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Sample records for adult white sturgeon

  1. White Sturgeon Passage at The Dalles Dam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    Researchers at the USGS Western Fisheries Research Center's Columbia River Research Laboratory, working with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, sought to better understand upstream and downstream passage of white sturgeon at dams. A study at The Dalles Dam provided the opportunity to compare two fish ladders; one that passes sturgeon upstream to one that does not, to determine if subtle differences in construction result in better passage of white sturgeon. Researchers conducted a study using a combination of acoustic and radio telemetry technologies to obtain information on juvenile and adult white sturgeon near The Dalles Dam, with the objectives of characterizing the distribution and movements of white sturgeon in the immediate vicinity of the dam and to determine timing and routes of upstream and downstream passage.

  2. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations; White Sturgeon Spawning and Recruitment Evaluation, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rust, Pete; Wakkinen, Virginia

    2005-06-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the environmental requirements for successful spawning and recruitment of the Kootenai River white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus population. Annual tasks include monitoring and evaluating the various life stages of Kootenai River white sturgeon. Sampling for adult Kootenai River white sturgeon in 2003 began in March and continued through April. Eighty-one adult white sturgeon were captured with 3,576 hours of angling and set-lining effort in the Kootenai River. Discharge from Libby Dam and river stage at Bonners Ferry in 2003 peaked in May and early June. Flows remained above 500 m{sup 3}/s throughout June, decreased rapidly through mid July, and increased back to near 500 m{sup 3}/s after mid July and through mid August. By late August, flows had decreased to below 400 m{sup 3}/s. We monitored the movements of 24 adult sturgeon in Kootenay Lake, British Columbia (BC) and the Kootenai River from March 15, 2003 to August 31, 2003. Some of the fish were radio or sonic tagged in previous years. Twelve adult white sturgeon were moved upstream to the Hemlock Bar reach (rkm 260.0) and released as part of the Set and Jet Program. Transmitters were attached to seven of these fish, and their movements were monitored from the time of release until they moved downstream of Bonners Ferry. Eight additional radio-tagged white sturgeon adults were located in the traditional spawning reach (rkm 228-240) during May and June. Sampling with artificial substrate mats began May 21, 2003 and ended June 30, 2003. We sampled 717 mat d (a mat d is one 24 h set) during white sturgeon spawning. Three white sturgeon eggs were collected near Shortys Island on June 3, 2003, and five eggs were collected from the Hemlock Bar reach on June 5, 2003. Prejuvenile sampling began June 17, 2003 and continued until July 31, 2003. Sampling occurred primarily at Ambush Rock (rkm 244.0) in an attempt to document any recruitment that might have occurred from

  3. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations; White Sturgeon Spawning and Recruitment Evaluation, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rust, Pete; Wakkinen, Virginia

    2006-05-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the environmental requirements for successful spawning and recruitment of the Kootenai River white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus population. Annual tasks include monitoring and evaluating the response of various life stages of Kootenai River white sturgeon to mitigation flows supplied by the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). Sampling for adult Kootenai River white sturgeon in 2004 began in March and continued into May. One hundred forty-two adult white sturgeon were captured with 4,146 hours of angling and set-lining effort in the Kootenai River. Kootenai River discharge and stage at Bonners Ferry in 2004 peaked in mid December. Discharge remained below 400 cubic meters per second (cms) until June 1; then, because of a systems operations request (SOR), increased and remained between 480 and 540 cms through the end of June. From July through September, discharge ranged from 360 to 420 cms, decreasing to 168 cms by the end of October. Discharge increased again to above 625 cms by November 4 to increase winter storage in Lake Koocanusa and ranged from 310 to 925 cms through the end of December. We monitored the movements of 31 adult sturgeon in Kootenay Lake, British Columbia (BC) and the Kootenai River from mid-March until late August 2004. All telemetered fish were dual tagged with external sonic and radio transmitters, and some of the fish were tagged in previous years. Eighteen of the 31 telemetered adult white sturgeon were released at Hemlock Bar reach (rkm 260.0) as part of a research project to test the feasibility of moving sexually mature adult white sturgeon to areas with habitat types thought to be more suitable for successful egg hatching and early life stage recruitment. Marked fish were monitored from the time of release until they moved downstream of Bonners Ferry. Sampling for white sturgeon eggs with artificial substrate mats began May 3 and ended June 10, 2004. We sampled 650 mat days

  4. White Sturgeon Bibliography, 1985 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Fickeisen, Duane H.

    1986-03-01

    This bibliography presents citations to the majority of published materials on white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus). The purpose was to assist in planning and implementing research on white sturgeon in the Columbia River system. (ACR)

  5. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations; White Sturgeon Spawning and Recruitment Evaluation, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Paragamian, Vaughn L.; Kruse, Gretchen L.; Wakkinen, Virginia

    2001-11-01

    Sampling for adult Kootenai River white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus began in March and continued through April 1999. Forty-six adult sturgeon were captured with 4,091 hours of angling and set-lining effort, while an additional three adult sturgeon were captured during gillnetting for juveniles. Flows for Kootenai River white sturgeon spawning were expected to be high because the snow pack in the basin was estimated at 130% of normal, but runoff came very slowly. Discharge from Libby Dam from mid-March through mid-June was maintained at 113 m{sup 3}/s (4,000 cfs). Flows in the Kootenai River at Bonners Ferry during early April, including local inflow, were 227-255 m{sup 3}/s (8,000-9,000 cfs) but increased gradually in late April to a peak of 657 m{sup 3}/s (23,200 cfs). Flows subsided in early May to about 340 m{sup 3}/s (12,000 cfs), but rose to 1,031 m{sup 3}/s (36,370 cfs) by Mary 26 because of local runoff, and white sturgeon began spawning. However, flows subsided again to 373 m{sup 3}/s (13,200 cfs) June 11, 1999 and some female white sturgeon with transmitters began leaving the spawning reach. Water temperature ranged from about 8 C to 10 C (45 F to 50 F) during these two weeks. On June 13 (two weeks after sturgeon began spawning), spawning and incubation flows from Libby Dam began. The flow was brought up to 1,136 m{sup 3}/s (40,100 cfs) and temperature rose to about 11 C (52 F). They sampled for 3,387 mat days (one mat day is a single 24 h set) with artificial substrate mats and captured 184 white sturgeon eggs. The Middle Shorty's Island reach (river kilometer [rkm] 229.6-231.5) produced the most eggs (144), with 388 mat days of effort; the Refuge section (rkm 234.8 to 237.5) with 616 mat days of effort produced 23 eggs; and the Lower Shorty's section produced 19 eggs with 548 days of mat effort. No eggs were collected above the Refuge section (> rkm 240.5) with 988 mat days of effort. They do not believe flows for sturgeon spawning in 1999 were very

  6. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations and Experimental Culture, 1990-1991 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Apperson, Kimberly A.

    1992-07-01

    Setline and angling techniques were used to sample 56 white sturgeon Acioenser transmontanus from the Kootenai River in 1991. Of those sampled, nine were recaptures from previous years of this study. A total of 382 white sturgeon were captured from March 1989 through October 1991. Fork lengths of white sturgeon in the sample ranged from 88-274 cm. Our data indicated there was a complete lack of recruitment of juveniles into the population. The youngest fish sampled was of the 1977 year class. The population was estimated at 880 individuals with a 95% confidence interval of 638 to 1,211. Annual mortality of white sturgeon since 1982 is 3.74%. Approximately 80% of the population was more than 20 years old and was reproductively mature. Surgical examination of 309 white sturgeon since 1989 indicated that approximately 7% of the female white sturgeon and 30% of the male white sturgeon are reproductive each year. The ratio of males to females was estimated at 1:l. White sturgeon sampled and released with and without surgical examination were recaptured at equal rates. An ongoing sonic telemetry study has documented long distance movements by adults. White sturgeon regularly move across the British Columbia - Idaho border. White sturgeon seek out deep holes in the river or migrate to Kootenay Lake during late fall, During spring and early summer of both 1990 and 1991 reproductively mature white sturgeon moved from 15 to 110 km upriver and congregated within 10 km downriver from Bonners Ferry in areas of elevated water velocity. This behavior coincided with increasing discharge and water temperatures. Developing white sturgeon eggs were recovered from the river near Bonners Ferry on July 3, 1991. Contamination of eggs by organochloride compounds were less in recent samples from the Kootenai River than in a single sample collected in 1982. White sturgeon eggs from the Kootenai River fish contained approximately one tenth the organochloride compounds of white sturgeon eggs

  7. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations; White Sturgeon Spawning and Recruitment Evaluation, 1996 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Paragamian, Vaughn L.

    1997-09-01

    Test flows for Kootenai River white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus spawning, scheduled for June 1996, were postponed until July. However, an estimated 126% snow pack and unusually heavy precipitation created conditions for sturgeon spawning that were similar to those occurring before construction of Libby Dam. Discharge in the Kootenai River at Bonners Ferry rose to nearly 1,204 m{sup 3}/s (42,500 cfs) during May and water temperature ranged from 5.8 C to 8.4 C (42 F to 47 F). Migration of adult white sturgeon into spawning areas occurred in late May during a rising hydrograph. Discharge and water temperature were rising and had reached approximately 1,077 m{sup 3}/s (38,000 cfs) and 8 C (46 F). Discharge at Bonners Ferry peaked at about 1,397 m{sup 3}/s (49,300 cfs) on June 5. A total of 348 eggs (and one egg shell) were collected with 106,787 h of mat effort during the flow events. The first white sturgeon eggs were collected on June 8 and continued through June 30. Staging of eggs and back-calculating to spawning dates indicated there were at least 18 spawning episodes between June 6 and June 25. Discharge on June 6 was 1,196 m{sup 3}/s (42,200 cfs) and decreased steadily to 850 m{sup 3}/s (30,000 cfs) by June 26. Although sturgeon spawned in the same reach of river that they had during 1994 and 1995, the majority of eggs were found significantly (P = 0.0001) farther upstream than 1994 and 1995 and this in turn may be related to elevation of Kootenay Lake.

  8. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations, 1993 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Marcuson, Patrick E.

    1994-05-01

    U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in concordance with Bonneville Power Administration provided a release of 324.3 m{sup 3}/s (400,000 acre feet) of impounded water from Lake Koocanusa, Montana from June 2 to June 16, 1993. This release of water provided approximately 566.4 m{sup 3}/s (20,000 cfs) discharge in the Kootenai River at Bonners Ferry, Idaho. Nineteen adult white sturgeon equipped with combinations of radio and sonic transmitters were monitored from mid-April to mid-July, 1993. Nine females and one male remained in the Kootenai River near the British Columbia/Idaho border and/or Kootenay Lake, British Columbia. One female was captured by the crew from the Kootenai Hatchery, operated by the Kootenai Tribe of Idaho, delivered to the hatchery, tagged, and released seven days later. She retreated to Kootenay Lake immediately after release. Eight sturgeon with transmitters formed the aggregate of unknown numbers of fish in the staging area. The monitored fish were all judged late vitellogenic and were used to characterize what was assumed reproductive behavior of white sturgeon in the Kootenai River. Four late vitellogenic females moved upriver with the lowland spring runoff (May 11), lingered around the ''staging area'' May 11-24, then retreated downriver May 21-24. Two fish retreated all the way to Kootenay Lake, British Columbia; the other two re-advanced upriver May 27-30 concurrent with the initiation of the augmented discharge on May 28. None of the monitored fish were detected beyond the U.S. Highway 95 bridge. By June 4, the remaining females began moving downriver. Male sturgeon tended to move upriver seven days earlier than the females. They arrived in staging waters about May 11. On May 21, three male sturgeon demonstrated a slight downriver run the same time as did the females. The maximum downriver travel was 14.2 km. All four of the monitored males returned upriver just prior to and during the augmented flow period. Crews fished a combined 14

  9. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations : White Sturgeon Spawning and Recruitment Evaluation, 1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Paragamian, Vaughn L.; Kruse, Gretchen L.; Wakkinen, Virginia

    2001-03-01

    Flows in the Kootenai River for white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus spawning in 1998 were expected to be at a minimum because the snow pack in the basin was only about 79% normal, and local inflow was expected to be very low, <142 m{sup 3}/s (5,000 cfs). Flows in the Kootenai River at Bonners Ferry from late April through early May were at about 425 m{sup 3}/s (15,000 cfs) while water temperature ranged from about 8 to 10 C (45 to 50 F). Spawning and incubation flows from Libby Dam began on May 18 when flow at the dam was brought up to 765 m{sup 3}/s (27,000 cfs). Unusually frequent rains and several enormous storms brought peak flows at Bonners Ferry to over 1,175 m{sup 3}/s (41,500 cfs) on May 27, temperature ranged between 8 and 10.6 C (45 to 51 F). Flow gradually subsided at Bonners Ferry during June and was steady at 708 to 765 m{sup 3}/s (25,000 to 27,000 cfs) while temperature gradually rose to 14.4 C (58 F). Forty-seven adult white sturgeon were captured with 4,220 hours of angling and setlining effort between March 1 and April 15, 1998 by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG). Sonic and radio tags were attached to four female and five male sturgeon during this effort. From April 1 through July 31, 1998, a total of 17 fish were monitored specifically for pre-spawn and spawning activities. White sturgeon spawning location, timing, frequency, and habitat were evaluated by sampling for eggs with artificial substrate mats. Four hundred and eighty-four eggs were collected, 393 eggs (81%) were collected on 60 standard mats, and 91 eggs (19%) were collected on seven experimental mats with drift nets. Ten eggs collected with experimental mats were found mixed with sand, suggesting eggs are moving in the lower water column with sand. The middle Shorty's Island reach (rkm 229.6-231.5) produced the most eggs (173) while the Deep Creek section (rkm 237.6-240.5) produced 112 eggs. No eggs were collected above the Deep Creek section (>rkm 240.5). Four hundred

  10. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations and Experimental Culture, 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Apperson, Kimberly A.; Wakkinen, Virginia (

    1993-11-01

    Setline and angling techniques were used to sample 64 white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus from the Kootenai River in 1992. Of those sampled, 15 were recaptures from previous years of this study. A total of 429 white sturgeon were captured from March 1989 through September 1992. Fork lengths of white sturgeon in the total sample ranged from 88 to 274 cm. The data indicated there was a complete lack of recruitment of juveniles into the population which was estimated in 1990 at 880 individuals with a 95% confidence interval of 638 to 1,211. Annual mortality of white sturgeon from 1982 to 1991 was 0.0374. Approximately 80% of the population was more than 20 years old and was reproductively mature. An ongoing sonic telemetry study revealed long distance movements among adults. Sturgeon regularly moved across the British Columbia-Idaho border. Sturgeon used deep holes in the river or migrated to Kootenai Lake during late fall. During spring and early summer, reproductively mature sturgeon moved from 15 to 110 kilometers upriver and congregated within 15 kilometers downriver from Bonners Ferry in areas of elevated water velocity. This behavior coincided with increasing discharge and water temperatures. The authors monitored movements of five reproductively mature female white sturgeon. The fish responded to increasing then decreasing flows by moving upriver then downriver, respectively. All five fish quickly moved to Kootenai Lake when flows dropped suddenly from higher than 20 kcfs to less than 10 kcfs. One fish was recaptured and was reabsorbing eggs. Trawling and sampling with mats of artificial substrate failed to capture white sturgeon eggs or larvae in 1992. One hundred and four age 1 and 14 age 2 hatchery-reared Kootenai white sturgeon were released into the Idaho section of the river in 1992. Telemetry of six of the larger juveniles showed general downriver movement from September into November.

  11. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigation, 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Marcuson, Patrick E.; Wakkinen, Virginia; Kruse-Malle, Gretchen

    1995-07-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in concordance with Bonneville Power Administration provided a release of 1.48 billion cubic meters (1.2 MAF, million acre feet) of impounded water from Lake Koocanusa, Montana from June 1 to June 28, 1994. This release of water provided approximately 566 To/s (20 thousand cubic feet per second, kcfs) discharge in the Kootenai River at Bonners Ferry, Idaho. Between February and early April 1994, 15 adult sturgeon (10 females, 5 males) in late vitellogenic stage were captured and fitted with combinations of radio and sonic transmitters. A total of 31 sturgeon were monitored. Ten hatchery reared juvenile white sturgeon equipped with radio and sonic tags were released in pools down river of Kootenai Falls, Montana. All ten sturgeon had moved between 60 and 97 km (37.3 and 60.3 mi) down river of release sites within one month. Movements coincided with major flow peaking associated with hydropower production at Libby Dam, located upriver of the release site

  12. Modeling white sturgeon movement in a reservoir: The effect of water quality and sturgeon density

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sullivan, A.B.; Jager, H.I.; Myers, R.

    2003-01-01

    We developed a movement model to examine the distribution and survival of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) in a reservoir subject to large spatial and temporal variation in dissolved oxygen and temperature. Temperature and dissolved oxygen were simulated by a CE-QUAL-W2 model of Brownlee Reservoir, Idaho for a typical wet, normal, and dry hydrologic year. We compared current water quality conditions to scenarios with reduced nutrient inputs to the reservoir. White sturgeon habitat quality was modeled as a function of temperature, dissolved oxygen and, in some cases, suitability for foraging and depth. We assigned a quality index to each cell along the bottom of the reservoir. The model simulated two aspects of daily movement. Advective movement simulated the tendency for animals to move toward areas with high habitat quality, and diffusion simulated density dependent movement away from areas with high sturgeon density in areas with non-lethal habitat conditions. Mortality resulted when sturgeon were unable to leave areas with lethal temperature or dissolved oxygen conditions. Water quality was highest in winter and early spring and lowest in mid to late summer. Limiting nutrient inputs reduced the area of Brownlee Reservoir with lethal conditions for sturgeon and raised the average habitat suitability throughout the reservoir. Without movement, simulated white sturgeon survival ranged between 45 and 89%. Allowing movement raised the predicted survival of sturgeon under all conditions to above 90% as sturgeon avoided areas with low habitat quality. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Snout dimorphism in white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, from the Columbia River at Hanford, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Crass, D.W.; Gray, R.H.

    1982-01-01

    Although differences in snout length and shape between young and adult sturgeon are known, morphological divergence in snout type of similar sized individuals has not been reported. Field observations in the Hanford reach of the Columbia River on 99 white sturgeon ranging from 35 to 205 cm total length showed two snout types based on size and shape. The occurrence of this dimorphism at Hanford may reflect isolating mechanisms, such as physical barriers which block fish movements. (RAF)

  14. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Studies, Annual Report FY 1993.

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Paul J.; Siple, John T.

    1993-12-01

    This report evaluates natural spawning of white sturgeon in the Kootenai River before, during and after the 1993 augmented discharge period. To determine how altering the operation of Libby Dam may improve conditions for natural spawning of white sturgeon in the Kootenai River, discharge from Libby Dam (with no power peaking or load following) was increased to produce 20 kcfs ([plus minus] 2 kcfs) discharge at Bonners Ferry, Idaho, for a 14 day period June 2--16. Objectives of this research were to determine if white sturgeon spawned in the Kootenai River during 1993; and collect baseline biological data including timing, location, and habitat requirements of white sturgeon spawning in the Kootenai River in order to formulate and implement future flow regimes as effective recovery measures for white sturgeon. While sampling is not expected to collect a majority of white sturgeon eggs or larvae produced in a river, the fact that over 41,000 hours of sampling (combined gear) collected only 3 white sturgeon eggs and no larvae suggests that spawning conditions during 1993 were inadequate to benefit this population.

  15. The effects of dissolved gas supersaturation on white sturgeon larvae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Counihan, T.D.; Miller, A.I.; Mesa, M.G.; Parsley, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    Spill at dams has caused supersaturation of atmospheric gas in waters of the Columbia and Snake rivers and raised concerns about the effects of dissolved gas supersaturation (DGS) on white sturgeons Acipenser transmontanus. The timing and location of white sturgeon spawning and the dispersal of white sturgeon larvae from incubation areas makes the larval stage potentially vulnerable to the effects of DGS. To assess the effects of DGS on white sturgeon larvae, we exposed larvae to mean total dissolved gas (TDG) levels of 118% and 131% saturation in laboratory bioassay tests. Gas bubble trauma (GBT) was manifested as a gas bubble in the buccal cavity, nares, or both and it first occurred at developmental stages characterized by the formation of the mouth and gills. Exposure times of 15 min were sufficient to elicit these signs in larvae in various stages of development. No mortality was observed in larvae exposed to 118% TDG for 10 d, but 50% mortality occurred after a 13-d exposure to 131% TDG. The signs of GBT we observed resulted in positive buoyancy and alterations in behavior that may affect the dispersal and predation vulnerability of white sturgeon larvae. The exact depth distribution of dispersing white sturgeon larvae in the Columbia River currently is unknown. Thus, our results may represent a worst-case scenario if white sturgeon larvae are dispersed at depths with insufficient hydrostatic pressure to compensate for high TDG levels.

  16. Diet of first-feeding larval and young-of-the-year white sturgeon in the lower Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muir, W.D.; McCabe, G.T.; Parsley, M.J.; Hinton, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    In some Snake and Columbia River reservoirs, adult white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are common but few juvenile fish are found, indicating a lack of spawning success or poor survival of larvae. In contrast, recruitment of young-of-the-year white sturgeon to juvenile and adult stages is successful in the unimpounded Columbia River downstream of Bonneville Dam. The availability and size of preferred prey during the period when white sturgeon larvae begin exogenous feeding could be an important determinant of year-class strength. To explore this issue, we examined the diet composition of 352 larval and young-of-the year white sturgeon collected from 1989 through 1991 in the lower Columbia River. Samples were collected downstream from Bonneville Dam and upstream from the dam in Bonneville and The Dalles Reservoirs. Fish that ranged in size from 15 to 290 mm in total length fed primarily on gammarid amphipods (Corophium spp.) during all months. This diet item became increasingly important to all sizes of white sturgeon examined as they grew. The length of Corophium spp. eaten by larval and young-of-the-year white sturgeon increased with increasing fish length (r2 = 45.6%, P < 0.0001). Copepods (Cyclopoida), Ceratopogonidae larvae, and Diptera pupae and larvae (primarily chironomids) were also consumed, especially at the onset of exogenous feeding. A small percentage of white sturgeon were found with empty stomachs during June (1.6% downstream from Bonneville Dam) and July (4.5% downstream and 2.6% in the reservoirs). Diets of larval and young-of-the year white sturgeon from both impounded and free-flowing sections of the Columbia River were similar and we found no evidence of larval starvation in the areas investigated, areas currently supporting healthy white sturgeon populations.

  17. Vulnerability of young white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, to predation in the presence of alternative prey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gadomski, D.M.; Parsley, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    We conducted laboratory trials to test the vulnerability of young white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, to predation when an alternative prey was available. In trials with two species of predators, we observed two feeding patterns. When equal numbers of white sturgeon and goldfish, Carassius auratus, were available, prickly sculpins, Cottus asper, ingested more white sturgeon. Conversely, northern pikeminnow, Ptychocheilus oregonensis, ate more juvenile coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch, than white sturgeon in three out of four sets of trials, but ate more white sturgeon in one set of trials. White sturgeon size and the availability of cover did not affect the proportions of prey species ingested. Our results indicate that predation may be affecting survival of white sturgeon larvae and juveniles in the wild and could be one factor limiting recruitment of young-of-the-year white sturgeon in some locations. ?? Springer 2005.

  18. Effects of Mitigative Measures on Productivity of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam; Determine Status and Habitat Requirements of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from the McNary Dam, 1994-1995 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Beiningen, Kirk T.

    1996-03-01

    The author reports on progress from April 1994 through March 1995 of research on white sturgeon in the lower Columbia River. The study began in July 1986 and is a cooperative effort of federal, state and tribal fisheries entities to determine the (1) the status and habitat requirements, and (2) the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the lower Columbia River. This report describes activities conducted during the third year of this contract's second phase. Information was collected, analyzed, and evaluated on sub-adult and adult life histories, population dynamics, quantity and quality of habitat, and production enhancement strategies. The report is divided into sections that evaluate success of developing and implementing a management plan for white sturgeon; evaluate growth, mortality, and contributions to fisheries of juvenile white sturgeon transplanted from areas downstream; describe the life history and population dynamics of sub-adult a nd adult white sturgeon; define habitat requirements for spawning and rearing of white sturgeon and quantify the extent of habitat available; describe reproductive and early life history characteristics of white sturgeon; and quantify physical habitat used by spawning and rearing white sturgeon in the free-flowing portion of the Columbia River.

  19. Toxicity of copper to early-life stage Kootenai River white sturgeon, Columbia River white sturgeon, and rainbow trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Little, E.E.; Calfee, R.D.; Linder, G.

    2012-01-01

    White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) populations throughout western North America are in decline, likely as a result of overharvest, operation of dams, and agricultural and mineral extraction activities in their watersheds. Recruitment failure may reflect the loss of early-life stage fish in spawning areas of the upper Columbia River, which are contaminated with metals from effluents associated with mineral-extraction activities. Early-life stage white sturgeon (A. transmontanus) from the Columbia River and Kootenai River populations were exposed to copper during 96-h flow-through toxicity tests to determine their sensitivity to the metal. Similar tests were conducted with rainbow trout (RBT [Oncorhynchus mykiss]) to assess the comparative sensitivity of this species as a surrogate for white sturgeon. Exposures were conducted with a water quality pH 8.1-8.3, hardness 81-119 mg/L as CaCO2, and dissolved organic carbon 0.2-0.4 mg/L. At approximately 30 days posthatch (dph), sturgeon were highly sensitive to copper with median lethal concentration (LC50) values ranging from 4.1 to 6.8 μg/L compared with 36.5 μg/L for 30 dph RBT. White sturgeon at 123-167 dph were less sensitive to copper with LC50 values ranging from 103.7 to 268.9 μg/L. RBT trout, however, remained more sensitive to copper at 160 dph with an LC50 value of 30.9 μg/L. The results indicate that high sensitivity to copper in early-life stage white sturgeon may be a factor in recruitment failure occurring in the upper Columbia and Kootenai rivers. When site-specific water-quality criteria were estimated using the biotic ligand model (BLM), derived values were not protective of early-life stage fish, nor were estimates derived by water-hardness adjustment.

  20. First record predation on white sturgeon eggs by sympatric fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, A.I.; Beckman, L.G.

    1996-01-01

    We report the occurrence of white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus eggs in guts of four species of fish from the Columbia River. Three of the species—northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonensis, largescale sucker Catostomus macrocheilus, and prickly sentpin Cottus asper—are native to the river and one, common carp Cvprinus carpio, is exotic.

  1. Capture of white sturgeon larvae downstream of The Dalles Dam, Columbia River, Oregon and Washington, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsley, Michael J.; Kofoot, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Wild-spawned white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) larvae captured and reared in aquaculture facilities and subsequently released, are increasingly being used in sturgeon restoration programs in the Columbia River Basin. A reconnaissance study was conducted to determine where to deploy nets to capture white sturgeon larvae downstream of a known white sturgeon spawning area. As a result of the study, 103 white sturgeon larvae and 5 newly hatched free-swimming embryos were captured at 3 of 5 reconnaissance netting sites. The netting, conducted downstream of The Dalles Dam on the Columbia River during June 25–29, 2012, provided information for potentially implementing full-scale collection efforts of large numbers of larvae for rearing in aquaculture facilities and for subsequent release at a larger size in white sturgeon restoration programs.

  2. Radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, D.D.; Price, K.R.; Poston, T.M.

    1992-09-01

    Although radioactive releases from the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site have been monitored in the environment since the reactors began operating in 1945, recent information regarding historical releases of radionuclides has led to renewed interest in estimating human exposure to radionuclides at Hanford. Knowledge of the fate of radionuclides in some fish species may be important because of the potential for food-chain transfer to humans. White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were selected for study because they are long-lived, reside year-round in the Hanford Reach, are benthic, and are an important commercial and sport species in the Columbia River. They also have a greater potential for accumulating persistent radionuclides than shorter-lived species with pelagic and/or anadromous life histories. The purpose of our study was to summarize data on historical concentrations of industrial radionuclides in white sturgeon and to collect additional data on current body burdens in the Columbia River.

  3. Radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, D.D.; Price, K.R.; Poston, T.M.

    1992-09-01

    Although radioactive releases from the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site have been monitored in the environment since the reactors began operating in 1945, recent information regarding historical releases of radionuclides has led to renewed interest in estimating human exposure to radionuclides at Hanford. Knowledge of the fate of radionuclides in some fish species may be important because of the potential for food-chain transfer to humans. White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were selected for study because they are long-lived, reside year-round in the Hanford Reach, are benthic, and are an important commercial and sport species in the Columbia River. They also have a greater potential for accumulating persistent radionuclides than shorter-lived species with pelagic and/or anadromous life histories. The purpose of our study was to summarize data on historical concentrations of industrial radionuclides in white sturgeon and to collect additional data on current body burdens in the Columbia River.

  4. Larval green and white sturgeon swimming performance in relation to water-diversion flows.

    PubMed

    Verhille, Christine E; Poletto, Jamilynn B; Cocherell, Dennis E; DeCourten, Bethany; Baird, Sarah; Cech, Joseph J; Fangue, Nann A

    2014-01-01

    Little is known of the swimming capacities of larval sturgeons, despite global population declines in many species due in part to fragmentation of their spawning and rearing habitats by man-made water-diversion structures. Larval green (Acipenser medirostris) and white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) inhabit the highly altered Sacramento-San Joaquin watershed, making them logical species to examine vulnerability to entrainment by altered water flows. The risk of larval sturgeon entrainment is influenced by the ontogeny of swimming capacity and dispersal timing and their interactions with water-diversion structure operations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe and compare the ontogeny and allometry of larval green and white sturgeon swimming capacities until completion of metamorphosis into juveniles. Despite the faster growth rates and eventual larger size of larval white sturgeon, green sturgeon critical swimming velocities remained consistently, though modestly, greater than those of white sturgeon throughout the larval life stage. Although behavioural interactions with water-diversion structures are also important considerations, regarding swimming capacity, Sacramento-San Joaquin sturgeons are most vulnerable to entrainment in February-May, when white sturgeon early larvae are in the middle Sacramento River, and April-May, when green sturgeon early larvae are in the upper river. Green sturgeon migrating downstream to the estuary and bays in October-November are also susceptible to entrainment due to their movements combined with seasonal declines in their swimming capacity. An additional inter-species comparison of the allometric relationship between critical swimming velocities and total length with several sturgeon species found throughout the world suggests a similar ontogeny of swimming capacity with growth. Therefore, although dispersal and behaviour differ among river systems and sturgeon species, similar recommendations are applicable

  5. Laboratory studies on the vulnerability of young white sturgeon to predation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gadomski, D.M.; Parsley, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    Despite evidence of annual spawning by white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus in rivers of the northwestern United States and Canada, in some years and locations little or no recruitment of age-0 white sturgeon has been observed. We examined the vulnerability of white sturgeon larvae and juveniles to predation to further understand possible causes of mortality. We were particularly interested in the vulnerability of older larvae and juveniles because at about 25 mm total length (TL) white sturgeon develop sharp dorsal and lateral scutes that may act as a morphological defense. In the laboratory, white sturgeon ranging from newly hatched larvae to about 170-mm TL juveniles were exposed to predatory fishes they might encounter in the natural environment. We found that channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus (mean TL = 464 mm) and northern pikeminnow Ptychocheilus oregonensis (mean TL = 472 mm) ate white sturgeon up to mean sizes of 121 and 134 mm TL, respectively. Conversely, similarly sized walleyes Sander vitreus ingested almost no white sturgeon, although juvenile walleyes (mean TL = 184 mm) ate white sturgeon up to 59 mm TL. The smallest predator we tested, prickly sculpins Cottus asper (mean TL = 126 mm), ate white sturgeon up to a mean TL of 50 mm. Our study demonstrated that predation is a likely cause of mortality of age-0 white sturgeon and may be contributing to the year-class failures that have been observed. In addition, the results from this study could be used to reduce the predation risk of artificially propagated white sturgeon released to augment declining populations since fish could be reared to sizes where their vulnerability is low.

  6. Columbia River White Sturgeon (Acipenser Transmontanus) Enhancement, May 1-December 31, 1983 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Brannon, E.L.

    1984-12-01

    Studies were undertaken to examine and define the early life history characteristics of Columbia River white sturgeon as a working base from which enhancement measures could be developed. Adult sturgeon were captured and held for spawning at Covert's Landing, the site of the hatchery facilities below Bonneville Dam. Pituitary hormones stimulated ovulation; ripe females were live spawned surgically and the eggs incubated in hatching jars. Larvae were either reared at the hatchery site after incubation to advanced fingerling stages or transferred to the University laboratory for more detailed study. Displacement downstream occurs as a means of distribution and can last several days before a strong substrate preference is manifested. Once bottom contact is sought by the larvae, displacement is abated, and a general preference for sandy surface appears to predominate. Since potentially extensive displacement downstream could result in the distribution of larvae in saltwater, the tolerance of young sturgeon to saltwater was examined. The responsiveness of young sturgeon to artificial feed was positive. With these results, the original concern for identifying an adequate diet and food source that would be readily accepted by fry was greatly attenuated. The readiness of young fry to initiate feeding on the artificial diet made further study on feeding stimulants unnecessary. Examination of the feeding response suggested that as long as the diet used in the present study was initiated at the proper time and with adequate frequency, the fry would feed quite well and survive. 6 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. The elusive minimum viable population size for white sturgeon

    SciTech Connect

    Jager, Yetta; Lepla, Ken B.; Van Winkle, Webb; James, Mr Brad; McAdam, Dr Steve

    2010-01-01

    Biological conservation of sturgeon populations is a concern for many species. Those responsible for managing the white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and similar species are interested in identifying extinction thresholds to avoid. Two thresholds that exist in theory are the minimum viable population size (MVP) and minimum amount of suitable habitat. In this paper, we present both model and empirical estimates of these thresholds. We modified a population viability analysis (PVA) model for white sturgeon to include two new Allee mechanisms. Despite this, PVA-based MVP estimates were unrealistically low compared with empirical estimates unless opportunities for spawning were assumed to be less frequent. PVA results revealed a trade-off between MVP and habitat thresholds; smaller populations persisted in longer river segments and vice versa. Our empirical analyses suggested (1) a MVP range based on population trends from 1,194 to 27,700 individuals, and (2) a MVP estimate of 4,000 individuals based on recruitment. Long-term historical population surveys are needed for more populations to pinpoint an MVP based on trends, whereas the available data were sufficient to estimate MVP based on recruitment. Beyond the MVP, we developed a hierarchical model for population status based on empirical data. Metapopulation support was the most important predictor of population health, followed by the length of free-flowing habitat, with habitat thresholds at 26 and 150 km. Together, these results suggest that habitat and connectivity are important determinants of population status that likely influence the site-specific MVP thresholds.

  8. Identification and response to metals of metallothionein in two ancient fishes: white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens).

    PubMed

    Doering, Jon A; Beitel, Shawn C; Eisner, Bryanna K; Heide, Timon; Hollert, Henner; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus; Wiseman, Steve B

    2015-05-01

    White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are among the most sensitive species of fishes to Cu, Cd, and Zn, but there is no information about sensitivity of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens). To begin to elucidate molecular mechanism(s) of sensitivity of sturgeons to metals a cDNA encoding metallothionein (MT) was amplified from livers of white sturgeon (WS-MT) and lake sturgeon (LS-MT), and expression in response to Cu, Cd, or Zn was characterized in liver explants from each species. The primary structure of WS-MT and LS-MT contained 20 cysteine residues, which is the same as MTs of teleost fishes. However, the primary structure of WS-MT and LS-MT contained 63 amino acids, which is longer than any MT identified in teleost fishes. Abundance of transcripts of WS-MT in explants exposed to 0.3, 3, 30, or 100 μg/L of Cu was 1.7-, 1.7-, 2.1-, and 2.6-fold less than in controls, respectively. In contrast, abundances of transcripts of WS-MT were 3.3- and 2.4-fold greater in explants exposed to 30 μg/L of Cd and 1000 μg/L of Zn, respectively. Abundance of transcripts of LS-MT was not significantly different at any concentration of Cu, Cd, or Zn. MT is hypothesized to represent a critical mechanism for detoxification of metals. Therefore, results of this study suggest that sensitivity of sturgeons to exposure to Cu, Cd, or Zn might be a result of the relatively lesser maximal response of MT to metals. The study also suggestslake sturgeon might be more sensitive than white sturgeon to metals.

  9. Identification and response to metals of metallothionein in two ancient fishes: white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens).

    PubMed

    Doering, Jon A; Beitel, Shawn C; Eisner, Bryanna K; Heide, Timon; Hollert, Henner; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus; Wiseman, Steve B

    2015-05-01

    White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are among the most sensitive species of fishes to Cu, Cd, and Zn, but there is no information about sensitivity of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens). To begin to elucidate molecular mechanism(s) of sensitivity of sturgeons to metals a cDNA encoding metallothionein (MT) was amplified from livers of white sturgeon (WS-MT) and lake sturgeon (LS-MT), and expression in response to Cu, Cd, or Zn was characterized in liver explants from each species. The primary structure of WS-MT and LS-MT contained 20 cysteine residues, which is the same as MTs of teleost fishes. However, the primary structure of WS-MT and LS-MT contained 63 amino acids, which is longer than any MT identified in teleost fishes. Abundance of transcripts of WS-MT in explants exposed to 0.3, 3, 30, or 100 μg/L of Cu was 1.7-, 1.7-, 2.1-, and 2.6-fold less than in controls, respectively. In contrast, abundances of transcripts of WS-MT were 3.3- and 2.4-fold greater in explants exposed to 30 μg/L of Cd and 1000 μg/L of Zn, respectively. Abundance of transcripts of LS-MT was not significantly different at any concentration of Cu, Cd, or Zn. MT is hypothesized to represent a critical mechanism for detoxification of metals. Therefore, results of this study suggest that sensitivity of sturgeons to exposure to Cu, Cd, or Zn might be a result of the relatively lesser maximal response of MT to metals. The study also suggestslake sturgeon might be more sensitive than white sturgeon to metals. PMID:25795035

  10. Persistence of identifiable remains of white sturgeon juveniles in digestive tracts of northern pikeminnow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gadomski, D.M.; Frost, C.N.

    2004-01-01

    Juvenile white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, have not been commonly identified as prey items in digestive tracts of fishes collected in the wild. In particular, the diet of northern pikeminnow, Ptychocheilus oregonensis, an abundant Pacific Northwest freshwater predator which has been widely studied, has not included juvenile white sturgeon. To aid in interpreting these results and help in planning future feeding studies, we determined the persistence of identifiable remains of white sturgeon juveniles in this predator's digestive tract. Northern pikeminnow (mean total length = 476 mm), were force-fed meals of 2 or 3 juvenile white sturgeon (mean total length = 91 mm). After digestive periods of 4, 8, 16, 24, 28, and 32h at a water temperature of about 17 ??C, fish were sacrificed, digestive tracts removed, and contents examined. Our results indicate that juvenile white sturgeon would be readily discernable in digestive tracts of northern pikeminnow at least a day after feeding, with scutes remaining undigested and identifiable for 28 h.

  11. Effect of dietary selenomethionine on growth performance, tissue burden, and histopathology in green and white sturgeon.

    PubMed

    De Riu, Nicola; Lee, Jang-Won; Huang, Susie S Y; Moniello, Giuseppe; Hung, Silas S O

    2014-03-01

    A comparative examination of potential differences in selenium (Se) sensitivity was conducted on two sturgeon species indigenous to the San Francisco Bay-Delta. Juvenile green (Acipenser medirostris), recently given a federally threatened status, and white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were exposed to one of four nominal concentrations of dietary l-selenomethionine (SeMet) (0 (control), 50, 100, or 200 mg SeMet/kg diet) for 8 weeks. Mortality, growth performance, whole body composition, histopathology, and Se burdens of the whole body, liver, kidneys, gills, heart, and white muscle were determined every 2 to 4 weeks. Significant (p<0.05) mortality was observed in green sturgeon fed the highest SeMet diet after 2 weeks, whereas no mortality was observed in white sturgeon. Growth rates were significantly reduced in both species; however, green sturgeon was more adversely affected by the treatment. Dietary SeMet significantly affected whole body composition and most noticeably, in the decline of lipid contents in green sturgeon. Selenium accumulated significantly in all tissues relative to the control groups. After 4 and 8 weeks of exposure, marked abnormalities were observed in the kidneys and liver of both sturgeon species; however, green sturgeon was more susceptible to SeMet than white sturgeon at all dietary SeMet levels. Our results showed that a dietary Se concentration at 19.7 ± 0.6 mg Se/kg, which is in range with the reported Se concentrations of the benthic macro-vertebrate community of the San Francisco Bay, had adverse effects on both sturgeon species. However, the exposure had a more severe pathological effect on green sturgeon, suggesting that when implementing conservation measures, this federally listed threatened species should be monitored and managed independently from white sturgeon.

  12. Detection of Adult Green Sturgeon Using Environmental DNA Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, Paul S.; Schumer, Gregg; Blankenship, Scott; Campbell, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) is an emerging sampling method that has been used successfully for detection of rare aquatic species. The Identification of sampling tools that are less stressful for target organisms has become increasingly important for rare and endangered species. A decline in abundance of the Southern Distinct Population Segment (DPS) of North American Green Sturgeon located in California’s Central Valley has led to its listing as Threatened under the Federal Endangered Species Act in 2006. While visual surveys of spawning Green Sturgeon in the Central Valley are effective at monitoring fish densities in concentrated pool habitats, results do not scale well to the watershed level, providing limited spatial and temporal context. Unlike most traditional survey methods, environmental DNA analysis provides a relatively quick, inexpensive tool that could efficiently monitor the presence and distribution of aquatic species. We positively identified Green Sturgeon DNA at two locations of known presence in the Sacramento River, proving that eDNA can be effective for monitoring the presence of adult sturgeon. While further study is needed to understand uncertainties of the sampling method, our study represents the first documented detection of Green Sturgeon eDNA, indicating that eDNA analysis could provide a new tool for monitoring Green Sturgeon distribution in the Central Valley, complimenting traditional on-going survey methods. PMID:27096433

  13. Detection of Adult Green Sturgeon Using Environmental DNA Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Paul S; Schumer, Gregg; Blankenship, Scott; Campbell, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) is an emerging sampling method that has been used successfully for detection of rare aquatic species. The Identification of sampling tools that are less stressful for target organisms has become increasingly important for rare and endangered species. A decline in abundance of the Southern Distinct Population Segment (DPS) of North American Green Sturgeon located in California's Central Valley has led to its listing as Threatened under the Federal Endangered Species Act in 2006. While visual surveys of spawning Green Sturgeon in the Central Valley are effective at monitoring fish densities in concentrated pool habitats, results do not scale well to the watershed level, providing limited spatial and temporal context. Unlike most traditional survey methods, environmental DNA analysis provides a relatively quick, inexpensive tool that could efficiently monitor the presence and distribution of aquatic species. We positively identified Green Sturgeon DNA at two locations of known presence in the Sacramento River, proving that eDNA can be effective for monitoring the presence of adult sturgeon. While further study is needed to understand uncertainties of the sampling method, our study represents the first documented detection of Green Sturgeon eDNA, indicating that eDNA analysis could provide a new tool for monitoring Green Sturgeon distribution in the Central Valley, complimenting traditional on-going survey methods. PMID:27096433

  14. Detection of Adult Green Sturgeon Using Environmental DNA Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Paul S; Schumer, Gregg; Blankenship, Scott; Campbell, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) is an emerging sampling method that has been used successfully for detection of rare aquatic species. The Identification of sampling tools that are less stressful for target organisms has become increasingly important for rare and endangered species. A decline in abundance of the Southern Distinct Population Segment (DPS) of North American Green Sturgeon located in California's Central Valley has led to its listing as Threatened under the Federal Endangered Species Act in 2006. While visual surveys of spawning Green Sturgeon in the Central Valley are effective at monitoring fish densities in concentrated pool habitats, results do not scale well to the watershed level, providing limited spatial and temporal context. Unlike most traditional survey methods, environmental DNA analysis provides a relatively quick, inexpensive tool that could efficiently monitor the presence and distribution of aquatic species. We positively identified Green Sturgeon DNA at two locations of known presence in the Sacramento River, proving that eDNA can be effective for monitoring the presence of adult sturgeon. While further study is needed to understand uncertainties of the sampling method, our study represents the first documented detection of Green Sturgeon eDNA, indicating that eDNA analysis could provide a new tool for monitoring Green Sturgeon distribution in the Central Valley, complimenting traditional on-going survey methods.

  15. Physiological stress response, reflex impairment and delayed mortality of white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus exposed to simulated fisheries stressors

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Montana F.; Hanson, Kyle C.; Cooke, Steven J.; Hinch, Scott G.; Patterson, David A.; Nettles, Taylor L.; Litvak, Matt K.; Crossin, Glenn T.

    2016-01-01

    White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are the largest freshwater fish in North America and a species exposed to widespread fishing pressure. Despite the growing interest in recreational fishing for white sturgeon, little is known about the sublethal and lethal impacts of angling on released sturgeon. In summer (July 2014, mean water temperature 15.3°C) and winter (February 2015, mean water temperature 6.6°C), captive white sturgeon (n = 48) were exposed to a combination of exercise and air exposure as a method of simulating an angling event. After the stressor, sturgeon were assessed for a physiological stress response, and reflex impairments were quantified to determine overall fish vitality (i.e. capacity for survival). A physiological stress response occurred in all sturgeon exposed to a fishing-related stressor, with the magnitude of the response correlated with the duration of the stressor. Moreover, the stress from exercise was more pronounced in summer, leading to higher reflex impairment scores (mean ± SEM, 0.44 ± 0.07 and 0.25 ± 0.05 in summer and winter, respectively). Reflex impairment was also correlated with lactate concentrations (e.g. physiological stress measures related to exhaustive exercise; r = 0.53) and recovery time (r = 0.76). Two mortalities occurred >24 h after the cessation of treatment in the summer. Given that natural habitats for white sturgeon can reach much higher temperatures than those presented in our study, we caution the use of this mortality estimate for a summer season, because latent mortality could be much higher when temperatures exceed 16°C. This is the first experiment investigating the physiological disturbance and reflex impairment of capture and release at two temperatures on subadult/adult white sturgeon, and the results suggest that future research needs to examine the longer term and fitness consequences of extended play and air exposure times, because these are largely unknown for wild populations

  16. Radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, D.D.; Price, K.R.; Poston, T.M.

    1993-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) review and summarize historical data on radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River, (2) determine present-day radionuclide tissue burdens from different locations in the Columbia River, and (3) compare historical data with current data. We first reviewed and summarized the historical literature on radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Hanford Reach. Field studies were then conducted to evaluate the relationship among sample locations, age/length of white sturgeon, and present radionuclide tissue burdens. Results and comparisons are discussed in the remainder of this report.

  17. Assessment of the risk of White Sturgeon to become infected and potential carriers of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus.

    PubMed

    LaPatra, Scott E; Mead, Sherry

    2013-12-01

    Little scientific information is available to assess whether White Sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus can become infected and potential carriers of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV). To assess this risk, monitoring results of adult and progeny White Sturgeon were examined from waters historically stocked with salmonid fish known to be IPNV carriers. From 1999 through 2004 White Sturgeon from a total of 30 separate families whose parentage came from waters historically stocked with IPNV carrier fish were tested. Duplicate groups of 25 juvenile Snake River White Sturgeon were waterborne exposed to 1.0×10(4) 50% tissue culture infective dose (TCID50)/mL of water for 1 h and an additional group was injected intraperitoneally with 1.0×10(5) TCID50/fish. A negative control group was handled similarly but was not exposed to the virus. No morbidity was detected in any of the treatment groups or the negative control. At 34, 40, 47, and 54 d postexposure to IPNV, virus reisolation was attempted on five fish from each group, and an additional five fish from each group were examined for histological changes consistent with an IPNV infection. At 34 and 40 d postinjection with IPNV, 20% (one of five) of the fish tested positive for the virus per sample interval; however, fish from groups that were waterborne-exposed to IPNV were all negative. At 47 and 54 d after exposure or injection with IPNV an additional five fish from each group were tested at each sample interval and all results were negative. Histological analysis of target tissue obtained from five fish per group at 34 and 54 d postinfection also failed to detect any consistent change associated with an IPNV infection. These results suggest that the risk of White Sturgeon to become infected and develop into potential carriers of IPNV is negligible.

  18. Influence of externally attached trasmitters on the swimming performance of juvenile white sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Counihan, T.D.; Frost, C.N.

    1999-01-01

    We measured the critical swimming speed of juvenile white sturgeons Acipenser transmontanus equipped with externally attached dummy ultrasonic transmitters and of untagged control fish in the laboratory. White sturgeons ranging from 31.9 to 37.0 cm fork length were subjected to one of three treatments: Control (handled but not tagged), tag attached below the dorsal fin, and tag attached with the anterior insertion point between the fourth and fifth dorsal scutes. Although transmitters were of recommended weight, we found that the swimming performance of tagged white sturgeons was significantly less than that of untagged control fish. Swimming performance of tagged fish was not differentially affected by tag location. Our results suggest that data from ultrasonic telemetry studies of externally tagged juvenile white sturgeons should be interpreted with caution due to the reduced swimming performance caused by external transmitters.

  19. Influence of externally attached transmitters on the swimming performance of juvenile white sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Counihan, T.D.; Frost, C.N.

    1999-01-01

    We measured the critical swimming speed of juvenile white sturgeons Acipenser transmontanus equipped with externally attached dummy ultrasonic transmitters and of untagged control fish in the laboratory. White sturgeons ranging from 31.9 to 37.0 cm fork length were subjected to one of three treatments: control (handled but not tagged), tag attached below the dorsal fin, and tag attached with the anterior insertion point between the fourth and fifth dorsal scutes. Although transmitters were of recommended weight, we found that the swimming performance of tagged white sturgeons was significantly less than that of untagged control fish. Swimming performance of tagged fish was not differentially affected by tag location. Our results suggest that data from ultrasonic telemetry studies of externally tagged juvenile white sturgeons should be interpreted with caution due to the reduced swimming performance caused by external transmitters.

  20. White sturgeon spawning areas in the lower Snake River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsley, M.J.; Kappenman, K.M.

    2000-01-01

    We documented 17 white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus spawning locations in the Snake River from the mouth to Lower Granite Dam (river km 0 to 173). Spawning locations were determined by the collection of fertilized eggs on artificial substrates or in plankton nets. We collected 245 eggs at seven locations in McNary Reservoir, 22 eggs at three locations in Ice Harbor Reservoir, 30 eggs from two locations in Lower Monumental Reservoir, and 464 eggs at five locations in Little Goose Reservoir. All 17 locations were in high water velocity areas and between 1.0 and 7.0 km downstream from a hydroelectric dam. The documentation of spawning areas is important because this habitat is necessary to maintain natural and viable populations.

  1. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Conservation Aquaculture Project : Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    US Bonneville Power Administration; Kootenai Tribe of Idaho

    1997-04-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is responding to the need to prevent the extinction of the Kootenai River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) between Libby Dam in Montana and Corra Linn Dam in British Columbia. Construction and operation of Libby Dam altered the natural flow of the Kootenai River, especially the normal May-to-July flows needed for natural reproduction and recruitment. It also affected the river`s biological productivity and the quality of spawning and rearing habitat. As part of its responsibilities under the Northwest Power Act (Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980), BPA must mitigate for losses of fish and wildlife (including related spawning grounds and habitat) that are attributable to power production at federal hydroelectric dams on the Columbia River and its tributaries.

  2. Kootenai river velocities, depth, and white sturgeon spawning site selection - A mystery unraveled?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paragamian, V.L.; McDonald, R.; Nelson, G.J.; Barton, G.

    2009-01-01

    The Kootenai River white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus population in Idaho, US and British Columbia (BC), Canada became recruitment limited shortly after Libby Dam became fully operational on the Kootenai River, Montana, USA in 1974. In the USA the species was listed under the Endangered Species Act in September of 1994. Kootenai River white sturgeon spawn within an 18-km reach in Idaho, river kilometer (rkm) 228.0-246.0. Each autumn and spring Kootenai River white sturgeon follow a 'short two-step' migration from the lower river and Kootenay Lake, BC, to staging reaches downstream of Bonners Ferry, Idaho. Initially, augmented spring flows for white sturgeon spawning were thought to be sufficient to recover the population. Spring discharge mitigation enhanced white sturgeon spawning but a series of research investigations determined that the white sturgeon were spawning over unsuitable incubation and rearing habitat (sand) and that survival of eggs and larvae was negligible. It was not known whether post-Libby Dam management had changed the habitat or if the white sturgeon were not returning to more suitable spawning substrates farther upstream. Fisheries and hydrology researchers made a team effort to determine if the spawning habitat had been changed by Libby Dam operations. Researchers modeled and compared velocities, sediment transport, and bathymetry with post-Libby Dam white sturgeon egg collection locations. Substrate coring studies confirmed cobbles and gravel substrates in most of the spawning locations but that they were buried under a meter or more of post-Libby Dam sediment. Analysis suggested that Kootenai River white sturgeon spawn in areas of highest available velocity and depths over a range of flows. Regardless of the discharge, the locations of accelerating velocities and maximum depth do not change and spawning locations remain consistent. Kootenai River white sturgeon are likely spawning in the same locations as pre-dam, but post-Libby Dam

  3. Differences in activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptors of white sturgeon relative to lake sturgeon are predicted by identities of key amino acids in the ligand binding domain.

    PubMed

    Doering, Jon A; Farmahin, Reza; Wiseman, Steve; Beitel, Shawn C; Kennedy, Sean W; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) are pollutants of global environmental concern. DLCs elicit their adverse outcomes through activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). However, there is limited understanding of the mechanisms that result in differences in sensitivity to DLCs among different species of fishes. Understanding these mechanisms is critical for protection of the diversity of fishes exposed to DLCs, including endangered species. This study investigated specific mechanisms that drive responses of two endangered fishes, white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) to DLCs. It determined whether differences in sensitivity to activation of AhRs (AhR1 and AhR2) can be predicted based on identities of key amino acids in the ligand binding domain (LBD). White sturgeon were 3- to 30-fold more sensitive than lake sturgeon to exposure to 5 different DLCs based on activation of AhR2. There were no differences in sensitivity between white sturgeon and lake sturgeon based on activation of AhR1. Adverse outcomes as a result of exposure to DLCs have been shown to be mediated through activation of AhR2, but not AhR1, in all fishes studied to date. This indicates that white sturgeon are likely to have greater sensitivity in vivo relative to lake sturgeon. Homology modeling and in silico mutagenesis suggests that differences in sensitivity to activation of AhR2 result from differences in key amino acids at position 388 in the LBD of AhR2 of white sturgeon (Ala-388) and lake sturgeon (Thr-388). This indicates that identities of key amino acids in the LBD of AhR2 could be predictive of both in vitro activation by DLCs and in vivo sensitivity to DLCs in these, and potentially other, fishes.

  4. A spatial model of white sturgeon rearing habitat in the lower Columbia River, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatten, J.R.; Parsley, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Concerns over the potential effects of in-water placement of dredged materials prompted us to develop a GIS-based model that characterizes in a spatially explicit manner white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus rearing habitat in the lower Columbia River, USA. The spatial model was developed using water depth, riverbed slope and roughness, fish positions collected in 2002, and Mahalanobis distance (D2). We created a habitat suitability map by identifying a Mahalanobis distance under which >50% of white sturgeon locations occurred in 2002 (i.e., high-probability habitat). White sturgeon preferred relatively moderate to high water depths, and low to moderate riverbed slope and roughness values. The eigenvectors indicated that riverbed slope and roughness were slightly more important than water depth, but all three variables were important. We estimated the impacts that fill might have on sturgeon habitat by simulating the addition of fill to the thalweg, in 3-m increments, and recomputing Mahalanobis distances. Channel filling simulations revealed that up to 9 m of fill would have little impact on high-probability habitat, but 12 and 15 m of fill resulted in habitat declines of ???12% and ???45%, respectively. This is the first spatially explicit predictive model of white sturgeon rearing habitat in the lower Columbia River, and the first to quantitatively predict the impacts of dredging operations on sturgeon habitat. Future research should consider whether water velocity improves the accuracy and specificity of the model, and to assess its applicability to other areas in the Columbia River.

  5. Diel and seasonal movements of white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, in the mid-Columbia river

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, J.M.; Gray, R.H.

    1981-04-01

    To evaluate seasonal movements in the free-flowing Hanford reach of the Columbia River, white sturgeon with radio transmitters in spring and early summer 1977 were monitored along with fish that had been tagged in 1975 and 1976. Daily environmental temperature records indicated sturgeon did not consistently engage in a diel movement pattern. It was concluded that although temperature is a major influence stimulating seasonal movements, light cycle and feeding probably influence diel movements. (JMT)

  6. Humoral immunoglobulins of the white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus: partial characterization of and recognition with monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Adkison, M A; Basurco, B; Hedrick, R P

    1996-01-01

    White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) immunoglobulin (Ig) was purified from serum by two methods, ion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration and precipitation of the euglobulin fraction. The purity of these immunoglobulin preparations was confirmed by gel electrophoresis. Sequence analysis of the N-terminal amino acids confirmed that the purified protein was immunoglobulin. The major portion of the immunoglobulin preparation consisted of two proteins with estimated molecular weights (m.w.) of 870 and 170 kDa. The m.w. of the H- and L-chains of the purified Ig were 73 and 27-30 kDa, respectively, as determined by SDS-PAGE. Ion-exchange purified Ig was used to immunize mice for the production of monoclonal antibodies. This resulted in the production of six stable hybrids that recognized sturgeon Ig, two specific for heavy chain and four specific for light chain. The two anti-H-chain mabs were highly specific for white sturgeon Ig while all four anti-L-chain mabs cross reacted with Ig from green sturgeon (A. medirostris), Atlantic sturgeon (A. oxyrhynchus oxyrhynchus), shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus), and paddlefish (Polyodon spathula), (all Chondrosteans), but not with channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) or striped bass (Morone saxatilis). The mabs were used to enumerate the percentage of sIg+ lymphocytes in the peripheral blood of white sturgeon by flow cytometry. The percentage of cells positively stained with the mabs ranged from 12 to 28%. In a comparison of mabs with polyclonal rabbit anti-sturgeon Ig serum by ELISA the mabs produced a larger signal and less background than the polyclonal serum.

  7. Effects of turbidity, light level, and cover on predation of white sturgeon larvae by prickly sculpins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gadomski, D.M.; Parsley, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    White sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus occur in rivers of the western United States and southwestern Canada, but some populations are in decline because of recruitment failure. Many river systems in this area have been altered as a result of development that has caused major environmental changes. Our goal was to examine how three changes - lower turbidity levels, higher light levels, and altered substrates - might affect predation by prickly sculpin Cottus asper on white sturgeon larvae. We experimentally investigated predation at various turbidity levels and found that significantly more white sturgeon yolk sac larvae were eaten at lower turbidity levels. The effects of light level (1-4 and 7-15 1x), the presence or absence of rocks as cover, and prey size (14-17 mm and 20-24 mm total length) on the outcome of predator-prey interactions were also examined. Significantly fewer white sturgeon were eaten during trials that combined the lowest light level, cover, and the smallest larvae. Our results suggest that altered river conditions caused by impoundment and other factors have increased predation on white sturgeon larvae. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  8. Seasonal and diel movements of white sturgeon in the lower columbia river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsley, M.J.; Popoff, N.D.; Van Der Leeuw, B. K.; Wright, C.D.

    2008-01-01

    Continuous monitoring of the movements and depths used by white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus with acoustic telemetry technologies in the lower Columbia River provided information on diel and seasonal migrations, local movements, and site fidelity. White sturgeon moved to shallower water at night and showed greater activity, inferred from rates of movement, than during daytime. The extent of local movement within a season was variable among fish; some fish readily moved among habitats while the movements of others were more constrained. White sturgeon were absent from the study area (river kilometers 45-52) during winter and returned from upstream during the spring, confirming an upstream seasonal migration in the fall and downstream migration in spring. The return of individual fish and reoccupation of areas previously inhabited showed that some white sturgeon exhibit site fidelity. This work shows that studies seeking to characterize habitat for white sturgeon need to be cognizant of diel migrations and site fidelity. We urge caution in the use of limited fish location data to describe habitats if diel activities and fine-scale movements are not known.

  9. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, David L.; Kern, J. Chris; Hughes, Michele L.

    2003-12-01

    We report on our progress from April 2001 through March 2002 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam.

  10. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, David L.; Kern, J. Chris; Hughes, Michele L.

    2004-02-01

    We report on our progress from April 2002 through March 2003 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam.

  11. A comparative gene index for the white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus.

    PubMed

    Lazzari, Barbara; Mariani, Valentina; Malinverni, Roberto; Caprera, Andrea; Giuffra, Elisabetta

    2008-03-01

    Sturgeons are archaic fishes phylogenetically distinct from Teleosts. They represent an important niche for aquaculture, particularly for the production of caviar and high quality fillets, while many natural populations in various world areas are today threatened by extinction. Knowledge of the sturgeon genome is limited, as it is the case of many other species of interest for fishery, aquaculture and conservation. Sequences from non-normalized libraries of skin and spleen of the American sturgeon (A. transmontanus) produced in our laboratories were analysed via a bioinformatic procedure, and compared to similar resources available for three Teleost species. Data collected during the analyses were stored in a database - the Sturgeon database (db) - that can be queried via a web interface. The Sturgeon db contains a total of 16,404 sequences from Acipenser transmontanus, Ictalurus punctatus, Salmo salar and Takifugu rubripes, each specie being represented by expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from skin and spleen. Data contained in the database are the results of a number of analyses that mostly focus on sequence annotation and intra- and inter-species comparison. Putative SNP sites, tandem repeats, and sequences matching known protein patterns and motifs were also identified. The Sturgeon db is by now the only online resource dedicated to the analysis of A. transmontanus EST sequences, and represents a starting point for the investigation of the genome of sturgeons from a physiological perspective; it will be used to identify polymorphic markers to study, for example, fish pathologies or to survey fish disease resistance, and to produce gene expression arrays. Introduction of sequences from other species in the analysis pipeline allowed inter-species comparisons of transcripts distribution in Gene Ontology categories, as well as orthologs identification, despite the high sturgeon phylogenetic distance from other fish species. As a result of the EST analysis procedure

  12. Movements of White Sturgeon in Lake Roosevelt : Final Report 1988-1991.

    SciTech Connect

    Brannon, E.L.; Setter, Ann L.

    1992-06-01

    Historically, white sturgeon moved throughout the Columbia River system, ranging freely from the estuary to the headwaters, with the possible exception of limited passage at Cascades, Celilo and Kettle Falls during spring floods. Construction of Rock Island Dam in 1933, followed by Bonneville in 1938 and Grand Coulee in 1941, completely disrupted sturgeon migratory opportunity, and with the 17 successive Columbia and Snake river dams constructed over the next 32 years an entirely different river system was created for the species. Sturgeon caught between dams were essentially isolated populations with severely limited reproduction potential. Some reservoirs ran from dam to dam with no river habitat remaining, while other reaches had various lengths of free running river, but drastically reduced from historical situations. However, if reservoirs provide habitat for sturgeon use, and therefore compensate to some degree for river loss, the major limiting factors associated with population viability may be reduced spawning success, either from lack of suitable area or poor incubation environments. The most upstream impoundment of the Columbia River in the United States is Lake Roosevelt, behind Grand Coulee Dam. If sturgeon don`t use Lake Roosevelt the capacity of the system to sustain a large sturgeon population would be understandably limited, and much reduced from the pre-dam era. In general this study found that sturgeon spawner aggregations from early spring to mid- summer depend most heavily on the timing of increasing water temperature. In the spring the water temperatures seem to stimulate the fish to start feeding and leave deep pools. The summer provides access to broader and shallower areas for food. The study on sturgeon movement was an attempt to define habitat use in such a reservoir/river system.

  13. Is hepatic oxidative stress a main driver of dietary selenium toxicity in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus)?

    PubMed

    Zee, Jenna; Patterson, Sarah; Wiseman, Steve; Hecker, Markus

    2016-11-01

    Most species of sturgeon have experienced significant population declines and poor recruitment over the past decades, leading many, including white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus), to be listed as endangered. Reasons for these declines are not yet fully understood but benthic lifestyle, longevity, and delayed sexual maturation likely render sturgeon particularly susceptible to factors such as habitat alteration and contaminant exposures. One contaminant of particular concern to white sturgeon is selenium (Se), especially in its more bioavailable form selenomethionine (SeMet), as it is known to efficiently bioaccumulate in prey items of this species. Studies have shown white sturgeon to be among the most sensitive species of fish to dietary SeMet as well as other pollutants such as metals, dioxin-like chemicals and endocrine disrupters. One of the primary hypothesized mechanisms of toxicity of SeMet in fish is oxidative stress; however, little is know about the specific mode by which SeMet affects the health of white sturgeon. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize oxidative stress and associated antioxidant responses as a molecular event of toxicity, and to link it with the pathological effects observed previously. Specifically, three-year-old white sturgeon were exposed for 72 days via their diet to 1.4, 5.6, 22.4 or 104.4µg Se per g feed (dm). Doses were chosen to range over a necessary Se intake level, current environmentally relevant intakes and an intake representing predicted increases of Se release. Lipid hydroperoxides, which are end products of lipid oxidation, were quantified as a marker of oxidative stress. Changes in gene expression of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase, apoptosis inducing factor and caspase 3 were quantified as markers of the response to oxidative stress. Concentrations of lipid hydroperoxides were highly variable within dose groups and no dose response was observed

  14. Is hepatic oxidative stress a main driver of dietary selenium toxicity in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus)?

    PubMed

    Zee, Jenna; Patterson, Sarah; Wiseman, Steve; Hecker, Markus

    2016-11-01

    Most species of sturgeon have experienced significant population declines and poor recruitment over the past decades, leading many, including white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus), to be listed as endangered. Reasons for these declines are not yet fully understood but benthic lifestyle, longevity, and delayed sexual maturation likely render sturgeon particularly susceptible to factors such as habitat alteration and contaminant exposures. One contaminant of particular concern to white sturgeon is selenium (Se), especially in its more bioavailable form selenomethionine (SeMet), as it is known to efficiently bioaccumulate in prey items of this species. Studies have shown white sturgeon to be among the most sensitive species of fish to dietary SeMet as well as other pollutants such as metals, dioxin-like chemicals and endocrine disrupters. One of the primary hypothesized mechanisms of toxicity of SeMet in fish is oxidative stress; however, little is know about the specific mode by which SeMet affects the health of white sturgeon. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize oxidative stress and associated antioxidant responses as a molecular event of toxicity, and to link it with the pathological effects observed previously. Specifically, three-year-old white sturgeon were exposed for 72 days via their diet to 1.4, 5.6, 22.4 or 104.4µg Se per g feed (dm). Doses were chosen to range over a necessary Se intake level, current environmentally relevant intakes and an intake representing predicted increases of Se release. Lipid hydroperoxides, which are end products of lipid oxidation, were quantified as a marker of oxidative stress. Changes in gene expression of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase, apoptosis inducing factor and caspase 3 were quantified as markers of the response to oxidative stress. Concentrations of lipid hydroperoxides were highly variable within dose groups and no dose response was observed

  15. Can fatty acid and mineral compositions of sturgeon eggs distinguish between farm-raised versus wild white (Acipenser transmontanus) sturgeon origins in California? Preliminary report.

    PubMed

    DePeters, Edward J; Puschner, Birgit; Taylor, Scott J; Rodzen, Jeff A

    2013-06-10

    The objective was to investigate the potential of using fatty acid and mineral compositions of sturgeon eggs to distinguish their source, either farm-raised or wild fish. Trafficking of illegally obtained wild white sturgeon eggs is a major concern to the California Department of Fish and Game, but there is no forensic method to separate wild and farm-raised white sturgeon eggs. The extension of these findings in future work will be to use the fatty acid and mineral compositions as forensic indicators of caviar produced legally from farm raised sturgeon compared with illegal caviar produced from sturgeon poached from the wild. Samples (10) of sturgeon eggs were collected from a commercial aquaculture facility in the Sacramento Valley. Eggs from wild sturgeon (9) were obtained primarily from confiscations of illegally caught sturgeon by fish and game law enforcement personnel. The total lipid content of sturgeon eggs was analyzed for fatty acid composition. The most notable difference was the higher concentration (P<0.001) of C18:2n6 in farm raised eggs (6.5 mg/100g total lipid) than wild eggs (0.6 mg/100g total lipid) while other differences between fatty acids were smaller. Eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5n3) was higher (P<0.02) in farm-raised (5.56 mg/100g) than wild (4.49 mg/100g). Docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n3), C18:1 cis 9&10, and C20:4n6 were not different for origin of the eggs. Concentration of selenium was markedly higher (P<0.001) in eggs from wild sturgeon (10.0 mg/kg dry weight) than farm-raised sturgeon (2.7 mg/kg dry weight). Concentrations of iron, zinc, copper, phosphorus, sulfur, calcium, and potassium did not differ between farm-raised and wild eggs. Arsenic concentration in wild eggs was 3.3mg/kg dry weight whereas arsenic was not detected in the farm-raised eggs. Fatty acid and mineral compositions of eggs differed significantly between farm-raised and wild sturgeon and these should be investigated further as biological markers for forensic

  16. White Sturgeon Management Plan in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams; Nez Perce Tribe, 1997-2005 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Nez Perce Tribe Resources Management Staff,

    2005-09-01

    White sturgeon in the Hells Canyon reach (HCR) of the Snake River are of cultural importance to the Nez Perce Tribe. However, subsistence and ceremonial fishing opportunities have been severely limited as a result of low numbers of white sturgeon in the HCR. Hydrosystem development in the Columbia River Basin has depressed numbers and productivity of white sturgeon in the HCR by isolating fish in impounded reaches of the basin, restricting access to optimal rearing habitats, reducing the anadromous forage base, and modifying early life-history habitats. Consequently, a proactive management plan is needed to mitigate for the loss of white sturgeon production in the HCR, and to identify and implement feasible measures that will restore and rebuild the white sturgeon population to a level that sustains viability and can support an annual harvest. This comprehensive and adaptive management plan describes the goals, objectives, strategies, actions, and expected evaluative timeframes for restoring the white sturgeon population in the HCR. The goal of this plan, which is to maintain a viable, persistent population that can support a sustainable fishery, is supported by the following objectives: (1) a natural, stable age structure comprising both juveniles and a broad spectrum of spawning age-classes; (2) stable or increasing numbers of both juveniles and adults; (3) consistent levels of average recruitment to ensure future contribution to reproductive potential; (4) stable genetic diversity comparable to current levels; (5) a minimum level of abundance of 2,500 adults to minimize extinction risk; and (6) provision of an annual sustainable harvest of 5 kg/ha. To achieve management objectives, potential mitigative actions were developed by a Biological Risk Assessment Team (BRAT). Identified strategies and actions included enhancing growth and survival rates by restoring anadromous fish runs and increasing passage opportunities for white sturgeon, reducing mortality rates

  17. Effects of feed restriction on the upper temperature tolerance and heat shock response in juvenile green and white sturgeon.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seunghyung; Hung, Silas S O; Fangue, Nann A; Haller, Liran; Verhille, Christine E; Zhao, Juan; Todgham, Anne E

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the current study was to investigate the effects of feed restriction on whole-organism upper thermal tolerance and the heat shock response of green and white sturgeon to determine how changes in food amount might influence physiological performance of each species when faced with temperature stress. Two parallel feed restriction trials were carried out for juvenile green (202g; 222-day post hatch: dph) and white sturgeon (205g; 197-dph) to manipulate nutritional status at 12.5%, 25%, 50%, or 100% of optimum feeding rate (100% OFR were 1.6% and 1.8% body weight/day, respectively) for four weeks. Following the trials, the critical thermal maximum (CTMax, 0.3°C/min) of sturgeon (N=12/treatment/species) was assessed as an indicator of whole-organism upper thermal tolerance. To assess temperature sensitivity, sturgeon (N=9/treatment/species) were acutely transferred to two temperature treatments (28°C and 18°C as a handling control) for 2h followed by 2h of recovery at 18°C before being sacrificed, and gill, brain, and mucus sampled for measurements of 70-kDa heat shock protein levels (Hsc/Hsp70). Feeding rate had species-specific effects on CTMax in green and white sturgeon such that CTMax of green sturgeon decreased as the magnitude of feed restriction increased; whereas, CTMax of white sturgeon did not change with feed restriction. Elevated temperature (28°C) and feed restriction increased Hsc/Hsp70 levels in the gill tissue of green sturgeon, while heat shock increased Hsc/Hsp70 levels in the mucus of white sturgeon. Our results suggest that green sturgeon may be more susceptible to temperature stress under food-limited conditions.

