacy based on Institute of Medicine recommendations, we investigated whether associations between race/ethnicity and GWG adequacy were modified by pre-pregnancy BMI [underweight (<18.5kg/m2), normal weight (18.5-24.9 kg/m2), overweight (25.0-29.9 kg/m2), or obese (≥30.0 kg/m2) ] among all births to Black, Hispanic, and White mothers in the 1979 USA National Longitudinal Survey of Youth cohort (n=6849 pregnancies; range=1-10). We used generalized estimating equations, adjusted for marital status, parity, smoking during pregnancy, gestational age, and multiple measures of socioeconomic position. Results Effect measure modification between race/ethnicity and pre-pregnancy BMI was significant for inadequate GWG (Wald test p-value=0.08). Normal weight Black (Risk Ratio (RR)=1.34, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18, 1.52) and Hispanic women (RR=1.33, 95%CI: 1.15, 1.54) and underweight Black women (RR=1.38; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.79) experienced an increased risk of inadequate GWG compared to Whites. Differences in risk of inadequate GWG between minority women, compared to White women, were not significant among overweight and obese women. Effect measure modification between race/ethnicity and pre-pregnancy BMI was not significant for excessive GWG. Conclusions The magnitude of racial/ethnic disparities in inadequate GWG appears to vary by pre-pregnancy weight class, which should be considered when designing interventions to close racial/ethnic gaps in healthy GWG. PMID:25652057

  7. Therapies for obesity and medication-associated weight gain.

    PubMed

    Howland, Robert H

    2013-05-01

    Compared to the general population, individuals with psychiatric illness, especially serious and chronic mood and psychotic disorders, are more likely to be overweight or obese, have higher rates of weight-related medical conditions, and have greater non-suicide mortality rates. Lorcaserin (Belviq(®)), phentermine/topiramate combination (Qsymia(®)), and bupropion/naltrexone combination have been demonstrated to be effective for the treatment of obesity, as an adjunct to a reduced-calorie diet and physical activity, although their absolute safety has yet to be established with more widespread use or longer use. Bariatric surgery is an effective approach for morbid obesity, but careful psychiatric assessment before and follow up after surgery is necessary. Behavioral lifestyle interventions to promote weight loss are effective and should be implemented along with or instead of drug therapies or surgery. PMID:23590816

  8. Risk of breast cancer in young women in relation to body size and weight gain in adolescence and early adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Coates, R J; Uhler, R J; Hall, H I; Potischman, N; Brinton, L A; Ballard-Barbash, R; Gammon, M D; Brogan, D R; Daling, J R; Malone, K E; Schoenberg, J B; Swanson, C A

    1999-01-01

    Findings have been inconsistent on effects of adolescent body size and adult weight gain on risk of breast cancer in young women. These relations were examined in a population-based case control study of 1590 women less than 45 years of age newly diagnosed with breast cancer during 1990–1992 in three areas of the US and an age-matched control group of 1390 women. Height and weight were measured at interview and participants asked to recall information about earlier body size. Logistic regression was used to estimate the relative risk of breast cancer adjusted for other risk factors. Women who were either much heavier or lighter than average in adolescence or at age 20 were at reduced risk. Weight gain after age 20 resulted in reduced risk, but the effect was confined to early-stage and, more specifically, lower grade breast cancer. Neither the risk reduction nor the variation by breast cancer stage or grade was explained by the method of cancer detection or by prior mammography history. These findings suggest that relations between breast cancer risk in young women and body weight at different ages is complex and that the risk reduction with adult weight gain is confined to less aggressive cancers. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10487629

  9. Substance Use, Disordered Eating, and Weight Gain: Describing the Prevention and Treatment Needs of Incarcerated Women.

    PubMed

    Drach, Linda L; Maher, Julie E; Braun, Margaret J F; Murray, Stefanie L; Sazie, Elizabeth

    2016-04-01

    Weight-related concerns are associated with women's substance use and treatment relapse. The prevalence of overweight, obesity, disordered eating behavior, and substance abuse history was assessed among female inmates incarcerated for 6 to 24 months at an Oregon state prison, using a self-administered survey and physical measurements. Average weight gain was 20 pounds, 87% of women were overweight (39%) or obese (48%), and 24% reported using one or more unhealthy strategies to lose weight in the past 6 months. Women who used tobacco and illicit substances before incarceration gained more weight. Integrating nutrition and weight gain issues into substance abuse treatment could benefit incarcerated women--both soon after entering prison to prevent weight gain and close to release to prevent relapse into substance use. PMID:26984137

  10. Postnatal Weight Gain in Preterm Infants with Severe Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Girija; Johnson, Yvette R.; Brozanski, Beverly; Farrow, Kathryn N.; Zaniletti, Isabella; Padula, Michael A.; Asselin, Jeanette M.; Durand, David J.; Short, Billie L.; Pallotto, Eugenia K.; Dykes, Francine D.; Reber, Kristina M.; Evans, Jacquelyn R.; Murthy, Karna

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To characterize postnatal growth failure (PGF), defined as weight < 10th percentile for postmenstrual age (PMA) in preterm (≤27 weeks’ gestation) infants with severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (sBPD) at specified time points during hospitalization, and to compare these in subgroups of infants who died/underwent tracheostomy and others. Study Design Retrospective review of data from the multicenter Children’s Hospital Neonatal Database (CHND). Results Our cohort (n = 375) had a mean ± standard deviation gestation of 25 ± 1.2 weeks and birth weight of 744 ± 196 g. At birth, 20% of infants were small for gestational age (SGA); age at referral to the CHND neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) was 46 ± 50 days. PGF rates at admission and at 36, 40, 44, and 48 weeks’ PMA were 33, 53, 67, 66, and 79% of infants, respectively. Tube feedings were administered to > 70% and parenteral nutrition to a third of infants between 36 and 44 weeks’ PMA. At discharge, 34% of infants required tube feedings and 50% had PGF. A significantly greater (38 versus 17%) proportion of infants who died/underwent tracheostomy (n = 69) were SGA, compared with those who did not (n = 306; p < 0.01). Conclusions Infants with sBPD commonly had progressive PGF during their NICU hospitalization. Fetal growth restriction may be a marker of adverse outcomes in this population. PMID:23690052

  11. Associations between sleep characteristics and weight gain in an older population: results of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study

    PubMed Central

    Kowall, B; Lehnich, A-T; Erbel, R; Moebus, S; Jöckel, K-H; Stang, A

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Sleep duration influences weight change in children and young adults, but there is less evidence in middle-aged, and, in particular, older adults. We assessed associations between sleep duration, daytime napping and sleep disturbances, respectively, with change of weight and waist circumference in older subjects. Contrary to previous studies, we also used two points in time to assess sleep characteristics. Methods: We used data from the population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall study, a cohort study in Germany with a baseline and two follow-up visits (age 45–74 years, median follow-up 5.1 years for first, 5.2 years for second follow-up visit). In adjusted linear regression models (N=3751), we estimated weight change between baseline and first follow-up visit in relation to various self-reported sleep characteristics measured at baseline. Furthermore, we estimated change of weight and waist circumference, respectively, between first and second follow-up visit in relation to patterns of sleep characteristics measured at baseline and at the first follow-up visit (N=2837). Results: In all analyses, short and long sleep duration, sleep disturbances, and regular daytime napping were associated with <1 kg of weight gain and <1 cm of gain in waist circumference over 5 years compared with the respective reference categories. For example, compared with 7–<8 h night sleep, short night sleep (⩽5 h at baseline) was associated with 0.5 kg of weight gain (95% confidence interval: −0.1; 1.1 kg). Conclusions: Our study gave no evidence that sleep characteristics were associated with clinically relevant weight gain in the older population. PMID:27525820

  12. Gestational Weight Gain: Results from the Delta Healthy Sprouts Comparative Impact Trial

    PubMed Central

    Olender, Sarah E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Delta Healthy Sprouts trial was designed to test the comparative impact of two home visiting programs on weight status, dietary intake, and health behaviors of Southern African American women and their infants. Results pertaining to the primary outcome, gestational weight gain, are reported. Methods. Participants (n = 82), enrolled early in their second trimester of pregnancy, were randomly assigned to one of two treatment arms. Gestational weight gain, measured at six monthly home visits, was calculated by subtracting measured weight at each visit from self-reported prepregnancy weight. Weight gain was classified as under, within, or exceeding the Institute of Medicine recommendations based on prepregnancy body mass index. Chi-square tests and generalized linear mixed models were used to test for significant differences in percentages of participants within recommended weight gain ranges. Results. Differences in percentages of participants within the gestational weight gain guidelines were not significant between treatment arms across all visits. Conclusions. Enhancing the gestational nutrition and physical activity components of an existing home visiting program is feasible in a high risk population of primarily low income African American women. The impact of these enhancements on appropriate gestational weight gain is questionable given the more basic living needs of such women. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01746394, registered 4 December 2012.

  13. Gestational Weight Gain: Results from the Delta Healthy Sprouts Comparative Impact Trial.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Jessica L; Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa M; Goodman, Melissa H; Olender, Sarah E

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Delta Healthy Sprouts trial was designed to test the comparative impact of two home visiting programs on weight status, dietary intake, and health behaviors of Southern African American women and their infants. Results pertaining to the primary outcome, gestational weight gain, are reported. Methods. Participants (n = 82), enrolled early in their second trimester of pregnancy, were randomly assigned to one of two treatment arms. Gestational weight gain, measured at six monthly home visits, was calculated by subtracting measured weight at each visit from self-reported prepregnancy weight. Weight gain was classified as under, within, or exceeding the Institute of Medicine recommendations based on prepregnancy body mass index. Chi-square tests and generalized linear mixed models were used to test for significant differences in percentages of participants within recommended weight gain ranges. Results. Differences in percentages of participants within the gestational weight gain guidelines were not significant between treatment arms across all visits. Conclusions. Enhancing the gestational nutrition and physical activity components of an existing home visiting program is feasible in a high risk population of primarily low income African American women. The impact of these enhancements on appropriate gestational weight gain is questionable given the more basic living needs of such women. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01746394, registered 4 December 2012. PMID:27595023

  14. Gestational Weight Gain: Results from the Delta Healthy Sprouts Comparative Impact Trial

    PubMed Central

    Olender, Sarah E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Delta Healthy Sprouts trial was designed to test the comparative impact of two home visiting programs on weight status, dietary intake, and health behaviors of Southern African American women and their infants. Results pertaining to the primary outcome, gestational weight gain, are reported. Methods. Participants (n = 82), enrolled early in their second trimester of pregnancy, were randomly assigned to one of two treatment arms. Gestational weight gain, measured at six monthly home visits, was calculated by subtracting measured weight at each visit from self-reported prepregnancy weight. Weight gain was classified as under, within, or exceeding the Institute of Medicine recommendations based on prepregnancy body mass index. Chi-square tests and generalized linear mixed models were used to test for significant differences in percentages of participants within recommended weight gain ranges. Results. Differences in percentages of participants within the gestational weight gain guidelines were not significant between treatment arms across all visits. Conclusions. Enhancing the gestational nutrition and physical activity components of an existing home visiting program is feasible in a high risk population of primarily low income African American women. The impact of these enhancements on appropriate gestational weight gain is questionable given the more basic living needs of such women. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01746394, registered 4 December 2012. PMID:27595023

  15. Gaining weight through retirement? Results from the SHARE survey.

    PubMed

    Godard, Mathilde

    2016-01-01

    This paper estimates the causal impact of retirement on the Body Mass Index (BMI) of adults aged 50-69 years old, on the probability of being either overweight or obese and on the probability of being obese. Based on the 2004, 2006 and 2010-2011 waves of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), our identification strategy exploits variation in European Early Retirement Ages (ERAs) and stepwise increases in ERAs in Austria and Italy between 2004 and 2011 to examine an exogenous shock to retirement behavior. Our results show that retirement induced by discontinuous incentives in early retirement schemes causes a 12-percentage point increase in the probability of being obese among men within a two- to four-year period. We find that the impact of retirement is highly non-linear and mostly affects the right-hand side of the male BMI distribution. Additional results show that this pattern is driven by men retiring from strenuous jobs and by those who were already at risk of obesity. In contrast, no significant results are found among women. PMID:26708674

  16. Pre-transplant Predictors of One Year Weight Gain After Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Cashion, AK; Hathaway, DK; Stanfill, A; Thomas, F; Ziebarth, JD; Cui, Y; Cowan, PA; Eason, J

    2015-01-01

    Clinically useful predictors of weight gain could be used to reduce the epidemic of post-kidney transplant obesity and resulting co-morbidities. The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of weight gain at 12-months following kidney transplant in a cohort of 96 recipients. Demographic, clinical and environmental data were obtained at transplant and 12-months. Descriptive, correlational, and Bayesian network analysis were used to identify predictors. For the 52 (55.9%) recipients who gained weight, the average amount gained was 9.18 ± 6.59 kg. From the 15 baseline factors that met inclusion criteria, Bayesian network modeling identified 4 baseline predictors for weight gain: younger age, higher carbohydrate consumption, higher trunk fat percentage, and higher perception of mental health quality of life. Three are modifiable through either pre- or immediate post-transplant clinical intervention programs. PMID:25159302

  17. Weight gain and increase of body mass index among children and adolescents treated with antipsychotics: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ortega, José María; Funes-Godoy, Silvia; Díaz-Atienza, Francisco; Gutiérrez-Rojas, Luis; Pérez-Costillas, Lucía; Gurpegui, Manuel

    2013-08-01

    We performed an updated review of the available literature on weight gain and increase of body mass index (BMI) among children and adolescents treated with antipsychotic medications. A PubMed search was conducted specifying the following MeSH terms: (antipsychotic agents) hedged with (weight gain) or (body mass index). We selected 127 reports, including 71 intervention trials, 42 observational studies and 14 literature reviews. Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs), in comparison with first-generation antipsychotics, are associated with a greater risk for antipsychotic-induced weight gain although this oversimplification should be clarified by distinguishing across different antipsychotic drugs. Among SGAs, olanzapine appears to cause the most significant weight gain, while ziprasidone seems to cause the least. Antipsychotic-induced BMI increase appears to remain regardless of the specific psychotropic co-treatment. Children and adolescents seem to be at a greater risk than adults for antipsychotic-induced weight gain; and the younger the child, the higher the risk. Genetic or environmental factors related to antipsychotic-induced weight gain among children and adolescents are mostly unknown, although certain genetic factors related to serotonin receptors or hormones such as leptin, adiponectin or melanocortin may be involved. Strategies to reduce this antipsychotic side effect include switching to another antipsychotic drug, lowering the dosage or initiating treatment with metformin or topiramate, as well as non-pharmacological interventions. Future research should avoid some methodological limitations such as not accounting for age- and sex-adjusted BMI (zBMI), small sample size, short period of treatment, great heterogeneity of diagnoses and confounding by indication. PMID:23503976

  18. Patterns and trajectories of gestational weight gain: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Jarman, Megan; Yuan, Yan; Pakseresht, Mohammadreza; Shi, Qian; Robson, Paula J.; Bell, Rhonda C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gestational weight gain in excess of or below Health Canada's guidelines is known to increase the risk of adverse outcomes for both the woman and her baby. This study describes patterns and trajectories of total and rate of gestational weight gain in a large prospective cohort of pregnant women and adolescents in the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition study. Methods: We collected weight and height data for 1541 pregnant adolescents and women (mean age 31 years, < 27 weeks' gestation) recruited through advertisements and physicians' offices in Calgary and Edmonton between May 2009 and November 2012. Data were collected once during each trimester following enrolment and once at about 3 months post partum. The participants were categorized according to their prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) as underweight, of normal weight, overweight or obese. We calculated distributions of total and weekly rates of weight gain and determined trajectories of weight gain for each prepregnancy BMI category. Results: Of the 1541 participants, 761 (49.4%) exceeded Health Canada's guidelines for total gestational weight gain, and 272 (17.6%) gained less weight than recommended. A total of 63 (19.2%) and 38 (23.6%) participants categorized as overweight or obese, respectively, exceeded the recommended upper limit by 5 to less than 10 kg, and 53 (16.2%) and 27 (16.8%), respectively, exceeded the upper limit by at least 10 kg. Ninety-five participants (30.3%) in the overweight group and 59 (39.6%) of those in the obese group gained weight at more than double the recommended rate between the second and third trimesters. The median weight gain for participants in the normal, overweight and obese categories had exceeded recommended upper limits by about 30, 20 and 18 weeks' gestation, respectively. Interpretation: Adherence to Health Canada's guidelines for gestational weight gain was low. Excess gestational weight gain was most marked among those with a prepregnancy BMI in

  19. Trimester-Specific Gestational Weight Gain and Infant Size for Gestational Age

    PubMed Central

    Sridhar, Sneha B.; Xu, Fei; Hedderson, Monique M.

    2016-01-01

    Gestational weight gain is known to influence fetal growth. However, it is unclear whether the associations between gestational weight gain and fetal growth vary by trimester. In a diverse cohort of 8,977 women who delivered a singleton between 2011 and 2013, we evaluated the associations between trimester-specific gestational weight gain and infant size for gestational age. Gestational weight gain was categorized per the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations; meeting the recommendations was the referent. Large for gestational age and small for gestational age were defined as birthweight > 90th percentile or <10th percentile, respectively, based on a national reference standard birthweight distribution. Logistic regression models estimated the odds of having a large or small for gestational age versus an appropriate for gestational age infant. Only gestational weight gain exceeding the IOM recommendations in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters independently increased the odds of delivering a large for gestational age infant (Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval): 1st: 1.17 [0.94, 1.44], 2nd: 1.47 [1.13, 1.92], 3rd: 1.70 [1.30, 2.22]). Gestational weight gain below the IOM recommendations increased the likelihood of having a small for gestational age infant in the 2nd trimester only (1.76 [1.23, 2.52]). There was effect modification, and gestational weight gain below the IOM recommendations increased the likelihood of having a small for gestational age infant in the 2nd trimester and only among women with a pre-pregnancy body mass index from 18.5–24.9 kg/m2 (2.06 [1.35, 3.15]). These findings indicate that gestational weight gain during the 2nd and 3rd trimesters is more strongly associated with infant growth. Interventions to achieve appropriate gestational weight gain may optimize infant size at birth. PMID:27442137

  20. Body weight gain during adulthood and uterine myomas: Pró-Saúde Study.

    PubMed

    Boclin, Karine de Lima Sírio; Torres, Fernanda Pelegrini; Faerstein, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    This study intended to investigate whether body weight gain during adulthood is associated with uterine myomas. 1,560 subjects were evaluated in a Pró-Saúde Study. Weight gain was evaluated in a continuous fashion and also in quintiles. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated through logistic regression models that were adjusted for education levels, color/race, body mass indices at age 20, age of menarche, parity, use of oral contraceptive methods, smoking, health insurance, and the Papanicolaou tests. No relevant differences were observed regarding the presence of uterine myomas among weight gain quintiles in that studied population. PMID:26558353

  1. Body weight gain during adulthood and uterine myomas: Pró-Saúde Study

    PubMed Central

    Boclin, Karine de Lima Sírio; Torres, Fernanda Pelegrini; Faerstein, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study intended to investigate whether body weight gain during adulthood is associated with uterine myomas. 1,560 subjects were evaluated in a Pró-Saúde Study. Weight gain was evaluated in a continuous fashion and also in quintiles. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated through logistic regression models that were adjusted for education levels, color/race, body mass indices at age 20, age of menarche, parity, use of oral contraceptive methods, smoking, health insurance, and the Papanicolaou tests. No relevant differences were observed regarding the presence of uterine myomas among weight gain quintiles in that studied population. PMID:26558353

  2. Adolescent blood pressure, body mass index and skin folds: sorting out the effects of early weight and length gains

    PubMed Central

    Hallal, Pedro C; Dumith, Samuel C; Matijasevich, Alicia M; Araújo, Cora L P; Yudkin, John; Osmond, Clive; Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G

    2011-01-01

    Background Although there is longstanding evidence of the short-term benefits of promoting rapid growth for young children in low-income settings, more recent studies suggest that early weight gain can also increase the risk of chronic diseases in adults. This paper attempts to separate the effects of early life weight and length/height gains on blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), sum of skin folds and subscapular/triceps skin fold ratio at 14–15 years of age. Methods The sample comprised 833 members of a prospective population-based birth cohort from Brazil. Conditional size (weight or height) analyses were used to express the difference between observed size at a given age and expected size based on a regression, including all previous measures of the same anthropometric index. A positive conditional weight or height indicates growing faster than expected given prior size. Results Conditional weights at all age ranges were positively associated with most outcomes; each z-score of conditional weight at 4 years was associated with an increase of 6.1 mm in the sum of skin folds (95% CI 4.5 to 7.6) in adolescence after adjustment for conditional length/height. Associations of the outcomes with conditional length/height were mostly negative or non-significant—each z-score was associated with a reduction of 2.4 mm (95% CI −3.8 to −1.1) in the sum of skin folds after adjustment for conditional weight. No associations were found with the skin fold ratio. Conclusion The promotion of rapid length/height gain without excessive weight gain seems to be beneficial for long-term outcomes, but this requires confirmation from other studies. PMID:21325148

  3. Effect of a Best Practice Alert on Gestational Weight Gain, Health Services, and Pregnancy Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Sara M; DeBoth, Alexa; Anderson, Cynthie K

    2016-10-01

    Objective To examine whether an electronic medical record "best practice alert" previously shown to improve antenatal gestational weight gain patient education resulted in downstream effects on service delivery or patient health outcomes. Methods This study involved secondary analysis of data from an intervention to improve provider behavior surrounding gestational weight gain patient education. Data were from retrospective chart reviews of patients who received care either before (N = 333) or after (N = 268) implementation of the intervention. Pre-post comparisons and multivariable logistic regression were used to analyze downstream effects of the intervention on health outcomes and obesity-related health services while controlling for potential confounders. Results The intervention was associated with an increase in the proportion of prenatal patients who gained weight within Institute of Medicine guidelines, from 28 to 35 % (p < .05). Mean total gestational weight gain did not change, but variability decreased such that post-intervention women had weight gains closer to their gestational weight gain targets. The intervention was associated with a 94 g decrease in mean infant birth weight (p = .03), and an increase in the proportion of overweight and obese women screened for undiagnosed Type 2 diabetes before 20 weeks gestation, from 13 to 25 % (p = .01). Conclusions for Practice The electronic medical record can be leveraged to promote healthy gestational weight gain and early screening for undiagnosed Type 2 diabetes. Yet most patients still need additional support to achieve gestational weight gain within Institute of Medicine guidelines. PMID:27395382

  4. Effect of a Best Practice Alert on Gestational Weight Gain, Health Services, and Pregnancy Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Sara M; DeBoth, Alexa; Anderson, Cynthie K

    2016-10-01

    Objective To examine whether an electronic medical record "best practice alert" previously shown to improve antenatal gestational weight gain patient education resulted in downstream effects on service delivery or patient health outcomes. Methods This study involved secondary analysis of data from an intervention to improve provider behavior surrounding gestational weight gain patient education. Data were from retrospective chart reviews of patients who received care either before (N = 333) or after (N = 268) implementation of the intervention. Pre-post comparisons and multivariable logistic regression were used to analyze downstream effects of the intervention on health outcomes and obesity-related health services while controlling for potential confounders. Results The intervention was associated with an increase in the proportion of prenatal patients who gained weight within Institute of Medicine guidelines, from 28 to 35 % (p < .05). Mean total gestational weight gain did not change, but variability decreased such that post-intervention women had weight gains closer to their gestational weight gain targets. The intervention was associated with a 94 g decrease in mean infant birth weight (p = .03), and an increase in the proportion of overweight and obese women screened for undiagnosed Type 2 diabetes before 20 weeks gestation, from 13 to 25 % (p = .01). Conclusions for Practice The electronic medical record can be leveraged to promote healthy gestational weight gain and early screening for undiagnosed Type 2 diabetes. Yet most patients still need additional support to achieve gestational weight gain within Institute of Medicine guidelines.

  5. Neighborhood factors associated with physical activity and adequacy of weight gain during pregnancy

    EPA Science Inventory

    Healthy diet, physical activity, smoking, and adequate weight gain are all associated with maternal health and fetal growth during pregnancy. Neighborhood characteristics have been associated with poor maternal and child health outcomes, yet conceptualization of potential mechani...

  6. Impact of rapamycin on status epilepticus induced hippocampal pathology and weight gain.

    PubMed

    Hester, Michael S; Hosford, Bethany E; Santos, Victor R; Singh, Shatrunjai P; Rolle, Isaiah J; LaSarge, Candi L; Liska, John P; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto; Danzer, Steve C

    2016-06-01

    Growing evidence implicates the dentate gyrus in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Dentate granule cells limit the amount of excitatory signaling through the hippocampus and exhibit striking neuroplastic changes that may impair this function during epileptogenesis. Furthermore, aberrant integration of newly-generated granule cells underlies the majority of dentate restructuring. Recently, attention has focused on the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway as a potential mediator of epileptogenic change. Systemic administration of the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin has promising therapeutic potential, as it has been shown to reduce seizure frequency and seizure severity in rodent models. Here, we tested whether mTOR signaling facilitates abnormal development of granule cells during epileptogenesis. We also examined dentate inflammation and mossy cell death in the dentate hilus. To determine if mTOR activation is necessary for abnormal granule cell development, transgenic mice that harbored fluorescently-labeled adult-born granule cells were treated with rapamycin following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. Systemic rapamycin effectively blocked phosphorylation of S6 protein (a readout of mTOR activity) and reduced granule cell mossy fiber axon sprouting. However, the accumulation of ectopic granule cells and granule cells with aberrant basal dendrites was not significantly reduced. Mossy cell death and reactive astrocytosis were also unaffected. These data suggest that anti-epileptogenic effects of mTOR inhibition may be mediated by mechanisms other than inhibition of these common dentate pathologies. Consistent with this conclusion, rapamycin prevented pathological weight gain in epileptic mice, suggesting that rapamycin might act on central circuits or even peripheral tissues controlling weight gain in epilepsy. PMID:26995324

  7. Weight gain among men and women who have a child enter their home

    PubMed Central

    Laroche, Helena H; Wallace, Robert B; Snetselaar, Linda; Hillis, Stephen L; Cai, Xueya; Steffen, Lyn M

    2013-01-01

    Parenthood is associated with decreased physical activity and unhealthy dietary changes. Previously mothers have been the focus of studies examining the influence of children on parents’ BMI, largely ignoring whether parenting affects fathers. This study assessed weight gain in mothers and fathers (by birth or other), using longitudinal repeated-measures models to assess BMI changes, over time; parents were compared to non-parents. Data was from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) cohort study and included 2881 black and white adults, age 18-30, without children at baseline (1985-86), from four urban locations. At each time point (years 2, 5, and 7), changes in BMI from baseline were analyzed, comparing those who had their children in their household at that time point (parents) and those without children (non-parents). The “child effect” is the average difference in BMI-change in parents compared to non-parents. In fathers, overall, the child effect was not significant (black males 0.30 kg/m2, p=0.09; white males 0.03 kg/m2, p=0.77). Among black men, however, interactions between age and parental status were significant (p=0.02). Black men who were aged 18-24 at baseline, and became fathers during the next 7 years, demonstrated a significant child effect, gaining an average of 0.68 kg/m2 more than non-fathers (p=0.003). Mothers of both races demonstrated the child effect; for blacks it equaled 0.65 kg/m2 (p=0.003); for whites it equaled1.12 kg/m2 (p= <0.001). These data reveal that becoming a parent can affect the BMI of some adults and suggests that obesity prevention interventions for children and adult-focused healthy-lifestyle interventions could have additional impact through a family focus targeting both parent and child outcomes. PMID:23876450

  8. Beverage consumption and adult weight management: A review.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Elizabeth A; Flack, Kyle D; Davy, Brenda M

    2009-12-01

    Total energy consumption among United States adults has increased in recent decades, and energy-containing beverages are a significant contributor to this increase. Because beverages are less satiating than solid foods, consumption of energy-containing beverages may increase energy intake and lead to weight gain; trends in food and beverage consumption coinciding with increases in overweight and obesity support this possibility. The purpose of this review is to present what is known about the effect of beverage consumption on short-term (i.e., meal) energy intake, as well as longer-term effects on body weight. Specific beverages addressed include water, other energy-free beverages (diet soft drinks, coffee and tea), and energy-containing beverages (soft drinks, juices and juice drinks, milk and soy beverages, alcohol). Existing evidence, albeit limited, suggests that encouraging water consumption, and substituting water and other energy-free beverages (diet soft drinks, coffee and tea) for energy-containing beverages may facilitate weight management. Energy-containing beverages acutely increase energy intake, however long-term effects on body weight are uncertain. While there may be health benefits for some beverage categories, additional energy provided by beverages should be compensated for by reduced consumption of other foods in the diet.

  9. Beverage consumption and adult weight management: A review.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Elizabeth A; Flack, Kyle D; Davy, Brenda M

    2009-12-01

    Total energy consumption among United States adults has increased in recent decades, and energy-containing beverages are a significant contributor to this increase. Because beverages are less satiating than solid foods, consumption of energy-containing beverages may increase energy intake and lead to weight gain; trends in food and beverage consumption coinciding with increases in overweight and obesity support this possibility. The purpose of this review is to present what is known about the effect of beverage consumption on short-term (i.e., meal) energy intake, as well as longer-term effects on body weight. Specific beverages addressed include water, other energy-free beverages (diet soft drinks, coffee and tea), and energy-containing beverages (soft drinks, juices and juice drinks, milk and soy beverages, alcohol). Existing evidence, albeit limited, suggests that encouraging water consumption, and substituting water and other energy-free beverages (diet soft drinks, coffee and tea) for energy-containing beverages may facilitate weight management. Energy-containing beverages acutely increase energy intake, however long-term effects on body weight are uncertain. While there may be health benefits for some beverage categories, additional energy provided by beverages should be compensated for by reduced consumption of other foods in the diet. PMID:19778754

  10. Optimizing weight gain in pregnancy to prevent obesity in women and children.

    PubMed

    Herring, S J; Rose, M Z; Skouteris, H; Oken, E

    2012-03-01

    Pregnancy is now considered to be an important risk factor for new or persistent obesity among women during the childbearing years. High gestational weight gain is the strongest predictor of maternal overweight or obesity following pregnancy. A growing body of evidence also suggests that both high and low gestational weight gains are independently associated with an increased risk of childhood obesity, suggesting that influences occurring very early in life are contributing to obesity onset. In response to these data, the US Institute of Medicine (IOM) revised gestational weight gain guidelines in 2009 for the first time in nearly two decades. However, less than one third of pregnant women achieve guideline-recommended gains, with the majority gaining above IOM recommended levels. To date, interventions to optimize pregnancy weight gains have had mixed success. In this paper, we summarize the evidence from human and animal studies linking over-nutrition and under-nutrition in pregnancy to maternal and child obesity. In addition, we discuss published trials and ongoing interventions to achieve appropriate gestational weight gain as a strategy for obesity prevention in women and their children.

  11. It's About Time: A Survival Approach to Gestational Weight Gain and Preterm Delivery.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Emily M; Hinkle, Stefanie N; Schisterman, Enrique F

    2016-03-01

    There is substantial interest in understanding the impact of gestational weight gain on preterm delivery (delivery <37 weeks). The major difficulty in analyzing the association between gestational weight gain and preterm delivery lies in their mutual dependence on gestational age, as weight naturally increases with increasing pregnancy duration. In this study, we untangle this inherent association by reframing preterm delivery as time to delivery and assessing the relationship through a survival framework, which is particularly amenable to dealing with time-dependent covariates, such as gestational weight gain. We derive the appropriate analytical model for assessing the relationship between weight gain and time to delivery when weight measurements at multiple time points are available. Since epidemiologic data may be limited to weight gain measurements taken at only a few time points or at delivery only, we conduct simulation studies to illustrate how several strategically timed measurements can yield unbiased risk estimates. Analysis of the study of successive small-for-gestational-age births demonstrates that a naive analysis that does not account for the confounding effect of time on gestational weight gain suggests a strong association between higher weight gain and later delivery (hazard ratio: 0.89, 95% confidence interval = 0.84, 0.93). Properly accounting for the confounding effect of time using a survival model, however, mitigates this bias (hazard ratio: 0.98, 95% confidence interval = 0.97, 1.00). These results emphasize the importance of considering the effect of gestational age on time-varying covariates during pregnancy, and the proposed methods offer a convenient mechanism to appropriately analyze such data.See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/EDE/B13. PMID:26489043

  12. Weight gain in college females is not prevented by isoflavone-rich soy protein: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Berger, Paige K; Principe, Jessica L; Laing, Emma M; Henley, E C; Pollock, Norman K; Taylor, Ruth G; Blair, Robert M; Baile, Clifton A; Hall, Daniel B; Lewis, Richard D

    2014-01-01

    Human clinical trials targeted at preventing gains in body weight using soy protein and isoflavones are limited to adults and yield conflicting results. We hypothesized that daily intake of soy protein/isoflavones would attenuate gains in body weight to a greater extent than a casein-based control in 18 to 19 year-old females. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial over 16 weeks to examine the effects of a soy protein/isoflavone-based meal replacement (experimental group) versus a casein-based meal replacement (control group) on body weight and body composition variables in female college freshmen (N = 120). Fat mass (FM), fat-free soft tissue mass (FFST), and percent body fat (%BF) were measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA; Delphi A). Repeated measures mixed models were used to determine the effects of treatment on anthropometric and body composition variables (body weight, waist circumference, FM, FFST, and %BF). No significant group×time interactions were observed, even when body mass index was controlled for in the analysis. Over 16 weeks, body weight, FM, FFST, and %BF significantly increased in both groups (P < .05). Our findings show that female college freshmen gained a significant amount of weight over the course of the 16-week study. Gains in body weight and FM were similar among participants assigned to the soy protein/isoflavone- and the casein-based meal replacements. Future research is warranted to determine the effects of soy protein/isoflavone- and casein-based meal replacements versus a non-intervention (i.e., non-protein based) control.

  13. Weight gain in college females is not prevented by isoflavone-rich soy protein: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Berger, Paige K; Principe, Jessica L; Laing, Emma M; Henley, E C; Pollock, Norman K; Taylor, Ruth G; Blair, Robert M; Baile, Clifton A; Hall, Daniel B; Lewis, Richard D

    2014-01-01

    Human clinical trials targeted at preventing gains in body weight using soy protein and isoflavones are limited to adults and yield conflicting results. We hypothesized that daily intake of soy protein/isoflavones would attenuate gains in body weight to a greater extent than a casein-based control in 18 to 19 year-old females. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial over 16 weeks to examine the effects of a soy protein/isoflavone-based meal replacement (experimental group) versus a casein-based meal replacement (control group) on body weight and body composition variables in female college freshmen (N = 120). Fat mass (FM), fat-free soft tissue mass (FFST), and percent body fat (%BF) were measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA; Delphi A). Repeated measures mixed models were used to determine the effects of treatment on anthropometric and body composition variables (body weight, waist circumference, FM, FFST, and %BF). No significant group×time interactions were observed, even when body mass index was controlled for in the analysis. Over 16 weeks, body weight, FM, FFST, and %BF significantly increased in both groups (P < .05). Our findings show that female college freshmen gained a significant amount of weight over the course of the 16-week study. Gains in body weight and FM were similar among participants assigned to the soy protein/isoflavone- and the casein-based meal replacements. Future research is warranted to determine the effects of soy protein/isoflavone- and casein-based meal replacements versus a non-intervention (i.e., non-protein based) control. PMID:24418248

  14. Evaluating Provider Advice and Women's Beliefs on Total Weight Gain During Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Arinze, Nkiruka V; Karp, Sharon M; Gesell, Sabina B

    2016-02-01

    Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) is associated with complications for both mother and child. Minority women are at increased risk for excessive GWG, yet are underrepresented in published weight control interventions. To inform future interventions, we examined the prevalence and accuracy of provider advice and its association with personal beliefs about necessary maternal weight gain among predominantly Latina pregnant women. Secondary analysis examining baseline data (N = 123) from a healthy lifestyle randomized controlled trial conducted in and urban area of the South East. Only 23.6 % of women reported being told how much weight to gain during pregnancy; although 58.6 % received advice that met Institute of Medicine recommendations. Concordance of mothers' personal weight gain target with clinical recommendations varied by mothers' pre-pregnancy weight status [χ (4) (2)  = 9.781, p = 0.044]. Findings suggest the need for prenatal providers of low-income, minority women to engage patients in shaping healthy weight gain targets as a precursor to preventing excessive GWG and its complications.

  15. [Psychotropic drugs induced weight gain: a review of the literature concerning epidemiological data, mechanisms and management].

    PubMed

    Ruetsch, O; Viala, A; Bardou, H; Martin, P; Vacheron, M N

    2005-01-01

    Weight gain is associated with the use of many psychotropic medications, including antidepressants, mood stabilizers, antipsychotic drugs, and may have serious long term consequences: it can increase health risks, specifically from overweight (BMI = 25-29.9 kg/m2) to obesity (BMI > or =30 kg/m2), according to Body Mass Index (BMI), and the morbidity associated therewith in a substantial part of patients (hypertension, coronary heart desease, ischemic stroke, impaired glucose tolerance, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, respiratory problems, osteoarthritis, cancer); according to patients, psychosocial consequences such as a sense of demoralization, physical discomfort and being the target of substantial social stigma are so intolerable that they may discontinue the treatment even if it is effective. The paper reviews actual epidemiological data concerning drug induced weight gain and associated health problems in psychiatric patients : there is a high risk of overweight, obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, diabetes mellitus, premature death, in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder; and the effects of specific drugs on body weight: Tricyclic Antidepressants (TCA) induced weight gain correlated positively with dosage and duration of treatment, more pronounced with amitriptyline ; Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRI) decrease transiently bodyweight during the first few weeks of treatment and may then increase bodyweight; weight gain appears to be most prominent with some mood stabilizers (lithium, valproate); atypical antipsychotics tend to cause more weight gain than conventional ones and weight gain, diabetes, dyslipidemia, seem to be most severe with clozapine and olanzapine. Conceming the underlying mechanisms of drug induced weight gain, medications might interfere with central nervous functions regulating energy balance; patients report about: increase of appetite for sweet and fatty foods or "food craving" (antidepressants, mood stabilizers

  16. Serum PCT and its Relation to Body Weight Gain in Pulmonary Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Rohini, K; Bhat, Surekha; Srikumar, P S; Mahesh Kumar, A

    2015-07-01

    The present study was aimed at assessing alterations in serum PCT in terms of its relation to body weight gain in pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients undergoing treatment. Among patients (25-75 years) diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis, those that were new smear positive, showed sputum conversion at the end of 2 months and were declared clinically cured at the end of 6 months, were included in the study (n = 40). Serum procalcitonin was determined by BRAHMS PCT-Q kit. Patients were divided into two study groups-Group 1 (n = 21; serum PCT > 2 ng/ml at diagnosis), Group 2 (n = 19; serum PCT > 10 ng/ml at diagnosis). Body weights of all patients were obtained at three different time points, PTB-0 (at diagnosis), PTB-2 (after 2 months of intensive treatment) and PTB-6 (after 6 months of treatment). In both groups, mean body weights at PTB-2 and PTB-6 were significantly higher than those at PTB-0 and at PTB-6 were significantly higher than those at PTB-2. However, percentage body weight gain following 2 months of intensive treatment was higher in group 1 (4.05 % gain, p < 0.01) than in group 2 (2.75 % body weight gain, p < 0.05). Thus, the percentage gain in group 1 was tending more towards the desirable minimum gain of 5 % during intensive phase. Increase in serum PCT levels in pulmonary tuberculosis is inversely associated with body weight gain during treatment. Thus, PCT could play a role in regulation of body weight gain in anorectic conditions like tuberculosis.

  17. The effect of PIT tagging on survival, tag retention, and weight gain in fingerling white bass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We tagged fingerling white bass Morone chrysops with Passive Integrated Transponders (PIT) at two body locations (peritoneal cavity and dorsal musculature) and six weight classes (-6, 10, 14, 19, 25, and 30 g) to evaluate survival, tag retention, and weight gain during a 28-day experimental period. ...

  18. Gestational weight gain: results from the Delta Healthy Sprouts comparative impact trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction. Delta Healthy Sprouts was designed to test the comparative impact of two home visiting programs on weight status, dietary intake, and health behaviors of Southern African American women and their infants. Results pertaining to the primary outcome, gestational weight gain, are reporte...

  19. The role of environmental quality in gestational weight gain among U.S. pregnant women

    EPA Science Inventory

    From 2000-2009, 44% of United States (US) pregnant women had gestational weight gain (GWG) above and 20% had GWG below the recommended range of 15 to 40 pounds, which depends on starting weight. GWG outside the recommended range is associated with adverse outcomes including pre-e...

  20. Predictors of weight gain in Hispanic children - The VIVA LA FAMILIA study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Childhood obesity arises from a dysregulation of energy balance; however, the relative role of diet and physical activity in the etiology of excessive weight gain is poorly understood. Methods: The specific aims of this study were to measure 1-year changes in weight, height, and body com...

  1. HelpDesk answers: do hormonal contraceptives lead to weight gain?

    PubMed

    Albright, Maria; Rani, Saira; Gavagan, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    It depends. Weight doesn't appear to increase with combined oral contraception (OC) compared with nonhormonal contraception, but percent body fat may increase slightly. Depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate injection (DMPA) users experience weight gain compared with OC and nonhormonal contraception (NH) users.

  2. Body Weight Gain and Hyperphagia After Administration of SGLT-2 Inhibitor: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Hamamoto, Hiromi; Noda, Mitsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 44 Final Diagnosis: Type 2 diabetes Symptoms: Hunger • increased appetite Medication: GLP-1 receptor agonist • SGLT-2 inhibitor Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Internal Medicine/Diabetology Objective: Unusual or unexpected effect of treatment Background: A detailed description is given of a case we encountered in which unexpectedly marked weight gain occurred following a treatment switch from a GLP-1 receptor agonist to an SGLT-2 inhibitor. Case Report: The patient, a 44-year-old man with type 2 diabetes mellitus, had gained about 10 kg in weight in the previous year. Therefore, metformin was replaced with liraglutide to obtain reduction of body weight. Although the patient lost about 8 kg (7%), during the 18-month period on the medication, the weight loss stabilized; therefore, the treatment was again switched to tofogliflozin to obtain further reduction of body weight. However, the patient reported increasing hunger and an exaggerated appetite from week 3 onward after the start of tofogliflozin, and gained about 9 kg in weight within 2 weeks, associated with a tendency towards increased HbA1c; therefore, tofogliflozin was discontinued. Immediate reinstitution of liraglutide resulted in reduction of the increased appetite, weight, and HbA1c level. Conclusions: Caution should be exercised against hyperphagia and weight gain due to hunger that may occur following discontinuation of a GLP-1 receptor agonist and/or initiation of an SGLT-2 inhibitor. PMID:26638727

  3. Early Weight Gain, Linear Growth, and Mid-Childhood Blood Pressure: A Prospective Study in Project Viva.

    PubMed

    Perng, Wei; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Kramer, Michael S; Haugaard, Line K; Oken, Emily; Gillman, Matthew W; Belfort, Mandy B

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, the prevalence of hypertension and prehypertension increased markedly among children and adolescents, highlighting the importance of identifying determinants of elevated blood pressure early in life. Low birth weight and rapid early childhood weight gain are associated with higher future blood pressure. However, few studies have examined the timing of postnatal weight gain in relation to later blood pressure, and little is known regarding the contribution of linear growth. We studied 957 participants in Project Viva, an ongoing US prebirth cohort. We examined the relations of gains in body mass index z-score and length/height z-score during 4 early life age intervals (birth to 6 months, 6 months to 1 year, 1 to 2 years, and 2 to 3 years) with blood pressure during mid-childhood (6-10 years) and evaluated whether these relations differed by birth size. After accounting for confounders, each additional z-score gain in body mass index during birth to 6 months and 2 to 3 years was associated with 0.81 (0.15, 1.46) and 1.61 (0.33, 2.89) mm Hg higher systolic blood pressure, respectively. Length/height gain was unrelated to mid-childhood blood pressure, and there was no evidence of effect modification by birth size for body mass index or length/height z-score gain. Our findings suggest that more rapid gain in body mass index during the first 6 postnatal months and in the preschool years may lead to higher systolic blood pressure in mid-childhood, regardless of size at birth. Strategies to reduce accrual of excess adiposity during early life may reduce mid-childhood blood pressure, which may also impact adult blood pressure and cardiovascular health. PMID:26644238

  4. Household food insecurity is associated with self-reported pregravid weight status, gestational weight gain and pregnancy complications

    PubMed Central

    Laraia, Barbara A.; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Gundersen, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Background Household food insecurity is positively associated with weight among women. The association between household food insecurity and pregnancy related weight gain and complications is not well understood. Objective To identify if an independent association exists between household food insecurity and pregnancy related complications. Design Data from the Pregnancy, Infection and Nutrition prospective cohort study were used to assess household food insecurity retrospectively using the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) 18-item Core Food Security Module (CFSM) among 810 pregnant women with incomes ≤ 400% of the income/poverty ratio, recruited between January 2001 and June 2005 and followed through pregnancy. Main outcome measures Self-reported pregravid body mass index, gestational weight gain, second trimester anemia, pregnancy-induced hypertension, and gestational diabetes mellitus. Statistical analyses performed: Multivariate linear, multinomial logistic and logistic regression analyses. Results Among 810 pregnant women, 76% were from fully food secure, 14% were from marginally food secure, and 10% were from food insecure households. In adjusted models, living in a food insecure household was significantly associated with severe pregravid obesity [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.97, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.44, 6.14], higher gestational weight gain [adjusted β coefficient 1.87, 95% CI 0.13, 3.62] and with a higher adequacy of weight gain ratio [adjusted β 0.27, CI 0.07, 0.50]. Marginal food security was significantly associated with gestational diabetes mellitus [AOR 2.76, 95% CI 1.00, 7.66]. Conclusions This study highlights the possibility that living in a food insecure household during pregnancy may increase risk of greater weight gain and pregnancy complications. PMID:20430130

  5. Management of atypical antipsychotic-induced weight gain in schizophrenic patients with topiramate.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Hsiung; Liu, Chia-Yih; Hsiao, Mei-Chun

    2005-10-01

    Patients treated with atypical antipsychotic drugs commonly gain excess weight. Because obesity is associated with considerable morbidity and decreased life expectancy, treatment of weight gain in these patients is critical. Topiramate, a fairly new anticonvulsant, promotes bodyweight loss in healthy obese subjects, patients with bipolar disorder, and patients with eating disorder. However, there are very few reports about the efficacy of topiramate for weight management in schizophrenic patients. We present the cases of three Taiwanese patients with schizophrenia whose bodyweight increased as a result of atypical antipsychotics treatment, then was controlled by topiramate without aggravation of their psychotic symptoms.

  6. Proliferation capacity of T-lymphocytes is affected transiently after a long-term weight gain in Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Van de Velde, H; Janssens, G P J; Rochus, K; Duchateau, L; Scharek-Tedin, L; Zentek, J; Nguyen, P; Cox, E; Buyse, J; Biourge, V; Hesta, M

    2013-04-15

    Across species obesity is associated with several disorders but in companion animals little information is available on the impact of chronic obesity on immune competence. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether weight gain and stable obese bodyweight affects the immune cell response. Obesity was induced in eight adult healthy beagle dogs (weight gain group; WGG) by a weight gain period (WGP) of 47 weeks, which was immediately followed by a period (stable period: SP) of stable obesity of 26 weeks. Eight adult healthy beagle dogs were included as a control group (CG) and remained at their ideal bodyweight throughout the entire study. Body composition was measured at five intervening time-points. Concentration of serum leptin and inflammatory cytokines, functionality of lymphocytes and phagocytic activity of neutrophils and monocytes were evaluated at ten intervening time-points. Serum leptin concentration was rising during the WGP in the WGG but went to lower concentrations during the SP. At the end of long-term weight gain, a decreased mitogen-induced proliferation of T-lymphocytes was noted but this alteration seemed to be transient after stabilization of bodyweight. This finding may imply an altered immune response for dogs with different energy balances. However, no systemic low grade inflammation or alteration in other immune cell functions was observed. Consequently it is suggested that the change in energy balance during the onset of obesity (becoming obese versus being obese), evokes an additional obesity-related disorder in dogs, i.e. impaired T-lymphocyte immune function.

  7. Preventing Weight Gain in First Year College Students: An Online Intervention to Prevent the “Freshman Fifteen”

    PubMed Central

    Gow, Rachel W.; Trace, Sara E.; Mazzeo, Suzanne E.

