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Sample records for adult worm antigen

  1. Identification of antigenic Brugia adult worm proteins by peptide mass fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Weinkopff, Tiffany; Atwood, James A; Punkosdy, George A; Moss, Delynn; Weatherly, D Brent; Orlando, Ron; Lammie, Patrick

    2009-12-01

    With the recent completion of the Brugia malayi genome, proteomics offers a new resource for a deeper understanding of the biology of filarial parasites. We employed 2-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis followed by peptide mass fingerprinting on a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-ToF) mass spectrometer to identify Brugia adult worm proteins and then determined which proteins were recognized by the host humoral immune response. We identified 18 unique proteins, several of which were determined to be antigenic by immunoblot. The proteins identified here may contribute to future studies to analyze the transmission and pathogenesis of lymphatic filariasis. PMID:19537848

  2. Og4C3 circulating antigen: a marker of infection and adult worm burden in Wuchereria bancrofti filariasis.

    PubMed

    Chanteau, S; Moulia-Pelat, J P; Glaziou, P; Nguyen, N L; Luquiaud, P; Plichart, C; Martin, P M; Cartel, J L

    1994-07-01

    Og4C3 circulating filarial antigen was detected in the sera of 94.5% (259/274) of microfilaremic patients, 32% (239/751) of persons with presumption of filariasis, and 23% (11/48) of chronic filariasis patients. The antigen level was correlated with the microfilariae (Mf) density and patient age (P < .01). It remained stable in patients treated with microfilaricidal drugs. Og4C3 antigen, undetectable in Mf culture media, was demonstrated to be a rare somatic Mf antigen. It appears to be an excreted or secreted antigen from adult filaria. It could be used as a marker of infection and an indicator of adult worm burden. PMID:8014511

  3. Role of adult worm antigen-specific immunoglobulin E in acquired immunity to Schistosoma mansoni infection in baboons.

    PubMed

    Nyindo, M; Kariuki, T M; Mola, P W; Farah, I O; Elson, L; Blanton, R E; King, C L

    1999-02-01

    Allergic-type immune responses, particularly immunoglobulin E (IgE), correlate with protective immunity in human schistosomiasis. To better understand the mechanisms of parasite elimination we examined the immune correlates of protection in baboons (Papio cynocephalus anubis), which are natural hosts for Schistosoma mansoni and also develop allergic-type immunity with infection. In one experiment, animals were exposed to a single infection (1,000 cercariae) or were exposed multiple times (100 cercariae per week for 10 weeks) and subsequently were cured with praziquantel prior to challenge with 1, 000 cercariae. Singly and multiply infected animals mounted 59 and 80% reductions in worm burden, respectively (P < 0.01). In a second experiment, animals were inoculated with S. mansoni ova and recombinant human interleukin 12 (IL-12). This produced a 37 to 39% reduction in adult worm burden after challenge (P < 0.05). Parasite-specific IgG, IgE, IgM, and peripheral blood cytokine production were evaluated. The only immune correlate of protection in both experiments was levels of soluble adult worm antigen (SWAP)-specific IgE in serum at the time of challenge infection and/or 6 weeks later. Baboons repeatedly infected with cercariae or immunized with ova and IL-12 developed two- to sixfold-greater levels of SWAP-specific IgE in serum than did controls, and this correlated with reductions in worm burden (r2, -0.40 to -0.64; P, <0. 01). Thus, in baboons and unlike mice, adult worm-specific IgE is uniquely associated with acquired immunity to S. mansoni infection. This similar association of parasite-specific IgE and protection among primates infected with schistosomiasis, along with similar pathology, anatomy, and genetic make-up, indicates that baboons provide an excellent permissive experimental model for better understanding the mechanisms of innate and acquired immunity to schistosomiasis in humans. PMID:9916070

  4. Human eosinophils modulate peripheral blood mononuclear cell response to Schistosoma mansoni adult worm antigen in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tweyongyere, R; Namanya, H; Naniima, P; Cose, S; Tukahebwa, E M; Elliott, A M; Dunne, D W; Wilson, S

    2016-08-01

    High numbers of eosinophils are observed in parasitic infections and allergic diseases, where they are proposed to be terminally differentiated effector cells that play beneficial role in host defence, or cause harmful inflammatory response. Eosinophils have been associated with killing of schistosomulae in vitro, but there is growing evidence that eosinophils can play additional immuno-regulatory role. Here, we report results of a study that examines peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cytokine responses to Schistosoma mansoni adult worm antigen (SWA) when stimulated alone or enriched with autologous eosinophils. Production of the Th-2 type cytokines interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5 and IL-13 was lower (P = 0·017, 0·018 and <0·001, respectively) in PBMC + eosinophil cultures than in PBMC-only cultures stimulated with SWA. Substantial levels of IL-13, IL-10, interferon gamma and tumour necrosis factor alpha were recorded in cultures of eosinophils, but none of these cytokines showed significant association with the observed eosinophil-induced drop in cytokine responses of PBMC. Transwell experiments suggested that the observed effect is due to soluble mediators that downmodulate production of Th-2 type cytokines. This study shows that eosinophils may down-modulate schistosome-specific Th-2 type cytokine responses in S. mansoni-infected individuals. The mechanism of this immune modulation remains to be elucidated. PMID:27169695

  5. Partial purification and characterization of Ascaridia galli diagnostic worm antigen.

    PubMed

    Abdel Rahman, Eman H; Khalil, Fathia A M

    2005-08-01

    Partial purification of Ascaridia galli whole worm extract was conducted by Cyanogen bromide Sepharose 4B immunoaffinity column chromatography. The resulted fraction was characterized by sodium dodecyle sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and isoelectric focusing. The fraction was found to be consisted of six bands of 207 KDa, 157 KDa. 110 KDa, 103 KDa, 76 KDa and 41 KDa. This profile was compared with that of whole worm and excretory-secretory antigens. Both antigens were resolved into multiple bands in both high and low molecular weight ranges. The isoelectric focusing of the fraction displayed 8 bands of isoelectric points 7.5, 7.0, 6.8, 6.5, 6.2, 5.8. 5.3 and 4.6. The potency of this fraction in the diagnosis of natural ascaridiosis in chickens was assessed by ELISA compared with that of whole worm and ES antigens. The affinity purified fraction showed higher potentials in the diagnosis of A. galli infection in chickens than whole worm antigen at any sera dilution and than ES antigen at high sera dilutions. While ES antigen of the worms revealed higher diagnostic capabilities than whole worm extract. The current research recommends utilization of the affinity isolated fraction in the diagnosis of natural ascaridiosis in chickens. PMID:16083065

  6. Avidity of immunoglobulin G antibody response to the different antigenic fractions of soluble Schistosoma mansoni adult worm antigen preparation (SWAP) using avidity immunoblotting assay.

    PubMed

    Tawfeek, Gihan M; Hameed, Dina M Abdel; el-Hoseiny, Laila M

    2004-08-01

    The detection of IgG antibodies against the different SWAP antigenic fractions plus the determination of their avidity in avidity immunoblotting assay using 6 M urea wash, presents a novel alternative for the characterization of optimal antigenic markers for acute and chronic phases of Schistosoma mansoni infection and for vaccine development. Human serum samples from 25 acute schistosomiasis patients, 20 chronic cases and 15 normal healthy controls were analysed by IgG avidity enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and IgG avidity immunoblotting assay. Using avidity ELISA, a pronounced overlap of avidity index values was observed between acute and chronic infections with a range of uncertainty (0.86-1) which was encountered in both groups. Using avidity immunoblotting assay, antigenic bands at >116, 84, 48, 40 & 34 KDa were exclusive for the acute phase. From these bands, 34 KDa was recognized mostly by low-avidity antibodies and showed a high sensitivity (96%) and specificity (100%) making it an optimal marker for the acute phase. 40 KDa band was recognized mostly by high-avidity antibodies even during acute infection. Bands of 80, 70, 42, 36, 30 & 26 KDa were exclusive for the chronic phase. Only 70 KDa band was recognized by high-avidity antibodies yet, with low sensitivity (35%), that limits its use as an optimal marker for the chronic infection. Meanwhile, 70 and 40 KDa bands, recognized by high-avidity antibodies, are considered as potential vaccine antigen candidates. PMID:15287177

  7. Serological Screening of the Schistosoma mansoni Adult Worm Proteome

    PubMed Central

    Ludolf, Fernanda; Patrocínio, Paola R.; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Gazzinelli, Andréa; Falcone, Franco H.; Teixeira-Ferreira, André; Perales, Jonas; Oliveira, Guilherme C.; Silva-Pereira, Rosiane A.

    2014-01-01

    Background New interventions tools are a priority for schistosomiasis control and elimination, as the disease is still highly prevalent. The identification of proteins associated with active infection and protective immune response may constitute the basis for the development of a successful vaccine and could also indicate new diagnostic candidates. In this context, post-genomic technologies have been progressing, resulting in a more rational discovery of new biomarkers of resistance and antigens for diagnosis. Methodology/Principal Findings Two-dimensional electrophoresed Schistosoma mansoni adult worm protein extracts were probed with pooled sera of infected and non-infected (naturally resistant) individuals from a S. mansoni endemic area. A total of 47 different immunoreactive proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. Although the different pooled sera shared most of the immunoreactive protein spots, nine protein spots reacted exclusively with the serum pool of infected individuals, which correspond to annexin, major egg antigen, troponin T, filamin, disulphide-isomerase ER-60 precursor, actin and reticulocalbin. One protein spot, corresponding to eukaryotic translation elongation factor, reacted exclusively with the pooled sera of non-infected individuals living in the endemic area. Western blotting of two selected recombinant proteins, major egg antigen and hemoglobinase, showed a similar recognition pattern of that of the native protein. Concluding/Significance Using a serological proteome analysis, a group of antigens related to the different infection status of the endemic area residents was identified and may be related to susceptibility or resistance to infection. PMID:24651847

  8. In Vitro Maintenance of Clonorchis sinensis Adult Worms

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Md. Hafiz; Li, Shunyu; Bae, Young Mee; Choi, Min-Ho

    2012-01-01

    Clonorchis sinensis is a biological carcinogen inducing human cholangiocarcinoma, and clonorchiasis is one of the important endemic infectious diseases in East Asia. The present study investigated survival longevity of C. sinensis adult worms in various in vitro conditions to find the best way of keeping the worms longer. The worms were maintained in 0.85% NaCl, 1×PBS, 1×Locke's solution, RPMI-1640, DMEM, and IMDM media, and in 1×Locke's solution with different supplements. All of the worms died within 3 and 7 days in 0.85% NaCl and 1×PBS, respectively, but survived up to 57 days in 1×Locke's solution. The worms lived for 106 days in DMEM, and 114 days in both RPMI-1640 and IMDM media. The survival rate in RPMI-1640 medium was the highest (50%) compared to that in DMEM (20±10%) and in IMDM (33.3±25.2%) after 3 months. The 1×Locke's solution with 0.005% bovine bile supplement showed increased duration of maximum survival from 42 days to 70 days. Higher concentration of bile supplements than 0.005% or addition of glucose were disadvantageous for the worm survival. The worms died rapidly in solutions containing L-aspartic acid, L-glutamic acid, and adenine compared to L-arginine, L-serine, and L-tryptophan. In conclusion, the 1×Locke's solution best supports the worms alive among inorganic solutions for 57 days, and the RPMI-1640 medium maintains living C. sinensis adults better and longer up to 114 days in vitro than other media. PMID:23230328

  9. Effects of doxycycline on heartworm embryogenesis, transmission, circulating microfilaria, and adult worms in microfilaremic dogs.