  18. Lake Roosevelt White Sturgeon Recovery Project : Annual Progress Report, January 2003 – March 2004.

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, Matthew D.; McLellan, Jason G.

    2009-07-15

    This report summarizes catch data collected from white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus in Lake Roosevelt during limited setlining and gill netting activities in the fall of 2003, and documents progress toward development of a U.S. white sturgeon conservation aquaculture program for Lake Roosevelt. From 27-30 October, 42 overnight small mesh gill net sets were made between Marcus and Northport, WA for a total catch of 15 juvenile white sturgeon (275-488 mm FL). All sturgeon captured were of Canadian hatchery origin. These fish had been previously released as sub-yearlings into the Canadian portion (Keenleyside Reach) of the Transboundary Reach of the Columbia River during 2002 and 2003. Most sturgeon (n=14) were caught in the most upstream area sampled (Northport) in low velocity eddy areas. Five fish exhibited pectoral fin deformities (curled or stunted). Growth rates were less than for juvenile sturgeon captured in the Keenleyside Reach but condition factor was similar. Condition factor was also similar to that observed in juvenile sturgeon (ages 1-8) captured in the unimpounded Columbia River below Bonneville Dam between 1987-92. From 10-14 November, 28 overnight setline sets were made in the Roosevelt Reach between the confluence of the Spokane River and Marcus Island for a total catch of 17 white sturgeon (94-213 cm FL). Catch was greatest in the most upstream areas sampled, a distribution similar to that observed during a WDFW setline survey in Lake Roosevelt in 1998. The mean W{sub r} index of 110% for fish captured this year was higher than the mean W{sub r} of 91% for fish captured in 1998. Excellent fish condition hindered surgical examination of gonads as lipid deposits made the ventral body wall very thick and difficult to penetrate with available otoscope specula. Acoustic tags (Vemco model V16 coded pingers, 69 kHz, 48-month life expectancy) were internally applied to 15 fish for subsequent telemetry investigations of seasonal and reproductively

  19. Adverse health effects and histological changes in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) exposed to dietary selenomethionine.

    PubMed

    Zee, Jenna; Patterson, Sarah; Gagnon, Danielle; Hecker, Markus

    2016-07-01

    It has been shown that selenium (Se) released to the aquatic environment can have devastating effects on local wildlife. White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) have a life history particularly susceptible to contaminants, and their protection is of interest as they are culturally and economically important, and many populations are classified as endangered. During the present 72-d dietary study, multiple signs of decreased health and Se lethality were observed. Juvenile white sturgeon were given diets containing 1.4 μg, 5.6 μg, 22.4 μg, or 104.4 μg selenomethionine/g food (dry mass). Selenium accumulated in muscle and liver tissue in a dose-dependent manner. Edema causing exophthalmos developed within 15 d and 23 d, and lethal effects occurred in 54% and 22% of fish in the high- and medium-dose groups, respectively. Growth and hepatosomatic index were significantly lower in the high-dose group, which also had a high incidence of food avoidance. Histology of the liver revealed a dose-dependent increase in melanomacrophage aggregates and decrease of energy stores, which indicated toxicity. These results indicate that white sturgeon are susceptible to the effects of Se accumulation over relatively short time periods. This stresses the need for continued sturgeon research and studies looking into the environmental fate and regulation of released Se. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1741-1750. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26632643

  20. Adverse health effects and histological changes in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) exposed to dietary selenomethionine.

    PubMed

    Zee, Jenna; Patterson, Sarah; Gagnon, Danielle; Hecker, Markus

    2016-07-01

    It has been shown that selenium (Se) released to the aquatic environment can have devastating effects on local wildlife. White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) have a life history particularly susceptible to contaminants, and their protection is of interest as they are culturally and economically important, and many populations are classified as endangered. During the present 72-d dietary study, multiple signs of decreased health and Se lethality were observed. Juvenile white sturgeon were given diets containing 1.4 μg, 5.6 μg, 22.4 μg, or 104.4 μg selenomethionine/g food (dry mass). Selenium accumulated in muscle and liver tissue in a dose-dependent manner. Edema causing exophthalmos developed within 15 d and 23 d, and lethal effects occurred in 54% and 22% of fish in the high- and medium-dose groups, respectively. Growth and hepatosomatic index were significantly lower in the high-dose group, which also had a high incidence of food avoidance. Histology of the liver revealed a dose-dependent increase in melanomacrophage aggregates and decrease of energy stores, which indicated toxicity. These results indicate that white sturgeon are susceptible to the effects of Se accumulation over relatively short time periods. This stresses the need for continued sturgeon research and studies looking into the environmental fate and regulation of released Se. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1741-1750. © 2015 SETAC.

  1. Impact of Nutrition and Salinity Changes on Biological Performances of Green and White Sturgeon

    PubMed Central

    Vaz, Pedro G.; Kebreab, Ermias; Hung, Silas S. O.; Fadel, James G.; Lee, Seunghyung; Fangue, Nann A.

    2015-01-01

    Green and white sturgeon are species of high conservational and economic interest, particularly in the San Francisco Bay Delta (SFBD) for which significant climate change-derived alterations in salinity and nutritional patterns are forecasted. Although there is paucity of information, it is critical to test the network of biological responses underlying the capacity of animals to tolerate current environmental changes. Through nutrition and salinity challenges, climate change will likely have more physiological effect on young sturgeon stages, which in turn may affect growth performance. In this study, the two species were challenged in a multiple-factor experimental setting, first to levels of feeding rate, and then to salinity levels for different time periods. Data analysis included generalized additive models to select predictors of growth performance (measured by condition factor) among the environmental stressors considered and a suite of physiological variables. Using structural equation modeling, a path diagram is proposed to quantify the main linkages among nutrition status, salinity, osmoregulation variables, and growth performances. Three major trends were anticipated for the growth performance of green and white sturgeon in the juvenile stage in the SFBD: (i) a decrease in prey abundance will be highly detrimental for the growth of both species; (ii) an acute increase in salinity within the limits studied can be tolerated by both species but possibly the energy spent in osmoregulation may affect green sturgeon growth within the time window assessed; (iii) the mechanism of synergistic effects of nutrition and salinity changes will be more complex in green sturgeon, with condition factor responding nonlinearly to interactions of salinity and nutrition status or time of salinity exposure. Green sturgeon merits special scientific attention and conservation effort to offset the effects of feed restriction and salinity as key environmental stressors in the

  2. A proteomic analysis of green and white sturgeon larvae exposed to heat stress and selenium

    PubMed Central

    Silvestre, Frédéric; Linares-Casenave, Javier; Doroshov, Serge I.; Kültz, Dietmar

    2012-01-01

    Temperature and selenium are two environmental parameters that potentially affect reproduction and stock recruitment of sturgeon in the San Francisco Bay / Delta Estuary. To identify proteins whose expression is modified by these environmental stressors, we performed a proteomic analysis on larval green and white sturgeons exposed to 18 or 26°C and micro-injected with Seleno-L-Methionine to reach 8 μg g-1 selenium body burden, with L-Methionine as a control. Selenium and high temperature induced mortalities and abnormal morphologies in both species, with a higher mortality in green sturgeon. Larval proteins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and differential abundances were detected following spot quantitation and hierarchical cluster analysis. In green sturgeon, 34 of 551 protein spots detected on gels showed a variation in abundance whereas in white sturgeon only 9 of 580 protein spots were differentially expressed (P<0.01). Gel replicates were first grouped according to heat treatment. Fifteen of these spots were identified using MALDI TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Proteins involved in protein folding, protein synthesis, protein degradation, ATP supply and structural proteins changed in abundance in response to heat and/or selenium. 40S ribosomal protein SA, FK506-binding protein 10, 65 kDa regulatory subunit A of protein phosphatase 2, protein disulfide isomerase, stress-induced-phosphoprotein 1, suppression of tumorigenicity 13 and collagen type II alpha 1, were differentially expressed in high temperature treatment only. Serine/arginine repetitive matrix protein 1, creatine kinase, serine peptidase inhibitor Kazal type 5 and HSP90 were sensitive to combined temperature and selenium exposure. Valosin-containing protein, a protein involved in aggresome formation and in protein quality control decreased more than 50% in response to selenium treatment. Potential use of such proteins as biomarkers of environmental stressors in larval sturgeons

  3. Impact of nutrition and salinity changes on biological performances of green and white sturgeon.

    PubMed

    Vaz, Pedro G; Kebreab, Ermias; Hung, Silas S O; Fadel, James G; Lee, Seunghyung; Fangue, Nann A

    2015-01-01

    Green and white sturgeon are species of high conservational and economic interest, particularly in the San Francisco Bay Delta (SFBD) for which significant climate change-derived alterations in salinity and nutritional patterns are forecasted. Although there is paucity of information, it is critical to test the network of biological responses underlying the capacity of animals to tolerate current environmental changes. Through nutrition and salinity challenges, climate change will likely have more physiological effect on young sturgeon stages, which in turn may affect growth performance. In this study, the two species were challenged in a multiple-factor experimental setting, first to levels of feeding rate, and then to salinity levels for different time periods. Data analysis included generalized additive models to select predictors of growth performance (measured by condition factor) among the environmental stressors considered and a suite of physiological variables. Using structural equation modeling, a path diagram is proposed to quantify the main linkages among nutrition status, salinity, osmoregulation variables, and growth performances. Three major trends were anticipated for the growth performance of green and white sturgeon in the juvenile stage in the SFBD: (i) a decrease in prey abundance will be highly detrimental for the growth of both species; (ii) an acute increase in salinity within the limits studied can be tolerated by both species but possibly the energy spent in osmoregulation may affect green sturgeon growth within the time window assessed; (iii) the mechanism of synergistic effects of nutrition and salinity changes will be more complex in green sturgeon, with condition factor responding nonlinearly to interactions of salinity and nutrition status or time of salinity exposure. Green sturgeon merits special scientific attention and conservation effort to offset the effects of feed restriction and salinity as key environmental stressors in the

  4. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Recovery Implementation Plan and Schedule; 2005-2010, Technical Report 2004-2005.

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Paul

    2007-03-01

    Kootenai River white sturgeon have been declining for at least 50 years and extinction of the wild population is now imminent (Paragamian et al. 2005). Only 630 adults were estimated to remain in 2002 from a population ten times that size just 20 years ago. Significant recruitment of young sturgeon has not been observed since the early 1970s and consistent annual recruitment has not been seen since the 1950s. The remaining wild population consists of a cohort of large, old fish that is declining by about 9% per year as fish die naturally and are not replaced. At this rate, the wild population will disappear around the year 2040. Numbers have already reached critical low levels where genetic and demographic risks are acute. The Kootenai River White Sturgeon Recovery Team was convened in 1994, provided a draft Recovery Plan in 1996 and the first complete Recovery Plan for Kootenai River white sturgeon in 1999 (USFWS 1996, 1999). The Plan outlined a four part strategy for recovery, including: (1) measures to restore natural recruitment, (2) use of conservation aquaculture to prevent extinction, (3) monitoring survival and recovery, and (4) updating and revising recovery plan criteria and objectives as new information becomes available. Sturgeon recovery efforts are occurring against a backdrop of a broader ecosystem protection and restoration program for the Kootenai River ecosystem. With abundance halving time of approximately 8 years, the Kootenai River white sturgeon population is rapidly dwindling, leaving managers little time to act. Decades of study consistently indicate that recruitment failure occurs between embryo and larval stages. This assertion is based on four key observations. First, almost no recruitment has occurred during the last 30 years. Second, thousands of naturally produced white sturgeon embryos, most viable, have been collected over the past decade, resulting from an estimated 9 to 20 spawning events each year. Third, Kootenai River white

  5. Histopathological alterations of juvenile green (Acipenser medirostris) and white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) exposed to graded levels of dietary methylmercury.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jang-Won; Kim, Jae-Won; De Riu, Nicola; Moniello, Giuseppe; Hung, Silas S O

    2012-03-01

    Triplicate groups of juvenile green and white sturgeon (average weight of 30 ± 2 g) were exposed to one of four concentrations of dietary methylmercury (MeHg; 0, 25, 50, and 100 mg MeHg/kg diet) for 8 weeks to determine and compare the sensitivity of the two sturgeon species from a histopathological perspective. After 4- and 8-week exposure, histological changes were examined in the kidney, liver, gill, skeletal muscle, and heart muscle of both species using light microscopy. Marked abnormalities were observed in the kidney and liver of both sturgeon species after each exposure period; the abnormalities showed progressive histological alterations in severity with increasing doses and duration of exposure. Renal lesions included tubular epithelium degeneration and necrosis, renal corpuscular disintegration, and interstitial tissue degeneration. The changes observed in the livers of both sturgeon species were glycogen depletion and vacuolar degeneration. In the gill and skeletal and heart muscle of green and white sturgeon fed MeHg-added diets, mild histological changes were observed but did not show pronounced difference between the two species. Although the lowest observed effect concentration in both species was the 25 mg MeHg/kg diet, the histological changes in the kidney and liver were more pronounced at all treatments groups of green sturgeon than those of white sturgeon. The current results on structural changes of kidney and liver (i.e., more severe glycogen depletion and tubular epithelium degeneration in green sturgeon) confirmed our previous results, in that green sturgeon exhibited a higher mortality, lower growth rate, and lower protein, lipid, and energy contents in their whole body than white sturgeon under the same MeHg exposures.

  6. Effects of feed restriction on salinity tolerance in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus).

    PubMed

    Lee, Seunghyung; Fadel, James G; Haller, Liran Y; Verhille, Christine E; Fangue, Nann A; Hung, Silas S O

    2015-10-01

    A multistressor study was conducted to investigate interactive effects of nutritional status and salinity on osmoregulation of juvenile white sturgeon. Our hypothesis was that lower nutritional status would decrease the salinity tolerance of juvenile white sturgeon. A four-week feed restriction (12.5%, 25%, 50%, 100% of optimum feeding rate: OFR defined as the rate (% body weight per day) at which growth is maximal) trial was performed, and relevant indices of nutritional status were measured. Following the trial, sturgeon were acutely exposed to various salinities (0, 8, 16, 24 ppt) for 120 h, and relevant osmoregulatory measurements were made at 12, 72, and 120 h post-salinity exposures. The feed-restriction trial resulted in a graded nutritional response with the most feed-restricted group (12.5% OFR) showing the lowest nutritional status. The salinity exposure trial showed clear evidence that lower nutritional status decreased the salinity tolerance of juvenile white sturgeon. Increasing salinities resulted in significant alterations in osmoregulatory indices of all feeding groups; however, a significantly slower acclimatory response to 24 ppt was detected in the most feed-restricted group compared to the non-feed-restricted group (100% OFR). Furthermore, evaluation of the effect of nutritional status on the relationship between osmoregulatory measurements and body size showed that there was a significant negative relationship between osmoregulatory performance and body size within the most feed-restricted group. This suggests that there is a certain body size range (200-300 g based on our finding) where juvenile white sturgeon can maximize osmoregulatory capacity at a salinity of 24 ppt. PMID:26123778

  7. Effects of feed restriction on salinity tolerance in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus).

    PubMed

    Lee, Seunghyung; Fadel, James G; Haller, Liran Y; Verhille, Christine E; Fangue, Nann A; Hung, Silas S O

    2015-10-01

    A multistressor study was conducted to investigate interactive effects of nutritional status and salinity on osmoregulation of juvenile white sturgeon. Our hypothesis was that lower nutritional status would decrease the salinity tolerance of juvenile white sturgeon. A four-week feed restriction (12.5%, 25%, 50%, 100% of optimum feeding rate: OFR defined as the rate (% body weight per day) at which growth is maximal) trial was performed, and relevant indices of nutritional status were measured. Following the trial, sturgeon were acutely exposed to various salinities (0, 8, 16, 24 ppt) for 120 h, and relevant osmoregulatory measurements were made at 12, 72, and 120 h post-salinity exposures. The feed-restriction trial resulted in a graded nutritional response with the most feed-restricted group (12.5% OFR) showing the lowest nutritional status. The salinity exposure trial showed clear evidence that lower nutritional status decreased the salinity tolerance of juvenile white sturgeon. Increasing salinities resulted in significant alterations in osmoregulatory indices of all feeding groups; however, a significantly slower acclimatory response to 24 ppt was detected in the most feed-restricted group compared to the non-feed-restricted group (100% OFR). Furthermore, evaluation of the effect of nutritional status on the relationship between osmoregulatory measurements and body size showed that there was a significant negative relationship between osmoregulatory performance and body size within the most feed-restricted group. This suggests that there is a certain body size range (200-300 g based on our finding) where juvenile white sturgeon can maximize osmoregulatory capacity at a salinity of 24 ppt.

  8. Evaluation of Reconnection Options for White Sturgeon in the Snake River Using a Population Viability Model

    SciTech Connect

    Jager, Yetta; Bevelhimer, Mark S; Chandler, James A.; Lepla, Ken B.; Van Winkle, Webb

    2007-01-01

    Abstract.- This paper describes a simulation study of reconnection options for white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus subpopulations in adjacent river segments above and below CJ Strike Dam on the Snake River, Idaho, USA. In contrast to the downstream river segment, the upstream river segment is long and has areas that are suitable for spawning during normal and wet hydrologic conditions. We evaluated demographic and genetic consequences of upstream and downstream passage using different model assumptions about trashrack spacing and density dependent effects on the spawning interval. Our genetic results predict that, although reconnection would introduce new alleles to the upstream subpopulation, it would also preserve alleles from the downstream subpopulation by propagating them in the larger subpopulation above the dam. Our demographic results predict that halving the space between trashracks would have large and unequivocal benefits, whereas the effects of reconnection would be smaller and more sensitive to model assumptions. Simulated upstream passage tended to benefit both subpopulations only in the absence of density dependent limitation. In the presence of density dependence, the combination of halved trashrack spacing and upstream and downstream passage produced the best results. Narrower trashracks kept spawning adults in the upstream segment with spawning habitat, while allowing their progeny to migrate downstream. Screening appears to be the best option for such a species in this configuration of a long river segment acting as a demographic source above a short one acting as a demographic sink.

  9. Habitat use and selection by adult pallid sturgeon in the lower Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herrala, Jason R.; Kroboth, Patrick T.; Kuntz, Nathan M.; Schramm, Harold L.

    2014-01-01

    The Pallid Sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus is an endangered riverine sturgeon with historical distribution restricted to the Yellowstone, Missouri, Mississippi, and Atchafalaya rivers. Although not abundant, Pallid Sturgeon in the lower Mississippi River appear to be naturally recruiting, and information about habitat use is important to conserve this species. Thirty-four adult Pallid Sturgeon (612-1,013-mm FL) were tagged with acoustic transmitters and relocated a total of 272times in a 40-km reach of the lower Mississippi River from April 2009 through December 2012. Pallid Sturgeon strongly selected island tip and natural bank habitats, and, to a lesser degree, revetted bank habitat. Although frequently used, Pallid Sturgeon exhibited negative selection for the expansive main channel habitat. Secondary channel habitat was seasonally available and excluded from habitat selection analysis, but this habitat was frequently used in the spring when available. Fifty percent of Pallid Sturgeon detections were in relatively narrow ranges of depths (6.2-13.6m) and surface current velocities (0.64-1.05m/s). Use of different habitats was related to river stage and water temperature, suggesting use of some habitats was seasonal. Results suggest that maintaining natural bank habitat and secondary channel-island complexes will benefit conservation of this endangered species in the lower Mississippi River. 

  10. Effects of incubation substrates on hatch timing and success of White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) embryos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsley, Michael J.; Kofoot, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The Kootenai River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) was listed as endangered under the Endangered Species Act in 1994 because several decades of failed spawning had put the population at risk of extinction. Natural spawning is known to occur at several locations in the Kootenai River, Idaho, but there is little natural recruitment. Microhabitat where embryo incubation occurs is known to be an important factor in white sturgeon reproductive success. This study was conducted to address questions regarding the suitability of different substrates as egg attachment and incubation sites for these fish. A comparative laboratory study using six types of incubation substrates—clean river rocks, periphyton- and algae-covered rocks, waterlogged wood, sand, riparian vegetation, and clean glass plates—tested the hypothesis that survival to hatch of white sturgeon eggs differs among incubation substrates. The results showed that sand was unsuitable as an incubation substrate, as the adhesive embryos were easily dislodged. Periphyton- and algae-covered rocks had the lowest hatch success, and all other substrates had similar hatch success.

  11. Short-term response of subadult white sturgeon to hopper dredge disposal operations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsley, Michael J.; Popoff, Nicholas D.; Romine, Jason G.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of dredged-material disposal operations on the behavior of seven white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus (50–101 cm fork length) was examined by analysis of the movements and depth use of these fish before, during, and after a series of hopper dredge disposal operations in the lower Columbia River. Analyses of fish locations showed that 12 flow-lane disposal operations within a 24-h period had minimal effect on subadult white sturgeon behavior; six of the seven fish showed slight attraction to the disposal area during disposals, and one fish increased its distance from the disposal area. The core area for all fish combined shifted toward the disposal area during disposals. In the 24 h after completion of the disposal operations the fish core areas shifted back toward those areas occupied before the disposals. The rates of movement, depths used, and diel movement patterns of the white sturgeon showed little change over all periods, suggesting that natural behaviors were not altered during and immediately after hopper dredge disposal operations.

  12. Seasonal movement and mesohabitat usage of adult and juvenile lake sturgeon in the Grasse River, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trested, D.G.; Chan, Matthew D.; Bridges, W.C.; Isely, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Long-term restoration efforts for lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens populations will benefit from better understanding of this species' movements and habitat use in riverine systems. Radio transmitters were implanted in both juvenile and adult lake sturgeon in the Grasse River, New York, and individuals were relocated over a 2-year period. Adult lake sturgeon demonstrated greater minimum daily distance moved, absolute distance moved, and mean home range size than juvenile lake sturgeon during the spring. During the course of the study, both adult and juvenile lake sturgeon exhibited movements upstream and downstream through a breached low-head weir, and individuals did not necessarily remain resident on an annual basis in the Grasse River. Mesohabitat and substrate use patterns were determined based on comparisons of frequency distributions for relocated lake sturgeon and quantified mesohabitat and substrate over a 15-km river reach. Lake sturgeon used pool mesohabitat and limited their use of run mesohabitat under both low- and mid-flow conditions. During most of the year, adult and juvenile lake sturgeon were detected over silt substrate. This study illustrates behavioral differences and similarities between the movements and habitat use of adult and juvenile lake sturgeon in a riverine system.

  13. Effects of subchronic exposure of early life stages of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) to copper, cadmium, and zinc.

    PubMed

    Vardy, David W; Tompsett, Amber R; Sigurdson, Jacinda L; Doering, Jon A; Zhang, Xiaowei; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus

    2011-11-01

    Populations of sturgeon (Acipenseridae) are declining in many places in the world because of several potential factors, including overharvesting, habitat alteration, and pollution. In North America, populations of the white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) have been experiencing poor annual recruitment in major river systems for more than three decades. Metal pollution has been hypothesized as a potential contributing factor to the poor recruitment in some of the water bodies. In general, little is known about the toxicity of metals such as Cu, Cd, and Zn to white sturgeon and their potential influence on survival of embryos and juveniles. The present study was conducted to establish baseline toxicity data for the subchronic exposure of early life stages of white sturgeon to Cu, Cd, and Zn that can be used in metal-related risk assessments. Embryos, larvae, and fry were exposed to increasing concentrations of dissolved Cu, Cd, or Zn for 66 d using laboratory-based flow-through exposure systems. Hatching success was greater than 79% for all controls, and no significant differences were observed among treatment groups or between treatments and controls. Chronic lethal concentrations at which 20% mortality occurred (LC20s) for Cd (1.5 µg/L), Cu (5.5 µg/L), and Zn (112 µg/L) obtained for white sturgeon in the present study were comparable to those of sensitive salmonid species. Based on LC20 values for 19 or 58 d posthatch white sturgeon, the United States national ambient water quality criteria and the Canadian water quality guidelines for the protection of aquatic life that have been established for Cd, Cu, and Zn protect white sturgeon early life stages.

  14. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations and Experimental Culture, 1988-1989 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Apperson, Kimberly A.; Anders, Paul J.

    1990-06-01

    The population of white sturgeon in the Kootenai River has continued to decline since 1983, in spite of a closure to harvest in the U.S. section of the river. Setline and angling techniques were used to sample 228 sturgeon from the river between Kootenai Falls and Kootenay Lake during 1989. Sturgeon were found in Montana within 4 km of Kootenai Falls and downstream from Bonners Ferry, Idaho to Kootenay Lake, British Columbia. Our data indicate there is a complete lack of recruitment of juveniles into the population. The youngest fish sampled was of the 1977 year class, and the population is estimated at 850 individuals with 95% confidence intervals of 574 to 1,463. At present, we do not understand what mechanisms are limiting recruitment. Over the past 70 years, the lower Kootenai River has been extensively diked for flood control, effectively eliminating backwater and slough areas that may have provided juvenile rearing habitat: Contaminants have entered the river system via mining operations and agricultural practices. In 1972, Libby Dam began operation, reversing the natural flow regime of the river, and releasing frequent power peaking flows. Of 179 fish that were surgically sexed, 37% were female and 35% were male. Thirty-four percent of the females held developing oocytes. All oocyte samples from nine females contained copper (1.18 to 2.50 {micro}g/g) and zinc (15.6 to 32.8 {micro}g/g). Most samples also contained organochloride residues such as DDT, DDD, DDE, and PCBs (0.215 to 1.080 {micro}g/g, combined). River sediment samples contained 1.62 to 12.8 {micro}g/g copper and 22.4 to 70.6 {micro}g/g zinc, but no organochloride residues. Electrophoretic analysis of muscle samples indicated reduced heterogeneity compared with lower basin white sturgeon and showed a significantly different degree of variation between the two stocks in seven enzyme systems. An ongoing sonic telemetry study has revealed definite long distance movements in response to water flow

  15. A simulation study of factors controlling white sturgeon recruitment in the Snake River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jager, H.I.; Van Winkle, W.; Chandler, James Angus; Lepla, K.B.; Bates, P.; Counihan, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    Five of the nine populations of white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus, located between dams on the Middle Snake River, have declined from historical levels and are now at risk of extinction. One step towards more effectively protecting and managing these nine populations is ranking factors that influence recruitment in each of these river segments. We developed a model to suggest which of seven mechanistic factors contribute most to lost recruitment in each river segment: (1) temperature-related mortality during incubation, (2) flow-related mortality during incubation, (3) downstream export of larvae, (4) limitation of juvenile and adult habitat, (5) mortality of all ages during summer episodes of poor water quality in reservoirs, (6) entrainment mortality of juveniles and adults, and (7) angling mortality. We simulated recruitment with, and without, each of the seven factors, over a typical series of hydrologic years. We found a hierarchical pattern of limitation. In the first tier, river segments with severe water quality problems grouped together. Poor water quality during summer had a strong negative effect on recruitment in the river segments between Swan Falls Dam and Hell's Canyon Dam. In the second tier, river segments with better water quality divided into short river segments and longer river segments. Populations in short river segments were limited by larval export. Populations in longer river segments tended to be less strongly limited by any one factor. We also found that downstream effects could be important, suggesting that linked populations cannot be viewed in isolation. In two cases, the effects of a factor on an upstream population had a significant influence on its downstream neighbors. ?? 2002 by the American Fisheries Society.

  16. Identification of the origin and localization of chorion (egg envelope) proteins in an ancient fish, the white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus.

    PubMed

    Murata, Kenji; Conte, Fred S; McInnis, Elizabeth; Fong, Tak Hou; Cherr, Gary N

    2014-06-01

    In many modern teleost fish, chorion (egg envelope) glycoproteins are synthesized in the liver of females, and the expression of those genes is controlled by endogenous estrogen released from the ovary during maturation. However, among the classical teleosts, such as salmonid, carp, and zebrafish, the chorion glycoproteins are synthesized in the oocyte, as in higher vertebrates. Sturgeon, which are members of the subclass Chondrostei, represent an ancient lineage of ray-finned fishes that differ from other teleosts in that their sperm possess acrosomes, their eggs have numerous micropyles, and early embryo development is similar to that of amphibians. In order to understand the molecular mechanisms of chorion formation and the phylogenetic relationship between sturgeon and other teleosts, we used specific antibodies directed against the primary components of sturgeon chorion glycoproteins, using immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry approaches. The origin of each chorion glycoprotein was determined through analyses of both liver and ovary, and their localization during ovarian development was investigated. Our data indicate that the origin of the major chorion glycoproteins of sturgeon, ChG1, ChG2, and ChG4, derive not only from the oocyte itself but also from follicle cells in the ovary, as well as from hepatocytes. In the follicle cell layer, granulosa cells were found to be the primary source of ChGs during oogenesis in white sturgeon. The unique origins of chorion glycoproteins in sturgeon suggest that sturgeons are an intermediate form in the evolution of the teleost lineage.

  17. White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) passage at the Dalles Dam, Columbia River, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsley, M.J.; Wright, C.D.; Van Der Leeuw, B. K.; Kofoot, E.E.; Peery, C.A.; Moser, M.L.

    2007-01-01

    White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) ???95 cm TL were monitored using acoustic and radio telemetry at a large hydroelectric dam (the Dalles Dam) on the Columbia River, during March 2004 through November 2005 to determine timing and routes of passage and to characterize general movements. Transmitters were surgically implanted into 148 fish during the study; 90 were released into the tailrace and 58 into the forebay. We documented 26 passage events by 19 tagged fish: eight upstream via fish ladders and 18 downstream, mostly through open spill gates. During the study 17 fish entered the two ladders one or more times; 11 entered only the east ladder, three entered only the north ladder, and three entered both ladders at sometime. Residence time within the ladders by individual fish was variable, ranging from about 1 min to nearly 6 months (median = 7.7 h). Only six fish successfully ascended the east ladder, one fish twice. We could not unequivocally determine which fish ladder one fish used to pass upstream. Differences in construction between the north and east fish ladders may account for the greater success of the east fish ladder in passing sturgeon upstream. Changes to operations at hydroelectric dams to benefit migrating anadromous salmonids may influence upstream or downstream passage by white sturgeon. Altering patterns and timing of spill discharge, altering fish ladder entrance attraction flows, and the use of lights, sound, and partial barriers to direct other species of fish to preferred passage routes have unknown effects on sturgeon passage. A better understanding of the consequences to the metapopulation of increasing or precluding upstream or downstream passage is needed. ?? 2007 The Authors.

  18. Ancient fish and recent invaders: white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus diet response to invasive-species-mediated changes in a benthic prey assemblage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zeug, Steven C; Brodsky, Annie; Kogut, Nina; Stewart, Robin; Merz, Joe

    2014-01-01

    Invasive organisms can have significant impacts on native species, and the San Francisco Estuary (SFE), California, USA, is one of the world's most invaded estuaries. Decline of native white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus abundance in the SFE has been acknowledged, but underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Invasion by the overbite clam Potamocorbula amurensis has drastically altered the SFE benthic prey community, yet little is known about how this change has affected sturgeon diets. We investigated changes in the diet of white sturgeon following the overbite clam invasion and subsequent shift in the SFE benthic prey assemblage. Gut content analysis was used to compare white sturgeon prey composition and importance between the pre- and post-invasion periods. Additionally, stable isotope analysis was employed to estimate the assimilation of prey items to sturgeon biomass. Overbite clams dominated diets in the post-invasion period, accounting for 82 to 93% of total volume. Stable isotope analysis confirmed the importance of this prey item, although their assimilated contribution to sturgeon biomass was estimated to be less (70 to 83%) than gut contents indicated. The frequency of fish in white sturgeon guts increased in the post-invasion period, and isotope analysis indicated relatively large contributions of fish to sturgeon biomass (3.7 to 19%). The trophic adaptability of white sturgeon has allowed them to exploit this new prey source (overbite clam). Future conservation and restoration efforts must consider a potentially destabilized food web given the large importance of a single prey item.

  19. Flow and sediment-transport modeling of Kootenai River White Sturgeon Spawning Habitat.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, R. R.; Nelson, J.; Barton, G.; Paragamian, V.

    2004-12-01

    The population of White Sturgeon in the Kootenai River downstream of Libby Dam in Montana and Idaho has declined since the construction of the dam in 1972. The White Sturgeon was listed as endangered in 1994 and an 11.2 mile reach of the river, downstream of Bonners Ferry, Idaho was designated as Critical Habitat in 2001. It is hypothesized that hydro-electric and flood control operations have contributed to poor spawning habitat and recruitment of juvenile fish. The successful incubation of eggs requires a stable and coarse bed material. Currently the sturgeon are spawning in a reach of poor substrate consisting of dunes up to 2 meters in amplitude and composed of fine sand while a short distance upstream there is suitable substrate of coarse gravel. We present here the preliminary results of a flow and sediment-transport modeling effort to aid in an understanding of both the current spawning habitat of the White Sturgeon and the potential to artificially enhance the current spawning habitat or to influence the sturgeon to move upstream to more suitable habitat. A 2.5 dimensional flow model was constructed for an 8-kilometer reach of the designated Critical Habitat. The modeled reach consists of several broad meanders and a mid channel island. The substrate is composed of fine sand with a median grain size of 0.22mm and has large dunes up to 2m in amplitude at relatively lows flows of 200 cms that wash out to a plane bed at around 600 cms. The model has been calibrated to a range of historical flow conditions from 170 cms to 1709 cms and verified against 16 ADCP velocity cross-section profiles collected during a period of steady flow at 554 cms. The model predicts well most of the salient features of the velocity field including the magnitude and location of the secondary flow, using a simple constant value for roughness. However for a few reaches of the river the bed forms and their spatial variability in size are shown to significantly affect the flow and the

  20. Contaminants in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) from the upper Fraser River, British Columbia, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, D.D.; Ikonomou, M.G.; Rantalaine, A.L.; Rogers, I.H.; Sutherland, D.; Oostdam, J. Van

    1997-03-01

    Four white sturgeon were collected from the upper Fraser River near Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, in the fall of 199a and 1992. Two additional fish were taken from the Fraser River near Williams Lake, some 250 km downstream of Prince George. Samples of white muscle, red muscle, liver, and roe were analyzed for metals, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), non-ortho and mono-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and chlorophenols to determine whether the tissues of this species were acceptable for human consumption. The concentrations of mercury in the white muscle and liver of several fish from the upper Fraser River exceeded the provincial tissue residue criteria for people who consumed low quantities of fish. The concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs, and coplanar PCBs (expressed as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalents) in red muscle and liver of these fish exceeded the Health Canada working guidelines for the protection of human health. By comparison, white sturgeon collected in the lower Fraser River had much lower concentrations of metals and organic contaminants. The differences in contaminant burdens in fish from the two widely separated reaches of the river reflect their proximity to or distance from known contaminant sources.

  1. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rien, Thomas A.; Hughes, Michele L.; Kern, J. Chris

    2006-03-01

    We report on our progress from April 2004 through March 2005 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete; therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported.

  2. White Sturgeon Mitgation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rein, Thomas A.; Hughes, Michele L.; Kern, J. Chris

    2005-08-01

    We report on our progress from April 2003 through March 2004 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete; therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported.

  3. Sediment Characteristics and Transport in the Kootenai River White Sturgeon Critical Habitat near Bonners Ferry, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fosness, Ryan L.; Williams, Marshall L.

    2009-01-01

    Recovery efforts for the endangered Kootenai River population of white sturgeon require an understanding of the characteristics and transport of suspended and bedload sediment in the critical habitat reach of the river. In 2007 and 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Kootenai Tribe of Idaho, conducted suspended- and bedload-sediment sampling in the federally designated critical habitat of the endangered Kootenai River white sturgeon population. Three sediment-sampling sites were selected that represent the hydraulic differences in the critical habitat. Suspended- and bedload-sediment samples along with acoustic Doppler current profiles were collected at these sites during specific river discharges. Samples were analyzed to determine suspended- and bedload-sediment characteristics and transport rates. Sediment transport data were analyzed to provide total loading estimates for suspended and bedload sediment in the critical habitat reach. Total suspended-sediment discharge primarily occurred as fine material that moved through the system in suspension. Total suspended-sediment discharge ranged from about 300 metric tons per day to more than 23,000 metric tons per day. Total suspended sediment remained nearly equal throughout the critical habitat, with the exception of a few cases where mass wasting of the banks may have caused sporadic spikes in total suspended sediment. Bedload-sediment discharge averaged 0-3 percent of the total loading. These bedload discharges ranged from 0 to 271 tons per day. The bedload discharge in the upper part of the critical habitat primarily consisted of fine to coarse gravel. A decrease in river competence in addition to an armored channel may be the cause of this limited bedload discharge. The bedload discharge in the middle part of the white sturgeon critical habitat varied greatly, depending on the extent of the backwater from Kootenay Lake. A large quantity of fine-to-coarse gravel is present in the braided

  4. Ontogenetic behavior and dispersal of Sacramento River white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, with a note on body color

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kynard, B.; Parker, E.

    2005-01-01

    We studied Sacramento River white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, in the laboratory to develop a conceptual model of ontogenetic behavior and provide insight into probable behavior of wild sturgeon. After hatching, free embryos initiated a low intensity, brief downstream dispersal during which fish swam near the bottom and were photonegative. The weak, short dispersal style and behavior of white sturgeon free embryos contrasts greatly with the intense, long dispersal style and behavior (photopositive and swimming far above the bottom) of dispersing free embryos of other sturgeon species. If spawned eggs are concentrated within a few kilometers downstream of a spawning site, the adaptive significance of the free embryo dispersal is likely to move fish away from the egg deposition site to avoid predation and reduce fish density prior to feeding. Larvae foraged on the open bottom, swam <1 m above the bottom, aggregated, but did not disperse. Early juveniles initiated a strong dispersal with fish strongly vigorously swimming downstream. Duration of the juvenile dispersal is unknown, but the strong swimming likely disperses fish many kilometers. Recruitment failure in white sturgeon populations may be a mis-match between the innate fish dispersal and post-dispersal rearing habitat, which is now highly altered by damming and reservoirs. Sacramento River white sturgeon has a two-step downstream dispersal by the free embryo and juvenile life intervals. Diel activity of all life intervals peaked at night, whether fish were dispersing or foraging. Nocturnal behavior is likely a response to predation, which occurs during both activities. An intense black-tail body color was present on foraging larvae, but was weak or absent on the two life intervals that disperse. Black-tail color may be an adaptation for avoiding predation, signaling among aggregated larvae, or both, but not for dispersal. ?? Springer 2005.

  5. Simulation of Streamflow Using a Multidimensional Flow Model for White Sturgeon Habitat, Kootenai River near Bonners Ferry, Idaho - Supplement to Scientific Investigations Report 2005-5230

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barton, Gary J.; McDonald, Richard R.; Nelson, Jonathan M.

    2009-01-01

    During 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed, calibrated, and validated a multidimensional flow model for simulating streamflow in the white sturgeon spawning habitat of the Kootenai River in Idaho. The model was developed as a tool to aid understanding of the physical factors affecting quality and quantity of spawning and rearing habitat used by the endangered white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and for assessing the feasibility of various habitat-enhancement scenarios to re-establish recruitment of white sturgeon. At the request of the Kootenai Tribe of Idaho, the USGS extended the two-dimensional flow model developed in 2005 into a braided reach upstream of the current white sturgeon spawning reach. Many scientists consider the braided reach a suitable substrate with adequate streamflow velocities for re-establishing recruitment of white sturgeon. The 2005 model was extended upstream to help assess the feasibility of various strategies to encourage white sturgeon to spawn in the reach. At the request of the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the USGS also extended the two-dimensional flow model several kilometers downstream of the white sturgeon spawning reach. This modified model can quantify the physical characteristics of a reach that white sturgeon pass through as they swim upstream from Kootenay Lake to the spawning reach. The USGS Multi-Dimensional Surface-Water Modeling System was used for the 2005 modeling effort and for this subsequent modeling effort. This report describes the model applications and limitations, presents the results of a few simple simulations, and demonstrates how the model can be used to link physical characteristics of streamflow to the location of white sturgeon spawning events during 1994-2001. Model simulations also were used to report on the length and percentage of longitudinal profiles that met the minimum criteria during May and June 2006 and 2007 as stipulated in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Biological Opinion.

  6. White Sturgeon Research Needs: Workshop Results, Seattle, Washington, November 3-4, 1983.

    SciTech Connect

    Fickeisen, Duane H.; Neitzel, D.A.; Dauble, Dennis D.

    1984-02-01

    This report describes the results of a workshop to develop a research program for Columbia River Basin white surgeon. Invited participants developed a list of white sturgeon research needs and rationale for ranking the relative importance of the research needs. The highest ranked research needs were: define physical habitat requirements (substrate, flow, water quality) for early life history stages; identify genetic stocks; assess population status (e.g., distribution, densities, age-structure, year-class strength, age-specific mortality, disease, parasitism); assess reproductive status (e.g., spawning success, recruitment, age/size-dependent fecundity); develop new sampling techniques and gear for collecting early life history stages; assess gametogenesis (timing of maturation, frequency of spawning), including effects of environmental factors on gonadal development; and define physical habitat requirements (substrate, flow, water quality) for spawning. 2 references, 2 figures, 5 tables.

  7. Absorption, distribution, and elimination of graded oral doses of methylmercury in juvenile white sturgeon.

    PubMed

    Huang, Susie Shih-Yin; Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Fadel, James G; Lin, Pinpin; Liu, Tsung-Yun; Hung, Silas S O

    2012-10-15

    Mercury (Hg) is toxic and is released into the environment from a wide variety of anthropogenic sources. Methylmercury (MeHg), a product of microbial methylation, enables rapid Hg bioaccumulation and biomagnification in the biota. Methylmercury is sequestered and made available to the rest of the biota through the benthic-detrital component leading to the high risk of exposure to benthic fish species, such as white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus). In the present study, a combined technique of stomach intubation, dorsal aorta cannulation, and urinary catheterization was utilized to characterize the absorption, distribution, and elimination of Hg in white sturgeon over a 48h exposure. Mercury, as methylmercury chloride, at either 0, 250, 500, or 1000 μg Hg/kg body weight, was orally intubated into white sturgeon, in groups of five. The blood was repeatedly sampled and urine collected from the fish over the 48h post intubation period, and at 48h, the fish were sacrificed for Hg tissue concentration and distribution determinations. The fractional rate of absorption (K), blood Hg concentration (μg/ml), tissue concentration (μg/g dry weight) and distribution (%), and urinary Hg elimination flux (μg/kg/h) are significantly different (p<0.05) among the MeHg doses. Complete blood uptake of Hg was observed in all MeHg treated fish by 12h. The maximal observed blood Hg concentration peaks are 0.56±0.02, 0.70±0.02, and 2.19±0.07 μg/ml (mean±SEM) for the 250, 500, and 1000 μgHg/kg body weight dose groups, respectively. Changes in blood Hg profiles can be described by a monomolecular function in all of the MeHg treated fish. The Hg concentration asymptote (A) and K are dose dependent. The relationship between A and the intubation dose, however, is nonlinear. Mercury levels in certain tissues are comparable to field data and longer-term study, indicating that the lower doses used in the current study are ecologically relevant for the species. Tissue Hg concentrations

  8. Status and Habitat Requirements of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam, 1989-1990 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Nigro, Anthony A.

    1990-09-01

    We report on our progress from April 1989 through March 1990 on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), Washington Department of Fisheries (WDF), US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). Study objectives addressed by each agency are to describe the life history and population dynamics of subadults and adults between Bonneville and McNary dams and evaluate the need and identify potential methods for protecting, mitigating and enhancing populations downstream from McNary Dam, to describe the white sturgeon recreational fishery between Bonneville and McNary dams, describe reproductive and early life history characteristics downstream from Bonneville Dam and describe life history and population dynamics of subadults and adults downstream from Bonneville Dam, to describe reproduction and early life history characteristics, define habitat requirements for spawning and rearing and quantify extent of habitat available between Bonneville and McNary dams, and to describe reproduction and early life history characteristics, define habitat requirements for spawning and rearing and quantify extent of habitat available downstream from Bonneville Dam. Our approach is to work concurrently downstream and upstream from Bonneville Dam. Upstream from Bonneville Dam we began work in the Dalles Reservoir in 1987 and expanded efforts to Bonneville Reservoir in 1988 and John Day Reservoir in 1989. Highlights from this work is also included. 47 refs., 33 figs., 66 tabs.

  9. Effects of sediment cover on survival and development of white sturgeon embryos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kock, T.J.; Congleton, J.L.; Anders, P.J.

    2006-01-01

    A simple, inexpensive apparatus (embryo incubation unit [EIU]) was developed and used to assess the relationship between sediment cover (Kootenai River sediments, 97% by weight in the 0.83-mm- to 1.0-mm-diameter range) and survival of white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus embryos in the laboratory. An apparatus-testing trial assessed the effects of two sediment depths (5 and 20 mm), three EIU ventilation hole sizes (4.8, 6.8, and 9.5 mm) providing three levels of intrasediment flow, and EIU location (upstream or downstream in laboratory troughs) on embryo survival at two above-substrate flow velocities (0.05 and 0.15 m/s). A second trial assessed the effects of sediment cover duration (5-mm sediment cover for 4, 7, 9, 11, or 14 d, with a ventilation hole size of 9.5 mm and a flow velocity of 0.17 m/s) on mean embryo survival and larval length and weight. In the apparatus-testing trial, embryo survival was reduced (P < 0.0001) to 0-5% under sediment covers of either 5 or 20 mm in both the higher-flow and lower-flow troughs; survival in control EIUs without sediments exceeded 80%. Survival was not significantly affected by ventilation hole size but was weakly affected by EIU location. In the second trial, embryo survival was negatively correlated (P = 0.001) with increasing duration of sediment cover and was significantly higher for embryos covered for 4 d (50% survival) or 7 d (30% survival) than for those covered for 9, 11, or 14 d (15-20% survival). Sediment cover also delayed hatch timing (P < 0.0001) and decreased mean larval length (P < 0.0001). Our results suggest that sediment cover may be an important early life stage mortality factor in rivers where white sturgeon spawn over fine-sediment substrates. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2006.

  10. Diet composition and feeding patterns of adult shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) in the lower Platte River, Nebraska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rapp, T.; Shuman, D.A.; Graeb, B.D.S.; Chipps, Steven R.; Peters, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    Two-hundred and seven adult shovelnose sturgeon ranging from 450 to 718 mm in length were sampled from June to October 2001 and May to July 2002 to determine diet composition and feeding patterns in the lower Platte River. Shovelnose sturgeon fed primarily upon aquatic insect larvae and nymphs (>99% composition by number). Diptera of the family Chironomidae were the dominant prey items in both years and composed 98.1% of the shovelnose sturgeon diet in 2001 and 96.8% in 2002. Chironomidae were primarily represented by the four genera Paracladopelma, Chernovskiia, Saetheria and Robackia accounting for 90.2% of the ingested prey items in 2001 and 83.6% in 2002. In addition, shovelnose sturgeon showed in both years a generalized feeding pattern towards Ephemeroptera of the families Isonychiidae and Caenidae, as well as Trichoptera of the family Hydropsychidae. Other aquatic insects, terrestrial invertebrates and fishes were found infrequently and in low numbers in shovelnose sturgeon diets. The four most abundant Chironomidae genera are often found on sand and the high abundance of these taxa in the diet suggests that shovelnose sturgeon feed primarily near or on this substrate type. This highlights the importance of habitats that provide sand substrate for shovelnose sturgeon foraging in the lower Platte River.

  11. Summary of Stock Identification Research on White Sturgeon of the Columbia River, 1985-1991 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Setter, Ann L.; Brannon, E.L.

    1992-01-01

    White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are a long-lived, primitive fish species which forage primarily along the river bottom of large river systems in the Pacific Northwest. Historically, as an anadromous species, they could distribute downstream to feed in the rich estuary or marine areas and then migrate back up the river to spawn. With the historic river becoming a series of flooded impoundments, sturgeon were denied open river access, but they appear to have been able to adapt to the altered environment. White sturgeon are found throughout the Columbia River and are thought to be successfully reproducing in some of the impoundments. In those reservoirs where little or no reproduction takes place, enhancement hatcheries may be an option for use in rebuilding isolated populations. However, the degree of stock specificity that exists in the Columbia River was unknown and precluded the use of the more abundant lower river fish as a common egg source to repropagate the upper river unless genetic similarity could be demonstrated among sturgeon throughout the river system. To resolve the issue, research was conducted to determine what level of genetic differentiation exists among sturgeon in the Columbia River system, using starch gel electrophoresis to enable a baseline of population genetic structure data to be assembled. A greater diversity in electrophoretic pattern was observed in the lower portions of the river. The bulk of the qualitative variability we noted was consistent throughout all sections of the river. Some specific quantitative differences were apparent between the areas we examined. Interpretation of the results was complicated by the fact that dam construction would tend to isolate and mix stocks by preventing the migration of fish returning upstream.

  12. Differences in the dynamics and potential production of impounded and unimpounded white sturgeon populations in the lower Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Beamesderfer, R.C.P.; Rien, T.A.; Nigro, A.A.

    1995-11-01

    White sturgeons Acipenser transmontanus were sampled in three lower Columbia River reservoirs from 1987 to 1991 to describe population dynamics, the ability of these stocks to sustain harvest, and differences among reservoir and unimpounded populations. Significant differences were observed among reservoirs in white sturgeon abundance, biomass, size composition, sex ratio, size of females at maturity, growth rate, condition factor, and rate of exploitation. No differences among reservoirs were detected in fecundity, natural mortality rate, or longevity, in part because of sampling difficulties. Recruitment rates and densities in reservoirs were inversely correlated with growth rate, condition factor, and size of females at maturity. Differences in population dynamics resulted in substantial differences in sustainable yields. Maximum yields per recruit were predicted at annual exploitation rates between 5 and 15%. Most characteristics of reservoir populations were less than or equal to optima reported for the unimpounded lower river; as a result, yield per recruit, reproductive potential per recruit, and the number of recruits were less in reservoirs than in the unimpounded river. Comparisons with pristine standing stocks suggest that the unimpounded river may approximate preimpoundment conditions for white sturgeon. We conclude that potential yield from impounded populations has been reduced by dam construction, which restricts populations to river segments that may not include conditions optimal for all life stages. Alternatives for enchancement of reservoir populations might include improved passage at dams, increased spring flow to improve spawning success, transplants from productive populations, hatchery supplementation, and more intensive harvest management. 54 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Acute and chronic sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc in laboratory water-only exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Contributions by Wang, Ning; Calfee, Robin D.; Beahan, Erinn; Brumbaugh, William G.; Dorman, Rebecca A.; Hardesty, Doug K.; Kunz, James L.; Little, Edward E.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Puglis, Holly J.

    2014-01-01

    White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are experiencing poor recruitment in the trans boundary reach of the upper Columbia River in eastern Washington State. Limited toxicity data indicated that early life stages of white sturgeon are sensitive to metals. In acute 4-day (d) exposures with larval white sturgeon, previous studies have reported that the 4-day median lethal concentrations (LC50) based on biotic ligand model (BLM) normalization for copper were below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency national recommended acute water-quality criterion. In previously published chronic 66-d exposures starting with newly fertilized eggs of white sturgeon, 20-percent lethal effect concentrations (LC20s) for copper, cadmium, or zinc generally were within a factor of two of the chronic values of the most sensitive fish species in the databases of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency water-quality criteria (WQC) for the three metals. However, there were some uncertainties in the chronic exposures previously performed with white sturgeon, including (1) low control survival (37 percent), (2) more control fish tested in each replicate compared to other treatments, (3) limited replication of treatments (n=2), (4) lack of reported growth data (such as dry weight), and (5) wide dilution factors for exposure concentrations (6- to 8-fold dilutions). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency concluded that additional studies are needed to generate more toxicity data to better define lethal and sublethal toxicity thresholds for metals for white sturgeon. The objective of the study was to further evaluate the acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc to early life stages of white sturgeon in water-only exposures. Toxicity tests also were performed with commonly tested rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) under similar test conditions to determine the relative sensitivity between white sturgeon and rainbow trout to these metals. Toxicity data generated from

  14. Selenium tissue burden compartmentalization in resident white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) of the San Francisco Bay Delta estuary.

    PubMed

    Linares-Casenave, Javier; Linville, R; Van Eenennaam, J P; Muguet, J B; Doroshov, S I

    2015-01-01

    High selenium (Se) loads in the San Francisco Bay Delta are bioaccumulated and biomagnified in food webs and can impair the reproduction of resident oviparous animals such as white sturgeon. The objective of the present study was to determine the Se tissue burden in San Francisco Bay Delta-resident white sturgeon to assess Se bioaccumulation in different organs, including ovaries and liver where egg yolk precursor proteins are synthesized. The authors obtained 54 San Francisco Bay Delta-resident white sturgeon including 26 female and 28 male subadults with immature gonads, 8 females with vitellogenic eggs, and 13 males with maturing gonads. Length, weight, age, reproductive stage of development, and kidney, liver, gonad, and muscle Se concentrations were determined in all fish. Concentrations of Se in muscle, gonads, and liver significantly increased with fish size, whereas kidney Se was not correlated to body size and was at the highest level compared with other organs. There was no difference between the sexes (p > 0.05) in Se concentrations in kidney (12.83 ± 0.51 µg · g(-1) dry wt), liver (11.85 ± 1.04 µg · g(-1) dry wt), and muscle (7.09 ± 0.52 µg · g(-1) dry wt; mean ± standard error, n = 47); but Se concentration was higher in the ovary than in testis (p = 0.04). Females with vitellogenic eggs had higher Se concentrations in the ovaries (20.77 ± 4.11 µg · g(-1) dry wt vs 5.22 ± 2.50 µg · g(-1) dry wt), liver (21.84 ± 2.07 µg · g(-1) dry wt vs 8.03 ± 1.03 µg · g(-1) dry wt), and muscle (10.18 ± 1.93 µg · g(-1) dry wt vs 5.48 ± 0.64 µg · g(-1) dry wt) compared with less advanced, previtellogenic females (p < 0.05). The elevated Se concentrations in the ovaries and liver of vitellogenic San Francisco Bay Delta white sturgeon were comparable with levels previously shown to cause reproductive toxicity in dietary Se experiments

  15. Vulnerability of larval and juvenile white sturgeon to barotrauma: can they handle the pressure?

    PubMed

    Brown, Richard S; Cook, Katrina V; Pflugrath, Brett D; Rozeboom, Latricia L; Johnson, Rachelle C; McLellan, Jason G; Linley, Timothy J; Gao, Yong; Baumgartner, Lee J; Dowell, Frederick E; Miller, Erin A; White, Timothy A

    2013-01-01

    Techniques were developed to determine which life stages of fish are vulnerable to barotrauma from expansion of internal gases during decompression. Eggs, larvae, and juvenile hatchery-reared white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus; up to 91 days post hatch; d.p.h.) were decompressed to assess vulnerability to barotrauma and identify initial swim bladder inflation. Barotrauma-related injury and mortality were first observed 9 d.p.h., on the same day as initial exogenous feeding. However, barotrauma-related injury did not occur again until swim bladder inflation 75 d.p.h. (visible at necropsy and on radiographs). Swim bladder inflation was not consistent among individuals, with only 44% being inflated 91 d.p.h. Additionally, swim bladder inflation did not appear to be size dependent among fish ranging in total length from 61 to 153 mm at 91 d.p.h. The use of a combination of decompression tests and radiography was validated as a method to determine initial swim bladder inflation and vulnerability to barotrauma. Extending these techniques to other species and life-history stages would help to determine the susceptibility of fish to hydro turbine passage and aid in fish conservation. PMID:27293603

  16. Vulnerability of larval and juvenile white sturgeon to barotrauma: can they handle the pressure?

    PubMed

    Brown, Richard S; Cook, Katrina V; Pflugrath, Brett D; Rozeboom, Latricia L; Johnson, Rachelle C; McLellan, Jason G; Linley, Timothy J; Gao, Yong; Baumgartner, Lee J; Dowell, Frederick E; Miller, Erin A; White, Timothy A

    2013-01-01

    Techniques were developed to determine which life stages of fish are vulnerable to barotrauma from expansion of internal gases during decompression. Eggs, larvae, and juvenile hatchery-reared white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus; up to 91 days post hatch; d.p.h.) were decompressed to assess vulnerability to barotrauma and identify initial swim bladder inflation. Barotrauma-related injury and mortality were first observed 9 d.p.h., on the same day as initial exogenous feeding. However, barotrauma-related injury did not occur again until swim bladder inflation 75 d.p.h. (visible at necropsy and on radiographs). Swim bladder inflation was not consistent among individuals, with only 44% being inflated 91 d.p.h. Additionally, swim bladder inflation did not appear to be size dependent among fish ranging in total length from 61 to 153 mm at 91 d.p.h. The use of a combination of decompression tests and radiography was validated as a method to determine initial swim bladder inflation and vulnerability to barotrauma. Extending these techniques to other species and life-history stages would help to determine the susceptibility of fish to hydro turbine passage and aid in fish conservation.

  17. Vulnerability of larval and juvenile white sturgeon to barotrauma: can they handle the pressure?

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Richard S.; Cook, Katrina V.; Pflugrath, Brett D.; Rozeboom, Latricia L.; Johnson, Rachelle C.; McLellan, Jason; Linley, Timothy J.; Gao, Yong; Baumgartner, Lee J.; Dowell, Frederick E.; Miller, Erin A.; White, Timothy A.

    2013-07-01

    Techniques were developed to determine which life stages of fish are vulnerable to barotrauma from expansion of internal gases during decompression. Eggs, larvae and juvenile hatchery-reared white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus; up to 91 days post hatch; dph), were decompressed to assess vulnerability to barotrauma and identify initial swim bladder inflation. Barotrauma related injury and mortality were first observed 9 dph, on the same day as initial exogenous feeding. However, barotrauma related injury did not occur again until swim bladder inflation 75 dph (visible from necropsy and x-ray radiographs). Swim bladder inflation was not consistent among individuals, with only 44% being inflated 91 dph. Additionally, swim bladder inflation did not appear to be size dependent among fish ranging in total length from 61-153 mm at 91 dph. The use of a combination of decompression tests and x-ray radiography was validated as a method to determine initial swim bladder inflation and vulnerability to barotrauma. Extending these techniques to other species and life history stages would help to determine fish susceptibility to hydroturbine passage and aid in fish conservation.

  18. Sediment cores and chemistry for the Kootenai River White Sturgeon Habitat Restoration Project, Boundary County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barton, Gary J.; Weakland, Rhonda J.; Fosness, Ryan L.; Cox, Stephen E.; Williams, Marshall L.

    2012-01-01

    The Kootenai Tribe of Idaho, in cooperation with local, State, Federal, and Canadian agency co-managers and scientists, is assessing the feasibility of a Kootenai River habitat restoration project in Boundary County, Idaho. This project is oriented toward recovery of the endangered Kootenai River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population, and simultaneously targets habitat-based recovery of other native river biota. Projects currently (2010) under consideration include modifying the channel and flood plain, installing in-stream structures, and creating wetlands to improve the physical and biological functions of the ecosystem. River restoration is a complex undertaking that requires a thorough understanding of the river. To assist in evaluating the feasibility of this endeavor, the U.S. Geological Survey collected and analyzed the physical and chemical nature of sediment cores collected at 24 locations in the river. Core depths ranged from 4.6 to 15.2 meters; 21 cores reached a depth of 15.2 meters. The sediment was screened for the presence of chemical constituents that could have harmful effects if released during restoration activities. The analysis shows that concentrations of harmful chemical constituents do not exceed guideline limits that were published by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in 2006.

  19. Genetic and demographic implications of aquaculture in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus)conservation

    SciTech Connect

    Jager, Yetta

    2005-01-01

    This study uses a genetic individual-based model of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) populations in a river to examine the genetic and demographic trade-offs associated with operating a conservation hatchery. Simulation experiments evaluated three management practices: (i) setting quotas to equalize family contributions in an effort to prevent genetic swamping, (ii) an adaptive management scheme that interrupts stocking when introgression exceeds a specified threshold, and (iii) alternative broodstock selection strategies that influence domestication. The first set of simulations, designed to evaluate equalizing the genetic contribution of families, did not show the genetic benefits expected. The second set of simulations showed that simulated adaptive management was not successful in controlling introgression over the long term, especially with uncertain feedback. The third set of simulations compared the effects of three alternative broodstock selection strategies on domestication for hypothetical traits controlling early density-dependent survival. Simulated aquaculture selected for a density-tolerant phenotype when broodstock were taken from a genetically connected population. Using broodstock from an isolated population (i.e., above an upstream barrier or in a different watershed) was more effective at preventing domestication than using wild broodstock from a connected population.

  20. Status and Habitat Requirements of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam, 1988-1989 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Nigro, Anthony A. )

    1989-09-01

    We report on our progress from April 1988 through March 1989 on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam. Highlights of results of our work in the Dalles and Bonneville reservoirs are: using setlines, we caught 1,586 sturgeon in The Dalles Reservoir and 484 sturgeon in Bonneville Reservoir in 1988. Fork length of fish caught ranged from 34 cm to 274 cm. Of the fish caught we marked 1,248 in The Dalles Reservoir and 341 in Bonneville Reservoir. Of the fish marked in 1988, we recaptured 82 in The Dalles Reservoir and none in Bonneville Reservoir. We recaptured 89 fish marked in 1987 in The Dalles Reservoir. Anglers recaptured 35 fish marked in 1988 and 16 fish marked in 1987 in The Dalles Reservoir. Anglers recaptured 2 sturgeon marked in 1988 in Bonneville Reservoir. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base.

  1. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations and Experimental Culture, 1989-1990 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Apperson, Kimberly A.; Anders, Paul J.

    1991-10-01

    Setline and angling techniques were used to sample 332 sturgeon from the river between Kootenai Falls and Kootenay Lake during 1989 and 1990. Sturgeon were found in Montana within 4 km of Kootenai Falls and downstream from Bonners Ferry, Idaho to Kootenay Lake, British Columbia. Our data indicate there is a complete lack of recruitment of juveniles into the population. The youngest fish sampled was of the 1977 year class, and the population is estimated at 880 individuals with 95% confidence intervals of 638 to 1,211. Culture of one pair of sturgeon in 1990 was of limited success. Less than 5% of eggs hatched with 50% initial mortality of fry. The contribution of contaminants found in eggs (aluminum, copper, zinc, lead, and organochlorides) toward this poor survival is unknown. Handling problems with the eggs at the time of spawning complicated our results. An ongoing sonic telemetry study has revealed definite long distance movements. Sturgeon regularly move across the British Columbia-Idaho border and seek out deep holes or migrate to Kootenay Lake during late fall. Seasonal differences in use of depth and velocity parameters were found between sexes and among seasons. No relationships were found between sturgeon movement and month, water temperature, flow, and flow change. However, multiple regression analysis indicated that up to 30% of the variance in individual sturgeon movement was explained by the combination of the four variables.

  2. Assessment of Lower Missouri River physical aquatic habitat and its use by adult sturgeon (Genus Scaphirhynchus), 2005-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reuter, Joanna M.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Elliott, Caroline M.; DeLonay, Aaron J.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents an exploratory analysis of habitat availability and use by adult Scaphirhynchus sturgeon on the Lower Missouri River from Gavins Point Dam, South Dakota, to the junction with the Mississippi River. The analysis is based on two main data sources collected from 2005 to 2007: (1) a compilation of 153 reach-scale habitat maps (mean reach length, 2.4 kilometers) derived from boat-collected hydroacoustic data and (2) a sturgeon location dataset from which 378 sturgeon telemetry locations are associated with the maps (within 7 days of the mapping and within 10 percent of the discharge). The report focuses on: (1) longitudinal patterns of geomorphic and hydraulic characteristics revealed by the collection of reach maps; (2) assessment of environmental characteristics at sturgeon locations in the context of the mapped reaches; and (3) consideration of spatial distribution of habitat conditions that sturgeon appear to select. Longitudinal patterns of geomorphology, hydraulics, and associated habitats relate strongly to the engineered state of the river. Reaches within each of the following river sections tended to share similar geomorphic, hydrologic, and hydraulic characteristics: the Minimally Engineered section (Gavins Point Dam to Sioux City, Iowa), the Upstream Channelized section (Sioux City, Iowa, to the junction with the Kansas River), and the Downstream Channelized section (Kansas River to the junction with the Mississippi River). Adult sturgeon occupy nearly the full range of available values for each continuous variable assessed: depth, depth slope, depth-averaged velocity, velocity gradient, and Froude number (a dimensionless number relating velocity to depth). However, in the context of habitat available in a reach, sturgeon tend to select some areas over others. Reproductive female shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus), in particular, were often found in parts of the reach with one or more of the following characteristics: high

  3. Assessment of Lower Missouri River Physical Aquatic Habitat and Its Use by Adult Sturgeon (Genus Scaphirhynchus), 2005-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reuter, Joanna M.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Elliott, Caroline M.; DeLonay, Aaron J.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents an exploratory analysis of habitat availability and use by adult Scaphirhynchus sturgeon on the Lower Missouri River from Gavins Point Dam, South Dakota, to the junction with the Mississippi River. The analysis is based on two main data sources collected from 2005 to 2007: (1) a compilation of 153 reach-scale habitat maps (mean reach length, 2.4 kilometers) derived from boat-collected hydroacoustic data and (2) a sturgeon location dataset from which 378 sturgeon telemetry locations are associated with the maps (within 7 days of the mapping and within 10 percent of the discharge). The report focuses on: (1) longitudinal patterns of geomorphic and hydraulic characteristics revealed by the collection of reach maps; (2) assessment of environmental characteristics at sturgeon locations in the context of the mapped reaches; and (3) consideration of spatial distribution of habitat conditions that sturgeon appear to select. Longitudinal patterns of geomorphology, hydraulics, and associated habitats relate strongly to the engineered state of the river. Reaches within each of the following river sections tended to share similar geomorphic, hydrologic, and hydraulic characteristics: the Minimally Engineered section (Gavins Point Dam to Sioux City, Iowa), the Upstream Channelized section (Sioux City, Iowa, to the junction with the Kansas River), and the Downstream Channelized section (Kansas River to the junction with the Mississippi River). Adult sturgeon occupy nearly the full range of available values for each continuous variable assessed: depth, depth slope, depth-averaged velocity, velocity gradient, and Froude number (a dimensionless number relating velocity to depth). However, in the context of habitat available in a reach, sturgeon tend to select some areas over others. Reproductive female shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus), in particular, were often found in parts of the reach with one or more of the following characteristics: high

  4. Infilling of Cobble Substrate used by White Sturgeon on the Nechako River, at Vanderhoof BC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, A. E.; Argast, T.; Sary, Z.

    2013-12-01

    Nechako white sturgeon are experiencing a recruitment failure, which has been attributed to the failure of eggs and larvae to survive as a result of changes in the substrate at the locations where they are known to spawn. As part of the overall recovery effort initiative, cobble substrate was placed at two locations to provide clean spawning substrate. Subsequently, the condition of the substrate has been investigated using an underwater camera and freeze core sampling. These observations have shown that coarse sand and fine gravels (fine bedoad) have in-filled the coarse substrate where it was placed along the inside corner of the bends, while placed substrate located on the outside of the bends has remained free of this size fraction. This observation has lead to the quandary: Is placed cobble substrate on the outside corner of the bends not being filled in with fine bedload because fine bedload is not moving past these sites, or are post-regulation flood flows sufficient to ensure fines remain suspended and are not deposited in the interstitial spaces? To assess this question a number of field based techniques will be used in August of 2013 during high flows to examine the movement of fine bedload. The techniques employed will include an underwater camera, P61 suspended sediment sampler, a HellySmith and KAROLYI bedload sampler and an ADCP with RTK for bottom tracking. The intent is to examine the movement of fine bedload across the channel at a number of potential spawning sites. The poster will summarize the observations to date about the movement of fine bedload at the spawning sites, and discuss the implications for spawning substrate improvement efforts.

  5. Swimming activity and energetic costs of adult lake sturgeon during fishway passage.

    PubMed

    Thiem, Jason D; Dawson, Jeff W; Hatin, Daniel; Danylchuk, Andy J; Dumont, Pierre; Gleiss, Adrian C; Wilson, Rory P; Cooke, Steven J

    2016-08-15

    Fish migrations through riverine systems can be energetically demanding, and the presence of fishways to facilitate upstream passage can add an additional energetic cost that may directly affect fitness. Successful fishway passage is a function of the ability of fish to select appropriate paths and swimming strategies that do not exceed their swimming capacity. Triaxial accelerometers were used to estimate the energetic expenditure of adult lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) swimming through a vertical slot fishway, to determine whether individual behaviour or path selection, resulting in differences in cumulative energy use, explain fishway passage success. Most individuals attempted to pass the fishway (n=30/44; 68%), although successful passage only occurred for a subset of those attempting (n=7/30; 23%). High-speed swimming was rarely observed during upstream passage through fishway basins, and was of short duration. Two turning basins delayed passage, subsequently resulting in a higher energetic cost. The rate at which energy was expended did not differ among successful and unsuccessful individuals, although successful sturgeon exhibited higher costs of transport (42.75 versus 25.85 J kg(-1) m(-1)). Energy expenditure metrics were not predictive of successful fishway passage, leading us to conclude that other endogenous or exogenous factors influence passage success. In a practical application of field measurements of energy expenditure, we demonstrate that fishway passage through a structure designed to facilitate migration does result in an energetic loss for lake sturgeon (3249-16,331 J kg(-1)), equivalent to individuals travelling 5.8-28.2 km in a lentic system. PMID:27535988

  6. Swimming activity and energetic costs of adult lake sturgeon during fishway passage.

    PubMed

    Thiem, Jason D; Dawson, Jeff W; Hatin, Daniel; Danylchuk, Andy J; Dumont, Pierre; Gleiss, Adrian C; Wilson, Rory P; Cooke, Steven J

    2016-08-15

    Fish migrations through riverine systems can be energetically demanding, and the presence of fishways to facilitate upstream passage can add an additional energetic cost that may directly affect fitness. Successful fishway passage is a function of the ability of fish to select appropriate paths and swimming strategies that do not exceed their swimming capacity. Triaxial accelerometers were used to estimate the energetic expenditure of adult lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) swimming through a vertical slot fishway, to determine whether individual behaviour or path selection, resulting in differences in cumulative energy use, explain fishway passage success. Most individuals attempted to pass the fishway (n=30/44; 68%), although successful passage only occurred for a subset of those attempting (n=7/30; 23%). High-speed swimming was rarely observed during upstream passage through fishway basins, and was of short duration. Two turning basins delayed passage, subsequently resulting in a higher energetic cost. The rate at which energy was expended did not differ among successful and unsuccessful individuals, although successful sturgeon exhibited higher costs of transport (42.75 versus 25.85 J kg(-1) m(-1)). Energy expenditure metrics were not predictive of successful fishway passage, leading us to conclude that other endogenous or exogenous factors influence passage success. In a practical application of field measurements of energy expenditure, we demonstrate that fishway passage through a structure designed to facilitate migration does result in an energetic loss for lake sturgeon (3249-16,331 J kg(-1)), equivalent to individuals travelling 5.8-28.2 km in a lentic system.

  7. Effects of thermal regime on ovarian maturation and plasma sex steroids in farmed white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, M.A.H.; Van Eenennaam, J. P.; Feist, G.W.; Linares-Casenave, J.; Fitzpatrick, M.S.; Schreck, C.B.; Doroshov, S.I.