    2009-01-01

    The transition to college has been identified as a critical period for increases in overweight status. Overweight college students are at-risk of becoming obese adults, and, thus prevention efforts targeting college age individuals are key to reducing adult obesity rates. The current study evaluated an Internet intervention with first year college students (N = 170) randomly assigned to one of four treatment conditions: 1) no treatment, 2) 6-week online intervention 3) 6-week weight and caloric feedback only (via email), and 4) 6-week combined feedback and online intervention. The combined intervention group had lower BMIs at post-testing than the other three groups. This study demonstrated the effectiveness and feasibility of an online intervention to prevent weight gain among college students. PMID:19962118

  8. Youth, Caregiver, and Prescriber Experiences of Antipsychotic-Related Weight Gain

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Andrea Lynn; Gardner, David Martin; Cooke, Charmaine; Kutcher, Stanley Paul; Hughes, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To explore the lived experience of youth, caregivers, and prescribers with antipsychotic medications. Design. We conducted a qualitative interpretive phenomenology study. Youth aged 11 to 25 with recent experience taking antipsychotics, the caregivers of youth taking antipsychotics, and the prescribers of antipsychotics were recruited. Subjects. Eighteen youth, 10 caregivers (parents), and 11 prescribers participated. Results. Eleven of 18 youth, six of ten parents, and all prescribers discussed antipsychotic-related weight gain. Participants were attuned to the numeric weight changes usually measured in pounds. Significant discussions occurred around weight changes in the context of body image, adherence and persistence, managing weight increases, and metabolic effects. These concepts were often inextricably linked but maintained the significance as separate issues. Participants discussed tradeoffs regarding the perceived benefits and risks of weight gain, often with uncertainty and inadequate information regarding the short- and long-term consequences. Conclusion. Antipsychotic-related weight gain in youth influences body image and weight management strategies and impacts treatment courses with respect to adherence and persistence. In our study, the experience of monitoring for weight and metabolic changes was primarily reactive in nature. Participants expressed ambiguity regarding the short- and long-term consequences of weight and metabolic changes. PMID:24533223

  9. A Longitudinal Study of Childhood Depression and Anxiety in Relation to Weight Gain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rofey, Dana L.; Kolko, Rachel P.; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Silk, Jennifer S.; Bost, James E.; Feng, Wentao; Szigethy, Eva M.; Noll, Robert B.; Ryan, Neal D.; Dahl, Ronald E.

    2009-01-01

    Adult mood disturbances are highly correlated with obesity, although little is known about the developmental relationship between mood disorders and weight. This study investigated the relationship between childhood psychopathology and weight over the course of 3 years. Body Mass Index (BMI) percentiles and demographic data of children (ages 8-18)…

  10. Short inter-pregnancy intervals, parity, excessive pregnancy weight gain and risk of maternal obesity.

    PubMed

    Davis, Esa M; Babineau, Denise C; Wang, Xuelei; Zyzanski, Stephen; Abrams, Barbara; Bodnar, Lisa M; Horwitz, Ralph I

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the relationship among parity, length of the inter-pregnancy intervals and excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy and the risk of obesity. Using a prospective cohort study of 3,422 non-obese, non-pregnant US women aged 14-22 years at baseline, adjusted Cox models were used to estimate the association among parity, inter-pregnancy intervals, and excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy and the relative hazard rate (HR) of obesity. Compared to nulliparous women, primiparous women with excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy had a HR of obesity of 1.79 (95% CI 1.40, 2.29); no significant difference was seen between primiparous without excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy and nulliparous women. Among women with the same pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy and the same number of inter-pregnancy intervals (12 and 18 months or ≥18 months), the HR of obesity increased 2.43-fold (95% CI 1.21, 4.89; p = 0.01) for every additional inter-pregnancy interval of <12 months; no significant association was seen for longer inter-pregnancy intervals. Among women with the same parity and inter-pregnancy interval pattern, women with excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy had an HR of obesity 2.41 times higher (95% CI 1.81, 3.21; p < 0.001) than women without. Primiparous and nulliparous women had similar obesity risk unless the primiparous women had excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy, then their risk of obesity was greater. Multiparous women with the same excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy and at least one additional short inter-pregnancy interval had a significant risk of obesity after childbirth. Perinatal interventions that prevent excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy or lengthen the inter-pregnancy interval are necessary for reducing maternal obesity.

  11. Daily variation in maternal and fetal weight gain in mice and hamsters.

    PubMed

    Davis, F C

    1989-06-01

    Daily variation in maternal and fetal weight gain was measured in hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) and in mice (Mus musculus, C57Bl) with free access to food or under restricted feeding schedules. Pregnant hamsters with free access to food and water were weighed twice a day and fetuses were collected twice a day from 10.5 to 14.5 days after fertilization. In three experiments, pregnant mice were given free access to food and water or were allowed food for 12 hours a day or for 6 hours a day. Pregnant mice were weighed twice a day and in the restricted feeding experiments, fetuses were collected every 6 hours from 12.0 to 14.5 days after fertilization. Pregnant mice and hamsters with free access to food showed a daily rhythm in weight gain with greater gain at night. There was no evidence of a daily rhythm in the weight gain with greater gain at night. There was no evidence of a daily rhythm in the weight gain of hamster fetuses. Mouse fetuses showed greater weight gain during two 6-hour intervals each day, the second half of each night and the second half of each day. The 12-hour variation was seen in both wet and dry fetal weight. A 24-hour rhythm in fetal growth was previously described in rats (Barr: Teratology, 7:283-288, 1973). Results in rats and mice indicate that fetal growth is modulated on a daily basis. The different periodicity observed in rats and mice might be related to the different ages of the fetuses examined.

  12. Determinants of excessive gestational weight gain in urban, low-income women

    PubMed Central

    Herring, Sharon J.; Nelson, Deborah B.; Davey, Adam; Klotz, Alicia A.; Dibble, La Vette; Oken, Emily; Foster, Gary D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Factors influencing excessive weight gain in pregnancy have not been well studied among urban, low-income women. Methods Prospective cohort study of 94 prenatal care patients at a large university hospital in Philadelphia, examining associations of modifiable mid-pregnancy behaviors and non-modifiable or early pregnancy factors with excessive gestational weight gain. Data were collected through questionnaires and medical record abstraction in 2009-2011. Findings The majority of women were African-American (83%) and all (100%) received Medicaid. Nearly two-thirds (60%) were overweight or obese in early pregnancy and 41% experienced excessive gain. In multivariable logistic regression analyses, significant predictors of excessive gestational weight gain included high early pregnancy body mass index (odds ratio [OR]: 4.20, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.43, 12.34 for overweight/obese vs. normal weight), nulliparity (OR: 3.35, 95% CI: 1.17, 9.62 for nulliparity vs. multiparity), and clinician advice discordant with Institute of Medicine guidelines (OR: 5.88, 95% CI: 1.04, 33.32 for discordant vs. concordant advice). Watching under two hours of television daily (OR: 0.18, 95% CI: 0.03, 1.03) and engaging in regular physical activity during pregnancy (OR: 0.35, 95% CI: 0.11, 1.09) were suggestive of a reduced risk of excessive gain. Conclusions In this sample of urban, low-income women, high early pregnancy body mass index, nulliparity, and discordant clinician advice were directly associated with excessive gestational weight gain, with a trend toward decreased risk for viewing fewer hours of television and engaging in regular physical activity. Intervening on these targets may optimize gestational weight gain and promote long-term maternal health. PMID:22818249

  13. Relationship between health services, socioeconomic variables and inadequate weight gain among Brazilian children.

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, A. C.; Peterson, K. E.; Cufino, E.; Gardner, J.; Craveiro, M. V.; Ascherio, A.

    1999-01-01

    This ecological analysis assessed the relative contribution of behavioural, health services and socioeconomic variables to inadequate weight gain in infants (0-11 months) and children (12-23 months) in 140 municipalities in the State of Ceara, north-east Brazil. To assess the total effect of selected variables, we fitted three unique sets of multivariate linear regression models to the prevalence of inadequate weight gain in infants and in children. The final predictive models included variables from the three sets. Findings showed that participation in growth monitoring and urbanization were inversely and significantly associated with the prevalence of inadequate weight gain in infants, accounting for 38.3% of the variation. Female illiteracy rate, participation in growth monitoring and degree of urbanization were all positively associated with prevalence of inadequate weight gain in children. Together, these factors explained 25.6% of the variation. Our results suggest that efforts to reduce the average municipality-specific female illiteracy rate, in combination with participation in growth monitoring, may be effective in reducing municipality-level prevalence of inadequate weight gain in infants and children in Ceara. PMID:10612885

  14. Examining Maternal Weight Gain During Contingency-Management Treatment for Smoking Cessation Among Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Washio, Yukiko; Higgins, Stephen T.; Heil, Sarah H.; Badger, Gary J.; Skelly, Joan; Bernstein, Ira M.; Solomon, Laura J.; Higgins, Tara M.; Lynch, Mary Ellen; Hanson, Jennifer D.

    2010-01-01

    Excessive maternal weight gain during pregnancy can result in serious adverse maternal and neonatal health consequences making it an important outcome to monitor in developing smoking-cessation interventions for pregnant women. Maternal weight gain was investigated in the present study with 154 pregnant participants in controlled trials investigating the efficacy of contingency management (CM) for smoking cessation. Women were assigned to either an abstinence-contingent condition wherein they earned vouchers exchangeable for retail items by abstaining from smoking or to a control condition where they received comparable vouchers independent of smoking status. Mean percent of negative smoking status tests throughout antepartum was greater in the incentive than control condition (45.2±4.6 vs. 15.5±2.4, p < .001) as was late-pregnancy point-prevalence abstinence (36% vs. 8%, p < .001) but maternal weight gain did not differ significantly between treatment conditions (15.0 ± 0.8 kg vs. 15.0 ± 0.9 kg, p = .97). In a comparison of women classified by smoking status rather than treatment condition, a greater percent of negative smoking status tests predicted significantly more weight gain (0.34 kg per 10% increase in negative tests), an effect that appeared to be attributable to women with greater abstinence having larger infants. This study shows no evidence of excessive maternal weight gain among pregnant women receiving a CM intervention for smoking cessation. PMID:20870365

  15. Coat colour in mouse populations selected for weight gain: support for hitchhiking, not pleiotropy.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, Philip W

    2013-02-01

    With many molecular markers in many species, research efforts in quantitative genetics have focused on dissecting these traits and understanding the importance of factors such as correlated response due to hitchhiking or pleiotropy. Here, in an examination of long-term selection experiments in mice, the evidence strongly supports the primary importance of hitchhiking on the coat colour loci brown and dilute in mice selected for high weight gain. First, the amount of observed change in coat colour allele frequency could not be explained by genetic drift alone, implying that selection was of high importance. Second, the allele frequency changes included reversals in the direction change, but there were still positive correlations in the early generations with differences in weight gain between the phenotypes. Third, the correlation between the change in allele frequencies and phenotypic difference in weight gain declined over time, consistent with the decay expected from linkage associations. Fourth, the changes at both loci in a short-term selection experiment for low weight gain were in the opposite direction than the changes in the contemporaneous related population selected for high weight gain.

  16. Use of phenylpropanolamine to reduce nicotine cessation induced weight gain in rats.

    PubMed

    Winders, S E; Dykstra, T; Coday, M C; Amos, J C; Wilson, M R; Wilkins, D R

    1992-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine if phenylpropanolamine (PPA) administered during the first week of nicotine termination could reduce or eliminate the body weight rebound which accompanies nicotine cessation. Sprague-Dawley rats were administered nicotine for 2 weeks after which they received either PPA or saline for 1 week. Control animals received saline during both drug periods. Body weight, food consumption, and water consumption were measured daily before drug, during nicotine and PPA administration, and for 14 days after PPA administration. In contrast to animals receiving saline upon termination of nicotine, animals receiving PPA did not gain weight at an accelerated rate. Termination of PPA did not result in a body weight rebound. To the extent that these results generalize to humans, they suggest that PPA could be used to reduce or eliminate postcessation weight gain in smokers who stop smoking.

  17. Rapid Postnatal Weight Gain and Visceral Adiposity in Adulthood: The Fels Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Demerath, Ellen W.; Reed, Derek; Choh, Audrey C.; Soloway, Laura; Lee, Miryoung; Czerwinski, Stefan A.; Chumlea, William C.; Siervogel, Rogers M.; Towne, Bradford

    2009-01-01

    Rapid infant weight gain is associated with increased abdominal adiposity, but there is no published report of the relationship of early infant growth to differences in specific adipose tissue depots in the abdomen, including visceral adipose tissue (VAT). In this study, we tested the associations of birth weight, infant weight gain, and other early life traits with VAT, abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (ASAT), and other body composition measures using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in middle adulthood (mean age = 46.5 years). The sample included 233 appropriate for gestational age singleton white children (114 males) enrolled in the Fels Longitudinal Study. Multivariate-adjusted general linear models were used to test the association of infant weight gain (from 0 to 2 years), maternal BMI, gestational age, parity, maternal age, and other covariates with adulthood body composition. Compared to infants with slow weight gain, rapid weight gain was associated with elevated risk of obesity (adjusted odds ratio = 4.1, 95% confidence interval = 1.4, 11.1), higher total body fat (+7 kg, P = 0.0002), percent body fat (+5%, P = 0.0006), logVAT mass (+0.43 kg, P = 0.02), logASAT mass (+0.47 kg, P = 0.001), and percent abdominal fat (+5%, P = 0.03). There was no evidence that the increased abdominal adipose tissue was due to a preferential deposition of VAT. In conclusion, rapid infant weight gain is associated with increases in both VAT and ASAT, as well as total adiposity and the risk of obesity in middle adulthood. PMID:19373221

  18. Food consumption and weight gain after cessation of chronic amphetamine administration.

    PubMed

    Orsini, Caitlin A; Ginton, Guy; Shimp, Kristy G; Avena, Nicole M; Gold, Mark S; Setlow, Barry

    2014-07-01

    Cessation of drug use often coincides with increased food consumption and weight gain in recovering addicts. However, it is not known whether this phenomenon (particularly the weight gain) is uniquely human, or whether it represents a consequence of drug cessation common across species. To address this issue, rats (n = 10/group) were given systemic injections of D-amphetamine (3 mg/kg) or an equal volume of saline vehicle for 9 consecutive days. Beginning 2 days after the final injection, rats were given free access to a highly palatable food mixture (consisting of sugar and butter) along with their standard chow diet, and food consumption and body weight were measured every 48 h for 30 days. Consistent with clinical observations, amphetamine-treated rats showed a greater increase in body weight over the course of the 30 days relative to vehicle-treated rats. Surprisingly, there was no difference in highly palatable food consumption between amphetamine- and vehicle-treated groups, but the amphetamine-treated group consumed significantly more standard chow than the control group. The finding that a history of chronic amphetamine exposure increases food consumption is consistent with previous work in humans showing that withdrawal from drugs of abuse is associated with overeating and weight gain. The current findings may reflect amphetamine-induced sensitization of mechanisms involved in reward motivation, suggesting that weight gain following drug cessation in humans could be due to similar mechanisms.

  19. Effects of fluoxetine on weight gain and food intake in smokers who reduce nicotine intake.

    PubMed

    Pomerleau, O F; Pomerleau, C S; Morrell, E M; Lowenbergh, J M

    1991-01-01

    The effect of fluoxetine hydrochloride, a 5-HT uptake inhibitor (60 mg/day PO), in preventing weight gain associated with nicotine reduction was investigated in participants in a double-blind, placebo-controlled smoking-cessation trial. A lunch of cheese pizza and chocolate bars was offered, and caloric intake was monitored. The analysis focused on subjects (placebo: n = 11; fluoxetine: n = 10) who succeeded in reaching cotinine levels of less than 50% of their starting cotinine levels (signifying a stringent reduction in nicotine intake) and who participated in pre- and post-nicotine reduction lunch sessions 70 days apart. Subjects on placebo gained significantly more weight (mean +/- SEM = +3.3 +/- 0.7 kg) than subjects on fluoxetine (-0.6 +/- 1.2 kg). In fluoxetine-treated subjects, weight gain/loss was strongly correlated with initial body mass index, with higher BMI being associated with greater decreases in weight. A trend towards decreased caloric intake in the fluoxetine group was observed; the change in total calories at lunch was significantly correlated with weight change, an association accounted for principally by change in pizza intake. We conclude that fluoxetine treatment effectively prevents the weight gain that accompanies nicotine reduction and that this phenomenon is mediated, at least in part, by diminished caloric intake.

  20. Comparative effectiveness of group and individual prenatal care on gestational weight gain.

    PubMed

    Tanner-Smith, Emily E; Steinka-Fry, Katarzyna T; Gesell, Sabina B

    2014-09-01

    This study examined differences in gestational weight gain for women in CenteringPregnancy (CP) group prenatal care versus individually delivered prenatal care. We conducted a retrospective chart review and used propensity scores to form a matched sample of 393 women (76 % African-American, 13 % Latina, 11 % White; average age 22 years) receiving prenatal care at a community health center in the South. Women were matched on a wide range of demographic and medical background characteristics. Compared to the matched group of women receiving standard individual prenatal care, CP participants were less likely to have excessive gestational weight gain, regardless of their pre-pregnancy weight (b = -.99, 95 % CI [-1.92, -.06], RRR = .37). CP reduced the risk of excessive weight gain during pregnancy to 54 % of what it would have been in the standard model of prenatal care (NNT = 5). The beneficial effect of CP was largest for women who were overweight or obese prior to their pregnancy. Effects did not vary by gestational age at delivery. Post-hoc analyses provided no evidence of adverse effects on newborn birth weight outcomes. Group prenatal care had statistically and clinically significant beneficial effects on reducing excessive gestational weight gain relative to traditional individual prenatal care.

  1. Comparative Effectiveness of Group and Individual Prenatal Care on Gestational Weight Gain

    PubMed Central

    STEINKA-FRY, Katarzyna T.; GESELL, Sabina B.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES This study examined differences in gestational weight gain for women in CenteringPregnancy (CP) group prenatal care versus individually delivered prenatal care. METHODS We conducted a retrospective chart review and used propensity scores to form a matched sample of 393 women (76% African-American, 13% Latina, 11% White; average age 22 years) receiving prenatal care at a community health center in the South. Women were matched on a wide range of demographic and medical background characteristics RESULTS Compared to the matched group of women receiving standard individual prenatal care, CP participants were less likely to have excessive gestational weight gain, regardless of their pre-pregnancy weight (b = −.99, 95% CI [−1.92, −.06], RRR = .37). CP reduced the risk of excessive weight gain during pregnancy to 54% of what it would have been in the standard model of prenatal care (NNT = 5). The beneficial effect of CP was largest for women who were overweight or obese prior to their pregnancy. Effects did not vary by gestational age at delivery. Post-hoc analyses provided no evidence of adverse effects on newborn birth weight outcomes. CONCLUSIONS Group prenatal care had statistically and clinically significant beneficial effects on reducing excessive gestational weight gain relative to traditional individual prenatal care. PMID:24343309

  2. Childhood consequences of maternal obesity and excessive weight gain during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gaillard, Romy; Felix, Janine F; Duijts, Liesbeth; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2014-11-01

    Obesity is a major public health concern. In western countries, the prevalence of obesity in pregnant women has strongly increased, with reported prevalence rates reaching 30%. Also, up to 40% of women gain an excessive amount of weight during pregnancy. Recent observational studies and meta-analyses strongly suggest long-term impact of maternal obesity and excessive weight gain during pregnancy on adiposity, cardiovascular and respiratory related health outcomes in their children. These observations suggest that maternal adiposity during pregnancy may program common health problems in the offspring. Currently, it remains unclear whether the observed associations are causal, or just reflect confounding by family-based sociodemographic or lifestyle-related factors. Parent-offspring studies, sibling comparison studies, Mendelian randomization studies and randomized trials can help to explore the causality and underlying mechanisms. Also, the potential for prevention of common diseases in future generations by reducing maternal obesity and excessive weight gain during pregnancy needs to be explored.

  3. Weight gain and psychiatric treatment: Is there a role for green tea and conjugated linoleic acid?

    PubMed

    Katzman, Martin A; Jacobs, Leslie; Marcus, Madalyn; Vermani, Monica; Logan, Alan C

    2007-01-01

    Dietary supplement use is widespread in developed nations. In particular, patients who utilize mental health services also report frequent consumption of dietary supplements, often in relation to management of adverse events and specifically weight gain. Weight gain induced by psychotropic medications can further compound psychological distress and negatively influence compliance. Here we report on four cases of social anxiety disorder treated with the atypical antipsychotic quetiapine. Self-administration of conjugated linoleic acid and green tea extract may have influenced objective anthropomorphic measurements; each patient had an unexpected decrease in total body fat mass, a decrease in body fat percentage and an increase in lean body mass. Since weight gain is a common and undesirable side-effect with psychiatric medications, our observation strongly suggests the need for controlled clinical trials using these agents. PMID:17477874

  4. Effect of body weight gain on insulin sensitivity after retirement from exercise training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolkas, Constantine B.; Rodnick, Kenneth J.; Mondon, Carl E.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of the body-weight gain after retirement from an exercise-training program on the retained increase in insulin sensitivity elicited by the training was investigated in exercise-trained (ET) rats. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by oral glucose tolerance and insulin suppression tests immediately after training and during retirement. Results show that, compared with sedentary controls, exercise training enhanced insulin-induced glucose uptake, but the enhanced sensitivity was gradually lost with the end of running activity until after seven days of retirement, when it became equal to that of controls. This loss of enhanced sensitivity to insulin was associated with an accelerated gain in body weight beginning one day after the start of retirement. However, those animals that gained weight only at rates similar to those of control rats, retained their enhanced sensitivity to insulin.

  5. Hypertrophy-driven adipocyte death overwhelms recruitment under prolonged weight gain.

    PubMed

    Jo, Junghyo; Guo, Juen; Liu, Teresa; Mullen, Shawn; Hall, Kevin D; Cushman, Samuel W; Periwal, Vipul

    2010-12-01

    Fat pads dynamically regulate energy storage capacity under energy excess and deficit. This remodeling process is not completely understood, with controversies regarding differences between fat depots and plasticity of adipose cell number. We examined changes of mouse adipose cell-size distributions in epididymal, inguinal, retroperitoneal, and mesenteric fat under both weight gain and loss. With mathematical modeling, we specifically analyzed the recruitment, growth/shrinkage, and loss of adipose cells, including the size dependence of these processes. We found a qualitatively universal adipose tissue remodeling process in all four fat depots: 1), There is continuous recruitment of new cells under weight gain; 2), the growth and shrinkage of larger cells (diameter >50 μm) is proportional to cell surface area; and 3), cell loss occurs under prolonged weight gain, with larger cells more susceptible. The mathematical model gives a predictive integrative picture of adipose tissue remodeling in obesity.

  6. Electroacupuncture Reduces Weight Gain Induced by Rosiglitazone through PPARγ and Leptin Receptor in CNS

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Xinyue; Ou, Chen; Chen, Hui; Wang, Tianlin; Xu, Bin; Lu, Shengfeng; Zhu, Bing-Mei

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on protecting the weight gain side effect of rosiglitazone (RSG) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rats and its possible mechanism in central nervous system (CNS). Our study showed that RSG (5 mg/kg) significantly increased the body weight and food intake of the T2DM rats. After six-week treatment with RSG combined with EA, body weight, food intake, and the ratio of IWAT to body weight decreased significantly, whereas the ratio of BAT to body weight increased markedly. HE staining indicated that the T2DM-RSG rats had increased size of adipocytes in their IWAT, but EA treatment reduced the size of adipocytes. EA effectively reduced the lipid contents without affecting the antidiabetic effect of RSG. Furthermore, we noticed that the expression of PPARγ gene in hypothalamus was reduced by EA, while the expressions of leptin receptor and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) were increased. Our results suggest that EA is an effective approach for inhibiting weight gain in T2DM rats treated by RSG. The possible mechanism might be through increased levels of leptin receptor and STAT3 and decreased PPARγ expression, by which food intake of the rats was reduced and RSG-induced weight gain was inhibited. PMID:26904147

  7. Olanzapine associated weight gain, hyperglycemia and neuroleptic malignant syndrome: case report.

    PubMed

    Malyuk, Rhonda; Gibson, Bruce; Procyshyn, Ric M; Kang, Nirmal

    2002-04-01

    We describe here a case of olanzapine associated weight gain, hyperglycemia and neuroleptic malignant syndrome in a 64 year-old woman with a significant medical history. Eighteen weeks after initiating olanzapine, Mrs X lost glycemic control, exhibited signs and symptoms consistent with neuroleptic malignant syndrome and gained 8.9 kg. We suggest that utilization of olanzapine in the less medically stable geriatric patient be implemented with vigilant monitoring for such complications mentioned above. PMID:11994885

  8. Continuation of Gradual Weight Gain Necessary for the Onset of Puberty May Be Responsible for Obesity Later in Life

    PubMed Central

    Lehrer, Steven

    2016-01-01

    A continuation of the gradual weight gain necessary for the onset of puberty may be responsible for obesity later in life. Hypothetically, a group of brain nuclei form components of a single pubertal clock mechanism that drives pre-pubertal weight gain and governs the onset of puberty and fertility. No mechanism evolved to shut off pre-pubertal and pubertal weight and body fat gain after puberty. The weight gain continues unabated throughout life. A better understanding of the mechanism of puberty and pre-pubertal weight gain could provide new insights into obesity and diseases associated with obesity such as type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, heart disease, depression, etc. PMID:26562472

  9. Filling yet fattening: stereotypical beliefs about the weight gain potential and satiation of foods.

    PubMed

    Oakes, Michael E

    2006-03-01

    To what extent are stereotypes concerning the weight-gain potential and perceived hunger satisfaction of food names not congruent with views of the nutrient profiles of those same foods? Respondents rated the same 22 food names and descriptions in terms of weight-gain potential and hunger satisfaction. Half of the 22 snacks included foods from the lower two tiers of the USDA Food Guide Pyramid (fruits, vegetables, and grains: FV&G) and the other half from the upper two tiers (meats, dairy, fats, and sweets: MDF&S). FV&G and MDF&S snack names and descriptions were paired for data analyses based on energy content. Name and description ratings for weight-gain potential were not correlated, while these ratings for hunger satisfaction were strongly correlated. For weight-gain potential, fat and fiber content predicted snack-name ratings, while energy and sugar content predicted description ratings. For perceived hunger satisfaction, protein content predicted snack name ratings while energy and fat content predicted description ratings. The MDF&S snack named in each pair was always considered a greater weight gain promoter compared to its corresponding FV&G snack named. However, the description of the FV&G snack in each pair was often judged to promote greater weight-gain than the description of its corresponding MDF&S snack. Also, MDF&S names were generally judged as more filling than FV&G foods named with similar calorie content; however, a trend in the opposite direction was evident when rating the nutrient descriptions of these same foods. Apparently, food names have acquired reputation for promoting obesity and (to a lesser extent) hunger satisfaction that are not based on their nutrient profiles. PMID:16527618

  10. Maternal insulin sensitivity during pregnancy predicts infant weight gain and adiposity at 1 year of age.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Jill K; Odrobina, Ewa; Yin, Junlang; Hanley, Anthony J; Zinman, Bernard; Retnakaran, Ravi

    2010-02-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that fetal environmental exposures impact on future development of obesity. The objectives of this study were to assess the relationships between (i) maternal insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance status in pregnancy and (ii) early infant weight gain and adiposity in the first year of life. In this prospective cohort study, 301 women underwent oral glucose tolerance testing for assessment of glucose tolerance status and insulin sensitivity (IS(OGTT)) in pregnancy. Their infants underwent anthropometric assessment at 12 months of age, including determination of weight gain in the first year of life and sum of skinfold thickness (SFT), a measure of infant adiposity. Infant weight gain and sum of SFT at 12 months did not differ according to maternal glucose tolerance status. On univariate analyses, weight gain from 0 to 12 months and sum of SFT were negatively associated with maternal IS(OGTT) during pregnancy. On multiple linear regression analysis, negative independent predictors of weight gain from 0 to 12 months were maternal IS(OGTT) during pregnancy (t = -2.73; P = 0.007), infant female gender (t = -3.16; P = 0.002), and parental education (t = -1.98; P = 0.05), whereas white ethnicity was a positive independent predictor (t = 2.68; P = 0.008). Maternal IS(OGTT) (t = -2.7; P = 0.008) and parental education (t = -2.58; P = 0.01) were independent negative predictors of sum of SFT at 12 months. Independent of maternal glucose tolerance status, maternal insulin resistance during pregnancy is associated with increased infant weight gain and adiposity over the first year of life. Further longitudinal study to evaluate obesity in this group of children will increase our understanding of the contribution of the intrauterine environment to their long-term health.

  11. Filling yet fattening: stereotypical beliefs about the weight gain potential and satiation of foods.

    PubMed

    Oakes, Michael E

    2006-03-01

    To what extent are stereotypes concerning the weight-gain potential and perceived hunger satisfaction of food names not congruent with views of the nutrient profiles of those same foods? Respondents rated the same 22 food names and descriptions in terms of weight-gain potential and hunger satisfaction. Half of the 22 snacks included foods from the lower two tiers of the USDA Food Guide Pyramid (fruits, vegetables, and grains: FV&G) and the other half from the upper two tiers (meats, dairy, fats, and sweets: MDF&S). FV&G and MDF&S snack names and descriptions were paired for data analyses based on energy content. Name and description ratings for weight-gain potential were not correlated, while these ratings for hunger satisfaction were strongly correlated. For weight-gain potential, fat and fiber content predicted snack-name ratings, while energy and sugar content predicted description ratings. For perceived hunger satisfaction, protein content predicted snack name ratings while energy and fat content predicted description ratings. The MDF&S snack named in each pair was always considered a greater weight gain promoter compared to its corresponding FV&G snack named. However, the description of the FV&G snack in each pair was often judged to promote greater weight-gain than the description of its corresponding MDF&S snack. Also, MDF&S names were generally judged as more filling than FV&G foods named with similar calorie content; however, a trend in the opposite direction was evident when rating the nutrient descriptions of these same foods. Apparently, food names have acquired reputation for promoting obesity and (to a lesser extent) hunger satisfaction that are not based on their nutrient profiles.

  12. Quercetin decreases high-fat diet induced body weight gain and accumulation of hepatic and circulating lipids in mice.

    PubMed

    Hoek-van den Hil, E F; van Schothorst, E M; van der Stelt, I; Swarts, H J M; Venema, D; Sailer, M; Vervoort, J J M; Hollman, P C H; Rietjens, I M C M; Keijer, J

    2014-09-01

    Dietary flavonoids may protect against cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Increased circulating lipid levels and hepatic lipid accumulation are known risk factors for CVD. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and underlying molecular mechanisms of the flavonoid quercetin on hepatic lipid metabolism in mice with high-fat diet induced body weight gain and hepatic lipid accumulation. Adult male mice received a 40 energy% high-fat diet without or with supplementation of 0.33 % (w/w) quercetin for 12 weeks. Body weight gain was 29 % lower in quercetin fed mice (p < 0.01), while the energy intake was not significantly different. Quercetin supplementation lowered hepatic lipid accumulation to 29 % of the amount present in the control mice (p < 0.01). (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance serum lipid profiling revealed that the supplementation significantly lowered serum lipid levels. Global gene expression profiling of liver showed that cytochrome P450 2b (Cyp2b) genes, key target genes of the transcription factor constitutive androstane receptor (Car; official symbol Nr1i3), were downregulated. Quercetin decreased high-fat diet induced body weight gain, hepatic lipid accumulation and serum lipid levels. This was accompanied by regulation of cytochrome P450 2b genes in liver, which are possibly under transcriptional control of CAR. The quercetin effects are likely dependent on the fat content of the diet.

  13. The relationship between birthweight, weight gain in infancy, and educational attainment in childhood.

    PubMed

    Corbett, Sally S; Drewett, Robert F; Durham, Matthew; Tymms, Peter; Wright, Charlotte M

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have examined the relationship between low weight gain (failure to thrive) in infancy and later cognitive ability, but no study to date appears to have examined the relationship between weight gain in infancy across the 'normal' range and later cognitive ability. We report results for a large prospective birth cohort of the relationship between weight gain in infancy and educational attainment at age 10. Routinely recorded weights from child health clinic records for an annual birth cohort of 3418 children born with gestation >36 weeks were collected, as well as gestation in weeks, birthweight and the postcode, for which the Townsend Deprivation Score was identified. At 10 years of age, those attending schools within the Newcastle Education Authority were given a picture vocabulary and a non-verbal ability test, and tests of educational attainment in maths and reading. These were successfully linked to the infant weight data for 2294 (63%) of the children, and complete growth data were available for 1724 (47%) of the children who had completed at least one educational test. There was a significant positive relationship between weight gain in infancy and picture vocabulary, adjusted for economic deprivation, gestational age and birthweight, but not with any of the other outcomes. There was a statistically significant association between birthweight and all four outcomes, which was positive up to about one SD above average birthweight, and negative above. In this population, the association between early growth and cognitive outcomes is stronger for growth before birth, postnatal weight gain having a relatively minor impact.

  14. Is susceptibility to weight gain characterized by homeostatic or hedonic risk factors for overconsumption?

    PubMed

    Blundell, John E; Finlayson, Graham

    2004-08-01

    In any particular group of people-living in the same culture-some gain weight whilst others do not. Overconsumption of food is one factor contributing to this susceptibility to weight gain. Because all individuals are exposed to a similar range of environmental appetite-stimulating factors, the variability in overconsumption must be due to variability in intrinsic psychobiological processes. Such variability is an inevitable feature of living organisms. This essay explores whether susceptibility to weight gain is caused by variation in homeostatic processes-such as weak satiety responses to fat, or by hedonic processes-such as hyperresponsivity to the sensory properties of food. The question also arises whether the homeostatic or hedonic processes function separately and independently, or whether they interact. The answer to these questions can throw light upon the organization of behaviours associated with weight control, and can help to develop strategies to prevent weight gain. The theme of this essay was inspired by Gerry Smith's conceptual and experimental work on both homeostatic and hedonic mechanisms implicated in the control of food intake. PMID:15234585

  15. Spontaneous regional brain activity links restrained eating to later weight gain among young women.

    PubMed

    Dong, Debo; Jackson, Todd; Wang, Yulin; Chen, Hong

    2015-07-01

    Theory and prospective studies have linked restrained eating (RE) to risk for future weight gain and the onset of obesity, but little is known about resting state neural activity that may underlie this association. To address this gap, resting fMRI was used to test the extent to which spontaneous neural activity in regions associated with inhibitory control and food reward account for potential relations between baseline RE levels and changes in body weight among dieters over a one-year interval. Spontaneous regional activity patterns corresponding to RE were assessed among 50 young women using regional homogeneity (ReHo) analysis, which measured temporal synchronization of spontaneous fluctuations within a food deprivation condition. Analyses indicated higher baseline RE scores predicted more weight gain at a one-year follow-up. Furthermore, food-deprived dieting women with high dietary restraint scores exhibited more spontaneous local activity in brain regions associated with the expectation and valuation for food reward [i.e., orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)/ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC)] and reduced spontaneous local activity in inhibitory control regions [i.e., bilateral dorsal-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)] at baseline. Notably, the association between baseline RE and follow-up weight gain was mediated by decreased local synchronization of the right DLPFC in particular and, to a lesser degree, increased local synchronization of the right VMPFC. In conjunction with previous research, these findings highlight possible neural mechanisms underlying the relation between RE and risk for weight gain. PMID:26004091

  16. Spontaneous regional brain activity links restrained eating to later weight gain among young women.

    PubMed

    Dong, Debo; Jackson, Todd; Wang, Yulin; Chen, Hong

    2015-07-01

    Theory and prospective studies have linked restrained eating (RE) to risk for future weight gain and the onset of obesity, but little is known about resting state neural activity that may underlie this association. To address this gap, resting fMRI was used to test the extent to which spontaneous neural activity in regions associated with inhibitory control and food reward account for potential relations between baseline RE levels and changes in body weight among dieters over a one-year interval. Spontaneous regional activity patterns corresponding to RE were assessed among 50 young women using regional homogeneity (ReHo) analysis, which measured temporal synchronization of spontaneous fluctuations within a food deprivation condition. Analyses indicated higher baseline RE scores predicted more weight gain at a one-year follow-up. Furthermore, food-deprived dieting women with high dietary restraint scores exhibited more spontaneous local activity in brain regions associated with the expectation and valuation for food reward [i.e., orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)/ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC)] and reduced spontaneous local activity in inhibitory control regions [i.e., bilateral dorsal-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)] at baseline. Notably, the association between baseline RE and follow-up weight gain was mediated by decreased local synchronization of the right DLPFC in particular and, to a lesser degree, increased local synchronization of the right VMPFC. In conjunction with previous research, these findings highlight possible neural mechanisms underlying the relation between RE and risk for weight gain.

  17. Pregnant women's perceptions of weight gain, physical activity, and nutrition using Theory of Planned Behavior constructs.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Kara M; Wilcox, Sara; Liu, Jihong; Blair, Steven N; Pate, Russell R

    2016-02-01

    A better understanding of women's perceptions of weight gain and related behaviors during pregnancy is necessary to inform behavioral interventions. We used the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to examine pregnant women's perceptions and intentions toward weight gain, physical activity (PA), and nutrition using a mixed methods study design. Women between 20 and 30 weeks gestation (n = 189) were recruited to complete an Internet-based survey. Salient beliefs toward weight gain, PA, and nutrition were captured through open-ended responses and content analyzed into themes. TPB constructs (attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, intentions) were examined using Pearson correlations and hierarchical linear regression models. Salient beliefs were consistent with the existing literature in non-pregnant populations, with the addition of many pregnancy-specific beliefs. TPB constructs accounted for 23-39 % of the variance in weight gain, PA, and nutrition intentions, and made varying contributions across outcomes. The TPB is a useful framework for examining women's weight-related intentions during pregnancy. Study implications for intervention development are discussed.

  18. Reward Region Responsivity Predicts Future Weight Gain and Moderating Effects of the TaqIA Allele

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Kyle S.; Yokum, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    Because no large prospective study has investigated neural vulnerability factors that predict future weight gain, we tested whether neural response to receipt and anticipated receipt of palatable food and monetary reward predicted body fat gain over a 3-year follow-up in healthy-weight adolescent humans and whether the TaqIA polymorphism moderates these relations. A total of 153 adolescents completed fMRI paradigms assessing response to these events; body fat was assessed annually over follow-up. Elevated orbitofrontal cortex response to cues signaling impending milkshake receipt predicted future body fat gain (r = 0.32), which is a novel finding that provides support for the incentive sensitization theory of obesity. Neural response to receipt and anticipated receipt of monetary reward did not predict body fat gain, which has not been tested previously. Replicating an earlier finding (Stice et al., 2008a), elevated caudate response to milkshake receipt predicted body fat gain for adolescents with a genetic propensity for greater dopamine signaling by virtue of possessing the TaqIA A2/A2 allele, but lower caudate response predicted body fat gain for adolescents with a genetic propensity for less dopamine signaling by virtue of possessing a TaqIA A1 allele, though this interaction was only marginal [p-value <0.05 corrected using voxel-level familywise error rate (pFWE) = 0.06]. Parental obesity, which correlated with TaqIA allele status (odds ratio = 2.7), similarly moderated the relation of caudate response to milkshake receipt to future body fat gain, which is another novel finding. The former interaction implies that too much or too little dopamine signaling and reward region responsivity increases risk for overeating, suggesting qualitatively distinct reward surfeit and reward deficit pathways to obesity. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Because no large prospective study has investigated neural vulnerability factors that predict future weight gain we tested whether

  19. Sex-specific effect of body weight gain on systemic inflammation in subjects with COPD: results from the SAPALDIA cohort study 2.

    PubMed

    Bridevaux, P-O; Gerbase, M W; Schindler, C; Dietrich, D Felber; Curjuric, I; Dratva, J; Ackermann-Liebrich, U; Probst-Hensch, N M; Gaspoz, J-M; Rochat, T

    2009-08-01

    Systemic inflammation may mediate the association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and extrapulmonary comorbidities. We measured high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in COPD and quantified the effect modification by body weight change and sex. Using data from the Swiss study on Air Pollution and Lung Diseases in Adults (SAPALDIA; n = 5,479) with measurements of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)), body weight and hs-CRP, we examined the association of hs-CRP and categories of body weight change (lost weight and weight gained 0-5%, 5-9%, 9-14% and >14%) with fast FEV(1) decline. hs-CRP was elevated both in association with fast FEV(1) decline and body weight gain. Subjects with fast FEV(1) decline and weight gain (>14%) had higher hs-CRP (2.0 mg L(-1) for females versus 1.6 mg L(-1) for males). After adjustment for age, smoking, physical activity, hormonal therapy and diabetes, elevated hs-CRP (>3 mg) was found to be more likely in subjects with fast FEV(1) decline (OR(males) 1.38, OR(females) 1.42) and in those with weight gain >14% (OR(males) 2.04, OR(females) 4.51). The association of weight gain and fast FEV(1) decline predicts a higher level of systemic inflammation. Since the effect of weight gain on systemic inflammation is larger in females than in males, weight gain may be a risk factor for extrapulmonary comorbidities in females with COPD.

  20. Longitudinal Associations Among Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Disordered Eating, and Weight Gain in Military Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, K S; Porter, B; Boyko, E J; Field, A E

    2016-07-01

    Obesity is a major health problem in the United States and a growing concern among members of the military. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been associated with overweight and obesity and may increase the risk of those conditions among military service members. Disordered eating behaviors have also been associated with PTSD and weight gain. However, eating disorders remain understudied in military samples. We investigated longitudinal associations among PTSD, disordered eating, and weight gain in the Millennium Cohort Study, which includes a nationally representative sample of male (n = 27,741) and female (n = 6,196) service members. PTSD at baseline (time 1; 2001-2003) was associated with disordered eating behaviors at time 2 (2004-2006), as well as weight change from time 2 to time 3 (2007-2008). Structural equation modeling results revealed that the association between PTSD and weight change from time 2 to time 3 was mediated by disordered eating symptoms. The association between PTSD and weight gain resulting from compensatory behaviors (vomiting, laxative use, fasting, overexercise) was significant for white participants only and for men but not women. PTSD was both directly and indirectly (through disordered eating) associated with weight change. These results highlight potentially important demographic differences in these associations and emphasize the need for further investigation of eating disorders in military service members. PMID:27283146

  1. Body composition and energy and protein nutritional requirements for weight gain in Santa Ines crossbred sheep.

    PubMed

    Cutrim, Darley Oliveira; Alves, Kaliandra Souza; dos Santos, Rozilda da Conceição; da Mata, Vanessa Jaqueline Veloso; Oliveira, Luis Rennan Sampaio; Gomes, Daiany Íris; Mezzomo, Rafael

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the body composition and net energy and protein requirements for weight gain in Santa Ines crossbred sheep. Thirty woolless, 4-month-old, castrated male sheep with an initial body weight (BW) of 19.77 ± 1.99 kg were used. Six animals (reference group) were slaughtered after the adaptation period to estimate empty body weight (EBW) and initial body composition. The remaining 24 animals were randomly distributed among four treatments (experimental diets) and slaughtered when they reached 30.24 ± 0.78 kg BW. The body composition ranged from 162.88 to 160.4 g protein/kg EBW, from 59.49 to 164.23 g fat/kg EBW and from 1.54 to 2.46 Mcal energy/kg EBW for animals ranging between 20 and 30 kg BW. The net energy requirement for Santa Ines crossbred sheep linearly increased when BW increased from 20 to 30 kg. Within that same weight range, the net protein requirement for weight gain in sheep was constant, ranging from 12.61 to 12.42 g/day to 100 g daily weight gain.

  2. [Effects of obesity and weight gain during pregnancy on obstetrical factors].

    PubMed

    Aisaka, K; Ando, S; Kokuho, K; Tawada, T; Kaneda, S; Tomonari, R; Yoshimatsu, J; Sasaki, S; Yoshida, K

    1988-12-01

    The relationship between the body weight or weight gain during pregnancy and various obstetrical factors was investigated in 731 patients who delivered in San-ikukai Hospital for in the year 1986. The patients were classified into three groups according to their body weight in non-pregnant states: slender (n = 214), ordinary (n = 379) and obese (n = 138), according to the standard for "The decision diagram for the estimation of obesity and emaciation in Japanese" published in 1986 by the Ministry of Health and Welfare, Japan. Each of these groups was further divided into two groups according to the degree of weight gain during pregnancy (more or less than 15kg). Then, the duration of labor, the blood loss during delivery, the birth weight, the placental weight and the obstetrical abnormalities (prolonged labor, arrested labor, blood loss of more than 500 ml, fetal distress and toxemia of pregnancy) were investigated in these groups. The blood loss, the neonatal birth weight and the placental weight in the obese groups were much greater than those in the ordinary or the slender group (p less than 0.005). However, there was no significant difference in the duration of the labor among these groups. The incidence of obstetrical abnormalities in the obese group was significantly higher than in the ordinary or the slender group (chi 2 = 4.37, p less than 0.05, chi 2 = 5.27, p less than 0.025).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Body mass index, gestational weight gain and fatty acid concentrations during pregnancy: the Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Vidakovic, Aleksandra Jelena; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Gishti, Olta; Felix, Janine F; Williams, Michelle A; Hofman, Albert; Demmelmair, Hans; Koletzko, Berthold; Tiemeier, Henning; Gaillard, Romy

    2015-11-01

    Obesity during pregnancy may be correlated with an adverse nutritional status affecting pregnancy and offspring outcomes. We examined the associations of prepregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain with plasma fatty acid concentrations in mid-pregnancy. This study was embedded in a population-based prospective cohort study among 5636 women. We obtained prepregnancy body mass index and maximum weight gain during pregnancy by questionnaires. We measured concentrations of saturated fatty acid (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-6 PUFA) at a median gestational age of 20.5 (95% range 17.1-24.9) weeks. We used multivariate linear regression models. As compared to normal weight women, obese women had higher total SFA concentrations [difference: 0.10 standard deviation (SD) (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0, 0.19)] and lower total n-3 PUFA concentrations [difference: - 0.11 SD (95% CI - 0.20, - 0.02)]. As compared to women with sufficient gestational weight gain, those with excessive gestational weight gain had higher SFA concentrations [difference: 0.16 SD (95% CI 0.08, 0.25)], MUFA concentrations [difference: 0.16 SD (95% CI 0.08, 0.24)] and n-6 PUFA concentrations [difference: 0.12 SD (95% CI 0.04, 0.21)]. These results were not materially affected by adjustment for maternal characteristics. Our results suggest that obesity and excessive weight gain during pregnancy are associated with an adverse fatty acids profile. Further studies are needed to assess causality and direction of the observed associations.

  4. RAPID BODY WEIGHT GAIN INCREASES THE RISK OF ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION-INDUCED SKIN CARCINOGENESIS IN SKH-1 HAIRLESS MICE

    PubMed Central

    Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T.; Fahey, Jed W.; Jenkins, Stephanie N.; Wehage, Scott L.; Talalay, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Although it is well known that caloric restriction reduces the risk of chronic diseases including cancer, the role of weight gain in the development of ultraviolet light-induced tumors has not, to our knowledge, been investigated. In view of the increase in obesity worldwide, we asked the question whether there is any relationship between body weight gain and skin tumor development. We subjected three groups, each comprising 30 SKH-1 hairless female mice, to UV radiation (30 mJ/cm2 twice weekly for 17 weeks) and observed tumor formation over the ensuing 8–13 weeks: Group 1 received pelleted diet; Group 2 received pellets during the irradiation period and was then switched to powder; and, Group 3 received powder exclusively. At the end of the experiment, the mean body weight of Group 1 was 32.1 ± 0.5 g, whereas that of Groups 2 and 3 was 39.0 ± 1.5 g and 39.5 ± 1.4 g, respectively. Tumor incidence reached 90% at 8 weeks after completion of irradiation for the animals in Group 3 and at 13 weeks for the animals in Group 2. Similarly, at 8 weeks after irradiation when all animals of Group 3 were euthanized, tumor multiplicity was 0.8, 1.2, and 3.2 for Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Thus, in comparison with the mice consuming pellets, the powder-fed mice gained weight more rapidly, and developed tumors much faster. Considering the escalating numbers of individuals worldwide who are overweight or obese, our findings provide further impetus for advocating healthier diets and maintenance of constant body weight in adults. PMID:19083457

  5. Freshmen Women and the "Freshman 15": Perspectives on Prevalence and Causes of College Weight Gain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith-Jackson, TeriSue; Reel, Justine J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Freshman weight gain has been assessed using quantitative inquiry, but this qualitative study allowed for an in-depth exploration of freshmen women's experiences surrounding body image, nutrition, and exercise. The purpose of this study was to better understand the impact and explanations for the "Freshman 15." Participants: Freshmen…

  6. Antipsychotic-induced insulin resistance and postprandial hormonal dysregulation independent of weight gain or psychiatric disease.

    PubMed

    Teff, Karen L; Rickels, Michael R; Grudziak, Joanna; Fuller, Carissa; Nguyen, Huong-Lan; Rickels, Karl

    2013-09-01

    Atypical antipsychotic (AAP) medications that have revolutionized the treatment of mental illness have become stigmatized by metabolic side effects, including obesity and diabetes. It remains controversial whether the defects are treatment induced or disease related. Although the mechanisms underlying these metabolic defects are not understood, it is assumed that the initiating pathophysiology is weight gain, secondary to centrally mediated increases in appetite. To determine if the AAPs have detrimental metabolic effects independent of weight gain or psychiatric disease, we administered olanzapine, aripiprazole, or placebo for 9 days to healthy subjects (n = 10, each group) under controlled in-patient conditions while maintaining activity levels. Prior to and after the interventions, we conducted a meal challenge and a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp to evaluate insulin sensitivity and glucose disposal. We found that olanzapine, an AAP highly associated with weight gain, causes significant elevations in postprandial insulin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and glucagon coincident with insulin resistance compared with placebo. Aripiprazole, an AAP considered metabolically sparing, induces insulin resistance but has no effect on postprandial hormones. Importantly, the metabolic changes occur in the absence of weight gain, increases in food intake and hunger, or psychiatric disease, suggesting that AAPs exert direct effects on tissues independent of mechanisms regulating eating behavior.

  7. Factors affecting weight gain and dietary intake in Latino males residing in Mississippi: A preliminary study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research indicates that as Latinos become more acculturated to the United States, their diet changes and they experience weight gain. There is also a high incidence of depression in this population. The purpose of this preliminary study was to examine the correlations between sociodemographic factor...