    PubMed

    McCall, J W; Kramer, L; Genchi, C; Guerrero, J; Dzimianski, M T; Mansour, A; McCall, S D; Carson, B

    2014-11-15

    Tetracycline treatment of animals or humans infected with filariae that harbor Wolbachia endosymbionts blocks further embryogenesis, and existing microfilariae gradually die. This treatment also kills developing larvae and has a slow-kill effect on adult filariae, all presumably due to elimination of the Wolbachia. Also, Dirofilaria immitis microfilariae in blood collected from dogs up to 25 days after the last dose of doxycycline developed to infective L3 that were normal in appearance and motility in mosquitoes but did not continue to develop or migrate normally after subcutaneous (SC) injection into dogs. The present study was designed to determine whether heartworm microfilariae collected at later times after treatment would regain the ability to continue normal development in a dog. The study also was expected to yield valuable data on the effects of treatment on microfilariae and antigen levels and adult worms. The study was conducted in 16 dogs as two separate replicates at different times. A total of five dogs (two in Replicate A and three in Replicate B) infected either by SC injection of L3 or intravenous transplantation of adult heartworms were given doxycycline orally at 10mg/kg twice daily for 30 days, with three untreated controls. Microfilarial counts in the five treated dogs gradually declined during the 12-13 months after treatment initiation. Two dogs were amicrofilaremic before necropsy and three had 13 or fewer microfilariae/ml. Only one treated dog was negative for heartworm antigen before necropsy. Overall, treated dogs generally had fewer live adult heartworms than controls, and most of their live worms were moribund. All three control dogs remained positive for microfilariae and antigen and had many live worms. L3 from mosquitoes fed on blood collected 73-77 or 161-164 days after initiation of doxycycline treatments were injected SC into five dogs. None of the dogs injected with L3 from mosquitoes fed on blood from doxycycline-treated dogs

  10. Histamine 1 Receptor Blockade Enhances Eosinophil-Mediated Clearance of Adult Filarial Worms

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Ellen Mueller; Morris, Christopher P.; Hübner, Marc P.; Mitre, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Filariae are tissue-invasive nematodes that cause diseases such as elephantiasis and river blindness. The goal of this study was to characterize the role of histamine during Litomosoides sigmodontis infection of BALB/c mice, a murine model of filariasis. Time course studies demonstrated that while expression of histidine decarboxylase mRNA increases throughout 12 weeks of infection, serum levels of histamine exhibit two peaks—one 30 minutes after primary infection and one 8 weeks later. Interestingly, mice treated with fexofenadine, a histamine receptor 1 inhibitor, demonstrated significantly reduced worm burden in infected mice compared to untreated infected controls. Although fexofenadine-treated mice had decreased antigen-specific IgE levels as well as lower splenocyte IL-5 and IFNγ production, they exhibited a greater than fourfold rise in eosinophil numbers at the tissue site where adult L. sigmodontis worms reside. Fexofenadine-mediated clearance of L. sigmodontis worms was dependent on host eosinophils, as fexofenadine did not decrease worm burdens in eosinophil-deficient dblGATA mice. These findings suggest that histamine release induced by tissue invasive helminths may aid parasite survival by diminishing eosinophilic responses. Further, these results raise the possibility that combining H1 receptor inhibitors with current anthelmintics may improve treatment efficacy for filariae and other tissue-invasive helminths. PMID:26204515

  11. Trichuris suis: thiol protease activity from adult worms.

    PubMed

    Hill, D E; Sakanari, J A

    1997-01-01

    Trichuris suis, the whipworm of swine, causes anemia, weight loss, anorexia, mucohemorrhagic diarrhea, and death in heavy infections. A zinc metalloprotease has been suggested to play a role in the severe enteric pathology associated with infection and the infiltration of opportunistic bacteria into deeper tissues in the swine colon. In this study, a thiol protease from gut extracts of adult T. suis and from excretory/secretory components (E/S) of adult worms was characterized using fluorogenic peptide substrates and protein substrate gels. The protease cleaved the fluorogenic substrate Z-Phe-Arg-AMC, and this cleavage was completely inhibited by the thiol protease inhibitors E-64, leupeptin, Z-Phe-Ala-CH2F, and Z-Phe-Arg-CH2F. Gelatin substrate gels and fluorescence assays using both the gut and the stichosome extracts and E/S revealed enhanced activity when 2 mM dithiothreitol or 5 mM cysteine was included in the incubation buffer, and optimal activity was seen over a pH range of 5.5 to 8.5. Incubation of gut extracts or E/S material with inhibitors of aspartic, serine, or metalloproteases had no effect on the cleavage of Z-Phe-Arg-AMC. Thiol protease activity was found in extracts of gut tissue but not in the extracts of stichocytes of adult worms. N-terminal amino acid sequencing of the protease revealed sequence homologies with cathepsin B-like thiol protease identified from parasitic and free-living nematodes. PMID:9024202

  12. The onchocercal nodule: interrelationship of adult worms and blood vessels.

    PubMed

    George, G H; Palmieri, J R; Connor, D H

    1985-11-01

    This study of onchocercal nodules reveals an intimate relationship between the cuticle of Onchocerca volvulus and the capillaries of the host. Perfusion of blood vessels with India ink and other special techniques reveal a proliferation of capillaries around the worms and communication between small vessels and the spaces around the worms. The space around the worm is continuous with the central fibrin lake. These findings, together with the fact that the worm's gut contains hemosiderin, suggest that the worm subverts the vascular reaction and causes within the nodule a controlled hemorrhage that serves the worm's nutritional needs. We believe this explains, in part, how worms survive in fibrous nodules for many years. PMID:3834800

  13. Evaluation of Echinostoma liei worm, metacercaria and redia antigens for schistosomiasis control.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Monaem, G; Farid, A; Rabia, I; El-Amir, A

    2015-10-01

    While chemotherepeutic drugs, such as praziquantel, oxamniquine and metrifonate, are currently considered safe and effective drugs for schistosomiasis treatment, reinfection occurs frequently after drug treatment. Thus, a vaccine is sought to provide long-term treatment. Antigens from worm, metacercaria and redia of Echinostoma liei (E. liei) were purified using CNBr-activated Sepharose column, then used for immunization of mice prior to infection with Schistosomiasis mansoni. Worm burden, hepatic and intestinal eggs and oogram count was significantly reduced and that was reflected in normalization of liver architecture. This referred to a significant increase in the tested immunoglobulin level (IgM, IgG1 and IgG2). PMID:26115938

  14. Influence of immunoprotection on genetic variability of cysteine proteinases from Haemonchus contortus adult worms.

    PubMed

    Martín, S; Molina, J M; Hernández, Y I; Ferrer, O; Muñoz, Ma C; López, A; Ortega, L; Ruiz, A

    2015-11-01

    The limitations associated with the use of anthelmintic drugs in the control of gastrotintestinal nematodosis, such as the emergence of anthelmintic resistance, have stimulated the study of the immunological control of many parasites. In the case of Haemonchus contortus, several vaccination trials using native and recombinant antigens have been conducted. A group of antigens with demonstrated immunoprotective value are cathepsin B - like proteolytic enzymes of the cysteine proteinase type. These enzymes, which have been observed in both excretory-secretory products and somatic extracts of H. contortus, may vary among different geographic isolates and on strains isolated from different hosts, or even from the same host, as has been demonstrated in some comparative studies of genetic variability. In the present study, we evaluated the genetic variability of the worms that fully developed their endogenous cycle in immunised sheep and goat in order to identify the alleles of most immunoprotective value. To address these objectives, groups of sheep and goats were immunised with PBS soluble fractions enriched for cysteine proteinases from adult worms of H. contortus from either a strain of H. contortus isolated from goats of Gran Canaria Island (SP) or a strain isolated from sheep of North America (NA). The results confirmed the immunoprophylactic value of this type of enzyme against haemonchosis in both sheep and goats in association with increased levels of specific IgG. The genetic analysis demonstrated that the immunisation had a genetic selection on proteinase-encoding genes. In all the immunised animals, allelic frequencies were statistically different from those observed in non-immunised control animals in the four analysed genes. The reduction in the allelic frequencies suggests that parasites expressing these proteases are selectively targeted by the vaccine, and hence they should be considered in any subunit vaccine approach to control haemonchosis in small

  15. Vaccination with a cocktail of Ancylostoma ceylanicum recombinant antigens leads to worm burden reduction in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Wiśniewski, Marcin; Łapiński, Maciej; Daniłowicz-Luebert, Emilia; Jaros, Sławomir; Długosz, Ewa; Wędrychowicz, Halina

    2016-09-01

    Hookworms, a group to which Ancylostoma ceylanicum belongs, are gastrointestinal nematodes that infect more than 700 million people around the world. They are a leading cause of anemia in developing countries. In order to effectively prevent hookworm infections research is conducted to develop an effective vaccine using recombinant antigens of the parasite. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of the hosts' on protection against ancylostomiasis and the shaping of the humoral immune response among Syrian hamsters after immunization with a cocktail of five A. ceylanicum recombinant antigens. Ace-ASP-3, Ace-ASP-4, Ace-APR-1, Ace-MEP-6 and Ace-MEP-7 were obtained in the pET expression system. Immunization with a vaccine cocktail resulted in a 33.5% worm burden reduction. The immunogenicity of the recombinant proteins were determined using ELISA. Statistical analysis showed that vaccinated hamsters developed stronger humoral responses to four of five recombinant antigens (the exception being Ace-ASP-3) compared to hamsters from the control group. PMID:27447220

  16. PAS-1, a protein affinity purified from Ascaris suum worms, maintains the ability to modulate the immune response to a bystander antigen.