    2001-01-01

    Recently, commercial aquaculture farms in Northern California have exposed gravid, cultured white sturgeon females to cold water (12 ?? 1??C) throughout the late phase of vitellogenesis and ovarian follicle maturation resulting in improved ovulation rates and egg quality. However, the optimum timing for transfer of broodfish to the cold water and the capacity of transferred broodfish to maintain reproductive competence over an extended time in cold water had not been evaluated. Gravid white sturgeon females that have been raised at water temperatures of 16-20??C were transported to either cold water (12 ?? 1??C; Group 1) in November 1997 or maintained in ambient water temperatures (10-19??C; Group 2) until early spring. In March 1998, half of the fish in Group 2 had regressed ovaries, but the remaining females had intact ovarian follicles and were transported to the cold water. Ovarian follicles and blood were collected from females until they reached the stage of spawning readiness (determined by germinal vesicle position and an oocyte maturation assay) or underwent ovarian regression. Exposure of gravid sturgeon females to ambient water temperatures (14.5 ?? 2.3??C, mean ?? S.D.) from October to March led to a decrease in plasma sex steroids and a high incidence of ovarian regression in fish with a more advanced stage of oocyte development. Transfer of females with intact ovarian follicles to cold water (12 ?? 1??C) in the fall or early spring resulted in normal ovarian development in the majority of females. Holding females in cold water does not seem to override their endogenous reproductive rhythms but extends their capacity to maintain oocyte maturational competence over a longer period of time. A temperature-sensitive phase in ovarian development may occur during the transition from vitellogenic growth to oocyte maturation, and the degree and timing of sensitivity to environmental temperature are dependent on the female's endogenous reproductive rhythm

  8. Chronic sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc in laboratory water-only exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Dorman, Rebecca A.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Kunz, James L.; Hardesty, Douglas K.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was evaluated in water-only exposures started with newly hatched larvae or approximately 1-mo-old juveniles. The 20% effect concentration (EC20) for cadmium from the sturgeon tests was higher than the EC20 from the trout tests, whereas the EC20 for copper, lead, or zinc for the sturgeon were lower than those EC20s for the trout. When the EC20s from the present study were included in compiled toxicity databases for all freshwater species, species mean chronic value for white sturgeon was in a relatively low percentile of the species sensitivity distribution for copper (9th percentile) and in the middle percentile for cadmium (55th percentile), zinc (40th percentile), or lead (50th percentile). However, the species mean chronic value for rainbow trout was in a high percentile for copper, lead, and zinc (∼68th–82nd percentile), but in a low percentile for cadmium (23rd percentile). The trout EC20s for each of the 4 metals and the sturgeon EC20s for cadmium or lead were above US Environmental Protection Agency chronic ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) or Washington State chronic water quality standards (WQS), whereas the sturgeon EC20s for copper or zinc were approximately equal to or below the chronic AWQC and WQS. In addition, acute 50% effect concentrations (EC50s) for copper obtained in the first 4 d of the chronic sturgeon test were below the final acute value used to derive acute AWQC and below acute WQS for copper.

  9. Chronic sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc in laboratory water-only exposures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G; Dorman, Rebecca A; Brumbaugh, William G; Mebane, Christopher A; Kunz, James L; Hardesty, Doug K

    2014-10-01

    Chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was evaluated in water-only exposures started with newly hatched larvae or approximately 1-mo-old juveniles. The 20% effect concentration (EC20) for cadmium from the sturgeon tests was higher than the EC20 from the trout tests, whereas the EC20 for copper, lead, or zinc for the sturgeon were lower than those EC20s for the trout. When the EC20s from the present study were included in compiled toxicity databases for all freshwater species, species mean chronic value for white sturgeon was in a relatively low percentile of the species sensitivity distribution for copper (9th percentile) and in the middle percentile for cadmium (55th percentile), zinc (40th percentile), or lead (50th percentile). However, the species mean chronic value for rainbow trout was in a high percentile for copper, lead, and zinc (∼68th-82nd percentile), but in a low percentile for cadmium (23rd percentile). The trout EC20s for each of the 4 metals and the sturgeon EC20s for cadmium or lead were above US Environmental Protection Agency chronic ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) or Washington State chronic water quality standards (WQS), whereas the sturgeon EC20s for copper or zinc were approximately equal to or below the chronic AWQC and WQS. In addition, acute 50% effect concentrations (EC50s) for copper obtained in the first 4 d of the chronic sturgeon test were below the final acute value used to derive acute AWQC and below acute WQS for copper.

  10. Acute sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to copper, cadmium, or zinc in water-only laboratory exposures

    PubMed Central

    Calfee, Robin D; Little, Edward E; Puglis, Holly J; Scott, Erinn; Brumbaugh, William G; Mebane, Christopher A

    2014-01-01

    The acute toxicity of cadmium, copper, and zinc to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were determined for 7 developmental life stages in flow-through water-only exposures. Metal toxicity varied by species and by life stage. Rainbow trout were more sensitive to cadmium than white sturgeon across all life stages, with median effect concentrations (hardness-normalized EC50s) ranging from 1.47 µg Cd/L to 2.62 µg Cd/L with sensitivity remaining consistent during later stages of development. Rainbow trout at 46 d posthatch (dph) ranked at the 2nd percentile of a compiled database for Cd species sensitivity distribution with an EC50 of 1.46 µg Cd/L and 72 dph sturgeon ranked at the 19th percentile (EC50 of 3.02 µg Cd/L). White sturgeon were more sensitive to copper than rainbow trout in 5 of the 7 life stages tested with biotic ligand model (BLM)-normalized EC50s ranging from 1.51 µg Cu/L to 21.9 µg Cu/L. In turn, rainbow trout at 74 dph and 95 dph were more sensitive to copper than white sturgeon at 72 dph and 89 dph, indicating sturgeon become more tolerant in older life stages, whereas older trout become more sensitive to copper exposure. White sturgeon at 2 dph, 16 dph, and 30 dph ranked in the lower percentiles of a compiled database for copper species sensitivity distribution, ranking at the 3rd (2 dph), 5th (16 dph), and 10th (30 dph) percentiles. White sturgeon were more sensitive to zinc than rainbow trout for 1 out of 7 life stages tested (2 dph with an biotic ligand model–normalized EC50 of 209 µg Zn/L) and ranked in the 1st percentile of a compiled database for zinc species sensitivity distribution. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014;33:2259–2272. © 2014. The Authors. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry published byWiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This is an open access article

  11. Acute sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to copper, cadmium, or zinc in water-only laboratory exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Calfee, Robin D.; Little, Edward E.; Puglis, Holly J.; Scott, Erinn L.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Mebane, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    The acute toxicity of cadmium, copper, and zinc to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were determined for 7 developmental life stages in flow-through water-only exposures. Metal toxicity varied by species and by life stage. Rainbow trout were more sensitive to cadmium than white sturgeon across all life stages, with median effect concentrations (hardness-normalized EC50s) ranging from 1.47 µg Cd/L to 2.62 µg Cd/L with sensitivity remaining consistent during later stages of development. Rainbow trout at 46 d posthatch (dph) ranked at the 2nd percentile of a compiled database for Cd species sensitivity distribution with an EC50 of 1.46 µg Cd/L and 72 dph sturgeon ranked at the 19th percentile (EC50 of 3.02 µg Cd/L). White sturgeon were more sensitive to copper than rainbow trout in 5 of the 7 life stages tested with biotic ligand model (BLM)-normalized EC50s ranging from 1.51 µg Cu/L to 21.9 µg Cu/L. In turn, rainbow trout at 74 dph and 95 dph were more sensitive to copper than white sturgeon at 72 dph and 89 dph, indicating sturgeon become more tolerant in older life stages, whereas older trout become more sensitive to copper exposure. White sturgeon at 2 dph, 16 dph, and 30 dph ranked in the lower percentiles of a compiled database for copper species sensitivity distribution, ranking at the 3rd (2 dph), 5th (16 dph), and 10th (30 dph) percentiles. White sturgeon were more sensitive to zinc than rainbow trout for 1 out of 7 life stages tested (2 dph with an biotic ligand model–normalized EC50 of 209 µg Zn/L) and ranked in the 1st percentile of a compiled database for zinc species sensitivity distribution.

  12. Acute sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to copper, cadmium, or zinc in water-only laboratory exposures.

    PubMed

    Calfee, Robin D; Little, Edward E; Puglis, Holly J; Scott, Erinn; Brumbaugh, William G; Mebane, Christopher A

    2014-10-01

    The acute toxicity of cadmium, copper, and zinc to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were determined for 7 developmental life stages in flow-through water-only exposures. Metal toxicity varied by species and by life stage. Rainbow trout were more sensitive to cadmium than white sturgeon across all life stages, with median effect concentrations (hardness-normalized EC50s) ranging from 1.47 µg Cd/L to 2.62 µg Cd/L with sensitivity remaining consistent during later stages of development. Rainbow trout at 46 d posthatch (dph) ranked at the 2nd percentile of a compiled database for Cd species sensitivity distribution with an EC50 of 1.46 µg Cd/L and 72 dph sturgeon ranked at the 19th percentile (EC50 of 3.02 µg Cd/L). White sturgeon were more sensitive to copper than rainbow trout in 5 of the 7 life stages tested with biotic ligand model (BLM)-normalized EC50s ranging from 1.51 µg Cu/L to 21.9 µg Cu/L. In turn, rainbow trout at 74 dph and 95 dph were more sensitive to copper than white sturgeon at 72 dph and 89 dph, indicating sturgeon become more tolerant in older life stages, whereas older trout become more sensitive to copper exposure. White sturgeon at 2 dph, 16 dph, and 30 dph ranked in the lower percentiles of a compiled database for copper species sensitivity distribution, ranking at the 3rd (2 dph), 5th (16 dph), and 10th (30 dph) percentiles. White sturgeon were more sensitive to zinc than rainbow trout for 1 out of 7 life stages tested (2 dph with an biotic ligand model-normalized EC50 of 209 µg Zn/L) and ranked in the 1st percentile of a compiled database for zinc species sensitivity distribution.

  13. Linking Oxidative Stress and Magnitude of Compensatory Responses with Life-Stage Specific Differences in Sensitivity of White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) to Copper or Cadmium.

    PubMed

    Tang, Song; Doering, Jon A; Sun, Jianxian; Beitel, Shawn C; Shekh, Kamran; Patterson, Sarah; Crawford, Sarah; Giesy, John P; Wiseman, Steve B; Hecker, Markus

    2016-09-01

    Sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) to copper (Cu) or cadmium (Cd) has been shown to significantly differ as a function of life-stage. This study investigated oxidative stress, metal homeostasis, and associated compensatory responses as potential mechanisms of this sensitivity pattern in three early life-stages. Sturgeon were most sensitive to Cu at 15 days post hatch (dph), which was accompanied by a significant increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO). Genes involved with amelioration of oxidative stress were significantly less inducible at this stage than in older, less sensitive fry. At 48 dph, acute lethality of sturgeon exposed to Cd was greatest and body LPO was significantly induced by 3.5-fold at 5 μg Cd/L. Moreover, there was a small but significant increase in antioxidative responses. At 139 dph, sturgeon were most tolerant to Cu and Cd and accumulation of these metals was least. Also, expression of metallothionein (MT) and apoptotic genes were greatest while expression of metal transporters was reduced and concentration of LPO was not different from controls. Our results suggest that life-stage specific sensitivity of white sturgeon to metals is complex, encompassing differences in the ability to mount compensatory responses important for metal homeostasis and combating oxidative stress and concomitant damages. PMID:27509013

  14. Linking Oxidative Stress and Magnitude of Compensatory Responses with Life-Stage Specific Differences in Sensitivity of White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) to Copper or Cadmium.

    PubMed

    Tang, Song; Doering, Jon A; Sun, Jianxian; Beitel, Shawn C; Shekh, Kamran; Patterson, Sarah; Crawford, Sarah; Giesy, John P; Wiseman, Steve B; Hecker, Markus

    2016-09-01

    Sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) to copper (Cu) or cadmium (Cd) has been shown to significantly differ as a function of life-stage. This study investigated oxidative stress, metal homeostasis, and associated compensatory responses as potential mechanisms of this sensitivity pattern in three early life-stages. Sturgeon were most sensitive to Cu at 15 days post hatch (dph), which was accompanied by a significant increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO). Genes involved with amelioration of oxidative stress were significantly less inducible at this stage than in older, less sensitive fry. At 48 dph, acute lethality of sturgeon exposed to Cd was greatest and body LPO was significantly induced by 3.5-fold at 5 μg Cd/L. Moreover, there was a small but significant increase in antioxidative responses. At 139 dph, sturgeon were most tolerant to Cu and Cd and accumulation of these metals was least. Also, expression of metallothionein (MT) and apoptotic genes were greatest while expression of metal transporters was reduced and concentration of LPO was not different from controls. Our results suggest that life-stage specific sensitivity of white sturgeon to metals is complex, encompassing differences in the ability to mount compensatory responses important for metal homeostasis and combating oxidative stress and concomitant damages.

  15. Spawning and rearing habitat use by white sturgeons in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam

    SciTech Connect

    Parsley, M.J.; Beckman, L.G. )

    1993-03-01

    Spawning and rearing habitats used by white sturgeons Acipenser transmontanus were described from water temperature, depth, and velocity measurements and substrate types present at sites where eggs, larvae, young-of-the-year, and juveniles (ages 1-7) were collected. Spawning and egg incubation occurred in the swiftest water available (mean water column velocity, 0.8-2.8 m/s), which was within 8 km downstream from each of the four main-stem Columbia River dams in our study area. Substrates where spawning occurred mainly cobble, boulder, and bedrock. Yolk-sac larvae were transported by the river currents from spawning areas into deeper areas with lower water velocities and finer substrates. Young-of-the-year white sturgeons were found at depths of 9-57 m, at mean water column velocities of 0.6 m/s and less, and over substrates of hard clay, mud and silt, sand, gravel, and cobble. Juvenile fish were found at depths of 2-58 m, at mean water column velocities of 1.2 m/s and less, and over substrates of hard clay, mud and silt, sand, gravel, cobble, boulder, and bedrock. 38 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 1998-1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, David L.

    2000-12-01

    The authors report on their progress from April 1998 through March 1999 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW; Report A), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW; Report B), U.S. Geological Survey Biological Resources Division (USGS; Report C), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS; Report D), Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC; Report E), and the University of Idaho (UI; Report F). This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete. Therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported. Highlights of results of our work from April 1998 through March 1999 are given.

  17. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam, 1999-2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, David L.

    2001-04-01

    We report on our progress from April 1999 through March 2000 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW; Report A), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW; Report B), U.S. Geological Survey Biological Resources Division (USGS; Report C), Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC; Report D), and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS; Report E). This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete. Therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported. Highlights of results of our work from April 1999 through March 2000 are given.

  18. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kern, J. Chris; Ward, David L.; Farr, Ruth A.

    2002-02-01

    We report on our progress from April 2000 through March 2001 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW; Report A), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW; Report B), U.S. Geological Survey Biological Resources Division (USGS; Report C), Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC; Report D), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS; Report E), and Oregon State University (OSU; Report F). This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete; therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported. Highlights of results of our work from April 2000 through March 2001 are listed.

  19. Maintaining tissue selenium species distribution as a potential defense mechanism against methylmercury toxicity in juvenile white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus).

    PubMed

    Huang, Susie Shih-Yin; Hung, Silas S O; Chan, Hing Man

    2014-11-01

    Selenium (Se) has been shown to antagonize mercury (Hg) toxicity. We have previously demonstrated that orally intubated selenomethionine (SeMet) and methylmercury (MeHg) reduced tissue Se accumulation, as well as blood and kidney Hg concentrations in juvenile white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus). However, the form of Se accumulated is not known. In this study, three organoseleniums: selenocysteine (Sec), Se-methyl-selenocysteine (MSeCys), and SeMet and two inorganic Se species: selenate and selenite were determined and quantified in the blood at different post-intubation periods (12, 24, 48h) and in the muscle, liver, and kidneys at 48h in white sturgeon orally intubated with a single dose of control (carrier), SeMet (500μg Se/kg body weight; BW), MeHg (850μg Hg/kg BW), and both (Se+Hg; at 500μg Se/kg and 850μg Hg/kg BW). When only SeMet was intubated, the accumulative/unmodified pathway took precedent in the blood, white muscle, liver, and kidneys. In the presence of MeHg, however, active metabolic transformation and de novo synthesis of biologically active Se forms are seen in the liver and kidneys, as indicated by a gradual increase in blood Sec:SeMet ratios and Se metabolites. In the white muscle, mobilization of endogenous Se storage by MeHg is supported by the absence of tissue SeMet and detectable levels of blood SeMet. In contrast, co-intubation with SeMet increased muscle SeMet. The high levels of unknown Se metabolites and detectable levels of selenite in the kidney reflect its role as the major excretory organ for Se. Selenium metabolism is highly regulated in the kidneys, as Se speciation was not affected by MeHg or by its co-intubation with SeMet. In the Se+Hg group, the proportion of SeMet in the liver has decreased to nearly 1/8th of that of the SeMet only group, resulting in a more similar selenocompound distribution profile to that of the MeHg only group. This is likely due to the increased need for Se metabolites necessary for Me

  20. Effects of Mitigation Measures on Productivity of the White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam, and Status and Habitat Requirements of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from McNary Dam, 1992-1993 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Beamesdorfer, Raymond C.; Nigro, Anthony A.

    1993-12-01

    We report on our progress from April 1992-March 1993 in research on white sturgeon in the lower Columbia River. The study began in July 1986 and progress through 1992 was summarized in a comprehensive report in 2 volumes (Beamesderfer and Nigro 1993a, 1993b). This report details activities during the first year of Phase II of this sturgeon research. In Phase I, we assessed the status and habitat requirements of the white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam. Phase II will examine the effects on white sturgeon productivity of mitigative measures recommended in Phase I. The status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations upstream from McNary Dam will also be examined in Phase II. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Washington Department of Fisheries, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and National Marine Fisheries Service. Work during the past year has focused on: (1) analysis of results of limited sampling conducted in 1992, (2) submission of Phase I results to the peer-review literature to ensure widespread dissemination, clarity of presentation, and credibility of findings, and (3) preparations for additional field work in 1993. In report sections A to D, each agency reports 1992 results if applicable and the current status of manuscripts. Results of field work conducted in 1993 will be reported in the 1994 annual report.

  1. Columbia River White Sturgeon (Acipenser Transmontanus) Population Genetics and Early Life History Study, January 1, 1986 to December 31, 1986, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Brannon, Ernest L.

    1986-12-01

    The 1986 Columbia River white sturgeon investigations continued to assess genetic variability of sturgeon populations isolated in various areas of the Columbia River, and to examine environmental factors in the habitat that may affect early life history success. Baseline data have been collected for three character sets. Twenty-eight loci have been analyzed for differences using electrophoresis, snout shapes were assessed for multivariate distinction, and scute counts have been examined as an index of variability. Fish that reside in the mid-Columbia and lower river have been sufficiently characterized by electrophoresis to compare with up-river areas. To date, few electrophoretic differences have been identified. However, Lake Roosevelt sturgeon sample size will be increased to determine if some of the observed differences from lower river fish are significant. Snout shape has been shown to be easily quantifiable using the digitizing technique. Scute count data initially indicate that variability exists within as well as between areas. Patterns of differentiation of one or more of these data sets may be used to formulate stock transplant guidelines essential for proper management or enhancement of this species. The historical habitat available to sturgeon in the Columbia River has changed through the development of hydroelectric projects. Dams have reduced the velocity and turbulence, and increased light penetration in the water column from less silt. These changes have affected the ability of sturgeon to feed and have made them more vulnerable to predation, which appear to have altered the ability of populations isolated in the reservoirs to sustain themselves. Present studies support the theory that both the biological and physical habitat characteristics of the Columbia River are responsible for reduced sturgeon survival, and justify consideration of enhancement initiatives above Bonneville to improve sturgeon reproductive success.

  2. Functionality of aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AhR1 and AhR2) of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and implications for the risk assessment of dioxin-like compounds.

    PubMed

    Doering, Jon A; Farmahin, Reza; Wiseman, Steve; Kennedy, Sean W; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus

    2014-07-15

    Worldwide, populations of sturgeons are endangered, and it is hypothesized that anthropogenic chemicals, including dioxin-like compounds (DLCs), might be contributing to the observed declines in populations. DLCs elicit their toxic action through activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), which is believed to regulate most, if not all, adverse effects associated with exposure to these chemicals. Currently, risk assessment of DLCs in fishes uses toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) developed for the World Health Organization (WHO) that are based on studies of embryo-lethality with salmonids. However, there is a lack of knowledge of the sensitivity of sturgeons to DLCs, and it is uncertain whether TEFs developed by the WHO are protective of these fishes. Sturgeons are evolutionarily distinct from salmonids, and the AhRs of sturgeons differ from those of salmonids. Therefore, this study investigated the sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) to DLCs in vitro via the use of luciferase reporter gene assays using COS-7 cells transfected with AhR1 or AhR2 of white sturgeon. Specifically, activation and relative potencies (RePs) of 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), 2,3,4,7,8-pentachloro-dibenzofuran, 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzofuran, 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl, 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl, and 2,3,3',4,4'-pentachlorobiphenyl were determined for each AhR. It was demonstrated that white sturgeon expresses AhR1s and AhR2s that are both activated by DLCs with EC50 values for 2,3,7,8-TCDD that are lower than those of any other AhR of vertebrates tested to date. Both AhRs of white sturgeon had RePs for polychlorinated dibenzofurans more similar to TEFs for birds, while RePs for polychlorinated biphenyls were most similar to TEFs for fishes. Measured concentrations of select DLCs in tissues of white sturgeon from British Columbia, Canada, were used to calculate toxic equivalents (TEQs) by use of TEFs for fishes used by the WHO and TCDD

  3. Status and Habitat Requirements of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam, 1986-1987 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, Jr., George T.; Beckman, Lance G.; Kreitman, Gayle

    1987-06-01

    Measure 804(e)(8) of the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) Fish and Wildlife Program states that Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) ''shall fund research to determine the impacts of development and operation of the hydroelectric power system on sturgeon in the Columbia River Basin...'' In June 1985, BPA sponsored a workshop to define and list in priority order research needs in the basin (Fickeisen 1985a). In December 1985, BPA submitted a research program implementation plan (Fickeisen 1985b) to the NPPC. The purpose of the plan is to provide guidance for conducting research necessary to address four objectives identified by regional fishery interests for protecting, mitigating and enhancing white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River basin. The plan's objectives are: (1) Assess the current status of Columbia River basin white sturgeon stocks. (2) Provide the basis to evaluate the need for protection, mitigation and enhancement of white sturgeon in the Columbia River system. (3) Provide information that can be used to evaluate potential methods of protection, mitigation and enhancement of existing stocks. (4) Provide tools to assess the effectiveness of protection, mitigation and enhancement efforts.

  4. Status and Habitat Requirements of the White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam, 1990-1991 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Nigro, Anthony A.

    1991-09-01

    We report on our effort from April 1990 to March 1991 to describe the life history and population dynamics of white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus in.John Day Reservoir. We set 1188 set lines and 26 gill nets. We caught 623 white sturgeon with set lines and 236 with gill nets. Catch per unit effort was much higher in areas near the tailrace than in downstream sites. Our setlines were size selective. We recaptured 3 fish released in John Day Reservoir in 1989 and 28 fish released in 1990. Sport and commercial fishermen recovered 62 tags from fish we tagged in Bonneville, The Dalles and John Day reservoirs, 1987-1990. We observed extensive movements of marked sturgeon within the reservoirs. We completed aging of available samples from all three reservoirs from 1987-1990. We aged fish as old as 46 years. Bone marks were observed on 74 of 78 fish previously injected with oxytetracycline and annulus formation was generally complete after June. We estimated parameters in a length-weight equation. About 1.5% of the female white sturgeon we examined to date had early or late vitellogenic eggs and would be expected to spawn the following year.

  5. Simulation of flow and sediment transport in the white sturgeon spawning habitat of the Kootenai River near Bonners Ferry, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berenbrock, Charles; Bennett, James P.

    2005-01-01

    Characterization of sediment transport of the Kootenai River in the white sturgeon spawning reach is needed by the Kootenai River White Sturgeon Recovery Team to predict sediment-transport conditions that improve spawning conditions for the white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) in the Kootenai River near Bonners Ferry, Idaho. The decreasing population and spawning failure of the white sturgeon has led to much concern. Few wild juvenile sturgeon are found in the river today. The Kootenai River begins in British Columbia, Canada, and flows through Montana, Idaho, and back into British Columbia. A 15-mile reach of the Kootenai River in Idaho was studied, including the white sturgeon spawning reach that has been designated as a critical habitat near Bonners Ferry, Idaho, and a 1-mile long side channel around the western side of Shorty Island. A one-dimensional sediment-transport model of the study reach was developed, calibrated, and used to simulate the response of the hydraulic and sediment system to varying discharges and water-surface elevations. The model comprises 79 cross sections, most of which came from a previous river survey conducted in 2002-03. Bed-sediment samples collected in 2002 and additional samples collected for this study in 2004 were used in the model. The model was calibrated to discharge and water-surface elevations at two U.S. Geological Survey gaging stations. The model also was calibrated to suspended-sediment discharge at several sites in the study reach. The calibrated model was used to simulate six different management alternatives to assess erosion and deposition under varying hydraulic conditions at the end of 21 days of simulation. Alternative 1 was simulated with a discharge of 6,000 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), alternative 2 with 20,000 ft3/s, alternative 3 with 40,000 ft3/s, and alternatives 4 through 6 with 60,000 ft3/s and represents low to high discharges in the river since the construction of Libby Dam. Sediment deposition

  6. Simulation of hydraulic characteristics in the white sturgeon spawning habitat of the Kootenai River near Bonners Ferry, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berenbrock, Charles

    2005-01-01

    Hydraulic characterization of the Kootenai River, especially in the white sturgeon spawning habitat reach, is needed by the Kootenai River White Sturgeon Recovery Team to promote hydraulic conditions that improve spawning conditions for the white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) in the Kootenai River. The decreasing population and spawning failure of white sturgeon has led to much concern. Few wild juvenile sturgeons are found in the river today. Determining the location of the transition between backwater and free-flowing water in the Kootenai River is a primary focus for biologists who believe that hydraulic changes at the transition affect the location where the sturgeon choose to spawn. The Kootenai River begins in British Columbia, Canada, and flows through Montana, Idaho, and back into British Columbia. The 65.6-mile reach of the Kootenai River in Idaho was studied. The study area encompasses the white sturgeon spawning reach that has been designated as a critical habitat. A one-dimensional hydraulic-flow model of the study reach was developed, calibrated, and used to develop relations between hydraulic characteristics and water-surface elevation, discharge, velocity, and backwater extent. The model used 164 cross sections, most of which came from a previous river survey conducted in 2002-03. The model was calibrated to water-surface elevations at specific discharges at five gaging stations. Calibrated water-surface elevations ranged from about 1,743 to about 1,759 feet, and discharges used in calibration ranged from 5,000 to 47,500 cubic feet per second. Model calibration was considered acceptable when the difference between measured and simulated water-surface elevations was ?0.15 foot or less. Measured and simulated average velocities also were compared. These comparisons indicated agreement between measured and simulated values. The location of the transition between backwater and free-flowing water was determined using the calibrated model. The model

  7. Acute toxicity of copper, lead, cadmium, and zinc to early life stages of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) in laboratory and Columbia River water.

    PubMed

    Vardy, David W; Santore, Robert; Ryan, Adam; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Populations of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are in decline in North America. This is attributed, primarily, to poor recruitment, and white sturgeon are listed as threatened or endangered in several parts of British Columbia, Canada, and the United States. In the Columbia River, effects of metals have been hypothesized as possible contributing factors. Previous work has demonstrated that early life stage white sturgeon are particularly sensitive to certain metals, and concerns over the level of protectiveness of water quality standards are justified. Here we report results from acute (96-h) toxicity tests for copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), and lead (Pb) from parallel studies that were conducted in laboratory water and in the field with Columbia River water. Water effect ratios (WERs) and sensitivity parameters (i.e., median lethal accumulations, or LA50s) were calculated to assess relative bioavailability of these metals in Columbia River water compared to laboratory water, and to elucidate possible differences in sensitivity of early life stage white sturgeon to the same concentrations of metals when tested in the different water sources. For Cu and Pb, white sturgeon toxicity tests were initiated at two life stages, 8 and 40 days post-hatch (dph), and median lethal concentrations (LC50s) ranged between 9-25 μg Cu/L and 177-1,556 μg Pb/L. LC50s for 8 dph white sturgeon exposed to Cd in laboratory water and river water were 14.5 and 72 μg/L, respectively. Exposure of 8 dph white sturgeon to Zn in laboratory and river water resulted in LC50s of 150 and 625 μg/L, respectively. Threshold concentrations were consistently less in laboratory water compared with river water, and as a result, WERs were greater than 1 in all cases. In addition, LA50s were consistently greater in river water exposures compared with laboratory exposures in all paired tests. These results, in combination with results from the biotic ligand model, suggest that the observed

  8. Effects of Mitigative Measures on Productivity of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam; Determine Status and Habitat Requirements of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from McNary Dam, 1995-1996 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rien, Thomas A.; Beiningen, Kirk T.

    1997-07-01

    This project began in July 1986 and is a cooperative effort of federal, state, and tribal fisheries entities to determine (1) the status and habitat requirements, and (2) effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the lower Colombia and Snake rivers.

  9. Toxicity of smelter slag-contaminated sediments from Upper Lake Roosevelt and associated metals to early life stage White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus Richardson, 1836)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Little, E.E.; Calfee, R.D.; Linder, G.

    2014-01-01

    The toxicity of five smelter slag-contaminated sediments from the upper Columbia River and metals associated with those slags (cadmium, copper, zinc) was evaluated in 96-h exposures of White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus Richardson, 1836) at 8 and 30 days post-hatch. Leachates prepared from slag-contaminated sediments were evaluated for toxicity. Leachates yielded a maximum aqueous copper concentration of 11.8 μg L−1 observed in sediment collected at Dead Man's Eddy (DME), the sampling site nearest the smelter. All leachates were nonlethal to sturgeon that were 8 day post-hatch (dph), but leachates from three of the five sediments were toxic to fish that were 30 dph, suggesting that the latter life stage is highly vulnerable to metals exposure. Fish maintained consistent and prolonged contact with sediments and did not avoid contaminated sediments when provided a choice between contaminated and uncontaminated sediments. White Sturgeon also failed to avoid aqueous copper (1.5–20 μg L−1). In water-only 96-h exposures of 35 dph sturgeon with the three metals, similar toxicity was observed during exposure to water spiked with copper alone and in combination with cadmium and zinc. Cadmium ranging from 3.2 to 41 μg L−1 or zinc ranging from 21 to 275 μg L−1 was not lethal, but induced adverse behavioral changes including a loss of equilibrium. These results suggest that metals associated with smelter slags may pose an increased exposure risk to early life stage sturgeon if fish occupy areas contaminated by slags.

  10. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; Annual Progress Report, April 2007 - March 2008.

    SciTech Connect

    Mallette, Christine

    2009-07-28

    We report on our progress from April 2007 through March 2008 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW; Report A), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW; Report B), Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC; Report C), and Montana State University (MSU; Report D). This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete; therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported.

  11. Confirmation of ovarian homogeneity in post-vitellogenic cultured white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus.

    PubMed

    Talbott, Mariah J; Servid, Sarah A; Cavinato, Anna G; Van Eenennaam, Joel P; Doroshov, Serge I; Struffenegger, Peter; Webb, Molly A H

    2014-02-01

    Assessing stage of oocyte maturity in female sturgeon by calculating oocyte polarization index (PI) is a necessary tool for both conservation propagation managers and caviar producers to know when to hormonally induce spawning. We tested the assumption that sampling ovarian follicles from one section of one ovary is sufficient for calculating an oocyte PI representative of oocyte maturity for an individual animal. Short-wavelength near-infrared spectroscopy (SW-NIR) scans were performed on three positions per ovary for five fish prior to caviar harvest. Samples of ovarian follicles were subsequently taken from the exact location of the SW-NIR scans for calculation of oocyte PI and follicle diameter. Oocyte PI was statistically different though not biologically relevant within an ovary and between ovaries in four of five fish. Follicle diameter was statistically different but not biologically relevant within an ovary in three of five fish. There were no differences in follicle diameter between ovaries. No statistical differences were observed between SW-NIR spectra collected at different locations within an ovary or between ovaries. These results emphasize the importance of utilizing both oocyte PI measurement and progesterone-induced oocyte maturation assays while deciding when to hormonally induce spawning in sturgeon females.

  12. Indexing the relative abundance of age-0 white sturgeons in an impoundment of the lower Columbia River from highly skewed trawling data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Counihan, T.D.; Miller, A.I.; Parsley, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    The development of recruitment monitoring programs for age-0 white sturgeons Acipenser transmontanus is complicated by the statistical properties of catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) data. We found that age-0 CPUE distributions from bottom trawl surveys violated assumptions of statistical procedures based on normal probability theory. Further, no single data transformation uniformly satisfied these assumptions because CPUE distribution properties varied with the sample mean (??(CPUE)). Given these analytic problems, we propose that an additional index of age-0 white sturgeon relative abundance, the proportion of positive tows (Ep), be used to estimate sample sizes before conducting age-0 recruitment surveys and to evaluate statistical hypothesis tests comparing the relative abundance of age-0 white sturgeons among years. Monte Carlo simulations indicated that Ep was consistently more precise than ??(CPUE), and because Ep is binomially rather than normally distributed, surveys can be planned and analyzed without violating the assumptions of procedures based on normal probability theory. However, we show that Ep may underestimate changes in relative abundance at high levels and confound our ability to quantify responses to management actions if relative abundance is consistently high. If data suggest that most samples will contain age-0 white sturgeons, estimators of relative abundance other than Ep should be considered. Because Ep may also obscure correlations to climatic and hydrologic variables if high abundance levels are present in time series data, we recommend ??(CPUE) be used to describe relations to environmental variables. The use of both Ep and ??(CPUE) will facilitate the evaluation of hypothesis tests comparing relative abundance levels and correlations to variables affecting age-0 recruitment. Estimated sample sizes for surveys should therefore be based on detecting predetermined differences in Ep, but data necessary to calculate ??(CPUE) should also be

  13. Shifting distributions of adult Atlantic sturgeon amidst post-industrialization and future impacts in the Delaware River: a maximum entropy approach.

    PubMed

    Breece, Matthew W; Oliver, Matthew J; Cimino, Megan A; Fox, Dewayne A

    2013-01-01

    Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus) experienced severe declines due to habitat destruction and overfishing beginning in the late 19(th) century. Subsequent to the boom and bust period of exploitation, there has been minimal fishing pressure and improving habitats. However, lack of recovery led to the 2012 listing of Atlantic sturgeon under the Endangered Species Act. Although habitats may be improving, the availability of high quality spawning habitat, essential for the survival and development of eggs and larvae may still be a limiting factor in the recovery of Atlantic sturgeon. To estimate adult Atlantic sturgeon spatial distributions during riverine occupancy in the Delaware River, we utilized a maximum entropy (MaxEnt) approach along with passive biotelemetry during the likely spawning season. We found that substrate composition and distance from the salt front significantly influenced the locations of adult Atlantic sturgeon in the Delaware River. To broaden the scope of this study we projected our model onto four scenarios depicting varying locations of the salt front in the Delaware River: the contemporary location of the salt front during the likely spawning season, the location of the salt front during the historic fishery in the late 19(th) century, an estimated shift in the salt front by the year 2100 due to climate change, and an extreme drought scenario, similar to that which occurred in the 1960's. The movement of the salt front upstream as a result of dredging and climate change likely eliminated historic spawning habitats and currently threatens areas where Atlantic sturgeon spawning may be taking place. Identifying where suitable spawning substrate and water chemistry intersect with the likely occurrence of adult Atlantic sturgeon in the Delaware River highlights essential spawning habitats, enhancing recovery prospects for this imperiled species. PMID:24260570

  14. Shifting Distributions of Adult Atlantic Sturgeon Amidst Post-Industrialization and Future Impacts in the Delaware River: a Maximum Entropy Approach

    PubMed Central

    Breece, Matthew W.; Oliver, Matthew J.; Cimino, Megan A.; Fox, Dewayne A.

    2013-01-01

    Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus) experienced severe declines due to habitat destruction and overfishing beginning in the late 19th century. Subsequent to the boom and bust period of exploitation, there has been minimal fishing pressure and improving habitats. However, lack of recovery led to the 2012 listing of Atlantic sturgeon under the Endangered Species Act. Although habitats may be improving, the availability of high quality spawning habitat, essential for the survival and development of eggs and larvae may still be a limiting factor in the recovery of Atlantic sturgeon. To estimate adult Atlantic sturgeon spatial distributions during riverine occupancy in the Delaware River, we utilized a maximum entropy (MaxEnt) approach along with passive biotelemetry during the likely spawning season. We found that substrate composition and distance from the salt front significantly influenced the locations of adult Atlantic sturgeon in the Delaware River. To broaden the scope of this study we projected our model onto four scenarios depicting varying locations of the salt front in the Delaware River: the contemporary location of the salt front during the likely spawning season, the location of the salt front during the historic fishery in the late 19th century, an estimated shift in the salt front by the year 2100 due to climate change, and an extreme drought scenario, similar to that which occurred in the 1960’s. The movement of the salt front upstream as a result of dredging and climate change likely eliminated historic spawning habitats and currently threatens areas where Atlantic sturgeon spawning may be taking place. Identifying where suitable spawning substrate and water chemistry intersect with the likely occurrence of adult Atlantic sturgeon in the Delaware River highlights essential spawning habitats, enhancing recovery prospects for this imperiled species. PMID:24260570

  15. Shifting distributions of adult Atlantic sturgeon amidst post-industrialization and future impacts in the Delaware River: a maximum entropy approach.

    PubMed

    Breece, Matthew W; Oliver, Matthew J; Cimino, Megan A; Fox, Dewayne A

    2013-01-01

    Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus) experienced severe declines due to habitat destruction and overfishing beginning in the late 19(th) century. Subsequent to the boom and bust period of exploitation, there has been minimal fishing pressure and improving habitats. However, lack of recovery led to the 2012 listing of Atlantic sturgeon under the Endangered Species Act. Although habitats may be improving, the availability of high quality spawning habitat, essential for the survival and development of eggs and larvae may still be a limiting factor in the recovery of Atlantic sturgeon. To estimate adult Atlantic sturgeon spatial distributions during riverine occupancy in the Delaware River, we utilized a maximum entropy (MaxEnt) approach along with passive biotelemetry during the likely spawning season. We found that substrate composition and distance from the salt front significantly influenced the locations of adult Atlantic sturgeon in the Delaware River. To broaden the scope of this study we projected our model onto four scenarios depicting varying locations of the salt front in the Delaware River: the contemporary location of the salt front during the likely spawning season, the location of the salt front during the historic fishery in the late 19(th) century, an estimated shift in the salt front by the year 2100 due to climate change, and an extreme drought scenario, similar to that which occurred in the 1960's. The movement of the salt front upstream as a result of dredging and climate change likely eliminated historic spawning habitats and currently threatens areas where Atlantic sturgeon spawning may be taking place. Identifying where suitable spawning substrate and water chemistry intersect with the likely occurrence of adult Atlantic sturgeon in the Delaware River highlights essential spawning habitats, enhancing recovery prospects for this imperiled species.

  16. Movement, swimming speed, and oxygen consumption of juvenile white sturgeon in response to changing flows, water temperatures, and light level in the Snake River, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R.; Brown, Richard S.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Brink, Steve R.; Lepla, Kenneth B.; Bates, Phil; Chandler, James A.

    2005-07-01

    The flow of the Snake River downstream of Hells Canyon Dam, Idaho, frequently fluctuates as the dam responds to power production requirements. These flow fluctuations have the potential to increase the energy used by individual juvenile white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) that move to avoid unfavorable habitat or that alter their swimming speeds to maintain position over a range of velocities. Following swimming respirometry experiments, a field study using electromyogram (EMG) and sonic telemetry evaluated whether sturgeon were being negatively affected by operations of Hells Canyon Dam during three study periods where flows were artificially fluctuated (247 to 856 m3/s), held high and stable (438 to 600 m3/s), or held low and stable (275 to 284 m3/s). Respirometry results confirmed that oxygen consumption of juvenile sturgeon increased with swim speed and was temperature dependent, and when corrected for fish mass, ranged from 140.2 to 306.5 mg O2 kg-1 h-1. The telemetry study showed that movements and activity levels, as measured by swimming speeds and oxygen consumption, of sturgeon were variable among fish and across study periods. When flows were held low and stable, sturgeon movement increased while activity levels decreased when compared to the study periods when flows were variable or were high and stable. Although the overall trend was for activity levels to be less during the study period when flows were low and stable, the majority of differences between study periods appeared to be due to differences in water temperature and light levels that changed during the three-month investigation. The results suggest high flows, even those of relatively short durations such as what occurs during load-following operations, restrict the movement of juvenile sturgeon, but do not result in an increase of energy expenditure, possibly because of morphological and behavioral adaptations to living in a high-velocity environment. This may have significant

  17. Columbia River White Sturgeon (Acipenser Transmontanus) Early Life History and Genertics Study, August 1, 1984 to December 31, 1985 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Brannon, Ernest L.

    1985-12-01

    Research on Columbia River white sturgeon has been directed at their early life history as it may apply to production and enhancement strategies for management of the species. The river environment in which sturgeon historically migrated, spawned, and reared has changed through development. Habitat changes are expected to precipitate genetic changes in the fish, as well as reduce the fitness in populations. Genetic analysis of samples taken from various locations over the length of the Columbia River have indicated that observed gene frequencies in all areas sampled were not in Hardy-Weinburg equilibrium, which could suggest that the general population is experiencing perturbation in the system. Analysis thus far has exposed few differences between samples from the lower, middle, and upper portions of the system. Allelic differences were identified in fish from the Roosevelt Lake, which may be evidence of unique characteristics among fish from that general area.

  18. Recovery of white sturgeon populations through natural production: Understanding the influence of abiotic and biotic factors on spawning and subsequent recruitment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsley, M.J.; Anders, P.J.; Miller, A.I.; Beckman, L.G.; McCabe, G.T.

    2002-01-01

    Recovery or maintenance of sturgeon populations through natural production in perturbed rivers requires adequate knowledge of the abiotic and biotic factors that influence spawning and cause mortality of embryonic, larval, and juvenile life stages. Although it is known that year-class strength of white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus is determined within 2-3 months after spawning, little is known about specific causes of mortality to early life stages during this period. Initial spawning success is critical in the development of a strong year-class, and maximized recruitment may be dependent upon water temperature and the availability of optimal in-river habitat. Analyses have shown that increased river discharge combined with suitable water temperatures during spawning, egg incubation, yolk sac larvae dispersal, and first exogenous feeding result in greater recruitment. However, little is known about the importance of other variables, such as food availability or losses due to predation that influence year-class strength. ?? 2002 by the American Fisheries Society.

  19. Simultaneous extraction and cleanup of high-lipid organs from white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) for multiple legacy and emerging organic contaminants using QuEChERS sample preparation.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Shane A; Sieve, Kristal K; Ratajczak, Robert E; Bringolf, Robert B; Belden, Jason B

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research was to utilize the QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe) method to extract a broad range of persistent organic pollutants from sturgeon organs (liver and gonad) as indicators of exposure. The analyte list was prioritized to include carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the most commonly occurring polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), persistent bioaccumulative and toxic chemicals (PBTs), and emergent contaminants of concern (ECCs) as indicators of human sewage exposure. White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were selected for this study to support a larger ecotoxicological study to monitor contaminants as an assessment of fish health. Organ tissues contained high lipid content with percentages of 15% and 34% for liver and gonad, respectively. Overall recoveries from fortified sturgeon tissues were high, 71-98% for PAHs, 60-107% for PBDEs and PCBs, 86-107% for PBT chemicals, and 88-107% for ECCs with the exception of octinoxate (28%) from liver tissues. Analyte recovery trends decreased as analyte lipophilicity and molecular weight increased. These recoveries demonstrate that extraction using QuEChERS can be used for screening of the most common bioaccumulating organic compounds in high lipid fish tissue using a single extraction and analysis.

  20. Effects of chlorpyrifos on in vitro sex steroid production and thyroid follicular development in adult and larval Lake Sturgeon, Acipenser fulvescens.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Catherine; Burnett, Duncan C; Arcinas, Liane; Palace, Vince; Gary Anderson, W

    2015-08-01

    Chlorpyrifos is a widely used organophosphate pesticide that has previously been shown to enter waterways in biologically relevant concentrations and has the potential to disrupt both thyroid hormone and sex steroid biosynthesis in vertebrates. Because gonadal maturation and larval development in Lake Sturgeon, Acipenser fulvescens, potentially coincide with the application of chlorpyrifos we examined the effects of chlorpyrifos on both thyroid follicular development in larval Lake Sturgeon, and sex hormone synthesis in adult Lake Sturgeon. For the first time, the present study reports steroidogenesis from testicular and ovarian tissue in Lake Sturgeon using an established in vitro bioassay. Furthermore, incubating gonad tissue with 5, 500 or 2000ngmL(-1) chlorpyrifos revealed an inhibitory effect on testosterone synthesis in both testicular (control, 40.29pgmg(-1) tissue wet weight(-1)h(-1) compared to experimental, 21.84pgmg(-1) tissue wet weight(-1)h(-1)) and ovarian (control, 33.83pgmg(-1) tissue wet weight(-1)h(-1) compared to experimental, 15.19pgmg(-1) tissue wet weight(-1)h(-1)) tissue. In a second series of experiments, larval Lake Sturgeon were exposed to equivalent concentrations of chlorpyrifos as above for 10days (d) between hatch and the onset of exogenous feeding. Larvae from each treatment group were raised until 67days post hatch (dph) and growth rates were compared alongside key indicators of thyroid follicle growth. Chlorpyrifos treatment had no effect on the measured indicators of thyroid follicular development.

  1. Columbia River White Sturgeon Genetics and Early Life History: Population Segregation and Juvenile Feeding Behavior, 1987 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Brannon, Ernest L.

    1988-06-01

    The geographic area of the genetics study broadly covered the distribution range of sturgeon in the Columbia from below Bonneville Dam at Ilwaco at Lake Roosevelt, the Upper Snake River, and the Kootenai River. The two remote river sections provided data important for enhancement considerations. There was little electrophoretic variation seen among individuals from the Kootenai River. Upper Snake river sturgeon showed a higher percentage of polymorphic loci than the Kootenai fish, but lower than the other areas in the Columbia River we sampled. Sample size was increased in both Lake Roosevelt and at Electrophoretic variation was specific to an individual sampling area in several cases and this shaped our conclusions. The 1987 early life history studies concentrated on the feeding behavior of juvenile sturgeon. The chemostimulant components in prey attractive to sturgeon were examined, and the sensory systems utilized by foraging sturgeon were determined under different environmental conditions. These results were discussed with regard to the environmental changes that have occurred in the Columbia River. Under present river conditions, the feeding mechanism of sturgeon is more restricted to certain prey types, and their feeding range may be limited. In these situations, enhancement measures cannot be undertaken without consideration given to the introduction of food resources that will be readily available under present conditions. 89 refs., 7 figs., 11 tabs.

  2. Identification and expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AhR1 and AhR2) provide insight in an evolutionary context regarding sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) to dioxin-like compounds.

    PubMed

    Doering, Jon A; Wiseman, Steve; Beitel, Shawn C; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus

    2014-05-01

    Sturgeons are ancient fishes, which are endangered in many parts of the world. Due to their benthic nature and longevity, sturgeon are at great risk of exposure to bioaccumulative contaminants such as dioxin-like compounds (DLCs). Despite their endangered status, little research has been conducted to characterize the relative sensitivity of sturgeons to DLCs. Proper assessment of risk of DLCs posed to these fishes therefore, requires a better understanding of this sensitivity and the factors that are driving it. Adverse effects associated with exposure to DLCs are mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). This study identified and characterized two distinct AhRs, AhR1 and AhR2, in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) for the first time as a first step in studying the relative sensitivities of sturgeons to DLCs. Furthermore, tissue-specific expression of both AhRs under basal conditions and in response to exposure to the model DLC, β-naphthoflavone (βNF), was determined. The sequence of amino acids of AhR1 of white sturgeon had greater similarity to AhRs of tetrapods, including amphibians, birds, and mammals, than to AhR1s of other fishes. The sequence of amino acids in the ligand binding domain of the AhR1 had greater than 80% similarity to AhRs known to bind DLCs and was less similar to AhRs not known to bind DLCs. AhR2 of white sturgeon had greatest similarity to AhR2 of other fishes. Profiles of expression of AhR1 and AhR2 in white sturgeon were distinct from those known in other fishes and appear more similar to profiles observed in birds. Expressions of both AhR1 and AhR2 of white sturgeon were greatest in liver and heart, which are target organs for DLCs. Furthermore, abundances of transcripts of AhR1 and AhR2 in all tissues from white sturgeon were greater than controls (up to 35-fold) following exposure to βNF. Based upon both AhRs having similar abundances of transcript in target organs of DLC toxicity, both AhRs being up-regulated following

  3. Identification and expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AhR1 and AhR2) provide insight in an evolutionary context regarding sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) to dioxin-like compounds.

    PubMed

    Doering, Jon A; Wiseman, Steve; Beitel, Shawn C; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus

    2014-05-01

    Sturgeons are ancient fishes, which are endangered in many parts of the world. Due to their benthic nature and longevity, sturgeon are at great risk of exposure to bioaccumulative contaminants such as dioxin-like compounds (DLCs). Despite their endangered status, little research has been conducted to characterize the relative sensitivity of sturgeons to DLCs. Proper assessment of risk of DLCs posed to these fishes therefore, requires a better understanding of this sensitivity and the factors that are driving it. Adverse effects associated with exposure to DLCs are mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). This study identified and characterized two distinct AhRs, AhR1 and AhR2, in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) for the first time as a first step in studying the relative sensitivities of sturgeons to DLCs. Furthermore, tissue-specific expression of both AhRs under basal conditions and in response to exposure to the model DLC, β-naphthoflavone (βNF), was determined. The sequence of amino acids of AhR1 of white sturgeon had greater similarity to AhRs of tetrapods, including amphibians, birds, and mammals, than to AhR1s of other fishes. The sequence of amino acids in the ligand binding domain of the AhR1 had greater than 80% similarity to AhRs known to bind DLCs and was less similar to AhRs not known to bind DLCs. AhR2 of white sturgeon had greatest similarity to AhR2 of other fishes. Profiles of expression of AhR1 and AhR2 in white sturgeon were distinct from those known in other fishes and appear more similar to profiles observed in birds. Expressions of both AhR1 and AhR2 of white sturgeon were greatest in liver and heart, which are target organs for DLCs. Furthermore, abundances of transcripts of AhR1 and AhR2 in all tissues from white sturgeon were greater than controls (up to 35-fold) following exposure to βNF. Based upon both AhRs having similar abundances of transcript in target organs of DLC toxicity, both AhRs being up-regulated following

  4. An estimate of the historic population size of adult pallid sturgeon in the upper Missouri river basin, Montana and North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braaten, P.J.; Fuller, D.B.; Lott, R.D.; Jordan, G.R.

    2009-01-01

    Juvenile pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus raised in hatcheries and stocked in the wild are used to augment critically imperiled populations of this federally endangered species in the United States. For pallid sturgeon in recovery priority management area 2 (RPMA 2) of the Missouri River and lower Yellowstone River where natural recruitment has not occurred for decades, restoration programs aim to stock an annual minimum of 9000 juvenile pallid sturgeon for 20 years to re-establish a minimum population of 1700 adults. However, establishment of this target was based on general guidelines for maintaining the genetic integrity of populations rather than pallid sturgeon-specific demographic information because data on the historical population size was lacking. In this study, information from a recent population estimate (158 wild adults in 2004, 95% confidence interval 129-193 adults) and an empirically derived adult mortality rate (5%) was used in a cohort population model to back-estimate the historic abundance of adult pallid sturgeon in RPMA 2. Three back-estimation age models were developed, and assumed that adults alive during 2004 were 30-, 40-, or 50-years old. Based on these age assumptions, population sizes [??95% confidence intervals; (CI)] were back-estimated to 1989, 1979, and 1969 to approximate size of the population when individuals would have been sexually mature (15 years old) and capable of spawning. Back-estimations yielded predictions of 344 adults in 1989 (95% CI 281-420), 577 adults in 1979 (95% CI 471-704), and 968 adults in 1969 (95% CI 790-1182) for the 30-, 40-, and 50-year age models, respectively. Although several assumptions are inherent in the back-estimation models, results suggest the juvenile stocking program for pallid sturgeon will likely re-establish an adult population that equals in the short-term and exceeds in the long-term the predicted population numbers that occurred during past decades in RPMA 2. However, re

  5. Assigning sex and reproductive stage to adult Lake Sturgeon using ultrasonography and common morphological measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chiotti, Justin A.; Boase, James C.; Hondorp, Darryl W.; Briggs, Andrew S.

    2016-01-01

    Sex determination of fish species is difficult to assess when sexual dimorphism and gametes are not apparent. For threatened and endangered fish species, noninvasive techniques are needed when determining sex to minimize stress and the potential for mortality. We evaluated the use of a portable ultrasound unit to determine sex of Lake Sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens in the field. Ultrasound images were collected from 9 yellow-egg (F2, F3), 32 black-egg (F4, F5), and 107 fully developed male (M2) Lake Sturgeon. Two readers accurately assigned sex to 88–96% of fish, but accuracy varied in relation to maturity stage. Black-egg females and fully developed males were correctly identified for 89–100% of the fish sampled, while these two readers identified yellow-egg females only 33% and 67% of the time. Time spent collecting images ranged between 2 and 3 min once the user was comfortable with operating procedures. Discriminant analysis revealed the total length : girth ratio was a strong predictor of sex and maturity, correctly classifying 81% of black-egg females and 97% of the fully developed males. However, yellow-egg females were incorrectly classified on all occasions. This study shows the utility of using ultrasonography and a total length : girth ratio for sex determination of Lake Sturgeon in later reproductive stages around the spawning season.

  6. Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2003-04-23

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to fund the White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam Project. The project proposes to continue to carry out harvest monitoring and stock status updates coordinated with fisheries management planning, annual young-of-the year recruitment indexing, research, experimental artificial propagation, and transport of white sturgeon to less densely populated areas of the river(s). Additionally, release of hatchery-reared juveniles is proposed to evaluate release strategies. Actions will take place in the following Columbia River mainstem reaches: Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day, and McNary Reservoirs; Hanford Reach, as well as the Wanapum and Rock Island Reservoirs; and the following Snake River mainstem reaches: Ice Harbor, Lower Monumental and Little Goose Reservoirs. Spawning and rearing are undertaken at established hatcheries at McNary Dam and also the Abernathy Fish Technology Center. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1367, April 2003) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and BPA is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  7. Characterization of the contents and histology of the gastrointestinal tracts of White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) captured from Upper Lake Roosevelt, Washington, October 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsley, Michael J.; van der Leeuw, Bjorn K.; Elliott, Diane G.

    2010-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tracts of 37 juvenile white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) captured from the upper part of Lake Roosevelt during October 2008, were examined to identify prey taxa and to determine if the fish were consuming smelter slag along with other sediments. Histological examination of the gastrointestinal tract tissues and comparison with similar tissues from hatchery-reared fish also was performed. The contents of the gastro-intestinal tracts (guts) indicated that white sturgeon were actively foraging on various benthic invertebrates and the diet was quite diverse, with more than 50 percent of the fish feeding on five or more different taxa. Slag was present in 76 percent of the guts examined. Although not all guts contained slag particles, larger fish tended to have greater amounts of slag in their guts. Histology of the gut tissues showed the presence of a chronic inflammatory response, and the severity of the response had a significant positive correlation (P = 0.01) with fish length and weight suggesting that the inflammation represented a response to long-term exposure to one or more stressors. However, additional work is needed to determine if the physical or chemical properties of slag contributed to this response.

  8. Simulation of flow and sediment mobility using a multidimensional flow model for the White Sturgeon critical-habitat reach, Kootenai River near Bonners Ferry, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barton, Gary J.; McDonald, Richard R.; Nelson, Jonathan M.; Dinehart, Randal L.

    2005-01-01

    In 1994, the Kootenai River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) was listed as an Endangered Species as a direct result of two related observations. First, biologists observed that the white sturgeon population in the Kootenai River was declining. Second, they observed a decline in recruitment of juvenile sturgeon beginning in the 1950s with an almost total absence of recruitment since 1974, following the closure of Libby Dam in 1972. This second observation was attributed to changes in spawning and (or) rearing habitat resulting from alterations in the physical habitat, including flow regime, sediment-transport regime, and bed morphology of the river. The Kootenai River White Sturgeon Recovery Team was established to find and implement ways to improve spawning and rearing habitat used by white sturgeon. They identified the need to develop and apply a multidimensional flow model to certain reaches of the river to quantify physical habitat in a spatially distributed manner. The U.S. Geological Survey has addressed these needs by developing, calibrating, and validating a multidimensional flow model used to simulate streamflow and sediment mobility in the white sturgeon critical-habitat reach of the Kootenai River. This report describes the model and limitations, presents the results of a few simple simulations, and demonstrates how the model can be used to link physical characteristics of streamflow to biological or other habitat data. This study was conducted in cooperation with the Kootenai Tribe of Idaho along a 23-kilometer reach of the Kootenai River, including the white sturgeon spawning reach near Bonners Ferry, Idaho that is about 108 to 131 kilometers below Libby Dam. U.S. Geological Survey's MultiDimensional Surface-Water Modeling System was used to construct a flow model for the critical-habitat reach of the Kootenai River white sturgeon, between river kilometers 228.4 and 245.9. Given streamflow, bed roughness, and downstream water-surface elevation

  9. Breeding Plan to Preserve the Genetic Variability of the Kootenai River White Sturgeon, Final Report, December 1993.

    SciTech Connect

    Kincaid, Harold L.

    1993-11-01

    Natural reproduction in the Kootenai River white sturgeon population has not produced a successful year class since 1974, resulting in a declining broodstock and 20 consecutive year classes missing from the age-class structure. This report describes a captive breeding plan designed to preserve the remaining genetic variability and to begin rebuilding the natural age class structure. The captive breeding program will use 3--9 females and an equal number of males captured from the Kootenai River each spring. Fish will be spawned in pairs or in diallel mating designs to produce individual families that will be reared separately to maintain family identity. Fish will be marked to identify family and year class before return to the river. Fish should be returned to the river as fall fingerlings to minimize potential adaptation to the hatchery environment Initially, while tagging methods are tested to ensure positive identification after return to the river, it may be necessary to plant fish as spring yearlings. Number of fish planted will be equalized at 5,000 per family if fall fingerlings or 1,000 per family if spring yearlings. Assuming annual survival rates of 20% during the first winter for fall fingerling plants and 50% for years 1--3, and 85% for years 4--20 of all fish planted, the target numbers would yield 7.9 progeny per family or about 4 breeding pairs at age 20. Natural survival in the river environment during the 19+ years from planting to maturity would result in variability in genetic contribution of families to the next broodstock generation. Fish planted per family would be adjusted in future years when actual survival rate information is known. Broodfish will be tagged when captured to minimize multiple spawning of the same fish. implementation of this breeding plan each year for the 20-year generation interval, using 5 different mating pairs each year, will yield an effective population size of 200, or 22.5% of the estimated 1990 population.

  10. Distinguishing ovarian maturity of farmed white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy: a potential tool for caviar production management.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaonan; Webb, Molly; Talbott, Mariah; Van Eenennaam, Joel; Palumbo, Amanda; Linares-Casenave, Javier; Doroshov, Serge; Struffenegger, Peter; Rasco, Barbara

    2010-04-14

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, 4000-400 cm(-1)) was applied to blood plasma of farmed white sturgeon (N = 40) to differentiate and predict the stages of ovarian maturity. Spectral features of sex steroids (approximately 3000 cm(-1)) and vitellogenin (approximately 1080 cm(-1)) were identified. Clear segregation of maturity stages (previtellogenesis, vitellogenesis, postvitellogenesis, and follicular atresia) was achieved using principal component analysis (PCA). Progression of oocyte development in the late phase of vitellogenesis was also monitored using PCA based on changes in plasma concentrations of sex steroid and lipid content. The observed oocyte polarization index (PI, a measure of nuclear migration) was correlated with changes in plasma sex steroid levels revealed by FT-IR PCA results. A partial least squares (PLS) model predicted PI values within the range 0.12-0.40 (R = 0.95, SEP = 2.18%) from differences in spectral features. These results suggest that FT-IR may be a good tool for assessing ovarian maturity in farmed sturgeon and will reduce the need for the invasive ovarian biopsy required for PI determination.

  11. Effects of Mitigative Measures on Productivity of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam: Determine Status and Habitat Requirements of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from McNary Dam, 1997-1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, David L.

    1999-02-01

    The authors report on their progress from April 1997 through March 1998 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW; Report A), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW; Report B), U.S. Geological Survey Biological Resources Division (USGS; Report C), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS; Report D), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS; Report E), and Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC; Report F). This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete. Therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported. Highlights of results of the work from April 1997 through March 1998 listed.

  12. Evidence of Detrimental Effects of Environmental Contaminants on Growth and Reproductive Physiology of White Sturgeon in Impounded Areas of the Columbia River

    PubMed Central

    Feist, Grant W.; Webb, Molly A.H.; Gundersen, Deke T.; Foster, Eugene P.; Schreck, Carl B.; Maule, Alec G.; Fitzpatrick, Martin S.

    2005-01-01

    This study sought to determine whether wild white sturgeon from the Columbia River (Oregon) were exhibiting signs of reproductive endocrine disruption. Fish were sampled in the free-flowing portion of the river (where the population is experiencing reproductive success) and from three reservoirs behind hydroelectric dams (where fish have reduced reproductive success). All of the 18 pesticides and almost all of the 28 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) that were analyzed in livers and gonads were detected in at least some of the tissue samples. Metabolites of p,p′-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) [p,p′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and p,p′-1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDD)] were consistently found at relatively high levels in fish. Some males and immature females showed elevated plasma vitellogenin; however, concentrations were not correlated with any of the pesticides or PCBs analyzed. Negative correlations were found between a number of physiologic parameters and tissue burdens of toxicants. Plasma triglycerides and condition factor were negatively correlated with total DDT (DDD + DDE + DDT), total pesticides (all pesticides detected – total DDT), and PCBs. In males, plasma androgens and gonad size were negatively correlated with total DDT, total pesticides, and PCBs. Fish residing in the reservoir behind the oldest dam had the highest contaminant loads and incidence of gonadal abnormalities, and the lowest triglycerides, condition factor, gonad size, and plasma androgens. These data suggest that endocrine-disrupting chemicals may be accumulating behind dams over time. Overall, results of this study indicate that exposure to environmental contaminants may be affecting both growth and reproductive physiology of sturgeon in some areas of the Columbia River. PMID:16330346

  13. Evidence of detrimental effects of environmental contaminants on growth and reproductive physiology of white sturgeon in impounded areas of the Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feist, G.W.; Webb, M.A.H.; Gundersen, D.T.; Foster, E.P.; Schreck, C.B.; Maule, A.G.; Fitzpatrick, M.S.

    2005-01-01

    This study sought to determine whether wild white sturgeon from the Columbia River (Oregon) were exhibiting signs of reproductive endocrine disruption. Fish were sampled in the free-flowing portion of the river (where the population is experiencing reproductive success) and from three reservoirs behind hydroelectric dams (where fish have reduced reproductive success). All of the 18 pesticides and almost all of the 28 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) that were analyzed in livers and gonads were detected in at least some of the tissue samples. Metabolites of p,p???-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) [p,p???-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and p,p???-1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDD)] were consistently found at relatively high levels in fish. Some males and immature females showed elevated plasma vitellogenin; however, concentrations were not correlated with any of the pesticides or PCBs analyzed. Negative correlations were found between a number of physiologic parameters and tissue burdens of toxicants. Plasma triglycerides and condition factor were negatively correlated with total DDT (DDD + DDE + DDT), total pesticides (all pesticides detected - total DDT), and PCBs. In males, plasma androgens and gonad size were negatively correlated with total DDT, total pesticides, and PCBs. Fish residing in the reservoir behind the oldest dam had the highest contaminant loads and incidence of gonadal abnormalities, and the lowest triglycerides, condition factor, gonad size, and plasma androgens. These data suggest that endocrine-disrupting chemicals may be accumulating behind dams over time. Overall, results of this study indicate that exposure to environmental contaminants may be affecting both growth and reproductive physiology of sturgeon in some areas of the Columbia River.

  14. Electronic archival tags provide first glimpse of bathythermal habitat use by free-ranging adult lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Briggs, Andrew S.; Hondorp, Darryl W.; Quinlan, Henry R.; Boase, James C.; Mohr, Lloyd C.

    2016-01-01

    Information on lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) depth and thermal habitat use during non-spawning periods is unavailable due to the difficulty of observing lake sturgeon away from shallow water spawning sites. In 2002 and 2003, lake sturgeon captured in commercial trap nets near Sarnia, Ontario were implanted with archival tags and released back into southern Lake Huron. Five of the 40 tagged individuals were recaptured and were at large for 32, 57, 286, 301, and 880 days. Temperatures and depths recorded by archival tags ranged from 0 to 23.5 ºC and 0.1 to 42.4 m, respectively. For the three lake sturgeon that were at large for over 200 days, temperatures occupied emulated seasonal fluctuations. Two of these fish occupied deeper waters during winter than summer while the other occupied similar depths during non-spawning periods. This study provides important insight into depth and thermal habitat use of lake sturgeon throughout the calendar year along with exploring the feasibility of using archival tags to obtain important physical habitat attributes during non-spawning periods.

  15. Status and Habitat Requirements of the White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam Volume II; Supplemental Papers and Data Documentation, 1986-1992 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Beamesderfer, Raymond C.; Nigro, Anthony A.

    1995-01-01

    This is the final report for research on white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus from 1986--92 and conducted by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), and Washington Department of Fisheries (WDF). Findings are presented as a series of papers, each detailing objectives, methods, results, and conclusions for a portion of this research. This volume includes supplemental papers which provide background information needed to support results of the primary investigations addressed in Volume 1. This study addresses measure 903(e)(1) of the Northwest Power Planning Council's 1987 Fish and Wildlife Program that calls for ''research to determine the impact of development and operation of the hydropower system on sturgeon in the Columbia River Basin.'' Study objectives correspond to those of the ''White Sturgeon Research Program Implementation Plan'' developed by BPA and approved by the Northwest Power Planning Council in 1985. Work was conducted on the Columbia River from McNary Dam to the estuary.

  16. Do Sturgeon limit burrowing shrimp populations in Pacific Northwest estuaries?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris) and white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are common seasonal inhabitants of coastal estuaries from California USA to British Columbia, Canada. Both species are anadromous spending significant portions of their lives at sea and in their natal streams, but t...

  17. Bycatch of the endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) in a commercial fishery for shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bettoli, Phillip William; Casto-Yerty, M.; Scholten, G.D.; Heist, Edward J.

    2009-01-01

    We quantified the bycatch of pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus in Tennessee's shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) fishery by accompanying commercial fishers and monitoring their catch on five dates in spring 2007. Fishers were free to keep or discard any sturgeon they collected in their gillnets and trotlines and we were afforded the opportunity to collect meristic and morphometric data and tissue samples from discarded and harvested specimens. Fishers removed 327 live sturgeon from their gear in our presence, of which 93 were harvested; we also obtained the carcasses of 20 sturgeon that a fisher harvested out of our sight while we were on the water with another fisher. Two of the 113 harvested sturgeon were confirmed pallid sturgeon based on microsatellite DNA analyses. Additionally, fishers gave us five, live pallid sturgeon that they had removed from their gear. If the incidental harvest rate of pallid sturgeon (1.8% of all sturgeon harvested) was similar in the previous two commercial seasons, at least 169 adult pallid sturgeon were harvested by commercial fishers in the Tennessee waters of the Mississippi River in 2005-2007. If fishers altered their behavior because of our presence (i.e. if they were more conservative in what they harvested), the pallid sturgeon take was probably higher when they fished unaccompanied by observers. While retrieving a gill net set the previous day, a fisher we were accompanying retrieved a gillnet lost 2 days earlier; this ghost net caught 53 sturgeon whereby one fish was harvested but most fish were dead, including one confirmed pallid sturgeon.

  18. Bycatch of the endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) in a commercial fishery for shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bettoli, P.W.; Casto-Yerty, M.; Scholten, G.D.; Heist, E.J.

    2009-01-01

    We quantified the bycatch of pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus in Tennessee's shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) fishery by accompanying commercial fishers and monitoring their catch on five dates in spring 2007. Fishers were free to keep or discard any sturgeon they collected in their gillnets and trotlines and we were afforded the opportunity to collect meristic and morphometric data and tissue samples from discarded and harvested specimens. Fishers removed 327 live sturgeon from their gear in our presence, of which 93 were harvested; we also obtained the carcasses of 20 sturgeon that a fisher harvested out of our sight while we were on the water with another fisher. Two of the 113 harvested sturgeon were confirmed pallid sturgeon based on microsatellite DNA analyses. Additionally, fishers gave us five, live pallid sturgeon that they had removed from their gear. If the incidental harvest rate of pallid sturgeon (1.8% of all sturgeon harvested) was similar in the previous two commercial seasons, at least 169 adult pallid sturgeon were harvested by commercial fishers in the Tennessee waters of the Mississippi River in 2005-2007. If fishers altered their behavior because of our presence (i.e. if they were more conservative in what they harvested), the pallid sturgeon take was probably higher when they fished unaccompanied by observers. While retrieving a gill net set the previous day, a fisher we were accompanying retrieved a gillnet lost 2 days earlier; this ghost net caught 53 sturgeon whereby one fish was harvested but most fish were dead, including one confirmed pallid sturgeon. ?? 2008 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

  19. Gulf Sturgeon Facts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sulak, Kenneth J.; Randall, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Sturgeon: An ancient type of fish, with 5 rows of armor scutes, a cartilaginous skeleton, long snout, suction mouth, no teeth, and 4 barbels. Photograph of a Gulf sturgeon. The total length of a 5-month old is 313 mm.

  20. Sturgeon study - specimens needed

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, D.E.; Matthews, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Preliminary results of a study to determine morphological criteria and verify those already suggested in the published literature for identifying the larvae of the Atlantic sturgeon and the endangered short nose sturgeon are presented. (ACR)

  1. 33 CFR 110.78 - Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.78 Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis. (a) Area 1. Beginning at a point bearing 126°, 3,000 feet from the fixed green Sturgeon Bay Canal Leading Light...

  2. 33 CFR 110.78 - Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.78 Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis. (a) Area 1. Beginning at a point bearing 126°, 3,000 feet from the fixed green Sturgeon Bay Canal Leading Light...

  3. 33 CFR 110.78 - Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.78 Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis. (a) Area 1. Beginning at a point bearing 126°, 3,000 feet from the fixed green Sturgeon Bay Canal Leading Light...

  4. 33 CFR 110.78 - Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.78 Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis. (a) Area 1. Beginning at a point bearing 126°, 3,000 feet from the fixed green Sturgeon Bay Canal Leading Light...

  5. 33 CFR 110.78 - Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.78 Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis. (a) Area 1. Beginning at a point bearing 126°, 3,000 feet from the fixed green Sturgeon Bay Canal Leading Light...

  6. Sperm-cell ultrastructure of North American sturgeons. IV. The pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus Forbes and Richardson, 1905)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DiLauro, M.N.; Walsh, R.A.; Peiffer, M.; Bennett, R.M.

    2001-01-01

    Sperm-cell morphology and ultrastructure in the pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) were examined using transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Metrics and structure were compared with similar metrics obtained from other published descriptions of sturgeon sperm cells. General morphology was found to be similar to that of sperm cells of the white (Acipenser transmontanus), lake (A. fulvescens), stellate (A. stellatus), Chinese (A. sinensis), Russian (A. gueldenstaedti colchicus), and shortnose (A. brevirostrum) sturgeons, which all shared a gradual tapering of the nuclear diameter from posterior to anterior, unlike that of the Atlantic sturgeon (A. oxyrhynchus). The sperm cell of the pallid sturgeon was similar in size to that of the Atlantic sturgeon, being only slightly larger. The sperm cell of the pallid sturgeon differed from those of other sturgeons chiefly in the acrosomal region, where the posterolateral projections (PLP) have the shape of an acute triangle and are arranged in a spiral about the longitudinal axis of the cell. The PLP were longer than those of other sturgeons, being twice the length of those of the Atlantic sturgeon and 58% longer than those of the lake sturgeon. Also, in cross section the acrosome had the shape of a hollow cone rather than the cap of an oak tree acorn, as was found in ultrastructural studies of other sturgeons. In addition, we were able to confirm that the structural arrangement of the distal centriole of the midpiece is identical with that of the proximal centriole: nine sets of microtubular triplets around the periphery of the centriole. This information is of potential use to fishery biologists, forensic biologists, zoologists, reproductive physiologists, taxonomists, evolutionary biologists, and aquaculturists.