  8. Perceived Importance of Dietary Protein to Prevent Weight Gain: A National Survey among Midlife Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldrich, Noel D.; Perry, Courtney; Thomas, William; Raatz, Susan K.; Reicks, Marla

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate reported use of the practice of "eating more protein" to prevent weight gain among midlife women. Design: Cross-sectional national survey. Participants: One thousand eight hundred twenty-four midlife women (40-60 y) from the 9 United States geographic regions, primarily married (71%), white (76%), and well educated; half were…

  9. Perceived importance of dietary protein to prevent weight gain: A national survey among midlife women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: Evaluate knowledge of dietary protein and reported increasing protein intake to prevent weight gain among midlife women. Design: A cross-sectional national survey. Participants: 1,824 midlife women (40 – 60 yrs old) from the nine US geographic regions. Women were mostly married (71%), Wh...

  10. The Parent-Child Relationship as Predictor of Eating Pathology and Weight Gain in Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goossens, Lien; Braet, Caroline; Van Durme, Kim; Decaluwe, Veerle; Bosmans, Guy

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the role of attachment toward mother and father as a predictor of eating pathology and weight gain among preadolescent boys and girls. Self-report questionnaires and adjusted body mass index (BMI) were administered from a community sample of 601 preadolescents (8-11 years; 48% female) at baseline and once again 1 year…

  11. Energy intake and energy expenditure for determining excess weight gain in pregnant women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To conduct a secondary analysis designed to test whether gestational weight gain is the result of increased energy intake or adaptive changes in energy expenditures. In this secondary analysis, energy intake and energy expenditure of 45 pregnant women (body mass index [BMI] 18.5-24.9 [n=33] and BMI ...

  12. Slow weight gain is associated with increased periodic breathing in healthy infants.

    PubMed

    Riordan, L L; Kelly, D H; Shannon, D C

    1994-01-01

    To investigate the hypothesis that weight gain can influence periodic breathing in healthy infants, we prospectively studied, by nocturnal pneumogram technique, respiration and heart rate in 99 full-term infants during the first month of life. Eighty-eight infants had a repeat study at about 2 months of age. Pneumograms were analyzed visually for percent periodic breathing (%PB), and by computer for mean respiratory rate and mean heart rate. We found a median %PB of 0.9 initially and of 0.3 at about 2 months of age. The 95th percentile was 13.5 at 2 weeks and 7.3 at 2 months, higher than previously reported. Between the two ages tested, %PB was inversely correlated with weight gain (P < 0.001, < 0.03, respectively). Infants with greater weight gain had a greater fall in %PB (P < 0.03). We conclude that in the first 2 months of life, slow weight gain is associated with increased periodic breathing.

  13. Differential effects of leptin on adiponectin expression with weight gain versus obesity

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Prachi; Sharma, Pragya; Sahakyan, Karine R.; Davison, Diane E.; Sert-Kuniyoshi, Fatima H; Romero-Corral, Abel; Swain, James M.; Jensen, Michael D.; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco; Kara, Tomas; Somers, Virend K.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objective Adiponectin exerts beneficial effects by reducing inflammation, and improving lipid metabolism and insulin-sensitivity. Although adiponectin is lower in obese individuals, whether weight gain reduces adiponectin expression in humans is controversial. We sought to investigate the role of weight gain, and consequent changes in leptin, on altering adiponectin expression in humans. Methods/Results Forty four normal-weight healthy subjects were recruited (mean age 29 years; 14 women) and randomized to either gain 5% of body weight by 8-weeks of overfeeding (n=34) or maintain weight (n=10). Modest weight gain of 3.8 ± 1.2 kg resulted in increased adiponectin (p=0.03) while weight maintenance resulted in no changes in adiponectin. Further, changes in adiponectin correlated positively with changes in leptin (p=0.0085). In-vitro experiments using differentiated human white preadipocytes showed that leptin increased adiponectin mRNA and protein expression, while a leptin-antagonist had opposite effects. To understand the role of leptin in established obesity, we compared adipose tissue samples obtained from normal weight versus obese subjects. We noted, first, that leptin activated cellular signaling pathways and increased adiponectin mRNA in adipose tissue from normal-weight participants, but did not do so in adipose tissue from obese participants; and second, that obese subjects had increased caveolin-1 expression, which attenuates leptin-dependent increases in adiponectin. Conclusions Modest weight gain in healthy individuals is associated with increases in adiponectin, which correlate positively with changes in leptin. In-vitro, leptin induces adiponectin expression which is attenuated by increased caveolin-1 expression. Additionally, adipose tissue from obese subjects shows increased caveolin-1 expression, and impaired leptin signaling. This leptin signal impairment may prevent concordant increases in adiponectin in obese subjects despite their

  14. Consumption Of Specific Foods And Beverages And Excess Weight Gain Among Children And Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Dong, Di; Bilger, Marcel; van Dam, Rob M; Finkelstein, Eric A

    2015-11-01

    Efforts are under way to identify successful strategies to reduce long-term childhood obesity risk, such as ways to improve diet quality. To identify foods and beverages associated with excess weight gain, we used cohort data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children in the United Kingdom. We quantified the associations between changes in or levels of consumption of twenty-seven food and beverage groups and excess weight gain in three-year periods among youth ages 7-13. When we considered all dietary factors and physical activity levels simultaneously, we found that foods with the largest positive associations with three-year excess weight gain were fat spread (butter or margarine), coated (breaded or battered) poultry, potatoes cooked in oil (French fries, roasted potatoes, and potato chips), coated fish, processed meats, other meats, desserts and sweets, milk, and sugar-sweetened beverages. Foods associated with weight loss were whole grains and high-fiber cereals. These results provide evidence for targeting specific food and beverage groups in efforts to influence weight outcomes. PMID:26526253

  15. Pre-pregnancy obesity and maternal circadian cortisol regulation: Moderation by gestational weight gain.

    PubMed

    Aubuchon-Endsley, Nicki L; Bublitz, Margaret H; Stroud, Laura R

    2014-10-01

    We investigated main and interactive effects of maternal pre-pregnancy obesity and gestational weight gain on circadian cortisol from the second to third trimester. A diverse sample of 215 pregnant women was enrolled. Maternal height and most recent pre-pregnancy weight were collected at study initiation (22% obese). Weight and circadian salivary cortisol samples were measured during second (24±4) and third (35±1 weeks) trimesters. During the third trimester, women who were obese prior to conception showed elevated evening cortisol versus normal weight women. This pattern was moderated by weight gain in excess of Institute of Medicine guidelines, such that women who were obese prior to conception and gained greater than 7.94kg by the 35±1 week visit displayed greatest elevations in evening cortisol. Given links between excessive prenatal glucocorticoid exposure and both poor maternal and offspring health outcomes, elevated maternal cortisol may be one mechanism underlying links between maternal obesity and adverse perinatal outcomes.

  16. Preventing excessive gestational weight gain among African American women: a randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Herring, Sharon J.; Cruice, Jane F.; Bennett, Gary G.; Rose, Marisa Z.; Davey, Adam; Foster, Gary D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Evidence is lacking regarding effective weight control treatments in pregnancy for ethnic minority women with obesity. This study evaluated whether a technology-based, behavioral intervention could decrease the proportion of overweight or obese African American women who exceeded Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines for gestational weight gain. Methods We conducted a 2-arm pilot randomized clinical trial. Participants were 66 socioeconomically disadvantaged African American pregnant women (12.5 ± 3.7 weeks’ gestation; 36% overweight, 64% obese) recruited from 2 outpatient obstetric practices at Temple University between 2013 and 2014. We randomized participants to usual care (n = 33) or a behavioral intervention (n = 33) that promoted weight control in pregnancy. The intervention included: 1) empirically-supported behavior change goals; 2) interactive self-monitoring text messages; 3) biweekly health coach calls; and 4) skills training and support through Facebook. Results The intervention reduced the proportion of women who exceeded IOM guidelines compared to usual care (37% vs. 66%, p = 0.033). Intervention participants gained less weight during pregnancy (8.7 vs. 12.3 kg, adjusted mean difference −3.1 kg, 95% CI −6.2, −0.1). No group differences in neonatal or obstetric outcomes were found. Conclusions The intervention resulted in lower prevalence of excessive gestational weight gain. PMID:26592857

  17. Pre-pregnancy obesity and maternal circadian cortisol regulation: Moderation by gestational weight gain.

    PubMed

    Aubuchon-Endsley, Nicki L; Bublitz, Margaret H; Stroud, Laura R

    2014-10-01

    We investigated main and interactive effects of maternal pre-pregnancy obesity and gestational weight gain on circadian cortisol from the second to third trimester. A diverse sample of 215 pregnant women was enrolled. Maternal height and most recent pre-pregnancy weight were collected at study initiation (22% obese). Weight and circadian salivary cortisol samples were measured during second (24±4) and third (35±1 weeks) trimesters. During the third trimester, women who were obese prior to conception showed elevated evening cortisol versus normal weight women. This pattern was moderated by weight gain in excess of Institute of Medicine guidelines, such that women who were obese prior to conception and gained greater than 7.94kg by the 35±1 week visit displayed greatest elevations in evening cortisol. Given links between excessive prenatal glucocorticoid exposure and both poor maternal and offspring health outcomes, elevated maternal cortisol may be one mechanism underlying links between maternal obesity and adverse perinatal outcomes. PMID:25038305

  18. Effect of gonadectomy on AgRP-induced weight gain in rats.

    PubMed

    Goodin, Sean Z; Kiechler, Alicia R; Keichler, Alicia R; Smith, Marissa; Wendt, Donna; Strader, April D

    2008-12-01

    Agouti-related peptide (AgRP), the endogenous antagonist to the melanocortin 3 and 4 receptors, elicits robust hyperphagia and weight gain in rodents when administered directly into the central nervous system. The relative influence of AgRP to cause weight gain in rodents partially depends on the activity level of the melanocortin agonist-producing proopiomelanocortin neurons. Both proopiomelanocortin and AgRP neurons within the arcuate nucleus receive energy storage information from circulating peripheral signals such as leptin and insulin. Another modulator of AgRP activity includes the cell surface molecule syndecan-3. Because leptin and insulin affect food intake in a sexually dimorphic way in rodents and syndecan-3-deficient mice regulate adiposity levels through distinct physiological mechanisms, we hypothesized that AgRP-induced weight gain would also be sexually dimorphic in rats. In the present study, the behavioral and physiological effects of centrally-administered AgRP in male and female were investigated. In male rats, AgRP (1 nmol) induced 5 days (P < 0.0001) of significantly elevated feeding compared with vehicle-treated controls, while females displayed 3 days of hyperphagia (P < 0.05). However, 1 wk after the injection, both male and female rats gained the same percent body weight (6%). Interestingly, female rats exhibited a greater reduction in energy expenditure (Vo2) following AgRP compared with male rats (P < 0.05). Removal of the gonads did not alter cumulative food intake in male or female rats but did attenuate the dramatic reduction in Vo2 exhibited by females. Both intact and gonadectomized rats demonstrated significantly increased respiratory quotient supporting the anabolic action of AgRP (P < 0.01). These findings are novel in that they reveal sex-specific underlying physiology used to achieve weight gain following central AgRP in rats.

  19. Prior exercise training blunts short-term high-fat diet-induced weight gain.

    PubMed

    Snook, Laelie A; MacPherson, Rebecca E K; Monaco, Cynthia M F; Frendo-Cumbo, Scott; Castellani, Laura; Peppler, Willem T; Anderson, Zachary G; Buzelle, Samyra L; LeBlanc, Paul J; Holloway, Graham P; Wright, David C

    2016-08-01

    High-fat diets rapidly cause weight gain and glucose intolerance. We sought to determine whether these changes could be mitigated with prior exercise training. Male C57BL/6J mice were exercise-trained by treadmill running (1 h/day, 5 days/wk) for 4 wk. Twenty-four hours after the final bout of exercise, mice were provided with a high-fat diet (HFD; 60% kcal from lard) for 4 days, with no further exercise. In mice fed the HFD prior to exercise training, the results were blunted weight gain, reduced fat mass, and a slight attenuation in glucose intolerance that was mirrored by greater insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation in skeletal muscle compared with sedentary mice fed the HFD. When ad libitum-fed sedentary mice were compared with sedentary high-fat fed mice that were calorie restricted (-30%) to match the weight gain of the previously trained high-fat fed mice, the same attenuated impairments in glucose tolerance were found. Blunted weight gain was associated with a greater capacity to increase energy expenditure in trained compared with sedentary mice when challenged with a HFD. Although mitochondrial enzymes in white adipose tissue and UCP-1 protein content in brown adipose tissue were increased in previously exercised compared with sedentary mice fed a HFD, ex vivo mitochondrial respiration was not increased in either tissue. Our data suggest that prior exercise training attenuates high-fat diet-induced weight gain and glucose intolerance and is associated with a greater ability to increase energy expenditure in response to a high-fat diet.

  20. [Control of weight gain between dialyses in patients undergoing periodic hemodialysis. Psychological aspects].

    PubMed

    Persichetti, S; Sagliaschi, G; Clemenzia, G; Bolletta, A

    1991-09-01

    Some patients undergoing periodic hemodialysis have complained that between one treatment session and the next they suffer form thirst and have serious problems in maintaining their interdialytic weight gain within the limits indicated by the medical team. Weight gain may usually be explained by psychological factors: they may be more or less acute depending on the situation in which the patient finds himself. On the basis of the present study, the Authors affirm that the lack of interdialytic weight control may be easily improved by providing the patient with psychological support capable of optimising his general level of adaptation, and that this can lead to excellent results with regard to specific problems which otherwise detract from the wellbeing of the patient and hamper the work of the medical team.

  1. Chronic administration of nalmefene leads to increased food intake and body weight gain in mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Richard Z; Huang, Ruey-Ruey C; Shen, Chun-Pyn; MacNeil, Douglas J; Fong, Tung M

    2004-07-01

    Nalmefene is an orally available opioid receptor antagonist that has been shown to suppress appetite in humans, but its effects on chronic food intake and body weight remain unclear. Here, we report that chronic (21-day) oral administration of nalmefene at 2 or 10 mg/kg/day in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice led to significant increases (9-11%) in cumulative food intake. Mice in the nalmefene-treated groups also gained body weight at a rate faster than the control. Body composition analysis showed that the extra body weight gains in the treated animals were mostly due to increased fat accumulation. Since acute nalmefene treatment showed a trend toward a decrease rather than an increase in food intake, it is possible that the orexigenic effect of chronic oral administration of nalmefene was caused by pharmacologically active metabolites rather than the drug itself. Our results argue against the potential use of nalmefene for treating human obesity.

  2. Polyurethane foam pica in a patient with excessive interdialytic weight gain.

    PubMed

    Iyasere, Osasuyi; Allington, Ying; Cafferkey, Michele

    2010-01-01

    Maintaining fluid balance in haemodialysis patients is important because of the adverse effects of excessive interdialytic weight gain. This often requires fluid restriction that patients often struggle with. We report a case of a 31-year-old female diabetic patient on haemodialysis with repeated excessive interdialytic weight gains despite fluid restriction and dry weight adjustment. It was subsequently discovered that she devised an unusual, albeit unsuccessful, strategy of eating the polyurethane foam from her dialysis chair while increasing her fluid intake hoping that it would absorb excess water in the gut! This under-diagnosed phenomenon known as pica has been reported in renal patients with substances such as ice, clay and baking soda. PMID:22767521

  3. Polyurethane foam pica in a patient with excessive interdialytic weight gain.

    PubMed

    Iyasere, Osasuyi; Allington, Ying; Cafferkey, Michele

    2010-08-31

    Maintaining fluid balance in haemodialysis patients is important because of the adverse effects of excessive interdialytic weight gain. This often requires fluid restriction that patients often struggle with. We report a case of a 31-year-old female diabetic patient on haemodialysis with repeated excessive interdialytic weight gains despite fluid restriction and dry weight adjustment. It was subsequently discovered that she devised an unusual, albeit unsuccessful, strategy of eating the polyurethane foam from her dialysis chair while increasing her fluid intake hoping that it would absorb excess water in the gut! This under-diagnosed phenomenon known as pica has been reported in renal patients with substances such as ice, clay and baking soda.

  4. Behavioral Treatment for Weight Gain Prevention Among Black Women in Primary Care Practice

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Gary G.; Foley, Perry; Levine, Erica; Whiteley, Jessica; Askew, Sandy; Steinberg, Dori M.; Batch, Bryan; Greaney, Mary L.; Miranda, Heather; Wroth, Thomas H.; Holder, Marni Gwyther; Emmons, Karen M.; Puleo, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Few weight loss treatments produce clinically meaningful weight loss outcomes among black women, particularly in the primary care setting. New weight management strategies are necessary for this population. Weight gain prevention might be an effective treatment option, with particular benefits for overweight and class 1 obese black women. OBJECTIVE To compare changes in weight and cardiometabolic risk during a 12-month period among black women randomized to a primary care–based behavioral weight gain prevention intervention, relative to usual care. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Two-arm randomized clinical trial (the Shape Program). We recruited patients from a 6-site community health center system. We randomized 194 overweight and class 1 obese (body mass index [calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared], 25–34.9) premenopausal black women aged 25 to 44 years. Enrollment began on December 7, 2009; 12- and 18-month assessments were completed in February and October 2, 2012. INTERVENTIONS The medium-intensity intervention included tailored behavior change goals, weekly self-monitoring via interactive voice response, monthly counseling calls, tailored skills training materials, and a gym membership. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Twelve-month change in weight and body mass index and maintenance of change at 18 months. RESULTS Participants had a mean age of 35.4 years, a mean weight of 81.1 kg, and a mean body mass index of 30.2 at baseline. Most were socioeconomically disadvantaged (79.7% with educational level less than a college degree; 74.3% reporting annual income <$30 000). The 12-month weight change was larger among intervention participants (mean [SD], −1.0 [0.5] kg), relative to usual care (0.5 [0.5] kg; mean difference, −1.4 kg [95%CI, −2.8 to −0.1 kg]; P = .04). At month 12, 62% of intervention participants were at or below their baseline weights compared with 45% of usual-care participants (P = .03). By 18

  5. A Clinical Prediction Model to Stratify Retinopathy of Prematurity Risk Using Postnatal Weight Gain

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Gui-shuang; Quinn, Graham E.; Dreiseitl, Stephan; Karp, Karen; Roberts, Robin S.; Kirpalani, Haresh

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop an efficient clinical prediction model that includes postnatal weight gain to identify infants at risk of developing severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Under current birth weight (BW) and gestational age (GA) screening criteria, <5% of infants examined in countries with advanced neonatal care require treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study was a secondary analysis of prospective data from the Premature Infants in Need of Transfusion Study, which enrolled 451 infants with a BW < 1000 g at 10 centers. There were 367 infants who remained after excluding deaths (82) and missing weights (2). Multivariate logistic regression was used to predict severe ROP (stage 3 or treatment). RESULTS: Median BW was 800 g (445–995). There were 67 (18.3%) infants who had severe ROP. The model included GA, BW, and daily weight gain rate. Run weekly, an alarm that indicated need for eye examinations occurred when the predicted probability of severe ROP was >0.085. This identified 66 of 67 severe ROP infants (sensitivity of 99% [95% confidence interval: 94%–100%]), and all 33 infants requiring treatment. Median alarm-to-outcome time was 10.8 weeks (range: 1.9–17.6). There were 110 (30%) infants who had no alarm. Nomograms were developed to determine risk of severe ROP by BW, GA, and postnatal weight gain. CONCLUSION: In a high-risk cohort, a BW-GA-weight-gain model could have reduced the need for examinations by 30%, while still identifying all infants requiring laser surgery. Additional studies are required to determine whether including larger-BW, lower-risk infants would reduce examinations further and to validate the prediction model and nomograms before clinical use. PMID:21321036

  6. Weight gain potential affects pregnancy rates in bovine embryo recipients raised under pasture conditions.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Carlos Antonio de Carvalho; Palhao, Miller Pereira; Figueiredo, Ana Cristina Silva; Ribeiro, Josiane Rossi; Fonseca e Silva, Fabyano; Viana, Joao Henrique Moreira

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of differences in body weight gain after embryo transfer on the pregnancy rates of crossbred heifers used as recipients and raised under a grazing system. The study was performed during the dry (April to September) and the rainy (October to March) seasons. The embryos transferred were produced by in vitro fertilization. The body weight of each recipient was measured immediately before the embryo transfer and 23 to 25 days later, when the diagnosis of pregnancy was performed by ultrasonography. The associations among initial body weight (IBW), daily body weight gain (DWG), season, and pregnancy rate were evaluated using a logistic procedure that included the effect of the IBW, season, and linear and quadratic effects of the DWG. Altogether, there was no effect of season and pregnancy rates did not change between the dry and rainy seasons (42.3 vs. 45.8%, respectively; P > 0.05). However, the pregnancy rate was greater in the recipients with daily body weight gains over 250 g/day, regardless of the season. In addition, the pregnancy rate of the recipients was better (P < 0.04) explained by a logistic regression model that included the linear and quadratic effects of the DWG. The probability of each heifer to become pregnant according to DWG is explained by the follow equation: P(y = 1) = (Exp((-1.06703 + 0.0108 * DWG - 0.00002 * DWG ^ 2)))/(1 + Exp((-1.6703 + 0.0108 * DWG - 0.00002 * DWG ^ 2))). In conclusion, body weight gain potential is a critical factor for the pregnancy rates of in vitro embryo recipients managed under grazing systems. PMID:26431710

  7. Rapid Infancy Weight Gain and 7- to 9-year Childhood Obesity Risk

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jing; Dang, Shaonong; Zeng, Lingxia; Gao, Wenlong; Wang, Duolao; Li, Qiang; Jiang, Wenhui; Pei, Leilei; Li, Chao; Yan, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Obesity is increasing in developing countries. This study aimed to identify the association between rapid infancy weight gain and obesity risk among early school-age children. A total of 581 singletons (349 boys, 232 girls) whose mothers participated in an antenatal multiple micronutrient supplement trial in rural western China were followed from birth to between 7 and 9 years of age. Height and weight were measured at birth, 1.5 years, and between 7 and 9 years. At the 7- to 9-year time point, body composition was determined using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Multilevel mixed analysis was used to test the associations between rapid weight gain in infancy (from birth to age 1.5 years) and body size and composition or overweight/obesity among early school-age children. Overall, 31.2% (181 of 581) of the infants showed a weight-for-age Z score gain greater than 0.67 between birth and 1.5 years, indicating rapid weight gain. Approximately 5.7% (33 of 579) of the subjects were overweight (BMI-for-age Z scores [BAZ] >1 and ≤2) or obese (BAZ >2). Rapid infancy weight gain was associated with a higher BAZ (P < 0.001), mid-upper arm circumferences (P < 0.001), percentage body fat (P < 0.001), and fat mass index (P < 0.001) at 7 to 9 years of age after adjusting for biological and social economic factors, genetic factors, and perinatal and postnatal factors. These associations appeared to be independent of gender, economic status at early school age, and maternal nutritional status at enrollment. Rapid growers may have approximately 3 times the risk of being overweight/obese during the early school-age years (odds ratio = 2.94, 95% CI: 1.17–7.43, P = 0.022). Rapid infancy weight gain is a risk factor for being overweight/obesity among early school-age children in rural western China. We propose that social and biological determinants, such as economic status, physical activity, and feeding practice, should be targeted to prevent

  8. HealthWorks: results of a multi-component group-randomized worksite environmental intervention trial for weight gain prevention

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background U.S. adults are at unprecedented risk of becoming overweight or obese, and most scientists believe the primary cause is an obesogenic environment. Worksites provide an opportunity to shape the environments of adults to reduce obesity risk. The goal of this group-randomized trial was to implement a four-component environmental intervention at the worksite level to positively influence weight gain among employees over a two-year period. Environmental components focused on food availability and price, physical activity promotion, scale access, and media enhancements. Methods Six worksites in a U.S. metropolitan area were recruited and randomized in pairs at the worksite level to either a two-year intervention or a no-contact control. Evaluations at baseline and two years included: 1) measured height and weight; 2) online surveys of individual dietary intake and physical activity behaviors; and 3) detailed worksite environment assessment. Results Mean participant age was 42.9 years (range 18-75), 62.6% were women, 68.5% were married or cohabiting, 88.6% were white, 2.1% Hispanic. Mean baseline BMI was 28.5 kg/m2 (range 16.9-61.2 kg/m2). A majority of intervention components were successfully implemented. However, there were no differences between sites in the key outcome of weight change over the two-year study period (p = .36). Conclusions Body mass was not significantly affected by environmental changes implemented for the trial. Results raise questions about whether environmental change at worksites is sufficient for population weight gain prevention. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00708461 PMID:22340088

  9. Individual differences in physical activity are closely associated with changes in body weight in adult female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Elinor L.; Koegler, Frank H.; Cameron, Judy L.

    2010-01-01

    The increased prevalence of overweight adults has serious health consequences. Epidemiological studies suggest an association between low activity and being over-weight; however, few studies have objectively measured activity during a period of weight gain, so it is unknown whether low activity is a cause or consequence of being overweight. To determine whether individual differences in adult weight gain are linked to an individual's activity level, we measured activity, via accelerometry, over a prolonged period (9 mo) in 18 adult female rhesus monkeys. Weight, food intake, metabolic rate, and activity were first monitored over a 3-mo period. During this period, there was mild but significant weight gain (5.5 ± 0.88%; t =−6.3, df = 17, P < 0.0001), whereas caloric intake and activity remained stable. Metabolic rate increased, as expected, with weight gain. Activity level correlated with weight gain (r = −0.52, P = 0.04), and the most active monkeys gained less weight than the least active monkeys (t = −2.74, df = 8, P = 0.03). Moreover, there was an eightfold difference in activity between the most and least active monkeys, and initial activity of each monkey was highly correlated with their activity after 9 mo (r = 0.85, P < 0.0001). In contrast, food intake did not correlate with weight gain, and there was no difference in weight gain between monkeys with the highest vs. lowest caloric intake, total metabolic rate, or basal metabolic rate. We conclude that physical activity is a particularly important factor contributing to weight change in adulthood and that there are large, but stable, differences in physical activity among individuals. PMID:16614060

  10. Assessing the accuracy of pregnant women in recalling pre-pregnancy weight and gestational weight gain.

    PubMed

    Russell, Amy; Gillespie, Stephanie; Satya, Suma; Gaudet, Laura M

    2013-09-01

    Objectif : Les fournisseurs de soins de maternité peuvent utiliser le poids prégrossesse (PPG) et le gain pondéral gestationnel (GPG) à titre de marqueurs pour ce qui est de l’accouchement difficile; de plus, ils peuvent fréquemment obtenir cette information directement de la patiente. Cette étude avait pour objectif de déterminer si les femmes signalent leur PPG et leur GPG correctement à la fin de la grossesse. Méthodes : Nous avons mené une étude de cohorte prospective auprès de 189 femmes ayant accouché entre le 1er juin 2011 et le 31 juillet 2011, au Saint John Regional Hospital ou au Moncton Hospital au Nouveau-Brunswick. Le PPG et le GPG autosignalés ont été comparés aux mesures du poids issues du dossier prénatal et effectuées à l’arrivée de la patiente à l’hôpital pour l’accouchement. Les caractéristiques de la patiente, la classification IMC et la précision et le degré d’erreur en ce qui concerne le signalement des poids ont été évalués. Résultats : La majorité des répondantes avaient moins de 30 ans (63,4 %) et accouchaient à terme (96,3 %). Quatre-vingt-dix femmes (47,6 %) en étaient à leur premier accouchement. Le poids mesuré au cours du premier trimestre avait été consigné en ce qui concerne 98 répondantes (51,9 %); en fonction de ces données, nous avons déterminé que 44 femmes (44,9 %) présentaient une surcharge pondérale ou étaient obèses au moment de l’accouchement. Près du tiers des femmes présentant un IMC normal n’étaient pas en mesure de se rappeler de leur PPG ou de leur GPG avec précision (± 1 kg). Dans toutes les classes d’IMC, nous avons constaté une tendance stable quant au sous-signalement du PPG (de 1,52 kg, en moyenne) et au sursignalement du GPG (de 1,61 kg, en moyenne); cependant, plusieurs valeurs extrêmement aberrantes ont été identifiées. Conclusion : Au moment de l’accouchement, le sous-signalement du PPG et le sursignalement du GPG

  11. Weight-Related Dietary Behaviors in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Allman-Farinelli, Margaret; Partridge, Stephanie R; Roy, Rajshri

    2016-03-01

    The origins of the obesogenic environment date back to the early 1980s. This means that young adults i.e., those aged 18 to 35 years, have only ever experienced a food milieu that promotes obesity. Indeed, younger generations are becoming heavier sooner than their parents in developed countries, such as the USA. Young adults demonstrate food consumption patterns and dietary behaviors implicated in an excessive gain of body fat. They are the highest consumers of fast food and sugar-sweetened beverages among adult age groups and the lowest consumers of fruit and vegetables. Younger adults are meal skippers but may consume more energy from snacks than older adults. So that the gains made in stemming obesity in childhood are not undone during young adulthood, prevention programs are needed. This review highlights areas for consideration in planning such programs. PMID:26811006

  12. What Role Does Sleep Play in Weight Gain in the First Semester of University?

    PubMed

    Roane, Brandy M; Seifer, Ronald; Sharkey, Katherine M; Van Reen, Eliza; Bond, Tamara L Y; Raffray, Tifenn; Carskadon, Mary A

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesized that shorter sleep durations and greater variability in sleep patterns are associated with weight gain in the first semester of university. Students (N = 132) completed daily sleep diaries for 9 weeks, completed the MEQ (chronotype) and CES-D (depressed mood) at week 9, and self-reported weight/height (weeks 1 & 9). Mean and variability scores were calculated for sleep duration (TST, TSTv), bedtime (BT, BTv), and wake time (WT, WTv). An initial hierarchical regression evaluated (block 1) sex, ethnicity; (block 2) depressed mood, chronotype; (block 3) TST; (block 4) BT, WT; and (block 5; R(2) change = 0.09, p = 0.005) TSTv, BTv, WTv with weight change. A sex-by-TSTv interaction was found. A final model showed that ethnicity, TST, TSTv, and BTv accounted for 31% of the variance in weight change for males; TSTv was the most significant contributor (R(2) change = 0.21, p < 0.001). Daily variability in sleep duration contributes to males' weight gain. Further investigation needs to examine sex-specific outcomes for sleep and weight.

  13. Hypertriglyceridemic Waist Phenotype: Effect of Birthweight and Weight Gain in Childhood at 23 Years Old

    PubMed Central

    Haack, Ricardo Lanzetta; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Barros, Fernando C.; Oliveira, Isabel; Silveira, Vera M. F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association of birthweight and weight gain during different periods in childhood with the prevalence of hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype (HWP). Methods In 1982, all hospitals births in Pelotas, South Brazil, were identified, and the 5914 liveborn were examined and their mothers interviewed. This population has been followed for several times. In 2004–05, we tried to follow the whole cohort and the subjects were interviewed, examined, and a blood sample was collected. HWP was defined as a triglycerides ≥ 2 mmol/L and a waist circumference ≥ 90 cm for men, and triglycerides ≥ 1.5 mmol/L and waist circumference ≥ 85 cm for woman. Poisson regression with robust adjustment of the variance was used to obtain adjusted estimates of the prevalence ratio. Results Subjects whose weight-for-age z-score at mean age of 42 months was one or more standard deviation above the mean, according to gender and age, were 8.77 (95% confidence interval: 2.60; 29.64) times more likely of presenting the HWP than those subjects whose weight-for-age z-score at 42 months was more than one standard deviation below the mean. Among those subjects whose birthweight was adequate-for-gestational age (AGA), conditional weight at 20 months was positively associated to the risk of HWP [relative risk: 1.59 (95%: confidence interval: 1.32; 1.92)], whereas for small for gestational age (SGA) subjects conditional weight was not associated with HWP [relative risk: 1.05 (95% confidence interval: 0.77; 1.43)], p-value for interaction 0.08. Conclusion Early weight gain among SGA infants, did not increase the risk of HWP in early adulthood, whereas among those who were AGA, early weight gain increased the risk of the having the phenotype in early adulthood. PMID:26309194

  14. Young Adults, Technology, and Weight Loss: A Focus Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Moscou-Jackson, Gyasi; Allen, Jerilyn K.

    2015-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are a major concern in young adults. Technology has been integrated into many weight loss interventions; however little is known about the use of this technology in young adults. The purpose of this study was to explore through focus group sessions the opinions of young adults on the use of technology for weight loss. A total of 17 young adults, between 18 and 25 years of age, participated in three focus group sessions. Major results indicated that young adults have very little knowledge on the use of Smartphone technology for weight loss but would like to use this type of technology to help them lose weight. Results also indicated that young adults struggle to make healthy food choices and have priorities that outweigh exercise and they need support and guidance to make better decisions. In conclusion, young adults would be open to using Smartphone technology for weight loss but also need feedback and guidance to help make healthy decisions. PMID:25789170

  15. The Theory, Development, and Implementation of an e-Intervention to Prevent Excessive Gestational Weight Gain: e-Moms Roc

    PubMed Central

    Uesugi, Keriann H.; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Gay, Geri K.; Olson, Christine M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Gaining more weight during pregnancy than is recommended by the Institute of Medicine is prevalent and contributes to the development of obesity in women. This article describes the development and use of e-Moms of Rochester (e-Moms Roc), an electronic intervention (e-intervention), to address this health issue in a socioeconomically diverse sample of pregnant women. Materials and Methods: Formative research in the form of intercept interviews, in-depth interviews, and focus groups was conducted to inform the design of the e-intervention. The Web site continuously tracked each participant's use of e-intervention features. Results: An e-intervention, including Web site and mobile phone components, was developed and implemented in a randomized control trial. Formative research informed the design. Participants in all arms accessed blogs, local resources, articles, frequently asked questions, and events. Participants in the intervention arms also accessed the weight gain tracker and diet and physical activity goal-setting tools. Overall, 80% of women logged into the Web site and used a tool or feature at least twice. Among those in the intervention arm, 70% used the weight gain tracker, but only 40% used the diet and physical activity goal-setting tools. Conclusions: To maximize and sustain potential usage of e-Moms Roc over time, the e-intervention included customized reminders, tailored content, and community features such as blogs and resources. Usage was comparable to those in other weight studies with young adults and higher than reported in a published study with pregnant women. This e-intervention specifically designed for pregnant women was used by the majority of women. PMID:25354350

  16. Daily Self-Weighing to Control Body Weight in Adults: A Critical Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Pacanowski, Carly R.; Bertz, Fredrik C.; Levitsky, David A.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to review the history of daily self-weighing for weight control, discuss the possibility that self-weighing may cause adverse psychological symptoms, and propose mechanisms that explain how self-weighing facilitates weight control. A systematic forward (citation) tracking approach has been employed in this study. In the early literature, experimental tests did not demonstrate a benefit of adding daily self-weighing to traditional behavioral modification for weight loss. More recent studies have shown that daily self-weighing combined with personalized electronic feedback can produce and sustain weight loss with and without a traditional weight loss program. Daily self-weighing appears to be effective in preventing age-related weight gain. Apart from these experimental findings, there is considerable agreement that the frequency of self-weighing correlates with success in losing weight and sustaining the weight loss. The early literature suggested frequent self-weighing may be associated with negative psychological effects. However, more recent experimental trials do not substantiate such a causal relationship. In conclusion, daily self-weighing may be a useful strategy for certain adults to prevent weight gain, lose weight, or prevent weight regain after loss. More research is needed to better understand the role of different types of feedback, who benefits most from self-weighing, and at what frequency. PMID:27127719

  17. Inflammatory Cytokines and Antipsychotic-Induced Weight Gain: Review and Clinical Implications.

    PubMed

    Fonseka, Trehani M; Müller, Daniel J; Kennedy, Sidney H

    2016-05-01

    Antipsychotic medications (APs), particularly second-generation APs, are associated with significant weight gain in schizophrenia patients. Recent evidence suggests that the immune system may contribute to antipsychotic-induced weight gain (AIWG) via AP-mediated alterations of cytokine levels. Antipsychotics with a high propensity for weight gain, such as clozapine and olanzapine, influence the expression of immune genes, and induce changes in serum cytokine levels to ultimately down-regulate neuroinflammation. Since inflammatory cytokines are normally involved in anorexigenic responses, reduced inflammation has been independently shown to mediate changes in feeding behaviours and other metabolic parameters, resulting in obesity. Genetic variation in pro-inflammatory cytokines is also associated with both general obesity and weight change during AP treatment, and thus, may be implicated in the pharmacogenetics of AIWG. At this time, preliminary data support a cytokine-mediated model of AIWG which may have clinical utility in developing more effective metabolic monitoring guidelines and prevention measures. However, further research is still needed to clearly elucidate the validity of this immune model. This article reviews the evidence implicating inflammatory cytokines in AIWG and its potential clinical relevance. PMID:27606316

  18. Effect of Nutrition Education by Paraprofessionals on Dietary Intake, Maternal Weight Gain, and Infant Birth Weight in Pregnant Native American and Caucasian Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermann, Janice; Williams, Glenna; Hunt, Donna

    2001-01-01

    Evaluation of nutrition instruction provided to 366 pregnant Native American and Caucasian teens by paraprofessionals determined that it effectively improved their dietary intake, maternal weight gain, and infant birth weight. Further modifications for Native Americans were suggested. (SK)

  19. Identifying Correlates of Young Adults' Weight Behavior: Survey Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary; van den Berg, Patricia; Hannan, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe the development and psychometric properties of survey measures relevant to eating, physical activity, and weight-related behaviors among young adults. Methods: Focus groups and reliability testing guided the development of the Project EAT-III survey. The final survey was completed by 2287 young adults. Results: The…

  20. A qualitative study of factors affecting pregnancy weight gain in African American women.

    PubMed

    Goodrich, Kara; Cregger, Mary; Wilcox, Sara; Liu, Jihong

    2013-04-01

    African Americans and overweight or obese women are at increased risk for excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) and postpartum weight retention. Interventions are needed to promote healthy GWG in this population; however, research on exercise and nutritional barriers during pregnancy in African American women is limited. The objective of this qualitative study is to better inform intervention messages by eliciting information on perceptions of appropriate weight gain, barriers to and enablers of exercise and healthy eating, and other influences on healthy weight gain during pregnancy in overweight or obese African American women. In-depth interviews were conducted with 33 overweight or obese African American women in Columbia, South Carolina. Women were recruited in early to mid-pregnancy (8-23 weeks gestation, n = 10), mid to late pregnancy (24-36 weeks, n = 15), and early postpartum (6-12 weeks postpartum, n = 8). Interview questions and data analysis were informed using a social ecological framework. Over 50 % of women thought they should gain weight in excess of the range recommended by the Institute of Medicine. Participants were motivated to exercise for personal health benefits; however they also cited many barriers to exercise, including safety concerns for the fetus. Awareness of the maternal and fetal benefits of healthy eating was high. Commonly cited barriers to healthy eating include cravings and availability of unhealthy foods. The majority of women were motivated to engage in healthy behaviors during pregnancy. However, the interviews also uncovered a number of misconceptions and barriers that can serve as future intervention messages and strategies. PMID:22527762

  1. The effects of changing exercise levels on weight and age-relatedweight gain

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.; Wood, Peter D.

    2004-06-01

    To determine prospectively whether physical activity canprevent age-related weight gain and whether changing levels of activityaffect body weight. DESIGN/SUBJECTS: The study consisted of 8,080 maleand 4,871 female runners who completed two questionnaires an average(+/-standard deviation (s.d.)) of 3.20+/-2.30 and 2.59+/-2.17 yearsapart, respectively, as part of the National Runners' Health Study.RESULTS: Changes in running distance were inversely related to changes inmen's and women's body mass indices (BMIs) (slope+/-standard error(s.e.): -0.015+/-0.001 and -0.009+/-0.001 kg/m(2) per Deltakm/week,respectively), waist circumferences (-0.030+/-0.002 and -0.022+/-0.005 cmper Deltakm/week, respectively) and percent changes in body weight(-0.062+/-0.003 and -0.041+/-0.003 percent per Deltakm/week,respectively, all P<0.0001). The regression slopes were significantlysteeper (more negative) in men than women for DeltaBMI and Deltapercentbody weight (P<0.0001). A longer history of running diminishedthe impact of changing running distance on men's weights. When adjustedfor Deltakm/week, years of aging in men and years of aging in women wereassociated with increases of 0.066+/-0.005 and 0.056+/-0.006 kg/m(2) inBMI, respectively, increases of 0.294+/-0.019 and 0.279+/-0.028 percentin Delta percentbody weight, respectively, and increases of 0.203+/-0.016and 0.271+/-0.033 cm in waist circumference, respectively (allP<0.0001). These regression slopes suggest that vigorous exercise mayneed to increase 4.4 km/week annually in men and 6.2 km/week annually inwomen to compensate for the expected gain in weight associated with aging(2.7 and 3.9 km/week annually when correct for the attenuation due tomeasurement error). CONCLUSIONS: Age-related weight gain occurs evenamong the most active individuals when exercise is constant.Theoretically, vigorous exercise must increase significantly with age tocompensate for the expected gain in weight associated withaging.

  2. Pregnancy as a window to future health: Excessive gestational weight gain and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Redman, Leanne M.

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic and behavioral changes that occur during pregnancy have well-known effects on maternal and fetal health during the immediate pregnancy and now are thought to be a catalyst for future health throughout later life. Recommendations for appropriate gestational weight gain (GWG) and lifestyle modifications during pregnancy have changed throughout history as more is known about this crucial time. Herein we discuss the current GWG recommendations and the impact of pregnancy and excess GWG gain on the current and future health of women and children including risk of obesity, gestational diabetes, type II diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic syndrome. PMID:26096078

  3. Pregnancy as a window to future health: Excessive gestational weight gain and obesity.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, L Anne; Klempel-Donchenko, Monica; Redman, Leanne M

    2015-06-01

    Metabolic and behavioral changes that occur during pregnancy have well-known effects on maternal and fetal health during the immediate pregnancy and now are thought to be a catalyst for future health throughout later life. Recommendations for appropriate gestational weight gain (GWG) and lifestyle modifications during pregnancy have changed throughout history as more is known about this crucial time. Herein we discuss the current GWG recommendations and the impact of pregnancy and excess GWG gain on the current and future health of women and children including risk of obesity, gestational diabetes, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic syndrome.

  4. Preventing Weight Gain in Women in Rural Communities: A Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lombard, Catherine; Harrison, Cheryce; Kozica, Samantha; Zoungas, Sophia; Ranasinha, Sanjeeva; Teede, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity is reaching epidemic proportions in both developed and developing countries. Even modest weight gain increases the risk for chronic illness, yet evidence-based interventions to prevent weight gain are rare. This trial will determine if a simple low-intensity intervention can prevent weight gain in women compared to general health information. Methods and Findings We conducted a 1-yr pragmatic, cluster randomised controlled trial in 41 Australian towns (clusters) randomised using a computer-generated randomisation list for intervention (n = 21) or control (n = 20). Women aged 18 to 50 yr were recruited from the general population to receive a 1-yr self-management lifestyle intervention (HeLP-her) consisting of one group session, monthly SMS text messages, one phone coaching session, and a program manual, or to a control group receiving one general women’s health education session. From October 2012 to April 2014 we studied 649 women, mean age 39.6 yr (+/− SD 6.7) and BMI of 28.8 kg/m2 (+/− SD 6.9) with the primary outcome weight change between groups at 1 yr. The mean change in the control was +0.44 kg (95% CI −0.09 to 0.97) and in the intervention group −0.48kg (95% CI −0.99 to 0.03) with an unadjusted between group difference of −0.92 kg (95% CI −1.67 to −0.16) or −0.87 kg (95% CI −1.62 to −0.13) adjusted for baseline values and clustering. Secondary outcomes included improved diet quality and greater self-management behaviours. The intervention appeared to be equally efficacious across all age, BMI, income, and education subgroups. Loss to follow-up included 23.8% in the intervention group and 21.8% in the control group and was within the anticipated range. Limitations include lack of sensitive tools to measure the small changes to energy intake and physical activity. Those who gained weight may have been less inclined to return for 1 yr weight measures. Conclusions A low intensity lifestyle program can prevent the

  5. Income gains and very low-weight birth among low-income black mothers in California.

    PubMed

    Bruckner, Tim A; Rehkopf, David H; Catalano, Ralph A

    2013-01-01

    We test the hypothesis suggested in the literature that an acute income gain in the form of the earned income tax credit reduces the odds of a very low-weight birth among low-income non-Hispanic black mothers. We apply ecological time series and supplemental individual-level logistic regression methods to monthly birth data from California between 1989 and 1997. Contrary to our hypothesis, the odds of very low-weight birth increases above its expected value two months after mothers typically receive the credit. We discuss our findings in relation to the epidemiologic literature concerned with ambient events during pregnancy and recommend further investigation. PMID:24215256

  6. Income gains and very low-weight birth among low-income black mothers in California.

    PubMed

    Bruckner, Tim A; Rehkopf, David H; Catalano, Ralph A

    2013-01-01

    We test the hypothesis suggested in the literature that an acute income gain in the form of the earned income tax credit reduces the odds of a very low-weight birth among low-income non-Hispanic black mothers. We apply ecological time series and supplemental individual-level logistic regression methods to monthly birth data from California between 1989 and 1997. Contrary to our hypothesis, the odds of very low-weight birth increases above its expected value two months after mothers typically receive the credit. We discuss our findings in relation to the epidemiologic literature concerned with ambient events during pregnancy and recommend further investigation.

  7. Electrical vagus nerve stimulation decreases food consumption and weight gain in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Gil, Krzysztof; Bugajski, A; Thor, P

    2011-12-01

    There is growing evidence that vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has a suppressive effect on both short- and long-term feeding in animal models. We previously showed that long-term VNS (102 days) with low-frequency electrical impulses (0.05 Hz) decreased food intake and body weight in rats. In the present study, we investigated the effect of high frequency (10 Hz) VNS on feeding behavior and appetite in rats fed a high-fat diet; peptide secretion and other parameters were assessed as well. Adult male Wistar rats were each implanted subcutaneously with a microstimulator (MS) and fed a high-fat diet throughout the entire study period (42 days). The left vagus nerve was stimulated by rectangular electrical pulses (10 ms, 200 mV, 10 Hz, 12 h a day) generated by the MS. Body weight and food intake were measured each morning. At the end of the experimental period, animals were euthanized and blood samples were taken. Serum levels of ghrelin, leptin and nesfatin-1 were assessed using radioimmunoassays. Adipose tissue content was evaluated by weighing epididymal fat pads, which were incised at the time of sacrifice. To determine whether VNS activated the food-related areas of the brain, neuronal c-Fos induction in the nuclei of the solitary tract (NTS) was assessed. Chronic vagus nerve stimulation significantly decreased food intake, body weight gain and epididymal fat pad weight in animals that received VNS compared with control animals. Significant neuronal responses in the NTS were observed following VNS. Finally, serum concentrations of ghrelin were increased, while serum levels of leptin were decreased. Although not significant, serum nesfatin-1 levels were also elevated. These results support the theory that VNS leads to reductions in food intake, body weight gain and adipose tissue by increasing brain satiety signals conducted through the vagal afferents. VNS also evoked a feed-related hormonal response, including elevated blood concentrations of nesfatin-1.

  8. Immunoglobulin transfer and weight gains in suckled beef calves force-fed stored colostrum.

    PubMed

    Bradley, J A; Niilo, L

    1985-04-01

    Concentrations of immunoglobulins and total proteins in second-day post-partum serum samples of 62 beef calves from multiparous dams were measured by zinc sulphate turbidity, electrophoresis, radial immunodiffusion and refractometry. These results, together with health records and weight gains, were used to evaluate the practice of routinely force-feeding 1 L of stored colostrum to suckled beef calves immediately after birth. There was no apparent benefit from such force-feeding. It did not result in greater 48-hour serum immunoglobulin levels, nor did it improve weight gains at 42 days. None of the calves required treatment for neonatal disease, but one force-fed calf died from inhalation of regurgitated colostrum.

  9. Weight Gain, Metabolic Syndrome, and Breast Cancer Recurrence: Are Dietary Recommendations Supported by the Data?

    PubMed Central

    Champ, Colin E.; Volek, Jeff S.; Siglin, Joshua; Jin, Lianjin; Simone, Nicole L.

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome, which can include weight gain and central obesity, elevated serum insulin and glucose, and insulin resistance, has been strongly associated with breast cancer recurrence and worse outcomes after treatment. Epidemiologic and prospective data do not show conclusive evidence as to which dietary factors may be responsible for these results. Current strategies employ low-fat diets which emphasize supplementing calories with increased intake of fruit, grain, and vegetable carbohydrate sources. Although results thus far have been inconclusive, recent randomized trials employing markedly different dietary strategies in noncancer patients may hold the key to reducing multiple risk factors in metabolic syndrome simultaneously which may prove to increase the long-term outcome of breast cancer patients and decrease recurrences. Since weight gain after breast cancer treatment confers a poor prognosis and may increase recurrence rates, large-scale randomized trials are needed to evaluate appropriate dietary interventions for our breast cancer patients. PMID:23050155

  10. Weight gain, metabolic syndrome, and breast cancer recurrence: are dietary recommendations supported by the data?

    PubMed

    Champ, Colin E; Volek, Jeff S; Siglin, Joshua; Jin, Lianjin; Simone, Nicole L

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome, which can include weight gain and central obesity, elevated serum insulin and glucose, and insulin resistance, has been strongly associated with breast cancer recurrence and worse outcomes after treatment. Epidemiologic and prospective data do not show conclusive evidence as to which dietary factors may be responsible for these results. Current strategies employ low-fat diets which emphasize supplementing calories with increased intake of fruit, grain, and vegetable carbohydrate sources. Although results thus far have been inconclusive, recent randomized trials employing markedly different dietary strategies in noncancer patients may hold the key to reducing multiple risk factors in metabolic syndrome simultaneously which may prove to increase the long-term outcome of breast cancer patients and decrease recurrences. Since weight gain after breast cancer treatment confers a poor prognosis and may increase recurrence rates, large-scale randomized trials are needed to evaluate appropriate dietary interventions for our breast cancer patients.

