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Sample records for adult women methods

  1. Women, Class and Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southampton Univ. (England).

    This collection of working papers deals with the relationship among women, social class, and adult education. In her paper entitled "Women and University Extension," Pat Usher argues that by sustaining the dominant cultural, ideological, and social relationships of production in capitalist Britain, university adult education contributes…

  2. Women at Midlife: Implications for Theories of Women's Adult Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippert, Laurel

    1997-01-01

    Discusses research on midlife transitions in women and its implications for theories of women's adult development. Presents findings on menopause, the postparental period, and the roles of women at midlife. Offers several theoretical approaches in light of research findings and makes recommendations for future research. Suggests implications for…

  3. Older Adult Women Learners in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Mary Alice

    2009-01-01

    This chapter examines the potential for personal growth, development, and learning of older adult women who will have many productive years in the workforce. What implications are there for adult education communities who will interact with these older women? How do they adapt to the educational environment, and what social support will enable…

  4. Characteristics of sexual violence against adolescent girls and adult women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sexual violence is considered a serious violation of human rights which affects mainly young women and adolescents. There is little information about the conditions under which sexual offences occur. We evaluated characteristics of sexual violence against adolescent girls and adult women. Method This is a quantitative, retrospective, descriptive study of sexual violence against adolescent girls and adult women. Analyses were carried out on data collected from 1118 women, 546 adolescents (10-19 years) and 572 adults (≥ 20 years), with a complaint of rape treated at Hospital Pérola Byington, São Paulo, between 1994 and 1999. The age limit of the adolescent sample met the World Health Organization’s (WHO) criteria. We analyzed the type of sexual contact, degree of intimidation, perpetrator and activity of the victim during the approach. Results Crimes without penetration were five times more frequent in adolescents and use of threats of death or intimidation was common in both groups. Mental illness was more prevalent in adult victims and the majority of adolescent victims were aged <14 years. Uncle and stepfather perpetrators were more frequent among adolescents and partners or former intimate partners in adult women. In most cases the approach occurred in public places, although sex crimes at the perpetrator’s residence were more frequent amongst adolescents. Conclusions Although children and adolescents require the same intervention measures and legal protection, a considerable proportion of adolescent sex offenders can face conditions similar to those of adult women. PMID:24450307

  5. Adult women with mitral valve prolapse are more flexible

    PubMed Central

    Araujo, C; Chaves, C

    2005-01-01

    Background: Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is common in women. Other clinical features such as flexibility and hyperlaxity are often associated with MVP, as there is a common biochemical and histological basis for collagen tissue characteristics, range of joint motion, and mitral leaflet excursion. Objective: To confirm whether adult women with MVP are more flexible and hypermobile than those without. Methods: Data from 125 women (mean age 50 years), 31 of them with MVP, were retrospectively analysed with regard to clinical and kinanthropometric aspects. Passive joint motion was evaluated in 20 body movements using Flexitest and three laxity tests. Flexitest individual movements (0 to 4) and overall Flexindex scores were obtained in all subjects by the same investigator. Results: Women with MVP were lighter, less endomorphic and mesomorphic, and more linear. The Flexindex was significantly higher in the women with MVP, both absolute (48 (1.6) v 41 (1.3); p<0.01) and centile for age (67 v 42; p<0.01) values. In 13 out of 20 movements, the Flexitest scores were significantly higher for the women with MVP. Signs of hyperlaxity were about five times more common in these women: 74% v 16% (p<0.01). Scores of 0 and 1 in elbow extension, absence of hyperlaxity, and a Flexindex centile below 65 were almost never found in women with MVP. Conclusion: Flexitest, alone or combined with hyperlaxity tests, may be useful in the assessment of adult women with MVP. PMID:16183767

  6. Extending Holland's Theory to Adult Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, David W.; Whinfield, Richard W.

    1973-01-01

    The potential of Holland's theory for use in the vocational guidance of adult women depends in part on more validity data with regard to the conceptual meaningfulness of the constructs. This study reports the findings of a correlative analysis between scores on Holland's Vocational Preference Inventory (VPI), which measures the six styles,'' and…

  7. Adult Jewish Education and Participation among Reform Jewish Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mareschal, Teresa L.

    2012-01-01

    The history of adult Jewish education is rich and is replete with learning opportunities for Jewish adults, and Jewish women are active participants in adult Jewish education. In this chapter, the author examines Reform Jewish women's motivations to participate in adult Jewish education. First, she provides a historical overview of Judaism and…

  8. Different methods of calculating ankle-brachial index in mid-elderly men and women: the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Miname, M; Bensenor, I M; Lotufo, P A

    2016-01-01

    The ankle-brachial index (ABI) is a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis related to health-adverse outcomes. ABI is inexpensive compared to other indexes, such as coronary calcium score and determination of carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT). Our objective was to identify how the ABI can be applied to primary care. Three different methods of calculating the ABI were compared among 13,921 men and women aged 35 to 74 years who were free of cardiovascular diseases and enrolled in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). The ABI ratio had the same denominator for the three categories created (the highest value for arm systolic blood pressure), and the numerator was based on the four readings for leg systolic blood pressure: the highest (ABI-HIGH), the mean (ABI-MEAN), and the lowest (ABI-LOW). The cut-off for analysis was ABI<1.0. All determinations of blood pressure were done with an oscillometric device. The prevalence of ABI<1% was 0.5, 0.9, and 2.7 for the categories HIGH, MEAN and LOW, respectively. All methods were associated with a high burden of cardiovascular risk factors. The association with IMT was stronger for ABI-HIGH than for the other categories. The proportion of participants with a 10-year Framingham Risk Score of coronary heart disease >20% without the inclusion of ABI<1.0 was 4.9%. For ABI-HIGH, ABI-MEAN and ABI-LOW, the increase in percentage points was 0.3, 0.7, and 2.3%, respectively, and the relative increment was 6.1, 14.3, and 46.9%. In conclusion, all methods were acceptable, but ABI-LOW was more suitable for prevention purposes.

  9. Different methods of calculating ankle-brachial index in mid-elderly men and women: the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Miname, M.; Bensenor, I.M.; Lotufo, P.A.

    2016-01-01

    The ankle-brachial index (ABI) is a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis related to health-adverse outcomes. ABI is inexpensive compared to other indexes, such as coronary calcium score and determination of carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT). Our objective was to identify how the ABI can be applied to primary care. Three different methods of calculating the ABI were compared among 13,921 men and women aged 35 to 74 years who were free of cardiovascular diseases and enrolled in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). The ABI ratio had the same denominator for the three categories created (the highest value for arm systolic blood pressure), and the numerator was based on the four readings for leg systolic blood pressure: the highest (ABI-HIGH), the mean (ABI-MEAN), and the lowest (ABI-LOW). The cut-off for analysis was ABI<1.0. All determinations of blood pressure were done with an oscillometric device. The prevalence of ABI<1% was 0.5, 0.9, and 2.7 for the categories HIGH, MEAN and LOW, respectively. All methods were associated with a high burden of cardiovascular risk factors. The association with IMT was stronger for ABI-HIGH than for the other categories. The proportion of participants with a 10-year Framingham Risk Score of coronary heart disease >20% without the inclusion of ABI<1.0 was 4.9%. For ABI-HIGH, ABI-MEAN and ABI-LOW, the increase in percentage points was 0.3, 0.7, and 2.3%, respectively, and the relative increment was 6.1, 14.3, and 46.9%. In conclusion, all methods were acceptable, but ABI-LOW was more suitable for prevention purposes. PMID:27901176

  10. Body Image in Adult Women: Moving Beyond the Younger Years

    PubMed Central

    Kilpela, Lisa Smith; Becker, Carolyn Black; Wesley, Nicole; Stewart, Tiffany

    2015-01-01

    In spite of copious literature investigating body dissatisfaction and its correlates in adolescents and young adult women, exploration of body image disturbances in adult women remains an underrepresented domain in the literature. Yet, there are many reasons to suspect that body image in adult women both may differ from and possibly be more complex than that of younger women. Adult women face myriad factors influencing body image beyond those delineated in the body image literature on adolescents and young adult women. For instance, aging-related physiological changes shift the female body further away from the thin-young-ideal, which is the societal standard of female beauty. Further, life priorities and psychological factors evolve with age as well. As such, adult women encounter changes that may differentially affect body image across the lifespan. This paper aims to provide an up-to-date review of the current literature on the relationship between body image and associated mental and physical health problems and behaviors in adult women. In addition, we explore factors that may influence body image in adult women. Lastly, we use this review to identify significant gaps in the existing literature with the aim of identifying critical targets for future research. PMID:26052476

  11. Functional Impacts of Adult Literacy Programme on Rural Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mbah, Blessing Akaraka

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the functional impacts of adult literacy programme among rural women participants in Ishielu Local Government Area (LGA) of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Descriptive survey design was used for the study. The population of the study was made up of 115 adult instructors and 2,408 adult learners giving a total of 2,623. The sample…

  12. Caffeine Use and Young Adult Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vener, Arthur M.; Krupka, Lawrence R.

    1982-01-01

    Surveyed college women and men and found that caffeine was consumed by a large proportion of the respondents. Women consumed a larger amount of caffeine and used more substances containing this drug. An increase in caffeine usage with increased psychic stress was observed for women only. (Author)

  13. Management of recurrent urinary tract infections in healthy adult women.

    PubMed

    Hickling, Duane R; Nitti, Victor W

    2013-01-01

    Recurrence after urinary tract infection (rUTI) is common in adult women. The majority of recurrences are believed to be reinfection from extraurinary sources such as the rectum or vagina. However, uropathogenic Escherichia coli are now known to invade urothelial cells and form quiescent intracellular bacterial reservoirs. Management of women with frequent symptomatic rUTI can be particularly vexing for both patients and their treating physicians. This review addresses available and promising management strategies for rUTI in healthy adult women.

  14. Management of Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections in Healthy Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Hickling, Duane R; Nitti, Victor W

    2013-01-01

    Recurrence after urinary tract infection (rUTI) is common in adult women. The majority of recurrences are believed to be reinfection from extraurinary sources such as the rectum or vagina. However, uropathogenic Escherichia coli are now known to invade urothelial cells and form quiescent intracellular bacterial reservoirs. Management of women with frequent symptomatic rUTI can be particularly vexing for both patients and their treating physicians. This review addresses available and promising management strategies for rUTI in healthy adult women. PMID:24082842

  15. Low bone mineral density among young healthy adult Saudi women

    PubMed Central

    Zeidan, Zeidan A.; Sultan, Intisar E.; Guraya, Shaista S.; Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen H.; Khoshhal, Khalid I.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To screen for low bone mineral density among young adult Saudi women using quantitative ultrasound (QUS) and exploring the high risk groups. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on 279, 20-36 years old female students and employees of Taibah University, Al Madinah Al Munawwarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between January and May 2014. The study included bone status assessed using QUS, a structured self-reported questionnaire, anthropometric measurements, and evaluation of bone markers of bone metabolism. Results: The prevalence of low bone mineral density was 9%. Serum osteocalcin was found significantly higher in candidates with low bone mineral density, 20.67 ng/ml versus 10.7 ng/ml, and it was negatively correlated with T-scores. At any given point in time the exposed subjects to low calcium intake and inadequate sun exposure in the population were 11 times and 3 times more likely to have low bone mineral density, (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 11.0; 95%confidence interval [CI]=3.16, 38.34; p=0.001) and (adjusted OR, 3.32, 95%CI=1.27, 8.66, p<0.01). Conclusion: Early detection screening programs for low bone mineral density are needed in Saudi Arabia as it affects young Saudi women specially the high-risk group that includes young women with insufficient calcium intake and insufficient sun exposure. Serum osteocalcin as a biomarker for screening for low bone mineral density could be introduced. PMID:27761561

  16. The Women's Movement, Adult Education and Globalization: Women's Agencies in Zimbabwe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mpofu, Stanley T.

    1996-01-01

    Notes that in Zimbabwe, women's agencies pursue practical, strategic, and interagency gender interests consistent with adult education practice. However, they also manifest the globalizing tendencies of pluralism, cultural homogenization, and the coalescence of transnational and domestic processes and structures. (SK)

  17. The Women's Leadership Project: A One-Year Training Project in Adult Education Administration. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boston Univ., MA. School of Education.

    The Women's Leadership Project represents an initial effort to combat discrimination against women in adult education, with special emphasis on adult basic education. Overall goals involved leadership development, impact, and support to: (1) recruit and prepare 10 qualified women adult educators for leadership positions in adult education, (2)…

  18. Study of lipid profile in adult women with acne

    PubMed Central

    da Cunha, Marisa Gonzaga; Batista, Anna Luiza Fonseca; Macedo, Marzia Silva; Machado Filho, Carlos D’Aparecida Santos; Fonseca, Fernando Luiz Affonso

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to establish the lipid profile of female patients with acne in the Acne-in-Adult-Women Ambulatory Care Clinic in order to observe the prevalence of dyslipidemia in those patients. Methods This is a retrospective transversal study that evaluated the medical records of 416 patients who attended at the Acne-in-Adult-Women Ambulatory Care Clinic, at the Dermatology Department, Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil, in the year 2012. Relevant data included age and clinical classification of acne. The lipid profile was analyzed according to the results of laboratory tests ordered during outpatient visits, which included total and fractionated cholesterol levels and triglycerides. Results The epidemiological study sample was of 219 patients, with ages ranging from 21 to 61 years (mean of 32.23 years). The predominant clinical grade was papule-pustule acne (grade II) with 156 patients (71%). Regarding the lipid profile of the patients, there was a high increase in total cholesterol levels in 17.35% of the cases. High-density lipoprotein levels were low in 11.42% of the patients, with normal prevalence in 194 subjects. Low-density lipoprotein levels were normal in most patients (60.27%). Very-low-density lipoprotein values were normal in almost all patients (94.06%) and increased in only 13 patients (5.94%). Only 18 patients presented high levels of triglycerides (8.22%). Conclusion The conclusion was that patients with grades II and III acne are more likely to have total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein altered. A correct and early diagnosis can be an important measure for the prevention of the metabolic syndrome in these patients. PMID:26316790

  19. Women as Learners: The Significance of Gender in Adult Learning. The Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Elisabeth; Flannery, Daniele D.

    This book is intended to address the need for information and understanding about adult women's learning and education. It gathers knowledge about women and their learning and places women's learning experiences in the contexts of where women live. The book also promotes an understanding of women's diversity and makes recommendations for future…

  20. Adult Attachment and Disordered Eating in Undergraduate Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elgin, Jenna; Pritchard, Mary

    2006-01-01

    Previous research on gender differences between males and females on the risk factors leading to disordered eating is sparse, especially on males and eating disorders using attachment theory. This study examined the relationship between adult attachment style and disordered eating in men and women. Secure attachment scores were significantly…

  1. The Experiences and Development of Undergraduate Adult Black Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Joni Denise Dent

    2012-01-01

    Just as there are reasons why Black American women decide not to attend college or to dropout of college when they are young, there are reasons why they choose to enter or reenter college as adults. Among those reasons are self-fulfillment, career aspirations, financial incentives offered by employers, and military benefits (Parr, 2000; Richardson…

  2. Motivators of Adult Women Enrolled in a Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Connie Dianne

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to describe what motivates adult women enrolled in a community college to pursue higher education. Utilizing profile analysis and multiple regression analyses, this study investigated the extent to which gender, English as a first language, and age predicted the seven factors of the Education Participation Scale (A-form)…

  3. Women Studying Childcare: Integrating Lives through Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Hazel R.

    2011-01-01

    Most studies of adult education align it with life change, but this research-based book tells a different story. It reveals how mature women who are training to work in childcare within the voluntary sector seek continuity in their lives. They engage with activities that connect aspects of their family, workplace and educational experience, and…

  4. Childhood Trauma, Adult Sexual Assault, and Adult Gender Expression among Lesbian and Bisexual Women

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Yamile; Simoni, Jane M.

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that lesbian and bisexual women are more likely than heterosexual women to report childhood abuse and adult sexual assault. It is unknown, however, which sexual minority women are most likely to experience such abuse. We recruited adult sexual minority women living in the US through electronic fliers sent to listservs and website groups inviting them to complete an online survey (N=1,243). We examined differences in both childhood abuse and adult sexual assault by women’s current gender identity (i.e., butch, femme, androgynous, or other) and a continuous measure of gender expression (from butch/masculine to femme/feminine), adjusting for sexual orientation identity, age, education, and income. Results indicated that a more butch/masculine current self-assessment of gender expression, but not gender identity, was associated with more overall reported childhood trauma. Although one aspect of gender expression, a more butch/masculine gender role, was associated with adult sexual assault, feminine appearance and a femme gender identity also significantly predicted adult sexual assault. These findings highlight the significance of gender identity and expression in identifying women at greater risk for various abuse experiences. PMID:24003263

  5. Major Depressive Disorder in the older adult: implications for women.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Reed D; Gruenberg, Alan M

    2007-01-01

    Mood disorders manifest across the life span yet often go undiagnosed and untreated. Increasingly, Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) in the older adult is recognized as a frequently occurring, heterogeneous psychiatric illness that impacts the individual and family, one's physical health, and society. Women are more likely to be diagnosed with MDD than men and therefore it is important to identify specific risk factors and other distinguishing features. This article reviews the descriptive characteristics, epidemiology, etiology and pathophysiology, course and natural history, and assessment and treatment of MDD with specific focus on women and aging.

  6. Implementation of Evidence-Based HIV Interventions for Young Adult African American Women in Church Settings

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the barriers and facilitators to using African American churches as sites for implementation of evidence-based HIV interventions among young African American women. Design Mixed methods cross-sectional design. Setting African American churches in Philadelphia, PA. Participants 142 African American pastors, church leaders, and young adult women ages 18 to 25. Methods Mixed methods convergent parallel design. Results The majority of young adult women reported engaging in high-risk HIV-related behaviors. Although church leaders reported willingness to implement HIV risk-reduction interventions, they were unsure of how to initiate this process. Key facilitators to the implementation of evidence-based interventions included the perception of the leadership and church members that HIV interventions were needed and that the church was a promising venue for them. A primary barrier to implementation in this setting is the perception that discussions of sexuality should be private. Conclusion Implementation of evidence-based HIV interventions for young adult African American women in church settings is feasible and needed. Building a level of comfort in discussing matters of sexuality and adapting existing evidence-based interventions to meet the needs of young women in church settings is a viable approach for successful implementation. PMID:25139612

  7. Beyond "Survivor": How Childhood Sexual Abuse Informs the Identity of Adult Women at the End of the Therapeutic Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Alexis; Daniluk, Judith C.

    2004-01-01

    A qualitative method was used to explore how adult women experienced their identity after extensive therapy to deal with childhood sexual abuse. Seven women shared their healing journeys and their perceptions of the role of the abuse in their current life and self-perceptions. Phenomenological analysis of the interview data revealed 5 common…

  8. Effects of Welfare Reform on Education Acquisition of Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Dhaval M.; Corman, Hope; Reichman, Nancy E.

    2013-01-01

    Education beyond traditional ages for schooling is an important source of human capital acquisition among adult women. Welfare reform, which began in the early 1990s and culminated in the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act in 1996, promoted work rather than education acquisition for this group. Exploiting variation in welfare reform across states and over time and using relevant comparison groups, we undertake a comprehensive study of the effects of welfare reform on adult women’s education acquisition. We first estimate effects of welfare reform on high school drop-out of teenage girls, both to improve upon past research on this issue and to explore compositional changes that may be relevant for our primary analyses of the effects of welfare reform on education acquisition among adult women. We find that welfare reform significantly reduced the probability that teens from disadvantaged families dropped out of high school, by about 15%. We then estimate the effects of welfare reform on adult women’s school enrollment and conduct numerous specification checks, investigate compositional selection and policy endogeneity, explore lagged effects, stratify by TANF work incentives and education policies, consider alternative comparison groups, and explore the mediating role of work. We find robust and convincing evidence that welfare reform significantly decreased the probability of college enrollment among adult women at risk of welfare receipt, by at least 20%. It also appears to have decreased the probability of high school enrollment among this group, on the same order of magnitude. Future research is needed to determine the extent to which this behavioral change translates to future economic outcomes. PMID:23504449

  9. Diglossic Needs of Illiterate Adult Women in Egypt: A Needs Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khachan, Victor A.

    2009-01-01

    In light of the "rarity" and "unavailability" of academic publications on literacy/illiteracy in the Arab world, this study attempts to determine the linguistic needs of illiterate adult women in Egypt in the context of informal adult basic education. The purpose of this study is to understand illiterate adult women's daily…

  10. Methods of predicting visceral fat in Brazilian adults and older adults: a comparison between anthropometry and computerized tomography.

    PubMed

    Roriz, Anna Karla Carneiro; de Oliveira, Carolina Cunha; Moreira, Pricilla Almeida; Eickemberg, Michaela; Medeiros, Jairza Maria Barreto; Sampaio, Lílian Ramos

    2011-03-01

    Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is linked with the metabolic consequences of obesity, being necessary the use alternative methods of predicting this type of fat, like anthropometry. The objective of this study was assess the performance of anthropometry in predicting visceral fat measured with computerized tomography in adults and older adults. Study transversal with 197 individuals underwent computerized tomography (CT) and anthropometry. The variables analized were: visceral adipose tissue area by CT, Sagittal Abdominal Diameter (SAD), Waist Circumference (WC) and Waist-Hip Ratio (WHR). A descriptive analysis, Pearson correlation and ROC curve were carried out. We observed Correlations higher than 0.7 (p = 0.000) between the SAD, WC and the VAT area were found in adult men and older men and in adult women. WHR displayed the least correlations. The most sensitive and specific SAD cut-off points were equal for all the men (Adults: 20.2 cm/Older adults: 20.2 cm) but different for the women (Adults: 21.0 cm; sens.: 83.3; spec.: 79.1/Older adults: 19.9 cm; sens.: 81.0; spec.:79.3). The WC cutoff points that identified a VAT area = 130 cm2 were 90.2 cm and 92.2 cm for men (adult men--sens.: 86.7; spec.: 86.1--and older men-sens.: 79.3; spec.: 77.8 -respectively), while for women the recorded values were 92.3 cm (adult women--sens.: 83.3; spec: 81.4) and 88.2 cm (older women--sens.:76.2; spec.: 69.0). This study showed that WC and SAD achieved the best performance in the identification of visceral fat considered at risk for the development of cardiometabolic diseases in adults and older adults.

  11. Recurrent group A streptococcal vulvovaginitis in adult women: family epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Sobel, Jack D; Funaro, Deana; Kaplan, Edward L

    2007-03-01

    Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal (GAS) vulvovaginitis has been reported in prepubertal girls. In adult women, a vaginal carrier state has been described, but vulvovaginitis is rarely reported. We describe 2 cases of recurrent GAS vulvovaginitis in women whose husbands were gastrointestinal carriers of GAS. Characterization of the isolated strains demonstrated that identical emm types of GAS were shared by partners. Treatment of both partners resulted in resolution of vaginitis. On the basis of negative vaginal culture results obtained after treatment of each individual episode of vaginitis, we believe that the female patients were reinfected as a result of exposure to their husbands, with shedding likely to have occurred in bed. These cases reiterate the necessity for adequate screening of the patient's family and contacts in cases of recurrent GAS infection by culturing all potential areas of GAS carriage.

  12. Exploring young adult sexual minority women's perspectives on LGBTQ smoking.

    PubMed

    Youatt, Emily J; Johns, Michelle M; Pingel, Emily S; Soler, Jorge H; Bauermeister, José A

    Smoking rates are higher among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals than among heterosexuals. These disparities are exacerbated during the transition from youth to young adulthood. The current study uses in-depth qualitative interviews to understand perceptions of LGBTQ smoking among LBQ-identified women (N=30, ages 18-24). Major themes identified include the belief that smoking was a way of overcoming stressors faced by heterosexual and LGBTQ young adults alike, a mechanism to relieve sexuality-related stressors, and an ingrained part of LGBTQ culture. Results suggest unique stressors influence LGBTQ smokers. Implications for smoking cessation interventions for LGBTQ youth are discussed.

  13. "Starting from Ground Zero:" Constraints and Experiences of Adult Women Returning to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deutsch, Nancy L.; Schmertz, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Women adult students face particular constraints when pursuing degrees. This paper uses focus group data to explore the educational pathways, barriers, and supports of women students. Women's educations are shaped by personal and structural gendered forces, including family, economic, and workplace issues. Women report conflict over short-term…

  14. Evaluation of the facial dimensions of young adult women with a preferred facial appearance

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sae Yong; Bayome, Mohamed; Park, Jae Hyun; Kang, Ju Hee; Kim, Kang Hyuk; Moon, Hong-Beom

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the facial dimensions of young adult women with a preferred facial appearance and compare the results with those from the general population. Methods Twenty-five linear, nine angular, and three area measurements were made and four ratios were calculated using a sample of standardized frontal and lateral photographs of 46 young adult women with a preferred facial appearance (Miss Korea group) and 44 young adult women from the general population (control group). Differences between the two groups were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). Results Compared with the control group, the Miss Korea group exhibited a significantly greater facial height, total facial height (TFH; trichion-menton), facial width (tragus right-tragus left), facial depth (tragus-true vertical line), and trichion-nasion/TFH ratio and smaller subnasale-menton/TFH and facial width/TFH ratios. Furthermore, the control group had smaller intercanthal and interpupillary widths. Conclusions The Miss Korea group exhibited longer, wider, and deeper faces compared with those from the general population. Furthermore, the Miss Korea group had larger eyes, longer but less protruded noses, longer and more retruded lower lips and chins, larger lip vermilion areas, and smaller labiomental angles. These results suggest that the latest trends in facial esthetics should be considered during diagnosis and treatment planning for young women with dentofacial abnormalities. PMID:26445720

  15. Ties that Bind: Cultural Referent Groups and Coping Strategies of Adult Women as Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nanton, Carmela R.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter examines the cultural influences and applications of women's social capital networks on women's knowledge construction, community development, and autonomy within their cultures and the adult learning context.

  16. Sexual violence against adult women primary care attenders in east London.

    PubMed Central

    Coid, Jeremy; Petruckevitch, Ann; Chung, Wai-Shan; Richardson, Jo; Moorey, Stirling; Cotter, Sarah; Feder, Gene S

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sexual violence against women is common. The prevalence appears to be higher in north America than Europe. However, not all surveys have differentiated the experience of forced sex by a current or former partner. Few women are thought to report these experiences to their general practitioner (GP). AIM: To measure the prevalence of rape, sexual assault, and forced sexual intercourse by a partner among women attending general practices, to test the association between these experiences of sexual violence and demographic factors, and to assess the acceptability to women of screening for sexual violence by GPs. DESIGN OF STUDY: Cross-sectional survey. METHOD: A self-administered questionnaire survey of 1207 women aged over 15 years was carried out in 13 general practices in Hackney, east London. RESULTS: Eight per cent (95% confidence interval [CI] = 6.2 to 9.6) of women have experienced rape, 9% (95% CI = 7.0 to 10.6) another type of sexual assault, and 16% (95% CI = 13.6 to 18.1) forced sex by a partner in adulthood: 24% (95% CI = 21.2 to 26.5) have experienced one or more of these types of sexual violence. Experiences of sexual violence demonstrated high levels of lifetime co-occurrence. Women forced to have sex by partners experienced the most severe forms of domestic violence. One in five women would object to routine questioning about being raped and/or sexually assaulted, and one in nine about being forced to have sex by a partner. CONCLUSION: Experiences of sexual violence are common in the lives of adult women in east London, and they represent a significant public health problem. Those women who have one experience appear to be at risk of being victims again. A substantial minority object to routine questions about sexual violence. PMID:14702905

  17. Androgenic hormone profile of adult women with acne.

    PubMed

    da Cunha, Marisa Gonzaga; Fonseca, Fernando Luiz Affonso; Machado, Carlos D Aparecida S

    2013-01-01

    Acne in adult women is a hard-to-manage frequent disease with many relapse cases. It mostly interferes with quality of life and causes major social and metabolic losses for patients. This is a transversal retrospective study and the aim was to standardize the research on circulating androgenic hormone levels and to detect hyperandrogenic states early, showing the frequency and the pattern of the altered hormones, useful resources to correctly evaluate each patient. In this study 835 women above 15 years of age, with acne or aggravation cases, were analyzed. The aim was to verify the percentage of androgen examinations with levels above normal. The levels of the hormones dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydrotestosterone, androstenedione and total testosterone were measured in all patients. The evaluation of the hormone profile showed that 54.56% of the patients had hyperandrogenism, and the levels of DHEA were most frequently elevated. Therefore, in the face of the importance of hyperandrogenism in the pathogenesis of acne, standardizing the research of the hormone profile is paramount for the treatment and control of relapses in case of a surge of acne breakouts during a woman's adult life.

  18. Metabolic Equivalent in Adolescents, Active Adults and Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Melzer, Katarina; Heydenreich, Juliane; Schutz, Yves; Renaud, Anne; Kayser, Bengt; Mäder, Urs

    2016-01-01

    “Metabolic Equivalent” (MET) represents a standard amount of oxygen consumed by the body under resting conditions, and is defined as 3.5 mL O2/kg × min or ~1 kcal/kg × h. It is used to express the energy cost of physical activity in multiples of MET. However, universal application of the 1-MET standard was questioned in previous studies, because it does not apply well to all individuals. Height, weight and resting metabolic rate (RMR, measured by indirect calorimetry) were measured in adolescent males (n = 50) and females (n = 50), women during pregnancy (gestation week 35–41, n = 46), women 24–53 weeks postpartum (n = 27), and active men (n = 30), and were compared to values predicted by the 1-MET standard. The RMR of adolescent males (1.28 kcal/kg × h) was significantly higher than that of adolescent females (1.11 kcal/kg × h), with or without the effects of puberty stage and physical activity levels. The RMR of the pregnant and post-pregnant subjects were not significantly different. The RMR of the active normal weight (0.92 kcal/kg × h) and overweight (0.89 kcal/kg × h) adult males were significantly lower than the 1-MET value. It follows that the 1-MET standard is inadequate for use not only in adult men and women, but also in adolescents and physically active men. It is therefore recommended that practitioners estimate RMR with equations taking into account individual characteristics, such as sex, age and Body Mass Index, and not rely on the 1-MET standard. PMID:27447667

  19. Prenatal diethylstilbestrol exposure and risk of obesity in adult women.

    PubMed

    Hatch, E E; Troisi, R; Palmer, J R; Wise, L A; Titus, L; Strohsnitter, W C; Ricker, W; Hyer, M; Hoover, R N

    2015-06-01

    Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is a non-steroidal estrogen that was commonly prescribed during pregnancy from the late 1940s to 1971. A potent endocrine disruptor, prenatal DES exposure has been linked with reproductive tract malformations, adverse pregnancy outcomes, cancer, infertility and earlier menopause. DES was used for years as a growth promoter in animal production. Some animal studies suggest that prenatal DES exposure is associated with obesity and metabolic disturbances. Using data from the National Cancer Institute DES Follow-Up Study, we evaluated the association between DES and adult obesity, weight gain from age 20 to mid-life, central adiposity and height among 2871 prenatally exposed and 1352 unexposed women between 23 and 52 years of age (median 41.5) at baseline in 1994. DES exposure status was confirmed by prenatal medical record review. We used multivariable log-binomial models to calculate risk ratios (RRs) for obesity in 2006, and linear regression to calculate mean differences in body mass index, weight gain, waist circumference and height. The adjusted RR for DES and obesity was 1.09 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.97, 1.22], and RRs were 1.23 (CI: 1.07, 1.42) and 1.05 (CI: 0.91, 1.20) for low and high estimated total DES dose, respectively, compared with no exposure. DES-exposed women gained slightly more weight than unexposed women [mean difference, 0.70 kg (CI: -0.27, 1.66)]. This study suggests that prenatal DES exposure may be associated with a small increase in adult obesity.

  20. A Neglected Population: Drug-Using Women and Women's Methods of HIV/STI Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gollub, Erica L.

    2008-01-01

    Women drug users are at extremely high risk of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) from sexual transmission, but remain seriously neglected in intervention research promoting women-initiated methods of HIV/STI prevention. Sparse available data indicate a high interest and enthusiasm for women-initiated methods among these women.…

  1. Women in Adult Education: An Analysis of Perspectives in Major Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Elisabeth; Smith, Letitia

    To clarify dominant perspectives on women in adult education publications, ethnographic content analysis was used to examine 112 journal articles in 4 major adult education journals. Articles analyzed were from two North American journals ("Adult Education"/"Adult Education Quarterly" and "Adult…

  2. Childhood factors associated with mammographic density in adult women.

    PubMed

    Lope, Virginia; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Moreno, María Pilar; Vidal, Carmen; Salas-Trejo, Dolores; Ascunce, Nieves; Román, Isabel González; Sánchez-Contador, Carmen; Santamariña, María Carmen; Carrete, Jose Antonio Vázquez; Collado-García, Francisca; Pedraz-Pingarrón, Carmen; Ederra, María; Ruiz-Perales, Francisco; Peris, Mercé; Abad, Soledad; Cabanes, Anna; Pollán, Marina

    2011-12-01

    Growth and development factors could contribute to the development of breast cancer associated with an increase in mammographic density. This study examines the influence of certain childhood-related, socio-demographic and anthropometric variables on mammographic density in adult woman. The study covered 3574 women aged 45-68 years, participating in breast cancer-screening programmes in seven Spanish cities. Based on a craniocaudal mammogram, blind, anonymous measurement of mammographic density was made by a single radiologist, using Boyd's semiquantitative scale. Data associated with the early stages of life were obtained from a direct survey. Ordinal logistic regression and generalised linear models were employed to estimate the association between mammographic density and the variables covered by the questionnaire. Screening programme was introduced as a random effects term. Age, number of children, body mass index (BMI) and other childhood-related variables were used as adjustment variables, and stratified by menopausal status. A total of 811 women (23%) presented mammographic density of over 50%, and 5% of densities exceeded 75%. Our results show a greater prevalence of high mammographic density in women with low prepubertal weight (OR: 1.18; 95% CI: 1.02-1.36); marked prepubertal height (OR: 1.25; 95% CI: 0.97-1.60) and advanced age of their mothers at their birth (>39 years: OR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.03-1.60); and a lower prevalence of high mammographic density in women with higher prepubertal weight, low birth weight and earlier menarche. The influence of these early-life factors may be explained by greater exposure to hormones and growth factors during the development of the breast gland, when breast tissue would be particularly susceptible to proliferative and carcinogenic stimulus.

  3. Low birth weight may increase body fat mass in adult women with polycystic ovarian syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Minooee, Sonia; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Mirmiran, Parvin; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Women engaged with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), as the commonest endocrine disorder, are known to have a specific type of adiposity. Birth weight is among different contributors reported to be responsible for this diversity. Objective: We aimed to compare the relation between birth weight and body fat mass (BFM)/ body lean mass (BLM) in PCOS and their age and body mass index (BMI) matched normal controls. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, a total number of 70 reproductive aged women, diagnosed with PCOS and 70 age- BMI matched healthy women without hirsutism and/or ovulatory dysfunction were recruited., control group had no polycystic ovaries in ultrasonographic scans. A detailed history of birth weight was taken and was divided into the following categories: <2,500 (low birth weight, LBW) and 2,500-4,000 (normal birth weight; NBW). Results: Results showed that LBW prevalence was higher in women with PCOS than in controls (19.3% (27) vs. 15.7% (22)). Also body fat and lean mass (BFM, BLM) have increased in adult women with PCOS who were born underweight compared to their normal (19.8±9.05 vs. 12.9±4.5, p=0.001 and 48.9±6.9 vs. 43.2±5.8, p=0.004 respectively). Conclusion: Fetal birth weight influences on the adulthood obesity, BFM and BLM. This impact is different among women with and without PCOS. PMID:27326419

  4. Cervical and Anal Human Papillomavirus Infection in Adult Women in American Samoa

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Brenda Y.; Ka’opua, Lana S.; Scanlan, Luana; Ah Ching, John; Kamemoto, Lori E.; Thompson, Pamela J.; Zhu, Xuemei; Shvetsov, Yurii B.; Tofaeono, Jennifer; Williams, Victor Tofaeono

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of cervical and anal human papillomavirus (HPV) and risk factors associated with infections were evaluated in a cross-sectional study of 211 adult women in American Samoa. Overall, 53% of women reported ever having a Pap smear. Cervical and anal HPV was detected in 10% and 16% of women, respectively; 4% of women had concurrent cervical and anal HPV. The most common cervical genotypes were HPV 6, HPV 16, and HPV 53. Cutaneous HPV types were detected in 40% of anal infections. Cervical HPV infection was associated with anal HPV (age-adjusted odds ratio = 3.32, 1.10–10.00). After age adjustment, cervical HPV was associated with being unmarried, postsecondary education, hot running water at home, multiple sexual partners, nulliparity, condom use, and other contraceptive methods. In multivariate analyses, only age remained associated with cervical HPV and anal HPV. Cervical and anal HPV was more prevalent among younger women; only anal HPV was detected in older women. PMID:22652246

  5. In Recognition of Culture: A Resource Guide for Adult Educators about Women of Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmann, Sudie, Comp.

    This guide was prepared to aid adult educators in teaching women of minority groups in adult basic education programs. It provides background information about the cultural roles and expectations of these women so that teachers can structure the classroom situation to serve their needs. The first section of the guide contains six essays on the…

  6. Women Who Learn Computing Like Men: Different Gender Positions on Basic Computer Courses in Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salminen-Karlsson, Minna

    2009-01-01

    This article argues that research on gender and adult learning too often regards men and women as unified and separate groups, and does not take intra-gender variation into account. It presents one possible approach to address this problem, in a study of 142 women and 35 men attending basic computer courses in Swedish municipal adult education…

  7. Psychosocial Development of Women: Linkages to Teaching and Leadership in Adult Education. Information Series No. 350.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caffarella, Rosemary S.

    Theories and models of adult development over the life span provide one of the foundational pieces for gaining a clearer understandings of learning in adulthood. Only recently have adult educators spoken more forcefully about the lack of integrated research on adult women. The purpose of this monograph is to describe those missing female voices as…

  8. Older Men's and Women's Relationships with Adult Kin: How Equitable Are They?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Candida C.; Peterson, James L.

    1988-01-01

    Sought global assessments of marital equitability from 62 older adults, and compared men's and women's global equity feelings concerning their relationships with spouses, aged parents, and adult children. Forty younger adults rated equity of their marriages and relationships with parents and grandparents. Majority of both generations' involvements…

  9. Sustaining Advocacy and Action on Women's Participation and Gender Equality in Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medel-Anonuevo, Carolyn; Bernhardt, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the development of gender equality and women's participation in adult learning and education in the history of the International Conferences on Adult Education (CONFINTEA). Though the equality of rights was highlighted throughout the various conferences, the first Global Report on Adult Learning and Education…

  10. Knowledge and Acceptability about Adult Pertussis Immunization in Korean Women of Childbearing Age

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Hyun Sun; Jo, Yun Seong; Kim, Yeun Hee; Park, Yong-Gyu; Wie, Jeong Ha; Cheon, Juyoung; Moon, Hee Bong; Lee, Young

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The adult tetanus, reduced diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine has been introduced in order to provide individual protection and reduce the risk of transmitting pertussis to infants. We assessed the knowledge and acceptability of the Tdap vaccine around pregnancy. Materials and Methods This study was a cross-sectional survey of women of childbearing age (20-45 years) who visited obstetrics and gynecologic units of primary, secondary, or tertiary hospitals. They were asked to fill in a questionnaire assessing their knowledge, attitudes, and acceptability of Tdap. Results The questionnaire was completed by 308 women; 293 (95.1%) had not received information from doctors about Tdap, and 250 (81.2%) did not know about the need for vaccination. A significantly important factor related to subjects' intention to be vaccinated, identified by stepwise multiple logistic regression, was the knowledge (OR 13.5, CI 3.92-46.33) that adult Tdap is effective in preventing pertussis for infants aged 0-6 months. Additionally, 276 (89.6%) considered the recommendation of obstetric doctors as the most influencing factor about Tdap vaccination. Conclusion In Korea, most women of childbearing age seem to be neither recommended nor adequately informed about the vaccination, although our population was not a nationwide representative sample. Information given by healthcare workers may be critical for improving awareness and preventing pertussis. PMID:26069132

  11. Personality Characteristics and Professional Development of Adult Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Miriam

    The sample consisted of 109 women in traditionally male professions and 112 women in traditionally female professions with a mean age of 51.8. Subject selection was based on whether women were under-represented or over-represented in particular fields as stated in the 1960 U.S. census. The Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire, the Adjective…

  12. Unbearable weight: young adult women's experiences of being overweight.

    PubMed

    Yu-Jen, Chang; Yiing-Mei, Liou; Shuh-Jen, Sheu; Mei-Yen, Chen

    2004-06-01

    Being overweight is a hazard to health. Overweight people have a very negative image due to the marketing strategies for weight reduction and beauty products. Young women establishing self-image, seeking affirmation of social peers, and looking for potential mates are usually concerned about their weight and figure. To investigate the experience of young women who think they are overweight, how they come to think in this way, and the impact of this thinking, this qualitative pilot study conducted semi-structured interviews with five participants. On the basis of the qualitative method, data was subjected to constant comparison and content analysis. The phenomenon can thus be described in three major categories: (1) Social labeling of the overweight - a slim image is overwhelmingly preferred; (2) Pursuing attractiveness or health - a self-struggling process; (3) Weight reduction and self control - an endless struggle. The result of the study suggests there is a need for a competitive image to counter current obsessions with painfully slender figures in society. To protect the public's mental and physical health, nurses should play an active role in weight education based on a deeper and more dynamic understanding of being overweight.

  13. Type of snack influences satiety responses in adult women.

    PubMed

    Furchner-Evanson, Allison; Petrisko, Yumi; Howarth, Leslie; Nemoseck, Tricia; Kern, Mark

    2010-06-01

    The effect of different snack foods on satiety and plasma glucose and hormone responses was assessed. Nineteen fasted adult women (mean age: 39.2 + or - 0.7 years, mean BMI: 26.1 + or - 0.8 kg/m(2)) consumed test foods including dried plums, low-fat cookies, white bread and water only on separate days. The test foods (with the exception of water) provided 238 kcal and were similar in total carbohydrate, fat and protein content but differed in fiber and sugar content. Subjects rated their feelings of hunger using satiety index scales prior to snack consumption and again every 15 min for 2h following initiation of intake. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min following intake. At the end of the 120-min test period, subjects were presented with a meal to be consumed until satisfied. The satiety index AUC was greater for the dried plum trial versus the low-fat cookie trial (p < or = 0.05). There was no difference in post-snack consumption between the dried plums and cookie trials. The dried plums trial elicited lower plasma glucose and insulin AUC than the low-fat cookie trial (p < or = 0.05) and tended to promote a greater plasma ghrelin AOC (p = 0.056). These results demonstrate that consuming dried plums as a snack suppresses hunger relative to a low-fat cookie as evidenced by lower glucose and/or satiety-regulating hormone concentrations.

  14. Adult Antisocial Behavior and Affect Regulation among Primary Crack/Cocaine-Using Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litt, Lisa Caren; Hien, Denise A.; Levin, Deborah

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between deficits in affect regulation and Adult Antisocial Behavior (ASB) in primary crack/cocaine-using women was explored in a sample of 80 inner-city women. Narrative early memories were coded for two components of affect regulation, Affect Tolerance and Affect Expression, using the Epigenetic Assessment Rating Scale (EARS;…

  15. Life-Course Pathways and the Psychosocial Adjustment of Young Adult Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amato, Paul R.; Kane, Jennifer B.

    2011-01-01

    We examined 7 life-course pathways from adolescence through the early adult years and their links with general health and psychosocial adjustment among 2,290 women from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Young women who followed a pathway involving college attendance to full-time employment with no family-formation transitions…

  16. Identity Diffusion as a Function of Sex-Roles in Adult Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jabury, Donald Eugene

    This study sought to demonstrate that the relative degree of adult female identity diffusion, as well as certain personality correlates, would be a function of specific sex roles and their combinations. Three groups of 32 women each were selected as married and noncareer, married and career, or unmarried and career women. They were administered a…

  17. Do Lesbians Differ from Heterosexual Men and Women in Levinsonian Phases of Adult Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler-Scruggs, Kathy S.

    2008-01-01

    Research conducted on heterosexual women has been generalized to lesbians. However, the question remains whether lesbians differ in their adult development from heterosexual men and women. This article reviews results of 10 one-on-one life story interviews conducted with self-identified lesbians between the ages of 35 and 45. Information from…

  18. Women's Work Issues. Tierra de Oportunidad Module 2. LAES: Latino Adult Education Services Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissam, Ed; Dorsey, Holda

    This module, which may be used as the basis for a workshop or as a special topic unit in an adult basic education or English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) course, focuses on the problems faced by immigrant women in their work lives and legal provisions to protect employed women. The following items are included: module overview; list of basic,…

  19. Childhood Conduct Problems and Young Adult Outcomes Among Women with Childhood ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Elizabeth B.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2015-01-01

    We tested whether conduct problems predicted young adult functioning and psychiatric symptoms among women diagnosed with ADHD during childhood, in the context of three potential adolescent mediators: internalizing problems, peer rejection, and school failure and disciplinary problems. We controlled for childhood ADHD severity, IQ, and demographic factors, and in the mediational tests, for adolescent conduct problems. Data emanated from 140 participants in the Berkeley Girls with ADHD Longitudinal Study. We used bootstrapping methods to assess indirect effects (mediators). Both childhood (F1,118 change = 9.00, p = .003, R2 change = .069) and adolescent (F1,109 change = 10.41, p = .002, R2 change = .083) conduct problems were associated with worse overall functioning during young adulthood, controlling for initial ADHD severity, child IQ, and demographics. Results were similar when predicting psychiatric symptoms. Adolescent school failure and disciplinary problems mediated the relations between childhood conduct problems and both young-adult functioning and externalizing problems; adolescent internalizing problems and peer conflict mediated the relation between childhood conduct problems and young-adult internalizing problems. As is true for boys, childhood and adolescent conduct problems are associated with poor adult outcomes among girls with ADHD, with school failure and disciplinary problems, internalizing problems, and peer conflict functioning as mediators of these relations. PMID:26854507

  20. Earlier Menarche Is Associated with Lower Insulin Sensitivity and Increased Adiposity in Young Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Dyanne A.; Derraik, José G. B.; Rowe, Deborah L.; Hofman, Paul L.; Cutfield, Wayne S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We aimed to assess whether age at menarche was associated with insulin sensitivity in young adult women. Methods We studied 54 healthy young women aged 20–30 years. Participants were grouped according to age at menarche: Early (≤11.0 years; n=13), Average (>12.0 and ≤13.0 years; n=28), and Late (≥14.0 years, n=13). Primary outcome was insulin sensitivity measured using intravenous glucose tolerance tests and Bergman’s minimal model. Body composition was assessed using whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results Earlier menarche was associated with lower insulin sensitivity (p=0.015). There was also a continuous increase in adiposity with younger age at menarche, which was associated with increased weight (p=0.001), BMI (p=0.002), total body fat (p=0.049), and truncal fat (p=0.020). Stratified analyses showed that insulin sensitivity in Early women (5.5 x10-4·min-1(mU/l)) was lower than in Average (8.0 x10-4·min-1(mU/l), p=0.021) and Late (8.6 x10-4·min-1(mU/l), p=0.033) groups. Early women (weight=66.1 kg; BMI=24.1 kg/m2) were considerably heavier and fatter than Average (59.0 kg, p=0.004; 21.4 kg/m2, p=0.002) and Late (57.0 kg, p=0.001; 20.8 kg/m2, p=0.0009) women. Conclusions Early menarche is associated with lower insulin sensitivity and increased adiposity in young adulthood, potentially increasing the risk of type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome later in life. PMID:26061526

  1. Sexual Revictimization in Adult Women: Examining Factors Associated with Their Childhood and Adulthood Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmel, Cassandra; Postmus, Judy L.; Lee, Inseon

    2012-01-01

    Using data collected from a sample of adult women (n = 234), this study examined the relationship between the experience and disclosure of childhood sexual abuse and subsequent adult sexual violence. Multivariate analyses revealed that physical force during the childhood sexual abuse experience was significant in both children's decisions to…

  2. "You're Always First a Girl": Emerging Adult Women, Gender, and Sexuality in the Israeli Army

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Dana S.

    2011-01-01

    The Israeli army drafts both men and women, and most Israelis complete their military service during their emerging adulthood years. This study examined Israeli women's experiences as soldiers in the army. Twenty-three women (18 emerging adults, 5 young adults) were recruited using purposive sampling and interviewed about how they experienced…

  3. An overview of the predictors of depression among adult Pakistani women.

    PubMed

    Zahidie, Aysha; Jamali, Tanzil

    2013-08-01

    Diseases of women that are due to their gender specific roles and responsibilities result from cultural and social factors prevalent in the environs. World Health Organization has put special emphasis on research need regarding gender related factors for diseases disproportionately affecting women in developing countries. The objective of this write up was to determine the prevalence of depression and the associated risk factors among adult women in Pakistan. PubMed was searched using key words depression, risk factors, women and Pakistan. Out of 20 initially retrieved articles, 12 were directly related to depression and its risk factors among Pakistani women within Pakistani geographical context. Women in Pakistan are vulnerable to poor mental health due to marriage related issues, domestic violence, verbal or physical abuse by in-laws, stressful life and poor social conditions. Women in their perinatal period are more at risk of depression due to pregnancy related concerns.

  4. Perception and evaluation of women's bodies in adolescents and adults with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Horndasch, Stefanie; Heinrich, Hartmut; Kratz, Oliver; Mai, Sandra; Graap, Holmer; Moll, Gunther H

    2015-12-01

    Body image disturbance in anorexia nervosa (AN) has been widely studied with regard to the patient's own body, but little is known about perception of or attitude towards other women's bodies in AN. The aim of the present study was to investigate how 20 girls aged 12-18 years and 19 adult women suffering from AN compared to 37 healthy adolescent girls and women estimate weight and attractiveness of women's bodies belonging to different BMI categories (BMI 13.8-61.3 kg/m²). Weight and attractiveness ratings of the participant's own body and information on physical comparisons were obtained, and effects on others' weight and attractiveness ratings investigated. Differential evaluation processes were found: AN patients estimated other women's weight higher than control participants. Patients showed a bias towards assessing extremely underweight women as more attractive and normal weight and overweight women as less attractive than healthy girls and women. These effects were more pronounced in adult than in adolescent AN patients. The tendency to engage in physical comparison with others significantly correlated with weight as well as attractiveness ratings in patients. A logistic regression model encompassing own attractiveness ratings, attractiveness bias towards strongly underweight others' bodies and the interaction of this bias with age as predictors differentiated best between AN patients and controls. Our results indicate that females suffering from AN and healthy girls and women perceive other women's bodies differently. Assessment of others' weight and attractiveness may contribute to the maintenance of dysfunctional physical comparison processes.

  5. Use of Technology for HIV Prevention among Adolescent and Adult Women in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Viraj V.; Cunningham, Chinazo O.

    2015-01-01

    Although the proportion of new HIV infections in the United States among women has decreased over the last few years, still, approximately 20% of new infections occur annually among adolescent and adult women. The development of effective evidence-based prevention interventions remains an important approach to further decreasing these numbers. Technology-delivered prevention interventions hold tremendous potential due, in part, to their ability to reach beyond the walls of brick-and-mortar intervention sites to engage individuals where they are. While most technology-delivered interventions have focused on adolescents and men who have sex with men, much fewer have specifically targeted adolescent or adult women despite evidence showing interventions tailored to specific target populations are most effective. We summarize the recently published literature on technology-delivered HIV prevention interventions for U.S. adolescent and adult women and provide suggestions for next steps in this nascent but emergent area of prevention research. PMID:26412086

  6. Adult attachment style dimensions in women who have gay or bisexual fathers.

    PubMed

    Sirota, Theodora

    2009-08-01

    This study explored possible differences in adult attachment style dimensions between women with gay or bisexual fathers (n = 68) and women with heterosexual fathers (n = 68) using a revised version of the Adult Attachment Scale (Collins & Read, 1990b). Data analysis revealed highly significant differences between groups on all three adult attachment dimensions. Women with gay or bisexual fathers were significantly less comfortable with closeness and intimacy (t = 5.264, P = .0001), less able to trust and depend on others (t = 6.621, P = .0001), and experienced more anxiety in relationships (t = 4.368, P = .0001) than women with heterosexual fathers. Theoretical and methodological issues, conclusions, and implications related to the findings are discussed.

  7. Dialogical Feminism: Other Women and the Challenge of Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    Academic feminism is now largely concerned with abstract theory and a discourse which distances it from the lived reality of working class women. This paper explores, through the concept and approach of dialogical feminism, ways in which feminists in the academy can re-connect with 'other women' in working towards social transformation for all…

  8. Sexual Objectification and Substance Abuse in Young Adult Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Erika R.; Szymanski, Dawn M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectification Theory (Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997) provides an important perspective for understanding the experiences of women living in a culture that sexualizes and objectifies the female body. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between interpersonal sexual objectification experiences and women's substance abuse in a…

  9. The Sexual Acceptability of Intrauterine Contraception: A Qualitative Study of Young Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Jenny A.; Ryder, Kristin; Skarda, Grace; Koepsel, Erica; Bennett, Eliza A.

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT The IUD is extremely effective but infrequently used by young adult women, who disproportionately experience unintended pregnancies. Research has not examined how IUD use may affect sexuality, which could in turn affect method acceptability, continuation and marketing efforts. METHODS Focus group discussions and interviews were conducted in 2014 with 50 women between the ages of 18 and 29—either University of Wisconsin students or women from the surrounding community who received public assistance—to explore their thoughts about whether and how IUD use can affect sexual experiences. A modified grounded theory approach was used to identify common themes in terms of both experienced and anticipated sexual acceptability of the IUD. RESULTS Six themes emerged: Security (IUD’s efficacy can reduce sexual inhibition), spontaneity (IUD can allow for free-flowing sex), sexual aspects of bleeding and cramping (IUD’s side effects can affect sex), scarcity of hormones (IUD has little or no hormones, and reduces libido less than hormonal methods such as the pill), string (IUD’s string can detract from a partner’s sexual experience) and stasis (IUD use can have no impact on sex). Some reported sexual aspects of IUD use were negative, but most were positive and described ever-users’ method satisfaction and never-users’ openness to use the method. DISCUSSION Future research and interventions should attend to issues of sexual acceptability: Positive sexual aspects of the IUD could be used promotionally, and counseling about sexual concerns could increase women’s willingness to try the method. PMID:26280666

  10. Online Social Communication Patterns among Young Adult Women with Histories of Childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Mikami, Amori Yee; Szwedo, David E.; Ahmad, Shaikh I.; Samuels, Andrea Stier; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about adult women with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), however available evidence suggests that they experience social impairment. Online social networking websites such as Facebook have become endemic outlets through which emerging adults communicate with peers. No study has examined the peer interactions of emerging adults with childhood histories of ADHD in this developmentally relevant online domain. Participants in the current study were an ethnically diverse sample of 228 women, 140 of whom met diagnostic criteria for ADHD in childhood and 88 who composed a matched comparison sample. These women were assessed at three time points spanning 10 years (mean age = 9.6 at Wave 1, 14.1 at Wave 2, 19.6 at Wave 3). After statistical control of demographic covariates and comorbidites, childhood ADHD diagnosis predicted, by emerging adulthood, a greater stated preference for online social communication and a greater tendency to have used online methods to interact with strangers. A childhood diagnosis of ADHD also predicted observations of fewer Facebook friends and less closeness and support from Facebook friends in emerging adulthood. These associations were mediated by a composite of face-to-face peer relationship impairment during childhood and adolescence. Intriguingly, women with persistent diagnoses of ADHD from childhood to emerging adulthood differed from women with consistent comparison status in their online social communication; women with intermittent diagnoses of ADHD had scores intermediate between the other two groups. Results are discussed within the context of understanding the social relationships of women with childhood histories of ADHD. PMID:25894439

  11. Online social communication patterns among emerging adult women with histories of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Mikami, Amori Yee; Szwedo, David E; Ahmad, Shaikh I; Samuels, Andrea Stier; Hinshaw, Stephen P

    2015-08-01

    Little is known about adult women with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); however, available evidence suggests that they experience social impairment. Online social networking websites such as Facebook have become endemic outlets through which emerging adults communicate with peers. No study has examined the peer interactions of emerging adults with childhood histories of ADHD in this developmentally relevant online domain. Participants in the current study were an ethnically diverse sample of 228 women, 140 of whom met diagnostic criteria for ADHD in childhood and 88 who composed a matched comparison sample. These women were assessed at 3 time points spanning 10 years (mean age = 9.6 at Wave 1, 14.1 at Wave 2, 19.6 at Wave 3). After statistical control of demographic covariates and comorbidities, childhood ADHD diagnosis predicted, by emerging adulthood, a greater stated preference for online social communication and a greater tendency to have used online methods to interact with strangers. A childhood diagnosis of ADHD also predicted observations of fewer Facebook friends and less closeness and support from Facebook friends in emerging adulthood. These associations were mediated by a composite of face-to-face peer relationship impairment during childhood and adolescence. Intriguingly, women with persistent diagnoses of ADHD from childhood to emerging adulthood differed from women with consistent comparison status in their online social communication; women with intermittent diagnoses of ADHD had scores intermediate between the other 2 groups. Results are discussed within the context of understanding the social relationships of women with childhood histories of ADHD.

  12. Isolating the Barriers and Strategies for Prevention: A Kit about Violence and Women's Education for Adult Educators and Adult Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Anne, Ed.; Williams, Patricia, Ed.

    This document, which is intended for adult educators, contains information learned during the course of pilot workshops on the connections between violence and women's education that were held in four areas of Canada (Pine Grove, Montreal, Toronto, and the Yukon). First, the pilot workshops and development/use of the document are discussed, and…

  13. Association between legume intake and self-reported diabetes among adult men and women in India

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background It is postulated that a diet high in legumes may be beneficial in preventing diabetes. However, little empirical evidence on this association exists in developing countries. We aimed to examine the association between legume intake and self-reported diabetes status in adult men and women in India. Methods The analysis is based on a population-based cross sectional study of 99,574 women and 56,742 men aged 20–49 years included in India’s third National Family Health Survey conducted in 2005–06. Association of legume intake, determined by the frequency of consumption of pulses and beans (daily, weekly and occasionally or never), with the reported prevalence of diabetes were estimated using multiple logistic regression after adjusting for frequency of consumption of other food items, BMI status, tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, watching television, age, education, living standard of the household, residence and geographic regions. Results Daily (OR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.59–0.87; p=0.001) and weekly (OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.54–0.80; p<0.001) legumes intake were associated with a significantly reduced prevalence of diabetes among adult Indian women even after controlling for the effects of potentially confounding factors, whereas non-significant inverse associations were observed in men. Conclusion Daily or weekly intake of legumes was inversely associated with presence of diabetes in the Indian population. However, this is an observational finding and uncontrolled confounding cannot be excluded as an explanation for the association. More epidemiological research with better measures of legumes intake and clinical measures of diabetes is needed to clarify this relationship. PMID:23915141

  14. Development of sexual orientation among adolescent and young adult women.

    PubMed

    Diamond, L M

    1998-09-01

    Although some research suggests that sexual orientation is a stable, early appearing trait, interviews with 89 young sexual-minority women revealed that a majority of women failed to report at least one of the following: childhood indicators of sexual orientation, stability in same-sex attractions, or awareness of same-sex attractions prior to the conscious process of sexual questioning. Lesbians were not more likely to report these experiences than bisexuals, although they reported significantly greater same-sex attractions. Consistent with studies on older cohorts, few young women reported exclusive same-sex attractions. These findings suggest that recollected consistency among prior and current behavior, ideation, and attractions are not systematically associated with sexual orientation among contemporary young women.

  15. Intergenerational Systems Theory and Identity Development in Young Adult Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perosa, Linda M.; Perosa, Sandra L.; Tam, Hak Ping

    2002-01-01

    Explored via questionnaires how intergenerational family systems theory is related to identity development in 164 undergraduate women. Found intergenerational factors of intimacy, intimidation, and individuation along with autonomy versus fusion, contributed variance to various identity statuses. (Author/DLH)

  16. A Comparison of the Adult Performance Levels of Women Offenders in the Texas Department of Corrections and Free-World Women in Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitson, Karin Stork

    The functional competencies of 131 women offenders incarcerated in Texas were assessed and than compared to the functional competencies of 868 free-world women in Texas surveyed during the Adult Performance Level (APL) Project. The findings support the following conclusions: (1) women in the free-world are more functionally competent than women…

  17. Modified transmitter attachment method for adult ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pietz, P.J.; Brandt, D.A.; Krapu, G.L.; Buhl, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    The value of radio telemetry for waterfowl research depends on the availability of suitable methods of attaching transmitters. In previous studies, external transmitters attached to adult Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) with sutures and glue did not stay on birds reliably. In an attempt to improve transmitter retention, a method of attachment was tested in which 4-g transmitters were attached mid-dorsally with sutures and with a stainless steel anchor-shaped wire inserted subcutaneously (anchor transmitters). Field tests indicated that all of 26 female Mallards and 63 of 65 female Gadwalls (Anas strepera) retained their anchor transmitters during 4369 bird-days of monitoring during nesting and brood rearing. Survival rates of females with anchor transmitters compared favorably with those reported from other studies. In this study, females with and without anchor transmitters did not differ with respect to survival rates of their ducklings. The anchor transmitter may be suitable for a variety of field studies on numerous species.

  18. Family Context and Khat Chewing among Adult Yemeni Women: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    AL-abed, AL-abed Ali; Sutan, Rosnah; Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Khat chewing is associated with unfavourable health outcomes and family dysfunction. Few studies have addressed the factors associated with khat chewing among Yemeni women. However, the family and husband effects on chewing khat by women have not been addressed. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of khat chewing among Yemeni women and its associated factors, particularly husbands and family factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 692 adult Yemeni women in the city of Sana'a in Yemen using structured “face to face” interviews. Mean (±SD) age of women was 27.3 years (±6.10). The prevalence of chewing khat by women was 29.6%. Factors associated with chewing khat among women were chewing khat by husbands (OR = 1.8; 95% CI: 1.26, 2.53), being married (OR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.20, 3.37), frequent family social gatherings (OR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.06, 2.10), high family income (OR = 1.57; 95% CI: 1.12, 2.21), larger house (OR = 1.63; 95% CI: 1.16, 2.31), and age of women (OR = 0.64; 95% CI: 0.44, 0.92). It is concluded that khat chewing by women in this study was significantly associated with family factors and with khat chewing by their husbands. Urgent action is needed to control khat chewing particularly among women. PMID:24982886

  19. Contemporary Portraits of Japanese Adult Women: Life Course Plans and Junior Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inoue, Yukiko

    It has been documented that at the age of 20, Japanese women have not yet discovered the realities of the adult world. With the end of high growth in the Japanese economy, women of Japan have to face a new challenge. They frequently have to be not only a homemaker but also a breadwinner. Life course is a pathway along which people live, and life…

  20. Women's Rights to Adult Education as a Means to Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stromquist, Nelly P.

    2006-01-01

    A fundamental reason for the advocacy of women's literacy is its contribution to the attainment of citizenship, that is the claiming and use of public space and power. Following a presentation of basic trends and public policies in literacy, this article reviews the diverse theoretical understandings of literacy. It discusses normative arguments…

  1. An Empirical Investigation of Leisure Exercise Behavior in Adult Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noland, Melody Powers; Feldman, Robert H. L.

    1985-01-01

    A study of 215 women aged 25 to 65 was conducted to determine the relationship between their participation in regular, vigorous exercise and their exercise locus of control, health values, physical appearance values, physical fitness values, attitudes toward physical activity, and barriers to exercise. Results are discussed. (MT)

  2. Exploring Young Adult Sexual Minority Women's Perspectives on LGBTQ Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youatt, Emily J.; Johns, Michelle M.; Pingel, Emily S.; Soler, Jorge H.; Bauermeister, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Smoking rates are higher among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals than among heterosexuals. These disparities are exacerbated during the transition from youth to young adulthood. The current study uses in-depth qualitative interviews to understand perceptions of LGBTQ smoking among LBQ-identified women (N = 30, ages…

  3. Sustaining advocacy and action on women's participation and gender equality in adult education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medel-Añonuevo, Carolyn; Bernhardt, Anna

    2011-08-01

    This article gives an overview of the development of gender equality and women's participation in adult learning and education in the history of the International Conferences on Adult Education (CONFINTEA). Though the equality of rights was highlighted throughout the various conferences, the first Global Report on Adult Learning and Education (GRALE) observed that a gender gap in the participation in adult learning and education still persisted in 2009. This is especially remarkable with regard to the impact of CONFINTEA V in 1997, because it focused on the issue of women's participation and gender equality. A review of the CONFINTEA VI programme elements and the national reports prepared by UNESCO Member States in 2008 reveals that gender issues have to some extent moved from the centre of attention to the periphery. This article therefore tries to explore how gender principles are acknowledged in CONFINTEA VI and its follow-up.