  7. Critical Conversations on Whiteness with Young Adult Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schieble, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author argues that whiteness remains an overwhelmingly absent dimension in literacy teaching that addresses systems of power from a critical perspective. One way literacy teachers may bring this dimension more explicitly into the classroom is by facilitating critical conversations on whiteness with young adult literature. As…

  8. Characterization of channel substrate, and changes in suspended-sediment transport and channel geometry in white sturgeon spawning habitat in the Kootenai River near Bonners Ferry, Idaho, following the closure of Libby Dam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barton, Gary J.

    2004-01-01

    Many local, State, and Federal agencies have concerns over the declining population of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) in the Kootenai River and the possible effects of the closure and subsequent operation of Libby Dam in 1972. In 1994, the Kootenai River white sturgeon was listed as an Endangered Species. A year-long field study was conducted in cooperation with the Kootenai Tribe of Idaho along a 21.7-kilometer reach of the Kootenai River including the white sturgeon spawning reach near Bonners Ferry, Idaho, approximately 111 to 129 kilometers below Libby Dam. During the field study, data were collected in order to map the channel substrate in the white sturgeon spawning reach. These data include seismic subbottom profiles at 18 cross sections of the river and sediment cores taken at or near the seismic cross sections. The effect that Libby Dam has on the Kootenai River white sturgeon spawning substrate was analyzed in terms of changes in suspended-sediment transport, aggradation and degradation of channel bed, and changes in the particle size of bed material with depth below the riverbed. The annual suspended-sediment load leaving the Kootenai River white sturgeon spawning reach decreased dramatically after the closure of Libby Dam in 1972: mean annual pre-Libby Dam load during 1966–71 was 1,743,900 metric tons, and the dam-era load during 1973–83 was 287,500 metric tons. The amount of sand-size particles in three suspended-sediment samples collected at Copeland, Idaho, 159 kilometers below Libby Dam, during spring and early summer high flows after the closure of Libby Dam is less than in four samples collected during the pre-Libby Dam era. The supply of sand to the spawning reach is currently less due to the reduction of high flows and a loss of 70 percent of the basin after the closure of Libby Dam. The river's reduced capacity to transport sand out of the spawning reach is compensated to an unknown extent by a reduced load of sand entering the

  9. Characterization of channel substrate, and changes in suspended-sediment transport and channel geometry in white sturgeon spawning habitat in the Kootenai River near Bonners Ferry, Idaho, following the closure of Libby Dam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barton, Gary J.

    2004-01-01

    Many local, State, and Federal agencies have concerns over the declining population of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) in the Kootenai River and the possible effects of the closure and subsequent operation of Libby Dam in 1972. In 1994, the Kootenai River white sturgeon was listed as an Endangered Species. A year-long field study was conducted in cooperation with the Kootenai Tribe of Idaho along a 21.7-kilometer reach of the Kootenai River including the white sturgeon spawning reach near Bonners Ferry, Idaho, approximately 111 to 129 kilometers below Libby Dam. During the field study, data were collected in order to map the channel substrate in the white sturgeon spawning reach. These data include seismic subbottom profiles at 18 cross sections of the river and sediment cores taken at or near the seismic cross sections. The effect that Libby Dam has on the Kootenai River white sturgeon spawning substrate was analyzed in terms of changes in suspended-sediment transport, aggradation and degradation of channel bed, and changes in the particle size of bed material with depth below the riverbed. The annual suspended-sediment load leaving the Kootenai River white sturgeon spawning reach decreased dramatically after the closure of Libby Dam in 1972: mean annual pre-Libby Dam load during 1966–71 was 1,743,900 metric tons, and the dam-era load during 1973–83 was 287,500 metric tons. The amount of sand-size particles in three suspended-sediment samples collected at Copeland, Idaho, 159 kilometers below Libby Dam, during spring and early summer high flows after the closure of Libby Dam is less than in four samples collected during the pre-Libby Dam era. The supply of sand to the spawning reach is currently less due to the reduction of high flows and a loss of 70 percent of the basin after the closure of Libby Dam. The river's reduced capacity to transport sand out of the spawning reach is compensated to an unknown extent by a reduced load of sand entering the

  10. Oceanic Distribution, Behaviour, and a Winter Aggregation Area of Adult Atlantic Sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, in the Bay of Fundy, Canada.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Andrew Douglas; Ohashi, Kyoko; Sheng, Jinyu; Litvak, Matthew Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal distribution of adult Atlantic sturgeon was examined using pop-up satellite archival tags (PSATs) and ultrasonic transmitters deployed in the Saint John River, New Brunswick, Canada. Seven MK10 PSATs programmed for release in June 2012 and seven MiniPAT PSATs programmed for release in February and April 2013 were deployed in August 2011 and 2012, respectively. Eleven of 14 PSATs surfaced and transmitted depth and temperature data archived for the duration of their deployment (121-302 days). Among these eleven PSATs, five were recovered and 15-sec archival data was downloaded. Following exit from the Saint John River in the fall, tagged fish occupied a mean monthly depth of 76.3-81.6 m at temperatures as low as 4.9˚C throughout the winter before returning to shallower areas in the spring. The majority of ultrasonic detections occurred in the Bay of Fundy, but fish were detected as far as Riviere Saint-Jean, Quebec, approximately 1500 km from the Bay of Fundy (representing long-distance migratory rates of up to 44 km/day). All PSATs were first detected in the Bay of Fundy. Tags that released in February and April were found 5-21 km offshore of the Saint John Harbour, while tags that released in June were first detected in near shore areas throughout the Bay of Fundy. The substrate at winter tag release locations (estimated from backward numerical particle-tracking experiments) consisted primarily of moraines and postglacial mud substrate with low backscatter strength, indicative of soft or smooth seabed. Based on the proximity of winter tag release locations, the consistent depths observed between fish, and previous research, it is suspected that a winter aggregation exists in the Bay of Fundy. This study expands the understanding of the marine distribution and range of Atlantic sturgeon on the east coast of Canada.

  11. Oceanic Distribution, Behaviour, and a Winter Aggregation Area of Adult Atlantic Sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, in the Bay of Fundy, Canada.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Andrew Douglas; Ohashi, Kyoko; Sheng, Jinyu; Litvak, Matthew Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal distribution of adult Atlantic sturgeon was examined using pop-up satellite archival tags (PSATs) and ultrasonic transmitters deployed in the Saint John River, New Brunswick, Canada. Seven MK10 PSATs programmed for release in June 2012 and seven MiniPAT PSATs programmed for release in February and April 2013 were deployed in August 2011 and 2012, respectively. Eleven of 14 PSATs surfaced and transmitted depth and temperature data archived for the duration of their deployment (121-302 days). Among these eleven PSATs, five were recovered and 15-sec archival data was downloaded. Following exit from the Saint John River in the fall, tagged fish occupied a mean monthly depth of 76.3-81.6 m at temperatures as low as 4.9˚C throughout the winter before returning to shallower areas in the spring. The majority of ultrasonic detections occurred in the Bay of Fundy, but fish were detected as far as Riviere Saint-Jean, Quebec, approximately 1500 km from the Bay of Fundy (representing long-distance migratory rates of up to 44 km/day). All PSATs were first detected in the Bay of Fundy. Tags that released in February and April were found 5-21 km offshore of the Saint John Harbour, while tags that released in June were first detected in near shore areas throughout the Bay of Fundy. The substrate at winter tag release locations (estimated from backward numerical particle-tracking experiments) consisted primarily of moraines and postglacial mud substrate with low backscatter strength, indicative of soft or smooth seabed. Based on the proximity of winter tag release locations, the consistent depths observed between fish, and previous research, it is suspected that a winter aggregation exists in the Bay of Fundy. This study expands the understanding of the marine distribution and range of Atlantic sturgeon on the east coast of Canada. PMID:27043209

  12. Oceanic Distribution, Behaviour, and a Winter Aggregation Area of Adult Atlantic Sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, in the Bay of Fundy, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Andrew Douglas; Ohashi, Kyoko; Sheng, Jinyu; Litvak, Matthew Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal distribution of adult Atlantic sturgeon was examined using pop-up satellite archival tags (PSATs) and ultrasonic transmitters deployed in the Saint John River, New Brunswick, Canada. Seven MK10 PSATs programmed for release in June 2012 and seven MiniPAT PSATs programmed for release in February and April 2013 were deployed in August 2011 and 2012, respectively. Eleven of 14 PSATs surfaced and transmitted depth and temperature data archived for the duration of their deployment (121–302 days). Among these eleven PSATs, five were recovered and 15-sec archival data was downloaded. Following exit from the Saint John River in the fall, tagged fish occupied a mean monthly depth of 76.3–81.6 m at temperatures as low as 4.9˚C throughout the winter before returning to shallower areas in the spring. The majority of ultrasonic detections occurred in the Bay of Fundy, but fish were detected as far as Riviere Saint-Jean, Quebec, approximately 1500 km from the Bay of Fundy (representing long-distance migratory rates of up to 44 km/day). All PSATs were first detected in the Bay of Fundy. Tags that released in February and April were found 5–21 km offshore of the Saint John Harbour, while tags that released in June were first detected in near shore areas throughout the Bay of Fundy. The substrate at winter tag release locations (estimated from backward numerical particle-tracking experiments) consisted primarily of moraines and postglacial mud substrate with low backscatter strength, indicative of soft or smooth seabed. Based on the proximity of winter tag release locations, the consistent depths observed between fish, and previous research, it is suspected that a winter aggregation exists in the Bay of Fundy. This study expands the understanding of the marine distribution and range of Atlantic sturgeon on the east coast of Canada. PMID:27043209

  13. Exploring Heavy Drinking Patterns Among Black and White Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Klima, Tali; Skinner, Martie L; Haggerty, Kevin P; Crutchfield, Robert D; Catalano, Richard F

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This investigation examined patterns of heavy drinking among Black and White young adults from a person-centered perspective and linked family and individual factors in adolescence to young adult drinking patterns. Method: The analysis focuses on 331 10th-grade students (168 Whites, 163 Blacks; 51% males) who were followed into young adulthood (ages 20 and 22). Cluster analyses using heavy episodic drinking, drunkenness, and alcohol problems in young adulthood resulted in groups of drinkers with different patterns. Groups were examined across and within race. Associations between young adult drinking groups and adolescent family and individual factors were tested. Results: Groups followed well-established race differences, with Whites clustering into frequent drinking groups more than Blacks, and Blacks clustering into non–heavy drinking groups more than Whites. Further, Black heavy drinkers reported fewer alcohol problems than White counterparts. Parental monitoring, consistent discipline, ethnic identity, and delinquency were associated with adult heavy episodic drinking groups for both races. Monitoring and delinquency, along with parental norms, were associated with drunkenness groups for both races. However, race differences were observed for drunkenness clusters such that attachment was predictive for White clusters, and parental guidelines and discipline were predictive for Black clusters. Conclusions: Large race differences in heavy drinking at young adulthood were confirmed. Family dynamics in 10th grade were identified as important for the development of different drinking patterns in the early 20s, when many individuals have left home, which suggests a key target for substance use prevention programs. PMID:25208202

  14. Population viability analysis of Lower Missouri River shovelnose sturgeon with initial application to the pallid sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bajer, P.G.; Wildhaber, M.L.

    2007-01-01

    Demographic models for the shovelnose (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) and pallid (S. albus) sturgeons in the Lower Missouri River were developed to conduct sensitivity analyses for both populations. Potential effects of increased fishing mortality on the shovelnose sturgeon were also evaluated. Populations of shovelnose and pallid sturgeon were most sensitive to age-0 mortality rates as well as mortality rates of juveniles and young adults. Overall, fecundity was a less sensitive parameter. However, increased fecundity effectively balanced higher mortality among sensitive age classes in both populations. Management that increases population-level fecundity and improves survival of age-0, juveniles, and young adults should most effectively benefit both populations. Evaluation of reproductive values indicated that populations of pallid sturgeon dominated by ages ???35 could rapidly lose their potential for growth, particularly if recruitment remains low. Under the initial parameter values portraying current conditions the population of shovelnose sturgeon was predicted to decline by 1.65% annually, causing the commercial yield to also decline. Modeling indicated that the commercial yield could increase substantially if exploitation of females in ages ???12 was highly restricted. ?? 2007 Blackwell Verlag.

  15. Population viability analysis of Lower Missouri River shovelnose sturgeon with initial application to the pallid sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bajer, P.G.; Wildhaber, M.L.

    2007-01-01

    Demographic models for the shovelnose (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) and pallid (S. albus) sturgeons in the Lower Missouri River were developed to conduct sensitivity analyses for both populations. Potential effects of increased fishing mortality on the shovelnose sturgeon were also evaluated. Populations of shovelnose and pallid sturgeon were most sensitive to age-0 mortality rates as well as mortality rates of juveniles and young adults. Overall, fecundity was a less sensitive parameter. However, increased fecundity effectively balanced higher mortality among sensitive age classes in both populations. Management that increases population-level fecundity and improves survival of age-0, juveniles, and young adults should most effectively benefit both populations. Evaluation of reproductive values indicated that populations of pallid sturgeon dominated by ages ≥35 could rapidly lose their potential for growth, particularly if recruitment remains low. Under the initial parameter values portraying current conditions the population of shovelnose sturgeon was predicted to decline by 1.65% annually, causing the commercial yield to also decline. Modeling indicated that the commercial yield could increase substantially if exploitation of females in ages ≤12 was highly restricted.

  16. Novel single-nucleotide polymorphism markers confirm successful spawning of endangered pallid sturgeon in the upper Missouri River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eichelberger, Jennifer S.; Braaten, P. J.; Fuller, D. B.; Krampe, Matthew S.; Heist, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    Spawning of the federally endangered Pallid Sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus is known to occur in the upper Missouri River basin, but progeny from natural reproductive events have not been observed and recruitment to juvenile or adult life stages has not been documented in recent decades. Identification of Pallid Sturgeon progeny is confounded by the fact that Shovelnose Sturgeon S. platorynchus occurs throughout the entire range of Pallid Sturgeon and the two species are essentially indistinguishable (morphometrically and meristically) during early life stages. Moreover, free embryos of sympatric Paddlefish Polyodon spathula are very similar to the two sturgeon species. In this study, three single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assays were employed to screen acipenseriform free embryos and larvae collected from the upper Missouri River basin in 2011, 2012, and 2013. A mitochondrial DNA SNP discriminates Paddlefish from sturgeon, and specific multilocus genotypes at two nuclear DNA SNPs occurred in 98.9% of wild adult Pallid Sturgeon but only in 3% of Shovelnose Sturgeon sampled in the upper Missouri River. Individuals identified as potential Pallid Sturgeon based on SNP genotypes were further analyzed at 19 microsatellite loci for species discrimination. Out of 1,423 free embryos collected over 3 years of sampling, 971 Paddlefish, 446 Shovelnose Sturgeon, and 6 Pallid Sturgeon were identified. Additionally, 249 Scaphirhynchus spp. benthic larvae were screened, but no Pallid Sturgeon were detected. These SNP markers provide an efficient method of screening acipenseriform early life stages for the presence of Pallid Sturgeon in the Missouri River basin. Detection of wild Pallid Sturgeon free embryos in the upper Missouri and Yellowstone rivers supports the hypothesis that the failure of wild Pallid Sturgeon to recruit to the juvenile life stage in the upper Missouri River basin is caused by early life stage mortality rather than by lack of successful spawning.

  17. Gender identification of shovelnose sturgeon using ultrasonic and endoscopic imagery and the application of the method to the pallid sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wildhaber, M.L.; Papoulias, D.M.; DeLonay, A.J.; Tillitt, D.E.; Bryan, J.L.; Annis, M.L.; Allert, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Monthly sampling of shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus, a biological surrogate for the endangered pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus, was conducted to develop a multiseasonal profile of reproductive stages. Data collected included histological characteristics of gonads from wild caught fish and laboratory and field ultrasonic and endoscopic images. These data were used to compare effectiveness of ultrasonic and endoscopic techniques at identifying gender of adult shovelnose sturgeon at different reproductive stages. The least invasive method (i.e. ultrasound) was least effective while the most invasive (i.e. endoscope through an abdominal incision) was the most effective at identifying shovelnose sturgeon gender. In most cases, success rate for identifying males was greater than females, with success at identifying both genders greater in more advanced reproductive stages. Concomitantly, for most months average reproductive stage was more advanced for males than females. April and May were the months with the most advanced reproductive stage, and were the months when ultrasound was most effective. Methods were also applied in the Upper Missouri River to validate their use on pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus. Ultrasound was successful at identifying pallid sturgeon gender, however, endoscopic examination through the urogenital duct was only successful at identifying pallid sturgeon gender when the urogenital duct was not opaque. ?? 2005 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  18. Atlantic Sturgeon Spatial and Temporal Distribution in Minas Passage, Nova Scotia, Canada, a Region of Future Tidal Energy Extraction.

    PubMed

    Stokesbury, Michael J W; Logan-Chesney, Laura M; McLean, Montana F; Buhariwalla, Colin F; Redden, Anna M; Beardsall, Jeffrey W; Broome, Jeremy E; Dadswell, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    In the Bay of Fundy, Atlantic sturgeon from endangered and threatened populations in the USA and Canada migrate through Minas Passage to enter and leave Minas Basin. A total of 132 sub-adult and adult Atlantic sturgeon were tagged in Minas Basin during the summers of 2010-2014 using pressure measuring, uniquely coded, acoustic transmitters with a four or eight year life span. The aim of this study was to examine spatial and seasonal distribution of sturgeon in Minas Passage during 2010-2014 and test the hypothesis that, when present, Atlantic sturgeon were evenly distributed from north to south across Minas Passage. This information is important as tidal energy extraction using in-stream, hydrokinetic turbines is planned for only the northern portion of Minas Passage. Electronic tracking data from a total of 740 sturgeon days over four years demonstrated that Atlantic sturgeon used the southern portion of Minas Passage significantly more than the northern portion. Sturgeon moved through Minas Passage at depths mostly between 15 and 45 m (n = 10,116; mean = 31.47 m; SD = 14.88). Sturgeon mean swimming depth was not significantly related to bottom depth and in deeper regions they swam pelagically. Sturgeon predominately migrated inward through Minas Passage during spring, and outward during late summer-autumn. Sturgeon were not observed in Minas Passage during winter 2012-2013 when monitoring receivers were present. This information will enable the estimation of encounters of Atlantic sturgeon with in-stream hydrokinetic turbines.

  19. Atlantic Sturgeon Spatial and Temporal Distribution in Minas Passage, Nova Scotia, Canada, a Region of Future Tidal Energy Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Stokesbury, Michael J. W.; Logan-Chesney, Laura M.; McLean, Montana F.; Buhariwalla, Colin F.; Redden, Anna M.; Beardsall, Jeffrey W.; Broome, Jeremy E.; Dadswell, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    In the Bay of Fundy, Atlantic sturgeon from endangered and threatened populations in the USA and Canada migrate through Minas Passage to enter and leave Minas Basin. A total of 132 sub-adult and adult Atlantic sturgeon were tagged in Minas Basin during the summers of 2010–2014 using pressure measuring, uniquely coded, acoustic transmitters with a four or eight year life span. The aim of this study was to examine spatial and seasonal distribution of sturgeon in Minas Passage during 2010–2014 and test the hypothesis that, when present, Atlantic sturgeon were evenly distributed from north to south across Minas Passage. This information is important as tidal energy extraction using in-stream, hydrokinetic turbines is planned for only the northern portion of Minas Passage. Electronic tracking data from a total of 740 sturgeon days over four years demonstrated that Atlantic sturgeon used the southern portion of Minas Passage significantly more than the northern portion. Sturgeon moved through Minas Passage at depths mostly between 15 and 45 m (n = 10,116; mean = 31.47 m; SD = 14.88). Sturgeon mean swimming depth was not significantly related to bottom depth and in deeper regions they swam pelagically. Sturgeon predominately migrated inward through Minas Passage during spring, and outward during late summer-autumn. Sturgeon were not observed in Minas Passage during winter 2012–2013 when monitoring receivers were present. This information will enable the estimation of encounters of Atlantic sturgeon with in-stream hydrokinetic turbines. PMID:27383274

  20. Atlantic Sturgeon Spatial and Temporal Distribution in Minas Passage, Nova Scotia, Canada, a Region of Future Tidal Energy Extraction.

    PubMed

    Stokesbury, Michael J W; Logan-Chesney, Laura M; McLean, Montana F; Buhariwalla, Colin F; Redden, Anna M; Beardsall, Jeffrey W; Broome, Jeremy E; Dadswell, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    In the Bay of Fundy, Atlantic sturgeon from endangered and threatened populations in the USA and Canada migrate through Minas Passage to enter and leave Minas Basin. A total of 132 sub-adult and adult Atlantic sturgeon were tagged in Minas Basin during the summers of 2010-2014 using pressure measuring, uniquely coded, acoustic transmitters with a four or eight year life span. The aim of this study was to examine spatial and seasonal distribution of sturgeon in Minas Passage during 2010-2014 and test the hypothesis that, when present, Atlantic sturgeon were evenly distributed from north to south across Minas Passage. This information is important as tidal energy extraction using in-stream, hydrokinetic turbines is planned for only the northern portion of Minas Passage. Electronic tracking data from a total of 740 sturgeon days over four years demonstrated that Atlantic sturgeon used the southern portion of Minas Passage significantly more than the northern portion. Sturgeon moved through Minas Passage at depths mostly between 15 and 45 m (n = 10,116; mean = 31.47 m; SD = 14.88). Sturgeon mean swimming depth was not significantly related to bottom depth and in deeper regions they swam pelagically. Sturgeon predominately migrated inward through Minas Passage during spring, and outward during late summer-autumn. Sturgeon were not observed in Minas Passage during winter 2012-2013 when monitoring receivers were present. This information will enable the estimation of encounters of Atlantic sturgeon with in-stream hydrokinetic turbines. PMID:27383274

  1. Further Validation of the Psychosocial Costs of Racism to Whites Scale among Employed Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poteat, V. Paul; Spanierman, Lisa B.

    2008-01-01

    To examine the validity and test the generalizability of the Psychosocial Costs of Racism to Whites Scale (PCRW) beyond the original college student sample, a geographically dispersed sample of employed White adults (N = 284) in eight states completed the measure to assess for White empathic reactions toward racism, White guilt, and White fear of…

  2. White matter structure changes as adults learn a second language.

    PubMed

    Schlegel, Alexander A; Rudelson, Justin J; Tse, Peter U

    2012-08-01

    Traditional models hold that the plastic reorganization of brain structures occurs mainly during childhood and adolescence, leaving adults with limited means to learn new knowledge and skills. Research within the last decade has begun to overturn this belief, documenting changes in the brain's gray and white matter as healthy adults learn simple motor and cognitive skills [Lövdén, M., Bodammer, N. C., Kühn, S., Kaufmann, J., Schütze, H., Tempelmann, C., et al. Experience-dependent plasticity of white-matter microstructure extends into old age. Neuropsychologia, 48, 3878-3883, 2010; Taubert, M., Draganski, B., Anwander, A., Müller, K., Horstmann, A., Villringer, A., et al. Dynamic properties of human brain structure: Learning-related changes in cortical areas and associated fiber connections. The Journal of Neuroscience, 30, 11670-11677, 2010; Scholz, J., Klein, M. C., Behrens, T. E. J., & Johansen-Berg, H. Training induces changes in white-matter architecture. Nature Neuroscience, 12, 1370-1371, 2009; Draganski, B., Gaser, C., Busch, V., Schuirer, G., Bogdahn, U., & May, A. Changes in grey matter induced by training. Nature, 427, 311-312, 2004]. Although the significance of these changes is not fully understood, they reveal a brain that remains plastic well beyond early developmental periods. Here we investigate the role of adult structural plasticity in the complex, long-term learning process of foreign language acquisition. We collected monthly diffusion tensor imaging scans of 11 English speakers who took a 9-month intensive course in written and spoken Modern Standard Chinese as well as from 16 control participants who did not study a language. We show that white matter reorganizes progressively across multiple sites as adults study a new language. Language learners exhibited progressive changes in white matter tracts associated with traditional left hemisphere language areas and their right hemisphere analogs. Surprisingly, the most significant changes

  3. White matter structure changes as adults learn a second language.

    PubMed

    Schlegel, Alexander A; Rudelson, Justin J; Tse, Peter U

    2012-08-01

    Traditional models hold that the plastic reorganization of brain structures occurs mainly during childhood and adolescence, leaving adults with limited means to learn new knowledge and skills. Research within the last decade has begun to overturn this belief, documenting changes in the brain's gray and white matter as healthy adults learn simple motor and cognitive skills [Lövdén, M., Bodammer, N. C., Kühn, S., Kaufmann, J., Schütze, H., Tempelmann, C., et al. Experience-dependent plasticity of white-matter microstructure extends into old age. Neuropsychologia, 48, 3878-3883, 2010; Taubert, M., Draganski, B., Anwander, A., Müller, K., Horstmann, A., Villringer, A., et al. Dynamic properties of human brain structure: Learning-related changes in cortical areas and associated fiber connections. The Journal of Neuroscience, 30, 11670-11677, 2010; Scholz, J., Klein, M. C., Behrens, T. E. J., & Johansen-Berg, H. Training induces changes in white-matter architecture. Nature Neuroscience, 12, 1370-1371, 2009; Draganski, B., Gaser, C., Busch, V., Schuirer, G., Bogdahn, U., & May, A. Changes in grey matter induced by training. Nature, 427, 311-312, 2004]. Although the significance of these changes is not fully understood, they reveal a brain that remains plastic well beyond early developmental periods. Here we investigate the role of adult structural plasticity in the complex, long-term learning process of foreign language acquisition. We collected monthly diffusion tensor imaging scans of 11 English speakers who took a 9-month intensive course in written and spoken Modern Standard Chinese as well as from 16 control participants who did not study a language. We show that white matter reorganizes progressively across multiple sites as adults study a new language. Language learners exhibited progressive changes in white matter tracts associated with traditional left hemisphere language areas and their right hemisphere analogs. Surprisingly, the most significant changes

  4. Midlife measurements of white matter microstructure predict subsequent regional white matter atrophy in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Ly, Martina; Canu, Elisa; Xu, Guofan; Oh, Jennifer; McLaren, Donald G; Dowling, N. Maritza; Alexander, Andrew L; Sager, Mark A; Johnson, Sterling C; Bendlin, Barbara B

    2013-01-01

    Objectives While age-related brain changes are becoming better understood, midlife patterns of change are still in need of characterization, and longitudinal studies are lacking. The aim of this study was to determine if baseline fractional anisotropy (FA), obtained from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) predicts volume change over a four-year interval. Experimental design Forty-four cognitively healthy middle-age adults underwent baseline DTI and longitudinal T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Tensor Based Morphometry methods were used to evaluate volume change over time. FA values were extracted from regions of interest that included the cingulum, entorhinal white matter, and the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum. Baseline FA was used as a predictor variable, while gray and white matter atrophy rates as indexed by Tensor Based Morphometry were the dependent variables. Principal observations Over a four-year period, participants showed significant contraction of white matter, especially in frontal, temporal, and cerebellar regions (p<0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons). Baseline FA in entorhinal white matter, genu, and splenium, was associated with longitudinal rates of atrophy in regions that included the superior longitudinal fasciculus, anterior corona radiata, temporal stem, and white matter of the inferior temporal gyrus (p<0.001, uncorrected for multiple comparisons). Conclusions Brain change with aging is characterized by extensive shrinkage of white matter. Baseline white matter microstructure as indexed by DTI was associated with some of the observed regional volume loss. The findings suggest that both white matter volume loss and microstructural alterations should be considered more prominently in models of aging and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23861348

  5. Evaluate Potential Means of Rebuilding Sturgeon Populations in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams, 1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, Scott R.; Tuell, Michael A.

    2002-03-01

    In 1998 white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were captured, marked, and population data were collected in the Snake River between Lower Granite Dam and the mouth of the Salmon River. A total of 13,785 hours of setline effort and 389 hours of hook-and-line effort was employed in 1998. Of the 278 white sturgeon captured in the Snake River, 238 were marked for future identification. Three sturgeon were captured in the Salmon River and none were captured in the Clearwater River. Since 1997, 6.9% of the tagged fish have been recovered. Movement of recaptured white sturgeon ranged from 98.5 kilometers downstream to 60.7 kilometers upstream, however, less than 25% of the fish moved more than 16 kilometers (10 miles). In the Snake River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 51.5 cm to 286 cm and averaged 118.9 cm. Differences were detected in the length frequency distributions of sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir and the free-flowing Snake River (Chi-Square test, P < 0.05). In addition, the proportion of white sturgeon greater than 92 cm (total length) in the free-flowing Snake River has shown an increase of 37% since the 1970's. Analysis of the length-weight relationship indicated that white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir were slightly larger than white sturgeon in the free-flowing Snake River.

  6. HLA ASSOCIATIONS IN OBESE WHITE AND BLACK ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Merlin G.; Walton, Dominique; Zhu, Weitong; Niblack, Gary

    2016-01-01

    We summarized HLA-A and -B data from 1095 black and white adult men and women with or without obesity to determine if specific HLA tissue types are overrepresented in obese individuals compared with nonobese. None of the three HLA types (Aw30, B18, Bw35) previously reported to relate to obesity was overrepresented in obese subjects in our study. However, B14 and B41 haplotypes were overrepresented in obese white men compared with nonobese men, and B7 was overrepresented in obese black men compared with nonobese men. Additional research will be required to confirm the HLA associations we found and to determine if methodologic differences could account for the differences among the previous studies.

  7. Migration and habitats of diadromous Danube River sturgeons in Romania: 1998-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kynard, B.; Suciu, R.; Horgan, M.

    2002-01-01

    Upstream migrant adults of stellate sturgeon, Acipenser stellatus (10 in 1998, 43 in 1999) and Russian sturgeon, A. gueldenstaedtii (three in 1999) were captured at river km (rkm) 58-137, mostly in the spring, and tagged with acoustic tags offering a reward for return. The overharvest was revealed by tag returns (38% in 1998, 28% in 1999) and by harvest within 26 days (and before reaching spawning grounds) of the six stellate sturgeon tracked upstream. A drop-back of > 50% of the tagged sturgeon, some to the Black Sea, shows a high sensitivity to interruption of migration and capture/handling/holding. Harvesting and dropback prevented tracking of sturgeon to spawning sites. Gillnetting and tracking of stellate sturgeon showed that the autumn migration ended in early October (river temperature 16??C) and identified a likely wintering area at river km (rkm) 75-76 (St George Branch). Thus, fishery harvesting after early October captures wintering fish, not migrants. Rare shoreline cliffs in the lower river likely create the only rocky habitat for sturgeon spawning. A survey for potential spawning habitats found five sites with rocky substrate and moderate water velocity, all ???rkm 258. Drift netting caught early life-stages of 17 fish species and one sturgeon, a beluga, Huso huso, larva likely spawned at ???rkm 258. All diadromous Danube sturgeons likely spawn at ???rkm 258.

  8. Spawning by lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) in the Detroit River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caswell, N.M.; Peterson, D.L.; Manny, B.A.; Kennedy, G.W.

    2004-01-01

    Overfishing and habitat destruction in the early 1900s devastated lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) populations in the Great Lakes. Although a comprehensive restoration strategy for this species was recently drafted by the Michigan Department of Natural Resources, a lack of current data on Great Lakes sturgeon stocks has hindered rehabilitation efforts. Historically, the Detroit River supported one of the largest lake sturgeon populations in the Great Lakes; however, little is known about the current population or its habitat use. The main objective of this study was to determine if lake sturgeon spawns in the Detroit River. As part of a larger study, baited setlines were used to capture lake sturgeon in the Detroit River in the spring and summer of 2000 and 2001. In each year of the study, ultrasonic transmitters were surgically implanted in 10 adult fish to track their movements, evaluate habitat use and identify possible spawning sites. Using telemetry and egg mats to verify spawning activity, one spawning site was located and verified in the Detroit River. Spawning was verified by recovering sturgeon eggs deposited on egg collection mats anchored at the site. Telemetry data suggested that several other possible spawning sites also may exist, however, spawning activity was not verified at these sites.

  9. Home Remedy Use Among African American and White Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Quandt, Sara A; Sandberg, Joanne C; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Altizer, Kathryn P; Arcury, Thomas A

    2015-06-01

    Home remedy use is an often overlooked component of health self-management, with a rich tradition, particularly among African Americans and others who have experienced limited access to medical care or discrimination by the health care system. Home remedies can potentially interfere with biomedical treatments. This study documented the use of home remedies among older rural adults, and compared use by ethnicity (African American and white) and gender. A purposeful sample of 62 community-dwelling adults ages 65+ from rural North Carolina was selected. Each completed an in-depth interview, which probed current use of home remedies, including food and non-food remedies, and the symptoms or conditions for use. Systematic, computer-assisted analysis was used to identify usage patterns. Five food and five non-food remedies were used by a large proportion of older adults. African American elders reported greater use than white elders; women reported more use for a greater number of symptoms than men. Non-food remedies included long-available, over-the-counter remedies (e.g., Epsom salts) for which "offlabel" uses were reported. Use focused on alleviating common digestive, respiratory, skin, and musculoskeletal symptoms. Some were used for chronic conditions in lieu of prescription medications. Home remedy use continues to be a common feature of the health self-management of older adults, particularly among African Americans, though at lower levels than previously reported. While some use is likely helpful or benign, other use has the potential to interfere with medical management of disease. Health care providers should be aware of the use of remedies by their patients. PMID:26543255

  10. Home Remedy Use Among African American and White Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Quandt, Sara A.; Sandberg, Joanne C.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Altizer, Kathryn P.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    Home remedy use is an often overlooked component of health self-management, with a rich tradition, particularly among African Americans and others who have experienced limited access to medical care or discrimination by the health care system. Home remedies can potentially interfere with biomedical treatments. This study documented the use of home remedies among older rural adults, and compared use by ethnicity (African American and white) and gender. A purposeful sample of 62 community-dwelling adults ages 65+ from rural North Carolina was selected. Each completed an in-depth interview, which probed current use of home remedies, including food and non-food remedies, and the symptoms or conditions for use. Systematic, computer-assisted analysis was used to identify usage patterns. Five food and five non-food remedies were used by a large proportion of older adults. African American elders reported greater use than white elders; women reported more use for a greater number of symptoms than men. Non-food remedies included long-available, over-the-counter remedies (e.g., Epsom salts) for which “off-label” uses were reported. Use focused on alleviating common digestive, respiratory, skin, and musculoskeletal symptoms. Some were used for chronic conditions in lieu of prescription medications. Home remedy use continues to be a common feature of the health self-management of older adults, particularly among African Americans, though at lower levels than previously reported. While some use is likely helpful or benign, other use has the potential to interfere with medical management of disease. Health care providers should be aware of the use of remedies by their patients. PMID:26543255

  11. 33 CFR 162.125 - Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...: The Corps of Engineers also has regulations dealing with these areas in 33 CFR Part 207. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay... Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc. (a) In the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal: (1) No vessel...

  12. 33 CFR 162.125 - Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...: The Corps of Engineers also has regulations dealing with these areas in 33 CFR Part 207. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay... Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc. (a) In the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal: (1) No vessel...

  13. 33 CFR 162.125 - Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...: The Corps of Engineers also has regulations dealing with these areas in 33 CFR Part 207. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay... Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc. (a) In the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal: (1) No vessel...

  14. 33 CFR 162.125 - Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...: The Corps of Engineers also has regulations dealing with these areas in 33 CFR Part 207. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay... Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc. (a) In the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal: (1) No vessel...

  15. Do Children See in Black and White? Children's and Adults' Categorizations of Multiracial Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Steven O.; Gelman, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    Categorizations of multiracial individuals provide insight into the development of racial concepts. Children's (4-13 years) and adults', both white (Study 1) and black (Study 2) (N = 387), categorizations of multiracial individuals were examined. White children (unlike black children) more often categorized multiracial individuals as black than as white in the absence of parentage information. White and black adults (unlike children) more often categorized multiracial individuals as black than as white, even when knowing the individuals' parentage. Children's rates of in-group contact predicted their categorizations. These data suggest that a tendency to categorize multiracial individuals as black relative to white emerges early in development and results from perceptual biases in white children but ideological motives in white and black adults. PMID:26315349

  16. Do Children See in Black and White? Children's and Adults' Categorizations of Multiracial Individuals.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Steven O; Gelman, Susan A

    2015-01-01

    Categorizations of multiracial individuals provide insight into the development of racial concepts. Children's (4-13 years) and adults', both White (Study 1) and Black (Study 2; N = 387), categorizations of multiracial individuals were examined. White children (unlike Black children) more often categorized multiracial individuals as Black than as White in the absence of parentage information. White and Black adults (unlike children) more often categorized multiracial individuals as Black than as White, even when knowing the individuals' parentage. Children's rates of in-group contact predicted their categorizations. These data suggest that a tendency to categorize multiracial individuals as Black relative to White emerges early in development and results from perceptual biases in White children but ideological motives in White and Black adults.

  17. Do Children See in Black and White? Children's and Adults' Categorizations of Multiracial Individuals.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Steven O; Gelman, Susan A

    2015-01-01

    Categorizations of multiracial individuals provide insight into the development of racial concepts. Children's (4-13 years) and adults', both White (Study 1) and Black (Study 2; N = 387), categorizations of multiracial individuals were examined. White children (unlike Black children) more often categorized multiracial individuals as Black than as White in the absence of parentage information. White and Black adults (unlike children) more often categorized multiracial individuals as Black than as White, even when knowing the individuals' parentage. Children's rates of in-group contact predicted their categorizations. These data suggest that a tendency to categorize multiracial individuals as Black relative to White emerges early in development and results from perceptual biases in White children but ideological motives in White and Black adults. PMID:26315349

  18. Neurons in the White Matter of the Adult Human Neocortex

    PubMed Central

    Suárez-Solá, M. Luisa; González-Delgado, Francisco J.; Pueyo-Morlans, Mercedes; Medina-Bolívar, O. Carolina; Hernández-Acosta, N. Carolina; González-Gómez, Miriam; Meyer, Gundela

    2009-01-01

    The white matter (WM) of the adult human neocortex contains the so-called “interstitial neurons”. They are most numerous in the superficial WM underlying the cortical gyri, and decrease in density toward the deep WM. They are morphologically heterogeneous. A subgroup of interstitial neurons display pyramidal-cell like morphologies, characterized by a polarized dendritic tree with a dominant apical dendrite, and covered with a variable number of dendritic spines. In addition, a large contingent of interstitial neurons can be classified as interneurons based on their neurochemical profile as well as on morphological criteria. WM- interneurons have multipolar or bipolar shapes and express GABA and a variety of other neuronal markers, such as calbindin and calretinin, the extracellular matrix protein reelin, or neuropeptide Y, somatostatin, and nitric oxide synthase. The heterogeneity of interstitial neurons may be relevant for the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease and schizophrenia. Interstitial neurons are most prominent in human brain, and only rudimentary in the brain of non-primate mammals. These evolutionary differences have precluded adequate experimental work on this cell population, which is usually considered as a relict of the subplate, a transient compartment proper of development and without a known function in the adult brain. The primate-specific prominence of the subplate in late fetal stages points to an important role in the establishment of interstitial neurons. Neurons in the adult WM may be actively involved in coordinating inter-areal connectivity and regulation of blood flow. Further studies in primates will be needed to elucidate the developmental history, adult components and activities of this large neuronal system. PMID:19543540

  19. Gulf sturgeon spawning migration and habitat in the Choctawhatchee River system, Alabama-Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fox, D.A.; Hightower, J.E.; Parauka, F.M.

    2000-01-01

    Information about spawning migration and spawning habitat is essential to maintain and ultimately restore populations of endangered and threatened species of anadromous fish. We used ultrasonic and radiotelemetry to monitor the movements of 35 adult Gulf sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi (a subspecies of the Atlantic sturgeon A. oxyrinchus) as they moved between Choctawhatchee Bay and the Choctawhatchee River system during the spring of 1996 and 1997. Histological analysis of gonadal biopsies was used to determine the sex and reproductive status of individuals. Telemetry results and egg sampling were used to identify Gulf sturgeon spawning sites and to examine the roles that sex and reproductive status play in migratory behavior. Fertilized Gulf sturgeon eggs were collected in six locations in both the upper Choctawhatchee and Pea rivers. Hard bottom substrate, steep banks, and relatively high flows characterized collection sites. Ripe Gulf sturgeon occupied these spawning areas from late March through early May, which included the interval when Gulf sturgeon eggs were collected. For both sexes, ripe fish entered the Choctawhatchee River significantly earlier and at a lower water temperature and migrated further upstream than did nonripe fish. Males entered the Choctawhatchee River at a lower water temperature than females. Results from histology and telemetry support the hypothesis that male Gulf sturgeon may spawn annually, whereas females require more than 1 year between spawning events. Upper river hard bottom areas appear important for the successful spawning of Gulf sturgeon, and care should be taken to protect against habitat loss or degradation of known spawning habitat.

  20. A Conceptual Life-History Model for Pallid and Shovelnose Sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wildhaber, Mark L.; DeLonay, Aaron J.; Papoulias, Diana M.; Galat, David L.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Simpkins, Darin G.; Braaten, P. J.; Korschgen, Carl E.; Mac, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Intensive management of the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers has resulted in dramatic physical changes to these rivers. These changes have been implicated as causative agents in the decline of pallid sturgeon. The pallid sturgeon, federally listed as endangered, is endemic to the turbid waters of the Missouri River and the Lower Mississippi River. The sympatric shovelnose sturgeon historically was more common and widespread than the pallid sturgeon. Habitat alteration, river regulation, pollution, and over-harvest have resulted in the now predictable patterns of decline and localized extirpation of sturgeon across species and geographic areas. Symptomatic of this generalized pattern of decline is poor reproductive success, and low or no recruitment of wild juveniles to the adult population. The purpose of this report is to introduce a conceptual life-history model of the factors that affect reproduction, growth, and survival of shovelnose and pallid sturgeons. The conceptual model provided here was developed to organize the understanding about the complex life history of Scaphirhynchus sturgeons. It was designed to be used for communication, planning, and to provide the structure for a population-forecasting model. These models are intended to be dynamic and responsive to new information and changes in river management, thereby providing scientists, stakeholders, and managers with ways to improve understanding of the effects of management actions on the ecological requirements of Scaphirhynchus sturgeons. As new scientific knowledge becomes available, it could be included in the model in many ways at various integration levels.

  1. Evaluate Potential Means of Rebuilding Sturgeon Populations in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, Scott R.; Tuell, Michael A.

    2003-03-01

    The specific research goal of this project is to identify means to restore and rebuild the Snake River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population to support a sustainable annual subsistence harvest equivalent to 5 kg/ha/yr (CBFWA 1997). Based on data collected, a white sturgeon adaptive management plan will be developed. This 2001 annual report covers the fifth year of sampling of this multi-year study. In 2001 white sturgeon were captured, marked, and population data were collected in the Snake and Salmon rivers. The Snake River was sampled between Lower Granite Dam (rkm 174) and the mouth of the Salmon River (rkm 303), and the Salmon River was sampled from its mouth upstream to Hammer Creek (rkm 84). A total of 45,907 hours of setline effort and 186 hours of hook-and-line effort was employed in 2001. A total of 390 white sturgeon were captured and tagged in the Snake River and 12 in the Salmon River. Since 1997, 36.1 percent of the tagged white sturgeon have been recaptured. In the Snake River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 42 cm to 307 cm and averaged 107 cm. In the Salmon River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 66 cm to 235 cm and averaged 160 cm. Using the Jolly-Seber model, the abundance of white sturgeon <60 cm, between Lower Granite Dam and the mouth of the Salmon River, was estimated at 2,483 fish, with a 95% confidence interval of 1,208-7,477. An additional 10 white sturgeon were fitted with radio-tags during 2001. The locations of 17 radio-tagged white sturgeon were monitored in 2001. The movement of these fish ranged from 38.6 km (24 miles) downstream to 54.7 km (34 miles) upstream; however, 62.6 percent of the detected movement was less than 0.8 km (0.5 mile). Both radio-tagged fish and recaptured white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir appear to move more than fish in the free-flowing segment of the Snake River. No seasonal movement pattern was detected, and no movement pattern was detected for different size fish

  2. White Matter Neurons in Young Adult and Aged Rhesus Monkey

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, Farzad; Wang, Xiyue; Rosene, Douglas L.; Rockland, Kathleen S.

    2016-01-01

    In humans and non-human primates (NHP), white matter neurons (WMNs) persist beyond early development. Their functional importance is largely unknown, but they have both corticothalamic and corticocortical connectivity and at least one subpopulation has been implicated in vascular regulation and sleep. Several other studies have reported that the density of WMNs in humans is altered in neuropathological or psychiatric conditions. The present investigation evaluates and compares the density of superficial and deep WMNs in frontal (FR), temporal (TE), and parietal (Par) association regions of four young adult and four aged male rhesus monkeys. A major aim was to determine whether there was age-related neuronal loss, as might be expected given the substantial age-related changes known to occur in the surrounding white matter environment. Neurons were visualized by immunocytochemistry for Neu-N in coronal tissue sections (30 μm thickness), and neuronal density was assessed by systematic random sampling. Per 0.16 mm2 sampling box, this yielded about 40 neurons in the superficial WM and 10 in the deep WM. Consistent with multiple studies of cell density in the cortical gray matter of normal brains, neither the superficial nor deep WM populations showed statistically significant age-related neuronal loss, although we observed a moderate decrease with age for the deep WMNs in the frontal region. Morphometric analyses, in contrast, showed significant age effects in soma size and circularity. In specific, superficial WMNs were larger in FR and Par WM regions of the young monkeys; but in the TE, these were larger in the older monkeys. An age effect was also observed for soma circularity: superficial WMNs were more circular in FR and Par of the older monkeys. This second, morphometric result raises the question of whether other age-related morphological, connectivity, or molecular changes occur in the WMNs. These could have multiple impacts, given the wide range of putative

  3. Evaluate Potential Means of Rebuilding Sturgeon Populations in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Tuell, Michael A.; Everett, Scott R.

    2003-03-01

    The specific research goal of this project is to identify means to restore and rebuild the Snake River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population to support a sustainable annual subsistence harvest equivalent to 5 kg/ha/yr (CBFWA 1997). Based on data collected, a white sturgeon adaptive management plan will be developed. This 1999 annual report covers the third year of sampling of this multi-year study. In 1999 white sturgeon were captured, marked and population data were collected in the Snake and Salmon rivers. A total of 33,943 hours of setline effort and 2,112 hours of hook-and-line effort was employed in 1999. A total of 289 white sturgeon were captured and tagged in the Snake River and 29 in the Salmon River. Since 1997, 11.1 percent of the tagged white sturgeon have been recaptured. In the Snake River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 27 cm to 261 cm and averaged 110 cm. In the Salmon River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 98 cm to 244 cm and averaged 183.5 cm. Using the Jolly-Seber model, the abundance of white sturgeon < 60 cm, between Lower Granite Dam and the mouth of the Salmon River, was estimated at 1,823 fish, with a 95% confidence interval of 1,052-4,221. A total of 15 white sturgeon were fitted with radio-tags. The movement of these fish ranged from 6.4 km (4 miles) downstream to 13.7 km (8.5 miles) upstream; however, 83.6 percent of the detected movement was less than 0.8 kilometers (0.5 miles). Both radio-tagged fish and recaptured white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir appear to move more than fish in the free-flowing segment of the Snake River. No seasonal movement pattern was detected, and no movement pattern was detected for different size fish. Differences were detected in the length frequency distributions of white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir and the free-flowing Snake River (Chi-Square test, P < 0.05). The proportion of white sturgeon greater than 92 cm (total length) in the free-flowing Snake River

  4. Evaluate Potential Means of Rebuilding Sturgeon Populations in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, Scott R.; Tuell, Michael A.

    2003-03-01

    The specific research goal of this project is to identify means to restore and rebuild the Snake River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population to support a sustainable annual subsistence harvest equivalent to 5 kg/ha/yr (CBFWA 1997). Based on data collected, a white sturgeon adaptive management plan will be developed. This 2000 annual report covers the fourth year of sampling of this multi-year study. In 2000 white sturgeon were captured, marked, and population data were collected in the Snake and Salmon rivers. The Snake River was sampled between Lower Granite Dam (rkm 174) and the mouth of the Salmon River (rkm 303), and the Salmon River was sampled from its mouth upstream to Hammer Creek (rkm 84). A total of 53,277 hours of setline effort and 630 hours of hook-and-line effort was employed in 2000. A total of 538 white sturgeon were captured and tagged in the Snake River and 25 in the Salmon River. Since 1997, 32.8 percent of the tagged white sturgeon have been recaptured. In the Snake River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 48 cm to 271 cm and averaged 107 cm. In the Salmon River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 103 cm to 227 cm and averaged 163 cm. Using the Jolly-Seber open population estimator, the abundance of white sturgeon <60 cm, between Lower Granite Dam and the mouth of the Salmon River, was estimated at 2,725 fish, with a 95% confidence interval of 1,668-5,783. A total of 10 white sturgeon were fitted with radio-tags. The movement of these fish ranged from 54.7 km (34 miles) downstream to 78.8 km (49 miles) upstream; however, 43.6 percent of the detected movement was less than 0.8 km (0.5 mile). Both radio-tagged fish and recaptured white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir appear to move more than fish in the free-flowing segment of the Snake River. No seasonal movement pattern was detected, and no movement pattern was detected for different size fish. Differences were detected in the length frequency distributions of

  5. New disease records for hatchery-reared sturgeon. II. Phaeohyphomycosis due to Veronaea botryosa.

    PubMed

    Steckler, Natalie K; Yanong, Roy P E; Pouder, Deborah B; Nyaoke, Akinyi; Sutton, Deanna A; Lindner, Jonathan R; Wickes, Brian L; Frasca, Salvatore; Wolf, Jeffrey C; Waltzek, Thomas B

    2014-10-16

    A series of fungal cases in hatchery-reared juvenile and young adult Siberian sturgeon Acipenser baerii and white sturgeon A. transmontanus occurred at production facilities in Florida and California, USA, respectively. Affected fish exhibited abnormal orientation and/or buoyancy, emaciation, coelomic distension, exophthalmos, cutaneous erythema, and ulcerative skin and eye lesions. Necropsies revealed haemorrhage throughout the coelom, serosanguinous coelomic effusion and organomegaly with nodular or cystic lesions in multiple organs. Fungal hyphae were observed in 27 fish (24 A. baerii and 3 A. transmontanus) via microscopic examination of tissue wet mounts and on slides prepared from colonies grown on culture media. Histopathological examination of these infected tissues revealed extensive infiltration by melanised fungal hyphae that were recovered in culture. Phenotypic characteristics and sequencing of the fungal isolates with the use of the internal transcribed spacer region and 28S rRNA gene confirmed the aetiological agent as Veronaea botryosa. To our knowledge, this is the first documentation of V. botryosa infection in fish, although melanised fungi of the closely related genus Exophiala are well-known pathogens of freshwater and marine fishes. PMID:25320035

  6. White matter hyperintensity volume and impaired mobility among older adults

    PubMed Central

    Willey, Joshua Z.; Scarmeas, Nikolaos; Provenzano, Frank A.; Luchsinger, José A.; Mayeux, Richard; Brickman, Adam M.

    2012-01-01

    Gait speed is associated with multiple adverse outcomes of aging. White matter hyperintensities (WMH) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been associated with gait speed, though few studies have examined changes in gait speed over time in population-based studies comprising participants from diverse cultural backgrounds. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between a decline in gait speed and total and regional WMH volumes in a community-based study of aging. Participants (n=701) in a community-based study of older adults underwent gait speed measurement via a 4-meter walk test at the time of initial enrollment and MRI at a second time interval (mean 4.7[SD=0.5] years apart). Logistic regression was used to examine the association between large WMH volume and regional WMH volume with gait speed < 0.5 m/s (abnormal speed), and a transition to abnormal gait speed. Analyses were adjusted for demographic and clinical factors. Large WMH volume was associated with a transition to abnormal gait speed between the two visits, but not after adjustment for modifiable vascular disease risk factors. In adjusted models increased frontal lobe WMH volume was not associated with a transition to abnormal gait speed. WMH are associated with slowing of gait over time. Prevention of WMH presents a potential strategy for the prevention of gait speed decline. PMID:23128969

  7. Evaluate Potential Means of Rebuilding Sturgeon Populations in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams, 1997 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hoefs, Nancy

    2004-02-01

    During 1997 the first phase of the Nez Perce Tribe White Sturgeon Project was completed and the second phase was initiated. During Phase I the ''Upper Snake River White Sturgeon Biological Assessment'' was completed, successfully: (1) compiling regional white sturgeon management objectives, and (2) identifying potential mitigation actions needed to rebuild the white sturgeon population in the Snake River between Hells Canyon and Lower Granite dams. Risks and uncertainties associated with implementation of these potential mitigative actions could not be fully assessed because critical information concerning the status of the population and their habitat requirements were unknown. The biological risk assessment identified the fundamental information concerning the white sturgeon population that is needed to fully evaluate the effectiveness of alternative mitigative strategies. Accordingly, a multi-year research plan was developed to collect specific biological and environmental data needed to assess the health and status of the population and characterize habitat used for spawning and rearing. In addition, in 1997 Phase II of the project was initiated. White sturgeon were captured, marked, and population data were collected between Lower Granite Dam and the mouth of the Salmon River. During 1997, 316 white sturgeon were captured in the Snake River. Of these, 298 were marked. Differences in the fork length frequency distributions of the white sturgeon were not affected by collection method. No significant differences in length frequency distributions of sturgeon captured in Lower Granite Reservoir and the mid- and upper free-flowing reaches of the Snake River were detected. The length frequency distribution indicated that white sturgeon between 92 and 183 cm are prevalent in the reaches of the Snake River that were sampled. However, white sturgeon >183 have not changed markedly since 1970. I would speculate that some factor other than past over-fishing practices is

  8. 33 CFR 117.1101 - Sturgeon Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Michigan Street Bridge, mile 4.3 at Sturgeon Bay, shall open as follows: (1) From March 15 through December... draw of the Bayview (SR 42/57) Bridge, mile 3.0 at Sturgeon Bay, shall open as follows: (1) From March... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay. 117.1101...

  9. 33 CFR 117.1101 - Sturgeon Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Michigan Street Bridge, mile 4.3 at Sturgeon Bay, shall open as follows: (1) From March 15 through December... draw of the Bayview (SR 42/57) Bridge, mile 3.0 at Sturgeon Bay, shall open as follows: (1) From March... passage. (c) The draw of the Maple-Oregon Bridge at Mile 4.17 at Sturgeon Bay, shall operate as...

  10. 50 CFR 223.211 - Atlantic sturgeon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Atlantic sturgeon. 223.211 Section 223... Applicable to Threatened Marine and Anadromous Species § 223.211 Atlantic sturgeon. (a) Prohibitions. The... sturgeon listed in § 223.102(c)(29). (b)...

  11. 33 CFR 117.1101 - Sturgeon Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay. 117.1101 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Wisconsin § 117.1101 Sturgeon Bay. (a) The draw of the Michigan Street Bridge, mile 4.3 at Sturgeon Bay, shall open as follows: (1) From March 15 through...

  12. Evaluate Potenial Means of Rebuilding Sturgeon Populations in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams, 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, Scott R.; Tuell, Michael A.; Hesse, Jay A.

    2004-02-01

    The specific research goal of this project is to identify means to restore and rebuild the Snake River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population to support a sustainable annual subsistence harvest equivalent to 5 kg/ha/yr (CBFWA 1997). Based on data collected, a white sturgeon adaptive management plan will be developed. This report presents a summary of results from the 1997-2002 Phase II data collection and represents the end of phase II. From 1997 to 2001 white sturgeon were captured, marked, and population data were collected in the Snake and Salmon. A total of 1,785 white sturgeon were captured and tagged in the Snake River and 77 in the Salmon River. Since 1997, 25.8 percent of the tagged white sturgeon have been recaptured. Relative density of white sturgeon was highest in the free-flowing segment of the Snake River, with reduced densities of fish in Lower Granite Reservoir, and low densities the Salmon River. Differences were detected in the length frequency distributions of white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir, the free-flowing Snake River and the Salmon River (Chi-Square test, P<0.05). The proportion of white sturgeon greater than 92 cm (total length) in the free-flowing Snake River has shown an increase of 30 percent since the 1970's. Using the Jolly-Seber model, the abundance of white sturgeon <60 cm, between Lower Granite Dam and the mouth of the Salmon River, was estimated at 2,483 fish, with a 95% confidence interval of 1,208-7,477. Total annual mortality rate was estimated to be 0.14 (95% confidence interval of 0.12 to 0.17). A total of 35 white sturgeon were fitted with radio-tags during 1999-2002. The movement of these fish ranged from 53 km (33 miles) downstream to 77 km (48 miles) upstream; however, 38.8 percent of the detected movement was less than 0.8 km (0.5 mile). Both radio-tagged fish and recaptured white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir appear to move more than fish in the free-flowing segment of the Snake River. No

  13. Life history and status of shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) in the Potomac River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kieffer, Micah

    2009-01-01

    We collected the first life history information on shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) in any of the rivers to Chesapeake Bay, the geographic center of the species range. In the Potomac River, two telemetry-tagged adult females used 124 km of river: a saltwater/freshwater reach at river km (rkm) 63-141 was the foraging-wintering concentration area, and one female migrated to spawn at rkm 187 in Washington, DC. The spawning migration explained the life history context of an adult captured 122 years ago in Washington, DC, supporting the idea that a natal population once lived in the river. Repeated homing migrations to foraging and wintering areas suggested the adults were residents, not transient coastal migrants. All habitats that adults need to complete life history are present in the river. The Potomac River shortnose sturgeon offers a rare opportunity to learn about the natural rebuilding of a sturgeon population.

  14. Life history and status of shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) in the potomac river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kynard, B.; Breece, M.; Atcheson, M.; Kieffer, M.; Mangold, M.

    2009-01-01

    We collected the first life history information on shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) in any of the rivers to Chesapeake Bay, the geographic center of the species range. In the Potomac River, two telemetry-tagged adult females used 124 km of river: A saltwater/freshwater reach at river km (rkm) 63-141 was the foraging-wintering concentration area, and one female migrated to spawn at rkm 187 in Washington, DC. The spawning migration explained the life history context of an adult captured 122 years ago in Washington, DC, supporting the idea that a natal population once lived in the river. Repeated homing migrations to foraging and wintering areas suggested the adults were residents, not transient coastal migrants. All habitats that adults need to complete life history are present in the river. The Potomac River shortnose sturgeon offers a rare opportunity to learn about the natural rebuilding of a sturgeon population. ?? 2009 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

  15. The Utility of Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring for Diagnosing White Coat Hypertension in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Kristi; Bowling, C Barrett; Sim, John J; Sridharan, Lakshmi; Harrison, Teresa N; Shimbo, Daichi

    2015-11-01

    The beneficial effect of antihypertensive medication on reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events is supported by data from randomized controlled trials of older adults with hypertension. However, in clinical practice, overtreatment of hypertension in older adults may lead to side effects and an increased risk of falls. The diagnosis and treatment of hypertension is primarily based on blood pressure measurements obtained in the clinic setting. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) complements clinic blood pressure by measuring blood pressure in the out-of-clinic setting. ABPM can be used to identify white coat hypertension, defined as elevated clinic blood pressure and non-elevated ambulatory blood pressure. White coat hypertension is common in older adults but does not appear to be associated with an increased risk of CVD events among this population. Herein, we review the current literature on ABPM in the diagnoses of white coat hypertension in older adults, including its potential role in preventing overtreatment.

  16. The Utility of Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring for Diagnosing White Coat Hypertension in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Kristi; Bowling, C Barrett; Sim, John J; Sridharan, Lakshmi; Harrison, Teresa N; Shimbo, Daichi

    2015-11-01

    The beneficial effect of antihypertensive medication on reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events is supported by data from randomized controlled trials of older adults with hypertension. However, in clinical practice, overtreatment of hypertension in older adults may lead to side effects and an increased risk of falls. The diagnosis and treatment of hypertension is primarily based on blood pressure measurements obtained in the clinic setting. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) complements clinic blood pressure by measuring blood pressure in the out-of-clinic setting. ABPM can be used to identify white coat hypertension, defined as elevated clinic blood pressure and non-elevated ambulatory blood pressure. White coat hypertension is common in older adults but does not appear to be associated with an increased risk of CVD events among this population. Herein, we review the current literature on ABPM in the diagnoses of white coat hypertension in older adults, including its potential role in preventing overtreatment. PMID:26400076

  17. North American sturgeon otolith morphology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Dittman, Dawn E.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate expedient species identification of deceased sturgeon (Acipenseridae) when external physical characteristic analysis is inconclusive has become a high priority due to the endangered or threatened status of sturgeon species around the world. Examination of otoliths has provided useful information to aid in population management, age and size-class analysis, understanding predator–prey interactions, and archeological research in other fish species. The relationship between otolith characteristics and sturgeon species has remained unknown. Therefore, we analyzed the shape of otoliths from the eight species of sturgeon found in North America to test the utility of otolith characteristic morphology in species identification. There were distinct differences in the size and shape of the otoliths between species of sturgeon with little shape variation among individuals of the same species. The relationship between otolith length axes was linear, and most of the variability was explained by a Log (axis + 1) transformation of the x and y axes (r2 = 0.8983) using the equation y = 0.73x + 0.0612. Images of otoliths from all eight North American species are presented to assist in the identification process.

  18. Ontogenetic behavior, migration, and social behavior of pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus, and shovelnose sturgeon, S. platorynchus, with notes on the adaptive significance of body color

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kynard, B.; Henyey, E.; Horgan, M.

    2002-01-01

    We conducted laboratory studies on the ontogenetic behavior of free embryos (first life interval after hatching) and larvae (first feeding interval) of pallid and shovelnose sturgeon. Migration styles of both species were similar for timing of migration (initiation by embryos on day 0 after hatching and cessation by larvae on days 12-13 at 236-243 cumulative temperature degree units), migration distance (about 13 km), life interval when most distance was moved (embryo), and diel behavior of embryos (diurnal). However, the species differed for two behaviors: movement characteristics of embryos (peak movement rate of pallid sturgeon was only one-half the peak rate of shovelnose sturgeon, but pallid sturgeon continued the lower rate for twice as long) and diel behavior of larvae (pallid sturgeon were diurnal and shovelnose sturgeon were nocturnal). Thus, the species used different methods to move the same distance. Migrating as poorly developed embryos suggests a migration style to avoid predation at the spawning site, but moving from spawning habitat to rearing habitat before first feeding could also be important. Migrants of both species preferred bright habitat (high illumination intensity and white substrate), a behavioral preference that may characterize the migrants of many species of sturgeon. Both species were remarkably similar for swimming height above the bottom by age, and day 7 and older migrants may swim far above the bottom and move far downstream. A migration of 12 or 13 days will probably not distribute larvae throughout the population's range, so an older life interval likely initiates a second longer downstream migration (2-step migration). By day 2, individuals of both species were a black-tail phenotype (light grey body with a black-tail that moved conspicuously during swimming). Aggregation behavior suggests that black-tail is a visual signal used for group cohesion.

  19. Anomalous White Matter Morphology in Adults Who Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cieslak, Matthew; Ingham, Rojer J.; Ingham, Janis C.; Grafton, Scott T.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Developmental stuttering is now generally considered to arise from genetic determinants interacting with neurologic function. Changes within speech-motor white matter (WM) connections may also be implicated. These connections can now be studied in great detail by high-angular-resolution diffusion magnetic resonance imaging. Therefore,…

  20. Capture locations and growth rates of Atlantic sturgeon in the Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welsh, S.A.; Eyler, S.M.; Mangold, M.F.; Spells, A.J.

    2002-01-01

    Little information exists on temporal and spatial distributions of wild and hatchery-reared Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus in the Chesapeake Bay. Approximately 3,300 hatchery-reared Atlantic sturgeon comprised of two size groups were released into the Nanticoke River, a tributary of the Chesapeake Bay, on 8 July 1996. During January 1996-May 2000, 1099 Atlantic sturgeon were captured incidentally (i.e., bycatch) by commercial watermen in the Chesapeake Bay, including 420 hatchery-reared individuals. Wild and hatchery-reared Atlantic sturgeon were captured primarily in pound nets and gill nets. Biologists tagged each fish and recorded weight, length, and location of capture. Although two adults greater than 2000 mm fork length (FL) were captured in Maryland waters, wild sturgeon were primarily juveniles from Maryland and Virginia waters (415 and 259 individuals below 1000 mm FL, respectively). A growth rate of 0.565 mm/d (N = 15, SE = 0.081) was estimated for wild individuals (487-944 mm TL at release) at liberty from 30 to 622 d. The average growth of the group of hatchery-reared Atlantic sturgeon raised at 10??C exceeded that of the group raised at 17??C. Our distributional data based on capture locations are biased by fishery dependence and gear selectivity. These data are informative to managers, however, because commercial effort is widely distributed in the Chesapeake Bay, and little distributional data were available before this study.

  1. Ecological requirements for pallid sturgeon reproduction and recruitment in the Missouri River: annual report 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeLonay, Aaron J.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Chojnacki, Kimberly A.; Annis, Mandy L.; Braaten, P. J.; Elliott, Caroline M.; Fuller, D. B.; Haas, Justin D.; Haddix, Tyler M.; Ladd, Hallie L.A.; McElroy, Brandon J.; Mestl, Gerald E.; Papoulias, Diana M.; Rhoten, Jason C.; Wildhaber, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    The Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Project is a multiyear, multiagency collaborative research framework developed to provide information to support pallid sturgeon recovery and Missouri River management decisions. The project strategy integrates field and laboratory studies of sturgeon reproductive ecology, early life history, habitat requirements, and physiology. The project scope of work is developed annually with cooperating research partners and in collaboration with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Missouri River Recovery—Integrated Science Program. The research consists of several interdependent and complementary tasks that engage multiple disciplines. The research tasks in the 2011 scope of work emphasized understanding of reproductive migrations and spawning of adult sturgeon, and hatch and drift of larvae. These tasks were addressed in three hydrologically and geomorphologically distinct parts of the Missouri River Basin: the Lower Missouri River downstream from Gavins Point Dam, the Upper Missouri River downstream from Fort Peck Dam and including downstream reaches of the Milk River, and the Lower Yellowstone River. The research is designed to inform management decisions related to channel re-engineering, flow modification, and pallid sturgeon population augmentation on the Missouri River, and throughout the range of the species. Research and progress made through this project are reported to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers annually. This annual report details the research effort and progress made by the Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Project during 2011.

  2. Ecological requirements for pallid sturgeon reproduction and recruitment in the Missouri River—Annual report 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Delonay, Aaron J.; Chojnacki, Kimberly A.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Braaten, Patrick J.; Buhl, Kevin J.; Elliott, Caroline M.; Erwin, Susannah O.; Faulkner, Jacob D.A.; Candrl, James S.; Fuller, David B.; Backes, Kenneth M.; Haddix, Tyler M.; Rugg, Matthew L.; Wesolek, Christopher J.; Eder, Brandon L.; Mestl, Gerald E.

    2016-03-16

    The Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Project is a multiyear, multiagency collaborative research framework developed to provide information to support pallid sturgeon recovery and Missouri River management decisions. The project strategy integrates field and laboratory studies of sturgeon reproductive ecology, early life history, habitat requirements, and physiology. The project scope of work is developed annually with collaborating research partners and in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Missouri River Recovery Program–Integrated Science Program. The project research consists of several interdependent and complementary tasks that involve multiple disciplines.The project research tasks in the 2014 scope of work emphasized understanding of reproductive migrations and spawning of adult pallid sturgeon and hatch and drift of larvae. These tasks were addressed in three hydrologically and geomorphologically distinct parts of the Missouri River Basin: the Lower Missouri River downstream from Gavins Point Dam, the Upper Missouri River downstream from Fort Peck Dam and downstream reaches of the Milk River, and the Lower Yellowstone River. The project research is designed to inform management decisions related to channel re-engineering, flow modification, and pallid sturgeon population augmentation on the Missouri River and throughout the range of the species. Research and progress made through this project are reported to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers annually. This annual report details the research effort and progress made by the Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Project during 2014.

  3. Ecological requirements for pallid sturgeon reproduction and recruitment in the Missouri River—Annual report 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Delonay, Aaron J.; Chojnacki, Kimberly A.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Braaten, Patrick J.; Buhl, Kevin J.; Elliott, Caroline M.; Erwin, Susannah O.; Faulkner, Jacob D.A.; Candrl, James S.; Fuller, David B.; Backes, Kenneth M.; Haddix, Tyler M.; Rugg, Matthew L.; Wesolek, Christopher J.; Eder, Brandon L.; Mestl, Gerald E.

    2016-01-01

    The Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Project is a multiyear, multiagency collaborative research framework developed to provide information to support pallid sturgeon recovery and Missouri River management decisions. The project strategy integrates field and laboratory studies of sturgeon reproductive ecology, early life history, habitat requirements, and physiology. The project scope of work is developed annually with collaborating research partners and in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Missouri River Recovery Program–Integrated Science Program. The project research consists of several interdependent and complementary tasks that involve multiple disciplines.The project research tasks in the 2014 scope of work emphasized understanding of reproductive migrations and spawning of adult pallid sturgeon and hatch and drift of larvae. These tasks were addressed in three hydrologically and geomorphologically distinct parts of the Missouri River Basin: the Lower Missouri River downstream from Gavins Point Dam, the Upper Missouri River downstream from Fort Peck Dam and downstream reaches of the Milk River, and the Lower Yellowstone River. The project research is designed to inform management decisions related to channel re-engineering, flow modification, and pallid sturgeon population augmentation on the Missouri River and throughout the range of the species. Research and progress made through this project are reported to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers annually. This annual report details the research effort and progress made by the Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Project during 2014.

  4. Response of spawning lake sturgeons to change in hydroelectric facility operation

    SciTech Connect

    Auer, N.A.

    1996-01-01

    Spawning of lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens was documented from 1987 to 1992 below the Prickett hydroelectric facility on the Sturgeon River, a tributary to Portage Lake, Michigan. Lake sturgeons were captured at the spawning site with dip nets during periods of reduced flow. A change in the spawning characteristics of the population was noted that corresponded to a changed in the operation of the hydroelectric facility. In 1987 and 1988 the facility operated in a peaking mode, which resulted in large daily fluctuations in river flows. The years 1989 and 1990 were years of transition, and in 1991 and 1992 the facility released near run-of-the-river (ROR) flows. Under near-ROR flows, which were more natural, adult lake sturgeons spent 4-6 weeks less at the spawning sites, 74% more fish were observed, weights were greater due to a 68% increase in number of females, and fish had increased reproductive readiness. The change in flow regime was the result of a Federal Energy Regulatory Commission relicensing action. The positive response observed in lake sturgeon spawning activity that resulted from the change of facility operation to near-ROR flows should be beneficial to the survival and perpetuation of this population. Similar results may be experienced in other lake sturgeon waters affected by manipulated flow regimes. 28 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Chemical characteristics and antithrombotic effect of chondroitin sulfates from sturgeon skull and sturgeon backbone.

    PubMed

    Gui, Meng; Song, Juyi; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Shun; Wu, Ruiyun; Ma, Changwei; Li, Pinglan

    2015-06-01

    Chondroitin sulfates (CSs) were extracted from sturgeon skull and backbone, and their chemical composition, anticoagulant, anti-platelet and thrombolysis activities were evaluated. The average molecular weights of CS from sturgeon skull and backbone were 38.5kDa and 49.2kDa, respectively. Disaccharide analysis indicated that the sturgeon backbone CS was primarily composed of disaccharide monosulfated in position four of the GalNAc (37.8%) and disaccharide monosulfated in position six of the GalNAc (59.6%) while sturgeon skull CS was primarily composed of nonsulfated disaccharide (74.2%). Sturgeon backbone CS showed stronger antithrombotic effect than sturgeon skull CS. Sturgeon backbone CS could significantly prolong activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and thrombin time (TT), inhibited ADP-induced platelet aggregation and dissolved platelet plasma clots in vitro. The results suggested that sturgeon backbone CS can be explored as a functional food with antithrombotic function.