  11. Gestational Weight Gain and Overweight in Children Aged 3–6 Years

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Lianhong; Liu, Jufen; Ye, Rongwei; Liu, Jianmeng; Zhuang, Zhixiong; Ren, Aiguo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether gestational weight gain (GWG) was associated with increased odds of childhood overweight after accounting for pre-pregnancy BMI. Methods In a prospective cohort study based on a premarital and perinatal health care system in China, data of 100 612 mother-child pairs were obtained. The main exposure was GWG as both a continuous and categorical variable. The outcome measure was overweight, defined by age- and sex-specific cutoff values for body mass index (BMI) in children aged 3–6 years. Results A 1-kg increase in maternal GWG was associated with an increase of 0.009 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.007–0.010, P < 0.001) in children’s mean BMI; in the subgroup of pre-pregnancy overweight/obese mothers, the increase in children’s BMI was 0.028 (95% CI, 0.017–0.039, P < 0.001). Excessive GWG played an important role in childhood overweight when adequate GWG was used as the reference, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.21 (95% CI, 1.12–1.29). The risk was highest (OR 2.22; 95% CI, 1.79–2.76) in the children of mothers who were overweight/obese before pregnancy and gained excessive weight during pregnancy. Conclusions Greater maternal GWG was associated with greater offspring BMI, and the risk of overweight was doubled in children whose mothers were overweight/obese before pregnancy and gained excessive weight during pregnancy. As a result, maintenance of appropriate weight gain during pregnancy and prophylaxis of maternal overweight/obesity before pregnancy should be a strategy for preventing childhood overweight/obesity. PMID:26119288

  12. Severe weight gain and generalized insulin edema after the starting of an insulin pump.

    PubMed

    Greco, Domenico

    2015-02-01

    The possibility of the occurrence of a generalized edema after initiation or intensification of insulin treatment in patients with diabetes, although considered a rare event, has long been described in the literature. In this case, a state of clinically significant edema, with a concurrent severe weight gain, occurred in a patient with type 1 diabetes in whom the implantation of an insulin pump resulted in a dramatic and abrupt improvement in glycemic control. PMID:25282002

  13. A prospective study of weight gain associated with chronotype among college freshmen.

    PubMed

    Culnan, Elizabeth; Kloss, Jacqueline D; Grandner, Michael

    2013-06-01

    A prospective study of chronotype as a predictor of increased weight gain and body mass index (BMI) among college freshman was undertaken. At baseline, 137 college freshmen were characterized as morning, neutral, or evening types using the reduced version of the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire. Additionally, information was collected regarding weight, BMI, and health habits (e.g., junk food and alcohol consumption). These additional measures consisted of a descriptive questionnaire, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, the Gray-Donald Eating Patterns Questionnaire, and the Positive and Negative Affect Scale. Participants included 79 females and 80 males with a mean age of 18.25 (SD = 0.56) yrs. Eight weeks later, participants returned (N = 54) to complete follow-up measures, which were identical to baseline assessments with the exception of the descriptive questionnaire, in which demographic questions were removed. Evening types had a significantly greater BMI gain (p < 0.05) when compared with morning/neutral types. Health behaviors did not differ by chronotype. Future studies should seek to clarify the mechanisms underlying the chronotype-BMI/weight gain relationship.

  14. VEGF mRNA in adipocytes increase with rebound weight-gain after diet-restriction.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Kanae; Sumi, Toshiyuki; Yasui, Tomoyo; Morimura, Mina; Nobeyama, Hiroyuki; Okamoto, Eri; Noriyuki, Maiko; Honda, Kenichi; Kiyama, Hiroshi; Ishiko, Osamu

    2004-03-01

    The mechanism of rebound body weight-gain after a restricted-diet state is unclear. We investigated the expression of angiogenic factors in human adipocytes with a changing nutritional state in culture medium, and attempted to ascertain the mechanisms involved in rebound weight-gain. Adipocytes were divided into three groups; the first group (control group) was cultured in medium with 10% fetal calf serum (FCS), the second (DR3% group) was cultured in medium with 3% FCS, and the third (DR6% group) was cultured in medium with 6% FCS. After being cultured for 48 h, each was next cultured with 12% FCS for a further 48 h. When made to change from a low nutrition state to a higher one, adipocytes changed from hypotrophic to hypertrophic. Simultaneously, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the culture medium increased significantly. When investigated immunohistochemically, the expression of VEGF was similarly shown in the cytoplasm of adipocytes. The same tendency with the same quantity of mRNA was shown by RT-PCR. These results show that VEGF produced and secreted from adipocytes increases, when the cultivation state of adipocytes is changed from a low nutritional state to a higher one. VEGF produced and secreted from adipocytes may be related to rebound weight-gain.

  15. An experimental Helicobacter suis infection causes gastritis and reduced daily weight gain in pigs.

    PubMed

    De Bruyne, Ellen; Flahou, Bram; Chiers, Koen; Meyns, Tom; Kumar, Smitha; Vermoote, Miet; Pasmans, Frank; Millet, Sam; Dewulf, Jeroen; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Ducatelle, Richard

    2012-12-01

    Helicobacter suis is a zoonotically important bacterium, that has been associated with gastritis and ulcerative lesions of the pars oesophagea of the stomach in pigs. Its exact role in these pathologies, however, still remains controversial. Therefore, a total of 29 medicated early weaned piglets were inoculated intragastrically or orally, with a total of 2 × 10(9) viable H. suis bacteria and the effect on gastric pathology and weight gain was determined. Twenty-three medicated early weaned piglets were inoculated with a sterile culture medium and used as sham-inoculated controls. The animals were euthanized between 28 and 42 days after inoculation. Infected animals showed a more severe gastritis compared to the control group. There was also a significant reduction of approximately 60 g per day (10%) in weight gain in H. suis inoculated animals compared to the sham-inoculated control animals. In conclusion, this study demonstrates for the first time that a pure in vitro culture of H. suis not only causes gastritis but also a marked decrease of the daily weight gain in experimentally infected pigs.

  16. Aggressive family communication, weight gain, and improved eating attitudes during systemic family therapy for anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Shugar, G; Krueger, S

    1995-01-01

    During systemic family therapy with 15 hospitalized anorexics, family communication was evaluated, using a Family Aggression Scale developed by one of the authors. Initially members communicated aggression covertly. This finding may partially explain the common clinical observation that the families of anorexics present a strong facade of togetherness and avoid overt conflict. During therapy members shifted from covert communication of aggression to covert communication of aggression. This shift correlated with improvement in subjects' eating attitudes reflected by their EAT-26 scores. All subjects gained weight. Greater weight gain occurred in subjects whose families had low levels of covert or indirect aggression. A regression analysis showed that 86% of the variance in weight gain was predicted by two leading indicators in the middle phase of treatment. Two other factors accounted for 64% of the variance in EAT scores. The findings of this study suggest that family aggression as measured by the Family Aggression Scale is a significant index of pathology in anorexics' families and is also a clinically meaningful measure of improved conflict resolution during systemic family therapy.

  17. Meal size is a critical driver of weight gain in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Syrad, Hayley; Llewellyn, Clare H; Johnson, Laura; Boniface, David; Jebb, Susan A; van Jaarsveld, Cornelia H M; Wardle, Jane

    2016-06-20

    Larger serving sizes and more frequent eating episodes have been implicated in the rising prevalence of obesity at a population level. This study examines the relative contributions of meal size and frequency to weight gain in a large sample of British children. Using 3-day diet diaries from 1939 children aged 21 months from the Gemini twin cohort, we assessed prospective associations between meal size, meal frequency and weight gain from two to five years. Separate longitudinal analyses demonstrated that every 10 kcal increase in meal size was associated with 1.5 g/wk or 4% (p = 0.005) faster growth rate, while meal frequency was not independently associated with growth (β = 0.3 g/wk p = 0.20). Including both meal parameters in the model strengthened associations (meal size: β = 2.6 g/wk, p < 0.001; meal frequency: β = 1.0 g/wk, p = 0.001). Taken together, the implication is that meal size promotes faster growth regardless of frequency, but meal frequency has a significant effect only if meal size is assumed to be held constant. Clearer advice on meal size and frequency, especially advice on appropriate meal size, may help prevent excess weight gain.

  18. Meal size is a critical driver of weight gain in early childhood

    PubMed Central

    Syrad, Hayley; Llewellyn, Clare H.; Johnson, Laura; Boniface, David; Jebb, Susan A.; van Jaarsveld, Cornelia H. M.; Wardle, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Larger serving sizes and more frequent eating episodes have been implicated in the rising prevalence of obesity at a population level. This study examines the relative contributions of meal size and frequency to weight gain in a large sample of British children. Using 3-day diet diaries from 1939 children aged 21 months from the Gemini twin cohort, we assessed prospective associations between meal size, meal frequency and weight gain from two to five years. Separate longitudinal analyses demonstrated that every 10 kcal increase in meal size was associated with 1.5 g/wk or 4% (p = 0.005) faster growth rate, while meal frequency was not independently associated with growth (β = 0.3 g/wk p = 0.20). Including both meal parameters in the model strengthened associations (meal size: β = 2.6 g/wk, p < 0.001; meal frequency: β = 1.0 g/wk, p = 0.001). Taken together, the implication is that meal size promotes faster growth regardless of frequency, but meal frequency has a significant effect only if meal size is assumed to be held constant. Clearer advice on meal size and frequency, especially advice on appropriate meal size, may help prevent excess weight gain. PMID:27321917

  19. Efficiency of weight gain of serial slaughtered bulls of a five-breed diallel.

    PubMed

    Woldehawariat, G; Cartwright, T C; Long, C R

    1990-10-01

    Weight and feed consumption of 197 bulls were recorded monthly in a serial slaughter experiment continuing over a period of 24 mo. The bulls were produced in a modified five-breed diallel of the Angus, Brahman, Hereford, Holstein and Jersey breeds. Our objective was to estimate efficiency of feed conversion for weight gain for each breed and cross. The model included average weight gain per day (ADG) as a dependent variable; independent variables included breed-type, season, month within season, average feed intake per day (ADI), initial weight, weight to the .75 power, breed x ADI and season x ADI effects. The sum of the partial regression coefficients of ADG on ADI and on breed x ADI adjusted for season, month within season, initial weight, weight to the .75 power and season x ADI was interpreted to be an estimate of intrinsic or net efficiency of ADG. There were no significant differences among the various breed-types in intrinsic efficiency of ADG. Average heterosis for intrinsic efficiency of feed conversion was not significant. None of the contrasts among breed-types was significant for intrinsic efficiency of ADG (British vs dairy, 1.1 +/- 12.3 g/d; Brahman-dairy crosses vs British-dairy crosses, 32.7 +/- 12.9 g/d; British-Brahman crosses vs British-dairy crosses, 13.9 +/- 12.4 g/d; British-Brahman crosses vs straightbred British 3.2 +/- 14.8 g/d). PMID:2254188

  20. Attentional Bias to Food Images Associated With Elevated Weight and Future Weight Gain: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Yokum, Sonja; Ng, Janet; Stice, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral studies reveal that obese vs. lean individuals show attentional bias to food stimuli. Yet research has not investigated this relation using objective brain imaging or tested whether attentional bias to food stimuli predicts future weight gain, which are important aims given the prominence of food cues in the environment. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine attentional bias in 35 adolescent girls ranging from lean to obese using an attention network task involving food and neutral stimuli. BMI correlated positively with speed of behavioral response to both appetizing food stimuli and unappetizing food stimuli, but not to neutral stimuli. BMI correlated positively with activation in brain regions related to attention and food reward, including the anterior insula/frontal operculum, lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC), and superior parietal lobe, during initial orientation to food cues. BMI also correlated with greater activation in the anterior insula/frontal operculum during reallocation of attention to appetizing food images and with weaker activation in the medial OFC and ventral pallidum during reallocation of attention to unappetizing food images. Greater lateral OFC activation during initial orientation to appetizing food cues predicted future increases in BMI. Results indicate that overweight is related to greater attentional bias to food cues and that youth who show elevated reward circuitry responsivity during food cue exposure are at increased risk for weight gain. PMID:21681221

  1. Metabolically normal obese people are protected from adverse effects following weight gain

    PubMed Central

    Fabbrini, Elisa; Yoshino, Jun; Yoshino, Mihoko; Magkos, Faidon; Tiemann Luecking, Courtney; Samovski, Dmitri; Fraterrigo, Gemma; Okunade, Adewole L.; Patterson, Bruce W.; Klein, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Obesity is associated with insulin resistance and increased intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) content, both of which are key risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, a subset of obese people does not develop these metabolic complications. Here, we tested the hypothesis that people defined by IHTG content and insulin sensitivity as “metabolically normal obese” (MNO), but not those defined as “metabolically abnormal obese” (MAO), are protected from the adverse metabolic effects of weight gain. METHODS. Body composition, multiorgan insulin sensitivity, VLDL apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) kinetics, and global transcriptional profile in adipose tissue were evaluated before and after moderate (~6%) weight gain in MNO (n = 12) and MAO (n = 8) subjects with a mean BMI of 36 ± 4 kg/m2 who were matched for BMI and fat mass. RESULTS. Although the increase in body weight and fat mass was the same in both groups, hepatic, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue insulin sensitivity deteriorated, and VLDL apoB100 concentrations and secretion rates increased in MAO, but not MNO, subjects. Moreover, biological pathways and genes associated with adipose tissue lipogenesis increased in MNO, but not MAO, subjects. CONCLUSIONS. These data demonstrate that MNO people are resistant, whereas MAO people are predisposed, to the adverse metabolic effects of moderate weight gain and that increased adipose tissue capacity for lipogenesis might help protect MNO people from weight gain–induced metabolic dysfunction. TRIAL REGISTRATION. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01184170. FUNDING. This work was supported by NIH grants UL1 RR024992 (Clinical Translational Science Award), DK 56341 (Nutrition and Obesity Research Center), DK 37948 and DK 20579 (Diabetes Center Grant), and UL1 TR000450 (KL2 Award); a Central Society for Clinical and Translational Research Early Career Development Award; and by grants from the Longer Life Foundation and the Kilo Foundation. PMID

  2. Ethnic Differences in Gestational Weight Gain: A Population-Based Cohort Study in Norway.

    PubMed

    Kinnunen, Tarja I; Waage, Christin W; Sommer, Christine; Sletner, Line; Raitanen, Jani; Jenum, Anne Karen

    2016-07-01

    Objectives To explore ethnic differences in gestational weight gain (GWG). Methods This was a population-based cohort study conducted in primary care child health clinics in Groruddalen, Oslo, Norway. Participants were healthy pregnant women (n = 632) categorised to six ethnic groups (43 % were Western European women, the reference group). Body weight was measured at 15 and 28 weeks' gestation on average. Data on pre-pregnancy weight and total GWG until delivery were self-reported. The main method of analysis was linear regression adjusting for age, weeks' gestation, pre-pregnancy body mass index, education and severe nausea. Results No ethnic differences were observed in GWG by 15 weeks' gestation. By 28 weeks' gestation, Eastern European women had gained 2.71 kg (95 % confidence interval, CI 1.10-4.33) and Middle Eastern women 1.32 kg (95 % CI 0.14-2.50) more weight on average than the Western European women in the fully adjusted model. Among Eastern European women, the total adjusted GWG was 3.47 kg (95 % CI 1.33-5.61) above the reference group. Other ethnic groups (South Asian, East Asian and African) did not differ from the reference group. When including non-smokers (n = 522) only, observed between-group differences increased and Middle Eastern women gained more weight than the reference group by all time points. Conclusions Eastern European and Middle Eastern women had higher GWG on average than Western European women, especially among the non-smokers. Although prevention of excessive GWG is important for all pregnant women, these ethnic groups might need special attention during pregnancy.

  3. Association of weight gain with coronary artery disease, inflammation and thrombogenicity.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Rahul; Bliden, Kevin P; Tantry, Udaya S; Mohammed, Nafees; Mathew, Denny; Gesheff, Martin G; Franzese, Christopher J; Gurbel, Paul A

    2016-04-01

    Obese individuals, despite having increased cardiovascular (CV) risk factors experience adverse CV outcomes less frequently than non-obese. Little is known about association of long-term weight gain to development of coronary artery disease (CAD), inflammation and thrombogenicity. 418 consecutive patients with suspected CAD undergoing elective cardiac catheterization were included in a sub-analysis of the multi analyte, thrombogenic, and genetic markers of atherosclerosis study. Maximum weight gain (MWG) was defined as percentage increase in weight since age 17 years to year of heaviest weight and categorized as: minor (<30 %), moderate (30-47 %), severe (>47-69 %), and extreme (>69 %). Lipid profiling was determined by vertical density gradient ultracentrifugation, thrombin-induced platelet fibrin clot strength (TIP-FCS) by thrombelastography, and urinary 11-dehydrothromboxane B2 (11-dhTxB2) by ELISA. CAD severity was defined as minimal (<20 %), moderate (20-75 %), and severe (>75 %) luminal diameter obstruction of any major coronary vessel. The mean MWG was 53 ± 33 %. Extreme MWG group had a higher incidence of diabetes mellitus (48 %), hypertension (81 %), depression (25 %), and were most often female (60 %) (p < 0.05 for all). In women, CAD severity was inversely associated to MWG (p = 0.05), whereas in men no such association was observed (p = 0.18). TIP-FCS increased in a stepwise fashion with MWG (p = 0.001). 11-dTxB2 levels were higher in the extreme MWG group, regardless of lipid lowering therapy (p < 0.05). Our data suggest that maximal weight gain since age 17 years is associated with heightened thrombogenicity, inflammation and a poorer lipid profile but not an increased risk for severe CAD development. PMID:26714821

  4. Lactobacillus reuteri and Escherichia coli in the human gut microbiota may predict weight gain associated with vancomycin treatment

    PubMed Central

    Million, M; Thuny, F; Angelakis, E; Casalta, J-P; Giorgi, R; Habib, G; Raoult, D

    2013-01-01

    Background: Antibiotics, used for 60 years to promote weight gain in animals, have been linked to obesity in adults and in children when administered during early infancy. Lactobacillus reuteri has been linked to obesity and weight gain in children affected with Kwashiorkor using ready-to-use therapeutic food. In contrast, Escherichia coli has been linked with the absence of obesity. Both of these bacteria are resistant to vancomycin. Objectives and methods: We assessed vancomycin-associated weight and gut microbiota changes, and tested whether bacterial species previously linked with body mass index (BMI) predict weight gain at 1 year. All endocarditis patients treated with vancomycin or amoxicillin in our center were included from January 2008 to December 2010. Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Lactobacillus and Methanobrevibacter smithii were quantified using real-time PCR on samples obtained during the 4–6 weeks antibiotic regimen. L. reuteri, L. plantarum, L. rhamnosus, Bifidobacterium animalis and E. coli were quantified on stool samples obtained during the first week of antibiotics. Results: Of the193 patients included in the study, 102 were treated with vancomycin and 91 with amoxicillin. Vancomycin was associated with a 10% BMI increase (odds ratio (OR) 14.1; 95% confidence interval (CI; 1.03–194); P=0.047) and acquired obesity (4/41 versus 0/56, P=0.01). In patients treated with vancomycin, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Lactobacillus increased, whereas M. smithii decreased (P<0.05). The absence of E. coli was an independent predictor of weight gain (OR=10.7; 95% CI (1.4–82.0); P=0.02). Strikingly, a patient with an 18% BMI increase showed a dramatic increase of L. reuteri but no increase of E. coli. Conclusion: The acquired obesity observed in patients treated with vancomycin may be related to a modulation of the gut microbiota rather than a direct antibiotic effect. L. reuteri, which is resistant to vancomycin and produces broad bacteriocins, may have an

  5. Gaining Representations of Children's and Adults' Constructions of Sustainability Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barraza, Laura; Robottom, Ian

    2008-01-01

    In this decade of Education for Sustainable Development, it is timely to consider the methodological issues associated with researching this topic not only with adults but also with the young children who, as members of the next generation, will experience the success or otherwise of current environmental sustainability efforts. We argue that it…

  6. Effects of short term forced oral breathing in rat pups on weight gain, hydration and stress.

    PubMed

    Padzys, Guy S; Thornton, Simon N; Martrette, Jean-Marc; Trabalon, Marie

    2011-02-01

    Nasal obstruction is a risk factor in sleep-disordered breathing with a negative impact on the quality of life in humans. We investigated hydration changes produced by short term reversible, bilateral, nasal obstruction in young developing rat pups. Physiological parameters of growth (weight gain and gastric content weight) and dehydration were analyzed during two periods; during nasal obstruction at post-natal day 8 (days 9, 11 and 13), plus 7 and 90 days after recovery of nasal breathing (day 15 and adulthood). Body weight gain in oral breathing rat pups was slower compared to controls. Gastric weight was decreased significantly only in oral breathing rat pups on days 9 and 11 while plasma osmolality and vasopressin levels increased (indicators of dehydration). There were no differences between controls and treated rat pups by day 15, or at adulthood. Short term nasal obstruction-induced forced oral breathing, decreased gastric content which had a negative impact on growth and blood glucose concentration in the short term for female rat pups. Plasma corticosterone levels increased during the dehydration but were normal in males by 90 days. This could be a model for blocked nose syndrome in the newborn. Possible long term consequences on development are discussed.

  7. School Year Versus Summer Differences in Child Weight Gain: A Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Teresia; Johnston, Craig; Hughes, Sheryl; Moreno, Jennette; Chen, Tzu-An; Meltzer, Lisa; Baranowski, Janice

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The causes of the current high prevalence of overweight and obesity among children are not clearly known. Schools have been implicated in the causal chain to high child obesity prevalence. Recent studies have compared school year versus summertime changes (herein called seasonal differences) in child adiposity or related phenomena. The most common seasonal pattern in six longitudinal descriptive studies was that overweight and obese children experienced accelerated gain in weight or some BMI indicator during the summer, whereas healthy weight children gained less or not at all. Four physical activity (PA) intervention studies demonstrated that school year fitness improvements were lost during the summer. One study showed that PA declined across the summer. Another study provided conflicting results of lower total energy expenditure in the summer, but no seasonal difference in total energy expenditure after adjusting for fat-free mass. This pattern of fairly rapid seasonal differences suggests that PA is the primary factor contributing to seasonal differences in weight or BMI, but the documented seasonal pattern in PA (i.e., higher in summer) does not support this relationship. Sleep duration has also been inversely related to child adiposity. Seasonal patterns in adiposity, PA, and sleep need to be clearly established separately for overweight and healthy weight children in further longitudinal research to provide a clear focus for national policy. PMID:24367922

  8. School year versus summer differences in child weight gain: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Baranowski, Tom; O'Connor, Teresia; Johnston, Craig; Hughes, Sheryl; Moreno, Jennette; Chen, Tzu-An; Meltzer, Lisa; Baranowski, Janice

    2014-02-01

    The causes of the current high prevalence of overweight and obesity among children are not clearly known. Schools have been implicated in the causal chain to high child obesity prevalence. Recent studies have compared school year versus summertime changes (herein called seasonal differences) in child adiposity or related phenomena. The most common seasonal pattern in six longitudinal descriptive studies was that overweight and obese children experienced accelerated gain in weight or some BMI indicator during the summer, whereas healthy weight children gained less or not at all. Four physical activity (PA) intervention studies demonstrated that school year fitness improvements were lost during the summer. One study showed that PA declined across the summer. Another study provided conflicting results of lower total energy expenditure in the summer, but no seasonal difference in total energy expenditure after adjusting for fat-free mass. This pattern of fairly rapid seasonal differences suggests that PA is the primary factor contributing to seasonal differences in weight or BMI, but the documented seasonal pattern in PA (i.e., higher in summer) does not support this relationship. Sleep duration has also been inversely related to child adiposity. Seasonal patterns in adiposity, PA, and sleep need to be clearly established separately for overweight and healthy weight children in further longitudinal research to provide a clear focus for national policy.

  9. Birth weight, body mass index and asthma in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Shaheen, S.; Sterne, J.; Montgomery, S.; Azima, H.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Impaired fetal growth may be a risk factor for asthma although evidence in children is conflicting and there are few data in adults. Little is known about risk factors which may influence asthma in late childhood or early adult life. Whilst there are clues that fatness may be important, this has been little studied in young adults. The relations between birth weight and childhood and adult anthropometry and asthma, wheeze, hayfever, and eczema were investigated in a nationally representative sample of young British adults.
METHODS—A total of 8960 individuals from the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70) were studied. They had recently responded to a questionnaire at 26 years of age in which they were asked whether they had suffered from asthma, wheeze, hayfever, and eczema in the previous 12 months. Adult body mass index (BMI) was calculated from reported height and weight.
RESULTS—The prevalence of asthma at 26 years fell with increasing birth weight. After controlling for potential confounding factors, the odds ratio comparing the lowest birth weight group (<2 kg) with the modal group (3-3.5 kg) was 1.99 (95% CI 0.96 to 4.12). The prevalence of asthma increased with increasing adult BMI. After controlling for birth weight and other confounders, the odds ratio comparing highest with lowest quintile was 1.72 (95% CI 1.29 to 2.29). The association between fatness and asthma was stronger in women; odds ratios comparing overweight women (BMI 25-29.99) and obese women (BMI ⩾30) with those of normal weight (BMI <25) were 1.51 (95% CI 1.11 to 2.06) and 1.84 (95% CI 1.19to 2.84), respectively. The BMI at 10 years was not related to adult asthma. Similar associations with birth weight and adult BMI were present for wheeze but not for hayfever or eczema.
CONCLUSIONS—Impaired fetal growth and adult fatness are risk factors for adult asthma.

 PMID:10212102

  10. Gain weight by "going diet?" Artificial sweeteners and the neurobiology of sugar cravings: Neuroscience 2010.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qing

    2010-06-01

    America's obesity epidemic has gathered much media attention recently. A rise in the percent of the population who are obese coincides with an increase in the widespread use of non-caloric artificial sweeteners, such as aspartame (e.g., Diet Coke) and sucralose (e.g., Pepsi One), in food products (Figure 1). Both forward and reverse causalities have been proposed. While people often choose "diet" or "light" products to lose weight, research studies suggest that artificial sweeteners may contribute to weight gain. In this mini-review, inspired by a discussion with Dr. Dana Small at Yale's Neuroscience 2010 conference in April, I first examine the development of artificial sweeteners in a historic context. I then summarize the epidemiological and experimental evidence concerning their effects on weight. Finally, I attempt to explain those effects in light of the neurobiology of food reward.

  11. Gain weight by "going diet?" Artificial sweeteners and the neurobiology of sugar cravings: Neuroscience 2010.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qing

    2010-06-01

    America's obesity epidemic has gathered much media attention recently. A rise in the percent of the population who are obese coincides with an increase in the widespread use of non-caloric artificial sweeteners, such as aspartame (e.g., Diet Coke) and sucralose (e.g., Pepsi One), in food products (Figure 1). Both forward and reverse causalities have been proposed. While people often choose "diet" or "light" products to lose weight, research studies suggest that artificial sweeteners may contribute to weight gain. In this mini-review, inspired by a discussion with Dr. Dana Small at Yale's Neuroscience 2010 conference in April, I first examine the development of artificial sweeteners in a historic context. I then summarize the epidemiological and experimental evidence concerning their effects on weight. Finally, I attempt to explain those effects in light of the neurobiology of food reward. PMID:20589192

  12. Amount of weight loss or gain influences the severity of respiratory events in sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Kulkas, A; Leppänen, T; Sahlman, J; Tiihonen, P; Mervaala, E; Kokkarinen, J; Randell, J; Seppä, J; Töyräs, J; Tuomilehto, H

    2015-10-01

    Severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is estimated based on respiratory events per hour [i.e., apnea-hypopnea index (AHI)]. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of weight change on the severity of respiratory events. Respiratory event severity, including duration and morphology, was estimated by determining parameters quantifying obstruction and desaturation event lengths and areas, respectively. Respiratory events of 54 OSA patients treated with dietary intervention were evaluated at baseline and after 5-year follow-up in subgroups with different levels of weight change. AHI, oxygen desaturation index (ODI) and obstruction event severities decreased during weight loss. In lower level weight loss, the decrease was milder in obstruction severity than in AHI and ODI, indicating that the decrease in the number of events is more focused on less severe events. In weight gain groups, parameters incorporating obstruction event severity, AHI and ODI increased, although increase was greater in parameters incorporating obstruction event severity. The number and severity of respiratory events were modulated differently by the level of weight change. AHI misses this change in the severity of respiratory events. Therefore, parameters incorporating information on the respiratory event severities may bring additional information on the health effects obtained with dietary treatment of OSA.

  13. Social Network Characteristics Associated with Weight Loss among Black and Hispanic Adults with Overweight and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Winston, Ginger; Phillips, Erica G.; Wethington, Elaine; Devine, Carol; Wells, Martin; Peterson, Janey C.; Hippolyte, Jessica; Ramos, Rosio; Martinez, Guillerma; Eldridge, Johanna; Charlson, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine social network member characteristics associated with weight loss. Methods Cross-sectional examination of egocentric network data from 245 Black and Hispanic adults with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 enrolled in a small change weight loss study. The relationship between weight loss at 12 months and characteristics of helpful and harmful network members (relationship, contact frequency, living proximity and body size) were examined. Results There were 2,571 network members identified. Mean weight loss was -4.8 (±11.3) lbs. among participants with network help and no harm with eating goals vs. +3.4 (±7.8) lbs. among participants with network harm alone. In a multivariable regression model, greater weight loss was associated with help from a child with eating goals (p=.0002) and coworker help with physical activity (p=.01). Weight gain was associated with having network members with obesity living in the home (p=.048) and increased network size (p=.002). Conclusions There was greater weight loss among participants with support from children and coworkers. Weight gain was associated with harmful network behaviors and having network members with obesity in the home. Incorporating child and co-worker support, and evaluating network harm and the body size of network members should be considered in future weight loss interventions. PMID:26179578

  14. Food addiction in adults seeking weight loss treatment. Implications for psychosocial health and weight loss.

    PubMed

    Burmeister, Jacob M; Hinman, Nova; Koball, Afton; Hoffmann, Debra A; Carels, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined food addiction symptomology and its relationship to eating pathology and psychological distress among adults seeking weight loss treatment. A primary interest was an examination of the relationship between food addiction symptoms and short-term weight loss. Adults beginning a behavioral weight loss program (N=57) were given the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) as well as measures of psychological distress, disordered eating, weight bias, and weight-focused attitudes. Weight loss was measured after 7 weeks. Severity of food addiction was related to increased depression, emotional eating, binge eating, anti-fat attitudes, internalized weight bias, body shame, and low eating self-efficacy, but not body satisfaction. Increased food addiction symptomology was also related to less weight lost at 7 weeks. Findings suggest that individuals attempting to lose weight while combating symptoms of food addiction may be especially prone to eating-related pathologies, internalized weight bias, and body shame. Importantly, findings provide evidence that food addiction may undermine efforts to lose weight. The pathology associated with addiction (e.g., tolerance, withdrawal) could make the adoption of more healthful eating habits especially difficult.

  15. Dehydration and acute weight gain in mixed martial arts fighters before competition.

    PubMed

    Jetton, Adam M; Lawrence, Marcus M; Meucci, Marco; Haines, Tracie L; Collier, Scott R; Morris, David M; Utter, Alan C

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the magnitude of acute weight gain (AWG) and dehydration in mixed martial arts (MMA) fighters before competition. Urinary measures of hydration status and body mass were determined approximately 24 hours before and then again approximately 2 hours before competition in 40 MMA fighters (mean ± SE, age: 25.2 ± 0.65 years, height: 1.77 ± 0.01 m, body mass: 75.8 ± 1.5 kg). The AWG was defined as the amount of body weight the fighters gained in the approximately 22-hour period between the official weigh-in and the actual competition. On average, the MMA fighters gained 3.40 ± 2.2 kg or 4.4% of their body weight in the approximately 22-hour period before competition. Urine specific gravity significantly decreased (p < 0.001) from 1.028 ± 0.001 to 1.020 ± 0.001 during the approximately 22-hour rehydration period. Results demonstrated that 39% of the MMA fighters presented with a Usg of >1.021 immediately before competition indicating significant or serious dehydration. The MMA fighters undergo significant dehydration and fluctuations in body mass (4.4% avg.) in the 24-hour period before competition. Urinary measures of hydration status indicate that a significant proportion of MMA fighters are not successfully rehydrating before competition and subsequently are competing in a dehydrated state. Weight management guidelines to prevent acute dehydration in MMA fighters are warranted to prevent unnecessary adverse health events secondary to dehydration. PMID:23439336

  16. Dehydration and acute weight gain in mixed martial arts fighters before competition.

    PubMed

    Jetton, Adam M; Lawrence, Marcus M; Meucci, Marco; Haines, Tracie L; Collier, Scott R; Morris, David M; Utter, Alan C

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the magnitude of acute weight gain (AWG) and dehydration in mixed martial arts (MMA) fighters before competition. Urinary measures of hydration status and body mass were determined approximately 24 hours before and then again approximately 2 hours before competition in 40 MMA fighters (mean ± SE, age: 25.2 ± 0.65 years, height: 1.77 ± 0.01 m, body mass: 75.8 ± 1.5 kg). The AWG was defined as the amount of body weight the fighters gained in the approximately 22-hour period between the official weigh-in and the actual competition. On average, the MMA fighters gained 3.40 ± 2.2 kg or 4.4% of their body weight in the approximately 22-hour period before competition. Urine specific gravity significantly decreased (p < 0.001) from 1.028 ± 0.001 to 1.020 ± 0.001 during the approximately 22-hour rehydration period. Results demonstrated that 39% of the MMA fighters presented with a Usg of >1.021 immediately before competition indicating significant or serious dehydration. The MMA fighters undergo significant dehydration and fluctuations in body mass (4.4% avg.) in the 24-hour period before competition. Urinary measures of hydration status indicate that a significant proportion of MMA fighters are not successfully rehydrating before competition and subsequently are competing in a dehydrated state. Weight management guidelines to prevent acute dehydration in MMA fighters are warranted to prevent unnecessary adverse health events secondary to dehydration.

  17. Food cravings in pregnancy: Preliminary evidence for a role in excess gestational weight gain.

    PubMed

    Orloff, Natalia C; Flammer, Amy; Hartnett, Josette; Liquorman, Sarah; Samelson, Renee; Hormes, Julia M

    2016-10-01

    Currently, more than 50% of American women gain an excessive amount of weight during pregnancy as per guidelines established by the Institute of Medicine and American Congress of Obstetrics and Gynecology. This excess gestational weight gain (GWG) is associated with health complications in both mothers and children. This study sought to examine the hypothesized causal role of cravings in excess GWG. Pregnant women were recruited from a local hospital (n = 40) and via posts on pregnancy-related websites (n = 43). Weight (current and pregravid) and height data were collected to calculate body mass index (BMI) and recommended versus excess GWG. Participants completed the Food Craving Inventory (FCI), which quantifies "frequency" of cravings for specific foods and the likelihood of "giving in" to these cravings. Overweight/obesity prior to pregnancy was reported by 40.5%-57.9% of participants. At the time of survey completion, 19.5% of online and 31.6% of hospital respondents had gained more than the recommended amount of weight for their stage of gestation. All women had experienced and given in to at least one craving, with cravings for "sweets" and "fast foods" being most common. Craving "frequency" accounted for a substantial portion of variance in excess GWG (25.0% in the online sample and 32.0% in respondents recruited at the hospital). Frequency of "giving in" to cravings accounted for 35.0% of the variance in excess GWG in the online sample only. Findings suggest that both craving frequency and consumption of craved foods may increase risk of excess GWG, providing support for the development of interventions targeting cravings in pregnancy as potentially modifiable determinants of energy intake. PMID:27215835

  18. Predicting the "Freshman 15": Environmental and Psychological Predictors of Weight Gain in First-Year University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vella-Zarb, Rachel A.; Elgar, Frank J.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: (1) To investigate weight gain in first-year university students; and (2) to examine whether environmental and psychological factors, specifically accommodation and stress, predict weight gain. Methods: Eighty-four first-year university students (77 per cent female) were weighed and completed the Perceived Stress Scale (Cohen, Kamarck…

  19. Weight Gain in Infancy and Overweight or Obesity in Childhood across the Gestational Spectrum: a Prospective Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoying; Johnson, Sara; Gong, Yiwei; Polk, Sarah; Divall, Sara; Radovick, Sally; Moon, Margaret; Paige, David; Hong, Xiumei; Caruso, Deanna; Chen, Zhu; Mallow, Eric; Walker, Sheila O; Mao, Guangyun; Pearson, Colleen; Wang, Mei-Cheng; Zuckerman, Barry; Cheng, Tina L; Wang, Xiaobin

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the optimal degree of weight gain across the gestational spectrum in 1971 children enrolled at birth and followed up to age 7 years. Weight gain in infancy was categorized into four groups based on weight gain z-scores: slow (<-0.67), on track (-0.67 to 0.67), rapid (0.67 to 1.28), and extremely rapid (>1.28). Underweight and overweight or obesity (OWO) were defined as a body mass index ≤5(th) and ≥85(th) percentile, respectively, for age and gender. In our population, OWO was far more common than underweight (39.7% vs. 3.6%). Weight gain tracked strongly from age 4 to 24 months, and was positively associated with OWO and an unfavorable pattern of metabolic biomarkers, although the degree of weight gain for the risk was different across gestational categories. Extremely rapid weight gain led to a particularly high risk of OWO among children born early term and late preterm: odds ratio: 3.3 (95% confidence interval: 1.9 to 5.5) and 3.7 (1.8 to 7.5), respectively, as compared to those with on track weight gain. Our findings suggest that monitoring and ensuring optimal weight gain across the entire gestational spectrum beginning from birth represents a first step towards primary prevention of childhood obesity. PMID:27417566

  20. Weight Gain in Infancy and Overweight or Obesity in Childhood across the Gestational Spectrum: a Prospective Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoying; Johnson, Sara; Gong, Yiwei; Polk, Sarah; Divall, Sara; Radovick, Sally; Moon, Margaret; Paige, David; Hong, Xiumei; Caruso, Deanna; Chen, Zhu; Mallow, Eric; Walker, Sheila O; Mao, Guangyun; Pearson, Colleen; Wang, Mei-Cheng; Zuckerman, Barry; Cheng, Tina L; Wang, Xiaobin

    2016-07-15

    This study aimed to investigate the optimal degree of weight gain across the gestational spectrum in 1971 children enrolled at birth and followed up to age 7 years. Weight gain in infancy was categorized into four groups based on weight gain z-scores: slow (<-0.67), on track (-0.67 to 0.67), rapid (0.67 to 1.28), and extremely rapid (>1.28). Underweight and overweight or obesity (OWO) were defined as a body mass index ≤5(th) and ≥85(th) percentile, respectively, for age and gender. In our population, OWO was far more common than underweight (39.7% vs. 3.6%). Weight gain tracked strongly from age 4 to 24 months, and was positively associated with OWO and an unfavorable pattern of metabolic biomarkers, although the degree of weight gain for the risk was different across gestational categories. Extremely rapid weight gain led to a particularly high risk of OWO among children born early term and late preterm: odds ratio: 3.3 (95% confidence interval: 1.9 to 5.5) and 3.7 (1.8 to 7.5), respectively, as compared to those with on track weight gain. Our findings suggest that monitoring and ensuring optimal weight gain across the entire gestational spectrum beginning from birth represents a first step towards primary prevention of childhood obesity.

  1. Why Research on the Pharmacogenetics of Atypical Antipsychotic-Induced Weight Gain in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities Is Warranted

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleister, Heidi M.; Valdovinos, Maria Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    Weight gain is an often-observed side effect of atypical antipsychotics (AAPs) and is particularly significant in individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID). The majority of individuals treated with AAPs will gain at least 10% of their initial body weight over the course of therapy (Umbricht & Kane, 1996). One's genetic constitution is an…

  2. Weight Gain in Infancy and Overweight or Obesity in Childhood across the Gestational Spectrum: a Prospective Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guoying; Johnson, Sara; Gong, Yiwei; Polk, Sarah; Divall, Sara; Radovick, Sally; Moon, Margaret; Paige, David; Hong, Xiumei; Caruso, Deanna; Chen, Zhu; Mallow, Eric; Walker, Sheila O.; Mao, Guangyun; Pearson, Colleen; Wang, Mei-Cheng; Zuckerman, Barry; Cheng, Tina L.; Wang, Xiaobin

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the optimal degree of weight gain across the gestational spectrum in 1971 children enrolled at birth and followed up to age 7 years. Weight gain in infancy was categorized into four groups based on weight gain z-scores: slow (<−0.67), on track (−0.67 to 0.67), rapid (0.67 to 1.28), and extremely rapid (>1.28). Underweight and overweight or obesity (OWO) were defined as a body mass index ≤5th and ≥85th percentile, respectively, for age and gender. In our population, OWO was far more common than underweight (39.7% vs. 3.6%). Weight gain tracked strongly from age 4 to 24 months, and was positively associated with OWO and an unfavorable pattern of metabolic biomarkers, although the degree of weight gain for the risk was different across gestational categories. Extremely rapid weight gain led to a particularly high risk of OWO among children born early term and late preterm: odds ratio: 3.3 (95% confidence interval: 1.9 to 5.5) and 3.7 (1.8 to 7.5), respectively, as compared to those with on track weight gain. Our findings suggest that monitoring and ensuring optimal weight gain across the entire gestational spectrum beginning from birth represents a first step towards primary prevention of childhood obesity. PMID:27417566

  3. Association of LEPR and ANKK1 Gene Polymorphisms with Weight Gain in Epilepsy Patients Receiving Valproic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongliang; Wang, Xueding; Zhou, Yafang; Ni, Guanzhong; Su, Qibiao; Chen, Ziyi; Chen, Zhuojia; Li, Jiali; Chen, Xinmeng; Hou, Xiangyu; Xie, Wen; Xin, Shuang; Zhou, Liemin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Weight gain is the most frequent adverse effect of valproic acid (VPA) treatment, resulting in poor compliance and many endocrine disturbances. Similarities in the weight change of monozygotic twins receiving VPA strongly suggests that genetic factors are involved in this effect. However, few studies have been conducted to identify the relevant genetic polymorphisms. Additionally, the causal relationship between the VPA concentration and weight gain has been controversial. Thus, we investigated the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in several appetite stimulation and energy homeostasis genes and the steady state plasma concentrations (Css) of VPA on the occurrence of weight gain in patients. Methods: A total of 212 epilepsy patients receiving VPA were enrolled. Nineteen SNPs in 11 genes were detected using the Sequenom MassArray iPlex platform, and VPA Css was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results: After 6 months of treatment, 20.28% of patients were found to gain a significant amount of weight (weight gained ≥7%). Three SNPs in the leptin receptor (LEPR), ankyrin repeat kinase domain containing 1 (ANKK1), and α catalytic subunit of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) showed significant associations with VPA-induced weight gain (p < 0.001, p = 0.017 and p = 0.020, respectively). After Bonferroni correction for multiple tests, the genotypic association of LEPR rs1137101, the allelic association of LEPR rs1137101, and ANKK1 rs1800497 with weight gain remained significant. However, the VPA Css in patents who gained weight were not significantly different from those who did not gain weight (p = 0.121). Conclusions: LEPR and ANKK1 genetic polymorphisms may have value in predicting VPA-induced weight gain. PMID:25740917

  4. Pharmacologic Approaches to Weight Management: Recent Gains and Shortfalls in Combating Obesity.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Katherine H; Kumar, Rekha B; Igel, Leon I; Aronne, Louis J

    2016-07-01

    Obesity is a growing epidemic in the USA with over one third of adults presently classified as obese. Obesity-related comorbidities include many leading causes of preventable death such as heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, and certain types of cancer. Modest weight loss of 5-10 % of body weight is sufficient to produce clinically relevant improvements in cardiovascular disease risk factors among patients with overweight and obesity. Until recently, there were limited pharmacologic options approved by the Food and Drug Administration to treat obesity. Phentermine/topiramate ER and lorcaserin were approved in 2012, and naltrexone SR/bupropion SR and liraglutide 3.0 mg were approved in 2014. This article reviews recent literature in the field of Obesity Medicine and highlights important findings from clinical trials. Future directions in the pharmacologic management of obesity are presented along with new diabetes medications that promote weight loss and reduce cardiovascular mortality. PMID:27181165

  5. Pharmacologic Approaches to Weight Management: Recent Gains and Shortfalls in Combating Obesity.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Katherine H; Kumar, Rekha B; Igel, Leon I; Aronne, Louis J

    2016-07-01

    Obesity is a growing epidemic in the USA with over one third of adults presently classified as obese. Obesity-related comorbidities include many leading causes of preventable death such as heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, and certain types of cancer. Modest weight loss of 5-10 % of body weight is sufficient to produce clinically relevant improvements in cardiovascular disease risk factors among patients with overweight and obesity. Until recently, there were limited pharmacologic options approved by the Food and Drug Administration to treat obesity. Phentermine/topiramate ER and lorcaserin were approved in 2012, and naltrexone SR/bupropion SR and liraglutide 3.0 mg were approved in 2014. This article reviews recent literature in the field of Obesity Medicine and highlights important findings from clinical trials. Future directions in the pharmacologic management of obesity are presented along with new diabetes medications that promote weight loss and reduce cardiovascular mortality.

  6. Interleukin-18 activates skeletal muscle AMPK and reduces weight gain and insulin resistance in mice.

    PubMed

    Lindegaard, Birgitte; Matthews, Vance B; Brandt, Claus; Hojman, Pernille; Allen, Tamara L; Estevez, Emma; Watt, Matthew J; Bruce, Clinton R; Mortensen, Ole H; Syberg, Susanne; Rudnicka, Caroline; Abildgaard, Julie; Pilegaard, Henriette; Hidalgo, Juan; Ditlevsen, Susanne; Alsted, Thomas J; Madsen, Andreas N; Pedersen, Bente K; Febbraio, Mark A

    2013-09-01

    Circulating interleukin (IL)-18 is elevated in obesity, but paradoxically causes hypophagia. We hypothesized that IL-18 may attenuate high-fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance by activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). We studied mice with a global deletion of the α-isoform of the IL-18 receptor (IL-18R(-/-)) fed a standard chow or HFD. We next performed gain-of-function experiments in skeletal muscle, in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo. We show that IL-18 is implicated in metabolic homeostasis, inflammation, and insulin resistance via mechanisms involving the activation of AMPK in skeletal muscle. IL-18R(-/-) mice display increased weight gain, ectopic lipid deposition, inflammation, and reduced AMPK signaling in skeletal muscle. Treating myotubes or skeletal muscle strips with IL-18 activated AMPK and increased fat oxidation. Moreover, in vivo electroporation of IL-18 into skeletal muscle activated AMPK and concomitantly inhibited HFD-induced weight gain. In summary, IL-18 enhances AMPK signaling and lipid oxidation in skeletal muscle implicating IL-18 in metabolic homeostasis.

  7. Effects of Proximate Foreclosed Properties on Individuals’ Weight Gain in Massachusetts, 1987–2008

    PubMed Central

    Glymour, M. Maria; Chakrabarti, Prabal; Christakis, Nicholas A.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Subramanian, S. V.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the extent to which living near foreclosed properties is associated with individuals’ subsequent weight gain. Methods. We linked health and address information on 2068 Framingham Offspring Cohort members (7830 assessments) across 5 waves (1987–2008) to records of all Massachusetts foreclosures during that period. We used counts of lender-owned foreclosed properties within 100 meters of participants’ homes to predict body mass index (BMI; defined as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters) and the odds of being overweight (BMI ≥ 25), adjusted for individual and area-level covariates. Results. Mean BMI increased from 26.6 in 1987–1991 to 28.5 in 2005–2008; overweight prevalence increased from 59.0% to 71.3%. Foreclosures were within 100 meters of 159 (7.8%) participants’ homes on 187 occasions (1.8%), in 42 municipalities (21%). For each additional foreclosure, BMI increased by 0.20 units (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.03, 0.36), and the odds ratio for being overweight associated with proximity to a foreclosure was 1.77 (95% CI = 1.02, 3.05). Conclusions. We found a robust association between living near foreclosures and BMI, suggesting that neighbors’ foreclosures may spur weight gain. PMID:23865706

  8. Food cue reactivity and craving predict eating and weight gain: a meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Boswell, Rebecca G; Kober, Hedy

    2016-02-01

    According to learning-based models of behavior, food cue reactivity and craving are conditioned responses that lead to increased eating and subsequent weight gain. However, evidence supporting this relationship has been mixed. We conducted a quantitative meta-analysis to assess the predictive effects of food cue reactivity and craving on eating and weight-related outcomes. Across 69 reported statistics from 45 published reports representing 3,292 participants, we found an overall medium effect of food cue reactivity and craving on outcomes (r = 0.33, p < 0.001; approximately 11% of variance), suggesting that cue exposure and the experience of craving significantly influence and contribute to eating behavior and weight gain. Follow-up tests revealed a medium effect size for the effect of both tonic and cue-induced craving on eating behavior (r = 0.33). We did not find significant differences in effect sizes based on body mass index, age, or dietary restraint. However, we did find that visual food cues (e.g. pictures and videos) were associated with a similar effect size to real food exposure and a stronger effect size than olfactory cues. Overall, the present findings suggest that food cue reactivity, cue-induced craving and tonic craving systematically and prospectively predict food-related outcomes. These results have theoretical, methodological, public health and clinical implications.