  4. ABUSE VICTIMIZATION IN CHILDHOOD OR ADOLESCENCE AND RISK OF FOOD ADDICTION IN ADULT WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    Flint, Alan J.; Field, Alison E.; Austin, S. Bryn; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Child abuse appears to increase obesity risk in adulthood, but the mechanisms are unclear. This study examined the association between child abuse victimization and food addiction, a measure of stress-related overeating, in 57,321 adult participants in the Nurses’ Health Study II (NHSII). Design and Methods The NHSII ascertained physical and sexual child abuse histories in 2001 and current food addiction in 2009. Food addiction was defined as ≥3 clinically significant symptoms on a modified version of the Yale Food Addiction Scale. Confounder-adjusted risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using modified Poisson regression. Results Over eight percent of the sample reported severe physical abuse in childhood, while 5.3% reported severe sexual abuse. Eight percent met the criteria for food addiction. Women with food addiction were 6 units of BMI heavier than women without food addiction. Severe physical and severe sexual abuse were associated with roughly 90% increases in food addiction risk (physical abuse RR=1.92; 95% CI: 1.76, 2.09; sexual abuse RR=1.87; 95% CI: 1.69, 2.05). The RR for combined severe physical abuse and sexual abuse was 2.40 (95% CI: 2.16, 2.67). Conclusions A history of child abuse is strongly associated with food addiction in this population. PMID:23637085

  5. Exploring Baseline Food-Media Literacy of Adult Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Tina L.

    2012-01-01

    Many media education researchers have identified the importance of adult media literacy but few have studied it. Such literacy is becoming increasingly important with regard to the growing category of food media--advertisements, television programs, and print media among them. Using two focus groups and guided by Primack and Hobbs' (2009) AA, RR,…

  6. Curriculum Choices of Adult Women in Continuing Education: Situational and Developmental Influences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborn, Barbara L.; Avery, Carol E.

    1979-01-01

    Predictor variables in a study to identify factors associated with curriculum choices of adult women students enrolled in the University of Rhode Island included both situational and developmental factors. Findings indicated moderate success in associating several variables with some curriculum choices. Theoretical and educational implications are…

  7. Inspiration from Home: Understanding Family as Key to Adult Women's Self-Investment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaccaro, Annemarie; Lovell, Cheryl D.

    2010-01-01

    As the number of nontraditional-age students grows on college campuses, it is essential for higher education practitioners to understand if and how older students, especially women, become and remain engaged in their education. A review of the educational engagement literature reveals images of disengaged adult learners whose work and family…

  8. The Sexual Functioning of Adult Women Molested as Children: A Review of Empirical Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Julie Lynn

    This paper reviews the research literature from 1978 to 1991 that addresses long-term effects of childhood sexual abuse on adult women's sexual functioning. Frequently reported long-term effects of childhood sexual abuse are noted, including both sexual dissatisfaction and sexual dysfunction. In terms of sexual dysfunction, it is noted that adult…

  9. Rural Adult Education and the Health Transformation of Pastoral Women of Northern Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usman, Lantana M.

    2009-01-01

    Recently, politics of education in Nigeria have shifted from urban to rural literacy, which led to the development of programmes such as the nomadic women's adult education programme. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the programme's implementation strategies, and the extent to which the health educational…

  10. Nurse Practitioner Primary Care Competencies in Specialty Areas: Adult, Family, Gerontological, Pediatric, and Women's Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crabtree, M. Katherine; Stanley, Joan; Werner, Kathryn E.; Schmid, Emily

    This document presents the nurse practitioner primary care competencies that a national panel of representatives of nine national organizations of the five primary care nurse practitioner specialties--adult, family, gerontological, pediatric, and women's health--identified as necessary for entry-level primary care nurse practitioners. Section 1…

  11. The Self-Injury Experiences of Young Adult Women: Implications for Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craigen, Laurie M.; Milliken, Tammi F.

    2010-01-01

    Many counselors lack a clear understanding of the phenomenon of self-injury. This article presents results of a qualitative study examining the experiences of young adult women who engage in self-injurious behaviors. Interpretation of the participants' narrative data offers insight into the value of a humanistic approach to counseling this…

  12. Why Is Cancer More Depressing for Men than Women among Older White Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pudrovska, Tetyana

    2010-01-01

    Using data from two waves of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (N = 8,054), I examine gender differences in psychological adjustment to cancer among older white adults. Results from different types of longitudinal models reveal that cancer has more adverse psychological implications for men than women. Men's higher levels of depression are reduced…

  13. Adult Education of Women for Social Transformation: Reviving the Promise, Continuing the Struggle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stromquist, Nelly P.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter considers Theme 4 of the "Hamburg Declaration": Adult learning, gender equality and equity, and the empowerment of women. It has a fourfold purpose. It begins with a review of the balance of progress to date in conceptualizing gender. Second, it examines the objectives of CONFINTEA V and VI from a gender perspective. Third,…

  14. Physical Activity Levels among Adolescent and Young Adult Women and Men with and without Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundahl, Lina; Zetterberg, Marie; Wester, Anita; Rehn, Börje; Blomqvist, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Background: As physical activity can prevent overweight and promote general health, the aim was to investigate the amount of physical activity among adolescent and young adult women and men with intellectual disability (ID), compared to age-matched control groups without intellectual disability. A further aim was to examine whether physical…

  15. Why a Focus on Adult Women Is Critical to the Higher Education System and Our Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leary, Carol A.

    2014-01-01

    Present-day adult women students will not be the only ones to gain from a college degree. Generations for decades to come will benefit. In fact, the Shriver Report indicates that "parental education attainment is now more important than family income in predicting a child's future opportunity." According to U.S. Census figures, 76…

  16. An Examination of the Validity of Holland's Constructs for Adult Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, David W.

    This study was designed to examine the validity and test-retest reliability of Holland's Vocational Preference Inventory (VPI) for 61 adult women. The VPI was administered at the beginning of a group guidance program and the preference for Holland's six personality styles - intellectual, conventional, enterprising, realistic, social, artistic -…

  17. Knowing Their Place: Feminist Understandings and Perceptions of Women Adult Educators in Museums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clover, Darlene E.; Sanford, K.

    2016-01-01

    Arguing gender inequity remains one of the biggest challenges of our time, and framed within the concept of "pedagogic contact zones", our article shares findings from a five-year feminist, cross-national study of women adult educators and community practitioners in public museums and art galleries in Canada and the United Kingdom.…

  18. Influence of strength training on adult women's flexibility.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Walace David; Simão, Roberto; Polito, Marco Doederlein; Santana, Cleves Araújo; Chaves, Rogério Batista; Bezerra, Ewerton; Fleck, Steven J

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of 10 weeks of strength training on the flexibility of sedentary middle-aged women. Twenty women were randomly assigned to either a strength training group (n = 10; age, 37 +/- 1.7 years; body mass, 65.2 +/- 10.7 kg; height, 157.7 +/- 10.8 cm; and body mass index, 25.72 +/- 3.3 kg x m(-2)) or a control group (n = 10; age, 36.9 +/- 1.2 years; body mass, 64.54 +/- 10.18 kg; height, 158.1 +/- 8.9 cm; and body mass index, 26.07 +/- 2.8 kg x m(-2)). The strength training program was a total body session performed in a circuit fashion and consisted of 7 exercises performed for 3 circuits of 8 to 12 repetitions maximum (RM), except for the abdominal exercise which was performed for 15 to 20 RM. Flexibility measurements were taken for 10 articulation movements pre and post training: shoulder flexion and extension, shoulder horizontal adduction and abduction, elbow flexion, hip flexion and extension, knee flexion, and trunk flexion and extension. Pre and post training, 10 RM strength significantly increased (p < 0.05). Of the movements examined, only shoulder horizontal adduction, hip flexion and extension, and trunk flexion and extension demonstrated significant increases (p < 0.05). Neither elbow nor knee flexion showed a significant change with weight training. The control group showed no significant change in any of the flexibility measures determined. In conclusion, weight training can increase flexibility in previously sedentary middle-aged women in some, but not all joint movements.

  19. The Revictimization of Adult Women With Histories of Childhood Abuse

    PubMed Central

    CHU, JAMES A.

    1992-01-01

    Both clinical experience and recent research statistics support the observation that childhood abuse survivors are vulnerable to revictimization as adults. The responsibility for revictimization, such as physical or sexual assault, belongs to the perpetrators. However, the factors that make abuse survivors more vulnerable to exploitation need to be examined and understood in order to provide adequate treatment and protection. This discussion integrates an understanding of three powerful forces—the repetition compulsion, post-traumatic syndromes, and profound relational disturbances—that permit the process of revictimization to occur. PMID:22700102

  20. Presence and resistance of Streptococcus agalactiae in vaginal specimens of pregnant and adult non-pregnant women and association with other aerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Numanović, Fatima; Smajlović, Jasmina; Gegić, Merima; Delibegović, Zineta; Bektaš, Sabaheta; Halilović, Emir; Nurkić, Jasmina

    2017-02-01

    Aim To determine the prevalence rate and resistance profile of Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) in vaginal swabs of pregnant and adult non-pregnant women in the Tuzla region, Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H), as well as its association with other aerobic bacteria. Methods This prospective study included 200 women, 100 pregnant and 100 adult non-pregnant. The research was conducted at the Institute of Microbiology, University Clinical Center Tuzla from October to December 2015. Standard aerobic microbiological techniques were used for isolation and identification of S. agalactiae and other aerobic bacteria. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the disk diffusion and microdilution method(VITEK 2/AES instrument). Results Among 200 vaginal swabs, 17 (8.50%) were positive for S. agalactiae, e. g., 7% (7/100) of pregnant and 10% (10/100) of adult non-pregnant women. In the pregnant group, 71.4% (5/7) of S. agalactiae isolates were susceptible to clindamycin and 85.7%(6/7) to erythromycin. In the adult non-pregnant group, only resistance to clindamycin was observed in one patient (1/10; 10%). S. agalactiae as single pathogen was isolated in 57.14% (4/7) of pregnant and 60% (6/10) of adult non-pregnant S. agalactiae positive women. In mixed microbial cultures S. agalactiae was most frequently associated with Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli. Conclusion The rate of S. agalactiae positive women in the population of pregnant and adult non-pregnant women of Tuzla Canton, B&H is comparable with other European countries. Large studies are needed to develop a common national strategy for the prevention of S. agalactiae infection in B&H, especially during pregnancy.

  1. Effects of early menarche on physical and psychosocial health problems in adolescent girls and adult women.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jae-Ho

    2016-09-01

    The menarcheal age of Korean women has been rapidly decreasing for the last 50 years, and the average menarcheal age of women born in the 1990s is approaching 12.6 years. In addition, interest in early puberty has been increasing recently owing to the rapid increase in precocious puberty. Generally, out of concern for short stature and early menarche, idiopathic central precocious puberty in female adolescents is treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs. Studies to date have described the association between early menarche and psychosocial problems such as delinquency and risky sexual behavior, as well as physical health problems such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and breast cancer throughout the lifespan of women. However, the pathophysiological mechanism underlying this association has not been clarified thus far. In this article, we review and discuss the existing literature to describe the current understanding of the effects of early menarche on the physical and psychosocial health of adolescent girls and adult women.

  2. The association of tanning behavior with psycho-tropic medication use among young adult women.

    PubMed

    Heckman, Carolyn J; Munshi, Teja; Darlow, Susan; Kloss, Jacqueline D; Manne, Sharon L; Perlis, Clifford; Oslin, David

    2016-01-01

    Despite its known association with skin cancer, tanning remains popular among young adult women. Indoor tanning behavior has been found to be associated with affective and addictive disorders. To better understand potential psychological and biological mechanisms of tanning behavior, we investigated associations between tanning and medication (psychotropic and other) use among young women. Two hundred and fifty-three women age 18-29 years old were recruited from two northeastern university campus communities. Women self-reported tanning frequency and chronic medication use. In both univariate and multivariate analyses, indoor tanning ≥12 times last year was significantly associated with use of psychotropic medication and anti-depressants in particular. Sunbathing was not associated with medication use. Potential reasons for associations between tanning and psychotropic medication use are discussed. Indoor tanners should be warned that some psychotropic medications are photosensitizing, thus increasing risk for burns and other skin damage from indoor tanning.

  3. An Efficient Method for Transferring Adult Mosquitoes during Field Tests,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    CULICIDAE, *COLLECTING METHODS, REPRINTS, BLOOD SUCKING INSECTS, FIELD TESTS, HAND HELD, EFFICIENCY, LABORATORY EQUIPMENT, MORTALITY RATES , ADULTS, AEDES, ASPIRATORS, CULICIDAE, TEST AND EVALUATION, REPRINTS

  4. Gender role across development in adult women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Long, Dominique N; Wisniewski, Amy B; Migeon, Claude J

    2004-10-01

    This study evaluated the degree of femininity and masculinity at different developmental stages in a group of adult women, some of whom were exposed to elevated prenatal adrenal androgens as a result of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21 hydroxylase (21-OH) deficiency. Women who had presented to the Johns Hopkins Hospital Pediatric Endocrine Clinic for treatment of CAH due to 21-OH deficiency were included. The control group consisted of sisters of CAH participants and women referred for evaluation of polycystic ovary syndrome. Study participants were given a questionnaire asking them to indicate their degree of masculinity and femininity during childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. In addition, participants were asked questions related to their play behavior during childhood, including playmate preferences, toy preferences, and admiration of male or female characters during fantasy play. Across participant groups, self-reported femininity decreased in a dose response manner, according to prenatal androgen exposure. For all groups, femininity increased through developmental stages. Women with salt-losing CAH remained less feminine than controls into adulthood. Conversely, self-reported masculinity increased in a dose-response manner, according to prenatal androgen exposure, across participant groups. Women with CAH showed a decrease in masculinity across developmental stages, such that by adulthood, there were no significant differences in masculinity between controls and the women with CAH. Women with salt-losing CAH were more likely to recall preferences for boy playmates, male-typical toys, and admiration for male characters during childhood than other study participants. Our data support the effect of both prenatal androgen exposure and socialization on gender role behavior in adult women with CAH due to 21-OH deficiency.

  5. Determinants of Weight Gain Prevention in Young Adult and Midlife Women: Study Design and Protocol of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Treatment of overweight and obesity through body weight reduction has been monumentally ineffective as few individuals are able to sustain weight loss. Rather than treating weight gain once it has become problematic, prevention of weight gain over time may be more effective. Objective The aim of this research is to preclude the burden of adult obesity in women by identifying the determinants of weight gain prevention. The objective of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) is to compare a weight gain prevention intervention delivered by the registered dietitian versus counselor. Methods This is a 12-month parallel-arm weight gain prevention RCT designed to increase self-efficacy, self-regulation, outcome expectations and family and social support through the use of a nutrition education intervention in women, aged 18-45 years, from the Urbana-Champaign (Illinois, USA) area. Women have been randomized to registered dietitian, counselor or wait-list control groups (August 2014) and are undergoing weekly nutrition education sessions for four months, followed by monthly sessions for eight months (through August 2015). Outcome measures, including: (1) dietary intake, (2) physical activity, (3) anthropometric and blood pressure measurements, (4) biochemical markers of health, (5) eating behaviors and health perceptions, and (6) mediators of behavior change, were collected before the intervention began (baseline) and will be collected at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of the study. Results In total, 87 women have been randomized to intervention groups, and 81 women have completed first week of the study. Results are expected in early 2016. Conclusions This RCT is one of the first to examine weight gain prevention in women across normal, overweight, and obese body mass index categories. Results of this research are expected to have application to evidence-based practice in weight gain prevention for women and possibly have implication for policy regarding decreasing the

  6. Associations Between Adult and Childhood Secondhand Smoke Exposures with Fecundity and Fetal Loss Among Women who Visited a Cancer Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Peppone, Luke J.; Piazza, Kenneth M.; Mahoney, Martin C.; Morrow, Gary R.; Mustian, Karen; Palesh, Oxana G.; Hyland, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND A large percentage of the population continues to be exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS). Although studies have consistently linked active smoking to various pregnancy outcomes, results from the few studies examining SHS exposure and pregnancy difficulties have been inconsistent. METHODS Approximately 4,800 women who presented to Roswell Park Cancer Institute between 1982 and 1998 and reported being pregnant at least once were queried about their childhood and adult exposures to SHS using a standardized questionnaire. Women were asked to report on selected prenatal pregnancy outcomes (fetal loss and difficulty becoming pregnant). RESULTS Approximately 11.3% of women reported difficulty becoming pregnant, while 32% reported a fetal loss or 12.4% reported multiple fetal losses. Forty percent reported any prenatal pregnancy difficulty (fetal loss and/or difficulty becoming pregnant). SHS exposures from their parents were associated with difficulty becoming pregnant (OR=1.26, 95%CI 1.07–1.48) and lasting > 1 year (OR=1.34, 95%CI 1.12–1.60). Exposure to SHS in both at home during childhood and at the time of survey completion was also associated with fetal loss (OR=1.39, 95%CI 1.17–1.66) and multiple fetal losses (OR=1.62, 95%CI 1.25–2.11). Increasing current daily hours of SHS exposure as an adult was related to the occurrence of both multiple fetal loss and reduced fecundity (ptrend<0.05). CONCLUSIONS Reports of exposures to SHS during childhood and as an adult were associated with increased odds for prenatal pregnancy difficulties. These findings underscore the public health perspective that all persons, especially women in their reproductive years, should be fully protected from tobacco smoke. PMID:19039010

  7. Validation of a Smartphone Image-Based Dietary Assessment Method for Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Ashman, Amy M.; Collins, Clare E.; Brown, Leanne J.; Rae, Kym M.; Rollo, Megan E.

    2017-01-01

    Image-based dietary records could lower participant burden associated with traditional prospective methods of dietary assessment. They have been used in children, adolescents and adults, but have not been evaluated in pregnant women. The current study evaluated relative validity of the DietBytes image-based dietary assessment method for assessing energy and nutrient intakes. Pregnant women collected image-based dietary records (via a smartphone application) of all food, drinks and supplements consumed over three non-consecutive days. Intakes from the image-based method were compared to intakes collected from three 24-h recalls, taken on random days; once per week, in the weeks following the image-based record. Data were analyzed using nutrient analysis software. Agreement between methods was ascertained using Pearson correlations and Bland-Altman plots. Twenty-five women (27 recruited, one withdrew, one incomplete), median age 29 years, 15 primiparas, eight Aboriginal Australians, completed image-based records for analysis. Significant correlations between the two methods were observed for energy, macronutrients and fiber (r = 0.58–0.84, all p < 0.05), and for micronutrients both including (r = 0.47–0.94, all p < 0.05) and excluding (r = 0.40–0.85, all p < 0.05) supplements in the analysis. Bland-Altman plots confirmed acceptable agreement with no systematic bias. The DietBytes method demonstrated acceptable relative validity for assessment of nutrient intakes of pregnant women. PMID:28106758

  8. The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Physical Health among Adult Women in Southern Louisiana: The Women and Their Children’s Health (WaTCH) Study

    PubMed Central

    Peres, Lauren C.; Trapido, Edward; Rung, Ariane L.; Harrington, Daniel J.; Oral, Evrim; Fang, Zhide; Fontham, Elizabeth; Peters, Edward S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill (DHOS) is the largest oil spill in U.S. history, negatively impacting Gulf Coast residents and the surrounding ecosystem. To date, no studies have been published concerning physical health outcomes associated with the DHOS in the general community. Objectives: We characterized individual DHOS exposure using survey data and examined the association between DHOS exposure and physical health. Methods: Baseline data from 2,126 adult women residing in southern Louisiana and enrolled in the Women and Their Children’s Health study were analyzed. Exploratory factor analysis was used to characterize DHOS exposure. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the associations between DHOS exposure and physical health symptoms were estimated using multivariate logistic regression. Results: A two-factor solution was identified as the best fit for DHOS exposure: physical–environmental exposure and economic exposure. High physical–environmental exposure was significantly associated with all of the physical health symptoms, with the strongest associations for burning in nose, throat, or lungs (OR = 4.73; 95% CI: 3.10, 7.22), sore throat (OR = 4.66; 95% CI: 2.89, 7.51), dizziness (OR = 4.21; 95% CI: 2.69, 6.58), and wheezing (OR = 4.20; 95% CI: 2.86, 6.17). Women who had high-economic exposure were significantly more likely to report wheezing (OR = 1.92; 95% CI: 1.32, 2.79); headaches (OR = 1.81; 95% CI: 1.41, 2.58); watery, burning, itchy eyes (OR = 1.61; 95% CI: 1.20, 2.16); and stuffy, itchy, runny nose (OR = 1.56; 95% CI: 1.16, 2.08). Conclusions: Among southern Louisiana women, both physical–environmental and economic exposure to the DHOS were associated with an increase in self-reported physical health outcomes. Additional longitudinal studies of this unique cohort are needed to elucidate the impact of the DHOS on short- and long-term human health. Citation: Peres LC, Trapido E, Rung AL, Harrington DJ, Oral E, Fang Z

  9. Thyroid hormones and adult interpersonal violence among women with borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Sinai, Cave; Hirvikoski, Tatja; Nordström, Anna-Lena; Nordström, Peter; Nilsonne, Åsa; Wilczek, Alexander; Åsberg, Marie; Jokinen, Jussi

    2015-06-30

    Elevated T3 levels have been reported in men with antisocial behavior. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between thyroid hormones and expressed adult interpersonal violence in female patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Furthermore, expressed adult interpersonal violence in female BPD patients was compared to healthy female controls. A total of 92 clinically euthyroid women with BPD and 57 healthy women were assessed with the Karolinska Interpersonal Violence Scales (KIVS). Baseline thyroid function was evaluated by measuring plasma free and bound triiodothyronine (FT3 and T3), thyroxine (FT4 and T4), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) with immunoassays in patients. Plasma cortisol was also measured. Among females with BPD, expressed interpersonal violence as an adult showed a significant positive correlation with the T3 levels. The mean expression of interpersonal violence as an adult was significantly higher in BPD patients as compared to healthy controls. The multiple regression model indicated that two independent predictors of KIVS expressed interpersonal violence as an adult: T3 and comorbid diagnosis of alcohol abuse. Association between T3 levels and violent/aggressive behavior earlier reported exclusively in male samples may be valid also in females with BPD.

  10. Circadian typology, age, and the alternative five-factor personality model in an adult women sample.

    PubMed

    Muro, Anna; Gomà-i-Freixanet, Montserrat; Adan, Ana; Cladellas, Ramon

    2011-10-01

    Research on personality and circadian typology indicates evening-type women are more impulsive and novelty seeking, neither types are more anxious, and morning types tend to be more active, conscientious, and persistent. The purpose of this study is to examine the differences between circadian typologies in the light of the Zuckerman's Alternative Five-Factor Model (AFFM) of personality, which has a strong biological basis, in an adult sample of 412 women 18 to 55 yrs of age. The authors found morning-type women had significant higher scores than evening-type and neither-type women on Activity, and its subscales General Activity and Work Activity. In contrast, evening-type women scored significantly higher than morning-type women on Aggression-Hostility, Impulsive Sensation Seeking, and its subscale Sensation Seeking. In all groups, results were independent of age. These findings are in accordance with those previously obtained in female student samples and add new data on the AFFM. The need of using personality models that are biologically based in the study of circadian rhythms is discussed.

  11. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Adult Health Outcomes Among Veteran and Non-Veteran Women

    PubMed Central

    Blosnich, John R.; Dichter, Melissa E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Women veterans represent a vulnerable population with unique health needs and disparities in access to care. One constellation of exposures related to subsequent poor health includes adverse childhood experiences (ACEs; e.g., physical and sexual child abuse), though research on impacts of ACEs among women veterans is limited. Methods: Data were drawn from the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System for the 11 states that included the ACE module (n=36,485). Weighted chi-squared tests and multivariable logistic regression were used to assess the prevalence of ACEs among women veterans compared with women non-veterans and differences in the following outcomes, controlling for ACEs: social support, inadequate sleep, life satisfaction, mental distress, smoking, heavy alcohol use, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease symptoms, asthma, and disability. Results: Women veterans (1.6% of the total sample) reported a higher prevalence of 7 out of 11 childhood adversities and higher mean ACE score than women non-veterans. Women veterans were more likely to be current smokers and report a disability, associations which were attenuated when controlling for ACE. Conclusions: Despite women veterans' higher prevalence of ACE, their health outcomes did not differ substantially from non-veterans. Further research is needed to understand the intersections of traumatic experiences and sources of resilience over the lifecourse among women veterans. PMID:26390379

  12. National Prevalence of PTSD Among Sexually Revictimized Adolescent, College, and Adult Household-Residing Women

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Kate; Danielson, Carla Kmett; McCauley, Jenna L.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Resnick, Heidi S.

    2012-01-01

    Context Despite empirical links between sexual revictimization (i.e., experiencing two or more sexual assaults) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), no epidemiological studies document the prevalence of sexual revictimization and PTSD. Establishing estimates is essential to determine the scope, public health impact, and psychiatric sequelae of sexual revictimization. Objective Estimate the prevalence of sexual revictimization and PTSD among three national female samples (adolescent, college, adult household probability). Design Surveys were used to collect data from The National Women’s Study – Replication (2006; college) as well as household probability samples from the National Survey of Adolescents-Replication (2005) and the National Women’s Study-Replication (2006; household probability). Setting Households and college campuses across the U.S. Participants 1,763 adolescent girls, 2,000 college women, and 3,001 household-residing adult women. Main Outcomes Behaviorally specific questions assessed unwanted sexual acts occurring over the lifespan due to use of force, threat of force, or incapacitation via drug or alcohol use. PTSD was assessed with a module validated against the criterion standard, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Results 52.7% of victimized adolescents, 50.0% of victimized college women, and 58.8% of victimized household-residing women reported sexual revictimization. Current PTSD was reported by 20.0% of revictimized adolescents, 40.0% of revictimized college women, and 27.2% of revictimized household-residing women. Compared to non-victims, odds of meeting past 6-month PTSD were 4.3–8.2 times higher for revictimized respondents and 2.4–3.5 times higher for single victims. Conclusions Population prevalence estimates suggest that 769,000 adolescent girls, 625,000 college women, and 13.4 million women in US households reported sexual revictimization. Further, 154,000 sexually revictimized adolescents, 250,000 sexually

  13. INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE AND UNINTENDED PREGNANCY AMONG ADOLESCENT AND YOUNG ADULT MARRIED WOMEN IN SOUTH ASIA.

    PubMed

    Anand, Enu; Unisa, Sayeed; Singh, Jayakant

    2017-03-01

    This study examined the relationship between Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) and unintended pregnancy among young women in South Asia using Demographic and Health Survey data from India (2005-2006), Bangladesh (2007) and Nepal (2011). The respondents were adolescent and young adult married women aged 15-24 years who had at least one childbirth in the five years preceding the survey. Bivariate and stepwise multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the relationship between IPV and unintended pregnancy. Thirty-eight per cent of the respondents in India, 52% in Bangladesh and 28% in Nepal reported having experienced physical or sexual IPV. Those who reported physical or sexual IPV had higher odds of unintended pregnancy (1.36 in India and 1.99 in Bangladesh). The findings indicate that IPV is a risk factor for unintended pregnancy among adolescent and young adult married women. Along with violence prevention programmes, a more responsive and youth-friendly health system needs to be in place to provide health care services to young women in these countries.

  14. Support for indoor tanning policies among young adult women who indoor tan.

    PubMed

    Mays, Darren; Murphy, Sarah E; Bubly, Rachel; Atkins, Michael B; Tercyak, Kenneth P

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study to examine support for indoor tanning policies and correlates of policy support among young adult women who indoor tan. Non-Hispanic white women ages 18-30 who indoor tanned in the past year (n = 356, M 23.3 age, SD 3.1) recruited in the Washington, DC area from 2013 to 2016 completed measures of indoor tanning behaviors, attitudes, perceptions, beliefs, and policy support. Most women in the sample supported policies to prevent children under the age of 18 from indoor tanning (74.0 %) and stronger warnings about the risks of indoor tanning on tanning devices (77.6 %); only 10.1 % supported a total ban. In multivariable analyses, support for individual indoor tanning policies varied by demographics (e.g., age), frequent indoor tanning behavior, indoor tanning beliefs, and risk perceptions. Non-Hispanic white young adult women who indoor tan, the primary consumers of indoor tanning, and a high-risk population, largely support indoor tanning prevention policies implemented by many state governments and those currently under review for national enactment. Given low levels of support for a total indoor tanning ban, support for other potential policies (e.g., increasing the minimum age to 21) should be investigated to inform future steps to reduce indoor tanning and the associated health risks.

  15. Identification of Susceptibility Genes of Adult Asthma in French Canadian Women

    PubMed Central

    Bérubé, Jean-Christophe; Gaudreault, Nathalie; Lavoie-Charland, Emilie; Sbarra, Laura; Henry, Cyndi; Madore, Anne-Marie; Paré, Peter D.; van den Berge, Maarten; Nickle, David; Laviolette, Michel; Laprise, Catherine; Boulet, Louis-Philippe; Bossé, Yohan

    2016-01-01

    Susceptibility genes of asthma may be more successfully identified by studying subgroups of phenotypically similar asthma patients. This study aims to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with asthma in French Canadian adult women. A pooling-based genome-wide association study was performed in 240 allergic asthmatic and 120 allergic nonasthmatic women. The top associated SNPs were selected for individual genotyping in an extended cohort of 349 asthmatic and 261 nonasthmatic women. The functional impact of asthma-associated SNPs was investigated in a lung expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) mapping study (n = 1035). Twenty-one of the 38 SNPs tested by individual genotyping showed P values lower than 0.05 for association with asthma. Cis-eQTL analyses supported the functional contribution of rs17801353 associated with C3AR1 (P = 7.90E − 10). The asthma risk allele for rs17801353 is associated with higher mRNA expression levels of C3AR1 in lung tissue. In silico functional characterization of the asthma-associated SNPs also supported the contribution of C3AR1 and additional genes including SYNE1, LINGO2, and IFNG-AS1. This pooling-based GWAS in French Canadian adult women followed by lung eQTL mapping suggested C3AR1 as a functional locus associated with asthma. Additional susceptibility genes were suggested in this homogenous subgroup of asthma patients. PMID:27445529

  16. Identification of Susceptibility Genes of Adult Asthma in French Canadian Women.

    PubMed

    Bérubé, Jean-Christophe; Gaudreault, Nathalie; Lavoie-Charland, Emilie; Sbarra, Laura; Henry, Cyndi; Madore, Anne-Marie; Paré, Peter D; van den Berge, Maarten; Nickle, David; Laviolette, Michel; Laprise, Catherine; Boulet, Louis-Philippe; Bossé, Yohan

    2016-01-01

    Susceptibility genes of asthma may be more successfully identified by studying subgroups of phenotypically similar asthma patients. This study aims to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with asthma in French Canadian adult women. A pooling-based genome-wide association study was performed in 240 allergic asthmatic and 120 allergic nonasthmatic women. The top associated SNPs were selected for individual genotyping in an extended cohort of 349 asthmatic and 261 nonasthmatic women. The functional impact of asthma-associated SNPs was investigated in a lung expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) mapping study (n = 1035). Twenty-one of the 38 SNPs tested by individual genotyping showed P values lower than 0.05 for association with asthma. Cis-eQTL analyses supported the functional contribution of rs17801353 associated with C3AR1 (P = 7.90E - 10). The asthma risk allele for rs17801353 is associated with higher mRNA expression levels of C3AR1 in lung tissue. In silico functional characterization of the asthma-associated SNPs also supported the contribution of C3AR1 and additional genes including SYNE1, LINGO2, and IFNG-AS1. This pooling-based GWAS in French Canadian adult women followed by lung eQTL mapping suggested C3AR1 as a functional locus associated with asthma. Additional susceptibility genes were suggested in this homogenous subgroup of asthma patients.

  17. Relationships Between Weight, Physical Activity, and Back Pain in Young Adult Women.

    PubMed

    Brady, Sharmayne R E; Hussain, Sultana Monira; Brown, Wendy J; Heritier, Stephane; Billah, Baki; Wang, Yuanyuan; Teede, Helena; Urquhart, Donna M; Cicuttini, Flavia M

    2016-05-01

    Back pain causes enormous financial and disability burden worldwide, which could potentially be reduced by understanding its determinants to develop effective prevention strategies. Our aim was to identify whether modifiable risk factors, weight and physical activity, are predictive of back pain in young adult women.Women born between 1973 and 1978 were randomly selected from the national health insurance scheme database to participate in The Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health. Self-reported data on back pain in the last 12 months, weight, height, age, education status, physical activity, and depression were collected in 2000, 2003, 2006, 2009, and 2012. In 2000, 9688 women completed the questionnaire and 83% completed follow-up 12 years later.At baseline, median age was 24.6 years and 41% had self-reported back pain. For every 5 kg higher weight at baseline, there was a 5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 4%-6%) increased risk of back pain over the next 12 years. Higher weight at each survey also predicted back pain risk 3 years later (P < 0.001). The effects of weight on back pain were most significant in those with BMI ≥25 kg/m and were observed at all levels of physical activity. Inadequate physical activity and depression were independent predictors of back pain over the following 12 years (both P < 0.001), after adjusting for age, weight, height, and education status.Back pain is common in community-based young adult women. Higher weight, inadequate levels of physical activity, and depression were all independent predictors of back pain over the following decade. Furthermore, the adverse effects of weight on back pain were not mitigated by physical activity. Our findings highlight the role of both higher weight and physical inactivity in back pain among young women and suggest potential opportunities for future prevention.

  18. Comparison of Cognitive Assessment Methods With Heterosocially Anxious College Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myszka, Michael T.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Investigated comparability of self-statements generated by different cognitive assessment methods; effect of an assessment delay on cognitive phenomena; and interrelationships among different cognitive variables. Subjects were heterosocially anxious women (N=64) who engaged in a conversation with a male confederate. Self-statements generated by…

  19. Low level laser can be a novel adjuvant method for orthodontic tooth movement on postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yijia; Cao, Zhensheng; Zhang, Lin; Xu, Xiaomei; Chen, Yuxue; Chen, Yangxi

    2011-04-01

    Osteoporosis, a pathological state commonly saw on postmenopausal women, has shown to affect jaw bone and the periodontium. While more and more adult patients seeking orthodontic treatment for a beautiful smile, the current strategy has not work well for extraction space closure in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and concurrent bisphosphates taken. A new and non-invasive method is hoped to make a beginning. There are ample evidences showing low level laser has favorable effects on pain relief and wound healing procedure of hard and soft tissue. These effects are due to its ability to stimulate cell metabolism, angiogenesis, bone formation and osteoclastogenesis. The hypothesis we proposed herein is that low level laser may be a valuable adjuvant method for protecting and facilitating orthodontic tooth movement on this kind of patients.

  20. Adolescent lifestyle factors and adult breast density in U.S. Chinese immigrant women.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Marilyn; Olufade, Temitope O; Evers, Kathryn A; Byrne, Celia

    2011-01-01

    We examined recalled measures of adolescent diet, physical activity, and body size in relation to adult breast density in 201 U.S. Chinese immigrant women recruited in January 2002 to May 2003 from Philadelphia region screening programs. Mammographic images were classified into 1 of 4 categories ranging from "entirely fatty" to "extremely dense." Questionnaires assessed diet and physical activity between ages 12-17, relative weight and height at age 10, and weight at age 18. To estimate odds ratios (ORs), we conducted logistic regression analyses using proportional odds models for polychotomous outcomes. Higher adult breast density was significantly associated with adolescent red meat intake (adjusted 3rd vs. 1st tertile OR = 3.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5-6.4, trend P = 0.003) but not with other adolescent factors. For the association of adult acculturation with breast density, adjustment for adolescent red meat intake attenuated the OR for the highest vs. lowest level of acculturation from 2.5 (95% CI 1.2-5.3) to 1.9 (95% CI 0.9-4.0). Greater adolescent red meat intake may have increased adult breast density and partly accounted for the strong association between acculturation and breast density in this sample of immigrant Chinese women. If confirmed by further study, dietary prevention efforts for breast cancer should be considered earlier in life.

  1. Status report from the American Acne & Rosacea Society on medical management of acne in adult women, part 3: oral therapies.

    PubMed

    Del Rosso, James Q; Harper, Julie C; Graber, Emmy M; Thiboutot, Diane; Silverberg, Nanette B; Eichenfield, Lawrence F

    2015-12-01

    Parts 1 and 2 of this 3-part series provided an overview of the epidemiology, visible patterns, and important considerations for clinical and laboratory evaluation of acne vulgaris (AV) in adult women and reviewed the role of proper skin care and topical therapies in this patient population. In Part 3, oral therapies including combination oral contraceptives, spironolactone, antibiotics, and isotretinoin are discussed along with important considerations that clinicians should keep in mind when selecting oral agents for management of AV in adult women.

  2. Metoprolol Dose Equivalence in Adult Men and Women Based on Gender Differences: Pharmacokinetic Modeling and Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Eugene, Andy R.

    2016-01-01

    Recent meta-analyses and publications over the past 15 years have provided evidence showing there are considerable gender differences in the pharmacokinetics of metoprolol. Throughout this time, there have not been any research articles proposing a gender stratified dose-adjustment resulting in an equivalent total drug exposure. Metoprolol pharmacokinetic data was obtained from a previous publication. Data was modeled using nonlinear mixed effect modeling using the MONOLIX software package to quantify metoprolol concentration–time data. Gender-stratified dosing simulations were conducted to identify equivalent total drug exposure based on a 100 mg dose in adults. Based on the pharmacokinetic modeling and simulations, a 50 mg dose in adult women provides an approximately similar metoprolol drug exposure to a 100 mg dose in adult men. PMID:28035289

  3. Heart rate and blood pressure response in adult men and women during exercise and sexual activity.

    PubMed

    Palmeri, Sebastian T; Kostis, John B; Casazza, Laurie; Sleeper, Lynn A; Lu, Minmin; Nezgoda, Joseph; Rosen, Raymond S

    2007-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) response of sexual activity compared with treadmill exercise in adult men and women. Nineteen men, 55 +/- 8 years, and 13 women, 51 +/- 7 years, underwent a maximal Bruce protocol treadmill stress test followed by home-monitored sexual activity using noninvasive HR and BP recording devices. The mean treadmill times were significantly shorter than the mean times of sexual activity for men and women (p <0.001 and p = 0.002, respectively). For the men, average maximum HR, systolic BP, and HR-BP product during sexual activity were 72%, 80%, and 57% of respective measurements during treadmill exercise. For the women, maximum HR, systolic BP, and HR-BP product during sexual activity were 64%, 75%, and 48% of respective measurements during treadmill exercise. Age correlated inversely with duration of treadmill exercise (a 9-second decrease in duration per increasing year of age; p = 0.036), and with the duration of sexual activity (a 1-minute decrease in duration per increasing year of age; p = 0.024). Treadmill exercise duration predicted sexual activity duration (a 2.3-minute increase in sexual activity duration per each minute treadmill duration; p = 0.026). In conclusion, sexual activity provides modest physical stress comparable with stage II of the standard multistage Bruce treadmill protocol for men and stage I for women.

  4. How Multiple Roles Influence Adult College Women's Online Student Experiences in a Rural Community College Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hetzel, Lisa C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore how adult college women attending rural community colleges experience being an online student. A study of this nature was warranted as enrollment in online courses continues to increase (Allen & Seaman, 2010) and as women are more likely to enroll in online courses (Kramarae, 2001; van…

  5. Are Rural Women Powerless When it Comes to HIV & AIDS Risk? Implications for Adult Education Programmes in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiggundu, Edith; Castle, Jane

    2007-01-01

    There is an urgent need for fresh approaches to HIV & AIDS education for adults and youth in South Africa, particularly for those marginalised by society, such as rural black women. In this article we explore the factors which affect awareness, condom use and HIV & AIDS risk among a group of women who attend classes in a rural Adult…

  6. The Relationship of Childhood Sexual Abuse to the Marital Attitudes and Readiness for Marriage of Single Young Adult Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Jeffry H.; LaMont, Craig

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship of childhood sexual abuse to marital attitudes and perceived readiness for marriage in single young adult women. A total of 622 women from three universities in the United States completed questionnaires on sexual abuse, attitudes and feelings about marriage, and readiness for marriage. After controlling…

  7. Food Group and Micronutrient Intake Adequacy among Children, Adults and Elderly Women in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Manios, Yannis; Moschonis, George; Grammatikaki, Evangelia; Mavrogianni, Christina; van den Heuvel, Ellen GHM; Bos, Rolf; Singh-Povel, Cecile

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to record the percentage of children, adults and elderly women in Greece meeting food and micronutrient intake recommendations. Additionally, the present study was aiming to identify the main food contributors of micronutrient intakes and assess the degree up to which meeting food intake recommendations also ensures micronutrient intake adequacy. Dietary intake data from three studies conducted in Greece (on 9–13-year-old children; 40–60-year-old adults; and 50–75-year-old women) were used to estimate mean intakes, the percentages of subjects meeting food and nutrient intake recommendations and the contribution of six core food groups to nutrient intake adequacy. The present study showed that more than 50% of children, adults and elderly women were failing to consume the recommended portions of vegetables, dairy and grains. Furthermore, children and adults consuming the recommended portions of individual core food groups had significantly lower percentages of inadequate micronutrient intakes compared to their counterparts not meeting food intake recommendations (p < 0.05). Nevertheless, even among those consuming the recommended portions from a specific core food group, the recommended intake of the corresponding micronutrient (for which this food group is the main contributor) was not always met. Indicatively, 18.2%–44.1% and 4.2%–7.0% of the populations under study were not meeting calcium and vitamin C intake recommendations, although they were consuming the recommended portions of dairy and fruits, respectively. In conclusion, these findings highlight the importance for public health policy makers to take all necessary initiatives to support the population in achieving the recommended intakes from all core food groups, but also emphasize on food variety to ensure adequate intake for all micronutrients. PMID:25768954

  8. Food group and micronutrient intake adequacy among children, adults and elderly women in Greece.

    PubMed

    Manios, Yannis; Moschonis, George; Grammatikaki, Evangelia; Mavrogianni, Christina; van den Heuvel, Ellen G H M; Bos, Rolf; Singh-Povel, Cecile

    2015-03-11

    The aim of the present study was to record the percentage of children, adults and elderly women in Greece meeting food and micronutrient intake recommendations. Additionally, the present study was aiming to identify the main food contributors of micronutrient intakes and assess the degree up to which meeting food intake recommendations also ensures micronutrient intake adequacy. Dietary intake data from three studies conducted in Greece (on 9-13-year-old children; 40-60-year-old adults; and 50-75-year-old women) were used to estimate mean intakes, the percentages of subjects meeting food and nutrient intake recommendations and the contribution of six core food groups to nutrient intake adequacy. The present study showed that more than 50% of children, adults and elderly women were failing to consume the recommended portions of vegetables, dairy and grains. Furthermore, children and adults consuming the recommended portions of individual core food groups had significantly lower percentages of inadequate micronutrient intakes compared to their counterparts not meeting food intake recommendations (p < 0.05). Nevertheless, even among those consuming the recommended portions from a specific core food group, the recommended intake of the corresponding micronutrient (for which this food group is the main contributor) was not always met. Indicatively, 18.2%-44.1% and 4.2%-7.0% of the populations under study were not meeting calcium and vitamin C intake recommendations, although they were consuming the recommended portions of dairy and fruits, respectively. In conclusion, these findings highlight the importance for public health policy makers to take all necessary initiatives to support the population in achieving the recommended intakes from all core food groups, but also emphasize on food variety to ensure adequate intake for all micronutrients.

  9. Cardiorespiratory fitness in older adult women: relationships with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Jessica A.; Gower, Barbara A.; Hunter, Gary R.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that circulating 25(OH)D may favorably influence cardiorespiratory fitness and fat oxidation. However, these relationships have not been examined in older adult women of different ethnic groups. The objectives of this study were to determine whether serum 25(OH)D is related to cardiovascular fitness (VO2max) in sedentary women ages ≥60 years and to determine whether these associations differ between African Americans (AA) and European Americans (EA). A secondary aim was to determine whether serum 25(OH)D is correlated with respiratory quotient (RQ) during submaximal exercise. This cross-sectional analysis included 67 AA and EA women ages 60–74 years. VO2max was measured by a modified Bruce graded treadmill protocol, and measurements were adjusted for percent fat and lean body mass assessed by air displacement plethysmography. Indirect calorimetry was used to measure RQ at rest and during four submaximal exercise tests. Fasting blood samples were obtained to quantify serum 25(OH)D. Serum 25(OH)D was associated with VO2max (ml/kg LBM/min) independent of percent body fat (r = 0.316, p = 0.010). However, subgroup analysis revealed that this relationship was specific to AA (r = 0.727, p = 0.005 for AA; r = 0.064, p = 0.643 for EA). In all subjects combined, 25(OH)D was inversely correlated (p < 0.01) with all measures of submaximal RQ. Higher serum 25(OH)D was associated with greater cardiorespiratory fitness in older adult AA women. Among both AA and EA, inverse associations between serum 25(OH)D and RQ suggest that women with higher levels of circulating vitamin D also demonstrated greater fat oxidation during submaximal exercise. PMID:24563162

  10. Pregnancy and lactation affect markers of calcium and bone metabolism differently in adolescent and adult women with low calcium intakes.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Flávia F; Laboissière, Fabrícia P; King, Janet C; Donangelo, Carmen M

    2002-08-01

    Physiologic adaptation to the high calcium demand during pregnancy and lactation may be different in adolescents than in adults, particularly at low calcium intake. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to compare biochemical markers of calcium and bone metabolism between adolescent (14-19 y) and adult (21-35 y) women with calcium intake approximately 500 mg/d, in three different physiologic states, i.e., control (nonpregnant, nonlactating; NPNL), pregnant and lactating. Markers of calcium metabolism [serum Ca, P and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH); urinary Ca and P] and of bone turnover [urinary deoxypyridinoline (D-Pyr) and plasma bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP)] were measured in NPNL (adolescents, n = 12 and adults, n = 25), pregnant (adolescents, n = 30 and adults, n = 36) and lactating (adolescents, n = 19 and adults, n = 26) women. In the NPNL women, iPTH, D-Pyr and BAP were higher (P < 0.001) and urinary Ca was lower (P < 0.001) in adolescents than in adults. Serum iPTH was higher (P < 0.001) and urinary Ca was lower (P < 0.01) in adolescents than in adults also in pregnancy and lactation. Compared with NPNL women, serum Ca decreased (P < 0.001) with pregnancy in adolescents but not in adults. The increase in D-Pyr with pregnancy and lactation was very pronounced in adults ( approximately 130%, P < 0.001) but less in adolescents (<25%, P < 0.01). BAP increased (P < 0.001) with pregnancy and lactation in adults ( approximately 60%) but decreased (P < 0.001) with pregnancy in adolescents ( approximately 13%). Pregnancy and lactation appear to affect bone turnover in adolescent and adult women with low calcium intake differently.

  11. Baseline heart rate, sensation seeking, and aggression in young adult women: a two-sample examination.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Laura C; Scarpa, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Although substantial literature discusses sensation seeking as playing a role in the relationship between baseline heart rate and aggression, few published studies have tested the relationships among these variables. Furthermore, most prior studies have focused on risk factors of aggression in men and have largely ignored this issue in women. Two samples (n = 104; n = 99) of young adult women completed measures of resting heart rate, sensation seeking, and aggression. Across the two samples of females there was no evidence for the relationships of baseline heart rate with sensation seeking or with aggression that has been consistently shown in males. Boredom susceptibility and disinhibition subscales of sensation seeking were consistently significantly correlated with aggression. The lack of significance and the small effect sizes indicate that other mechanisms are also at work in affecting aggression in young adult women. Finally, it is important to consider the type of sensation seeking in relation to aggression, as only boredom susceptibility and disinhibition were consistently replicated across samples.

  12. "Condoms are the standard, right?": Exploratory study of the reasons for using condoms by Black American emerging adult women.

    PubMed

    Longmire-Avital, Buffie; Oberle, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    Condoms are considered a highly effective form of sexually transmitted infection prevention for heterosexual sex. Black American women (BAW) have been and are at elevated risk for heterosexual exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) because they have been and continue to be less likely to negotiate condom use with a partner that supports them financially. However, BAW who have made tremendous educational gains may still encounter challenges regarding the distribution of power that can affect condom use and negotiation. The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the reasons that highly educated, emerging, adult BAW reported for using condoms. One hundred twenty-seven emerging adult BAW (ages 18-29 years) completed a mixed-methods online survey during the spring of 2013 (January-May). Approximately 80% of the women were in college or college graduates. They had a high rate of previous HIV testing (68.5%). Through the use of an interpretive paradigm and grounded theory, three themes emerged regarding the reasons that the participants in this sample used condoms as their primary form of protection: (1) the reliable "standard," (2) pregnancy prevention, and (3) cost effective and "easily accessible." Findings are discussed in terms of their public health significance for this seemingly lower-risk population.

  13. Higher Protein Intake Is Associated with Higher Lean Mass and Quadriceps Muscle Strength in Adult Men and Women12

    PubMed Central

    Sahni, Shivani; Mangano, Kelsey M; Hannan, Marian T; Kiel, Douglas P; McLean, Robert R

    2015-01-01

    Background: The impact of dietary protein intake on lower extremity lean mass and strength in community-dwelling adult Americans is not fully understood. Objectives: The objective was to determine the associations between total protein (TP), animal protein (AP), and plant protein (PP) intakes and lean mass of the legs and quadriceps muscle strength. We further examined whether the associations with quadriceps strength may be explained by lean mass of the legs. Methods: This cross-sectional study included men (n = 1166) and women (n = 1509) from the Framingham Offspring Cohort in Massachusetts. Protein intake in grams per day was measured in either 1995–1998 or 1998–2001. Leg lean mass and isometric quadriceps strength, both in kilograms, were measured in 1996–2001. Multilinear regression models estimated adjusted least squares means of each of the muscle measures by quartile categories of protein intake, adjusting for relevant confounders and covariates. Results: Mean age was 59 ± 9 y (range: 29–86 y) and TP intake was 80 ± 27 g/d in men and 76 ± 26 g/d in women. In men and women, leg lean mass was higher in participants in the highest quartiles of TP and AP intake compared with those in the lowest quartiles of intake [least squares means (kg): TP—17.6 vs. 17.1 in men, P-trend: 0.005, and 11.7 vs. 11.4 in women, P-trend: 0.006; AP—17.6 vs. 17.1 in men, P-trend: 0.002, and 11.7 vs. 11.4 in women, P-trend: 0.003]. PP intake was not associated with lean mass in either sex. In men and women, quadriceps strength was higher in participants in the highest quartile of PP intake compared with those in the lowest quartile [least squares means (kg): 22.9 vs. 21.7 in men, P-trend: 0.01, and 19.0 vs. 18.2 in women, P-trend: 0.01]; this association was no longer significant after adjustment for fruit and vegetable intake (P-trend: 0.06 in men and 0.10 in women). Although no significant association was observed for AP intake in either sex, nonsignificant protective

  14. Prevalence and patterns of tobacco smoking among Chinese adult men and women: findings of the 2010 national smoking survey

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shiwei; Zhang, Mei; Yang, Ling; Li, Yichong; Wang, Limin; Huang, Zhengjing; Wang, Linhong; Chen, Zhengming; Zhou, Maigeng

    2017-01-01

    Background China consumes about 40% of the world's cigarettes, predominantly by men, following a large increase in recent decades. We assess sex-specific prevalence and changing patterns of smoking in Chinese adults in the current decade. Methods A nationally representative survey of smoking was conducted in 2010 among 100 000 Chinese adults aged ≥18 years, using a multistage stratified cluster sampling method. Information on smoking frequency, type, amount, age started and quitting was collected. Sex-specific standardised prevalence and means were analysed and compared with estimates in the 1996 national survey. Results In Chinese men aged ≥18, 62.4% were ever-smokers in 2010, including 54.0% current smokers and 8.4% ex-smokers. The smoking prevalence was higher in rural than in urban men (63.9% vs 58.4%). In younger men, the age to start smoking was earlier and exclusive cigarette use was much higher. Among current smokers, only 17.3% intended to quit. Compared with a similar survey in 1996 among adults aged 30–69, more smokers had quit in 2010 than in 1996 (11.0% vs 4.2%), but the number of cigarettes smoked per current smoker was higher (17.9 vs 15.2). In Chinese women, only 3.4% ever smoked and there has been a large intergenerational decrease in smoking uptake rates. In 2010, there were 318 million current smokers in China, consuming an estimated 1740 billion cigarettes. Conclusions The prevalence of smoking remained extremely high in men, but low and falling in Chinese women. Tobacco smoking remains an important public health issue in China, and stronger and more efficient tobacco control is urgently needed. PMID:27660401

  15. Assessment of the relationships among posture, maxillomandibular denture complex, and soft-tissue profile of aesthetic adult Korean women.

    PubMed

    Choi, B; Baek, S H; Yang, W S; Kim, S

    2000-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the relationships among the posture, the maxillomandibular denture complex, and the soft-tissue profile of aesthetic adult Korean women. From an initial group of 346 women, the authors examined 28 beautiful adult Korean women who had normal vertical and sagittal skeletal relationships and normal occlusion. There were no differences in the inclinations of the incisors to the occlusal planes in the maxilla and the mandible in the data for Korean women vs. Arnett's data for white women. However, the overbite and overjet in Korean women were slightly smaller than in white women. AB to maxillary occlusal plane angle (MxOP) represented the anteroposterior denture base discrepancy to the occlusal plane. Angulation of the maxillary occlusal plane to the Frankfurt (FH) plane and the true vertical line at submasale (TVL) (Sn) was a little steeper in Korean women than in white women. The FH plane was almost parallel to the true horizontal line in Korean women who had normal vertical and sagittal skeletal relationships and normal occlusion. With regard to soft-tissue variables, the upper lip length (Sn-Stms), interlabial gap, upper incisor exposure, nasolabial angle, lip and nose tip projection value, and TVL (Sn)-to-upper lip line (UL) angle showed interracial differences. The results of this study can assist in the diagnosis and treatment planning of orthognathic surgery.

  16. Reciprocal relationships over time between descriptive norms and alcohol use in young adult sexual minority women

    PubMed Central

    Litt, Dana M.; Lewis, Melissa A.; Rhew, Isaac C.; Hodge, Kimberley A.; Kaysen, Debra L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Young adulthood, roughly ages 18–25, is a period of great risk for excessive consumption of alcohol, especially among sexual minority women. Despite the substantial literature examining the relationships between social norms and behavior in general, little attention has been given to the role of descriptive norms on the drinking behaviors of sexual minorities. The present study had three aims: to compare both typical woman descriptive norms and sexual minority-specific descriptive normative perceptions among a sample of sexual minority women, examine reciprocal associations between sexual minority-specific descriptive norms and alcohol consumption over time, and to examine whether these reciprocal associations were moderated by sexual orientation (i.e. whether one identifies as lesbian or bisexual). Method A national sample of 1,057 lesbian and bisexual women between the ages of 18–25 were enrolled in this study. Participants completed an online survey at four time-points that assessed the constructs of interest. Results Results indicated that sexual minority women consistently perceived that sexual minority women drank more than their non-sexual minority peers; sexual minority women-specific descriptive drinking norms and alcohol consumption influenced one another over time in a reciprocal, feed-forward fashion; and these associations were not moderated by sexual orientation. Conclusions These findings highlight the importance of considering sexual minority women-specific norms as an important factor predicting alcohol consumption in sexual minority women. Results further support the development and testing of normative interventions for high risk drinking among sexual minority women. PMID:26478944

  17. Effects of early menarche on physical and psychosocial health problems in adolescent girls and adult women

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The menarcheal age of Korean women has been rapidly decreasing for the last 50 years, and the average menarcheal age of women born in the 1990s is approaching 12.6 years. In addition, interest in early puberty has been increasing recently owing to the rapid increase in precocious puberty. Generally, out of concern for short stature and early menarche, idiopathic central precocious puberty in female adolescents is treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs. Studies to date have described the association between early menarche and psychosocial problems such as delinquency and risky sexual behavior, as well as physical health problems such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and breast cancer throughout the lifespan of women. However, the pathophysiological mechanism underlying this association has not been clarified thus far. In this article, we review and discuss the existing literature to describe the current understanding of the effects of early menarche on the physical and psychosocial health of adolescent girls and adult women. PMID:27721839

  18. ACA Provisions Associated With Increase In Percentage Of Young Adult Women Initiating And Completing The HPV Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Lipton, Brandy J; Decker, Sandra L

    2015-05-01

    Affordable Care Act provisions implemented in 2010 required insurance plans to offer dependent coverage to people ages 19-25 and to provide targeted preventive services with zero cost sharing. These provisions both increased the percentage of young adults with any source of health insurance coverage and improved the generosity of coverage. We examined how these provisions affected use of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, which is among the most expensive of recommended vaccines, among young adult women. Using 2008-12 data from the National Health Interview Survey, we estimated that the 2010 policy implementation increased the likelihood of HPV vaccine initiation and completion by 7.7 and 5.8 percentage points, respectively, for women ages 19-25 relative to a control group of women age 18 or 26. These estimates translate to approximately 1.1 million young women initiating and 854,000 young women completing the vaccine series.

  19. Access to Money and Relation to Women's Use of Family Planning Methods Among Young Married Women in Rural India.

    PubMed

    Reed, Elizabeth; Donta, Balaiah; Dasgupta, Anindita; Ghule, Mohan; Battala, Madhusudana; Nair, Saritha; Silverman, Jay; Jadhav, Arun; Palaye, Prajakta; Saggurti, Niranjan; Raj, Anita

    2016-06-01

    Objectives The social positioning (i.e. social status and autonomy) of women in the household facilitates women's access to and decision-making power related to family planning (FP). Women's access to spending money, which may be an indicator of greater social positioning in the household, may also be greater among women who engage in income generating activities for their families, regardless of women's status in the household. However, in both scenarios, access to money may independently afford greater opportunity to obtain family planning services among women. This study seeks to assess whether access to money is associated with FP outcomes independently of women's social positioning in their households. Methods Using survey data from married couples in rural Maharashtra, India (n = 855), crude and adjusted regression was used to assess women's access to their own spending money in relation to past 3 month use of condoms and other forms of contraceptives (pills, injectables, intrauterine device). Results Access to money (59 %) was associated with condom and other contraceptive use (AORs ranged 1.5-1.8). These findings remained significant after adjusting for women's FP decision-making power in the household and mobility to seek FP services. Conclusion While preliminary, findings suggest that access to money may increase women's ability to obtain FP methods, even in contexts where social norms to support women's power in FP decision-making may not be readily adopted.

  20. Experiences of older adult women diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Henry, Erin; Jones, Sally Hill

    2011-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), usually diagnosed in children, is known to persist into adulthood. However, the research has not examined the disorder in older adults. This article describes a preliminary qualitative study of the experiences of women over age 62 who were diagnosed with ADHD after the age of 60. Participants reported experiencing peer rejection, feeling different, and a tendency to become advocates for others. Although they reported difficulties in work and relationships, they also described finding creative solutions to their attention problems. Diagnosis and treatment appears to have assisted with self-acceptance and appreciation of the strengths of having ADHD.

  1. Frequency of TV viewing and prevalence of overweight and obesity among adult women in Bangladesh: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Ghose, Bishwajit

    2017-01-01

    Background Research in developed countries has demonstrated an association of varying degrees between watching TV and the risk of being overweight and obese. However, there is no evidence of such an association in the context of the South Asian population. Objective To investigate whether watching TV increases the risk of being overweight and obese among women in Bangladesh. Setting Rural and urban areas in Bangladesh. Participants Participants were 16 624 non-pregnant women aged between 15 and 49 years. Methods The study was based on cross-sectional data from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) conducted in 2014. The main outcome variables were overweight and obesity measured by body mass index. Data were analysed by using descriptive statistics, cross-tabulation and multivariable logistic regression models. Results The prevalence of overweight and obesity in the sample population were, respectively, 4.5% (4.18% to 4.82%) and 20% (95% CI 19.39% to 20.61%). In the multivariable analysis, no statistically significant association was found between watching TV and being overweight. However, the odds of being obese among rural women were 63% higher (adjusted OR (AOR) 1.625, 95% CI 1.179 to 2.241) among those who watched less than once a week, and 68% (AOR 1.683, 95% CI 1.029 to 2.751) higher among women who watched TV at least once a week compared to those who did not watch TV at all. Urban women who watched TV at least once a week were 67% more likely to be obese (AOR 1.665, 95% CI 1.079 to 2.568) compared to those who did not watch at all. Conclusions Prevalence of overweight and obesity has risen considerably among women aged between 15 and 49 years since the previous estimates based on BDHS data. Frequent TV watching was associated with a higher risk of being obese among adult women in rural areas. PMID:28143839

  2. The association between adverse childhood experiences and alcohol use during pregnancy in a representative sample of adult women

    PubMed Central

    Frankenberger, David; Clements-Nolle, Kristen; Yang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Background The impact of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) on adult alcohol consumption is well-established, but little is known about the association with alcohol use during pregnancy. Methods Using data from the 2010 Nevada Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), we assessed the relationship between ACEs and alcohol use during pregnancy in a representative sample of 1,987 adult women. An established ACEs scale was used to assess a range of childhood physical, emotional, and sexual abuse and household dysfunction (range 0–8). Weighted logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between ACE scores and alcohol use during pregnancy after controlling for drinking before pregnancy and other covariates. Results Six percent of participants reported drinking alcohol during pregnancy. After controlling for race/ethnicity, age, employment status, smoking status, and pre-pregnancy alcohol use, increasing ACEs were positively associated with higher odds of alcohol use during pregnancy (1 ACE: AOR= 2.92; 95% CI= 1.08, 7.87), (2–3 ACEs: AOR=3.52; 95% CI=1.46, 8.48), and (4 or more ACEs: AOR= 4.79; 95% CI=2.14, 10.72). Pre-pregnancy drinking was also strongly associated with alcohol use during pregnancy (AOR= 11.95; 95% CI=5.02, 28.43). Conclusions We found evidence of a dose-response relationship between ACEs and alcohol use during pregnancy that remained even after controlling for pre-pregnancy drinking and other covariates. Screening women of childbearing age as well as pregnant women for ACEs may be an effective way to identify and address many of the emotional, behavioral, and physical sequelae of childhood adversity. PMID:26227209

  3. [BMI changes in adolescents and adults women between pregnancy and pospartum].

    PubMed

    Severi T, María Cecilia; Alonso, Rafael; Atalah S, Eduardo

    2009-09-01

    Te aim of the study was to evaluate pregnancy nutritional consequences in adolescent pregnant women and to identify factors which increase risk of an adverse postpartum nutritional result. We conducted a prospective cohort study in 742 adolescent and 779 adult pregnant women in Guatemala, Dominican Republic and Uruguay, assessing demographic, social, obstetric, weight gain and BMI at first prenatal control, and 4 +/- 1 month postpartum. BMI in adults was classified according to WHO recommendations and NCHS/WHO in adolescents. We assessed changes of BMI between the beginning and postpartum time and a logistic model analysis was applied about the risk of having low BMI at postpartum time. At the beginning of pregnancy the prevalence of low weight was higher in adolescent group and the overweight and obesity higher in adults (p < 0.001). Weight gain was significantly higher in adolescents at same nutritional BMI, except for low weighted. Adolescents had a significant change in their BMI at postpartum time, showing a tendency to increase weight and a higher prevalence of overweight and obesity (p < 0.001). Higher risk of low BMI in postpartum was associated with low prenatal BMI (OR 25,6, CI 12,6 - 52), adolescence (OR 3,3 CI 1,6 - 6,6) and gestational weight gain < 300 g. per week (OR 1,4 CI 1,1 - 3,9). In conclusion adolescent nutritional status was not damaged after pregnancy. The strongest variable associated with postpartum low BMI was BMI which mothers begin pregnancy as equal of adult mothers.