  6. Lake sturgeon population attributes and reproductive structure in the Namakan Reservoir, Minnesota and Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shaw, S. L.; Chipps, Steven R.; Windels, S. K.; Webb, M.A.H.; McLeod, D. T.; Willis, D.W.

    2012-01-01

    Quantified were the age, growth, mortality and reproductive structure of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) collected in the US and Canadian waters of the Namakan Reservoir. The hypotheses were tested that (i) age and growth of lake sturgeon in the Namakan Reservoir would differ by sex and reproductive stage of maturity, and (ii) that the relative strength of year-classes of lake sturgeon in the reservoir would be affected by environmental variables. To quantify age, growth and mortality of the population, existing data was used from a multi-agency database containing information on all lake sturgeon sampled in the reservoir from 2004 to 2009. Lake sturgeon were sampled in the Minnesota and Ontario waters of the Namakan Reservoir using multi-filament gillnets 1.8 m high and 30–100 m long and varying in mesh size from 178 to 356 mm stretch. Reproductive structure of the lake sturgeon was assessed only during spring 2008 and 2009 using plasma testosterone and estradiol-17β concentrations. Ages of lake sturgeon >75 cm ranged from 9 to 86 years (n = 533, mean = 36 years). A catch-curve analysis using the 1981–1953 year classes estimated total annual mortality of adults to be 4.8% and annual survival as 95.2%. Using logistic regression analysis, it was found that total annual precipitation was positively associated with lake sturgeon year-class strength in the Namakan Reservoir. A 10 cm increase in total annual precipitation was associated with at least a 39% increase in the odds of occurrence of a strong year class of lake sturgeon in the reservoir. Plasma steroid analysis revealed a sex ratio of 2.4 females: 1 male and, on average, 10% of female and 30% of male lake sturgeon were reproductively mature each year (i.e. potential spawners). Moreover, there was evidence based on re-captured male fish of both periodic and annual spawning, as well as the ability of males to rapidly undergo gonadal maturation prior to spawning. Knowledge of lake sturgeon

  7. Effects of acoustic tag implantation on lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens: lack of evidence for changes in behavior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hondorp, Darryl W.; Holbrook, Christopher; Krueger, Charles C.

    2015-01-01

    An assumption of studies using acoustic telemetry is that surgical implantation of acoustic transmitters or tags does not alter behavior of tagged individuals. Evaluating the validity of this assumption can be difficult for large fish, such as adult sturgeons, not amenable to controlled laboratory experimentation. The purpose of this study was to determine if and when this assumption was valid for adult lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens tagged with large (34 g) acoustic transmitters and released into the St. Clair River during 2011–2014. The hypothesis that activity and reach-scale distributions of tagged and untagged lake sturgeon did not differ was tested by comparing movement frequencies, movement rates (speed-over-ground), and location-specific detection probabilities between newly-tagged lake sturgeon and presumably fully-recovered conspecifics tagged and released in prior years.

  8. 33 CFR 162.125 - Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...: The Corps of Engineers also has regulations dealing with these areas in 33 CFR Part 207. ... Ship Canal, Wisc. 162.125 Section 162.125 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc. (a) In the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal: (1) No vessel...

  9. Self-reported health status of vietnamese and non-Hispanic white older adults in california.

    PubMed

    Sorkin, Dara; Tan, Angela L; Hays, Ron D; Mangione, Carol M; Ngo-Metzger, Quyen

    2008-08-01

    Vietnamese Americans are a rapidly growing minority group in the United States, yet little is known about their health status. Chronic medical conditions and self-rated health of older Vietnamese Americans were compared with those of non-Hispanic white adults living in California using the 2001 and 2003 California Health Interview Surveys (CHISs). The CHIS employed a random-digit-dial telephone survey, and its sample is representative of California's noninstitutionalized population. The sample included 359 Vietnamese and 25,177 non-Hispanic white adults aged 55 and older. Vietnamese and non-Hispanic white adults were compared in terms of limitations in activities of daily living, chronic medical conditions (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, heart disease, asthma), mental health care, and self-reported health, adjusting for age, sex, and education. Vietnamese were more likely than white participants to report needing help for mental health problems (adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=2.1, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.4-3.1) but less likely to have had their medical providers discuss their mental health problems with them (aOR=0.3, 95% CI=0.1-0.5). In addition, Vietnamese participants reported significantly worse health than white adults on five of eight domains of the Medical Outcomes Survery 12-item Short Form survey (P<.006). Clinicians caring for older Vietnamese individuals should be aware of the high risk for mental health needs in this population and should initiate discussions about mental health with their patients. Further research is needed to better understand why older Vietnamese Americans are at higher risk for worse self-reported health than older white adults.

  10. Frontal White Matter Integrity Predictors of Adult Alcohol Treatment Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Sorg, Scott F.; Taylor, Michael J.; Alhassoon, Omar M.; Gongvatana, Assawin; Theilmann, Rebecca J.; Frank, Lawrence R.; Grant, Igor

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous research has associated abnormalities in frontal lobe functioning with alcohol relapse. In this study, we used diffusion tensor imaging to investigate whether frontal white matter integrity measured at the start of treatment differs between persons with alcohol use disorders (AUD) who sustain treatment gains and those who return to heavy use after treatment. Methods Forty-five treatment-seeking AUD inpatients and 30 healthy control subjects were included in the study. Six months after completing treatment, 16 of the AUD participants had resumed heavy use (RHU) and 29 others remained abstinent or drank minimally (treatment sustainers [TS]). Voxel-wise group comparisons (TS vs. RHU) were performed on fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD), and axial diffusivity maps generated from each subject’s diffusion tensor imaging scan at the start of treatment. Results We found significantly lower FA and significantly higher RD in the frontal lobes of the RHU group, relative to the TS group. The RHU group data are consistent with previous reports of abnormal frontal white matter tract abnormalities in persons with AUD. Conclusions It is possible that the lower FA and higher RD in the RHU group reflect microstructural injury to frontal circuitries, and these may underlie the reduced cognitive control amid heightened reward sensitivity associated with resumption of heavy drinking. PMID:22047719

  11. Stress trajectories, health behaviors, and the mental health of black and white young adults.

    PubMed

    Boardman, Jason D; Alexander, Kari B

    2011-05-01

    This paper uses data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to examine the mental health of non-Hispanic black and white young adults in the US. We use latent growth curve modeling to characterize the typical stress trajectories experienced by black and white young adults spanning the bulk of their lives. We identify the following four stress trajectories: 1) relatively stress free; 2) stress peak at age 15 and a subsequent decline; 3) stress peak at age 17 and a subsequent decline; and 4) a moderately high chronic stress. Results indicate that black adolescents have significantly higher risk of being in all three of the stressful classes compared to white adolescents. Stress exposure is strongly associated with depression and the race differences in stress profiles account for a modest amount of the observed race differences in mental health. We do not observe any race differences in behavioral responses to stressors; black youth are no more likely than white youth to engage in poor health behaviors (e.g., smoking, drinking, or obesity) in response to stress. We provide tentative support for the notion that poor health behaviors partially reduce the association between stress and depression for blacks but not whites. These findings contribute to unresolved issues regarding mental and physical health disparities among blacks and whites.

  12. Why Is Cancer More Depressing for Men than Women among Older White Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pudrovska, Tetyana

    2010-01-01

    Using data from two waves of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (N = 8,054), I examine gender differences in psychological adjustment to cancer among older white adults. Results from different types of longitudinal models reveal that cancer has more adverse psychological implications for men than women. Men's higher levels of depression are reduced…

  13. White matter lateralization and interhemispheric coherence to auditory modulations in normal reading and dyslexic adults.

    PubMed

    Vandermosten, Maaike; Poelmans, Hanne; Sunaert, Stefan; Ghesquière, Pol; Wouters, Jan

    2013-09-01

    Neural activation of slow acoustic variations that are important for syllable identification is more lateralized to the right hemisphere than activation of fast acoustic changes that are important for phoneme identification. It has been suggested that this complementary function at different hemispheres is rooted in a different degree of white matter myelination in the left versus right hemisphere. The present study will investigate this structure-function relationship with Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) and Auditory Steady-State Responses (ASSR), respectively. With DTI we examined white matter lateralization in the cortical auditory and language regions (i.e. posterior region of the superior temporal gyrus and the arcuate fasciculus) and white matter integrity in the splenium of the corpus callosum. With ASSR we examined interhemispheric coherence to slow, syllabic-rate (i.e. 4 Hz) and fast, phonemic-rate (i.e. 20 Hz) modulations. These structural and functional techniques were applied in a group of normal reading adults and a group of dyslexic adults for whom previously reduced functional interhemispheric connectivity at 20 Hz has been reported (Poelmans et al. (2012). Ear and Hearing, 33, 134-143). This sample was chosen since it is hypothesized that in dyslexic readers insufficient hemispheric asymmetry in myelination might relate to their auditory and phonological problems. Results demonstrate reduced white matter lateralization in the posterior superior temporal gyrus and the arcuate fasciculus in the dyslexic readers. Additionally, white matter lateralization in the posterior superior temporal gyrus and white matter integrity in the splenium of the corpus callosum related to interhemispheric coherence to phonemic-rate modulations (i.e. 20 Hz). Interestingly, this correlation pattern was opposite in normal versus dyslexic readers. These results might imply that less pronounced left white matter dominance in dyslexic adults might relate to their problems to

  14. Status of Shortnose Sturgeon in the Potomac River. Part 1: Field Studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kynard, Boyd; Breece, Matthew; Atcheson, Megan; Kieffer, Micah; Mangold, Mike

    2007-01-01

    Field studies during more than 3 years (March 2004–July 2007) collected data on life history of Potomac River shortnose sturgeon Acipenser brevirostrum to understand their biological status in the river. We sampled intensively for adults using gill nets, but captured only one adult in 2005. Another adult was captured in 2006 by a commercial fisher. Both fish were females with excellent body and fin condition, both had mature eggs, and both were telemetrytagged to track their movements. The lack of capturing adults, even when intensive netting was guided by movements of tracked fish, indicated abundance of the species was less than in any river known with a sustaining population of the species. Telemetry tracking of the two females (one during September 2005–July 2007, one during March 2006–February 2007) found they remained in the river for all the year, not for just a few months like sturgeons on a coastal migration. Further, one fish used the same freshwater reach during three summers. The two sturgeons used different reaches during some seasons, with one fish using saline water more than the other. The adults homed to small reaches in the same month each year, like shortnose sturgeon in their natal river. The total reach used by tracked sturgeons was 124 km (rkm 63–187), of which the lowermost 78 km, which was used for summering and wintering, contained the freshwater: saltwater interface. The most upstream reach used (rkm 185–187) contained potential spawning habitat. This reach was visited by one female on a pre-spawning migration in April 2006, but spawning was likely unsuccessful. Water quality (dissolved oxygen and temperature) in the summering–wintering reach was adequate all the year, although during the summer it was minimally acceptable. We periodically recaptured the same tagged female and found she healed well after tagging, appeared healthy in body and fins, grew well, and rapidly matured a new clutch of eggs. All surveys indicated adults

  15. White matter microstructure mediates the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and spatial working memory in older adults.

    PubMed

    Oberlin, Lauren E; Verstynen, Timothy D; Burzynska, Agnieszka Z; Voss, Michelle W; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya; Chaddock-Heyman, Laura; Wong, Chelsea; Fanning, Jason; Awick, Elizabeth; Gothe, Neha; Phillips, Siobhan M; Mailey, Emily; Ehlers, Diane; Olson, Erin; Wojcicki, Thomas; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F; Erickson, Kirk I

    2016-05-01

    White matter structure declines with advancing age and has been associated with a decline in memory and executive processes in older adulthood. Yet, recent research suggests that higher physical activity and fitness levels may be associated with less white matter degeneration in late life, although the tract-specificity of this relationship is not well understood. In addition, these prior studies infrequently associate measures of white matter microstructure to cognitive outcomes, so the behavioral importance of higher levels of white matter microstructural organization with greater fitness levels remains a matter of speculation. Here we tested whether cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) levels were associated with white matter microstructure and whether this relationship constituted an indirect pathway between cardiorespiratory fitness and spatial working memory in two large, cognitively and neurologically healthy older adult samples. Diffusion tensor imaging was used to determine white matter microstructure in two separate groups: Experiment 1, N=113 (mean age=66.61) and Experiment 2, N=154 (mean age=65.66). Using a voxel-based regression approach, we found that higher VO2max was associated with higher fractional anisotropy (FA), a measure of white matter microstructure, in a diverse network of white matter tracts, including the anterior corona radiata, anterior internal capsule, fornix, cingulum, and corpus callosum (PFDR-corrected<.05). This effect was consistent across both samples even after controlling for age, gender, and education. Further, a statistical mediation analysis revealed that white matter microstructure within these regions, among others, constituted a significant indirect path between VO2max and spatial working memory performance. These results suggest that greater aerobic fitness levels are associated with higher levels of white matter microstructural organization, which may, in turn, preserve spatial memory performance in older adulthood.

  16. White matter structures associated with loneliness in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Seishu; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Nouchi, Rui; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Kotozaki, Yuka; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Iizuka, Kunio; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Shinada, Takamitsu; Yamamoto, Yuki; Hanawa, Sugiko; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Kunitoki, Keiko; Sassa, Yuko; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2015-01-01

    Lonely individuals may exhibit dysfunction, particularly with respect to social empathy and self-efficacy. White matter (WM) structures related to loneliness have not yet been identified. We investigated the association between regional WM density (rWMD) using the UCLA Loneliness Scale in 776 healthy young students aged 18–27 years old. Loneliness scores were negatively correlated with rWMD in eight clusters: the bilateral inferior parietal lobule (IPL), right anterior insula (AI), posterior temporoparietal junction (pTPJ), left posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC), and rostrolateral prefrontal cortex (RLPFC). The bilateral IPL, right AI, left pSTS, pTPJ, and RLPFC were strongly associated with Empathy Quotient (EQ), whereas the bilateral IPL, right AI, left pTPJ, and dmPFC were associated with General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES) score. The neural correlates of loneliness comprise widespread reduction in WMD in areas related to self- and social cognition as well as areas associated with empathy and self-efficacy. PMID:26585372

  17. White matter structures associated with loneliness in young adults.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Seishu; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Nouchi, Rui; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Kotozaki, Yuka; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Iizuka, Kunio; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Shinada, Takamitsu; Yamamoto, Yuki; Hanawa, Sugiko; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Kunitoki, Keiko; Sassa, Yuko; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2015-11-20

    Lonely individuals may exhibit dysfunction, particularly with respect to social empathy and self-efficacy. White matter (WM) structures related to loneliness have not yet been identified. We investigated the association between regional WM density (rWMD) using the UCLA Loneliness Scale in 776 healthy young students aged 18-27 years old. Loneliness scores were negatively correlated with rWMD in eight clusters: the bilateral inferior parietal lobule (IPL), right anterior insula (AI), posterior temporoparietal junction (pTPJ), left posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC), and rostrolateral prefrontal cortex (RLPFC). The bilateral IPL, right AI, left pSTS, pTPJ, and RLPFC were strongly associated with Empathy Quotient (EQ), whereas the bilateral IPL, right AI, left pTPJ, and dmPFC were associated with General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES) score. The neural correlates of loneliness comprise widespread reduction in WMD in areas related to self- and social cognition as well as areas associated with empathy and self-efficacy.

  18. Lifelong bilingualism maintains white matter integrity in older adults.

    PubMed

    Luk, Gigi; Bialystok, Ellen; Craik, Fergus I M; Grady, Cheryl L

    2011-11-16

    Previous research has shown that bilingual speakers have higher levels of cognitive control than comparable monolinguals, especially at older ages. The present study investigates a possible neural correlate of this behavioral effect. Given that white matter (WM) integrity decreases with age in adulthood, we tested the hypothesis that bilingualism is associated with maintenance of WM in older people. Using diffusion tensor imaging, we found higher WM integrity in older people who were lifelong bilinguals than in monolinguals. This maintained integrity was measured by fractional anisotropy (FA) and was found in the corpus callosum extending to the superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi. We also hypothesized that stronger WM connections would be associated with more widely distributed patterns of functional connectivity in bilinguals. We tested this by assessing the resting-state functional connectivity of frontal lobe regions adjacent to WM areas with group differences in FA. Bilinguals showed stronger anterior to posterior functional connectivity compared to monolinguals. These results are the first evidence that maintained WM integrity is related to lifelong naturally occurring experience; the resulting enhanced structural and functional connectivity may provide a neural basis for "brain reserve."

  19. Influence of birth weight on white blood cell count in biracial (black-white) children, adolescents, and young adults: the Bogalusa Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Srinivasan, Sathanur R; Berenson, Gerald S

    2009-01-15

    The effect of birth weight on white blood cell (WBC) count among blacks and whites was examined in 2,080 children (aged 4-11 years, 57.4% white, and 49.2% male), 892 adolescents (aged 12-17 years, 57.2% white, and 50.8% male), and 1,872 adults (aged 18-38 years, 68.4% white, and 41.9% male) from Bogalusa, Louisiana, in 2005. After adjustment for age, sex, race, body mass index, and smoking status (in adolescents and adults), the WBC count decreased across quartiles of increasing birth weight specific for race, sex, and gestational age in children (P(trend) = 0.0007) and adults (P(trend) = 0.005). In multivariate regression analyses that included the covariates above, birth weight was inversely associated with WBC count in children (beta coefficients (unit, cells/microL per kg) = -256, -241, and -251 for whites, blacks, and the combined sample, with P = 0.003, 0.029, and <0.001, respectively) and in adults (beta = -224 and -211 for whites and the combined sample, with P = 0.015 and 0.008, respectively). These results show that low birth weight is associated with increased systemic inflammation as depicted by the WBC count in childhood and adulthood, thereby potentially linking fetal growth retardation to cardiovascular disease and diabetes.

  20. Altered White Matter Microstructure in Adolescents and Adults with Bulimia Nervosa.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaofu; Stefan, Mihaela; Terranova, Kate; Steinglass, Joanna; Marsh, Rachel

    2016-06-01

    Previous data suggest structural and functional deficits in frontal control circuits in adolescents and adults with bulimia nervosa (BN), but less is known about the microstructure of white matter in these circuits early in the course of the disorder. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data were acquired from 28 female adolescents and adults with BN and 28 age- and BMI-matched healthy female participants. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) was used to detect group differences in white matter microstructure and explore the differential effects of age on white matter microstructure across groups. Significant reductions in fractional anisotropy (FA) were detected in the BN compared with healthy control group in multiple tracts including forceps minor and major, superior longitudinal, inferior fronto-occipital, and uncinate fasciculi, anterior thalamic radiation, cingulum, and corticospinal tract. FA reductions in forceps and frontotemporal tracts correlated inversely with symptom severity and Stroop interference in the BN group. These findings suggest that white matter microstructure is abnormal in BN in tracts extending through frontal and temporoparietal cortices, especially in those with the most severe symptoms. Age-related differences in both FA and RD in these tracts in BN compared with healthy individuals may represent an abnormal trajectory of white matter development that contributes to the persistence of functional impairments in self-regulation in BN.

  1. Relationship of a variant in the NTRK1 gene to white matter microstructure in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Braskie, Meredith N; Jahanshad, Neda; Stein, Jason L; Barysheva, Marina; Johnson, Kori; McMahon, Katie L; de Zubicaray, Greig I; Martin, Nicholas G; Wright, Margaret J; Ringman, John M; Toga, Arthur W; Thompson, Paul M

    2012-01-01

    The NTRK1 gene (also known as TRKA) encodes a high affinity receptor for NGF, a neurotrophin involved in nervous system development and myelination. NTRK1 has been implicated in neurological function via links between the T allele at rs6336 (NTRK1-T) and schizophrenia risk. A variant in the neurotrophin gene, BDNF, was previously associated with white matter integrity in young adults, highlighting the importance of neurotrophins to white matter development. We hypothesized that NTRK1-T would relate to lower FA in healthy adults. We scanned 391 healthy adult human twins and their siblings (mean age: 23.6 ± 2.2 years; 31 NTRK1-T carriers, 360 non-carriers) using 105-gradient diffusion tensor imaging at 4 Tesla. We evaluated in brain white matter how NTRK1-T and NTRK1 rs4661063 allele A (rs4661063-A, which is in moderate linkage disequilibrium with rs6336) related to voxelwise fractional anisotropy – a common diffusion tensor imaging measure of white matter microstructure. We used mixed-model regression to control for family relatedness, age, and sex. The sample was split in half to test results reproducibility. The false discovery rate method corrected for voxelwise multiple comparisons. NTRK1-T and rs4661063-A correlated with lower white matter fractional anisotropy, independent of age and sex (multiple comparisons corrected: false discovery rate critical p = 0.038 for NTRK1-T and 0.013 for rs4661063-A). In each half-sample, the NTRK1-T effect was replicated in the cingulum, corpus callosum, superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, superior corona radiata, and uncinate fasciculus. Our results suggest that NTRK1-T is important for developing white matter microstructure. PMID:22539856

  2. Polygenic Risk Predicts Obesity in Both White and Black Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Domingue, Benjamin W.; Belsky, Daniel W.; Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Smolen, Andrew; McQueen, Matthew B.; Boardman, Jason D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To test transethnic replication of a genetic risk score for obesity in white and black young adults using a national sample with longitudinal data. Design and Methods A prospective longitudinal study using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health Sibling Pairs (n = 1,303). Obesity phenotypes were measured from anthropometric assessments when study members were aged 18–26 and again when they were 24–32. Genetic risk scores were computed based on published genome-wide association study discoveries for obesity. Analyses tested genetic associations with body-mass index (BMI), waist-height ratio, obesity, and change in BMI over time. Results White and black young adults with higher genetic risk scores had higher BMI and waist-height ratio and were more likely to be obese compared to lower genetic risk age-peers. Sibling analyses revealed that the genetic risk score was predictive of BMI net of risk factors shared by siblings. In white young adults only, higher genetic risk predicted increased risk of becoming obese during the study period. In black young adults, genetic risk scores constructed using loci identified in European and African American samples had similar predictive power. Conclusion Cumulative information across the human genome can be used to characterize individual level risk for obesity. Measured genetic risk accounts for only a small amount of total variation in BMI among white and black young adults. Future research is needed to identify modifiable environmental exposures that amplify or mitigate genetic risk for elevated BMI. PMID:24992585

  3. Ecological requirements for pallid sturgeon reproduction and recruitment in the Missouri River—Annual report 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Delonay, Aaron J.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Chojnacki, Kimberly A.; Braaten, Patrick J.; Buhl, Kevin J.; Eder, Brandon L; Elliott, Caroline M.; Erwin, Susannah O.; Fuller, David B.; Haddix, Tyler M.; Ladd, Hallie L.A.; Mestl, Gerald E.; Papoulias, Diana M.; Rhoten, Jason C.; Wesolek, Christopher J.; Wildhaber, Mark L.

    2016-01-20

    The research tasks in the 2013 scope of work emphasized understanding reproductive migrations and spawning of adult pallid sturgeon, and hatch and drift of free embryos and larvae. These tasks were addressed in four study sections located in three hydrologically and geomorphologically distinct parts of the Missouri River Basin: the Upper Missouri River downstream from Fort Peck Dam, including downstream reaches of the Milk River, the Lower Yellowstone River, and the Lower Missouri River downstream from Gavins Point Dam. The research is designed to inform management decisions related to channel re-engineering, flow modification, and pallid sturgeon population augmentation on the Missouri River, and throughout the range of the species. Research and progress made through this project are reported to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers annually. This annual report details the research effort and progress made by the Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Project during 2013.

  4. Overview of biology and aquaculture of Amur sturgeon (Acipenser schrenckii) in China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhuang, P.; Kynard, B.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, Z.; Li, D.

    2002-01-01

    Amur sturgeon, Acipenser schrenckii is a large riverine species (max. 3 m length and 190 kg weight) native to the Amur River. In the middle Amur River, males first spawn at 7-8 years of age and females at 9-10 years. Due to overfishing and habitat alteration, the abundance of wild stocks has rapidly declined in recent years. Using wild adults, artificial spawning began in the 1950s in China, and since the early 1990s Amur sturgeon has become the most popular sturgeon for aquaculture. The species is adaptive to many conditions of artificial culture, including traditional Chinese fish culture ponds, lakes, reservoirs, and cages. It will grow well on many types of food, and 1-year-old fish reared on commercial diets weigh 900-1200 g. Based on the examination of females reared for broodstock, first full sexual maturity is expected at 5-6 years of age.

  5. Ecological requirements for pallid sturgeon reproduction and recruitment in the Missouri River—Annual report 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Delonay, Aaron J.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Chojnacki, Kimberly A.; Braaten, Patrick J.; Buhl, Kevin J.; Eder, Brandon L; Elliott, Caroline M.; Erwin, Susannah O.; Fuller, David B.; Haddix, Tyler M.; Ladd, Hallie L.A.; Mestl, Gerald E.; Papoulias, Diana M.; Rhoten, Jason C.; Wesolek, Christopher J.; Wildhaber, Mark L.

    2016-01-01

    The research tasks in the 2013 scope of work emphasized understanding reproductive migrations and spawning of adult pallid sturgeon, and hatch and drift of free embryos and larvae. These tasks were addressed in four study sections located in three hydrologically and geomorphologically distinct parts of the Missouri River Basin: the Upper Missouri River downstream from Fort Peck Dam, including downstream reaches of the Milk River, the Lower Yellowstone River, and the Lower Missouri River downstream from Gavins Point Dam. The research is designed to inform management decisions related to channel re-engineering, flow modification, and pallid sturgeon population augmentation on the Missouri River, and throughout the range of the species. Research and progress made through this project are reported to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers annually. This annual report details the research effort and progress made by the Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Project during 2013.

  6. Effects of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism on white matter microstructure in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Tost, Heike; Alam, Tajvar; Geramita, Matthew; Rebsch, Christine; Kolachana, Bhaskar; Dickinson, Dwight; Verchinski, Beth A; Lemaitre, Herve; Barnett, Alan S; Trampush, Joey W; Weinberger, Daniel R; Marenco, Stefano

    2013-02-01

    The BDNF Val(66)Met polymorphism, a possible risk variant for mental disorders, is a potent modulator of neural plasticity in humans and has been linked to deficits in gray matter structure, function, and cognition. The impact of the variant on brain white matter structure, however, is controversial and remains poorly understood. Here, we used diffusion tensor imaging to examine the effects of BDNF Val(66)Met genotype on white matter microstructure in a sample of 85 healthy Caucasian adults. We demonstrate decreases of fractional anisotropy and widespread increases in radial diffusivity in Val/Val homozygotes compared with Met-allele carriers, particularly in prefrontal and occipital pathways. These data provide an independent confirmation of prior imaging genetics work, are consistent with complex effects of the BDNF Val(66)Met polymorphism on human brain structure, and may serve to generate hypotheses about variation in white matter microstructure in mental disorders associated with this variant. PMID:23132269

  7. Effects of the BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism on White Matter Microstructure in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tost, Heike; Alam, Tajvar; Geramita, Matthew; Rebsch, Christine; Kolachana, Bhaskar; Dickinson, Dwight; Verchinski, Beth A; Lemaitre, Herve; Barnett, Alan S; Trampush, Joey W; Weinberger, Daniel R; Marenco, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    The BDNF Val66Met polymorphism, a possible risk variant for mental disorders, is a potent modulator of neural plasticity in humans and has been linked to deficits in gray matter structure, function, and cognition. The impact of the variant on brain white matter structure, however, is controversial and remains poorly understood. Here, we used diffusion tensor imaging to examine the effects of BDNF Val66Met genotype on white matter microstructure in a sample of 85 healthy Caucasian adults. We demonstrate decreases of fractional anisotropy and widespread increases in radial diffusivity in Val/Val homozygotes compared with Met-allele carriers, particularly in prefrontal and occipital pathways. These data provide an independent confirmation of prior imaging genetics work, are consistent with complex effects of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism on human brain structure, and may serve to generate hypotheses about variation in white matter microstructure in mental disorders associated with this variant. PMID:23132269

  8. Clinical Dementia Rating Scale Detects White Matter Changes in Older Adults at Risk for Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Ling; Yen, Yu-Shiuan; Chen, Ta-Fu; Yan, Sui-Hing; Tseng, Wen-Yih Isaac

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the putative changes in regional gray matter and cingulum bundle segments in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) by using two diagnostic criteria. Participants comprised 50 older adults with MCI and 22 healthy older controls (HC). The older adults with MCI were further divided into two groups defined by a global Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) score of 0.5 and with (the CDR/NPT MCI group) or without (the CDR MCI group) objective cognitive impairments determined using neuropsychological tests (NPTs). Comparable regional gray matter integrity was observed among the three groups. However, the integrity of the right inferior segment of the cingulum bundle in the two MCI groups was more reduced than that in the HC group, and the CDR/NPT MCI group exhibited additional disruption in the left inferior cingulum bundle. The results also demonstrated that neuropsychological measures have greater predictive value for changes in white matter beyond the contribution of an informant-based instrument alone. Overall, the findings confirm the utility of informant-based assessment in detecting microstructural brain changes in high-risk older adults, even before objective cognitive impairment is evident. The findings also suggest that combining the neuropsychological measures with the informant-based assessment provided the greatest predictive value in assessing white matter disruption. The essential role of the white matter measurement as a biomarker for detecting individuals at a high risk of developing dementia was highlighted.

  9. Habitat use of juvenile pallid sturgeon and shovelnose sturgeon with implications for water-level management in a downstream reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gerrity, P.C.; Guy, C.S.; Gardner, W.M.

    2008-01-01

    Natural recruitment of pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus has not been observed in the Missouri River above Fort Peck Reservoir, Montana, for at least 20 years. To augment the population, age-1 hatchery-reared juvenile pallid sturgeon were released in 1998. The objective of this study was to evaluate the habitat use of these fish and compare it with that of indigenous shovelnose sturgeon S. platorynchus. Twenty-nine juvenile pallid sturgeon and 21 indigenous shovelnose sturgeon were implanted with radio transmitters in 2003 and 2004. The two species showed no differences in habitat use in terms of mean depth, cross-sectional relative depth, longitudinal relative depth, column velocity, bottom velocity, and channel width. However, there were seasonal differences within both species for cross-sectional relative depth, column velocity, and channel width. Both shovelnose sturgeon and juvenile pallid sturgeon were primarily associated with silt and sand substrate. However, shovelnose sturgeon were associated with gravel and cobble substrate more than juvenile pallid sturgeon. Shovelnose sturgeon and juvenile pallid sturgeon both selected reaches without islands and avoided reaches with islands; the two species also selected main-channel habitat and avoided secondary channels. Mean home range was similar between juvenile pallid sturgeon (15 km; 90% confidence interval, ??5.0 km) and shovelnose sturgeon (16.5 km; ??4.7 km). Spatial distribution differed between the two species, with shovelnose sturgeon using upstream areas more often than juvenile pallid sturgeon. Twenty-eight percent of juvenile pallid sturgeon frequented 60 km of lotie habitat that would be inundated by Fort Peck Reservoir at maximum pool. Stocking juvenile pallid sturgeon can successfully augment the wild pallid sturgeon population in the Missouri River above Fort Peck Reservoir, which is crucial to the long-term recovery of the species. However, water-level management in downstream reservoirs such

  10. Lake sturgeon response to a spawning reef constructed in the Detroit river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roseman, Edward F.; Manny, B.; Boase, J.; Child, M.; Kennedy, G.; Craig, J.; Soper, K.; Drouin, R.

    2011-01-01

    Prior to the First World War, the bi-national Detroit River provided vast areas of functional fish spawning and nursery habitat. However, ongoing conflicting human uses of these waters for activities such as waste disposal, water withdrawals, shoreline development, shipping, recreation, and fishing have altered many of the chemical, physical, and biological processes of the Detroit River. Of particular interest and concern to resource managers and stakeholders is the significant loss and impairment of fish spawning and nursery habitat that led to the decline in abundance of most fish species using this ecosystem. Lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) populations for example, were nearly extirpated by the middle of the 20th century, leaving only a small fraction of their former population. Fisheries managers recognized that the loss of suitable fish spawning habitat is a limiting factor in lake sturgeon population rehabilitation in the Detroit River. In efforts to remediate this beneficial water use impairment, a reef consisting of a mixture of natural rock and limestone was constructed at the upstream end of Fighting Island in 2008. This paper focuses on the response by lake sturgeon to the different replicates of suitable natural materials used to construct the fish spawning habitat at Fighting Island in the Detroit River. Pre-construction fisheries assessment during 2006–2008 showed that along with the presence of adult lake sturgeon, spawning conditions were favorable. However, no eggs were found in assessments conducted prior to reef construction. The 3300 m2 Fighting Island reef was placed at the upstream end of the island in October of 2008. The construction design included 12 spawning beds of three replicates each consisting of either round rock, small or large (shot-rock) diameter limestone or a mixture thereof. An observed response by spawning lake sturgeon occurred the following year when spawning-ready adults (ripe), viable eggs, and larvae were

  11. Hydraulic and Substrate Maps of Reaches Used by Sturgeon (Genus Scaphirhynchus) in the Lower Missouri River, 2005-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reuter, Joanna M.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Elliott, Caroline M.; Johnson, Harold E.; DeLonay, Aaron J.

    2008-01-01

    This report is a repository of reach-scale maps of hydraulic and substrate characteristics generated for the habitat-use portion of an interdisciplinary sturgeon research project on the Lower Missouri River (from Gavins Point Dam to the junction with the Mississippi River). The maps were derived from hydroacoustic data sets that were collected for the purpose of assessing physical aquatic habitat in the vicinity of locations of adult shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) and pallid sturgeon (S. albus). Hydroacoustic data sets were collected at the reach scale (mean reach length, 2.4 kilometers) in order to include the immediate vicinity of a targeted sturgeon location as well as the full range of habitat available at the bend and crossover scale. Reaches typically were surveyed on the day following the relocation of a telemetered sturgeon and at a discharge within 10 percent of the discharge on the sturgeon relocation date in order to characterize as closely as possible the channel morphology and flow-field conditions at the time that the sturgeon was present. One hundred fifty-three reaches were mapped during April-September in the years 2005 through 2007, with the majority of data collection occurring in the months of May and June (coinciding with the period of sturgeon migration and spawning in the Lower Missouri River). Interpolated maps (grid cell size, 5 meters) depict depth, generalized substrate, and depth-averaged velocity. Side-scan sonar imagery is also available for a subset of reaches. Collectively, the maps represent more than 20 percent of the length of the Lower Missouri River.

  12. Dual annual spawning races in Atlantic sturgeon.

    PubMed

    Balazik, Matthew T; Musick, John A

    2015-01-01

    Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, Acipenseridae) populations in the United States were listed as either endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 2012. Because of the endangered/threatened status, a better understanding of Atlantic sturgeon life-history behavior and habitat use is important for effective management. It has been widely documented that Atlantic sturgeon reproduction occurs from late winter to early summer, varying clinally with latitude. However, recent data show Atlantic sturgeon also spawn later in the year. The group that spawns later in the year seems to be completely separate from the spring spawning run. Recognition of the later spawning season has drastically modified estimates of the population status of Atlantic sturgeon in Virginia. With the combination of new telemetry data and historical documentation we describe a dual spawning strategy that likely occurs in various degrees along most, if not all, of the Atlantic sturgeon's range. Using new data combined with historical sources, a new spawning strategy emerges which managers and researchers should note when determining the status of Atlantic sturgeon populations and implementing conservation measures.

  13. Dual Annual Spawning Races in Atlantic Sturgeon

    PubMed Central

    Balazik, Matthew T.; Musick, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, Acipenseridae) populations in the United States were listed as either endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 2012. Because of the endangered/threatened status, a better understanding of Atlantic sturgeon life-history behavior and habitat use is important for effective management. It has been widely documented that Atlantic sturgeon reproduction occurs from late winter to early summer, varying clinally with latitude. However, recent data show Atlantic sturgeon also spawn later in the year. The group that spawns later in the year seems to be completely separate from the spring spawning run. Recognition of the later spawning season has drastically modified estimates of the population status of Atlantic sturgeon in Virginia. With the combination of new telemetry data and historical documentation we describe a dual spawning strategy that likely occurs in various degrees along most, if not all, of the Atlantic sturgeon's range. Using new data combined with historical sources, a new spawning strategy emerges which managers and researchers should note when determining the status of Atlantic sturgeon populations and implementing conservation measures. PMID:26020631

  14. Ancestry reported by white adults with cutaneous melanoma and control subjects in central Alabama

    PubMed Central

    Acton, Ronald T; Barton, Ellen H; Hollowell, William W; Dreibelbis, Amy L; Go, Rodney CP; Barton, James C

    2004-01-01

    Background We sought to evaluate the hypothesis that the high incidence of cutaneous melanoma in white persons in central Alabama is associated with a predominance of Irish and Scots descent. Methods Frequencies of country of ancestry reports were tabulated. The reports were also converted to scores that reflect proportional countries of ancestry in individuals. Using the scores, we computed aggregate country of ancestry indices as estimates of group ancestry composition. HLA-DRB1*04 allele frequencies and relationships to countries of ancestry were compared in probands and controls. Results were compared to those of European populations with HLA-DRB1*04 frequencies. Results Ninety evaluable adult white cutaneous melanoma probands and 324 adult white controls reported countries of ancestry of their grandparents. The respective frequencies of Ireland, and Scotland and "British Isles" reported countries of ancestry were significantly greater in probands than in controls. The respective frequencies of Wales, France, Italy and Poland were significantly greater in controls. 16.7% of melanoma probands and 23.8% of controls reported "Native American" ancestry; the corresponding "Native American" country of ancestry index was not significantly different in probands and controls. The frequency of HLA-DRB1*04 was significantly greater in probands, but was not significantly associated with individual or aggregate countries of ancestry. The frequency of DRB1*04 observed in Alabama was compared to DRB1*04 frequencies reported from England, Wales, Ireland, Orkney Island, France, Germany, and Australia. Conclusion White adults with cutaneous melanoma in central Alabama have a predominance of Irish, Scots, and "British Isles" ancestry and HLA-DRB1*04 that likely contributes to their high incidence of cutaneous melanoma. PMID:15310399

  15. The association among neighborhood socioeconomic status, race and chronic pain in black and white older adults.

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes, Molly; Hart-Johnson, Tamera; Green, Carmen R.

    2007-01-01

    The association among race, neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES), and chronic pain has not been well examined in older people. Clinical data was obtained from older adults (>50 years old) presenting to a tertiary care pain center. The relative roles of race and neighborhood SES on the chronic pain experienced in older black and white adults were assessed. Older blacks experienced more affective pain, pain-related disability and mood disorder symptoms than older whites. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed previously hypothesized factors for the McGill Pain Questionnaire pain dimensions and the Pain Disability Index. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses also identified factors in the Brief Symptom Inventory and neighborhood SES. Structural equation modeling showed black race was associated with lower neighborhood SES and also with increased affective pain, obligatory disability and mood disorders mediationally through neighborhood SES. It was indirectly associated with increased sensory and miscellaneous pain, and voluntary disability through low neighborhood SES. Racial interaction examination showed that neighborhood SES had the same relationship to outcomes by race. We found increasing neighborhood SES is associated with decreasing negative chronic pain outcomes for older blacks and whites. Our data provide evidence that both race and neighborhood SES are important factors to consider when examining the chronic pain experience among older Americans. PMID:17987920

  16. Reproductive traits of shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus (Rafinesque, 1820) in the lower Platte River, Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamel, M. J.; Rugg, M.L.; Pegg, M.A.; Patino, Reynaldo; Hammen, J.J.

    2015-01-01

    We assessed reproductive status, fecundity, egg size, and spawning dynamics of shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus in the lower Platte River. Shovelnose sturgeon were captured throughout each year during 2011 and 2012 using a multi-gear approach designed to collect a variety of fish of varying sizes and ages. Fish were collected monthly for a laboratory assessment of reproductive condition. Female shovelnose sturgeon reached fork length at 50% maturity (FL50) at 547 mm and at a minimum length of 449 mm. The average female spawning cycle was 3–5 years. Mean egg count for adult females was 16 098 ± 1103 (SE), and mean egg size was 2.401 ± 0.051 (SE) mm. Total fecundity was positively correlated with length (r2 = 0.728; P < 0.001), mass (r2 = 0.896; P < 0.001), and age (r2 = 0.396; P = 0.029). However, fish size and age did not correlate to egg size (P > 0.05). Male shovelnose sturgeon reached FL50 at 579 mm and at a minimum length of 453 mm. The average male spawning cycle was 1–2 years. Reproductively viable male and female sturgeon occurred during the spring (March–May) and autumn (September–October) in both years, indicating spring and potential autumn spawning events. Shovelnose sturgeon in the lower Platte River are maturing at a shorter length and younger age compared to populations elsewhere. Although it is unknown if the change is plastic or evolutionary, unfavorable environmental conditions or over-harvest may lead to hastened declines compared to other systems.

  17. Individual differences in white matter anatomy predict dissociable components of reading skill in adults.

    PubMed

    Welcome, Suzanne E; Joanisse, Marc F

    2014-08-01

    We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate relationships between white matter anatomy and different reading subskills in typical-reading adults. A series of analytic approaches revealed that phonological decoding ability is associated with anatomical markers that do not relate to other reading-related cognitive abilities. Thus, individual differences in phonological decoding might relate to connectivity between a network of cortical regions, while skills like sight word reading might rely less strongly on integration across regions. Specifically, manually-drawn ROIs and probabilistic tractography revealed an association between the volume and integrity of white matter underlying primary auditory cortex and nonword reading ability. In a related finding, more extensive cross-hemispheric connections through the isthmus of the corpus callosum predicted better phonological decoding. Atlas-based white matter ROIs demonstrated that relationships with nonword reading were strongest in the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus and uncinate fasciculus that connect occipital and anterior temporal cortex with inferior frontal cortex. In contrast, tract volume underlying the left angular gyrus was related to nonverbal IQ. Finally, connectivity underlying functional ROIs that are differentially active during phonological and semantic processing predicted nonword reading and reading comprehension, respectively. Together, these results provide important insights into how white matter anatomy may relate to both typical reading subskills, and perhaps a roadmap for understanding neural connectivity in individuals with reading impairments.

  18. Decoupling of structural and functional brain connectivity in older adults with white matter hyperintensities.

    PubMed

    Reijmer, Y D; Schultz, A P; Leemans, A; O'Sullivan, M J; Gurol, M E; Sperling, R; Greenberg, S M; Viswanathan, A; Hedden, T

    2015-08-15

    Age-related impairments in the default network (DN) have been related to disruptions in connecting white matter tracts. We hypothesized that the local correlation between DN structural and functional connectivity is negatively affected in the presence of global white matter injury. In 125 clinically normal older adults, we tested whether the relationship between structural connectivity (via diffusion imaging tractography) and functional connectivity (via resting-state functional MRI) of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and medial prefrontal frontal cortex (MPFC) of the DN was altered in the presence of white matter hyperintensities (WMH). A significant correlation was observed between microstructural properties of the cingulum bundle and MPFC-PCC functional connectivity in individuals with low WMH load, but not with high WMH load. No correlation was observed between PCC-MPFC functional connectivity and microstructure of the inferior longitudinal fasciculus, a tract not passing through the PCC or MPFC. Decoupling of connectivity, measured as the absolute difference between structural and functional connectivity, in the high WMH group was related to poorer executive functioning and memory performance. These results suggest that such decoupling may reflect reorganization of functional networks in response to global white matter pathology and may provide an early marker of clinically relevant network alterations.

  19. Obesity Gene NEGR1 Associated with White Matter Integrity in Healthy Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Emily L.; Jahanshad, Neda; Braskie, Meredith N.; Warstadt, Nicholus M.; Hibar, Derrek P.; Kohannim, Omid; Nir, Talia M.; McMahon, Katie L.; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Toga, Arthur W.; Wright, Margaret J.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a crucial public health issue in developed countries, with implications for cardiovascular and brain health as we age. A number of commonly-carried genetic variants are associated with obesity. Here we aim to see whether variants in obesity-associated genes - NEGR1, FTO, MTCH2, MC4R, LRRN6C, MAP2K5, FAIM2, SEC16B, ETV5, BDNF-AS, ATXN2L, ATP2A1, KCTD15, and TNN13K - are associated with white matter microstructural properties, assessed by high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) in young healthy adults between 20–30 years of age from the Queensland Twin Imaging study (QTIM). We began with a multi-locus approach testing how a number of common genetic risk factors for obesity at the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) level may jointly influence white matter integrity throughout the brain and found a wide spread genetic effect. Risk allele rs2815752 in NEGR1 was most associated with lower white matter integrity across a substantial portion of the brain. Across the area of significance in the bilateral posterior corona radiata, each additional copy of the risk allele was associated with a 2.2% lower average FA. This is the first study to find an association between an obesity risk gene and differences in white matter integrity. As our subjects were young and healthy, our results suggest that NEGR1 has effects on brain structure independent of its effect on obesity. PMID:25072390

  20. Obesity gene NEGR1 associated with white matter integrity in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Emily L; Jahanshad, Neda; Braskie, Meredith N; Warstadt, Nicholus M; Hibar, Derrek P; Kohannim, Omid; Nir, Talia M; McMahon, Katie L; de Zubicaray, Greig I; Montgomery, Grant W; Martin, Nicholas G; Toga, Arthur W; Wright, Margaret J; Thompson, Paul M

    2014-11-15

    Obesity is a crucial public health issue in developed countries, with implications for cardiovascular and brain health as we age. A number of commonly-carried genetic variants are associated with obesity. Here we aim to see whether variants in obesity-associated genes--NEGR1, FTO, MTCH2, MC4R, LRRN6C, MAP2K5, FAIM2, SEC16B, ETV5, BDNF-AS, ATXN2L, ATP2A1, KCTD15, and TNN13K--are associated with white matter microstructural properties, assessed by high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) in young healthy adults between 20 and 30 years of age from the Queensland Twin Imaging study (QTIM). We began with a multi-locus approach testing how a number of common genetic risk factors for obesity at the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) level may jointly influence white matter integrity throughout the brain and found a wide spread genetic effect. Risk allele rs2815752 in NEGR1 was most associated with lower white matter integrity across a substantial portion of the brain. Across the area of significance in the bilateral posterior corona radiata, each additional copy of the risk allele was associated with a 2.2% lower average FA. This is the first study to find an association between an obesity risk gene and differences in white matter integrity. As our subjects were young and healthy, our results suggest that NEGR1 has effects on brain structure independent of its effect on obesity.

  1. 33 CFR 117.1101 - Sturgeon Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... intended passage. (b) The draw of the Maple-Oregon Bridge, mile 4.17 at Sturgeon Bay, shall open on signal... the Maple-Oregon Street drawbridge, shall open simultaneously for larger commercial vessels, as...

  2. 33 CFR 117.1101 - Sturgeon Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... intended passage. (b) The draw of the Maple-Oregon Bridge, mile 4.17 at Sturgeon Bay, shall open on signal... the Maple-Oregon Street drawbridge, shall open simultaneously for larger commercial vessels, as...

  3. Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Atlantic) - Atlantic sturgeon

    SciTech Connect

    Van Den Avyle, M.J.

    1984-07-01

    The Atlantic sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrhynchus oxyrhynchus, is an anadromous species that occupies rivers, estuaries, and nearshore waters along the entire Atlantic coast of the United States. The species once supported significant commercial fisheries throughout its range, but stocks have declined because of overfishing, deterioration of water quality, and damming of rivers. Atlantic sturgeon spawn in rivers and the young remain in freshwater for several years prior to emigration to the ocean. Little is known about spawning areas and associated environmental factors. Females typically do not mature until age X and the age at first spawning ranges from 5 to 13 years for males and 7 to 19 years for females. Longevity may frequently exceed 25 years. Immature and adult sturgeons are bottom feeders and consume a variety of mollusks, crustaceans, worms, and other small bottom-dwelling invertebrates and fishes. Little is know about competitors, predators, or effects of environmental factors on recruitment. The long period required to reach maturity, possibly irregular spawning thereafter, and prolonged reliance on river systems make juvenile and adult Atlantic sturgeon highly susceptible to habitat alterations, pollution, and over exploitation. 49 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.

  4. Social Support, Mastery, and Psychological Distress in Black and White Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Morin, Ruth T; Midlarsky, Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    Social support and mastery can protect against psychological distress in late life, carrying implications for theory and intervention. However, some groups have not been well studied, with African Americans receiving less empirical attention, especially in regard to their satisfaction with social support. In this study, samples of African American and White American community-dwelling older adults reported their perceived mastery, degree of psychological distress, and social support. A model investigating the separate relationships of these variables by race explained significantly more variance than a model for all participants combined. For both groups, mastery was significantly associated with lower psychological distress. However, among White Americans, social support was significantly associated with lower distress, while among African Americans, there was no relationship between satisfaction with social support and distress. The findings indicate that social support and mastery are important variables to consider in their relationship to psychological distress in later life and that diverse racial groups may display differing relationships among these variables.

  5. Objective Measures of Physical Activity, White Matter Integrity and Cognitive Status in Adults Over Age 80

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Qu; Glynn, Nancy W.; Erickson, Kirk I.; Aizenstein, Howard J.; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Yaffe, Kristine; Harris, Tamara B.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Boudreau, Robert M.; Newman, Anne B.; Lopez, Oscar L.; Saxton, Judith; Rosano, Caterina

    2015-01-01

    The neuroprotective effects of physical activity (PA) are consistently shown in older adults, but the neural substrates, particularly in white matter (WM), are understudied, especially in very old adults with the fastest growth rate and the highest risk of dementia. This study quantified the association between PA and WM integrity in adults over 80. The moderating effects of cardiometabolic conditions, physical functional limitations and WM hyperintensities were also examined, as they can affect PA and brain integrity. Fractional anisotropy (FA) from normal-appearing WM via diffusion tensor imaging and WM hyperintensities were obtained in 90 participants (mean age=87.4, 51.1% female, 55.6% white) with concurrent objective measures of steps, active energy expenditure (AEE in kcal), duration (minutes), and intensity (Metabolic equivalents, METs) via SenseWear Armband. Clinical adjudication of cognitive status, prevalence of stroke and diabetes, systolic blood pressure, and gait speed were assessed at time of neuroimaging. Participants were on average sedentary (mean±SD/day: 1766±1345 steps, 202±311 kcal, 211±39 minutes, 1.8±1.1 METs). Higher steps, AEE and duration, but not intensity, were significantly associated with higher FA. Associations were localized in frontal and temporal areas. Moderating effects of cardiometabolic conditions, physical functional limitations, and WM hyperintensities were not significant. Neither FA nor PA was related to cognitive status. Older adults with a sedentary lifestyle and a wide range of cardiometabolic conditions and physical functional limitations, displayed higher WM integrity in relation to higher PA. Studies of very old adults to quantify the role of PA in reducing dementia burden via WM integrity are warranted. PMID:25655514

  6. Objective measures of physical activity, white matter integrity and cognitive status in adults over age 80.

    PubMed

    Tian, Qu; Glynn, Nancy W; Erickson, Kirk I; Aizenstein, Howard J; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Yaffe, Kristine; Harris, Tamara B; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Boudreau, Robert M; Newman, Anne B; Lopez, Oscar L; Saxton, Judith; Rosano, Caterina

    2015-05-01

    The neuroprotective effects of physical activity (PA) are consistently shown in older adults, but the neural substrates, particularly in white matter (WM), are understudied, especially in very old adults with the fastest growth rate and the highest risk of dementia. This study quantified the association between PA and WM integrity in adults over 80. The moderating effects of cardiometabolic conditions, physical functional limitations and WM hyperintensities were also examined, as they can affect PA and brain integrity. Fractional anisotropy (FA) from normal-appearing WM via diffusion tensor imaging and WM hyperintensities were obtained in 90 participants (mean age = 87.4, 51.1% female, 55.6% white) with concurrent objective measures of steps, active energy expenditure (AEE in kcal), duration (min), and intensity (metabolic equivalents, METs) via SenseWear Armband. Clinical adjudication of cognitive status, prevalence of stroke and diabetes, systolic blood pressure, and gait speed were assessed at time of neuroimaging. Participants were on average sedentary (mean ± SD/day: 1766 ± 1345 steps, 202 ± 311 kcal, 211 ± 39 min, 1.8 ± 1.1 METs). Higher steps, AEE and duration, but not intensity, were significantly associated with higher FA. Associations were localized in frontal and temporal areas. Moderating effects of cardiometabolic conditions, physical functional limitations, and WM hyperintensities were not significant. Neither FA nor PA was related to cognitive status. Older adults with a sedentary lifestyle and a wide range of cardiometabolic conditions and physical functional limitations, displayed higher WM integrity in relation to higher PA. Studies of very old adults to quantify the role of PA in reducing dementia burden via WM integrity are warranted. PMID:25655514

  7. Comparative ontogenetic behavior and migration of kaluga, Huso dauricus, and Amur sturgeon, Acipenser schrenckii, from the Amur River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhuang, P.; Kynard, B.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, T.; Cao, W.

    2003-01-01

    We conducted laboratory experiments with kaluga, Huso dauricus, and Amur sturgeon, Acipenser schrenckii, to develop a conceptual model of early behavior. We daily observed embryos (first life phase after hatching) and larvae (period initiating exogenous feeding) to day-30 (late larvae) for preference of bright habitat and cover, swimming distance above the bottom, up- and downstream movement, and diel activity. Day-0 embryos of both species strongly preferred bright, open habitat and initiated a strong, downstream migration that lasted 4 days (3 day peak) for kaluga and 3 days (2 day peak) for Amur sturgeon. Kaluga migrants swam far above the bottom (150 cm) on only 1 day and moved day and night; Amur sturgeon migrants swam far above the bottom (median 130 cm) during 3 days and were more nocturnal than kaluga. Post-migrant embryos of both species moved day and night, but Amur sturgeon used dark, cover habitat and swam closer to the bottom than kaluga. The larva period of both species began on day 7 (cumulative temperature degree-days, 192.0 for kaluga and 171.5 for Amur sturgeon). Larvae of both species preferred open habitat. Kaluga larvae strongly preferred bright habitat, initially swam far above the bottom (median 50-105 cm), and migrated downstream at night during days 10-16 (7-day migration). Amur sturgeon larvae strongly avoided illumination, had a mixed response to white substrate, swam 20-30 cm above the bottom during most days, and during days 12-34 (most of the larva period) moved downstream mostly at night (23-day migration). The embryo-larva migration style of the two species likely shows convergence of non-related species for a common style in response to environmental selection in the Amur River. The embryo-larva migration style of Amur sturgeon is unique among Acipenser yet studied.

  8. Integrating Water Flow, Locomotor Performance and Respiration of Chinese Sturgeon during Multiple Fatigue-Recovery Cycles

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Lu; Chen, Lei; Johnson, David; Gao, Yong; Mandal, Prashant; Fang, Min; Tu, Zhiying; Huang, Yingping

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to provide information on metabolic changes occurring in Chinese sturgeon (an ecologically important endangered fish) subjected to repeated cycles of fatigue and recovery and the effect on swimming capability. Fatigue-recovery cycles likely occur when fish are moving through the fishways of large dams and the results of this investigation are important for fishway design and conservation of wild Chinese sturgeon populations. A series of four stepped velocity tests were carried out successively in a Steffensen-type swimming respirometer and the effects of repeated fatigue-recovery on swimming capability and metabolism were measured. Significant results include: (1) critical swimming speed decreased from 4.34 bl/s to 2.98 bl/s; (2) active oxygen consumption (i.e. the difference between total oxygen consumption and routine oxygen consumption) decreased from 1175 mgO2/kg to 341 mgO2/kg and was the primary reason for the decrease in Ucrit; (3) excess post-exercise oxygen consumption decreased from 36 mgO2/kg to 22 mgO2/kg; (4) with repeated step tests, white muscle (anaerobic metabolism) began contributing to propulsion at lower swimming speeds. Therefore, Chinese sturgeon conserve energy by swimming efficiently and have high fatigue recovery capability. These results contribute to our understanding of the physiology of the Chinese sturgeon and support the conservation efforts of wild populations of this important species. PMID:24714585

  9. Killing and caching of an adult White-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, by a single Gray Wolf, Canis lupus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    A single Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) killed an adult male White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and cached the intact carcass in 76 cm of snow. The carcass was revisited and entirely consumed between four and seven days later. This is the first recorded observation of a Gray Wolf caching an entire adult deer.

  10. 77 FR 44140 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Sturgeon Bay, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-27

    ...; Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Sturgeon Bay, WI, in the Federal Register (77 FR 21890). We did not receive any... final rule was published on October 24, 2005 in the Federal Register (70 FR 61380) to allow for one... published on June 5, 2009 in the Federal Register (74 FR 26954), effective from June 1, 2009 to November...

  11. Technical note: Production of tetraploid sturgeons.

    PubMed

    Lebeda, I; Flajshans, M

    2015-08-01

    Studies and practical application of androgenesis and gynogenesis in sturgeon are significantly hindered by strong influence of ploidy restoration treatment on survivability of progeny; therefore, developed method of production of tetraploid broodstock and, consequently, use of their diploid gametes might help to avoid ploidy restoration treatment. In the present study, for the first time was developed a protocol for tetraploidy induction in 2 model sturgeon species, sterlet () and Siberian sturgeon (). A high efficiency of treatment was achieved by optimization of heat shock using a temperature of 37°C for 2 min timed between the end of female pronuclei formation and the beginning of pronuclei migration, that is, 0.8 to 1.0 τ (duration of 1 mitotic cycle during the period of synchronous cleavage division). Fertilized eggs developed in tetraploid larvae, up to 31 (89.6% in control) and 34% (70.9% in control) in sterlet and Siberian sturgeon, respectively. Most of the tetraploid larvae exhibited body malformations; as a result, consequent large scale study revealed high larval mortality, which drastically decreased after 2 mo of age. Consequent comparison of BW, length, and malformation rate and mortality between diploid and tetraploid progeny of sterlet did not reveal significant differences in fitness of diploid and tetraploid juveniles at 9 and 11 mo of age. The present study can be considered the first step towards improving the androgenesis methods of conservation of endangered sturgeons as well as understanding the sturgeon sex determination system through induction of mitotic gynogenesis.

  12. A comparison of attitudes about cremation among Black and White middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Glass, Anne P; Samuel, Linda F

    2011-05-01

    Social workers must be instrumental in educating elders and their families to make informed decisions about death and dying. As part of a larger qualitative study, we explored attitudes about cremation of 25 older and 25 middle-aged adults, evenly split between Black and White respondents. Major themes emerged about disposition of the body after death. Costs and land conservation influenced support for cremation; reasons against cremation include religious beliefs, lack of closure, and sense of place. Additionally, some respondents were against cremation primarily because of lack of exposure, as it was not their family tradition, suggesting a role for education.

  13. A comparison of attitudes about cremation among Black and White middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Glass, Anne P; Samuel, Linda F

    2011-05-01

    Social workers must be instrumental in educating elders and their families to make informed decisions about death and dying. As part of a larger qualitative study, we explored attitudes about cremation of 25 older and 25 middle-aged adults, evenly split between Black and White respondents. Major themes emerged about disposition of the body after death. Costs and land conservation influenced support for cremation; reasons against cremation include religious beliefs, lack of closure, and sense of place. Additionally, some respondents were against cremation primarily because of lack of exposure, as it was not their family tradition, suggesting a role for education. PMID:21547828

  14. Obtaining Accelerometer Data in a National Cohort of Black and White Adults

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Virginia J.; Rhodes, J. David; Mosher, Aleena; Hutto, Brent; Stewart, Margaret S.; Colabianchi, Natalie; Vena, John E.; Blair, Steven N.; Hooker, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To report methodological details and feasibility of conducting an accelerometer ancillary study in a large U.S. cohort being followed for stroke and cognitive decline. Methods REGARDS is a national, population-based study of 30,239 blacks and whites, aged ≥ 45 years, enrolled January 2003–October 2007. Baseline evaluations were conducted through computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI) and an in-home visit. Participants are followed by CATI every 6 months. Starting with May 2009 follow-up, contingent on accelerometer availability, participants were invited to wear an accelerometer for 7 days. Device inventory was 1,150. Accelerometer, instructions, log sheet and stamped addressed return envelope were mailed to consenting participants. Postcard acknowledgement and reminders, and ≤ two calls were made to encourage compliance. Results Between May 2009 and January 2013, 20,076 were invited to participate; 12,146 (60.5%) consented. Participation rates by race-sex groups were similar: black women 58.6%, black men 59.6%, white women 62.3% and white men 60.5%. Mean age of the 12,146 participants to whom devices were shipped was 63.5 ± 8.7 years. Return rate was 92%. Of 11,174 returned, 1,187 were not worn, 14 had device malfunction, and of 9,973 with data, 8,096 (81.2%) provided usable data, defined as ≥ 4 days of 10+ hours of wear time, ranging from 74.4% among black women to 85.2% among white men. Conclusions Using mail and telephone methods, it is feasible to obtain objective measures of physical activity from a sizeable proportion of a national cohort of adults, with similar participation rates among blacks and whites. Linked with the clinical health information collected through follow-up, these data will allow future analyses on the association between objectively-measured sedentary time, physical activity and health outcomes. PMID:25333247

  15. Differences in prevalence of obesity among black, white, and Hispanic adults - United States, 2006-2008.

    PubMed

    2009-07-17

    Obesity is associated with increased health-care costs, reduced quality of life, and increased risk for premature death. Common morbidities associated with obesity include coronary heart disease, hypertension and stroke, type 2 diabetes, and certain types of cancer. As of 2007, no state had met the Healthy People 2010 objective to reduce to 15% the prevalence of obesity among U.S. adults. An overarching goal of Healthy People 2010 is to eliminate health disparities among racial/ethnic populations. To assess differences in prevalence of obesity among non-Hispanic blacks, non-Hispanic whites, and Hispanics, CDC analyzed data from Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) surveys conducted during 2006--2008. Overall, for the 3-year period, 25.6% of non-Hispanic blacks, non-Hispanic whites, and Hispanics were obese. Non-Hispanic blacks (35.7%) had 51% greater prevalence of obesity, and Hispanics (28.7%) had 21% greater prevalence, when compared with non-Hispanic whites (23.7%). This pattern was consistent across most U.S. states. However, state prevalences varied substantially, ranging from 23.0% (New Hampshire) to 45.1% (Maine) for non-Hispanic blacks, from 21.0% (Maryland) to 36.7% (Tennessee) for Hispanics, and from 9.0% (District of Columbia [DC]) to 30.2% (West Virginia) for non-Hispanic whites. Given the overall high prevalence of obesity and the significant differences among non-Hispanic blacks, non-Hispanic whites, and Hispanics, effective policies and environmental strategies that promote healthy eating and physical activity are needed for all populations and geographic areas, but particularly for those populations and areas disproportionally affected by obesity.

  16. Management and recovery options for Ural river beluga sturgeon.

    PubMed

    Doukakis, Phaedra; Babcock, Elizabeth A; Pikitch, Ellen K; Sharov, Alexei R; Baimukhanov, Mirgaly; Erbulekov, Sagiden; Bokova, Yelena; Nimatov, Akhat

    2010-06-01

    Management of declining fisheries of anadromous species sometimes relies heavily on supplementation of populations with captive breeding, despite evidence that captive breeding can have negative consequences and may not address the root cause of decline. The beluga sturgeon (Huso huso), a species threatened by the market for black caviar and reductions in habitat quality, is managed through harvest control and hatchery supplementation, with an emphasis on the latter. We used yield per recruit and elasticity analyses to evaluate the population status and current levels of fishing and to identify the life-history stages that are the best targets for conservation of beluga of the Ural River. Harvest rates in recent years were four to five times higher than rates that would sustain population abundance. Sustainable rates of fishing mortality are similar to those for other long-lived marine species such as sharks and mammals. Yield per recruit, which is maximized if fish are first harvested at age 31 years, would be greatly enhanced by raising minimum size limits or reducing illegal take of subadults. Improving the survival of subadult and adult females would increase population productivity by 10 times that achieved by improving fecundity and survival from egg to age 1 year (i.e., hatchery supplementation). These results suggest that reducing mortality of subadults and adult wild fish is a more effective conservation strategy than hatchery supplementation. Because genetics is not factored into hatchery management practices, supplementation may even reduce the viability of the beluga sturgeon.

  17. White Matter Microstructural Organization Is Higher with Age in Adult Superior Cerebellar Peduncles

    PubMed Central

    Kanaan, Richard A.; Allin, Matthew; Picchioni, Marco M.; Shergill, Sukhwinder S.; McGuire, Philip K.

    2016-01-01

    Using diffusion tensor imaging, we conducted an exploratory investigation of the relationship between white matter tract microstructure and age in 200 healthy adult subjects using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). Though most tracts showed the slight decline in microstructural organization with age widely noted, in both superior cerebellar peduncles (SCP) it correlated positively with age, a result not previously reported. We confirmed this by using an alternative method, and by repeating our TBSS analysis in an additional sample of 133 healthy adults. In exploring this surprising result we considered the possibility that this might arise from the continual cognitive and motor refinement that is enacted in the cerebellum: we found that tract microstructure in both SCPs was also strongly correlated with IQ, again in contrast with all other tracts, and its relationship with age mediated by IQ, as a training model would predict. PMID:27148043

  18. Extensive and interrelated subcortical white and gray matter alterations in preterm-born adults.

    PubMed

    Meng, C; Bäuml, J G; Daamen, M; Jaekel, J; Neitzel, J; Scheef, L; Busch, B; Baumann, N; Boecker, H; Zimmer, C; Bartmann, P; Wolke, D; Wohlschläger, A M; Sorg, Christian

    2016-05-01

    Preterm birth is a leading cause for impaired neurocognitive development with an increased risk for persistent cognitive deficits in adulthood. In newborns, preterm birth is associated with interrelated white matter (WM) alterations and deep gray matter (GM) loss; however, little is known about the persistence and relevance of these subcortical brain changes. We tested the hypothesis that the pattern of correspondent subcortical WM and GM changes is present in preterm-born adults and has a brain-injury-like nature, i.e., it predicts lowered general cognitive performance. Eighty-five preterm-born and 69 matched term-born adults were assessed by diffusion- and T1-weighted MRI and cognitive testing. Main outcome measures were fractional anisotropy of water diffusion for WM property, GM volume for GM property, and full-scale IQ for cognitive performance. In preterm-born adults, reduced fractional anisotropy was widely distributed ranging from cerebellum to brainstem to hemispheres. GM volume was reduced in the thalamus, striatum, temporal cortices, and increased in the cingulate cortices. Fractional anisotropy reductions were specifically associated with GM loss in thalamus and striatum, with correlation patterns for both regions extensively overlapping in the WM of brainstem and hemispheres. For overlap regions, fractional anisotropy was positively related with both gestational age and full-scale IQ. Results provide evidence for extensive, interrelated, and adverse WM and GM subcortical changes in preterm-born adults. Data suggest persistent brain-injury-like changes of subcortical-cortical connectivity after preterm delivery.

  19. Photoperiodic regulation of hippocampal neurogenesis in adult male white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus).

    PubMed

    Walton, James C; Aubrecht, Taryn G; Weil, Zachary M; Leuner, Benedetta; Nelson, Randy J

    2014-08-01

    Photoperiodic organisms monitor environmental day length to engage in seasonally appropriate adaptions in physiology and behavior. Among these adaptations are changes in brain volume and neurogenesis, which have been well described in multiple species of birds, yet few studies have described such changes in the brains of adult mammals. White-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) are an excellent species in which to investigate the effects of day length on adult hippocampal neurogenesis, as males, in addition to having reduced hippocampal volume in short days (SD) with concomitant impairments in hippocampus-mediated behaviors, have photoperiod-dependent changes in olfactory bulb neurogenesis. We performed the current experiment to assess the effects of photoperiod on hippocampal neurogenesis longitudinally, using the thymidine analog bromodeoxyuridine at multiple time points across 10 weeks of SD exposure. Compared with counterparts held in long day (LD) lengths, across the first 8 weeks of SD exposure hippocampal neurogenesis was reduced. However, at 10 weeks in SD lengths neurogenic levels in the hippocampus were elevated above those levels in mice held in LD lengths. The current findings are consistent with the natural photoperiodic cycle of hippocampal function in male white-footed mice, and may help to inform research on photoperiodic plasticity in neurogenesis and provide insight into how the complex interplay among the environment, genes and adaptive responses to changing day lengths affects brain structure, function and behavior at multiple levels. PMID:24893623

  20. Association of television violence exposure with executive functioning and white matter volume in young adult males.

    PubMed

    Hummer, Tom A; Kronenberger, William G; Wang, Yang; Anderson, Caitlin C; Mathews, Vincent P

    2014-07-01

    Prior research has indicated that self-reported violent media exposure is associated with poorer performance on some neuropsychological tests in adolescents. This study aimed to examine the relationship of executive functioning to violent television viewing in healthy young adult males and examine how brain structure is associated with media exposure measures. Sixty-five healthy adult males (ages 18-29) with minimal video game experience estimated their television viewing habits over the past year and, during the subsequent week, recorded television viewing time and characteristics in a daily media diary. Participants then completed a battery of neuropsychological laboratory tests quantifying executive functions and underwent a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. Aggregate measures of executive functioning were not associated with measures of overall television viewing (any content type) during the past week or year. However, the amount of television viewing of violent content only, as indicated by both past-year and daily diary measures, was associated with poorer scores on an aggregate score of inhibition, interference control and attention, with no relationship to a composite working memory score. In addition, violent television exposure, as measured with daily media diaries, was associated with reduced frontoparietal white matter volume. Future longitudinal work is necessary to resolve whether individuals with poor executive function and slower white matter growth are more drawn to violent programming, or if extensive media violence exposure modifies cognitive control mechanisms mediated primarily via prefrontal cortex. Impaired inhibitory mechanisms may be related to reported increases in aggression with higher media violence exposure. PMID:24836970

  1. Association of television violence exposure with executive functioning and white matter volume in young adult males.

    PubMed

    Hummer, Tom A; Kronenberger, William G; Wang, Yang; Anderson, Caitlin C; Mathews, Vincent P

    2014-07-01

    Prior research has indicated that self-reported violent media exposure is associated with poorer performance on some neuropsychological tests in adolescents. This study aimed to examine the relationship of executive functioning to violent television viewing in healthy young adult males and examine how brain structure is associated with media exposure measures. Sixty-five healthy adult males (ages 18-29) with minimal video game experience estimated their television viewing habits over the past year and, during the subsequent week, recorded television viewing time and characteristics in a daily media diary. Participants then completed a battery of neuropsychological laboratory tests quantifying executive functions and underwent a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. Aggregate measures of executive functioning were not associated with measures of overall television viewing (any content type) during the past week or year. However, the amount of television viewing of violent content only, as indicated by both past-year and daily diary measures, was associated with poorer scores on an aggregate score of inhibition, interference control and attention, with no relationship to a composite working memory score. In addition, violent television exposure, as measured with daily media diaries, was associated with reduced frontoparietal white matter volume. Future longitudinal work is necessary to resolve whether individuals with poor executive function and slower white matter growth are more drawn to violent programming, or if extensive media violence exposure modifies cognitive control mechanisms mediated primarily via prefrontal cortex. Impaired inhibitory mechanisms may be related to reported increases in aggression with higher media violence exposure.

  2. Photoperiodic regulation of hippocampal neurogenesis in adult male white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus).

    PubMed

    Walton, James C; Aubrecht, Taryn G; Weil, Zachary M; Leuner, Benedetta; Nelson, Randy J

    2014-08-01

    Photoperiodic organisms monitor environmental day length to engage in seasonally appropriate adaptions in physiology and behavior. Among these adaptations are changes in brain volume and neurogenesis, which have been well described in multiple species of birds, yet few studies have described such changes in the brains of adult mammals. White-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) are an excellent species in which to investigate the effects of day length on adult hippocampal neurogenesis, as males, in addition to having reduced hippocampal volume in short days (SD) with concomitant impairments in hippocampus-mediated behaviors, have photoperiod-dependent changes in olfactory bulb neurogenesis. We performed the current experiment to assess the effects of photoperiod on hippocampal neurogenesis longitudinally, using the thymidine analog bromodeoxyuridine at multiple time points across 10 weeks of SD exposure. Compared with counterparts held in long day (LD) lengths, across the first 8 weeks of SD exposure hippocampal neurogenesis was reduced. However, at 10 weeks in SD lengths neurogenic levels in the hippocampus were elevated above those levels in mice held in LD lengths. The current findings are consistent with the natural photoperiodic cycle of hippocampal function in male white-footed mice, and may help to inform research on photoperiodic plasticity in neurogenesis and provide insight into how the complex interplay among the environment, genes and adaptive responses to changing day lengths affects brain structure, function and behavior at multiple levels.