  9. Weight gain is associated with reduced striatal response to palatable food.

    PubMed

    Stice, Eric; Yokum, Sonja; Blum, Kenneth; Bohon, Cara

    2010-09-29

    Consistent with the theory that individuals with hypofunctioning reward circuitry overeat to compensate for a reward deficit, obese versus lean humans have fewer striatal D2 receptors and show less striatal response to palatable food intake. Low striatal response to food intake predicts future weight gain in those at genetic risk for reduced signaling of dopamine-based reward circuitry. Yet animal studies indicate that intake of palatable food results in downregulation of D2 receptors, reduced D2 sensitivity, and decreased reward sensitivity, implying that overeating may contribute to reduced striatal responsivity. Thus, we tested whether overeating leads to reduced striatal responsivity to palatable food intake in humans using repeated-measures functional magnetic resonance imaging. Results indicated that women who gained weight over a 6 month period showed a reduction in striatal response to palatable food consumption relative to weight-stable women. Collectively, results suggest that low sensitivity of reward circuitry increases risk for overeating and that this overeating may further attenuate responsivity of reward circuitry in a feedforward process.

  10. Influence of Weight Gain Rate on Early Life Nutritional Status and Body Composition of Children

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Taís Cristina Araújo; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; Priore, Silvia Eloiza; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Sant'Ana, Luciana Ferreira da Rocha

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the influence of the weight gain rate at 4–6 months on nutritional status and body composition in children between 4 and 7 years of age. Methods. Retrospective cohort study, sample of 257 children. Data collection was performed in two stages, with the first relating to retrospective data of weight gain from birth to the first 4–6 months of life in the patient records. Measurements of weight, height, waist circumference, and body composition in children between ages 4 and 7 years were obtained. Nutritional status was assessed by the BMI/age. Control variables, such as pregnancy, breastfeeding, lifestyle, and sociodemographics, were studied. Descriptive analysis and multiple linear regression were performed. Results. In the nutritional status assessment, the prevalence of overweight observed was 24.9%. After adjusting for control variables, it was found that the increase of the WGR at 4–6 months of age explained the occurrence of higher BMI/age, percentage of total body fat, body fat percentage in the android region, and waist circumference in children between 4 and 7 years of age. Conclusion. The increase of the WGR in the first months of life can lead to the occurrence of higher values of parameters of nutritional status and body composition in later life. PMID:25538953

  11. Food cue reactivity and craving predict eating and weight gain: a meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Boswell, Rebecca G; Kober, Hedy

    2016-02-01

    According to learning-based models of behavior, food cue reactivity and craving are conditioned responses that lead to increased eating and subsequent weight gain. However, evidence supporting this relationship has been mixed. We conducted a quantitative meta-analysis to assess the predictive effects of food cue reactivity and craving on eating and weight-related outcomes. Across 69 reported statistics from 45 published reports representing 3,292 participants, we found an overall medium effect of food cue reactivity and craving on outcomes (r = 0.33, p < 0.001; approximately 11% of variance), suggesting that cue exposure and the experience of craving significantly influence and contribute to eating behavior and weight gain. Follow-up tests revealed a medium effect size for the effect of both tonic and cue-induced craving on eating behavior (r = 0.33). We did not find significant differences in effect sizes based on body mass index, age, or dietary restraint. However, we did find that visual food cues (e.g. pictures and videos) were associated with a similar effect size to real food exposure and a stronger effect size than olfactory cues. Overall, the present findings suggest that food cue reactivity, cue-induced craving and tonic craving systematically and prospectively predict food-related outcomes. These results have theoretical, methodological, public health and clinical implications. PMID:26644270

  12. Can a health coaching intervention delivered during pregnancy help prevent excessive gestational weight gain?

    PubMed

    Hill, Briony; Skouteris, Helen; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; McPhie, Skye

    2016-10-01

    This study evaluated: (1) the efficacy of a health coaching (HC) intervention designed to prevent excessive gestational weight gain (GWG); and (2) whether there were improved psychological, motivational, and behavioural outcomes for women in the HC intervention compared to a "usual care" control group. In this quasi-experimental study, 267 pregnant women ≤18 weeks gestation were recruited between August 2011 and June 2013 from two hospital antenatal clinics in Melbourne, Australia. Intervention women received four individual HC and two group HC/educational sessions informed by theories of behaviour change. Women completed questionnaires assessing psychological, motivational and behavioural outcomes at 16-18 (baseline) and 33 (post-intervention) weeks gestation. Weight measures were collected. Compared to usual care, the intervention did not limit GWG or prevent excessive GWG. However, HC women reported greater use of active coping skills post-intervention. Despite lack of success of the HC intervention, given the risks associated with excessive weight gain in pregnancy, health professionals should continue to recommend appropriate GWG.

  13. Determinants of Pregnant Women's Online Self-Regulatory Activities for Appropriate Gestational Weight Gain.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Kyung; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Guillory, Jamie; Graham, Meredith; Olson, Christine; Gay, Geri

    2015-01-01

    This study examined psychosocial and sociodemographic factors associated with pregnant women's use of Web-based tools to set and monitor personal goals for healthy diet and physical activity. These tools were made available to women participating in a randomized trial testing a Web-based intervention to promote appropriate gestational weight gain. We used data from a baseline survey of pregnant women assigned to the intervention group and log data on women's use of various intervention features (N = 873). Women who believed that appropriate gestational weight gain would lead to healthy outcomes for their child were more likely to engage in online goal-setting and self-monitoring. Less positive outcome expectancy beliefs about the relationship between their own weight and baby's health partially explains why some at risk subpopulations (e.g., African-American women) were less likely to utilize online self-regulatory tools. This study specifies key psychosocial and motivational factors that guide the construction and monitoring of goals among pregnant women. These findings offer guidance for the design of interventions to promote self-regulatory techniques by identifying groups for whom those features are most likely to be useful, as well as psychological determinants of their use.

  14. Weight regulation practices of young adults. Predictors of restrictive eating.

    PubMed

    Quick, Virginia M; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2012-10-01

    Young adults frequently use restrictive eating (i.e., going for long periods [≥ 8h] without eating to influence their shape or weight) to control their weight. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of restrictive eating in young adults, compare eating behaviors of restrictive and non-restrictive eaters, and predict restrictive eaters. A diverse (56% white, 63% female) sample of young adults (n=2449) completed an online survey that included eating behavior scales (Restraint, Eating, Shape, and Weight Concerns, and Inappropriate Compensatory Behaviors from the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, Emotional and Disinhibited Eating from the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire, and Night Eating from the Night Eating Questionnaire) and demographics. A quarter of women and 20% of men were classified as restrictive eaters. Independent t-tests revealed restrictive eaters had significantly (p<0.001) higher BMIs than non-restrictive eaters. Restrictive eaters also had significantly higher scores on all eating behavior scales than non-restrictive eaters even after controlling for potential confounding factors (BMI, race). Stepwise binary logistic regression revealed that increased eating, shape, and weight concerns, higher BMI, endorsement of inappropriate compensatory behaviors and night eating, being female, and white increased the odds of participants being restrictive eaters. This study can help healthcare professionals become more aware of weight control practices of young adults and create appropriate interventions.

  15. Succession of the turkey gastrointestinal bacterial microbiome related to weight gain.

    PubMed

    Danzeisen, Jessica L; Calvert, Alamanda J; Noll, Sally L; McComb, Brian; Sherwood, Julie S; Logue, Catherine M; Johnson, Timothy J

    2013-12-23

    antibiotics could involve target dominant bacteria identified in the turkey ileum that are associated with increased weight gain. PMID:24432198

  16. Is gestational weight gain associated with offspring obesity at 36 months?

    PubMed Central

    Diesel, Jill C.; Eckhardt, Cara L.; Day, Nancy L.; Brooks, Maria M.; Arslanian, Silva A.; Bodnar, Lisa M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective We examined the association between gestational weight gain (GWG) and offspring obesity at age 36 months. Methods Mother-infant dyads (n=609) were followed from a first study visit (mean (standard deviation): 18.8 (2.7) weeks gestation) to 36 months postpartum. Total GWG over the entire pregnancy was defined as excessive or non-excessive according to the 2009 Institute of Medicine guidelines. Four mutually exclusive categories of excessive or non-excessive GWG across early (conception to first study visit) and late (first study visit to delivery) pregnancy defined GWG pattern. Body mass index (BMI) z-scores ≥95th percentile of the 2000 CDC references defined offspring obesity at 36 months. Multivariable log-binomial models adjusted for prepregnancy BMI and breastfeeding were used to estimate the association between GWG and childhood obesity risk. Results Nearly half of the women had total excessive GWG. Of these, 46% gained excessively during both early and late pregnancy while 22% gained excessively early and non-excessively late, and the remaining 32% gained non-excess weight early and excessively later. Thirteen percent of all children were obese at 36 months. Excessive total GWG was associated with more than twice the risk of child obesity [adjusted risk ratio (95% CI): 2.20 (1.35, 3.61)] compared with overall non-excessive GWG. Compared with a pattern of non-excessive GWG in both early and late pregnancy, excessive GWG in both periods was associated with an increased risk of obesity [2.39 (1.13, 5.08)]. Conclusions Excessive GWG is a potentially modifiable factor that may influence obesity development in early childhood. PMID:25267200

  17. Alterations in Food Group Intakes and Subsequent Weight Changes in Adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini Esfahani, Firozeh; Ejtahed, Hanieh Sadat; Mirmiran, Parvin; Delshad, Hossein; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2014-01-01

    Background: The extent of weight change is varied for specific foods. This highlights the effect of dietary quality and food choices on weight control. Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the association between alterations in food group intake and weight change over a 3 years follow-up period. Materials and Methods: This longitudinal study was conducted on 851 adults in the framework of Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Intakes of various foods were measured at baseline and after 3 years using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Dietary data was grouped into 13 food groups. Alterations in food group intakes were categorized in tertiles; middle tertile of intake changes was considered as the reference category and the first and last tertiles of changes as increased and decreased intakes, respectively. Weight change per year of follow-up was the outcome of interest. Weight gain was defined as ≥ 0.5 kg/y, weight loss as ≤ -0.5 kg/y and stable weight as > -0.5 to < 0.5 kg/y. Multinomial logistic regression was used with stable weight as the reference group. Results: In men, weight loss was significantly predicted only by decreased intake of added sugars (OR: 2.21, 95% CI: 1.06-4.63). In women, weight gain was significantly predicted by decreased intake of whole grains (OR: 1.92, 95% CI: 1.11-3.31) and weight loss was predicted by decreased intake of vegetables (OR: 0.44, 95% CI: 0.21-0.91). Conclusions: Alterations in consumption of whole grains, vegetables, and added sugars are associated with body weight change, suggesting that it could be helpful in weight control. PMID:25237324

  18. Betahistine ameliorates olanzapine-induced weight gain through modulation of histaminergic, NPY and AMPK pathways.

    PubMed

    Lian, Jiamei; Huang, Xu-Feng; Pai, Nagesh; Deng, Chao

    2014-10-01

    Olanzapine is widely used to treat schizophrenia and other disorders, but causes adverse obesity and other metabolic side-effects. Both animal and clinical studies have shown that co-treatment with betahistine (a histaminergic H1 receptor agonist and H3 receptor antagonist) is effective for ameliorating olanzapine-induced weight gain/obesity. To reveal the mechanisms underlying these effects, this study investigated the effects of co-treatment of olanzapine and betahistine (O+B) on expressions of histaminergic H1 receptor (H1R), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) in the hypothalamus associated with reducing olanzapine-induced weight gain. Olanzapine significantly upregulated the mRNA and protein expressions of H1R, while O+B co-treatment significantly downregulated the H1R levels, compared to the olanzapine-only treatment group. The NPY mRNA expression was significantly enhanced by olanzapine, but it was significantly reversed by O+B co-treatment. The hypothalamic H1R expression was positively correlated with total food intake, and NPY expression. Olanzapine also increased AMPKα activation measured by the AMPKα phosphorylation (pAMPKα)/AMPKα ratio compared with controls, whereas O+B co-treatment decreased the pAMPKα/AMPKα ratio, compared with olanzapine only treatment. The pAMPKα/AMPKα ratio was positively correlated with total food intake and H1R expression. Although olanzapine administration decreased the POMC mRNA level, this level was not affected by O+B co-treatment. Therefore, these results suggested that co-treatment with betahistine may reverse olanzapine-induced body weight gain via the H1R-NPY and H1R-pAMPKα pathways.

  19. The effect of mothers’ empowerment program on premature infants’ weight gain and duration of hospitalization

    PubMed Central

    Mohammaddoost, Fatemeh; Mosayebi, Ziba; Peyrovi, Hamid; Chehrzad, Minoo-Mitra; Mehran, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Background: The readiness of mothers to take care for infants at discharge is a critical issue. Poor readiness of mothers in taking care of premature infants at the time of discharge is associated with potential adverse consequences. This study examined the effect of implementing mothers’ empowerment program on the weight gain and duration of hospitalization in premature infants. Materials and Methods: This study was a quasi-experimental before-after study with a control group, in which 80 mothers with premature infants who were hospitalized in NICU Level II of two hospitals were recruited in the study. Mothers’ empowerment program was implemented as a three-stage training program for the intervention group. Mothers’ readiness questionnaire was completed by the mothers before the intervention and at the discharge time. The changes in mean of mothers’ readiness scores were compared in both the groups. Results: The mean of daily weight gain in infants of the intervention group (3.95 g) was significantly higher than that of the infants in the control group (−0.9 g) (P = 0.003). The average duration of hospitalization for infants in the intervention and control groups was 15.45 days and 20.95 days, respectively, showing a statistically significant difference (P = 0.003). Conclusions: Providing training to the mothers regarding how to care for premature infants can be a useful and effective method in the process of weight gain of premature and low-birth newborns, and may shorten the duration of infants’ hospitalization. PMID:27563317

  20. Recruiting African American girls and parents for a secondary weight gain prevention study.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Betty M; Newton, Robert L; York-Crowe, Emily; Walden, Heather M; Ryan, Donna H; White, Marney A; Williamson, Donald A

    2008-01-01

    This research report describes the process and results of recruiting African American adolescent girls and parents for a secondary weight gain prevention study. We sought to recruit 60 girls with equal representation of at-risk for overweight (BMI percentile 85-95) and overweight (BMI > 95th percentile), and at least one obese (BMI > 30 kg/m2) parent. A personal and individual recruitment approach was the sole method utilized for recruitment of participants into this two-year Internet-based study targeting weight gain prevention. Participants were randomized to either an interactive behavioral condition or a health-based education (control) condition. Fifty-seven African American adolescent girls and their parents were enrolled in the study conducted at a university-based nutrition research center. One hundred eight adolescent girls volunteered and met the study criteria on the first contact, 95 interviewed in the clinic, 64 were randomized, and 57 (89%) of those randomized began the study. Seven percent of the study sample was comprised of African American girls at-risk for overweight, while the majority (93%) of those enrolled were overweight (BMI > 95th percentile). Our study sample comprised an imbalanced number of overweight versus at-risk for overweight African American girls suggesting that perhaps a clinic-based secondary weight gain prevention study may be an inefficient and ineffective setting for recruiting this population. Although we were successful in recruiting a majority of overweight girls, we conclude that the imbalance in the number of participants recruited is likely related to the sociocultural environment that predisposes African American girls to obesity and a lack of awareness by the parents' of the consequences of being overweight.

  1. Preliminary Findings of Learning Gains for Adult Learners with Developmental Disabilities. Research Brief No. 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posey, Virginia; Jacobsen, Jared

    2007-01-01

    Public perception of adults with developmental disabilities realizing learning gains often remains illusive. This paper highlights key findings in achievement in basic skills for adults with mental retardation on a functional assessment in a life skills context for three program years (2003-2006). In this study the time period between the pre- and…

  2. Overexpression of GRF encapsulated in PLGA microspheres in animal skeletal muscle induces body weight gain.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-liang; Ren, Xiao-hui; Liu, Song-cai; Dai, Jian-wei; Hao, Lin-lin; Jiang, Qing-yan

    2007-01-01

    Biodegradable nanospheres or microspheres have been widely used as a sustained release system for the delivery of bioagents. In the present study, injectable sustained-release growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF) (1-32) microspheres were prepared by a double emulsion-in liquid evaporation process using biodegradable polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) as the carrier. The entrapment efficiency was 89.79% and the mean particle size was 4.41 mum. The microspheres were injected into mouse tibialis muscle. After 30 days, mice injected with GRF (1-32) microspheres (group I) gained significantly more weight than any other treatment group, including mice injected with the naked plasmid (group II) (10.26 +/- 0.13 vs. 9.09 +/- 0.56; P < 0.05), a mixture of microspheres and plasmid (group III) (10.26 +/- 0.13 vs. 8.57 +/- 0.02; P < 0.05), or saline (IV) (10.26 +/- 0.13 vs. 6.47 +/- 0.26; P < 0.05). In addition, mice treated with the GRF (1-32) microspheres exhibited the highest expression levels of GRF as detected by PCR, RT-PCR, and ELISA (mean 2.56 +/- 0.40, P < 0.05, overall comparison of treatment with groups II, III, and IV). Additionally, rabbits were injected in the tibialis muscle with the same treatments described above. After 30 days, the group treated with GRF (1-32) microspheres gained the most weight. At day 30 postinjection, weight gain in group I was 63.93% higher than group II (plasmid) (877.10 +/- 24.42 vs. 535.05 +/- 26.38; P < 0.05), 108.59% higher than group III (blank MS) (877.10 +/- 24.42 vs. 420.50 +/- 19.39; P < 0.05), and 93.94% higher than group IV (saline) (877.10 +/- 24.42 vs. 452.25 +/- 27.38; P < 0.05). Furthermore, IGF-1 levels in the serum from GRF microsphere-treated group were elevated relative to all other groups. The present results suggest that encapsulation of GRF with PLGA increases GRF gene expression in muscle after local plasmid delivery, and stimulates significantly more weight gain than delivery of the naked plasmid alone.

  3. Maternal Weight Loss during Exclusive Breastfeeding Is Associated with Reduced Weight and Length Gain in Daughters of HIV-Infected Malawian Women123

    PubMed Central

    Widen, Elizabeth M.; Bentley, Margaret E.; Kayira, Dumbani; Chasela, Charles S.; Jamieson, Denise J.; Tembo, Martin; Soko, Alice; Kourtis, Athena P.; Flax, Valerie L.; Ellington, Sascha R.; van der Horst, Charles M.; Adair, Linda S.

    2013-01-01

    Maternal weight loss during exclusive breastfeeding may influence the growth of exclusively breast-fed infants through impaired quality or quantity of breast milk. This study evaluated how maternal weight loss from 2 to 24 wk postpartum was related to infant weight and length gain in 1309 lactating HIV-infected mothers and their exclusively breast-fed infants. Malawian mother-infant pairs in the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition Study were randomized with a 2 × 3 factorial design to a 2-arm nutritional intervention with a lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS), meeting nutritional needs of lactation, or no LNS and a 3-arm antiretroviral (ARV) intervention (maternal, infant, or no ARV regimen). Linear regression models were used to relate maternal weight loss (weight loss vs. no weight loss) to infant weight and length gain from birth to 24 mo, stratifying by gender and controlling for maternal BMI at 2 wk (mean ± SD: 23.2 ± 3.0 kg/m2) and interacting maternal BMI with weight loss. In adjusted models, compared with daughters of women who did not lose weight, length and weight gain were lower in daughters whose mothers had a lower BMI at 2 wk postpartum coupled with the weight loss. For example, among mothers with an initial BMI of 18 kg/m2, daughters of those who lost weight gained less weight [β = −0.29 kg (95% CI: −0.53, −0.06)] and length [β = −0.88 cm (95% CI: −1.52, −0.23)] from birth to 24 wk than daughters of those who gained weight. Though effects were only observed in girls, suggesting possible gender differences in suckling and feeding behavior, these findings indicate that maternal weight loss with low energy reserves represents a risk factor for poor infant growth outcomes. PMID:23700341

  4. Early Gestational Weight Gain Rate and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes in Korean Women.

    PubMed

    Cho, Eun-Hee; Hur, Junguk; Lee, Kyung-Ju

    2015-01-01

    During pregnancy, many women gain excessive weight, which is related to adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. In this study, we evaluated whether rate of gestational weight gain (RGWG) in early, mid, and late pregnancy is strongly associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. A retrospective chart review of 2,789 pregnant Korean women was performed. Weights were recorded at the first clinic visit, during the screening test for fetal anomaly, and during the 50g oral glucose challenge test and delivery, to represent early, mid, and late pregnancy, respectively. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the relationship between RGWG and adverse pregnancy outcomes. At early pregnancy, the RGWG was significantly associated with high risk of developing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), large for gestational age (LGA) infants, macrosomia, and primary cesarean section (P-CS). The RGWG of mid pregnancy was not significantly associated with any adverse pregnancy outcomes. The RGWG at late pregnancy was significantly associated with a lower risk of developing GDM, preterm birth and P-CS, but with a higher risk of developing LGA infants and macrosomia. When the subjects were divided into three groups (Underweight, Normal, and Obese), based on pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), the relationship between early RGWG and adverse pregnancy outcomes was significantly different across the three BMI groups. At early pregnancy, RGWG was not significantly associated to adverse pregnancy outcomes for subjects in the Underweight group. In the Normal group, however, early RGWG was significantly associated with GDM, PIH, LGA infants, macrosomia, P-CS, and small for gestational weight (SGA) infants, whereas early RGWG was significantly associated with only a high risk of PIH in the Obese group. The results of our study suggest that early RGWG is significantly associated with various adverse pregnancy outcomes and that

  5. Preventing Weight Gain and Obesity: Indirect Effects of the Family Check-Up in Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Justin D.; Montaño, Zorash; Dishion, Thomas J.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Wilson, Melvin N.

    2014-01-01

    The early signs of obesity are observable in early childhood. Although the most promising prevention approaches are family centered, few relevant early prevention programs exist. This study evaluated the effects of an evidence-based, home-visiting intervention, the Family Check-Up (FCU), on the trajectory of children’s weight gain. The FCU was designed to prevent the development of behavior problems by improving family management practices; children’s weight has not been an explicit target. On the basis of previous research and conceptual models, we hypothesized that intervention effects on parenting practices, specifically caregivers’ use of positive behavior support (PBS) strategies in toddlerhood, would mediate improvements in children’s weight trajectories. A total of 731 indigent caregiver–child dyads from a multisite randomized intervention trial were examined. Observational assessment of parenting and mealtime behaviors occurred from age 2 to 5. The child’s body mass index (BMI) was assessed yearly from age 5 to 9.5. Path analysis with a latent growth model revealed a significant indirect effect of the FCU on the trajectory of BMI in later childhood. Improvements in caregivers’ PBS in toddlerhood, which was related to the nutritional quality of the meals caregivers served to the child during the mealtime task, served as the intervening process. Further, findings indicate that the FCU prevents progression to overweight and obese status amongst at-risk children. These study results add to existing evidence that has demonstrated that family-based interventions aimed at improving general family management skills are effective at preventing weight gain. Future directions are discussed. PMID:25263212

  6. Hypothalamic Deep Brain Stimulation Reduces Weight Gain in an Obesity-Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Melega, William P.; Lacan, Goran; Gorgulho, Alessandra A.; Behnke, Eric J.; De Salles, Antonio A. F.

    2012-01-01

    Prior studies of appetite regulatory networks, primarily in rodents, have established that targeted electrical stimulation of ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) can alter food intake patterns and metabolic homeostasis. Consideration of this method for weight modulation in humans with severe overeating disorders and morbid obesity can be further advanced by modeling procedures and assessing endpoints that can provide preclinical data on efficacy and safety. In this study we adapted human deep brain stimulation (DBS) stereotactic methods and instrumentation to demonstrate in a large animal model the modulation of weight gain with VMH-DBS. Female Göttingen minipigs were used because of their dietary habits, physiologic characteristics, and brain structures that resemble those of primates. Further, these animals become obese on extra-feeding regimens. DBS electrodes were first bilaterally implanted into the VMH of the animals (n = 8) which were then maintained on a restricted food regimen for 1 mo following the surgery. The daily amount of food was then doubled for the next 2 mo in all animals to produce obesity associated with extra calorie intake, with half of the animals (n = 4) concurrently receiving continuous low frequency (50 Hz) VMH-DBS. Adverse motoric or behavioral effects were not observed subsequent to the surgical procedure or during the DBS period. Throughout this 2 mo DBS period, all animals consumed the doubled amount of daily food. However, the animals that had received VMH-DBS showed a cumulative weight gain (6.1±0.4 kg; mean ± SEM) that was lower than the nonstimulated VMH-DBS animals (9.4±1.3 kg; p<0.05), suggestive of a DBS-associated increase in metabolic rate. These results in a porcine obesity model demonstrate the efficacy and behavioral safety of a low frequency VMH-DBS application as a potential clinical strategy for modulation of body weight. PMID:22295102

  7. Hypothalamic deep brain stimulation reduces weight gain in an obesity-animal model.

    PubMed

    Melega, William P; Lacan, Goran; Gorgulho, Alessandra A; Behnke, Eric J; De Salles, Antonio A F

    2012-01-01

    Prior studies of appetite regulatory networks, primarily in rodents, have established that targeted electrical stimulation of ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) can alter food intake patterns and metabolic homeostasis. Consideration of this method for weight modulation in humans with severe overeating disorders and morbid obesity can be further advanced by modeling procedures and assessing endpoints that can provide preclinical data on efficacy and safety. In this study we adapted human deep brain stimulation (DBS) stereotactic methods and instrumentation to demonstrate in a large animal model the modulation of weight gain with VMH-DBS. Female Göttingen minipigs were used because of their dietary habits, physiologic characteristics, and brain structures that resemble those of primates. Further, these animals become obese on extra-feeding regimens. DBS electrodes were first bilaterally implanted into the VMH of the animals (n = 8) which were then maintained on a restricted food regimen for 1 mo following the surgery. The daily amount of food was then doubled for the next 2 mo in all animals to produce obesity associated with extra calorie intake, with half of the animals (n = 4) concurrently receiving continuous low frequency (50 Hz) VMH-DBS. Adverse motoric or behavioral effects were not observed subsequent to the surgical procedure or during the DBS period. Throughout this 2 mo DBS period, all animals consumed the doubled amount of daily food. However, the animals that had received VMH-DBS showed a cumulative weight gain (6.1±0.4 kg; mean ± SEM) that was lower than the nonstimulated VMH-DBS animals (9.4±1.3 kg; p<0.05), suggestive of a DBS-associated increase in metabolic rate. These results in a porcine obesity model demonstrate the efficacy and behavioral safety of a low frequency VMH-DBS application as a potential clinical strategy for modulation of body weight.

  8. A neutral CB1 receptor antagonist reduces weight gain in rat.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Adam P; Vemuri, V Kiran; Peng, Yan; Wood, Jodianne T; Olszewska, Teresa; Pittman, Quentin J; Makriyannis, Alexandros; Sharkey, Keith A

    2007-12-01

    Cannabinoid (CB)1 receptor inverse agonists inhibit food intake in animals and humans but also potentiate emesis. It is not clear whether these effects result from inverse agonist properties or from the blockade of endogenous cannabinoid signaling. Here, we examine the effect of a neutral CB1 antagonist, AM4113, on food intake, weight gain, and emesis. Neutral antagonist and binding properties were confirmed in HEK-293 cells transfected with human CB1 or CB2 receptors. AM4113 had no effect on forskolin-stimulated cAMP production at concentrations up to 630 nM. The Ki value of AM4113 (0.80 +/- 0.44 nM) in competitive binding assays with the CB1/2 agonist [3H]CP55,940 was 100-fold more selective for CB1 over CB2 receptors. We determined that AM4113 antagonized CB1 receptors in brain by blocking hypothermia induced by CP55,940. AM4113 (0-20 mg/kg) significantly reduced food intake and weight gain in rat. Compared with AM251, higher doses of AM4113 were needed to produce similar effects on food intake and body weight. Unlike AM251 (5 mg/kg), a highly anorectic dose of AM4113 (10 mg/kg) did not significantly potentiate vomiting induced by the emetic morphine-6-glucoronide. We show that a centrally active neutral CB1 receptor antagonist shares the appetite suppressant and weight loss effects of inverse agonists. If these compounds display similar properties in humans, they could be developed into a new class of antiobesity agents. PMID:17959701

  9. Systematic Review of the Methodological Quality of Studies Aimed at Creating Gestational Weight Gain Charts.

    PubMed

    Ohadike, Corah O; Cheikh-Ismail, Leila; Ohuma, Eric O; Giuliani, Francesca; Bishop, Deborah; Kac, Gilberto; Puglia, Fabien; Maia-Schlüssel, Michael; Kennedy, Stephen H; Villar, José; Hirst, Jane E

    2016-03-01

    A range of adverse outcomes is associated with insufficient and excessive maternal weight gain in pregnancy, but there is no consensus regarding what constitutes optimal gestational weight gain (GWG). Differences in the methodological quality of GWG studies may explain the varying chart recommendations. The goal of this systematic review was to evaluate the methodological quality of studies that aimed to create GWG charts by scoring them against a set of predefined, independently agreed-upon criteria. These criteria were divided into 3 domains: study design (12 criteria), statistical methods (7 criteria), and reporting methods (4 criteria). The criteria were broken down further into items, and studies were assigned a quality score (QS) based on these criteria. For each item, studies were scored as either high (score = 0) or low (score = 1) risk of bias; a high QS correlated with a low risk of bias. The maximum possible QS was 34. The systematic search identified 12 eligible studies involving 2,268,556 women from 9 countries; their QSs ranged from 9 (26%) to 29 (85%) (median, 18; 53%). The most common sources for bias were found in study designs (i.e., not prospective); assessments of prepregnancy weight and gestational age; descriptions of weighing protocols; sample size calculations; and the multiple measurements taken at each visit. There is wide variation in the methodological quality of GWG studies constructing charts. High-quality studies are needed to guide future clinical recommendations. We recommend the following main requirements for future studies: prospective design, reliable evaluation of prepregnancy weight and gestational age, detailed description of measurement procedures and protocols, description of sample-size calculation, and the creation of smooth centile charts or z scores. PMID:26980814

  10. Weight loss attempts in adults: goals, duration, and rate of weight loss.

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, D F; Serdula, M K; Anda, R F; Levy, A; Byers, T

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Although attempted weight loss is common, little is known about the goals and durations of weight loss attempts and the rates of achieved weight loss in the general population. METHODS. Data were collected by telephone in 1989 from adults aged 18 years and older in 39 states and the District of Columbia. Analyses were carried out separately for the 6758 men and 14,915 women who reported currently trying to lose weight. RESULTS. Approximately 25% of the men respondents and 40% of the women respondents reported that they were currently trying to lose weight. Among men, a higher percentage of Hispanics (31%) than of Whites (25%) or Blacks (23%) reported trying to lose weight. Among women, however, there were no ethnic differences in prevalence. The average man wanted to lose 30 pounds and to weigh 178 pounds; the average woman wanted to lose 31 pounds and to weigh 133 pounds. Black women wanted to lose an average of 8 pounds more than did White women, but Black women's goal weight was 10 pounds heavier. The average rate of achieved weight loss was 1.4 pounds per week for men and 1.1 pounds per week for women; these averages, however, may reflect only the experience of those most successful at losing weight. CONCLUSIONS. Attempted weight loss is a common behavior, regardless of age, gender, or ethnicity, and weight loss goals are substantial; however, obesity remains a major public health problem in the United States. PMID:1503167

  11. Sweet taste of saccharin induces weight gain without increasing caloric intake, not related to insulin-resistance in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Foletto, Kelly Carraro; Melo Batista, Bruna Aparecida; Neves, Alice Magagnin; de Matos Feijó, Fernanda; Ballard, Cíntia Reis; Marques Ribeiro, Maria Flávia; Bertoluci, Marcello Casaccia

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study, we showed that saccharin can induce weight gain when compared with sucrose in Wistar rats despite similar total caloric intake. We now question whether it could be due to the sweet taste of saccharin per se. We also aimed to address if this weight gain is associated with insulin-resistance and to increases in gut peptides such as leptin and PYY in the fasting state. In a 14 week experiment, 16 male Wistar rats received either saccharin-sweetened yogurt or non-sweetened yogurt daily in addition to chow and water ad lib. We measured daily food intake and weight gain weekly. At the end of the experiment, we evaluated fasting leptin, glucose, insulin, PYY and determined insulin resistance through HOMA-IR. Cumulative weight gain and food intake were evaluated through linear mixed models. Results showed that saccharin induced greater weight gain when compared with non-sweetened control (p = 0.027) despite a similar total caloric intake. There were no differences in HOMA-IR, fasting leptin or PYY levels between groups. We conclude that saccharin sweet taste can induce mild weight gain in Wistar rats without increasing total caloric intake. This weight gain was not related with insulin-resistance nor changes in fasting leptin or PYY in Wistar rats.

  12. Weight stigmatization and bias reduction: perspectives of overweight and obese adults.

    PubMed

    Puhl, Rebecca M; Moss-Racusin, Corinne A; Schwartz, Marlene B; Brownell, Kelly D

    2008-04-01

    This study employed qualitative methods with a sample of overweight and obese adults to identify and describe their subjective experiences of weight bias. Participants (274 females and 44 males) completed an online battery of self-report questionnaires, including several open-ended questions about weight stigmatization. These questions asked them to describe their worst experiences of weight stigmatization, their perceptions of common weight-based stereotypes, their feelings about being overweight and their suggestions for strategies to reduce weight stigma in our culture. Participants reported experiencing weight stigma across a range of contexts and involving a variety of interpersonal sources. Close relationship partners (such as friends, parents and spouses) were the most common source of their worst stigmatizing encounters. Participants challenged common weight-based stereotypes (notably, that obese individuals are 'lazy') and reported that they would like the public to gain a better understanding of the difficulties of weight loss, the causes of obesity and the emotional consequences of being stigmatized. Education was reported as the most promising avenue for future stigma-reduction efforts. The experiences and opinions expressed were not significantly different for men versus women or overweight versus obese individuals. A minority of participants expressed beliefs suggestive of self-blame and internalization of weight-based stereotypes. These results indicate that while obese individuals experience weight bias across many domains, more stigma-reduction efforts should target stigmatizing encounters in close relationships, including parents, spouses and friends of obese persons. PMID:17884836

  13. Laminin α4 deficient mice exhibit decreased capacity for adipose tissue expansion and weight gain.

    PubMed

    Vaicik, Marcella K; Thyboll Kortesmaa, Jill; Movérare-Skrtic, Sofia; Kortesmaa, Jarkko; Soininen, Raija; Bergström, Göran; Ohlsson, Claes; Chong, Li Yen; Rozell, Björn; Emont, Margo; Cohen, Ronald N; Brey, Eric M; Tryggvason, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a global epidemic that contributes to the increasing medical burdens related to type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. A better understanding of the mechanisms regulating adipose tissue expansion could lead to therapeutics that eliminate or reduce obesity-associated morbidity and mortality. The extracellular matrix (ECM) has been shown to regulate the development and function of numerous tissues and organs. However, there is little understanding of its function in adipose tissue. In this manuscript we describe the role of laminin α4, a specialized ECM protein surrounding adipocytes, on weight gain and adipose tissue function. Adipose tissue accumulation, lipogenesis, and structure were examined in mice with a null mutation of the laminin α4 gene (Lama4-/-) and compared to wild-type (Lama4+/+) control animals. Lama4-/- mice exhibited reduced weight gain in response to both age and high fat diet. Interestingly, the mice had decreased adipose tissue mass and altered lipogenesis in a depot-specific manner. In particular, epididymal adipose tissue mass was specifically decreased in knock-out mice, and there was also a defect in lipogenesis in this depot as well. In contrast, no such differences were observed in subcutaneous adipose tissue at 14 weeks. The results suggest that laminin α4 influences adipose tissue structure and function in a depot-specific manner. Alterations in laminin composition offers insight into the roll the ECM potentially plays in modulating cellular behavior in adipose tissue expansion.

  14. Lean rats gained more body weight from a high-fructooligosaccharide diet.

    PubMed

    Li, Shaoting; Yingyi, Gu; Chen, Long; Lijuan, Gao; Ou, Shiyi; Peng, Xichun

    2015-07-01

    Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) are believed to be beneficial to the host growth and its gut health. This article is intended to investigate the different influences of a high-fructooligosaccharide (FOS) diet on the growth and gut microbiota of lean and obese rats. Diet-induced lean and obese rats were fed a high-FOS diet for 8 weeks. Rats' body weight (BW) and feed intake were recorded weekly, and their gut microbiota was analyzed by 16S rDNA sequencing. The results showed that the lean rats gained more BW than the obese ones from the high-FOS diet. In the meanwhile, the gut microbiota in both lean and obese rats was altered by this diet. The abundance of Bacteroidetes was increased significantly (P < 0.05) in the lean rats, while no significant alteration in Firmicutes was observed in all rats after the consumption of a high-FOS diet. In conclusion, this study first reported that the lean rats gained more body weight from a high-FOS diet than the obese ones, and the increase of Bacteroidetes might help rats harvest more energy from the high-FOS diet.

  15. A Dynamical Systems Model for Improving Gestational Weight Gain Behavioral Interventions.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yuwen; Rivera, Daniel E; Thomas, Diana M; Navarro-Barrientos, Jesús E; Downs, Danielle S; Savage, Jennifer S; Collins, Linda M

    2012-01-01

    Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) represents a major public health concern. In this paper, we present a dynamical systems model that describes how a behavioral intervention can influence weight gain during pregnancy. The model relies on the integration of a mechanistic energy balance with a dynamical behavioral model. The behavioral model incorporates some well-accepted concepts from psychology: the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and the principle of self-regulation which describes how internal processes within the individual can serve to reinforce the positive outcomes of an intervention. A hypothetical case study is presented to illustrate the basic workings of the model and demonstrate how the proper design of the intervention can counteract natural trends towards declines in healthy eating and reduced physical activity during the course of pregnancy. The model can be used by behavioral scientists to evaluate decision rules for adaptive time-varying behavioral interventions, or as the open-loop model for hybrid model predictive control algorithms acting as decision frameworks for such interventions.

  16. Prepregnancy body mass and weight gain during pregnancy in India and sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Coffey, Diane

    2015-03-17

    Despite being wealthier, Indian children are significantly shorter and smaller than African children. These differences begin very early in life, suggesting that they may in part reflect differences in maternal health. By applying reweighting estimation strategies to the Demographic and Health Surveys, this paper reports, to my knowledge, the first representative estimates of prepregnancy body mass index and weight gain during pregnancy for India and sub-Saharan Africa. I find that 42.2% of prepregnant women in India are underweight compared with 16.5% of prepregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa. Levels of prepregnancy underweight for India are almost seven percentage points higher than the average fraction underweight among women 15-49 y old. This difference in part reflects a previously unquantified relationship among age, fertility, and underweight; childbearing is concentrated in the narrow age range in which Indian women are most likely to be underweight. Further, because weight gain during pregnancy is low, averaging about 7 kg for a full-term pregnancy in both regions, the average woman in India ends pregnancy weighing less than the average woman in sub-Saharan Africa begins pregnancy. Poor maternal health among Indian women is of global significance because India is home to one fifth of the world's births.

  17. Individual Differences in Striatum Activity to Food Commercials Predict Weight Gain in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Yokum, Sonja; Gearhardt, Ashley N.; Harris, Jennifer L.; Brownell, Kelly D.; Stice, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Objective Adolescents view thousands of food commercials annually, but little is known about how individual differences in neural response to food commercials relate to weight gain. To add to our understanding of individual risk factors for unhealthy weight gain and environmental contributions to the obesity epidemic, we tested the associations between reward region (striatum and orbitofrontal cortex [OFC]) responsivity to food commercials and future change in Body Mass Index (BMI). Design and Methods Adolescents (N = 30) underwent a scan session at baseline while watching a television show edited to include 20 food commercials and 20 non-food commercials. BMI was measured at baseline and 1-year follow-up. Results Activation in the striatum, but not OFC, in response to food commercials relative to non-food commercials and in response to food commercials relative to the television show was positively associated with change in BMI over 1-year follow-up. Baseline BMI did not moderate these effects. Conclusions The results suggest that there are individual differences in neural susceptibility to food advertising. These findings highlight a potential mechanism for the impact of food marketing on adolescent obesity. PMID:25155745

  18. Estrogenic Plant Extracts Reverse Weight Gain and Fat Accumulation without Causing Mammary Gland or Uterine Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Saunier, Elise F.; Vivar, Omar I.; Rubenstein, Andrea; Zhao, Xiaoyue; Olshansky, Moshe; Baggett, Scott; Staub, Richard E.; Tagliaferri, Mary; Cohen, Isaac; Speed, Terence P.; Baxter, John D.; Leitman, Dale C.

    2011-01-01

    Long-term estrogen deficiency increases the risk of obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Menopausal hormone therapy containing estrogens might prevent these conditions, but its prolonged use increases the risk of breast cancer, as wells as endometrial cancer if used without progestins. Animal studies indicate that beneficial effects of estrogens in adipose tissue and adverse effects on mammary gland and uterus are mediated by estrogen receptor alpha (ERα). One strategy to improve the safety of estrogens to prevent/treat obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome is to develop estrogens that act as agonists in adipose tissue, but not in mammary gland and uterus. We considered plant extracts, which have been the source of many pharmaceuticals, as a source of tissue selective estrogens. Extracts from two plants, Glycyrrhiza uralensis (RG) and Pueraria montana var. lobata (RP) bound to ERα, activated ERα responsive reporters, and reversed weight gain and fat accumulation comparable to estradiol in ovariectomized obese mice maintained on a high fat diet. Unlike estradiol, RG and RP did not induce proliferative effects on mammary gland and uterus. Gene expression profiling demonstrated that RG and RP induced estradiol-like regulation of genes in abdominal fat, but not in mammary gland and uterus. The compounds in extracts from RG and RP might constitute a new class of tissue selective estrogens to reverse weight gain, fat accumulation and metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. PMID:22163294

  19. A Dynamical Systems Model for Improving Gestational Weight Gain Behavioral Interventions.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yuwen; Rivera, Daniel E; Thomas, Diana M; Navarro-Barrientos, Jesús E; Downs, Danielle S; Savage, Jennifer S; Collins, Linda M

    2012-01-01

    Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) represents a major public health concern. In this paper, we present a dynamical systems model that describes how a behavioral intervention can influence weight gain during pregnancy. The model relies on the integration of a mechanistic energy balance with a dynamical behavioral model. The behavioral model incorporates some well-accepted concepts from psychology: the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and the principle of self-regulation which describes how internal processes within the individual can serve to reinforce the positive outcomes of an intervention. A hypothetical case study is presented to illustrate the basic workings of the model and demonstrate how the proper design of the intervention can counteract natural trends towards declines in healthy eating and reduced physical activity during the course of pregnancy. The model can be used by behavioral scientists to evaluate decision rules for adaptive time-varying behavioral interventions, or as the open-loop model for hybrid model predictive control algorithms acting as decision frameworks for such interventions. PMID:24309837

  20. Risk Factors for Excessive Gestational Weight Gain in a Healthy, Nulliparous Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Rennae S.; Thompson, John M. D.; Flower, Deralie; Dekker, Gustaaf A.; Kenny, Louise C.; Poston, Lucilla; McCowan, Lesley M. E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) is associated with adverse maternal and child outcomes and contributes to obesity in women. Our aim was to identify early pregnancy factors associated with excessive GWG, in a contemporary nulliparous cohort. Methods. Participants in the SCOPE study were classified into GWG categories (“not excessive” versus “excessive”) based on pregravid body mass index (BMI) using 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines. Maternal characteristics and pregnancy risk factors at 14–16 weeks were compared between categories and multivariable analysis controlled for confounding factors. Results. Of 1950 women, 17% gained weight within the recommended range, 74% had excessive and 9% inadequate GWG. Women with excessive GWG were more likely to be overweight (adjOR 2.9 (95% CI 2.2–3.8)) or obese (adjOR 2.5 (95% CI 1.8–3.5)) before pregnancy compared to women with a normal BMI. Other factors independently associated with excessive GWG included recruitment in Ireland, younger maternal age, increasing maternal birthweight, cessation of smoking by 14–16 weeks, increased nightly sleep duration, high seafood diet, recent immigrant, limiting behaviour, and decreasing exercise by 14–16 weeks. Fertility treatment was protective. Conclusions. Identification of potentially modifiable risk factors for excessive GWG provides opportunities for intervention studies to improve pregnancy outcome and prevent maternal obesity. PMID:24995130

  1. Outrunning major weight gain: a prospective study of 8,340consistent runners during 7 years of follow-up

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.

    2006-01-06

    Background: Body weight increases with aging. Short-term,longitudinal exercise training studies suggest that increasing exerciseproduces acute weight loss, but it is not clear if the maintenance oflong-term, vigorous exercise attenuates age-related weight gain inproportion to the exercise dose. Methods: Prospective study of 6,119 maleand 2,221 female runners whose running distance changed less than 5 km/wkbetween their baseline and follow-up survey 7 years later. Results: Onaverage, men who ran modest (0-24 km/wk), intermediate (24-48 km/wk) orprolonged distances (>_48 km/wk) all gained weight throughage 64,however, those who ran ?48 km/wk had one-half the average annual weightgain of those who ran<24 km/wk. Age-related weight gain, and itsreduction by running, were both greater in younger than older men. Incontrast, men s gain in waist circumference with age, and its reductionby running, were the same in older and younger men. Women increased theirbody weight and waist and hip circumferences over time, regardless ofage, which was also reduced in proportion to running distance. In bothsexes, running did not attenuate weight gain uniformly, but ratherdisproportionately prevented more extreme increases. Conclusion: Men andwomen who remain vigorously active gain less weight as they age and thereduction is in proportion to the exercise dose.

  2. Chronic systemic administration of 5-HT produces weight loss in mature adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Edwards, S

    1995-09-01

    Adult male rats were allowed to free-feed until their body weights had stabilised. They were next trained onto a 4 h per day feeding regimen, until further stabilisation occurred. All rats then received saline injections for 5 days, to establish baseline body weights. One group was then injected with 5.0 mg/kg 5-HT daily for 30 days while the other group continued with saline. Progressive and significant weight loss occurred in the drug-treated animals. After 30 days, the 5-HT-treated rats had lost 7.0% of their baseline body weights, whereas the control group had gained 1.3%. At this point, the 5-HT treated rats were switched back to saline injections to investigate rebound effects. Although the group that had received 5-HT treatment showed evidence of rebound weight gain, mean weights at the end of the 10 day rebound period were still 4.5% lower than baseline values. These data clearly indicate that chronic systemic administration of 5-HT can produce considerable weight loss in rats.