    PubMed

    Oshiro, Telma M; Enobe, Cristina S; Araújo, Cláudia A; Macedo, Mahasti S; Macedo-Soares, Maria Fernanda

    2006-04-01

    Helminth infections and parasite components have potent immunomodulatory effects on a host's immune system. In the present study, we investigated the effect of PAS-1, a protein component of Ascaris suum adult worms recognized by a monoclonal antibody (MAIP-1), on humoral and cell-mediated responses to a bystander antigen (ovalbumin [OVA]). MAIP-1 recognized only one of the three polypeptide chains of PAS-1, but neutralized the suppressive effect of the whole worm extract on OVA-specific antibody production. PAS-1 inhibited antibody production against a T-cell-dependent, but not a T-cell-independent, antigen in a dose-dependent way. IgM, IgG1, IgG2b, and also IgE and anaphylactic IgG1 levels were downregulated. In addition, PAS-1 inhibited OVA-specific delayed type hypersensitivity reactions in the footpad of mice, showing a potent immunosuppressive activity on both Th1 and Th2 responses that seems to be mediated by the induction of large amounts of IL-10 and IL-4. Indeed, PAS-1-specific spleen cells secreted sevenfold more IL-10 and threefold more IL-4 than OVA-specific cells in response to in vitro restimulation with the respective antigens. In conclusion, we showed that PAS-1, a single protein component from A. suum, maintains all its immunosuppressive properties. PMID:16519731

  17. Ectopic Human Fasciola hepatica Infection by an Adult Worm in the Mesocolon

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ah Jin; Choi, Chang Hwan; Choi, Sun Keun; Shin, Yong Woon; Park, Yun-Kyu; Kim, Lucia; Choi, Suk Jin; Han, Jee Young; Kim, Joon Mee; Chu, Young Chae; Park, In Suh

    2015-01-01

    We report here an ectopic case of Fasciola hepatica infection confirmed by recovery of an adult worm in the mesocolon. A 56-year-old female was admitted to our hospital with discomfort and pain in the left lower quadrant of the abdomen. Abdominal CT showed 3 abscesses in the left upper quadrant, mesentery, and pelvic cavity. On surgical exploration, abscess pockets were found in the mesocolon of the sigmoid colon and transverse colon. A leaf-like worm found in the abscess pocket of the mesocolon of the left colon was diagnosed as an adult fluke of F. hepatica. Histologically, numerous eggs of F. hepatica were noted with acute and chronic granulomatous inflammations in the subserosa and pericolic adipose tissues. Conclusively, a rare case of ectopic fascioliasis has been confirmed in this study by the adult worm recovery of F. hepatica in the mesocolon. PMID:26797440

  18. Ectopic Human Fasciola hepatica Infection by an Adult Worm in the Mesocolon.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ah Jin; Choi, Chang Hwan; Choi, Sun Keun; Shin, Yong Woon; Park, Yun-Kyu; Kim, Lucia; Choi, Suk Jin; Han, Jee Young; Kim, Joon Mee; Chu, Young Chae; Park, In Suh

    2015-12-01

    We report here an ectopic case of Fasciola hepatica infection confirmed by recovery of an adult worm in the mesocolon. A 56-year-old female was admitted to our hospital with discomfort and pain in the left lower quadrant of the abdomen. Abdominal CT showed 3 abscesses in the left upper quadrant, mesentery, and pelvic cavity. On surgical exploration, abscess pockets were found in the mesocolon of the sigmoid colon and transverse colon. A leaf-like worm found in the abscess pocket of the mesocolon of the left colon was diagnosed as an adult fluke of F. hepatica. Histologically, numerous eggs of F. hepatica were noted with acute and chronic granulomatous inflammations in the subserosa and pericolic adipose tissues. Conclusively, a rare case of ectopic fascioliasis has been confirmed in this study by the adult worm recovery of F. hepatica in the mesocolon. PMID:26797440

  19. In vitro antifilarial effects of three plant species against adult worms of subperiodic Brugia malayi.

    PubMed

    Zaridah, M Z; Idid, S Z; Omar, A W; Khozirah, S

    2001-11-01

    Five aqueous extracts from three plant species, i.e., dried husks (HX), dried seeds (SX) and dried leaves (LX) of Xylocarpus granatum (Meliaceae), dried stems (ST) of Tinospora crispa (Menispermaceae) and dried leaves (LA) of Andrographis paniculata (Acanthaceae) were tested in vitro against adult worms of subperiodic Brugia malayi. The relative movability (RM) value of the adult worms over the 24-h observation period was used as a measure of the antifilarial activity of the aqueous extracts. SX extract of X. granatum demonstrated the strongest activity, followed by the LA extract of A. paniculata, ST extract of T. crispa, HX extract and LX extract of X. granatum. PMID:11585692

  20. Moxidectin causes adult worm mortality of human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi in rodent models.

    PubMed

    Verma, Meenakshi; Pathak, Manisha; Shahab, Mohd; Singh, Kavita; Mitra, Kalyan; Misra-Bhattacharya, Shailja

    2014-12-01

    Moxidectin is a macrocyclic lactone belonging to milbemycin family closely related to ivermectin and is currently progressing towards Phase III clinical trial against human infection with the filaria Onchocerca volvulus (Leuckart, 1894). There is a single report on the microfilaricidal and embryostatic activity of moxidectin in case of the human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi (Brug, 1927) in Mastomys coucha (Smith) but without any adulticidal action. In the present study, the in vitro and in vivo antifilarial efficacy of moxidectin was evaluated on, B. malayi. In vitro moxidectin showed 100% reduction in adult female worm motility at 0.6 μM concentration within 7 days with 68% inhibition in the reduction of MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide dye) (which is used to detect viability of worms). A 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of moxidectin for adult female parasite was 0.242 μM, for male worm 0.186 μM and for microfilaria IC50 was 0.813 μM. In adult B. malayi-transplanted primary screening model (Meriones unguiculatus Milne-Edwards), moxidectin at a single optimal dose of 20 mg/kg by oral and subcutaneous route was found effective on both adult parasites and microfilariae. In secondary screening (M coucha, subcutaneously inoculated with infective larvae), moxidectin at the same dose by subcutaneous route brought about death of 49% of adult worms besides causing sterilisation in 54% of the recovered live female worms. The treated animals exhibited a continuous and sustained reduction in peripheral blood microfilaraemia throughout the observation period of 90 days. The mechanism of action of moxidectin is suggested to be similar to avermectins. The in silico studies were also designed to explore the interaction of moxidectin with glutamate-gated chloride channels of B. malayi. The docking results revealed a close interaction of moxidectin with various GluCl ligand sites of B. malayi. PMID:25651699

  1. Screening of early antigen genes of adult-stage Trichinella spiralis using pig serum from different stages of early infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of this work was to identify novel, early antigens present in Trichinella spiralis. To this end, a cDNA library generated from 3-day old adult worms (Ad3) was immunologically screened using serum from a pig infected with 20,000 muscle larvae. The serum was obtained from multiple, time cours...

  2. Adult filarial worm from the breast aspirate of a young man.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Hilda; Thomas, Beena Mary; Putran, Indira

    2016-06-01

    Microfilariae and adult filarial worm have been incidentally detected in fine needle aspirates of various lesions in clinically unsuspected cases. Here we report a male patient who presented with a tender breast nodule and single enlarged lymph node. Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) yielded 1 ml of yellow coloured fluid and single thread like worm measuring 6 × 0.2 cm. A diagnosis of breast abscess with a worm morphologically consistent with filariasis was offered. A follow up visit after 2 months showed regression of the breast lesion and the lymph node. Filariasis of the breast is an uncommon condition and can cause a diagnostic dilemma at times. FNA cytology appears to be a more convenient and effective diagnostic tool in patients with mass lesions. Demonstration and identification of the parasite in smears helps in avoiding surgical excision and early institution of prompt therapy especially in young patients. PMID:27413335

  3. Potential role for mucosal IgA in modulating Haemonchus contortus adult worm infection in sheep.

    PubMed

    Hernández, J N; Hernández, A; Stear, M J; Conde-Felipe, M; Rodríguez, E; Piedrafita, D; González, J F

    2016-06-15

    Haemonchus contortus (H. contortus) is a haematophagous parasite which causes important economic losses in small ruminants. On the island of Gran Canaria, two sheep breeds coexist which differ in their susceptibility to the infection with H. contortus; the resistant Canaria Hair Breed (CHB) sheep and the susceptible Canaria Sheep (CS) breed. The major target of resistance mechanisms in CHB sheep are directed to the adult parasite stage, reducing the worm burden, and decreased length and fecundity of surviving worms. Mucosal IgA (mIgA) has been shown to be an important regulator of immunity in Haemonchus and Teladorsagia infections; through correlations with larval stages where such mechanisms as antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity and enzyme inhibition may mediate resistance. Here for the first time, we demonstrate a significant negative correlation between mIgA and adult worm length and fecundity only in the resistant CHB sheep. In contrast, and as reported in other sheep breeds, mIgA was only negatively correlated against the larval stage in the more susceptible CS breed. This study suggests mIgA may play a role in resistance to both larval and adult stages. PMID:27198794

  4. Synergy of Omeprazole and Praziquantel In Vitro Treatment against Schistosoma mansoni Adult Worms

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Leticia; Venancio, Thiago M.; Nakaya, Helder I.; Miyasato, Patrícia A.; Rofatto, Henrique K.; Zerlotini, Adhemar; Nakano, Eliana; Oliveira, Guilherme; Verjovski-Almeida, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Background Treatment and morbidity control of schistosomiasis relies on a single drug, praziquantel (PZQ), and the selection of resistant worms under repeated treatment is a concern. Therefore, there is a pressing need to understand the molecular effects of PZQ on schistosomes and to investigate alternative or synergistic drugs against schistosomiasis. Methodology We used a custom-designed Schistosoma mansoni expression microarray to explore the effects of sublethal doses of PZQ on large-scale gene expression of adult paired males and females and unpaired mature females. We also assessed the efficacy of PZQ, omeprazole (OMP) or their combination against S. mansoni adult worms with a survival in vitro assay. Principal Findings We identified sets of genes that were affected by PZQ in paired and unpaired mature females, however with opposite gene expression patterns (up-regulated in paired and down-regulated in unpaired mature females), indicating that PZQ effects are heavily influenced by the mating status. We also identified genes that were similarly affected by PZQ in males and females. Functional analyses of gene interaction networks were performed with parasite genes that were differentially expressed upon PZQ treatment, searching for proteins encoded by these genes whose human homologs are targets of different drugs used for other diseases. Based on these results, OMP, a widely prescribed proton pump inhibitor known to target the ATP1A2 gene product, was chosen and tested. Sublethal doses of PZQ combined with OMP significantly increased worm mortality in vitro when compared with PZQ or OMP alone, thus evidencing a synergistic effect. Conclusions Functional analysis of gene interaction networks is an important approach that can point to possible novel synergistic drug candidates. We demonstrated the potential of this strategy by showing that PZQ in combination with OMP displayed increased efficiency against S. mansoni adult worms in vitro when compared with

  5. Anthelmintic Activity In Vivo of Epiisopiloturine against Juvenile and Adult Worms of Schistosoma mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Maria A.; de Oliveira, Rosimeire N.; Véras, Leiz M. C.; Lima, David F.; Campelo, Yuri D. M.; Campos, Stefano Augusto; Kuckelhaus, Selma A. S.; Pinto, Pedro L. S.; Eaton, Peter; Mafud, Ana C.; Mascarenhas, Yvonne P.; Allegretti, Silmara M.; de Moraes, Josué; Lolić, Aleksandar; Verbić, Tatjana; Leite, José Roberto S. A.