  4. A prospective study of childhood and adult socioeconomic status and incidence of type 2 diabetes in women.

    PubMed

    Lidfeldt, Jonas; Li, Tricia Y; Hu, Frank B; Manson, Joann E; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2007-04-15

    The influence of childhood socioeconomic status (SES) on incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus has not previously been studied. The authors prospectively examined the association of childhood SES (father's occupation) with incidence of diabetes in 100,330 US women who were followed from 1980 to 2002. In 55,115 of those women, 10-year follow-up data (1992-2002) were also available on adult SES (spouse's education). In all, 6,916 new cases of type 2 diabetes were documented. Compared with women from white-collar occupational backgrounds, the multivariate-adjusted risks of diabetes were 1.08 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.95, 1.23) among women whose fathers were laborers and 1.10 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.16) among women whose fathers were blue-collar or lower white-collar workers. Lower adult SES was associated with risk of diabetes independently of childhood SES. Compared with women whose spouses had graduate degrees, women whose spouses were high school graduates had a 1.16 times higher risk of incident diabetes (95% CI: 1.04, 1.29), while women whose spouses had college degrees were at 1.14 times the risk (95% CI: 1.01, 1.29). Compared with women with stable high SES from childhood to adulthood, women with declining SES had a 1.18 times higher risk of incident diabetes (95% CI: 1.06, 1.32). Higher body mass index among women with lower SES accounted for much of these rather modest associations between childhood and adult SES and risk of diabetes.

  5. Youth and young adult physical activity and body composition of young adult women: findings from the dietary intervention study in children.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Melissa G; Hovinga, Mary; Shepherd, John A; Egleston, Brian; Gabriel, Kelley; Van Horn, Linda; Robson, Alan; Snetselaar, Linda; Stevens, Victor K; Jung, Seungyoun; Dorgan, Joanne

    2015-02-01

    This study prospectively investigates associations between youth moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) and body composition in young adult women using data from the Dietary Intervention Study in Children (DISC) and the DISC06 Follow-Up Study. MVPA was assessed by questionnaire on 5 occasions between the ages 8 and 18 years and at age 25-29 years in 215 DISC female participants. Using whole body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), overall adiposity and body fat distribution were assessed at age 25-29 years by percent body fat (%fat) and android-to-gynoid (A:G) fat ratio, respectively. Linear mixed effects models and generalized linear latent and mixed models were used to assess associations of youth MVPA with both outcomes. Young adult MVPA, adjusted for other young adult characteristics, was significantly inversely associated with young adult %fat (%fat decreased from 37.4% in the lowest MVPA quartile to 32.8% in the highest (p-trend = 0.02)). Adjusted for youth and young adult characteristics including young adult MVPA, youth MVPA also was significantly inversely associated with young adult %fat (β=-0.40 per 10 MET-hrs/wk, p = .02) . No significant associations between MVPA and A:G fat ratio were observed. Results suggest that youth and young adult MVPA are important independent predictors of adiposity in young women.

  6. Using the Keyword Mnemonics Method among Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campos, Alfredo; Camino, Estefania; Perez-Fabello, Maria Jose

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of word image vividness on the immediate and long-term recall (one-day interval) of words using either the rote repetition learning method or the keyword mnemonics method in a sample of adults aged 55 to 70 years. Subjects learned a list of concrete and abstract words using either rote…

  7. Clinical usefulness of metabolic risk factors to identify young asymptomatic women adults with subclinical atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Guangming; Chen, Zhihao; Su, Weiwei; Geng, Xiaoge; Chen, Xiaojun; Xu, Xiang; Pan, Wensheng

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Interventions of cardiovascular disease should be implemented in early ages. But most studies were performed in middle aged or elderly adults because of the low prevalence in young, especially for women. We investigate the association between metabolic risk factors and subclinical atherosclerosis in young asymptomatic women adults, using carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) as a marker of the atherosclerotic process. We performed a cross-sectional study of 950 Chinese young asymptomatic women adults (37.28 ± 5.16 years) who underwent a routine health screening examination. Triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), fasting blood glucose (FBG), homocysteine (HCY), gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT), uric acid, and CIMT were measured. Out of 950 subjects, 16 (1.7%) were detected with increased CIMT. Significant differences existed in the indicators including age, body mass index (BMI), TC, TG, LDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C, non-HDL-C, and TC/HDL-C. Although TG, LDL-C, non-HDL-C, TC/HDL-C, and TG/HDL-C were the significant indicators when adjusted for age only, age, LDL-C/HDL-C, FBG, and GGT were the only independent relative indicators of increased CMIT that entered the multivariate model. The area under receiver operating characteristic curve for a linear combination of age, LDL-C/HDL-C, FBG, and GGT was 0.809 (95% confidence interval = 0.712–0.906), superior to any of the variables taken alone (age, AUC = 0.707; FBG, AUC = 0.710; LDL-C/HDL-C, AUC = 0.695; GGT, AUC = 0.648). The combined assessment of age, LDL-C/HDL-C, FBG, and GGT contributes to an early detection for subclinical atherosclerosis, providing guidance to clinicians for women's early interventions of latent cardiovascular disease. Neither of the above four individual indicators is qualified alone. PMID:28296733

  8. Pretending orgasm during sexual intercourse: correlates in a sample of young adult women.

    PubMed

    Wiederman, M W

    1997-01-01

    Although popular media have addressed the issue of women pretending orgasm during sexual intercourse, the research literature on the phenomenon is sparse. In the current study, 161 young adult women provided data regarding lifetime sexual experience, objective and subjective physical attractiveness, sexual attitudes (erotophobia-erotophilia), sexual esteem, and general tendencies toward self-monitoring of expressive behavior in social situations. Overall, more than one-half of the women reported having pretended orgasm during sexual intercourse. In univariate analyses, the "pretenders" and "non-pretenders" did not differ in experimenter-rated facial attractiveness, self-rated body attractiveness, or general self-monitoring. However, pretenders were significantly older; viewed themselves as facially more attractive, reported having had first intercourse at a younger age; reported greater numbers of lifetime intercourse, fellatio, and cunnilingus partners; and scored higher on measures of sexual esteem and erotophilia. In multivariate analyses, only sexual esteem was uniquely related to having pretended orgasm. The findings are discussed with regard to possible explanations and implications, as well as directions for future research.

  9. Barium versus Nonbarium Stimuli: Differences in Taste Intensity, Chemesthesis, and Swallowing Behavior in Healthy Adult Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagy, Ahmed; Steele, Catriona M.; Pelletier, Cathy A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The authors examined the impact of barium on the perceived taste intensity of 7 different liquid tastant stimuli and the modulatory effect that these differences in perceived taste intensity have on swallowing behaviors. Method: Participants were 80 healthy women, stratified by age group (<40; >60) and genetic taste status…

  10. [Efficacy of the keyword mnemonic method in adults].

    PubMed

    Campos, Alfredo; Pérez-Fabello, María José; Camino, Estefanía

    2010-11-01

    Two experiments were used to assess the efficacy of the keyword mnemonic method in adults. In Experiment 1, immediate and delayed recall (at a one-day interval) were assessed by comparing the results obtained by a group of adults using the keyword mnemonic method in contrast to a group using the repetition method. The mean age of the sample under study was 59.35 years. Subjects were required to learn a list of 16 words translated from Latin into Spanish. Participants who used keyword mnemonics that had been devised by other experimental participants of the same characteristics, obtained significantly higher immediate and delayed recall scores than participants in the repetition method. In Experiment 2, other participants had to learn a list of 24 Latin words translated into Spanish by using the keyword mnemonic method reinforced with pictures. Immediate and delayed recall were significantly greater in the keyword mnemonic method group than in the repetition method group.

  11. Genome-Wide Identification of Epigenetic Hotspots Potentially Related to Cardiovascular Risk in Adult Women after a Complicated Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Oudejans, Cees; Poutsma, Ankie; Michel, Omar; Mulders, Joyce; Visser, Allerdien; van Dijk, Marie; Nauta, Tessa; Bokslag, Anouk; Paulus, Walter; de Haas, Andreas; Koolwijk, Pieter; de Groot, Christianne J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The physiological demands of pregnancy on the maternal cardiovascular system can catapult women into a metabolic syndrome that predisposes to atherosclerosis in later life. We sought to identify the nature of the epigenomic changes associated with the increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in adult women following pre-eclampsia. Findings We assessed the genome wide epigenetic profile by methyl-C sequencing of monozygotic parous twin sister pairs discordant for a severe variant of pre-eclampsia. In the adult twin sisters at risk for CVD as a consequence of a complicated pregnancy, a set of 12 differentially methylated regions with at least 50% difference in methylation percentage and the same directional change was found to be shared between the affected twin sisters and significantly different compared to their unaffected monozygous sisters. Conclusion The current epigenetic marker set will permit targeted analysis of differentially methylated regions potentially related to CVD risk in large cohorts of adult women following complicated pregnancies. PMID:26870946

  12. Effects of Meridian Acupressure in Joktaeyang Bangkwang Kyeong on the Physical Health State, Depression, and Life Satisfaction of Korean Older Adult Women Living Alone.

    PubMed

    Sok, Sohyune R

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of Meridian acupressure in Joktaeyang Bangkwang Kyeong (one of 12 Meridian systems) on the physical health state, depression, and life satisfaction of Korean older adult women living alone. A quasi-experimental, pretest–posttest control group design was used. Participants included 76 (experimental: n = 38, control: n = 38) women 65 and older living alone in Seoul and Gyeonggido, South Korea. Meridian acupressure in Joktaeyang Bangkwang Kyeong was applied for 15 minutes twice per week, for a total of 8 weeks in the experimental group. Data showed there were significant differences in physical health state (t = −15.062, p < 0.001), depression (t = 3.241, p < 0.001), and life satisfaction (t = −17.141, p < 0.001) between the two groups. Health professionals must consider an array of methods, including Meridian acupressure in Joktaeyang Bangkwang Kyeong, for older adults.

  13. Recreational Physical Activity and Premenstrual Syndrome in Young Adult Women: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Ronnenberg, Alayne G.; Zagarins, Sofija E.; Houghton, Serena C.; Takashima-Uebelhoer, Biki B.; Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction It is estimated that up to 75% of premenopausal women experience at least one premenstrual symptom and 8–20% meet clinical criteria for premenstrual syndrome. Premenstrual syndrome substantially reduces quality of life for many women of reproductive age, with pharmaceutical treatments having limited efficacy and substantial side effects. Physical activity has been recommended as a method of reducing menstrual symptom severity. However, this recommendation is based on relatively little evidence, and the relationship between physical activity, premenstrual symptoms, and premenstrual syndrome remains unclear. Methods We evaluated the relationship between physical activity and premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual symptoms among 414 women aged 18–31. Usual premenstrual symptom experience was assessed with a modified version of the Calendar of Premenstrual Experiences. Total, physical, and affective premenstrual symptom scores were calculated for all participants. Eighty women met criteria for moderate-to-severe premenstrual syndrome, while 89 met control criteria. Physical activity, along with dietary and lifestyle factors, was assessed by self-report. Results Physical activity was not significantly associated with total, affective, or physical premenstrual symptom score. Compared to the women with the lowest activity, women in tertiles 2 and 3 of activity, classified as metabolic equivalent task hours, had prevalence odds ratios for premenstrual syndrome of 1.5 (95% CI: 0.6–3.7) and 0.9 (95% CI: 0.4–2.4), respectively (p-value for trend = 0.85). Conclusions We found no association between physical activity and either premenstrual symptom scores or the prevalence of premenstrual syndrome. PMID:28081191

  14. Status report from the American Acne & Rosacea Society on medical management of acne in adult women, part 2: topical therapies.

    PubMed

    Del Rosso, James Q; Harper, Julie C; Graber, Emmy M; Thiboutot, Diane; Silverberg, Nanette B; Eichenfield, Lawrence F

    2015-11-01

    In part 1 of this 3-part series, an overview of the epidemiology, visible patterns, and important considerations for clinical and laboratory evaluation of acne vulgaris (AV) in adult women was provided. Proper selection and integration of skin care products is important in the management of AV in this patient population. Part 2 of this series includes a discussion of over-the-counter and prescription topical therapies for adult women with AV. A summary of key randomized controlled trials also is provided. Further well-designed studies are needed, as data on the use of topical agents in this subpopulation are limited.

  15. The contribution of physical activity and media use during childhood and adolescence to adult women's body image.

    PubMed

    Slater, Amy; Tiggemann, Marika

    2006-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of both past and current physical activity and media use on women's body image. A sample of 144 female undergraduate students completed measures of current physical activity, media use and body image, as well as providing retrospective reports of their physical activity participation and media usage during childhood and adolescence. Regression analyses showed that childhood experiences of physical activity and media use predicted adult body-image concerns more strongly than current activities. It was concluded that early experiences of both physical activity and media use during childhood and adolescence play an important role in the development of adult women's body image.

  16. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Adult Sexual Health among Indigenous Kanak Women and Non-Kanak Women of New Caledonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamelin, Christine; Salomon, Christine; Cyr, Diane; Gueguen, Alice; Lert, France

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Few studies have addressed the long-term consequences of adverse childhood experiences among women in Oceania, in particular among indigenous women. This paper aims to report prevalences of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and to asses the negative sexual health consequences in adulthood by comparing indigenous Kanak to non-Kanak women in…

  17. A new method for the relief of adult phimosis.

    PubMed

    Ohjimi, H; Ogata, K; Ohjimi, T

    1995-05-01

    Infantile circumcision is not ordinarily performed in Japan. Adult circumcision causes esthetic problems with scarring and color change, especially in Asian patients. We report our experience with 10 adults who underwent a new method of surgery for correction of phimosis via a longitudinal incision of the prepuce along the constricted area ventrally to release constriction, followed by transverse closure of the wound; removal of excess skin by pinching at the dorsal root of the penis, incising circumferentially except for 2 cm. of ventral skin, and closing the dorsal wound. Functional results in all cases were satisfactory and preputial constriction was fully relieved. Cosmetic results were superior to those of conventional circumcision and dorsal slit methods of adult circumcision because contrasting coloration was obscured behind pubic hair and scarring was coincidental with or beneath the pubic hairline.

  18. Developmental and ethnic issues experienced by emerging adult African American women related to developing a mature love relationship.

    PubMed

    Tyson, Sheryl Y

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explored perspectives of emerging adult African American women on the development of mature love relationships. Inductive analysis of focus group interviews, conducted with a purposive sample of 31 African American women, yielded themes related to relationship goals and characteristics, and interpersonal and societal challenges to finding the right partner and developing a mature love relationship. Core categories that emerged from analysis of the discussions were (1) age and relationship goal differences within the emerging adult group, (2) mature love relationship goals and characteristics, (3) interpersonal obstacles to finding the right partner, and (4) societal obstacles to finding the right partner. Two approaches-black womanist/feminist thought (Collins, 2000 ; Walker, 1983 ) and relationship maturity theory (Paul & White, 1990 )-were then combined to explain the influence of historic and contemporary interpersonal and societal factors on developmental and ethnic issues that challenge positive gender identity formation, hasten intimacy maturity, and hinder the development of mature love relationships among emerging adult African American women. For these women, premature responsibility, especially early caregiver burden, was related to the early development of intimacy capacity and the desire for a mature love relationship, to be protected, and to have someone to help carry the load. Interracial dating, negative stereotypic images of African American women, and even positive images of enduring black love relationships posed difficult challenges to positive identity formation and intimacy maturity. A primary challenge was to counteract negative stereotypic images, so that they could develop their own self-identities as women and as relationship partners.

  19. Obesity as a public health problem among adult women in rural Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Keding, Gudrun B; Msuya, John M; Maass, Brigitte L; Krawinkel, Michael B

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: For many developing countries, obesity and its sequelae have become a challenge of a magnitude similar to hunger and undernutrition. The main objective of this study was, therefore, to investigate the weight status of women in rural Tanzania with reference to season as well as the link between women's weight, food consumption, and attitudes toward obesity. Methods: Three cross-sectional surveys in 3 different seasons within 1 year interviewed the same 210 women, ages 17–45 years, from 3 rural districts of northeastern and central Tanzania. These surveys assessed body mass index (BMI), food intake, and dietary diversity through 24-hour recalls, women's attitudes toward obesity, vegetable production, and socioeconomic status. Results: Although 71% of the women had a normal BMI, 7% were underweight, 16% overweight, and 6% obese. The BMI was correlated with the Dietary Diversity Score (DDS), the Food Variety Score (FVS), with the consumption of foods from the food groups “bread/cakes,” “sugar,” and “tea,” and with the production of exotic vegetables. In a multiple regression model, FVS was directly associated with BMI. When asked to describe the typical characteristics of an obese person, women mentioned more negative than positive characteristics. Conclusion: The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 3 times higher than that of underweight. Apparently, even in rural areas of Tanzania, a nutrition transition is underway. No direct association was identified between vegetable consumption and BMI. Although this study did not assess behavioral factors, such behavioral factors as activity levels as well as attitudes need to be considered, even in rural settings, to address all facets of malnutrition. PMID:25276549

  20. Risk factors for stimulant use among homeless and unstably housed adult women

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Elise D.; Shumway, Martha; Knight, Kelly R.; Guzman, David; Cohen, Jennifer; Weiser, Sheri D.

    2015-01-01

    Background One of the most common causes of death among homeless and unstably housed women is acute intoxication where cocaine is present. While correlates of stimulant use have been determined in prior research, few studies have assessed risk factors of use specifically in this high-risk population. Methods We sampled biological women with a history of housing instability from community-based venues to participate in a cohort study. Baseline and 6-month follow-up data were used to determine the relative risk of stimulant use (crack cocaine, powder cocaine or methamphetamine) among individuals who did not use at baseline. Results Among 260 study participants, the median age was 47 years, 70% were women of color; 47% reported having unmet subsistence needs and 53% reported abstinence from stimulants at baseline. In analyses adjusting for baseline sociodemographics and drug treatment, the risk of using stimulants within 6 months was significantly higher among women who reported recent sexual violence (Adjusted Relative Risk [ARR] = 4.31; 95% CI:1.97–9.45), sleeping in a shelter or public place (ARR = 2.75; 95% CI:1.15–6.57), and using unprescribed opioid analgesics (ARR = 2.54; 95% CI:1.01–6.38). Conclusion We found that almost half of homeless and unstably housed women used stimulants at baseline and 14% of those who did not use began within 6 months. Addressing homelessness and sexual violence is critical to reduce stimulant use among impoverished women. PMID:26070454

  1. Lifetime self-reported victimization among low-income, urban women: the relationship between childhood maltreatment and adult violent victimization.

    PubMed

    Parks, Sharyn E; Kim, Kevin H; Day, Nancy L; Garza, Mary A; Larkby, Cynthia A

    2011-04-01

    Study aims were to examine the relations between multiple forms of childhood maltreatment (CM) and adult violent victimization (AVV) and to explore other significant covariates of the relations between CM and AVV. Data were collected from women (n = 477) who participated in two longitudinal studies in the Maternal Health Practices and Child Development Project. Women with a history of CM were more than twice as likely to experience AVV as women with no history of CM. Those who experienced one or two forms of CM were significantly more likely to report any AVV compared to women with no CM. The relationship between CM and AVV remained significant after controlling for illicit drug use at baseline. Among low-income women, a history of CM exposure increased the risk of AVV. Having had any CM exposure was more important that the specific form or combination of forms, of CM exposure (e.g., sexual abuse or physical abuse).

  2. Fatty, Fatty, Two-by-Four: Weight-Teasing History and Disturbed Eating in Young Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    McWilliams, Rita; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Objective. We investigated the long-term effect of weight teasing during childhood. Methods. Young adult women (n = 1533; aged 18–26 years) from 3 large universities participated in a survey (Fall 2009 to Spring 2010) that assessed disturbed eating behaviors; weight status at ages 6, 12, and 16 years; and weight-teasing history. Results. Nearly half of the participants were weight-teased as a child. Participants who experienced childhood weight teasing were significantly more likely to have disturbed eating behaviors now than non–weight-teased peers. As the variety of weight teasing insults recalled increased, so did disturbed eating behaviors and current body mass index. Those who recalled their weight at ages 6, 12, or 16 years as being heavier than average endured weight teasing significantly more frequently and felt greater distress than their lighter counterparts. Conclusions. Weight teasing may contribute to the development of disturbed eating and eating disorders in young women. Health care professionals, parents, teachers, and other childcare givers must help shift social norms to make weight teasing as unacceptable as other types of bullying. To protect the health of children, efforts to make weight teasing unacceptable are warranted. PMID:23327257

  3. ["Doghearted" women: the origins of the counting method].

    PubMed

    Gradvohl, E

    2001-01-01

    The so called counting-method of contraception was widely used even by the Greeks, though its scientific explanation has been elaborated only in the 1930s by Knaus and Ogino. The Greeks however misunderstood the process of conception and did not follow the periods of humans, but those of other mammals, so their method probably proved to be inefficient. The theory nevertheless, in spite of all experiences, survived for centuries and was still in use even in the 16th century. Author attempts to give an answer to this fact: according to her opinion, based on medical, historical, and literary sources, the mystery could be explained by the Greek concept of genders, and the identification of dogs with women.

  4. Childhood maltreatment, intervening variables, and adult psychological difficulties in women: an overview.

    PubMed

    Briere, John; Jordan, Carol E

    2009-10-01

    This article reviews the complex relationship between child maltreatment and later psychosocial difficulties among adult women. Specifically addressed are (a) the various forms of childhood maltreatment, (b) the range of potential long-term psychological outcomes, and (c) important contextual variables that mediate or add to these maltreatment-symptom relationships. Among the latter are characteristics of the abuse and/or neglect; effects of impaired parental functioning; premaltreatment and postmaltreatment psychobiology; qualities of the parent-child attachment; abuse and/or neglect-related affect dysregulation that may lead to further symptomatology; the extent to which the child responds with significant emotional or behavioral avoidance; and whether later traumas are also present. Also relevant are sociocultural contributors to both child maltreatment and maltreatment effects, especially poverty and marginalization. Clinical and research implications are considered.

  5. Pedagogical Methods of Teaching "Women in Public Speaking."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pederson, Lucille M.

    A course on women in public speaking, developed at the University of Cincinnati, focuses on the rhetoric of selected women who have been involved in various movements and causes in the United States in the twentieth century. Women studied include educator Mary McLeod Bethune, Congresswoman Jeannette Rankin, suffragette Carrie Chapman Catt, Helen…

  6. Management of hypogonadism in adolescent girls and adult women with Prader-Willi syndrome.

    PubMed

    Eldar-Geva, Talia; Hirsch, Harry J; Pollak, Yehuda; Benarroch, Fortu; Gross-Tsur, Varda

    2013-12-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by an insatiable appetite, dysmorphic features, cognitive and behavioral difficulties, and hypogonadism. The heterogeneous reproductive hormone profiles indicate that some PWS women may have symptoms of hypoestrogenism, while others may potentially be fertile. We describe our experience in the assessment and treatment of hypogonadism in adolescents and adult females with PWS. The study population consisted of 20 PWS females, age ≥16 years (27.3 ± 7.9 years), followed in our clinic (12 deletion, 7 uniparental disomy, 1 imprinting-center defect). General physical examination, pubertal assessment, body mass index (BMI), gynecological examination, ultrasonography, bone densitometry, and hormonal profiles [FSH, LH, inhibin B, estradiol, prolactin, and TSH] were performed. The relevant assessed factors were: FSH and inhibin B, menstrual cycles (oligo/amenorrhea or irregular bleeding), ultrasound findings (endometrial thickness, uterine/ovarian abnormalities), BMI, bone densitometry, and patient/caregivers attitude. We classified seven women with inhibin B >20 ng/ml as potentially fertile. Following the assessment of the above factors, we recommended the individual-specific treatment; contraceptive pills, intra-uterine device, estrogen/progesterone replacement, and cyclic progesterone, in 3, 1, 4, and 1 patients, respectively. Four patients did not follow our recommendations due to poor compliance or family refusal. We recommended contraception pills for one 26-year-old woman with inhibin B and FSH levels 53 ng/ml and 6.4 IU/L; however, she refused treatment, conceived spontaneously and had an abortion. Guidelines for hormonal replacement therapy in PWS need to be tailored individually depending on physical development, hormonal profiles, bone density, and emotional and social needs of each PWS adolescent and adult.

  7. Effects of Welfare Reform on Illicit Drug Use Of Adult Women.

    PubMed

    Corman, Hope; Dave, Dhaval M; Reichman, Nancy E; Das, Dhiman

    2013-01-01

    Exploiting changes in welfare policy across states and over time and comparing relevant population subgroups within an econometric difference-in-differences framework, we estimate the effects of welfare reform on adult women's illicit drug use from 1992 to 2002, the period during which welfare reform unfolded in the U.S. The analyses are based on all available and appropriate national datasets, each offering unique strengths and measuring a different drug-related outcome. We investigate self-reported illicit drug use (from the National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse and National Surveys on Drug Use and Health), drug-related prison admissions (from the National Corrections Reporting Program), drug-related arrests (from Federal Bureau of Investigation Uniform Crime Reports), and drug-related emergency department episodes (from the Drug Abuse Warning Network). We find robust evidence that welfare reform led to a 10-21% decline in illicit drug use among women at risk of relying on welfare, as well as associated declines in drug-related arrests (6-7%), drug-related hospital emergency department episodes (7-11%), and possibly drug-related prison admissions (11-19%). The findings indicate that an appropriately designed system with sufficient job opportunities for those are able to work can result in both increases in employment and decreases in drug use.

  8. Resilience in Community: A Social Ecological Development Model for Young Adult Sexual Minority Women

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Lindsey; Darnell, Doyanne A.; Rhew, Isaac C.; Lee, Christine M.; Kaysen, Debra

    2015-01-01

    Family support and rejection are associated with health outcomes among sexual minority women (SMW). We examined a social ecological development model among young adult SMW, testing whether identity risk factors or outness to family interacted with family rejection to predict community connectedness and collective self-esteem. Lesbian and bisexual women (N = 843; 57% bisexual) between the ages of 18–25 (M = 21.4; SD = 2.1) completed baseline and 12-month online surveys. The sample identified as White (54.2%), multiple racial backgrounds (16.6%), African American (9.6%) and Asian/Asian American (3.1%); 10.2% endorsed a Hispanic/Latina ethnicity. Rejection ranged from 18–41% across family relationships. Longitudinal regression indicated that when outness to family increased, SMW in highly rejecting families demonstrated resilience by finding connections and esteem in sexual minority communities to a greater extent than did non-rejected peers. But, when stigma concerns, concealment motivation, and other identity risk factors increased over the year, high family rejection did not impact community connectedness and SMW reported lower collective self-esteem. Racial minority SMW reported lower community connectedness, but not lower collective self-esteem. Families likely buffer or exacerbate societal risks for ill health. Findings highlight the protective role of LGBTQ communities and normative resilience among SMW and their families. PMID:25572956

  9. Study relating residential formaldehyde concentrations and acute health symptoms in adult women

    SciTech Connect

    Zollinger, T.; Godish, T.

    1986-09-01

    This study consisted of a survey of 180 families who requested formaldehyde sampling of their homes through the local health or state health departments in Indiana in 1980-1985. At the time that the air sample was collected, the residents of the house were interviewed regarding the presence and severity of 22 acute health symptoms suspected to be associated with formaldehyde exposure. Surveyed individuals did not know the concentration of formaldehyde in their home at the time of the interview. For the purpose of this report, analysis was limited to the oldest (typically the only) adult woman in the household who was interviewed on the day that the air sample was taken (n = 163). The level of formaldehyde in the samples ranged from less than 0.010 ppm to 0.750 ppm. Comparisons of the formaldehyde concentrations with the health symptoms indicate that formaldehyde levels above 0.050 ppm did not increase the likelihood of the women to report the presence of any of the acute health symptoms studied. However, formaldehyde levels above 0.100 ppm significantly increased the likelihood of the women to report eye and sinus irritation, difficulty in breathing and sleeping, runny nose, and chest pain.

  10. Effects of Welfare Reform on Illicit Drug Use Of Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Corman, Hope; Dave, Dhaval M.; Reichman, Nancy E.; Das, Dhiman

    2014-01-01

    Exploiting changes in welfare policy across states and over time and comparing relevant population subgroups within an econometric difference-in-differences framework, we estimate the effects of welfare reform on adult women's illicit drug use from 1992 to 2002, the period during which welfare reform unfolded in the U.S. The analyses are based on all available and appropriate national datasets, each offering unique strengths and measuring a different drug-related outcome. We investigate self-reported illicit drug use (from the National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse and National Surveys on Drug Use and Health), drug-related prison admissions (from the National Corrections Reporting Program), drug-related arrests (from Federal Bureau of Investigation Uniform Crime Reports), and drug-related emergency department episodes (from the Drug Abuse Warning Network). We find robust evidence that welfare reform led to a 10-21% decline in illicit drug use among women at risk of relying on welfare, as well as associated declines in drug-related arrests (6-7%), drug-related hospital emergency department episodes (7-11%), and possibly drug-related prison admissions (11-19%). The findings indicate that an appropriately designed system with sufficient job opportunities for those are able to work can result in both increases in employment and decreases in drug use. PMID:25067860

  11. Does pilates-based exercise improve postural alignment in adult women?

    PubMed

    Cruz-Ferreira, Ana; Fernandes, Jorge; Kuo, Yi-Liang; Bernardo, Lisa Marie; Fernandes, Orlando; Laranjo, Luís; Silva, António

    2013-01-01

    A randomized, controlled trial was conducted to determine the effect of Pilates-based exercise on postural alignment. Seventy-four adult women (mean age ± SD, 34.9 ± 16.4 years) were randomized to a Pilates-based mat class (n = 40) or a control group (n = 34). Pilates-based exercise participants were taught the Initial Mat of Body Control Pilates for 6 months, twice a week, for 60 minutes per session; the control group received no exercise intervention. Repeated measurements were performed at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months of the frontal alignment of the thoracolumbar spine, shoulder, and pelvis, and sagittal alignment of the head and pelvis. No differences were found in either group, over time, on frontal alignment of the thoracolumbar spine and pelvis. The experimental group showed significant improvements in frontal alignment of the shoulder and sagittal alignment of the head and pelvis at 6 months. The Pilates-based exercise enhanced some parameters of the postural alignment of women, as measured by frontal alignment of the shoulder and sagittal alignment of the head and pelvis. The significant improvement in sagittal alignment of the head may imply that 6 months of Pilates-based exercise enhances sagittal alignment of the cervical or thoracic spine.

  12. Use of knee height for the estimation of body height in Thai adult women.

    PubMed

    Chumpathat, Nopphanath; Rangsin, Ram; Changbumrung, Supranee; Soonthornworasiri, Ngamphol; Durongritichai, Vanida; Kwanbunjan, Karunee

    2016-01-01

    Knee height has been the most frequently used measure for height prediction where full height is difficult to measure. The aim of this study was to develop and validate predictive equations using knee height to estimate the height of Thai women. The female participants were 18-59 years of age and lived in Bangkok or three surrounding provinces. They were assigned to one of two groups; the equation development group (n=488) and the equation validation group (n=188). Standing height and knee height were measured in duplicate using a stadiometer and a knee height calliper. Age and physical characteristics of the equation development group and the validate group were comparable. The measured heights showed a significant strongly positive correlation with the mean knee height (r=0.84, p<0.001). Mean knee height in a regression model exhibited the most accurate height prediction (adjusted R(2)=0.718, standard error of estimate=2.80), according to the equation "Height=38.1+2.45 (average knee height) - 0.051(age)". This study proposes a new height estimation equation for Thai adult women using knee height. The equation shows more estimation power than the previous studies conducted in Thailand.

  13. Lifetime Self-Reported Victimization among Low-Income, Urban Women: The Relationship between Childhood Maltreatment and Adult Violent Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parks, Sharyn E.; Kim, Kevin H.; Day, Nancy L.; Garza, Mary A.; Larkby, Cynthia A.

    2011-01-01

    Study aims were to examine the relations between multiple forms of childhood maltreatment (CM) and adult violent victimization (AVV) and to explore other significant covariates of the relations between CM and AVV. Data were collected from women (n = 477) who participated in two longitudinal studies in the Maternal Health Practices and Child…

  14. "It Feels Like a Little Family to Me": Social Interaction and Support among Women in Adult Education and Family Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prins, Esther; Toso, Blaire Willson; Schafft, Kai A.

    2009-01-01

    Supportive social relationships are an important dimension of marginalized women's participation in community-based adult education programs. However, policy makers and researchers often consider these social dimensions to be tangential or secondary to instrumental outcomes such as obtaining employment or increasing standardized test scores.…

  15. Enhancing the Development of Adult Women Students: Co-Dependency Issues, Effects, and Implications for Campus Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robson, Sally A.; Ryan, Marilyn J.; Veltman, Gayle C.

    1997-01-01

    Examines issues and concerns of returning adult women students who identify themselves as co-dependent (N=10). Concerns included self-esteem, perfectionism, identity and personal boundaries, student development, and support from campus services. Ways to support these students are discussed. (EMK)

  16. Bioimpedence to Assess Breast Density as a Risk Factor for Breast Cancer in Adult Women and Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Morimoto, Yukiko; Laguana, Michelle B; Novotny, Rachel; Leon Guerrero, Rachael T

    2016-01-01

    Although high mammographic density is one of the strongest predictors of breast cancer risk, X-ray based mammography cannot be performed before the recommended screening age, especially not in adolescents and young women. Therefore, new techniques for breast density measurement are of interest. In this pilot study in Guam and Hawaii, we evaluated a radiation-free, bioimpedance device called Electrical Breast DensitometerTM (EBD; senoSENSE Medical Systems, Inc., Ontario, Canada) for measuring breast density in 95 women aged 31-82 years and 41 girls aged 8-18 years. Percent density (PD) was estimated in the women's most recent mammogram using a computer-assisted method. Correlation coefficients and linear regression were applied for statistical analysis. In adult women, mean EBD and PD values of the left and right breasts were 230±52 and 226±50 Ω and 23.7±15.1 and 24.2±15.2%, respectively. The EBD measurements were inversely correlated with PD (rSpearman=-0.52, p<0.0001); the correlation was stronger in Caucasians (rSpearman=-0.70, p<0.0001) than Asians (rSpearman=-0.54, p<0.01) and Native Hawaiian/Chamorro/Pacific Islanders (rSpearman=-0.34, p=0.06). Using 4 categories of PD (<10, 10-25, 26-50, 51-75%), the respective mean EBD values were 256±32, 249±41, 202±46, and 178±43 Ω (p<0.0001). In girls, the mean EBD values in the left and right breast were 148±40 and 155±54 Ω; EBD values decreased from Tanner stages 1 to 4 (204±14, 154±79, 136±43, and 119±16 Ω for stages 1-4, respectively) but were higher at Tanner stage 5 (165±30 Ω). With further development, this bioimpedance method may allow for investigations of breast development among adolescent, as well as assessment of breast cancer risk early in life and in populations without access to mammography.

  17. The Effects of Exercise on the Physical Fitness of High and Moderate-Low Functioning Older Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Horvat, Michael; Nocera, Joe

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Understanding how exercise affects individuals with varying levels of functional ability will provide further insight into the role of exercise during the aging process. It will also aid in the development of exercise programs that are appropriate for a wider spectrum of older adults. Specifically it was the primary aim of this study to determine and compare the effects of 10 weeks of community-based exercise on the cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength, flexibility, and balance fitness components of older adult women with high and moderate-low levels of physical function. Methods. Participants were placed in either the high functioning (n = 13) or moderate/low functioning (n = 17) groups based on their level of physical functioning. Fitness components were measured by the Senior Fitness Test and physical function was determined by the Composite Physical Function scale. Results. The results of the 3 × 2 mixed ANOVA statistical analysis showed no significant interaction effect for time ⁎ group for any of the six subtests (chair stand, arm curls, 2-minute step, chair sit-and-reach, back scratch, and 6-foot up-and-go) of the SFT. However, the main effect of time was significant for all fitness components and the main effect of group was significant for all fitness components except lower extremity flexibility. Discussion. Community-based exercise programs offering a variety of exercise types to people with varying levels of functional ability can be useful in maintaining or improving fitness and independence. These programs may also be capable of improving the self-efficacy of lower functioning older adults toward performing daily tasks. PMID:27478640

  18. The Effects of Exercise on the Physical Fitness of High and Moderate-Low Functioning Older Adult Women.

    PubMed

    Mason, R Christopher; Horvat, Michael; Nocera, Joe

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Understanding how exercise affects individuals with varying levels of functional ability will provide further insight into the role of exercise during the aging process. It will also aid in the development of exercise programs that are appropriate for a wider spectrum of older adults. Specifically it was the primary aim of this study to determine and compare the effects of 10 weeks of community-based exercise on the cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength, flexibility, and balance fitness components of older adult women with high and moderate-low levels of physical function. Methods. Participants were placed in either the high functioning (n = 13) or moderate/low functioning (n = 17) groups based on their level of physical functioning. Fitness components were measured by the Senior Fitness Test and physical function was determined by the Composite Physical Function scale. Results. The results of the 3 × 2 mixed ANOVA statistical analysis showed no significant interaction effect for time ⁎ group for any of the six subtests (chair stand, arm curls, 2-minute step, chair sit-and-reach, back scratch, and 6-foot up-and-go) of the SFT. However, the main effect of time was significant for all fitness components and the main effect of group was significant for all fitness components except lower extremity flexibility. Discussion. Community-based exercise programs offering a variety of exercise types to people with varying levels of functional ability can be useful in maintaining or improving fitness and independence. These programs may also be capable of improving the self-efficacy of lower functioning older adults toward performing daily tasks.

  19. Overweight and obesity in young adult women: A matter of health or appearance? The Tromsø study: Fit futures

    PubMed Central

    Sand, Anne-Sofie; Emaus, Nina; Lian, Olaug

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing number of overweight and obese people, there is a growing public health concern and focus on body size and lifestyle issues, especially in the media. Young adult women comprise a vulnerable group regarding issues of weight balance and appearance. The aim of the study was to examine the experiences of young women on how this focus influences their attitudes concerning weight changes, appearance, and health. We conducted 12 interviews with young women from two different weight groups about the attention on overweight issues. The results from the in-depth interviews were scrutinized through content analyses. The main findings indicate that young women experience a considerable focus on overweight issues with a trend towards appearance rather than health. Overweight and obesity are sensitive topics, and participants expressed strong views on the cultural definitions of normal body size and appearance. The squeeze between cultural norms and young women's perceptions of their own body and health was described as a possible negative factor influencing well-being as well as motivation for lifestyle changes. A more relaxed focus on overweight issues and especially on appearance is necessary when addressing weight-balance issues and lifestyle changes in young adult women. PMID:26400463

  20. Overweight and obesity in young adult women: A matter of health or appearance? The Tromsø study: Fit futures.

    PubMed

    Sand, Anne-Sofie; Emaus, Nina; Lian, Olaug

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing number of overweight and obese people, there is a growing public health concern and focus on body size and lifestyle issues, especially in the media. Young adult women comprise a vulnerable group regarding issues of weight balance and appearance. The aim of the study was to examine the experiences of young women on how this focus influences their attitudes concerning weight changes, appearance, and health. We conducted 12 interviews with young women from two different weight groups about the attention on overweight issues. The results from the in-depth interviews were scrutinized through content analyses. The main findings indicate that young women experience a considerable focus on overweight issues with a trend towards appearance rather than health. Overweight and obesity are sensitive topics, and participants expressed strong views on the cultural definitions of normal body size and appearance. The squeeze between cultural norms and young women's perceptions of their own body and health was described as a possible negative factor influencing well-being as well as motivation for lifestyle changes. A more relaxed focus on overweight issues and especially on appearance is necessary when addressing weight-balance issues and lifestyle changes in young adult women.

  1. Regional Brain Responses Are Biased Toward Infant Facial Expressions Compared to Adult Facial Expressions in Nulliparous Women

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dajun; Wei, Dongtao; Qiao, Lei; Wang, Xiangpeng; Che, Xianwei

    2016-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that neutral infant faces compared to neutral adult faces elicit greater activity in brain areas associated with face processing, attention, empathic response, reward, and movement. However, whether infant facial expressions evoke larger brain responses than adult facial expressions remains unclear. Here, we performed event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging in nulliparous women while they were presented with images of matched unfamiliar infant and adult facial expressions (happy, neutral, and uncomfortable/sad) in a pseudo-randomized order. We found that the bilateral fusiform and right lingual gyrus were overall more activated during the presentation of infant facial expressions compared to adult facial expressions. Uncomfortable infant faces compared to sad adult faces evoked greater activation in the bilateral fusiform gyrus, precentral gyrus, postcentral gyrus, posterior cingulate cortex-thalamus, and precuneus. Neutral infant faces activated larger brain responses in the left fusiform gyrus compared to neutral adult faces. Happy infant faces compared to happy adult faces elicited larger responses in areas of the brain associated with emotion and reward processing using a more liberal threshold of p < 0.005 uncorrected. Furthermore, the level of the test subjects’ Interest-In-Infants was positively associated with the intensity of right fusiform gyrus response to infant faces and uncomfortable infant faces compared to sad adult faces. In addition, the Perspective Taking subscale score on the Interpersonal Reactivity Index-Chinese was significantly correlated with precuneus activity during uncomfortable infant faces compared to sad adult faces. Our findings suggest that regional brain areas may bias cognitive and emotional responses to infant facial expressions compared to adult facial expressions among nulliparous women, and this bias may be modulated by individual differences in Interest-In-Infants and

  2. Trajectories of Mental Health over 16 Years amongst Young Adult Women: The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Libby; Ware, Robert S.; Lee, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This article used data from 5,171 young women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study, to identify longitudinal trajectory patterns of mental health across 6 surveys over 16 years of early adulthood, from age 18-23 to age 34-39. In addition, we identified both…

  3. Differences Between Dual-Method and Non–Dual-Method Protection Use in a Sample of Young African American Women Residing in the Southeastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Sales, Jessica M.; Latham, Teaniese P.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Rose, Eve

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To characterize dual-method protection users and report the prevalence of dual-method use among young adult African American women residing in the Southeastern United States. Design Analysis of baseline data from a randomized controlled trial. Setting A clinic-based sample of young women enrolled in a randomized trial of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–prevention program in Atlanta, Georgia, from June 2005 to June 2007. Participants African American women aged 14 to 20 years who reported unprotected sexual activity in the past 6months. Of the eligible adolescents, 94% (N=701) were enrolled in the study and completed baseline assessments. Outcome Measures Dual-method protection use as well as sociodemographic, individual-level, interpersonal-level, and community-level factors and interpersonal communication skills. Only data from the baseline assessment, before randomization, were used for the analysis. Results A total of 102 participants (14.6%) were classified as dual-method protection users. After controlling for age and clinic, significant differences between dual-method users and non–dual-method users were found for impulsivity, self-esteem, social support, relationship style, partner communication self-efficacy, and fear of condom negotiation. Conclusions Dual-method protection use is low. Identification of factors that differentiate dual-method users from non–dual-method users at the individual, interpersonal, and community levels in this young African American sample suggests that HIV, sexually transmitted disease, and unintended pregnancy risk–reduction programs should address factors at each level, not simply the individual level, and that this may involve structural and/or clinical counseling practice changes in clinics that serve young women, to optimally facilitate dual-method protection use among young African American women in the Southeastern United States. PMID:21135341

  4. Dual Protection and Dual Methods in Women Living with HIV: The Brazilian Context

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Regina María; Pinho, Adriana de Araujo

    2013-01-01

    The cooccurrence of HIV and unintended pregnancy has prompted a body of work on dual protection, the simultaneous protection against HIV and unintended pregnancy. This study examines dual protection and dual methods as a risk-reduction strategy for women living with HIV. Data are from a cross-sectional sample of HIV-positive women attended in Specialized STI/AIDS Public Health Service Clinics in 13 municipalities from all five regions of Brazil 2003-2004 (N = 834). Descriptive techniques and logistic regression were used to examine dual protection among women living with HIV. We expand the definition of dual protection to include consistent condom use and reversible/irreversible contraceptive methods, we test the dual methods hypothesis that women who use dual methods will use condoms less consistently than women who use only condoms, and we identify predictors of dual protection. Dual protection is common in our sample. Women who use dual methods have lower odds of consistent condom use than women who only use condoms. Among dual method users, we find that women who use an irreversible method use condoms more consistently than women who use a reversible method. Women on ART and with an HIV-serodiscordant partner have greater odds of consistent condom use than their counterparts. PMID:26316959

  5. Provider Bias in Long-Acting Reversible Contraception (LARC) Promotion and Removal: Perceptions of Young Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Renee D.; Ryder, Kristin M.

    2016-01-01

    Long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) is effective and acceptable. However, concern exists about potential provider bias in LARC promotion. No study has documented contraceptive users’ attitudes toward or experiences with provider influence and bias regarding LARC. We collected qualitative data in 2014 to address this gap. Participants were 50 young adult women with any history of contraceptive use (including LARC) in Dane County, Wisconsin. Women often described providers as a trusted source of contraceptive information. However, several women reported that their preferences regarding contraceptive selection or removal were not honored. Furthermore, many participants believed that providers recommend LARC disproportionately to socially marginalized women. We encourage contraceptive counseling and removal protocols that directly address historical reproductive injustices and that honor patients’ wishes. PMID:27631741

  6. [Contraception in immigrant women: influence of sociocultural aspects on the choice of contraceptive method].

    PubMed

    Paraíso Torras, B; Maldonado Del Valle, M D; López Muñoz, A; Cañete Palomo, M L

    2013-01-01

    There are currently 6 million immigrants living in Spain. Half of them are women, the majority of whom are of childbearing age. These women, who suffer high rates of induced abortion, form a special group who require a special approach to their reproductive health. In order to study the use of contraceptive methods in this population, a review was made of 1100 clinical histories from our Sexual Health and Reproduction Clinic. Latin American women were the most prevalent group who came to seek information about contraception, followed by Eastern Europeans and Moroccans. Fewer Asian and Sub-Saharan women sought these services. The contraceptives most frequently used were the intrauterine device (used mostly by Latin American and Eastern European women), and combined oral contraception, most used by Moroccan women. It is important to advise the immigrant women about contraceptive methods, taking into account their preferences, in order to improve adherence to the method.

  7. Sexual practices, identities and health among women who have sex with women in Lesotho - a mixed-methods study.

    PubMed

    Poteat, Tonia; Logie, Carmen; Adams, Darrin; Lebona, Judith; Letsie, Puleng; Beyrer, Chris; Baral, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of HIV and STIs among women in Africa and the growing literature on HIV and STIs among women who have sex with women, research on the sexual health of women who have sex with women in Africa is scant. This study used mixed methods to describe sexual identity, practices and health among women who have sex with women in Lesotho. Most respondents (48%) described themselves as lesbian, 29% as bisexual and 23% as heterosexual. Almost half (45%) had disclosed their same-sex attraction to family, but only 25% had done so with healthcare workers. A total of 8% reported having HIV. Self-reported HIV was associated with having three or more male partners, having male and female partners at the same time and having a history of STIs. Gender norms, the criminalisation of homosexuality, varied knowledge of, and access to, safer-sex strategies, and mixed experiences of HIV/STI testing and sexual healthcare provided social and structural contexts for HIV- and STI-related vulnerability.

  8. Maximal strength training improves bone mineral density and neuromuscular performance in young adult women.

    PubMed

    Mosti, Mats P; Carlsen, Trude; Aas, Elisabeth; Hoff, Jan; Stunes, Astrid K; Syversen, Unni

    2014-10-01

    -Exercise guidelines highlight maximizing bone mass early in life as a strategy to prevent osteoporosis. Which intervention is most effective for this purpose remains unclear. This study investigated the musculoskeletal effects of high acceleration, maximal strength training (MST), in young adult women. Thirty healthy women (22 ± 2 years) were randomly assigned to a training group (TG) and a control group (CG). The TG completed 12 weeks of squat MST, executed at 85-90% of maximal strength 1 repetition maximum (1RM), emphasizing progressive loading and high acceleration in the concentric phase. The CG was encouraged to follow the American College of Sports Medicine's exercise guidelines for skeletal health. Measurements included bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, dynamic and isometric rate of force development (RFD), and squat 1RM. Serum levels of type 1 collagen amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP), type 1 collagen C breakdown products (CTX), and sclerostin were analyzed by immunoassays. In the TG, lumbar spine and total hip BMD increased by 2.2 and 1.0%, whereas serum P1NP increased by 26.2%. Dynamic RFD and 1RM improved by 81.7 and 97.7%, and isometric RFD improved by 38% at 100 milliseconds. These improvements were significantly greater than those observed in the CG. Within the CG, dynamic RFD and 1RM increased by 27.2 and 12.9% while no other significant changes occurred. These findings suggest that squat MST may serve as a simple, time-efficient strategy to optimize peak bone mass in early adulthood.

  9. Arsenic methylation and skin lesions in migrant and native adult women with chronic exposure to arsenic from drinking groundwater.

    PubMed

    Wei, Binggan; Yu, Jiangping; Yang, Linsheng; Li, Hairong; Chai, Yuanqing; Xia, Yajuan; Wu, Kegong; Gao, Jianwei; Guo, Zhiwei; Cui, Na

    2017-02-01

    In order to figure out the prevalence of skin lesions and methylation capacity for migrant and native adult women in an endemic area for arsenic poisoning in Inner Mongolia, China, 207 adult women were selected for study subjects. The results showed that the prevalence of skin lesions for the external group, provincial group and native group was 36.54, 26.15 and 35.56 %, respectively. The nail content of arsenic and urinary concentrations of dimethylarsenic (DMA), monomethylarsenic (MMA) and inorganic arsenic (iAs) were significantly higher in women with skin lesions than in those without skin lesions. The highest urinary concentrations of DMA, MMA and iAs were 213.93, 45.72 and 45.01 μg/L in the native group. The arsenic methylation capacity index revealed that the external group had the greatest capacity, while the native group had the lowest. The odds ratios of skin lesions in relation to arsenic metabolites and arsenic methylation capacity varied widely among the three groups. Urinary MMA and iAs concentrations were positively associated with risk of skin lesions in the three groups of adult women, while primary and secondary methylation capacities were negatively related to risk of skin lesions in native and provincial groups. The external group might be more susceptible to MMA and iAs, while the provincial and native groups were more tolerance to MMA and iAs. Lower primary and secondary arsenic methylation capacities increased the risk of skin lesions in native and provincial groups. Moreover, higher nail arsenic concentration increased the risk of skin lesions of adult women.

  10. HIV and STI risk behaviors, knowledge, and testing among female adult film performers as compared to other California women.

    PubMed

    Grudzen, Corita R; Meeker, Daniella; Torres, Jacqueline; Du, Qingling; Andersen, Ronald M; Gelberg, Lillian

    2013-02-01

    A cross-sectional structured online survey was self-administered to a convenience sample of current female adult film performers via the Internet; bivariate analyses compared HIV and other STI risk behaviors, knowledge, and testing in female adult performers to California Women's Health Survey respondents. 134 female adult film performers (mean age 27.8 years) were compared to the 1,773 female respondents (mean age 31.3 years) to the 2007 CWHS. Female performers initiated sex on average 3 years younger and had 6.8 more personal sexual partners in the prior year than other California women. The majority of performers reported HIV and Chlamydia testing (94 and 82%, respectively) in the prior 12 months. They more likely to use condoms consistently in their personal life than other California women (21 vs 17%), though this difference disappeared after controlling for other variables. Adult performers are routinely tested for HIV and Chlamydia, yet they have multiple sexual partners and use condoms inconsistently.

  11. Compensatory Weight Control Behaviors of Women in Emerging Adulthood: Associations between Childhood Abuse Experiences and Adult Relationship Avoidance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bankoff, Sarah M.; Valentine, Sarah E.; Jackson, Michelle A.; Schacht, Rebecca L.; Pantalone, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine correlates of compensatory weight control behaviors among women in transition between adolescence and adulthood. Participants: The authors recruited a sample of undergraduate women ("N" = 759) at a large northwestern university during the 2009-2010 academic year. Methods: Logistic regression was used to assess…

  12. Bioimpedence to Assess Breast Density as a Risk Factor for Breast Cancer in Adult Women and Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Morimoto, Yukiko; Laguaña, Michelle B; Novotny, Rachel; Guerrero, Rachael T Leon

    2016-01-01

    Although high mammographic density is one of the strongest predictors of breast cancer risk, X-ray based mammography cannot be performed before the recommended screening age, especially not in adolescents and young women. Therefore, new techniques for breast density measurement are of interest. In this pilot study in Guam and Hawaii, we evaluated a radiation-free, bioimpedance device called Electrical Breast Densitometer™ (EBD; senoSENSE Medical Systems, Inc., Ontario, Canada) for measuring breast density in 95 women aged 31–82 years and 41 girls aged 8–18 years. Percent density (PD) was estimated in the women’s most recent mammogram using a computer-assisted method. Correlation coefficients and linear regression were applied for statistical analysis. In adult women, mean EBD and PD values of the left and right breasts were 230±52 and 226±50 Ω and 23.7±15.1 and 24.2±15.2%, respectively. The EBD measurements were inversely correlated with PD (rSpearman=−0.52, p<0.0001); the correlation was stronger in Caucasians (rSpearman=−0.70, p<0.0001) than Asians (rSpearman=−0.54, p<0.01) and Native Hawaiian/Chamorro/Pacific Islanders (rSpearman=−0.34, p=0.06). Using 4 categories of PD (<10, 10–25, 26–50, 51–75%), the respective mean EBD values were 256±32, 249±41, 202±46, and 178±43 Ω (p<0.0001). In girls, the mean EBD values in the left and right breast were 148±40 and 155±54 Ω; EBD values decreased from Tanner stages 1 to 4 (204±14, 154±79, 136±43, and 119±16 Ω for stages 1–4, respectively) but were higher at Tanner stage 5 (165±30 Ω). With further development, this bioimpedance method may allow for investigations of breast development among adolescent, as well as assessment of breast cancer risk early in life and in populations without access to mammography. PMID:26838256

  13. Decision-making processes shaping the home food environments of young adult women with and without children.

    PubMed

    Raskind, Ilana G; Woodruff, Rebecca C; Ballard, Denise; Cherry, Sabrina T; Daniel, Sandra; Haardörfer, Regine; Kegler, Michelle C

    2017-02-21

    Although young adult women consume the majority of their total daily energy intake from home food sources, the decision-making processes that shape their home food environments have received limited attention. Further, how decision-making may be affected by the transformative experience of motherhood is unknown. In this study, we explore the factors that influence two key decision-making processes-food choices while grocery shopping and the use of non-home food sources-and whether there are differences by motherhood status. In-depth interviews were conducted with 40 women, aged 20-29, living in southwest Georgia. Thematic analysis was used to analyze qualitative data stratified by whether or not children were present in the home. Decision-making was affected by numerous factors, which differed across groups. In regard to grocery shopping, women with children more frequently discussed the influence of nutrition and the preferences of children, while women without children more frequently discussed the influence of taste and the preferences of other household members. Cost, convenience, weight control, and pre-planning meals emerged as salient in both groups. In regard to the use of non-home food sources, convenience and taste were discussed by both groups, while social factors were only discussed by women without children. The cost of eating out was the only reason cited for eating inside the home, and this factor only emerged among women with children. Motherhood may be an important contributor to the decision-making processes that shape young adult women's home food environments. Interventions may find success in framing messaging to emphasize factors identified as motivating healthy decisions, such as protecting the health of children, and practical strategies may be adapted from those already in use, such as pre-planning and budgeting for healthy meals.

  14. Effect of whey protein and glycomacropeptide on measures of satiety in normal-weight adult women.

    PubMed

    Chungchunlam, Sylvia M S; Henare, Sharon J; Ganesh, Siva; Moughan, Paul J

    2014-07-01

    Protein is the most satiating macronutrient and dairy whey protein is thought to be more satiating than other protein sources. The purported satiating effect of whey protein may be attributable to the presence of glycomacropeptide (GMP). The objective of this study was to investigate the role of GMP in the satiating effect of whey protein. Isoenergetic (~1600 kJ) preload drinks contained GMP isolate (86% GMP, "GMP"), whey protein isolate (WPI) with 21% naturally occurring GMP, WPI with 2% naturally present GMP, or maltodextrin carbohydrate ("carbohydrate"). Satiety was assessed in 22 normal-weight adult women by determining the consumption of a test meal provided ad libitum 120 min following ingestion of a preload drink, and also by using visual analogue scales (VAS) for rating feelings of hunger, desire to eat, prospective consumption and fullness (appetite). The ad libitum test meal intake was significantly different between the preload drinks (p = 0.0003), with food intake following ingestion of both WPI preload drinks (regardless of the amount of GMP) being ~18% lower compared with the beverages enriched with carbohydrate or GMP alone. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in the VAS-rated feelings of appetite among the four preload drinks. GMP alone did not reduce subsequent food intake compared with a drink enriched with carbohydrate, but whey protein had a greater satiating effect than carbohydrate. The presence of GMP in whey does not appear to be the cause of the observed effect of whey protein on satiety.

  15. Heart rate variability is reduced in underweight and overweight healthy adult women.

    PubMed

    Triggiani, Antonio Ivano; Valenzano, Anna; Ciliberti, Michela Anna Pia; Moscatelli, Fiorenzo; Villani, Stefano; Monda, Marcellino; Messina, Giovanni; Federici, Antonio; Babiloni, Claudio; Cibelli, Giuseppe

    2017-03-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is altered in obese subjects, but whether this is true also in underweight (UW) subjects is still under debate. We investigated the HRV profile in a sample of healthy adult women and its association with adiposity. Five-minute resting state electrocardiographic activity was recorded in 69 subjects grouped according to their body mass index, [23 normal weight (NW), 23 overweight/obese (OW) and 23 UW). Body fat mass (FM) was measured by bio-impedance. Frequency- and time-domain analyses were performed. Compared to NW, UW and OW subjects showed a significant decrease in HRV indices, as revealed by spectral analysis. No differences were observed between UW and OW subjects. A second-order polynomial regression unveiled an inverted U-shaped relationship between FM extent and HRV indices. A decrease of HRV indices was associated with changes in FM extent, proving that in UW and OW subjects, the adaptive flexibility of autonomic cardiac function was reduced. These findings provide important clues to guide future studies addressed to determine how changes in adiposity and autonomic cardiac function may contribute to health risk.

  16. The relationship between traffic noise and insomnia among adult Japanese women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasazawa, Y.; Kawada, T.; Kiryu, Y.; Suzuki, S.

    2004-10-01

    To clarify the relationship between traffic noise and insomnia, the authors conducted a survey and measured the actual sound level of noise in an urban area. Questionnaires were distributed to adult women who lived within 150 m from two major roads and were completed by 648 of the 1286 subjects (50.4%). The area was divided into three zones according to distance from the road (more than 50, 20-50 and 0-19.9 m). Fifty-seven subjects (8.8%) were classified as having insomnia. Average values of sound level at distances of 20, 50, and 100 m from the major road were Leq 64.7, 57.1, and 51.8 dBA, respectively. Overall, there were no significant differences among the three zones in the prevalence of insomnia and no association between distance from the road and insomnia. However, the result from a sub-data set of the subjects who lived in the areas that showed decreasing noise level as the distance from the main road increased showed that distance from the road was associated with insomnia. This study suggests that researchers should consider the actual traffic situation and its sound level in epidemiological studies about the effects of traffic noise on insomnia.

  17. COPING AS A MEDIATOR OF INTERNALIZED HOMOPHOBIA AND PSYCHOLOGICAL DISTRESS AMONG YOUNG ADULT SEXUAL MINORITY WOMEN.

    PubMed

    Kaysen, Debra; Kulesza, Magdalena; Balsam, Kimberly F; Rhew, Isaac C; Blayney, Jessica A; Lehavot, Keren; Hughes, Tonda L

    2014-09-01

    Sexual minorities have higher rates of depression and anxiety than their heterosexual counterparts. This elevated risk of psychological distress has generally been hypothesized to be a result of the effects of discrimination including internalized negative beliefs about sexual minorities. However, little research has examined the role of various types of coping in mediating between internalized homophobia and mental health. We tested the direct relationship between internalized homophobia and psychological distress and evaluated general and sexual minority-specific coping strategies as potential mediators using structural equation modeling. Data are from a national sample of 1,099 young adult sexual minority women who were on average 20.86 (SD= 2.12) years old, participating in a study on mental health and substance use. The model demonstrated acceptable fit, χ(2) (83) = 402.9, p <.001, CFI=.94, TLI=.92, SRMR= .07, and RMSEA=.06, accounting for 73% of variance in psychological distress. Greater use of maladaptive coping and less use of sexual minority-specific coping were associated with higher psychological distress. Although maladaptive coping mediated the relationship between internalized homophobia and psychological distress, sexual minority-specific coping did not. Our findings support previous studies that have demonstrated the impact of internalized homophobia on psychological distress as well as the role of coping as a protective/risk factor in this relationship.

  18. Does Polyvictimization Affect Incarcerated and Non-Incarcerated Adult Women Differently? An Exploration Into Internalizing Problems.

    PubMed

    Radatz, Dana L; Wright, Emily M

    2015-06-10

    In this study, we used data from life histories of 424 non-incarcerated (n = 266) and incarcerated (n = 158) women to examine the extent to which women are exposed to multiple forms of victimization, including child abuse, intimate partner violence, sexual assault, and traumatic life events. We assessed the effects of polyvictimization (e.g., multiple victimizations) on women's health-related outcomes (e.g., attempted suicide, drug and alcohol problems) as well as whether the prevalence rates and effects of victimization were significantly different between the subsamples of women. Results indicate that incarcerated women experience significantly more victimization than non-incarcerated women, and while polyvictimization was associated with a higher likelihood of alcohol problems, drug problems, and attempted suicide among non-incarcerated women, it was only marginally associated with an increased likelihood of alcohol problems among incarcerated women. Finally, low levels of polyvictimization affected alcohol and drug problems among incarcerated and non-incarcerated women differently.

  19. Sexual Minority Health Disparities in Adult Men and Women in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001–2010

    PubMed Central

    Gamarel, Kristi E.; Grin, Benjamin M.; Lee, Ji Hyun; Kahler, Christopher W.; Marshall, Brandon D. L.; van den Berg, Jacob J.; Zaller, Nickolas D.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We used nationally representative data to investigate health disparities associated with sexual minority status among adults in the United States. Methods. We analyzed data from 11 114 adults who participated in the 2001 to 2010 waves of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Using multiple logistic regressions, we examined the prevalence of HIV, sexually transmitted infections, mental health problems, cigarette smoking, and alcohol and illicit drug use in sexual minorities and heterosexual adults. Results. After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, sexual minority men had greater odds of mental health problems, testing positive for HIV and herpes simplex virus type 2 and self-reported gonorrhea and chlamydia. Sexual minority women had greater odds of mental health problems, testing positive for hepatitis C, smoking, heavy drinking, and illicit drug use. Conclusions. Numerous health disparities continue to face sexual minority men and women in the United States. Notably, health disparities persisted beyond the role of sociodemographic factors, including access to insurance and primary care, suggesting that further research is warranted to identify the determinants of health inequity for sexual minorities. PMID:26270288

  20. Self and peer perceptions of childhood aggression, social withdrawal and likeability predict adult substance abuse and dependence in men and women: a 30-year prospective longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; Serbin, Lisa A; Stack, Dale M; Ledingham, Jane E; Schwartzman, Alex E

    2011-12-01

    While childhood behaviors such as aggression, social withdrawal and likeability have been linked to substance abuse outcomes in adolescence and adulthood, the mechanisms by which these variables relate are not yet well established. Self and peer perceptions of childhood behaviors in men and women were compared to assess the role of context in the prediction of drug and alcohol abuse and dependence. Participants (N=676) in an ongoing longitudinal project examining the relation between childhood behavior and adult mental health outcomes completed the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM IV regarding their histories of substance abuse in mid-adulthood (mean age=34, SD=2). In women, higher levels of both self and peer reported aggression were associated with drug and alcohol abuse and dependence, and higher levels of peer reported aggression were associated with higher levels of alcohol abuse and dependence. As well, higher levels of self-perceived likeability were protective regarding substance abuse and dependence outcomes. In men, higher levels of peer perceived social withdrawal were protective regarding substance abuse and dependence outcomes. Findings support the comparison of self and peer perceptions of childhood behavior as a method of assessing the mechanisms by which childhood behaviors impact adult outcomes, and suggest the importance of gender in the relation between childhood behaviors and adult substance abuse and dependence.

  1. Measuring Adult Mortality Using Sibling Survival: A New Analytical Method and New Results for 44 Countries, 1974–2006

    PubMed Central

    Obermeyer, Ziad; Rajaratnam, Julie Knoll; Park, Chang H.; Gakidou, Emmanuela; Hogan, Margaret C.; Lopez, Alan D.; Murray, Christopher J. L.