  3. Ontogenetic behavior and migration of Gulf of Mexico sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi, with notes on body color and development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kynard, B.; Parker, E.

    2004-01-01

    We observed Suwannee River Gulf sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi, in the laboratory and found free embryos (first interval after hatching) hid under rocks and did not migrate. Thus, wild embryos should be at the spawning area. Larvae (first interval feeding exogenously) initiated a slow downstream migration, and some juveniles (interval with adult features) continued to migrate slowly for at least 5 months, e.g., a 1-step long larva-juvenile migration. No other population of sturgeon yet studied has this migration style. A conceptual model using this result suggests wild year-0 sturgeon have a variable downstream migration style with short-duration (short distance) migrants and long-duration (long distance) migrants. This migration style should widely disperse wild fish. The model is supported by field studies that found year-0 juveniles are widely dispersed in fresh water to river km 10. Thus, laboratory and field data agree that the entire freshwater reach of river downstream of spawning is nursery habitat. Foraging position of larvae and early juveniles was mostly on the bottom, but fish also spent hours holding position in the water column, an unusual feeding location for sturgeons. The holding position of fish above the bottom suggests benthic forage in the river is scarce and fish have evolved drift feeding. The unusual migration and foraging styles may be adaptations to rear in a river at the southern limit of the species range with poor rearing habitat (low abundance of benthic forage and high summer water temperatures). Suwannee River Gulf sturgeon and Hudson River Atlantic sturgeon, A. o. oxyrinchus, are similar for initiation of migration, early habitat preference, and diel migration. The two subspecies differ greatly for migration and foraging styles, which is likely related to major differences in the quality of rearing habitat. The differences between Atlantic sturgeon populations show the need for geographical studies to represent the behavior

  4. Brain white matter structure and COMT gene are linked to second-language learning in adults.

    PubMed

    Mamiya, Ping C; Richards, Todd L; Coe, Bradley P; Eichler, Evan E; Kuhl, Patricia K

    2016-06-28

    Adult human brains retain the capacity to undergo tissue reorganization during second-language learning. Brain-imaging studies show a relationship between neuroanatomical properties and learning for adults exposed to a second language. However, the role of genetic factors in this relationship has not been investigated. The goal of the current study was twofold: (i) to characterize the relationship between brain white matter fiber-tract properties and second-language immersion using diffusion tensor imaging, and (ii) to determine whether polymorphisms in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene affect the relationship. We recruited incoming Chinese students enrolled in the University of Washington and scanned their brains one time. We measured the diffusion properties of the white matter fiber tracts and correlated them with the number of days each student had been in the immersion program at the time of the brain scan. We found that higher numbers of days in the English immersion program correlated with higher fractional anisotropy and lower radial diffusivity in the right superior longitudinal fasciculus. We show that fractional anisotropy declined once the subjects finished the immersion program. The relationship between brain white matter fiber-tract properties and immersion varied in subjects with different COMT genotypes. Subjects with the Methionine (Met)/Valine (Val) and Val/Val genotypes showed higher fractional anisotropy and lower radial diffusivity during immersion, which reversed immediately after immersion ended, whereas those with the Met/Met genotype did not show these relationships. Statistical modeling revealed that subjects' grades in the language immersion program were best predicted by fractional anisotropy and COMT genotype. PMID:27298360

  5. Aortic pulse wave velocity predicts focal white matter hyperintensities in a biracial cohort of older adults.

    PubMed

    Rosano, Caterina; Watson, Nora; Chang, Yuefang; Newman, Anne B; Aizenstein, Howard J; Du, Yan; Venkatraman, Vijay; Harris, Tamara B; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Although the cross-sectional relationship of arterial stiffness with cerebral small vessel disease is consistently shown in middle-aged and young-old adults, it is less clear whether these associations remain significant over time in very old adults. We hypothesize that arterial stiffness is longitudinally associated with white matter characteristics, and associations are stronger within watershed areas. Neuroimaging was obtained in 2006-2008 from 303 elderly (mean age 82.9 years, 59% women, 41% black) with pulse wave velocity (PWV) measures in 1997-1998. Multivariable regression models estimated the coefficients for PWV (cm/sec) in relationship to presence, severity, and spatial distribution of white matter hyperintensities (WMH), gray matter volume, and fractional anisotropy from diffusion tensor, adjusting for demographic, cardiovascular risk factors, and diseases from 1997-1998 to 2006-2008. Higher PWV in 1997-1998 was associated with greater WMH volume in 2006-2008 within the left superior longitudinal fasciculus (age and total brain WMH adjusted, P=0.023), but not with WMH in other tracts or with fractional anisotropy or gray matter volume from total brain (P>0.2). Associations were stronger in blacks than in whites, remaining significant in fully adjusted models. Elderly with WMH in tracts related to processing speed and memory are more likely to have had higher PWV values 10 years prior, before neuroimaging data being available. Future studies should address whether arterial stiffness can serve as an early biomarker of covert brain structural abnormalities and whether early arterial stiffness control can promote successful brain aging, especially in black elderly.

  6. Brain white matter structure and COMT gene are linked to second-language learning in adults.

    PubMed

    Mamiya, Ping C; Richards, Todd L; Coe, Bradley P; Eichler, Evan E; Kuhl, Patricia K

    2016-06-28

    Adult human brains retain the capacity to undergo tissue reorganization during second-language learning. Brain-imaging studies show a relationship between neuroanatomical properties and learning for adults exposed to a second language. However, the role of genetic factors in this relationship has not been investigated. The goal of the current study was twofold: (i) to characterize the relationship between brain white matter fiber-tract properties and second-language immersion using diffusion tensor imaging, and (ii) to determine whether polymorphisms in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene affect the relationship. We recruited incoming Chinese students enrolled in the University of Washington and scanned their brains one time. We measured the diffusion properties of the white matter fiber tracts and correlated them with the number of days each student had been in the immersion program at the time of the brain scan. We found that higher numbers of days in the English immersion program correlated with higher fractional anisotropy and lower radial diffusivity in the right superior longitudinal fasciculus. We show that fractional anisotropy declined once the subjects finished the immersion program. The relationship between brain white matter fiber-tract properties and immersion varied in subjects with different COMT genotypes. Subjects with the Methionine (Met)/Valine (Val) and Val/Val genotypes showed higher fractional anisotropy and lower radial diffusivity during immersion, which reversed immediately after immersion ended, whereas those with the Met/Met genotype did not show these relationships. Statistical modeling revealed that subjects' grades in the language immersion program were best predicted by fractional anisotropy and COMT genotype.

  7. Brain white matter structure and COMT gene are linked to second-language learning in adults

    PubMed Central

    Mamiya, Ping C.; Richards, Todd L.; Coe, Bradley P.; Eichler, Evan E.; Kuhl, Patricia K.

    2016-01-01

    Adult human brains retain the capacity to undergo tissue reorganization during second-language learning. Brain-imaging studies show a relationship between neuroanatomical properties and learning for adults exposed to a second language. However, the role of genetic factors in this relationship has not been investigated. The goal of the current study was twofold: (i) to characterize the relationship between brain white matter fiber-tract properties and second-language immersion using diffusion tensor imaging, and (ii) to determine whether polymorphisms in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene affect the relationship. We recruited incoming Chinese students enrolled in the University of Washington and scanned their brains one time. We measured the diffusion properties of the white matter fiber tracts and correlated them with the number of days each student had been in the immersion program at the time of the brain scan. We found that higher numbers of days in the English immersion program correlated with higher fractional anisotropy and lower radial diffusivity in the right superior longitudinal fasciculus. We show that fractional anisotropy declined once the subjects finished the immersion program. The relationship between brain white matter fiber-tract properties and immersion varied in subjects with different COMT genotypes. Subjects with the Methionine (Met)/Valine (Val) and Val/Val genotypes showed higher fractional anisotropy and lower radial diffusivity during immersion, which reversed immediately after immersion ended, whereas those with the Met/Met genotype did not show these relationships. Statistical modeling revealed that subjects’ grades in the language immersion program were best predicted by fractional anisotropy and COMT genotype. PMID:27298360

  8. Shortnose sturgeon use small coastal rivers: The importance of habitat connectivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zydlewski, G.B.; Kinnison, M.T.; Dionne, P.E.; Zydlewski, J.; Wippelhauser, G.S.

    2011-01-01

    Contrary to conventional wisdom for shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum), we document shortnose sturgeon use of habitats beyond large rivers. Telemetry data from 2008 to 2010 in the Gulf of Maine demonstrates that adult shortnose sturgeon (up to 70%) frequently move between Maine's two largest rivers, the Kennebec and Penobscot Rivers. Even more interesting, small rivers located between these watersheds were used by 52% of the coastal migrants. Small river use was not trivial, 80% of observed movements extended more than 10km upstream. However, visits were short in duration. This pattern indicates one of several possibilities: directed use of resources, searching behaviors related to reproduction (i.e. straying) or undirected wandering. Data suggest a relationship between residence time in small rivers and distance to the lowermost barrier. Restoring connectivity to upstream habitats in these rivers could allow opportunities for metapopulation expansion. Regional management of shortnose sturgeon in the Gulf of Maine should incorporate a habitat framework that considers small coastal rivers. ?? 2011 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

  9. Relationship between white blood cells and hypertension in Chinese adults: the Cardiometabolic Risk in Chinese (CRC) study.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu-Ting; Gong, Ying; Zhu, Ruihua; Liu, Xuekui; Zhu, Yan; Wang, Yu; Qiu, Qinqin; Qi, Lu; Liang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Increased blood pressure was associated with increased white blood cell count (adjusted p < 0.001) in a community-based health examination survey of adults in China (n = 39 282; aged 18-93 years). Adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for hypertension across white blood cell count quintiles were 1.00, 0.99 (0.89-1.09), 1.11 (1.01-1.22), 1.09 (0.99-1.20), and 1.19 (1.08-1.31) (p for trend < 0.001). Body mass index and white blood cell count had an additive effect on systolic blood pressure (p for interaction = 0.047). Therefore, white blood cell count could independently predict hypertension in Chinese adults.

  10. Sex assignment of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fluvescens) based on plasma sex hormone and vitellogenin levels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Craig, J.M.; Papoulias, D.M.; Thomas, M.V.; Annis, M.L.; Boase, J.

    2009-01-01

    This study focused on identifying the sex of lake sturgeon by measuring the sex hormones estradiol and testosterone, and the phosphoprotein vitellogenin (Vtg) in blood plasma by radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively, and evaluating these techniques as tools in lake sturgeon population management. Surveys of the St Clair River (SCR) lake sturgeon population have characterized it as rebounding by having steady or increasing recruitment since 1997. However, researchers have not been able to effectively determine the sex for most of the sturgeon they capture because few fish caught during surveys are releasing gametes. A total of 115 fish were sampled from May through June in 2004 and 2005 from the SCR, Michigan, USA. Of these, only four females and eight males were verified (i.e. they were releasing gametes at time of capture), resulting in very few fish with which to validate blood hormone and Vtg biomarkers of sex. Fifty-six percent of the fish were assigned a sex designation based on biomarker criteria. Correspondence between actual gonadal sex and biomarker-directed classification was good for the small subset of fish for which gonadal sex was definitively determined. Moreover, application of the steroid values in a predictive sex assignment model developed for white sturgeon misclassified only the same two fish that were misclassified with the steroid and Vtg biomarkers. The experimental results suggest a sex ratio of 1 : 2.7 (F:M), however more conclusive methods are needed to confirm this ratio because so few fish were available for sex validation. Of the 43 males, 14 were within the legal slot limit, 11 were smaller than 1067 mm total length (TL), and 18 were larger than 1270 mm TL. All 15 females were larger than 1270 mm TL, and thus protected by the slot limit criteria. Considering that lake sturgeon are threatened in Michigan, an advantage to using blood plasma assays was that fish were not harmed, and sample collection was

  11. Lake sturgeon population characteristics in Rainy Lake, Minnesota and Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, W.E.; Kallemeyn, L.W.; Willis, D.W.

    2006-01-01

    Rainy Lake contains a native population of lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens that has been largely unstudied. The aims of this study were to document the population characteristics of lake sturgeon in Rainy Lake and to relate environmental factors to year-class strength for this population. Gill-netting efforts throughout the study resulted in the capture of 322 lake sturgeon, including 50 recaptures. Lake sturgeon in Rainy Lake was relatively plump and fast growing compared with a 32-population summary. Population samples were dominated by lake sturgeon between 110 and 150 cm total length. Age–structure analysis of the samples indicated few younger (<10 years) lake sturgeon, but the smallest gill net mesh size used for sampling was 102 mm (bar measure) and would not retain small sturgeon. Few lake sturgeon older than age 50 years were captured, and maximum age of sampled fish was 59 years. Few correlations existed between lake sturgeon year-class indices and both annual and monthly climate variables, except that mean June air temperature was positively correlated with year-class strength. Analysis of Rainy Lake water elevation and resulting lake sturgeon year-class strength indices across years yielded consistent but weak negative correlations between late April and early June, when spawning of lake sturgeon occurs. The baseline data collected in this study should allow Rainy Lake biologists to establish more specific research questions in the future.

  12. Serum immunoglobulins G, A and M in White and Black adults on the Witwatersrand.

    PubMed

    Shulman, G; Gilich, G C; Andrew, M J

    1975-07-12

    Blood donors and hospital inpatients of the same sex and race group showed similar concentrations of serum immunoglobulins G and M. Serum IgA levels were significantly higher in three of four hospital patient groups as compared with blood donor groups matched for sex and race. Age was shown to be responsible for this difference, since on average the blood donors were younger and analysis of all subjects in age groups showed a progressive rise in IgA with increasing age. Lower IgA levels occurred in women than in men of comparable age and race group. A sex difference with higher IgM levels in women was confirmed. All values in Black adults were much higher than in Whites. It is therefore of importance to consider the ranges of values for any individual's age, sex and race when interpreting results of serum immunoglobulin assay.

  13. Plasma omega-3 PUFA and white matter mediated executive decline in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, Gene L.; Dodge, Hiroko H.; Mattek, Nora; Barbey, Aron K.; Silbert, Lisa C.; Shinto, Lynne; Howieson, Diane B.; Kaye, Jeffrey A.; Quinn, Joseph F.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Cross-sectional studies have identified long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid 20:5n-3 and docosahexaenoic acid 22:6n-3 (O3PUFA) in association with fewer white matter lesions and better executive function in older adults. We hypothesized that O3PUFA are associated with less executive decline over time and that total white matter hyperintensity volume (WMH) mediates this association. Methods: Eighty-six non-demented older adults were followed over 4 years after measurement of plasma O3PUFA with annual evaluations of cognitive function. A subset of these participants also had brain MRI of total WMH available to conduct a formal mediation analysis of a putative relationship between O3PUFA and cognitive function. Results: Mean age at baseline was 86, 62% were female and 11% carried the APOE4 allele. Each 100 μg/ml increase in plasma O3PUFA associated with 4 s less change in executive decline per year of aging (p = 0.02, fully adjusted model). O3PUFA was not associated with verbal memory or global cognitive changes. The significance of the association between O3PUFA and better executive function was lost once WMH was added to the regression model. Conclusion: Executive decline with age appears to be a cognitive domain particularly sensitive to plasma O3PUFA in longitudinal examination. O3PUFA may modulate executive functioning by mechanisms underlying the development of WMH, a biologically plausible hypothesis that warrants further investigation. PMID:24379780

  14. A higher ratio of beans to white rice is associated with lower cardiometabolic risk factors in Costa Rican adults123

    PubMed Central

    Mattei, Josiemer; Hu, Frank B

    2011-01-01

    Background: A high intake of white rice is associated with the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Costa Ricans follow a staple dietary pattern that includes white rice and beans, yet the combined role of these foods on cardiometabolic risk factors has not been studied. Objective: We aimed to determine the association between intake of white rice and beans and the metabolic syndrome and its components in Costa Rican adults (n = 1879) without diabetes. Design: Multivariate-adjusted means were calculated for components of the metabolic syndrome by daily servings of white rice and beans (<1, 1, or >1) and by the ratio of beans to white rice. The OR for the metabolic syndrome was calculated by substituting one serving of beans for one serving of white rice. Results: An increase in daily servings of white rice was positively associated with systolic blood pressure (BP), triglycerides, and fasting glucose and inversely associated with HDL cholesterol (P-trend <0.01 for all). An increase in servings of beans was inversely associated with diastolic BP (P = 0.049). Significant trends for higher HDL cholesterol and lower BP and triglycerides were observed for 1:3, 1:2, 1:1, and 2:1 ratios of beans to white rice. Substituting one serving of beans for one serving of white rice was associated with a 35% (95% CI: 15%, 50%) lower risk of the metabolic syndrome. Conclusion: Increasing the ratio of beans to white rice, or limiting the intake of white rice by substituting beans, may lower cardiometabolic risk factors. PMID:21813808

  15. The challenges of the first migration: movement and behaviour of juvenile vs. adult white storks with insights regarding juvenile mortality.

    PubMed

    Rotics, Shay; Kaatz, Michael; Resheff, Yehezkel S; Turjeman, Sondra Feldman; Zurell, Damaris; Sapir, Nir; Eggers, Ute; Flack, Andrea; Fiedler, Wolfgang; Jeltsch, Florian; Wikelski, Martin; Nathan, Ran

    2016-07-01

    Migration conveys an immense challenge, especially for juvenile birds coping with enduring and risky journeys shortly after fledging. Accordingly, juveniles exhibit considerably lower survival rates compared to adults, particularly during migration. Juvenile white storks (Ciconia ciconia), which are known to rely on adults during their first fall migration presumably for navigational purposes, also display much lower annual survival than adults. Using detailed GPS and body acceleration data, we examined the patterns and potential causes of age-related differences in fall migration properties of white storks by comparing first-year juveniles and adults. We compared juvenile and adult parameters of movement, behaviour and energy expenditure (estimated from overall dynamic body acceleration) and placed this in the context of the juveniles' lower survival rate. Juveniles used flapping flight vs. soaring flight 23% more than adults and were estimated to expend 14% more energy during flight. Juveniles did not compensate for their higher flight costs by increased refuelling or resting during migration. When juveniles and adults migrated together in the same flock, the juvenile flew mostly behind the adult and was left behind when they separated. Juveniles showed greater improvement in flight efficiency throughout migration compared to adults which appears crucial because juveniles exhibiting higher flight costs suffered increased mortality. Our findings demonstrate the conflict between the juveniles' inferior flight skills and their urge to keep up with mixed adult-juvenile flocks. We suggest that increased flight costs are an important proximate cause of juvenile mortality in white storks and likely in other soaring migrants and that natural selection is operating on juvenile variation in flight efficiency.

  16. The challenges of the first migration: movement and behaviour of juvenile vs. adult white storks with insights regarding juvenile mortality.

    PubMed

    Rotics, Shay; Kaatz, Michael; Resheff, Yehezkel S; Turjeman, Sondra Feldman; Zurell, Damaris; Sapir, Nir; Eggers, Ute; Flack, Andrea; Fiedler, Wolfgang; Jeltsch, Florian; Wikelski, Martin; Nathan, Ran

    2016-07-01

    Migration conveys an immense challenge, especially for juvenile birds coping with enduring and risky journeys shortly after fledging. Accordingly, juveniles exhibit considerably lower survival rates compared to adults, particularly during migration. Juvenile white storks (Ciconia ciconia), which are known to rely on adults during their first fall migration presumably for navigational purposes, also display much lower annual survival than adults. Using detailed GPS and body acceleration data, we examined the patterns and potential causes of age-related differences in fall migration properties of white storks by comparing first-year juveniles and adults. We compared juvenile and adult parameters of movement, behaviour and energy expenditure (estimated from overall dynamic body acceleration) and placed this in the context of the juveniles' lower survival rate. Juveniles used flapping flight vs. soaring flight 23% more than adults and were estimated to expend 14% more energy during flight. Juveniles did not compensate for their higher flight costs by increased refuelling or resting during migration. When juveniles and adults migrated together in the same flock, the juvenile flew mostly behind the adult and was left behind when they separated. Juveniles showed greater improvement in flight efficiency throughout migration compared to adults which appears crucial because juveniles exhibiting higher flight costs suffered increased mortality. Our findings demonstrate the conflict between the juveniles' inferior flight skills and their urge to keep up with mixed adult-juvenile flocks. We suggest that increased flight costs are an important proximate cause of juvenile mortality in white storks and likely in other soaring migrants and that natural selection is operating on juvenile variation in flight efficiency. PMID:27046512

  17. Genetic effects of habitat restoration in the Laurentian Great Lakes: an assessment of lake sturgeon origin and genetic diversity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jamie Marie Marranca,; Amy Welsh,; Roseman, Edward F.

    2015-01-01

    Lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) have experienced significant habitat loss, resulting in reduced population sizes. Three artificial reefs were built in the Huron-Erie corridor in the Great Lakes to replace lost spawning habitat. Genetic data were collected to determine the source and numbers of adult lake sturgeon spawning on the reefs and to determine if the founder effect resulted in reduced genetic diversity. DNA was extracted from larval tail clips and 12 microsatellite loci were amplified. Larval genotypes were then compared to 22 previously studied spawning lake sturgeon populations in the Great Lakes to determine the source of the parental population. The effective number of breeders (Nb) was calculated for each reef cohort. The larval genotypes were then compared to the source population to determine if there were any losses in genetic diversity that are indicative of the founder effect. The St. Clair and Detroit River adult populations were found to be the source parental population for the larvae collected on all three artificial reefs. There were large numbers of contributing adults relative to the number of sampled larvae. There was no significant difference between levels of genetic diversity in the source population and larval samples from the artificial reefs; however, there is some evidence for a genetic bottleneck in the reef populations likely due to the founder effect. Habitat restoration in the Huron-Erie corridor is likely resulting in increased habitat for the large lake sturgeon population in the system and in maintenance of the population's genetic diversity.

  18. Deviant white matter structure in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder points to aberrant myelination and affects neuropsychological performance.

    PubMed

    Onnink, A Marten H; Zwiers, Marcel P; Hoogman, Martine; Mostert, Jeanette C; Dammers, Janneke; Kan, Cornelis C; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Schene, Aart H; Buitelaar, Jan; Franke, Barbara

    2015-12-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood is characterized by gray and white matter abnormalities in several brain areas. Considerably less is known about white matter microstructure in adults with ADHD and its relation with clinical symptoms and cognitive performance. In 107 adult ADHD patients and 109 gender-, age- and IQ-matched controls, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to investigate whole-skeleton changes of fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean, axial, and radial diffusivity (MD, AD, RD). Additionally, we studied the relation of FA and MD values with symptom severity and cognitive performance on tasks measuring working memory, attention, inhibition, and delay discounting. In comparison to controls, participants with ADHD showed reduced FA in corpus callosum, bilateral corona radiata, and thalamic radiation. Higher MD and RD were found in overlapping and even more widespread areas in both hemispheres, also encompassing internal and external capsule, sagittal stratum, fornix, and superior lateral fasciculus. Values of FA and MD were not associated with symptom severity. However, within some white matter clusters that distinguished patients from controls, worse inhibition performance was associated with reduced FA and more impulsive decision making was associated with increased MD. This study shows widespread differences in white matter integrity between adults with persistent ADHD and healthy individuals. Changes in RD suggest aberrant myelination as a pathophysiological factor in persistent ADHD. The microstructural differences in adult ADHD may contribute to poor inhibition and greater impulsivity but appear to be independent of disease severity. PMID:25956761

  19. Deviant white matter structure in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder points to aberrant myelination and affects neuropsychological performance.

    PubMed

    Onnink, A Marten H; Zwiers, Marcel P; Hoogman, Martine; Mostert, Jeanette C; Dammers, Janneke; Kan, Cornelis C; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Schene, Aart H; Buitelaar, Jan; Franke, Barbara

    2015-12-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood is characterized by gray and white matter abnormalities in several brain areas. Considerably less is known about white matter microstructure in adults with ADHD and its relation with clinical symptoms and cognitive performance. In 107 adult ADHD patients and 109 gender-, age- and IQ-matched controls, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to investigate whole-skeleton changes of fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean, axial, and radial diffusivity (MD, AD, RD). Additionally, we studied the relation of FA and MD values with symptom severity and cognitive performance on tasks measuring working memory, attention, inhibition, and delay discounting. In comparison to controls, participants with ADHD showed reduced FA in corpus callosum, bilateral corona radiata, and thalamic radiation. Higher MD and RD were found in overlapping and even more widespread areas in both hemispheres, also encompassing internal and external capsule, sagittal stratum, fornix, and superior lateral fasciculus. Values of FA and MD were not associated with symptom severity. However, within some white matter clusters that distinguished patients from controls, worse inhibition performance was associated with reduced FA and more impulsive decision making was associated with increased MD. This study shows widespread differences in white matter integrity between adults with persistent ADHD and healthy individuals. Changes in RD suggest aberrant myelination as a pathophysiological factor in persistent ADHD. The microstructural differences in adult ADHD may contribute to poor inhibition and greater impulsivity but appear to be independent of disease severity.

  20. Comparison of personal characteristics, tobacco use, and health states in Chaldean, Arab American, and non-Middle Eastern White adults.

    PubMed

    Jamil, H; Templin, T; Fakhouri, M; Rice, V H; Khouri, R; Fakhouri, H; Al-Omran, Hasan; Al-Fauori, Ibrahim; Baker, Omar

    2009-08-01

    This study compared and contrasted personal characteristics, tobacco use (cigarette and water pipe smoking), and health states in Chaldean, Arab American and non-Middle Eastern White adults attending an urban community service center. The average age was 39.4 (SD = 14.2). The three groups differed significantly (P < .006) on ethnicity, age, gender distribution, marital status, language spoken, education, employment, and annual income. Current cigarette smoking was highest for non-Middle Eastern White adults (35.4%) and current water pipe smoking was highest for Arab Americans (3.6%). Arab Americans were more likely to smoke both cigarettes and the narghile (4.3%). Health problems were highest among former smokers in all three ethnic groups. Being male, older, unmarried, and non-Middle Eastern White predicted current cigarette smoking; being Arab or Chaldean and having less formal education predicted current water pipe use. PMID:18311586

  1. Similarities in speech and white matter characteristics in idiopathic developmental stuttering and adult-onset stuttering

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Soo-Eun; Synnestvedt, Anna; Ostuni, John

    2009-01-01

    Adult-onset stuttering (AS) typically occurs following neurological and/or psychological trauma, considered different from developmental stuttering (DS), which starts during early childhood with few if any new cases reported after adolescence. Here we report four cases of AS, two with apparent psychological trigger and two without, none with evidence of neurological injury, and none conforming to previously reported characteristics of psychogenic stuttering. We asked whether this group of AS would have similar speech and neuroanatomical characteristics to those with DS. We conducted blinded analyses of speech samples in both AS cases and 14 cases of DS on type, frequency, and loci of disfluencies. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was conducted to compare white matter tracts using fractional anisotropy (FA). We found that AS did not differ significantly from DS in any of the speech characteristics measured. On DTI, DS had significantly increased FA relative to controls in the right superior longitudinal tract. AS cases showed a similar trend for increases in these regions when compared to controls. The results of this study suggest that symptoms of idiopathic stuttering can begin during adulthood, and that similar neuroanatomical differences from controls may be associated with both developmental and adult onset idiopathic stuttering. PMID:20640049

  2. White matter abnormalities in adults with 22q11 deletion syndrome with and without schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    da Silva Alves, Fabiana; Schmitz, Nicole; Bloemen, Oswald; van der Meer, Johan; Meijer, Julia; Boot, Erik; Nederveen, Aart; de Haan, Lieuwe; Linszen, Don; van Amelsvoort, Therese

    2011-10-01

    Dysfunction of cerebral white matter (WM) is a potential factor underlying the neurobiology of schizophrenia. People with 22q11 deletion syndrome have altered brain morphology and increased risk for schizophrenia, therefore decreased WM integrity may be related to schizophrenia in 22q11DS. We measured fractional anisotropy (FA) and WM volume in 27 adults with 22q11DS with schizophrenia (n=12, 22q11DS SCZ+) and without schizophrenia (n=15, 22q11DS SCZ-), 12 individuals with idiopathic schizophrenia and 31 age-matched healthy controls. We found widespread decreased WM volume in posterior and temporal brain areas and decreased FA in areas of the frontal cortex in the whole 22q11DS group compared to healthy controls. In 22q11DS SCZ+ compromised WM integrity included inferior frontal areas of parietal and occipital lobe. Idiopathic schizophrenia patients showed decreased FA in inferior frontal and insular regions compared to healthy controls. We found no WM alterations in 22q11DS SCZ+ vs. 22q11DS SCZ-. However, there was a negative correlation between FA and PANSS scores (Positive and Negative Symptom Scale) in the whole 22q11DS group in the inferior frontal, cingulate, insular and temporal areas. This is the first study to investigate WM integrity in adults with 22q11DS. Our results suggest that pervasive WM dysfunction is intrinsic to 22q11DS and that psychotic development in adults with 22q11DS involves similar brain areas as seen in schizophrenia in the general population.

  3. Central artery stiffness, baroreflex sensitivity, and brain white matter neuronal fiber integrity in older adults.

    PubMed

    Tarumi, Takashi; de Jong, Daan L K; Zhu, David C; Tseng, Benjamin Y; Liu, Jie; Hill, Candace; Riley, Jonathan; Womack, Kyle B; Kerwin, Diana R; Lu, Hanzhang; Munro Cullum, C; Zhang, Rong

    2015-04-15

    Cerebral hypoperfusion elevates the risk of brain white matter (WM) lesions and cognitive impairment. Central artery stiffness impairs baroreflex, which controls systemic arterial perfusion, and may deteriorate neuronal fiber integrity of brain WM. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations among brain WM neuronal fiber integrity, baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), and central artery stiffness in older adults. Fifty-four adults (65 ± 6 years) with normal cognitive function or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) were tested. The neuronal fiber integrity of brain WM was assessed from diffusion metrics acquired by diffusion tensor imaging. BRS was measured in response to acute changes in blood pressure induced by bolus injections of vasoactive drugs. Central artery stiffness was measured by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV). The WM diffusion metrics including fractional anisotropy (FA) and radial (RD) and axial (AD) diffusivities, BRS, and cfPWV were not different between the control and MCI groups. Thus, the data from both groups were combined for subsequent analyses. Across WM, fiber tracts with decreased FA and increased RD were associated with lower BRS and higher cfPWV, with many of the areas presenting spatial overlap. In particular, the BRS assessed during hypotension was strongly correlated with FA and RD when compared with hypertension. Executive function performance was associated with FA and RD in the areas that correlated with cfPWV and BRS. These findings suggest that baroreflex-mediated control of systemic arterial perfusion, especially during hypotension, may play a crucial role in maintaining neuronal fiber integrity of brain WM in older adults. PMID:25623500

  4. Adaptive Modulation of Adult Brain Gray and White Matter to High Altitude: Structural MRI Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiaxing; Zhang, Haiyan; Li, Jinqiang; Chen, Ji; Han, Qiaoqing; Lin, Jianzhong; Yang, Tianhe; Fan, Ming

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate brain structural alterations in adult immigrants who adapted to high altitude (HA). Voxel-based morphometry analysis of gray matter (GM) volumes, surface-based analysis of cortical thickness, and Tract-Based Spatial Statistics analysis of white matter fractional anisotropy (FA) based on MRI images were conducted on 16 adults (20–22 years) who immigrated to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (2300–4400 m) for 2 years. They had no chronic mountain sickness. Control group consisted of 16 matched sea level subjects. A battery of neuropsychological tests was also conducted. HA immigrants showed significantly decreased GM volumes in the right postcentral gyrus and right superior frontal gyrus, and increased GM volumes in the right middle frontal gyrus, right parahippocampal gyrus, right inferior and middle temporal gyri, bilateral inferior ventral pons, and right cerebellum crus1. While there was some divergence in the left hemisphere, surface-based patterns of GM changes in the right hemisphere resembled those seen for VBM analysis. FA changes were observed in multiple WM tracts. HA immigrants showed significant impairment in pulmonary function, increase in reaction time, and deficit in mental rotation. Parahippocampal and middle frontal GM volumes correlated with vital capacity. Superior frontal GM volume correlated with mental rotation and postcentral GM correlated with reaction time. Paracentral lobule and frontal FA correlated with mental rotation reaction time. There might be structural modifications occurred in the adult immigrants during adaptation to HA. The changes in GM may be related to impaired respiratory function and psychological deficits. PMID:23874692

  5. Ontogenetic behavior and migration of Atlantic sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, and shortnose sturgeon, A. brevirostrum, with notes on social behavior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kynard, B.; Horgan, M.

    2002-01-01

    Ontogenetic behavior of Hudson River Atlantic sturgeon and Connecticut River shortnose sturgeon early life intervals were similar during laboratory observations. After hatching, free embryos were photonegative and sought cover. When embryos developed into larvae, fish left cover, were photopositive, and initiated downstream migration. Free embryos may remain at the spawning site instead of migrating downstream because the risk of predation at spawning sites is low. The two species are sympatric, but not closely related, so the similarities in innate behaviors suggest common adaptations, not phylogenetlc relationship. Atlantic sturgeon migrated downstream for 12 days (peak, first 6 days), shortnose sturgeon migrated for 3 days, and year-0 juveniles of both species did not resume downstream migration. Short or long migrations of larvae may reflect different styles related to the total migratory distance from spawning sites to juvenile rearing areas. Atlantic sturgeon need to move a short distance to reach rearing areas and they had a long 1-step migration of 6-12 days. In contrast, shortnose sturgeon need to move a long distance to reach all rearing areas. This may be accomplished by a 2-step migration, of which the brief migration of larvae is only the first step. Early migrant Atlantic sturgeon were nocturnal, while late migrants were diurnal, and shortnose sturgeon were diurnal. These diel differences may also be adaptations for long (Atlantic sturgeon) or short (shortnose sturgeon) migrations. Cultured shortnose sturgeon, and possibly Atlantic sturgeon, have a dominance hierarchy with large fish dominant when competing for limited foraging space. Social behavior may be more important in the life history of wild sturgeons than is generally recognized.

  6. Drift dynamics of larval pallid sturgeon and shovelnose sturgeon in a natural side channel of the Upper Missouri River, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braaten, P.J.; Fuller, D.B.; Holte, L.D.; Lott, R.D.; Viste, W.; Brandt, T.F.; Legare, R.G.

    2008-01-01

    The drift dynamics of larval shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus (1, 2, 6, and 10 d posthatch [dph]) and pallid sturgeon S. albus (1, 2, 5, 9, 11, and 17 dph) were examined in a natural side channel of the Missouri River to quantify the vertical drift location of larvae in the water column, determine the drift velocity of larvae relative to water velocity, and simulate the cumulative distance (km) drifted by larvae during ontogenetic development. Larvae were released at the side-channel inlet and sampled at points 100, 500, 900, and 1,300 m downstream. Larvae drifted primarily near the riverbed, as 58-79% of recaptured shovelnose sturgeon and 63-89% of recaptured pallid sturgeon were sampled in the lower 0.5 m of the water column. The transition from the drifting to the benthic life stage was initiated at 6 dph (mean length, 15.6 mm) for shovelnose sturgeon and at 11-17 dph (mean length, 18.1-20.3 mm) for pallid sturgeon. Across ages, the drift rates of larval shovelnose sturgeon averaged 0.09-0.16 m/s slower than the mean water column velocity. The drift rates of pallid sturgeon were similar to or slightly slower (0.03-0.07 m/s) than the mean water column velocity for 1-11-dph larvae. Conversely, 17-dph larval pallid sturgeon dispersed downstream at a much slower rate (mean, 0.20 m/s slower than the mean water column velocity) owing to their transition to benthic habitats. Drift simulations indicated that the average larval shovelnose sturgeon may drift from 94 to 250 km and the average larval pallid sturgeon may drift from 245 to 530 km, depending on water velocity. Differences in larval drift dynamics between species provide a possible explanation for differences in recruitment between shovelnose sturgeon and pallid sturgeon in the upper Missouri River. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  7. Migrations and swimming capabilities of endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) to guide passage designs in the fragmented Yellowstone River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braaten, P. J.; Elliott, Caroline M.; Rhoten, Jason C.; Fuller, D. B.; McElroy, Brandon J.

    2015-01-01

    Fragmentation of the Yellowstone River is hypothesized to preclude recruitment of endangered Scaphirhynchus albus (pallid sturgeon) by impeding upstream spawning migrations and access to upstream spawning areas, thereby limiting the length of free-flowing river required for survival of early life stages. Building on this hypothesis, the reach of the Yellowstone River affected by Intake Diversion Dam (IDD) is targeted for modification. Structures including a rock ramp and by-pass channel have been proposed as restoration alternatives to facilitate passage. Limited information on migrations and swimming capabilities of pallid sturgeon is available to guide engineering design specifications for the proposed structures. Migration behavior, pathways (channel routes used during migrations), and swimming capabilities of free-ranging wild adult pallid sturgeon were examined using radiotelemetry, and complemented with hydraulic data obtained along the migration pathways. Migrations of 12–26% of the telemetered pallid sturgeon population persisted to IDD, but upstream passage over the dam was not detected. Observed migration pathways occurred primarily through main channel habitats; however, migrations through side channels up to 3.9 km in length were documented. The majority of pallid sturgeon used depths of 2.2–3.4 m and mean water velocities of 0.89–1.83 m/s while migrating. Results provide inferences on depths, velocities, and habitat heterogeneity of reaches successfully negotiated by pallid sturgeon that may be used to guide designs for structures facilitating passage at IDD. Passage will provide connectivity to potential upstream spawning areas on the Yellowstone River, thereby increasing the likelihood of recruitment for this endangered species.

  8. Hemoglobin and hip fracture risk in older non-Hispanic white adults1

    PubMed Central

    Looker, Anne C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The few studies to date that have examined the relationship between hemoglobin and fracture risk have focused on low hemoglobin values. The present study examined hip fracture risk across the hemoglobin distribution in older non-Hispanic white adults from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, 1988–1994). Methods Hemoglobin was measured using a Coulter S-plus Jr.® (Coulter Electronics, Hialeah, FL) in 2122 non-Hispanic whites age 65 years and older. Hip fracture cases were identified using linked Medicare and mortality records obtained through 2007. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the best-fitting model and to estimate the hazards ratio (HR) for hip fracture by hemoglobin decile before and after adjusting for selected confounders. Results There were 239 hip fracture cases in the analytic sample. The best fitting model was quadratic. When compared to values in the middle of the distribution, those with hemoglobin in the lowest and highest deciles had increased hip fracture risk (HRlowest decile =2.96, 95% CI 1.44–6.08; HRhighest decile = 2.06, 95% CI 1.09–3.92) after adjusting for age and sex. Both HRs remained significant after adjusting for additional confounders (HRlowest decile =2.24, 95% CI 1.09–3.92; HRhighest decile = 2.37, 95% CI 1.35–4.16). Conclusions Both low and high hemoglobin values were associated with increased hip fracture risk. The mechanism underlying the relationship is not clear, but there was some suggestion that it may differ for low versus high hemoglobin. PMID:24938506

  9. Hypertensive vascular disease as a cause of death in blacks versus whites: autopsy findings in 587 adults.

    PubMed

    Onwuanyi, A; Hodges, D; Avancha, A; Weiss, L; Rabinowitz, D; Shea, S; Francis, C K

    1998-05-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of excess mortality among urban US blacks, but autopsy data comparing black-white differences in underlying pathological causes of cardiovascular death are lacking. We reviewed all 720 adult cases autopsied in 1991 in the New York City Medical Examiner's Office in which the coded cause of death was cardiovascular disease (International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, codes 391, 393 to 398, 401 to 404, 410, 411, 414 to 417, 420 to 438, and 440 to 444). After exclusion of 133 cases because race was missing or coded as other than black or white, gender was not coded, or there was an unusual circumstances of death or extreme obesity, 587 cases were available for analysis. There were 314 black and 273 white subjects. Black women were younger than white women at time of death (mean age, 54.7 versus 61.5 years; P<.001), whereas black and white men did not differ in mean age at death. Hypertensive vascular disease was the autopsy cause of death in 42% of blacks compared with 23% of whites (P<.001). Conversely, atherosclerotic heart disease was the autopsy cause of death in 64% of white subjects but only 38% of blacks. These patterns were consistent in both sexes and after adjustment for age. Hypertensive vascular disease was far more common than atherosclerotic heart disease as the cause of death at autopsy among blacks compared with whites in New York City, whereas atherosclerotic heart disease was more common in whites. These findings suggest that ineffective control of hypertension is a major factor contributing to excess cardiovascular mortality among urban blacks.

  10. The history of sturgeon in the Baltic Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Popovic, Danijela; Panagiotopoulou, Hanna; Baca, Mateusz; Stefaniak, Krzysztof; Mackiewicz, Pawel; Makowiecki, Daniel; King, Tim L.; Gruchota, Jakub; Weglenski, Piotr; Stankovic, Anna

    2014-01-01

    For the past 2000 years at least, A. o. oxyrinchus has been the dominant sturgeon in the Baltic Sea, indicating a much earlier origin than previously suggested. The most similar extant sturgeon populations to the extinct Baltic stock are those from the St John and St Lawrence rivers in Canada. These populations should be considered the best source of breeding material for the ongoing sturgeon restitution programmes in Poland and Germany.

  11. TOXIC EFFECTS OF PCB126 AND TCDD ON SHORTNOSE STURGEON AND ATLANTIC STURGEON

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, R. Christopher; Davis, Dawn D.; Habeck, Ehren A.; Roy, Nirmal K.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to chemical contaminants is often invoked to explain recruitment failures to populations of sturgeon worldwide, but there is little empirical evidence to support the idea that young sturgeon are sensitive at environmentally relevant concentrations. The authors used shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostum) and Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus) as models to investigate the sensitivities of sturgeon to early-life-stage toxicities from embryonic exposures to graded doses of polychlorinated biphenyl 126 (PCB126) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Survival to hatching of shortnose sturgeon decreased with increasing dose, although the duration of the embryonic period was not significantly altered by exposure in either species. Morphometric features of larvae of both species were affected by dose, including shortening of the body, reduction in head size, reduction in quantity of yolk reserves, and reduction in eye size. Eye development in both species was delayed with increasing dose for both chemicals. The persistence of larvae in a food-free environment decreased inversely with dose in both species, with sharp declines occurring at PCB126 and TCDD doses of ≥1 ppb and ≥0.1 ppb, respectively. Dose-responsive early-life-stage toxicities reported here are among the more sensitive found in fish and occurred at burdens similar to those found in situ in a sympatric bottom-dwelling bony fish in the Hudson River Estuary. The present study is among the first demonstrating the sensitivity of any sturgeon to the hallmark early-life-stage toxicities induced by aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists. PMID:22825886

  12. Development of human white matter fiber pathways: From newborn to adult ages

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Andrew H.; Wang, Rongpin; Wilkinson, Molly; MacDonald, Patrick; Lim, Ashley R.; Takahashi, Emi

    2016-01-01

    Major long-range white matter pathways (cingulum, fornix, uncinate fasciculus [UF], inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus [IFOF], inferior longitudinal fasciculus [ILF], thalamocortical [TC], and corpus callosal [CC] pathways) were identified in eighty-three healthy humans ranging from newborn to adult ages. We tracked developmental changes using high-angular resolution diffusion MR tractography. Fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient, number, length, and volume were measured in pathways in each subject. Newborns had fewer, and more sparse, pathways than those of the older subjects. FA, number, length, and volume of pathways gradually increased with age and reached a plateau between 3 and 5 years of age. Data were further analyzed by normalizing with mean adult values as well as with each subject’s whole brain values. Comparing subjects of 3 years old and under to those over 3 years old, the studied pathways showed differential growth patterns. The CC, bilateral cingulum, bilateral TC, and the left IFOF pathways showed significant growth both in volume and length, while the bilateral fornix, bilateral ILF and bilateral UF showed significant growth only in volume. The TC and CC took similar growth patterns with the whole brain. FA values of the cingulum and IFOF, and the length of ILF showed leftward asymmetry. The fornix, ILF and UF occupied decreased space compared to the whole brain during development with higher FA values, likely corresponding to extensive maturation of the pathways compared to the mean whole brain maturation. We believe that the outcome of this study will provide an important database for future reference. PMID:26948153

  13. White Matter Hyperintensity Burden and Disability in Older Adults: Is Chronic Pain a Contributor?

    PubMed Central

    Buckalew, Neilly; Haut, Marc W.; Aizenstein, Howard; Rosano, Caterina; Dunfee Edelman, Kathryn; Perera, Subashan; Marrow, Lisa; Tadic, Stasa; Venkatraman, Vijay; Weiner, Debra

    2014-01-01

    Objective To primarily explore differences in global and regional white matter hyper-intensities (WMH) in older adults with self-reported disabling and nondisabling chronic low back pain (CLBP) and to examine the association of WMH with gait speed in all participants with CLBP. To secondarily compare WMH of the participants with CLBP with the pain-free controls. Design A cross-sectional, case-control study. Setting University of Pittsburgh. Participants Twenty-four community-dwelling older adults: 8 with self-reported disabling CLBP, 8 with nondisabling CLBP, and 8 were pain-free. Exclusions were psychiatric or neurologic disorders (either central or peripheral), substance abuse, opioid use, or diabetes mellitus. Methods All participants underwent structural brain magnetic resonance imaging, and all participants with CLBP underwent the 4-m walk test. Main Outcome Measurements All the participants were assessed for both global and regional WMH by using an automated localization and segmentation method, and gait speed of participants with CLBP. Results The disabled group demonstrated statistically significant regional WMH in a number of left hemispheric tracts: anterior thalamic radiation (P = .0391), lower cingulate (P = .0336), inferior longitudinal fasciculus (P = .0367), superior longitudinal fasciculus (P=.0011), and the superior longitudinal fasciculus branch to the temporal lobe (P=.0072). Also, there was a statistically significant negative association (rs = −0.57; P = .0225) between the left lower cingulate WMH and the gait speed in all the participants with CLBP. There was a statistical difference in global WMH burden (P=.0014) and nearly all regional tracts (both left and right hemispheres) when comparing CLBP with pain-free participants. Conclusions Our findings suggest that WMH is associated with, and hence, may be accelerated by chronic pain manifesting as perceived disability, given the self-reported disabled CLBP patients had the greatest burden

  14. Physical Activity and Cardiorespiratory Fitness Are Beneficial for White Matter in Low-Fit Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Burzynska, Agnieszka Zofia; Chaddock-Heyman, Laura; Voss, Michelle W.; Wong, Chelsea N.; Gothe, Neha P.; Olson, Erin A.; Knecht, Anya; Lewis, Andrew; Monti, Jim M.; Cooke, Gillian E.; Wojcicki, Thomas R.; Fanning, Jason; Chung, Hyondo David; Awick, Elisabeth; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are associated with better cognitive function in late life, but the neural correlates for these relationships are unclear. To study these correlates, we examined the association of both PA and CRF with measures of white matter (WM) integrity in 88 healthy low-fit adults (age 60–78). Using accelerometry, we objectively measured sedentary behavior, light PA, and moderate to vigorous PA (MV-PA) over a week. We showed that greater MV-PA was related to lower volume of WM lesions. The association between PA and WM microstructural integrity (measured with diffusion tensor imaging) was region-specific: light PA was related to temporal WM, while sedentary behavior was associated with lower integrity in the parahippocampal WM. Our findings highlight that engaging in PA of various intensity in parallel with avoiding sedentariness are important in maintaining WM health in older age, supporting public health recommendations that emphasize the importance of active lifestyle. PMID:25229455

  15. White matter and memory in healthy adults: Coupled changes over two years.

    PubMed

    Bender, Andrew R; Prindle, John J; Brandmaier, Andreas M; Raz, Naftali

    2016-05-01

    Numerous cross-sectional studies have used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to link age-related differences in white matter (WM) anisotropy and concomitant decrements in cognitive ability. Due to a dearth of longitudinal evidence, the relationship between changes in diffusion properties of WM and cognitive performance remains unclear. Here we examine the relationship between two-year changes in WM organization and cognitive performance in healthy adults (N=96, age range at baseline=18-79 years). We used latent change score models (LCSM) to evaluate changes in age-sensitive cognitive abilities - fluid intelligence and associative memory. WM changes were assessed by fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD) in WM regions that are considered part of established memory networks and exhibited individual differences in change. In modeling change, we postulated reciprocal paths between baseline measures and change factors, within and between WM and cognition domains, and accounted for individual differences in baseline age. Although baseline cross-sectional memory performance was positively associated with FA and negatively with RD, longitudinal effects told an altogether different story. Independent of age, longitudinal improvements in associative memory were significantly associated with linear reductions in FA and increases in RD. The present findings demonstrate the sensitivity of DTI-derived indices to changes in the brain and cognition and affirm the importance of longitudinal models for evaluating brain-cognition relations.

  16. Peripheral sphingolipids are associated with variation in white matter microstructure in older adults.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Christopher E; Venkatraman, Vijay K; An, Yang; Landman, Bennett A; Davatzikos, Christos; Ratnam Bandaru, Veera Venkata; Haughey, Norman J; Ferrucci, Luigi; Mielke, Michelle M; Resnick, Susan M

    2016-07-01

    Sphingolipids serve important structural and functional roles in cellular membranes and myelin sheaths. Plasma sphingolipids have been shown to predict cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease. However, the association between plasma sphingolipid levels and brain white matter (WM) microstructure has not been examined. We investigated whether plasma sphingolipids (ceramides and sphingomyelins) were associated with magnetic resonance imaging-based diffusion measures, fractional anisotropy (FA), and mean diffusivity, 10.5 years later in 17 WM regions of 150 cognitively normal adults (mean age 67.2). Elevated ceramide species (C20:0, C22:0, C22:1, and C24:1) were associated with lower FA in multiple WM regions, including total cerebral WM, anterior corona radiata, and the cingulum of the cingulate gyrus. Higher sphingomyelins (C18:1 and C20:1) were associated with lower FA in regions such as the anterior corona radiata and body of the corpus callosum. Furthermore, lower sphingomyelin to ceramide ratios (C22:0, C24:0, and C24:1) were associated with lower FA or higher mean diffusivity in regions including the superior and posterior corona radiata. However, although these associations were significant at the a priori p < 0.05, only associations with some regional diffusion measures for ceramide C22:0 and sphingomyelin C18:1 survived correction for multiple comparisons. These findings suggest plasma sphingolipids are associated with variation in WM microstructure in cognitively normal aging.

  17. White matter and memory in healthy adults: Coupled changes over two years.

    PubMed

    Bender, Andrew R; Prindle, John J; Brandmaier, Andreas M; Raz, Naftali

    2016-05-01

    Numerous cross-sectional studies have used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to link age-related differences in white matter (WM) anisotropy and concomitant decrements in cognitive ability. Due to a dearth of longitudinal evidence, the relationship between changes in diffusion properties of WM and cognitive performance remains unclear. Here we examine the relationship between two-year changes in WM organization and cognitive performance in healthy adults (N=96, age range at baseline=18-79 years). We used latent change score models (LCSM) to evaluate changes in age-sensitive cognitive abilities - fluid intelligence and associative memory. WM changes were assessed by fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD) in WM regions that are considered part of established memory networks and exhibited individual differences in change. In modeling change, we postulated reciprocal paths between baseline measures and change factors, within and between WM and cognition domains, and accounted for individual differences in baseline age. Although baseline cross-sectional memory performance was positively associated with FA and negatively with RD, longitudinal effects told an altogether different story. Independent of age, longitudinal improvements in associative memory were significantly associated with linear reductions in FA and increases in RD. The present findings demonstrate the sensitivity of DTI-derived indices to changes in the brain and cognition and affirm the importance of longitudinal models for evaluating brain-cognition relations. PMID:26545457

  18. Cerebral Perfusion is Associated with White Matter Hyperintensities in Older Adults with Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Alosco, Michael L.; Brickman, Adam M.; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Garcia, Sarah L.; Narkhede, Atul; Griffith, Erica Y; Raz, Naftali; Cohen, Ronald; Sweet, Lawrence H.; Colbert, Lisa H.; Josephson, Richard; Hughes, Joel; Rosneck, Jim; Gunstad, John

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is common in heart failure (HF) and believed to be the result of cerebral hypoperfusion and subsequent brain changes including white matter hyperintensities (WMH). The current study examined the association between cerebral blood flow and WMH in HF patients and the relationship of WMH to cognitive impairment. Sixty-nine patients with HF completed the mini mental state examination (MMSE), echocardiogram, transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD) for cerebral blood flow velocity of the middle cerebral artery and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Multivariable hierarchical regression analyses controlling for medical and demographic characteristics as well as intracranial volume showed reduced cerebral blood flow velocity of the middle cerebral artery was associated with greater WMH (β = −.34, p = .02). Follow up regression analyses adjusting for the same medical and demographic factors in addition to cerebral perfusion also revealed marginal significance between increased WMH and poorer performance on the MMSE (β = −.26, p = .05). This study suggests that reduced cerebral perfusion is associated with greater WMH in older adults with HF. Our findings support the widely proposed mechanism of cognitive impairment in HF patients and prospective studies are needed to confirm our findings. PMID:23517434

  19. Green Sturgeon Physical Habitat Use in the Coastal Pacific Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Huff, David D.; Lindley, Steven T.; Rankin, Polly S.; Mora, Ethan A.

    2011-01-01

    The green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris) is a highly migratory, oceanic, anadromous species with a complex life history that makes it vulnerable to species-wide threats in both freshwater and at sea. Green sturgeon population declines have preceded legal protection and curtailment of activities in marine environments deemed to increase its extinction risk. Yet, its marine habitat is poorly understood. We built a statistical model to characterize green sturgeon marine habitat using data from a coastal tracking array located along the Siletz Reef near Newport, Oregon, USA that recorded the passage of 37 acoustically tagged green sturgeon. We classified seafloor physical habitat features with high-resolution bathymetric and backscatter data. We then described the distribution of habitat components and their relationship to green sturgeon presence using ordination and subsequently used generalized linear model selection to identify important habitat components. Finally, we summarized depth and temperature recordings from seven green sturgeon present off the Oregon coast that were fitted with pop-off archival geolocation tags. Our analyses indicated that green sturgeon, on average, spent a longer duration in areas with high seafloor complexity, especially where a greater proportion of the substrate consists of boulders. Green sturgeon in marine habitats are primarily found at depths of 20–60 meters and from 9.5–16.0°C. Many sturgeon in this study were likely migrating in a northward direction, moving deeper, and may have been using complex seafloor habitat because it coincides with the distribution of benthic prey taxa or provides refuge from predators. Identifying important green sturgeon marine habitat is an essential step towards accurately defining the conditions that are necessary for its survival and will eventually yield range-wide, spatially explicit predictions of green sturgeon distribution. PMID:21966442

  20. Green sturgeon physical habitat use in the coastal Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Huff, David D; Lindley, Steven T; Rankin, Polly S; Mora, Ethan A

    2011-01-01

    The green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris) is a highly migratory, oceanic, anadromous species with a complex life history that makes it vulnerable to species-wide threats in both freshwater and at sea. Green sturgeon population declines have preceded legal protection and curtailment of activities in marine environments deemed to increase its extinction risk. Yet, its marine habitat is poorly understood. We built a statistical model to characterize green sturgeon marine habitat using data from a coastal tracking array located along the Siletz Reef near Newport, Oregon, USA that recorded the passage of 37 acoustically tagged green sturgeon. We classified seafloor physical habitat features with high-resolution bathymetric and backscatter data. We then described the distribution of habitat components and their relationship to green sturgeon presence using ordination and subsequently used generalized linear model selection to identify important habitat components. Finally, we summarized depth and temperature recordings from seven green sturgeon present off the Oregon coast that were fitted with pop-off archival geolocation tags. Our analyses indicated that green sturgeon, on average, spent a longer duration in areas with high seafloor complexity, especially where a greater proportion of the substrate consists of boulders. Green sturgeon in marine habitats are primarily found at depths of 20-60 meters and from 9.5-16.0°C. Many sturgeon in this study were likely migrating in a northward direction, moving deeper, and may have been using complex seafloor habitat because it coincides with the distribution of benthic prey taxa or provides refuge from predators. Identifying important green sturgeon marine habitat is an essential step towards accurately defining the conditions that are necessary for its survival and will eventually yield range-wide, spatially explicit predictions of green sturgeon distribution.

  1. Caregiving Practice Patterns of Asian, Hispanic, and Non-Hispanic White American Family Caregivers of Older Adults Across Generations.

    PubMed

    Miyawaki, Christina E

    2016-03-01

    This study is a cross-sectional investigation of caregiving practice patterns among Asian, Hispanic and non-Hispanic White American family caregivers of older adults across three immigrant generations. The 2009 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) dataset was used, and 591 Asian, 989 Hispanic and 6537 non-Hispanic White American caregivers of older adults were selected. First, descriptive analyses of caregivers' characteristics, caregiving situations and practice patterns were examined by racial/ethnic groups and immigrant generations. Practice patterns measured were respite care use, hours and length of caregiving. Three hypotheses on caregiving patterns based on assimilation theory were tested and analyzed using logistic regression and generalized linear models by racial/ethnic groups and generations. Caregiving patterns of non-Hispanic White caregivers supported all three hypotheses regarding respite care use, caregiving hours and caregiving duration, showing less caregiving involvement in later generations. However, Asian and Hispanic counterparts showed mixed results. Third generation Asian and Hispanic caregivers used respite care the least and spent the most caregiving hours per week and had the longest caregiving duration compared to earlier generations. These caregiving patterns revealed underlying cultural values related to filial responsibility, even among later generations of caregivers of color. Findings suggest the importance of considering the cultural values of each racial/ethnic group regardless of generation when working with racially and ethnically diverse populations of family caregivers of older adults.

  2. Potential for restoration of the Roanoke River population of Atlantic sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armstrong, J.L.; Hightower, J.E.

    2002-01-01

    The Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus) was historically abundant within Albemarie Sound and the Roanoke River in North Carolina, but declined dramatically in the late 1800s in response to intensive fishing. Recent evidence suggests that the population may be recovering, following a statewide prohibition on harvest in 1991. A recruitment index generally increased from 1992 through 2001. Estuarine habitat for juveniles appears to be suitable, resulting in mean growth rates for age 1 fish ranging from 0.59 to 0.81 mm day-1. A restoration goal of 7000-21 000 subadult and adult Atlantic sturgeon was developed for the Roanoke River, based on historical landings records. Bycatch mortality because of commercial gill-netting in Albermarle Sound could affect recovery. Telemetry and netting data indicate that juvenile Atlantic sturgeon in the sound are most abundant in shallow nearshore areas where commercial gill-netting is concentrated. However, immediate mortality rates from survey and commercial gill-netting in Albemarle Sound were only 0-2%. Additional field studies are needed to refine estimates of immediate- and longer-term mortality associated with gill-net bycatch.

  3. Using a semi-natural stream to produce young sturgeons for conservation stocking: Maintaining natural selection during spawning and rearing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kynard, B.; Pugh, D.; Parker, T.; Kieffer, M.

    2011-01-01

    Young sturgeons used for conservation stocking are presently produced using the same methods used for commercial culture. To determine if young sturgeons could be produced without relaxing natural selection factors, we developed a semi-natural stream where we annually studied mating of wild shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) observed movement of gametes released freely during spawning, and estimated the number of larvae produced by various densities of spawned eggs. The stream had a bottom area of 18.8m2, a rubble-gravel bottom, and a mean bottom current at 0.6 depth during spawning of 48cms-1 (range, 17-126cms-1). Wild adults successfully spawned in the stream each year for 7years (2002-2008). Some females and males were more successful during spawning than others, suggesting an unequal fitness during spawning among wild individuals, which is different than the controlled spawning fitness of individuals in hatcheries. Male and female gametes spawned naturally must connect quickly in the fast current or fail, a selection factor absent in hatcheries. The number of larvae produced was inversely related to spawned egg densitym-2 (R2=0.65) and the maximum number of larvae produced was 8000-16000 (425-851larvaem-2 of bottom). Artificial spawning streams have the potential to contribute to sturgeon restoration. ?? 2011 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

  4. STURGEON RIVER WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, MICHIGAN.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, W.F.; Hill, James J.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Sturgeon River Wilderness study area, Michigan was made using geologic mapping and geochemical techniques. Previous geophysical studies were incorporated in the mineral assessment. The area and surroundings became the focus of intense uranium exploration as the result of major discoveries of a newly recognized type of deposit found in Australia and Canada in rocks very similar to those in the study area. The exploration was unsuccessful.

  5. 50 CFR 223.210 - North American green sturgeon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false North American green sturgeon. 223.210... Applicable to Threatened Marine and Anadromous Species § 223.210 North American green sturgeon. (a... endangered species apply to the threatened Southern Distinct Population Segment (DPS) of North American...

  6. Salinity effects on Atlantic sturgeon growth and osmoregulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus Mitchill, 1815) is an anadromous sturgeon species, yet little is known with regard to its osmoregulatory ability and habitat use at early life stages. In order to examine whether salinity poses a physiological challenge to juvenile Atlantic stur...

  7. Chemical composition of blood and bile of the shovelnose sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunn, J.B.; Christenson, L.M.

    1977-01-01

    Samples of gallbladder bile and blood from shovelnose sturgeons (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) collected from the Chippewa River, Wisconsin, contained concentrations of Na+, K+, Ca++, Mg++, Cl-, inorganic phosphate, and total cholesterol closely comparable with those reported for similar samples from other species of freshwater sturgeons.

  8. White matter hyperintensities in middle-aged adults with childhood-onset type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Nunley, Karen A.; Ryan, Christopher M.; Orchard, Trevor J.; Aizenstein, Howard J.; Jennings, J. Richard; Ryan, John; Zgibor, Janice C.; Boudreau, Robert M.; Costacou, Tina; Maynard, John D.; Miller, Rachel G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Although microvascular complications are common in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), few studies have quantified the severity, risk factors, and implications of cerebral microvascular damage in these patients. As life expectancy in patients with T1DM increases, patients are exposed to age- and disease-related factors that may contribute to cerebral microvascular disease. Methods: Severity and volume of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and infarcts were quantified in 97 middle-aged patients with childhood-onset T1DM (mean age and duration: 50 and 41 years, respectively) and 81 non-T1DM adults (mean age: 48 years), concurrent with cognitive and health-related measures. Results: Compared with non-T1DM participants, patients had more severe WMH (Fazekas scores 2 and 3 compared with Fazekas score 1, p < 0.0001) and slower information processing (digit symbol substitution, number correct: 65.7 ± 10.9 and 54.9 ± 13.6; pegboard, seconds: 66.0 ± 9.9 and 88.5 ± 34.2; both p < 0.0001) independent of age, education, or other factors. WMH were associated with slower information processing; adjusting for WMH attenuated the group differences in processing speed (13% for digit symbol, 11% for pegboard, both p ≤ 0.05). Among patients, prevalent neuropathies and smoking tripled the odds of high WMH burden, independent of age or disease duration. Associations between measures of blood pressure or hyperglycemia and WMH were not significant. Conclusions: Clinically relevant WMH are evident earlier among middle-aged patients with childhood-onset T1DM and are related to the slower information processing frequently observed in T1DM. Brain imaging in patients with T1DM who have cognitive difficulties, especially those with neuropathies, may help uncover cerebral microvascular damage. Longitudinal studies are warranted to fully characterize WMH development, risk factors, and long-term effects on cognition. PMID:25904692

  9. Fructose metabolism in the adult mouse optic nerve, a central white matter tract.

    PubMed

    Meakin, Paul J; Fowler, Maxine J; Rathbone, Alex J; Allen, Lynne M; Ransom, Bruce R; Ray, David E; Brown, Angus M

    2007-01-01

    Our recent report that fructose supported the metabolism of some, but not all axons, in the adult mouse optic nerve prompted us to investigate in detail fructose metabolism in this tissue, a typical central white matter tract, as these data imply efficient fructose metabolism in the central nervous system (CNS). In artificial cerebrospinal fluid containing 10 mmol/L glucose or 20 mmol/L fructose, the stimulus-evoked compound action potential (CAP) recorded from the optic nerve consisted of three stable peaks. Replacing 10 mmol/L glucose with 10 mmol/L fructose, however, caused delayed loss of the 1st CAP peak (the 2nd and 3rd CAP peaks were unaffected). Glycogen-derived metabolic substrate(s) temporarily sustained the 1st CAP peak in 10 mmol/L fructose, as depletion of tissue glycogen by a prior period of aglycaemia or high-frequency CAP discharge rendered fructose incapable of supporting the 1st CAP peak. Enzyme assays showed the presence of both hexokinase and fructokinase (both of which can phosphorylate fructose) in the optic nerve. In contrast, only hexokinase was expressed in cerebral cortex. Hexokinase in optic nerve had low affinity and low capacity with fructose as substrate, whereas fructokinase displayed high affinity and high capacity for fructose. These findings suggest an explanation for the curious fact that the fast conducting axons comprising the 1st peak of the CAP are not supported in 10 mmol/L fructose medium; these axons probably do not express fructokinase, a requirement for efficient fructose metabolism.

  10. Disruption of White Matter Integrity in Adult Survivors of Childhood Brain Tumors: Correlates with Long-Term Intellectual Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Background Although chemotherapy and radiation treatment have contributed to increased survivorship, treatment-induced brain injury has been a concern when examining long-term intellectual outcomes of survivors. Specifically, disruption of brain white matter integrity and its relationship to intellectual outcomes in adult survivors of childhood brain tumors needs to be better understood. Methods Fifty-four participants underwent diffusion tensor imaging in addition to structural MRI and an intelligence test (IQ). Voxel-wise group comparisons of fractional anisotropy calculated from DTI data were performed using Tract Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) on 27 survivors (14 treated with radiation with and without chemotherapy and 13 treated without radiation treatment on average over 13 years since diagnosis) and 27 healthy comparison participants. Whole brain white matter fractional anisotropy (FA) differences were explored between each group. The relationships between IQ and FA in the regions where statistically lower FA values were found in survivors were examined, as well as the role of cumulative neurological factors. Results The group of survivors treated with radiation with and without chemotherapy had lower IQ relative to the group of survivors without radiation treatment and the healthy comparison group. TBSS identified white matter regions with significantly different mean fractional anisotropy between the three different groups. A lower level of white matter integrity was found in the radiation with or without chemotherapy treated group compared to the group without radiation treatment and also the healthy control group. The group without radiation treatment had a lower mean FA relative to healthy controls. The white matter disruption of the radiation with or without chemotherapy treated survivors was positively correlated with IQ and cumulative neurological factors. Conclusions Lower long-term intellectual outcomes of childhood brain tumor survivors are

  11. Cerebral White Matter Integrity Mediates Adult Age Differences in Cognitive Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, David J.; Spaniol, Julia; Costello, Matthew C.; Bucur, Barbara; White, Leonard E.; Cabeza, Roberto; Davis, Simon W.; Dennis, Nancy A.; Provenzale, James M.; Huettel, Scott A.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has established that age-related decline occurs in measures of cerebral white matter integrity, but the role of this decline in age-related cognitive changes is not clear. To conclude that white matter integrity has a mediating (causal) contribution, it is necessary to demonstrate that statistical control of the white…

  12. Falls prevention and the value of exercise: salient beliefs among South asian and white british older adults.

    PubMed

    Horne, Maria; Skelton, Dawn A; Speed, Shaun; Todd, Chris

    2014-02-01

    The importance of increasing exercise to prevent falls among older adults remains a key worldwide public health priority. However, older adults do not necessarily take up exercise as a preventative measure for falls. This qualitative study aimed to explore the beliefs of community-dwelling South Asian and White British older adults aged 60 to 70 about falls and exercise for fall prevention through 15 focus groups (n = 87) and 40 in-depth interviews. Data were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using a framework approach. Data analysis identified six salient beliefs that influenced older adults' intention to exercise for fall prevention. In general, older adults aged 60 to 70 did not acknowledge their risk of falling and were not motivated to exercise simply to help prevent falls. Positive beliefs were found to be an unlikely barrier to taking up exercise for fall prevention for those who had experienced a fall. The implications for health promotion and health professionals with this group of older adults are discussed.

  13. Neuromarkers of the common angiotensinogen polymorphism in healthy older adults: A comprehensive assessment of white matter integrity and cognition.

    PubMed

    Salminen, Lauren E; Schofield, Peter R; Pierce, Kerrie D; Zhao, Yi; Luo, Xi; Wang, Youdan; Laidlaw, David H; Cabeen, Ryan P; Conturo, Thomas E; Tate, David F; Akbudak, Erbil; Lane, Elizabeth M; Heaps, Jodi M; Bolzenius, Jacob D; Baker, Laurie M; Cagle, Lee M; Paul, Robert H

    2016-01-01

    The common angiotensinogen (AGT) M268T polymorphism (rs699; historically referred to as M235T) has been identified as a significant risk factor for cerebrovascular pathologies, yet it is unclear if healthy older adults carrying the threonine amino acid variant have a greater risk for white matter damage in specific fiber tracts. Further, the impact of the threonine variant on cognitive function remains unknown. The present study utilized multiple indices of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and neuropsychological assessment to examine the integrity of specific white matter tracts and cognition between individuals with homozygous genotypes of M268T (MetMet n=27, ThrThr n=27). Differences in subcortical hyperintensity (SH) volume were also examined between groups. Results indicated that the threonine variant was associated with significantly reduced integrity in the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) and the cingulate gyrus segment of the cingulum bundle (cingulum CG) compared to those with the methionine variant, and poorer cognitive performance on tests of attention/processing speed and language. Despite these associations, integrity of these tracts did not significantly mediate relationships between cognition and genetic status, and SH did not differ significantly between groups. Collectively our results suggest that the threonine variant of M268T is a significant risk factor for abnormalities in specific white matter tracts and cognitive domains in healthy older adults, independent of SH burden.

  14. Hypoxia during pregnancy in rats leads to the changes of the cerebral white matter in adult offspring

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lingxing; Cai, Ruowei; Lv, Guorong; Huang, Ziyang; Wang, Zhenhua

    2010-05-28

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of reduced fetal oxygen supply on cerebral white matter in the adult offspring and further assess its susceptibility to postnatal hypoxia and high-fat diet. Based on a 3 x 2 full factorial design consisting of three factors of maternal hypoxia, postnatal high-fat diet, and postnatal hypoxia, the ultrastructure of myelin, axon and capillaries were observed, and the expression of myelin basic protein (MBP), neurofilament-H+L(NF-H+L), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) was analyzed in periventricular white matter of 16-month-old offspring. Demyelination, injured axon and damaged microvasculars were observed in maternal hypoxia offspring. The main effect of maternal hypoxia lead to decreased expression of MBP or NF-H+L, and increased expression of GFAP (all P < 0.05). Moreover, there was positive three-way interaction among maternal hypoxia, high-fat diet and postnatal hypoxia on MBP, NF-H+L or GFAP expression (all P < 0.05). In summary, our results indicated that maternal hypoxia during pregnancy in rats lead to changes of periventricular white matter in adult offspring, including demyelination, damaged axon and proliferated astroglia. This effect was amplified by high-fat diet and postnatal hypoxia.

  15. Neuromarkers of the common angiotensinogen polymorphism in healthy older adults: A comprehensive assessment of white matter integrity and cognition.