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a serious disease currently estimated to affect more that 207 million people worldwide. Due to the intensive use of praziquantel, there is increasing concern about the development of drug-resistant strains. Therefore, it is necessary to search for and investigate new potential schistosomicidal compounds. This work reports the in vivo effect of the alkaloid epiisopiloturine (EPI) against adults and juvenile worms of Schistosoma mansoni. EPI was first purified its thermal behavior and theoretical solubility parameters charaterised. In the experiment, mice were treated with EPI over the 21 days post-infection with the doses of 40 and 200 mg/kg, and 45 days post-infection with single doses of 40, 100 and 300 mg/kg. The treatment with EPI at 40 mg/kg was more effective in adult worms when compared with doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg. The treatment with 40 mg/kg in adult worms reduced parasite burden significantly, lead to reduction in hepatosplenomegaly, reduced the egg burden in faeces, and decreased granuloma diameter. Scanning electron microscopy revealed morphological changes to the parasite tegument after treatment, including the loss of important features. Additionally, the in vivo treatment against juvenile with 40 mg/kg showed a reduction of the total worm burden of 50.2%. Histopathological studies were performed on liver, spleen, lung, kidney and brain and EPI was shown to have a DL50 of 8000 mg/kg. Therefore EPI shows potential to be used in schistosomiasis treatment. This is the first time that schistosomicidal in vivo activity of EPI has been reported. PMID:25816129

  6. Metagonimus yokogawai: metacercariae survey in fishes and its development to adult worms in various rodents.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming-Hsien; Huang, Hai-I; Chen, Pei-Lain; Huang, Chiung-Hua; Chen, Yu-Hsuan; Ooi, Hong-Kean

    2013-04-01

    A parasitological survey for Metagonimus yokogawai metacercariae was carried out by examining a total of 321 freshwater fish comprising of 7 species. Of the 321 fish samples examined, 182 (56.7%) were found to be infected with M. yokogawai metacercariae. The prevalence of M. yokogawai metacercariae in Opsariichthys pachycephalus was 93.4% (86/92), Zacco platypus 75.0% (30/40), Distoechodon turmirostris 61.3% (38/62), Varicorhinus barbatulus 56.5% (13/23), Hemibarbus labeo 33.3% (1/3), Acrossocheilus formosanus 15.9% (14/88), and 0% in Sinibrama macrops (0/13), respectively. This is the first record of M. yokogawai infection in Z. platypus, D. turmirostris, V. barbatulus, and H. labeo in Taiwan. The major site of predilection of the metacercariae in the fishes was in the scale, but some metacercariae were also observed in the flesh and fins. The M. yokogawai metacercariae were orally inoculated into mice, rat, gerbil, and golden hamster to study their infectivity and also to obtain the adult worms for taxonomic study. Worm recovery in hamsters was 75.3%, in mice was 70.0%, in rats was 23.3%, and in gerbils was 6.0%, respectively. Moreover, larger worms were recovered from the golden hamster. Golden hamster was thus found to be the most susceptible experimental rodent host for the infectivity study of Metagonimus. Besides M. yokogawai, metacercariae of Centrocestus formosanus was also observed in the fishes examined. PMID:23388732

  7. Effects of Doxycycline on gene expression in Wolbachia and Brugia malayi adult female worms in vivo

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Most filarial nematodes contain Wolbachia symbionts. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of doxycycline on gene expression in Wolbachia and adult female Brugia malayi. Methods Brugia malayi infected gerbils were treated with doxycycline for 6-weeks. This treatment largely cleared Wolbachia and arrested worm reproduction. RNA recovered from treated and control female worms was labeled by random priming and hybridized to the Version 2- filarial microarray to obtain expression profiles. Results and discussion Results showed significant changes in expression for 200 Wolbachia (29% of Wolbachia genes with expression signals in untreated worms) and 546 B. malayi array elements after treatment. These elements correspond to known genes and also to novel genes with unknown biological functions. Most differentially expressed Wolbachia genes were down-regulated after treatment (98.5%). In contrast, doxycycline had a mixed effect on B. malayi gene expression with many more genes being significantly up-regulated after treatment (85% of differentially expressed genes). Genes and processes involved in reproduction (gender-regulated genes, collagen, amino acid metabolism, ribosomal processes, and cytoskeleton) were down-regulated after doxycycline while up-regulated genes and pathways suggest adaptations for survival in response to stress (energy metabolism, electron transport, anti-oxidants, nutrient transport, bacterial signaling pathways, and immune evasion). Conclusions Doxycycline reduced Wolbachia and significantly decreased bacterial gene expression. Wolbachia ribosomes are believed to be the primary biological target for doxycycline in filarial worms. B. malayi genes essential for reproduction, growth and development were also down-regulated; these changes are consistent with doxycycline effects on embryo development and reproduction. On the other hand, many B. malayi genes involved in energy production, electron-transport, metabolism, anti

  8. Antigen selection for future anti-Trichuris vaccines: a comparison of cytokine and antibody responses to larval and adult antigen in a primary infection.

    PubMed

    Dixon, H; Johnston, C E; Else, K J

    2008-09-01

    Trichuriasis, caused by the whipworm Trichuris trichiura, is endemic in tropical and subtropical areas, affecting approximately 1 billion people. Child anthelminthic treatment programmes are being implemented but repeated treatments are costly, may prevent the development of acquired immunity and can lead to the development of drug resistant parasites. Thus, the development of a vaccine which would lead to the acquisition of immunity at an earlier age and reduce community faecal egg output would be beneficial. Development of subunit vaccines requires the identification of protective antigens and their formulation in a suitable adjuvant. Trichuris muris is an antigenically similar laboratory model for T. trichiura. Subcutaneous vaccination with adult excretory-secretory products (ES) protects susceptible mouse strains from T. muris. Larval stages may contain novel and more relevant antigens which when incorporated in a vaccine induce worm expulsion earlier in infection than the adult worm products. This study finds negligible difference in the cellular and humoral immune response to T. muris adult and third stage larva(e) (L3) ES during a primary T. muris infection, but identifies high molecular weight proteins in both adult and L3 ES as potential vaccine candidates. PMID:18565148

  9. Purification of a chymotrypsin-like enzyme present on adult Schistosoma mansoni worms from infected mice and its characterization as a host carboxylesterase.

    PubMed

    Igetei, Joseph E; Liddell, Susan; El-Faham, Marwa; Doenhoff, Michael J

    2016-04-01

    A serine protease-like enzyme found in detergent extracts of Schistosoma mansoni adult worms perfused from infected mice has been purified from mouse blood and further characterized. The enzyme is approximately 85 kDa and hydrolyses N-acetyl-DL-phenylalanine β-naphthyl-ester, a chromogenic substrate for chymotrypsin-like enzymes. The enzyme from S. mansoni worms appears to be antigenically and enzymatically similar to a molecule that is present in normal mouse blood and so is seemingly host-derived. The enzyme was partially purified by depleting normal mouse serum of albumin using sodium chloride and cold ethanol, followed by repeated rounds of purification by one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The purified material was subjected to tandem mass spectrometry and its derived peptides found to belong to mouse carboxylesterase 1C. Its ability to hydrolyse α- or β-naphthyl acetates, which are general esterase substrates, has been confirmed. A similar carboxylesterase was purified and characterized from rat blood. Additional evidence to support identification of the enzyme as a carboxylesterase has been provided. Possible roles of the enzyme in the mouse host-parasite relationship could be to ease the passage of worms through the host's blood vessels and/or in immune evasion. PMID:26924446

  10. Expression of five acetylcholine receptor subunit genes in Brugia malayi adult worms

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ben-Wen; Rush, Amy C.; Weil, Gary J.

    2015-01-01

    Acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) are required for body movement in parasitic nematodes and are targets of “classical” anthelmintic drugs such as levamisole and pyrantel and of newer drugs such as tribendimidine and derquantel. While neurotransmission explains the effects of these drugs on nematode movement, their effects on parasite reproduction are unexplained. The levamisole AChR type (L-AChRs) in Caenorhabditis elegans is comprised of five subunits: Cel-UNC-29, Cel-UNC-38, Cel-UNC-63, Cel-LEV-1 and Cel-LEV-8. The genome of the filarial parasite Brugia malayi contains nine AChRs subunits including orthologues of Cel-unc-29, Cel-unc-38, and Cel-unc-63. We performed in situ hybridization with RNA probes to localize the expression of five AChR genes (Bm1_35890-Bma-unc-29, Bm1_20330-Bma-unc-38, Bm1_38195-Bma-unc-63, Bm1_48815-Bma-acr-26 and Bm1_40515-Bma-acr-12) in B. malayi adult worms. Four of these genes had similar expression patterns with signals in body muscle, developing embryos, spermatogonia, uterine wall adjacent to stretched microfilariae, wall of Vas deferens, and lateral cord. Three L-AChR subunit genes (Bma-unc-29, Bma-unc-38 and Bma-unc-63) were expressed in body muscle, which is a known target of levamisole. Bma-acr-12 was co-expressed with these levamisole subunit genes in muscle, and this suggests that its protein product may form receptors with other alpha subunits. Bma-acr-26 was expressed in male muscle but not in female muscle. Strong expression signals of these genes in early embryos and gametes in uterus and testis suggest that AChRs may have a role in nervous system development of embryogenesis and spermatogenesis. This would be consistent with embryotoxic effects of drugs that target these receptors in filarial worms. Our data show that the expression of these receptor genes is tightly regulated with regard to localization in adult worms and developmental stage in embryos and gametes. These results may help to explain the broad effects

  11. De novo assembly and characterization of the Trichuris trichiura adult worm transcriptome using Ion Torrent sequencing.