    2010-01-01

    15—the probability of a 15-y old dying before his or her 60th birthday—for 44 countries with DHS sibling survival data. Our findings suggest that levels of adult mortality prevailing in many developing countries are substantially higher than previously suggested by other analyses of sibling history data. Generally, our estimates show the risk of adult death between ages 15 and 60 y to be about 20%–35% for females and 25%–45% for males in sub-Saharan African populations largely unaffected by HIV. In countries of Southern Africa, where the HIV epidemic has been most pronounced, as many as eight out of ten men alive at age 15 y will be dead by age 60, as will six out of ten women. Adult mortality levels in populations of Asia and Latin America are generally lower than in Africa, particularly for women. The exceptions are Haiti and Cambodia, where mortality risks are comparable to many countries in Africa. In all other countries with data, the probability of dying between ages 15 and 60 y was typically around 10% for women and 20% for men, not much higher than the levels prevailing in several more developed countries. Conclusions Our results represent an expansion of direct knowledge of levels and trends in adult mortality in the developing world. The CSS method provides grounds for renewed optimism in collecting sibling survival data. We suggest that all nationally representative survey programs with adequate sample size ought to implement this critical module for tracking adult mortality in order to more reliably understand the levels and patterns of adult mortality, and how they are changing. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:20405004

  2. Design and Feasibility of a Text Messaging Intervention to Prevent Indoor Tanning Among Young Adult Women: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Mays, Darren

    2016-01-01

    Background Although skin cancer is largely preventable, it affects nearly 1 of 5 US adults. There is a need for research on how to optimally design persuasive public health indoor tanning prevention messages. Objective The objective of our study was to examine whether framed messages on indoor tanning behavioral intentions delivered through short message service (SMS) text messaging would produce (1) positive responses to the messages, including message receptivity and emotional response; (2) indoor tanning efficacy beliefs, including response efficacy and self-efficacy; and (3) indoor tanning risk beliefs. Methods We conducted a pilot study of indoor tanning prevention messages delivered via mobile phone text messaging in a sample of 21 young adult women who indoor tan. Participants completed baseline measures, were randomly assigned to receive gain-, loss-, or balanced-framed text messages, and completed postexposure outcome measures on indoor tanning cognitions and behaviors. Participants received daily mobile phone indoor tanning prevention text messages for 1 week and completed the same postexposure measures as at baseline. Results Over the 1-week period there were trends or significant changes after receipt of the text messages, including increased perceived susceptibility (P<.001), response efficacy beliefs (P<.001), and message receptivity (P=.03). Ordinary least squares stepwise linear regression models showed an effect of text message exposure on self-efficacy to quit indoor tanning (t6=–2.475, P<.02). Ordinary least squares linear regression including all measured scales showed a marginal effect of SMS texts on self-efficacy (t20=1.905, P=.08). Participants endorsed highly favorable views toward the text messaging protocol. Conclusions This study supports this use of mobile text messaging as an indoor tanning prevention strategy. Given the nature of skin cancer risk perceptions, the addition of multimedia messaging service is another area of potential

  3. Parent Drug-Use Problems and Adult Intimate Relations: Associations among Community Samples of Young Adult Women and Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newcomb, Michael D.; Rickards, Shannae

    1995-01-01

    Used community samples to determine the effects of childhood family support or dysfunction and the extent of parent drug-use problems on adult intimacy issues, such as sexual satisfaction. Results showed that parent drug-use predicted poor family support; family support correlated strongly with good adult intimate relations. (RJM)

  4. Temporal trends in serum concentrations of polychlorinated dioxins, furans, and PCBs among adult women living in Chapaevsk, Russia: a longitudinal study from 2000 to 2009

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The present study assessed the temporal trend in serum concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls (PCBs) among residents of a Russian town where levels of these chemicals are elevated due to prior industrial activity. Methods Two serum samples were collected from eight adult women (in 2000 and 2009), and analyzed with gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry. Results The average total toxic equivalency (TEQ) decreased by 30% (from 36 to 25 pg/g lipid), and the average sum of PCB congeners decreased by 19% (from 291 to 211 ng/g lipid). Total TEQs decreased for seven of the eight women, and the sum of PCBs decreased for six of eight women. During this nine year period, larger decreases in serum TEQs and PCBs were found in women with greater increases in body mass index. Conclusions This study provides suggestive evidence that average serum concentrations of dioxins, furans, and PCBs are decreasing over time among residents of this town. PMID:21696632

  5. Waiting to Exhale: African American Women and Adult Learning Through Movies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Elice E.

    Scholars have addressed adults and the impact of popular culture on adult learning, but little attention has been directed toward the relationship between adult learning and African Americans. Most specifically, minimal information is related to adult learning that evolves as a result of popular culture influences. Popular culture promotes…

  6. Association between group A beta-haemolytic streptococci and vulvovaginitis in adult women: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Bruins, M J; Damoiseaux, R A M J; Ruijs, G J H M

    2009-08-01

    Guidelines for the management of vaginal discharge mention Candida albicans, Trichomonas vaginalis, bacterial vaginosis, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae as causes and do not recommend full microbiological culture. The role of non-group B beta-haemolytic streptococci in vaginal cultures is unclear, except for group A streptococci that are known to cause vulvovaginitis in children. In a case-control study, we investigated the association between non-group B beta-haemolytic streptococci and vulvovaginitis in adult women. Cases were women with recurrent vaginal discharge from whom a sample was cultured. Controls were asymptomatic women who consented to submitting a vaginal swab. Group A streptococci were isolated from 49 (4.9%) of 1,010 cases and not from the 206 controls (P < 0.01). Isolation rates of group C, F and G streptococci were low and did not differ statistically between cases and controls. Group A beta-haemolytic streptococci are associated with vaginal discharge in adult women. The other non-group B streptococci require more study. For the adequate management of vaginal discharge, culturing is necessary if initial treatment fails. Guidelines should be amended according to these results.

  7. Prevalence and Predictors of Low Vitamin B6 Status in Healthy Young Adult Women in Metro Vancouver

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Chia-ling; Quay, Teo A. W.; Devlin, Angela M.; Lamers, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    Low periconceptional vitamin B6 (B6) status has been associated with an increased risk of preterm birth and early pregnancy loss. Given many pregnancies are unplanned; it is important for women to maintain an adequate B6 status throughout reproductive years. There is limited data on B6 status in Canadian women. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of B6 deficiency and predictors of B6 status in young adult women in Metro Vancouver. We included a convenience sample of young adult non-pregnant women (19–35 years; n = 202). Vitamin B6 status was determined using fasting plasma concentrations of pyridoxal 5’-phosphate (PLP). Mean (95% confidence interval) plasma PLP concentration was 61.0 (55.2, 67.3) nmol/L. The prevalence of B6 deficiency (plasma PLP < 20 nmol/L) was 1.5% and that of suboptimal B6 status (plasma PLP = 20–30 nmol/L) was 10.9%. Body mass index, South Asian ethnicity, relative dietary B6 intake, and the use of supplemental B6 were significant predictors of plasma PLP. The combined 12.4% prevalence of B6 deficiency and suboptimal status was lower than data reported in US populations and might be due to the high socioeconomic status of our sample. More research is warranted to determine B6 status in the general Canadian population. PMID:27598193

  8. Efficacy of a Group Intervention for Adult Women Survivors of Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebert, Martine; Bergeron, Manon

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluates the effects of a group intervention for women sexually abused in childhood or adulthood. The sample consisted of 41 women involved in a group intervention based on a feminist approach offered by help centers for sexual assault victims in Quebec and 11 women in a wait-list comparison group. Results reveal that the group…

  9. "Breakthrough" 1981 Eight Months Later. A Summary of the Presentations, Recommendations, and Outcomes of the 1981 Breakthrough Conference, to Assist Minority Women and Men and Nonminority Women Achieve Leadership Positions in Wisconsin's Vocational, Technical, and Adult Education System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grengg, Dolores A., Ed.; Thompson, Mary B., Ed.

    These proceedings consist of a summary of the presentations, recommendations, and outcomes of a conference held to assist minority women and men and nonminority women achieve leadership positions in Wisconsin's vocational, technical, and adult education (VTAE) system. Following a brief introduction and copy of the conference agenda, summaries are…

  10. Childhood serum fatty acid quality is associated with adult carotid artery intima media thickness in women but not in men.

    PubMed

    Kaikkonen, Jari E; Jula, Antti; Mikkilä, Vera; Juonala, Markus; Viikari, Jorma S A; Moilanen, Teemu; Nikkari, Tapio; Kähönen, Mika; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli T

    2013-05-01

    Childhood nutrition may play a role in the development of cardiovascular disease risk in adulthood. We examined the links between childhood dietary fatty acid quality and adult subclinical atherosclerosis in a cohort of 374 males and 449 females, aged 3-18 y at baseline in 1980, followed for 27 y. Serum cholesterol ester fatty acid (CEFA) percentages were analyzed as markers of dietary fatty acid intake. Adulthood carotid artery intima media thickness (cIMT, μm), adjusted for childhood and adulthood lipid and nonlipid risk markers, was used as the outcome. In women, after adjustment for age and childhood nonlipid risk markers, the childhood saturated CEFA (B = 11.3; P = 0.011), monounsaturated CEFA (B = 2.5; P = 0.025), and n3 (ω3) polyunsaturated CEFA (B = 16.2; P = 0.035) percentages were directly associated with adult cIMT. In contrast, the n6 (ω6) polyunsaturated CEFA percentage was negatively associated with cIMT (B = -2.3; P = 0.008). Similar relationships were observed between childhood dietary intake data and adult cIMT. In men, these associations were generally weak and nonsignificant (P > 0.05) after controlling for confounders. These longitudinal data suggest that fat quality as reflected in the serum cholesterol ester fraction in childhood is associated with adult cIMT in women.

  11. CHRNA5 and CHRNA3 variants and level of neuroticism in young adult Mexican American men and women.

    PubMed

    Criado, José R; Gizer, Ian R; Edenberg, Howard J; Ehlers, Cindy L

    2014-04-01

    A lifetime history of alcohol dependence has been associated with elevations in neuroticism in Mexican American young adults. The identification of genetic markers associated with neuroticism and their influence on the development of alcohol use disorders (AUD) may contribute to our understanding of the relationship between personality traits and the increased risk of AUD in Mexican Americans. The purpose of this study was to investigate associations between neuroticism and 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the nicotinic acetylcholine (nAChR) α5-subunit (CHRNA5) and α3-subunit (CHRNA3) genes in young adult Mexican American men and women. Participants were 465 young adult Mexican American men and women who are literate in English and are residing legally in San Diego County. Each participant gave a blood sample and completed a structured diagnostic interview. Neuroticism was assessed using the Maudsley Personality Inventory. The minor alleles of four CHRNA5 polymorphisms (rs588765, rs601079, rs680244 and rs555018) and three CHRNA3 polymorphisms (rs578776, rs6495307 and rs3743078) showed associations with neuroticism. Several of these SNPs also displayed nominal associations with DSM-IV alcohol and nicotine dependence, but tests of mediation suggested that these relations could be partially explained by the presence of co-occurring neuroticism. These findings suggest that genetic variations in nicotinic receptor genes may influence the development of neuroticism, which in turn is involved in the development of AUDs and nicotine dependence in Mexican American young adults.

  12. Use of oral contraceptives blunts the calciuric effect of caffeine in young adult women.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro-Alves, Mirna A; Trugo, Luiz C; Donangelo, Carmen M

    2003-02-01

    Caffeine consumption increases the urinary excretion of calcium and other minerals. Factors that affect caffeine metabolism such as steroid hormones may modify this effect. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of oral contraceptive (OC) use on the 4-h urinary excretion of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, sodium, potassium and caffeine metabolites in response to a high caffeine dose given as coffee beverage. Adult women, 20-29 y, users (+OC, n = 15) and nonusers (-OC, n = 15) of oral contraceptives, with calcium intake approximately 500 mg/d, participated in two tests, caffeine load (5 mg/kg body weight) and no-caffeine control, in a randomized crossover design. The net increase (caffeine load corrected by no caffeine) in urinary excretion of most minerals was significantly higher in -OC than in +OC (P < 0.05), with the larger group difference for calcium (ninefold) followed by magnesium (twofold), zinc (onefold) and potassium (onefold). Net increases in urinary excretion of 1-methylurate and paraxanthine were about three- and fivefold higher, respectively, in -OC than in +OC (P < 0.05) whereas net increases in urinary excretion of 5-acetylamino-6-formylamino-3-methyluracil (AFMU) and 1,7-dimethylurate were over twofold higher in the +OC than in -OC (P < 0.05). Following the caffeine load, most urinary minerals showed negative correlation with urinary 1-methylurate in -OC (R

  13. Brief self-compassion meditation training for body image distress in young adult women.

    PubMed

    Toole, Aubrey M; Craighead, Linda W

    2016-12-01

    Self-compassion interventions may be uniquely suited to address body image distress (BID), as change-based strategies may have limited utility in a cultural context that so highly values appearance. The current study evaluated a version of an Internet-based self-compassion training, which had previously shown promising results, but was limited by high attrition. The intervention period was reduced from three weeks to one week in the present study to improve retention. Eighty undergraduate women endorsing body image concerns were randomized to either self-compassion meditation training or a waitlist control group. Results suggest that brief exposure to the basic tenets of self-compassion holds promise for improving aspects of self-compassion and BID. Attrition was minimal, but compliance with meditation practice instructions during the week was low. Efforts are needed to improve engagement, but this approach has the potential to be an acceptable and cost effective method to reduce BID.

  14. Sighs, smiles, and worried glances: how the body reveals women caregivers' lived experiences of care to older adults.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Marjorie

    2013-08-01

    This article reports on findings from microethnographic research that examined the lived reality of women caregivers through detailed observation of their everyday, embodied experiences. The research, which was rooted in the trend in social gerontology to emphasize subjective experience, focused on five women who were providing care to an older adult with a chronic illness or impairment. Four of the five women were caring for a spouse; one was caring for a parent. Observing the women's daily realities revealed tensions and contradictions between their subjective lived experiences and the pressures of the system in which they were functioning. The data revealed a caregiver habitus characterized by the performance of emotional labor. Performance was visible through dissonance between the caregivers' verbal and nonverbal expressions, and pointed to a high degree of emotion and body management. The women consistently put aside their own needs, in what can be considered a divestment in health capital. There was also evidence of merging between the caregiver and care receiver, made visible through tandem movements. The findings lead to implications for practice and for future aging research, including the benefits of observation for enhancing understanding of clients' experiences.

  15. The influence of sexually explicit Internet material and peers on stereotypical beliefs about women's sexual roles: similarities and differences between adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    Peter, Jochen; Valkenburg, Patti M

    2011-09-01

    Previous research on the influence of sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) on adolescents' stereotypical beliefs about women's sexual roles has three shortcomings. First, the role of peers has been neglected; second, stereotypical beliefs have rarely been studied as causing the use of SEIM and the selection of specific peers; and third, it is unclear whether adolescents are more vulnerable to the effects of SEIM than adults. We used data from two nationally representative two-wave panel surveys among 1,445 Dutch adolescents and 833 Dutch adults, focusing on the stereotypical belief that women engage in token resistance to sex (i.e., the notion that women say "no" when they actually intend to have sex). Structural equation modeling showed that peers who supported traditional gender roles elicited, both among adolescents and adults, stronger beliefs that women use token resistance to sex. Further, the belief that women engage in token resistance predicted adolescents' and adults' selection of gender-role traditional peers, but it did not predict adolescents' and adults' use of SEIM. Finally, adults, but not adolescents, were susceptible to the impact of SEIM on beliefs that women engage in token resistance to sex.

  16. Women Reading for Education, Affinity & Development (WREAD): An Evaluation of a Semistructured Reading Discussion Group for African American Female Adult-Literacy Students with Histories of Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jayatta D.

    2012-01-01

    Women Reading for Education, Affinity & Development (WREAD), a reading discussion group geared toward African American female adult-literacy students with self-defined histories of trauma, was an outgrowth of research identifying links between trauma, women's struggles with literacy, and the need to be conscious of emotional health…

  17. In vivo cell tracking and quantification method in adult zebrafish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li; Alt, Clemens; Li, Pulin; White, Richard M.; Zon, Leonard I.; Wei, Xunbin; Lin, Charles P.

    2012-03-01

    Zebrafish have become a powerful vertebrate model organism for drug discovery, cancer and stem cell research. A recently developed transparent adult zebrafish using double pigmentation mutant, called casper, provide unparalleled imaging power in in vivo longitudinal analysis of biological processes at an anatomic resolution not readily achievable in murine or other systems. In this paper we introduce an optical method for simultaneous visualization and cell quantification, which combines the laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) and the in vivo flow cytometry (IVFC). The system is designed specifically for non-invasive tracking of both stationary and circulating cells in adult zebrafish casper, under physiological conditions in the same fish over time. The confocal imaging part in this system serves the dual purposes of imaging fish tissue microstructure and a 3D navigation tool to locate a suitable vessel for circulating cell counting. The multi-color, multi-channel instrument allows the detection of multiple cell populations or different tissues or organs simultaneously. We demonstrate initial testing of this novel instrument by imaging vasculature and tracking circulating cells in CD41: GFP/Gata1: DsRed transgenic casper fish whose thrombocytes/erythrocytes express the green and red fluorescent proteins. Circulating fluorescent cell incidents were recorded and counted repeatedly over time and in different types of vessels. Great application opportunities in cancer and stem cell researches are discussed.

  18. The Adult Asperger Assessment (AAA): A Diagnostic Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron-Cohen, Simon; Wheelwright, Sally; Robinson, Janine; Woodbury-Smith, Marc

    2005-01-01

    At the present time there are a large number of adults who have "suspected" Asperger syndrome (AS). In this paper we describe a new instrument, the Adult Asperger Assessment (AAA), developed in our clinic for adults with AS. The need for a new instrument relevant to the diagnosis of AS in adulthood arises because existing instruments are designed…

  19. Adult Learning Methods: A Guide for Effective Instruction. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galbraith, Michael W., Ed.

    This book contains 21 papers devoted to understanding and facilitating adult learning. After "Foreword to the Second Edition" (Malcolm S. Knowles) and other introductory materials, the papers are: "Becoming an Effective Teacher of Adults" (Michael W. Galbraith); "Understanding Adult Learners" (Huey B. Long); "Identifying Your Philosophical…

  20. Regional differences in physical appearance identity among young adult women in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Rongmuang, Daravan; McElmurry, Beverly J; McCreary, Linda L; Park, Chang G; Miller, Arlene G; Corte, Colleen

    2011-02-01

    Physical appearance concerns lead to serious health compromising behaviors among women in Thailand. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in physical appearance identity among young women in four regions of Thailand based on 30 physical appearance characteristics generated and validated in two previous samples of young Thai women. Using Q methodology, 200 Thai young women sorted the physical appearance characteristics in terms of importance. Across-region differences exist for the most important physical appearance characteristics. Regional differences in physical appearance identity may explain the variety of behaviors used by Thai women to enhance their physical appearance. Further research should focus on regional factors that contribute to these aspects of physical appearance becoming a dominant source of self-definition so that effective prevention strategies can be developed and targeted to women at high risk.

  1. Development of Academic Self-Efficacy in Women during College: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Savala

    2013-01-01

    Although women account for more than 50% of the college degrees awarded nationally, The College of Idaho has had a challenge retaining female students. There are any number of reasons for women's struggle to persist at the college, but one of the most basic may be a matter of self-efficacy. This mixed methods study used a combination of…

  2. Association between Milk and Milk Product Consumption and Anthropometric Measures in Adult Men and Women in India: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Satija, Ambika; Agrawal, Sutapa; Bowen, Liza; Khandpur, Neha; Kinra, Sanjay; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Reddy, Kolli Srinath; Smith, George Davey; Ebrahim, Shah

    2013-01-01

    Background The nutritional aetiology of obesity remains unclear, especially with regard to the role of dairy products in developing countries. Objective To examine whether milk/milk product consumption is associated with obesity and high waist circumference among adult Indians. Methods Information on plain milk, tea, curd and buttermilk/lassi consumption assessed using a Food Frequency Questionnaire was obtained from the cross-sectional sib-pair designed Indian Migration Study (3698 men and 2659 women), conducted at four factory locations across north, central and south India. The anthropometric measures included were Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Circumference (WC). Mixed-effect logistic regression models were conducted to accommodate sib-pair design and adjust for potential confounders. Results After controlling for potential confounders, the risk of being obese (BMI≥25 kg/m2) was lower among women (OR = 0.57;95%CI:0.43−0.76;p≤0.0001) and men (OR = 0.67;95%CI: 0.51−0.87;p = 0.005), and the risk of a high WC (men: >90 cm; women: >80 cm) was lower among men (OR = 0.71;95%CI:0.54−0.93;p = 0.005) and women (OR = 0.79;95%CI:0.59−1.05;p>0.05) who consume ≥1 portions of plain milk daily than those who do not consume any milk. The inverse association between daily plain milk consumption and obesity was also confirmed in sibling-pair analyses. Daily tea consumption of ≥1 portion was associated with obesity (OR = 1.51;95%CI:1.00−2.25;p>0.050) and high WC (OR = 1.65;95%CI:1.08−2.51;p>0.019) among men but not among women but there was no strong evidence of association of curd and buttermilk/lassi consumption with obesity and high waist circumference among both men and women. Conclusions The independent, inverse association of daily plain milk consumption with the risk of being obese suggests that high plain milk intake may lower the risk of obesity in adult Indians. However, this is an observational finding and

  3. Attitudes toward Bisexual Men and Women among a Nationally Representative Probability Sample of Adults in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Herbenick, Debby; Friedman, M. Reuel; Schick, Vanessa; Fu, Tsung-Chieh (Jane); Bostwick, Wendy; Bartelt, Elizabeth; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Pletta, David; Reece, Michael; Sandfort, Theo G. M.

    2016-01-01

    As bisexual individuals in the United States (U.S.) face significant health disparities, researchers have posited that these differences may be fueled, at least in part, by negative attitudes, prejudice, stigma, and discrimination toward bisexual individuals from heterosexual and gay/lesbian individuals. Previous studies of individual and social attitudes toward bisexual men and women have been conducted almost exclusively with convenience samples, with limited generalizability to the broader U.S. population. Our study provides an assessment of attitudes toward bisexual men and women among a nationally representative probability sample of heterosexual, gay, lesbian, and other-identified adults in the U.S. Data were collected from the 2015 National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior (NSSHB), via an online questionnaire with a probability sample of adults (18 years and over) from throughout the U.S. We included two modified 5-item versions of the Bisexualities: Indiana Attitudes Scale (BIAS), validated sub-scales that were developed to measure attitudes toward bisexual men and women. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, gamma regression, and paired t-tests. Gender, sexual identity, age, race/ethnicity, income, and educational attainment were all significantly associated with participants' attitudes toward bisexual individuals. In terms of responses to individual scale items, participants were most likely to “neither agree nor disagree” with all attitudinal statements. Across sexual identities, self-identified other participants reported the most positive attitudes, while heterosexual male participants reported the least positive attitudes. As in previous research on convenience samples, we found a wide range of demographic characteristics were related with attitudes toward bisexual individuals in our nationally-representative study of heterosexual, gay/lesbian, and other-identified adults in the U.S. In particular, gender emerged as a significant

  4. Contraceptive methods and the risk of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in young women.

    PubMed

    Park, B J; Stergachis, A; Scholes, D; Heidrich, F E; Holmes, K K; Stamm, W E

    1995-10-01

    To evaluate the relation between contraceptive methods and cervical Chlamydia trachomatis infection, the authors studied a population-based sample of 1,779 nonpregnant women aged 15-34 years who underwent cell culture diagnostic testing for the detection of C. trachomatis at a health maintenance organization. Barrier contraceptive method users were classified as those who reported using one of the following methods at time of testing: condom, diaphragm, cervical cap, spermicidal sponge, foam, or vaginal spermicidal suppositories. Barrier methods were associated with a reduction in the risk of chlamydial infection in women aged 25 years or older when compared with all other women in the same age category (adjusted prevalence odds ratio = 0.15, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.04-0.66). When compared with only noncontracepting women, the adjusted prevalence odds ratio was 0.34 (95% CI 0.06-1.99). The protective effect of barrier methods was not evident in women younger than age 25 years. Oral contraceptive use was not associated with the risk of C. trachomatis infection using either referent group; the adjusted prevalence odds ratio was 0.99 (95% CI 0.57-1.73) compared with all other women, and 0.88 (95% CI 0.44-1.79) compared with noncontracepting women. These findings suggest that present patterns of use of barrier methods differ by age and afford only selective protection against cervical C. trachomatis infections.

  5. Trajectories of mental health over 16 years amongst young adult women: The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health.

    PubMed

    Holden, Libby; Ware, Robert S; Lee, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This article used data from 5,171 young women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study, to identify longitudinal trajectory patterns of mental health across 6 surveys over 16 years of early adulthood, from age 18-23 to age 34-39. In addition, we identified both predictors and outcomes of these trajectories. Using group-based trajectory modeling, we identified 4 distinct trajectory groups of mental health. The mental health of most participants (55%) was consistently high, with 12% improving, 24% varying, and 9% frequently low. The authors considered characteristics at the beginning and end of the trajectory period, taking a life-course perspective to understand vulnerabilities to, and outcomes of, low or variable poor mental health trajectories. Financial difficulties, poor general health, and weight or shape dissatisfaction were characteristics at Survey 1 that distinguished all other trajectory groups from those with consistently high mental health. Other differences were specific to 1 or 2 groups. By the end of the trajectory period, the improving mental health group showed few differences from those with consistently high mental health. However, those with varying and low mental health showed evidence of social disadvantage, poor physical and emotional health, and unhealthy behaviors, and were less likely to be mothers. The ability to identify distinct trajectories of mental health in early adulthood, and their correlates, provides evidence to underpin population health interventions targeting the prevention of mental health problems among this population group. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. Developmental Exposure of Mice to TCDD Elicits a Similar Uterine Phenotype in Adult Animals as Observed in Women with Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Nayyar, Tultul; Bruner-Tran, Kaylon L.; Piestrzeniewicz-Ulanska, Dagmara; Osteen, Kevin G.

    2007-01-01

    Whether environmental toxicants impact an individual woman’s risk for developing endometriosis remains uncertain. Although the growth of endometrial glands and stroma at extra-uterine sites is associated with retrograde menstruation, our studies suggest that reduced responsiveness to progesterone may increase the invasive capacity of endometrial tissue in women with endometriosis. Interestingly, our recent studies using isolated human endometrial cells in short-term culture suggest that experimental exposure to the environmental contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetracholorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) can alter the expression of progesterone receptor isotypes. Compared to adult exposure, toxicant exposure during development can exert a significantly greater biological impact, potentially affecting the incidence of endometriosis in adults. To address this possibility, we exposed mice to TCDD at critical developmental time points and subsequently examined uterine progesterone receptor expression and steroid responsive transforming growth factor-β2 expression in adult animals. We find that the uterine phenotype of toxicant-exposed mice is markedly similarly to the endometrial phenotype of women with endometriosis. PMID:17056225

  7. Studies of the Adult Learner. Formal Education at a Standstill: Women's Views. Research Paper No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Otis Holloway; Emplaincourt, Marilyn

    Examined were the educational attitudes, experiences, needs, and constraints of a selected sample of women in the Tuscaloosa area who were not enrolled in educational programs during the spring of 1975. A total of 116 women participated in the study and completed a 64-item questionnaire. The majority of the respondents indicated positive attitudes…

  8. Understanding Women in the Role of Caregivers for Older Adults in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seto, Atsuko; Dahlen, Penny

    2005-01-01

    This article provides an overview of Japanese women in the role of caregivers of older family members. Cultural influence on women's identity, significance of the caregiver's role, and the struggles and rewards of being caregivers are discussed. Finally, ideas are provided for the use of arts in counseling and implications of their use are…

  9. Using Technology Assessment To Build Confidence and Teach Critical Skills to Adult Women Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Margaret; And Others

    This paper describes the aims, organization, and outcomes of a technology assessment activity that was part of a summer school for an undergraduate interdisciplinary women's studies course at the Open University of Great Britain. Entitled "The Changing Experience of Women," the course contained a technology assessment module for the…

  10. Retraumatization among Adult Women Sexually Abused in Childhood: Exploratory Analysis in a Prospective Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banyard, Victoria L.; Williams, Linda M.; Siegel, Jane A.

    2002-01-01

    Study examined risk factors related to re-traumatization in women sexually abused in childhood. Eighty women were interviewed once in childhood, twice in early adulthood. Risk factors were measured at second interview and used to predict reported trauma exposure between interviews two and three. Some factors (e.g. homelessness, depression) were…

  11. The Utilization of Exercise to Decrease Depressive Symptoms in Young Adult Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balkin, Richard S.; Tietjen-Smith, Tara; Caldwell, Charmaine; Shen, Yu-Pei

    2007-01-01

    Depression is a prevalent issue for women on college campuses. Undergraduate women participated in (a) an aerobic exercise class, (b) a weight-lifting class, or (c) a control group to determine the effect of exercise on depressive symptoms. Participants in the aerobic exercise group exhibited a significant decrease in depressive symptoms.…

  12. Concerns of Women around the World: The Responsibilities of the Adult Education Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassara, Beverly B.

    Around the world, women suffer oppression to various degrees. In the United States, they have a difficult time rising in corporations or having their ideas taken seriously. In some other countries, they are abused and overworked. Some women in Norway are concerned that their country's entrance into the European Community will mean an end to the…

  13. Adult Learners in Cyberspace: A Collective Case Study of Reentry Women in a Virtual Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Brian R.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this collective case study is to describe and explore a virtual learning community as experienced by women reentering higher education in an online graduate degree program. The grand tour question for this study was: How do reentry women in an online graduate program describe their experience in a virtual learning community? …

  14. Collective Transformations, Collective Theories: What Adult Educators Can Learn From the Boston Women's Health Book Collective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birden, Susan

    The experiences of the 12-woman Boston Women's Health Book Collective was examined in a case study that focused on the collective's activities from its formation in 1969 through its publication of the book "Our Bodies, Ourselves" in 1973 and its opening of a women's clinic in downtown Boston that is still in operation today. The case…

  15. Sexual Dysfunction among Older Adults: Prevalence and Risk Factors from a Nationally Representative U.S. Probability Sample of Men and Women 57–85 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Laumann, Edward O.; Das, Aniruddha; Waite, Linda J.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Despite increasing demand for clinical interventions into sexual problems in an aging population, epidemiological data on the subject are scarce. Aims To examine the prevalence of sexual problems across different sociodemographic groups, and risk factors for these problems in multiple domains of life. Methods Statistical analysis of data from the 2005–2006 National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP), a nationally representative U.S. probability sample of 1,550 women and 1,455 men aged 57–85 at the time of interview. Main Outcome Measures Likelihood of experiencing sexual dysfunction in the preceding 12 months. Results Sexual problems among the elderly are not an inevitable consequence of aging, but instead are responses to the presence of stressors in multiple life domains. This impact may partly be gender differentiated, with older women's sexual health more sensitive to their physical health than is true for men. The mechanism linking life stress with sexual problems is likely to be poor mental health and relationship dissatisfaction. The NSHAP results demonstrate the consistent impact of poor mental health on women's reports of sexual problems and the less consistent association with men's problems. Conclusions The results point to a need for physicians who are treating older adults experiencing sexual problems to take into account not simply their physical health, but also their psychosocial health and satisfaction with their intimate relationship. PMID:18702640

  16. Depressive symptoms and suicide risk in older adults: value placed on autonomy as a moderator for men but not women.

    PubMed

    Bamonti, Patricia M; Price, Elizabeth C; Fiske, Amy

    2014-04-01

    Risk for suicide is elevated among older men. We examined whether value placed on autonomy amplifies the relation between depressive symptoms and suicide risk differently for older men and women. Participants were 98 community-dwelling older adults, M age 73.6 (SD = 8.6), 65.1% female, 93.1% White. Questionnaires measured suicide risk (SBQ-R), depressive symptoms (CESD), and value placed on autonomy (PSI-II autonomy). Among men, depressive symptoms were associated with suicide risk only when PSI-II autonomy was elevated. Among women, greater depressive symptoms were associated with suicide risk at all levels of PSI-II autonomy. Further research on attitudes toward autonomy is warranted.

  17. Childhood Maltreatment Linked with a Deterioration of Psychosocial Outcomes in Adult Life for Southern Brazilian Transgender Women.

    PubMed

    Fontanari, Anna Martha Vaitses; Rovaris, Diego Luiz; Costa, Angelo Brandelli; Pasley, Andrew; Cupertino, Renata Basso; Soll, Bianca Machado Borba; Schwarz, Karine; da Silva, Dhiordan Cardoso; Borba, André Oliveira; Mueller, Andressa; Bau, Claiton Henrique Dotto; Lobato, Maria Inês Rodrigues

    2016-11-12

    A history of childhood maltreatment (HCM) has been associated with detrimental psychiatric outcomes. This is particularly true for transgender, for whom there is initial evidence that HCM may be associated with psychiatric morbidity. Our study aimed to further characterize the relationship between HCM and the development of mental disorder in adult life, based on a sample of Brazilian transgender women. Cross-sectional data were collected from a consecutive sample of 289 transgender women who attended the Hospital Clínicas clinic for gender dysphoria, in Porto Alegre, between 1998 and 2014. Our results demonstrated a greater risk of deteriorating mental health amongst participants who had experienced HCM. Given the disproportionally high rate of HCM in transgender persons, we advocate for greater assistance for transgender persons.

  18. Minimum Wage and Overweight and Obesity in Adult Women: A Multilevel Analysis of Low and Middle Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Conklin, Annalijn I.; Ponce, Ninez A.; Frank, John; Nandi, Arijit; Heymann, Jody

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To describe the relationship between minimum wage and overweight and obesity across countries at different levels of development. Methods A cross-sectional analysis of 27 countries with data on the legislated minimum wage level linked to socio-demographic and anthropometry data of non-pregnant 190,892 adult women (24–49 y) from the Demographic and Health Survey. We used multilevel logistic regression models to condition on country- and individual-level potential confounders, and post-estimation of average marginal effects to calculate the adjusted prevalence difference. Results We found the association between minimum wage and overweight/obesity was independent of individual-level SES and confounders, and showed a reversed pattern by country development stage. The adjusted overweight/obesity prevalence difference in low-income countries was an average increase of about 0.1 percentage points (PD 0.075 [0.065, 0.084]), and an average decrease of 0.01 percentage points in middle-income countries (PD -0.014 [-0.019, -0.009]). The adjusted obesity prevalence difference in low-income countries was an average increase of 0.03 percentage points (PD 0.032 [0.021, 0.042]) and an average decrease of 0.03 percentage points in middle-income countries (PD -0.032 [-0.036, -0.027]). Conclusion This is among the first studies to examine the potential impact of improved wages on an important precursor of non-communicable diseases globally. Among countries with a modest level of economic development, higher minimum wage was associated with lower levels of obesity. PMID:26963247

  19. Pathophysiology, risk factors, and screening methods for prediabetes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gourgari, Evgenia; Spanakis, Elias; Dobs, Adrian Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a syndrome associated with insulin resistance (IR), obesity, infertility, and increased cardiometabolic risk. This is a descriptive review of several mechanisms that can explain the IR among women with PCOS, other risk factors for the development of diabetes, and the screening methods used for the detection of glucose intolerance in women with PCOS. Few mechanisms can explain IR in women with PCOS such as obesity, insulin receptor signaling defects, and inhibition of insulin-mediated glucose uptake in adipocytes. Women with PCOS have additional risk factors for the development of glucose intolerance such as family history of diabetes, use of oral contraceptives, anovulation, and age. The Androgen Society in 2007 and the Endocrine Society in 2013 recommended using oral glucose tolerance test as a screening tool for abnormal glucose tolerance in all women with PCOS. The approach to detection of glucose intolerance among women with PCOS varies among health care providers. Large prospective studies are still needed for the development of guidelines with strong evidence. When assessing risk of future diabetes in women with PCOS, it is important to take into account the method used for screening as well as other risk factors that these women might have. PMID:27570464

  20. Short-term Natural History of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Infection in Mid-Adult Women Sampled Monthly (Short title: Short-term HPV Natural History in Mid-Adult Women)

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Tsung-chieh (Jane); Xi, Long Fu; Hulbert, Ayaka; Hughes, James P.; Feng, Qinghua; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Hawes, Stephen E.; Koutsky, Laura A.; Winer, Rachel L.

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing short-term HPV detection patterns and viral load may inform HPV natural history in mid-adult women. From 2011–2012, we recruited women aged 30–50 years. Women submitted monthly self-collected vaginal samples for high-risk HPV DNA testing for 6 months. Positive samples were tested for type-specific HPV DNA load by real-time PCR. HPV type-adjusted linear and Poisson regression assessed factors associated with 1) viral load at initial HPV detection and 2) repeat type-specific HPV detection. One-hundred thirty-nine women (36% of 387 women with ≥4 samples) contributed 243 type-specific HR HPV infections during the study; 54% of infections were prevalent and 46% were incident. Incident (versus prevalent) detection and past pregnancy were associated with lower viral load, whereas current smoking was associated with higher viral load. In multivariate analysis, current smoking was associated with a 40% (95%CI:5%–87%) increase in the proportion of samples that were repeatedly positive for the same HPV type, whereas incident (versus prevalent) detection status and past pregnancy were each associated with a reduction in the proportion of samples repeatedly positive (55%,95%CI:38%–67% and 26%,95%CI:10%–39%, respectively). In a separate multivariate model, each log10 increase in viral load was associated with a 10% (95%CI:4%–16%) increase in the proportion of samples repeatedly positive. Factors associated with repeat HPV detection were similar to those observed in longer-term studies, suggesting that short-term repeat detection may relate to long-term persistence. The negative associations between incident HPV detection and both viral load and repeat detection suggest that reactivation or intermittent persistence was more common than new acquisition. PMID:25976733

  1. Resilience Protected against Suicidal Behavior for Men But Not Women in a Community Sample of Older Adults in Korea

    PubMed Central

    You, Sungeun; Park, Moran

    2017-01-01

    Suicide prevention efforts in reducing risk factors have been found to be more beneficial to older women than men, suggesting potential gender differences in effective prevention. The study aimed to examine gender difference in resilience for suicidal behavior in a community sample of older adults in Korea. A community-based survey was conducted to investigate resilience and risk factors of suicidal behavior using the Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised, Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), as well as questions regarding physical illness and depression history. After accounting for well-known risk factors, resilience was inversely associated with suicidal behavior, but this protective role of resilience was applicable to men only. The findings of this study indicated gender difference in resilience against suicidal behavior in the elderly population. Gender-specific preventive intervention strategies need to be developed for community-based suicide prevention for older adults. PMID:28360879

  2. Resilience Protected against Suicidal Behavior for Men But Not Women in a Community Sample of Older Adults in Korea.

    PubMed

    You, Sungeun; Park, Moran

    2017-01-01

    Suicide prevention efforts in reducing risk factors have been found to be more beneficial to older women than men, suggesting potential gender differences in effective prevention. The study aimed to examine gender difference in resilience for suicidal behavior in a community sample of older adults in Korea. A community-based survey was conducted to investigate resilience and risk factors of suicidal behavior using the Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised, Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), as well as questions regarding physical illness and depression history. After accounting for well-known risk factors, resilience was inversely associated with suicidal behavior, but this protective role of resilience was applicable to men only. The findings of this study indicated gender difference in resilience against suicidal behavior in the elderly population. Gender-specific preventive intervention strategies need to be developed for community-based suicide prevention for older adults.

  3. Promoting weight loss methods in parenting magazines: Implications for women.

    PubMed

    Basch, Corey H; Roberts, Katherine J; Samayoa-Kozlowsky, Sandra; Glaser, Debra B

    2016-01-01

    Weight gain before and after pregnancy is important for women's health. The purpose of this study was to assess articles and advertisements related to weight loss in three widely read parenting magazines, "Parenting School Years," "Parenting Early Years," and "Parenting," which have an estimated combined readership of approximately 24 million (mainly women readers). Almost a quarter (23.7%, n = 32) of the 135 magazine issues over a four year period included at least one feature article on weight loss. A variety of topics were covered in the featured articles, with the most frequent topics being on losing weight to please yourself (25.2%), healthy ways to lose weight (21.1%), and how to keep the weight off (14.7%). Less than half (45.9%) of the articles displayed author credentials, such as their degree, qualifications, or expertise. A fifth (20.0%, n = 27) of the magazines included at least one prominent advertisement for weight loss products. Almost half (46.9%) of the weight loss advertisements were for weight loss programs followed by weight loss food products (25.0%), weight loss aids (21.9%), and only 6.2% of the advertisements for weight loss were on fitness. Parenting magazines should advocate for healthy weight loss, including lifestyle changes for sustained health.

  4. Associations of Timing of Puberty, Spatial Ability, and Lateralization in Adult Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newcombe, Nora; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Studies the relationship between timing of puberty and spatial ability in 53 undergraduate women. Results do not show evidence for greater spatial ability on the part of those who have late maturation. (RJC)

  5. Intake of dehydrated nopal (Opuntia ficus indica) improves bone mineral density and calciuria in adult Mexican women

    PubMed Central

    Aguilera-Barreiro, María de los Angeles; Rivera-Márquez, José Alberto; Trujillo-Arriaga, Héctor Miguel; Tamayo y Orozco, Juan Alfredo; Barreira-Mercado, Eduardo; Rodríguez-García, Mario E

    2013-01-01

    Background The intake of dehydrated nopal (DN) at a high stage of maturity along with high calcium content could improve bone mineral density (BMD) and calciuria and thus prevent osteoporosis. Objective To evaluate the effect of calcium intake from a vegetable source (DN) on BMD and calciuria covering a 2-year period in menopausal and non-menopausal women with low bone mass (LBM). Methods The study was quasi-experimental, blinded, and randomized, and included 131 Mexican women aged 35–55. Urinary calcium/creatinine index (CCI) was determined; BMD was analyzed on lumbar spine and total hip regions. Four groups were studied: Control group (CG), women with normocalciuria and a minimum dose of DN; experimental group 1 (EG1), women with hypercalciuria and a minimum dose of DN; experimental group 2 (EG2), women with hypercalciuria, and a maximum dose of DN; and normal group (NG) for reference in BMD. Results After the first semester of treatment, calciuria levels in women from both experimental groups returned to normal, remaining constant for the rest of the treatment. The percentage difference in BMD increased in the total hip region in the CG (pre 4.5% and post 2.1%) and EG2 (pre 1.8% and post 2.5%) groups significantly in comparison to NG and EG1, which exhibited a significant decrease in their BMD. BMD increased only for the lumbar region in the EG2 group (premenopausal). Conclusion The use of a vegetable calcium source such as nopal improves BMD in women with LBM in the total hip and lumbar spine regions principally in the premenopausal women, maintaining constant and normal calciuria levels. PMID:23704856

  6. Visual methods in the assessment of diet intake in Mexican American women.

    PubMed

    Keller, Colleen; Fleury, Julie; Rivera, Adriana

    2007-10-01

    Assessment of dietary intake is based largely on self-report or use of biomarkers. However, neither self-report nor biomarkers inform nurses of patterns in dietary intake in the context of gender, culture, and ethnicity. This article describes the relevance of visual methods focusing on the context of dietary intake in Mexican American women, illustrated by a formative study. A qualitative, descriptive, methodological design incorporating photo elicitation was used. The sample consisted of 7 Mexican American women, who took photographs of their food intake, food preparation, and context of food consumption, such as family gatherings, which were then described by the women. Data included participant photographs, the descriptions of why each image was obtained, and stories about the photographs. Visual methods were found to be a relevant and important addition to traditional dietary assessment methods, to enhance gender, cultural, and contextually relevant assessment of dietary intake in Mexican American women.

  7. Fat distribution and insulin resistance in young adult nonobese Asian Indian women.

    PubMed

    Szuszkiewicz-Garcia, Magdalene; Li, Rong; Grundy, Scott M; Abate, Nicola; Chandalia, Manisha

    2012-10-01

    Although Asian Indian (people of Indian subcontinent descent) men are shown to have higher total and truncal body fat as well as greater insulin resistance compared to white men matched for total body fat and age, data in women are not conclusive. The objective of this study was to compare total and regional fat distribution and insulin sensitivity between healthy young premenopausal Asian Indian and white women of similar body mass index (BMI). Twenty Asian Indian women (65% immigrants and 35% first generation living in Dallas) and 31 white women of similar age and BMI [age 24±3 vs. 25±4; BMI 22±4 vs. 23±5; mean±standard deviation (SD) in Asian Indian and white, respectively] without diabetes were evaluated with anthropometric measurements, underwater weighing for percentage of total body fat mass, magnetic resonance imaging of whole abdomen for measurement of abdominal subcutaneous and intraperitoneal fat mass, and euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp study for measurement of insulin sensitivity. There were no differences in waist or hip circumference, total body subcutaneous abdominal or intraperitoneal fat mass, fasting plasma glucose, and insulin levels between Asian Indian women and white women. The peripheral glucose disposal rate (Rd) during hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp was found to be almost identical in the two study groups (median value of 6.9 and 6.8 mg/min per kg of body weight, for Asian Indians and whites, respectively). For similar total or regional fat content, the glucose disposal rate was comparable in the two study groups. In conclusion, we demonstrate that young Asian Indian women do not have excess abdominal or intraperitoneal fat or insulin resistance for similar BMI compared to white women of European descent.

  8. Network Approaches to Substance Use and HIV/Hepatitis C Risk among Homeless Youth and Adult Women in the United States: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Dombrowski, Kirk; Sittner, Kelley; Crawford, Devan; Welch-Lazoritz, Melissa; Habecker, Patrick; Khan, Bilal

    2016-01-01

    During the United States economic recession of 2008–2011, the number of homeless and unstably housed people in the United States increased considerably. Homeless adult women and unaccompanied homeless youth make up the most marginal segments of this population. Because homeless individuals are a hard to reach population, research into these marginal groups has traditionally been a challenge for researchers interested in substance abuse and mental health. Network analysis techniques and research strategies offer means for dealing with traditional challenges such as missing sampling frames, variation in definitions of homelessness and study inclusion criteria, and enumeration/population estimation procedures. This review focuses on the need for, and recent steps toward, solutions to these problems that involve network science strategies for data collection and analysis. Research from a range of fields is reviewed and organized according to a new stress process framework aimed at understanding how homeless status interacts with issues related to substance abuse and mental health. Three types of network innovation are discussed: network scale-up methods, a network ecology approach to social resources, and the integration of network variables into the proposed stress process model of homeless substance abuse and mental health. By employing network methods and integrating these methods into existing models, research on homeless and unstably housed women and unaccompanied young people can address existing research challenges and promote more effective intervention and care programs. PMID:28042394

  9. High prevalence of suboptimal vitamin B12 status in young adult women of South Asian and European ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Quay, Teo A W; Schroder, Theresa H; Jeruszka-Bielak, Marta; Li, Wangyang; Devlin, Angela M; Barr, Susan I; Lamers, Yvonne

    2015-12-01

    Suboptimal vitamin B12 (B12) status has been associated with an increased risk of congenital anomalies, preterm birth, and childhood insulin resistance. South Asians - Canada's largest minority group - and women of reproductive age are vulnerable to B12 deficiency. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of and factors associated with B12 deficiency and suboptimal B12 status in a convenience sample of young adult women of South Asian and European descent in Metro Vancouver. We measured serum B12, holotranscobalamin, plasma methylmalonic acid, red blood cell and plasma folate, and hematologic parameters in 206 nonpregnant, healthy women aged 19-35 years. Categorization for B12 status adhered to serum B12 cutoffs for deficiency (<148 pmol/L) and suboptimal B12 status (148-220 pmol/L). We collected demographic, lifestyle, and dietary intake data and conducted genotyping for common genetic variants linked to B-vitamin metabolism. The prevalence of deficiency and suboptimal B12 status were 14% and 20%, respectively. Serum vitamin B12 concentrations were negatively associated with oral contraceptive use and first-generation immigrant status, and positively with dietary B12 intake and B12 supplement use. The prevalence of B12 inadequacy in this sample of highly educated women is higher than in the general Canadian population. In light of maternal and fetal health risks associated with B12 inadequacy in early-pregnancy, practitioners should consider monitoring B12 status before and during early pregnancy, especially in immigrants and women with low dietary B12 intakes including non-users of vitamin supplements.

  10. Diminished bone strength is observed in adult women and men who sustained a mild trauma distal forearm fracture during childhood.

    PubMed

    Farr, Joshua N; Khosla, Sundeep; Achenbach, Sara J; Atkinson, Elizabeth J; Kirmani, Salman; McCready, Louise K; Melton, L Joseph; Amin, Shreyasee

    2014-10-01

    Children and adolescents who sustain a distal forearm fracture (DFF) owing to mild, but not moderate, trauma have reduced bone strength and cortical thinning at the distal radius and tibia. Whether these skeletal deficits track into adulthood is unknown. Therefore, we studied 75 women and 75 men (age range, 20 to 40 years) with a childhood (age < 18 years) DFF and 150 sex-matched controls with no history of fracture using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HRpQCT) to examine bone strength (ie, failure load) by micro-finite element (µFE) analysis, as well as cortical and trabecular bone parameters at the distal radius and tibia. Level of trauma (mild versus moderate) was assigned using a validated classification scheme, blind to imaging results. When compared to sex-matched, nonfracture controls, women and men with a mild trauma childhood DFF (eg, fall from standing height) had significant reductions in failure load (p < 0.05) of the distal radius, whereas women and men with a moderate trauma childhood DFF (eg, fall while riding a bicycle) had values similar to controls. Consistent findings were observed at the distal tibia. Furthermore, women and men with a mild trauma childhood DFF had significant deficits in distal radius cortical area (p < 0.05), and significantly lower dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-derived bone density at the radius, hip, and total body regions compared to controls (all p < 0.05). By contrast, women and men with a moderate trauma childhood DFF had bone density, structure, and strength that did not differ significantly from controls. These findings in young adults are consistent with our observations in children/adolescents with DFF, and they suggest that a mild trauma childhood DFF may presage suboptimal peak bone density, structure, and strength in young adulthood. Children and adolescents who suffer mild trauma DFFs may need to be targeted for lifestyle interventions to help achieve improved skeletal health.

  11. Diminished Bone Strength Is Observed in Adult Women and Men Who Sustained a Mild Trauma Distal Forearm Fracture During Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Farr, Joshua N; Khosla, Sundeep; Achenbach, Sara J; Atkinson, Elizabeth J; Kirmani, Salman; McCready, Louise K; Melton, L Joseph; Amin, Shreyasee

    2015-01-01

    Children and adolescents who sustain a distal forearm fracture (DFF) owing to mild, but not moderate, trauma have reduced bone strength and cortical thinning at the distal radius and tibia. Whether these skeletal deficits track into adulthood is unknown. Therefore, we studied 75 women and 75 men (age range, 20 to 40 years) with a childhood (age <18 years) DFF and 150 sex-matched controls with no history of fracture using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HRpQCT) to examine bone strength (ie, failure load) by micro–finite element (µFE) analysis, as well as cortical and trabecular bone parameters at the distal radius and tibia. Level of trauma (mild versus moderate) was assigned using a validated classification scheme, blind to imaging results. When compared to sex-matched, nonfracture controls, women and men with a mild trauma childhood DFF (eg, fall from standing height) had significant reductions in failure load (p < 0.05) of the distal radius, whereas women and men with a moderate trauma childhood DFF (eg, fall while riding a bicycle) had values similar to controls. Consistent findings were observed at the distal tibia. Furthermore, women and men with a mild trauma childhood DFF had significant deficits in distal radius cortical area (p < 0.05), and significantly lower dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-derived bone density at the radius, hip, and total body regions compared to controls (all p < 0.05). By contrast, women and men with a moderate trauma childhood DFF had bone density, structure, and strength that did not differ significantly from controls. These findings in young adults are consistent with our observations in children/adolescents with DFF, and they suggest that a mild trauma childhood DFF may presage suboptimal peak bone density, structure, and strength in young adulthood. Children and adolescents who suffer mild trauma DFFs may need to be targeted for lifestyle interventions to help achieve improved skeletal

  12. Training Status as a Marker of the Relationship between Nitric Oxide, Oxidative Stress, and Blood Pressure in Older Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Mourão Jacomini, André; Celso Dutra de Souza, Hugo; da Silva Dias, Danielle; de Oliveira Brito, Janaina; Cezar Pinheiro, Lucas; Bernardino da Silva, Anderson; Fernanda da Silva, Roberta; Alexandre Trapé, Atila; De Angelis, Kátia; Tanus-Santos, José Eduardo; Lia do Amaral, Sandra; Saranz Zago, Anderson

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of functional fitness and oxidative capacity on the nitric oxide concentration associated with hemodynamic control in older adult women. The sample consisted of 134 women (65.73 ± 6.14 years old). All subjects underwent a physical examination to assess body mass index, waist-hip ratio, body fat measurement by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and blood pressure (BP). Training status (TS) was evaluated by indirect determination of maximal oxygen uptake by a treadmill test using Balke protocol modified for older adults. Functional fitness was also evaluated through a “Functional Fitness Battery Test” to determine the general fitness functional index (GFFI). All participants were separated according to the functional fitness (TS1, very weak and weak; TS2, regular; TS3, good and very good). Plasma blood samples were used to evaluate prooxidant and antioxidant activity and nitrite and nitrate concentrations. The general results of this study showed that good levels of TS were related to lower levels of lipoperoxidation and protein damage, higher levels of antioxidant, and higher concentration of nitrite and nitrate. This combination may be responsible for the lower levels of BP in subjects with better TS. PMID:26697141

  13. Unlike pregnant adult women, pregnant adolescent girls cannot maintain glycine flux during late pregnancy because of decreased synthesis from serine.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jean W; Thame, Minerva M; Gibson, Raquel; Baker, Tameka M; Tang, Grace J; Chacko, Shaji K; Jackson, Alan A; Jahoor, Farook

    2016-03-14

    During pregnancy, glycine and serine become more important because they are the primary suppliers of methyl groups for the synthesis of fetal DNA, and more glycine is required for fetal collagen synthesis as pregnancy progresses. In an earlier study, we reported that glycine flux decreased by 39% from the first to the third trimester in pregnant adolescent girls. As serine is a primary precursor for glycine synthesis, the objective of this study was to measure and compare glycine and serine fluxes and inter-conversions in pregnant adolescent girls and adult women in the first and third trimesters. Measurements were made after an overnight fast by continuous intravenous infusions of 2H2-glycine and 15N-serine in eleven adolescent girls (17·4 (se 0·1) years of age) and in ten adult women (25·8 (se 0·5) years of age) for 4 h. Adolescent girls had significantly slower glycine flux and they made less glycine from serine in the third (P<0·05) than in the first trimester. Baby birth length was significantly shorter of adolescent girls (P=0·04) and was significantly associated with third trimester glycine flux. These findings suggest that the pregnant adolescent cannot maintain glycine flux in late pregnancy compared with early pregnancy because of decreased synthesis from serine. It is possible that the inability to maintain glycine synthesis makes her fetus vulnerable to impaired cartilage synthesis, and thus linear growth.

  14. Training Status as a Marker of the Relationship between Nitric Oxide, Oxidative Stress, and Blood Pressure in Older Adult Women.

    PubMed

    Jacomini, André Mourão; de Souza, Hugo Celso Dutra; Dias, Danielle da Silva; Brito, Janaina de Oliveira; Pinheiro, Lucas Cezar; da Silva, Anderson Bernardino; da Silva, Roberta Fernanda; Trapé, Atila Alexandre; De Angelis, Kátia; Tanus-Santos, José Eduardo; do Amaral, Sandra Lia; Zago, Anderson Saranz

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of functional fitness and oxidative capacity on the nitric oxide concentration associated with hemodynamic control in older adult women. The sample consisted of 134 women (65.73 ± 6.14 years old). All subjects underwent a physical examination to assess body mass index, waist-hip ratio, body fat measurement by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and blood pressure (BP). Training status (TS) was evaluated by indirect determination of maximal oxygen uptake by a treadmill test using Balke protocol modified for older adults. Functional fitness was also evaluated through a "Functional Fitness Battery Test" to determine the general fitness functional index (GFFI). All participants were separated according to the functional fitness (TS1, very weak and weak; TS2, regular; TS3, good and very good). Plasma blood samples were used to evaluate prooxidant and antioxidant activity and nitrite and nitrate concentrations. The general results of this study showed that good levels of TS were related to lower levels of lipoperoxidation and protein damage, higher levels of antioxidant, and higher concentration of nitrite and nitrate. This combination may be responsible for the lower levels of BP in subjects with better TS.

  15. Adult weight gain, fat distribution and mammographic density in Spanish pre- and post-menopausal women (DDM-Spain).

    PubMed

    Pollán, Marina; Lope, Virginia; Miranda-García, Josefa; García, Milagros; Casanova, Francisco; Sánchez-Contador, Carmen; Santamariña, Carmen; Moreo, Pilar; Vidal, Carmen; Peris, Mercé; Moreno, María Pilar; Vázquez-Carrete, José Antonio; Collado, Francisca; Pedraz-Pingarrón, Carmen; Ascunce, Nieves; Salas-Trejo, Dolores; Aragonés, Nuria; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Ruiz-Perales, Francisco

    2012-07-01

    High mammographic density (MD) is a phenotype risk marker for breast cancer. Body mass index (BMI) is inversely associated with MD, with the breast being a fat storage site. We investigated the influence of abdominal fat distribution and adult weight gain on MD, taking age, BMI and other confounders into account. Because visceral adiposity and BMI are associated with breast cancer only after menopause, differences in pre- and post-menopausal women were also explored. We recruited 3,584 women aged 45-68 years within the Spanish breast cancer screening network. Demographic, reproductive, family and personal history data were collected by purpose-trained staff, who measured current weight, height, waist and hip circumferences under the same protocol and with the same tools. MD was assessed in the left craniocaudal view using Boyd's Semiquantitative Scale. Association between waist-to-hip ratio, adult weight gain (difference between current weight and self-reported weight at 18 years) and MD was quantified by ordinal logistic regression, with random center-specific intercepts. Models were adjusted for age, BMI, breast size, time since menopause, parity, family history of breast cancer and hormonal replacement therapy use. Natural splines were used to describe the shape of the relationship between these two variables and MD. Waist-to-hip ratio was inversely associated with MD, and the effect was more pronounced in pre-menopausal (OR = 0.53 per 0.1 units; 95 % CI = 0.42-0.66) than in post-menopausal women (OR = 0.73; 95 % CI = 0.65-0.82) (P of heterogeneity = 0.010). In contrast, adult weight gain displayed a positive association with MD, which was similar in both groups (OR = 1.17 per 6 kg; 95 % CI = 1.11-1.23). Women who had gained more than 24 kg displayed higher MD (OR = 2.05; 95 % CI = 1.53-2.73). MD was also evaluated using Wolfe's and Tabár's classifications, with similar results being obtained. Once BMI, fat distribution and other confounders were considered

  16. Safety and Efficacy of Contraceptive Methods for Obese and Overweight Women.

    PubMed

    Lotke, Pamela S; Kaneshiro, Bliss

    2015-12-01

    Increasing rates of obesity have become a major public health challenge. Given the added health risks that obese women have during pregnancy, preventing unwanted pregnancy is imperative. Clinicians who provide contraception must understand the efficacy, risks, and the weight changes associated with various contraceptive methods. Despite differences in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of hormonal contraceptives in overweight and obese women, efficacy does not appear to be severely impacted. Both estrogen-containing contraceptives and obesity increase the risk of venous thromboembolism, but the absolute risk remains acceptably low in reproductive age women.

  17. Kenyan women adult literacy learners: Why their motivation is difficult to sustain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwiria, Kilemi

    1993-05-01

    Women comprise more than seventy per cent of those enrolled in the Kenya literacy programme. The reasons for this include: the limited formal educational opportunities available to females; the demands of a changing economy which have forced women to acquire extra responsibilities outside the home; the socializing opportunity made possible by literacy class attendance; flexible work schedules; and cultural beliefs which in some Kenyan communities discourage men from enrolling in the same literacy classes as women. Women literacy learners may find it difficult to sustain their interest in literacy learning because of: their multiple responsibilities; having to operate in environments not particularly conducive to learning; having to contend with professionally unqualified teachers; their limited exposure to reading materials and other learning aids; their very limited mastery of the two languages of official communication in Kenya; as well as the fact that the literacy programme is mainly administered by men. Although changes at the wider societal level still will, to the most part, determine the extent of women's participation in the Kenyan literacy programme, much could be accomplished through involving more of them in the programme's administration and by improving the quality of literacy instruction.

  18. Factors associated with nutritional status among adult women in urban India, 1998-2006.

    PubMed

    Rai, Rajesh Kumar

    2015-03-01

    This study attempts to understand the factors associated with chronic energy deficiency (CED) and overweight/obesity together with change in CED and overweight/obesity among urban Indian women during 1998-2006. Both National Family Health Survey (NFHS) 1998-1999 and NFHS 2005-2006 data sets were used. The standard cutoff points for both CED (BMI < 18.5 kg/m(2)) and overweight/obesity (BMI ≥ 23 kg/m(2)) were considered. The Phi and Cramer's V tests and predicted probabilities were used to fulfill the study objective. Results indicate an almost 3% reduction in CED and a 6% increase in overweight/obesity during 1998-2006. The probability of CED has reduced among nonliterate women and women belonging to the poorest wealth quintile; on the other hand, the likelihood of being overweight/obese has increased among women with high school education and above and women belonging to the richest wealth quintile. Interventions to promote physical activities and nutritional awareness programs, which are effective in addressing nutritional problems, have been proposed.

  19. Female sexual dysfunction in young adult women - Impact of age and lifestyle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoian, Dana; PAter, Liana; Pater, Flavius; Craciunescu, Mihaela

    2014-12-01

    Female sexual function is a difficult entity to be assessed. Subjective factors and interview biases can change the perception of it. Using validated questionnaires can improve the scientific approach to this matter. There is a huge difference of severity and incidence among young, apparent healthy women, which are in a harmonious relationship. We evaluated 320 healthy women, with stable sexual active relationship, with no know depressive disease, endocrinological and metabolic pathology, no premature menopause, no malignancy. We compose a mathematic model to study the impact of age, and body weight on the sexual function, with FSFI total score as surrogate marker. We observed that even in healthy women, increase in age and/or weight/body mass significantly impair general sexual function.

  20. Clinical variability in cardiovascular disease risk factor screening and management in adolescent and young adult women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Baer, Tamara E.; Milliren, Carly E.; Walls, Courtney; DiVasta, Amy D.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives To review the clinical presentation, evaluation and management of normal-weight, overweight and obese adolescent and young adult women with PCOS over 2-year follow-up. Design Retrospective chart review Participants 173 adolescent and young adult women, aged 12–22 years, diagnosed with PCOS Interventions Demographic, health data, and laboratory measures were abstracted from 3 clinic visits: baseline and 1- and 2- year follow-up. Subjects were classified as normal-weight (NW), overweight (OW) or obese (OB). Longitudinal data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA. Main Outcome Measures BMI, self-reported concerns, lifestyle changes. Results Most patients (73%) were OW or OB. Family history of type II diabetes was greater in OW (38%) and OB (53%) as compared to NW (22%) patients (p=0.002). Acanthosis nigricans was identified in OW (62%) and OB (21%) patients, but not NW patients (0%; p <0.001). OW and OB patients had higher fasting insulin (p<0.001) and lower HDL cholesterol (p=0.005) than NW patients, although screening rates were low. BMI Z-scores decreased in both OW and OB patients over time (0.07 units/year; p<0.001). Conclusions Most patients with PCOS were OW/OB. Substantial clinical variability existed in CVD screening; among those screened, OW and OB patients had greater CVD risk factors. Despite self-reported concerns about weight and diabetes risk among OW/OB patients, no clinically significant change in BMI percentile occurred. Evidence-based interventions and recommendations for screening tests are needed to address CVD risk in adolescents and young adults with PCOS. PMID:26081478

  1. College graduation reduces vulnerability to STIs/HIV among African-American young adult women.

    PubMed

    Painter, Julia E; Wingood, Gina M; DiClemente, Ralph J; Depadilla, Lara M; Simpson-Robinson, Lashun

    2012-01-01

    African-American women are disproportionately affected by sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. The Theory of Gender and Power (TGP) posits that socioeconomic exposures, including educational attainment, place women at increased risk for STIs/HIV. This study examined the association between educational attainment and vulnerability to STIs/HIV, as well as potential TGP-driven mediators of this association, among African-American women. Baseline data were assessed from an STI/HIV prevention intervention for African-American women (n = 848) aged 18 to 29 recruited from three Kaiser Permanente Centers in Atlanta, Georgia. Data collection included a survey of demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral measures and self-collected, laboratory-confirmed vaginal swabs for STIs (trichomoniasis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and human papillomavirus). Multiple regression analyses and multivariate mediation analyses were used to examine the association between educational attainment with a laboratory-confirmed STI and potential TGP mediators. Controlling for age and receipt of public assistance, the odds of an STI diagnosis were 73% lower among participants with a college degree or greater compared with participants who had not completed high school. There were also significant associations between educational attainment and multiple TGP mediators from the sexual division of power and the structure of cathexis. TGP constructs did not mediate the association between educational attainment and laboratory-confirmed STI. The current study suggests that graduating from college may lead to a beneficial reduction in vulnerability to STIs/HIV among African-American women. Findings from this study support expanding structural-level interventions, emphasizing both high school and college graduation, as a means of reducing vulnerability to STIs/HIV among African-American women.