    PubMed

    Salminen, Lauren E; Schofield, Peter R; Pierce, Kerrie D; Zhao, Yi; Luo, Xi; Wang, Youdan; Laidlaw, David H; Cabeen, Ryan P; Conturo, Thomas E; Tate, David F; Akbudak, Erbil; Lane, Elizabeth M; Heaps, Jodi M; Bolzenius, Jacob D; Baker, Laurie M; Cagle, Lee M; Paul, Robert H

    2016-01-01

    The common angiotensinogen (AGT) M268T polymorphism (rs699; historically referred to as M235T) has been identified as a significant risk factor for cerebrovascular pathologies, yet it is unclear if healthy older adults carrying the threonine amino acid variant have a greater risk for white matter damage in specific fiber tracts. Further, the impact of the threonine variant on cognitive function remains unknown. The present study utilized multiple indices of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and neuropsychological assessment to examine the integrity of specific white matter tracts and cognition between individuals with homozygous genotypes of M268T (MetMet n=27, ThrThr n=27). Differences in subcortical hyperintensity (SH) volume were also examined between groups. Results indicated that the threonine variant was associated with significantly reduced integrity in the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) and the cingulate gyrus segment of the cingulum bundle (cingulum CG) compared to those with the methionine variant, and poorer cognitive performance on tests of attention/processing speed and language. Despite these associations, integrity of these tracts did not significantly mediate relationships between cognition and genetic status, and SH did not differ significantly between groups. Collectively our results suggest that the threonine variant of M268T is a significant risk factor for abnormalities in specific white matter tracts and cognitive domains in healthy older adults, independent of SH burden. PMID:26318936

  16. 78 FR 58507 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List 10 Sturgeon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... distribution patterns, particularly regarding their seasonal migrations; (d) Historical and current population... sturgeon (Acipenser baerii). Endangered Decreasing China; Kazakhstan; Mongolia; Russia. Yangtze sturgeon (Acipenser Critically Endangered.. Decreasing China. dabryanus). Russian sturgeon (Acipenser...

  17. Diet quality and weight gain among black and white young adults: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study (1985–2005)1234

    PubMed Central

    Zamora, Daisy; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Jacobs, David R

    2010-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the long-term health consequences of following the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA; Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 2005). Objective: The objective was to examine the longitudinal association between diets consistent with the 2005 DGA and subsequent weight gain. Design: We used data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study, a cohort of black and white men and women aged 18–30 y at baseline who attended ≤7 examinations from 1985–1986 to 2005–2006 (n = 4913). We created a 100-point Diet Quality Index (2005 DQI) to rate participants’ diets based on meeting the 2005 DGA key recommendations. Longitudinal models of weight gain were adjusted for physical activity, smoking, energy intake, age, education, sex, and initial body mass index (BMI) and included interaction terms of DQI by race and initial BMI (if statistically significant). Results: We found effect modification by race (likelihood ratio test, P < 0.03 in all models). The mean adjusted 20-y weight change was +19.4 kg for blacks and +11.2 kg for whites with high diet quality (DQI >70) and +17.8 for blacks and +13.9 for whites with a DQI <50 (P < 0.05). In race-specific Cox models (with interaction terms for DQI × initial BMI, P < 0.05), a 10-point increase in DQI score was associated with a 10% lower risk of gaining 10 kg in whites with an initial BMI (in kg/m2) <25 but with a 15% higher risk in blacks with baseline obesity (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Our findings do not support the hypothesis that a diet consistent with the 2005 DGA benefits long-term weight maintenance in American young adults. Greater need for attention to obesity prevention in future DGAs is warranted. PMID:20685947

  18. Structural alterations of brain grey and white matter in early deaf adults.

    PubMed

    Hribar, Manja; Suput, Dušan; Carvalho, Altiere Araujo; Battelino, Saba; Vovk, Andrej

    2014-12-01

    Functional and structural brain alterations in the absence of the auditory input have been described, but the observed structural brain changes in the deaf are not uniform. Some of the previous researchers focused only on the auditory areas, while others investigated the whole brain or other selected regions of interest. Majority of studies revealed decreased white matter (WM) volume or altered WM microstructure and preserved grey matter (GM) structure of the auditory areas in the deaf. However, preserved WM and increased or decreased GM volume of the auditory areas in the deaf have also been reported. Several structural alterations in the deaf were found also outside the auditory areas, but these regions differ between the studies. The observed differences between the studies could be due to the use of different single-analysis techniques, or the diverse population sample and its size, or possibly due to the usage of hearing aids by some participating deaf subjects. To overcome the aforementioned limitations four different image-processing techniques were used to investigate changes in the brain morphology of prelingually deaf adults who have never used hearing aids. GM and WM volume of the Heschl's gyrus (HG) were measured using manual volumetry, while whole brain GM volume, thickness and surface area were assessed by voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and surface-based analysis. The microstructural properties of the WM were evaluated by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The data were compared between 14 congenitally deaf adults and 14 sex- and age-matched normal hearing controls. Manual volumetry revealed preserved GM volume of the bilateral HG and significantly decreased WM volume of the left HG in the deaf. VBM showed increased cerebellar GM volume in the deaf, while no statistically significant differences were observed in the GM thickness or surface area between the groups. The results of the DTI analysis showed WM microstructural alterations between the groups in

  19. Ontogenetic behavior and migration of Volga River Russian sturgeon, Acipenser gueldenstaedtii, with a note on adaptive significance of body color

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kynard, B.; Zhuang, P.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, Z.

    2002-01-01

    We conducted laboratory experiments with Volga River Russian sturgeon, Acipenser gueldenstaedtii, to develop a conceptual model of early behavior. We daily observed fish from day-0 (embryos, first life interval after hatching) to day-29 feeding larvae for preference of bright habitat and cover, swimming distance above the bottom, up- and downstream movement, and diel activity. Hatchling embryos initiated a downstream migration, which suggests that predation risk of embryos at spawning sites is high. Migration peaked on days 0-5 and ceased on day 7 (8-day migration). Migrants preferred bright, open habitat and early migrants swam-up far above the bottom (maximum daily median, 140 cm) in a vertical swim tube. Post-migrant embryos did not prefer bright illumination but continued to prefer white substrate, increased use of cover habitat, and swam on the bottom. Larvae initiated feeding on day 10 after 170.6 cumulative temperature degree-days. Larvae did not migrate, weakly preferred bright illumination, preferred white substrate and open habitat, and swam near the bottom (daily median 5-78 cm). The lack of a strong preference by larvae for bright illumination suggests foraging relies more on olfaction than vision for locating prey. A short migration by embryos would disperse wild sturgeon from a spawning area, but larvae did not migrate, so a second later migration by juveniles disperses young sturgeon to the sea (2-step migration). Embryo and larva body color was light tan and tail color was black. The migration, behavior, and light body color of Russian sturgeon embryos was similar to species of Acipenser and Scaphirhynchus in North America and to Acipenser in Asia that migrate after hatching as embryos. The similarity in migration style and body color among species with diverse phylogenies likely reflects convergence for common adaptations across biogeographic regions. ?? 2002 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  20. Application of new phenolic antioxidants for cryopreservation of sturgeon sperm.

    PubMed

    Osipova, V P; Berberova, N T; Gazzaeva, R A; Kudryavtsev, K V

    2016-04-01

    Heterocyclic derivatives of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were studied as cryoprotectants of the basic media for cryopreservation of the Russian sturgeon sperm. Rates of lipid peroxidation of sturgeon sperm before and after cryopreservation were reduced in the presence of the studied compounds, exceeding the effects of BHT and water-soluble analogue of vitamin E, trolox. The most efficient antioxidant has the effective concentration of 0.1 mM. Novel antioxidant agents as cryomedium supplements not only reduced the level of lipid peroxidation, but also enhanced the translational motility of the sperm of the Russian sturgeon after defrosting.

  1. Factors Affecting the Reproduction, Recruitment, Habitat, and Population Dynamics of Pallid Sturgeon and Shovelnose Sturgeon in the Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Korschgen, Carl E.

    2007-01-01

    For more than a hundred years, human activities have modified the natural forces that control the Missouri River and its native fish fauna. While the ecological effects of regulation and channel engineering are understood in general, the current understanding is not sufficient to guide river restoration and management. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is in the third year of a multiagency research effort to determine the ecological requirements for reproduction and survival of the endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) and shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorhynchus) in the Missouri River. The multidisciplinary research strategy includes components of behavior, physiology, habitat use, habitat availability, and population modeling of all life stages. Shovelnose sturgeon are used to design the strategy because they are closely related to the pallid sturgeon and are often used as a surrogate species to develop new research tools or to examine the effects of management actions or environmental variables on sturgeon biology and habitat use. During fiscal years 2005 and 2006, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) provided funds to USGS for tasks associated with the Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Program (CSRP) and for tasks associated with evaluation of the Sturgeon Response to Flow Modifications (SRFM). Because work activities of CSRP and SRFM are so integrated, we are providing information on activities that have been consolidated at the task level. These task activities represent chapters in this report.

  2. Charlie brown versus snow white: the effects of descriptiveness on young and older adults' retrieval of proper names.

    PubMed

    Fogler, Kethera A; James, Lori E

    2007-07-01

    The nondescriptive nature of proper names has been suggested as one reason that people experience particular difficulty learning and recalling names. This experiment tested whether the exacerbated difficulty experienced by older adults in retrieving proper names is partly due to names' nondescriptive quality. Young and older participants named pictures of well-known cartoon characters that have either descriptive names (e.g., Snow White, Big Bird) or nondescriptive names (e.g., Charlie Brown, Garfield). Older adults were particularly impaired at retrieving nondescriptive names. Results indicate that theories of name memory must represent the nondescriptive nature of names and account for the decreased retrieval difficulty for descriptive compared with nondescriptive names in aging.

  3. Assessment of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) spawning efforts in the lower St. Clair River, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, S. Jerrine; Kennedy, Gregory; Crawford, Eric; Allen, Jeffrey; French, John; Black, Glen; Blouin, Marc; Hickey, James P.; Chernyak, Sergei; Haas, Robert; Thomas, Michael

    2003-01-01

    One of the most threatened remaining populations of lake sturgeon in the Great Lakes is found in the connecting channels between Lake Huron and Lake Erie. Only two spawning grounds are presently known to be active in this region, and both are in the St. Clair River. The spawning reef in the St. Clair River delta has been recently colonized by round gobies (Neogobius melanostomus) in densities up to 25/m2, raising concerns regarding predation on the benthic-oriented eggs and larvae of the sturgeon. Investigations in 1998–1999 showed that while round goby predation does occur, a number of other factors may be equally affecting sturgeon spawning success, including few spawning adults (< 60), suspected poaching pressure, low retention rate of eggs on the reef, low hatch rate (~0.5%), the presence of organic contaminants, and predation from native and exotic invertebrates and fish. Overall, we estimate that less than 1% of the eggs deposited during a spawning run survive to hatch. We were able to increase the egg hatch rate to 16% by placing eggs in predator-exclusion chambers on the reef. The fate of the larvae is uncertain. Two weeks after hatching, no larvae were found on the reef. We were unable to find them anywhere else in the river, nor was predation on larvae noted in either year. There were factors other than predation affecting larval survival in 1999. There was a higher silt load on the reef than in 1998 and large numbers of dead larvae were found. Recruitment success from this site could be improved by utilizing techniques to increase the number of eggs on the reef, such as reducing the illegal take of adult fish and by placing eggs in predator-exclusion chambers to increase hatch rate.

  4. Gray and White Matter Structures in the Midcingulate Cortex Region Contribute to Body Mass Index in Chinese Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    He, Qinghua; Chen, Chuansheng; Dong, Qi; Xue, Gui; Chen, Chunhui; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Bechara, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are rapidly becoming a central public health challenge around the world. Previous studies have suggested that elevated Body Mass Index (BMI) might be associated with structural changes in both gray and white matter, but this association is still not well understood. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between BMI and brain structure with a relatively large sample of young adults (N = 336) in a small age range (20 ± 1 years). VBM results showed significant negative correlations between BMI and Gray Matter Volumes (GMV) in the MCC, left OFC, and left VMPFC. There was also a significant negative correlation between BMI and white matter integrity as indexed by fractional anisotropy (FA) in bilateral cingulum. Further tractography analysis showed a significant negative correlation between BMI and the number of fibers passing the MCC region. Regression analysis showed that gray matter and white matter in these regions both contributed to the variance of BMI. These results remained significant even when analysis was restricted to the subjects with normal-weights. Finally, we found that decision making ability (as assessed by the Iowa Gambling Task) mediated the association between the structure of the MCC (a region responsible for impulse control and decision making) and BMI. These results shed light on the structural neural basis of weight variations. PMID:24146133

  5. The Influence of Union Transitions on White Adults' Attitudes toward Cohabitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Mick; Thornton, Arland

    2005-01-01

    Data from the Intergenerational Panel Study of Parents and Children are used to identify the influences of adult union transitions on changes in attitudes toward cohabitation among a sample of 794 young adults. The analysis examines the extent to which attitudes about cohabitation change as a result of entry into and exit from cohabitation and…

  6. Longitudinal Changes in White Matter Tract Integrity across the Adult Lifespan and Its Relation to Cortical Thinning

    PubMed Central

    Fjell, Anders M.; Yendiki, Anastasia; Walhovd, Kristine B.

    2016-01-01

    A causal link between decreases in white matter (WM) integrity and cortical degeneration is assumed, but there is scarce knowledge on the relationship between these changes across the adult human lifespan. We investigated changes in thickness throughout the cortical mantle and WM tract integrity derived from T1 and diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans in 201 healthy adults aged 23–87 years over a mean interval of 3.6 years. Fractional anisotropy (FA), mean (MD), radial (RD) and axial (AD) diffusivity changes were calculated for forceps minor and major and eight major white matter tracts in each hemisphere by use of a novel automated longitudinal tractography constrained by underlying anatomy (TRACULA) approach. We hypothesized that increasing MD and decreasing FA across tracts would relate to cortical thinning, with some anatomical specificity. WM integrity decreased across tracts non-uniformly, with mean annual percentage decreases ranging from 0.20 in the Inferior Longitudinal Fasciculus to 0.65 in the Superior Longitudinal Fasciculus. For most tracts, greater MD increases and FA decreases related to more cortical thinning, in areas in part overlapping with but also outside the projected tract endings. The findings indicate a combination of global and tract-specific relationships between WM integrity and cortical thinning. PMID:27253393

  7. [Meiotic gynogenesis in the stellate, Russian sturgeon and sterlet].

    PubMed

    Rekubratskiĭ, A V; Grunina, A S; Barmintsev, V A; Golovanova, T S; Chudinov, O S; Abramova, A B; Panchenko, N S; Kupchenko, S A

    2003-01-01

    Diploid gynogenetic progenies were obtained in the stellate sturgeon Acipenser stellatus, Russian sturgeon A. gueldenstaedtii, and sterlet A. ruthenus by means of insemination of the eggs with UV-irradiated spermatozoa and suppression of the second meiotic division by heat shock. The gynogenetic nature of experimental fish was confirmed by RAPD-PCR analysis of DNA. Effective photoreactivation of UV-induced lesions of spermatozoa was shown in the case of illumination of the fertilized eggs with visible light. This phenomenon should be taken into account when determining the doses of irradiation that allow inactivation of the male chromosomes and incubating gynogenetic embryos. Gynogenetic stellate and Russian sturgeons are viable and can be reared in order to study the mechanism of sex determination in sturgeons. PMID:12722590

  8. Optimal design of artificial reefs for sturgeon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarbrough, Cody; Cotel, Aline; Kleinheksel, Abby

    2015-11-01

    The Detroit River, part of a busy corridor between Lakes Huron and Erie, was extensively modified to create deep shipping channels, resulting in a loss of spawning habitat for lake sturgeon and other native fish (Caswell et al. 2004, Bennion and Manny 2011). Under the U.S.- Canada Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement, there are remediation plans to construct fish spawning reefs to help with historic habitat losses and degraded fish populations, specifically sturgeon. To determine optimal reef design, experimental work has been undertaken. Different sizes and shapes of reefs are tested for a given set of physical conditions, such as flow depth and flow velocity, matching the relevant dimensionless parameters dominating the flow physics. The physical conditions are matched with the natural conditions encountered in the Detroit River. Using Particle Image Velocimetry, Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry and dye studies, flow structures, vorticity and velocity gradients at selected locations have been identified and quantified to allow comparison with field observations and numerical model results. Preliminary results are helping identify the design features to be implemented in the next phase of reef construction. Sponsored by NOAA.

  9. Apolipoprotein ε4 is associated with lower brain volume in cognitively normal Chinese but not white older adults.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Jennifer S; Lee, Allen K L; Takada, Leonel T; Busovaca, Edgar; Bonham, Luke W; Chao, Steven Z; Tse, Marian; He, Jing; Schwarz, Christopher G; Carmichael, Owen T; Matthews, Brandy R; Karydas, Anna; Weiner, Michael W; Coppola, Giovanni; DeCarli, Charles S; Miller, Bruce L; Rosen, Howard J

    2015-01-01

    Studying ethnically diverse groups is important for furthering our understanding of biological mechanisms of disease that may vary across human populations. The ε4 allele of apolipoprotein E (APOE ε4) is a well-established risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), and may confer anatomic and functional effects years before clinical signs of cognitive decline are observed. The allele frequency of APOE ε4 varies both across and within populations, and the size of the effect it confers for dementia risk may be affected by other factors. Our objective was to investigate the role APOE ε4 plays in moderating brain volume in cognitively normal Chinese older adults, compared to older white Americans. We hypothesized that carrying APOE ε4 would be associated with reduced brain volume and that the magnitude of this effect would be different between ethnic groups. We performed whole brain analysis of structural MRIs from Chinese living in America (n = 41) and Shanghai (n = 30) and compared them to white Americans (n = 71). We found a significant interaction effect of carrying APOE ε4 and being Chinese. The APOE ε4xChinese interaction was associated with lower volume in bilateral cuneus and left middle frontal gyrus (Puncorrected<0.001), with suggestive findings in right entorhinal cortex and left hippocampus (Puncorrected<0.01), all regions that are associated with neurodegeneration in AD. After correction for multiple testing, the left cuneus remained significantly associated with the interaction effect (PFWE = 0.05). Our study suggests there is a differential effect of APOE ε4 on brain volume in Chinese versus white cognitively normal elderly adults. This represents a novel finding that, if verified in larger studies, has implications for how biological, environmental and/or lifestyle factors may modify APOE ε4 effects on the brain in diverse populations. PMID:25738563

  10. Association between subcutaneous white adipose tissue and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in overweight and obese adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Cholecalciferol is known to be deposited in human adipose tissue, but the distribution of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in adipose tissue is not known. Objectives: To determine whether 25(OH)D is detectable in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (SWAT) in overweight and obese persons an...

  11. Self-Harm Experiences among Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croyle, Kristin L.

    2007-01-01

    Very little research exists on self-harm in Hispanic populations, although there is a strong literature that addresses suicidality in Hispanics. This study compares self-reported rates of self-harm in 255 non-Hispanic White (NHW) and 187 Hispanic (predominantly Mexican American) undergraduate students. Results indicated that self-harm is…

  12. Adolescent Precursors of Early Union Formation among Asian American and White Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Yen-hsin Alice; Landale, Nancy S.

    2011-01-01

    Using a framework that emphasizes independent versus interdependent self-construals, this study investigates the relatively low rates of early marriage and cohabitation among Asian Americans compared with Whites. Data from Waves 1 and 3 of Add Health are used to test five hypotheses that focus on family value socialization and other precursors…

  13. Immigration, Racial Profiling, and White Privilege: Community-Based Challenges and Practices for Adult Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Luis J.

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, the author will explore the significance of race from a social constructionist perspective. He will focus on immigration laws and on examples of legal cases that have set the stage for current definitions of whiteness and racial identification. A community-based transformational organizing model will be presented. The model will…

  14. Sturgeon Research Update: Confirmed Pallid Sturgeon Spawning in the Missouri River in 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mac, Michael; Mestl, Gerald

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in partnership with the Nebraska Game and Parks Commission (NGPC) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers have confirmed spawning of two female pallid sturgeon in the upstream reaches of the lower Missouri River in May 2007. Combined with supporting research in reproductive physiology, identification of spawning habitat, and early life history this result provides new understanding of environmental factors (for example, photoperiod, temperature, water quality, and flow regime) that might affect reproduction of this endangered species. The purpose of this fact sheet is to provide stakeholders, scientists, and managers with some of the preliminary results from the 2007 field assessment of sturgeon reproduction in the lower Missouri River.

  15. Examining the Racial Crossover in Mortality between African American and White Older Adults: A Multilevel Survival Analysis of Race, Individual Socioeconomic Status, and Neighborhood Socioeconomic Context.

    PubMed

    Yao, Li; Robert, Stephanie A

    2011-01-01

    We examine whether individual and neighborhood socioeconomic context contributes to black/white disparities in mortality among USA older adults. Using national longitudinal data from the Americans' Changing Lives study, along with census tract information for each respondent, we conduct multilevel survival analyses. Results show that black older adults are disadvantaged in mortality in younger old age, but older black adults have lower mortality risk than whites after about age 80. Both individual SES and neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage contribute to the mortality risk of older adults but do not completely explain race differences in mortality. The racial mortality crossover persists even after controlling for multilevel SES, suggesting that black older adults experience selective survival at very old ages. Addressing the individual and neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage of blacks is necessary to reduce mortality disparities that culminate in older adulthood.

  16. Consumption of red meat, white meat and processed meat in Irish adults in relation to dietary quality.

    PubMed

    Cosgrove, Meadhbh; Flynn, Albert; Kiely, Máiréad

    2005-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the association of red meat, white meat and processed meat consumption in Irish adults with dietary quality. A cross-sectional study of subjects, randomly selected using the electoral register, estimated habitual food intakes using a 7 d food diary in a nationally representative sample of 662 men and 717 women (not pregnant or lactating) aged 18-64 years. Consumers were classified into thirds, based on the distribution of mean daily intakes for red meat, white meat and processed meat. The mean intakes of red meat, white meat and processed meat were 51, 33 and 26 g/d respectively, and men consumed significantly more (P<0.001) than women for all meat types. In men, red meat consumption was associated with lower (P<0.001) prevalence of inadequacy for Zn, riboflavin and vitamin C intakes. Increasing processed meat intake was associated with a lower (P<0.01) level of compliance with dietary recommendations for fat, carbohydrate and fibre in men. Increasing processed meat consumption was associated with lower (P<0.01) wholemeal bread, vegetables, fruit and fish intakes in men and women. Managerial occupations were associated with lower processed meat intakes. It is important to distinguish between meat groups, as there was a large variation between the dietary quality in consumers of red meat, white meat and processed meat. Processed meat consumption is negatively associated with dietary quality and might therefore be a dietary indicator of poor dietary quality. This has important implications in nutritional epidemiological studies and for the development of food-based dietary guidelines. PMID:16022764

  17. Consumption of red meat, white meat and processed meat in Irish adults in relation to dietary quality.

    PubMed

    Cosgrove, Meadhbh; Flynn, Albert; Kiely, Máiréad

    2005-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the association of red meat, white meat and processed meat consumption in Irish adults with dietary quality. A cross-sectional study of subjects, randomly selected using the electoral register, estimated habitual food intakes using a 7 d food diary in a nationally representative sample of 662 men and 717 women (not pregnant or lactating) aged 18-64 years. Consumers were classified into thirds, based on the distribution of mean daily intakes for red meat, white meat and processed meat. The mean intakes of red meat, white meat and processed meat were 51, 33 and 26 g/d respectively, and men consumed significantly more (P<0.001) than women for all meat types. In men, red meat consumption was associated with lower (P<0.001) prevalence of inadequacy for Zn, riboflavin and vitamin C intakes. Increasing processed meat intake was associated with a lower (P<0.01) level of compliance with dietary recommendations for fat, carbohydrate and fibre in men. Increasing processed meat consumption was associated with lower (P<0.01) wholemeal bread, vegetables, fruit and fish intakes in men and women. Managerial occupations were associated with lower processed meat intakes. It is important to distinguish between meat groups, as there was a large variation between the dietary quality in consumers of red meat, white meat and processed meat. Processed meat consumption is negatively associated with dietary quality and might therefore be a dietary indicator of poor dietary quality. This has important implications in nutritional epidemiological studies and for the development of food-based dietary guidelines.

  18. Interstitial cells of the adult neocortical white matter are the remnant of the early generated subplate neuron population

    SciTech Connect

    Chun, J.J.; Shatz, C.J.

    1989-04-22

    The postnatal fate of the first-generated neurons of the cat cerebral cortex was examined. These neurons can be identified uniquely by 3H-thymidine exposure during the week preceding the neurogenesis of cortical layer 6. Previous studies in which 3H-thymidine birthdating at embryonic day 27 (E27) was combined with immunohistochemistry have shown that these neurons are present in large numbers during fetal and early postnatal life within the subplate (future white matter), that they are immunoreactive for the neuron-specific protein MAP2 and for the putative neurotransmitters GABA, NPY, SRIF, and CCK. Here, the same techniques were used to follow the postnatal location and disappearance of the early generated subplate neuron population. At birth (P0), subplate neurons showing immunoreactivity for GABA, NPY, SRIF, or CCK are present in large numbers and at high density within the white matter throughout the neocortex, and the entire population can be observed as a dense MAP2-immunoreactive band situated beneath cortical layer 6. Between P0 and P401 (adulthood), the MAP2-immunostained band disappears so that comparatively few MAP2-immunoreactive neurons remain within the white matter. There is a corresponding decrease in the number and density of neurons stained with antibodies against neurotransmitters. In each instance, these neurons could be double-labeled by the administration of 3H-thymidine at E27, indicating that they are the remnants of the early generated subplate neuron population. The major period of decrease occurs during the first 4 postnatal weeks, and adult values are attained by 5 months. Within the white matter of the lateral gyrus (visual cortex), the density of immunostained neurons decreases dramatically: MAP2, 82%, SRIF, 81%, and NPY, 96%.

  19. Reconnecting fragmented sturgeon populations in North American rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jager, Henriette; Parsley, Michael J.; Cech, Joseph J. Jr.; McLaughlin, R.L.; Forsythe, Patrick S.; Elliott, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    The majority of large North American rivers are fragmented by dams that interrupt migrations of wide-ranging fishes like sturgeons. Reconnecting habitat is viewed as an important means of protecting sturgeon species in U.S. rivers because these species have lost between 5% and 60% of their historical ranges. Unfortunately, facilities designed to pass other fishes have rarely worked well for sturgeons. The most successful passage facilities were sized appropriately for sturgeons and accommodated bottom-oriented species. For upstream passage, facilities with large entrances, full-depth guidance systems, large lifts, or wide fishways without obstructions or tight turns worked well. However, facilitating upstream migration is only half the battle. Broader recovery for linked sturgeon populations requires safe “round-trip” passage involving multiple dams. The most successful downstream passage facilities included nature-like fishways, large canal bypasses, and bottom-draw sluice gates. We outline an adaptive approach to implementing passage that begins with temporary programs and structures and monitors success both at the scale of individual fish at individual dams and the scale of metapopulations in a river basin. The challenge will be to learn from past efforts and reconnect North American sturgeon populations in a way that promotes range expansion and facilitates population recovery.

  20. Reconnecting fragmented sturgeon populations in North American rivers

    DOE PAGES

    Jager, Yetta; Forsythe, Patrick S.; McLaughlin, Robert L.; Joseph J. Cech, Jr.; Parsley, Michael; Elliott, Robert F.; Pracheil, Brenda M.

    2016-02-24

    The majority of large North American rivers are fragmented by dams that interrupt migrations of wide-ranging fishes like sturgeons. Reconnecting habitat is viewed as an important means of protecting sturgeon species in U.S. rivers because these species have lost between 5% and 60% of their historical ranges. Unfortunately, facilities designed to pass other fishes have rarely worked well for sturgeons. The most successful passage facilities were sized appropriately for sturgeons and accommodated bottom-oriented species. For upstream passage, facilities with large entrances, full-depth guidance systems, large lifts, or wide fishways without obstructions or tight turns worked well. However, facilitating upstream migrationmore » is only half the battle. Broader recovery for linked sturgeon populations requires safe round-trip passage involving multiple dams. The most successful downstream passage facilities included nature-like fishways, large canal bypasses, and bottom-draw sluice gates. We outline an adaptive approach to implementing passage that begins with temporary programs and structures and monitors success both at the scale of individual fish at individual dams and the scale of metapopulations in a river basin. The challenge will be to learn from past efforts and reconnect North American sturgeon populations in a way that promotes range expansion and facilitates population recovery.« less

  1. The effects of temperature and body size on immunological development and responsiveness in juvenile shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum).

    PubMed

    Gradil, Ana M; Wright, Glenda M; Speare, David J; Wadowska, Dorota W; Purcell, Sara; Fast, Mark D

    2014-10-01

    Sturgeon are an important evolutionary taxa of which little is known regarding their responses to environmental factors. Water temperature strongly influences growth in fish; however, its effect on sturgeon immune responses is unknown. The objective of this study was to assess how 2 different temperatures affect immune responses in shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) relevant immune organs such as the meningeal myeloid tissue, spleen, thymus and skin. These responses were studied in 2 different sizes of same age juvenile sturgeon kept at either 11 °C or 20 °C (4 treatment groups), before and after exposure to an ectoparasitic copepod (Dichelesthium oblongum). Based on a differential cell count, temperature was found to strongly influence immune cell production in the meningeal myeloid tissue, regardless of the fish sizes considered. Morphometric analysis of splenic white pulp showed a transient response to temperature. There were no differences between the groups in the morphometric analysis of thymus size. Splenic IRF-1 and IRF-2 had similar expression profiles, significantly higher in fish kept at 20 °C for the first 6 weeks of the study but not by 14 weeks. In the skin, IRF-1 was significantly higher in the fish kept at 11 °C over the first 6 weeks of the study. IRF-2 had a similar profile but there were no differences between the groups by the end of the trial. In conclusion, higher water temperatures (up to 20 °C) may have beneficial effects in maximizing growth and improving immunological capacity, regardless of the fish sizes considered in this study.

  2. Sleep duration is associated with white matter hyperintensity volume in older adults: the Northern Manhattan Study.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Alberto R; Dong, Chuanhui; Rundek, Tatjana; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Boden-Albala, Bernadette; Sacco, Ralph L; Wright, Clinton B

    2014-10-01

    Self-reports of long or short sleep durations have indicated an association with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, but there are limited data evaluating their association with white matter hyperintensity volume (WMHV), a marker of cerebral small vessel disease. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of self-reported sleep duration to test for a correlation with white matter hyperintensities, measured by quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in the Northern Manhattan Study. We used multivariable linear regression models to assess associations between both short (<6 h) and long (≥9 h) sleep durations and log-transformed WMHV, adjusting for demographic, behavioural and vascular risk factors. A total of 1244 participants, mean age 70 ± 9 years, 61% women and 68% Hispanics were analysed with magnetic resonance brain imaging and self-reported sleep duration. Short sleep was reported by 23% (n = 293) and long sleep by 10% (n = 121) of the sample. Long sleep (β = 0.178; P = 0.035), but not short sleep (β = -0.053; P = 0.357), was associated with greater log-WMHV in fully adjusted models. We observed an interaction between sleep duration, diabetes mellitus and log-WMHV (P = 0.07). In fully adjusted models, stratified analysis showed that long sleep duration was associated with greater WMHV only in those with diabetes (β = 0.78; P = 0.0314), but not in those without diabetes (β = 0.022; P = 0.2), whereas short sleep was not associated with white matter hyperintensities in those with or without diabetes. In conclusion, long sleep duration was associated with a greater burden of white matter lesions in this stroke-free urban sample. The association was seen mainly among those with diabetes mellitus.

  3. Current Occurrence of the Atlantic Sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus in Northern Spain: A New Prospect for Sturgeon Conservation in Western Europe.

    PubMed

    Elvira, Benigno; Leal, Sheila; Doadrio, Ignacio; Almodóvar, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Acipenser oxyrinchus is considered extirpated in Europe, but numerous breeding populations still exist on the Atlantic coast of North America. An adult female A. oxyrinchus, 2500 mm total length and 120 kg wet weight, was accidentally fished on 24 November 2010 near the coast of Gijón, Asturias, Spain. The fish was identified by its morphological pattern as well as by mitochondrial and nuclear DNA analyses. Because the sturgeon was found far away from any known breeding area, it was considered a stray or vagrant specimen. It certainly has a natural origin, but its eventual birthplace could not be determined. Because its current occurrence was unknown in southwestern Europe until now, the species is not cataloged or protected in this area. Therefore, the residual European stocks of A. oxyrinchus ought to be listed as Critically Endangered (CR) according to the IUCN categories. Likewise, it is imperative for southwestern European countries with an historic or recent occurrence of A. oxyrinchus to protect the species through domestic and international legislation. The present sympatric occurrence of A. sturio and A. oxyrinchus raises new challenges about key questions, such as the species selection for restoration program in European countries. Accurate monitoring is mandatory to obtain appropriate information for an assessment of the current occurrence of A. oxyrinchus in southwestern Europe.

  4. Current Occurrence of the Atlantic Sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus in Northern Spain: A New Prospect for Sturgeon Conservation in Western Europe

    PubMed Central

    Elvira, Benigno

    2015-01-01

    Acipenser oxyrinchus is considered extirpated in Europe, but numerous breeding populations still exist on the Atlantic coast of North America. An adult female A. oxyrinchus, 2500 mm total length and 120 kg wet weight, was accidentally fished on 24 November 2010 near the coast of Gijón, Asturias, Spain. The fish was identified by its morphological pattern as well as by mitochondrial and nuclear DNA analyses. Because the sturgeon was found far away from any known breeding area, it was considered a stray or vagrant specimen. It certainly has a natural origin, but its eventual birthplace could not be determined. Because its current occurrence was unknown in southwestern Europe until now, the species is not cataloged or protected in this area. Therefore, the residual European stocks of A. oxyrinchus ought to be listed as Critically Endangered (CR) according to the IUCN categories. Likewise, it is imperative for southwestern European countries with an historic or recent occurrence of A. oxyrinchus to protect the species through domestic and international legislation. The present sympatric occurrence of A. sturio and A. oxyrinchus raises new challenges about key questions, such as the species selection for restoration program in European countries. Accurate monitoring is mandatory to obtain appropriate information for an assessment of the current occurrence of A. oxyrinchus in southwestern Europe. PMID:26717564

  5. Structural Invariance of General Behavior Inventory (GBI) Scores in Black and White Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pendergast, Laura L.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Brown, Christopher; Jensen, Dane; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, Black and White individuals show discrepant rates of diagnosis of bipolar disorder versus schizophrenia and antisocial personality disorder, as well as disparate access to and utilization of treatment for these disorders (e.g., Alegria, Chatterji et al., 2008; Chrishon et al., 2012). Such diagnostic discrepancies might stem from racially-related cognitive biases in clinical judgment or from racial biases in measurements of bipolar disorder. The General Behavior Inventory (GBI) is among the most well-validated and widely used measures of bipolar mood symptoms, but the psychometric properties of the GBI have been examined primarily in predominantly White samples. This study used multi-group confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) to examine the invariance of GBI scores across racial groups with a non-clinical sample. Fit was acceptable for tests of configural invariance, equal factor loadings, and equal intercepts, but not invariance of residuals. Findings indicate that GBI scores provide functionally invariant measurement of mood symptoms in both Black and White samples. The use of GBI scores may contribute consistent information to clinical assessments and could potentially reduce diagnostic discrepancies and associated differences in access to and utilization of mental health services. PMID:25222430

  6. Associations of Adiponectin with Adiposity, Insulin Sensitivity, and Diet in Young, Healthy, Mexican Americans and Non-Latino White Adults.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Rocio I; Low Wang, Cecilia C; Wolfe, Pamela; Havranek, Edward P; Long, Carlin S; Bessesen, Daniel H

    2015-12-22

    Low circulating adiponectin levels may contribute to higher diabetes risk among Mexican Americans (MA) compared to non-Latino whites (NLW). Our objective was to determine if among young healthy adult MAs have lower adiponectin than NLWs, independent of differences in adiposity. In addition, we explored associations between adiponectin and diet. This was an observational, cross-sectional study of healthy MA and NLW adults living in Colorado (U.S.A.). We measured plasma total adiponectin, adiposity (BMI, and visceral adipose tissue), insulin sensitivity (IVGTT), and self-reported dietary intake in 43 MA and NLW adults. Mean adiponectin levels were 40% lower among MA than NLW (5.8 ± 3.3 vs. 10.7 ± 4.2 µg/mL, p = 0.0003), and this difference persisted after controlling for age, sex, BMI, and visceral adiposity. Lower adiponectin in MA was associated with lower insulin sensitivity (R² = 0.42, p < 0.01). Lower adiponectin was also associated with higher dietary glycemic index, lower intake of vegetables, higher intake of trans fat, and higher intake of grains. Our findings confirm that ethnic differences in adiponectin reflect differences in insulin sensitivity, but suggest that these are not due to differences in adiposity. Observed associations between adiponectin and diet support the need for future studies exploring the regulation of adiponectin by diet and other environmental factors.

  7. High-throughput SNP-genotyping analysis of the relationships among Ponto-Caspian sturgeon species

    PubMed Central

    Rastorguev, Sergey M; Nedoluzhko, Artem V; Mazur, Alexander M; Gruzdeva, Natalia M; Volkov, Alexander A; Barmintseva, Anna E; Mugue, Nikolai S; Prokhortchouk, Egor B

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Legally certified sturgeon fisheries require population protection and conservation methods, including DNA tests to identify the source of valuable sturgeon roe. However, the available genetic data are insufficient to distinguish between different sturgeon populations, and are even unable to distinguish between some species. We performed high-throughput single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-genotyping analysis on different populations of Russian (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii), Persian (A. persicus), and Siberian (A. baerii) sturgeon species from the Caspian Sea region (Volga and Ural Rivers), the Azov Sea, and two Siberian rivers. We found that Russian sturgeons from the Volga and Ural Rivers were essentially indistinguishable, but they differed from Russian sturgeons in the Azov Sea, and from Persian and Siberian sturgeons. We identified eight SNPs that were sufficient to distinguish these sturgeon populations with 80% confidence, and allowed the development of markers to distinguish sturgeon species. Finally, on the basis of our SNP data, we propose that the A. baerii-like mitochondrial DNA found in some Russian sturgeons from the Caspian Sea arose via an introgression event during the Pleistocene glaciation. In the present study, the high-throughput genotyping analysis of several sturgeon populations was performed. SNP markers for species identification were defined. The possible explanation of the baerii-like mitotype presence in some Russian sturgeons in the Caspian Sea was suggested. PMID:24567827

  8. Distribution of lake sturgeon in New York: 11 years of restoration management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chalupnicki, M.A.; Dittman, D.E.; Carlson, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    Lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) are native within the Lake Ontario drainage basin and listed as threatened by New York State. In 1995 the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) initiated restoration management of lake sturgeon. This management included both protection of extant populations and stocking of uninhabited historic waters with juvenile sturgeon. A list compiled by NYSDEC of observations of lake sturgeon from New York State waters for the period encompassing 1800-2005 was combined with recent observations through 2008 and formatted (Geographic Information System) to allow mapping of sturgeon geographical distribution. Distributions of pre- and post-restoration sturgeon were examined by occurrence and type of observation. Distribution patterns indicated lakes and rivers with current sturgeon presence have increased from five to eight, which was the first-phase goal of the New York Lake Sturgeon Recovery Plan. Lake sturgeon have started to expand into joining water to include the Indian R., Oneida R., Seneca R. and Oswego R. The protected historic populations in the Niagara R., Grasse R., St. Lawrence R., and Lakes Erie and Ontario continue to have low numbers of sturgeon observations. This summary of mapped lake sturgeon distribution information will help in guiding research assessments to waters containing substantial populations. These accessible reaches provide a generous advantage to the released juveniles as they move toward the next goal of restoration, spawning of sturgeon in targeted waters. ?? 2011 American Midland Naturalist.

  9. 77 FR 8801 - Boundary Establishment for Sturgeon National Wild and Scenic River; Hiawatha National Forest...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Boundary Establishment for Sturgeon National Wild and Scenic River..., Washington Office, is transmitting the final boundary of the Sturgeon National Wild and Scenic River to... 157. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Sturgeon Wild and Scenic River boundary is available for review...

  10. 77 FR 51767 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Five Species of Sturgeon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... spawn in freshwater habitats while spending part of their life cycle in marine or estuarine waters (i.e...--Persian sturgeon; A. stellatus--stellate sturgeon/star sturgeon; A. baerii--Siberian sturgeon; A... species under the ESA (``DPS Policy''; 61 FR 4722; February 7, 1996). A species, subspecies, or DPS...

  11. The pulmonary response of white and black adults to six concentrations of ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Seal, E. Jr.; McDonnell, W.F.; House, D.E.; Salaam, S.A.; Dewitt, P.J.; Butler, S.O.; Green, J.; Raggio, L. )

    1993-04-01

    Many early studies of respiratory responsiveness to ozone (O3) were done on healthy, young, white males. The purpose of this study was to determine whether gender or race differences in O3 response exist among white and black, males and females, and to develop concentration-response curves for each of the gender-race groups. Three hundred seventy-two subjects (n > 90 in each gender-race group), ages 18 to 35 yr, were exposed once for 2.33 h to 0.0 (purified air), 0.12, 0.18, 0.24, 0.30, or 0.40 ppm O3. Each exposure was preceded by baseline pulmonary function tests and a symptom questionnaire. The first 2 h of exposure included alternating 15-min periods of rest and exercise on a motorized treadmill producing a minute ventilation (VE) of 25 L/min/m2 body surface area (BSA). After exposure, subjects completed a set of pulmonary function tests and a symptom questionnaire. Lung function and symptom responses were expressed as percent change from baseline and analyzed using a nonparametric two factor analysis of variance. Three primary variables were analyzed: FEV1, specific airway resistance (SRaw), and cough. Statistical analysis demonstrated no significant differences in response to O3 among the individual gender-race groups. For the group as a whole, changes in the variables FEV1, SRaw, and cough were first noted at 0.12, 0.18, and 0.18 ppm O3, respectively. Adjusted for exercise difference, concentration-response curves for FEV1 and cough among white males were consistent with previous reports (1).

  12. Complete mitochondrial genome sequences of Atlantic sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, Gulf sturgeon, A. o. desotoi and European sturgeon A. sturio (Acipenseriformes: Acipenseridae) obtained through next generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Popović, Danijela; Baca, Mateusz; Panagiotopoulou, Hanna

    2016-07-01

    Complete mitochondrial genome sequences of European sturgeon and two subspecies of the North American, Atlantic and Gulf sturgeons were determined using MiSeq Illumina technology. All three genomes show typical vertebrate organization. They possess 22 tRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA (ribosomal RNA) genes and a non-coding control region. Excluding ND6, all protein-coding genes are on the heavy strand. The whole mitogenome sequences have been deposited in GenBank under accession numbers KP997216-KP997218.

  13. Measurement equivalence of seven selected items of posttraumatic growth between black and white adult survivors of Hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Alison M; Tran, Thanh V

    2013-02-01

    This study examined the equivalence or comparability of the measurement properties of seven selected items measuring posttraumatic growth among self-identified Black (n = 270) and White (n = 707) adult survivors of Hurricane Katrina, using data from the Baseline Survey of the Hurricane Katrina Community Advisory Group Study. Internal consistency reliability was equally good for both groups (Cronbach's alphas = .79), as were correlations between individual scale items and their respective overall scale. Confirmatory factor analysis of a congeneric measurement model of seven selected items of posttraumatic growth showed adequate measures of fit for both groups. The results showed only small variation in magnitude of factor loadings and measurement errors between the two samples. Tests of measurement invariance showed mixed results, but overall indicated that factor loading, error variance, and factor variance were similar between the two samples. These seven selected items can be useful for future large-scale surveys of posttraumatic growth.

  14. Measurement equivalence of seven selected items of posttraumatic growth between black and white adult survivors of Hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Alison M; Tran, Thanh V

    2013-02-01

    This study examined the equivalence or comparability of the measurement properties of seven selected items measuring posttraumatic growth among self-identified Black (n = 270) and White (n = 707) adult survivors of Hurricane Katrina, using data from the Baseline Survey of the Hurricane Katrina Community Advisory Group Study. Internal consistency reliability was equally good for both groups (Cronbach's alphas = .79), as were correlations between individual scale items and their respective overall scale. Confirmatory factor analysis of a congeneric measurement model of seven selected items of posttraumatic growth showed adequate measures of fit for both groups. The results showed only small variation in magnitude of factor loadings and measurement errors between the two samples. Tests of measurement invariance showed mixed results, but overall indicated that factor loading, error variance, and factor variance were similar between the two samples. These seven selected items can be useful for future large-scale surveys of posttraumatic growth. PMID:23654027

  15. White rice intake varies in its association with metabolic markers of diabetes and dyslipidemia across region among Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Fei; Howard, Annie-Green; Herring, Amy H.; Popkin, Barry M.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims There are inconsistent associations between white rice consumption with diabetes and dyslipidemia, perhaps due to the nature of samples studied and quality of diet data. Methods Using regionally diverse data from adults enrolled in the China Health and Nutrition Survey (n=7,878) with diet data from three repeated 24-hour recalls and fasting blood to derive diabetes and dyslipidemia, we examined the odds of diabetes and dyslipidemia in participants across region-specific tertiles of percent energy from white rice consumption. Results The prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes, high triglycerides, high low-density lipoprotein (LDL), low high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and atherogenic dyslipidemia (AD) were 4.7%, 31.8%, 31.3%, 25.9%, and 14.6%, respectively. We found an inverse association between highest (versus lowest) tertile of rice intake and diabetes in Central China [Odds Ratio (OR): 0.59, 95% CI: 0.36–0.99]. Highest rice consumption was also associated with high triglycerides (OR: 1.46, 95%CI: 1.09–1.95), low HDL (OR: 1.38, 95%CI: 1.03–1.85) and AD (OR: 1.63, 95%CI: 1.15–2.31) in the North, and low LDL (OR: 0.54, 95%CI: 0.42–0.69) in the Central. Conclusions The association between white rice consumption with diabetes and dyslipidemia markers varied across regions of China, suggesting a role of other dietary and health-related exposures, beyond rice. PMID:26068010

  16. Adult Learning and Recognition of Prior Learning: The "White Elephant" in Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Tricia A.

    2005-01-01

    Adult learners are being attracted to university programs based on the granting of either academic credit or the recognition of prior learning (RPL). Typically, this attraction is being aligned to fast-tracking degree attainment or student cost effectiveness. It appears from the literature that there are varied interpretations and application of…

  17. Impact of diabetes mellitus on mortality associated with pneumonia and influenza among non-Hispanic black and white US adults.

    PubMed Central

    Valdez, R; Narayan, K M; Geiss, L S; Engelgau, M M

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the impact of diabetes on mortality associated with pneumonia and influenza among non-Hispanic Black and White US adults. METHODS: Data were derived from the National Mortality Followback Survey (1986) and the National Health Interview Survey (1987-1989). RESULTS: Regardless of race, sex, and socioeconomic status, people with diabetes who died at 25 to 64 years of age were more likely to have pneumonia and influenza recorded on the death certificate than people without diabetes who died at comparable ages (odds ratio [OR] = 4.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.3, 7.7). For those 65 years and older, the risk remained elevated among Whites with diabetes (OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.7, 2.7) but not among Blacks with diabetes (OR = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.6, 1.7). It was estimated that about 17,000 (10.3%) of the 167,000 deaths associated with pneumonia and influenza that occurred in 1986 were attributable to diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: The impact of diabetes on deaths associated with pneumonia and influenza is substantial. Targeted immunizations among people with diabetes may reduce unnecessary deaths associated with pneumonia and influenza. PMID:10553394

  18. In vivo adeno-associated viral vector-mediated genetic engineering of white and brown adipose tissue in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Veronica; Muñoz, Sergio; Casana, Estefania; Mallol, Cristina; Elias, Ivet; Jambrina, Claudia; Ribera, Albert; Ferre, Tura; Franckhauser, Sylvie; Bosch, Fatima

    2013-12-01

    Adipose tissue is pivotal in the regulation of energy homeostasis through the balance of energy storage and expenditure and as an endocrine organ. An inadequate mass and/or alterations in the metabolic and endocrine functions of adipose tissue underlie the development of obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. To fully understand the metabolic and molecular mechanism(s) involved in adipose dysfunction, in vivo genetic modification of adipocytes holds great potential. Here, we demonstrate that adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors, especially serotypes 8 and 9, mediated efficient transduction of white (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult lean and obese diabetic mice. The use of short versions of the adipocyte protein 2 or uncoupling protein-1 promoters or micro-RNA target sequences enabled highly specific, long-term AAV-mediated transgene expression in white or brown adipocytes. As proof of concept, delivery of AAV vectors encoding for hexokinase or vascular endothelial growth factor to WAT or BAT resulted in increased glucose uptake or increased vessel density in targeted depots. This method of gene transfer also enabled the secretion of stable high levels of the alkaline phosphatase marker protein into the bloodstream by transduced WAT. Therefore, AAV-mediated genetic engineering of adipose tissue represents a useful tool for the study of adipose pathophysiology and, likely, for the future development of new therapeutic strategies for obesity and diabetes. PMID:24043756

  19. In vivo adeno-associated viral vector-mediated genetic engineering of white and brown adipose tissue in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Veronica; Muñoz, Sergio; Casana, Estefania; Mallol, Cristina; Elias, Ivet; Jambrina, Claudia; Ribera, Albert; Ferre, Tura; Franckhauser, Sylvie; Bosch, Fatima

    2013-12-01

    Adipose tissue is pivotal in the regulation of energy homeostasis through the balance of energy storage and expenditure and as an endocrine organ. An inadequate mass and/or alterations in the metabolic and endocrine functions of adipose tissue underlie the development of obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. To fully understand the metabolic and molecular mechanism(s) involved in adipose dysfunction, in vivo genetic modification of adipocytes holds great potential. Here, we demonstrate that adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors, especially serotypes 8 and 9, mediated efficient transduction of white (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult lean and obese diabetic mice. The use of short versions of the adipocyte protein 2 or uncoupling protein-1 promoters or micro-RNA target sequences enabled highly specific, long-term AAV-mediated transgene expression in white or brown adipocytes. As proof of concept, delivery of AAV vectors encoding for hexokinase or vascular endothelial growth factor to WAT or BAT resulted in increased glucose uptake or increased vessel density in targeted depots. This method of gene transfer also enabled the secretion of stable high levels of the alkaline phosphatase marker protein into the bloodstream by transduced WAT. Therefore, AAV-mediated genetic engineering of adipose tissue represents a useful tool for the study of adipose pathophysiology and, likely, for the future development of new therapeutic strategies for obesity and diabetes.

  20. Relationship between neuropsychological impairment and grey and white matter changes in adult-onset myotonic dystrophy type 1.

    PubMed

    Baldanzi, Sigrid; Cecchi, Paolo; Fabbri, Serena; Pesaresi, Ilaria; Simoncini, Costanza; Angelini, Corrado; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo; Cosottini, Mirco; Siciliano, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) has a wide phenotypic spectrum and potentially may affect central nervous system with mild to severe involvement. Our aim was to investigate grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) structural alterations in a sample of adult-onset DM1 patients and to evaluate relationship with clinical and cognitive variables. Thirty DM1 patients underwent neuropsychological investigation and 3T-MRI protocol. GM and WM changes were evaluated calculating brain parenchymal fraction (BPF), voxel-based morphometry (VBM), white matter lesion load (LL% and Fazekas scale) and tract based spatial statistical (TBSS). Patients showed main impairment in tests exploring executive and mnesic domains with visuo-spatial involvement, significantly related to BPF. VBM revealed clusters of widespread GM reduction and TBSS revealed areas of decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) and increased radial diffusivity (RD), mean diffusivity (MD) and axial diffusivity (AD) in patients compared to a group of matched healthy controls. Multiple regression analyses showed areas of significant negative relationship between left temporal atrophy and verbal memory, between RD and mnesic and visuo-spatial cognitive domains, and between AD and verbal memory. TBSS results indicate that the involvement of normal appearance WM, beyond the signal changes detected with conventional MR imaging (Fazekas scale and LL%), was associated with neuropsychological deficit. These data suggest that disrupted complex neuronal networks can underlie cognitive-behavioural dysfunctions in DM1. PMID:27437180

  1. Modeling Climate Change and Sturgeon Populations in the Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wildhaber, Mark L.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Columbia Environmental Research Center (CERC), in collaboration with researchers from the University of Missouri and Iowa State University, is conducting research to address effects of climate change on sturgeon populations (Scaphirhynchus spp.) in the Missouri River. The CERC is conducting laboratory, field, and modeling research to identify causative factors for the responses of fish populations to natural and human-induced environmental changes and using this information to understand sensitivity of sturgeon populations to potential climate change in the Missouri River drainage basin. Sturgeon response information is being used to parameterize models predicting future population trends. These models will provide a set of tools for natural resource managers to assess management strategies in the context of global climate change. This research complements and builds on the ongoing Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Program (CSRP) at the CERC. The CSRP is designed to provide information critical to restoration of the Missouri River ecosystem and the endangered pallid sturgeon (S. albus). Current research is being funded by USGS through the National Climate Change Wildlife Science Center (NCCWSC) and the Science Support Partnership (SSP) Program that is held by the USGS and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The national mission of the NCCWSC is to improve the capacity of fish and wildlife agencies to respond to climate change and to address high-priority climate change effects on fish and wildlife. Within the national context, the NCCWSC research on the Missouri River focuses on temporal and spatial downscaling and associated uncertainty in modeling climate change effects on sturgeon species in the Missouri River. The SSP research focuses on improving survival and population estimates for pallid sturgeon population models.

  2. Differential effect of elevated blood pressure on left ventricular geometry types in black and white young adults in a community (from the Bogalusa Heart Study).

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Chen, Wei; Ruan, Litao; Toprak, Ahmet; Srinivasan, Sathanur R; Berenson, Gerald S

    2011-03-01

    Hypertension and left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy are both more common in blacks than in whites. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that blood pressure (BP) has a differential effect on the LV geometry types in black versus white asymptomatic young adults. As a part of the Bogalusa Heart Study, echocardiography and cardiovascular risk factor measurements were performed in 780 white and 343 black subjects (aged 24 to 47 years). Four LV geometry types were identified as normal, concentric remodeling, eccentric, and concentric hypertrophy. Compared to the white subjects, the black subjects had a greater prevalence of eccentric (15.7% vs 9.1%, p <0.001) and concentric (9.3% vs 4.1%, p <0.001) hypertrophy. On multivariate logistic regression analyses, adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, lipids, and glucose, the black subjects showed a significantly stronger association of LV concentric hypertrophy with BP (systolic BP, odds ratio [OR] 3.74, p <0.001; diastolic BP, OR 2.86, p <0.001) than whites (systolic BP, OR 1.50, p = 0.037; and diastolic BP, OR 1.35, p = 0.167), with p values for the race difference of 0.007 for systolic BP and 0.026 for diastolic BP. LV eccentric hypertrophy showed similar trends for the race difference in the ORs; however, the association between eccentric hypertrophy and BP was not significant in the white subjects. With respect to LV concentric remodeling, its association with BP was not significant in either blacks or whites. In conclusion, elevated BP levels have a greater detrimental effect on LV hypertrophy patterns in the black versus white young adults. These findings suggest that blacks might be more susceptible than whites to BP-related adverse cardiac remodeling.

  3. Methods for Predicting Potential Impacts of Pile-Driving Noise on Endangered Sturgeon During Bridge Construction.

    PubMed

    Krebs, Justin; Jacobs, Fred; Conway, Robert; Popper, Arthur N; Moese, Mark; Rollino, John; Racca, Roberto; Martin, Bruce; MacGillivray, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The potential impacts of pile-driving noise on Hudson River sturgeon during construction of the New NY Bridge were predicted. Abundance data for shortnose and Atlantic sturgeon derived from fisheries sampling were combined with data about the spatial extent of pile-driving noise. This approach was used to calculate the number of sturgeon that could occur within sound level isopleths exceeding peak and cumulative noise criteria used by the National Marine Fisheries Service to determine the incidental take of sturgeon. The number of sturgeon subject to the potential onset of physiological effects during pile driving was predicted to be 35-41 fish for each species.

  4. High Prevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi among Adult Blacklegged Ticks from White-Tailed Deer

    PubMed Central

    Hickling, Graham J.; Tsao, Jean I.

    2016-01-01

    We compared the prevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi infection in questing and deer-associated adult Ixodes scapularis ticks in Wisconsin, USA. Prevalence among deer-associated ticks (4.5% overall, 7.1% in females) was significantly higher than among questing ticks (1.0% overall, 0.6% in females). Deer may be a sylvatic reservoir for this newly recognized zoonotic pathogen. PMID:26811985

  5. High Prevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi among Adult Blacklegged Ticks from White-Tailed Deer.

    PubMed

    Han, Seungeun; Hickling, Graham J; Tsao, Jean I

    2016-02-01

    We compared the prevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi infection in questing and deer-associated adult Ixodes scapularis ticks in Wisconsin, USA. Prevalence among deer-associated ticks (4.5% overall, 7.1% in females) was significantly higher than among questing ticks (1.0% overall, 0.6% in females). Deer may be a sylvatic reservoir for this newly recognized zoonotic pathogen. PMID:26811985

  6. Attachment-site patterns of adult blacklegged ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) on white-tailed deer and horses.

    PubMed

    Schmidtmann, E T; Carroll, J F; Watson, D W

    1998-01-01

    The attachment site pattern of adult Ixodes scapularis Say on white-tailed deer and horses in Maryland was determined by whole-body examinations during fall and spring periods of tick host-seeking activity. On deer in the fall, both female and male I. scapularis attached largely to anterior dorsal body regions, with attachment to the ears (outside), head, neck, and brisket accounting for 87.9% of females and 86.6% of males. The attachment pattern of females differed between bucks and does during fall, but not in spring, and both females and males were more abundant on bucks than does during fall, but not in spring. Neither female nor male attachment patterns on deer differed between fall and spring seasons. In contrast to deer, the ears and neck of horses were largely devoid of blacklegged ticks, and 84% of the females were attached either on the chest, in the axillae of the fore and rear legs, or under the jawbone. The restricted attachment of female blacklegged ticks to ventral body regions of horses may reflect avoidance of light. An understanding of the attachment patterns of adult I. scapularis, an increasingly abundant and economically important species, enhances sampling of feeding ticks, deticking to limit host irritation or exposure to tick-borne pathogens, and identifies body areas that should be targeted for delivery of repellents or acaricides. PMID:9542346

  7. Age related differences in reaction time components and diffusion properties of normal-appearing white matter in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yiqin; Bender, Andrew R; Raz, Naftali

    2015-01-01

    Deterioration of the white matter (WM) is viewed as the neural substrate of age differences in speed of information processing (reaction time, RT). However, the relationship between WM and RT components is rarely examined in healthy aging. We assessed the relationship between RT components derived from the Ratcliff diffusion model and micro-structural properties of normal-appearing WM (NAWM) in 90 healthy adults (age 18-82 years). We replicated all major extant findings pertaining to age differences in RT components and WM: lower drift rate, greater response conservativeness, longer non-decision time, lower fractional anisotropy (FA), greater mean (MD), axial (AD) and radial (RD) diffusivity were associated with advanced age. Age differences in anterior regions of the cerebral WM exceeded those in posterior regions. However, the only relationship between RT components and WM was the positive association between DR in the body of the corpus callosum and non-decision time. Thus, in healthy adults, age differences in NAWM diffusion properties are not a major contributor to age differences in RT components. Longitudinal studies with more precise and specific estimates of regional myelin content and evaluation of the contribution of age-related vascular risk factors are necessary to understand cerebral substrates of age-related cognitive slowing.

  8. Differential age-dependent associations of gray matter volume and white matter integrity with processing speed in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Hong, Zhaoping; Ng, Kwun Kei; Sim, Sam K Y; Ngeow, Mei Yi; Zheng, Hui; Lo, June C; Chee, Michael W L; Zhou, Juan

    2015-12-01

    Slower processing speed (PS), a highly robust feature of cognitive aging, is associated with white matter (WM) deterioration and gray matter volume (GMV) loss. Traditional linear regression models assume a constant relationship between brain structure and cognition over time. To probe for variation in the association between WM and GMV and PS over time, we used a novel sparse varying coefficient model on data collected from 126 relatively healthy older adults (67 females, aged 58-85years) evaluated with MRI and a standardized neuropsychological test-battery. We found that WM microstructural differences indexed by fractional anisotropy values in the fronto-striatal tracts (internal and external capsule) showed a stronger association with PS before the age of 70years. Contrastingly, GMV values of the left putamen and middle occipital gyrus were more strongly correlated with PS after 70years. Additionally, within GM and WM compartments, there was heterogeneity in the temporal sequence in which different cortical and subcortical elements were most strongly associated with PS. Together, these observations provide a more nuanced account of the relationships between different structural components of the aging brain and processing speed, a key cognitive domain affected in relatively healthy older adults. PMID:26302672

  9. Sturgeon conservation genomics: SNP discovery and validation using RAD sequencing.

    PubMed

    Ogden, R; Gharbi, K; Mugue, N; Martinsohn, J; Senn, H; Davey, J W; Pourkazemi, M; McEwing, R; Eland, C; Vidotto, M; Sergeev, A; Congiu, L

    2013-06-01

    Caviar-producing sturgeons belonging to the genus Acipenser are considered to be one of the most endangered species groups in the world. Continued overfishing in spite of increasing legislation, zero catch quotas and extensive aquaculture production have led to the collapse of wild stocks across Europe and Asia. The evolutionary relationships among Adriatic, Russian, Persian and Siberian sturgeons are complex because of past introgression events and remain poorly understood. Conservation management, traceability and enforcement suffer a lack of appropriate DNA markers for the genetic identification of sturgeon at the species, population and individual level. This study employed RAD sequencing to discover and characterize single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) DNA markers for use in sturgeon conservation in these four tetraploid species over three biological levels, using a single sequencing lane. Four population meta-samples and eight individual samples from one family were barcoded separately before sequencing. Analysis of 14.4 Gb of paired-end RAD data focused on the identification of SNPs in the paired-end contig, with subsequent in silico and empirical validation of candidate markers. Thousands of putatively informative markers were identified including, for the first time, SNPs that show population-wide differentiation between Russian and Persian sturgeons, representing an important advance in our ability to manage these cryptic species. The results highlight the challenges of genotyping-by-sequencing in polyploid taxa, while establishing the potential genetic resources for developing a new range of caviar traceability and enforcement tools. PMID:23473098

  10. The Origin And Migration Of Primordial Germ Cells In Sturgeons

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Taiju; Pšenička, Martin; Goto, Rie; Adachi, Shinji; Inoue, Kunio; Arai, Katsutoshi; Yamaha, Etsuro

    2014-01-01

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) arise elsewhere in the embryo and migrate into developing gonadal ridges during embryonic development. In several model animals, formation and migration patterns of PGCs have been studied, and it is known that these patterns vary. Sturgeons (genus Acipenser) have great potential for comparative and evolutionary studies of development. Sturgeons belong to the super class Actinoptergii, and their developmental pattern is similar to that of amphibians, although their phylogenetic position is an out-group to teleost fishes. Here, we reveal an injection technique for sturgeon eggs allowing visualization of germplasm and PGCs. Using this technique, we demonstrate that the PGCs are generated at the vegetal pole of the egg and they migrate on the yolky cell mass toward the gonadal ridge. We also provide evidence showing that PGCs are specified by inheritance of maternally supplied germplasm. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the migratory mechanism is well-conserved between sturgeon and other remotely related teleosts, such as goldfish, by a single PGCs transplantation (SPT) assay. The mode of PGCs specification in sturgeon is similar to that of anurans, but the migration pattern resembles that of teleosts. PMID:24505272

  11. The Pallid Sturgeon: Scientific Investigations Help Understand Recovery Needs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeLonay, Aaron J.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding of the pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) has increased significantly since the species was listed as endangered over two decades ago. Since 2005, scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Columbia Environmental Research Center (CERC) have been engaged in an interdisciplinary research program in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Missouri River Recovery Program, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Nebraska Game and Parks Commission, and numerous other State and Federal cooperators to provide managers and policy makers with the knowledge needed to evaluate recovery options. During that time, the USGS has worked collaboratively with river scientists and managers to develop methods, baseline information, and research approaches that are critical contributions to recovery success. The pallid sturgeon is endangered throughout the Missouri River because of insufficient reproduction and survival of early life stages. Primary management actions on the Missouri River designed to increase reproductive success and survival have focused on flow regime, channel morphology, and propagation. The CERC research strategies have, therefore, been designed to examine the linkages among flow regime, re-engineered channel morphology, and reproductive success and survival. Specific research objectives include the following: (1) understanding reproductive physiology of pallid sturgeon and relations to environmental conditions; (2) determining movement, habitat use, and reproductive behavior of pallid sturgeon; and (3) quantifying availability and dynamics of aquatic habitats needed by pallid sturgeon for all life stages.

  12. Sturgeon conservation genomics: SNP discovery and validation using RAD sequencing.

    PubMed

    Ogden, R; Gharbi, K; Mugue, N; Martinsohn, J; Senn, H; Davey, J W; Pourkazemi, M; McEwing, R; Eland, C; Vidotto, M; Sergeev, A; Congiu, L

    2013-06-01

    Caviar-producing sturgeons belonging to the genus Acipenser are considered to be one of the most endangered species groups in the world. Continued overfishing in spite of increasing legislation, zero catch quotas and extensive aquaculture production have led to the collapse of wild stocks across Europe and Asia. The evolutionary relationships among Adriatic, Russian, Persian and Siberian sturgeons are complex because of past introgression events and remain poorly understood. Conservation management, traceability and enforcement suffer a lack of appropriate DNA markers for the genetic identification of sturgeon at the species, population and individual level. This study employed RAD sequencing to discover and characterize single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) DNA markers for use in sturgeon conservation in these four tetraploid species over three biological levels, using a single sequencing lane. Four population meta-samples and eight individual samples from one family were barcoded separately before sequencing. Analysis of 14.4 Gb of paired-end RAD data focused on the identification of SNPs in the paired-end contig, with subsequent in silico and empirical validation of candidate markers. Thousands of putatively informative markers were identified including, for the first time, SNPs that show population-wide differentiation between Russian and Persian sturgeons, representing an important advance in our ability to manage these cryptic species. The results highlight the challenges of genotyping-by-sequencing in polyploid taxa, while establishing the potential genetic resources for developing a new range of caviar traceability and enforcement tools.

  13. Survival of shovelnose sturgeon after abdominally invasive endoscopic evaluation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trested, D.G.; Goforth, Reuben R.; Kirk, J.P.; Isely, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    The development of effective and minimally invasive techniques to determine gender and gonad developmental stage is particularly important in performing accurate fisheries assessments for use in conservation and restoration. The initial and latent survival of shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus was assessed after exposure to a modified endoscopic technique designed to collect that biological information. Rather than inserting the endoscope through the urogenital canal or directly into the body cavity, we inserted a threaded trocar through a ventral incision and used a low-pressure air supply attached to the trocar to gently insufflate the body cavity. The initial survival of both experimental and control shovelnose sturgeon was 100%. Latent survival was 100% and 90% for the experimental and control fish, respectively. Our study suggests that incision endoscopy coupled with insufflation of the body cavity through the use of a trocar and an air supply is a safe and effective way to determine gender and examine the gonad developmental stage of shovelnose sturgeon. The short duration of the procedure and the high postprocedure survival suggest that this technique is suitable for shovelnose sturgeon and perhaps for the evaluation of other endangered fish species (e.g., pallid sturgeon S. alba) as well.

  14. Vulnerability of age-0 pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus to fish predation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, William E.; Graeb, B.D.S.; Chipps, S.R.; Bertrand, K.N.; Selch, T.M.; Klumb, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    Stocking is a commonly employed conservation strategy for endangered species such as the pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus. However, decisions about when, where and at what size pallid sturgeon should be stocked are hindered because vulnerability of pallid sturgeon to fish predation is not known. The objective of this study was to evaluate the vulnerability of age-0 pallid sturgeon to predation by two Missouri River predators under different flow regimes, and in combination with alternative prey. To document vulnerability, age-0 pallid sturgeon (<100 mm) were offered to channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus and smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu in laboratory experiments. Selection of pallid sturgeon by both predators was measured by offering pallid sturgeon and an alternative prey, fathead minnows Pimephales promelas, in varying prey densities. Smallmouth bass consumed more age-0 pallid sturgeon (0.95 h-1) than did channel catfish (0.13 h-1), and predation rates did not differ between water velocities supporting sustained (0 m s-1) or prolonged swimming speeds (0.15 m s-1). Neither predator positively selected pallid sturgeon when alternative prey was available. Both predator species consumed more fathead minnows than pallid sturgeon across all prey density combinations. Results indicate that the vulnerability of age-0 pallid sturgeon to predation by channel catfish and smallmouth bass is low, especially in the presence of an alternative fish prey. ?? 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Characterization of Gulf sturgeon diel and seasonal activity in the Pensacola Bay system, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrege, Beth Marie

    2009-12-01

    We assess temporal and spatial distribution and diel variability in activity of Gulf of Mexico sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi in the Pensacola Bay system, Florida, using stationary ultrasonic telemetry. Gulf of Mexico sturgeon (n = 54) migrated through the bay system in fall to wintering areas in the Gulf of Mexico and Santa Rosa Sound. In spring, sturgeon migrated back through the bay system to summering habitats in rivers. Gulf of Mexico sturgeon use East Bay and Escambia Bay primarily as migration routes between riverine areas used in spring and summer and the Gulf of Mexico used in winter. North Central Pensacola Bay was not routinely frequented. Gulf of Mexico sturgeon used specific areas within the Pensacola Bay system in summer and winter not previously documented as essential sturgeon habitat. Areas in southeastern Pensacola were used heavily during winter by a portion of the population. Gulf of Mexico sturgeon also exhibited long-term winter residency in Santa Rosa Sound. Interestingly, an area in northeastern Escambia Bay supported Gulf of Mexico sturgeon in summer. This observation was unexpected; however, the identification of Gulf of Mexico sturgeon in this area at this time has important ecological and management implications. Gulf of Mexico sturgeon exhibited a strong diel activity pattern. Gulf of Mexico sturgeon were more active at night than during day in all seasons but summer. The use of prepositioned arrays of acoustic receivers not only provides continuous data within a defined area, but provides insights into nocturnal behavior not previously examined.

  16. Biological assessment for the shortnose sturgeon, Acipenser brevirostrum Lesueur 1818, the Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Muska, C.; Matthews, R.A.

    1983-10-01

    The shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) is listed as an endangered species in the United States. Prior to 1982, the presence of shortnose sturgeon had not been documented in the middle reaches of the Savannah River. However, shortnose sturgeon larvae were collected in 1982-1983 near the Savannah River Plant (SRP), a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility, as part of the SRP aquatic ecology program. This biological assessment was prepared to evaluate the potential impacts of present and proposed SRP operations on the shortnose sturgeon. This assessment is based on existing information on the life history and habitat preferences of the shortnose sturgeon, a description of the Savannah River Plant including plant operations which may potentially impact the shortnose sturgeon and consultations with local experts. From this information, it is concluded that the existing and proposed operations (specifically L-Reactor operation) of the Savannah River Plant will not affect the continued existence of the shortnose sturgeon the Savannah River.

  17. Range Analysis and Terrain Preference of Adult Southern White Rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) in a South African Private Game Reserve: Insights into Carrying Capacity and Future Management.

    PubMed

    Thompson, S; Avent, T; Doughty, L S

    2016-01-01

    The Southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) is a threatened species, central to the tourism appeal of private game reserves in South Africa. Privately owned reserves in South Africa tend to be smaller than government run reserves such as Kruger National Park. Because of their relatively small size and the often heterogeneous nature of the landscape private game reserve managers benefit from detailed knowledge of white rhinoceros terrain selection preferences, which can be assessed from their ranging behaviours. We collected adult and sub-adult white rhinoceros distribution data over a 15 month period, calculating individual range size using kernel density estimation analysis within a GIS. From this, terrain selectivity was calculated using 50% and 95% kernels to extract terrain composition values. Jacob's correction of the Ivlev's selectivity index was subsequently applied to the terrain composition of each individual to identify trends in selectivity. Results reveal that adult males hold exclusive territories considerably smaller than those found in previous work conducted in "open" or large reserves. Similarly, results for the size of male versus female territories were also not in keeping with those from previous field studies, with males, rather than females, having the larger territory requirement. Terrain selection for both genders and age classes (adult and sub-adult) showed a strong preference for open grassland and avoidance of hill slope and riparian terrains. This research reveals white rhinoceros terrain selection preferences and how they influence range requirements in small, closed reserves. We conclude that this knowledge will be valuable in future white rhinoceros conservation management in small private game reserves, particularly in decisions surrounding removal of surplus individuals or augmentation of existing populations, calculation of reserve carrying capacity and future private reserve acquisition. PMID:27622566

  18. Range Analysis and Terrain Preference of Adult Southern White Rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) in a South African Private Game Reserve: Insights into Carrying Capacity and Future Management

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, S.; Doughty, L. S.