  3. Frequent self-weighing as part of a constellation of healthy weight control practices in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Wing, Rena R.; Tate, Deborah; LaRose, Jessica Gokee; Gorin, Amy A.; Erickson, Karen; Robichaud, Erica Ferguson; Perdue, Letitia; Bahnson, Judy; Espeland, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Frequent self-weighing is linked with weight management success but concern has been raised about its possible association with unhealthy practices. We examined the association of self-weighing with other weight control behaviors in a sample for whom frequent weighing might be questioned—namely normal weight or overweight (BMI of 21–29.9) young adults (age 18–35). Design and Methods Participants (N=583; mean [SD] age= 27.7 [4.4]; BMI=25.4 [2.6]) entering the Study of Novel Approaches to Weight Gain Prevention (SNAP) completed objective measures of weight and physical activity and self-reported weight history, use of healthy and unhealthy weight control strategies, depressive symptoms, and dietary intake. Results Daily self-weighing was reported by 11% of participants and 23% weighed several times per week. Frequent weighing was not associated with current BMI, gender or age, but was associated with being further below one’s highest weight, history of dieting, and perceived difficulty maintaining weight. Frequent weighing was associated with number of healthy weight management strategies but not with unhealthy practices or depressive symptoms. Conclusions In this sample, frequent self-weighing appears to be part of a constellation of healthy weight control behaviors used to counteract a perceived tendency toward weight gain. SNAP follow-up will determine whether frequent self-weighing helps prevent weight gain. PMID:25865175

  4. Body mass and weight change in adults in relation to mortality risk.

    PubMed

    Adams, Kenneth F; Leitzmann, Michael F; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; Albanes, Demetrius; Harris, Tamara B; Hollenbeck, Albert; Kipnis, Victor

    2014-01-15

    Using data from the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study, we evaluated the influence of adulthood weight history on mortality risk. The National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study is an observational cohort study of US men and women who were aged 50-71 years at entry in 1995-1996. This analysis focused on 109,947 subjects who had never smoked and were younger than age 70 years. We estimated hazard ratios of total and cause-specific mortality for recalled body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) at ages 18, 35, and 50 years; weight change across 3 adult age intervals; and the effect of first attaining an elevated BMI at 4 successive ages. During 12.5 years' follow-up through 2009, 12,017 deaths occurred. BMI at all ages was positively related to mortality. Weight gain was positively related to mortality, with stronger associations for gain between ages 18 and 35 years and ages 35 and 50 years than between ages 50 and 69 years. Mortality risks were higher in persons who attained or exceeded a BMI of 25.0 at a younger age than in persons who reached that threshold later in adulthood, and risks were lowest in persons who maintained a BMI below 25.0. Heavier initial BMI and weight gain in early to middle adulthood strongly predicted mortality risk in persons aged 50-69 years. PMID:24173550

  5. Evaluation of Post Cessation Weight Gain in a 1-Year Randomized Smoking Cessation Trial of Electronic Cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Cristina; Cibella, Fabio; Caponnetto, Pasquale; Campagna, Davide; Maglia, Marilena; Frazzetto, Evelise; Mondati, Enrico; Caruso, Massimo; Polosa, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    Stop smoking it is often associated to weight gain that is one of the most important causes for relapse. This is the first study to describe long-term changes in body weight in smokers invited to quit or reduce smoking by switching to ECs. Conventional cigarettes consumption and body weight were measured prospectively in a randomized controlled trial of smokers invited to switch to ECs. Post cessation weight changes from baseline at week-12, -24 and -52 were compared among 1) high, medium and zero nicotine strength products and 2) pooled continuous smoking failure, smoking reduction and abstinence phenotypes. Saliva cotinine levels and appetite levels were also measured. No significant changes in body weight were observed among high, medium and zero nicotine strength products. Differences among continuous smoking phenotypes were significant only at week-12 (p = 0.010) and week-24 (p = 0.012) with quitters gaining 2.4{plus minus}4.3 Kg and 2.9{plus minus}4.4 Kg respectively. However, weight gain at week-52 (1.5{plus minus}5.0 Kg) was no longer significant compared to Failures and Reducers. No confounding factors could explain the significant changes in body weight. Smokers who quit smoking by switching to ECs may limit their post-cessation weight gain, with substantial reversal in weight gain being manifest at late time points. PMID:26729619

  6. The 40-Something randomized controlled trial to prevent weight gain in mid-age women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity prevention is a major public health priority. Despite the health risks associated with weight gain, there has been a distinct lack of research into effective interventions to prevent, rather than treat, obesity particularly at high risk life stages such as menopause in women. This paper describes the rationale for and design of a 2-year randomized controlled trial (RCT) (the 40-Something Study) aimed at testing the feasibility and efficacy of a relatively low intensity intervention designed to achieve weight control in non-obese women about to enter the menopause transition. Methods and design The study is a parallel-group RCT consisting of 12 months of intervention (Phase 1) and 12 months of monitoring (Phase 2). Non-obese pre-menopausal healthy females 44–50 years of age were screened, stratified according to Body Mass Index (BMI) category (18.5-24.9 and 25–29.9 kg/m2) and randomly assigned to one of two groups: motivational interviewing (MI) intervention (n = 28), or a self-directed intervention (SDI) (control) (n = 26). The MI intervention consisted of five consultations with health professionals (four with a Dietitian and one with an Exercise Physiologist) who applied components of MI counselling to consultations with the women over a 12 month period. The SDI was developed as a control and these participants received print materials only. Outcome measures were collected at baseline, three, 12, 18 and 24 months and included weight (primary outcome), waist circumference, body composition, blood pressure, plasma markers of metabolic syndrome risk, dietary intake, physical activity and quality of life. Analysis of covariance will be used to investigate outcomes according to intervention type and duration (comparing baseline, 12 and 24 months). Discussion The 40-Something study is the first RCT aimed at preventing menopausal weight gain in Australian women. Importantly, this paper describes the methods used to evaluate whether

  7. Determinants of Weight Gain during the First Two Years of Life—The GECKO Drenthe Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Küpers, Leanne K.; L’Abée, Carianne; Bocca, Gianni; Stolk, Ronald P.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Corpeleijn, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explain weight gain patterns in the first two years of life, we compared the predictive values of potential risk factors individually and within four different domains: prenatal, nutrition, lifestyle and socioeconomic factors. Methods In a Dutch population-based birth cohort, length and weight were measured in 2475 infants at 1, 6, 12 and 24 months. Factors that might influence weight gain (e.g. birth weight, parental BMI, breastfeeding, hours of sleep and maternal education) were retrieved from health care files and parental questionnaires. Factors were compared with linear regression to best explain differences in weight gain, defined as changes in Z-score of weight-for-age and weight-for-length over 1–6, 6–12 and 12–24 months. In a two-step approach, factors were first studied individually for their association with growth velocity, followed by a comparison of the explained variance of the four domains. Results Birth weight and type of feeding were most importantly related to weight gain in the first six months. Breastfeeding versus formula feeding showed distinct growth patterns in the first six months, but not thereafter. From six months onwards, the ability to explain differences in weight gain decreased substantially (from R2total = 38.7% to R2total<7%). Conclusion Birth weight and breast feeding were most important to explain early weight gain, especially in the first six months of life. After the first six months of life other yet undetermined factors start to play a role. PMID:26192417

  8. Colestilan decreases weight gain by enhanced NEFA incorporation in biliary lipids and fecal lipid excretion.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto-Kawabata, Kanami; Shimada, Hiroshi; Sakai, Kaoru; Suzuki, Kazuo; Kelder, Thomas; Pieterman, Elsbet J; Cohen, Louis H; Havekes, Louis M; Princen, Hans M; van den Hoek, Anita M

    2013-05-01

    Bile acid sequestrants (BASs) are cholesterol-lowering drugs that also affect hyperglycemia. The mechanism by which BASs exert these and other metabolic effects beyond cholesterol lowering remains poorly understood. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of a BAS, colestilan, on body weight, energy expenditure, and glucose and lipid metabolism and its mechanisms of action in high-fat-fed hyperlipidemic APOE*3 Leiden (E3L) transgenic mice. Mildly insulin-resistant E3L mice were fed a high-fat diet with or without 1.5% colestilan for 8 weeks. Colestilan treatment decreased body weight, visceral and subcutaneous fat, and plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels but increased food intake. Blood glucose and plasma insulin levels were decreased, and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp analysis demonstrated improved insulin sensitivity, particularly in peripheral tissues. In addition, colestilan decreased energy expenditure and physical activity, whereas it increased the respiratory exchange ratio, indicating that colestilan induced carbohydrate catabolism. Moreover, kinetic analysis revealed that colestilan increased [(3)H]NEFA incorporation in biliary cholesterol and phospholipids and increased fecal lipid excretion. Gene expression analysis in liver, fat, and muscle supported the above findings. In summary, colestilan decreases weight gain and improves peripheral insulin sensitivity in high-fat-fed E3L mice by enhanced NEFA incorporation in biliary lipids and increased fecal lipid excretion.

  9. Early predictors of weight gain risk during treatment with olanzapine: analysis of pooled data from 58 clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Lipkovich, Ilya; Jacobson, Jennie G; Caldwell, Cathy; Hoffmann, Vicki Poole; Kryzhanovskaya, Ludmila; Beasley, Charles M

    2009-01-01

    This analysis evaluated the usefulness of different predictors in identifying patient risk of substantial weight gain (SWG) during olanzapine treatment. Data were from 58 studies with 3826 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, schizophrenia spectrum disorders, bipolar mania, bipolar depression, or borderline personality disorder. The primary definition for SWG was gaining >/=12% of baseline weight by endpoint (30 weeks +/-5 weeks); other definitions of SWG were also examined. Potential predictors of SWG included baseline patient characteristics, weight change, and percent weight change at Weeks 1, 2, 3, and 4 after olanzapine initiation. To facilitate model building and validation, the data set was randomly partitioned into training (N = 1912), validation (N = 1149), and test (N = 765) sets and 2 complementary analytic techniques were used: logistic regression with stepwise variable selection followed by receiver operating characteristic analysis for evaluation of resulting candidate models and decision trees. Approximately 24% of patients gained >/=12% of their initial weight, about 30% gained >/=10%, and 45% gained >/=7% or >/=5 kg by the 30-week endpoint. Baseline covariates significantly and positively associated with probability of SWG were lower baseline body mass index, younger age, female sex, United States residency, and African ethnicity. Early weight changes substantially improved the prediction of the risk for longer-term SWG. These results confirm that cut-offs for weight gain during the first 4 weeks of treatment may be useful in evaluating SWG risk for an individual patient.

  10. Young adult outcomes of very-low-birth-weight children.

    PubMed

    Hack, Maureen

    2006-04-01

    Information on the young adult outcomes of the initial survivors of neonatal intensive care has been reported from the United States, Canada, Australia, Great Britain and other European countries. The studies have varied with regard to whether they were regional or hospital-based, their birth-weight group and gestational age, rates of survival, socio-demographic background, and measures of assessment and types of outcome studied. Despite these differences the overall results reveal that neurodevelopment and growth sequelae persist to young adulthood. Very-low-birth-weight young adults have, with few exceptions, poorer educational achievement than normal-birth-weight controls, and fewer continue with post-high-school study. Rates of employment are, however, similar. There are no major differences in general health status, but the young adults demonstrate poorer physical abilities, higher mean blood pressure and poorer respiratory function. There is no evidence of major psychiatric disorder, although anxiety and depression are reported more often. The young adults report less risk-taking than control populations. They report fairly normal social lives and quality of life. When differences are noted they are usually due to neurosensory disabilities. Longer-term studies are needed to evaluate ultimate educational and occupational achievement. It will also be important to assess the effects of preterm birth, early growth failure and catch-up growth on later metabolic and cardiovascular health.

  11. The relevance of increased fat oxidation for body-weight management: metabolic inflexibility in the predisposition to weight gain.

    PubMed

    Astrup, A

    2011-10-01

    Cells, tissues and organisms have the ability to rapidly switch substrate oxidation from carbohydrate to fat in response to changes in nutrient intake, and to changes in energy demands, environmental cues and internal signals. In healthy, metabolically normal individuals, substrate switching occurs rapidly and completely; in other words, substrate switching is 'flexible'. A growing body of evidence demonstrates that a blunted substrate switching from low- to high-fat oxidation exists in obese individuals, as well as in pre-obese and post-obese, and that this 'metabolic inflexibility' may be a genetically determined trait. A decreased fat oxidation can lead to a positive energy balance under conditions of high-fat feeding, due to depletion of glycogen stores that stimulates appetite and energy intake through glucostatic and glucogenostatic mechanisms, e.g. hepatic sensing of glycogen stores. Several genetic polymorphisms and single-nucleotide polymorphisms have been identified that are associated with low-fat oxidation rates and metabolic inflexibility, and genetic identification of susceptible individuals may lead to personalized prevention of weight gain using fat oxidation stimulants ('fat burners') in the future. PMID:21692967

  12. Serum Trans Fatty Acids Are Not Associated with Weight Gain or Linear Growth in School-Age Children123

    PubMed Central

    Baylin, Ana; Perng, Wei; Mora-Plazas, Mercedes; Marin, Constanza; Villamor, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Animal and human adult studies indicate that long-term intake of trans fatty acids (TFAs) may be associated with weight gain. High intake of fast foods and snacks, which are rich in TFAs, is linked to overweight status among school-age children. However, the specific effects of TFAs in this population are unknown. Objective: We examined whether serum TFAs, used as biomarkers of intake, are associated with faster weight gain and linear growth during school years. Methods: We quantified TFAs by GLC in serum samples of 668 children aged 5–12 y at the time of recruitment into an ongoing cohort study performed in Bogota (Colombia) since 2006. Serum proportions of trans palmitoleic acid (16:1t), trans oleic acid (18:1t), trans linoleic acid (18:2t), and total TFAs were used as biomarkers of intake. Anthropometric characteristics were measured periodically for a median of 30 mo. Body mass index-for-age z scores (BAZs) and height-for-age z scores (HAZs) were calculated with the use of the WHO reference. We estimated mean changes in BAZs and HAZs over follow-up according to quartiles of each TFA at baseline by using mixed-effects regression models with restricted cubic splines. Results: Proportions of trans palmitoleic acid, trans oleic acid, trans linoleic acid, and total TFAs (mean ± SD, % of total serum FAs), were 0.22 ± 0.06, 0.91 ± 0.37, 0.96 ± 0.27, and 2.10 ± 0.59, respectively. Serum TFAs were not associated with changes in BAZs and HAZs after adjusting for sex, baseline age, and socioeconomic status. In a subgroup analysis by sex, serum trans palmitoleic acid was positively associated with the estimated change in HAZs from ages 6 to 14 y in boys (with use of the first quartile as the reference, differences in HAZs for trans palmitoleic acid quartiles were 0.73, 0.53, and 0.70, P-trend = 0.03). Conclusions: Proportions of serum TFAs, used as biomarkers of TFA intake, were not associated with weight gain in children aged 6–14 y in low- and middle

  13. VOR Gain Is Related to Compensatory Saccades in Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Anson, Eric R.; Bigelow, Robin T.; Carey, John P.; Xue, Qian-Li; Studenski, Stephanie; Schubert, Michael C.; Agrawal, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) gain is well-suited for identifying rotational vestibular dysfunction, but may miss partial progressive decline in age-related vestibular function. Since compensatory saccades might provide an alternative method for identifying subtle vestibular decline, we describe the relationship between VOR gain and compensatory saccades in healthy older adults. Methods: Horizontal VOR gain was measured in 243 subjects age 60 and older from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging using video head impulse testing (HIT). Saccades in each HIT were identified as either “compensatory” or “compensatory back-up,” i.e., same or opposite direction as the VOR response respectively. Saccades were also classified as “covert” (occurring during head movement) and “overt” (occurring after head movement). The relationship between VOR gain and percentage of HITs with saccades, as well as the relationship between VOR gain and saccade latency and amplitude, were evaluated using regression analyses adjusting for age, gender, and race. Results: In adjusted analyses, the percentage of HITs with compensatory saccades increased 4.5% for every 0.1 decrease in VOR gain (p < 0.0001). Overt compensatory saccade amplitude decreased 0.6° (p < 0.005) and latency increased 90 ms (p < 0.001) for every 0.1 increase in VOR gain. Covert back-up compensatory saccade amplitude increased 0.4° for every 0.1 increase in VOR gain. Conclusion: We observed significant relationships between VOR gain and compensatory saccades in healthy older adults. Lower VOR gain was associated with larger amplitude, shorter latency compensatory saccades. Compensatory saccades reflect underlying rotational vestibular hypofunction, and may be particularly useful at identifying partial vestibular deficits as occur in aging adults. PMID:27445793

  14. Radiographic and computed tomographic demonstration of pseudotumor cerebri due to rapid weight gain in a child with pelvic rhabdomyosarcoma

    SciTech Connect

    Berdon, W.E.; Barker, D.H.; Barash, F.S.

    1982-06-01

    Rapid weight gain in a malnourished child can be associated with suture diastasis in the pattern of pseudotumor cerebri; this has been previously reported in deprivational dwarfism and cystic fibrosis. In a child with pelvic rhabdomyosarcoma, skull radiographs and cranial computed tomographic (CT) scans were available prior to a period of rapid weight gain induced by hyperalimentation. Suture diastasis developed and repeat CT scans showed this to be accompanied by smaller ventricles.

  15. Infant adiposity at birth and early postnatal weight gain predict increased aortic intima-media thickness at 6 weeks of age: a population-derived cohort study.

    PubMed

    McCloskey, Kate; Burgner, David; Carlin, John B; Skilton, Michael R; Cheung, Michael; Dwyer, Terence; Vuillermin, Peter; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise

    2016-03-01

    Infant body composition and postnatal weight gain have been implicated in the development of adult obesity and cardiovascular disease, but there are limited prospective data regarding the association between infant adiposity, postnatal growth and early cardiovascular parameters. Increased aortic intima-media thickness (aortic IMT) is an intermediate phenotype of early atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between weight and adiposity at birth, postnatal growth and aortic IMT. The Barwon Infant Study (n=1074 mother-infant pairs) is a population-derived birth cohort. Infant weight and other anthropometry were measured at birth and 6 weeks of age. Aortic IMT was measured by trans-abdominal ultrasound at 6 weeks of age (n=835). After adjustment for aortic size and other factors, markers of adiposity including increased birth weight (β=19.9 μm/kg, 95%CI 11.1, 28.6; P<0.001) and birth skinfold thickness (β=6.9 μm/mm, 95%CI 3.3, 10.5; P<0.001) were associated with aortic IMT at 6 weeks. The association between birth skinfold thickness and aortic IMT was independent of birth weight. In addition, greater postnatal weight gain was associated with increased aortic IMT, independent of birth weight and age at time of scan (β=11.3 μm/kg increase, 95%CI 2.2, 20.3; P=0.01). Increased infant weight and adiposity at birth, as well as increased early weight gain, were positively associated with aortic IMT. Excessive accumulation of adiposity during gestation and early infancy may have adverse effects on cardiovascular risk.

  16. Infant adiposity at birth and early postnatal weight gain predict increased aortic intima-media thickness at 6 weeks of age: a population-derived cohort study.

    PubMed

    McCloskey, Kate; Burgner, David; Carlin, John B; Skilton, Michael R; Cheung, Michael; Dwyer, Terence; Vuillermin, Peter; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise

    2016-03-01

    Infant body composition and postnatal weight gain have been implicated in the development of adult obesity and cardiovascular disease, but there are limited prospective data regarding the association between infant adiposity, postnatal growth and early cardiovascular parameters. Increased aortic intima-media thickness (aortic IMT) is an intermediate phenotype of early atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between weight and adiposity at birth, postnatal growth and aortic IMT. The Barwon Infant Study (n=1074 mother-infant pairs) is a population-derived birth cohort. Infant weight and other anthropometry were measured at birth and 6 weeks of age. Aortic IMT was measured by trans-abdominal ultrasound at 6 weeks of age (n=835). After adjustment for aortic size and other factors, markers of adiposity including increased birth weight (β=19.9 μm/kg, 95%CI 11.1, 28.6; P<0.001) and birth skinfold thickness (β=6.9 μm/mm, 95%CI 3.3, 10.5; P<0.001) were associated with aortic IMT at 6 weeks. The association between birth skinfold thickness and aortic IMT was independent of birth weight. In addition, greater postnatal weight gain was associated with increased aortic IMT, independent of birth weight and age at time of scan (β=11.3 μm/kg increase, 95%CI 2.2, 20.3; P=0.01). Increased infant weight and adiposity at birth, as well as increased early weight gain, were positively associated with aortic IMT. Excessive accumulation of adiposity during gestation and early infancy may have adverse effects on cardiovascular risk. PMID:26666445

  17. Increased epigenetic alterations at the promoters of transcriptional regulators following inadequate maternal gestational weight gain

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Tomoko; Yamada, Takahiro; Abe, Kosei; Okamura, Kohji; Kamura, Hiromi; Akaishi, Rina; Minakami, Hisanori; Nakabayashi, Kazuhiko; Hata, Kenichiro

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic modifications are thought to serve as a memory of exposure to in utero environments. However, few human studies have investigated the associations between maternal nutritional conditions during pregnancy and epigenetic alterations in offspring. In this study, we report genome-wide methylation profiles for 33 postpartum placentas from pregnancies of normal and foetal growth restriction with various extents of maternal gestational weight gain. Epigenetic alterations accumulate in the placenta under adverse in utero environments, as shown by application of Smirnov-Grubbs’ outlier test. Moreover, hypermethylation occurs frequently at the promoter regions of transcriptional regulator genes, including polycomb targets and zinc-finger genes, as shown by annotations of the genomic and functional features of loci with altered DNA methylation. Aberrant epigenetic modifications at such developmental regulator loci, if occurring in foetuses as well, will elevate the risk of developing various diseases, including metabolic and mental disorders, later in life. PMID:26415774

  18. The Effect of Medicated Feed on the Nasal Microflora and Weight Gain of Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Woods, G. T.; Jensen, A. H.; Gossling, Jennifer; Rhoades, H. E.; Nickelson, W. F.

    1972-01-01

    Antimicrobial agents were added to the feed of swine for three weeks to determine the interrelationships of potentially pathogenic agents in the nasal tract, turbinate atrophy and weight gains. Bordetella bronchiseptica was not isolated from the groups fed the combination of chlortetracycline, penicillin and sulfamethazine. B. bronchiseptica was found in some pigs after the feeding trail, but this organism was not significantly associated with turbinate atrophy at the time of slaughter. Mycoplasma hyorhinis was not found in the nasal passages of the pigs that received feed containing high concentration chlortetracycline but was found in pigs that received other diets. Hemophilus suis was not significantly reduced by any of the treatments used. The organisms studied in the pigs were not isolated from the personnel handling the pigs. PMID:4258545

  19. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in breast milk and early weight gain in breast-fed infants.

    PubMed

    Scholtens, Salome; Wijga, Alet H; Smit, Henriette A; Brunekreef, Bert; de Jongste, Johan C; Gerritsen, Jorrit; Seidell, Jaap C

    2009-01-01

    The long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) content of an infant's diet might affect early weight gain. In early trials on supplementation of formula feeding n-3 LCPUFA affected weight gain adversely. n-6 LCPUFA are thought to promote adipose tissue development and might be associated with higher weight gain. We studied the association between the natural n-3 and n-6 LCPUFA content of breast milk of Dutch women and weight and BMI gain of their breast-fed infants in the first year of life. The children in this study were enrolled in the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort study and were born in 1996-1997 in The Netherlands. Parents reported their child's weight and length in a questionnaire. Of a subgroup of the total population breast-milk samples were collected (n 244). The fatty acid composition of breast milk was determined by GLC and expressed as weight percentages. Linear regression was used for data analysis. Mean gain in weight, length and BMI per week from birth to 1 year of age was 119.5 (SD 16.1) g, 0.48 (SD 0.05) cm and 0.06 (SD 0.03) kg/m2, respectively. The associations between n-6 and n-3 LCPUFA in breast milk, and infant weight, length and BMI gain were weak and inconsistent. The n-3 and n-6 LCPUFA content in breast milk did not affect weight or BMI gain in the first year of life in breast-fed term infants.

  20. Associations of postnatal weight and length/height gain with wheeze, asthma and atopy: The PROBIT Study

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Emma L; Fraser, Abigail; Martin, Richard M.; Kramer, Michael S.; Oken, Emily; Patel, Rita; Tilling, Kate

    2013-01-01

    Background It has been hypothesised that postnatal weight and length/height gain are variously related to wheeze, asthma and atopy, however supporting evidence is limited and inconsistent. Methods Weights and lengths/heights of 12,171 term-infants were measured from birth to 12 months and at 6.5 years, and extracted from polyclinic records prospectively obtained between 12 and 60 months. Atopic phenotypes were ascertained at 6.5 years with the International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood questionnaire and skin-prick tests. Logistic regression models investigated whether rates of weight and length/height gain from infancy to mid-childhood were associated with atopy phenotypes that have occurred ever or in the last 12 months. Results After controlling for confounders and prior weight and length/height gain, all weight gain variables except birthweight were positively associated with ever having wheezed (p<0.1). A one SD increase in weight gain rate between 0–3 months was associated with a 12% increase (2%–23%) in allergic rhinitis ever. No other consistent patterns of association were found for weight gain or length/height gain rate between 0–60 months with atopic outcomes at 6.5 years. In contrast, all atopy outcomes except for ever having asthma were associated with current weight and height, even after controlling for prior growth. Conclusion Current height and weight are more strongly associated with the development of atopic phenotypes in childhood than patterns of infant and early childhood growth, which may well reflect reverse causality (atopy effects on growth) or residual confounding by an unknown common cause of growth and atopy. PMID:23374010

  1. Associations of birth weight, linear growth and relative weight gain throughout life with abdominal fat depots in adulthood: the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Araújo de França, G V; Lucia Rolfe, E De; Horta, B L; Gigante, D P; Yudkin, J S; Ong, K K; Victora, C G

    2016-01-01

    Background: Several studies have reported on associations of size at birth and early growth with general and central obesity; however, few have examined the potential effects of birth weight and postnatal growth on separate abdominal fat compartments. We investigated the effects of size at birth, linear growth and relative weight gain from birth to adulthood on visceral (VFT) and subcutaneous abdominal (SAFT) fat thicknesses at age 30 years. Methods: A total of 2663 participants from the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study had complete information on ultrasound measures of abdominal fat at age 30 years, and anthropometric measurements for at least five visits (0/2/4/23/30 years). We estimated weight and height Z-score changes, conditional relative weight gain and conditional height at several ages. Results: In both men and women, VFT and SAFT showed positive associations with conditional relative weight gain during all age periods beyond 2 years and birth, respectively (all P⩽0.01). Women born with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) had greater VFT than other women (difference=0.15 s.d., 95% CI: 0.01–0.29), and they showed a stronger positive influence of infant weight gain 0–2 years on VFT (IUGR: β=0.17 s.d., 95% CI: 0.05–0.29; non-IUGR: β=0.01 s.d., 95% CI: −0.04 to 0.06; Pinteraction=0.02). Stunting at 2 years was associated with lower SAFT but not VFT, and it modified the influence of weight gain 2–4 years on SAFT in both sexes (both Pinteraction<0.05). Conclusions: Our findings reinforce the advantages of being born with an appropriate birth weight, and the hazards of rapid postnatal gains in weight relative to linear growth, particularly after the critical window of the first 1000 days. PMID:26395747

  2. Resisting, reproducing, resigned? Low-income pregnant women's discursive constructions and experiences of health and weight gain.

    PubMed

    Jette, Shannon; Rail, Geneviève

    2014-09-01

    In this article, we use qualitative methodology to explore how 15 low-income women of diverse sociocultural location construct and experience health and weight gain during pregnancy, as well as how they position themselves in relation to messages pertaining to weight gain, femininity and motherhood that they encounter in their lives. Discussing the findings through a feminist poststructuralist lens, we conclude that the participants are complex, fragmented subjects, interpellated by multiple and at times conflicting subject positions. While the discourse of maternal responsibility (i.e. managing personal behaviours for the baby's health) is very much in evidence in their narratives, embodied experiences of pregnancy, lived experiences of financial constraints and religious beliefs provided some with an alternative discourse and resistant subject position. Participants also had mixed emotions about weight gain; they recognized the need to gain weight in order to have a healthy pregnancy, but weight gain was also not welcome as participants reproduced the dominant discourse of obesity and the discourse of 'feminine' bodily norms. Based on our results, we advocate for change to recent clinical guidelines and social discourses around pregnancy and weight gain, as well as for policies that provide pregnant women with a range of health-promoting resources. PMID:24330165

  3. Japanese and American public health approaches to preventing population weight gain: A role for paternalism?

    PubMed

    Borovoy, Amy; Roberto, Christina A

    2015-10-01

    Controlling population weight gain is a major concern for industrialized nations because of associated health risks. Although Japan is experiencing rising prevalence of obesity and overweight, historically they have had and continue to maintain a low prevalence relative to other developed countries. Therefore, Japan provides an interesting case study of strategies to curb population weight gain. In this paper we explore Japanese approaches to obesity and diet through observational and ethnographic interviews conducted between June 2009 and September 2013. Nineteen interviews were conducted at four companies and three schools in Tokyo, as well as at a central Tokyo community health care center and school lunch distribution center. Interviewees included physicians, a Ministry of Health bureaucrat, human resources managers, welfare nurses employed by health insurance organizations, school nurses (also government employees), school nutritionists, and a school counselor. We highlight the role of culture and social norms in encouraging healthful behavior in Japan, focusing on the Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare's metabolic syndrome screening program (implemented in 2005) and the Japanese national school lunch program. The Japanese government prescribes optimal body metrics for all Japanese citizens and relies on institutions such as schools and health insurance organizations that are in some instances closely affiliated with the workplace to carry out education. Japan's socio-cultural approach leads us reflect on the cultural and social conditions that make different policy prescriptions more politically feasible and potentially effective. It also provokes us to question whether limited behavioral modifications and "nudging" can lead to broader change in an environment like the United States where there are fewer broadly shared socio-cultural norms regarding acceptable health behavior. PMID:26344124

  4. Regulation of host weight gain and lipid metabolism by bacterial bile acid modification in the gut.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Susan A; MacSharry, John; Casey, Patrick G; Kinsella, Michael; Murphy, Eileen F; Shanahan, Fergus; Hill, Colin; Gahan, Cormac G M

    2014-05-20

    Alterations in the gastrointestinal microbiota have been implicated in obesity in mice and humans, but the key microbial functions influencing host energy metabolism and adiposity remain to be determined. Despite an increased understanding of the genetic content of the gastrointestinal microbiome, functional analyses of common microbial gene sets are required. We established a controlled expression system for the parallel functional analysis of microbial alleles in the murine gut. Using this approach we show that bacterial bile salt hydrolase (BSH) mediates a microbe-host dialogue that functionally regulates host lipid metabolism and plays a profound role in cholesterol metabolism and weight gain in the host. Expression of cloned BSH enzymes in the gastrointestinal tract of gnotobiotic or conventionally raised mice significantly altered plasma bile acid signatures and regulated transcription of key genes involved in lipid metabolism (Pparγ, Angptl4), cholesterol metabolism (Abcg5/8), gastrointestinal homeostasis (RegIIIγ), and circadian rhythm (Dbp, Per1/2) in the liver or small intestine. High-level expression of BSH in conventionally raised mice resulted in a significant reduction in host weight gain, plasma cholesterol, and liver triglycerides, demonstrating the overall impact of elevated BSH activity on host physiology. In addition, BSH activity in vivo varied according to BSH allele group, indicating that subtle differences in activity can have significant effects on the host. In summary, we demonstrate that bacterial BSH activity significantly impacts the systemic metabolic processes and adiposity in the host and represents a key mechanistic target for the control of obesity and hypercholesterolemia. PMID:24799697

  5. Ostα-/- mice are not protected from western diet-induced weight gain.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Christine L; Wheeler, Sadie G; Ballatori, Nazzareno; Hinkle, Patricia M

    2015-01-01

    Organic solute transporterα-OSTβ is a bile acid transporter important for bile acid recycling in the enterohepatic circulation. In comparison to wild-type mice, Ostα(-/-) mice have a lower bile acid pool and increased fecal lipids and they are relatively resistant to age-related weight gain and insulin resistance. These studies tested whether Ostα(-/-) mice are also protected from weight gain, lipid changes, and insulin resistance which are normally observed with a western-style diet high in both fat and cholesterol (WD). Wild-type and Ostα(-/-) mice were fed a WD, a control defined low-fat diet (LF) or standard laboratory chow (CH). Surprisingly, although the Ostα(-/-) mice remained lighter on LF and CH diets, they weighed the same as wild-type mice after 12 weeks on the WD even though bile acid pool levels remained low and fecal lipid excretion remained elevated. Mice of both genotypes excreted relatively less lipid when switched from CH to LF or WD. WD caused slightly greater changes in expression of genes involved in lipid transport in the small intestines of Ostα(-/-) mice than wild-type, but the largest differences were between CH and defined diets. After WD feeding, Ostα(-/-) mice had lower serum cholesterol and hepatic lipids, but Ostα(-/-) and wild-type mice had equivalent levels of muscle lipids and similar responses in glucose and insulin tolerance tests. Taken together, the results show that Ostα(-/-) mice are able to adapt to a western-style diet despite low bile acid levels.

  6. Gestational Weight Gain and Exposure of Newborns to Persistent Organic Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Grimalt, Joan O.; Glomstad, Berit; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Tardón, Adonina

    2014-01-01

    Background: Exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) during fetal development can increase the risk of adverse health effects during childhood. Maternal characteristics and physiological changes during gestation, such as gestational weight gain (GWG), may have an influence in the overall burden of POPs in neonates. However, the associations between GWG and POP concentrations are still not well established. Objective: We examined the association of GWG with cord serum POPs concentrations after adjusting for prepregnancy maternal body mass index (BMI) and other potential determinants of the transfer of POPs into newborns. The GWG values were evaluated after grouping by the reference guidelines of the Institute of Medicine (IOM). Methods: We measured levels of 14 organochlorine pesticides, 7 polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), and 14 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in 325 cord serum samples from a Spanish birth cohort. Multivariable models were used to estimate associations of GWG, prepregnancy BMI, and other maternal determinants on cord serum concentrations of POPs. Results: Neonatal concentrations of POPs were inversely associated with GWG after adjustment for age, prepregnancy BMI, educational level, and fish consumption. On average, neonates of women with IOM-recommended GWG have lower POP concentrations than do neonates of mothers with inadequate GWG. Conclusions: The present findings suggest an association between neonatal exposure to POPs and inadequate GWG during pregnancy. Encouraging pregnant women to meet the recommended IOM guidelines for GWG may reduce the accumulation of POPs in newborns. Citation: Vizcaino E, Grimalt JO, Glomstad B, Fernández-Somoano A, Tardón A. 2014. Gestational weight gain and exposure of newborns to persistent organic pollutants. Environ Health Perspect 122:873–879; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306758 PMID:24786842

  7. Japanese and American public health approaches to preventing population weight gain: A role for paternalism?

    PubMed

    Borovoy, Amy; Roberto, Christina A

    2015-10-01

    Controlling population weight gain is a major concern for industrialized nations because of associated health risks. Although Japan is experiencing rising prevalence of obesity and overweight, historically they have had and continue to maintain a low prevalence relative to other developed countries. Therefore, Japan provides an interesting case study of strategies to curb population weight gain. In this paper we explore Japanese approaches to obesity and diet through observational and ethnographic interviews conducted between June 2009 and September 2013. Nineteen interviews were conducted at four companies and three schools in Tokyo, as well as at a central Tokyo community health care center and school lunch distribution center. Interviewees included physicians, a Ministry of Health bureaucrat, human resources managers, welfare nurses employed by health insurance organizations, school nurses (also government employees), school nutritionists, and a school counselor. We highlight the role of culture and social norms in encouraging healthful behavior in Japan, focusing on the Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare's metabolic syndrome screening program (implemented in 2005) and the Japanese national school lunch program. The Japanese government prescribes optimal body metrics for all Japanese citizens and relies on institutions such as schools and health insurance organizations that are in some instances closely affiliated with the workplace to carry out education. Japan's socio-cultural approach leads us reflect on the cultural and social conditions that make different policy prescriptions more politically feasible and potentially effective. It also provokes us to question whether limited behavioral modifications and "nudging" can lead to broader change in an environment like the United States where there are fewer broadly shared socio-cultural norms regarding acceptable health behavior.

  8. Pre-Pregnancy Maternal Exposure to Persistent Organic Pollutants and Gestational Weight Gain: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Jaacks, Lindsay M; Boyd Barr, Dana; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Grewal, Jagteshwar; Zhang, Cuilin; Buck Louis, Germaine M

    2016-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been implicated in the development of obesity in non-pregnant adults. However, few studies have explored the association of POPs with gestational weight gain (GWG), an important predictor of future risk of obesity in both the mother and offspring. We estimated the association of maternal pre-pregnancy levels of 63 POPs with GWG. Data are from women (18-40 years; n = 218) participating in a prospective cohort study. POPs were assessed using established protocols in pre-pregnancy, non-fasting blood samples. GWG was assessed using three techniques: (1) total GWG (difference between measured pre-pregnancy weight and final self-reported pre-delivery weight); (2) category based on pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI)-specific Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations; and (3) area under the GWG curve (AUC). In an exploratory analysis, effects were estimated separately for women with BMI < 25 kg/m² versus BMI ≥ 25 kg/m². Multivariable polytomous logistic regression and linear regression were used to estimate the association between each chemical or congener and the three GWG outcomes. p,p'-dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (p,p'-DDT) was significantly inversely associated with AUC after adjustment for lipids and pre-pregnancy BMI: beta {95% confidence interval (CI)}, -378.03 (-724.02, -32.05). Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was significantly positively associated with AUC after adjustment for lipids among women with a BMI < 25 kg/m² {beta (95% CI), 280.29 (13.71, 546.86)}, but not among women with a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m² {beta (95% CI), 56.99 (-328.36, 442.34)}. In summary, pre-pregnancy levels of select POPs, namely, p,p'-DDT and PFOS, were moderately associated with GWG. The association between POPs and weight gain during pregnancy may be more complex than previously thought, and adiposity prior to pregnancy may be an important effect modifier. PMID:27626435

  9. Pre-Pregnancy Maternal Exposure to Persistent Organic Pollutants and Gestational Weight Gain: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Jaacks, Lindsay M.; Boyd Barr, Dana; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Grewal, Jagteshwar; Zhang, Cuilin; Buck Louis, Germaine M.

    2016-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been implicated in the development of obesity in non-pregnant adults. However, few studies have explored the association of POPs with gestational weight gain (GWG), an important predictor of future risk of obesity in both the mother and offspring. We estimated the association of maternal pre-pregnancy levels of 63 POPs with GWG. Data are from women (18–40 years; n = 218) participating in a prospective cohort study. POPs were assessed using established protocols in pre-pregnancy, non-fasting blood samples. GWG was assessed using three techniques: (1) total GWG (difference between measured pre-pregnancy weight and final self-reported pre-delivery weight); (2) category based on pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI)-specific Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations; and (3) area under the GWG curve (AUC). In an exploratory analysis, effects were estimated separately for women with BMI < 25 kg/m2 versus BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2. Multivariable polytomous logistic regression and linear regression were used to estimate the association between each chemical or congener and the three GWG outcomes. p,p’-dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (p,p’-DDT) was significantly inversely associated with AUC after adjustment for lipids and pre-pregnancy BMI: beta {95% confidence interval (CI)}, −378.03 (−724.02, −32.05). Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was significantly positively associated with AUC after adjustment for lipids among women with a BMI < 25 kg/m2 {beta (95% CI), 280.29 (13.71, 546.86)}, but not among women with a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 {beta (95% CI), 56.99 (−328.36, 442.34)}. In summary, pre-pregnancy levels of select POPs, namely, p,p’-DDT and PFOS, were moderately associated with GWG. The association between POPs and weight gain during pregnancy may be more complex than previously thought, and adiposity prior to pregnancy may be an important effect modifier. PMID:27626435

  10. Self-efficacy mediates strength gains during circuit weight training in men with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Ewart, C K; Stewart, K J; Gillilan, R E; Kelemen, M H

    1986-10-01

    Motivation to engage in health-promoting exercise has been ascribed to global personality traits such as self-esteem or athletic self-confidence. Self-Efficacy Theory challenges this view by proposing that highly specific estimates of personal capabilities mediate adoption of new or difficult behavior patterns. We tested this assumption by measuring self-efficacy perceptions in 40 men with coronary artery disease who participated in an experiment evaluating effects of circuit weight training (CWT). Specific self-efficacy estimates were assessed during baseline strength/endurance testing and after 10 wk participation in CWT or volleyball. Correlational analyses of self-efficacy in relation to performance on strength/endurance tests strongly supported the contention that adoption of novel activities is governed by highly specific self-perceptions. Participation in CWT produced greater strength and endurance gains than did volleyball, and these changes were accompanied by increased self-efficacy in CWT subjects for activities resembling the training tasks. The assertion that self-efficacy perceptions directly mediate involvement in challenging physical activities was supported by multiple regression analyses. These revealed that pre-training self-efficacy judgments predicted post-test strength gains even after controlling for baseline strength, type of training and frequency of participation in exercise sessions. PMID:3773670

  11. Impact of Maternal Glucose and Gestational Weight Gain on Child Obesity over the First Decade of Life in Normal Birth Weight Infants.

    PubMed

    Hillier, Teresa A; Pedula, Kathryn L; Vesco, Kimberly K; Oshiro, Caryn E S; Ogasawara, Keith K

    2016-08-01

    Objective To determine, among children with normal birth weight, if maternal hyperglycemia and weight gain independently increase childhood obesity risk in a very large diverse population. Methods Study population was 24,141 individuals (mothers and their normal birth weight offspring, born 1995-2003) among a diverse population with universal GDM screening [50-g glucose-challenge test (GCT); 3 h. 100 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) if GCT+]. Among the 13,037 full-term offspring with normal birth weight (2500-4000 g), annual measured height/weight was ascertained between ages 2 and 10 years to calculate gender-specific BMI-for-age percentiles using USA norms (1960-1995 standard). Results Among children who began life with normal birth weight, we found a significant trend for developing both childhood overweight (>85 %ile) and obesity (>95 %ile) during the first decade of life with both maternal hyperglycemia (normal GCT, GCT+ but no GDM, GDM) and excessive gestational weight gain [>40 pounds (18.1 kg)]; p < 0.0001 for both trends. These maternal glucose and/or weight gain effects to imprint for childhood obesity in the first decade remained after adjustment for potential confounders including maternal age, parity, as well as pre-pregnancy BMI. The attributable risk (%) for childhood obesity was 28.5 % (95 % CI 15.9-41.1) for GDM and 16.4 % (95 % CI 9.4-23.2) for excessive gestational weight gain. Conclusions for Practice Both maternal hyperglycemia and excessive weight gain have independent effects to increase childhood obesity risk. Future research should focus on prevention efforts during pregnancy as a potential window of opportunity to reduce childhood obesity.

  12. Impact of Maternal Glucose and Gestational Weight Gain on Child Obesity over the First Decade of Life in Normal Birth Weight Infants.

    PubMed

    Hillier, Teresa A; Pedula, Kathryn L; Vesco, Kimberly K; Oshiro, Caryn E S; Ogasawara, Keith K

    2016-08-01

    Objective To determine, among children with normal birth weight, if maternal hyperglycemia and weight gain independently increase childhood obesity risk in a very large diverse population. Methods Study population was 24,141 individuals (mothers and their normal birth weight offspring, born 1995-2003) among a diverse population with universal GDM screening [50-g glucose-challenge test (GCT); 3 h. 100 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) if GCT+]. Among the 13,037 full-term offspring with normal birth weight (2500-4000 g), annual measured height/weight was ascertained between ages 2 and 10 years to calculate gender-specific BMI-for-age percentiles using USA norms (1960-1995 standard). Results Among children who began life with normal birth weight, we found a significant trend for developing both childhood overweight (>85 %ile) and obesity (>95 %ile) during the first decade of life with both maternal hyperglycemia (normal GCT, GCT+ but no GDM, GDM) and excessive gestational weight gain [>40 pounds (18.1 kg)]; p < 0.0001 for both trends. These maternal glucose and/or weight gain effects to imprint for childhood obesity in the first decade remained after adjustment for potential confounders including maternal age, parity, as well as pre-pregnancy BMI. The attributable risk (%) for childhood obesity was 28.5 % (95 % CI 15.9-41.1) for GDM and 16.4 % (95 % CI 9.4-23.2) for excessive gestational weight gain. Conclusions for Practice Both maternal hyperglycemia and excessive weight gain have independent effects to increase childhood obesity risk. Future research should focus on prevention efforts during pregnancy as a potential window of opportunity to reduce childhood obesity. PMID:27154523

  13. A Technology-Mediated Behavioral Weight Gain Prevention Intervention for College Students: Controlled, Quasi-Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Monroe, Courtney M; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Sundstrom, Beth; Larsen, Chelsea; Magradey, Karen; Wilcox, Sara; Brandt, Heather M

    2016-01-01

    Background Both men and women are vulnerable to weight gain during the college years, and this phenomenon is linked to an increased risk of several chronic diseases and mortality. Technology represents an attractive medium for the delivery of weight control interventions focused on college students, given its reach and appeal among this population. However, few technology-mediated weight gain prevention interventions have been evaluated for college students. Objective This study examined a new technology-based, social media-facilitated weight gain prevention intervention for college students. Methods Undergraduates (n =58) in two sections of a public university course were allocated to either a behavioral weight gain prevention intervention (Healthy Weight, HW; N=29) or a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination awareness intervention (control; N=29). All students were enrolled, regardless of initial body weight or expressed interest in weight management. The interventions delivered 8 lessons via electronic newsletters and Facebook postings over 9 weeks, which were designed to foster social support and introduce relevant educational content. The HW intervention targeted behavioral strategies to prevent weight gain and provided participants with a Wi-Fi-enabled scale and an electronic physical activity tracker to facilitate weight regulation. A repeated-measures analysis of variance was conducted to examine within- and between-group differences in measures of self-reported weight control practices and objectively measured weight. Use of each intervention medium and device was objectively tracked, and intervention satisfaction measures were obtained. Results Students remained weight stable (HW: −0.48+1.9 kg; control: −0.45+1.4 kg), with no significant difference between groups over 9 weeks (P =.94). However, HW students reported a significantly greater increase in the number of appropriate weight control strategies than did controls (2.1+4.5 vs −1

  14. Calorie-restricted weight loss reverses high-fat diet-induced ghrelin resistance, which contributes to rebound weight gain in a ghrelin-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Dana I; Lockie, Sarah H; Wu, Qunli; Lemus, Moyra B; Stark, Romana; Andrews, Zane B

    2013-02-01

    Twelve weeks of high-fat diet feeding causes ghrelin resistance in arcuate neuropeptide Y (NPY)/agouti-related protein (AgRP) neurons. In the current study, we investigated whether diet-induced weight loss could restore NPY/AgRP neuronal responsiveness to ghrelin and whether ghrelin mediates rebound weight gain after calorie-restricted (CR) weight loss. Diet-induced obese (DIO) mice were allocated to one of two dietary interventions until they reached the weight of age-matched lean controls. DIO mice received chow diet ad libitum or chow diet with 40% CR. Chow-fed and high-fat-fed mice served as controls. Both dietary interventions normalized body weight, glucose tolerance, and plasma insulin. We show that diet-induced weight loss with CR increases total plasma ghrelin, restores ghrelin sensitivity, and increases hypothalamic NPY and AgRP mRNA expression. We propose that long-term DIO creates a higher body weight set-point and that weight loss induced by CR, as seen in the high-fat CR group, provokes the brain to protect the new higher set-point. This adaptation to weight loss likely contributes to rebound weight gain by increasing peripheral ghrelin concentrations and restoring the function of ghrelin-responsive neuronal populations in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. Indeed, we also show that DIO ghrelin-knockout mice exhibit reduced body weight regain after CR weight loss compared with ghrelin wild-type mice, suggesting ghrelin mediates rebound weight gain after CR weight loss.

  15. Anthelmintic resistance impact on tropical beef cattle productivity: effect on weight gain of weaned calves.

    PubMed

    Borges, Fernando A; Almeida, Gabriel D; Heckler, Rafael P; Lemes, Raul T; Onizuka, Marcel K V; Borges, Dyego G L

    2013-03-01

    The performance of grazing cattle in tropical areas is deeply influenced by parasitism, and the increasing reports of resistance are a threat to effective nematode control. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of avermectins on the performance of weaned calves naturally infected by ivermectin-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. The effect of four commercial endectocides (ivermectin 2.25 % + abamectin 1.25 %, ivermectin 3.15 %, doramectin 3.15 %, and doramectin 1 %) on parasitism and performance of a hundred weaned Nellore calves were evaluated during 112 days. The most effective anthelmintic showed efficacy of 84 % and resulted in an increase (P < 0.05) of live weight gain of 11.85 kg, compared to untreated group, 9.05 and 9.41 kg compared to those treated with more ineffective avermectins which showed efficacy of 0 and 48.2 %, respectively. A significant (P < 0.05) and weak negative correlation (r = -0.22) between the eggs per gram (EPG) and body weight was observed, indicating that even the low mean EPG (175 ± 150) observed at day 0 in the control group, with predominance of Haemonchus sp., was responsible for production losses. These results indicate that control of nematode parasites in beef cattle in the weaning phase may not result in increased productivity when carried out without technical criteria.