  2. Adult Pornography and Violence Against Women in the Heartland: Results From a Rural Southeast Ohio Study.

    PubMed

    DeKeseredy, Walter S; Hall-Sanchez, Amanda

    2016-05-22

    Many rural parts of the United States are now "pornified." There is growing quantitative evidence revealing that rural women are at higher risk of being victimized by intimate violence than their urban and suburban counterparts. In-depth interviews with 55 rural southeast Ohio women who wanted to leave, were trying to leave, or were in the process of leaving, or who have left their male marital/cohabiting partners reveal that pornography is a major component of the problem of rural woman abuse. The main objective of this article is twofold: (a) to present the results of our qualitative study, and (b) to suggest future directions in theoretical and empirical work.

  3. Improving access to government health care in rural bangladesh: the voice of older adult women.

    PubMed

    Hossen, Abul; Westhues, Anne

    2011-12-01

    Our purpose in this study was to provide an in-depth understanding of the health-system-related barriers to utilization of health services by older women living in rural Bangladesh. Interviews were conducted with 17 women in Bibirchar Union, Sherpur district, Bangladesh, in June 2006. Three main barriers were identified: perceived discrimination based on age, class, and gender; structural aspects of the health care delivery system; and quality of care. Recommendations for change in the delivery of health care in the rural regions of Bangladesh are made based on the insights provided by this marginalized group of health care service users.

  4. Women's Preferences for Penis Size: A New Research Method Using Selection among 3D Models.

    PubMed

    Prause, Nicole; Park, Jaymie; Leung, Shannon; Miller, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    Women's preferences for penis size may affect men's comfort with their own bodies and may have implications for sexual health. Studies of women's penis size preferences typically have relied on their abstract ratings or selecting amongst 2D, flaccid images. This study used haptic stimuli to allow assessment of women's size recall accuracy for the first time, as well as examine their preferences for erect penis sizes in different relationship contexts. Women (N = 75) selected amongst 33, 3D models. Women recalled model size accurately using this method, although they made more errors with respect to penis length than circumference. Women preferred a penis of slightly larger circumference and length for one-time (length = 6.4 inches/16.3 cm, circumference = 5.0 inches/12.7 cm) versus long-term (length = 6.3 inches/16.0 cm, circumference = 4.8 inches/12.2 cm) sexual partners. These first estimates of erect penis size preferences using 3D models suggest women accurately recall size and prefer penises only slightly larger than average.

  5. Predictive accuracy of three field methods for estimating relative body fatness of nonobese and obese women.

    PubMed

    Heyward, V H; Cook, K L; Hicks, V L; Jenkins, K A; Quatrochi, J A; Wilson, W L

    1992-03-01

    Three methods of body composition assessment were used to estimate percent body fat (%BF) in nonobese (n = 77) and obese (n = 71) women, 20-72 yrs of age. Skinfolds (SKF), bioelectrical impedance (BIA), and near-infrared interactance (NIR) methods were compared to criterion-derived %BF from hydrostatic weighing (%BFHW). Nonobese subjects had < 30% BFHW and obese subjects had > or = 30% BFHW. The Jackson, Pollock, and Ward SKF equation and the manufacturer's equations for BIA (Valhalla) and NIR (Futrex-5000) were used. For nonobese women there were no significant differences between mean %BFHW and %BFSKF, %BFBIA, and %BFNIR. The rs and SEEs were 0.65 and 3.4% BF for SKF, 0.61 and 3.6% BF for BIA, and 0.58 and 3.7% BF for NIR for nonobese subjects. For obese women, mean %BFHW was significantly underestimated by the SKF, BIA, and NIR methods. The rs and SEEs for the obese group were 0.59 and 3.4% BF for SKF, 0.56 and 3.5% BF for BIA, and 0.36 and 3.9% BF for NIR. The total errors of the equations ranged from 5.6 to 8.0% BF in the obese group. It is concluded that all three field methods accurately estimate %BF for nonobese women; however, none of the methods is suitable for estimating %BF for obese women.

  6. Interaction between a functional MAOA locus and childhood sexual abuse predicts alcoholism and antisocial personality disorder in adult women.

    PubMed

    Ducci, F; Enoch, M-A; Hodgkinson, C; Xu, K; Catena, M; Robin, R W; Goldman, D

    2008-03-01

    Women who have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) have an increased risk of alcoholism and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). Among male subjects, a functional polymorphism (MAOA-LPR, monoamine oxidase A linked polymorphic region) in the promoter region of the monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) appears to moderate the effect of childhood maltreatment on antisocial behavior. Our aim was to test whether MAOA-LPR influences the impact of CSA on alcoholism and ASPD in a sample of 291 women, 50% of whom have experienced CSA; we also tested whether haplotypes covering the region where both MAOA and monoamine oxidase B (MAOB) genes are located predict risk of alcoholism and ASPD better than the MAOA-LPR locus alone. Participants included 168 alcoholics (39 with ASPD (antisocial alcoholics) and 123 controls (no alcoholics, no ASPD). Antisocial behavior was also modeled as a continuous trait: ASPD symptoms count. The MAOA-LPR low activity allele was associated with alcoholism (P=0.005), particularly antisocial alcoholism (P=0.00009), only among sexually abused subjects. Sexually abused women who were homozygous for the low activity allele had higher rates of alcoholism and ASPD, and more ASPD symptoms, than abused women homozygous for the high activity allele. Heterozygous women displayed an intermediate risk pattern. In contrast, there was no relationship between alcoholism/antisocial behavior and MAOA-LPR genotype among non-abused women. The MAOA-LPR low activity allele was found on three different haplotypes. The most abundant MAOA haplotype containing the MAOA-LPR low activity allele was found in excess among alcoholics (P=0.008) and antisocial alcoholics (P=0.001). Finally, a MAOB haplotype, which we termed haplotype C, was significantly associated with alcoholism (P=0.006), and to a lesser extent with antisocial alcoholism (P=0.03). In conclusions, MAOA seems to moderate the impact of childhood trauma on adult psychopathology in female subjects in the same way

  7. Sexual abuse and posttraumatic stress disorder in adult women with severe mental illness: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bonugli, Rebecca; H Brackley, Margaret; Williams, Gail B; Lesser, Janna

    2010-07-01

    Research indicates that women with serious mental illness (SMI) are vulnerable to sexual abuse, resulting in adverse health outcomes such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the prevalence of undiagnosed PTSD among a cohort of 20 women with SMI and reporting past sexual abuse. Furthermore, the researcher sought to identify specific symptom manifestations of PTSD among women with SMI and sexual abuse histories. Finally, the feasibility of using specific data collection tools was examined. Results indicated that PTSD was not previously diagnosed or recognized in the study sample, in spite of the presence of a sexual trauma history. The screening tools were effective in identifying depression, guilt, emotional withdrawal, blunted affect, decreased psychomotor activity, suicidal ideations, sexual dysfunction, and substance abuse. Additionally, the data collection tools provided a framework for discussing sensitive issues related to sexual abuse. Implications of this pilot study suggest the need to evaluate all women with SMI and history of sexual abuse for PTSD.

  8. Sexual Abuse as a Precursor to Prostitution and Victimization among Adolescent and Adult Homeless Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Ronald L.; Whitbeck, Les B.

    1991-01-01

    Studied 40 adolescent runaways and 95 homeless women to examine impact of early sexual abuse on prostitution and victimization. Findings suggest that early sexual abuse increases probability of involvement in prostitution irrespective of influence of running away, substance abuse, and other deviant acts; only indirectly affects chances of…

  9. Sexist Attitudes Among Emerging Adult Women Readers of Fifty Shades Fiction.

    PubMed

    Altenburger, Lauren E; Carotta, Christin L; Bonomi, Amy E; Snyder, Anastasia

    2017-02-01

    Stereotypical sexist representations of men and women in popular culture reinforce rigid views of masculinity (e.g., males as being strong, in control, masterful, and aggressive) and femininity (e.g., women as being fragile and weak, unassertive, peaceful, irrational, and driven by emotions). The present study examined associations between the fictional series Fifty Shades-one popular culture mechanism that includes pervasive traditional gender role representations-and underlying sexist beliefs among a sample of 715 women ages 18-24 years. Analyses revealed associations between Fifty Shades readership and sexism, as measured through the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory. Namely women who reported reading Fifty Shades had higher levels of ambivalent, benevolent, and hostile sexism. Further, those who interpreted Fifty Shades as "romantic" had higher levels of ambivalent and benevolent sexism. Our findings support prior empirical studies noting associations between interacting with aspects of popular culture, such as television and video games, and individual beliefs and behaviors.

  10. Social Learning Preferences of Adult Women Learners in a Competency-Based Online Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyman, Emily

    2013-01-01

    In this study a post-assessment survey was analyzed to seek for social learning preferences among women in a competency-based online learning environment. The survey asked what learning resources students used to prepare for the assessment. Each learning resource was given a relative sociability rating. This rating acts as the weighting for a…

  11. The Effect of Support Group Method on Quality of Life in Post-menopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Yazdkhasti, M; Keshavarz, M; Khoei, ES Merghaati; Hosseini, AF; ESmaeilzadeh, S; Pebdani, M Amiri; Jafarzadeh, H

    2012-01-01

    Background Quality of life in post-menopausal women and menopausal symptoms are closely related concepts. Influence health education policy in order to promote health and adopt a menopause lifestyle requires alternative strategies, including health training programs with community – based interventions. The current study aims to survey the effects of support groups on quality of life of post-menopausal women. Methods: A blind field trial (2010) was conducted at Saadatmandii Clinical Center (Robat Karim, Iran). 110 women were selected randomly divided into test and control groups (consisting of 55 ones). Menopause specific quality of life questionnaire (MENQOL) was used for evaluation of life quality before and three months after intervention; there was no intervention in the control group. Data were analyzed by using SPSS/16. Qualitative variables were analyzed using chi-square tests and quantitative variables were analyzed using Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon test, paired T-test and independent t-test. Results: There was significant difference between vasomotor, psychosocial, physical, sexual aspects and life quality of this group pf women (P<0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in the quality of life of women in control group. Conclusion: According to the results method of support group can lead to improved quality of life for post-menopausal ones and it can be appropriate healthcare policy to promote health and improve life quality of this group of women. PMID:23304680

  12. Filipino women's diet and health study (FiLWHEL): design and methods

    PubMed Central

    Abris, Grace P.; Hong, Sangmo; Provido, Sherlyn Mae P.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Immigration to South Korea from neighboring Asian countries has risen dramatically, primarily due to marriage between Korean men and foreign women. Although Filipino women rank fourth among married immigrant women, little is known about the health condition of this population. This manuscript focuses on the design and methods of Filipino women's diet and health study (FiLWHEL). SUBJECTS/METHODS FiLWHEL is a cohort of Filipino women married to Korean men, aged 19 years old or over. The data collection comprised three parts: questionnaire, physical examination, and biospecimen collection. Questionnaires focused on demographic factors, diet, other health-related behaviors, acculturation and immigration-related factors, medical history, quality of life, and children's health information. Participants visited the recruitment site and answered the structured questionnaires through a face-to-face interview. We also measured their anthropometric features and collected fasting blood samples, toenails, and DNA samples. Recruitment started in 2014. RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS Collection of data is ongoing, and we plan to prospectively follow our cohort participants. We expect that our study, which is focused on married Filipino women immigrants, can elucidate nutritional/health status and the effects of transitional experiences from several lifestyle factors. PMID:28194268

  13. Sexual Pleasure and Sexual Risk among Women who Use Methamphetamine: A Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Lorvick, Jennifer; Bourgois, Philippe; Wenger, Lynn D.; Arreola, Sonya G.; Lutnick, Alexandra; Wechsberg, Wendee M.; Kral, Alex H.

    2012-01-01

    Background The intersection of drug use, sexual pleasure and sexual risk behavior is rarely explored when it comes to poor women who use drugs. This paper explores the relationship between sexual behavior and methamphetamine use in a community-based sample of women, exploring not only risk, but also desire, pleasure and the challenges of overcoming trauma. Methods Quantitative data were collected using standard epidemiological methods (N=322) for community-based studies. In addition, using purposive sampling, qualitative data were collected among a subset of participants (n=34). Data were integrated for mixed methods analysis. Results While many participants reported sexual risk behavior (unprotected vaginal or anal intercourse) in the quantitative survey, sexual risk was not the central narrative pertaining to sexual behavior and methamphetamine use in qualitative findings. Rather, desire, pleasure and disinhibition arose as central themes. Women described feelings of power and agency related to sexual behavior while high on methamphetamine. Findings were mixed on whether methamphetamine use increased sexual risk behavior. Conclusion The use of mixed methods afforded important insights into the sexual behavior and priorities of methamphetamine-using women. Efforts to reduce sexual risk should recognize and valorize the positive aspects of methamphetamine use for some women, building on positive feelings of power and agency as an approach to harm minimization. PMID:22954501

  14. Adult Education in Development. Methods and Approaches from Changing Societies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGivney, Veronica; Murray, Frances

    The case studies described in this book provide examples of initiatives illustrating the role of adult education in development and its contribution to the process of change in developing countries. The book is organized in five sections. Case studies in Part 1, "Health Education," illustrate the links between primary health care and…

  15. Listeriosis Prevention for Older Adults: Effective Messages and Delivery Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cates, Sheryl C.; Kosa, Katherine M.; Moore, Christina M.; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; Ten Eyck, Toby A.; Cowen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Individuals aged 60 years and older are at an increased risk for listeriosis and other foodborne illnesses. They can reduce their risk by following recommended food safety practices. A total of 8 focus groups were conducted to characterize older adults' food safety knowledge and practices, their impressions of educational materials on listeriosis…

  16. La Administradora: A Mixed Methods Study of the Resilience of Mexican American Women Administrators at Hispanic Serving Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez-Zamora, Sabrina Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods study explored the resilience of Mexican American women administrators at Hispanic Serving Institutions (HSIs). The women administrators that were considered in this study included department chairs, deans, and vice presidents in a four-year public HSI. There is an underrepresentation of Mexican American women in higher…

  17. Sex differences in the Kimchi-Palmer task revisited: Global reaction times, but not number of global choices differ between adult men and women.

    PubMed

    Scheuringer, Andrea; Pletzer, Belinda

    2016-10-15

    Research, directly assessing sex-dependent differences in global versus local processing is sparse, but predominantly suggesting that men show a stronger global processing bias than women. Utilizing the Kimchi-Palmer task however, sex differences in the number of global choices can only be found in children, but not in adults. In the current study 52 men and 46 women completed a computerized version of the Kimchi Palmer task, in order to investigate whether sex-differences in global-local processing in the Kimchi-Palmer task are reflected in choice reaction times rather than choices per se. While no sex differences were found in the number of global choices, we found that especially women are faster in making local choices than men, while men are faster in making global choices than women. We did not find support for the assumption that this sex difference was modulated by menstrual cycle phase of women, since the difference between reaction times to global and local choices was consistent across the menstrual cycle of women. Accordingly there was no relationship between progesterone and global-local processing in the Kimchi-Palmer task. However, like in studies utilizing the Navon task, testosterone was positively related to the number of global choices in both men and women. To our knowledge, this is the first study including reaction times as outcome measure in a Kimchi Palmer paradigm and also the first study demonstrating sex differences in the Kimchi Palmer task in adults.

  18. Advancing the study of violence against women using mixed methods: integrating qualitative methods into a quantitative research program.

    PubMed

    Testa, Maria; Livingston, Jennifer A; VanZile-Tamsen, Carol

    2011-02-01

    A mixed methods approach, combining quantitative with qualitative data methods and analysis, offers a promising means of advancing the study of violence. Integrating semi-structured interviews and qualitative analysis into a quantitative program of research on women's sexual victimization has resulted in valuable scientific insight and generation of novel hypotheses for testing. This mixed methods approach is described and recommendations for integrating qualitative data into quantitative research are provided.

  19. Microscopy outperformed in a comparison of five methods for detecting Trichomonas vaginalis in symptomatic women.

    PubMed

    Nathan, B; Appiah, J; Saunders, P; Heron, D; Nichols, T; Brum, R; Alexander, S; Baraitser, P; Ison, C

    2015-03-01

    In the UK, despite its low sensitivity, wet mount microscopy is often the only method of detecting Trichomonas vaginalis infection. A study was conducted in symptomatic women to compare the performance of five methods for detecting T. vaginalis: an in-house polymerase chain reaction (PCR); Aptima T. vaginalis kit; OSOM ®Trichomonas Rapid Test; culture and microscopy. Symptomatic women underwent routine testing; microscopy and further swabs were taken for molecular testing, OSOM and culture. A true positive was defined as a sample that was positive for T. vaginalis by two or more different methods. Two hundred and forty-six women were recruited: 24 patients were positive for T. vaginalis by two or more different methods. Of these 24 patients, 21 patients were detected by real-time PCR (sensitivity 88%); 22 patients were detected by the Aptima T. vaginalis kit (sensitivity 92%); 22 patients were detected by OSOM (sensitivity 92%); nine were detected by wet mount microscopy (sensitivity 38%); and 21 were detected by culture (sensitivity 88%). Two patients were positive by just one method and were not considered true positives. All the other detection methods had a sensitivity to detect T. vaginalis that was significantly greater than wet mount microscopy, highlighting the number of cases that are routinely missed even in symptomatic women if microscopy is the only diagnostic method available.

  20. Age and Gender Effects on Wideband Absorbance in Adults with Normal Outer and Middle Ear Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazlan, Rafidah; Kei, Joseph; Ya, Cheng Li; Yusof, Wan Nur Hanim Mohd; Saim, Lokman; Zhao, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effects of age and gender on wideband energy absorbance in adults with normal middle ear function. Method: Forty young adults (14 men, 26 women, aged 20-38 years), 31 middle-aged adults (16 men, 15 women, aged 42-64 years), and 30 older adults (20 men, 10 women, aged 65-82 years) were assessed. Energy absorbance…

  1. Nothing gained: an explorative study of the long-term effects of perceived maternal feeding practices on women's and men's adult BMI, body image dissatisfaction, and disordered eating.

    PubMed

    Lev-Ari, Lilac; Zohar, Ada H

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the studies presented here was the prediction of adult body mass index (BMI), body image dissatisfaction, and disordered eating from recalled maternal child feeding practices. Studies 1 and 2 sampled women from the community, and found that recalled childhood feeding practices predicted both current BMI and current disordered eating. Daughters whose mothers pressured them to eat as children had lower BMIs as adults. The more a mother was concerned about her daughter's weight as a child, and the more she restricted fatty food intake, the less the woman was satisfied with her current body image. Disordered eating of adult women was positively related to their mothers' restriction of their fatty food intake as children, and negatively related to the mothers' monitoring of their food intake as children. Combining the samples and subdividing them into four BMI intervals showed that the obese women were higher on all but one of the recalled maternal child feeding practices, as well as on disordered eating and body dissatisfaction. Age was found to be positively related to BMI and drive for thinness, but not to body dissatisfaction or disordered eating, with older women having higher BMI and more drive for thinness. Study 3 sampled adult men from the community and found that recalled maternal child feeding practices predicted adult BMI and disordered eating for men, as well as for women. Considerable sex differences were found for all study variables. Recollection of maternal child feeding practices may have a formative role in the development of body image, disordered eating, and BMI for men and women, even into adulthood.

  2. Career Pursuit Pathways among Emerging Adult Men and Women: Psychosocial Correlates and Precursors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman, Shmuel; Barr, Tamuz; Livneh, Yaara; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Vasalampi, Kati; Pratt, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined career pursuit pathways in 100 Israeli emerging adults (54 men) who were followed from age 22 to 29. Employing a semi-structured interview at the age of 29, participants were asked about current work and educational status, work and educational goals and status changes in recent years, and to reflect on the meaning of…

  3. Images of Women in High Fantasy for Children and Adults: A Comparative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Laura

    This paper presents a content analysis of 45 high fantasy novels randomly selected from the outstanding contemporary fantasy list in "Fantasy Literature for Children and Young Adults" (Ruth Nadelman Lynn), which divides high fantasy into three subgenres--travel to other worlds, alternate world/history, and myth. A comparison is made between male…

  4. Pubertal timing and adult obesity and cardiometabolic risk in women and men: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Prentice, P; Viner, R M

    2013-08-01

    Obesity has complex multifactorial aetiology. It has been suggested by many, but not all, reports that earlier pubertal maturation may increase adult obesity risk. We conducted a systemic review and meta-analysis in both women and men, and hypothesised that any association between pubertal timing and adult obesity is likely to be confounded by childhood adiposity. In addition, we investigated whether pubertal timing is related to other cardiometabolic risk and long-term cardiovascular morbidity/mortality. Literature search was undertaken using MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Knowledge and TRIP databases, with a hand search of references. Both authors independently reviewed and extracted pre-defined data from all selected papers. Meta-analyses were conducted using Review Manager (RevMan) 5.0.24. A total of 48 papers were identified. Out of 34 studies, 30 reported an inverse relationship between pubertal timing and adult body mass index (BMI), the main adiposity measure used. Meta-analysis of 10 cohorts showed association between early menarche (menarche <12 vs ≥12 years) and increased adult BMI, with a standardised mean difference of 0.34 kg m(-2) (95% confidence interval: 0.33-0.34). Heterogeneity was large (I(2)=92%) but reduced significantly when grouped by outcome age. Late menarche (menarche ≥15 vs <15 years) was associated with decreased adult BMI, with a standardised mean difference of -0.26 kg m(-2) (95% confidence interval: -0.36, -0.21) (seven cohorts). Only eight papers included data on childhood BMI; the majority reported that childhood BMI only partially attenuated association between early menarche and later obesity. Although not suitable for meta-analysis, data on cardiometabolic risk factors and puberty suggested negative association between earlier pubertal timing and cardiovascular mortality, hypertension, metabolic syndrome (MetS) and abnormal glycaemia. Earlier pubertal timing is predictive of higher adult BMI and greater risk of obesity

  5. Associations between vitamin D levels and depressive symptoms in healthy young adult women.

    PubMed

    Kerr, David C R; Zava, David T; Piper, Walter T; Saturn, Sarina R; Frei, Balz; Gombart, Adrian F

    2015-05-30

    There have been few studies of whether vitamin D insufficiency is linked with depression in healthy young women despite women׳s high rates of both problems. Female undergraduates (n=185) living in the Pacific Northwest during fall, winter, and spring academic terms completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale weekly for 4 weeks (W1-W5). We measured serum levels of vitamin D3 and C (ascorbate; as a control variable) in blood samples collected at W1 and W5. Vitamin D insufficiency (<30ng/mL) was common at W1 (42%) and W5 (46%), and rates of clinically significant depressive symptoms (CES-D≥16) were 34-42% at W1-W5. Lower W1 vitamin D3 predicted clinically significant depressive symptoms across W1-W5 (β=-0.20, p<0.05), controlling for season, BMI, race/ethnicity, diet, exercise, and time outside. There was some evidence that lower levels of depressive symptoms in Fall participants (vs. Winter and Spring) were explained by their higher levels of vitamin D3. W1 depressive symptoms did not predict change in vitamin D3 levels from W1 to W5. Findings are consistent with a temporal association between low levels of vitamin D and clinically meaningful depressive symptoms. The preventive value of supplementation should be tested further.

  6. Lubiprostone for the treatment of adult women with irritable bowel syndrome with constipation.

    PubMed

    Soubra, Mahmoud; Schey, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C) affects approximately 5% of the population in western countries. The majority of those afflicted are women. Symptoms are often detrimental to the individual's quality of life and incur high healthcare costs to society. There is no evidence to support changes in lifestyle, laxatives or over the counter supplements. Tegaserod appeared to have promising results but was promptly removed from the market due to adverse cardiovascular events. In 2008, lubiprostone (Amitiza) was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of women with IBS-C. It is thought to selectively activate type 2 chloride channels in the apical membrane of the intestinal epithelial cells leading to chloride secretion. As result, sodium and water are passively secreted generating peristalsis and laxation, without stimulating gastrointestinal smooth muscle. Several trials with predominantly female patients have shown it to be effective in the treatment of IBS-C. Overall lubiprostone was safe, well tolerated and associated with mostly benign side effects. Nausea and diarrhea were the most commonly reported. Though there are no head to head comparisons with other pharmacological agents, it is our opinion that lubiprostone should be tried as a first line pharmacotherapy for women with IBS-C at a dose of 8 μg BID. Thus far, lubiprostone offers a welcome approach to our narrow therapeutic armamentarium. Further understanding of its mechanism of action may provide additional insight into the pathophysiology of IBS-C.

  7. a Cross-Sectional Study on Insomnia among Japanese Adult Women in Relation to Night-Time Road Traffic Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kageyama, T.; Kabuto, M.; Nitta, N.; Kurokawa, Y.; Taira, K.; Suzuki, S.; Takemoto, T.

    1997-08-01

    In an effort to determine the contribution of night-time road traffic noise to insomnia in the general population, 3600 adult Japanese women living in urban residential areas were surveyed. Living near a road with a heavy traffic volume is one of the risk factors for insomnia. The risk for insomnia in the zones 0-20 m from the main roads increased linearly with the night-time traffic volume. This suggests that road traffic noise raises the sound level in bedrooms in such zones, and consequently the prevalence rate of insomnia among the residents, and that noise-induced insomnia is an important public health problem, at least in highly urbanized areas.

  8. Factors affecting the choice of nonpermanent contraceptive methods among married women.

    PubMed

    MacDowell, M; Lee, E S

    1984-01-01

    Data from the 1976 US National Survey of Family Growth were used to examine the effect of sociodemographic factors on choice of nonpermanent contraceptive methods among white, fecund, married women aged 15-44 who intend no additional births. A multivariate analysis revealed that age of the respondent had a strong negative relationship to the effectiveness of contraceptive chosen. Being Catholic had a negative effect on the effectiveness of contraceptive chosen, but significant interaction occurred between age and parity and between age and education. 1 explanation may be that increased age may result in reduced perception of risk that an unwanted birth will occur. Another explanation is that concerns about health risks associated with the pill or IUD use may lead to use of other methods among older women. The most probable explanation of the observed relationship is a cohort effect. Older women who began marital contraception at an earlier point in time have continued to use the same methods as were initially available early in their marriage. The lack of a significant association between parity and the effectiveness of contraceptive method chosen based on multivariate analysis is most likely due to the high correlation between parity and age. The lack of a significant effect of education on choice of method may be explained by the nearly universal access to all methods of contraception for married women. Further research on the same lines is strongly urged to shed light on current behavior patterns.

  9. Childhood maltreatment and difficulties in emotion regulation: associations with sexual and relationship satisfaction among young adult women.

    PubMed

    Rellini, Alessandra H; Vujanovic, Anka A; Gilbert, Myani; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    This study examined relations among childhood maltreatment, difficulties in emotion regulation, and sexual and relationship satisfaction among young adult women reporting current involvement in committed, romantic relationships. A sample of 192 women (ages 18-25) completed self-report questionnaires as part of an Internet-based survey. It was hypothesized that severity of childhood maltreatment and difficulties in emotion regulation would each independently and negatively predict (a) sexual satisfaction, (b) relationship intimacy, and (c) expression of affection within the context of the relationship. Furthermore, it was hypothesized that greater emotion regulation difficulties would moderate the effects of childhood maltreatment on these sexual and relationship variables (i.e., sexual satisfaction, relationship intimacy, and expression of affection). Findings suggest that difficulties in emotion regulation demonstrated an incremental effect with regard to sexual satisfaction, but not with intimacy and affection expression. In contrast to predictions, no significant interactive effects were documented. Clinical implications and future directions related to this line of inquiry are discussed.

  10. Response Inhibition, Peer Preference and Victimization, and Self-Harm: Longitudinal Associations in Young Adult Women with and without ADHD.

    PubMed

    Meza, Jocelyn I; Owens, Elizabeth B; Hinshaw, Stephen P

    2016-02-01

    Self-harm (suicidal ideation and attempts; non-suicidal self-injuries behavior) peaks in adolescence and early-adulthood, with rates higher for women than men. Young women with childhood psychiatric diagnoses appear to be at particular risk, yet more remains to be learned about the key predictors or mediators of self-harm outcomes. Our aims were to examine, with respect to self-harm-related outcomes in early adulthood, the predictive validity of childhood response inhibition, a cardinal trait of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as well as the potential mediating effects of social preference and peer victimization, ascertained in early adolescence. Participants were an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of 228 girls with and without ADHD, an enriched sample for deficits in response inhibition. Childhood response inhibition (RI) predicted young-adult suicide ideation (SI), suicide attempts (SA), and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), over and above full-scale IQ, mother's education, household income, and age. Importantly, teacher-rated social preference in adolescence was a partial mediator of the RI-SI/SA linkages; self-reported peer victimization in adolescence emerged as a significant partial mediator of the RI-NSSI linkage. We discuss implications for conceptual models of self-harm and for needed clinical services designed to detect and reduce self-harm.

  11. Effects of acupressure on menstrual distress and low back pain in dysmenorrheic young adult women: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huei-Mein; Wang, Hsiu-Hung; Chiu, Min-Huei; Hu, Hsou-Mei

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of acupressure on menstrual distress and low back pain (LBP) in dysmenorrheic young adult women. In all, 129 female students, who had been experiencing dysmenorrhea with LBP during menstruation and who scored more than 4 points on the visual analog scale for pain, were randomly assigned to an experimental group and a control group. The experimental group (n = 65) received acupressure massage three times a week for 30 minutes on the sanyinjiao (SP6), ciliao (BL32), and taichong (Liver 3) acupoints. The control group (n = 64) received only a manual of menstrual health education without acupressure intervention. Data were collected at five time points: at baseline, 30 minutes, and 4, 8, and 12 months after the intervention. During the 12-month follow-up, the experimental group had significantly lower menstrual distress and LBP scores than the control group. Among 65 participants in the experimental group, 53 (82%) reported a moderate to high levels of menstrual distress, 51 (78%) reported moderate to high levels of LBP relief, and 49 (75%) reported moderate to high levels of satisfaction with acupressure. Our findings may serve as a reference for health care professionals and young women to improve self-care during menstruation and help further understand the therapeutic effects of acupressure on menstrual distress and LBP.

  12. Peer-Interactions in the Adult Mathematics Classroom and the Flow-On Effect to the Children of Women Returning To Study Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brew, Christine R.

    The effects that peer interactions in an adult mathematics classroom have on the children of women returning to study mathematics were explored in a case study of seven Australian mothers who had school-aged children and who had returned to study mathematics in Australia's technical and further education sector. During the 12-month study, the…

  13. "It Is Difficult to Be a Woman with a Dream of an Education:" Challenging U.S. Adult Basic Education Policies to Support Women Immigrants' Self-Determination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuban, Sondra; Stromquist, Nelly P.

    2009-01-01

    Women immigrants are an increasing population in the U.S. and in the Adult Basic Education (ABE) system, particularly in English to Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) programmes. The authors argue that their numerical predominance and comprehensive needs are not factored into U.S. ABE policies by reformers who are anxious about the system being…

  14. Good Ol' Boys, Mean Girls, and Tyrants: A Phenomenological Study of the Lived Experiences and Survival Strategies of Bullied Women Adult Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedivy-Benton, Amy; Strohschen, Gabriele; Cavazos, Nora; Boden-McGill, Carrie

    2015-01-01

    Bullying in higher education is an increasingly common phenomenon that negatively affects organizational climate, completed work's quality and quantity, and students' educational experiences. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to investigate the lived experiences of women adult educators who were targets of bullying. Six…

  15. Higher Body Iron Is Associated with Greater Depression Symptoms among Young Adult Men but not Women: Observational Data from the Daily Life Study.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Aimee C; Heath, Anne-Louise M; Haszard, Jillian J; Polak, Maria A; Houghton, Lisa A; Conner, Tamlin S

    2015-07-23

    Studies investigating possible associations between iron status and mood or depressive symptoms have reported inconsistent results. However, they have neither used body iron to measure iron status nor measured mood using daily measures. We investigated whether body iron was associated with depressive symptoms, daily mood, daily tiredness, difficulty concentrating, and stress in young adult women and men. Young adult (17-25 years) women (n = 562) and men (n = 323) completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, then reported negative and positive mood, and other states daily for 13 days. Non-fasting venous blood was collected to determine hemoglobin, serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor (to calculate body iron), C-reactive protein, and alpha-1-acid glycoprotein concentration. Regression models tested linear associations between body iron and the outcome variables, controlling for possible confounders. No associations were found between body iron and the outcome variables in women. However, higher body iron was associated with more depressive symptoms in men (3.4% more per body iron mg/kg; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.8%, 5.9%). In young adult women, body iron is unlikely to be associated with significant deficits in mood or depressive symptoms. However, higher body iron may be associated with more depressive symptoms in young adult men.

  16. Risk of haemolytic uraemic syndrome caused by shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli infection in adult women in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fujii, J; Mizoue, T; Kita, T; Kishimoto, H; Joh, K; Nakada, Y; Ugajin, S; Naya, Y; Nakamura, T; Tada, Y; Okabe, N; Maruyama, Y; Saitoh, K; Kurozawa, Y

    2016-04-01

    Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections usually cause haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) equally in male and female children. This study investigated the localization of globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) in human brain and kidney tissues removed from forensic autopsy cases in Japan. A fatal case was used as a positive control in an outbreak of diarrhoeal disease caused by STEC O157:H7 in a kindergarten in Urawa in 1990. Positive immunodetection of Gb3 was significantly more frequent in female than in male distal and collecting renal tubules. To correlate this finding with a clinical outcome, a retrospective analysis of the predictors of renal failure in the 162 patients of two outbreaks in Japan was performed: one in Tochigi in 2002 and the other in Kagawa Prefecture in 2005. This study concludes renal failure, including HUS, was significantly associated with female sex, and the odds ratio was 4·06 compared to male patients in the two outbreaks. From 2006 to 2009 in Japan, the risk factor of HUS associated with STEC infection was analysed. The number of males and females and the proportion of females who developed HUS were calculated by age and year from 2006 to 2009. In 2006, 2007 and 2009 in adults aged >20 years, adult women were significantly more at risk of developing HUS in Japan.

  17. Connecting Generations: Developing Co-Design Methods for Older Adults and Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Bo; Druin, Allison; Fails, Jerry; Massey, Sheri; Golub, Evan; Franckel, Sonia; Schneider, Kiki

    2012-01-01

    As new technologies emerge that can bring older adults together with children, little has been discussed by researchers concerning the design methods used to create these new technologies. Giving both children and older adults a voice in a shared design process comes with many challenges. This paper details an exploratory study focusing on…

  18. High prevalence of anemia in children and adult women in an urban population in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silla, Lucia Mariano da Rocha; Zelmanowicz, Alice; Mito, Ingrid; Michalowski, Mariana; Hellwing, Tania; Shilling, Marco Antonio; Friedrisch, João Ricardo; Bittar, Christina M; Albrecht, Cristina Arthmar Mentz; Scapinello, Elaine; Conti, Claudia; Albrecht, Marcia Arthmar Mentz; Baggio, Letícia; Pezzi, Annelise; Amorin, Bruna; Valim, Vanessa; Fogliatto, Laura; Paz, Alessandra; Astigarraga, Claudia; Bittencourt, Rosane Isabel; Fischer, Gustavo; Daudt, Liane

    2013-01-01

    This population-based study was designed to detect the prevalence of anemia in a healthy population of children (18 months to 7 years) and women (14 to 30 years) tested in 2006-2007 in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil as part of an effort to tackle this massive problem that still affects so many people in the XXI century. Anemia was defined according to the WHO. Capillary blood was measured and socioeconomic status was determined according to the Brazilian Association of Market Research Agencies. The median prevalence of anemia in 2198 children was 45.4% and in 1999 women 36.4%. Anemia decreased with age during childhood; although significantly more prevalent in lower classes individuals, it was also high in the upper classes. There are indirect evidences that the lack of iron supplementation and/or iron fortified food may play a role in it. Professionals and society wise measures of education have to be implemented in order to address possible biologic factors involved in childhood psychosocial development in southern Brazil.

  19. Food-related advertisements and food intake among adult men and women.

    PubMed

    Wonderlich-Tierney, Anna L; Wenzel, Kevin R; Vander Wal, Jillon S; Wang-Hall, Jennifer

    2013-12-01

    Television viewing may contribute to obesity via promotion of sedentary behavior and exposure to food-related commercials. However, the mechanisms by which food-related commercials promote food intake are not well understood. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of television advertisements on food intake according to sex and transportability, or the tendency to become engrossed in what one is viewing. Eighty-three undergraduate students, free of disordered eating symptoms, were stratified by sex and randomly assigned to one of three conditions (food-related advertisements, neutral advertisements, or no advertisements). They were then identified as high or low in transportability according to a median split. A significant interaction was found between advertisement condition and transportability such that those high in transportability ate more in the food than other advertisement conditions. A second interaction was found between sex and transportability with women high in transportability eating more food than women low in transportability irrespective of advertisement condition. No significant main effects of advertisement condition, sex, or transportability were found. Results suggest the importance of studying the impact of individual difference variables on the relationship between food-related advertising and food intake.

  20. High Prevalence of Anemia in Children and Adult Women in an Urban Population in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silla, Lucia Mariano da Rocha; Zelmanowicz, Alice; Mito, Ingrid; Michalowski, Mariana; Hellwing, Tania; Shilling, Marco Antonio; Friedrisch, João Ricardo; Bittar, Christina M.; Albrecht, Cristina Arthmar Mentz; Scapinello, Elaine; Conti, Claudia; Albrecht, Marcia Arthmar Mentz; Baggio, Letícia; Pezzi, Annelise; Amorin, Bruna; Valim, Vanessa; Fogliatto, Laura; Paz, Alessandra; Astigarraga, Claudia; Bittencourt, Rosane Isabel; Fischer, Gustavo; Daudt, Liane

    2013-01-01

    This population-based study was designed to detect the prevalence of anemia in a healthy population of children (18 months to 7 years) and women (14 to 30 years) tested in 2006–2007 in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil as part of an effort to tackle this massive problem that still affects so many people in the XXI century. Anemia was defined according to the WHO. Capillary blood was measured and socioeconomic status was determined according to the Brazilian Association of Market Research Agencies. The median prevalence of anemia in 2198 children was 45.4% and in 1999 women 36.4%. Anemia decreased with age during childhood; although significantly more prevalent in lower classes individuals, it was also high in the upper classes. There are indirect evidences that the lack of iron supplementation and/or iron fortified food may play a role in it. Professionals and society wise measures of education have to be implemented in order to address possible biologic factors involved in childhood psychosocial development in southern Brazil. PMID:23922664

  1. Majoring in STEM--What Accounts for Women's Career Decision Making? A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bieri Buschor, Christine; Berweger, Simone; Keck Frei, Andrea; Kappler, Christa

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal, mixed methods study was to gain an understanding of whether female academic high school students who intended to study science, technology, engineering, or mathematics (STEM) actually enrolled in such studies 2 years later, and how these women perceived this process retrospectively. The results revealed a high…

  2. The Network of Antigen-Antibody Reactions in Adult Women with Breast Cancer or Benign Breast Pathology or without Breast Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Romo-González, Tania; Esquivel-Velázquez, Marcela; Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro; Lara, Carlos; Zentella, Alejandro; León-Díaz, Rosalba; Lamoyi, Edmundo; Larralde, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody response to different protein antigens of the mammary ductal carcinoma by adult women affected by Breast Cancer (BC) distinguishes at least 103 proteins that differ in their molecular weights (MW). The IgG producing cell clones (nodes) coexist with each other in each individual organism and share energy resources among themselves, as well as factors that control the level of expression and Specificity of their IgG antibodies. So, it can be proposed that among them there is a Network of interconnections (links) unveiled by the antigens, which specifically react with the IgG antibodies produced by the clones. This Network possibly regulates IgG antibodies' activity and effectiveness. We describe the Network of nodes and links that exists between the different antigens and their respective IgG producing cell clones against the extracted protein antigens from the cells of the T47D Cell-Line, in 50 women with BC, 50 women with Benign Breast Pathology (BBP) and 50 women without breast pathology (H). We have found that women with BBP have the highest number of Links, followed by the H group and, lastly, the women with BC, a finding which suggests that cancer interferes with the Connectivity between the IgG producing cell clones and blocks the expression of 322 links in women with BBP and 32 links in women with H. It is also plausible that the largest number of links in the women with BBP indicates the Network’s state of arousal that provides protection against BC. On the other hand, there were many missing links in the BC group of women; the clone which lost more links in the BC group was the hub 24, which point to some of the antigens of T47D as potentially useful as vaccines, as the immune system of women with BBP is well aware of them. PMID:25781932

  3. A critical evaluation of a method for treatment of facial hypertrichosis in women.

    PubMed

    Verdich, J

    1984-01-01

    An electroepilation apparatus equipped with a metal tweezer was studied with reference to possible permanent removal of facial hair in women with cosmetically embarrassing hypertrichosis. 8 women were epilated on a fixed area of 1 cm2 and counts of the epilated hairs were done. 5-7 months later, the same area was epilated and the terminal hairs counted. No significant difference in the hair counts was found on the two epilations. The method must be considered inapplicable for permanent removal of superfluous hair.

  4. Childhood sexual abuse and its association with adult physical and mental health: results from a national cohort of young Australian women.

    PubMed

    Coles, Jan; Lee, Adeline; Taft, Angela; Mazza, Danielle; Loxton, Deborah

    2015-07-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) occurs across the world, with a prevalence of 20% internationally. Our aim was to investigate the associations between CSA, CSA plus adult violence experiences, and selected self-reported physical and mental health in a community sample of women. Data from 7,700 women aged 28-33 years from the 1973-1978 cohort who completed Survey 4 of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH) were analyzed. Questions about prior abuse experience such as child sexual abuse, IPV, adult physical and sexual assaults, andphysical and mental health. Women who experienced CSA were 1.4 times more likely to experience bodily pain (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.37, confidence interval [CI] = [1.19, 1.58]), 1.3 times more likely to have poorer general health (AOR = 1.33, CI = [1.15, 1.54]), and 1.4 times more likely to be depressed in the past 3 years (AOR = 1.44, CI = [1.22, 1.71]) compared with those without abuse.. Women who experienced both CSA and adult violence were 2.4 to 3.1 times more likely to experience poor general (AOR = 2.35, CI = [1.76, 3.14]) and mental health (AOR = 2.69, CI = [1.98, 3.64]), and suffer from depression (AOR = 2.84, CI = [2.13, 3.78]) and anxiety (AOR = 3.10, CI = [2.12, 4.53]) compared with women with no abuse. This study demonstrates the importance of CSA in pain and poorer long-term mental and physical health.. It emphasizes how prior CSA may amplify pain and poorer long-term mental and physical health among women who are again exposed to violence in adulthood.

  5. The effect of dietary carbohydrate:fat ratio on energy intake by adult women.

    PubMed

    van Stratum, P; Lussenburg, R N; van Wezel, L A; Vergroesen, A J; Cremer, H D

    1978-02-01

    The effect of the dietary carbohydrate:fat (C:F) ratio on the spontaneous energy intake by healthy adults was investigated by comparing a high-carbohydrate diet (fat 24%, carbohydrate 58%, protein 18% of energy) and a high-fat diet (fat 47%, carbohydrate 35%, protein 18% of energy) in a 2 X 2 week cross-over design. Subjects were 22 healthy nuns in a Trappist convent with very regular activities. The diets consisted of combinations of liquid formula (75%) and standardized snacks (25%). The difference in C:F ratio was concealed: energy density, taste and appearance were similar. Energy consumption was recorded continuously. The mean daily energy intakes remained constant: 8276 kJ (1978 kcal). The difference in mean daily energy intake between diets was 73 kJ +/- 180 (SEM). Small changes in body weight were observed, but these are argued not to indicate definitive effects. It is concluded that changing the C:F ratio within commonly occurring ranges does not influence the spontaneous energy intake of healthy adults. The composition of the dietary fat was kept constant. Under practical conditions a change in the C:F ratio will also induce a change in the fatty acid composition of the diet, which might affect the energy intake regulation. Other experiments are required to see whether the C:F ratio can affect body composition or other physiological parameters in the long run.

  6. Unhappiness with the Fetal Gender is associated with Depression in Adult Pregnant Women Attending Prenatal Care in a Public Hospital in Durango, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sifuentes-Alvarez, Antonio; Salas-Martinez, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Depression during pregnancy has been scantily studied in Mexican women. We aimed to determine the prevalence and correlates of depression in adult pregnant women attending a public hospital in the northern Mexican city of Durango, Mexico. Through a cross-sectional study design, we assessed depression in 270 adult pregnant women attended for prenatal care in a public hospital using a validated Mexican version of the Edinburg Postnatal Depression Scale in pregnancy and further confirmation by a psychiatric evaluation using the DSM-IV criteria for depression. Prevalence association with socio-demographic, clinical and psychosocial characteristics of the pregnant women was also investigated. Of the 270 pregnant women studied, 101 (37.4%) had EPDS scores equal to or higher than nine. Depression was confirmed in 56 (20.7%) women. Of them, 42 suffered from minor depression and 14 from major depression. Multivariate analysis of socio-demographic, clinical and psychosocial characteristics of the women showed that depression was associated with depression before pregnancy (OR = 3.36; 95% CI: 1.20-9.40; P=0.02), anxiety during pregnancy (OR = 9.38; 95% CI: 1.87-46.96; P=0.006), smoking (OR = 25.05; 95% CI: 1.77-353.07; P=0.01), unhappy with the fetal sex (OR = 8.53; 95% CI: 2.46-29.48; P<0.001), and unintended pregnancy (OR = 2.90; 95% CI: 1.07-7.86; P=0.03). Results indicate that about one fifth of the pregnant women studied had confirmed depression. This is the first report of an association of prenatal depression with unhappiness with the fetal sex. Factors associated with prenatal depression found in this study may help for the optimal design of preventive measures against prenatal depression. PMID:27127452

  7. Urinary Perchlorate and Thyroid Hormone Levels in Adolescent and Adult Men and Women Living in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Blount, Benjamin C.; Pirkle, James L.; Osterloh, John D.; Valentin-Blasini, Liza; Caldwell, Kathleen L.

    2006-01-01

    Background Perchlorate is commonly found in the environment and known to inhibit thyroid function at high doses. Assessing the potential effect of low-level exposure to perchlorate on thyroid function is an area of ongoing research. Objectives We evaluated the potential relationship between urinary levels of perchlorate and serum levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and total thyroxine (T4) in 2,299 men and women, ≥ 12 years of age, participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) during 2001–2002. Methods We used multiple regression models of T4 and TSH that included perchlorate and covariates known to be or likely to be associated with T4 or TSH levels: age, race/ethnicity, body mass index, estrogen use, menopausal status, pregnancy status, premenarche status, serum C-reactive protein, serum albumin, serum cotinine, hours of fasting, urinary thiocyanate, urinary nitrate, and selected medication groups. Results Perchlorate was not a significant predictor of T4 or TSH levels in men. For women overall, perchlorate was a significant predictor of both T4 and TSH. For women with urinary iodine < 100 μg/L, perchlorate was a significant negative predictor of T4 (p < 0.0001) and a positive predictor of TSH (p = 0.001). For women with urinary iodine ≥ 100 μg/L, perchlorate was a significant positive predictor of TSH (p = 0.025) but not T4 (p = 0.550). Conclusions These associations of perchlorate with T4 and TSH are coherent in direction and independent of other variables known to affect thyroid function, but are present at perchlorate exposure levels that were unanticipated based on previous studies. PMID:17185277

  8. Effects of Pilates-based exercise on life satisfaction, physical self-concept and health status in adult women.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Ferreira, Ana; Fernandes, Jorge; Gomes, Dulce; Bernardo, Lisa Marie; Kirkcaldy, Bruce D; Barbosa, Tiago M; Silva, António

    2011-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of Pilates-based mat exercises on life satisfaction, perception of appreciation by other people, perception of physical appearance, perception of functionality, total physical self-concept, and perception of health status in healthy women. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in Evora, Portugal, in 2008, in which 62 healthy adult women were randomized to a Pilates-based mat (experimental group) (n = 38, mean age ± SD, 41.08 ± 6.64 years) or a control group (n = 24, mean age ± SD, 40.25 ± 7.70 years). Experimental group participants performed the Initial Mat of Body Control Pilates twice per week, 60-minutes per session. Repeated measurements were performed at baseline, 3 months and 6 months. No significant differences between the two groups were observed in life satisfaction, perception of appreciation by other people, perception of physical appearance, perception of functionality, total physical self-concept, and perception of health status at three time point measures (baseline, after 3 months, and after 6 months). No significant differences were observed in the control group over time. The experimental group showed significant improvements between baseline and six months in life satisfaction (p = .04), perception of appreciation by other people (p = .002), perception of physical appearance (p = .001), perception of functionality (p = .01), total physical self-concept (p = .001), perception of health status (p = .013) and between three and six months in life satisfaction (p = .002), perception of appreciation by other people (p = .05), perception of physical appearance (p = .001), perception of functionality (p = .02), and total physical self-concept (p = .001). Life satisfaction, perception of appreciation by other people, perception of physical appearance, perception of functionality, total physical self-concept and perception of health status may improve after 6 months of Pilates-based mat

  9. The Mistreatment of Women during Childbirth in Health Facilities Globally: A Mixed-Methods Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Bohren, Meghan A.; Vogel, Joshua P.; Hunter, Erin C.; Lutsiv, Olha; Makh, Suprita K.; Souza, João Paulo; Aguiar, Carolina; Saraiva Coneglian, Fernando; Diniz, Alex Luíz Araújo; Tunçalp, Özge; Javadi, Dena; Oladapo, Olufemi T.; Khosla, Rajat; Hindin, Michelle J.; Gülmezoglu, A. Metin

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite growing recognition of neglectful, abusive, and disrespectful treatment of women during childbirth in health facilities, there is no consensus at a global level on how these occurrences are defined and measured. This mixed-methods systematic review aims to synthesize qualitative and quantitative evidence on the mistreatment of women during childbirth in health facilities to inform the development of an evidence-based typology of the phenomenon. Methods and Findings We searched PubMed, CINAHL, and Embase databases and grey literature using a predetermined search strategy to identify qualitative, quantitative, and mixed-methods studies on the mistreatment of women during childbirth across all geographical and income-level settings. We used a thematic synthesis approach to synthesize the qualitative evidence and assessed the confidence in the qualitative review findings using the CERQual approach. In total, 65 studies were included from 34 countries. Qualitative findings were organized under seven domains: (1) physical abuse, (2) sexual abuse, (3) verbal abuse, (4) stigma and discrimination, (5) failure to meet professional standards of care, (6) poor rapport between women and providers, and (7) health system conditions and constraints. Due to high heterogeneity of the quantitative data, we were unable to conduct a meta-analysis; instead, we present descriptions of study characteristics, outcome measures, and results. Additional themes identified in the quantitative studies are integrated into the typology. Conclusions This systematic review presents a comprehensive, evidence-based typology of the mistreatment of women during childbirth in health facilities, and demonstrates that mistreatment can occur at the level of interaction between the woman and provider, as well as through systemic failures at the health facility and health system levels. We propose this typology be adopted to describe the phenomenon and be used to develop measurement tools

  10. Resourcefulness Training for Women Dementia Caregivers: Acceptability and Feasibility of Two Methods.

    PubMed

    Zauszniewski, Jaclene A; Lekhak, Nirmala; Napoleon, Betty; Morris, Diana L

    2016-01-01

    Almost 10 million women in the United States are caregivers for elders with dementia and many experience extreme stress that compromises their health. Acceptable and feasible interventions to teach them resourcefulness skills for managing stress may improve their health and facilitate continued caregiving. This study examined two commonly used methods for practicing skills taught during resourcefulness training (RT) to women caregivers of elders with dementia (n=63): journaling and digital voice recording. It also explored whether providing caregivers a choice between the two methods made it more acceptable or feasible. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected before, during, and after RT. Caregivers who recorded used more words (M=5446) but recorded fewer days (M=17) than those who journaled (M=2792 words and M=27 days). Similar concerns in relation to time management and practice method were expressed by women caregivers irrespective of practice method (journal versus recorder) or random versus choice condition. While journaling was more frequent than recording, more words were expressed during recordings. Perceived stress and depressive symptoms were unrelated to the number of practice days or word counts, suggesting RT acceptability and feasibility even for highly stressed or depressed caregivers. Because intervention feasibility is important for RT effectiveness testing, alternatives to the journaling and recording methods for practicing RT skills should be considered.

  11. A study of the lactational amenorrhoea method of family planning in New Zealand women.

    PubMed

    France, M M

    1996-05-24

    A prospective study conducted among clients attending New Zealand Association of Natural Family Planning clinics confirmed that lactational amenorrhea is an effective means of avoiding pregnancy in the first 6 months postpartum. The 110 mothers who were fully breast feeding, not giving a pacifier, amenorrheic, and early postpartum in a 12-month period during 1991-92 were offered either the lactational amenorrhea method or the usual fertility awareness charting method. The former method was selected by 70 women, primarily because of its simplicity, and 34 (48.6%) women continued to meet all the study criteria 6 months after the birth of their baby. The early introduction of supplementary solid foods was a significant cause of lack of continued eligibility. In contrast, only 19.5% of women using the fertility awareness method were still fully breast feeding and amenorrheic at 6 months postpartum. None of the mothers using the lactational amenorrhea method conceived during the study period; however, there were 2 pregnancies in the fertility awareness group.

  12. Associations between Vitamin D Levels and Depressive Symptoms in Healthy Young Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, David C. R.; Zava, David T.; Piper, Walter T.; Saturn, Sarina R.; Frei, Balz; Gombart, Adrian F.

    2015-01-01

    There have been few studies of whether vitamin D insufficiency is linked with depression in healthy young women despite women’s high rates of both problems. Female undergraduates (n = 185) living in the Pacific Northwest during fall, winter, and spring academic terms completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale weekly for four weeks (W1–W5). We measured serum levels of vitamin D3 and C (ascorbate; as a control variable) in blood samples collected at W1 and W5. Vitamin D insufficiency (<30ng/mL) was common at W1 (42%) and W5 (46%), and rates of clinically significant depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥ 16) were 35–42% at W1–W5. Lower W1 vitamin D3 predicted clinically significant depressive symptoms across W1–W5 (β = −.20, p < .05), controlling for season, BMI, race/ethnicity, diet, exercise, and time outside. There was some evidence that lower levels of depressive symptoms in Fall participants (vs. Winter and Spring) were explained by their higher levels of vitamin D3. W1 depressive symptoms did not predict change in vitamin D3 levels from W1 to W5. Findings are consistent with a temporal association between low levels of vitamin D and clinically meaningful depressive symptoms. The preventive value of supplementation should be tested further. PMID:25791903

  13. Changes in foot pressure elicited by 3D air balance exercise and pelvic stability exercise for functional leg-length discrepancy in adult women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byung-Hoon; Kim, Jeong-Ja; Kim, Chan-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted to examine the effect of pelvic stabilization exercise and 3D equipment exercise on adult women with Functional Leg-Length Discrepancy (FLLD). [Subjects and Methods] Twenty female students in their 20’s having FLLD without Structural Leg Length Discrepancy were selected. Exercise was performed for 50 min per session, three times a week, for six weeks. The Pelvic stabilization exercise (PSE) group performed pelvic stabilization exercises for 50 minutes, and the 3D exercise (3DE) group performed 3D Air Balance exercise for 10 minutes after performing the pelvic stabilization exercise program for 40 minutes. [Results] The PSE group showed statistically significant differences in tape measure method (TMM) and maximum pressure between pre-test and post-test, and 3DE showed statistically significant differences in TMM, the difference in maximum pressure, the difference in average pressure, and the difference in support area. At the end of the 6-week intervention, TMM, difference in maximum pressure, difference in average pressure, and difference in support area showed significantly greater reduction in the 3DE group. [Conclusion] The results show that 3D stabilization exercise was more effective at improving the stabilization of the deep muscles surrounding the pelvis and left-right muscular balance. We consider that 3D exercise should be included in exercise programs for improving pelvic cavity and spinal stability in the future. PMID:25931758

  14. High-risk behaviors among adult men and women in Botswana: implications for HIV/AIDS prevention efforts.

    PubMed

    Keetile, Mpho

    2014-01-01

    The government of Botswana has been spending a lot of money in the prevention, treatment, care and support for HIV/AIDS patient for decades. This paper uses data from the third Botswana AIDS Impact Survey (BAIS III) to explore high-risk behaviors of adults and how they affect government efforts to stop the spread of HIV/AIDS. The objective of this paper is to fill in the gap on the assessment of high-risk behaviors associated with HIV/AIDS and their implications on HIV/AIDS prevention efforts. A nationally representative sample of 10,159 men and women aged 20-64 years who had successfully completed the BAIS III individual questionnaire were used in the study. Both descriptive and binary logistic regression analyses were used for analysis. Crude odds ratios were obtained from gross effects model while adjusted odds ratios (AOR) were obtained from the net effects model. Statistically significant association was observed between multiple current partners and alcohol consumption (AOR = 1.5), drug abuse (AOR = 1.7), transactional sex (AOR = 2.6) and intergenerational sex (AOR = 1.07). Furthermore, statistically significant association was seen for inconsistent condom use and having tested for HIV (AOR = 1.5). These results show a worrying tendency that despite government's efforts to stop the spread of HIV/AIDS, adults in Botswana continue to indulge in high-risk behaviors. Therefore, any programs and policies on HIV/AIDS should first target these high-risk behaviors.

  15. Evaluation of the Acceptability and Feasibility of a Computer-Tailored Intervention to Increase Human Papillomavirus Vaccination among Young Adult Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paiva, Andrea L.; Lipschitz, Jessica M.; Fernandez, Anne C.; Redding, Colleen A.; Prochaska, James O.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine acceptability and feasibility of a Transtheoretical Model (TTM)-based computer-tailored intervention (CTI) for increasing human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in college-aged women. Participants: Two hundred forty-three women aged 18-26 were recruited between February and May of 2011. Methods: Participants completed the…

  16. Influence of intensive yoga training on physiological changes in 6 adult women: a case report.

    PubMed

    Raju, P S; Prasad, K V; Venkata, R Y; Murthy, K J; Reddy, M V

    1997-01-01

    The short-term effects of 4 weeks of intensive yoga practice on physiological responses in six healthy adult female volunteers were measured using the maximal exercise treadmill test. Yoga practice involved daily morning and evening sessions of 90 minutes each. Pre- and post-yoga exercise performance was compared. Maximal work output (Wmax) for the group increased by 21%, with a significantly reduced level of oxygen consumption per unit work but without a concomitant significant change in heart rate. After intensive yoga training, at 154 Wmin(-1) (corresponding to Wmax of the pre-yoga maximal exercise test) participants could exercise more comfortably, with a significantly lower heart rate (p < 0.05), reduced minute ventilation (p < 0.05), reduced oxygen consumption per unit work (p < 0.05), and a significantly lower respiratory quotient (p < 0.05). The implications for the effect of intensive yoga on cardiorespiratory efficiency are discussed, with the suggestion that yoga has some transparently different quantifiable physiological effects to other exercises.

  17. Haemoglobin status of adult women of two ethnic groups living in a peri-urban area of Kolkata city, India: a micro-level study.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Rohini; Bharati, Premananda

    2003-01-01

    A micro level study on the haemoglobin status of 127 Munda (a tribe) and 174 Poundrakshatriya (Pod) (caste) women were conducted in the peri-urban area of Kolkata City, India. The two ethnic groups were selected in order to find out whether populations residing in the same habitat, with similar medical and health care facilities have similar haemoglobin status. Results indicate that there exists very high percentage of anaemia in both the ethnic groups and 100 percent anaemia was observed among the Munda. Mean haemoglobin level was higher among the women of both the ethnic groups, consuming calorie, protein, iron and folic acid, above the recommended value (Indian Council of Medical Research, 2000). Women below the age of 30 years were found to be more anaemic. Education (P <0.001), height (P <0.001) and weight (P<0.005) were significantly associated with the haemoglobin status of the Pod women. Haemoglobin level of both ethnic groups was found to increase with increase in Body Mass Index. Low socioeconomic condition, very low literacy rates, poverty and higher live births may have lowered the haemoglobin level of the women of the Munda population. However, women of both the ethnic groups were found to be anaemic in higher percentage than the state of West Bengal and all India (NFHS, 2000). Linear regression analysis indicated that expenditure on food had positive effect on the haemoglobin level (P<0.05) of the Munda adult women, possibly due to better buying capacity. However, negative effect of food expenditure on the haemoglobin level was noticed among the Pod women (P<0.05), which may be due to disparity in food sharing within the households. Thus populations residing with similar medical and health care facilities revealed differences in the haemoglobin level. Differential expenditure pattern and food sharing practice seems to be the major factors responsible for the differences in haemoglobin status among the adult women in this present study. Very low intake

  18. Effect of an Exercise Protocol on Pelvic Muscle Resting Pressure in Healthy Adult Women.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    Anatomy and Physiology............. 7 Causes of Pelvic Muscle Dysfunction .............. 9 Pelvic Muscle Assessment Methods................. 12...muscle dysfunction , (c) pelvic muscle assessment methods, (d) exercise and the pelvic muscles, (e) principles of exercise training, and (f) application of...extends from the pubic bone to the coccyx, with gaps for the passage of the urethra, vagina, and anus. The iliococcygeus originates from a fascial

  19. Trends in Suicide Methods and Rates among Older Adults in South Korea: A Comparison with Japan

    PubMed Central

    Park, Subin; Lee, Hochang Benjamin; Lee, Su Yeon; Lee, Go Eun; Ahn, Myung Hee; Yi, Ki Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    Objective Lethality of the chosen method during a suicide attempt is a strong risk factor for completion of suicide. We examined whether annual changes in the pattern of suicide methods is related to annual changes in suicide rates among older adults in South Korea and Japan. Methods We analyzed annual the World Health Organization data on rates and methods of suicide from 2000 to 2011 in South Korea and Japan. Results For Korean older adults, there was a significant positive correlation between suicide rate and the rate of hanging or the rate of jumping, and a significant negative correlation between suicide rate and the rate of poisoning. Among older adults in Japan, annual changes in the suicide rate and the pattern of suicide methods were less conspicuous, and no correlation was found between them. Conclusion The results of the present study suggest that the increasing use of lethal suicide methods has contributed to the rise in suicide rates among older adults in South Korea. Targeted efforts to reduce the social acceptability and accessibility of lethal suicide methods might lead to lower suicide rate among older adults in South Korea. PMID:27081378

  20. Health transitions in recently widowed older women: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Older recently widowed women are faced with increased health risks and chronic conditions associated not only with bereavement, but also, older age. Loss and grief, adjusting to living alone, decreased income, and managing multiple chronic conditions can impact on older women’s ability to transition following recent spousal bereavement. Providing appropriate, timely, and effective services to foster this life transition is of critical importance, yet few services directed towards these women exist in Australia, and there is little data describing the experiences of women and their support needs at this time. Methods We conducted a longitudinal mixed method study using in-depth semi-structured interviews and questionnaires that were administered three times over a twelve month period to understand the experiences and needs of older women in the period following their husbands’ deaths. Descriptive statistics and Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis were used to analyse quantitative and qualitative data, respectively, prior to data integration. Results Participants were twenty-one community-dwelling recently widowed older women who were an average age of 71 (SD 6.13) years. The majority of participants scored within normal ranges of depression, anxiety, and stress, yet a subset of participants had elevated levels of each of these constructs (37%, 27%, and 19%, respectively) throughout the study period. Positive self-reports of general health predominated, yet 86% of participants were living with one or more chronic condition and taking an average of 4 medications per day. The majority (76%) experienced exacerbations of existing conditions or were diagnosed with a new illness in the early bereavement period, leading to planned and unplanned hospitalisations and other health service use. Qualitative data provided insight into these experiences, the meanings women ascribed to them, and their reasons for enacting certain health risk behaviours

  1. Women's Preferences for Penis Size: A New Research Method Using Selection among 3D Models

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jaymie; Leung, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    Women’s preferences for penis size may affect men’s comfort with their own bodies and may have implications for sexual health. Studies of women’s penis size preferences typically have relied on their abstract ratings or selecting amongst 2D, flaccid images. This study used haptic stimuli to allow assessment of women’s size recall accuracy for the first time, as well as examine their preferences for erect penis sizes in different relationship contexts. Women (N = 75) selected amongst 33, 3D models. Women recalled model size accurately using this method, although they made more errors with respect to penis length than circumference. Women preferred a penis of slightly larger circumference and length for one-time (length = 6.4 inches/16.3 cm, circumference = 5.0 inches/12.7 cm) versus long-term (length = 6.3 inches/16.0 cm, circumference = 4.8 inches/12.2 cm) sexual partners. These first estimates of erect penis size preferences using 3D models suggest women accurately recall size and prefer penises only slightly larger than average. PMID:26332467

  2. Evaluation of an automatic brain segmentation method developed for neonates on adult MR brain images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeskops, Pim; Viergever, Max A.; Benders, Manon J. N. L.; Išgum, Ivana

    2015-03-01

    Automatic brain tissue segmentation is of clinical relevance in images acquired at all ages. The literature presents a clear distinction between methods developed for MR images of infants, and methods developed for images of adults. The aim of this work is to evaluate a method developed for neonatal images in the segmentation of adult images. The evaluated method employs supervised voxel classification in subsequent stages, exploiting spatial and intensity information. Evaluation was performed using images available within the MRBrainS13 challenge. The obtained average Dice coefficients were 85.77% for grey matter, 88.66% for white matter, 81.08% for cerebrospinal fluid, 95.65% for cerebrum, and 96.92% for intracranial cavity, currently resulting in the best overall ranking. The possibility of applying the same method to neonatal as well as adult images can be of great value in cross-sectional studies that include a wide age range.