    PubMed

    Santos, Leonardo N; Silva, Eduardo S; Santos, André S; De Sá, Pablo H; Ramos, Rommel T; Silva, Artur; Cooper, Philip J; Barreto, Maurício L; Loureiro, Sebastião; Pinheiro, Carina S; Alcantara-Neves, Neuza M; Pacheco, Luis G C

    2016-07-01

    Infection with helminthic parasites, including the soil-transmitted helminth Trichuris trichiura (human whipworm), has been shown to modulate host immune responses and, consequently, to have an impact on the development and manifestation of chronic human inflammatory diseases. De novo derivation of helminth proteomes from sequencing of transcriptomes will provide valuable data to aid identification of parasite proteins that could be evaluated as potential immunotherapeutic molecules in near future. Herein, we characterized the transcriptome of the adult stage of the human whipworm T. trichiura, using next-generation sequencing technology and a de novo assembly strategy. Nearly 17.6 million high-quality clean reads were assembled into 6414 contiguous sequences, with an N50 of 1606bp. In total, 5673 protein-encoding sequences were confidentially identified in the T. trichiura adult worm transcriptome; of these, 1013 sequences represent potential newly discovered proteins for the species, most of which presenting orthologs already annotated in the related species T. suis. A number of transcripts representing probable novel non-coding transcripts for the species T. trichiura were also identified. Among the most abundant transcripts, we found sequences that code for proteins involved in lipid transport, such as vitellogenins, and several chitin-binding proteins. Through a cross-species expression analysis of gene orthologs shared by T. trichiura and the closely related parasites T. suis and T. muris it was possible to find twenty-six protein-encoding genes that are consistently highly expressed in the adult stages of the three helminth species. Additionally, twenty transcripts could be identified that code for proteins previously detected by mass spectrometry analysis of protein fractions of the whipworm somatic extract that present immunomodulatory activities. Five of these transcripts were amongst the most highly expressed protein-encoding sequences in the T

  12. Human TNF-α induces differential protein phosphorylation in Schistosoma mansoni adult male worms.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Katia C; Carvalho, Mariana L P; Bonatto, José Matheus C; Schechtman, Debora; Verjovski-Almeida, Sergio

    2016-02-01

    Schistosoma mansoni and its vertebrate host have a complex and intimate connection in which several molecular stimuli are exchanged and affect both organisms. Human tumor necrosis factor alpha (hTNF-α), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, is known to induce large-scale gene expression changes in the parasite and to affect several parasite biological processes such as metabolism, egg laying, and worm development. Until now, the molecular mechanisms for TNF-α activity in worms are not completely understood. Here, we aimed at exploring the effect of hTNF-α on S. mansoni protein phosphorylation by 2D gel electrophoresis followed by a quantitative analysis of phosphoprotein staining and protein identification by mass spectrometry. We analyzed three biological replicates of adult male worms exposed to hTNF-α and successfully identified 32 protein spots with a statistically significant increase in phosphorylation upon in vitro exposure to hTNF-α. Among the differentially phosphorylated proteins, we found proteins involved in metabolism, such as glycolysis, galactose metabolism, urea cycle, and aldehyde metabolism, as well as proteins related to muscle contraction and to cytoskeleton remodeling. The most differentially phosphorylated protein (30-fold increase in phosphorylation) was 14-3-3, whose function is known to be modulated by phosphorylation, belonging to a signal transduction protein family that regulates a variety of processes in all eukaryotic cells. Further, 75% of the identified proteins are known in mammals to be related to TNF-α signaling, thus suggesting that TNF-α response may be conserved in the parasite. We propose that this work opens new perspectives to be explored in the study of the molecular crosstalk between host and pathogen. PMID:26547565

  13. LYMPHO-PROLIFERATIVE RESPONSES TO VARIOUS FASCIOLA HEPATICA WORM'S ANTIGENS: AN IN VITRO STUDY.

    PubMed

    Sharaf, Osama F; Amir, Elamir M; Hawash, Yousry A

    2016-04-01

    Fascioliasis is an important zoonotic disease with approximately 2-4 million people infected worldwide and a further 180 million at risk of infection. F. hepatica can survive within the bile ducts for many years through its ability to suppress the host immunity with Fasciola cathepsin L1 cysteine protease and Glutathione S transferase playing an important role. The aim of the present study is to investigate the in vitro lympho-proliferative responses of hepatic hilar lymphocytes (HLN) of infected sheep in response to different F. hepatica antigens. The suppressive effects of Fasciola excretory/secretory (ES) and tegument (TEG) and their fractions were also investigated. Our results showed that both ES and TEG had significant suppressive effects on lympho-proliferation, up to 74% and 92%, respectively. When these antigens were fractionated, fraction 3 (MW of >10000-30000) of both ES (64%) and TEG (59%) in addition to fraction 4 (MW of ≤ 10000) of TEG (38%) inherited the suppressive effects. Identification of the potential molecule(s) with such suppressive effects on lymphocytes in TEG fraction 4 could reveal vaccine candidates. PMID:27363058

  14. iTRAQ-based comparative proteomic analysis of excretory-secretory proteins of schistosomula and adult worms of Schistosoma japonicum.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiaodan; Fu, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Min; Han, Yanhui; Han, Hongxiao; Han, Qian; Lu, Ke; Hong, Yang; Lin, Jiaojiao

    2016-04-14

    Schistosomiasis remains a serious public health problem with 200 million people infected and 779 million people at risk worldwide. The schistosomulum and adult worm are two stages of the complex lifecycle of Schistosoma japonicum and excretory/secretory proteins (ESPs) play a major role in host-parasite interactions. In this study, iTRAQ-coupled LC-MS/MS was used to investigate the proteome of ESPs obtained from schistosomula and adult worms of S. japonicum, and 298 differential ESPs were identified. Bioinformatics analysis of differential ESPs in the two developmental stages showed that 161 ESPs upregulated in schistosomula were associated with stress responses, carbohydrate metabolism and protein degradation, whereas ESPs upregulated in adult worms were mainly related to immunoregulation and purine metabolism. Recombinant heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and thioredoxin peroxidase (TPx), two differential proteins identified in this study, were expressed. Further studies showed that rSjHSP70 and rSjTPx stimulated macrophages expressing high levels of the anti-inflammatory factors TGF-β, IL-10 and Arg-1, and suppressed the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and iNOS in LPS-induced macrophages. This study provides new insights into the survival and development of schistosomes in the final host and helps identify vaccine candidates or new diagnostic reagents for schistosomiasis. PMID:26915583

  15. Worm-stars and half-worms

    PubMed Central

    Hodgkin, Jonathan; Clark, Laura C; Gravato-Nobre, Maria J

    2014-01-01

    In a recent paper, we reported the isolation and surprising effects of two new bacterial pathogens for Caenorhabditis and related nematodes. These two pathogens belong to the genus Leucobacter and were discovered co-infecting a wild isolate of Caenorhabditis that had been collected in Cape Verde. The interactions of these bacteria with C. elegans revealed both unusual mechanisms of pathogenic attack, and an unexpected defense mechanism on the part of the worm. One pathogen, known as Verde1, is able to trap swimming nematodes by sticking their tails together, resulting in the formation of “worm-star” aggregates, within which worms are killed and degraded. Trapped larval worms, but not adults, can sometimes escape by undergoing whole-body autotomy into half-worms. The other pathogen, Verde2, kills worms by a different mechanism associated with rectal infection. Many C. elegans mutants with alterations in surface glycosylation are resistant to Verde2 infection, but hypersensitive to Verde1, being rapidly killed without worm-star formation. Conversely, surface infection of wild-type worms with Verde1 is mildly protective against Verde2. Thus, there are trade-offs in susceptibility to the two bacteria. The Leucobacter pathogens reveal novel nematode biology and provide powerful tools for exploring nematode surface properties and bacterial susceptibility. PMID:25254146

  16. Chromatographic Fingerprint Analysis and Effects of the Medicinal Plant Species Mitracarpus frigidus on Adult Schistosoma mansoni Worms

    PubMed Central

    Fabri, Rodrigo Luiz; Aragão, Danielle Maria de Oliveira; Florêncio, Jônatas Rodrigues; Pinto, Nícolas de Castro Campos; Mattos, Ana Carolina Alves; Coelho, Paulo Marcos Zech; Castañon, Maria Christina Marques Nogueira; Vasconcelos, Eveline Gomes; Pinto, Priscila de Faria; Scio, Elita

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this work were to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo schistosomicidal properties of the methanolic extract of the aerial parts of Mitracarpus frigidus (MFM) and to determine its HPLC profile. For the in vitro experiment, four pairs of adult worms, obtained from infected mice, were exposed to different concentrations of MFM (100 to 400 μg/mL) for 24 and 48 h and analyzed under an inverted microscope. For the in vivo experiment, mice were inoculated with cercariae and, 20 days after infection, MFM (100 and 300 mg/kg) was administered orally for the following 25 days. Mice were euthanized after 60 days. MFM showed in vitro schistosomicidal activity, exhibiting the opening of the gynaecophoral canal of some male schistosomes, the presence of contorted muscles, vesicles, and the darkening of the paired worms skin. In vivo experiments showed that MFM treatments significantly reduced total worm count, as praziquantel, showing a decrease in liver and spleen weight. Also, a significant reduction in granuloma density was observed. MFM treatment did not cause alterations in the liver function of either infected or noninfected mice. The HPLC chromatogram profile showed the presence of kaempferol-O-rutinoside, rutin, kaempferol, psychorubrin, and ursolic acid. PMID:24901000

  17. High prevalence of haplorchiasis in Nan and Lampang provinces, Thailand, proven by adult worm recovery from suspected opisthorchiasis cases.

    PubMed

    Wijit, Adulsak; Morakote, Nimit; Klinchid, Jaewwaew

    2013-12-01

    Opisthorchiasis, a risk factor for cholangiocarcinoma in humans, is of public health importance in Thailand. The Annual Surveillance Reports from Nan and Lampang Provinces, Thailand, for the year 2011 showed an opisthorchiasis prevalence of over 70% by recovery of eggs in the feces. This study investigated whether most cases are actually due to minute intestinal flukes (MIF) rather than Opisthorchis viverrini, as the eggs of both can hardly be differentiated by morphology. Fifty and 100 cases from residents in Nan and Lampang, respectively, had stools positive for eggs initially assumed to be those of O. viverrini. Each patient was given praziquantel at 40 mg/kg in a single dose. After 2 hr, 30-45 ml of the purgative magnesium sulfate was given, and stools were collected up to 4 times sequentially. The stools were examined for adult worms by simple sedimentation. It was found that 39 of 50 cases (78.0%) from Nan Province had Haplorchis taichui, with intensities ranging from 5 to 1,250 with an average of 62 worms/case. Taenia saginata (7 cases) and Enterobius vermicularis (1 case) were other helminths recovered as the co-infectants. In Lampang Province, H. taichui was recovered from 69 cases (69.0%). The number of flukes recovered ranged from 1 to 4,277, with an average of 326 worms/case. Four cases had Phaneropsolus bonnei, and 10 T. saginata as the co-infectants. Adult specimens of O. viverrini were not recovered from any stool. Clearly, MIF infection, especially haplorchiasis, is more common in northern Thailand. These findings should encourage the Public Health Office to employ more specific tools than Kato's method for surveillance of opisthorchiasis in Thailand. PMID:24516289

  18. Chemotherapeutic studies on Litomosoides carinii infection of Mastomys natalensis. 8. The action of furazolidone on adult worms and microfilariae.