  16. Psychological factors and trimester-specific gestational weight gain: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kapadia, Mufiza Zia; Gaston, Anca; Van Blyderveen, Sherry; Schmidt, Louis; Beyene, Joseph; McDonald, Helen; McDonald, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Excess gestational weight gain (GWG), which has reached epidemic proportions, is associated with numerous adverse pregnancy outcomes. Early pregnancy provides a unique opportunity for counseling pregnant women since many women are motivated to engage in healthy behaviors. A systematic review was conducted to summarize the relation between psychological factors and trimester-specific GWG, i.e. GWG measured at the end of each trimester. Eight databases were searched for affect, cognition and personality factors. The guidelines on meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology were followed. The methodological quality of each study was assessed using a modified Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Of 3620 non-duplicate titles and abstracts, 74 articles underwent full-text review. Two cohort studies met the inclusion criteria. Distress was negatively associated with first trimester GWG among both adolescents and non-adolescents. Body image dissatisfaction was associated with second trimester GWG only among non-adolescents. No association emerged between perceived stress, state and trait anxiety and body image dissatisfaction among adolescents and trimester-specific GWG. The relation between trimester-specific GWG and a number of weight-related and dietary-related cognitions, affective states and personality traits remain unexplored. Given the limited number of studies, further high-quality evidence is required to examine the association between psychological factors and trimester-specific GWG, especially for cognitive and personality factors. PMID:25541218

  17. Australian Pregnant Women's Awareness of Gestational Weight Gain and Dietary Guidelines: Opportunity for Action

    PubMed Central

    Yeatman, Heather; Williamson, Moira

    2016-01-01

    Background. Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) can negatively impact on maternal and foetal health. Guidelines based on Institute of Medicine (IOM) encourage managing GWG by following healthy eating recommendations and increasing physical activity. This study investigated pregnant women's knowledge of their optimal GWG and recommended dietary approaches for GWG management. Method. English-speaking pregnant women were recruited from five hospitals in New South Wales (Australia) and an online link. Prepregnancy Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated from self-reported height and prepregnancy weight. Participants identified their recommended GWG. A survey assessed practical dietary knowledge and asked about broad dietary recommendations to prevent excessive GWG. Chi square and logistic regression analyses were used. Results. N = 326 pregnant women completed the surveys; 49% entered pregnancy overweight (25.2%) or obese (23.6%); and knowledge of recommended GWG was lacking. Prepregnancy BMI was a significant predictor of GWG recommendation knowledge (P < 0.000). Pregnant women were highly knowledgeable about broad dietary recommendations but had poor knowledge of detailed recommendations. Conclusions. Limited knowledge of IOM's GWG guidelines and of specific dietary recommendations for pregnancy should be addressed by health care providers and education initiatives to assist the high number of women who enter pregnancy overweight or obese. PMID:26881080

  18. Longitudinal associations between key dietary behaviors and weight gain over time: Transitions through the adolescent years

    PubMed Central

    Laska, Melissa N.; Murray, David M.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Harnack, Lisa J.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have yielded inconsistent results in documenting the association between key dietary factors and adolescent weight change over time. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which changes in adolescent sugar-sweetened beverage, diet soda, breakfast and fast food consumption were associated with changes in BMI and percent body fat (PBF), both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Our sample included 693 Minnesota adolescents followed over two years. Adjusting for physical activity, puberty, race, socio-economic status, age, and total energy intake, cross-sectional findings indicated that for both males and females, diet soda consumption was significantly and positively associated with BMI and PBF, and breakfast intake was significantly and negatively associated with BMI and PBF among girls. In longitudinal analyses, however, there were no significant associations after adjusting for the number of tests performed. This study adds to previous research through its methodological strengths, including adjustment for physical activity and energy intake assessed using state-of-the-art methods (i.e., accelerometers and 24-hour dietary recalls), as well as its evaluation of both BMI and PBF. Additional research is needed to better understand the complex constellation of factors that contribute to adolescent weight gain over time. PMID:21701567

  19. Efficacy Trial of a Selective Prevention Program Targeting Both Eating Disorder Symptoms and Unhealthy Weight Gain among Female College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Shaw, Heather; Marti, C. Nathan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate a selective prevention program targeting both eating disorder symptoms and unhealthy weight gain in young women. Method: Female college students at high-risk for these outcomes by virtue of body image concerns (N = 398; M age = 18.4 years, SD = 0.6) were randomized to the Healthy Weight group-based 4-hr prevention program,…

  20. Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Weight Gain in 2- to 5-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Scharf, Rebecca J.; Demmer, Ryan T.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Although sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption has been tightly linked to weight status among older children, the data regarding these relationships in children aged 2 to 5 years have been mixed. Our objective was to evaluate longitudinal and cross-sectional relationships between SSB consumption and weight status among children aged 2 to 5 years. METHODS: We assessed SSB consumption and BMI z scores among 9600 children followed in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey—Birth Cohort, using linear and logistic regression and adjusting for race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, mother’s BMI, and television viewing. RESULTS: Higher rates of SSB consumption were associated with higher BMI z scores among children age 4 (P < .05) and 5 (P < .001) but not yet at 2 years. Children aged 5 years who drank SSB regularly (compared with infrequent/nondrinkers) had a higher odds ratio for being obese (1.43, confidence interval 1.10–1.85, P < .01). In prospective analysis, children drinking SSB at 2 years (compared with infrequent/nondrinkers) had a greater subsequent increase in BMI z score over the ensuing 2 years (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: Similar to what is seen among older children, children aged 2 to 5 years drinking SSB demonstrate both prospective and cross-sectional correlations with higher BMI z score. Pediatricians and parents should discourage SSB consumption to help avoid potential unhealthy weight gain in young children. From a public health standpoint, strong consideration should be made toward policy changes leading to decreases in SSB consumption among children. PMID:23918897

  1. An exploratory examination of patient and parental self-efficacy as predictors of weight gain in adolescents with anorexia nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Catherine E.; Accurso, Erin C.; Arnow, Katherine D.; Lock, James; Le Grange, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether increases in adolescent or parental self-efficacy predicted subsequent weight gain in two different therapies for adolescent anorexia nervosa (AN). Method Participants were 121 adolescents with AN (M = 14.4 years, SD = 1.6), from a two-site randomized clinical trial for family-based treatment (FBT) and individual adolescent focused therapy (AFT). Both adolescent and parental self-efficacy were assessed at baseline and sessions 2, 4, 6, and 8. Adolescent self-efficacy was assessed using a generic measure of self-efficacy, while parental self-efficacy was assessed using a measure specific to the recovery of an eating disorder. Weight was assessed at baseline, sessions 1 through 8, and end of treatment. Mixed-effects models were used to evaluate the relation between patient and parent self-efficacy and subsequent weight gain, controlling for weight at the previous time point. Results For families who received FBT, greater within-treatment increases in parental self-efficacy predicted greater subsequent adolescent weight gain compared to those who received FBT with lesser change in parental self-efficacy and those who received AFT. Interestingly, adolescent self-efficacy did not significantly predict subsequent weight gain. Discussion Greater increases in parental self-efficacy predicted significantly greater subsequent weight gain for adolescents who received FBT, but the same was not true for adolescents who received AFT. Neither overall level nor change in adolescent self-efficacy significantly predicted subsequent weight gain in either treatment group. These findings emphasize the importance of increasing parental self-efficacy in FBT in order to impact adolescent weight outcomes. PMID:25808269

  2. Weight gain and body mass index following change from daytime to night shift - a panel study with nursing professionals.

    PubMed

    Siqueria, Kali; Griep, Rosane; Rotenberg, Lúcia; Silva-Costa, Aline; Mendes da Fonseca, Maria de Jesus

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed the association between change in work schedule and modifications in nutritional status. We performed a panel study with nursing professionals based on two surveys seven year apart (n = 372). Groups with no change in work schedule, change from daytime to night shift, and change from night to daytime shift were analyzed. Outcomes were weight gain and body mass index (BMI) category increase. Participants who changed from daytime to night shift showed about twice increase in odds of more than 5 kg weight gain and BMI category increase. Changing from daytime to night work seems to influence weight and BMI. PMID:27159160

  3. Weight gain and body mass index following change from daytime to night shift - a panel study with nursing professionals.

    PubMed

    Siqueria, Kali; Griep, Rosane; Rotenberg, Lúcia; Silva-Costa, Aline; Mendes da Fonseca, Maria de Jesus

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed the association between change in work schedule and modifications in nutritional status. We performed a panel study with nursing professionals based on two surveys seven year apart (n = 372). Groups with no change in work schedule, change from daytime to night shift, and change from night to daytime shift were analyzed. Outcomes were weight gain and body mass index (BMI) category increase. Participants who changed from daytime to night shift showed about twice increase in odds of more than 5 kg weight gain and BMI category increase. Changing from daytime to night work seems to influence weight and BMI.

  4. Maternal-fetal interactions and birth order influence insulin variable number of tandem repeats allele class associations with head size at birth and childhood weight gain.

    PubMed

    Ong, Ken K; Petry, Clive J; Barratt, Bryan J; Ring, Susan; Cordell, Heather J; Wingate, Diane L; Pembrey, Marcus E; Todd, John A; Dunger, David B

    2004-04-01

    Polymorphism of the insulin gene (INS) variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR; class I or class III alleles) locus has been associated with adult diseases and with birth size. Therefore, this variant is a potential contributory factor to the reported fetal origins of adult disease. In the population-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood birth cohort, we have confirmed in the present study the association between the INS VNTR III/III genotype and larger head circumference at birth (odds ratio [OR] 1.92, 95% CI 1.23-3.07; P = 0.004) and identified an association with higher cord blood IGF-II levels (P = 0.05 to 0.0001). The genotype association with head circumference was influenced by maternal parity (birth order): the III/III OR for larger head circumference was stronger in second and subsequent pregnancies (OR 5.0, 95% CI 2.2-11.5; P = 0.00003) than in first pregnancies (1.2, 0.6-2.2; P = 0.8; interaction with birth order, P = 0.02). During childhood, the III/III genotype remained associated with larger head circumference (P = 0.004) and was also associated with greater BMI (P = 0.03), waist circumference (P = 0.03), and higher fasting insulin levels in girls (P = 0.02). In addition, there were interactions between INS VNTR genotype and early postnatal weight gain in determining childhood BMI (P = 0.001 for interaction), weight (P = 0.005), and waist circumference (P = 0.0005), such that in the approximately 25% of children (n = 286) with rapid early postnatal weight gain, class III genotype-negative children among this group gained weight more rapidly. Our results indicate that complex prenatal and postnatal gene-maternal/fetal interactions influence size at birth and childhood risk factors for adult disease. PMID:15047631

  5. Defining a longitudinal survival model to examine forced treadmill running as a countermeasure for diet-induced weight gain.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Lisa M; Simpson, Richard J; Strohacker, Kelley; Carpenter, Katie C; McFarlin, Brian K

    2010-10-01

    Diet-induced weight gain increases disease risk via disruption of the innate immune system. Flow cytometry is commonly used to assess the immune system; however, in mice such measurements traditionally require terminal procedures and tissue collection to generate sufficient sample. The present study refined an existing flow cytometry method to reduce the number of mice needed to longitudinally measure monocytes. CD-1 male mice were randomly assigned to one of the three groups: DS (diet-induced weight gain + sedentary), DE (diet-induced weight gain + forced treadmill running [total distance 35,755 ± 1832 m]) or NS (normal weight gain + sedentary). DS and DE consumed a 60% fat diet and NS consumed a 10% fat diet ad libitum. Saphenous vein blood samples were collected weekly for a period of six weeks and three-colour flow cytometry was used to measure changes in monocyte (CD11b(+)/14(+)) concentration and cell-surface toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression. DS (18%) and DE (17%) gained more weight than NS (P < 0.001). On a group basis, DS expressed 17% more TLR4 than DE and NS (P = 0.005). The present study demonstrates that a longitudinal survival model can be used to reduce the number of animals needed to complete flow cytometry experiments. Exercise during diet-induced weight prevented some (decreased monocyte TLR4 expression) but not all aspects of innate immune system function.

  6. [Educational status and patterns of weight gain in adulthood in Brazil: Estudo Pró-Saúde].

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes da; França, Rosana de Figueiredo; Faerstein, Eduardo; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro; Chor, Dóra

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between participant and parental educational status (considered as an indicator of socioeconomic status) and participant pattern of weight gain in adulthood. We analyzed data from 2 582 baseline participants (1999) of Estudo Pró-Saúde (Pro-Health Study), a longitudinal investigation of civil servants from a public university in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Self-administered questionnaires were used to identify patterns of weight gain in adulthood. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated for the association between parental and participant educational status and steady weight gain or weight cycling, with stable weight as a reference, using multinomial logistic regression models. For males, lower paternal educational level entailed a chance about 55% lower of weight cycling as compared to stable weight (OR = 0.45; IC95% = 0.26-0.78), whereas lower maternal schooling was related to increased risk of weight cycling, although without reaching statistical significance (OR = 1.68; IC95% = 0.94-3.00). The association between participant educational status and weight history was not statistically significant among men. In women, lower educational status entailed a chance 94% higher of self-reported weight cycling (OR = 1.94; 95% CI = 1.17-3.23), and there was no association between parental educational level and history of weight gain. In this study, changes in weight throughout life, both steady and cyclic, were associated with parental and participant educational status, with major differences between genders.

  7. Effect of nutritional supplements on immune function and body weight in malnourished adults.

    PubMed

    Cheskin, Lawrence J; Margolick, Joseph; Kahan, Scott; Mitola, Andrea H; Poddar, Kavita H; Nilles, Tricia; Kolge, Sanjivani; Menendez, Frederick; Ridoré, Michelande; Wang, Shing-Jung; Chou, Jacob; Carlson, Eve

    2010-01-01

    In the United States, approximately 5% of the population is malnourished or has low body weight, which can adversely affect immune function. Malnutrition is more prevalent in older adults and is often a result of energy imbalance from various causes. Dietary supplementation to promote positive energy balance can reverse malnutrition, but has not been assessed for its effect on immune parameters. This 8-week clinical feeding trial evaluated the effect of a commercially available, high-protein, high-energy formula on body weight and immune parameters in 30 adult volunteers with body-mass indices (BMI) <21 kg/m(2). After the intervention, participants gained a mean of 3.74 lbs and increased BMI by 0.58 kg/m(2). The intervention improved lean body mass and limited body fat accumulation. However, no clinically significant improvements in immune measures were observed. These results support the use of high-protein, high-energy supplements in the treatment of underweight/malnutrition. Further investigation utilizing feeding studies of longer duration, and/or studying severely malnourished individuals may be needed to detect an effect on immune parameters of weight gain promoted by nutritional supplements.

  8. Association between Maternal Fish Consumption and Gestational Weight Gain: Influence of Molecular Genetic Predisposition to Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Sofus C.; Ängquist, Lars; Laurin, Charles; Morgen, Camilla S.; Jakobsen, Marianne U.; Paternoster, Lavinia; Smith, George Davey; Olsen, Sjurdur F.; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Nohr, Ellen A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Studies suggest that fish consumption can restrict weight gain. However, little is known about how fish consumption affects gestational weight gain (GWG), and whether this relationship depends on genetic makeup. Objective To examine the association between fish consumption and GWG, and whether this relationship is dependent on molecular genetic predisposition to obesity. Design A nested case-cohort study based on the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) sampling the most obese women (n = 990) and a random sample of the remaining participants (n = 1,128). Replication of statistically significant findings was attempted in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) (n = 4,841). We included 32 body mass index (BMI) associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 5 SNPs found associated with GWG. BMI associated SNPs were combined in a genetic risk score (GRS). Associations between consumption of fish, GRS or individual variants and GWG were analysed, and interactions between fish and the GRS or individual variants were examined. Results In the DNBC, each portion/week (150 g) of fatty fish was associated with a higher GWG of 0.58 kg (95% CI: 0.16, 0.99, P<0.01). For total fish and lean fish, similar patterns were observed, but these associations were not statistically significant. We found no association between GRS and GWG, and no interactions between GRS and dietary fish on GWG. However, we found an interaction between the PPARG Pro12Ala variant and dietary fish. Each additional Pro12Ala G-allele was associated with a GWG of -0.83 kg (95% CI: -1.29, -0.37, P<0.01) per portion/week of dietary fish, with the same pattern for both lean and fatty fish. In ALSPAC, we were unable to replicate these findings. Conclusion We found no consistent evidence of association between fish consumption and GWG, and our results indicate that the association between dietary fish and GWG has little or no dependency on GRS or individual SNPs. PMID:26930408

  9. Weight gain and reproductive performance of spring-born beef heifer calves intraruminally administered oxfendazole.

    PubMed

    Purvis, H T; Whittier, J C; Boyles, S L; Johnson, L J; Ritchie, H D; Rust, S R; Faulkner, D B; Lemenager, R P; Hendrix, K S

    1994-04-01

    The effect of oxfendazole (Synanthic) on weight gain and reproductive performance of spring-born heifer calves was evaluated at five locations (IL, IN, MI, MO, ND). Three hundred thirty-eight mixed-breed beef heifers (293.4 kg) blocked by weight and age were randomly allotted to one of two treatments. Treatment 1 heifers were dewormed via intraruminal injection of oxfendazole. Treatment 2 heifers served as a control. Heifers were comingled during the winter phase in semi-confinement during the period from late January to late May (winter phase). Heifers were sorted by treatment at the beginning of the grazing season (approximately May 24, 1991) and remained separate until the end of the study (approximately July 31, 1991; summer phase). Dewormed heifers received oxfendazole (4.5 mg/kg BW) in late January and again 28 and 56 d after the beginning of the grazing season. Fecal samples were taken every 21 d from January through September and assayed for gastrointestinal parasite eggs. Fecal egg counts were similar across treatments at the beginning of the trial (P = .34). Deworming decreased fecal egg counts throughout the trial. Twenty-eight days after initial deworming a significant treatment effect on fecal egg counts was observed (P < .01). Winter ADG was significantly higher (P < .01) for dewormed heifers than for controls (.60 vs .52 kg, respectively). Summer ADG was not different between treatments. Dewormed heifers were 7.4 kg heavier than controls (P < .05) at the end of the trial. Age of puberty was not affected by treatment (P = .64). First-service conception and final pregnancy rates were not different between treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Excess gestational weight gain: an exploration of midwives’ views and practice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Excess gestational weight gain (GWG) can affect the immediate and long term health outcomes of mother and infant. Understanding health providers’ views, attitudes and practices around GWG is crucial to assist in the development of practical, time efficient and cost effective ways of supporting health providers to promote healthy GWGs. This study aimed to explore midwives’ views, attitudes and approaches to the assessment, management and promotion of healthy GWG and to investigate their views on optimal interventions. Methods Midwives working in antenatal care were recruited from one rural and one urban Australian maternity hospital employing purposive sampling strategies to assess a range of practice areas. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 15 experienced midwives using an interview guide and all interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. Results Midwives interviewed exhibited a range of views, attitudes and practices related to GWG. Three dominant themes emerged. Overall GWG was given low priority for midwives working in the antenatal care service in both hospitals. In addition, the midwives were deeply concerned for the physical and psychological health of pregnant women and worried about perceived negative impacts of discussion about weight and related interventions with women. Finally, the midwives saw themselves as central in providing lifestyle behaviour education to pregnant women and identified opportunities for support to promote healthy GWG. Conclusions The findings indicate that planning and implementation of healthy GWG interventions are likely to be challenging because the factors impacting on midwives’ engagement in the GWG arena are varied and complex. This study provides insights for guideline and intervention development for the promotion of healthy GWG. PMID:23013446

  11. Moderate and Vigorous Intensity Exercise during Pregnancy and Gestational Weight Gain in Women with Gestational Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ehrlich, Samantha F.; Sternfeld, Barbara; Krefman, Amy E.; Hedderson, Monique M.; Brown, Susan D.; Mevi, Ashley; Chasan-Taber, Lisa; Quesenberry, Charles P.; Ferrara, Assiamira

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the associations of moderate and vigorous intensity exercise during pregnancy with the rate of gestational weight gain (GWG) from gestational diabetes (GDM) diagnosis to delivery, overall and stratified by prepregnancy overweight/obesity. Methods Prospective cohort study with physical activity reported shortly after the GDM diagnosis and prepregnancy weight and post-diagnosis GWG obtained from electronic medical records (n= 1,055). Multinomial logistic regression models in the full cohort and stratified by prepregnancy overweight/obesity estimated associations of moderate and vigorous intensity exercise with GWG below and above the Institute of Medicine’s (IOM) prepregnancy BMI-specific recommended ranges for weekly rate of GWG in the second and third trimesters. Results In the full cohort, any participation in vigorous intensity exercise was associated with decreased odds of GWG above recommended ranges as compared to no participation [Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval): 0.63 (0.40, 0.99)], with a significant trend for decreasing odds of excess GWG with increasing level of vigorous intensity exercise. Upon stratification by prepregnancy overweight/obesity, significant associations were only observed for BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m2: any vigorous intensity exercise, as compared to none, was associated with 54% decreased odds of excess GWG [0.46 (0.27, 0.79)] and significant trends were detected for decreasing odds of GWG both below and above the IOM’s recommended ranges with increasing level of vigorous exercise (both P ≤ 0.03). No associations were observed for moderate intensity exercise. Conclusions In women with GDM, particularly overweight and obese women, vigorous intensity exercise during pregnancy may reduce the odds of excess GWG. PMID:26955997

  12. Influence of canola hulls on gain in weight of larvae of the yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor L.

    PubMed

    Davis, G R; Campbell, S J; McGregor, D I

    1983-12-01

    Larvae of the yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor L., Gembloux strain, race F, were reared on diets in which the protein component was supplied by defatted ground seed, defatted ground dehulled fraction, or defatted ground hulls of Brassica napus L. cv. Tower or Brassica campestris L. cv. Candle, obtained from autoclaved seed. They were also fed casein diets to which defatted ground hulls of Tower or Candle seed were added. Gain in weight was equally good for all diets containing Candle seed fractions and for diets containing Tower ground seed. However, it was lower for diets containing the ground dehulled fraction or the ground hulls of Tower. Addition of Candle hulls or of a mixture of equal proportions (w/w) of Candle and Tower hulls to diets containing dehulled Tower did not improve the gain in weight of larvae, compared with that of larvae fed diets containing the dehulled fraction, alone. Similar additions of Tower hulls or of the mixture to diets containing the dehulled fraction of Candle had no adverse effect on larval gain in weight, compared to that registered by larvae fed the dehulled fraction of Candle. Significant improvement in weight gain in comparison with that recorded for larvae fed the unsupplemented casein diet could not be demonstrated when ground hulls of Tower or Candle were added to this diet. Considered collectively, weight gains of larvae of T. molitor were consistently greater when Candle products were fed than when Tower products provided the protein fraction of the diet.

  13. A review of national health policies and professional guidelines on maternal obesity and weight gain in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Schumann, N L; Brinsden, H; Lobstein, T

    2014-08-01

    Maternal obesity creates an additional demand for health-care services, as the routine obstetric care pathway requires alterations to ensure the most optimal care for obese women of childbearing age. This review examines the extent to which relevant national health documents reflect and respond to the health implications of maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain. A targeted search of peer-reviewed publications and grey literature was conducted for each country to identify national health documents, which were subsequently content analyzed according to an adapted framework. A total of 37 documents were identified, including one policy, 10 strategies and 26 guidelines, published within the last 10 years. Out of the 31 countries investigated, only 13 countries address maternal obesity while none address excessive gestational weight gain. We found inconsistencies and gaps in the recommendations to health-care service providers for the management of maternal obesity and weight gain in pregnancy. The findings show that only limited guidance on maternal obesity and gestational weight gain exists. The authors recommend that international, evidence-based guidelines on the management of maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain should be developed to reduce the associated health-care and economic costs.

  14. Calorie Estimation in Adults Differing in Body Weight Class and Weight Loss Status

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ruth E; Canning, Karissa L; Fung, Michael; Jiandani, Dishay; Riddell, Michael C; Macpherson, Alison K; Kuk, Jennifer L

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Ability to accurately estimate calories is important for weight management, yet few studies have investigated whether individuals can accurately estimate calories during exercise, or in a meal. The objective of this study was to determine if accuracy of estimation of moderate or vigorous exercise energy expenditure and calories in food is associated with body weight class or weight loss status. Methods Fifty-eight adults who were either normal weight (NW) or overweight (OW), and either attempting (WL) or not attempting weight loss (noWL), exercised on a treadmill at a moderate (60% HRmax) and a vigorous intensity (75% HRmax) for 25 minutes. Subsequently, participants estimated the number of calories they expended through exercise, and created a meal that they believed to be calorically equivalent to the exercise energy expenditure. Results The mean difference between estimated and measured calories in exercise and food did not differ within or between groups following moderate exercise. Following vigorous exercise, OW-noWL overestimated energy expenditure by 72%, and overestimated the calories in their food by 37% (P<0.05). OW-noWL also significantly overestimated exercise energy expenditure compared to all other groups (P<0.05), and significantly overestimated calories in food compared to both WL groups (P<0.05). However, among all groups there was a considerable range of over and underestimation (−280 kcal to +702 kcal), as reflected by the large and statistically significant absolute error in calorie estimation of exercise and food. Conclusion There was a wide range of under and overestimation of calories during exercise and in a meal. Error in calorie estimation may be greater in overweight adults who are not attempting weight loss. PMID:26469988

  15. Sweetening yoghurt with glucose, but not with saccharin, promotes weight gain and increased fat pad mass in rats.

    PubMed

    Boakes, Robert A; Kendig, Michael D; Martire, Sarah I; Rooney, Kieron B

    2016-10-01

    The claim that non-nutritive sweeteners accelerate body weight gain by disrupting sweet-calorie associations was tested in two experiments using rats. The experiments were modelled on a key study from a series of experiments reporting greater body weight gain in rats fed yoghurt sweetened with saccharin than with glucose (Swithers & Davidson, 2008). Both of the current experiments likewise compared groups fed saccharin- or glucose-sweetened yoghurt in addition to chow and water, while Experiment 1 included a third group (Control) given unsweetened yoghurt. In Experiment 1, but not in Experiment 2, rats were initially exposed to both saccharin- and glucose-sweetened yoghurts to assess their relative palatability. We also tested whether the provision of an energy-dense sweet biscuit would augment any effects of saccharin on food intake and weight gain, as seemingly predicted by Swithers and Davidson (2008). In Experiment 1 there were no differences in body weight gain or fat pad mass between the Saccharin and Control group, whereas the Glucose group was the heaviest by the final 5 weeks and at cull had the largest fat pads. Greater acceptance of saccharin predicted more weight gain over the whole experiment. Consistent with past reports, fasting blood glucose and insulin measures did not differ between the Saccharin and Control groups, but suggested some impairment of insulin sensitivity in the Glucose group. Experiment 2 found similar effects of glucose on fat mass, but not on body weight gain. In summary, adding saccharin had no detectable effects on body-weight regulation, whereas the effects of glucose on fat pad mass were consistent with previous studies reporting more harmful effects of sugars compared to non-nutritive sweeteners. PMID:27189382

  16. Transgenic overexpression of VEGF-C induces weight gain and insulin resistance in mice

    PubMed Central

    Karaman, Sinem; Hollmén, Maija; Yoon, Sun-Young; Alkan, H. Furkan; Alitalo, Kari; Wolfrum, Christian; Detmar, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Obesity comprises great risks for human health, contributing to the development of other diseases such as metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Previously, obese patients were found to have elevated serum levels of VEGF-C, which correlated with worsening of lipid parameters. We recently identified that neutralization of VEGF-C and -D in the subcutaneous adipose tissue during the development of obesity improves metabolic parameters and insulin sensitivity in mice. To test the hypothesis that VEGF-C plays a role in the promotion of the metabolic disease, we used K14-VEGF-C mice that overexpress human VEGF-C under control of the keratin-14 promoter in the skin and monitored metabolic parameters over time. K14-VEGF-C mice had high levels of VEGF-C in the subcutaneous adipose tissue and gained more weight than wildtype littermates, became insulin resistant and had increased ectopic lipid accumulation at 20 weeks of age on regular mouse chow. The metabolic differences persisted under high-fat diet induced obesity. These results indicate that elevated VEGF-C levels contribute to metabolic deterioration and the development of insulin resistance, and that blockade of VEGF-C in obesity represents a suitable approach to alleviate the development of insulin resistance. PMID:27511834

  17. Transgenic overexpression of VEGF-C induces weight gain and insulin resistance in mice.

    PubMed

    Karaman, Sinem; Hollmén, Maija; Yoon, Sun-Young; Alkan, H Furkan; Alitalo, Kari; Wolfrum, Christian; Detmar, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Obesity comprises great risks for human health, contributing to the development of other diseases such as metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Previously, obese patients were found to have elevated serum levels of VEGF-C, which correlated with worsening of lipid parameters. We recently identified that neutralization of VEGF-C and -D in the subcutaneous adipose tissue during the development of obesity improves metabolic parameters and insulin sensitivity in mice. To test the hypothesis that VEGF-C plays a role in the promotion of the metabolic disease, we used K14-VEGF-C mice that overexpress human VEGF-C under control of the keratin-14 promoter in the skin and monitored metabolic parameters over time. K14-VEGF-C mice had high levels of VEGF-C in the subcutaneous adipose tissue and gained more weight than wildtype littermates, became insulin resistant and had increased ectopic lipid accumulation at 20 weeks of age on regular mouse chow. The metabolic differences persisted under high-fat diet induced obesity. These results indicate that elevated VEGF-C levels contribute to metabolic deterioration and the development of insulin resistance, and that blockade of VEGF-C in obesity represents a suitable approach to alleviate the development of insulin resistance. PMID:27511834

  18. Maternal and Neonatal Levels of Perfluoroalkyl Substances in Relation to Gestational Weight Gain

    PubMed Central

    Ashley-Martin, Jillian; Dodds, Linda; Arbuckle, Tye E.; Morisset, Anne-Sophie; Fisher, Mandy; Bouchard, Maryse F.; Shapiro, Gabriel D.; Ettinger, Adrienne S.; Monnier, Patricia; Dallaire, Renee; Taback, Shayne; Fraser, William

    2016-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are ubiquitous, persistent pollutants widely used in the production of common household and consumer goods. There is a limited body of literature suggesting that these chemicals may alter metabolic pathways and growth trajectories. The relationship between prenatal exposures to these chemicals and gestational weight gain (GWG) has received limited attention. One objective was to analyze the associations among maternal plasma levels of three common perfluoroalkyl substances (perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexanesulfanoate (PFHxS)) and GWG. Additionally, we explored whether GWG was associated with cord blood PFAS levels. This study utilized data collected in the Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) Study, a trans-Canada cohort study of 2001 pregnant women. Our analysis quantified associations between (1) maternal PFAS concentrations and GWG and (2) GWG and cord blood PFAS concentrations. Maternal PFOS concentrations were positively associated with GWG (β = 0.39 95% CI: 0.02, 0.75). Interquartile increases in GWG were significantly associated with elevated cord blood PFOA (OR = 1.33; 95% CI: 1.13 to 1.56) and PFOS (OR = 1.20; 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.40) concentrations. No statistically significant associations were observed between GWG and either measure of PFHxS. These findings warrant elucidation of the potential underlying mechanisms. PMID:26805861

  19. Historic Variations in Winter Indoor Domestic Temperatures and Potential Implications for Body Weight Gain

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, F.; Ucci, M.; Marmot, A.; Wardle, J.; Oreszczyn, T.; Summerfield, A.

    2013-01-01

    It has been argued that the amount of time spent by humans in thermoneutral environments has increased in recent decades. This paper examines evidence of historic changes in winter domestic temperatures in industrialised countries. Future trajectories for indoor thermal comfort are also explored. Whilst methodological differences across studies make it difficult to compare data and accurately estimate the absolute size of historic changes in indoor domestic temperatures, data analysis does suggest an upward trend, particularly in bedrooms. The variations in indoor winter residential temperatures might have been further exacerbated in some countries by a temporary drop in demand temperatures due to the 1970s energy crisis, as well as by recent changes in the building stock. In the United Kingdom, for example, spot measurement data indicate that an increase of up to 1.3°C per decade in mean dwelling winter indoor temperatures may have occurred from 1978 to 1996. The findings of this review paper are also discussed in the context of their significance for human health and well-being. In particular, historic indoor domestic temperature trends are discussed in conjunction with evidence on the links between low ambient temperatures, body energy expenditure and weight gain. PMID:26321874

  20. Parent-offspring conflict theory, signaling of need, and weight gain in early life.

    PubMed

    Wells, Jonathan C

    2003-06-01

    Human growth in early life has major implications for fitness. During this period, the mother regulates the growth of her offspring through placental nutrition and lactation. However, parent-offspring conflict theory predicts that offspring are selected to demand more resources than the mother is selected to provide. This general issue has prompted the development of begging theory, which attempts to find the optimal levels of offspring demand and parental provisioning. Several models have been proposed to account for begging behavior, whether by biochemical or behavioral pathways, including: (1) blackmail of parents; (2) scramble competition between multiple offspring; (3) honest signaling of nutritional need; and (4) honest signaling of offspring worth. These models are all supported by data from nonhuman animals, with species varying according to which model is relevant. This paper examines the evidence that human suckling and crying signal nutritional demand, need, and worth to the mother. While suckling provides hormonal stimulation of breast milk production and signals hunger, crying fulfills a different role, with evidence suggesting that it signals both worth and need for resources (nutrition and thermoregulation). The role of signaling in nutritional demand is examined in the context of three common health problems that have traditionally been assumed to have physiological rather than behavioral causes: excess weight gain, failure to thrive, and colic. The value of such an evolutionary approach lies in its potential to enhance behavioral management of these conditions.

  1. Maternal and Neonatal Levels of Perfluoroalkyl Substances in Relation to Gestational Weight Gain.

    PubMed

    Ashley-Martin, Jillian; Dodds, Linda; Arbuckle, Tye E; Morisset, Anne-Sophie; Fisher, Mandy; Bouchard, Maryse F; Shapiro, Gabriel D; Ettinger, Adrienne S; Monnier, Patricia; Dallaire, Renee; Taback, Shayne; Fraser, William

    2016-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are ubiquitous, persistent pollutants widely used in the production of common household and consumer goods. There is a limited body of literature suggesting that these chemicals may alter metabolic pathways and growth trajectories. The relationship between prenatal exposures to these chemicals and gestational weight gain (GWG) has received limited attention. One objective was to analyze the associations among maternal plasma levels of three common perfluoroalkyl substances (perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexanesulfanoate (PFHxS)) and GWG. Additionally, we explored whether GWG was associated with cord blood PFAS levels. This study utilized data collected in the Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) Study, a trans-Canada cohort study of 2001 pregnant women. Our analysis quantified associations between (1) maternal PFAS concentrations and GWG and (2) GWG and cord blood PFAS concentrations. Maternal PFOS concentrations were positively associated with GWG (β = 0.39 95% CI: 0.02, 0.75). Interquartile increases in GWG were significantly associated with elevated cord blood PFOA (OR = 1.33; 95% CI: 1.13 to 1.56) and PFOS (OR = 1.20; 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.40) concentrations. No statistically significant associations were observed between GWG and either measure of PFHxS. These findings warrant elucidation of the potential underlying mechanisms. PMID:26805861

  2. Applying weight gain in Pomacea lineata (SPIX 1824) (Mollusca: Prosobranchia) as a measure of herbicide toxicity.

    PubMed

    Coler, R A; Coler, R R; Felizardo, E K G; Watanabe, T

    2005-11-01

    Pomacea lineata, an extremely ubiquitous snail and pest to rice farmers throughout Asia, holds promise as a valuable resource for monitoring water quality in northeast Brazil. In this paper, we present data demonstrating the rate of weight gain in P. lineata neonates as a consistent measure of the stress imposed by sublethal concentrations of the herbicides Paraquat and Round-up. Our secondary agenda is to demonstrate the feasibility of incorporating bioassay into the standard municipal and state procedure of monitoring water quality. Growth data to assess chronic toxicity were generated in experiments of four and four, eight, twelve and sixteen days for Paraquat and Round-up, respectively. We estimated a 96 h no observed effect concentration (NOEC) and lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) for Paraquat of 0.12 and 0.25 mg/L. The 96 h Round-up data yielded NOEC and LOEC values, respectively, of 0.25 and 0.5 mg/L. All concentrations of Round-up tested for the 192 h exposure yielded significantly lower growth than the control. Consequently, no NOEC could be derived. The LOEC was < 0.12 mg/L. Furthermore, there was no mortality during the test. At the lowest concentrations of Paraquat tested (0.005 mg/L) there was a significant increase in growth compared with the controls, suggesting a hormetic effect.

  3. Modulation of Apolipoprotein D levels in human pregnancy and association with gestational weight gain

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Apolipoprotein D (ApoD) is a lipocalin involved in several processes including lipid transport, but its modulation during human pregnancy was never examined. Methods We investigated the changes in the levels of ApoD in the plasma of pregnant women at the two first trimesters of gestation and at delivery as well as in the placenta and in venous cord blood. These changes were studied in 151 women classified into 9 groups in relation to their prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG). Results Plasma ApoD levels decrease significantly during normal uncomplicated pregnancy. ApoD is further decreased in women with excessive GWG and their newborns. In these women, the ApoD concentration was tightly associated with the lipid parameters. However, the similar ApoD levels in low cholesterol (LC) and high cholesterol (HC) women suggest that the plasma ApoD variation is not cholesterol dependant. A tight regulation of both placental ApoD transcription and protein content is most probably at the basis of the low circulating ApoD concentrations in women with excessive GWG. After delivery, the plasma ApoD concentrations depended on whether the mother was breast-feeding or not, lactation favoring a faster return to baseline values. Conclusion It is speculated that the decrease in plasma ApoD concentration during pregnancy is an adaptive response aimed at maintaining fetal lipid homeostasis. The exact mechanism of this adaptation is not known. PMID:19723339

  4. Excess gestational weight gain in low-income overweight and obese women: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Cynthie K.; Walch, Tanis J.; Lindberg, Sara M.; Smith, Aubrey M.; Lindheim, Steven R.; Whigham, Leah D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Examine factors implicated in gestational weight gain (GWG) in low-income overweight and obese women. Design Qualitative study. Setting Community-based perinatal center. Participants 8 focus groups with women (Black=48%, White non-Hispanic=41%, Hispanic=10%) in the first half of (n=12) and last half of pregnancy (n=10), or post-partum (n=7); 2 with obstetrician-gynecologists (OB-GYNs) (n=9). Phenomenon of Interest Barriers and facilitators to healthy eating and GWG within different levels of the Social Ecological Model (SEM), e.g. intrapersonal, interpersonal, organizational, etc. Analysis Coding guide was based on the SEM. Transcripts were coded by 3 researchers for common themes. Thematic saturation was reached. Results At an intrapersonal level, knowledge/skills and cravings were the most common barriers. At an interpersonal level, family and friends were most influential. At an organizational level, the Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program and clinics were influential. At the community level, lack of transportation was most frequently discussed. At a policy level, complex policies and social stigma surrounding WIC were barriers. There was consensus that ideal intervention approaches would include peer-facilitated support groups with information from experts. OB-GYNs felt uncomfortable counseling patients about GWG due to time constraints, other priorities, and lack of training. Conclusions and Implications There are multi-level public health opportunities to promote healthy GWG. Better communication between nutrition specialists and OB-GYNs is needed. PMID:26187348

  5. Overexpression of Jazf1 reduces body weight gain and regulates lipid metabolism in high fat diet

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Woo Young; Bae, Ki Beom; Kim, Sung Hyun; Yu, Dong Hun; Kim, Hei Jung; Ji, Young Rae; Park, Seo Jin; Park, Si Jun; Kang, Min-Cheol; Jeong, Ja In; Park, Sang-Joon; Lee, Sang Gyu; Lee, Inkyu; Kim, Myoung Ok; Yoon, Duhak; Ryoo, Zae Young

    2014-02-14

    Highlights: • The expression of Jazf1 in the liver suppressed lipid accumulation. • Jazf1 significantly increases transcription of fatty acid synthase. • Jazf1 plays a critical role in the regulation of energy and lipid homeostasis. • Jazf1 associates the development of metabolic disorder. • Jazf1 may provide a new therapeutic target in the management of metabolic disorder. - Abstract: Jazf1 is a 27 kDa nuclear protein containing three putative zinc finger motifs that is associated with diabetes mellitus and prostate cancer; however, little is known about the role that this gene plays in regulation of metabolism. Recent evidence indicates that Jazf1 transcription factors bind to the nuclear orphan receptor TR4. This receptor regulates PEPCK, the key enzyme involved in gluconeogenesis. To elucidate Jazf1’s role in metabolism, we fed a 60% fat diet for up to 15 weeks. In Jazf1 overexpression mice, weight gain was found to be significantly decreased. The expression of Jazf1 in the liver also suppressed lipid accumulation and decreased droplet size. These results suggest that Jazf1 plays a critical role in the regulation of lipid homeostasis. Finally, Jazf1 may provide a new therapeutic target in the management of obesity and diabetes.

  6. THE CONSUMPTION OF RED PUPUNHA (BACTRIS GASIPAES KUNTH) INCREASES HDL CHOLESTEROL AND REDUCES WEIGHT GAIN OF LACTATING AND POST-LACTATING WISTAR RATS

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, R. Piccolotto; Lemos, J.R. Gonzaga; de Aquino Sales, R. Souza; Martins, M. Gassen; Nascimento, C.H.; Bayona, M.; Marcon, J.L.; Monteiro, J. Barros

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The lactating and post-lactating periods are marked by large metabolic change. Production of milk is 60% lipid dependent. We reported in a recent scientific meeting that Red pupunha palm tree fruit increases HDL cholesterol in lactating rats. This study evaluated if consumption of Red Pupunha by adult female rats has a beneficial impact on the lipid metabolism of lacting and post-lacting adult rats. Objective Evaluate if consumption of red pupunha has a beneficial effect in the lipid metabolism of lacting and post-lacting adult Wistar rats. Research Methods Four groups including two for control; (1) control adult lactating rats, (2) control adults post-lactating rats; and two experimental groups; (3) pupunha adults lactating rats and (4) pupunha adult post-lactating rats were evaluated and compared regarding: weight gain, food consumption, plasma total protein, glucose, total lipid, triglycerides, total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol levels. The mean difference and its 95% confidence intervals were used for group comparisons. Group comparisons were evaluated by using analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA). The statistical significance of the pairwise differences among groups was assessed by using the two-sided Tukey test. Results There were no important differences in food consumption, plasma glucose, total lipids and triglycerides among groups. The red pupunha lactating group gain less weight showing lower body mass index (BMI) than controls (p < 0.05). Total cholesterol was lower in red pupunha lactating than in controls but not in the red pupunha post-lactating group as compared to controls. Triglycerides were lower in the post-lactating red pupunha group as compared to the control group (p = 0.039) but not for the lactating groups. Red pupunha lactating and post-lactating groups had higher HDL-cholesterol than their corresponding control groups (p ≤ 0.01). Conclusion Original findings include the beneficial effect of red pupunha in post

  7. A Prospective Examination of Weight Gain in Hospitalized Adolescents With Anorexia Nervosa on a Recommended Refeeding Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Garber, Andrea K.; Michihata, Nobuaki; Hetnal, Katherine; Shafer, Mary-Ann; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Current refeeding recommendations for adolescents hospitalized with anorexia nervosa (AN) are conservative, starting with low calories and advancing slowly to avoid refeeding syndrome. The purpose of this study was to examine weight change and clinical outcomes in hospitalized adolescents with AN on a recommended refeeding protocol. Methods Adolescents aged 13.1–20.5 years were followed during hospitalization for AN. Weight, vital signs, electrolytes, and 24-hour fluid balance were measured daily. Percent median body mass index (%MBMI) was calculated as 50th percentile BMI for age and gender. Calories were prescribed on admission and were increased every other day. Results Thirty-five subjects with a mean (SD) age of 16.2 (1.9) years participated over 16.7 (6.4) days. Calories increased from 1,205 (289) to 2,668 (387). No subjects had refeeding syndrome; 20% had low serum phosphorus. Percent MBMI increased from 80.1 (11.5) to 84.5 (9.6); overall gain was 2.10 (1.98) kg. However, 83% of subjects initially lost weight. Mean %MBMI did not increase significantly until day 8. Higher calories prescribed at baseline were significantly associated with faster weight gain (p = .003) and shorter hospital stay (p = .030) in multivariate regression models adjusted for %MBMI and lowest heart rate on admission. Conclusions Hospitalized adolescents with AN demonstrated initial weight loss and slow weight gain on a recommended refeeding protocol. Higher calorie diets instituted at admission predicted faster weight gain and shorter hospital stay. These findings support the development of more aggressive feeding strategies in adolescents hospitalized with AN. Further research is needed to identify caloric and supplementation regimens to maximize weight gain safely while avoiding refeeding syndrome. PMID:22188830

  8. Impact of Adult Weight, Density, and Age on Reproduction of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of adult weight, age, and density on reproduction of Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) was studied. The impact of adult weight on reproduction was determined in two ways: 1) counting the daily progeny of individual adult pairs of known weight and analyzing the data with line...

  9. Melatonin, Liraglutide, and Naltrexone/Bupropion for the Treatment of Obesity and Medication-Related Weight Gain.

    PubMed

    Howland, Robert H

    2015-06-01

    Overweight and obesity are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. This is a known problem among individuals with psychiatric illness, which may be partly due to the adverse metabolic effects of certain psychotropic drugs. Melatonin, liraglutide, and naltrexone/bupropion are examples of drugs with different mechanisms of action that have favorable effects on obesity or medication-related weight gain. Melatonin is appropriate to consider for any patient who will be started on a psychotropic drug that is potentially associated with weight gain or other adverse metabolic effects. Liraglutide should also be considered appropriate for use in overweight or obese psychiatric patients, including those with medication-associated weight gain. The use of naltrexone/bupropion may be problematic in patients with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia because of the potential adverse effects of the bupropion component of the combination. All three drugs deserve further dedicated studies in psychiatric patient populations.

  10. Melatonin, Liraglutide, and Naltrexone/Bupropion for the Treatment of Obesity and Medication-Related Weight Gain.

    PubMed

    Howland, Robert H

    2015-06-01

    Overweight and obesity are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. This is a known problem among individuals with psychiatric illness, which may be partly due to the adverse metabolic effects of certain psychotropic drugs. Melatonin, liraglutide, and naltrexone/bupropion are examples of drugs with different mechanisms of action that have favorable effects on obesity or medication-related weight gain. Melatonin is appropriate to consider for any patient who will be started on a psychotropic drug that is potentially associated with weight gain or other adverse metabolic effects. Liraglutide should also be considered appropriate for use in overweight or obese psychiatric patients, including those with medication-associated weight gain. The use of naltrexone/bupropion may be problematic in patients with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia because of the potential adverse effects of the bupropion component of the combination. All three drugs deserve further dedicated studies in psychiatric patient populations. PMID:26091546

  11. [Acupuncture Intervention Reduced Weight Gain Induced by Hypoglycemic Agents through Food Intake-related Targets in Central Nervous System].

    PubMed

    Jing, Xin-yue; Ou, Chen; Lu, Sheng-feng; Zhu, Bing-mei

    2015-12-01

    Clinical practice shows that thiazolidinediones (TZDs) induce weight gain in patients with type-II diabetes mellitus during treatment, which restrains its application and generalization clinically. It has been demonstrated that acupuncture therapy is useful in easing obesity in clinical trials. In the present paper, we summarize the underlying mechanism of weight gain induced by TZDs through food intake-related targets in the central nervous system and analyze the possible effects of acupuncture therapy. Acupuncture therapy is expected to reduce weight gain side effect of TZDs through 1) lowering permeability of blood brain barrier to reduce TZDs concentration in the brain, 2) upregulating the expression of hypothalamic leptin and inhibiting hypothalamic neuropiptide Y expression, and 3) down-regulating activities of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor to reduce energy intake and fat syntheses. PMID:26887217

  12. Body weight gain and risk of colorectal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

    PubMed

    Schlesinger, S; Lieb, W; Koch, M; Fedirko, V; Dahm, C C; Pischon, T; Nöthlings, U; Boeing, H; Aleksandrova, K

    2015-07-01

    While the relationship between body mass index as an indicator of excess body weight and the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) is well established, the association between body weight gain in adulthood and risk of CRC remains unresolved. We quantified this association in a meta-analysis of 12 observational studies published until November 2014 with a total of 16,151 incident CRC cases. Random effect models were used to obtain summary relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Between-study heterogeneity was assessed using I(2) statistics. Overall, the summary RR (95% CI) was 1.22 (1.14-1.30) for high body weight gain (midpoint: 15.2 kg) compared with stable weight (P for heterogeneity = 0.182; I(2) = 21.2%). In a dose-response analysis, each 5 kg weight gain was associated with a 4% (95% CI: 2%-5%) higher risk of CRC. The association persisted after adjustment for body weight at younger age and was present for both men and women, as well as for colon and rectal cancer. Differences by sex were detected for colon cancer (P for interaction = 0.003, with higher risk for men than women), but not for rectal cancer (P for interaction = 0.613). In conclusion, these data underscore the importance of body weight management from early adulthood onwards for the prevention of CRC development.

  13. Risperidone-induced weight gain and reduced locomotor activity in juvenile female rats: The role of histaminergic and NPY pathways.

    PubMed

    Lian, Jiamei; De Santis, Michael; He, Meng; Deng, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Second generation antipsychotic drugs (SGAs) such as risperidone are increasingly prescribed (mostly for off-label use) to children and adolescents for treating various mental disorders. SGAs cause serious weight gain/obesity and other metabolic side-effects. This study aimed to establish an animal model of risperidone-induced weight gain in female juvenile rats, and to investigate the effects of risperidone on the expression of hypothalamic histaminergic H1 receptors (H1R) and neuropeptides, and their association with weight gain. Female Sprague Dawley rats were treated orally with risperidone (0.3mg/kg, 3 times/day) or vehicle (control) starting from postnatal day (PD) 23 (±1 day) for 3 weeks (a period corresponding to the childhood-adolescent period in humans). In the female juvenile rats, risperidone treatment increased food intake and body weight gain, which started to appear after 12 days' treatment. Risperidone also significantly decreased the locomotor activity of the female rats. Consistently, risperidone significantly elevated mRNA expression of hypothalamic H1R, neuropeptide Y (NPY), and agouti-related peptide (AgRP) compared to controls, and H1R and NPY levels were correlated with risperidone enhanced weight gain and food intake in the female juvenile rats. However, risperidone did not affect hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) mRNA expression. Therefore, these results suggested that risperidone elevated appetite and body weight gain in juveniles via regulation of the hypothalamic H1R, NPY and AgRP pathways, as well as by reducing activity.

  14. Energy Density, Energy Intake, and Body Weight Regulation in Adults12345

    PubMed Central

    Karl, J. Philip; Roberts, Susan B.

    2014-01-01

    The role of dietary energy density (ED) in the regulation of energy intake (EI) is controversial. Methodologically, there is also debate about whether beverages should be included in dietary ED calculations. To address these issues, studies examining the effects of ED on EI or body weight in nonelderly adults were reviewed. Different approaches to calculating dietary ED do not appear to alter the direction of reported relations between ED and body weight. Evidence that lowering dietary ED reduces EI in short-term studies is convincing, but there are currently insufficient data to determine long-term effectiveness for weight loss. The review also identified key barriers to progress in understanding the role of ED in energy regulation, in particular the absence of a standard definition of ED, and the lack of data from multiple long-term clinical trials examining the effectiveness of low-ED diet recommendations for preventing both primary weight gain and weight regain in nonobese individuals. Long-term clinical trials designed to examine the impact of dietary ED on energy regulation, and including multiple ED calculation methods within the same study, are still needed to determine the importance of ED in the regulation of EI and body weight. PMID:25398750

  15. Study the live weight and live weight gain of black bengal and jamunapari goat breeds by fitting the linear regression under semi-intensive conditions.