  3. Effect of Caralluma fimbriata extract on appetite, food intake and anthropometry in adult Indian men and women.

    PubMed

    Kuriyan, Rebecca; Raj, Tony; Srinivas, S K; Vaz, Mario; Rajendran, R; Kurpad, Anura V

    2007-05-01

    Caralluma fimbriata is an edible cactus, used by tribal Indians to suppress hunger and enhance endurance. The effect of Caralluma extract was assessed in overweight individuals by a placebo controlled randomized trial. Fifty adult men and women (25-60 years) with a body mass index (BMI) greater than 25 kg/m2 were randomly assigned into a placebo or experimental group; the latter received 1 g of Caralluma extract per day for 60 days. All subjects were given standard advice regarding a weight reducing diet and physical activity. At the end of 30 and 60 days of intervention, blood glucose and lipids, anthropometric measurements, dietary intake and assessment of appetite was performed. Waist circumference and hunger levels over the observation period showed a significant decline in the experimental group when compared to the placebo group. While there was a trend towards a greater decrease in body weight, body mass index, hip circumference, body fat and energy intake between assessment time points in the experimental group, these were not significantly different between experimental and placebo groups. Caralluma extract appears to suppress appetite, and reduce waist circumference when compared to placebo over a 2 month period.

  4. Exploring the complexities of body image experiences in middle age and older adult women within an exercise context: The simultaneous existence of negative and positive body images.

    PubMed

    Bailey, K Alysse; Cline, Lindsay E; Gammage, Kimberley L

    2016-06-01

    Despite many body changes that accompany the aging process, the extant research is limited on middle age and older adults' body image experiences. The purpose of the present study was to explore how body image is represented for middle age and older adult women. Using thematic analysis, 10 women over the age of 55 were interviewed within an exercise context. The following themes were found: body dissatisfaction, body satisfaction despite ageist stereotypes, neutral body image within cohort, and positive body image characteristics. Negative and positive body images were experienced simultaneously, with neutral experiences expressed as low levels of dissatisfaction. This supports the contention that negative and positive body images exist on separate continuums and neutral body image is likely on the same continuum as negative body image. Programs that foster a social support network to reduce negative body image and improve positive body image in older female populations are needed.

  5. Status report from the American Acne & Rosacea Society on medical management of acne in adult women, part 1: overview, clinical characteristics, and laboratory evaluation.

    PubMed

    Del Rosso, James Q; Harper, Julie C; Graber, Emmy M; Thiboutot, Diane; Silverberg, Nanette B; Eichenfield, Dawn Zhang; Eichenfield, Lawrence F

    2015-10-01

    Acne presenting in adult women is commonly encountered in clinical practice. Many affected women have had acne during their teenaged years, have tried several therapies in the past, and are seeking effective treatment. Others are frustrated by the inexplicable emergence of acne as an adult when they never had it as a teenager. Both groups seek an explanation of why they have acne, are often psychosocially affected by its effects on appearance and self-esteem, and all are wanting effective and safe treatment. Clinicians are encouraged to connect favorably with each patient through careful history and physical examination and to consider underlying causes of androgen excess. Practical approaches to examination and laboratory evaluation are discussed.

  6. Effects of low-level laser therapy, electroacupuncture, and radiofrequency on the pigmentation and skin tone of adult women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee-Kyoung; Min, Kyoung-Ok; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Soon-Hee

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] In this study, the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT), electroacupuncture (EA), and radiofrequency (RF), which are used in physical therapy, on the pigmentation and skin tone of adult women’s faces were investigated to provide basic data for skin interventions. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty adult females were assigned to either an LLLT group (n=10), an EA group (n=10), or an RF group (n=10). The intervention was performed in two 15-minute sessions per week for six weeks. Subjects’ skin tone and pigmentation were observed before and after the intervention. [Results] The EA group showed significant reductions in pigmentation in the left and right eye rims, as well as in the left cheek. The RF group showed significant post-intervention reductions in pigmentation under the left eye, as well as in the left and right eye rims and the left cheek. The LLLT group showed significant increases in skin tone in the forehead and both eye rims. The RF group showed significant increases in skin tone under both eyes. [Conclusion] The application of LLLT, EA, and RF had positive effects on pigmentation and skin tone of adult women’s faces. PMID:27313340

  7. Current methods and attitudes of women towards contraception in Europe and America

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The choice of available contraceptive methods has increased in recent years; however, recent data on women’s awareness of methods and reasons for their method choice, or reasons for changing methods, is limited. The aim of this study was to examine the use and awareness of contraceptive methods in the USA, UK, Germany, Italy and Spain. Methods Quantitative survey of heterosexual women aged 25–44 years (n=2544), with no known infertility. Questions related to knowledge and use of contraceptive methods, reasons for choice and for changing methods, and sources of advice. Results There was generally good awareness of most forms of contraception in all five countries. Awareness and current usage was greatest for the contraceptive pill (awareness >98%, usage varied from 35% [Spain] to 63% [Germany]); and male condom (awareness >95%, usage varied from 20% [Germany] to 47% [Spain]); awareness of other methods varied between countries. Doctors have the greatest influence on women’s choice of contraceptive method (>50% for all countries), and are most likely to suggest the contraceptive pill or male condom. Women’s contraceptive needs change; 4–36% of contraceptive pill users were likely to change their method within 12 months. For previous contraceptive pill users (n=377), most common reason for change was concern about side effects (from 26% [Italy] to 10% [UK]); however, awareness of many non-hormonal contraceptive methods was low. Conclusions Women aged 25–44 are aware of a wide variety of contraceptive methods, but knowledge and usage of the contraceptive pill and condoms predominates. Changing contraception method is frequent, occurring for a variety of reasons, including change in life circumstances and, for pill users, concerns about side effects. PMID:23384291

  8. In and out of love with hip-hop: saliency of sexual scripts for young adult African American women in hip-hop and Black-oriented television.

    PubMed

    Coleman, M Nicole; Butler, Ebony O; Long, Amanda M; Fisher, Felicia D

    2016-10-01

    Hip-hop media and Black-oriented reality television are powerful mechanisms for conveying and promoting stereotypes of Black women. Black women's sexuality is frequently presented as highly-salient in each medium. However, little is known about the impact of those images on Black women's sexuality and identity. The current study uses focus-group methodology to engage young adult Black in critical discussion of two predominant sexual scripts found in hip-hop music and Black-oriented reality television - the Freak and the Gold Digger. Analyses revealed shared and distinct aspects of each sexual script represented in both media and the impact of those scripts on participants' experiences. Implications for future research are discussed.

  9. An Exploratory Mixed Method Assessment of Low Income, Pregnant Hispanic Women's Understanding of Gestational Diabetes and Dietary Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoads-Baeza, Maria Elena; Reis, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To describe and assess low income, healthy, pregnant Hispanic women's understanding of gestational diabetes (GDM) and willingness to change aspects of their diet. Design: One-on-one, in-person interviews conducted in Spanish with 94 women (primarily Mexican). Setting: Federal Qualified Community Health Center's prenatal clinic. Method:…

  10. Mixed Methods Research of Adult Family Care Home Residents and Informal Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeanty, Guy C.; Hibel, James

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a mixed methods approach used to explore the experiences of adult family care home (AFCH) residents and informal caregivers (IC). A rationale is presented for using a mixed methods approach employing the sequential exploratory design with this poorly researched population. The unique challenges attendant to the sampling…

  11. Effectiveness of different diagnostic methods for assessment of hyperandrogenism in young women with hirsutism.

    PubMed

    Chanukvadze, D; Kristesashvili, J

    2011-11-01

    Free testosterone is the most common marker of hyperandrogenism in women. Its measurement by equilibrium dialysis and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy is the "gold standard", but determination of free testosterone routinely not feasible in all laboratories. In some cases the level of free testosterone may be elevated when the total testosterone level is normal. Low level of sex-hormone binding globulin determines the fraction of plasma testosterone that is free or bound to albumin. Recently, some models for calculating free testosterone and bioavailable testosterone from total testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin and albumin have been developed. The aim of this study was to compare effectiveness of diagnostic methods, such as serum free testosterone measured by ELISA-method and free androgen index and calculated androgen parameters for assessment of hyperandrogenism in young women with hirsutism. In 35 patients with hirsutism and different diagnosis free androgen index, free and bioavailable testosterone were calculated from total testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin and albumin. Free testosterone was measured by Elisa- method. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves were drawn to assess diagnostic power of androgen parametres for different hirsutism degree. Significant positive correlation between free testosterone (FT) measured by ELISA -method and free androgen index (FAI) in patients with hirsutism was detected. The diagnostic power of cFT (calculated free testosterone) was greater than diagnostic power of FT and FAI in the group with severe hirsutism (for severe hirsutism (n=14) auROC (FT) =0,446; auROC (cFT)= 0,507; auROC (FAI)=0,461). FAI, cFT and cBio-T may be more adequate and alternative methods for assessment hyperandrogenism in women with hirsutism, than only free testosterone measured by ELISA-method. Furthermore, the calculated androgen parameters may be important to determinate the mechanisms of hyperandrogenism

  12. Correspondence analysis: a method for classifying similar patterns of violence against women.

    PubMed

    Mota, Jurema Corrêa da; Vasconcelos, Ana Gloria Godoi; Assis, Simone Gonçalves de

    2008-06-01

    Violence against women has received relatively little debate in society. It includes physical, psychological, and sexual abuse that jeopardizes the victim's health. Multivariate correspondence analysis and cluster analysis were applied to crimes reported to the Integrated Women's Aid Center in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, to investigate associations between injury and define criteria for classifying the aggressions. Three groups of abuse were identified, differing according to the nature (physical, psychological, or sexual) and severity of the crimes. Less serious crimes consisted of threats and moderate physical injuries. The intermediate severity group included serious physical assault and threats. More serious crimes included death threats, rape, and sexual assault. The method thus allowed classification of the crimes in three groups according to severity.

  13. A method for estimating fall adult sex ratios from production and survival data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wight, H.M.; Heath, R.G.; Geis, A.D.

    1965-01-01

    This paper presents a method of utilizing data relating to the production and survival of a bird population to estimate a basic fall adult sex ratio. This basic adult sex ratio is an average value derived from average production and survival rates. It is an estimate of the average sex ratio about which the fall adult ratios will fluctuate according to annual variations in production and survival. The basic fall adult sex ratio has been calculated as an asymptotic value which is the limit of an infinite series wherein average population characteristics are used as constants. Graphs are provided that allow the determination of basic sex ratios from production and survival data of a population. Where the respective asymptote has been determined, it may be possible to estimate various production and survival rates by use of variations of the formula for estimating the asymptote.

  14. Hormonal contraceptive methods and risk of HIV acquisition in women: a systematic review of epidemiological evidence.

    PubMed

    Polis, Chelsea B; Phillips, Sharon J; Curtis, Kathryn M; Westreich, Daniel J; Steyn, Petrus S; Raymond, Elizabeth; Hannaford, Philip; Turner, Abigail Norris

    2014-10-01

    Whether use of various types of hormonal contraception (HC) affect risk of HIV acquisition is a critical question for women's health. For this systematic review, we identified 22 studies published by January 15, 2014 which met inclusion criteria; we classified thirteen studies as having severe methodological limitations, and nine studies as "informative but with important limitations". Overall, data do not support an association between use of oral contraceptives and increased risk of HIV acquisition. Uncertainty persists regarding whether an association exists between depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) use and risk of HIV acquisition. Most studies suggested no significantly increased HIV risk with norethisterone enanthate (NET-EN) use, but when assessed in the same study, point estimates for NET-EN tended to be larger than for DMPA, though 95% confidence intervals overlapped substantially. No data have suggested significantly increased risk of HIV acquisition with use of implants, though data were limited. No data are available on the relationship between use of contraceptive patches, rings, or hormonal intrauterine devices and risk of HIV acquisition. Women choosing progestin-only injectable contraceptives such as DMPA or NET-EN should be informed of the current uncertainty regarding whether use of these methods increases risk of HIV acquisition, and like all women at risk of HIV, should be empowered to access and use condoms and other HIV preventative measures. Programs, practitioners, and women urgently need guidance on how to maximize health with respect to avoiding both unintended pregnancy and HIV given inconclusive or limited data for certain HC methods.

  15. Prevalence and Comparison of Diagnostic Methods for Trichomonas vaginalis Infection in Pregnant Women in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Menghi, Claudia I.; Coppolillo, Enrique F.; Gatta, Claudia; Eliseth, Martha Cora; de Torres, Ramón A.; Vay, Carlos A.; Famiglietti, Angela M. R.

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to conduct a prevalence survey of trichomoniasis in pregnant women and to evaluate the utility of different methods for its diagnosis. A total of 597 vaginal exudates from pregnant women who were examined at the Hospital de Clinicas in Buenos Aires, Argentina from 1 August 2005 to 31 January 2007, were prospectively and consecutively evaluated. The investigation of Trichomonas vaginalis was made by different microscopic examinations, and culture on liquid medium. The sensitivity and specificity of the microscopic examinations were assessed considering culture on liquid medium as the "gold standard". The prevalence of T. vaginalis obtained by culture on liquid medium was 4.0% (24/597). The prevalence of T. vaginalis obtained by direct wet smear, prolonged May-Grunwald Giemsa staining, and sodium acetate-formalin (SAF)/methylene blue staining-fixing technique was 1.8%, 2.3% and 2.5%, respectively. The sensitivity of the direct wet smear was 45.8%, that of the prolonged May-Grunwald Giemsa staining was 58.3%, and that of the SAF/methylene blue method was 62.5%. Considering the 3 microscopic examinations altogether, the sensitivity rose to 66.7% and the specificity was 100% for all of them. This is the first time that the prevalence data of T. vaginalis by culture in pregnant women are published in Argentina. Due to the low sensitivity obtained by microscopy in asymptomatic pregnant women, the use of the liquid medium is recommended during pregnancy, in order to provide an early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:20333287

  16. Popular Contraceptive Methods in Women Aged 35 Years and Older Attending Health Centers of 4 Cities in Khuzestan Province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Nouhjah, Sedighe; Amiri, Elham; Khodai, Azim; Yazdanpanah, Azar; Nadi Baghu, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of unintended pregnancy and associated risks are higher in late reproductive years. Limited studies have focused on contraceptive choices in these women. The aim of the study was to identify contraceptive choices and their related factors in women 35 years or older attending health centers of Khuzestan province. Objectives Additionally, several line of evidence indicated relationship between increasing maternal age and poor pregnancy outcomes (1, 2). Pregnancies above the age of 35 are accompanied with more risks for complication related to pregnancy as compared to younger women (3-5). Risk of spontaneous abortion is 74.4% in mothers aged 45 years or more. Patients and Methods In a cross-sectional study 1584 women aged 35 years and older attending public health centers of four cities of Khuzestan were studied. We used an interviewer-administered questionnaire for data collection. Women investigators were recruited for interview and filling the questionnaire. Participants were assured of the confidentiality of their responses. Results The mean age of women was 39.8 ± 4.2 years. The most popular contraceptive methods used in this age group were oral contraceptive pills (31.4%), condom (28.1%), and tubal ligation (14.8%). Less effective contraceptive methods were used in 41.5% of women. Significant associations were found between the use of effective methods and literacy of husband (OR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.75, 0.91), city of residence (OR = 0, 92, 95%CI: 0.87-0.97), women age (OR = 0.97, 95% CI; 0.94-0.99), and women education (OR = 0.87, 95%CI: 0.76-0.99) (P < 0.01). Conclusions In spite of risk of pregnancy and unintended pregnancy in this age group, about a half of them used less effective contraceptive methods, hence family planning education, and counseling to older women should be a priority in health centers. PMID:24693364

  17. The effect of increased primary schooling on adult women's HIV status in Malawi and Uganda: Universal Primary Education as a natural experiment.

    PubMed

    Behrman, Julia Andrea

    2015-02-01

    This paper explores the causal relationship between primary schooling and adult HIV status in Malawi and Uganda, two East African countries with some of the highest HIV infection rates in the world. Using data from the 2010 Malawi Demographic Health Survey and the 2011 Uganda AIDS Indicator Survey, the paper takes advantage of a natural experiment, the implementation of Universal Primary Education policies in the mid 1990s. An instrumented regression discontinuity approach is used to model the relationship between increased primary schooling and adult women's HIV status. Results indicate that a one-year increase in schooling decreases the probability of an adult woman testing positive for HIV by 0.06 (p < 0.01) in Malawi and by 0.03 (p < 0.05) in Uganda. These results are robust to a variety of model specifications. In a series of supplementary analyses a number of potential pathways through which such effects may occur are explored. Findings indicate increased primary schooling positively affects women's literacy and spousal schooling attainment in Malawi and age of marriage and current household wealth in Uganda. However primary schooling has no effect on recent (adult) sexual behavior.

  18. Intimate partner sexual aggression against Chinese women: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although intimate partner sexual aggression has been shown to be associated with adverse mental health outcomes, there is scant information about sexual aggression in Chinese intimate relationships in general and about its mental health impact in particular. This article aimed to investigate sexual aggression in Chinese intimate relationships, including the use of force or threat of force and non-physical coercive tactics in unwanted sex. Methods The quantitative and qualitative data used in this paper were drawn from a prospective cohort study conducted in Hong Kong between September 2010 and September 2012. A total of 745 Chinese women aged 18 or older who had been in an intimate relationship in the preceding 12 months were recruited from sites in all districts of Hong Kong. Multiple logistic regression analysis, ordinary linear regression, and t-tests were used in quantitative analysis. Directed content analysis was used to analyze the transcripts of 59 women who revealed experiences of intimate partner sexual aggression in individual in-depth interviews. Results Of the 745 Chinese women in the study, 348 (46.7%) had experienced intimate partner physical violence in the past year, and 179 (24%) had experienced intimate partner physical violence and sexual aggression in the past year. Intimate partner sexual aggression significantly predicted PTSD and depressive symptoms after controlling for intimate partner physical violence. Among the 179 women reporting intimate partner physical violence and sexual coercion in the past year, 75 indicated that their partners used force or threat of force to make them have sex, and 104 of them reported that they gave in to sex because of non-physical coercive tactics used by their partners. Qualitative data revealed a variety of non-physical coercive tactics with different degrees of subtlety used to coerce women into unwanted sex with their partners. Chinese women experiencing physically forced sex had

  19. Association between body mass index and arsenic methylation efficiency in adult women from southwest U.S. and northwest Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez-Rubio, Paulina; Roberge, Jason; Arendell, Leslie; Harris, Robin B.; O'Rourke, Mary K.; Chen, Zhao; Cantu-Soto, Ernesto; Meza-Montenegro, Maria M.; Billheimer, Dean; Lu Zhenqiang; Klimecki, Walter T.

    2011-04-15

    Human arsenic methylation efficiency has been consistently associated with arsenic-induced disease risk. Interindividual variation in arsenic methylation profiles is commonly observed in exposed populations, and great effort has been put into the study of potential determinants of this variability. Among the factors that have been evaluated, body mass index (BMI) has not been consistently associated with arsenic methylation efficiency; however, an underrepresentation of the upper BMI distribution was commonly observed in these studies. This study investigated potential factors contributing to variations in the metabolism of arsenic, with specific interest in the effect of BMI where more than half of the population was overweight or obese. We studied 624 adult women exposed to arsenic in drinking water from three independent populations. Multivariate regression models showed that higher BMI, arsenic (+ 3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT) genetic variant 7388, and higher total urinary arsenic were significantly associated with low percentage of urinary arsenic excreted as monomethylarsonic acid (%uMMA) or high ratio between urinary dimethylarsinic acid and uMMA (uDMA/uMMA), while AS3MT genetic variant M287T was associated with high %uMMA and low uDMA/uMMA. The association between BMI and arsenic methylation efficiency was also evident in each of the three populations when studied separately. This strong association observed between high BMI and low %uMMA and high uDMA/uMMA underscores the importance of BMI as a potential arsenic-associated disease risk factor, and should be carefully considered in future studies associating human arsenic metabolism and toxicity.

  20. Concurrent and Longitudinal Relationships Between Cognitive Activity, Cognitive Performance, and Brain Volume in Older Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Kirk I.; Espeland, Mark A.; Smith, J. Carson; Tindle, Hilary A.; Rapp, Stephen R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated (a) cross-sectional associations between cognitive activity, cognitive performance, and MRI measures and (b) longitudinal associations between cognitive activity and change in cognitive performance, using structural equation modeling (SEM). Method. Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS) Extension participants who continued annual neuropsychological assessments by telephone and completed a concurrent questionnaire of cognitive activities and MRI scans were included (mean age = 81.4 years; N = 393). Cognitive performance was measured by tests of attention, working memory, verbal fluency, executive function, and memory. Cognitive activity was measured by self-reported participation in a variety of cognitive activities (e.g., reading books, playing games, computer activities; N = 11 items) during the previous 12 months. MRI measures included gray and white matter normal and white matter lesion volumes. Results. SEM demonstrated a significant association between cognitive activity and baseline cognitive performance but not change over 2–3 years. Gray and white matter was associated with cognitive performance but not cognitive activity. All effects remained significant after modeling covariates (age, education, depressive symptoms, WHIMS intervention assignment, and intracranial volume). Conclusions. Cognitive activity benefits current cognitive performance but is not associated with change over 2–3 years. Cognitive activity and MRI volumes are independently associated with cognitive performance, suggesting distinct cognitive and brain reserve constructs. PMID:25209372

  1. Adult Still's disease

    MedlinePlus

    Still's disease - adult; AOSD ... than 1 out of 100,000 people develop adult-onset Still's disease each year. It affects women more often than men. The cause of adult Still's disease is unknown. No risk factors for ...

  2. "Is That A Method of Birth Control?" A Qualitative Exploration of Young Women's Use of Withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Arteaga, Stephanie; Gomez, Anu Manchikanti

    2016-01-01

    Despite its ubiquity, withdrawal is understudied as a family planning method. We investigated the context of and decision making around withdrawal use, drawing on in-depth, qualitative interviews with 38 Black and Latina women (ages 18 to 24). We examined contraceptive use histories to understand when and why participants used withdrawal. The majority of participants (n = 29; 76%) had used withdrawal in their lifetimes, though two-thirds of users mentioned withdrawal in their contraceptive histories only after interviewer prompts. Withdrawal was primarily used during transitions between contraceptive methods and when other methods were not desired. Relationship context was also an important factor, as many used withdrawal to increase intimacy with their partners; because they felt condoms were no longer necessary due to monogamy; or to fulfill their partners' preferences to increase sexual pleasure. Our findings indicate that decision making around withdrawal is embedded in situational and relational contexts. Future research should explore how health care providers and sex educators can engage young women in discussions of withdrawal's benefits and constraints. A harm reduction framework, which recognizes that optimal use of withdrawal is preferable to not using a pregnancy prevention method at all, may inform the ways that withdrawal can be addressed in clinical and educational settings.

  3. Development of a resilience scale for Thai substance-dependent women: A mixed methods approach.

    PubMed

    Sakunpong, Nanchatsan; Choochom, Oraphin; Taephant, Nattasuda

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a resilience scale based on the experiences of substance-dependent women in Thailand and evaluate its validity and reliability. A sequential exploratory mixed methods design was employed as the main methodology to develop the resilience scale according to the results from qualitative data by analyzing focus group discussions of 13 participants. Then, the scale was administered to 252 substance-dependent women from four substance-treatment centers. The psychometric properties were explored with an index of item objective congruence (IOC), Pearson correlation, second-order confirmatory factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha coefficient to estimate the quantitative data. The qualitative results showed that resilience is defined by three themes: individual, family and community factors, consisted of 13 different categories. The quantitative results also revealed that all 71 items in the resilience scale passed the IOC criteria, convergence and construct validity. The goodness-of-fit indices demonstrated that the resilience model was consistent with the empirical data. (Chi-square=74.28, df=59, p-value=0.08, RMSEA=0.03, SRMR=0.04, NNFI=0.99, CFI=0.99, GFI=0.96). The internal consistency, assessed by a Cronbach's alpha score of 0.92, can be interpreted as demonstrating high reliability. Furthermore, the structure of the resilience scale was confirmed by the available resilience literature. This study can help clinicians gain a more comprehensive understanding regarding the complex process of resilience among substance-dependent women and aid them in providing these women with the appropriate interventions.

  4. Generalised equations for the prediction of percentage body fat by anthropometry in adult men and women aged 18-81 years.

    PubMed

    Leahy, Siobhan; O'Neill, Cian; Sohun, Rhoda; Toomey, Clodagh; Jakeman, Philip

    2013-02-28

    Anthropometric data indicate that the human phenotype is changing. Today's adult is greater in stature, body mass and fat mass. Accurate measurement of body composition is necessary to maintain surveillance of obesity within the population and to evaluate associated interventions. The aim of the present study was to construct and validate generalised equations for percentage body fat (%BF) prediction from anthropometry in 1136 adult men and women. Reference values for %BF were obtained using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Skinfold thickness (SF) at ten sites and girth (G) at seven sites were measured on 736 men and women aged 18-81 years (%BF 5·1-56·8%). Quantile regression was employed to construct prediction equations from age and log-transformed SF and G measures. These equations were then cross-validated on a cohort of 400 subjects of similar age and fatness. The following generalised equations were found to most accurately predict %BF: Men: (age x 0·1) + (logtricepsSF x 7·6) + (logmidaxillaSF x 8·8) + (logsuprspinaleSF x 11·9) - 11·3 (standard error of the estimate: 2·5%, 95% limits of agreement: - 4·8, + 4·9) Women: (age x 0·1) + (logabdominalG x 39·4) + (logmidaxillaSF x 4·9) + (logbicepsSF x 11·0) + (logmedialcalfSF x 9·1) - 73·5 (standard error of the estimate: 3·0%, 95% limits of agreement: - 5·7, + 5·9) These generalised anthropometric equations accurately predict %BF and are suitable for the measurement of %BF in adult men and women of varying levels of fatness across the lifespan.

  5. Directed forgetting in older adults using the item and list methods.

    PubMed

    Sego, Sandra A; Golding, Jonathan M; Gottlob, Lawrence R

    2006-03-01

    Four experiments investigated age-group differences in directed forgetting. Experiments 1A and 1B used the item method with recall (1A) and recognition (1B). Both of these experiments showed evidence of directed forgetting for both younger and older adults. The list method was used in Experiments 2A (recall) and 2B (recognition). For these experiments, there was directed forgetting when recall, but not recognition, was the dependent measure. Again, these results were found for younger and older adults. These results are discussed in terms of how different presentation types lead to the use of different theoretical mechanisms of directed forgetting (e.g., differential encoding, retrieval inhibition). Thus, it appears that both older and younger adults engage in adaptive memory strategies.

  6. Moving images: psychoanalytically informed visual methods in documenting the lives of women migrants and asylum seekers.

    PubMed

    Haaken, Janice K; O'Neill, Maggie

    2014-01-01

    While feminist arts-based projects have gained legitimacy, theory guiding the use of visual images in field research has lagged. Drawing on psychoanalytic-feminist theory and participatory action research methods, the article presents a study carried out with women refugee and asylum seekers that focuses on their experiences in seeking a place of safety in the United Kingdom. The aim was to produce through photography and videography a collective account of asylum as a daily process. In discussing the study, the authors provide a psychoanalytic framework for working through ethical, political, and methodological dilemmas in the use of visual imagery in feminist research.

  7. Occupational competence strategies in old age: a mixed-methods comparison between Hispanic women with different levels of daily participation.

    PubMed

    Orellano, Elsa M; Mountain, Gail; Varas, Nelson; Labault, Nirzka

    2014-01-01

    In this pilot study, we explored the difference in the use of occupational competence strategies for daily participation between more active and less active older Hispanic women. Twenty-nine women who were 70 and older and lived alone participated in this study. We used a mixed-methods design by which the principal investigator administered a tool to measure participation restrictions during the quantitative phase and conducted in-depth interviews with a subsample in the qualitative phase. More active women predominantly used transportation resources, emotional social support, and spirituality to support participation in life activities. Less active women used more practical social support, assistive technology, and environmental modifications. Personal facilitators seemed to directly modify these strategies. These results suggest that older women with different activity levels use distinct internal and external resources to maintain or enhance daily participation. Future studies should explore whether these resources remain consistent across gender, living status, and ethnicity.

  8. Identifying Effective Methods of Instruction for Adult Emergent Readers through Community-Based Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackmer, Rachel; Hayes-Harb, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    We present a community-based research project aimed at identifying effective methods and materials for teaching English literacy skills to adult English as a second language emergent readers. We conducted a quasi-experimental study whereby we evaluated the efficacy of two approaches, one based on current practices at the English Skills Learning…

  9. Exploring Dual Identification among Muslim-American Emerging Adults: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirin, Selcuk R.; Bikmen, Nida; Mir, Madeeha; Fine, Michelle; Zaal, Mayida; Katsiaficas, Dalal

    2008-01-01

    This mixed methods study explored dual identification among Muslim-American emerging adults of immigrant origin. A closer look was taken at the relationship between American and Muslim identifications and how this relationship was influenced by experiences of discrimination, acculturative and religious practices, and whether it varied by gender.…

  10. Variation in Methods of Predicting Adult Height in Children with Idiopathic Short Stature

    PubMed Central

    Topor, Lisa Swartz; Feldman, Henry A.; Bauchner, Howard; Cohen, Laurie E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Recombinant human growth hormone (GH) is approved for treatment of children with idiopathic short stature (ISS). Endocrinologists often depend on algorithms to predict adult height. As algorithm performance is often included in treatment decision, we sought to evaluate agreement among height prediction formulas. Methods We identified 3 commonly used algorithms for height prediction: Bayley-Pinneau (BP), Roche-Wainer-Thissen (RWT), and Khamis-Roche (KR). We constructed simulated samples of children with typical distributions of ages, heights, weights, bone ages, and parental heights seen in patients with ISS, and applied the algorithms to the simulated children to determine if predicted adult height was <160 cm for boys or <150 cm for girls, the 1.2nd height percentiles for adults. Results We found substantial disagreement amongst algorithms in the percentage of simulated children with predicted adult height < 1.2nd percentile, a cut-off that may influence GH treatment decisions. Using the BP formula, 43% of boys and 81% of girls had predicted adult height below this threshold, whereas only 3% of boys and 0.2% of girls had predicted heights < 1.2nd percentile using the KR method. RWT predictions fell in between. Overall agreement of the methods was poor (kappa = 0.21) in boys and negative in girls. Conclusions Wide variation exists among formulas used to predict adult height. As these algorithms may be used in decisions about whether to initiate GH treatment and to assess GH’s efficacy in research trials, it is important for parents, pediatricians, and investigators to recognize the considerable variation involved in height prediction. PMID:20974789

  11. Integrating qualitative methods into occupational health research: a study of women flight attendants

    PubMed Central

    Ballard, T; Corradi, L; Lauria, L; Mazzanti, C; Scaravelli, G; Sgorbissa, F; Romito, P; Verdecchia, A

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To identify possible work related sources of psychosocial stress in order to develop pertinent questionnaire items for a cross-sectional health survey of 3000 Italian women flight attendants, and to solicit suggestions on improving survey participation. Methods: Qualitative study in which 26 current and former women flight attendants participated: three focus groups of 6–7 participants each and six in-depth individual interviews. The session themes included positive and negative aspects of the job; relationships with colleagues, superiors, and passengers; perception of occupational risk for serious diseases; compatibility of work and family; and experiences of work related sources of stress and their effect on health. A transcript based analysis of the focus groups and interviews was used to identify emerging themes related to risk factors for mental health problems. Results: The participants indicated that mental health was a major concern. Several work related risk factors possibly related to adverse outcomes, such as depression and anxiety, were highlighted. These included isolation and solitude, fears of being inadequate partners and mothers due to job demands, passenger relationships, and lack of protection by employers with respect to workplace exposures and violent passengers. The information gained was used to develop a mental health module for inclusion in the health survey questionnaire which included questions on history of severe depression or anxiety, suicidal ideation or attempt, substance abuse, workplace sexual harassment, social support, leisure time activities, relationship with a partner, and role as mother. Conclusions: Employing qualitative methods to identify work related sources of psychosocial stress enabled development of pertinent questionnaire items for a cross-sectional epidemiological study of women flight attendants. Follow up qualitative research may be necessary in order to put the cross-sectional study findings into context

  12. Linking HIV & family planning services to improve dual methods of contraception among women infected with HIV in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Beena; Velhal, Gajanan; Chauhan, Sanjay; Kulkarni, Ragini; Begum, Shahina

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Preventing unintended pregnancies among people living with HIV (PLHIV) is one of the strategies of WHO for preventing parent-to-child transmission (PPTCT). Given the limitation of only condom use, the objective of this study was to improve use of dual contraceptive methods among HIV infected women. Methods: An experimental study among HIV positive women was conducted at two tertiary care level hospitals in Mumbai. Linking HIV with family planning services was the focus of intervention at one site and standard level of care was maintained at the control site. At each site, 150 HIV+ve women attending counselling and testing centres, who did not intend to get pregnant in the next one year and were eligible to use dual methods, were enrolled and followed up to one year. Results: At the end of one year, 60 per cent women in the intervention group reached Family Planning Centres compared to eight per cent in the control group. There was three times more acceptance and continuation of use of dual methods along with increase in consistent use of condoms and less number of unplanned pregnancies in the intervention group than the control group. Interpretation & conclusions: The study findings demonstrate that linking HIV and family planning services may facilitate the uptake of dual methods of contraception without reducing consistent condom use among HIV infected women. The PPTCT programmes need to focus on the component of Prong 2 of PPTCT which aims to prevent unintended pregnancies among HIV positive women. PMID:27377503

  13. Assessing physical activity of women of childbearing age. Ongoing work to develop and evaluate simple methods.

    PubMed

    Löf, Marie; Hannestad, Ulf; Forsum, Elisabet

    2002-09-01

    Simple methods were developed and evaluated to assess total energy expenditure in 24 healthy, Swedish women planning pregnancy. Total energy expenditure was measured by the doubly-labeled water method (reference method) and three simple methods: heart rate recording, movement registration by an accelerometer, and a questionnaire. Mean total energy expenditure obtained by the four methods varied between 2,530 kcal per 24 hours (10,570 kJ/24 hours) and 2,730 kcal per 24 hours (11,420 kJ/24 hours). No significant difference between the results obtained by the different methods was found. The mean difference between the simple method and the reference method was for the questionnaire 204 +/- 508 kcal per 24 hours (853 +/- 2,124 kJ/24 hours), for the heart rate recorder 58 +/- 338 kcal per 24 hours (241 +/- 1,416 kJ/24 hours) and for the accelerometer 6 +/- 325 kcal per 24 hours (25 +/- 1,360 kJ/24 hours). The heart rate recorder and the questionnaire overestimated high and underestimated low energy expenditures. The accelerometer and the heart rate recorder were able to assess mean total energy expenditure of groups. No systematic bias was found when the accelerometer was used.

  14. Are Older Adults Physically Active Enough – A Matter of Assessment Method? The Generation 100 Study

    PubMed Central

    Zisko, Nina; Ingebrigtsen, Jan Erik; Wisløff, Ulrik; Stensvold, Dorthe

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Physical activity (PA) is beneficial for general health. As a result, adults around the world are recommended to undertake regular PA of either absolute or relative intensity. Traditionally, adherence to PA recommendation is assessed by accelerometers that record absolute intensity thresholds. Since ageing often results in a decrease in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), older adults (aged > 65 years) might be more susceptible to not meeting the PA recommendation when measured in absolute terms. The aim of the present study was to compare the adherence to the PA recommendation using both absolute and relative thresholds. Additionally, we aimed to report the reference values for overall PA in a large sample of Norwegian older adults. Methods PA was assessed for 7 days using the Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometer in 1219 older adults (624 females) aged 70–77 years. Overall PA was measured as counts per minute (CPM) and steps. Absolute and relative moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) thresholds were applied to quantify adherence to PA recommendation. The relative MVPA thresholds were developed specifically for the Generation 100 population sample. CRF was directly measured as peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak). Results Proportions meeting PA recommendation were 29% and 71% when utilizing absolute and relative MVPA, respectively. More females met the relative PA recommendation compared to males. Overall PA was higher among the youngest age group. Older adults with medium- and high levels of CRF were more physically active, compared to those with the lowest levels of CRF. Conclusion This is the first study to compare adherence to PA recommendation, using absolute and relative intensity thresholds among older adults. The present study clearly illustrates the consequences of using different methodological approaches to surveillance of PA across age, gender and CRF in a population of older adults. PMID:27893785

  15. Person-oriented methods in partner violence research: distinct biopsychosocial profiles among battered women.

    PubMed

    Nurius, Paula S; Macy, Rebecca J

    2010-06-01

    Violence researchers have called for the use of person-oriented methods to understand differences that have been found in biopsychosocial consequences among those who experience intimate partner violence (IPV). To address this issue, we apply a person-oriented statistical method, latent profile analysis (LPA), to test for meaningful subgroups of a sample of 448 battered women based on participants' appraisals of their vulnerability relative to their violent partner, depressive symptoms, physical injuries, overall physical health functioning, and their positive and negative social relationships with friends and family. The LPA established five significantly distinct subgroups. Using MANOVA, we examined these subgroups and their respective IPV exposure, both concomitant and separate incidents within the past year. Those with the most intensive violence exposure show the greatest level of challenge and impairment. However, the groups with comparable levels of IPV exposure manifest distinctly different configurations of biopsychosocial profiles, indicating a need for adaptive interventions commensurate with these profiles. We discuss the implications these findings have for developing adaptive interventions for battered women, as well as the potential utility of person-oriented tools for violence researchers.

  16. Exercise and physical activity in older adults with knee pain: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    Nicholls, Elaine E.; Young, Julie; Hay, Elaine M.; Foster, Nadine E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To describe and explore current exercise and physical activity behaviour in older adults with knee pain in the UK. Methods. A survey was mailed to 2234 adults ≥50 years of age registered with one general practice within the UK to determine the presence and severity of knee pain and levels of physical activity. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 questionnaire responders with knee pain. Results. The questionnaire response rate was 59% (n = 1276) and 611 respondents reported knee pain. Only ∼40% of individuals with knee pain were sufficiently active to meet physical activity recommendations. Interviews revealed individual differences in the type and setting of physical activity completed and some self-monitored their symptoms in response to physical activity in order to guide future behaviour. Conclusion. Innovative interventions that can be adapted to suit individual needs and preferences are required to help older adults with knee pain become more physically active. PMID:25187640

  17. Anorexia Nervosa: A Synthesis of Poetic and Narrative Therapies in the Outpatient Treatment of Young Adult Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Joy M.; Pehrsson, Dale-Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Current trends for treatment of women with anorexia nervosa often focus on weight gain as the primary therapeutic goal without concurrently addressing psychological concerns. As a result of this singular focus, many women drop out of treatment before recovering. This article offers an alternate treatment model. A synthesized narrative and poetry…

  18. Childhood Sexual Abuse, Adult Psychiatric Morbidity, and Criminal Outcomes in Women Assessed by Medium Secure Forensic Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolan, Mairead; Whitworth, Helen

    2013-01-01

    There is little literature on childhood sexual abuse in women seen by forensic services. A cohort of 225 cases of women seen by forensic services in a medium secure unit in the UK were examined, and childhood sexual abuse and non-childhood sexual abuse cases were compared. Over half the sample had a history of childhood sexual abuse, and 5.6% of…

  19. Sailing against the Wind: Voices of Kenyan Adult Women in U.S. Postsecondary Education and Sociocultural Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatua, Mary Wairimu

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the educational and sociocultural experiences of Kenyan women pursing higher education in the United States and how they negotiated their multiple identities. Using a sociocultural theoretical framework and narrative inquiry methodology, seven Kenyan immigrant women pursuing or who recently pursued advanced…

  20. Relationships of Depression to Child and Adult Abuse and Bodily Pain among Women Who Have Experienced Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koopman, Cheryl; Ismailji, Tasneem; Palesh, Oxana; Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Narayanan, Amrita; Saltzman, Kasey M.; Holmes, Danielle; McGarvey, Elizabeth L.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates whether depression in women who experienced intimate partner violence is associated with having also experienced childhood sexual and physical abuse, psychological abuse by an intimate partner, recent involvement with the abusive partner, and bodily pain. Fifty-seven women who had left a violent relationship with an…

  1. An updated systematic review of epidemiological evidence on hormonal contraceptive methods and HIV acquisition in women

    PubMed Central

    Polis, Chelsea B.; Curtis, Kathryn M.; Hannaford, Philip C.; Phillips, Sharon J.; Chipato, Tsungai; Kiarie, James N.; Westreich, Daniel J.; Steyn, Petrus S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective and design: Some studies suggest that specific hormonal contraceptive methods [particularly depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA)] may increase women's HIV acquisition risk. We updated a systematic review to incorporate recent epidemiological data. Methods: We searched for articles published between 15 January 2014 and 15 January 2016 and hand-searched reference lists. We identified longitudinal studies comparing users of a specific hormonal contraceptive method against either nonusers of hormonal contraception or users of another specific hormonal contraceptive method. We added newly identified studies to those in the previous review, assessed study quality, created forest plots to display results, and conducted a meta-analysis for data on DMPA versus non-use of hormonal contraception. Results: We identified 10 new reports of which five were considered ‘unlikely to inform the primary question’. We focus on the other five reports, along with nine from the previous review, which were considered ‘informative but with important limitations’. The preponderance of data for oral contraceptive pills, injectable norethisterone enanthate, and levonorgestrel implants do not suggest an association with HIV acquisition, though data for implants are limited. The new, higher quality studies on DMPA (or nondisaggregated injectables), which had mixed results in terms of statistical significance, had hazard ratios between 1.2 and 1.7, consistent with our meta-analytic estimate for all higher quality studies of hazard ratio 1.4. Conclusion: Although confounding in these observational data cannot be excluded, new information increases concerns about DMPA and HIV acquisition risk in women. If the association is causal, the magnitude of effect is likely hazard ratio 1.5 or less. Data for other hormonal contraceptive methods, including norethisterone enanthate, are largely reassuring. PMID:27500670

  2. Aerobic exercise attenuates blood pressure reactivity to cold pressor test in normotensive, young adult African-American women.

    PubMed

    Bond, V; Mills, R M; Caprarola, M; Vaccaro, P; Adams, R G; Blakely, R; Roltsch, M; Hatfield, B; Davis, G C; Franks, B D; Fairfax, J; Banks, M

    1999-01-01

    Exaggerated blood pressure reactivity to behavioral stress has been observed in the African-American population, and such a pressor response is believed to play a role in hypertension. Regular aerobic exercise has been shown to exert an anti-hypertensive effect, and this may alter the blood pressure hyperreactivity observed in African Americans. To test the hypothesis that aerobic exercise attenuates pressor reactivity in African Americans, we studied eight healthy aerobically-trained normotensive African-American females and five similar sedentary females. The stress stimuli consisted of the cold pressor test with the foot immersed in ice water for two minutes. The aerobic exercise training protocol consisted of six weeks of jogging at 60-70% of peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), three days/week for 35 min/exercise session. Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, cardiac output, total peripheral resistance, and forearm blood flow were measured. Manifestation of a training effect was illustrated by a 24.1 +/- 0.2% increase in VO2peak (26.9 +/- 1.2 mL x kg(-1) min(-1) vs 35.4 +/- 1.6 mL x kg(-1) min(-1)) (P<.05). Within the exercise-trained group there was a 6.3 +/- .15% decrease in systolic pressure (129 +/- 4.6 mm Hg vs. 121 +/- 5.4 mm Hg) (P<.05), and a 5.0 +/- .05% decrement in mean arterial blood pressure (99 +/- 3.3 mm Hg vs 94 +/- 3.6 mm Hg) (P<.05) during the cold pressor test. Pressor reactivity to cold stress did not change in the untrained group. Measures of heart rate, cardiac output, total peripheral resistance, and forearm blood flow were unaltered during conditions of the cold pressor test. We conclude that aerobic exercise attenuates the blood pressure reactivity to behavioral stress in young, adult normotensive African-American females. A lifestyle change such as exercising may play a role in reducing the risk of hypertension in African-American women.

  3. Hookah and Alcohol Use among Young Adult Hookah Smokers: A Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Soule, Eric K.; Barnett, Tracey E.; Curbow, Barbara A.; Moorhouse, Michael D.; Weiler, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Hookah tobacco smoking has grown steadily in popularity among young adults in the United States. Little attention has been given to the relationship between hookah smoking and another behavior that is common among young adults – alcohol use. The purpose of this study was to examine hookah and alcohol use among young adults. Methods Forty young adult hookah smokers (55% female) participated in focus group sessions on hookah use beliefs and a brief survey examining hookah and alcohol use including drinking alcohol before, during, or after smoking hookah. Results Quotes from the focus groups indicated that alcohol use may promote hookah use among individuals who have little or no hookah smoking experience. Alcohol use, binge drinking, and alcohol use before, during, and after hookah use were common among the participants regardless of legal drinking age status. Nearly half of the participants preferred to drink alcohol while smoking hookah due to the improved physical and social effects they associated with combining the 2 behaviors. Conclusions For some young adult hookah smokers, alcohol appears to enhance the hookah smoking experience and may play a role in hookah smoking initiation. Future research and interventions should address the association between hookah and alcohol use. PMID:26248176

  4. Effects of sedentary lifestyle and dietary habits on body mass index change among adult women in India: findings from a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Praween; Gupta, Kamla; Mishra, Vinod; Agrawal, Sutapa

    2013-01-01

    We examined the effects of sedentary lifestyle and dietary habits on body mass index (BMI) change in a follow-up study of 325 women (aged 15-49 years) in Delhi, systematically selected from the 1998-1999 National Family Health Survey samples who were re-interviewed after 4 years in 2003. Information was collected on height, weight, dietary habits, and sedentary lifestyle through face-to-face interviews. Overall, a 2.0-point increase in mean BMI was found among women in just 4 years. Every second normal-BMI woman, two in five overweight women, and every fourth obese woman experienced a > 2.0-point increase in her mean BMI. High sedentary lifestyle (OR: 2.63; 95% CI: 1.29-5.35) emerged as the main predictor of a > 2.0-point increase in mean BMI in adjusted analysis, but there was weak evidence of association with the dietary covariates. Our findings suggest that a high sedentary lifestyle is a determinant of weight gain among adult women in urban India.

  5. New Methods for the Analysis of Fat-Soluble Vitamins in Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals.

    PubMed

    Gilliland, Don

    2016-01-01

    The AOAC Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals (SPIFAN) defined fat-soluble vitamins (FSVs) to include vitamins A, D, E, and K. The levels of FSVs have been closely scrutinized because of a number of factors, including nutrition value especially in foods used to provide sole-source nutrition and the potential for health risks associated with content both below and above recommended levels. Stricter scrutiny and emphasis on nutrient-level compliance with regulatory requirements placed an increased demand on analytical methods that were fit-for-purpose, provided accurate and precise results. Over time, compendial methods have been developed and published by organizations such as AOAC INTERNATIONAL, the European Committee for Standardization, the International Dairy Federation, and the International Organization for Standardization, among others. In general, these methods have shown adequate precision for regulatory compliance based on example food matrixes for which they were designed. However, method evaluation for infant formulas and adult nutritional products was limited to very few matrixes within these categories. As such, method applicability gaps were noted and correlated with more complicated or diverse product matrixes. AOAC undertook the task of modernizing test methods for the determination of nutrients in infant formulas and in adult nutritional products formulated specifically for both healthy adults and those requiring specific nutritional intake. Composition of products in this category continued to evolve, which in turn presented increasing and new challenges to analytical methodology. A summary of a new generation of candidate compendial methods for determination of FSVs in these matrixes, identified by SPIFAN, is presented here.

  6. Toward a developmental taxonomy of adult sexual aggressors of women: antisocial trajectories in youth, mating effort, and sexual criminal activity in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Cale, Jesse; Lussier, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that sexual aggressors of women are characterized by early- and late-onset antisocial trajectories. However, these studies have not examined the role of mating effort and its role on sexual offending in adulthood. This study examined differences in the level of mating effort of early- and late-onset offenders and the association between mating effort and sexual offending in adulthood. Factor analysis identified two latent constructs of sexuality: mating effort and high sexual drive. Early-onset offenders exhibited significantly higher levels of mating effort and sexual drive. Furthermore, high mating effort and high sexual drive were more strongly associated with an earlier onset and a higher frequency of sexual crimes in adulthood than group membership. This study provided empirical evidence that a developmental taxonomy of early and late onset distinguishes the sexual activity and sexual criminal activity of adult sexual aggressors. The findings are discussed in light of a developmental taxonomy of sexual aggressors of women.

  7. A Comparison of Anthropometric, Metabolic, and Reproductive Characteristics of Young Adult Women from Opposite-Sex and Same-Sex Twin Pairs

    PubMed Central

    Korsoff, Pirkko; Bogl, Leonie H.; Korhonen, Päivi; Kangas, Antti J.; Soininen, Pasi; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Rose, Richard J.; Kaaja, Risto; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2014-01-01

    Background: Prenatal exposure to androgens has been linked to masculinization of several traits. We aimed to determine whether putative female intra-uterine exposure to androgens influences anthropometric, metabolic, and reproductive parameters using a twin design. Methods: Two cohorts of Finnish twins born in 1975–1979 and 1983–1987 formed the basis for the longitudinal FinnTwin16 (FT16) and FinnTwin12 (FT12) studies. Self-reported anthropometric characteristics, disease status, and reproductive history were compared between 679 same-sex (SS) and 789 opposite-sex (OS) female twins (mean age ± SD: 34 ± 1.1) from the wave 5 of data collection in FT16. Serum lipid and lipoprotein subclass concentrations measured by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were compared in 226 SS and 169 OS female twins (mean age ± SD: 24 ± 2.1) from the wave 4 of data collection in FT12 and FT16. Results: Anthropometric measures, the prevalence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus type 2 did not differ significantly between females from SS and OS twin pairs at age 34. Similarly, the prevalence of infertility, age at first pregnancy and number of induced and spontaneous abortions did not differ significantly between these two groups of women. The serum lipid and lipoprotein profile did not differ between females from SS and OS twins at age 24. Conclusion: We found no evidence that androgen overexposure of the female fetus affects obesity, metabolic profile, or reproductive health in young adult females. However, these results do not exclude the possibility that prenatal androgen exposure in females could be adversely associated with these phenotypes later in life. PMID:24639667

  8. Improving Access to Long-Acting Contraceptive Methods and Reducing Unplanned Pregnancy Among Women with Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Black, Kirsten I.; Day, Carolyn A.

    2016-01-01

    Much has been written about the consequences of substance use in pregnancy, but there has been far less focus on the prevention of unintended pregnancies in women with substance use disorders (SUDs). We examine the literature on pregnancy incidence for women with SUDs, the clinical and economic benefits of increasing access to long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods in this population, and the current hurdles to increased access and uptake. High rates of unintended pregnancies and poor physical and psychosocial outcomes among women with SUDs underscore the need for increased access to, and uptake of, LARC methods among these women. A small number of studies that focused on improving access to contraception, especially LARC, via integrated contraception services predominantly provided in drug treatment programs were identified. However, a number of barriers remain, highlighting that much more research is needed in this area. PMID:27199563

  9. Facebook Recruitment of Young Adult Smokers for a Cessation Trial: Methods, Metrics, and Lessons Learned.

    PubMed

    Ramo, Danielle E; Rodriguez, Theresa M S; Chavez, Kathryn; Sommer, Markus J; Prochaska, Judith J

    2014-04-01

    Further understanding is needed of the functionalities and efficiency of social media for health intervention research recruitment. Facebook was examined as a mechanism to recruit young adults for a smoking cessation intervention. An ad campaign targeting young adult smokers tested specific messaging based on market theory and successful strategies used to recruit smokers in previous clinical trials (i.e. informative, call to action, scarcity, social norms), previously successful ads, and general messaging. Images were selected to target smokers (e.g., lit cigarette), appeal to the target age, vary demographically, and vary graphically (cartoon, photo, logo). Facebook's Ads Manager was used over 7 weeks (6/10/13 - 7/29/13), targeted by age (18-25), location (U.S.), and language (English), and employed multiple ad types (newsfeed, standard, promoted posts, sponsored stories) and keywords. Ads linked to the online screening survey or study Facebook page. The 36 different ads generated 3,198,373 impressions, 5,895 unique clicks, at an overall cost of $2,024 ($0.34/click). Images of smoking and newsfeed ads had the greatest reach and clicks at the lowest cost. Of 5,895 unique clicks, 586 (10%) were study eligible and 230 (39%) consented. Advertising costs averaged $8.80 per eligible, consented participant. The final study sample (n=79) was largely Caucasian (77%) and male (69%), averaging 11 cigarettes/day (SD=8.3) and 2.7 years smoking (SD=0.7). Facebook is a useful, cost-effective recruitment source for young adult smokers. Ads posted via newsfeed posts were particularly successful, likely because they were viewable via mobile phone. Efforts to engage more ethnic minorities, young women, and smokers motivated to quit are needed.

  10. Methods in Teaching Region and Diversity in U.S. Western Women's History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson-Abernathy, Brenda K.

    2013-01-01

    History teachers may well feel challenged with the task of bringing women into their American West curriculums due to the great diversity of women in the West during the nineteenth century. At the same time, the past thirty years or so have produced a plethora of monographs, articles, and primary source collections on women in the American West.…

  11. "It was pretty scary": the theme of fear in young adult women's descriptions of a history of adolescent dating abuse.

    PubMed

    Burton, Candace W; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie; Rehm, Roberta S; Rankin, Sally; Humphreys, Janice C

    2013-11-01

    The mental health impact of abusive adolescent dating relationships has not been well described, but fear related to abuse has been reported. We elaborate the theme of fear in women's descriptions of a history of adolescent dating abuse. A sample of community-based women, ages 19-34, who experienced an abusive dating relationship during adolescence (ages 11-20) was used. Data were analyzed via thematic analysis. Fear was a consistent and resonant theme. Three types of fear were identified: fear for self, fear for other relationships, and fearful expectation. These results offer important insights into the impact of abusive adolescent relationships on women's mental health.

  12. Urinary excretion of 5-hydroxy-3-indoleacetic acid in dystimic/depressed, adult obese women: what correlations to hepatic steatosis?

    PubMed

    Tarantino, Giovanni; Savastano, S; Colao, A; Polichetti, G; Capone, D

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis of serotonin at CNS level is influenced by diet. Moreover, insulin resistance is associated with lower serotonin levels. Visceral obesity, strictly linked to hepatic steatosis is specifically associated with mild to severe somatic affective-depressive symptom clusters. Previous data support the view that depression involves serotonergic systems, reflecting low levels of urinary 5- hydroxy-3-indoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). The 24-h urinary excretion of 5-HIAA was evaluated in 76 dystimic/depressed, obese/overweight females, divided into two groups, i.e., on a hyper-caloric diet, associated with a life style characterized by leisure time sedentary behavior (LTSB, 35 women), or on a normo-caloric diet, assisted by program-based strategies aimed at promoting physical activity participation (PAP, 41 women). Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was carried out to score the severity of dystimia/depression. Anthropometric measures, metabolic indices, severity of hepatic steatosis at sonography and HOMA were studied. Urinary levels of 5-HIAA in controls and PAP groups were comparable with a great overlap, while in the LTSB group the urinary excretion of 5-HIAA was significantly reduced in respect to that of the PAP group and obviously compared to that of the control group, 3.4±1.4 mg/L versus 6.2±2.7 mg/L and 6.4±2.6 mg/L, respectively, ANOVA test, P= 0.001. Among metabolic indices, cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and uric acid were not able to predict urinary concentrations of 5-HIAA, which were not associated with hepatic steatosis; vice versa, ferritin levels, and mainly HOMA values, were independent predictors of the urinary excretion of 5-HIAA (β=0.235 and 0.45, respectively). Dystimia/depression severity was negatively predicted by urinary 5-HIAA levels in the sense that the highest BDI values were forecast by the lowest values of urinary 5-HIAA (β= -0.72).The importance of measuring the 24-h urinary excretion of 5-HIAA in follow-ups could rely

  13. Lifelong Learning Policy and Practice: The Impact of Accreditation on Education and Training Provision for Adult Women in the UK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coats, Maggie

    In the United Kingdom, these two perspectives on lifelong learning sit uneasily together: emphasis on adults in employment and a focus on diversity and widening participation in adult education. A recent emphasis on accreditation with implications for funding has affected diversity and participation objectives because involving assessment,…

  14. Exploring the Adult Life of Men and Women with Fragile X Syndrome: Results from a National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartleyand, Sigan L.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Raspa, Melissa; Olmstead, Murrey; Bishop, Ellen; Bailey, Donald B., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from a national family survey, the authors describe the adult lives (i.e., residence, employment, level of assistance needed with everyday life, friendships, and leisure activities) of 328 adults with the full mutation of the FMR1 gene and identify characteristics related to independence in these domains. Level of functional skills was…

  15. [Investigation of Coxiella burnetii prevalence in women who had miscarriage and their spouses by serological and molecular methods].

    PubMed

    Eyigör, Mete; Gültekin, Berna; Telli, Murat; Odabaşı, Ali Rıza; Yüksel, Hasan; Demircan Sezer, Selda; Aydın, Neriman

    2013-04-01

    Coxiella burnetii is the causative agent of the common zoonotic disease known as Q fever. Human infection is mostly maintained by inhalation of contaminated aerosols that originate from infected birth products, milk and urine. Sexual transmission has also been reported. In pregnant women the disease causes abortion during the first trimester, while at later stages it tends to become chronic causing low birth weight babies and premature birth. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of C.burnetii in women who had miscarriages, their spouses and in a control group composed of women with normal delivery by using serological and molecular methods. A total of 89 cases (58 female, 31 male; age range: 21-64 years, mean age: 33.1 ± 7.6 years) were included in the study. Women who had abortion (n= 36) were recruited along with their husbands (n= 31), and 22 women who had normal pregnancy were accepted as controls. Blood and placental tissue samples (after abortion or normal delivery) were collected from all of the female subjects, while blood samples were collected from the males. C.burnetii IgG and IgM antibodies in the sera of patients and controls were analysed by ELISA and indirect fluorescein antibody (IFA) methods, and the presence of C.burnetii DNA was searched in whole blood and placenta samples by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In our study, C.burnetii Phase II IgG antibody positivity rates in women who had miscarriages, their spouses and in women with normal delivery were found as 27.8% (10/36), 38.7% (12/31) and 4.5% (1/22), respectively by ELISA, while those rates were detected as 27.8% (10/36), 41.9% (13/31) and 9.1% (2/22), respectively by IFA which was accepted as the reference method. However C.burnetii Phase I IgM, Phase I IgG and Phase II IgM antibodies were not detected in none of the subjects by both methods. The relatively high seropositivity rate in our study group (25/89; 28.1%) was thought to be associated with high rates of

  16. Acceptability and Feasibility of HIV Self-Testing Among Transgender Women in San Francisco: A Mixed Methods Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Lissa; Sevelius, Jae; Castillo, Leslie S.; Ventura, Angel; Treves-Kagan, Sarah; Buchbinder, Susan

    2015-01-01

    An estimated one in four transgender women (trans women) in the U.S. are infected with HIV. Rates of HIV testing are not commensurate with their risk, necessitating alternative strategies for early detection and care. We explored the feasibility and acceptability of HIV self-testing (HIVST) with 50 HIV-negative adult trans women in San Francisco. Participants received three self-test kits to perform once a month. Acceptability and behavioral surveys were collected as were 11 in-depth interviews (IDIs). Among 50 participants, 44 reported utilizing HIVST at least once; 94 % reported the test easy to use; 93 % said results were easy to read; and 91 % would recommend it to others. Most participants (68 %) preferred HIVST to clinic-based testing, although price was a key barrier to uptake. IDIs revealed a tension between desires for privacy versus support found at testing sites. HIVST for trans women was acceptable and feasible and requires careful consideration of linkage to support services. PMID:26511864

  17. Parity, lactation, bone strength, and 16-year fracture risk in adult women: findings from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN).

    PubMed

    Mori, Takahiro; Ishii, Shinya; Greendale, Gail A; Cauley, Jane A; Ruppert, Kristine; Crandall, Carolyn J; Karlamangla, Arun S

    2015-04-01

    Our objective was to examine the associations of lifetime parity and accumulated length of lactation with bone strength in women prior to the menopause transition and fracture risk during and after the transition. Participants were 2239 pre- or early peri-menopausal women from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN), ages 42-53 years at baseline, who had no childbirths after age 42. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in the femoral neck and the lumbar spine at the baseline SWAN visit using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and the composite indices of femoral neck strength relative to load (in three failure modes: compression, bending, and impact) were calculated from femoral neck BMD, femoral neck size, and body size. Data on fractures after age 42 were collected for a median follow-up of 15.7 years (interquartile range, 11.4-18.5 years). In multiple linear regressions adjusted for covariates, lifetime parity was associated positively with femoral neck strength relative to load (0.024 standard deviation (SD) increment in impact strength index per childbirth, p=0.049), but accumulated length of lactation was associated negatively with lumbar spine BMD (0.018 SD decrement per every additional 6 months of lactation, p=0.040). In Cox proportional hazards regressions adjusted for covariates, neither parity nor lactation was associated with fracture hazard after age 42. In conclusion, parity and lactation have little impact on peak bone strength prior to menopause, and do not affect fracture risk after age 42 over 16-year follow-up.

  18. Optimal Methods to Screen Men and Women for Intimate Partner Violence: Results from an Internal Medicine Residency Continuity Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapur, Nitin A.; Windish, Donna M.

    2011-01-01

    Contradictory data exist regarding optimal methods and instruments for intimate partner violence (IPV) screening in primary care settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal method and screening instrument for IPV among men and women in a primary-care resident clinic. We conducted a cross-sectional study at an urban, academic,…

  19. Reproducibility of data-driven dietary patterns in two groups of adult Spanish women from different studies.

    PubMed

    Castelló, Adela; Lope, Virginia; Vioque, Jesús; Santamariña, Carmen; Pedraz-Pingarrón, Carmen; Abad, Soledad; Ederra, Maria; Salas-Trejo, Dolores; Vidal, Carmen; Sánchez-Contador, Carmen; Aragonés, Nuria; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Pollán, Marina

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the reproducibility of data-driven dietary patterns in different samples extracted from similar populations. Dietary patterns were extracted by applying principal component analyses to the dietary information collected from a sample of 3550 women recruited from seven screening centres belonging to the Spanish breast cancer (BC) screening network (Determinants of Mammographic Density in Spain (DDM-Spain) study). The resulting patterns were compared with three dietary patterns obtained from a previous Spanish case-control study on female BC (Epidemiological study of the Spanish group for breast cancer research (GEICAM: grupo Español de investigación en cáncer de mama)) using the dietary intake data of 973 healthy participants. The level of agreement between patterns was determined using both the congruence coefficient (CC) between the pattern loadings (considering patterns with a CC≥0·85 as fairly similar) and the linear correlation between patterns scores (considering as fairly similar those patterns with a statistically significant correlation). The conclusions reached with both methods were compared. This is the first study exploring the reproducibility of data-driven patterns from two studies and the first using the CC to determine pattern similarity. We were able to reproduce the EpiGEICAM Western pattern in the DDM-Spain sample (CC=0·90). However, the reproducibility of the Prudent (CC=0·76) and Mediterranean (CC=0·77) patterns was not as good. The linear correlation between pattern scores was statistically significant in all cases, highlighting its arbitrariness for determining pattern similarity. We conclude that the reproducibility of widely prevalent dietary patterns is better than the reproducibility of more population-specific patterns. More methodological studies are needed to establish an objective measurement and threshold to determine pattern similarity.