    PubMed

    Wegerhof, P H; Lämmler, G; Sänger, I; Zahner, H

    1979-09-01

    After oral administration of furazolidone in doses of 5 x 50 mg/kg and 1 x 100 mg/kg body weight to Litomosoides carinii--infected Mastomys natalensis microfilaraemia decreased continuously and was reduced by more than 98% 42 days after start of treatment. After the 5-day treatment all adult female and male worms were found dead and encapsulated within 2 weeks, whereas after the single dose 100% of the female parasites were encapsulated 28 days after treatment. In untreated animals quantiative examinations of the intrauterine stages showed an average number of 500 x 103 embryos per adult female worm. Following the 5-day treatment the number of embryos per female parasite was reduced after 42 days to 12.5 x 103, and after the single treatment to 26.9 x 103. By classification into 5 different stages (2- and 4-cell stages, Morula stage, "Horse-shoe" stage, "Ring" and "Brezel" stages, and intruterine microfilariae) an embryogram showed a continuous increase in pathologically-altered embryos during the whole observation period. The 2- and 4-cell stages suffered the most damaged. By 16 days after the end of the 5-day treatment and by 28 days after the single treatment all embryonic stages in the uteri were found to be pathologically altered. Furazolidone possessess high macrofilaricidal activity together with a considerable adverse effect on embryognesis and some delayed effect on microfilaraemia. PMID:543002

  19. Combination of worm antigen and proinsulin prevents type 1 diabetes in NOD mice after the onset of insulitis.

    PubMed

    Ajendra, Jesuthas; Berbudi, Afiat; Hoerauf, Achim; Hübner, Marc P

    2016-03-01

    Animal studies demonstrated that administration of helminth products can protect from autoimmune diseases. However, the success of such administrations is limited in the case of type 1 diabetes, as protection is only provided if the administration is started before the development of insulitis. In this study we investigated whether inclusion of helminth antigen administrations to an antigen-specific treatment with proinsulin improves the protective effect by triggering non-specific regulatory immune responses. Using a combination therapy of intraperitoneal Litomosoides sigmodontis antigen and intranasal pro-insulin, onset of diabetes was prevented in NOD mice after insulitis started, while either administration alone failed to protect. This protection was associated with an increased frequency of regulatory T cells within the pancreatic lymph nodes and a reduced inflammation of the pancreatic islets. This suggests that inclusion of helminth antigens improve the protective effect provided by antigen-specific therapies and represent a new potential therapeutic approach against autoimmune diseases. PMID:26898311

  20. Programmed Worms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Donald T.

    1982-01-01

    A hungry worm is looking for something to eat according to very specific rules, and the path he takes is a graph. The problem is detailed in Applesoft BASIC using low resolution graphics for worms that turn 90 degrees and high resolution for worms that can turn 45 degrees. (MP)

  1. Comparison of apoptosis between adult worms of Schistosoma japonicum from susceptible (BALB/c mice) and less-susceptible (Wistar rats) hosts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Guo, Xiaoyong; Hong, Yang; Han, Hongxiao; Cao, Xiaodan; Han, Yanhui; Zhang, Min; Wu, Miaoli; Fu, Zhiqiang; Lu, Ke; Li, Hao; Zhao, Zhixin; Lin, Jiaojiao

    2016-10-30

    Schistosomiasis remains a serious public health concern in China. BALB/c mice are susceptible to Schistosoma japonicum infection, whereas the Wistar rats are less susceptible. Apoptosis phenomenon was observed in 42d adult worms of S. japonicum from both rats and mice at the morphologic, DNA, cellular, and gene levels by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), fluorometric terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) analysis, fluorescein isothiocyanate-annexin-V/propidium iodide staining flow cytometry (FCM) analysis, and real-time PCR. The results showed that the apoptotic state in worms from two different susceptible hosts was diverse. Several classical hallmarks of apoptosis, including cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation and lunate marginalization, splitting of the nucleoli, nuclear shrinkage and apoptotic body formation were observed by TEM. TUNEL analysis showed that there were much more apoptosis spots in adult worms from rats than those from mice. Statistical analysis revealed that the degree of apoptosis and percentage of necrotic cells in adult worms from Wistar rats were significantly greater (P<0.01) than those from BALB/c mice by flow cytometry. A total of 15 apoptosis-associated genes including the major components of an intrinsic cell-death pathway were identified from S. japonicum in this study, suggested that a similar apoptosis pathway might occur in S. japonicum. Real-time PCR analyses revealed that the expression levels of most of the tested apoptosis-associated genes, except CASP7, were significantly higher or at the similar level in adult worms from Wistar rats, as compared to those from BALB/c mice. The results obtained in this study collectively demonstrated that differential development of adult S. japonicum in less-susceptible rats and susceptible mice was significantly associated with apoptosis in the worm, and provided valuable information to guide further investigations of the mechanisms governing

  2. In vitro effects of three woody plant and sainfoin extracts on 3rd-stage larvae and adult worms of three gastrointestinal nematodes.

    PubMed

    Paolini, V; Fouraste, I; Hoste, H

    2004-07-01

    Most studies on the effects of tanniferous plants on nematodes have examined forages but have neglected the woody plants. Therefore, in vitro effects of extracts from 3 woody plants (Rubus fructicosus, Quercus robur, Corylus avellana) have been tested on trichostrongyles and compared to sainfoin, a legume forage. Because some in vivo results indicated that the effects of tannins differed depending on the parasitic species and/or stages, the effects were measured on 3rd-stage larvae (L3) and adult worms of Teladorsagia circumcincta, Haemonchlus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis. The effects of plant extracts varied according to the plant sources, the parasite species and stages. For the woody plants, significant inhibitory effects were obtained on both stages of abomasal species. Results for T. colubriformis were more variable. Effects of sainfoin extracts were significant on T. colubriformis and H. contortus L3, and on abomasal adult worms. In order to assess the implications of tannins, polyethylene glycol (PEG), an inhibitor of tannins, was added to hazel tree, oak and sainfoin extracts. Without PEG, significant inhibitory effects on L3 and adult worms were confirmed. After addition of PEG, the larval migration and motility of adult worms were restored in most cases. These results confirm variations in effects depending on factors related to plants or parasites and suggest that tannins are partly responsible for the effects. PMID:15267113

  3. Isotypic variation in antibody responses in a community in Papua New Guinea to larval and adult antigens during infection, and following reinfection, with the hookworm Necator americanus.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, D I; Walsh, E A; Quinell, R J; Raiko, A; Edmonds, P; Keymer, A E

    1992-11-01

    The natural infection of a community with the hookworm Necator americanus induces a vigorous humoral response to both larval and adult parasite antigens. This response occurs in all five human antibody isotypes, and data are presented to show that, at the population level, isotypes respond differently, following chemotherapy and during reinfection, to changes in antigen stimulation. The differential response probably reflects the fact that the parasite, during the course of its life cycle, presents different amounts of antigens at different anatomical locations. It is suggested that IgG and IgM responses against adult excretory-secretory (ES) products most accurately reflect the efficacy of chemotherapy, and the load of resident adult infection, while IgG responses against larval somatic antigens reflect continuous exposure to infection. These hypotheses should now be tested, at the level of the individual, in a longitudinal manner using more closely spaced sampling intervals. This repetitive sampling, and the inclusion of a measure of the exposure of the population to infective stages, will allow more definitive conclusions to be made about the role of the immune response in controlling worm burdens. PMID:1470481

  4. Secreted adhesion molecules of Strongyloides venezuelensis are produced by oesophageal glands and are components of the wall of tunnels constructed by adult worms in the host intestinal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, H; El-Malky, M; Kumagai, T; Ohta, N

    2003-02-01

    The parasitic female of Strongyloides venezuelensis keeps invading the epithelial layer of the host intestinal mucosa. Upon invasion, it adheres to the surface of the intestinal epithelial cells with adhesion molecules secreted from the mouth. It has been demonstrated that S. venezuelensis are expelled from the intestine because mucosal mast cells inhibit the attachment of adult worms to the mucosal surface. In the present study, we generated specific antibodies against secreted adhesion molecules to investigate their function in vivo, because these molecules have been demonstrated only in vitro in spite of the importance in the infection processes. A mouse monoclonal antibody specific to S. venezuelensis adhesion molecules inhibited the attachment of adult worms to plastic dishes and the binding of adhesion molecules to rat intestinal epithelial cells. Immunohistochemical study revealed that adhesion molecules were produced by oesophageal glands and were continuously secreted in vivo to line the wall of the tunnels formed by adult worms in the intestinal mucosa. Our findings indicate that adhesion molecules play essential roles in the infection processes of S. venezuelensis in the host intestine. PMID:12636354

  5. Effectiveness of hyperbaric oxygen for experimental treatment of schistosomiasis mansoni using praziquantel-free and encapsulated into liposomes: assay in adult worms and oviposition.

    PubMed

    Frezza, Tarsila Ferraz; de Souza, Ana Luiza Ribeiro; Prado, César Corat Ribeiro; de Oliveira, Claudineide Nascimento Fernandes; Gremião, Maria Palmira Daflon; Giorgio, Selma; Dolder, Mary Anne Heidi; Joazeiro, Paulo Pinto; Allegretti, Silmara Marques

    2015-10-01

    The treatment of schistosomiasis depends on a single drug: praziquantel (PZQ). However, this treatment presents limitations such as low and/or erratic bioavailability that can contribute to cases of tolerance. Improvements to the available drug are urgently needed and studies with a controlled system of drug release, like liposomes, have been gaining prominence. The present study evaluated the activity and synergy between liposomal-praziquantel (lip.PZQ) and hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO). Mice received doses of 60 or 100mg/kg PZQ or lip.PZQ, 50 days post-infection, and after the treatment, were exposed to HBO (3 atmosphere absolute - ATA) for 1h. The viability of adult worms and oviposition were analyzed, by necropsy and Kato-Katz examination performed after 15 days of treatment. A concentration of 100mg/kg of lip.PZQ+HBO was more effective (48.0% reduction of worms, 83.3% reduction of eggs/gram of feces) and 100% of the mice had altered of oograms (indicating interruption of oviposition) compared to other treatments and to the Control group (infected and untreated). It is known that PZQ requires participation of the host immune system to complete its antischistosomal activity and that HBO is able to stimulate the immune system. The drug became more available in the body when incorporated into liposomes and, used with HBO, the HBO worked as an adjuvant. This explains the decreases of oviposition and worms recovered form hepatic portal system. PMID:26215128

  6. Antigen

    MedlinePlus

    An antigen is any substance that causes your immune system to produce antibodies against it. This means your immune ... and is trying to fight it off. An antigen may be a substance from the environment, such ...