    PubMed

    Khan, M K I; Naznin, M

    2013-10-01

    The present study was conducted to know the live weight gain of goats under semi-intensive conditions of Chittagong district of Bangladesh during the period of July, 2012 to January, 2013. Data were collected from 72 black Bengal and 32 Jamunapari goats and the kids birth weight and their subsequent live weight at weekly intervals up to age and weight of weaning at sexual maturity was recorded. The weight gains from birth to sexual maturity of two different breeds under 2 different farms were studied. Average birth weight of male and female black Bengal goats kids were 1.22 +/- 0.15, 1.01 +/- 0.14, 1.42 +/- 0.10 and 1.12 +/- 0.27 kg, respectively for farm 1 and 2. For Jamunapari goat's kid birth weight were 1.51 +/- 0.07 and 1.42 +/- 0.09 kg, for male and females, respectively in the farm 2. The average weaning age was 4 months and the average weaning weight of male and female black Bengal goats were 5.19 +/- 0.358, 5.05 +/- 0.28, 5.63 +/- 0.61 and 5.54 +/- 0.41 kg, in the farm 1 and 2, respectively. However, the average weaning weight of male and female Jamunapari was 6.59 +/- 0.69 and 6.79 +/- 0.31 kg, respectively in farm 2 which was higher than black Bengal. The average age at sexual maturity of black Bengal goat was 8 months. The average weight at sexual maturity of male and female black Bengal goats were 9.82 +/- 0.75 and 9.52 +/- 0.62 kg, respectively in farm 1 and 9.65 +/- 0.75 and 9.138 +/- 0.70 kg, respectively in farm 2. The average age at sexual maturity was 9 months for Jamunapari goat. The average weight at sexual maturity of male and female Jamunapari goats was 13.2 +/- 0.75 and 14.1 +/- 0.82 kg, respectively. The average daily body weight gain from birth to weaning for male and female black Bengal goat was 33.70, 35.11 g day(-1) and was 35.67 and 45.94 g day(-1), respectively in farm 1 and 2 and for Jamunapari goat was 42.97 and 45.47 g day(-1), respectively. The males were grew faster than the females. The predicted live weight gains for both

  16. Body Satisfaction, Weight Gain, and Binge Eating Among Overweight Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Sonneville, Kendrin R.; Calzo, Jerel P.; Horton, Nicholas J.; Haines, Jess; Austin, S. Bryn; Field, Alison E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine if body satisfaction is associated with body mass index (BMI) change and whether it protects against the development of frequent binge eating among overweight and obese adolescent girls. Methods We used prospective data from 9 waves of an ongoing cohort study of adolescents, the Growing Up Today Study. At enrollment in 1996, participants were 9 to 14 years old. Questionnaires were mailed to participants annually until 2001, then biennially through 2007. Girls who were overweight or obese in 1996 were included in the analysis (n=1 559). Our outcomes were annual change in BMI and incident frequent binge eating, defined as binge eating at least weekly and no use of compensatory behaviors. Results At baseline, 57.2% of the overweight and obese girls were at least somewhat satisfied with their bodies. During 11 years of follow-up, 9.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) [7.8, 10.8]) of the girls started to binge eat frequently. Controlling for BMI and other confounders, overweight and obese girls who reported being at least somewhat satisfied with their bodies made smaller BMI gains (β=−0.10 kg/m2, 95% CI [−0.19, −0.02]) and had 61% lower odds of starting to binge eat frequently (odds ratio (OR)=0.39, 95% CI [0.24, 0.64]) than their less satisfied peers. Compared to girls who were the least satisfied with their bodies, girls who were the most satisfied had 85% lower odds of starting to binge eat frequently (OR=0.15, 95% CI [0.06, 0.37]). The association between body satisfaction and starting to binge eat frequently was stronger for younger adolescents than older adolescents. Conclusions While body dissatisfaction is common among overweight and obese girls, body satisfaction may protect against excessive weight gain and binge eating. Prevention of body dissatisfaction must begin early and should be considered as a component of both obesity and eating disorder prevention programs. PMID:22565419

  17. Genetic (co)variances among birth weight, 200-day weight, and postweaning gain in composites and parental breeds of beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Bennett, G L; Gregory, K E

    1996-11-01

    Genetic and environmental (co)variances for birth weight, adjusted 200-d weight, and postweaning gain were estimated in nine parental and three composite populations of beef cattle. The parental breeds were Angus (A), Braunvieh (B), Charolais (C), Gelbvieh (G), Hereford (H), Limousin (L), Pinzgauer (P), Red Poll (R), and Simmental (S). The composites were MARC I (1/4 B, 1/4 C, 1/4 L, 1/8 H, 1/8 A), MARC II (1/4 G, 1/4 S, 1/4 H, 1/4 A), and MARC III (1/4 R, 1/4 P, 1/4 H, 1/4 A). Heritabilities of additive direct genetic effects for birth weight (.50) and postweaning gain (.49) were greater than for 200-d weight (.32). Heritabilities of additive maternal effects of .09 for birth weight and .10 for 200-d weight were much smaller than direct effect heritabilities. Heritabilities were larger in composites than in parental breeds for additive direct effects of all three traits but smaller for maternal 200-d weight. Correlations were high and positive for direct genetic effects of the three weight traits and higher in composites than in the parental breeds. Correlations between direct and maternal genetic effects for both birth weight and 200-d weight were near zero. Some differences in variances among populations were correlated with differences in weight and milk yield. Heavier populations had larger variances, supporting the use of logarithmic transformation of weights to stabilize variances among genetic groups. Increased average milk yield was correlated with decreased phenotypic variance of 200-d weight. Average milk yield was also implicated in the expression of direct and maternal genetic effects for 200-d weight and their covariance. Comparison of univariate and multivariate estimates of genetic variances suggested that it is important to include birth weight in multivariate analyses of all weight traits to account for increased preweaning mortality of calves with extremely heavy or light birth weights. Based on heritability estimates, within-herd selection in

  18. Angiogenesis in adipose tissues and skeletal muscles with rebound weight-gain after diet-restriction in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Morimura, M; Ishiko, O; Sumi, T; Yoshida, H; Ogita, S

    2001-11-01

    The mechanisms of excessive body weight gain after diet-restriction are still unclear. In this study, we investigated expression of angiogenic factors in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle of rabbits which had rebound weight gains; trying to make inquiries into the mechanisms of this rebound weight gain. Ten rabbits were divided into two groups. One group had free food intake (group C), and the other group had restricted food intake until day 40 of the experiments and then had free food intake (group DR). Specimens of adipose tissue and skeletal muscle were collected from each rabbit on days 20, 40, and 60 after the initial examination, and expressions of CD34, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor (PD-ECGF) were investigated. Expression of VEGF was significantly strong in the adipose tissue of group DR at the recovery period of body weight. In conclusion, rebound weight gain after a restricted-diet may be associated with angiogenesis in adipose tissue, and the angiogenesis may be induced by VEGF.

  19. Pregnant women’s perceptions of weight gain, physical activity, and nutrition using Theory of Planned Behavior constructs

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Sara; Liu, Jihong; Blair, Steven N.; Pate, Russell R.

    2016-01-01

    A better understanding of women’s perceptions of weight gain and related behaviors during pregnancy is necessary to inform behavioral interventions. We used the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to examine pregnant women’s perceptions and intentions toward weight gain, physical activity (PA), and nutrition using a mixed methods study design. Women between 20 and 30 weeks gestation (n = 189) were recruited to complete an Internet-based survey. Salient beliefs toward weight gain, PA, and nutrition were captured through open-ended responses and content analyzed into themes. TPB constructs (attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, intentions) were examined using Pearson correlations and hierarchical linear regression models. Salient beliefs were consistent with the existing literature in non-pregnant populations, with the addition of many pregnancy-specific beliefs. TPB constructs accounted for 23–39 % of the variance in weight gain, PA, and nutrition intentions, and made varying contributions across outcomes. The TPB is a useful framework for examining women’s weight-related intentions during pregnancy. Study implications for intervention development are discussed. PMID:26335313

  20. Preventing excessive weight gain during pregnancy and promoting postpartum weight loss: A pilot lifestyle intervention for overweight and obese African American women

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jihong; Wilcox, Sara; Whitaker, Kara; Blake, Christine; Addy, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To test the feasibility and acceptability of a theory-based lifestyle intervention designed to prevent excessive weight gain during pregnancy and promote weight loss in the early postpartum period in overweight and obese African American women. Methods Sixteen pregnant women (≤18 weeks gestation) were recruited from prenatal clinics in Columbia, South Carolina in 2011 and assigned to a lifestyle intervention program. The intervention, guided by formative research, consisted of an individual counseling session followed by 8 group sessions alternated with telephone counseling contacts that continued through 36 weeks of gestation. At 6–8 weeks postpartum, participants received a home visit and up to three counseling calls through week 12. Medical charts were reviewed for 38 contemporary controls who met the same inclusion criteria and attended the same prenatal clinics. Results Compared to controls, study participants gained less total weight, had a smaller weekly rate of weight gain across the 2nd and 3rd trimesters (0.89 vs. 0.96 lbs), and were less likely to exceed weight gain recommendations (56.3 vs. 65.8%). At 12 weeks postpartum, study participants retained 2.6 lbs from their prepregnancy weight, half of study participants were at their prepregnancy weight or lower, and only 35% retained ≥5 lbs. The intervention also demonstrated success in promoting physical activity and reducing caloric intake, and was well-received by participants. Conclusions The initial results were promising. The lessons learned can help inform future studies. The efficacy of our intervention will be tested in a large randomized controlled trial. PMID:25051907

  1. Patient-specific FDG dosimetry for adult males, adult females, and very low birth weight infants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niven, Erin

    Fluorodeoxyglucose is the most commonly used radiopharmaceutical in Positron Emission Tomography, with applications in neurology, cardiology, and oncology. Despite its routine use worldwide, the radiation absorbed dose estimates from FDG have been based primarily on data obtained from two dogs studied in 1977 and 11 adults (most likely males) studied in 1982. In addition, the dose estimates calculated for FDG have been centered on the adult male, with little or no mention of variations in the dose estimates due to sex, age, height, weight, nationality, diet, or pathological condition. Through an extensive investigation into the Medical Internal Radiation Dose schema for calculating absorbed doses, I have developed a simple patient-specific equation; this equation incorporates the parameters necessary for alterations to the mathematical values of the human model to produce an estimate more representative of the individual under consideration. I have used this method to determine the range of absorbed doses to FDG from the collection of a large quantity of biological data obtained in adult males, adult females, and very low birth weight infants. Therefore, a more accurate quantification of the dose to humans from FDG has been completed. My results show that per unit administered activity, the absorbed dose from FDG is higher for infants compared to adults, and the dose for adult women is higher than for adult men. Given an injected activity of approximately 3.7 MBq kg-1, the doses for adult men, adult women, and full-term newborns would be on the order of 5.5, 7.1, and 2.8 mSv, respectively. These absorbed doses are comparable to the doses received from other nuclear medicine procedures.

  2. Potassium-binding resins: Associations with serum chemistries and interdialytic weight gain in hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Jadoul, Michel; Karaboyas, Angelo; Goodkin, David A.; Tentori, Francesca; Li, Yun; Labriola, Laura; Robinson, Bruce M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although potassium-binding sodium-based resins (K resins) have been prescribed to treat hyperkalemia for 50 years, there have been no large studies of their effects among hemodialysis patients. Methods Data from 11,409 patients in the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study in Belgium, Canada, France, Italy, and Sweden (nations where ≥ 5% of patients were prescribed a sodium based K resin; seven other countries had <5% use) between 2002-2011 were analyzed. Linear mixed models examined associations between K resin use and interdialytic weight gain (IDWG) and serum electrolyte concentrations. Mortality was analyzed using Cox regression. An instrumental variable approach was used to partially account for unmeasured confounders. Results The K resin prescription rate was 20% overall. As hypothesized, patients prescribed a K resin had greater IDWG and higher serum bicarbonate, phosphorus, and sodium (but not calcium) concentrations. Patients prescribed a K resin had higher serum K, but lower serum K in an instrumental variable analysis to limit treatment by indication bias. K resin use was not associated with mortality risk. Conclusion We report the first large study of K resin use and associated lab and clinical outcomes in HD patients. The prescription rate of K resins varied dramatically by country and dialysis center. The results suggest that K resin use may effectively lower serum K, although at the expense of somewhat higher phosphatemia and greater IDWG, and had no clear association with mortality. Additional study is warranted to elucidate the optimal role for K resins in modern dialysis care. PMID:24642479

  3. Lean rats gained more body weight than obese ones from a high-fibre diet.

    PubMed

    Li, Shaoting; Zhang, Cheng; Gu, Yingyi; Chen, Long; Ou, Shiyi; Wang, Yong; Peng, Xichun

    2015-10-28

    There is controversy over previous findings that a high ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteriodetes helps obese animals harvest energy from the diet. To further investigate the relationship between microbial composition and energy harvest, microbial adaptation to diet and time should be considered. In this study, lean and obese rats were successfully induced with low-fat and high-fat diets. An 8-week high soyabean fibre (HSF)-containing diet was then fed to investigate the interaction between the diet and the rats' gut microbiota, as well as their influence on rats' growth. Rats' body weight (BW) was recorded weekly; their plasma lipids and their gut microbiota at week 11, 15 and 19 were analysed. After the consumption of the HSF diet, BW of lean rats increased significantly (P<0·05), but no significant alteration in BW was found in obese rats. The average content of plasma cholesterol was lowered and that of TAG was upgraded in both the groups when fed the HSF diet. There was no significant difference observed at each period between lean and obese rats. In the group of lean rats, the diversity of gut microbiota was elevated strongly (P<0·01), and bacteria from phylum Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were both increased largely (P<0·01); however, the bacterial diversity and composition in obese rats were less altered after the HSF diet control. In conclusion, the increased Firmicutes and Bacteriodetes might relate to lean rats' higher BW gain; 'obese microbiota' could not help the hosts harvest more energy from the HSF diet. PMID:26316354

  4. Influence of Maternal Obesity and Gestational Weight Gain on Maternal and Foetal Lipid Profile.

    PubMed

    Cinelli, Giulia; Fabrizi, Marta; Ravà, Lucilla; Ciofi Degli Atti, Marta; Vernocchi, Pamela; Vallone, Cristina; Pietrantoni, Emanuela; Lanciotti, Rosalba; Signore, Fabrizio; Manco, Melania

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) are fundamental for a foetus's growth, serving as an energy source, structural constituents of cellular membranes and precursors of bioactive molecules, as well as being essential for cell signalling. Long-chain polyunsaturated FAs (LC-PUFAs) are pivotal in brain and visual development. It is of interest to investigate whether and how specific pregnancy conditions, which alter fatty acid metabolism (excessive pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) or gestational weight gain (GWG)), affect lipid supply to the foetus. For this purpose, we evaluated the erythrocyte FAs of mothers and offspring (cord-blood) at birth, in relation to pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG. A total of 435 mothers and their offspring (237 males, 51%) were included in the study. Distribution of linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (ALA), and their metabolites, arachidonic acid, dihomogamma linoleic (DGLA) and ecosapentanoic acid, was significantly different in maternal and foetal erythrocytes. Pre-pregnancy BMI was significantly associated with maternal percentage of MUFAs (Coeff: -0.112; p = 0.021), LA (Coeff: -0.033; p = 0.044) and DHA (Coeff. = 0.055; p = 0.0016); inadequate GWG with DPA (Coeff: 0.637; p = 0.001); excessive GWG with docosaexahenoic acid (DHA) (Coeff. = -0.714; p = 0.004). Moreover, pre-pregnancy BMI was associated with foetus percentage of PUFAs (Coeff: -0.172; p = 0.009), omega 6 (Coeff: -0.098; p = 0.015) and DHA (Coeff: -0.0285; p = 0.036), even after adjusting for maternal lipids. Our findings show that maternal GWG affects maternal but not foetal lipid profile, differently from pre-pregnancy BMI, which influences both. PMID:27314385

  5. Interval Mapping of High Growth (Hg), a Major Locus That Increases Weight Gain in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Horvat, S.; Medrano, J. F.

    1995-01-01

    The high growth locus (hg) causes a major increase in weight gain and body size in mice. As a first step to map-based cloning of hg, we developed a genetic map of the hg-containing region using interval mapping of 403 F(2) from a C57BL/6J-hghg X CAST/EiJ cross. The maximum likelihood position of hg was at the chromosome 10 marker D10Mit41 (LOD = 24.8) in the F(2) females and 1.5 cM distal to D10Mit41 (LOD = 9.56) in the F(2) males with corresponding LOD 2 support intervals of 3.7 and 5.4 cM, respectively. The peak LOD scores were significantly higher than the estimated empirical threshold LOD values. The localization of hg by interval mapping was supported by a test cross of F(2) mice recombinant between the LOD 2 support interval and the flanking marker. The interval mapping and test-cross results indicate that hg is not allelic with candidate genes Igf1 or decorin (Dcn), a gene that was mapped close to hg in this study. The hg inheritance was recessive in females, although we could not reject recessive or additive inheritance in males. Possible causes for sex differences in peak LOD scores and for the distortion of transmission ratios observed in F(2) males are discussed. The genetic map of the hg region will facilitate further fine mapping and cloning of hg, and allow searches for a homologous quantitative trait locus affecting growth in humans and domestic animals. PMID:7789774

  6. Influence of Maternal Obesity and Gestational Weight Gain on Maternal and Foetal Lipid Profile

    PubMed Central

    Cinelli, Giulia; Fabrizi, Marta; Ravà, Lucilla; Ciofi degli Atti, Marta; Vernocchi, Pamela; Vallone, Cristina; Pietrantoni, Emanuela; Lanciotti, Rosalba; Signore, Fabrizio; Manco, Melania

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) are fundamental for a foetus’s growth, serving as an energy source, structural constituents of cellular membranes and precursors of bioactive molecules, as well as being essential for cell signalling. Long-chain polyunsaturated FAs (LC-PUFAs) are pivotal in brain and visual development. It is of interest to investigate whether and how specific pregnancy conditions, which alter fatty acid metabolism (excessive pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) or gestational weight gain (GWG)), affect lipid supply to the foetus. For this purpose, we evaluated the erythrocyte FAs of mothers and offspring (cord-blood) at birth, in relation to pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG. A total of 435 mothers and their offspring (237 males, 51%) were included in the study. Distribution of linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (ALA), and their metabolites, arachidonic acid, dihomogamma linoleic (DGLA) and ecosapentanoic acid, was significantly different in maternal and foetal erythrocytes. Pre-pregnancy BMI was significantly associated with maternal percentage of MUFAs (Coeff: −0.112; p = 0.021), LA (Coeff: −0.033; p = 0.044) and DHA (Coeff. = 0.055; p = 0.0016); inadequate GWG with DPA (Coeff: 0.637; p = 0.001); excessive GWG with docosaexahenoic acid (DHA) (Coeff. = −0.714; p = 0.004). Moreover, pre-pregnancy BMI was associated with foetus percentage of PUFAs (Coeff: −0.172; p = 0.009), omega 6 (Coeff: −0.098; p = 0.015) and DHA (Coeff: −0.0285; p = 0.036), even after adjusting for maternal lipids. Our findings show that maternal GWG affects maternal but not foetal lipid profile, differently from pre-pregnancy BMI, which influences both. PMID:27314385

  7. Replacing sugary drinks with milk is inversely associated with weight gain among young obesity-predisposed children.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Miaobing; Rangan, Anna; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret; Rohde, Jeanett Friis; Olsen, Nanna Julie; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2015-11-14

    The aim of the present study was to examine the associations of sugary drink consumption and its substitution with alternative beverages with body weight gain among young children predisposed to future weight gain. Secondary analysis of the Healthy Start Study, a 1·5-year randomised controlled trial designed to prevent overweight among Danish children aged 2-6 years (n 366), was carried out. Multivariate linear regression models were used to investigate the associations of beverage consumption with change in body weightweight) or BMI(ΔBMI) z-score. Substitution models were used to extrapolate the influence of replacing sugary drinks with alternative beverages (water, milk and diet drinks) on Δweight or ΔBMI z-score. Sugary drink intake at baseline and substitution of sugary drinks with milk were associated with both Δweight and ΔBMI z-score. Every 100 g/d increase in sugary drink intake was associated with 0·10 kg and 0·06 unit increases in body weight (P=0·048) and BMI z-score (P=0·04), respectively. Substitution of 100 g/d sugary drinks with 100 g/d milk was inversely associated with Δweight (β=-0·16 kg; P=0·045) and ΔBMI z-score (β=-0·07 units; P=0·04). The results of this study suggest that sugary drink consumption was associated with body weight gain among young children with high predisposition for future overweight. In line with the current recommendations, sugary drinks, whether high in added or natural sugar, should be discouraged to help prevent childhood obesity. Milk may be a good alternative to sugary drinks with regard to weight management among young obesity-predisposed children. PMID:26328600

  8. Replacing sugary drinks with milk is inversely associated with weight gain among young obesity-predisposed children.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Miaobing; Rangan, Anna; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret; Rohde, Jeanett Friis; Olsen, Nanna Julie; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2015-11-14

    The aim of the present study was to examine the associations of sugary drink consumption and its substitution with alternative beverages with body weight gain among young children predisposed to future weight gain. Secondary analysis of the Healthy Start Study, a 1·5-year randomised controlled trial designed to prevent overweight among Danish children aged 2-6 years (n 366), was carried out. Multivariate linear regression models were used to investigate the associations of beverage consumption with change in body weightweight) or BMI(ΔBMI) z-score. Substitution models were used to extrapolate the influence of replacing sugary drinks with alternative beverages (water, milk and diet drinks) on Δweight or ΔBMI z-score. Sugary drink intake at baseline and substitution of sugary drinks with milk were associated with both Δweight and ΔBMI z-score. Every 100 g/d increase in sugary drink intake was associated with 0·10 kg and 0·06 unit increases in body weight (P=0·048) and BMI z-score (P=0·04), respectively. Substitution of 100 g/d sugary drinks with 100 g/d milk was inversely associated with Δweight (β=-0·16 kg; P=0·045) and ΔBMI z-score (β=-0·07 units; P=0·04). The results of this study suggest that sugary drink consumption was associated with body weight gain among young children with high predisposition for future overweight. In line with the current recommendations, sugary drinks, whether high in added or natural sugar, should be discouraged to help prevent childhood obesity. Milk may be a good alternative to sugary drinks with regard to weight management among young obesity-predisposed children.

  9. How can obese weight controllers minimize weight gain during the high risk holiday season? By self-monitoring very consistently.

    PubMed

    Boutelle, K N; Kirschenbaum, D S; Baker, R C; Mitchell, M E

    1999-07-01

    This study examined the efficacy of augmenting standard weekly cognitive-behavioral treatment for obesity with a self-monitoring intervention during the high risk holiday season. Fifty-seven participants in a long-term cognitive-behavioral treatment program were randomly assigned to self-monitoring intervention or comparison groups. During 2 holiday weeks (Christmas-New Years), the intervention group's treatment was supplemented with additional phone calls and daily mailings, all focused on self-monitoring. As hypothesized, the intervention group self-monitored more consistently and managed their weight better than the comparison group during the holidays. However, both groups struggled with weight management throughout the holidays. These findings support the critical role of self-monitoring in weight control and demonstrate the benefits of a low-cost intervention for assisting weight controllers during the holidays.

  10. Insulin resistance as a predictor of gains in body fat, weight, and abdominal fat in nondiabetic women: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Larry A; Tucker, Jared M

    2012-07-01

    The purpose was to determine the relationship between insulin resistance (IR) and risk of gaining body fat percentage (BF%), body weight, and abdominal fat over 18 months. A prospective cohort study was conducted using a sample of 226 women. IR was assessed using fasting blood insulin and glucose levels to calculate homeostatic model assessment (HOMA). Participants were divided into High (4th quartile) Moderate (2nd and 3rd quartiles), and Low (1st quartile) HOMA categories. BF% was estimated using plethysmography (Bod Pod), weight was measured in a standard swimsuit, and abdominal fat was indexed using the average of two circumferences taken at the umbilicus. Participants wore accelerometers and completed weighed food logs for 7 consecutive days to control for the effect of physical activity (PA) and energy intake, respectively. On average, women in the High HOMA group decreased in BF% (-0.48 ± 3.60), whereas those in the Moderate (0.40 ± 3.66) and Low HOMA (1.17 ± 3.15) groups gained BF% (F = 5.4, P = 0.0211). Changes in body weight showed a similar dose-response relationship (F = 4.7, P = 0.0317). However, baseline IR was not predictive of changes in abdominal fat (F = 0.8, P = 0.3635). Controlling for several covariates had little effect on gains in BF% and weight, but adjusting for initial BF% and/or initial weight nullified changes in BF% and weight across the IR groups. In conclusion, women with High HOMA tend to gain significantly less BF% and weight than women with low or moderate HOMA. The decreased risk appears unrelated to several covariates, except initial BF% and weight levels, which seem to play key roles in the relationships.

  11. Plasticity in the adult oculomotor system: offline consolidation phase gains in saccade sequence learning.

    PubMed

    Meital, Noya; Korinth, Sebastian Peter; Karni, Avi

    2013-08-28

    When do adults gain in learning an oculomotor sequence? Here we show that oculomotor training can result not only in performance gains within the training session, but also induce robust offline gains in both speed and accuracy. Participants were trained and tested over two consecutive days to perform a sequence of successive saccades. Saccades were directed to four target letters, presented simultaneously at fixed positions. A two alternative-forced choice question, after each trial, ensured that all targets were perceived. Eye tracking measures were tested at the beginning and end of the training session as well as at 24 h post-training. Practice resulted in within-session gains in accuracy and a reduction of target fixation duration (although total trial duration remained unchanged). In addition, the total average path length traveled by the eye increased, reflecting a decrease in undershoot saccades. At 24 h post-training, however, additional gains were expressed in both speed and accuracy of performance; the total trial duration as well as the fixation-position-offsets and the number of corrective saccades decreased. The expression of delayed gains indicates offline skill consolidation processes in the eye-movement control system. Our results show that the optimization of some aspect, specifically saccade speed parameters, of oculomotor sequence performance evolves mainly offline, during the post-training consolidation phase, a pattern suggestive of learning in an expert system. PMID:23867864

  12. Weight Gain Prevention among Midlife Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial to Address Needs Related to the Physical and Social Environment.

    PubMed

    Perry, Courtney D; Degeneffe, Dennis; Davey, Cynthia; Kollannoor-Samuel, Grace; Reicks, Marla

    2016-05-25

    Women tend to gain weight at midlife (40-60 years) increasing risk of obesity-related chronic diseases. Within specific eating occasions, needs related to the physical and social environment may result in less healthy eating behavior, which can lead to weight gain over time. The purpose of this study was to determine if a dietitian-delivered nutrition counseling intervention tailored to eating occasion needs could improve diet and prevent weight gain among midlife women over two years. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with healthy midlife women (n = 354) in one U.S. metropolitan area. The intervention group (n = 185) received ten hours of individual nutrition counseling from dietitians over six months, while women in a control group (n = 169) received no counseling. Measured height, weight and waist circumference, and dietary intakes were collected at baseline and every six months over two years. Mixed linear models were used to test for intervention effect on change in outcome variables over time. Dietary intakes of fruit, reduced/low-fat dairy foods and refined grains were significantly improved over time in the intervention compared to control group. However, the intervention had no effect on weight over time (p = 0.48). Nutrition counseling tailored to address eating occasion needs improved self-reported diet but did not significantly affect weight change.

  13. Weight Gain Prevention among Midlife Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial to Address Needs Related to the Physical and Social Environment

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Courtney D.; Degeneffe, Dennis; Davey, Cynthia; Kollannoor-Samuel, Grace; Reicks, Marla

    2016-01-01

    Women tend to gain weight at midlife (40–60 years) increasing risk of obesity-related chronic diseases. Within specific eating occasions, needs related to the physical and social environment may result in less healthy eating behavior, which can lead to weight gain over time. The purpose of this study was to determine if a dietitian-delivered nutrition counseling intervention tailored to eating occasion needs could improve diet and prevent weight gain among midlife women over two years. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with healthy midlife women (n = 354) in one U.S. metropolitan area. The intervention group (n = 185) received ten hours of individual nutrition counseling from dietitians over six months, while women in a control group (n = 169) received no counseling. Measured height, weight and waist circumference, and dietary intakes were collected at baseline and every six months over two years. Mixed linear models were used to test for intervention effect on change in outcome variables over time. Dietary intakes of fruit, reduced/low-fat dairy foods and refined grains were significantly improved over time in the intervention compared to control group. However, the intervention had no effect on weight over time (p = 0.48). Nutrition counseling tailored to address eating occasion needs improved self-reported diet but did not significantly affect weight change. PMID:27231927

  14. Excess pregnancy weight gain leads to early indications of metabolic syndrome in a swine model of fetal programming.

    PubMed

    Arentson-Lantz, Emily J; Buhman, Kimberly K; Ajuwon, Kolapo; Donkin, Shawn S

    2014-03-01

    Few data exist on the impact of maternal weight gain on offspring despite evidence demonstrating that early-life environment precipitates risks for metabolic syndrome. We hypothesized that excessive weight gain during pregnancy results in programming that predisposes offspring to obesity and metabolic syndrome. We further hypothesized that early postweaning nutrition alters the effects of maternal weight gain on indications of metabolic syndrome in offspring. Pregnant sows and their offspring were used for these experiments due to similarities with human digestive physiology, metabolism, and neonatal development. First parity sows fed a high-energy (maternal nutrition high energy [MatHE]) diet gained 12.4 kg (42%) more weight during pregnancy than sows fed a normal energy (maternal nutrition normal energy) diet. Birth weight and litter characteristics did not differ, but offspring MatHE gilts weighed more (P < .05) at age of 3 weeks (4.35 vs 5.24 ± 0.35 kg). At age of 12 weeks, offspring from MatHE mothers that were weaned onto a high-energy diet had elevated (P < .05) blood glucose (102 vs 64 mg/dL, confidence interval [CI]: 67-91), insulin (0.21 vs 0.10 ng/mL, CI: 0.011-0.019), and lower nonesterified fatty acid (0.31 vs 0.62 mmol/L, CI: 0.34-0.56) than offspring from the same MatHE sows weaned to the normal energy diet. These effects were not observed for offspring from sows fed a normal energy diet during pregnancy. These data indicate that excessive gestational weight gain during pregnancy in a pig model promotes early indications of metabolic syndrome in offspring that are further promoted by a high-energy postweaning diet.

  15. Predicted implications of using percentage weight gain as single discharge criterion in management of acute malnutrition in rural southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Forsén, Emmanuel; Tadesse, Elazar; Berhane, Yemane; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte

    2015-10-01

    Mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) is increasingly used in identifying and admitting children with acute malnutrition for treatment. It is easy to use because it does not involve height assessment, but its use calls for alternative discharge criteria. This study examined how use of percentage weight gain as discharge criterion would affect the nutritional status of children admitted into a community-based management programme for acute malnutrition in rural southern Ethiopia. Non-oedematous children (n = 631) aged 6-59 months and having a MUAC of <125 mm were studied. By simulation, 10%, 15% and 20% weight was added to admission weight and their nutritional status by weight-for-height z-score (WHZ) was determined at each target. Moderate and severe wasting according to World Health Organization WHZ definitions was used as outcome. Applying the most commonly recommended target of 15% weight gain resulted in 9% of children with admission MUAC <115 mm still being moderately or severely wasted at theoretical discharge. In children with admission MUAC 115-124 mm, 10% of weight gain was sufficient to generate a similar result. Children failing to recover were the ones with the poorest nutritional status at admission. Increasing the percentage weight gain targets in the two groups to 20% and 15%, respectively, would largely resolve wasting but likely lead to increased programme costs by keeping already recovered children in the programme. Further research is needed on appropriate discharge procedures in programmes using MUAC for screening and admission.

  16. Adults with Greater Weight Satisfaction Report More Positive Health Behaviors and Have Better Health Status Regardless of BMI

    PubMed Central

    Blake, Christine E.; Hébert, James R.; Lee, Duck-chul; Adams, Swann A.; Steck, Susan E.; Sui, Xuemei; Kuk, Jennifer L.; Baruth, Meghan; Blair, Steven N.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Prior studies suggest that weight satisfaction may preclude changes in behavior that lead to healthier weight among individuals who are overweight or obese. Objective. To gain a better understanding of complex relationships between weight satisfaction, weight-related health behaviors, and health outcomes. Design. Cross-sectional analysis of data from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (ACLS). Participants. Large mixed-gender cohort of primarily white, middle-to-upper socioeconomic status (SES) adults with baseline examination between 1987 and 2002 (n = 19,003). Main Outcome Variables. Weight satisfaction, weight-related health behaviors, chronic health conditions, and clinical health indicators. Statistical Analyses Performed. Chi-square test, t-tests, and linear and multivariate logistic regression. Results. Compared to men, women were more likely to be dieting (32% women; 18% men) and had higher weight dissatisfaction. Men and women with greater weight dissatisfaction reported more dieting, yo-yo dieting, and snacking and consuming fewer meals, being less active, and having to eat either more or less than desired to maintain weight regardless of weight status. Those who were overweight or obese and dissatisfied with their weight had the poorest health. Conclusion. Greater satisfaction with one's weight was associated with positive health behaviors and health outcomes in both men and women and across weight status groups. PMID:23862054

  17. Risperidone-induced weight gain is mediated through shifts in the gut microbiome and suppression of energy expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Bahr, Sarah M.; Weidemann, Benjamin J.; Castro, Ana N.; Walsh, John W.; deLeon, Orlando; Burnett, Colin M.L.; Pearson, Nicole A.; Murry, Daryl J.; Grobe, Justin L.; Kirby, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Risperidone is a second-generation antipsychotic that causes weight gain. We hypothesized that risperidone-induced shifts in the gut microbiome are mechanistically involved in its metabolic consequences. Wild-type female C57BL/6J mice treated with risperidone (80 μg/day) exhibited significant excess weight gain, due to reduced energy expenditure, which correlated with an altered gut microbiome. Fecal transplant from risperidone-treated mice caused a 16% reduction in total resting metabolic rate in naïve recipients, attributable to suppression of non-aerobic metabolism. Risperidone inhibited growth of cultured fecal bacteria grown anaerobically more than those grown aerobically. Finally, transplant of the fecal phage fraction from risperidone-treated mice was sufficient to cause excess weight gain in naïve recipients, again through reduced energy expenditure. Collectively, these data highlight a major role for the gut microbiome in weight gain following chronic use of risperidone, and specifically implicates the modulation of non-aerobic resting metabolism in this mechanism. PMID:26870798

  18. Process Evaluation of a School-Based Weight Gain Prevention Program: The Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (DOiT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, A. S.; Chinapaw, M. J. M.; Brug, J.; van Mechelen, W.

    2009-01-01

    Health promotion programs benefit from an accompanying process evaluation since it can provide more insight in the strengths and weaknesses of a program. A process evaluation was conducted to assess the reach, implementation, satisfaction and maintenance of a school-based program aimed at the prevention of excessive weight gain among Dutch…

  19. Tert-butylhydroquinone reduces lipid accumulation in C57BL/6 mice with lower body weight gain.

    PubMed

    Nam, Kung-Woo; Kim, Yong Hyun; Kwon, Hyun Jung; Rhee, Sang-Ki; Kim, Wan-Jong; Han, Man-Deuk

    2013-07-01

    tert-Butylhydroquinone (tBHQ) is a commonly used antioxidant additive that is approved for human use by both the Food and Agriculture Organization and the World Health Organization (FAO/WHO). In this study, we examined the effect of tBHQ on body weight gain and found that food supplementation with 0.001 % (w/w) tBHQ inhibited 61.4 % (P < 0.01) of body weight gain in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced C57BL/6 mice, and the oral administration of tBHQ (1.5 mg/kg) reduced 47.5 % (P < 0.05) of body weight gain in normal diet fed db/db mice. The HFD increased lipid deposit in adipocytes, but these were reduced significantly by tBHQ treatment in C57BL/6 mice. tBHQ supplementation significantly lowered the plasma triglyceride and total cholesterol, with reduced size of accumulated fat mass. The rate limiting enzyme of beta-oxidation (ACOX1) was significantly over-expressed in the liver with tBHQ treatment. These results indicate that tBHQ suppresses body weight gain in mice, possibly at least related to the up-regulation of ACOX1 gene expression.

  20. Metabolomics‐identified metabolites associated with body mass index and prospective weight gain among Mexican American women

    PubMed Central

    Shen, J.; Djukovic, D.; Daniel‐MacDougall, C.; Gu, H.; Wu, X.; Chow, W. ‐H.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective Obesity is a metabolic disease. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms linking metabolic profiles and weight gain are largely unknown. Methods Here, we used semi‐targeted metabolomics to assay 156 metabolites selected from 25 key metabolic pathways in plasma samples from 300 non‐smoking healthy women identified from Mano‐A‐Mano, the Mexican American Cohort study. The study subjects were randomly divided into two cohorts: training (N = 200) and testing (N = 100) cohorts. Linear regression and Cox proportional hazard regression were used to assess the effect of body mass index (BMI) at baseline on metabolite levels and the effects of metabolites on significant weight gain during a 5‐year follow‐up. Results At baseline, we observed 7 metabolites significantly associated with BMI in both training and testing cohorts. They were Methyl succinate, Asparagine, Urate, Kynurenic acid, Glycine, Glutamic acid, and Serine. In further analysis, we identified 6 metabolites whose levels at baseline predicted significant weight gain during 5‐year follow‐up in both cohorts. They were Acetylcholine, Leucine, Hippuric acid, Acetylglycine, Urate, and Xanthine. Conclusions The findings establish the baseline metabolic profiles for BMI, and suggest new metabolic targets for researchers attempting to understand the molecular mechanisms of weight gain and obesity.

  1. Metabolomics‐identified metabolites associated with body mass index and prospective weight gain among Mexican American women

    PubMed Central

    Shen, J.; Djukovic, D.; Daniel‐MacDougall, C.; Gu, H.; Wu, X.; Chow, W. ‐H.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective Obesity is a metabolic disease. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms linking metabolic profiles and weight gain are largely unknown. Methods Here, we used semi‐targeted metabolomics to assay 156 metabolites selected from 25 key metabolic pathways in plasma samples from 300 non‐smoking healthy women identified from Mano‐A‐Mano, the Mexican American Cohort study. The study subjects were randomly divided into two cohorts: training (N = 200) and testing (N = 100) cohorts. Linear regression and Cox proportional hazard regression were used to assess the effect of body mass index (BMI) at baseline on metabolite levels and the effects of metabolites on significant weight gain during a 5‐year follow‐up. Results At baseline, we observed 7 metabolites significantly associated with BMI in both training and testing cohorts. They were Methyl succinate, Asparagine, Urate, Kynurenic acid, Glycine, Glutamic acid, and Serine. In further analysis, we identified 6 metabolites whose levels at baseline predicted significant weight gain during 5‐year follow‐up in both cohorts. They were Acetylcholine, Leucine, Hippuric acid, Acetylglycine, Urate, and Xanthine. Conclusions The findings establish the baseline metabolic profiles for BMI, and suggest new metabolic targets for researchers attempting to understand the molecular mechanisms of weight gain and obesity. PMID:27708848

  2. Teaching Goal-Setting for Weight-Gain Prevention in a College Population: Insights from the CHOICES Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Jolynn; Kjolhaug, Jerri; Linde, Jennifer A.; Sevcik, Sarah; Lytle, Leslie A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This article describes the effectiveness of goal setting instruction in the CHOICES (Choosing Healthy Options in College Environments and Settings) study, an intervention evaluating the effectiveness of weight gain prevention strategies for 2-year college students. Methods: Four hundred and forty-one participants from three community…

  3. Steps Ahead: Adaptation of physical activity and dietary guidelines for reducing unhealthy weight gain in the Lower Misissippi Delta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of our study was to test the effectiveness of adapting the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (2010) (DG), with and without a physical activity (PA) component, in reducing weight gain in the Lower Mississippi Delta region (LMD) of the United States. A sample of 121 White and African-Americ...

  4. A low TSH profile predicts olanzapine-induced weight gain and relief by adjunctive topiramate in healthy male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Evers, Simon S; van Vliet, André; van Vugt, Barbara; Scheurink, Anton J W; van Dijk, Gertjan

    2016-04-01

    Second generation antipsychotics, like olanzapine (OLZ), have become the first line drug treatment for patients with schizophrenia. However, OLZ treatment is often associated with body weight (BW) gain and metabolic derangements. Therefore, the search for prospective markers for OLZ's negative side effects as well as adjunctive treatments to inhibit these has been of major interest. The aim of this study was to investigate in healthy male volunteers (age: 36 ± 11 years; BW: 84 ± 12 kg; BMI=25.5 ± 2.5) whether adjunctive topiramate (TPM) administration opposes OLZ-induced weight gain over the course of 14 days treatment. In addition, we investigated behavioral, endocrine and metabolic characteristics as underlying and potentially predictive factors for weight regulation and/or metabolic derangements associated with OLZ and TPM treatment. While adjunctive TPM indeed reduced OLZ-induced weight gain (P<0.05, Mann-Whitney U), behavioral/metabolic/endocrine characteristics of OLZ treatment were not affected by TPM. Using multiple regression analysis, BW gain was the key factor explaining metabolic disturbances (e.g., plasma insulin- LDL interaction: P<0.01, R(2)=.320), and cumulative food intake during treatment was the best denominator of BW gain (P<0.01, R(2)=.534). Neither TPM treatment, nor its circulating levels, contributed to variation observed in ΔBW. In a second multiple regression analysis, we observed that a low baseline thyrotropin profile (TSHAUC) before the start of drug treatment was associated with an increase in ΔBW over the course of drug treatment (P<0.05, R(2)=.195). Adding TSHAUC as covariate revealed that adjunctive TPM treatment did attenuate OLZ induced BW gain (P<0.05, ANCOVA). Further exploration of the circulating thyroid hormones revealed that individuals with a low plasma TSH profile were also those that were most sensitive to adjunctive TPM treatment blocking OLZ-induced ΔBW gain. Others have shown that OLZ-induced BW gain is

  5. A low TSH profile predicts olanzapine-induced weight gain and relief by adjunctive topiramate in healthy male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Evers, Simon S; van Vliet, André; van Vugt, Barbara; Scheurink, Anton J W; van Dijk, Gertjan

    2016-04-01

    Second generation antipsychotics, like olanzapine (OLZ), have become the first line drug treatment for patients with schizophrenia. However, OLZ treatment is often associated with body weight (BW) gain and metabolic derangements. Therefore, the search for prospective markers for OLZ's negative side effects as well as adjunctive treatments to inhibit these has been of major interest. The aim of this study was to investigate in healthy male volunteers (age: 36 ± 11 years; BW: 84 ± 12 kg; BMI=25.5 ± 2.5) whether adjunctive topiramate (TPM) administration opposes OLZ-induced weight gain over the course of 14 days treatment. In addition, we investigated behavioral, endocrine and metabolic characteristics as underlying and potentially predictive factors for weight regulation and/or metabolic derangements associated with OLZ and TPM treatment. While adjunctive TPM indeed reduced OLZ-induced weight gain (P<0.05, Mann-Whitney U), behavioral/metabolic/endocrine characteristics of OLZ treatment were not affected by TPM. Using multiple regression analysis, BW gain was the key factor explaining metabolic disturbances (e.g., plasma insulin- LDL interaction: P<0.01, R(2)=.320), and cumulative food intake during treatment was the best denominator of BW gain (P<0.01, R(2)=.534). Neither TPM treatment, nor its circulating levels, contributed to variation observed in ΔBW. In a second multiple regression analysis, we observed that a low baseline thyrotropin profile (TSHAUC) before the start of drug treatment was associated with an increase in ΔBW over the course of drug treatment (P<0.05, R(2)=.195). Adding TSHAUC as covariate revealed that adjunctive TPM treatment did attenuate OLZ induced BW gain (P<0.05, ANCOVA). Further exploration of the circulating thyroid hormones revealed that individuals with a low plasma TSH profile were also those that were most sensitive to adjunctive TPM treatment blocking OLZ-induced ΔBW gain. Others have shown that OLZ-induced BW gain is

  6. Basolateral amygdala response to food cues in the absence of hunger is associated with weight gain susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xue; Kroemer, Nils B; Veldhuizen, Maria G; Babbs, Amanda E; de Araujo, Ivan E; Gitelman, Darren R; Sherwin, Robert S; Sinha, Rajita; Small, Dana M

    2015-05-20

    In rodents, food-predictive cues elicit eating in the absence of hunger (Weingarten, 1983). This behavior is disrupted by the disconnection of amygdala pathways to the lateral hypothalamus (Petrovich et al., 2002). Whether this circuit contributes to long-term weight gain is unknown. Using fMRI in 32 healthy individuals, we demonstrate here that the amygdala response to the taste of a milkshake when sated but not hungry positively predicts weight change. This effect is independent of sex, initial BMI, and total circulating ghrelin levels, but it is only present in individuals who do not carry a copy of the A1 allele of the Taq1A polymorphism. In contrast, A1 allele carriers, who have decreased D2 receptor density (Blum et al., 1996), show a positive association between caudate response and weight change. Regardless of genotype, however, dynamic causal modeling supports unidirectional gustatory input from basolateral amygdala (BLA) to hypothalamus in sated subjects. This finding suggests that, as in rodents, external cues gain access to the homeostatic control circuits of the human hypothalamus via the amygdala. In contrast, during hunger, gustatory inputs enter the hypothalamus and drive bidirectional connectivity with the amygdala. These findings implicate the BLA-hypothalamic circuit in long-term weight change related to nonhomeostatic eating and provide compelling evidence that distinct brain mechanisms confer susceptibility to weight gain depending upon individual differences in dopamine signaling.

  7. Personalized health planning with integrative health coaching to reduce obesity risk among women gaining excess weight during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Nancy Y; Wroth, Shelley; Parham, Catherine; Strait, Melva; Simmons, Leigh Ann

    2013-07-01

    Health coaching is an emerging behavioral intervention to improve outcomes in chronic disease management and prevention; however, no studies have investigated its utility in postpartum women who have gained excess weight during pregnancy. A 32-year-old primigravida woman who was overweight at conception and gained 23 lbs more than Institute of Medicine recommendations for her pre-pregnancy body mass index participated in a 6-month personalized health planning with integrative health coaching (PHPIHC) intervention. The intervention included a baseline health risk assessment review with a healthcare provider and eight biweekly, 30-minute telephonic health coaching sessions. The participant demonstrated improvement in physical activity, energy expenditure, knowledge, and confidence to engage in healthpromoting behaviors. Although the participant did not reach the target weight by completion of the health coaching sessions, follow up 8 months later indicated she achieved the target goal (within 5% of prepregnancy weight). This case report suggests that PHP-IHC can support postpartum women in returning to pre-pregnancy weight after gaining excess gestational weight. Future research and clinical trials are needed to determine the best timing, length, and medium (online, in-person, telephonic) of PHP-IHC for postpartum women.

  8. Basolateral Amygdala Response to Food Cues in the Absence of Hunger Is Associated with Weight Gain Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Kroemer, Nils B.; Veldhuizen, Maria G.; Babbs, Amanda E.; de Araujo, Ivan E.; Gitelman, Darren R.; Sherwin, Robert S.; Sinha, Rajita

    2015-01-01

    In rodents, food-predictive cues elicit eating in the absence of hunger (Weingarten, 1983). This behavior is disrupted by the disconnection of amygdala pathways to the lateral hypothalamus (Petrovich et al., 2002). Whether this circuit contributes to long-term weight gain is unknown. Using fMRI in 32 healthy individuals, we demonstrate here that the amygdala response to the taste of a milkshake when sated but not hungry positively predicts weight change. This effect is independent of sex, initial BMI, and total circulating ghrelin levels, but it is only present in individuals who do not carry a copy of the A1 allele of the Taq1A polymorphism. In contrast, A1 allele carriers, who have decreased D2 receptor density (Blum et al., 1996), show a positive association between caudate response and weight change. Regardless of genotype, however, dynamic causal modeling supports unidirectional gustatory input from basolateral amygdala (BLA) to hypothalamus in sated subjects. This finding suggests that, as in rodents, external cues gain access to the homeostatic control circuits of the human hypothalamus via the amygdala. In contrast, during hunger, gustatory inputs enter the hypothalamus and drive bidirectional connectivity with the amygdala. These findings implicate the BLA–hypothalamic circuit in long-term weight change related to nonhomeostatic eating and provide compelling evidence that distinct brain mechanisms confer susceptibility to weight gain depending upon individual differences in dopamine signaling. PMID:25995480

  9. Effect of inbreeding on weight gain of offspring from birth to 12 months after birth: a study from Iran.

    PubMed

    Nafissi, Samane; Ansari-Lari, Maryam; Saadat, Mostafa

    2010-03-01

    Consanguinity, the marriage between relatives, has been associated with adverse child health outcomes. The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of consanguinity on offspring weight gain from birth to 12 months after birth. Data were collected on 250 consecutive live-born singleton newborns referred to a local health centre in Shiraz (Fars province, southern Iran). Collected data covered socio-demographic characteristics (such as parental age at delivery and parental education), sex, birth order, weights from birth to 12 months after birth and consanguinity of marriages of parents. Considering the low prevalence of double first cousin, first cousin once removed, second cousin, and beyond second cousin marriages, only first cousin and unrelated marriages were included in the study. The study population consisted of a total of 207 newborns (57 offspring of first cousins, 150 offspring of unrelated marriages). Based on the results of repeated measurements analysis of variance, weight gain was associated with type of marriage (p=0.018), sex of offspring (p=0.001) and paternal education (p<0.001). There was no interaction between type of marriage and sex (p=0.831). Birth weight was not affected by type of marriage (p=0.46). There was significant interaction between inbreeding and time (p=0.034). Offspring of consanguineous marriages showed lower weight gain in comparison with those of unrelated marriages during 3-12 months after birth.

  10. Dietary macronutrien