  20. Use of non-medical methods of labor induction and pain management among U.S. women

    PubMed Central

    Kozhimanil, Katy Backes; Johnson, Pamela Jo; Attanasio, Laura B.; Gjerdingen, Dwenda K.; McGovern, Patricia M.

    2013-01-01

    Background There is limited documentation of non-medical methods of labor induction and pain management during childbirth in the U.S. We estimated the prevalence of non-medical interventions for induction and pain management and examined the association between medical and non-medical care during labor. Methods We used a nationally-representative survey of U.S. women who gave birth in 2005 (N=1,382) to examine use of non-medical methods of labor induction and pain management. Using logistic regression, we calculated odds of non-medical and medical interventions to induce labor or mitigate pain, and the odds of medical induction and obstetric analgesia by whether non-medical methods were used. Results Nearly 30% of women used non-medical methods to start labor, and over 70% of women used non-medical pain management. Doula support was the strongest predictor of non-medical methods of labor induction (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 3.0) and labor pain management (AOR = 5.7). Use of non-medical pain management was significantly associated with decreased odds of medical pain management (OR = 0.65); this relationship was attenuated with covariate adjustment. Conclusions Non-medical methods to induce labor and manage pain during childbirth are commonly used by U.S. women. Future research should examine effectiveness of these strategies and their influence on medical services use. PMID:24344703

  1. Adult attachment interviews of women from low-risk, poverty, and maltreatment risk samples: comparisons between the hostile/helpless and traditional AAI coding systems.

    PubMed

    Frigerio, Alessandra; Costantino, Elisabetta; Ceppi, Elisa; Barone, Lavinia

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the correlates of a Hostile-Helpless (HH) state of mind among 67 women belonging to a community sample and two different at-risk samples matched on socio-economic indicators, including 20 women from low-SES population (poverty sample) and 15 women at risk for maltreatment being monitored by the social services for the protection of juveniles (maltreatment risk sample). The Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) protocols were reliably coded blind to the samples' group status. The rates of HH classification increased in relation to the risk status of the three samples, ranging from 9% for the low-risk sample to 60% for the maltreatment risk sample to 75% for mothers in the maltreatment risk sample who actually maltreated their infants. In terms of the traditional AAI classification system, 88% of the interviews from the maltreating mothers were classified Unresolved/Cannot Classify (38%) or Preoccupied (50%). Partial overlapping between the 2 AAI coding systems was found, and discussion concerns the relevant contributions of each AAI coding system to understanding of the intergenerational transmission of maltreatment.

  2. Dating Violence among High-Risk Young Women: A Systematic Review Using Quantitative and Qualitative Methods

    PubMed Central

    Joly, Lauren E.; Connolly, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Our systematic review identified 21 quantitative articles and eight qualitative articles addressing dating violence among high risk young women. The groups of high-risk young women in this review include street-involved, justice-involved, pregnant or parenting, involved with Child Protective Services, and youth diagnosed with a mental health issue. Our meta-analysis of the quantitative articles indicated that 34% (CI = 0.24–0.45) of high-risk young women report that they have been victims of physical dating violence and 45% (CI = 0.31–0.61) of these young women report perpetrating physical dating violence. Significant moderator variables included questionnaire and timeframe. Meta-synthesis of the qualitative studies revealed that high-risk young women report perpetrating dating violence to gain power and respect, whereas women report becoming victims of dating violence due to increased vulnerability. PMID:26840336

  3. Influence of the Perceived Taste Intensity of Chemesthetic Stimuli on Swallowing Parameters Given Age and Genetic Taste Differences in Healthy Adult Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelletier, Cathy A.; Steele, Catriona M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined whether the perceived taste intensity of liquids with chemesthetic properties influenced lingua-palatal pressures and submental surface electromyography (sEMG) in swallowing, compared with water. Method: Swallowing was studied in 80 healthy women, stratified by age group and genetic taste status. General Labeled…

  4. Addressing intravaginal practices in women with HIV and at-risk for HIV infection, a mixed methods pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Alcaide, Maria L; Rodriguez, Violeta J; Fischl, Margaret A; Jones, Deborah L; Weiss, Stephen M

    2017-01-01

    Intravaginal practices (IVPs), include intravaginal cleansing (cleansing the inside of the vagina) or intravaginal insertion of products for hygiene, health or sexuality reasons. IVPs are associated with adverse female health outcomes, development of bacterial vaginosis, HIV acquisition and transmission. A mixed methods approach was used in this study to examine the prevalence of IVP, assess reasons for engagement, and perceptions of IVP among a sample of minority (African-American and Hispanic) women infected, or at-risk, for HIV in Miami, USA, a city with increasing numbers of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV. Three focus groups (total n=20) and quantitative assessments (n=72) were conducted with women infected or uninfected with HIV. In the qualitative assessments, most women reported engaging in both intravaginal cleansing and intravaginal insertion, and stated the main motivation for IVP was hygiene. The quantitative assessments confirmed that cleansing with water alone, soap with water or using commercial douches was common, as well as intravaginal insertion using a cloth or a rag in both HIV-infected and uninfected women. Women with HIV infection reported less use of water and water and soap for IVPs, and reported learning about the potential harm of IVP from their HIV health care providers. Despite their health risks, IVP appeared common in both HIV-infected and at-risk minority women, and interventions to decrease IVP could have important health implications among populations with high rates of IVP, STIs and HIV. PMID:28280394

  5. Addressing intravaginal practices in women with HIV and at-risk for HIV infection, a mixed methods pilot study.

    PubMed

    Alcaide, Maria L; Rodriguez, Violeta J; Fischl, Margaret A; Jones, Deborah L; Weiss, Stephen M

    2017-01-01

    Intravaginal practices (IVPs), include intravaginal cleansing (cleansing the inside of the vagina) or intravaginal insertion of products for hygiene, health or sexuality reasons. IVPs are associated with adverse female health outcomes, development of bacterial vaginosis, HIV acquisition and transmission. A mixed methods approach was used in this study to examine the prevalence of IVP, assess reasons for engagement, and perceptions of IVP among a sample of minority (African-American and Hispanic) women infected, or at-risk, for HIV in Miami, USA, a city with increasing numbers of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV. Three focus groups (total n=20) and quantitative assessments (n=72) were conducted with women infected or uninfected with HIV. In the qualitative assessments, most women reported engaging in both intravaginal cleansing and intravaginal insertion, and stated the main motivation for IVP was hygiene. The quantitative assessments confirmed that cleansing with water alone, soap with water or using commercial douches was common, as well as intravaginal insertion using a cloth or a rag in both HIV-infected and uninfected women. Women with HIV infection reported less use of water and water and soap for IVPs, and reported learning about the potential harm of IVP from their HIV health care providers. Despite their health risks, IVP appeared common in both HIV-infected and at-risk minority women, and interventions to decrease IVP could have important health implications among populations with high rates of IVP, STIs and HIV.

  6. "But I Like My Body": Positive body image characteristics and a holistic model for young-adult women.

    PubMed

    Wood-Barcalow, Nichole L; Tylka, Tracy L; Augustus-Horvath, Casey L

    2010-03-01

    Extant body image research has provided a rich understanding of negative body image but a rather underdeveloped depiction of positive body image. Thus, this study used Grounded Theory to analyze interviews from 15 college women classified as having positive body image and five body image experts. Many characteristics of positive body image emerged, including appreciating the unique beauty and functionality of their body, filtering information (e.g., appearance commentary, media ideals) in a body-protective manner, defining beauty broadly, and highlighting their body's assets while minimizing perceived imperfections. A holistic model emerged: when women processed mostly positive and rejected negative source information, their body investment decreased and body evaluation became more positive, illustrating the fluidity of body image. Women reciprocally influenced these sources (e.g., mentoring others to love their bodies, surrounding themselves with others who promote body acceptance, taking care of their health), which, in turn, promoted increased positive source information.

  7. Partner influences and gender-related factors associated with noncondom use among young adult African American women.

    PubMed

    Wingood, G M; DiClemente, R J

    1998-02-01

    We examined the partner influences and gender-related correlates of noncondom use among African American women. The prevalence of noncondom use was 45.3%. Women whose sexual partners were noncondom users were four times more likely to believe that asking their partner to use a condom implied he was unfaithful, three times as likely to have a partner who resisted using condoms, three times more likely to receive AFDC, twice as likely to be sexually nonassertive, three times more likely to believe that it was not difficult to find an "eligible" African American man, and three times as likely to have had one sexual partner. HIV prevention tailored towards African American women should address these partner influences and gender-related factors.

  8. A cost-effectiveness analysis of self-help smoking cessation methods for pregnant women.

    PubMed Central

    Windsor, R A; Warner, K E; Cutter, G R

    1988-01-01

    Estimates of the cost effectiveness and cost benefit of health promotion-health education methods for pregnant smokers designed to increase birth weight are not available. This paper presents the results of a cost-effectiveness analysis from a recently completed randomized trial to evaluate the effectiveness of self-help smoking cessation methods for pregnant women in public health maternity clinics. The study population--309 pregnant smokers from 3 prenatal clinics--were randomly assigned, during their first clinic visit, to 1 of 3 groups: (a) group 1 received the standard clinic information and advice to quit smoking, (b) group 2 received the standard clinic information and advice to quit plus the manual "Freedom From Smoking in 20 Days" by the American Lung Association, and (c) group 3 received the standard clinic information and advice to quit plus the pregnancy-specific manual "A Pregnant Woman's Self-Help Guide to Quit Smoking." The quit rates by the end of pregnancy were 2 percent for group 1, 6 percent for group 2, and 14 percent for group 3. Analyses also indicated that the method used for group 3 was the most cost effective: group 3 achieved smoking cessation at less than half the cost experienced by the other two groups. Although additional studies are needed concerning the behavioral impact, cost effectiveness, and cost benefit of self-help health education methods for smoking cessation, the methods tested in this trial are promising as solutions to part of the problem of low birth weight among infants of smoking mothers in the United States. PMID:3124203

  9. How Depressive Levels Are Related to the Adults' Experiences of Lower-Limb Amputation: A Mixed Methods Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senra, Hugo

    2013-01-01

    The current pilot study aims to explore whether different adults' experiences of lower-limb amputation could be associated with different levels of depression. To achieve these study objectives, a convergent parallel mixed methods design was used in a convenience sample of 42 adult amputees (mean age of 61 years; SD = 13.5). All of them had…

  10. A Mixed-Methods Randomized Controlled Trial of Financial Incentives and Peer Networks to Promote Walking among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kullgren, Jeffrey T.; Harkins, Kristin A.; Bellamy, Scarlett L.; Gonzales, Amy; Tao, Yuanyuan; Zhu, Jingsan; Volpp, Kevin G.; Asch, David A.; Heisler, Michele; Karlawish, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Background: Financial incentives and peer networks could be delivered through eHealth technologies to encourage older adults to walk more. Methods: We conducted a 24-week randomized trial in which 92 older adults with a computer and Internet access received a pedometer, daily walking goals, and weekly feedback on goal achievement. Participants…

  11. Ergonomic evaluation of conventional and improved methods of aonla pricking with women workers.

    PubMed

    Rai, Arpana; Gandhi, Sudesh; Sharma, D K

    2012-01-01

    Conventional and improved methods of aonla pricking were evaluated ergonomically on an experiment conducted for 20 minute with women workers. The working heart rate, energy expenditure rate, total cardiac cost of work and physiological cost of work with conventional tools varied from 93-102 beats.min-1, 6-7.5 kJ.min-1, 285-470 beats, 14 -23 beats.min-1 while with machine varied from 96-105 beats.min-1, 6.5-8 kJ.min-1 , 336-540 beats, 16-27 beats.min-1 respectively. OWAS score for conventional method was 2 indicating corrective measures in near future while with machine was 1 indicating no corrective measures. Result of Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire revealed that subjects complaint of pain in back, neck, right shoulder and right hand due to unnatural body posture and repetitive movement with hand tool. Moreover pricking was carried out in improper lighting conditions (200-300 lux) resulting into finger injuries from sharp edges of hand tool, whereas with machine no such problems were observed. Output with machine increased thrice than hand pricking in a given time. Machine was found useful in terms of saving time, increased productivity, enhanced safety and comfort as involved improved posture, was easy to handle and operate, thus increasing efficiency of the worker leading to better quality of life.

  12. Practice of Breast Cancer Early Diagnosis Methods among Women Living in Samsun, and Factors Associated with This Practice

    PubMed Central

    Aker, Servet; Öz, Hatice; Tunçel, Ebru Kaynar

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to assess practice of breast cancer early diagnosis methods among women and the factors associated with this practice. Materials and Methods The population of this cross-sectional study consisted of 410,377 women over the age of 20, living within the administrative borders of Samsun province. Stratified systematic sampling was used in the selection of the 800-member sample. The Health Belief Model Scale, a questionnaire consisting of open and closed-ended questions, was used to elicit women’s demographic data and determine their awareness on early diagnostic techniques. The questionnaires were administered face-to-face by visiting individuals’ addresses. Results 80.5% of women had knowledge on breast self-examination (BSE). 12.6% of the women who were aware of BSE stated that they regularly performed BSE. 30.4% of women had clinical breast examination (CBE) by health personnel at least once, while 36.8% of women over 40 years of age obtained mammography at least once. Factors associated with women’s performance of BSE were age, having received education about breast health, perception of severity, barriers for BSE and self-efficacy. Factors affecting CBE included age, presence of history of breast cancer in a relative or friend, having received education about breast health; while factors associated with women’s undergoing mammography were identified as age, a family member with a history of breast cancer and barriers for mammography. Conclusion Determination of the factors associated with practice of breast cancer early diagnosis methods, and implementation of planned training programs based on these results is important in increasing compliance with these methods. PMID:28331705

  13. The Relationship between Adult Occupational Preferences and Childhood Gender Nonconformity among Samoan Women, Men, and Fa'afafine.

    PubMed

    Semenyna, Scott W; Vasey, Paul L

    2016-09-01

    Previous research has found that sex differences in occupational preferences are both substantial and cross-culturally universal. Androphilic males tend to display "gender-shifted" occupational preferences, with relatively female-typical interests. Past research has overwhelmingly relied on Western samples; this article offers new insights from a non-Western setting. Known locally as fa'afafine, androphilic males in Samoa occupy a third-gender category. Data were collected in Samoa from 103 men, 103 women, and 103 fa'afafine regarding occupational preferences and recalled childhood gender nonconformity (CGN). A substantial sex difference was observed in the occupational preferences of men and women (d = 2.04). Interestingly, women and fa'afafine did not differ in their preferences (p = 0.89), indicating a complete gender inversion of occupational preferences in the latter. Although there was no correlation between women's CGN and masculine occupational preferences, there was a significant correlation (r = -0.62) between these variables in both men and fa'afafine. Among males (both men and fa'afafine), increased CGN was associated with preference for feminine occupations. The present research corroborates past findings and furnishes support for the conclusion that female-typical occupational preferences are a cross-culturally invariant aspect of male androphilia.

  14. Effects of beer, wine and liquor intakes on bone mineral density in older adult men and women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Moderate intake of alcohol has been reported to have beneficial effects on bone. However, different classes of alcoholic beverages have not been investigated. We examined alcohol intake (total and individual types) and BMD in 1251 men, 1317 post-menopausal and 264 pre-menopausal women in the populat...

  15. The Male Role, Alcohol Use, and Alcohol Problems: A Structural Modeling Examination in Adult Women and Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCreary, Donald R.; Newcomb, Michael D.; Sadava, Stanley W.

    1999-01-01

    Utilizes structural model to examine relationships between three male-role variables, alcohol consumption, and alcohol-related problems in sample of men and women. For men, traditional attitudes led to more alcohol consumption, whereas agentic traits protected them from experiencing alcohol-related problems and from experiencing masculine…

  16. Unsafe abortion as a birth control method: maternal mortality risks among unmarried cambodian migrant women on the Thai-Cambodia border.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Shalika; Hoban, Elizabeth; Nevill, Annemarie

    2012-11-01

    Reproductive health research and policies in Cambodia focus on safe motherhood programs particularly for married women, ignoring comprehensive fertility regulation programs for unmarried migrant women of reproductive age. Maternal mortality risks arising due to unsafe abortion methods practiced by unmarried Cambodian women, across the Thai-Cambodia border, can be considered as a public health emergency. Since Thailand has restrictive abortion laws, Cambodian migrant women who have irregular migration status in Thailand experimented with unsafe abortion methods that allowed them to terminate their pregnancies surreptitiously. Unmarried migrant women choose abortion as a preferred birth control method seeking repeat "unsafe" abortions instead of preventing conception. Drawing on the data collected through surveys, in-depth interviews, and document analysis in Chup Commune (pseudonym), Phnom Penh, and Bangkok, the authors describe the public health dimensions of maternal mortality risks faced by unmarried Cambodian migrant women due to various unsafe abortion methods employed as birth control methods.

  17. Changes in Quality of Life in 7 Older Adult Patients Receiving Activator Methods Chiropractic Technique

    PubMed Central

    Russell, David G.; Kimura, Melissa N.; Cowie, Harriet R.; de Groot, Caroline M.M.; McMinn, Elise A.P.; Sherson, Matthew W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this case series is to report on symptomatic and quality of life (QoL) changes in 7 older adult chiropractic patients who were receiving care using Activator Methods Chiropractic Technique (AMCT). Clinical Features Seven patients were selected from 2 chiropractic offices in Auckland, New Zealand. Patients were included if they were older adults receiving AMCT care and for whom at least 2 QoL assessments had been performed. The patients, aged 69-80 years, primarily received care for a variety of musculoskeletal complaints. Intervention and Outcomes The patients reported improvements in their presenting complaints as well as a number of nonmusculoskeletal symptoms. Each patient demonstrated clinical improvements in their RAND 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) results. The average improvement in QoL measured using a SF-36 questionnaire was 8.0 points in the physical component and 4.1 points in the mental component. Four cases had a second progress evaluation using the SF-36 and showed an overall improvement of 5.2 in the physical and 9.8 in the mental components from baseline. Conclusion This case series describes an improvement in QoL, as measured by the SF-36 instrument, as well as subjectively reported improvements in both musculoskeletal and nonmusculoskeletal symptoms in 7 older adults receiving chiropractic care. PMID:27069434

  18. Recent partner violence and sexual and drug-related STI/HIV risk among adolescent and young adult women attending family planning clinics

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Michele R.; Miller, Elizabeth; McCauley, Heather L.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Anderson, Heather; Levenson, Rebecca R.; Silverman, Jay G.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives Adolescent and young adult women are at high risk for both STI/HIV and intimate partner violence (IPV). We evaluate the prevalence of IPV in the past three months and its associations with STI/HIV risk, STI, and related care-seeking over the same time period. Methods Female family planning clinic patients ages 16–29 (n=3,504) participated in a cross-sectional survey in 2011–2012 as a baseline assessment for an intervention study. We examined associations of recent IPV with sexual and drug-related STI/HIV risk behavior, self-reported STI, and STI-related clinical care seeking via logistic regression. Results Recent physical or sexual IPV (prevalence 11%) was associated with recent sexual and drug-related STI/HIV risk, specifically unprotected vaginal sex (AOR 1.93, 95% CI 1.52, 2.44), unprotected anal sex (AOR 2.22, 95% CI 1.51, 3.27) and injection drug use, both their own (AOR 3.39, 95% CI 1.47, 7.79) and their partner’s (AOR 3.85, 1.91, 7.75). IPV was also linked with coercive sexual risk: involuntary condom non-use (AOR 1.87, 95% CI 1.51, 2.33), and fears of requesting condoms (AOR 4.15, 95% CI 2.73, 6.30) and refusing sex (AOR 11.84, 95% CI 7.59, 18.45). STI-related care-seeking was also more common among those abused (AOR 2.49, 95% CI 1.87, 3.31). Conclusions Recent IPV is concurrent with sexual and drug-related STI/HIV risk, including coercive sexual risk, thus compromising women’s agency in STI/HIV risk reduction. Clinical risk assessments should broaden to include unprotected heterosexual anal sex, coercive sexual risk, and IPV, and should promote safety and harm reduction. PMID:24234072

  19. Fundamental frequency in monolingual English, bilingual English/Russian, and bilingual English/Cantonese young adult women.

    PubMed

    Altenberg, Evelyn P; Ferrand, Carole T

    2006-03-01

    Mean F0 of nine young adult English/Russian female bilinguals and nine young adult English/Cantonese female bilinguals were examined from samples of connected speech in each language. Mean F0 were compared in each language and in English with those of a monolingual English control group of ten young adult female speakers. Acoustic measurements were analyzed with the Kay Elemetrics Multispeech program (Kay Elemetrics, Lincoln Park, NJ). The results indicate that the English/Russian bilinguals consistently had a higher mean F0 in Russian than in English. Mean F0 did not change with language switch for the English/Cantonese speakers. There were no significant differences between the groups in their English production. Clinical implications regarding norms for both monolingual and bilingual persons, as well as implications for understanding the nature of bilingualism, in particular code-switching, are discussed.

  20. Sex-Role Egalitarian Attitudes and Gender Role Socialization Experiences of African American Men and Women: A Mixed Methods Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heard, Courtney Christian Charisse

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the sex-role egalitarian attitudes and gender role socialization experiences of African American men and women. A sequential mixed-methods design was employed to research this phenomenon. The Sex-Role Egalitarianism Scale-Short Form BB (SRES-BB) was utilized to assess sex-role egalitarian attitudes (King…

  1. Understanding the Experiences of Women, Graduate Student Stress, and Lack of Marital/Social Support: A Mixed Method Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams-Tolliver, Sarah D.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how women attending graduate degree programs in public universities in Virginia were affected by such issues as stress and lack of marital/social support. Utilizing a mixed method approach for data collection, 23 participants completed demographic data, an essay response, and the PSS-10 Stress Scale; 8 were…

  2. End-of-study safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of quadrivalent HPV (types 6, 11, 16, 18) recombinant vaccine in adult women 24–45 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Castellsagué, X; Muñoz, N; Pitisuttithum, P; Ferris, D; Monsonego, J; Ault, K; Luna, J; Myers, E; Mallary, S; Bautista, O M; Bryan, J; Vuocolo, S; Haupt, R M; Saah, A

    2011-01-01

    Background: Previous analyses from a randomised trial in women aged 24–45 years have shown the quadrivalent human papillomavirus (qHPV) vaccine to be efficacious in the prevention of infection, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), and external genital lesions (EGLs) related to HPV 6/11/16/18. In this report, we present end-of-study efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity data with a median follow-up time of 4.0 years. Methods: We enrolled 3819 24–45-year-old women with no history of cervical disease or genital warts in the past 5 years. Women received quadrivalent vaccine or placebo at day 1, and at months 2 and 6. Ascertainment of CIN/EGL was accomplished through Pap testing, genital inspection, and cervicovaginal sampling (every 6 months). The main analysis was conducted in a per-protocol efficacy population (that received three doses, was naive to the relevant HPV types at day 1, and remained free of infection through month 7). Efficacy was also estimated in other naive and non-naive populations. Results: Vaccine efficacy against the combined incidence of persistent infection, CIN/EGL related to HPV6/11/16/18 in the per-protocol population was 88.7% (95% CI: 78.1, 94.8). Efficacy for women who were seropositive and DNA negative for the relevant vaccine HPV type at the time of enrolment who received at least 1 dose was 66.9% (95% CI: 4.3, 90.6). At month 48, 91.5, 92.0, 97.4, and 47.9% of vaccinated women were seropositive to HPV 6/11/16/18, respectively. No serious vaccine-related adverse experiences were reported. Conclusions: The qHPV vaccine demonstrated high efficacy, immunogenicity, and acceptable safety in women aged 24–45 years, regardless of previous exposure to HPV vaccine type. PMID:21629249

  3. Study adaptation, design, and methods of a web-based PTSD intervention for women Veterans.

    PubMed

    Lehavot, Keren; Litz, Brett; Millard, Steven P; Hamilton, Alison B; Sadler, Anne; Simpson, Tracy

    2017-02-01

    Women Veterans are a rapidly growing population with high risk of exposure to potentially traumatizing events and PTSD diagnoses. Despite the dissemination of evidence-based treatments for PTSD in the VA, most women Veteran VA users underutilize these treatments. Web-based PTSD treatment has the potential to reach and engage women Veterans with PTSD who do not receive treatment in VA settings. Our objective is to modify and evaluate Delivery of Self Training and Education for Stressful Situations (DESTRESSS), a web-based cognitive-behavioral intervention for PTSD, to target PTSD symptoms among women Veterans. The specific aims are to: (1) obtain feedback about DESTRESS, particularly on its relevance and sensitivity to women, using semi-structured interviews with expert clinicians and women Veterans with PTSD, and make modifications based on this feedback; (2) conduct a pilot study to finalize study procedures and make further refinements to the intervention; and (3) conduct a randomized clinical trial (RCT) evaluating a revised, telephone-assisted DESTRESS compared to telephone monitoring only. We describe the results from the first two aims, and the study design and procedures for the ongoing RCT. This line of research has the potential to result in a gender-sensitive, empirically-based, online treatment option for women Veterans with PTSD.

  4. Methods for the Isolation, Culture, and Functional Characterization of Sinoatrial Node Myocytes from Adult Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, Emily J.; St Clair, Joshua R.; Proenza, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Sinoatrial node myocytes (SAMs) act as the natural pacemakers of the heart, initiating each heart beat by generating spontaneous action potentials (APs). These pacemaker APs reflect the coordinated activity of numerous membrane currents and intracellular calcium cycling. However the precise mechanisms that drive spontaneous pacemaker activity in SAMs remain elusive. Acutely isolated SAMs are an essential preparation for experiments to dissect the molecular basis of cardiac pacemaking. However, the indistinct anatomy, complex microdissection, and finicky enzymatic digestion conditions have prevented widespread use of acutely isolated SAMs. In addition, methods were not available until recently to permit longer-term culture of SAMs for protein expression studies. Here we provide a step-by-step protocol and video demonstration for the isolation of SAMs from adult mice. A method is also demonstrated for maintaining adult mouse SAMs in vitro and for expression of exogenous proteins via adenoviral infection. Acutely isolated and cultured SAMs prepared via these methods are suitable for a variety of electrophysiological and imaging studies. PMID:27805586

  5. Empowerment of Fisher Women of Siluvaipatti Fishing Village of Tuticorin, Southeast Coast of India through Adult Education and ICT Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Jamila; Linden, Eva; Bierbrier, Christin; Lofgren, Inger; Wilhelmsson, Dan; Edward, J. K. Patterson

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on adult education and information and communication technologies (ICT) training to fisherwomen of Siluvaipatti fishing village in Tuticorin district of Tamil Nadu State, southeastern India. The total families in this village are 209 with population 899 (Male: 442; Female: 457). The education level is generally good in…

  6. Caregiving History and Prenatal Depressive Symptoms in Low-Income Adolescent and Young Adult Women: Moderating and Mediating Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milan, Stephanie; Kershaw, Trace S.; Lewis, Jessica; Westdahl, Claire; Rising, Sharon Schindler; Patrikios, Mary; Ickovics, Jeannette R.

    2007-01-01

    Prenatal depressive symptoms have been linked to negative outcomes for mothers and children. Using attachment theory as a framework, this study examined developmental differences in the interpersonal context of prenatal depressive symptoms among adolescents (age 14 to 19 years; n= 352) and young adults (age 20 to 24 years; n= 348). Participants…

  7. Attitudes toward Bisexual Men and Women among a Nationally Representative Probability Sample of Adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    Dodge, Brian; Herbenick, Debby; Friedman, M Reuel; Schick, Vanessa; Fu, Tsung-Chieh Jane; Bostwick, Wendy; Bartelt, Elizabeth; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Pletta, David; Reece, Michael; Sandfort, Theo G M

    2016-01-01

    As bisexual individuals in the United States (U.S.) face significant health disparities, researchers have posited that these differences may be fueled, at least in part, by negative attitudes, prejudice, stigma, and discrimination toward bisexual individuals from heterosexual and gay/lesbian individuals. Previous studies of individual and social attitudes toward bisexual men and women have been conducted almost exclusively with convenience samples, with limited generalizability to the broader U.S.

  8. Violence experiences among HIV-infected women and perceptions of male perpetrators’ roles: A concurrent mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    Njie-Carr, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    HIV disproportionately affects women, which propagates the disparities gap. This study was designed to (a) explore the personal, cognitive, and psychosocial factors of intimate partner violence (IPV) among women with HIV, (b) explore the perceptions of male perpetrators’ roles in contributing to violence, and (c) determine the implications for methodological and data source triangulation. A concurrent mixed methods study design was used including 30 African American male and female participants. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Eleven themes were identified in the qualitative data from the female (n = 15) and 9 themes from the male (n = 15) participant interviews using Giorgi’s technique. Data sources and methodological approaches were triangulated with relative convergence in the results. Preliminary data generated from this study could inform gender-based feasibility research studies. These studies could focus on integrating findings from this study in HIV/IPV prevention interventions and provide clinical support for women. PMID:24503500

  9. A Mixed Methods Investigation of the Experience of Poverty Among a Population of Low-Income Parenting Women.

    PubMed

    Lange, Brittany C L; Dáu, Ana Luísa B T; Goldblum, Joanne; Alfano, Janet; Smith, Megan V

    2017-02-06

    This study sought to operationalize poverty in the context of parenting specific to a sample of low-income mothers; to examine how mothers describe sources of stress related to poverty; and to explore how these experiences affect mothers' parenting practices. Mothers trained in research methods administered surveys to other mothers in community settings assessing parenting stressors, mental wellbeing, basic needs, and goals. Women reported difficulty obtaining basic needs. Qualitatively, women described financial hardship, housing, employment status, and transportation as sources of stress, which influenced their parenting practices. These findings connect a mother's inability to meet her basic needs with parenting quality, and suggest that programs promoting early childhood development through building the capacity of parents must focus on basic needs and strategies to alleviate poverty. Healthcare providers may be able to glean specific terminology utilized by women when they inquire about basic needs and form partnerships with basic needs providers.

  10. Violence experiences among HIV-infected women and perceptions of male perpetrators' roles: a concurrent mixed method study.

    PubMed

    Njie-Carr, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    HIV disproportionately affects women, which propagates the disparities gap. This study was designed to (a) explore the personal, cognitive, and psychosocial factors of intimate partner violence among women with HIV; (b) explore the perceptions of male perpetrators' roles in contributing to violence; and (c) determine the implications for methodological and data source triangulation. A concurrent Mixed Method study design was used, including 30 African American male and female participants. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Eleven themes were identified in the qualitative data from the female (n = 15) and 9 themes from the male (n = 15) participant interviews using Giorgi's technique. Data sources and methodological approaches were triangulated with relative convergence in the results. Preliminary data generated from this study could inform gender-based feasibility research studies. These studies could focus on integrating findings from this study in HIV/intimate partner violence prevention interventions and provide clinical support for women.

  11. Influence of nutritional state on the disposal of orally and intramuscularly administered iodized oil to iodine repleted older children and adult women.

    PubMed

    Fierro-Benitez, R; Sandoval-Valencia, H; Sevilla-Munoz, B; Rodriguez, E; Gualotuna, E; Fierro-Carrion, G; Pacheco-Bastides, V; Andrade, J; Wang, P H; Stanbury, J B

    1989-06-01

    Iodinated oil (Ethiodol, 1 or 2 ml) was administered po or by im administration to adult women and older children in rural highland Ecuador who were either well nourished or malnourished to determine the effect of nutritional status on the disposal rate of iodine. These subjects resides in a region previously severely deficient in iodine, but this had been corrected in these subjects by prior administration of iodinated oil or by use of iodized salt or both. Malnutrition as determined by the conventional standards of height for age was associated with a significantly shortened retention time of the administered iodine, whether given po or im. The half life of retention was approximately half in the malourished of that in the well nourished. If these findings can be extrapolated to chronically iodine deficient subjects, then malnourished populations in need of iodine supplementation should either receive higher dosages than those conventionally employed or more frequent dosage.

  12. The impact of parental educational trajectories on their adult offspring's overweight/obesity status: a study of three generations of Swedish men and women.

    PubMed

    Chaparro, M P; Koupil, Ilona

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of grandparental and parental education and parental educational trajectory on their adult offspring's overweight/obesity. We used register data from the Uppsala Birth Cohort Multigenerational Study, based on a representative cohort born in Sweden 1915-1929 (G1). Our sample included 5122 women and 11,204 men who were grandchildren of G1 (G3), their parents (G2), and grandparents. G3's overweight/obesity (BMI≥25 kg/m2) was based on pre-pregnancy weight/height for women before their first birth (average age=26 years), and measured weight/height at conscription for men (average age=18 years). G1's, G2's, and G3's highest educational attainment was obtained from routine registers and classified as low, intermediate, or high based on respective sample distributions. Parental (G2) educational trajectory was defined as change in education between their own and their highest educated parent (G1), classified into 5 categories: always advantaged (AA), upward trajectory (UT), stable-intermediate (SI), downward trajectory (DT), and always disadvantaged (AD). We used hierarchical gender-stratified logistic regression models adjusted for G3's age, education, year of BMI collection, lineage and G2's year of birth and income. Grandparental and parental education were negatively associated with men's odds of overweight/obesity and parental education affected women's overweight/obesity risk. Furthermore, men and women whose parents belonged to the UT, SI, DT, and AD groups had greater odds of overweight/obesity compared to men and women whose parents belonged to the AA group (adjusted for G3's age, year of BMI collection, lineage, and G2's year of birth). These associations were attenuated when further adjusting for parental income and G3's own education. Socioeconomic inequalities can have long-term consequences and impact the health of future generations. For overweight/obesity in concurrent young cohorts, this inequality

  13. A New Method for Quick and Easy Hemolymph Collection from Apidae Adults

    PubMed Central

    Borsuk, Grzegorz; Ptaszyńska, Aneta A.; Olszewski, Krzysztof; Domaciuk, Marcin; Krutmuang, Patcharin; Paleolog, Jerzy

    2017-01-01

    Bio-analysis of insects is increasingly dependent on highly sensitive methods that require high quality biological material, such as hemolymph. However, it is difficult to collect fresh and uncontaminated hemolymph from adult bees since they are very active and have the potential to sting, and because hemolymph is rapidly melanized. Here we aimed to develop and test a quick and easy method for sterile and contamination-free hemolymph sampling from adult Apidae. Our novel antennae method for hemolymph sampling (AMHS), entailed the detachment of an antenna, followed by application of delicate pressure to the bee's abdomen. This resulted in the appearance of a drop of hemolymph at the base of the detached antenna, which was then aspirated using an automatic pipetter. Larger insect size corresponded to easier and faster hemolymph sampling, and to a greater sample volume. We obtained 80–100 μL of sterile non-melanized hemolymph in 1 minute from one Bombus terrestris worker, in 6 minutes from 10 Apis mellifera workers, and in 15 minutes from 18 Apis cerana workers (+/−0.5 minutes). Compared to the most popular method of hemolymph collection, in which hemolymph is sampled by puncturing the dorsal sinus of the thorax with a capillary (TCHS), significantly fewer bees were required to collect 80–100 μL hemolymph using our novel AMHS method. Moreover, the time required for hemolymph collection was significantly shorter using the AMHS compared to the TCHS, which protects the acquired hemolymph against melanization, thus providing the highest quality material for biological analysis. PMID:28125668

  14. Reproductive desire in women with HIV infection in Spain, associated factors and motivations: a mixed-method study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Antiretroviral therapy has created new expectations in the possibilities of procreation for persons living with HIV. Our objectives were to evaluate reproductive desire and to analyze the associated sociodemographic and clinical factors in HIV-infected women in the Spanish AIDS Research Network Cohort (CoRIS). Methods A mixed qualitative-quantitative approach was designed. Women of reproductive age (18–45) included in CoRIS were interviewed by phone, and data were collected between November 2010 and June 2012 using a specifically designed questionnaire. Reproductive desire was defined as having a desire to be pregnant at present or having unprotected sex with the purpose of having children or wanting to have children in the near future. Results Overall, 134 women were interviewed. Median age was 36 years (IQR 31–41), 55% were Spanish, and 35% were unemployed. 84% had been infected with HIV through unprotected sex, with a median time since diagnosis of 4.5 years (IQR 2.9-6.9). Reproductive desire was found in 49% of women and was associated with: 1) Age (women under 30 had higher reproductive desire than those aged 30–39; OR = 4.5, 95% CI 1.4-14.3); 2) having no children vs. already having children (OR = 3.2; 1.3-7.7 3); Being an immigrant (OR = 2.2; 1.0-5.0); and 4) Not receiving antiretroviral treatment (OR = 3.6; 1.1-12.1). The main reasons for wanting children were related to liking children and wanting to form a family. Reasons for not having children were HIV infection, older age and having children already. Half of the women had sought or received information about how to have a safe pregnancy, 87% had disclosed their serostatus to their family circle, and 39% reported having experienced discrimination due to HIV infection. Conclusions The HIV-infected women interviewed in CoRIS have a high desire for children, and the factors associated with this desire are not fundamentally different from those of women in the general population

  15. Adult Psychotic Symptoms, Their Associated Risk Factors and Changes in Prevalence in Men and Women Over a Decade in a Poor Rural District of Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Rachel; Othieno, Caleb; Ongeri, Linnet; Ogutu, Bernards; Sifuna, Peter; Kingora, James; Kiima, David; Ongecha, Michael; Omollo, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    There have been no repeat surveys of psychotic symptoms in Kenya or indeed subSaharan Africa. A mental health epidemiological survey was therefore conducted in a demographic surveillance site of a Kenyan household population in 2013 to test the hypothesis that the prevalence of psychotic symptoms would be similar to that found in an earlier sample drawn from the same sample frame in 2004, using the same overall methodology and instruments. This 2013 study found that the prevalence of one or more psychotic symptoms was 13.9% with one or more symptoms and 3.8% with two or more symptoms, while the 2004 study had found that the prevalence of single psychotic symptoms in rural Kenya was 8% of the adult population, but only 0.6% had two symptoms and none had three or more psychotic symptoms. This change was accounted for by a striking increase in psychotic symptoms in women (17.8% in 2013 compared with 6.9% in 2004, p < 0.001), whereas there was no significant change in men (10.6% in 2013 compared with 9.4% in 2004, p = 0.582). Potential reasons for this increase in rate of psychotic symptoms in women are explored. PMID:25996885

  16. Exploratory analysis of the potential relationship between urinary molybdenum and bone mineral density among adult men and women from NHANES 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Ryan C; Johns, Lauren E; Meeker, John D

    2016-12-01

    Human exposure to molybdenum (Mo) may play a role in reducing bone mineral density (BMD) by interfering with steroid sex hormone levels. To begin to address gaps in the literature on this topic, the potential relationship between urinary Mo (U-Mo) and BMD at the femoral neck (FN-BMD) and lumbar spine (LS-BMD) was explored in a sample of 1496 adults participating in the 2007-2010 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Associations were assessed using multiple linear regression models stratified on sex and age. In adjusted models for 50-80+ year-old women, there was a statistically significant inverse relationship between natural log-U-Mo and LS-BMD (p-value: 0.002), and a statistically significant dose-dependent decrease in LS-BMD with increasing U-Mo quartiles (trend p-value: 0.002). A suggestive (trend p-value: 0.08), dose-dependent decrease in FN-BMD with increasing U-Mo quartiles was noted in this group of women as well. All other adjusted models revealed no statistically significant or suggestive relationships between U-Mo and FN-BMD or LS-BMD. Bone health is important for overall human health and well-being and, given the exploratory nature of this work, additional studies are needed to confirm the results in other populations, and clarify the potential underlying mechanisms of Mo on BMD.

  17. Childhood and Adult Sexual Abuse, Rumination on Sadness, and Dysphoria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Michael; Mendelson, Morris; Giannopoulos, Constantina; Csank, Patricia A. R.; Holm, Susan L.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The study addressed the hypothesis that adults reporting sexual abuse are more likely to exhibit a general tendency to ruminate on sadness. The relations between reported abuse, rumination on sadness, and dysphoria were also examined. Method: Undergraduate students (101 women and 100 men) reported on childhood and adult sexual abuse and…

  18. Childhood and adolescent animal cruelty methods and their possible link to adult violent crimes.

    PubMed

    Hensley, Christopher; Tallichet, Suzanne E

    2009-01-01

    Few researchers have investigated the potentially predictive power of childhood and adolescent animal cruelty methods as they are associated with subsequent interpersonal violence in adulthood. Based on a sample of 261 inmates at medium- and maximum-security prisons in a southern state, the present study examines the relationship between several retrospectively reported animal cruelty methods (drowned, hit or kicked, shot, choked, burned, and had sex) and violent criminal acts committed against humans (assault, rape, and murder). More than half of the sample reported they had shot animals, and almost half had either kicked or hit them. About one in five said they had choked animals, and about one in seven said they had either drowned, burned, or had sex with them. Regression analyses revealed that drowning and having sex with an animal was predictive of later interpersonal violence as adults.

  19. LOW MINERAL DENSITY OF A WEIGHT-BEARING BONE AMONG ADULT WOMEN IN A HIGH FERTILITY POPULATION

    PubMed Central

    Stieglitz, Jonathan; Beheim, Bret A.; Trumble, Benjamin C.; Madimenos, Felicia C.; Kaplan, Hillard; Gurven, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary theories of aging posit that greater reproductive effort causes somatic decline given a fundamental trade-off between investing energy in reproduction and repair. Few studies in high fertility human populations support this hypothesis, and problems of phenotypic correlation can obscure the expected trade-off between reproduction and somatic condition. This cross-sectional study investigates whether greater reproductive effort is associated with reduced calcaneal bone mineral density (BMD) among female Tsimane forager-farmers of lowland Bolivia. We also investigate whether female Tsimane BMD values are lower than sex- and age-matched US reference values, despite the fact that Tsimane engage in higher physical activity levels that can increase mechanical loading. To measure calcaneal BMD, quantitative ultrasonography was performed on 130 women (mean ± SD age = 36.6 ± 15.7, range = 15 – 75) that were recruited regardless of past or current reproductive status. Anthropometric and demographic data were collected during routine medical exams. As predicted, higher parity, short inter-birth interval, and earlier age at first birth are associated with reduced BMD among Tsimane women after adjusting for potential confounders. Population-level differences are apparent prior to the onset of reproduction, and age-related decline in BMD is greater among Tsimane compared to American women. Greater cumulative reproductive burden may lower calcaneal BMD individually and jointly with other lifestyle and heritable factors. Fitness impacts of kin transfers in adulthood may determine the value of investments in bone remodeling, and thus affect selection on age-profiles of bone mineral loss. PMID:25488367

  20. Relationship of adiposity to bone volumetric density and microstructure in men and women across the adult lifespan.

    PubMed

    Ng, Alvin C; Melton, L Joseph; Atkinson, Elizabeth J; Achenbach, Sara J; Holets, Margaret F; Peterson, James M; Khosla, Sundeep; Drake, Matthew T

    2013-07-01

    Recent evidence suggests that adipose tissue may negatively impact bone health, challenging the traditional paradigm that increased fat mass, through mechanical loading or endogenous estrogen production, is beneficial to the skeleton. We hypothesized that it is primarily the visceral compartment of body fat that is detrimental to bone metabolism, resulting in impaired bone density and architecture. In an age-stratified population sample of 218 women and 291 men (age 20-97 years), we assessed visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissue areas at the L2-L3 interspace level by single slice quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and measured total body fat mass (TBF) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. We then correlated these findings with volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) at the femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) assessed by central QCT, and with vBMD and microstructural parameters at the ultradistal radius (UDR) by high resolution peripheral QCT (HRpQCT). In unadjusted analyses in postmenopausal women, TBF and SAT were positively correlated with total, trabecular, and cortical vBMD at the FN, LS, and UDR and with trabecular microstructure at the UDR. By contrast, VAT was not correlated with vBMD at the FN or LS but was positively correlated with UDR total and trabecular vBMD but not cortical vBMD. Adjustment for age or for bioavailable estradiol and testosterone levels reduced these correlations, while adjustment for body weight eliminated most positive associations. Assessment of the VAT/SAT ratio, however, demonstrated a negative relationship with vBMD at the FN and LS in postmenopausal women, a relationship eliminated when adjusted for age. Correlations between skeletal parameters and adipose measurements in pre-menopausal women and older men were weaker and mostly non-significant. In younger men, VAT was negatively associated with vBMD, cortical thickness, and trabecular microstructure at the UDR, and with LS vBMD and FN cortical vBMD. These

  1. Fat-free body mass is the most important body composition determinant of 10-yr longitudinal development of lumbar bone in adult men and women.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Ingrid; Twisk, Jos W R; Van Mechelen, Willem; Kemper, Han C G

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the longitudinal relationship between body composition and lumbar bone mineral density (LBMD) and lumbar bone mineral content (LBMC) in (young) adults over a 10-yr period. The data are from the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study. Two hundred twenty-five men and 241 women were measured at 27, 32, and/or 36 yr of age. Nine body composition components were explored: total body weight, standing height, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist to hip ratio, sum of four skinfolds, fat mass, and fat-free mass (FFM). Stratified analyses were performed by gender and adjustment was made for physical activity and calcium intake. Univariate multilevel analyses indicated that FFM was significantly positively related to the 10-yr development of both LBMD and LBMC in both sexes. Total body weight, standing height, and body mass index also showed a significant positive univariate relationships with LBMD and LBMC in both sexes, fat mass only with female LBMD. All best predictive multiple regression models included FFM, explaining 4-27% of the variation in bone mineral over this 10-yr period. Because FFM can be interpreted as a proxy for skeletal muscle mass, these results indicate the importance of muscle contractions on bone to increase bone strength in (young) adults.

  2. Maternal investment, life-history strategy of the offspring and adult chronic disease risk in South Asian women in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Jonathan C.K.; Yao, Pallas; Williams, Jane E; Gayner, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives: Patterns of development predict cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, and ethnic differences therein, but it remains unclear why apparently ‘adaptive plasticity’ in early life should generate health costs in later life. We hypothesized that offspring receiving low maternal investment during fetal life, the primary period of organogenesis, should predict a shorter reproductive career and develop a fast life-history strategy, prioritizing reproduction over growth and homeostatic maintenance. Methodology: We studied 58 young adult South Asian women living in the UK, a group with high susceptibility to CVD. We obtained gestational age, birth weight (BW) and menarcheal age by recall and measured anthropometry, body composition, resting metabolic rate (RMR) and blood pressure (BP). Results: BW and gestational age were inversely associated with menarcheal age, indicating that lower maternal investment is associated with faster maturation. Menarcheal age was positively associated with height but inversely with adiposity, indicating that rapid maturation prioritizes lipid stores over somatic growth. BW was inversely associated with BP, whereas adiposity was positively associated, indicating that lower maternal investment reduces BP homeostasis. BW was positively associated with RMR, whereas menarche was inversely associated, indicating that maternal investment influences adult metabolism. Conclusions and implications: Supporting our hypothesis, low maternal investment promoted faster life histories, demonstrated by earlier menarche, reduced growth and elevated adiposity. These traits were associated with poorer BP regulation. This is the first study demonstrating strategic adjustment of the balance between reproduction and metabolic health in response to the level of maternal investment during fetal life. PMID:26988862

  3. Assessment of Health Knowledge in College Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Gail; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The level of accurate health knowledge that young adult women possess regarding selected information dealing with nutrition; disease; and over-the-counter, prescription, and social drugs is discussed. Sections include the introduction, methods, results, discussion, and implications for biology teachers. (KR)

  4. [AIDS and social situations of women in Africa: from notions to research methods].

    PubMed

    Vidal, L; Loû, A D

    2001-01-01

    When researchers or actors intend to analyse women's situations in the context of AIDS in Africa, they are conducted to take into account the whole context these women live in: their access to care and prevention, their ability to make choices in their emotional, sexual and marital life, their access to education and to a gainful employment. It is also important in such an approach to define precisely the notions used. This paper proposes first to describe the several realities existing under the notions of vulnerability, autonomy, negotiation, sexuality, prostitution, motherhood and mother and child health. Through examples from researches conducted in Côte d'Ivoire and in other African countries, we enlighten how stereotypes are still used to describe women's situations in Africa. We insist on the need to propose fine-tuned and balanced analyses, in order to avoid sweeping generalisations that are harmful to women themselves. Secondly, we describe the methodological tools that can be used in this kind of analysis of notions and contexts in gender relations. We describe qualitative and quantitative survey techniques. For each one, we emphasise their requirements but also their effects on our research process on women's experiences facing AIDS.

  5. Simulating demand for cigarettes among pregnant women: A Low-Risk method for studying vulnerable populations.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Stephen T; Reed, Derek D; Redner, Ryan; Skelly, Joan M; Zvorsky, Ivori A; Kurti, Allison N

    2017-01-01

    A substantive obstacle to experimentally studying cigarette smoking and use of other tobacco products in pregnant women is the risk of adverse effects on mother and fetus from experimenter administration of the product of interest. The purpose of this study is to investigate bypassing that obstacle by using behavioral economic simulation tasks. In the present study we used the Cigarette Purchase Task (CPT) to simulate changes in demand for hypothetical cigarettes as a function of varying cigarette prices. Participants were 95 pregnant women who completed the CPT prior to participation in a smoking-cessation trial. Aggregate and individual participant demand varied as an orderly function of price and those changes were well fitted by an exponential equation. Demand also varied in correspondence to two well-validated predictors of individual differences in smoking cessation among pregnant women (cigarettes smoked per day, pre-pregnancy quit attempts). Moreover, CPT indices were more effective than these two conventional variables in predicting individual differences in whether women made a quit attempt during the current pregnancy. Overall, these results represent a promising step in demonstrating the validity and utility of the CPT for experimentally examining demand for cigarettes, and potentially other tobacco and nicotine delivery products, among pregnant women.

  6. Women--Accountable to All; Autonomous, Never?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilling, Marg

    2001-01-01

    Addresses issues of power in relationship to adult education, language, and women; how accountability and autonomy relate to women in adult education; and the discourse that continues to define women as "other." Finds a lack of response to these issues in adult education literature. (SK)

  7. Pilates Method for Lung Function and Functional Capacity in Obese Adults.

    PubMed

    Niehues, Janaina Rocha; Gonzáles, Inês; Lemos, Robson Rodrigues; Haas, Patrícia

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is defined as the condition in which the body mass index (BMI) is ≥ 30 kg/m2 and is responsible for decreased quality of life and functional limitations. The harmful effects on ventilatory function include reduced lung capacity and volume; diaphragmatic muscle weakness; decreased lung compliance and stiffness; and weakness of the abdominal muscles, among others. Pilates is a method of resistance training that works with low-impact muscle exercises and is based on isometric exercises. The current article is a review of the literature that aims to investigate the hypothesis that the Pilates method, as a complementary method of training, might be beneficial to pulmonary function and functional capacity in obese adults. The intent of the review was to evaluate the use of Pilates as an innovative intervention in the respiratory dysfunctions of obese adults. In studies with other populations, it has been observed that Pilates can be effective in improving chest capacity and expansion and lung volume. That finding is due to the fact that Pilates works through the center of force, made ​​up of the abdominal muscles and gluteus muscles lumbar, which are responsible for the stabilization of the static and dynamic body that is associated with breath control. It has been observed that different Pilates exercises increase the activation and recruitment of the abdominal muscles. Those muscles are important in respiration, both in expiration and inspiration, through the facilitation of diaphragmatic action. In that way, strengthening the abdominal muscles can help improve respiratory function, leading to improvements in lung volume and capacity. The results found in the current literature review support the authors' observations that Pilates promotes the strengthening of the abdominal muscles and that improvements in diaphragmatic function may result in positive outcomes in respiratory function, thereby improving functional capacity. However, the authors did not

  8. A mixed methods evaluation of televised health promotion advertisements targeted at older adults.

    PubMed

    Berry, Tanya R; Spence, John C; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Bauman, Adrian; McCargar, Linda; Witcher, Chad; Clark, Marianne; Stolp, Sean

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate television advertisements targeted at 55-70-year olds that promoted physical activity and fruit and vegetable consumption. Awareness of the campaign, perceived credibility of the source, intentions to visit a promoted website, and intentions to perform the healthy behaviors were evaluated using mixed methods research. Results from a population level survey (n=1600) showed low unprompted and prompted awareness of the campaign and no differences in intentions or behaviors among those who were aware of the campaign. Unprompted recall resulted in a very wide range of responses including the citation of many commercial advertisers. Qualitative themes that emerged from the focus groups included neutral, positive, and negative comments about the advertisements, source credibility, website considerations specific to seniors, and suggestions about appropriate advertising for older adults. This research showed that the increased attention paid to the advertisements was due in a large part to negative reactions to the character used in the advertisements. Another important finding was the government was not considered to be a credible source of health information. Finally, health promoters should be cautious about websites as the primary source of information, particularly for older adults.

  9. A Contextualized Approach to Faith-Based HIV Risk Reduction for African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Jennifer M.; Rogers, Christopher K.; Bellinger, Dawn; Thompson, Keitra

    2016-01-01

    HIV/AIDS has a devastating impact on African Americans (AA), particularly women and young adults. We sought to characterize risks, barriers, content and delivery needs for a faith-based intervention to reduce HIV risk among AA women ages 18–25. In a convergent parallel mixed methods study we conducted four focus groups (n=38) and surveyed 71 young adult women. Data were collected across 4 AA churches for a total of 109 participants. We found the majority of women in this sample were engaged in behaviors that put them at risk for contracting HIV, struggled with religiously based barriers and matters of sexuality, and had a desire to incorporate their intimate relationships, parenting and financial burdens into faith-based HIV risk reduction interventions (RRIs). Incorporating additional social context related factors into HIV RRIs for young AA women is critical to adapting and developing HIV interventions to reduce risk among young adult women in faith settings. PMID:26879828

  10. Integrated use of qualitative and quantitative methods to elicit women's differential knowledge of breastfeeding and lactational amenorrhea in periurban Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Bender, D E; Baker, R; Dusch, E; Mccann, M F

    1997-01-01

    Exclusive and extended breast feeding is responsible for much of the fertility limitation and child spacing throughout the world. In many developing countries, where breast feeding is almost universal and of long duration, postpartum amenorrhea protects women from closely spaced subsequent pregnancies. However, at the same time, increased pressures toward modernization, rapid rural-to-urban migration, frequent advertisements of powdered milk substitutes, and the increased employment of women outside of the home are adversely affecting traditional breast feeding practices. In Bolivia, almost all women breast feed their newborn infants, for periods up to 2 years. This paper reports findings which describe and compare patterns of women's differential knowledge of breast feeding and lactational amenorrhea resulting from data collection using a survey instrument and a focus group guide. The findings are part of a larger study on infant feeding and child spacing conducted in periurban communities in Bolivia. Current and historical trends with regard to paradigm and methodology in social science research are reviewed and the survey/focus group research method is described.

  11. The Power Semantics in Self and Other Repertory Grid Representations: A Comparison between Obese and Normal-Weight Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Faccio, Elena; Belloni, Eleonora; Castelnuovo, Gianluca

    2012-01-01

    According to systemic-constructivist theory, all psycho-pathological organizations are linked to specific meanings which are developed by the individual within problematic situations in the context of learning, particularly within the family. The aim of this empirical study is to support the theory that eating disorders are linked to the “power semantics,” concept developed by Ugazio. The hypothesis that the bipolar construct “winner/loser” and the associated meanings are predominant for obese people, has been verified by interviewing 44 women (22 obese/overweight; 22 controls) using the Repertory Grid Test developed by Kelly. The participants’ elicited constructs were classified according to their semantic content and the data compared using statistical techniques. The power semantics were more prevalent and important in the Obese Group than in the Control Group. These results are critically discussed, highlighting possible clinical developments. PMID:23267334

  12. The Power Semantics in Self and Other Repertory Grid Representations: A Comparison between Obese and Normal-Weight Adult Women.

    PubMed

    Faccio, Elena; Belloni, Eleonora; Castelnuovo, Gianluca

    2012-01-01

    According to systemic-constructivist theory, all psycho-pathological organizations are linked to specific meanings which are developed by the individual within problematic situations in the context of learning, particularly within the family. The aim of this empirical study is to support the theory that eating disorders are linked to the "power semantics," concept developed by Ugazio. The hypothesis that the bipolar construct "winner/loser" and the associated meanings are predominant for obese people, has been verified by interviewing 44 women (22 obese/overweight; 22 controls) using the Repertory Grid Test developed by Kelly. The participants' elicited constructs were classified according to their semantic content and the data compared using statistical techniques. The power semantics were more prevalent and important in the Obese Group than in the Control Group. These results are critically discussed, highlighting possible clinical developments.

  13. Exploring dual identification among Muslim-American emerging adults: a mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Sirin, Selcuk R; Bikmen, Nida; Mir, Madeeha; Fine, Michelle; Zaal, Mayida; Katsiaficas, Dalal

    2008-04-01

    This mixed methods study explored dual identification among Muslim-American emerging adults of immigrant origin. A closer look was taken at the relationship between American and Muslim identifications and how this relationship was influenced by experiences of discrimination, acculturative and religious practices, and whether it varied by gender. Data were gathered from 97 Muslim Americans (ages 18-25) who completed a survey and produced identity maps, a pictorial representation of hyphenated identities. The findings showed that young people found a way of allowing their Muslim and American identities to co-exist, and only a small minority of the participants seemed to experience identity conflict. While religiosity was the only predictor of Muslim identification, young peoples' identification with mainstream United States culture was predicted by discrimination-related stress and acculturative practices. Gender moderated the relationship between Muslim and American identities in both survey measures and identity maps.

  14. Classification of older adults with/without a fall history using machine learning methods.

    PubMed

    Lin Zhang; Ou Ma; Fabre, Jennifer M; Wood, Robert H; Garcia, Stephanie U; Ivey, Kayla M; McCann, Evan D

    2015-01-01

    Falling is a serious problem in an aged society such that assessment of the risk of falls for individuals is imperative for the research and practice of falls prevention. This paper introduces an application of several machine learning methods for training a classifier which is capable of classifying individual older adults into a high risk group and a low risk group (distinguished by whether or not the members of the group have a recent history of falls). Using a 3D motion capture system, significant gait features related to falls risk are extracted. By training these features, classification hypotheses are obtained based on machine learning techniques (K Nearest-neighbour, Naive Bayes, Logistic Regression, Neural Network, and Support Vector Machine). Training and test accuracies with sensitivity and specificity of each of these techniques are assessed. The feature adjustment and tuning of the machine learning algorithms are discussed. The outcome of the study will benefit the prediction and prevention of falls.

  15. The influence of body size on adult skeletal age estimation methods.

    PubMed

    Merritt, Catherine E

    2015-01-01

    Accurate age estimations are essential to archaeological and forensic analyses. However, reliability for adult skeletal age estimations is poor, especially for individuals over the age of 40 years. This is the first study to show that body size influences skeletal age estimation. The İşcan et al., Lovejoy et al., Buckberry and Chamberlain, and Suchey-Brooks age methods were tested on 764 adult skeletons from the Hamann-Todd and William Bass Collections. Statures ranged from 1.30 to 1.93 m and body masses ranged from 24.0 to 99.8 kg. Transition analysis was used to evaluate the differences in the age estimations. For all four methods, the smallest individuals have the lowest ages at transition and the largest individuals have the highest ages at transition. Short and light individuals are consistently underaged, while tall and heavy individuals are consistently overaged. When femoral length and femoral head diameter are compared with the log-age model, results show the same trend as the known stature and body mass measurements. The skeletal remains of underweight individuals have fewer age markers while those of obese individuals have increased surface degeneration and osteophytic lipping. Tissue type and mechanical loading have been shown to affect bone turnover rates, and may explain the differing patterns of skeletal aging. From an archaeological perspective, the underaging of light, short individuals suggests the need to revisit the current research consensus on the young mortality rates of past populations. From a forensic perspective, understanding the influence of body size will impact efforts to identify victims of mass disasters, genocides, and homicides.

  16. Vaginal Self-Swab Specimen Collection in a Home-Based Survey of Older Women: Methods and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Joscelyn N.; Lundeen, Katie; Jaszczak, Angela; McClintock, Martha K.; Jordan, Jeanne A.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To describe the methods used for, cooperation with, assays conducted on, and applications of vaginal specimens collected by older women in their homes. Methods Community-residing women (N = 1,550), ages 57–85 years, participated in a nationally representative probability survey. Vaginal self-swab specimen collection and in-home interviews were conducted between 2005 and 2006. Specimens were analyzed for bacterial vaginosis (BV), vaginal candidiasis (VC), high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV), and cytological characteristics. Field methods, consent procedures, the swab protocol, laboratory procedures, and results reporting are described. Results One thousand twenty-eight respondents (67.5% weighted) agreed to provide a vaginal specimen; 99.1% were successful. The specimen adequacy rates were BV and VC, 94.1%; HR-HPV, 99.7%; and cytology, 85.5%. The most common recorded reason for nonparticipation was a physical or health problem (38% of nonresponders). Responders were significantly more likely than nonresponders to be younger and more educated, and were more likely to report a recent pelvic examination, menopausal hormone use, and recent sexual activity. Discussion Collection of vaginal self-swab specimens from older women in a population-based study is feasible and provides novel data on microenvironmental characteristics of the female genital tract relevant to analyses of gynecologic health, sexual activity and problems, and immune and inflammatory function. PMID:19204072

  17. A Mixed-Method Analysis of African-American Women's Attendance at an HIV Prevention Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, R. M.; McKay, M. M.

    2006-01-01

    Grounded in a model of service utilization, this study conceptualizes attendance of African-American women at an HIV prevention intervention as associated with influences across three ecological domains--individual, service (program), and social network. First, the texts of responses to semistructured, open-ended elicitation interviews were…

  18. HIV seroprevalence surveys of childbearing women — objectives, methods, and uses of the data

    PubMed Central

    Pappaioanou, Marguerite; George, J. Richard; Hannon, W. Harry; Gwinn, Marta; Dondero, Timothy J.; Grady, George F.; Hoff, Rodney; Willoughby, Anne D.; Wright, Audrey; Novello, Antonia C.; Curran, James W.

    1990-01-01

    A seroprevalence survey of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among childbearing women is being conducted in 43 States and Territories as one of the family of HIV seroprevalence surveys. This blinded survey, in which serologic test results are not linked to identifiable persons, uses neonatal dried blood specimens on filter paper to test for maternal antibodies to HIV. This survey provides relatively unbiased estimates of prevalence of HIV infection in the population of women delivering live children during given survey periods, by month or quarter of delivery, geographic area, and demographic subgroup. This objective will be met while protecting the integrity and efficient conduct of neonatal screening programs and ensuring patient anonymity. Information from this survey will be used to (a) assess the levels and trends of HIV infection in women and infants, (b) help develop and evaluate prevention programs, and (c) project the number of women and children who will develop HIV infection and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and will require health care and social services in the future. PMID:2108460

  19. Media Literacy as an Educational Method for Addressing College Women's Body Image Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Karen L.; Alexander, Susan M.

    2007-01-01

    This study assesses the effectiveness of media literacy in the college classroom by comparing two modalities of learning, watching a video versus reading a text. The research questions guiding this project are: as teachers can we facilitate critical awareness among our students in order to alter the way women appropriate media images to evaluate…

  20. Field method to measure changes in percent body fat of young women: The TIGER Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Body mass index (BMI), waist (W) and hip (H) circumference (C) are commonly used to assess changes in body composition for field research. We developed a model to estimate changes in dual energy X-ray absorption (DXA) percent fat (% fat) from these variables with a diverse sample of young women fro...

  1. Identifying Dyslexia in Adults: An Iterative Method Using the Predictive Value of Item Scores and Self-Report Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamboer, Peter; Vorst, Harrie C. M.; Oort, Frans J.

    2014-01-01

    Methods for identifying dyslexia in adults vary widely between studies. Researchers have to decide how many tests to use, which tests are considered to be the most reliable, and how to determine cut-off scores. The aim of this study was to develop an objective and powerful method for diagnosing dyslexia. We took various methodological measures,…

  2. Determination of Knowledge and Behavior of Women Working at a Hospital on Breast Cancer Early Detection Methods, and Investigation of Efficiency of Planned Education

    PubMed Central

    Açıkgöz, Ayla; Çehreli, Rüksan; Ellidokuz, Hülya

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to evaluate knowledge and attitude of women working in the hospital on breast cancer, their behaviors related to early diagnostic methods, and to determine the effectiveness of training in order to increase awareness on breast cancer. Materials and Methods The study group consisted of women working in the Dokuz Eylül University Hospital. The data of this cross-sectional study were collected by a questionnaire. Within the scope of this study, a training program on breast cancer was organized. The effectiveness of this training was evaluated by a preliminary survey and a final survey. Data were expressed as number and percentage, and paired t test and chi-square test were used for comparison. Results 161 women participated in the study with a mean age of 35 ± 8. It was determined that 81.4% of women knew early diagnosis and screening methods for breast cancer. 49.1% of women stated that they perform breast self-examination, but only 6.2% practiced it once a month. 32.9% of women had clinical breast examination, 22.4% had a breast ultrasound, and 22.3% had mammography. Most of the women did not perform any of these methods. The average knowledge level of women was significantly increased after completion of the planned training as compared to pre-training levels (p <0.001). Conclusion It was determined that the majority of women were informed on breast cancer early diagnosis and screening methods, but did not practice these methods on themselves. Information and awareness of women against breast cancer have increased with the use of planned training programs on breast cancer, early detection and screening methods.