  7. Evaluation of urine pneumococcal antigen test performance among adults in Western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Hampton, Lee M; Bigogo, Godfrey; Jagero, Geofrey; da Gloria Carvalho, Maria; Pimenta, Fabiana; Junghae, Muthoni; Breiman, Robert F; Whitney, Cynthia G; Feikin, Daniel R; Conklin, Laura M

    2016-08-01

    When used in an area of rural western Kenya, the BinaxNOW® urine antigen test had a sensitivity of 67% (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 43-85%) among 21 adults ≥15 years old with acute respiratory illnesses and pneumococcal bacteremia and a specificity of 98% (95% CI: 96-99%) among 660 adults ≥15 years old without fever or cough. The specificity of the test was not significantly affected by pneumococcal colonization, regardless of patients' HIV status, age, or sex. Use of the pneumococcal urine antigen test in clinical assessments of adults in Africa with acute respiratory illness is a viable option regardless of whether a patient is colonized by pneumococci, even among HIV-infected adults, although the moderate sensitivity of the urine antigen test indicates that the test is probably best used clinically as part of a panel with other tests that can detect pneumococci. PMID:27220607

  8. Detection of Renibacterium salmoninarum antigen in migrating adult chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sakai, M; Atsuta, S; Kobayashi, M

    1992-01-01

    Renibacterium salmoninarum antigen was detected in the kidney of migrating chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) using the indirect dot blot assay and indirect fluorescent antibody test. The adult chum salmon had migrated into a bay in which cultured coho salmon infected with R. salmoninarum were present. Antigen was detected in 5% of the chum salmon although they did not have clinical signs of bacterial kidney disease (BKD). This report describes the first case of R. salmoninarum antigen detection among wild chum salmon populations in eastern Asia. PMID:1548789

  9. In vitro pairing of Echinostoma revolutum (trematoda) metacercariae and adults, and characterization of worm products involved in chemoattraction.

    PubMed

    Fried, B; Tancer, R B; Fleming, S J

    1980-12-01

    In vitro pairing studies were done on chemically excysted metacercariae and on adults of Echinostoma revolutum maintained in vitro in agar-Locke's petri dish cultures at 39 +/- 1 C for up to 24 hr. Whereas newly excysted metacercariae did not pair, both immature and mature adults showed significant pairing. Adult echinostomes confined in dialysis sacs emitted excretory-secretory (EC) products which significantly attracted single echinostome adults in vitro. Only the lipophilic fraction of ES products was found to elicit attraction. Preparative TLC analysis of adult echinostomes produced three major bands as follows: I (phospholipids); II (free sterols); and III (free fatty acids + triglycerides). When tested in vitro, only the free sterol fraction significantly attracted single adult echinostomes. TLC and GLC analyses of free sterols of E. revolutum have indicated that cholesterol is the major free sterol. PMID:7218094

  10. Detection of an Antigenic Group 2 Coronavirus in an Adult Alpaca with Enteritis▿

    PubMed Central

    Genova, Suzanne G.; Streeter, Robert N.; Simpson, Katharine M.; Kapil, Sanjay

    2008-01-01

    Antigenic group 2 coronavirus was detected in a fecal sample of an adult alpaca by reverse transcription-PCR. The presence of alpaca coronavirus (ApCoV) in the small intestine was demonstrated by immune histochemistry with an antinucleocapsid monoclonal antibody that reacts with group 2 coronaviruses. Other common causes of diarrhea in adult camelids were not detected. We conclude that nutritional stress may have predisposed the alpaca to severe ApCoV infection. PMID:18716008

  11. The WORM site: worm.csirc.net

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, T.

    2000-07-01

    The Write One, Run Many (WORM) site (worm.csirc.net) is the on-line home of the WORM language and is hosted by the Criticality Safety Information Resource Center (CSIRC) (www.csirc.net). The purpose of this web site is to create an on-line community for WORM users to gather, share, and archive WORM-related information. WORM is an embedded, functional, programming language designed to facilitate the creation of input decks for computer codes that take standard ASCII text files as input. A functional programming language is one that emphasizes the evaluation of expressions, rather than execution of commands. The simplest and perhaps most common example of a functional language is a spreadsheet such as Microsoft Excel. The spreadsheet user specifies expressions to be evaluated, while the spreadsheet itself determines the commands to execute, as well as the order of execution/evaluation. WORM functions in a similar fashion and, as a result, is very simple to use and easy to learn. WORM improves the efficiency of today's criticality safety analyst by allowing: (1) input decks for parameter studies to be created quickly and easily; (2) calculations and variables to be embedded into any input deck, thus allowing for meaningful parameter specifications; (3) problems to be specified using any combination of units; and (4) complex mathematically defined models to be created. WORM is completely written in Perl. Running on all variants of UNIX, Windows, MS-DOS, MacOS, and many other operating systems, Perl is one of the most portable programming languages available. As such, WORM works on practically any computer platform.

  12. Gummy Worm Measurements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callison, Priscilla L.; Anshutz, Ramona J.; Wright, Emmett L.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a science activity using gummy worms to help primary students develop the mathematical skills of measurement concepts, units of measure, estimation, and graphing needed for science learning. Groups of two begin by estimating the number of gummy worms in their package and identifying the colors they expect to find. Individual worms are…

  13. The Father Christmas worm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, James L.; Sisson, Patricia L.

    1989-01-01

    Given here is an overview analysis of the Father Christmas Worm, a computer worm that was released onto the DECnet Internet three days before Christmas 1988. The purpose behind the worm was to send an electronic mail message to all users on the computer system running the worm. The message was a Christmas greeting and was signed 'Father Christmas'. From the investigation, it was determined that the worm was released from a computer (node number 20597::) at a university in Switzerland. The worm was designed to travel quickly. Estimates are that it was copied to over 6,000 computer nodes. However, it was believed to have executed on only a fraction of those computers. Within ten minutes after it was released, the worm was detected at the Space Physics Analysis Network (SPAN), NASA's largest space and Earth science network. Once the source program was captured, a procedural cure, using the existing functionality of the computer operating systems, was quickly devised and distributed. A combination of existing computer security measures, the quick and accurate procedures devised to stop copies of the worm from executing, and the network itself, were used to rapidly provide the cure. These were the main reasons why the worm executed on such a small percentage of nodes. This overview of the analysis of the events concerning the worm is based on an investigation made by the SPAN Security Team and provides some insight into future security measures that will be taken to handle computer worms and viruses that may hit similar networks.

  14. Immunosuppressive PAS-1 is an excretory/secretory protein released by larval and adult worms of the ascarid nematode Ascaris suum.

    PubMed

    Antunes, M F P; Titz, T O; Batista, I F C; Marques-Porto, R; Oliveira, C F; Alves de Araujo, C A; Macedo-Soares, M F

    2015-05-01

    Helminths use several strategies to evade and/or modify the host immune response, including suppression or inactivation of the host antigen-specific response. Several helminth immunomodulatory molecules have been identified. Our studies have focused on immunosuppression induced by the roundworm Ascaris suum and an A. suum-derived protein named protein 1 from A. suum (PAS-1). Here we assessed whether PAS-1 is an excretory/secretory (E/S) protein and whether it can suppress lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation. Larvae from infective eggs were cultured in unsupplemented Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium (DMEM) for 2 weeks. PAS-1 was then measured in the culture supernatants and in adult A. suum body fluid at different time points by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with the monoclonal antibody MAIP-1. Secreted PAS-1 was detected in both larval culture supernatant and adult body fluid. It suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced leucocyte migration and pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and stimulated interleukin (IL)-10 secretion, indicating that larval and adult secreted PAS-1 suppresses inflammation in this model. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory activity of PAS-1 was abolished by treatment with MAIP-1, a PAS-1-specific monoclonal antibody, confirming the crucial role of PAS-1 in suppressing LPS-induced inflammation. These findings demonstrate that PAS-1 is an E/S protein with anti-inflammatory properties likely to be attributable to IL-10 production. PMID:24703095

  15. Expression of tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA) in fetal and adult liver: changes in liver disease.

    PubMed Central

    Burt, A D; Stewart, J A; Aitchison, M; MacSween, R N

    1987-01-01

    The distribution of tissue polypeptide antigen (40 kD molecular weight) in normal adult and fetal liver, and in liver disease was investigated and compared with the distribution of low and high molecular weight cytokeratins. In normal liver tissue polypeptide antigen was found only in bile duct epithelium; this distribution is similar to that of high molecular weight cytokeratin, but differs from that of low molecular weight cytokeratins. In liver disease it was found in areas of ductular transformation; in Mallory's bodies; and in alcoholic liver disease and primary biliary cirrhosis in some hepatocytes that did not contain Mallory's bodies. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 Fig 6 PMID:2442199

  16. Identification of Trichinella spiralis early antigens at the pre-adult and adult stages.

    PubMed

    Zocevic, Aleksandar; Mace, Pauline; Vallee, Isabelle; Blaga, Radu; Liu, Mingyuan; Lacour, Sandrine A; Boireau, Pascal

    2011-04-01

    Three expression cDNA libraries from Trichinella spiralis worms 14 h, 20 h and 48 h post-infection (p.i.) were screened with serum from pigs experimentally infected with 20,000 T. spiralis muscle larvae. Twenty-nine positive clones were isolated from the 14 h p.i. cDNA library, corresponding to 8 different genes. A putative excretory-secretory protein similar to that of T. pseudospiralis was identified. Three clones corresponded to a T. spiralis serine proteinase inhibitor known to be involved in diverse functions such as blood coagulation and modulation of inflammation. Screening of the 20 h p.i. cDNA library selected 167 positive clones representing 12 different sequences. The clone with the highest redundancy encoded a small polypeptide having no sequence identity with any known proteins from Trichinella or other organisms. Fourteen clones displayed sequence identity with the heat shock protein (HSP) 70. HSPs are produced as an adaptive response of the parasite to the hostile environment encountered in the host intestine but their mechanism of action is not yet well defined. From the 48 h p.i. T. spiralis cDNA library, 91 positive clones were identified representing 7 distinct sequences. Most of the positive clones showed high similarity with a member of a putative T. spiralis serine protease family. This result is consistent with a possible major role for serine proteases during invasive stages of Trichinella infection and host-parasite interactions. PMID:21092349

  17. MAINE MARINE WORM HABITAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    WORM provides a generalized representation at 1:24,000 scale of commercially harvested marine worm habitat in Maine, based on Maine Department of Marine Resources data from 1970's. Original maps were created by MDMR and published by USF&WS as part of the ""&quo...

  18. The African eye worm: a case report and review.

    PubMed

    Ali, Sadia; Fisher, Melanie; Juckett, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    Loiasis, caused by the filarial nematode Loa loa, is often asymptomatic but frequently manifests as episodic angioedema and periocular migration of adult worms. Hence also known as the eye worm.(1) It is rarely encountered in the United States among travelers and immigrants. This report describes a case of loiasis in a Cameroonian student seen at a US university clinic. PMID:18217870

  19. Celebrate Worm Week!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crocker, Betty; Garrett, Sandra; Trammell, Laura Z.