    2016-01-01

    The Southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) is a threatened species, central to the tourism appeal of private game reserves in South Africa. Privately owned reserves in South Africa tend to be smaller than government run reserves such as Kruger National Park. Because of their relatively small size and the often heterogeneous nature of the landscape private game reserve managers benefit from detailed knowledge of white rhinoceros terrain selection preferences, which can be assessed from their ranging behaviours. We collected adult and sub-adult white rhinoceros distribution data over a 15 month period, calculating individual range size using kernel density estimation analysis within a GIS. From this, terrain selectivity was calculated using 50% and 95% kernels to extract terrain composition values. Jacob’s correction of the Ivlev’s selectivity index was subsequently applied to the terrain composition of each individual to identify trends in selectivity. Results reveal that adult males hold exclusive territories considerably smaller than those found in previous work conducted in “open” or large reserves. Similarly, results for the size of male versus female territories were also not in keeping with those from previous field studies, with males, rather than females, having the larger territory requirement. Terrain selection for both genders and age classes (adult and sub-adult) showed a strong preference for open grassland and avoidance of hill slope and riparian terrains. This research reveals white rhinoceros terrain selection preferences and how they influence range requirements in small, closed reserves. We conclude that this knowledge will be valuable in future white rhinoceros conservation management in small private game reserves, particularly in decisions surrounding removal of surplus individuals or augmentation of existing populations, calculation of reserve carrying capacity and future private reserve acquisition. PMID:27622566

  19. Range Analysis and Terrain Preference of Adult Southern White Rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) in a South African Private Game Reserve: Insights into Carrying Capacity and Future Management.

    PubMed

    Thompson, S; Avent, T; Doughty, L S

    2016-01-01

    The Southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) is a threatened species, central to the tourism appeal of private game reserves in South Africa. Privately owned reserves in South Africa tend to be smaller than government run reserves such as Kruger National Park. Because of their relatively small size and the often heterogeneous nature of the landscape private game reserve managers benefit from detailed knowledge of white rhinoceros terrain selection preferences, which can be assessed from their ranging behaviours. We collected adult and sub-adult white rhinoceros distribution data over a 15 month period, calculating individual range size using kernel density estimation analysis within a GIS. From this, terrain selectivity was calculated using 50% and 95% kernels to extract terrain composition values. Jacob's correction of the Ivlev's selectivity index was subsequently applied to the terrain composition of each individual to identify trends in selectivity. Results reveal that adult males hold exclusive territories considerably smaller than those found in previous work conducted in "open" or large reserves. Similarly, results for the size of male versus female territories were also not in keeping with those from previous field studies, with males, rather than females, having the larger territory requirement. Terrain selection for both genders and age classes (adult and sub-adult) showed a strong preference for open grassland and avoidance of hill slope and riparian terrains. This research reveals white rhinoceros terrain selection preferences and how they influence range requirements in small, closed reserves. We conclude that this knowledge will be valuable in future white rhinoceros conservation management in small private game reserves, particularly in decisions surrounding removal of surplus individuals or augmentation of existing populations, calculation of reserve carrying capacity and future private reserve acquisition.

  20. Assessing the risk to green sturgeon from application of imidacloprid to control burrowing shrimp in Willapa Bay, Washington--Part II: controlled exposure studies.

    PubMed

    Frew, John A; Grue, Christian E

    2015-11-01

    The activities of 2 species of burrowing shrimp have a negative impact on the growth and survival of oysters reared on intertidal mudflats in Willapa Bay and Grays Harbor, Washington (USA). To maintain viable harvests, oyster growers proposed the application of the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid onto harvested beds for the control of burrowing shrimp. In test applications, water column concentrations of imidacloprid were relatively low and dissipated rapidly. The foraging activities of the green sturgeon (listed in the US Endangered Species Act) could result in exposure to higher, more sustained imidacloprid concentrations within sediment porewater and from the consumption of contaminated shrimp. Controlled experiments were conducted using surrogate white sturgeon to determine acute and chronic effect concentrations, to examine overt effects at more environmentally realistic concentrations and durations of exposure, and to assess chemical depuration. The 96-h median lethal concentration was 124 mg L(-1) , and the predicted 35-d no-observed-adverse-effect concentration was 0.7 mg L(-1) . No overt effects were observed following environmentally relevant exposures. Imidacloprid half-life in plasma was greater than 32 h. Measured concentrations of imidacloprid in porewater were significantly lower than the derived acute and chronic effect concentrations for white sturgeon. Exposure risk quotients were calculated using the effect concentrations and estimated environmental exposure. The resulting values were considerably below the level of concern for direct effects from either acute or chronic exposure to an endangered species. PMID:26351255

  1. Assessing the risk to green sturgeon from application of imidacloprid to control burrowing shrimp in Willapa Bay, Washington--Part II: controlled exposure studies.

    PubMed

    Frew, John A; Grue, Christian E

    2015-11-01

    The activities of 2 species of burrowing shrimp have a negative impact on the growth and survival of oysters reared on intertidal mudflats in Willapa Bay and Grays Harbor, Washington (USA). To maintain viable harvests, oyster growers proposed the application of the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid onto harvested beds for the control of burrowing shrimp. In test applications, water column concentrations of imidacloprid were relatively low and dissipated rapidly. The foraging activities of the green sturgeon (listed in the US Endangered Species Act) could result in exposure to higher, more sustained imidacloprid concentrations within sediment porewater and from the consumption of contaminated shrimp. Controlled experiments were conducted using surrogate white sturgeon to determine acute and chronic effect concentrations, to examine overt effects at more environmentally realistic concentrations and durations of exposure, and to assess chemical depuration. The 96-h median lethal concentration was 124 mg L(-1) , and the predicted 35-d no-observed-adverse-effect concentration was 0.7 mg L(-1) . No overt effects were observed following environmentally relevant exposures. Imidacloprid half-life in plasma was greater than 32 h. Measured concentrations of imidacloprid in porewater were significantly lower than the derived acute and chronic effect concentrations for white sturgeon. Exposure risk quotients were calculated using the effect concentrations and estimated environmental exposure. The resulting values were considerably below the level of concern for direct effects from either acute or chronic exposure to an endangered species.

  2. Outbreak of mortality in Russian (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) and Siberian (Acipenser baerii) sturgeons associated with sturgeon nucleo-cytoplasmatic large DNA virus.

    PubMed

    Ciulli, S; Volpe, E; Sirri, R; Passalacqua, P L; Cesa Bianchi, F; Serratore, P; Mandrioli, L

    2016-08-15

    Diseased outbreaks with high mortality in farmed sturgeon are a limiting factor to the success of this emerging aquaculture sector in Europe. Thorough investigations of outbreaks can determine the aetiological agents, identify important pathological and epidemiological pathways of infections and pave the way for effective control strategies. A thorough investigation of a mortality outbreak in Russian (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) and Siberian (Acipenser baerii) sturgeons in Italy, demonstrated the primary involvement of a sturgeon nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA virus (NCLDV). While, the taxonomy classification of this new virus is still uncertain, its involvement in sturgeon mortality outbreaks in Europe is, for the first time, fully investigated and described. Furthermore, the coinfection of bacteria such as motile Aeromonas spp. and Acinetobacter spp. was reported. Genetic characterisation showed the close relationship between the European sturgeon NCLDV with North American sturgeon NCLDVs. Similarly to the latter, the European sturgeon NCLDV persists in survivors. Furthermore, a systemic distribution of the European sturgeon NCLDV was evident in diseased A. baerii and A. gueldenstaedtii and in recovered A. gueldenstaedtii. These epidemiological and pathological findings will help in the identification of effective control strategies for sturgeon NCLDV infection, which afflicts an important and emerging European aquaculture sector.

  3. White Matter Integrity and Five-Factor Personality Measures in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jiansong; Potenza, Marc N.

    2011-01-01

    The five-factor model organizes personality traits into five factors: Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. Measures of these personality traits predict people’s behaviors and important outcomes of their lives. Therefore, understanding the neural correlates of these personality traits is important. This study assessed the relationships between white matter (WM) integrity and personality traits among 51 healthy participants using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and the revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R). Neuroticism correlated positively while Openness and Agreeableness correlated negatively with DTI mean diffusivity (MD) in the corona radiata and superior longitudinal fasciculus, tracts which interconnect prefrontal cortex (PFC), parietal cortex, and subcortical structures. Furthermore, Neuroticism correlated positively with MD in the anterior cingulum and uncinate fasciculus, tracts interconnecting PFC and amygdala. Openness correlated negatively with MD of WM adjacent to the dorsolateral PFC in both hemispheres. These findings suggest that greater Neuroticism associates with worse integrity of WM interconnecting extensive cortical and subcortical structures including the PFC and amygdala and that greater Openness associates with better integrity of WM interconnecting extensive cortical and subcortical structures including the dorsolateral PFC. PMID:21840401

  4. Effect of dietary macronutrient proportion on intermediate metabolism and oxidative status in sturgeon (Acipenser naccarii) and trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): comparative study.

    PubMed

    Furné, M; García-Gallego, M; Hidalgo, M C; Sanz, A

    2016-08-01

    Three isoenergetic diets varying the proportion of dietary energy supplied by each of the macronutrients (carbohydrate, lipid, or protein) were delivered, to farmed sturgeon (Acipenser naccarii) and trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), to test the possible effects on the intermediate metabolism and oxidative status in liver, white muscle, and heart. In trout, there is an adaptive metabolic response to an increase in lipids and carbohydrates in the diet. However, this does not happen in the sturgeon. These differences may be due to different dietary habits of both species. In terms of oxidative status, only the liver displayed oxidative stress in both species, showing an increase in the lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities after feeding with the high-lipid and high-protein diet.

  5. The Gulf Sturgeon in the Suwannee River - Questions and Answers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sulak, Kenneth J.; Randall, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Sturgeons and paddlefishes are modern descendants of an ancient group of freshwater fishes, the Chondrostei (a group of bony fishes with mostly cartilaginous skeletons). Sturgeons evolved during the Age of the Dinosaurs, and have prospered in the large rivers and lakes of North America, Europe and Asia for 200 million years. Together with alligators and crocodiles, they survived the mass extinction at the end of the Mesozoic Era, when the dinosaurs and many other groups of animals disappeared forever. They originated prior to the creation of the Atlantic Ocean, when the Northern Hemisphere supercontinent Pangea broke into North America and Eurasia. Most sturgeons are highly specialized to feed in the sediment on small invertebrate prey, a radical evolutionary departure from most of their fish-eating ancestors.

  6. The complete mitochondrial genome of Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis).

    PubMed

    Liao, Xiaolin; Tian, Hua; Zhu, Bin; Chang, Jianbo

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) was determined by direct sequencing of PCR products. The Chinese sturgeon mitochondrial DNA is a circular molecule (16,688 bp in length) with the typical gene arrangement of vertebrate mtDNA, containing 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA and 22 transfer RNA genes, and a non-coding control region. Its control region contains 4.5 copies of unit with 82 bp long at 5' end, which has been reported before for this species. Phylogenetic tree based on 13 protein-coding genes confirmed that the complete mtDNA sequence of Chinese sturgeon was reported here for the first time.

  7. White matter structures associated with empathizing and systemizing in young adults.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Thyreau, Benjamin; Sassa, Yuko; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Nagase, Tomomi; Nouchi, Rui; Fukushima, Ai; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2013-08-15

    Empathizing is defined as the drive to identify the mental states of others in order to predict their behavior and respond with an appropriate emotion. Systemizing is defined as the drive to analyze a system in terms of the rules that govern it to predict its behavior. We undertook voxel-by-voxel investigations of regional white matter volume (rWMV) and fractional anisotropy (FA) of diffusion tensor imaging to discover the WM structural correlates of empathizing, systemizing, and their difference (D score: systemizing-empathizing). Whole brain analyses of covariance revealed that across both sexes, the D score was negatively correlated with rWMV in the WM area in the bilateral temporal lobe, near the right inferior frontal gyrus, near the ventral medial prefrontal cortex, and near the posterior cingulate cortex and positively correlated with FA in an area involving the superior longitudinal fasciculus. Post-hoc analyses revealed that these associations were generally formed by both the correlation between WM structures and empathizing as well as the opposite correlation between WM structures and systemizing. A significant effect of interaction between sex and the D score on rWMV, which was mainly observed because of a positive correlation between rWMV and empathizing in females and a negative correlation between rWMV and systemizing in females, was found in an area close to the right inferior parietal lobule and temporoparietal junction. Our results suggest that WM structures involving the default mode network and the mirror neuron system support empathizing, and that a WM structure relating to the external attention system supports systemizing. Further, our results revealed an overlap between positive/negative WM structural correlates of empathizing and negative/positive WM structural correlates of systemizing despite little correlation between empathizing and systemizing, which supports the previously held idea that there is a trade-off between empathizing and

  8. White matter structures associated with empathizing and systemizing in young adults.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Thyreau, Benjamin; Sassa, Yuko; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Nagase, Tomomi; Nouchi, Rui; Fukushima, Ai; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2013-08-15

    Empathizing is defined as the drive to identify the mental states of others in order to predict their behavior and respond with an appropriate emotion. Systemizing is defined as the drive to analyze a system in terms of the rules that govern it to predict its behavior. We undertook voxel-by-voxel investigations of regional white matter volume (rWMV) and fractional anisotropy (FA) of diffusion tensor imaging to discover the WM structural correlates of empathizing, systemizing, and their difference (D score: systemizing-empathizing). Whole brain analyses of covariance revealed that across both sexes, the D score was negatively correlated with rWMV in the WM area in the bilateral temporal lobe, near the right inferior frontal gyrus, near the ventral medial prefrontal cortex, and near the posterior cingulate cortex and positively correlated with FA in an area involving the superior longitudinal fasciculus. Post-hoc analyses revealed that these associations were generally formed by both the correlation between WM structures and empathizing as well as the opposite correlation between WM structures and systemizing. A significant effect of interaction between sex and the D score on rWMV, which was mainly observed because of a positive correlation between rWMV and empathizing in females and a negative correlation between rWMV and systemizing in females, was found in an area close to the right inferior parietal lobule and temporoparietal junction. Our results suggest that WM structures involving the default mode network and the mirror neuron system support empathizing, and that a WM structure relating to the external attention system supports systemizing. Further, our results revealed an overlap between positive/negative WM structural correlates of empathizing and negative/positive WM structural correlates of systemizing despite little correlation between empathizing and systemizing, which supports the previously held idea that there is a trade-off between empathizing and

  9. The Missouri River Scaphirhynchus albus (pallid sturgeon) effects analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobson, Robert B.

    2016-08-05

    The Missouri River Pallid Sturgeon Effects Analysis (EA) was designed to assess how Missouri River management has affected—and may affect—the endangered Scaphirhynchus albus (pallid sturgeon) population. The EA emerged from the recognition that the direction and focus of the Missouri River Recovery Program would benefit from an updated, thorough evaluation of what is known, what is not known, and what needs to be known for effective actions. This fact sheet documents the steps in the EA process and the four core reports, culminating in the 2016 integrative report.

  10. The complete mitochondrial genome of Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedti).

    PubMed

    Dong, Chuanju; Chen, Baohua; Xu, Jian; Mahboob, Shahid; Al-Ghanim, K; Xu, Peng; Sun, Xiaowen

    2016-01-01

    Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedti) belongs to the Acipenseriformes Acipenseridae. In this study, we sequenced and characterized the complete mitochondrial genome of A. gueldenstaedti from National Sturgeon Hatchery, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences. The circular mitochondrial genome was determined to be 16,595 bp in length including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs), 2 ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and 1 control region. The complete mitochondrial genome of A. gueldenstaedti provides basic genome data for relative studies on Acipenseriformes.

  11. Sedentary and physically active behavior patterns among low-income African-American and white adults living in the southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Sarah S; Matthews, Charles E; Signorello, Lisa B; Schlundt, David G; Blot, William J; Buchowski, Maciej S

    2013-01-01

    Increased sedentary behavior and lack of physical activity are associated with increased risk for many chronic diseases. Differences in leisure-time physical activity between African American and white adults have been suggested to partially explain racial disparities in chronic disease outcomes, but expanding the definition of physical activity to include household and occupational activities may reduce or even eliminate racial differences in total physical activity. The objective of this study was to describe patterns of active and sedentary behaviors in black and white adults and to examine these behaviors across demographic measures. Sedentary and physically active behaviors were obtained from a validated physical activity questionnaire in 23,021 black men, 9,899 white men, 32,214 black women, and 15,425 white women (age 40-79) at enrollment into the Southern Community Cohort Study. Descriptive statistics for sedentary time; light, moderate, and vigorous household/occupational activity; sports/exercise; total activity; and meeting current physical activity recommendations via sports/exercise were examined for each race-sex group. Adjusted means were calculated using multiple linear regression models across demographic measures. Study participants spent approximately 60% of waking time in sedentary behaviors. Blacks reported more television viewing time than whites (45 minutes for females, 15 minutes for males), but when sitting time was expressed as a proportion of overall awake time, minimal racial differences were found. Patterns of light, moderate, and vigorous household/occupational activity were similar in all race/sex groups. 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans were followed by 16% of women and 25% of men independent of race. Overall, black and white men and women in this study spent the majority of their daily time in sedentary behaviors and less than one-fourth followed current guidelines for physical activity. These results indicate that

  12. Sedentary and physically active behavior patterns among low-income African-American and white adults living in the southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Sarah S; Matthews, Charles E; Signorello, Lisa B; Schlundt, David G; Blot, William J; Buchowski, Maciej S

    2013-01-01

    Increased sedentary behavior and lack of physical activity are associated with increased risk for many chronic diseases. Differences in leisure-time physical activity between African American and white adults have been suggested to partially explain racial disparities in chronic disease outcomes, but expanding the definition of physical activity to include household and occupational activities may reduce or even eliminate racial differences in total physical activity. The objective of this study was to describe patterns of active and sedentary behaviors in black and white adults and to examine these behaviors across demographic measures. Sedentary and physically active behaviors were obtained from a validated physical activity questionnaire in 23,021 black men, 9,899 white men, 32,214 black women, and 15,425 white women (age 40-79) at enrollment into the Southern Community Cohort Study. Descriptive statistics for sedentary time; light, moderate, and vigorous household/occupational activity; sports/exercise; total activity; and meeting current physical activity recommendations via sports/exercise were examined for each race-sex group. Adjusted means were calculated using multiple linear regression models across demographic measures. Study participants spent approximately 60% of waking time in sedentary behaviors. Blacks reported more television viewing time than whites (45 minutes for females, 15 minutes for males), but when sitting time was expressed as a proportion of overall awake time, minimal racial differences were found. Patterns of light, moderate, and vigorous household/occupational activity were similar in all race/sex groups. 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans were followed by 16% of women and 25% of men independent of race. Overall, black and white men and women in this study spent the majority of their daily time in sedentary behaviors and less than one-fourth followed current guidelines for physical activity. These results indicate that

  13. Association between Subcutaneous White Adipose Tissue and Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D in Overweight and Obese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Piccolo, Brian D.; Dolnikowski, Gregory; Seyoum, Elias; Thomas, Anthony P.; Gertz, Erik R.; Souza, Elaine C.; Woodhouse, Leslie R.; Newman, John W.; Keim, Nancy L.; Adams, Sean H.; Van Loan, Marta D.

    2013-01-01

    Cholecalciferol is known to be deposited in human adipose tissue, but it is not known whether 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) is found in detectable concentrations. Therefore, our objective was to determine whether 25(OH)D is detectable in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (SWAT) in overweight and obese persons enrolled in a twelve week energy restricted diet. Baseline and post-intervention gluteal SWAT biopsies were collected from 20 subjects participating in a larger clinical weight loss intervention. LC-MS/MS was utilized to determine SWAT 25(OH)D concentrations. Serum 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D were measured by RIA. Body composition was assessed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. SWAT 25(OH)D concentrations were 5.8 ± 2.6 nmol/kg tissue and 6.2 ± 2.7 nmol/kg tissue pre- and post-intervention SWAT, respectively. There was a significant positive association between SWAT 25(OH)D concentration and serum 25(OH)D concentration (r = 0.52, P < 0.01). Both SWAT and serum 25(OH)D concentrations did not significantly change after a twelve-week period of energy restriction with approximately 5 kg of fat loss. In conclusion, we have demonstrated our LC-MS/MS method can detect 25(OH)D3 in human subcutaneous fat tissue from overweight and obese individuals and is consistent with previously reported concentrations in swine. Additionally, our findings of no significant changes in SWAT 25(OH)D3 or serum 25(OH)D after a 6% loss of total body weight and 13% reduction in total fat provides the first human evidence that adipose 25(OH)D does not likely contribute to serum 25(OH)D with moderate weight loss; whether this is also the case with larger amounts of weight loss is unknown. Weight loss alone is not sufficient to increase serum 25(OH)D and increases in dietary or dermal biosynthesis of vitamin D appear to be the most critical contributors to in vitamin D status. PMID:24067385

  14. Alternative method of removing otoliths from sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Dittman, Dawn E.

    2016-01-01

    Extracting the otoliths (ear bones) from fish that have very thick skulls can be difficult and very time consuming. The common practice of making a transverse vertical incision on the top of the skull with a hand or electrical saw may damage the otolith if not performed correctly. Sturgeons (Acipenseridae) are one family in particular that have a very large and thick skull. A new laboratory method entering the brain cavity from the ventral side of the fish to expose the otoliths was easier than other otolith extraction methods found in the literature. Methods reviewed in the literature are designed for the field and are more efficient at processing large quantities of fish quickly. However, this new technique was designed to be more suited for a laboratory setting when time is not pressing and successful extraction from each specimen is critical. The success of finding and removing otoliths using this technique is very high and does not compromise the structure in any manner. This alternative technique is applicable to other similar fish species for extracting the otoliths.

  15. Mind the Gap: The Black-White Literacy Gap in the National Assessment of Adult Literacy and Its Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Dale J.; White, Sheida; Cohen, Steffaney B.

    2012-01-01

    Historically, Whites have scored higher than Blacks on most measures of literacy (referred to as the "Black-White" literacy gap). The authors outline the historic social inequities that contributed to the Black-White literacy gap as well as the current school and home environment that may maintain it. They then examine the current state of the…

  16. Differential aging of cerebral white matter in middle-aged and older adults: A seven-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Bender, Andrew R; Völkle, Manuel C; Raz, Naftali

    2016-01-15

    The few extant reports of longitudinal white matter (WM) changes in healthy aging, using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), reveal substantial differences in change across brain regions and DTI indices. According to the "last-in-first-out" hypothesis of brain aging late-developing WM tracts may be particularly vulnerable to advanced age. To test this hypothesis we compared age-related changes in association, commissural and projection WM fiber regions using a skeletonized, region of interest DTI approach. Using linear mixed effect models, we evaluated the influences of age and vascular risk at baseline on seven-year changes in three indices of WM integrity and organization (axial diffusivity, AD, radial diffusivity, RD, and fractional anisotropy, FA) in healthy middle-aged and older adults (mean age=65.4, SD=9.0years). Association fibers showed the most pronounced declines over time. Advanced age was associated with greater longitudinal changes in RD and FA, independent of fiber type. Furthermore, older age was associated with longitudinal RD increases in late-developing, but not early-developing projection fibers. These findings demonstrate the increased vulnerability of later developing WM regions and support the "last-in-first-out" hypothesis of brain aging.

  17. Zinc absorption in adult men from a chicken sandwich made with white or wholemeal bread, measured by a double-label stable-isotope technique.

    PubMed

    Fairweather-Tait, S J; Fox, T E; Wharf, S G; Eagles, J; Kennedy, H

    1992-05-01

    Eleven fasted adult men consumed a chicken meat sandwich made with white or wholemeal bread, extrinsically labelled with 2 mg 67Zn, on two different occasions. Immediately after eating the sandwich they were given an intravenous injection of 1.5 mg 70Zn. True Zn absorption (which was approximately 7% higher than apparent absorption) was determined by the faecal balance technique by making an allowance for endogenous excretion from measurements of faecal excretion of 70Zn. There was no significant difference in mean true Zn absorption from the white or wholemeal bread sandwich, 33.6 and 25.4% respectively. It was concluded that the substitution of wholemeal for white bread does not reduce Zn absorption from meat-based sandwiches.

  18. Tracing the first steps of American sturgeon pioneers in Europe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludwig, A.; Arndt, U.; Lippold, S.; Benecke, N.; Debus, L.; King, T.L.; Matsumura, S.

    2008-01-01

    Background. A Baltic population of Atlantic sturgeon was founded ???1,200 years ago by migrants from North America, but after centuries of persistence, the population was extirpated in the 1960s, mainly as a result of over-harvest and habitat alterations. As there are four genetically distinct groups of Atlantic sturgeon inhabiting North American rivers today, we investigated the genetic provenance of the historic Baltic population by ancient DNA analyses using mitochondrial and nuclear markers. Results. The phylogeographic signal obtained from multilocus microsatellite DNA genotypes and mitochondrial DNA control region haplotypes, when compared to existing baseline datasets from extant populations, allowed for the identification of the region-of-origin of the North American Atlantic sturgeon founders. Moreover, statistical and simulation analyses of the multilocus genotypes allowed for the calculation of the effective number of individuals that originally founded the European population of Atlantic sturgeon. Our findings suggest that the Baltic population of A. oxyrinchus descended from a relatively small number of founders originating from the northern extent of the species' range in North America. Conclusion. These results demonstrate that the most northerly distributed North American A. oxyrinchus colonized the Baltic Sea ???1,200 years ago, suggesting that Canadian specimens should be the primary source of broodstock used for restoration in Baltic rivers. This study illustrates the great potential of patterns obtained from ancient DNA to identify population-of-origin to investigate historic genotype structure of extinct populations. ?? 2008 Ludwig et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  19. Short-term storage of Atlantic sturgeon spermatozoa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is significant interest to restore the Atlantic sturgeon, a species of concern. Biologists are interested in both the short-term storage and cryopreservation of semen to maximize availability of viable spermatozoa whenever a rare ripe female is found and available for spawning. We conducted sh...

  20. Captive breeding programs based on family groups in polyploid sturgeons.

    PubMed

    Boscari, Elisa; Pujolar, Jose Martin; Dupanloup, Isabelle; Corradin, Riccardo; Congiu, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    In species with long life cycles and discontinuous availability of individuals to reproduction, implementing a long-term captive breeding program can be difficult or impossible. In such cases, managing diversity among familiar groups instead of individuals could become a suitable approach to avoid inbreeding and increase the possibility to accomplish a breeding scheme. This is the case of several sturgeon species including the Adriatic sturgeon, whose recovery depends on the management of a few captive stocks directly descended from the same group of wild parents. In the present study, relatedness among 445 potential breeders was inferred with a novel software for pedigree reconstruction in tetraploids ("BreedingSturgeons"). This information was used to plan a breeding scheme considering familiar groups as breeding units and identifying mating priorities. A two-step strategy is proposed: a short-term breeding program, relying on the 13 remaining F0 individuals of certain wild origin; and a long-term plan based on F1 families. Simulations to evaluate the loss of alleles in the F2 generation under different pairing strategies and assess the number of individuals to breed, costs and logistical aquaculture constraints were performed. The strategy proposed is transferable to the several other tetraploid sturgeon species on the brink of extinction.

  1. Population status of North American green sturgeon, Acipenser medirostris

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, P.B.; Grimes, C.; Hightower, J.E.; Lindley, S.T.; Moser, M.L.; Parsley, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    North American green sturgeon, Acipenser medirostris, was petitioned for listing under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The two questions that need to be answered when considering an ESA listing are; (1) Is the entity a species under the ESA and if so (2) is the "species" in danger of extinction or likely to become an endangered species in the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its range? Green sturgeon genetic analyses showed strong differentiation between northern and southern populations, and therefore, the species was divided into Northern and Southern Distinct Population Segments (DPSs). The Northern DPS includes populations in the Rogue, Klamath-Trinity, and Eel rivers, while the Southern DPS only includes a single population in the Sacramento River. The principal risk factors for green sturgeon include loss of spawning habitat, harvest, and entrainment. The Northern DPS is not considered to be in danger of extinction or likely to become an endangered species in the foreseeable future. The loss of spawning habitat is not large enough to threaten this DPS, although the Eel River has been severely impacted by sedimentation due to poor land use practices and floods. The two main spawning populations in the Rogue and Klamath-Trinity rivers occupy separate basins reducing the potential for loss of the DPS through catastrophic events. Harvest has been substantially reduced and green sturgeon in this DPS do not face substantial entrainment loss. However there are significant concerns due to lack of information, flow and temperature issues, and habitat degradation. The Southern DPS is considered likely to become an endangered species in the foreseeable future. Green sturgeon in this DPS are concentrated into one spawning area outside of their natural habitat in the Sacramento River, making them vulnerable to catastrophic extinction. Green sturgeon spawning areas have been lost from the area above Shasta Dam on the Sacramento River and

  2. Distribution and movement of shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) in the Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welsh, S.A.; Mangold, M.F.; Skjeveland, J.E.; Spells, A.J.

    2002-01-01

    During a reward program for Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus), 40 federally endangered shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) were captured and reported by commercial fishers between January 1996 and January 2000 from the Chesapeake Bay. Since this is more than double the number of published records of shortnose sturgeon in the Chesapeake Bay between 1876 and 1995, little information has been available on distributions and movement. We used fishery dependent data collected during the reward program to determine the distribution of shortnose sturgeon in the Chesapeake Bay. Sonically-tagged shortnose sturgeon in the Chesapeake Bay and Delaware River were tracked to determine if individuals swim through the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal. Shortnose sturgeon were primarily distributed within the upper Chesapeake Bay. The movements of one individual, tagged within the Chesapeake Bay and later relocated in the canal and Delaware River, indicated that individuals traverse the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal.

  3. Physical and hormonal examination of Missouri River shovelnose sturgeon reproductive stage: A reference guide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wildhaber, M.L.; Papoulias, D.M.; DeLonay, A.J.; Tillitt, D.E.; Bryan, J.L.; Annis, M.L.

    2007-01-01

    From May 2001 to June 2002 Wildhaber et al. (2005) conducted monthly sampling of Lower Missouri River shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) to develop methods for determination of sex and the reproductive stage of sturgeons in the field. Shovelnose sturgeon were collected from the Missouri River and ultrasonic and endoscopic imagery and blood and gonadal tissue samples were taken. The full set of data was used to develop monthly reproductive stage profiles for S. platorynchus that could be compared to data collected on pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus). This paper presents a comprehensive reference set of images, sex steroids, and vitellogenin (VTG, an egg protein precursor) data for assessing shovelnose sturgeon sex and reproductive stage. This reference set includes ultrasonic, endoscopic, histologic, and internal images of male and female gonads of shovelnose sturgeon at each reproductive stage along with complementary data on average 17-?? estradiol, 11-ketotestosterone, VTG, gonadosomatic index, and polarization index. ?? 2007 Blackwell Verlag.

  4. Induction of meiotic gynogenesis in ship sturgeon Acipenser nudiventris using UV-irradiated heterologous sperm.

    PubMed

    Hassanzadeh Saber, Mohammad; Noveiri, Shahrouz Baradaran; Pourkazemi, Mohammad; Yazdani, Mohammadali; Ghoroghi, Ahmad; Bahmani, Mahmoud; Pourdehghani, Mohammad; Chakmehdouz, Fereidoon; Yarmohammadi, Mahtab; Nowruzfashkhami, Mohammadreza

    2014-05-01

    Diploid gynogenesis was induced in ship sturgeon Acipenser nudiventris using UV-irradiated sperm from Siberian sturgeon Acipenser baerii. The optimal condition for the retention of the second polar body in ship sturgeon was determined to be 10 min after activation/fertilization in experiments. The temperature of cold shock and its duration were 2.5 °C and 30 min, respectively. A total of 30 gynogens of known parentage from experimental treatments were screened using microsatellite DNA analysis, and uniparental transmission in meiogens was confirmed. The results show that heterologous Siberian sturgeon sperm is applicable as UV-irradiated sperm for the induction of gynogenesis in ship sturgeon. This technique may recover the critically endangered sturgeon species that are becoming extinct.

  5. Estimation of gonad volume, fecundity, and reproductive stage of shovelnose sturgeon using sonography and endoscopy with application to the endangered pallid sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bryan, J.L.; Wildhaber, M.L.; Papoulias, D.M.; DeLonay, A.J.; Tillitt, D.E.; Annis, M.L.

    2007-01-01

    Most species of sturgeon are declining in the Mississippi River Basin of North America including pallid (Scaphirhynchus albus F. and R.) and shovelnose sturgeons (S. platorynchus R.). Understanding the reproductive cycle of sturgeon in the Mississippi River Basin is important in evaluating the status and viability of sturgeon populations. We used non-invasive, non-lethal methods for examining internal reproductive organs of shovelnose and pallid sturgeon. We used an ultrasound to measure egg diameter, fecundity, and gonad volume; endoscope was used to visually examine the gonad. We found the ultrasound to accurately measure the gonad volume, but it underestimated egg diameter by 52%. After correcting for the measurement error, the ultrasound accurately measured the gonad volume but it was higher than the true gonad volume for stages I and II. The ultrasound underestimated the fecundity of shovelnose sturgeon by 5%. The ultrasound fecundity was lower than the true fecundity for stage III and during August. Using the endoscope, we viewed seven different egg color categories. Using a model selection procedure, the presence of four egg categories correctly predicted the reproductive stage ± one reproductive stage of shovelnose sturgeon 95% of the time. For pallid sturgeon, the ultrasound overestimated the density of eggs by 49% and the endoscope was able to view eggs in 50% of the pallid sturgeon. Individually, the ultrasound and endoscope can be used to assess certain reproductive characteristics in sturgeon. The use of both methods at the same time can be complementary depending on the parameter measured. These methods can be used to track gonad characteristics, including measuring Gonadosomatic Index in individuals and/or populations through time, which can be very useful when associating gonad characteristics with environmental spawning triggers or with repeated examinations of individual fish throughout the reproductive cycle.

  6. Estimation of gonad volume, fecundity, and reproductive stage of shovelnose sturgeon using sonography and endoscopy with application to the endangered pallid sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bryan, J.L.; Wildhaber, M.L.; Papoulias, D.M.; DeLonay, A.J.; Tillitt, D.E.; Annis, M.L.

    2007-01-01

    Most species of sturgeon are declining in the Mississippi River Basin of North America including pallid (Scaphirhynchus albus F. and R.) and shovelnose sturgeons (S. platorynchus R.). Understanding the reproductive cycle of sturgeon in the Mississippi River Basin is important in evaluating the status and viability of sturgeon populations. We used non-invasive, non-lethal methods for examining internal reproductive organs of shovelnose and pallid sturgeon. We used an ultrasound to measure egg diameter, fecundity, and gonad volume; endoscope was used to visually examine the gonad. We found the ultrasound to accurately measure the gonad volume, but it underestimated egg diameter by 52%. After correcting for the measurement error, the ultrasound accurately measured the gonad volume but it was higher than the true gonad volume for stages I and II. The ultrasound underestimated the fecundity of shovelnose sturgeon by 5%. The ultrasound fecundity was lower than the true fecundity for stage III and during August. Using the endoscope, we viewed seven different egg color categories. Using a model selection procedure, the presence of four egg categories correctly predicted the reproductive stage ?? one reproductive stage of shovelnose sturgeon 95% of the time. For pallid sturgeon, the ultrasound overestimated the density of eggs by 49% and the endoscope was able to view eggs in 50% of the pallid sturgeon. Individually, the ultrasound and endoscope can be used to assess certain reproductive characteristics in sturgeon. The use of both methods at the same time can be complementary depending on the parameter measured. These methods can be used to track gonad characteristics, including measuring Gonadosomatic Index in individuals and/or populations through time, which can be very useful when associating gonad characteristics with environmental spawning triggers or with repeated examinations of individual fish throughout the reproductive cycle. ?? 2007 Blackwell Verlag.

  7. Objectively measured physical activity, brain atrophy, and white matter lesions in older adults with mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Doi, Takehiko; Makizako, Hyuma; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Hotta, Ryo; Nakakubo, Sho; Park, Hyuntae; Suzuki, Takao

    2015-02-01

    Physical activity may help to prevent or delay brain atrophy. Numerous studies have shown associations between physical activity and age-related changes in the brain. However, most of these studies involved self-reported physical activity, not objectively measured physical activity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the association between objectively measured physical activity, as determined using accelerometers, and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We analyzed 323 older subjects with MCI (mean age 71.4 years) who were recruited from the participants of the Obu Study of Health Promotion for the Elderly. We recorded demographic data and measured physical activity using a tri-axial accelerometer. Physical activity was classified as light-intensity physical activity (LPA) or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Brain atrophy and the severity of white matter lesions (WML) were determined by MRI. Low levels of LPA and MVPA were associated with severe WML. Subjects with severe WML were older, had lower mobility, and had greater brain atrophy than subjects with mild WML (all P<0.05). Multivariate analysis revealed that more MVPA was associated with less brain atrophy, even after adjustment for WML (β=-0.126, P=0.015), but LPA was not (β=-0.102, P=0.136). Our study revealed that objectively measured physical activity, especially MVPA, was associated with brain atrophy in MCI subjects, even after adjusting for WML. These findings support the hypothesis that physical activity plays a crucial role in maintaining brain health.

  8. Effects of commercial harvest on shovelnose sturgeon populations in the Upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koch, Jeff D.; Quist, Michael C.; Pierce, Clay L.; Hansen, Kirk A.; Steuck, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus have become an increasingly important commercial species in the upper Mississippi River (UMR) because of the collapse of foreign sturgeon (family Acipenseridae) populations and bans on imported caviar. In response to concerns about the sustainability of the commercial shovelnose sturgeon fishery in the UMR, we undertook this study to describe the demographics of the shovelnose sturgeon population and evaluate the influence of commercial harvest on shovelnose sturgeon populations in the UMR. A total of 1,682 shovelnose sturgeon were collected from eight study pools in 2006 and 2007 (Pools 4, 7, 9, 11, 13, 14, 16, and 18). Shovelnose sturgeon from upstream pools generally had greater lengths, weights, and ages than those from downstream pools. Additionally, mortality estimates were lower in upstream pools (Pools 4, 7, 9, and 11) than in downstream pools (Pools 13, 14, 16, and 18). Linear regression suggested that the slower growth of shovelnose sturgeon is a consequence of commercial harvest in the UMR. Modeling of potential management scenarios suggested that a 685-mm minimum length limit is necessary to prevent growth and recruitment overfishing of shovelnose sturgeon in the UMR.

  9. First documented occurrences of the shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) in the Saco River, Maine, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Little, C.E.; Kieffer, M.; Wippelhauser, G.; Zydlewski, G.; Kinnison, M.; Whitefleet-Smith, L. A.; Sulikowski, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    During sampling efforts to study the more abundant Atlantic sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, between May of 2009 and November of 2011, four shortnose sturgeon were captured in gill nets near the mouth of the Saco River, Maine. Two of these individuals were tagged with acoustic transmitters to monitor their movement within the Saco River. Additionally, six shortnose sturgeon that had been tagged with acoustic transmitters in the Merrimack River, Massachusetts were detected on the acoustic array deployed within the Saco River and its estuary over this time period. These incidences represent the first verified documentation of shortnose sturgeon within this estuary.

  10. 77 FR 21539 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Sturgeon Research in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ... dolphins in 2011 as a result of entanglement and subsequent asphyxiation in gill nets deployed for sturgeon.... Although entanglement of marine mammals in gill nets deployed for sturgeon research is extremely rare,...

  11. Toxicity assessment of silver nanoparticles in Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) and starry sturgeon (Acipenser stellatus) during early life stages.

    PubMed

    Banan, Ashkan; Kalbassi Masjed Shahi, Mohammad Reza; Bahmani, Mahmoud; Yazdani Sadati, Mohammad Ali

    2016-05-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely used in consumer products mainly due to their antimicrobial action. The rapidly increasing use of nanoparticles (NPs) has driven more attention to their possible ecotoxicological effects. In this study, the acute toxicity of colloidal AgNPs was evaluated during the embryonic stage of Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) and starry sturgeon (Acipenser stellatus) at concentrations of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 mg/L. Fertilized eggs (75 eggs per replicate) were exposed to aforementioned concentrations for 96 h in triplicate. 96-h LC50 values in Persian sturgeon and starry sturgeon were calculated as 0.163 and 0.158 mg/L, respectively. Furthermore, in starry sturgeon, the short-term effects of AgNPs on the hatching rate, survival rate, and Ag accumulation during early life stages (before active feeding commences) were also analyzed at concentrations of 0, 0.025, 0.05, and 0.1 mg/L of colloidal AgNPs. The highest silver accumulation occurred in larvae exposed to 0.1 mg/L AgNPs; however, the body burden of silver did not alter survival rate, and there were no significant differences among treatments. Based on the obtained results from the acute toxicity exposures, AgNPs induced a concentration-dependent toxicity in both species during early life stages, while complementary studies are suggested for investigating their short-term effects in detail.

  12. Long-Term Trends in Adult Mortality for U.S. Blacks and Whites: An Examination of Period- and Cohort-Based Changes

    PubMed Central

    Masters, Ryan K.; Hummer, Robert A.; Powers, Daniel A.; Beck, Audrey; Lin, Shih-Fan; Finch, Brian Karl

    2015-01-01

    Black-white differences in U.S. adult mortality have narrowed over the past five decades, but whether this narrowing unfolded on a period or cohort basis is unclear. The distinction has important implications for understanding the socioeconomic, public health, lifestyle, and medical mechanisms responsible for this narrowing. We use data from 1959 to 2009 and age-period-cohort (APC) models to examine period- and cohort-based changes in adult mortality for U.S. blacks and whites. We do so for all-cause mortality among persons aged 15– 74 as well as for several underlying causes of death more pertinent for specific age groups. We find clear patterns of cohort-based reductions in mortality for both black men and women and white men and women. Recent cohort-based reductions in heart disease, stroke, lung cancer, female breast cancer, and other cancer mortality have been substantial and, save for breast cancer, have been especially pronounced for blacks. Period-based changes have also occurred and are especially pronounced for some causes of death. Period-based reductions in blacks’ and whites’ heart disease and stroke mortality are particularly impressive, as are recent period-based reductions in young men's and women's mortality from infectious diseases and homicide. These recent period changes are more pronounced among blacks. The substantial cohort-based trends in chronic disease mortality and recent period-based reductions for some causes of death suggest a continuing slow closure of the black-white mortality gap. However, we also uncover troubling signs of recent cohort-based increases in heart disease mortality for both blacks and whites. PMID:25403151

  13. Should Physical Activity Recommendations for South Asian Adults Be Ethnicity-Specific? Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Study of South Asian and White European Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Iliodromiti, Stamatina; Ghouri, Nazim; Celis-Morales, Carlos A.; Sattar, Naveed; Lumsden, Mary Ann; Gill, Jason M. R.

    2016-01-01

    International public health guidelines recommend that adults undertake at least 150 min.week−1 of moderate-intensity physical activity. However, the underpinning evidence has largely been obtained from studies of populations of white European descent. It is unclear whether these recommendations are appropriate for other ethnic groups, particularly South Asians, who have greater cardio-metabolic risk than white Europeans. The objective of our study was to determine the level of moderate-intensity physical activity required in South Asians adults to confer a similar cardio-metabolic risk profile to that observed in Europeans of similar age and body mass index (BMI) undertaking the currently recommended levels of 150 min.week−1. 148 South Asians and 163 white Europeans aged 18 to 70 years were recruited. Physical activity was measured objectively via vertical axis accelerations from hip-worn accelerometers. Factor analysis was used to summarize the measured risk biomarkers into a single underlying latent “factor” describing overall cardio-metabolic risk. Sex did not modify the association between physical activity and the cardio-metabolic risk factor, so data for both sexes were combined and models adjusted for age, sex, BMI and accelerometer wear time. We estimated that South Asian adults needed to undertake 232 (95% Confidence interval: 200 to 268) min.week−1 in order to obtain the same cardio-metabolic risk factor score as a white European undertaking 150 minutes of moderate-equivalent physical activity per week. The present findings suggest that South Asian men and women need to undertake ~230 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity per week. This equates to South Asians undertaking an extra 10–15 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity per day on top of existing recommendations. PMID:27529339

  14. Should Physical Activity Recommendations for South Asian Adults Be Ethnicity-Specific? Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Study of South Asian and White European Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Iliodromiti, Stamatina; Ghouri, Nazim; Celis-Morales, Carlos A; Sattar, Naveed; Lumsden, Mary Ann; Gill, Jason M R

    2016-01-01

    International public health guidelines recommend that adults undertake at least 150 min.week-1 of moderate-intensity physical activity. However, the underpinning evidence has largely been obtained from studies of populations of white European descent. It is unclear whether these recommendations are appropriate for other ethnic groups, particularly South Asians, who have greater cardio-metabolic risk than white Europeans. The objective of our study was to determine the level of moderate-intensity physical activity required in South Asians adults to confer a similar cardio-metabolic risk profile to that observed in Europeans of similar age and body mass index (BMI) undertaking the currently recommended levels of 150 min.week-1. 148 South Asians and 163 white Europeans aged 18 to 70 years were recruited. Physical activity was measured objectively via vertical axis accelerations from hip-worn accelerometers. Factor analysis was used to summarize the measured risk biomarkers into a single underlying latent "factor" describing overall cardio-metabolic risk. Sex did not modify the association between physical activity and the cardio-metabolic risk factor, so data for both sexes were combined and models adjusted for age, sex, BMI and accelerometer wear time. We estimated that South Asian adults needed to undertake 232 (95% Confidence interval: 200 to 268) min.week-1 in order to obtain the same cardio-metabolic risk factor score as a white European undertaking 150 minutes of moderate-equivalent physical activity per week. The present findings suggest that South Asian men and women need to undertake ~230 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity per week. This equates to South Asians undertaking an extra 10-15 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity per day on top of existing recommendations. PMID:27529339

  15. Plasma cholinesterase activity as a biomarker for quantifying exposure of green sturgeon to carbaryl following applications to control burrowing shrimp in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Troiano, Alexandra T; Grue, Christian E

    2016-08-01

    Willapa Bay (Washington State, USA) has been 1 of the rare intertidal locations where large-scale pesticide applications occur. Until recently, carbaryl was applied to control burrowing shrimp that decrease commercial oyster productivity. The bay is a critical habitat for green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris), an anadromous species listed as threatened under the US Endangered Species Act. However, the hazard that carbaryl poses is unknown. Surrogate seawater-acclimated white sturgeon (A. transmontanus) were exposed to 0 μg L(-1) , 30 μg L(-1) , 100 μg L(-1) , 300 μg L(-1) , 1000 μg L(-1) , and 3000 μg L(-1) carbaryl for 6 h, and brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activities were measured. Enzyme recovery was measured in an additional cohort exposed to 1000 μg L(-1) carbaryl for 6 h. Activity of AChE was reduced (p ≤ 0.001) at concentrations ≥ 100 μg L(-1) with recovery in the 1000 μg L(-1) cohort by 72 h. Surprisingly, BChE activity was greater than controls at concentrations ≥ 300 μg L(-1) (p > 0.05), a finding confirmed in additional fish exposed to 3000 μg L(-1) for 6 h (+30%, p < 0.001) with apparent recovery by 48 h. Plasma samples were collected from free-living green sturgeon before and 4 d to 5 d after application of carbaryl in Willapa Bay. Activity of BChE after application was reduced 28% (p < 0.001), indicating exposure to the pesticide. However, the lack of congruence between BChE and AChE activity in captive white sturgeon exposed to carbaryl indicates that further studies are needed to better understand the risk carbaryl exposure poses to green sturgeon. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2003-2015. © 2015 SETAC.

  16. Plasma cholinesterase activity as a biomarker for quantifying exposure of green sturgeon to carbaryl following applications to control burrowing shrimp in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Troiano, Alexandra T; Grue, Christian E

    2016-08-01

    Willapa Bay (Washington State, USA) has been 1 of the rare intertidal locations where large-scale pesticide applications occur. Until recently, carbaryl was applied to control burrowing shrimp that decrease commercial oyster productivity. The bay is a critical habitat for green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris), an anadromous species listed as threatened under the US Endangered Species Act. However, the hazard that carbaryl poses is unknown. Surrogate seawater-acclimated white sturgeon (A. transmontanus) were exposed to 0 μg L(-1) , 30 μg L(-1) , 100 μg L(-1) , 300 μg L(-1) , 1000 μg L(-1) , and 3000 μg L(-1) carbaryl for 6 h, and brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activities were measured. Enzyme recovery was measured in an additional cohort exposed to 1000 μg L(-1) carbaryl for 6 h. Activity of AChE was reduced (p ≤ 0.001) at concentrations ≥ 100 μg L(-1) with recovery in the 1000 μg L(-1) cohort by 72 h. Surprisingly, BChE activity was greater than controls at concentrations ≥ 300 μg L(-1) (p > 0.05), a finding confirmed in additional fish exposed to 3000 μg L(-1) for 6 h (+30%, p < 0.001) with apparent recovery by 48 h. Plasma samples were collected from free-living green sturgeon before and 4 d to 5 d after application of carbaryl in Willapa Bay. Activity of BChE after application was reduced 28% (p < 0.001), indicating exposure to the pesticide. However, the lack of congruence between BChE and AChE activity in captive white sturgeon exposed to carbaryl indicates that further studies are needed to better understand the risk carbaryl exposure poses to green sturgeon. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2003-2015. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26678014

  17. Black and White Children's Perceptions of the Intent and Values in Specific Adult and Child Oriented Television Commercials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donohue, Thomas R.; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of television advertising on different types of children--specifically, the cognitive responses and extra-product expectations fostered by television commercials in both white and black children. The subjects, 52 middle-class white children and 30 inner-city black children ranging in age from…

  18. Seasonal Distribution and Movements of Atlantic and Shortnose Sturgeon in the Penobscot River Estuary, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zydlewski, Joseph; Fernandes, Stephen J.; Zydlewski, Gayle B.; Wippelhauser, Gail S.; Kinnison, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the distribution and seasonal movement patterns of shortnose sturgeon Acipenser brevirostrum and Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus occupying rivers in the northern part of their range. During 2006 and 2007, 40 shortnose sturgeon (66–113.4 cm fork length [FL]) and 8 Atlantic sturgeon (76.2–166.2 cm FL) were captured in the Penobscot River, Maine, implanted with acoustic transmitters, and monitored using an array of acoustic receivers in the Penobscot River estuary and Penobscot Bay. Shortnose sturgeon were present year round in the estuary and overwintered from fall (mid-October) to spring (mid-April) in the upper estuary. In early spring, all individuals moved downstream to the middle estuary. Over the course of the summer, many individuals moved upstream to approximately 2 km of the downstream-most dam (46 river kilometers [rkm] from the Penobscot River mouth [rkm 0]) by August. Most aggregated into an overwintering site (rkm 36.5) in mid- to late fall. As many as 50% of the tagged shortnose sturgeon moved into and out of the Penobscot River system during 2007, and 83% were subsequently detected by an acoustic array in the Kennebec River, located 150 km from the Penobscot River estuary. Atlantic sturgeon moved into the estuary from the ocean in the summer and concentrated into a 1.5-km reach. All Atlantic sturgeon moved to the ocean by fall, and two of these were detected in the Kennebec River. Although these behaviors are common for Atlantic sturgeon, regular coastal migrations of shortnose sturgeon have not been documented previously in this region. These results have important implications for future dam removals as well as for rangewide and river-specific shortnose sturgeon management.

  19. Evaluation of liver histopathology and EROD activity in St. Lawrence lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) in comparison with a reference population

    SciTech Connect

    Rousseaux, C.G. ||; Branchaud, A.; Spear, P.A.

    1995-05-01

    In an attempt to evaluate the effects of contaminants on the lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens, fish were netted from two sites: Riviere des Prairies, confluent with the St. Lawrence River near Montreal, and a reference site on the upper reaches of the Ottawa River in the La Verendrye Park. Livers of fish collected from the Riviere des Prairies were difficult to homogenize, and they left behind strands of what appeared to be connective tissue. Suspecting hepatic fibrosis, the authors decided to evaluate the livers for histopathologic changes. Nineteen adult lake sturgeon (eleven male and eight female) were examined. Following fixation, routine processing, sectioning, and staining with hematoxylin and eosin, microscopic evaluation revealed the following: Sections taken from livers of fish from the Riviere des Prairies site showed excessive fat accumulation and often severe chronic-active cholangiohepatitis. Bile duct proliferation (p < 0.0001), periportal fibrosis (p < 0.0001), inflammation (p < 0.001), and fat accumulation (p < 0.05) were more pronounced in the fish from the Riviere des Prairies site. Melano-macrophage centers appeared to be both paler and gave the appearance of fewer numbers (p < 0.01). Livers from lake sturgeon taken from the reference site had a more normal appearance. The EROD levels were also significantly induced in these fish (reference 3.39 {+-} 0.57; Riviere des Prairies site 8.21 {+-} 0.87 pmol/mg protein/min; p < 0.0005). The EROD levels positively correlated with bile duct proliferation (r{sup 2} = 0.44; p = 0.001) and periportal fibrosis (r{sup 2} = 0.41; p = 0.002). Despite the statistical associations above, the authors cannot categorically state that contaminants are the sole cause of the lesions seen.

  20. White blood cell inflammatory markers are associated with depressive symptoms in a longitudinal study of urban adults

    PubMed Central

    Beydoun, M A; Beydoun, H A; Dore, G A; Canas, J-A; Fanelli-Kuczmarski, M T; Evans, M K; Zonderman, A B

    2016-01-01

    Total white blood cell count (TWBCC) and percentage (%) composition of lymphocytes (PL) or neutrophils (PN) are linked to mid- and late-life depression, though sex-specific temporal relationships between those inflammatory markers and depressive symptoms remain unclear. The association between inflammation and depressive symptoms in longitudinal data on ethnically and socioeconomically diverse urban adults was examined with two hypotheses. In hypothesis 1, we examined the relationship between TWBCC, PL and PN with change in level of depressive symptoms from baseline to follow-up, stratifying by sex. In hypothesis 2, we examined reverse causality, by testing the relationship of depressive symptoms with change in TWBCC, PL and PN. Multiple linear mixed-effects regression models were performed to examine both the hypotheses. The sample sizes of participants (n) and repeated observations (n') were: Hypothesis 1 (n=2009; n'=3501); Hypothesis 2 (n=2081; n'=3560). Among key findings (Hypothesis 1), in women, higher TWBCC was linked to a faster increase in depressive symptom total score (γ1112±s.e.: +0.81±0.28, P=0.003), with a slower increase over time in the positive affect subdomain coupled with faster increases in depressed affect and somatic complaints. Among women, baseline score on somatic complaints was positively associated with low PN (γ01a=+1.61±0.48, P<0.001) and high PL (γ01a=+1.16±0.45, P=0.011), whereas baseline score on positive affect was inversely related to higher PL (γ01a=−0.69±0.28, P=0.017). Results among men indicated that there was a positive cross-sectional relationship between low TWBCC and depressive symptoms, depressed affect and an inverse cross-sectional relationship with positive affect. However, over time, a low TWBCC in men was linked to a higher score on positive affect. There was no evidence of a bi-directional relationship between WBC parameters and depressive symptoms (Hypothesis 2). In sum, TWBCC and related markers were

  1. White blood cell inflammatory markers are associated with depressive symptoms in a longitudinal study of urban adults.

    PubMed

    Beydoun, M A; Beydoun, H A; Dore, G A; Canas, J-A; Fanelli-Kuczmarski, M T; Evans, M K; Zonderman, A B

    2016-01-01

    Total white blood cell count (TWBCC) and percentage (%) composition of lymphocytes (PL) or neutrophils (PN) are linked to mid- and late-life depression, though sex-specific temporal relationships between those inflammatory markers and depressive symptoms remain unclear. The association between inflammation and depressive symptoms in longitudinal data on ethnically and socioeconomically diverse urban adults was examined with two hypotheses. In hypothesis 1, we examined the relationship between TWBCC, PL and PN with change in level of depressive symptoms from baseline to follow-up, stratifying by sex. In hypothesis 2, we examined reverse causality, by testing the relationship of depressive symptoms with change in TWBCC, PL and PN. Multiple linear mixed-effects regression models were performed to examine both the hypotheses. The sample sizes of participants (n) and repeated observations (n') were: Hypothesis 1 (n=2009; n'=3501); Hypothesis 2 (n=2081; n'=3560). Among key findings (Hypothesis 1), in women, higher TWBCC was linked to a faster increase in depressive symptom total score (γ1112±s.e.: +0.81±0.28, P=0.003), with a slower increase over time in the positive affect subdomain coupled with faster increases in depressed affect and somatic complaints. Among women, baseline score on somatic complaints was positively associated with low PN (γ01a=+1.61±0.48, P<0.001) and high PL (γ01a=+1.16±0.45, P=0.011), whereas baseline score on positive affect was inversely related to higher PL (γ01a=-0.69±0.28, P=0.017). Results among men indicated that there was a positive cross-sectional relationship between low TWBCC and depressive symptoms, depressed affect and an inverse cross-sectional relationship with positive affect. However, over time, a low TWBCC in men was linked to a higher score on positive affect. There was no evidence of a bi-directional relationship between WBC parameters and depressive symptoms (Hypothesis 2). In sum, TWBCC and related markers were

  2. Acute toxicity of ammonia and nitrite to shortnose sturgeon fingerlings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fontenot, Q.C.; Isely, J.J.; Tomasso, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    The 96-h median-lethal concentration (96-h LC50) of total ammonia nitrogen (ammonia-N) to fingerling shortnose sturgeon Acipenser brevirostrum was 149.8 ?? 55.20 mg/L (mean ?? SD, 17.9 ?? 0.62??C, pH = 6.8-7.3). Calculated 96-h LC50 for un-ionized ammonia-N was 0.58 ?? 0.213 mg/L. The 96-h LC50 of nitrite nitrogen to shortnose sturgeon fingerlings was 11.3 ?? 8.17 mg/L (17.9 ?? 0.31??C, <1.0 mg chloride/L, <1.0 mg magnesium/L, 1.8 mg calcium/L, 7.7 mg sodium/L).

  3. 78 FR 46813 - Safety Zone; Evening on the Bay Fireworks; Sturgeon Bay, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking TFR Temporary Final... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Evening on the Bay Fireworks; Sturgeon Bay... of Sturgeon Bay due to a fireworks display. This temporary safety zone is necessary to protect...

  4. Ecological requirements for pallid sturgeon reproduction and recruitment in the Lower Missouri River: Annual report 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeLonay, Aaron J.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Papoulias, Diana M.; Wildhaber, Mark L.; Chojnacki, Kimberly A.; Pherigo, Emily K.; Bergthold, Casey L.; Mestl, Gerald E.

    2010-01-01

    The Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Project is a multiyear, multiagency collaborative research framework developed to provide information to support pallid sturgeon recovery and Missouri River management decisions. The general Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Project strategy is to integrate field and laboratory studies of sturgeon reproductive ecology, habitat requirements, and physiology to produce a predictive understanding of sturgeon population dynamics. The project scope of work is developed annually with cooperating research partners and in collaboration with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Missouri River Recovery-Integrated Science Program. The research consists of several interdependent and complementary research tasks engaging multiple disciplines that primarily address spawning as a probable limiting factor in reproduction and survival of the pallid sturgeon. The research is multifaceted and is designed to provide information needed for management decisions impacting habitat restoration, flow modification, and pallid sturgeon population augmentation on the Missouri River, and throughout the range of the species. Research activities and progress towards understanding of the species are reported to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers annually. This annual report details the research effort and progress made by Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Project during 2009.

  5. Diel activity of Gulf of Mexico sturgeon in a northwest Florida bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wrege, B.M.; Duncan, M.S.; Isely, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we assess patterns in activity of Gulf of Mexico sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi over a 24-h period in the Pensacola bay system, Florida. Although seasonal migration of sturgeon is well documented, little information is available pertaining to daily variation in activity. We surgically implanted 58 Gulf sturgeon with acoustic transmitters in the Escambia (n=26), Yellow (n=8), Blackwater (n=12) and Choctawhatchee rivers (n=12) in June, July, September and October 2005. Gulf sturgeon location was monitored using an array of 56 fixed-station acoustic receivers. The relationship between frequency of Gulf sturgeon observations recorded on all acoustic receivers and time of day for all seasons combined indicated a strong diel activity pattern. Gulf sturgeon were frequently detected at night in all seasons with the exception of summer. Consecutive hourly observations indicated lateral movement of Gulf sturgeon between independent acoustic receivers on 15% of all observations of individuals. The use of an acoustic receiver array not only provides continuous data within a defined area, but also provides insight into nocturnal behavior of Gulf sturgeon not previously identified. ?? 2011 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

  6. Characterization and inhibition of nitrite uptake in shortnose sturgeon fingerlings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fontenot, Q.C.; Isely, J.J.; Tomasso, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    Efforts are underway to culture the endangered shortnose sturgeon Acipenser brevirostrum for possible reintroduction. As part of a larger project to develop culture techniques for this species, the uptake of nitrite was evaluated in fingerlings (16.5 ?? 4.85 g; mean ?? SD). Plasma nitrite concentrations increased significantly with exposure time (0-5 d) and dose (0-4 mg nitrite-N/L). Shortnose sturgeon fingerlings were able to concentrate nitrite in their plasma to more than 63 times the environmental concentration. Chloride, as either sodium chloride or calcium chloride, partially inhibited nitrite uptake. However, calcium chloride was a better inhibitor. After previous exposure (2 d at 2.13 ?? 0.080 mg nitrite-N/L) plasma nitrite-N decreased from 165.5 to 36.7 mg/L during a 3-d simultaneous exposure to 2.13 ?? 0.080 mg nitrite-N/L and treatment with 40 mg chloride/L as calcium chloride. The addition of calcium chloride to the water appeared to be an effective means of preventing nitrite uptake and treating nitrite toxicity in hatchery-reared shortnose sturgeon fingerlings.

  7. Importance of environmental endocrinology in fisheries management and aquaculture of sturgeons.

    PubMed

    Webb, Molly A H; Doroshov, S I

    2011-01-15

    Less is known about the reproductive endocrinology of sturgeons compared to modern teleosts. However, tools to assess the reproductive endocrinology and effects of environmental factors on reproduction do exist. This review utilizes case studies to describe the parameters involved in environmental endocrinology and the management and recovery efforts for the phylogenetically ancient sturgeon and paddlefish (Clade Chondrostei). Specifically, we discuss the use of environmental endocrinology to determine sex and stage of maturity and identify oviposition on spawning grounds, the importance of understanding endocrine disruption pathways, the challenges and benefits of assessing stress in wild populations of sturgeon, and three major physiological events in the reproductive development of farmed sturgeon understanding of which appears to be crucial for improving sturgeon aquaculture.

  8. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Mid-Atlantic Bight): Atlantic and shortnosed sturgeons

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, C.R. )

    1989-12-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, morphology, range, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal species. The Atlantic and shortnose sturgeons (especially the former) were commercially important fishes between 1880 and 1900, but stocks have since decreased markedly and the shortnose sturgeon is now classified as federally endangered. Although the two species are anadromous, the shortnose sturgeon tends to spawn farther upstream, and spawning in both species usually occurs over a clean, hard substrate washed by a moderate to strong current. The shortnose sturgeon usually spawn earlier at the same latitude, with spawning of this species in the St. John River, New Brunswick, being completed by mid-May, as opposed to late June or even July for the Atlantic sturgeon. During non-spawning periods, the shortnose is largely confined to estuaries and apparently does not undergo the extensive coastal migrations that are characteristic of the Atlantic sturgeon. Atlantic sturgeon mature more slowly than shortnose sturgeon at comparable latitudes, with male and female Atlantic sturgeon from the Hudson River, New York, requiring at least 11 and 18 years, respectively, to reach maturity, compared with less than half that time for the shortnose sturgeon. Spawning in both sexes may occur thereafter only once every several years. Both species are usually indiscriminate feeders and feed by sucking materials off the bottom with their protrusible mouths. Feeding apparently occurs mostly at night in the shortnose sturgeon. 71 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Seasonal distribution of Gulf of Mexico sturgeon in the pensacola bay system, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duncan, M.S.; Wrege, B.M.; Parauka, F.M.; Isely, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Temporal and spatial distributions of Gulf of Mexico (Gulf) sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi were assessed in the Pensacola bay system, Florida, using stationary ultrasonic telemetry. Fifty-eight Gulf sturgeon were tagged within the Escambia (n=26), Yellow (n=8), Blackwater (n=12) and Choctawhatchee Rivers (n=12) in June, July, September and October, 2005. Fifty-four Gulf sturgeon were detected at least once during the study. Migration of sturgeon occurred throughout the bay system in fall, to various winter habitats in the Gulf of Mexico and Santa Rosa Sound. In spring, tagged sturgeon migrated back through the bay system to summer habitats in rivers. Based on the duration and number of detections, Gulf sturgeon primarily used the upper portions of East and Escambia Bays as migration routes in and out of all rivers during spring and summer and inhabited the lower portion of Pensacola Bay for longer durations in fall and winter. Specific areas within the Pensacola bay system were used in summer and winter that were not previously documented as essential sturgeon habitat. Areas in southeastern Pensacola Bay were heavily used during winter by a large portion of the population. Gulf sturgeon also exhibited long-term winter residency in Santa Rosa Sound for two consecutive years. An area in northeastern Escambia Bay supported Gulf sturgeon during the summer, which was unexpected and can not be explained by the data from this study. However, the discovery that Gulf sturgeon remain in the bay during the summer has important ecological and management implications that need further investigation. ?? 2011 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

  10. Passage and behaviour of cultured Lake Sturgeon in a prototype side-baffle fish ladder: I. Ladder hydraulics and fish ascent

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kynard, B.; Pugh, D.; Parker, T.

    2011-01-01

    Research and development of a fish ladder for sturgeons requires understanding ladder hydraulics and sturgeon behaviour in the ladder to insure the ladder is safe and provides effective passage. After years of research and development, we designed and constructed a full-scale prototype side-baffle ladder inside a spiral flume (38.3m long??1m wide??1m high) on a 6% (1:16.5) slope with a 1.92-m rise in elevation (bottom to top) to test use by sturgeons. Twenty-eight triangular side baffles, each extending part way across the flume, alternated from inside wall to outside wall down the ladder creating two major flow habitats: a continuous, sinusoidal flow down the ladder through the vertical openings of side-baffles and an eddy below each side baffle. Ascent and behaviour was observed on 22 cultured Lake Sturgeon=LS (Acipenser fulvescens) repeatedly tested in groups as juveniles (as small as 105.1cm TL, mean) or as adults (mean TL, 118cm) during four periods (fall 2002 and 2003; spring 2003 and 2007). Percent of juveniles entering the ladder that ascended to the top was greater in spring (72.7%) than in fall (40.9-45.5%) and 90.9% of 11 adults, which ascended as juveniles, ascended to the top. Six LS (27.3%) never swam to the top and seven (31.8%) swam to the top in all tests, indicating great variability among individuals for ascent drive. Some LS swam directly to the top in <1min, but most rested in an eddy during ascent. Juveniles swimming through outside wall baffle slots (mean velocity, 1.2ms-1) swam at 1.8-2.2body lengthss-1 and 3.2-3.3tail beatss-1, either at or approaching prolonged swimming speed. The side-baffle ladder was stream-like and provided key factors for a sturgeon ladder: a continuous flow and no full cross-channel walls, abundant eddies for resting, an acceptable water depth, and a water velocity fish could ascend swimming 2bls-1. A side-baffle ladder passes LS and other moderate-swimming fishes. ?? 2011 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

  11. Recent advances in life history of Gulf of Mexico sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi, in the Suwannee River, Florida, USA: A synopsis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sulak, K.J.; Clugston, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Gulf sturgeon spawn on portions of three sites in the upper Suwannee River, which may appropriately be described as spawning reefs. The same areas are utilized from year to year. Habitat factors important in spawning site determination include gravel/cobble substrate, the presence of eddy fields, a neutral to slightly alkaline pH, and an empirically observed range in calcium ion content (6-18 mg/L Ca++, corresponding to a conductivity range of 40-110??S). Eggs are deposited contagiously within a small area ( 3 m) when water temperatures drop in mid-December, but final destinations in mid-winter remain unknown. Age-2 through 6 juveniles remain in the river mouth estuary over winter. In late January through early February YOY migrate downriver for the first time, joining larger juveniles to overwinter and feed. Tag and recapture data yield a Suwannee River population of Gulf sturgeon estimated at 7,650 individuals, with an annual turnover rate of 16%. Based on stability in cumulative recapture rates from 1991-1998, population size is stable with an effective balance between recruitment and mortality. However, population structure is dynamic, controlled by the juxtaposition, conjunction, and summation of successive strong and weak year classes. Length/age frequency distributions for 1995 and 1998 populations censuses are very different. The 1995 distribution is bimodal with a dominant mode of 9-14 year old subadults/adults, and a sub-dominant of mode of 2-4 year old juveniles. The 1998 distribution is trimodal, but overwhelmingly dominated by 6-9 year old subadults. Erosion by 1998 of the major subadult/adult mode from the 1995 census illustrates that large adults encounter the same high mortality as smaller fish. Ultimate adult size in the population has remained constant at 2.2 cm TL over 13 years, indicating a maximum life expectancy of 25 years for Suwannee River Gulf sturgeon.

  12. Comparison between reference values for FVC, FEV1, and FEV1/FVC ratio in White adults in Brazil and those suggested by the Global Lung Function Initiative 2012*

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Carlos Alberto de Castro; Duarte, Andrezza Araujo Oliveira; Gimenez, Andrea; Soares, Maria Raquel

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the spirometry values predicted by the 2012 Global Lung Function Initiative (GLI) equations, which are recommended for international use, in comparison with those obtained for a sample of White adults used for the establishment of reference equations for spirometry in Brazil. METHODS: The sample comprised 270 and 373 healthy males and females, respectively. The mean differences between the values found in this sample and the predicted values calculated from the GLI equations for FVC, FEV1, and VEF1/FVC, as well as their lower limits, were compared by paired t-test. The predicted values by each pair of equations were compared in various combinations of age and height. RESULTS: For the males in our study sample, the values obtained for all of the variables studied were significantly higher than those predicted by the GLI equations (p < 0.01 for all). These differences become more evident in subjects who were shorter in stature and older. For the females in our study sample, only the lower limit of the FEV1/FVC ratio was significantly higher than that predicted by the GLI equation. CONCLUSIONS: The predicted values suggested by the GLI equations for White adults were significantly lower than those used as reference values for males in Brazil. For both genders, the lower limit of the FEV1/FVC ratio is significantly lower than that predicted by the GLI equations. PMID:25210962

  13. Unscreened water-diversion pipes pose an entrainment risk to the threatened green sturgeon, Acipenser medirostris.

    PubMed

    Mussen, Timothy D; Cocherell, Dennis; Poletto, Jamilynn B; Reardon, Jon S; Hockett, Zachary; Ercan, Ali; Bandeh, Hossein; Kavvas, M Levent; Cech, Joseph J; Fangue, Nann A

    2014-01-01

    Over 3,300 unscreened agricultural water diversion pipes line the levees and riverbanks of the Sacramento River (California) watershed, where the threatened Southern Distinct Population Segment of green sturgeon, Acipenser medirostris, spawn. The number of sturgeon drawn into (entrained) and killed by these pipes is greatly unknown. We examined avoidance behaviors and entrainment susceptibility of juvenile green sturgeon (35±0.6 cm mean fork length) to entrainment in a large (>500-kl) outdoor flume with a 0.46-m-diameter water-diversion pipe. Fish entrainment was generally high (range: 26-61%), likely due to a lack of avoidance behavior prior to entering inescapable inflow conditions. We estimated that up to 52% of green sturgeon could be entrained after passing within 1.5 m of an active water-diversion pipe three times. These data suggest that green sturgeon are vulnerable to unscreened water-diversion pipes, and that additional research is needed to determine the potential impacts of entrainment mortality on declining sturgeon populations. Data under various hydraulic conditions also suggest that entrainment-related mortality could be decreased by extracting water at lower diversion rates over longer periods of time, balancing agricultural needs with green sturgeon conservation. PMID:24454967

  14. Age-0 Shovelnose Sturgeon prey consumption in the Lower Missouri