  3. Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluating Dialkylcarbamoyl Chloride Impregnated Dressings for the Prevention of Surgical Site Infections in Adult Women Undergoing Cesarean Section

    PubMed Central

    Bizoń, Magdalena; Cendrowski, Krzysztof; Sawicki, Włodzimierz

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Surgical site infections (SSI) occur in 1.8%–9.2% of women undergoing cesarean section (CS) and lead to greater morbidity rates and increased treatment costs. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of dialkylcarbamoyl chloride (DACC) impregnated dressings to prevent SSI in women subject to CS. Methods: Randomized, controlled trial was conducted at the Mazovian Bródno Hospital, a tertiary care center performing approximately 1300 deliveries per year, between June 2014 and April 2015. Patients were randomly allocated to receive either DACC impregnated dressing or standard surgical dressing (SSD) following skin closure. In order to analyze cost-effectiveness of the selected dressings in the group of patients who developed SSI, the costs of ambulatory visits, additional hospitalization, nursing care, and systemic antibiotic therapy were assessed. Independent risk factors for SSI were determined by multivariable logistic regression. Results: Five hundred and forty-three women undergoing elective or emergency CS were enrolled. The SSI rates in the DACC and SSD groups were 1.8% and 5.2%, respectively (p = 0.04). The total cost of SSI prophylaxis and treatment was greater in the control group as compared with the study group (5775 EUR vs. 1065 EUR, respectively). Independent risk factors for SSI included higher pre-pregnancy body mass index (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.08; [95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0–1.2]; p < 0.05), smoking in pregnancy (aOR = 5.34; [95% CI: 1.6–15.4]; p < 0.01), and SSD application (aOR = 2.94; [95% CI: 1.1–9.3]; p < 0.05). Conclusion: The study confirmed the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of DACC impregnated dressings in SSI prevention among women undergoing CS. PMID:26891115

  4. "I Couldn't Wait to Leave the Toxic Environment": A Mixed Methods Study of Women Faculty Satisfaction and Departure from One Research Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Susan K.

    2012-01-01

    A mixed methods analysis of women faculty departure at one research institution was conducted using Hagedorn's model of faculty job satisfaction. Findings from an institution-wide survey and interviews with women faculty who had left the institution resulted in several themes: (a) a lack of resources to support faculty work, (b) a lack of…

  5. Regular consumption of a cereal breakfast. Effects on mood and body image satisfaction in adult non-obese women.

    PubMed

    Lattimore, Paul; Walton, Jenny; Bartlett, Sarah; Hackett, Allan; Stevenson, Leonard

    2010-12-01

    Breakfast has psychological and nutritional benefits due to physiological mechanisms and expectations about health impact. Beliefs people hold about calories in food can adversely affect mood and body-image satisfaction and such adverse reactions can be predicted by body mass index. The objectives were to test the effect of consuming isocaloric breakfasts, appearing different in calorie content, on appetite, mood and body-image satisfaction, and to assess impact on daily nutrient intake. One-hundred-and-twenty-three women were randomly assigned to eat a cereal or muffin breakfast which "appeared" different in calorie content while unaware they were isocaloric. Participants estimated calories of breakfast, appetite, mood, and body-image satisfaction on a daily basis for seven-days. The cereal breakfast was perceived to be lower in calories, made participants fuller, happier, relaxed, and more satisfied about weight and body compared to the muffin breakfast. Differences in estimated daily fibre and micronutrient intake were compatible with the design. Breakfasts were isocaloric yet the cereal breakfast was rated lower in calories and produced more positive psychological reactions. This evidence indicates the power of perceptions of foods to influence important attributes of health and well-being which could be valuable in dietary interventions where mood and body image satisfaction affect outcome.

  6. Linguistic Changes in Expressive Writing Predict Psychological Outcomes in Women With History of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Adult Sexual Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Pulverman, Carey S.; Lorenz, Tierney A.; Meston, Cindy M.

    2015-01-01

    An expressive writing treatment was recently reported to reduce depressive symptoms and improve sexual function and satisfaction in a sample of female survivors of childhood sexual abuse (Meston, Lorenz, & Stephenson, 2013). We conducted a linguistic analysis of this data to determine whether pre-to posttreatment changes in participants’ language use were associated with the improvements in sexuality and depression. Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC), a program that counts the use of word categories within a text, was used to evaluate the impact of several word categories, previously associated with changes in mental health (Frattaroli, 2006), and shown to differ between childhood sexual abuse survivors and nonabused women (Lorenz & Meston, 2012), on treatment outcomes. A reduction in the use of the word “I” and an increase in positive emotion words were associated with decreased depression symptoms. A reduction in the use of “I” and negative emotion words were associated with improvement in sexual function and sexual satisfaction. The findings suggest that, because language may serve as an implicit measure of depression and sexual health, monitoring language changes during treatment may provide a reliable indicator of treatment response free of the biases of traditional self-report assessments. PMID:25793593

  7. Childhood Conscientiousness and Leukocyte Telomere Length 40 Years Later in Adult Women--Preliminary Findings of a Prospective Association.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, Grant W; Côté, Hélène C F; Hampson, Sarah E

    2015-01-01

    Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) shortens with age, and is a prospective marker of mortality related to cardiovascular disease. Many health behaviors and social environmental factors have been found to be associated with LTL. Several of these are also associated with conscientiousness, a dispositional personality trait. Conscientiousness is a propensity to be planful, adhere to social norms, and inhibit pre-potent responses. Like LTL, conscientiousness is prospectively related to mortality, possibly through cumulative effects on health over the life course via multiple pathways. As a result, we hypothesized that childhood levels of conscientiousness would predict LTL prospectively in adulthood. We selected a sample of 60 women in the Hawaii Personality and Health Cohort; 30 described by their teachers as high on conscientiousness in childhood and 30 described as low on the trait. Dried blood spot samples collected in adulthood 40 years later were used as sources of DNA for the LTL assay. Conscientiousness was associated with longer LTL (p = .02). Controlling for age did not account for this association. Controlling for education and physiological dysregulation partially attenuated the association, and the effect remained significant when accounting for differences in LTL across cultural groups. These results represent the first evidence that childhood personality prospectively predicts LTL 40 years later in adulthood. Our findings would be consistent with a mediation hypothesis whereby conscientiousness predicts life paths and trajectories of health that are reflected in rates of LTL erosion across the lifespan.

  8. Assessing the usability of a telemedicine-based Medication Delivery Unit for older adults through inspection methods.

    PubMed

    Ligons, Frank M; Romagnoli, Katrina M; Browell, Suzanne; Hochheiser, Harry S; Handler, Steven M

    2011-01-01

    Polypharmacy and medication non-adherence are common in older adults, potentially leading to medication-related problems and increased healthcare expenditures. Medication Delivery Units (MDUs) may improve adherence, but their interfaces may present usability challenges for older adults with age-related impairments. We used a combination of three inspection methods - heuristic evaluation, cognitive walkthrough, and simulated elderly interaction, to identify potential concerns with the usability of a commercially available telemedicine MDU. Each method revealed different problems, with repeated discoveries via different methods providing triangulated evidence. Despite the MDU's general usability, issues of varying severity were discovered. Significant usability issues associated with physical interactions with the MDU included loading and unloading the medication blister packs, and opening the delivered medication prior to administration. Less severe issues centered on small text sizes and poor user feedback. Further usability testing, involving older adults with a variety of impairments, is needed to validate findings.

  9. Assessing the Usability of a Telemedicine-based Medication Delivery Unit for Older Adults through Inspection Methods

    PubMed Central

    Ligons, Frank M.; Romagnoli, Katrina M.; Browell, Suzanne; Hochheiser, Harry S.; Handler, Steven M.

    2011-01-01

    Polypharmacy and medication non-adherence are common in older adults, potentially leading to medication-related problems and increased healthcare expenditures. Medication Delivery Units (MDUs) may improve adherence, but their interfaces may present usability challenges for older adults with age-related impairments. We used a combination of three inspection methods – heuristic evaluation, cognitive walkthrough, and simulated elderly interaction, to identify potential concerns with the usability of a commercially available telemedicine MDU. Each method revealed different problems, with repeated discoveries via different methods providing triangulated evidence. Despite the MDU’s general usability, issues of varying severity were discovered. Significant usability issues associated with physical interactions with the MDU included loading and unloading the medication blister packs, and opening the delivered medication prior to administration. Less severe issues centered on small text sizes and poor user feedback. Further usability testing, involving older adults with a variety of impairments, is needed to validate findings. PMID:22195137

  10. Premenstrual Syndrome Symptomatology among Married Women of Fertile Age based on Methods of Contraception (Hormonal versus Non-Hormonal Methods of Contraception)

    PubMed Central

    Bakhshani, Nour Mohammad; Hosseinbor, Mohsen; Shahraki, Zahra; Sakhavar, Nahid

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) refers to the cyclic occurrence of a set of disturbing physical, emotional or behavioral alterations that are of sufficient severity to interfere with interpersonal relations and routine life. Normal variations in gonadal estrogen and progesterone lead to biochemical reactions in the brain, resulting in PMS symptoms. This study aims to investigate the prevalence of PMS and PMDD signs among married women of fertile age (MWFA) based on the methods of birth control. Method and Materials: In a descriptive study, a number of 400 married women referring to 20 family healthcare clinics that use contraceptive methods were recruited and PMS questionnaire were administered to them. Results: From 400 subjects, 205 took oral contraceptive pills (hormonal methods of contraception) and 195 used other birth control methods (non-hormonal method). A number of 345 subjects (86.25%) at least experienced one PMS symptom and 55 subjects (13.75%) did not report any symptoms. Of those who use hormonal contraceptives (HCs), 182 (88.8%) reported PMS symptoms and 23(11.2) lacked any symptoms. Conclusion: About 86% of the subjects showed moderate to severe of PMS symptoms. Although using hormonal contraceptive method can theoretically reduce PMS symptoms, such effect was not observed in this study. The results of this research should be generalized with caution. Future studies are suggested. PMID:24576370

  11. Evaluation of a fully automated method to measure the critical removal stress of adult barnacles.

    PubMed

    Conlan, Sheelagh L; Mutton, Robert J; Aldred, Nick; Clare, Anthony S

    2008-01-01

    A computer-controlled force gauge designed to measure the adhesive strength of barnacles on test substrata is described. The instrument was evaluated with adult barnacles grown in situ on Silastic T2(R)-coated microscope slides and epoxy replicas adhered to the same substratum with synthetic adhesive. The force per unit area required to detach the barnacles (critical removal stress) using the new automated system was comparable to that obtained with ASTM D5618 (1994) (0.19 and 0.28 MPa compared with 0.18 and 0.27 MPa for two batches of barnacles). The automated method showed a faster rate of force development compared with the manual spring force gauge used for ASTM D5618 (1994). The new instrument was as accurate and precise at determining surface area as manual delineation used with ASTM D5618 (1994). The method provided significant advantages such as higher throughput speed, the ability to test smaller barnacles (which took less time to grow) and to control the force application angle and speed. The variability in measurements was lower than previously reported, suggesting an improved ability to compare the results obtained by different researchers.

  12. The establishment of tocopherol reference intervals for Hungarian adult population using a validated HPLC method.

    PubMed

    Veres, Gábor; Szpisjak, László; Bajtai, Attila; Siska, Andrea; Klivényi, Péter; Ilisz, István; Földesi, Imre; Vécsei, László; Zádori, Dénes

    2017-02-09

    Evidence suggests that decreased α-tocopherol (the most biologically active substance in the vitamin E group) level can cause neurological symptoms, most likely ataxia. The aim of the current study was to first provide reference intervals for serum tocopherols in the adult Hungarian population with appropriate sample size, recruiting healthy control subjects and neurological patients suffering from conditions without symptoms of ataxia, myopathy or cognitive deficiency. A validated HPLC method applying a diode array detector and rac-tocol as internal standard was utilized for that purpose. Furthermore, serum cholesterol levels were determined as well for data normalization. The calculated 2.5-97.5% reference intervals for α-, β/γ- and δ-tocopherols were 24.62-54.67, 0.81-3.69 and 0.29-1.07 μm, respectively, whereas the tocopherol/cholesterol ratios were 5.11-11.27, 0.14-0.72 and 0.06-0.22 μmol/mmol, respectively. The establishment of these reference intervals may improve the diagnostic accuracy of tocopherol measurements in certain neurological conditions with decreased tocopherol levels. Moreover, the current study draws special attention to the possible pitfalls in the complex process of the determination of reference intervals as well, including the selection of study population, the application of internal standard and method validation and the calculation of tocopherol/cholesterol ratios.

  13. Childhood animal cruelty methods and their link to adult interpersonal violence.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Brandy B; Hensley, Christopher; Tallichet, Suzanne E

    2011-07-01

    Recent research has begun to establish a relationship between childhood acts of animal cruelty and later violence against humans. However, few studies have focused on the influence of animal cruelty methods on later interpersonal violence. In a replication of a study by Hensley and Tallichet (2009) and based on a sample of 180 inmates at medium- and maximum-security prisons in a Southern state, the present study examines the relationship between several retrospectively identified animal cruelty methods (drowned, hit, shot, kicked, choked, burned, and sex) and interpersonal violence committed against humans. Four out of 5 inmates reported hitting animals. Over one third of the sample chose to shoot or kick animals, while 1 in 5 had sex with them. Less then one fifth of the sample drowned or choked animals, while less than one sixth of the inmates burned animals. Regression analyses revealed that the age at which offenders began committing animal cruelty and having sex with animals were predictive of adult interpersonal violence.

  14. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): a proposal for standardization of the classical method in adults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Correa, C. H.; Caicedo-Eraso, J. C.

    2012-12-01

    The accuracy of BIA measurements is limited by different sources of error such as physical model, cross sectional area, ethnicity, body hydration, age and level of body fat among other variables. Equation for each population is required as they can produce overestimation when manufacturer's equations are used. The classical measurements hand to foot has shown better correlation against hydrodensitometry than foot to foot or hand to hand. However there is a lack for an accepted standard of BIA procedures. This is compounded when there is not a good report of the BIA study's methodology; hence the comparability between the results is poor and reduces the reliability of the method. Perhaps, standardization of methods would be the first step for BIA studies to move forward and subsequently improve its accuracy. Standardized procedures could also minimize the impact of these variables on studies results. The aim of this study was to propose a protocol as a checklist to standardize BIA procedures and produce comparable results from future studies performed with the classic hand-foot configuration in adults.

  15. A simple method to obtain pure cultures of multiciliated ependymal cells from adult rodents.

    PubMed

    Grondona, J M; Granados-Durán, P; Fernández-Llebrez, P; López-Ávalos, M D

    2013-01-01

    Ependymal cells form an epithelium lining the ventricular cavities of the vertebrate brain. Numerous methods to obtain primary culture ependymal cells have been developed. Most of them use foetal or neonatal rat brain and the few that utilize adult brain hardly achieve purity. Here, we describe a simple and novel method to obtain a pure non-adherent ependymal cell culture from explants of the striatal and septal walls of the lateral ventricles. The combination of a low incubation temperature followed by a gentle enzymatic digestion allows the detachment of most of the ependymal cells from the ventricular wall in a period of 6 h. Along with ependymal cells, a low percentage (less than 6 %) of non-ependymal cells also detaches. However, they do not survive under two restrictive culture conditions: (1) a simple medium (alpha-MEM with glucose) without any supplement; and (2) a low density of 1 cell/µl. This purification method strategy does not require cell labelling with antibodies and cell sorting, which makes it a simpler and cheaper procedure than other methods previously described. After a period of 48 h, only ependymal cells survive such conditions, revealing the remarkable survival capacity of ependymal cells. Ependymal cells can be maintained in culture for up to 7-10 days, with the best survival rates obtained in Neurobasal supplemented with B27 among the tested media. After 7 days in culture, ependymal cells lose most of the cilia and therefore the mobility, while acquiring radial glial cell markers (GFAP, BLBP, GLAST). This interesting fact might indicate a reprogramming of the cell identity.

  16. Inflammation in adult women with a history of child maltreatment: The involvement of mitochondrial alterations and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Boeck, Christina; Koenig, Alexandra Maria; Schury, Katharina; Geiger, Martha Leonie; Karabatsiakis, Alexander; Wilker, Sarah; Waller, Christiane; Gündel, Harald; Fegert, Jörg Michael; Calzia, Enrico; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana

    2016-09-01

    The experience of maltreatment during childhood is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation in adulthood. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this pro-inflammatory phenotype remain unclear. Mitochondria were recently found to principally coordinate inflammatory processes via both inflammasome activation and inflammasome-independent pathways. To this end, we hypothesized that alterations in immune cell mitochondrial functioning and oxidative stress might be at the interface between the association of maltreatment experiences during childhood and inflammation. We analyzed pro-inflammatory biomarkers (levels of C-reactive protein, cytokine secretion by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in vitro, PBMC composition, lysophosphatidylcholine levels), serum oxidative stress levels (arginine:citrulline ratio, l-carnitine and acetylcarnitine levels) and mitochondrial functioning (respiratory activity and density of mitochondria in PBMC) in peripheral blood samples collected from 30 women (aged 22-44years) with varying degrees of maltreatment experiences in form of abuse and neglect during childhood. Exposure to maltreatment during childhood was associated with an increased ROS production, higher levels of oxidative stress and an increased mitochondrial activity in a dose-response relationship. Moreover, the increase in mitochondrial activity and ROS production were positively associated with the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines by PBMC. Decreased serum levels of lysophosphatidylcholines suggested higher inflammasome activation with increasing severity of child maltreatment experiences. Together these findings offer preliminary evidence for the association of alterations in immune cell mitochondrial functioning, oxidative stress and the pro-inflammatory phenotype observed in individuals with a history of maltreatment during childhood. The results emphasize that the early prevention of child abuse and neglect warrants more attention, as the

  17. A National Study: the Effect of Egyptian Married Women's Decision-Making Autonomy on the use of Modern Family Planning Methods.

    PubMed

    AlSumri, Hana H

    2015-12-01

    Contraceptive use is vital in protecting the health of women and the survival of their children. This study aims to test whether women's autonomy influences their use of modern contraception methods and to determine the mediating effect of education and employment. A cross sectional study using Egypt's 2008 demographic and health survey was carried out including a sample of 13,734 married women aged 15-49 years. Women's decision-making autonomy score was obtained from 5 questions on who has the final say on various household decisions. Household decision-making autonomy was significantly associated with current modern contraceptive use. Women with intermediate and high autonomy were 1.19 (95%CI 1.04-1.35) and 1.32 (95% CI 1.18-1.49) more likely to use modern contraception methods compared to women with low autonomy. Women's education and employment did not mediate this relation. This study supports the evidence of the positive role of women's autonomy on their uptake of contraceptive methods and this is an independent role and not explained by their educational or employment status.

  18. ADULT EDUCATION OF MIGRANT ADULTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BEAL, CATHERINE; AND OTHERS

    UNITS ON MIGRANT ADULT EDUCATION, AND A UNIT ON ORGANIZING INFORMAL GROUPS OF MIGRANT WOMEN TO DISCUSS MAINTAINING AND IMPROVING THEIR TEMPORARY HOMES, ARE PRESENTED. THE GOALS OF THE UNIT ON EDUCATION FOR MIGRANT MEN ARE ECONOMIC INDEPENDENCE, BETTER HEALTH AND WELL-BEING, AND BETTER HANDLING OF RESPONSIBILITIES. THE MAIN DIVISIONS OF THE…

  19. Affect Recognition in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Meghan; Hanford, Russell B.; Fassbender, Catherine; Duke, Marshall; Schweitzer, Julie B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study compared affect recognition abilities between adults with and without ADHD. Method: The sample consisted of 51 participants (34 men, 17 women) divided into 3 groups: ADHD-combined type (ADHD-C; n = 17), ADHD-predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-I; n = 16), and controls (n = 18). The mean age was 34 years. Affect recognition…

  20. Participation in the Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Program as Reported by Documented and Undocumented Farm Worker Adults in the Households.

    PubMed

    Leigh, J Paul; Medel-Herrero, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    Debate surrounds the provision of Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) benefits to undocumented immigrants. Few studies are available to estimate use of WIC services by documented and undocumented households using nationally representative data. The authors analyzed data from the National Agricultural Workers Survey (NAWS) annual cross-sections from 1993 through 2009 (N = 40,896 person-years). Household documentation status is defined by the status of the adults in the household, not children. Simple mean differences, logistic regressions, and time charts described household participation in WIC over 2-year intervals. Without adjustments for covariates, 10.7% of undocumented farm workers' households and 12.4% of documented households received WIC benefits, yielding an odds ratio of 0.84 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.76-0.94). Logistic regressions revealed that for the same number of children in the household, participation by undocumented persons was higher than participation by documented persons. Time charts and logistic regressions with interaction terms showed a stronger correspondence between participation in WIC and number of children <6 years old in undocumented households than documented households. Undocumented farm workers' households were only a little less likely to participate in WIC than documented farm workers' households, and undocumented households' participation was especially responsive to the presence of children. These results are consistent with the legal requirements for WIC participation, which do not distinguish between documented and undocumented households. These results may be helpful in the debate surrounding the effects of undocumented workers on WIC participation and costs.

  1. The impact of an educational program based on BASNEF model on the selection of a contraceptive method in women

    PubMed Central

    Sarayloo, Khadijeh; Moghadam, Zahra Behboodi; Mansoure, Jamshidi Manesh; Mostafa, Hosseini; Mohsen, Saffari

    2015-01-01

    Background: Quality of services, making communications with target groups, and educating them are among the most important success factors in implementation of family planning programs. Provision of public access to contraception and related methods, counseling services, and paying attention to social specification and cultures are important in promotion of service quality. With regard to applicability of health education theories and models, the present study aimed to find the impact of an educational program based on BASNEF model to choose contraceptive methods in women referring to health care centers in Minoodasht in 2012. Materials and Methods: This is a quasi-experimental study. Data were collected using BASNEF questionnaire by the researcher from women referring to health care centers in two groups of study and control (n = 100 in each group). Educational intervention (in the form of four educational 1-h sessions once a week during 1 month and two additional review sessions) was conducted in the form of group and face-to-face discussions and educational booklets were distributed. Data were analyzed by Chi-square, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), paired t-test, and t-test through SPSS version 14. Results: After intervention, mean score of knowledge was significantly higher in the study group compared to control (P < 0.003). Intervention led to a better attitude in the study group (P < 0.0001). Mean score of subjective norms and enabling factors after intervention was significantly higher in the study group compared to control (P < 0.0001). The change in practice had a significant increase in the study group (54%) compared to control (9%). Conclusions: BASNEF-based educational intervention was effective in increasing women's knowledge, attitude, and practice. As family and educational facilities are among the influencing factors on contraceptive method selection, interventional planning is hoped to be based on educational model. PMID:25878691

  2. Comparison of Postprandial Lipemia between Women who are on Oral Contraceptive Methods and Those who are not

    PubMed Central

    Petto, Jefferson; Vasques, Leila Monique Reis; Pinheiro, Renata Leão; Giesta, Beatriz de Almeida; dos Santos, Alan Carlos Nery; Gomes Neto, Mansueto; Ladeia, Ana Marice Teixeira

    2014-01-01

    Background: Postprandial Lipemia (PPL) is a physiological process that reflects the ability of the body to metabolize lipids. Even though the influence of oral contraceptives (OC) on PPL is not known, it is a known fact that their use increases fasting lipid values. Objective: To compare the PPL between women who are on OC and those who are not. Methods: A prospective analytical study which assessed eutrophic women, aged between 18 and 28 years old, who were irregularly active and with fasting triglycerides ≤150 mg/dL. They were divided into two groups: oral contraceptive group (COG) and non-oral contraceptive group (NCOG). Volunteers were submitted to the PPL test, in which blood samples were collected in time 0 (12-hour fasting) and after the intake of lipids in times 180 and 240 minutes. In order to compare the triglyceride deltas, which reflect PPL, the two-tailed Mann-Whitney test was used for independent samples between fasting collections and 180 minutes (∆1) and between fasting and 240 minutes (∆2). Results: Forty women were assessed and equally divided between groups. In the fasting lipid profile, it was observed that HDL did not present significant differences and that triglycerides in COG were twice as high in comparison to NCOG. Medians of ∆1 and ∆2 presented significant differences in both comparisons (p ≤0.05). Conclusion: The results point out that women who are irregularly active and use OC present more PPL in relation to those who do not use OC, which suggests that in this population, its chronic use increases the risk of heart conditions. PMID:25317941

  3. Relation between anthropometric and cephalometric measurements and proportions of the face of healthy young white adult men and women.

    PubMed

    Budai, Maria; Farkas, Leslie G; Tompson, Bryan; Katic, Marko; Forrest, Christopher R

    2003-03-01

    The specific aim of this study was to determine the differences between 6 anthropometric (taken from the surface) and cephalometric (taken from x-rays) measurements and 12 proportion indices formed by the measurements obtained from the face of 51 healthy Caucasoid young adult males and females. The z-score analysis revealed negligible differences in frequency of normal values, in surface measurements 97.4% (298 of 306) versus 96.7% (296 of 306) in cephalometric ones. The optimal normal measurements dominated, in males in 76.8% and in females in 80.8%. The mean values of the 6 linear measurements, taken from the surface and the cephalogram of the face were in equal number similar and significantly dissimilar in both sexes (Table 1). Comparison of the mean anthropometric and cephalometric proportion indices did not show significant differences in the two sexes (Table 2). For males 50% of the 12 proportions the indices were similar and 50% were significantly different. For females the frequency of similar proportions was seen in 33.3% and in 66.7% moderately-severely differing, statistically not significant. The z-score analysis identified subnormal measurements on the facial surface in 2.6% (8 of 306) and in cephalometric ones in 3.3% (10 of 306). The subnormal measurements of mild and moderate degree disclosed on the skeleton were not detected on the surface and some of the severely subnormal ones became mild-moderate on the skin surface. The study showed that the vertical anthropometric and cephalometric measurements in the facial profile were in highly significant percentage normal when compared with their normative data established for healthy populations. Generally, the cephalometric normal measurements were smaller than those of the anthropometric ones, some of them significantly. The significant differences between the proportions on the surface and skeleton in healthy subjects advice to be cautious in clinical practice, to judge the morphological changes of

  4. Evaluation of Adult Chronic Chagas' Heart Disease Diagnosis by Molecular and Serological Methods

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez, Juan David; Guhl, Felipe; Umezawa, Eufrosina Setsu; Morillo, Carlos A.; Rosas, Fernando; Marin-Neto, Jose A.; Restrepo, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    Chagas' disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi is endemic in Latin America. T. cruzi presents heterogeneous populations and comprises two main genetic lineages, named T. cruzi I and T. cruzi II. Diagnosis in the chronic phase is based on conventional serological tests, including indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and diagnosis in the acute phase based on parasitological methods, including hemoculture. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic procedures of Chagas' disease in adult patients in the chronic phase by using a PCR assay and conventional serological tests, including TESA-blot as the gold standard. Samples were obtained from 240 clinical chronic chagasic patients. The sensitivities, compared to that of TESA-blot, were 70% for PCR using the kinetoplast region, 75% for PCR using the nuclear repetitive region, 99% for IIF, and 95% for ELISA. According to the serological tests results, we recommend that researchers assess the reliability and sensitivity of the commercial kit Chagatest ELISA recombinant, version 3.0 (Chagatest Rec v3.0; Wiener Lab, Rosario, Argentina), due to the lack of sensitivity. Based on our analysis, we concluded that PCR cannot be validated as a conventional diagnostic technique for Chagas' disease. These data have been corroborated by low levels of concordance with serology test results. It is recommended that PCR be used only for alternative diagnostic support. Using the nuclear repetitive region of T. cruzi, PCR could also be applicable for monitoring patients receiving etiologic treatment. PMID:19846646

  5. A simple method for imaging axonal transport in ageing neurons using the adult Drosophila wing

    PubMed Central

    Vagnoni, Alessio; Bullock, Simon L.

    2016-01-01

    There is growing interest in the link between axonal cargo transport and age-associated neuronal dysfunction. Studying axonal transport in neurons of adult animals requires intravital or ex vivo imaging approaches, which are laborious and expensive in vertebrate models. We describe simple, non-invasive procedures for imaging cargo motility within axons using sensory neurons of the translucent Drosophila wing. A key aspect is a method for mounting the intact fly that allows detailed imaging of transport in wing neurons. Coupled with existing genetic tools in Drosophila, this is a tractable system for studying axonal transport over the lifespan of an animal and thus for characterising the relationship between cargo dynamics, neuronal ageing and disease. Preparation of a sample for imaging takes approximately 5 minutes, with transport typically filmed for 2–3 minutes per wing. We also document procedures for quantifying transport parameters from the acquired images and describe how the protocol can be adapted to study other cell biological processes in ageing neurons. PMID:27560175

  6. A simple method for imaging axonal transport in aging neurons using the adult Drosophila wing.

    PubMed

    Vagnoni, Alessio; Bullock, Simon L

    2016-09-01

    There is growing interest in the link between axonal cargo transport and age-associated neuronal dysfunction. The study of axonal transport in neurons of adult animals requires intravital or ex vivo imaging approaches, which are laborious and expensive in vertebrate models. We describe simple, noninvasive procedures for imaging cargo motility within axons using sensory neurons of the translucent Drosophila wing. A key aspect is a method for mounting the intact fly that allows detailed imaging of transport in wing neurons. Coupled with existing genetic tools in Drosophila, this is a tractable system for studying axonal transport over the life span of an animal and thus for characterization of the relationship between cargo dynamics, neuronal aging and disease. Preparation of a sample for imaging takes ∼5 min, with transport typically filmed for 2-3 min per wing. We also document procedures for the quantification of transport parameters from the acquired images and describe how the protocol can be adapted to study other cell biological processes in aging neurons.

  7. Drug-Intake Methods and Social Identity: The Use of Marijuana in Blunts among Southeast Asian Adolescents and Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soller, Brian; Lee, Juliet P.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines why Southeast Asian American adolescents and emerging adults in two urban settings prefer to use "blunts," or hollowed-out cigars filled with marijuana, over other methods of drug intake. Rationales for preferring blunts were both instrumental and social. Blunts allowed users to more easily share marijuana, the preferred drug…

  8. Application of Theories, Principles and Methods of Adult Learning for Managers to Improve Workplace Reactions to Learning, Knowledge and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steier, E. Joseph, III

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this dissertation was to explore the concept that knowledge and application of theories, principles and methods of adult learning to teaching may be a core management competency needed for companies to improve employee reaction to learning, knowledge transfer and behavior as well as engagement, retention and profitability.…

  9. Employment Status and Income Generation among Homeless Young Adults: Results from a Five-City, Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Kristin M.; Bender, Kimberly; Thompson, Sanna J.; Maccio, Elaine M.; Pollio, David

    2012-01-01

    This mixed-methods study identified correlates of unemployment among homeless young adults in five cities. Two hundred thirty-eight homeless young people from Los Angeles (n = 50), Austin (n = 50), Denver (n = 50), New Orleans (n = 50), and St. Louis (n = 38) were recruited using comparable sampling strategies. Multivariate logistic regression…

  10. Perceptions of Teaching and Learning in an Intergenerational Classroom: A Mixed Methods Study of Traditional and Returning Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robison, Macela

    2012-01-01

    Today's colleges and universities are inundated with both traditional students and returning adult students, including baby boomers and retirees (Hardin, 2008). This study utilized a mixed methods research methodology to explore and analyze the perceptions of faculty members and students regarding the learning characteristics and learning…

  11. A Mixed Flavonoid-Fish Oil Supplement Induces Immune-Enhancing and Anti-Inflammatory Transcriptomic Changes in Adult Obese and Overweight Women-A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Cialdella-Kam, Lynn; Nieman, David C; Knab, Amy M; Shanely, R Andrew; Meaney, Mary Pat; Jin, Fuxia; Sha, Wei; Ghosh, Sujoy

    2016-05-11

    Flavonoids and fish oils have anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating influences. The purpose of this study was to determine if a mixed flavonoid-fish oil supplement (Q-Mix; 1000 mg quercetin, 400 mg isoquercetin, 120 mg epigallocatechin (EGCG) from green tea extract, 400 mg n3-PUFAs (omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid) (220 mg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 180 mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) from fish oil, 1000 mg vitamin C, 40 mg niacinamide, and 800 µg folic acid) would reduce complications associated with obesity; that is, reduce inflammatory and oxidative stress markers and alter genomic profiles in overweight women. Overweight and obese women (n = 48; age = 40-70 years) were assigned to Q-Mix or placebo groups using randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled procedures. Overnight fasted blood samples were collected at 0 and 10 weeks and analyzed for cytokines, C-reactive protein (CRP), F₂-isoprostanes, and whole-blood-derived mRNA, which was assessed using Affymetrix HuGene-1_1 ST arrays. Statistical analysis included two-way ANOVA models for blood analytes and gene expression and pathway and network enrichment methods for gene expression. Plasma levels increased with Q-Mix supplementation by 388% for quercetin, 95% for EPA, 18% for DHA, and 20% for docosapentaenoic acid (DPA). Q-Mix did not alter plasma levels for CRP (p = 0.268), F2-isoprostanes (p = 0.273), and cytokines (p > 0.05). Gene set enrichment analysis revealed upregulation of pathways in Q-Mix vs. placebo related to interferon-induced antiviral mechanism (false discovery rate, FDR < 0.001). Overrepresentation analysis further disclosed an inhibition of phagocytosis-related inflammatory pathways in Q-Mix vs. placebo. Thus, a 10-week Q-Mix supplementation elicited a significant rise in plasma quercetin, EPA, DHA, and DPA, as well as stimulated an antiviral and inflammation whole-blood transcriptomic response in overweight women.

  12. Aspects of eating behaviors disinhibition and restraint are related to weight gain and BMI in women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: The causes of adult weight gain leading to obesity are uncertain. We examined the association of adult weight gain and obesity with subscales of eating behavior characteristics in older women. Research Methods and Procedures: Current height and weight, eating behavior subscales (Disinh...

  13. Evaluation of limited sampling methods for estimation of tacrolimus exposure in adult kidney transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Barraclough, Katherine A; Isbel, Nicole M; Kirkpatrick, Carl M; Lee, Katie J; Taylor, Paul J; Johnson, David W; Campbell, Scott B; Leary, Diana R; Staatz, Christine E

    2011-01-01

    AIMS To examine the predictive performance of limited sampling methods for estimation of tacrolimus exposure in adult kidney transplant recipients. METHODS Twenty full tacrolimus area under the concentration–time curve from 0 to 12 h post-dose (AUC0–12) profiles (AUCf) were collected from 20 subjects. Predicted tacrolimus AUC0–12 (AUCp) was calculated using the following: (i) 42 multiple regression-derived limited sampling strategies (LSSs); (ii) five population pharmacokinetic (PK) models in the Bayesian forecasting program TCIWorks; and (iii) a Web-based consultancy service. Correlations (r2) between C0 and AUCf and between AUCp and AUCf were examined. Median percentage prediction error (MPPE) and median absolute percentage prediction error (MAPE) were calculated. RESULTS Correlation between C0 and AUCf was 0.53. Using the 42 LSS equations, correlation between AUCp and AUCf ranged from 0.54 to 0.99. The MPPE and MAPE were <15% for 29 of 42 equations (62%), including five of eight equations based on sampling taken ≤2 h post-dose. Using the PK models in TCIWorks, AUCp derived from only C0 values showed poor correlation with AUCf (r2 = 0.27–0.54) and unacceptable imprecision (MAPE 17.5–31.6%). In most cases, correlation, bias and imprecision estimates progressively improved with inclusion of a greater number of concentration time points. When concentration measurements at 0, 1, 2 and 4 h post-dose were applied, correlation between AUCp and AUCf ranged from 0.75 to 0.93, and MPPE and MAPE were <15% for all models examined. Using the Web-based consultancy service, correlation between AUCp and AUCf was 0.74, and MPPE and MAPE were 6.6 and 9.6%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Limited sampling methods better predict tacrolimus exposure compared with C0 measurement. Several LSSs based on sampling taken 2 h or less post-dose predicted exposure with acceptable bias and imprecision. Generally, Bayesian forecasting methods required inclusion of a concentration

  14. Accessing Sexual and Reproductive Health Information and Services: A Mixed Methods Study of Young Women's Needs and Experiences in Soweto, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Lince-Deroche, Naomi; Hargey, Adila; Holt, Kelsey; Shochet, Tara

    2015-03-01

    Young women and girls in South Africa are at high risk of unintended pregnancy and HIV. Previous studies have reported barriers to contraceptive and other sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services among young women in this context. We aimed to assess young women's SRH knowledge and experiences and to determine how they get SRH information and services in Soweto, South Africa using quantitative and qualitative methods. Young women, aged 18-24, recruited from primary health clinics and a shopping mall, reported that they have access to SRH information and know where to obtain services. However there are challenges to accessing and utilizing information and services including providers' unsupportive attitudes, uneven power dynamics in relationships and communication issues with parents and community members. There is a need to assist young women in understanding the significance of SRH information. They need access to age-appropriate, youth-friendly services in order to have healthy sexual experiences.

  15. Childhood Sexual Abuse: Long-Term Effects on Psychological and Sexual Functioning in a Nonclinical and Nonstudent Sample of Adult Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwald, Evan; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Comparison of psychological and sexual functioning of 54 women sexually abused as children and 54 nonabused women found no differences in self-esteem, but abused women reported more symptoms of distress and psychological symptoms previously associated with sexual abuse. No differences in self-reported sexual satisfaction or dysfunction were found.…

  16. Estimation of effective doses to adult and pediatric patients from multislice computed tomography: A method based on energy imparted

    SciTech Connect

    Theocharopoulos, Nicholas; Damilakis, John; Perisinakis, Kostas; Tzedakis, Antonis; Karantanas, Apostolos; Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas

    2006-10-15

    The purpose of this study is to provide a method and required data for the estimation of effective dose (E) values to adult and pediatric patients from computed tomography (CT) scans of the head, chest abdomen, and pelvis, performed on multi-slice scanners. Mean section radiation dose (d{sub m}) to cylindrical water phantoms of varying radius normalized over CT dose index free-in-air (CTDI{sub F}) were calculated for the head and body scanning modes of a multislice scanner with use of Monte Carlo techniques. Patients were modeled as equivalent water phantoms and the energy imparted ({epsilon}) to simulated pediatric and adult patients was calculated on the basis of measured CTDI{sub F} values. Body region specific energy imparted to effective dose conversion coefficients (E/{epsilon}) for adult male and female patients were generated from previous data. Effective doses to patients aged newborn to adult were derived for all available helical and axial beam collimations, taking into account age specific patient mass and scanning length. Depending on high voltage, body region, and patient sex, E/{epsilon} values ranged from 0.008 mSv/mJ for head scans to 0.024 mSv/mJ for chest scans. When scanned with the same technique factors as the adults, pediatric patients absorb as little as 5% of the energy imparted to adults, but corresponding effective dose values are up to a factor of 1.6 higher. On average, pediatric patients absorb 44% less energy per examination but have a 24% higher effective dose, compared with adults. In clinical practice, effective dose values to pediatric patients are 2.5 to 10 times lower than in adults due to the adaptation of tube current. A method is provided for the calculation of effective dose to adult and pediatric patients on the basis of individual patient characteristics such as sex, mass, dimensions, and density of imaged anatomy, and the technical features of modern multislice scanners. It allows the optimum selection of scanning

  17. Effects of Ozone on Exercising and Sedentary Adult Men and Women Representative of the Flight Attendant Population

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-01

    SECTION V ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECTS OF OZONE ON 53 COMPONENTS OF THE BLOOD by J. M. McKenzie Introduction 53 Methods 53 Erythrocyte Osmotic Fragility 54...of Exposure to High Ozone Concentrations for Two Hours, AMA ARCH. IND. HEALTH, 15:108, 1957. 8. Higgins, E. Arnold, W. Dean Chiles, Jess M. McKenzie ...EFFECTS OF OZONE ON COMPONENTS OF THE BLOOD J. M. McKenzie Introduction. In the blood, as in other biological systems, the deleterious effects of ozone

  18. Energy expenditure of Gambian women during peak agricultural activity measured by the doubly-labelled water method.

    PubMed

    Singh, J; Prentice, A M; Diaz, E; Coward, W A; Ashford, J; Sawyer, M; Whitehead, R G

    1989-09-01

    The doubly-labelled water (2H218O) method was used to measure total energy expenditure (TEE) in ten non-pregnant, non-lactating (NPNL), six pregnant (P) and fourteen lactating (L) women in a rural Gambian community. Measurements were made on free-living subjects at a period of peak energetic stress when high agricultural work loads coincided with a hungary season to induce moderately severe negative energy balance. TEE averaged 10.42 (SD 2.08) MJ/d, equivalent to 1.95 (SD 0.38) times resting metabolic rate (RMR). The energy cost of physical activity plus thermogenesis, derived as TEE-RMR, averaged 4.94 (SD 1.96) MJ/d. Expressed per kg body-weight (103 kJ/kg per d) this component of expenditure was 2.5 times greater than comparative values from inactive, affluent women studied previously (39 kJ/kg per d). Estimated energy intake (EI) in a subset of the women (n 13) was only 4.80 (SD 1.58) MJ/d, yielding an apparent deficit of 6.08 MJ/d between EI and TEE. Weight changes suggested that endogenous fat oxidation accounted for only about 0.85 MJ/d, leaving an unexplained difference of over 5 MJ/d. Critical analysis of possible errors suggests that the new doubly-labelled water method has provided the most reliable estimates and that the estimates of EI were substantially in error. This finding has important consequences for other food intake studies.

  19. Weight-loss interventions for overweight/obese adults with chronic musculoskeletal pain: a mixed methods systematic review protocol

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Lesley; Ryan, Cormac; Ells, Louisa Jane; Hamilton, Sharon; Atkinson, Greg; Cooper, Kay; Johnson, Mark I.; Kirwan, John P.; Martin, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Review question/objective The objective of this mixed methods review is to develop an aggregated synthesis of qualitative and quantitative data on weight-loss interventions for overweight/obese adults with chronic musculoskeletal pain in an attempt to derive conclusions and recommendations useful for clinical practice and policy decision making. The objective of the quantitative component of this review is to quantify the effectiveness of weight-loss interventions on weight, pain and physical and/or psychosocial function in overweight/obese adults with chronic musculoskeletal pain. The objectives of the qualitative component of this review are to explore the perceptions and experiences of overweight/obese adults with chronic musculoskeletal pain of the link between their weight and pain, and the effectiveness and appropriateness of weight-loss interventions and sustainability of weight-loss efforts. PMID:27532463

  20. Hair nicotine/cotinine concentrations as a method of monitoring exposure to tobacco smoke among infants and adults.

    PubMed

    Tzatzarakis, M N; Vardavas, C I; Terzi, I; Kavalakis, M; Kokkinakis, M; Liesivuori, J; Tsatsakis, A M

    2012-03-01

    In this pilot study, we examined the validity and usefulness of hair nicotine-cotinine evaluation as a biomarker of monitoring exposure to tobacco. Head hair samples were collected from 22 infants (<2 years of age) and 44 adults with different exposures to tobacco (through either active or passive smoking) and analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for nicotine and cotinine. Hair samples were divided into three groups, infants, passive smoker adults and active smoker adults, and into eight subgroups according to the degree of exposure. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.1 ng/mg for nicotine and 0.05 ng/mg for cotinine. Mean recovery was 69.15% for nicotine and 72.08% for cotinine. The within- and between-day precision for cotinine and nicotine was calculated at different concentrations. Moreover, hair nicotine and cotinine concentrations were highly correlated among adult active smokers (R (2) = 0.710, p < 0.001), among adult nonsmokers exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS; R (2) = 0.729, p < 0.001) and among infants (R (2) = 0.538, p = 0.01). Among the infants exposed to SHS from both parents the noted correlations were even stronger (R (2) = 0.835, p = 0.02). The above results identify the use of hair samples as an effective method for assessing exposure to tobacco, with a high association between nicotine and cotinine especially among infants heavily exposed to SHS.

  1. Establishment and Application of Early Risk Stratification Method for Acute Abdominal Pain in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu; Zhao, Hong; Zhou, Zhen; Tian, Ci; Xiao, Hong-Li; Wang, Bao-En

    2017-01-01

    Background: Acute abdominal pain is a common symptom of emergency patients. The severity was always evaluated based on physicians’ clinical experience. The aim of this study was to establish an early risk stratification method (ERSM) for addressing adults with acute abdominal pain, which would guide physicians to take appropriate and timely measures following the established health-care policies. Methods: In Cohort 1, the records of 490 patients with acute abdominal pain that developed within the past 72 h were enrolled in this study. Measurement data and numeration data were compared with analysis of variance and Chi-square test, respectively. Multiple regression analysis calculated odd ratio (OR) value. P and OR values showed the impacts of factors. ERSM was established by clinical experts and statistical experts according to Youden index. In Cohort 2, data from 305 patients with acute abdominal pain were enrolled to validate the accuracy of the ERSM. Then, ERSM was prospectively used in clinical practice. Results: The ERSM was established based on the scores of the patient's clinical characteristics: right lower abdominal pain + 3 × diffuse abdominal pain + 3 × cutting abdominal pain + 3 × pain frequency + 3 × pain duration + fever + 2 × vomiting + 5 × stop defecation + 3 × history of abdominal surgery + hypertension history + diabetes history + hyperlipidemia history + pulse + 2 × skin yellowing + 2 × sclera yellowing + 2 × double lung rale + 10 × unconsciousness + 2 × right lower abdominal tenderness + 5 × diffuse abdominal tenderness + 4 × peritoneal irritation + 4 × bowel sounds abnormal + 10 × suspicious diagnosis + white blood cell count + hematocrit + glucose + 2 × blood urea nitrogen + 3 × creatine + 4 × serum albumin + alanine aminotransferase + total bilirubin + 3 × conjugated bilirubin + amylase. When the score was <18, the patient did not need hospitalization. A score of ≥18 and <38 indicated that the patient should be under

  2. Congenital Heart Disease in Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... and genetics may play a role. Why congenital heart disease resurfaces in adulthood Some adults may find that ... in following adults with congenital heart disease. Congenital heart disease and pregnancy Women with congenital heart disease who ...

  3. ADVANCING THE STUDY OF VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN USING MIXED METHODS: INTEGRATING QUALITATIVE METHODS INTO A QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM

    PubMed Central

    Testa, Maria; Livingston, Jennifer A.; VanZile-Tamsen, Carol

    2011-01-01

    A mixed methods approach, combining quantitative with qualitative data methods and analysis, offers a promising means of advancing the study of violence. Integrating semi-structured interviews and qualitative analysis into a quantitative program of research on women’s sexual victimization has resulted in valuable scientific insight and generation of novel hypotheses for testing. This mixed methods approach is described and recommendations for integrating qualitative data into quantitative research are provided. PMID:21307032

  4. Attachment Representations and Early Interactions in Drug Addicted Mothers: A Case Study of Four Women with Distinct Adult Attachment Interview Classifications.

    PubMed

    Porreca, Alessio; De Palo, Francesca; Simonelli, Alessandra; Capra, Nicoletta

    2016-01-01

    Drug addiction is considered a major risk factor that can influence maternal functioning at multiple levels, leading to less optimal parental qualities and less positive interactive exchanges in mother-child dyads. Moreover, drug abusers often report negative or traumatic attachment representations regarding their own childhood. These representations might affect, to some extent, later relational and developmental outcomes of their children. This study explored whether the development of dyadic interactions in addicted women differed based on attachment status. The longitudinal ongoing of mother-child emotional exchanges was assessed among four mothers with four different attachment statuses (F-autonomous, E-preoccupied, Ds-dismissing, and U-unresolved/with losses). Attachment representations were assessed using the Adult Attachment Interview (George et al., 1985), while mother-child interactions were evaluated longitudinally during videotaped play sessions, through the Emotional Availability Scales (Biringen, 2008). As expected, the dyad with the autonomous mother showed better interactive functioning during play despite the condition of drug-abuse; the mother proved to be more affectively positive, sensitive, and responsive, while her baby showed a better organization of affects and behaviors. On the other side, insecure mothers seemed to experience more difficulties when interacting with their children showing inconsistency in the ability to perceive and respond to their babies' signals. Finally, children of insecure mothers showed less clear affects and signals. While differences between secure and insecure dyads appeared clear, differences between insecure patterns where less linear, suggesting a possible mediating role played by other factors. Clinical implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  5. Dietary exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids of specific French adult sub-populations: high seafood consumers, high freshwater fish consumers and pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Yamada, A; Bemrah, N; Veyrand, B; Pollono, C; Merlo, M; Desvignes, V; Sirot, V; Marchand, P; Berrebi, A; Cariou, R; Antignac, J P; Le Bizec, B; Leblanc, J C

    2014-09-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are globally found in various media, including food and especially fishery products. In the present study, the dietary exposure to 15 perfluoroalkyl acids was assessed for 3 French adult populations, namely high seafood consumers, high freshwater fish consumers, and pregnant women. Purified food extracts were analysed by LC-MS/MS and PFBA, PFPA, PFHxA, PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnA, PFTrDA, PFTeDA, PFBS, PFHxS, PFHpS, PFOS and PFDS were monitored and quantified according to the isotope dilution principle. Under lower bound (LB) hypothesis (i.e. contamination values

  6. Attachment Representations and Early Interactions in Drug Addicted Mothers: A Case Study of Four Women with Distinct Adult Attachment Interview Classifications

    PubMed Central

    Porreca, Alessio; De Palo, Francesca; Simonelli, Alessandra; Capra, Nicoletta

    2016-01-01

    Drug addiction is considered a major risk factor that can influence maternal functioning at multiple levels, leading to less optimal parental qualities and less positive interactive exchanges in mother-child dyads. Moreover, drug abusers often report negative or traumatic attachment representations regarding their own childhood. These representations might affect, to some extent, later relational and developmental outcomes of their children. This study explored whether the development of dyadic interactions in addicted women differed based on attachment status. The longitudinal ongoing of mother-child emotional exchanges was assessed among four mothers with four different attachment statuses (F-autonomous, E-preoccupied, Ds-dismissing, and U-unresolved/with losses). Attachment representations were assessed using the Adult Attachment Interview (George et al., 1985), while mother-child interactions were evaluated longitudinally during videotaped play sessions, through the Emotional Availability Scales (Biringen, 2008). As expected, the dyad with the autonomous mother showed better interactive functioning during play despite the condition of drug-abuse; the mother proved to be more affectively positive, sensitive, and responsive, while her baby showed a better organization of affects and behaviors. On the other side, insecure mothers seemed to experience more difficulties when interacting with their children showing inconsistency in the ability to perceive and respond to their babies' signals. Finally, children of insecure mothers showed less clear affects and signals. While differences between secure and insecure dyads appeared clear, differences between insecure patterns where less linear, suggesting a possible mediating role played by other factors. Clinical implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:27014153

  7. Evidence-based treatment for adult women with child abuse-related Complex PTSD: a quantitative review

    PubMed Central

    Dorrepaal, Ethy; Thomaes, Kathleen; Hoogendoorn, Adriaan W.; Veltman, Dick J.; Draijer, Nel; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Effective first-line treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are well established, but their generalizability to child abuse (CA)-related Complex PTSD is largely unknown. Method A quantitative review of the literature was performed, identifying seven studies, with treatments specifically targeting CA-related PTSD or Complex PTSD, which were meta-analyzed, including variables such as effect size, drop-out, recovery, and improvement rates. Results Only six studies with one or more cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) treatment conditions and one with a present centered therapy condition could be meta-analyzed. Results indicate that CA-related PTSD patients profit with large effect sizes and modest recovery and improvement rates. Treatments which include exposure showed greater effect sizes especially in completers’ analyses, although no differential results were found in recovery and improvement rates. However, results in the subgroup of CA-related Complex PTSD studies were least favorable. Within the Complex PTSD subgroup, no superior effect size was found for exposure, and affect management resulted in more favorable recovery and improvement rates and less drop-out, as compared to exposure, especially in intention-to-treat analyses. Conclusion Limited evidence suggests that predominantly CBT treatments are effective, but do not suffice to achieve satisfactory end states, especially in Complex PTSD populations. Moreover, we propose that future research should focus on direct comparisons between types of treatment for Complex PTSD patients, thereby increasing generalizability of results. PMID:25563302

  8. Feasibility of School-Based ADHD Interventions: A Mixed-Methods Study of Perceptions of Adolescents and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bussing, Regina; Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka; Gagnon, Joseph Calvin; Mason, Dana M.; Ellison, Anne; Noguchi, Kenji; Garvan, Cynthia W.; Albarracin, Dolores

    2016-01-01

    Objective Little is known about perceptions surrounding academic interventions for ADHD that determine intervention feasibility. Method As part of a longitudinal mixed-methods research project, representative school district samples of 148 adolescents (54.8%), 161 parents (59.4%), 122 teachers (50.0%), 46 health care providers (53.5%), and 92 school health professionals (65.7%) completed a cross-sectional survey. They also answered open-ended questions addressing undesirable intervention effects, which were analyzed using grounded theory methods. Results Adolescents expressed significantly lower receptivity toward academic interventions than adult respondents. Stigma emerged as a significant threat to ADHD intervention feasibility, as did perceptions that individualized interventions foster inequality. Conclusion Findings suggest that adolescents’ viewpoints must be included in intervention development to enhance feasibility and avoid interventions acceptable to adults, but resisted by adolescents. PMID:24448222

  9. Teaching Adults to Read Braille Using Phonological Methods: Single-Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Shauna; Elliott, Robert T.

    2009-01-01

    Four women with visual impairments were taught 13 braille letters as phonemes and another 13 braille letters as graphemes and then were taught 10 braille words as onset-rime and another 10 braille words as whole words. Phoneme and onset-rime instruction resulted in faster and more accurate performance. (Contains 1 table and 2 figures.)

  10. Photovoice as a community-based participatory research method among women living with HIV/AIDS: ethical opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Teti, Michelle; Murray, Cynthia; Johnson, LaShaune; Binson, Diane

    2012-10-01

    Photovoice is a method in which participants use photography to identify, express, and disseminate their experiences. We conducted photovoice projects with women living with HIV/AIDS (N=21) to explore opportunities and challenges associated with the method. Photovoice provided a means to achieve two key principles of ethical public health practice: It gives participants opportunities to define their health priorities, and facilitates participant empowerment. Ethical challenges that were encountered related to exposing, through photographs, one's identity as living with HIV/AIDS, illicit activities, and other people. We discuss lessons learned for future practice to maximize the ethical opportunities and manage the challenges associated with using photovoice as an HIV-related CBPR strategy.

  11. Use of qualitative methods to study diet, acculturation, and health in Chinese-American women.

    PubMed

    Satia, J A; Patterson, R E; Taylor, V M; Cheney, C L; Shiu-Thornton, S; Chitnarong, K; Kristal, A R

    2000-08-01

    Improving the health status of minority populations in the United States is a major public health challenge. This report describes an anthropological approach to obtaining information needed for designing and evaluating a culturally appropriate dietary intervention for Chinese-Americans. Ninety-minute qualitative interviews were conducted with 30 less-acculturated Chinese-American women in their native language (Cantonese or Mandarin), soliciting information from participants regarding usual food consumption; knowledge, attitude, and beliefs about diet and disease; and factors that influence food choices. Interviews were recorded, translated, transcribed, and coded for themes. Two focus groups with 6 participants each were conducted to cross-validate the interview findings. Among our participants, breakfast was usually the first meal to be "Westernized," largely for reasons of convenience. Food quality, cost, and availability were some of the most important predictors of dietary change after immigration to the United States. Respondents said that there was a strong connection between diet and disease. However, they were not familiar with US dietary guidelines, food labels, or other sources of dietary information, but reported that friends and Chinese newspapers were their primary source of nutrition information. We used these findings to develop quantitative dietary survey instruments adapted for Chinese-Americans. This type of qualitative groundwork is an important precursor to the design, implementation, and evaluation of dietary interventions for minorities.

  12. Early identification of declining balance in higher functioning older adults, an inertial sensor based method.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, K J; Greene, B R; Cunningham, C; Crosby, L; Kenny, R A

    2014-04-01

    Higher functioning older adults rarely have their balance assessed clinically and as such early decline in balance is not captured. Early identification of declining balance would facilitate earlier intervention and improved management of the ageing process. This study sought to determine if (a) a once off inertial sensor measurement and (b) changes in inertial sensor measurements one year apart can identify declining balance for higher functioning older adults. One hundred and nineteen community dwelling older adults (58 males; 72.5±5.8 years) completed a timed up and go (TUG) instrumented with inertial sensors and the Berg balance scale (BBS) at two time points, one year apart. Temporal and spatio-temporal gait parameters as well as angular velocity and turn parameters were derived from the inertial sensor data. A change in balance from baseline to follow-up was determined by sub-components of the BBS. Changes in inertial sensor parameters from baseline to follow-up demonstrated strong association with balance decline in higher functioning older adults (e.g. mean medial-lateral angular velocity odds ratio=0.2; 95% CI: 0.1-0.5). The area under the Receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) ranged from 0.8 to 0.9, a marked improvement over change in TUG time alone (AUC 0.6-0.7). Baseline inertial sensor parameters had a similar association with declining balance as age and TUG time. For higher functioning older adults, the change in inertial sensor parameters over time may reflect declining balance. These measures may be useful clinically, to monitor the balance status of older adults and facilitate earlier identification of balance deficits.

  13. Refugee and Migrant Women's Views of Antenatal Ultrasound on the Thai Burmese Border: A Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Thwin, May Myo; Ladda Kajeechewa, Honey Moon; Wiladphaingern, Jacher; Lwin, Khin Maung; Jones, Caroline; Nosten, François; McGready, Rose

    2012-01-01

    Background Antenatal ultrasound suits developing countries by virtue of its versatility, relatively low cost and safety, but little is known about women’s or local provider’s perspectives of this upcoming technology in such settings. This study was undertaken to better understand how routine obstetric ultrasound is experienced in a displaced Burmese population and identify barriers to its acceptance by local patients and providers. Methodology/Principal Findings Qualitative (30 observations, 19 interviews, seven focus group discussions) and quantitative methods (questionnaire survey with 644 pregnant women) were used to provide a comprehensive understanding along four major themes: safety, emotions, information and communication, and unintended consequences of antenatal ultrasound in refugee and migrant clinics on the Thai Burmese border. One of the main concerns expressed by women was the danger of childbirth which they mainly attributed to fetal malposition. Both providers and patients recognized ultrasound as a technology improving the safety of pregnancy and delivery. A minority of patients experienced transitory shyness or anxiety before the ultrasound, but reported that these feelings could be ameliorated with improved patient information and staff communication. Unintended consequences of overuse and gender selective abortions in this population were not common. Conclusions/Significance The results of this study are being used to improve local practice and allow development of explanatory materials for this population with low literacy. We strongly encourage facilities introducing new technology in resource poor settings to assess acceptability through similar inquiry. PMID:22514615

  14. Vocal Hygiene Education, Voice Production Therapy, and the Role of Patient Adherence: A Treatment Effectiveness Study in Women with Phonotrauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrman, Alison; Rutledge, John; Hembree, Amanda; Sheridan, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the effectiveness of vocal hygiene education (VHE) and voice production therapy (VP) in altering patient perception of vocal handicap in adult women with benign, bilateral phonotraumatic vocal fold lesions and the role of adherence in that perception. Method: Sixty-two women were randomly assigned to 6 weeks of VP (n = 31) or…

  15. Awareness, utilization, and determinants of using oral diseases prevention methods among Saudi adults – a clinic-based pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ansari, Asim

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The present study was conducted to assess the level of awareness and utilization of methods to prevent oral diseases among a group of adult Saudis. Methodology An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire was distributed to patients visiting the clinics of the College of Dentistry, University of Dammam in 2015. The questionnaire assessed the background of the respondents, their dental history, awareness and use of a number of methods available to prevent oral diseases, sources of information about these methods and barriers against their use. Regression analysis was used to assess the factors affecting the use of these practices. Results Brushing was reported to be used by about 60% of respondents whereas fluoride and sealant were less prevalent (≤30%). Dentist was the most frequently reported source of information about preventive methods (60%) and about 40% cited cost and time as the main reasons why they did not use these preventive methods. Awareness and age were associated with using a greater number of the various preventive methods (odds regression coefficient ratio= 0.27 and 0.04). Conclusions Use of preventive methods is not prevalent among Saudi adults and it can be improved by more intensive efforts to increase the awareness of these methods, primarily through dentists. PMID:27004060

  16. PM2: a partitioning-mining-measuring method for identifying progressive changes in older adults' sleeping activity.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qiang; Zhang, Daqing; Connelly, Kay; Zhou, Xingshe; Ni, Hongbo

    2014-01-01

    As people age, their health typically declines, resulting in difficulty in performing daily activities. Sleep-related problems are common issues with older adults, including shifts in circadian rhythms. A detection method is proposed to identify progressive changes in sleeping activity using a three-step process: partitioning, mining, and measuring. Specifically, the original spatiotemporal representation of each sleeping activity instance was first transformed into a sequence of equal-sized segments, or symbols, via a partitioning process. A data-mining-based algorithm was proposed to find symbols that are not present in all instances of a sleeping activity. Finally, a measuring process was responsible for evaluating the changes in these symbols. Experimental evaluation conducted on a group of datasets of older adults showed that the proposed method is able to identify progressive changes in sleeping activity.

  17. Drug-Intake Methods and Social Identity: The Use of Marijuana in Blunts Among Southeast Asian Adolescents and Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Soller, Brian; Lee, Juliet P.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines why Southeast Asian American adolescents and emerging adults in two urban settings prefer to use “blunts,” or hollowed-out cigars filled with marijuana, over other methods of drug intake. Rationales for preferring blunts were both instrumental and social. Blunts allowed users to more easily share marijuana, the preferred drug among their peers, and protected against potential adverse effects associated with the “high.” Blunts also allowed users to identify with the dominant style of drug use and differentiate themselves from users of stigmatized drugs such as crack cocaine and methamphetamine. This article highlights the importance of drug-intake methods in the formation and performance of drug-using behaviors among adolescents, emerging adults, and members of ethnic minority subgroups. PMID:22003266

  18. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for Overweight/Obese Women With and Without Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Design and Methods of a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Raja-Khan, Nazia; Agito, Katrina; Shah, Julie; Stetter, Christy M.; Gustafson, Theresa S.; Socolow, Holly; Kunselman, Allen R.; Reibel, Diane K.; Legro, Richard S.

    2015-01-01

    Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) may be beneficial for overweight/obese women, including women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), as it has been shown to reduce psychological distress and improve quality of life in other patient populations. Preliminary studies suggest that MBSR may also have salutary effects on blood pressure and blood glucose. This paper describes the design and methods of an ongoing pilot randomized controlled trial evaluating the feasibility and effects of MBSR in PCOS and non-PCOS women who are overweight or obese. Eighty six (86) women with body mass index ≥25 kg/m2, including 31 women with PCOS, have been randomized to 8 weeks of MBSR or health education control, and followed for 16 weeks. The primary outcome is mindfulness assessed with the Toronto Mindfulness Scale. Secondary outcomes include measures of blood pressure, blood glucose, quality of life, anxiety and depression. Our overall hypothesis is that MBSR will increase mindfulness and ultimately lead to favorable changes in blood pressure, blood glucose, psychological distress and quality of life in PCOS and non-PCOS women. This would support the integration of MBSR with conventional medical treatments to reduce psychological distress, cardiovascular disease and diabetes in PCOS and non-PCOS women who are overweight or obese. PMID:25662105

  19. A Comparison of Three Methods to Measure Percent Body Fat on Mentally Retarded Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkett, Lee N.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Reports a study that compared three measures for determining percent body fat in mentally retarded adults (multiple skinfolds and circumference measurements, Infrared Interactance, and Bioelectrical Impedance). Results indicated the Bioelectrical Impedance Analyzer and Infrared Interactance Analyzer produced values for percent body fat that were…

  20. An Economical Method for the Evaluation of General Intelligence in Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodrill, Carl B.

    1981-01-01

    Evaluated the ability of the Wonderlic Personnel Test to replicate the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) with (N=120) normal persons divided into principal and cross-validation groups. Correlations between the Wonderlic IQs and the WAIS Full Scale IQs were .93 for the main group and .91 for the cross-validation group. (Author)