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on an extended learning experience with worms as the main topic in which students collect and organize information and choose an experimental question. Based on the constructivist theory of learning. Contains 17 references. (DDR)

  20. Identification of genes encoding Schistosoma mansoni antigens using an antigenic sequence tag strategy.

    PubMed

    Zouain, C S; Azevedo, V A; Franco, G R; Pena, S D; Goes, A M

    1998-12-01

    Another approach for the identification of genes that code for antigenic products is described using an antigenic sequence tag (AST) strategy. A Schistosoma mansoni adult worm cDNA library was screened with affinity chromatography-purified immunoglobulins from infected human sera and a mild oxidation treatment with sodium periodate. From 1 or both ends of 30 cDNA clones, 30 ASTs were obtained. Of these, 22 were previously known Sm antigens. One clone had matches with entries for other organisms in the databases and 6 had homology with Sm-expressed sequence tags (EST) entries. These clones, together with another 1 that had no significant database matches, were considered new antigenic genes in S. mansoni. The strategy proved to be efficient for the identification of genes that could be used for immunological studies and evaluation as vaccine candidates. PMID:9920341

  1. Worms, Worms, and Even More Worms: A Vermicomposting Guide for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Integrated Waste Management Board, Sacramento.

    This guide is designed to help teachers gain a better understanding of how to get a worm vermicomposting system started. It provides reference curricula materials for using worms in the classroom. Chapters include: (1) "Why Worm Vermicomposting;" (2) "Basics of Vermicomposting;" (3) "Worm Facts;" (4) "Classroom Activities;" (5) "Lab Activities;"…

  2. A combined proteomic and immunologic approach for the analysis of Schistosoma mansoni cercariae and adult worm protein extracts and the detection of one of the vaccine candidates, Sm28GST, from a Venezuelan parasite isolate.

    PubMed

    Losada, Sandra; Sabatier, Laurence; Hammann, Philippe; Guillier, Christelle; Matos, César; Bermúdez, Henry; Lorenzo, María Angelita; Noya, Oscar

    2011-06-01

    Understanding the mode of Schistosoma mansoni larval invasion and the mechanism of immune evasion utilized by larvae and adult worms is essential for a rational development of vaccines or drugs to prevent or cure the disease. This parasite has a very complex molecular organization in all parasite stages, and identifying the major parasite proteins would give clues to schistosome metabolism and to the interaction of the parasite with the host immune system. Our goal was the evaluation of the protein parasite repertoire using a proteomic approach, and the characterization of protein extracts from two different parasite stages of a Venezuelan isolate, such as cercariae and adult worms, previously performed by other authors in some other strains. A comparison among authors was made. Besides, we aimed to identify different isoforms of one of the vaccine candidates, the gluthation-S-transferase protein (Sm28GST), by 2D SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry, and to achieve its immunologic detection using sera from rabbits immunized with synthetic peptides derived from the Sm28GST protein. These techniques allowed the identification of some of the target molecules of the protective immune response that are being evaluated as potential members of a multi-component and multi-stage anti-S. mansoni vaccine and to clarify if the selected peptides induce antibodies that are able to recognize different isoforms of the Sm28GST. PMID:21866785

  3. Leaky RAG Deficiency in Adult Patients with Impaired Antibody Production against Bacterial Polysaccharide Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Geier, Christoph B.; Piller, Alexander; Linder, Angela; Sauerwein, Kai M. T.; Eibl, Martha M.; Wolf, Hermann M.

    2015-01-01

    Loss of function mutations in the recombination activating genes RAG1 and RAG2 have been reported to cause a T-B-NK+ type of severe combined immunodeficiency. In addition identification of hypomorphic mutations in RAG1 and RAG2 has led to an expansion of the spectrum of disease to include Omenn syndrome, early onset autoimmunity, granuloma, chronic cytomegalovirus- or EBV-infection with expansion of gamma/delta T-cells, idiophatic CD4 lymphopenia and a phenotype resembling common variable immunodeficiency. Herein we describe a novel presentation of leaky RAG1 and RAG2 deficiency in two unrelated adult patients with impaired antibody production against bacterial polysaccharide antigens. Clinical manifestation included recurrent pneumonia, sinusitis, otitis media and in one patient recurrent cutaneous vasculitis. Both patients harbored a combination of a null mutation on one allele with a novel hypomorphic RAG1/2 mutation on the other allele. One of these novel mutations affected the start codon of RAG1 and resulted in an aberrant gene and protein expression. The second novel RAG2 mutation leads to a truncated RAG2 protein, lacking the C-terminus with intact core RAG2 and reduced VDJ recombination capacity as previously described in a mouse model. Both patients presented with severely decreased numbers of naïve CD4+ T cells and defective T independent IgG responses to bacterial polysaccharide antigens, while T cell-dependent IgG antibody formation e.g. after tetanus or TBEV vaccination was intact. In conclusion, hypomorphic mutations in genes responsible for SCID should be considered in adults with predominantly antibody deficiency. PMID:26186701

  4. Identifying protective Streptococcus pyogenes vaccine antigens recognized by both B and T cells in human adults and children

    PubMed Central

    Mortensen, Rasmus; Nissen, Thomas Nørrelykke; Fredslund, Sine; Rosenkrands, Ida; Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard; Andersen, Peter; Dietrich, Jes

    2016-01-01

    No commercial vaccine exists against Group A streptococci (GAS; Streptococcus pyogenes) and only little is known about anti-GAS protective immunity. In our effort to discover new protective vaccine candidates, we selected 21 antigens based on an in silico evaluation. These were all well-conserved among different GAS strains, upregulated in host-pathogen interaction studies, and predicted to be extracellular or associated with the surface of the bacteria. The antigens were tested for both antibody recognition and T cell responses in human adults and children. The antigenicity of a selected group of antigens was further validated using a high-density peptide array technology that also identified the linear epitopes. Based on immunological recognition, four targets were selected and tested for protective capabilities in an experimental GAS infection model in mice. Shown for the first time, three of these targets (spy0469, spy1228 and spy1801) conferred significant protection whereas one (spy1643) did not. PMID:26911649

  5. Identifying protective Streptococcus pyogenes vaccine antigens recognized by both B and T cells in human adults and children.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Rasmus; Nissen, Thomas Nørrelykke; Fredslund, Sine; Rosenkrands, Ida; Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard; Andersen, Peter; Dietrich, Jes

    2016-01-01

    No commercial vaccine exists against Group A streptococci (GAS; Streptococcus pyogenes) and only little is known about anti-GAS protective immunity. In our effort to discover new protective vaccine candidates, we selected 21 antigens based on an in silico evaluation. These were all well-conserved among different GAS strains, upregulated in host-pathogen interaction studies, and predicted to be extracellular or associated with the surface of the bacteria. The antigens were tested for both antibody recognition and T cell responses in human adults and children. The antigenicity of a selected group of antigens was further validated using a high-density peptide array technology that also identified the linear epitopes. Based on immunological recognition, four targets were selected and tested for protective capabilities in an experimental GAS infection model in mice. Shown for the first time, three of these targets (spy0469, spy1228 and spy1801) conferred significant protection whereas one (spy1643) did not. PMID:26911649

  6. Immunochemical characterization of Ancylostoma caninum antigens.

    PubMed

    Schnieder, T; Kohlmetz, C; Epe, C; Stoye, M

    1996-06-01

    Adult worms of Ancylostoma caninum were dissected and manually separated into cephalic glands, cervical glands, intestine, esophagus and cuticula. These fractions as well as third stage larvae were fractionated with Triton X-114 into water soluble (hydrophilic), Triton soluble (hydrophobic) and unsoluble proteins. These fractions were characterized by immunoblotting with serum from rabbits immunized either with a pool of cervical, cephalic glands and intestine, or the esophagus fraction as well as with sera from percutaneously infected dogs and rabbits. Immunodominant antigens were found that reacted with dog or rabbit post infection sera and could be suited as antigens in serodiagnostic tests. Hidden antigens were found in the several fractions. Those from esophagus and intestine could be vaccine candidates that will be tested in immunization trials. PMID:8688863

  7. Worm Infections in Children.

    PubMed

    Weatherhead, Jill E; Hotez, Peter J

    2015-08-01

    • On the basis of research evidence, worm infections are important global child health conditions causing chronic disability that lasts from childhood into adulthood (Table 1). (2)(3) Evidence Quality: B • On the basis of research evidence, the major worm infections found in developing countries include ascariasis, trichuriasis, hookworm infection, and schistosomiasis; toxocariasis, enterobiasis, and cysticercosis are also found in poor regions of North America and Europe. (4)(9)(13) Evidence Quality: B • On the basis of expert consensus, children and adolescents are often vulnerable to acquiring large numbers of worms, ie, high-intensity infections (Fig 1)(21)(22)(23) Evidence Quality: D • On the basis of expert consensus and research evidence, moderate and heavy worm burdens cause increased morbidity because of growth and intellectual stunting in children and adolescents. Many of these effects may result from helminth-induced malnutrition. (21)(22)(23) Evidence Quality: C • On the basis of expert consensus and research evidence, worm infections are also commonly associated with eosinophilia. (48) (49) Evidence Quality: B • On the basis of research evidence as well as consensus, helminthes can cause inflammation in the lung (asthma), gastrointestinal tract (enteritis and colitis), liver (hepatitis and fibrosis), and urogenital tract. (7)(21)(22)(23)(27)(28)(40)(41)(43) Evidence Quality: B • On the basis of research evidence, microscopy techniques for diagnosis of worm infections in children often exhibit suboptimal sensitivities and specificities, necessitating new or improved diagnostic modalities such as polymerase chain reaction. (54)(55) Evidence Quality: A • On the basis of research evidence and expert consensus, mass drug administration (“preventive chemotherapy”) has becomea standard practice for ministries of health in low- and middle-income countries to control intestinal helminth infections and schistosomiasis. (67)(68) Evidence

  8. Concept, Characteristics and Defending Mechanism of Worms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yong; Luo, Jiaqing; Xiao, Bin; Wei, Guiyi

    Worms are a common phenomenon in today's Internet and cause tens of billions of dollars in damages to businesses around the world each year. This article first presents various concepts related to worms, and then classifies the existing worms into four types- Internet worms, P2P worms, email worms and IM (Instant Messaging) worms, based on the space in which a worm finds a victim target. The Internet worm is the focus of this article. We identify the characteristics of Internet worms in terms of their target finding strategy, propagation method and anti-detection capability. Then, we explore state-of-the-art worm detection and worm containment schemes. This article also briefly presents the characteristics, defense methods and related research work of P2P worms, email worms and IM worms. Nowadays, defense against worms remains largely an open problem. In the end of this article, we outline some future directions on the worm research.

  9. Serodiagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni infections in an endemic area of Burkina Faso: performance of several immunological tests with different parasite antigens.

    PubMed

    Sorgho, Hermann; Bahgat, Mahmoud; Poda, Jean-Noel; Song, Wenjian; Kirsten, Christa; Doenhoff, Michael J; Zongo, Issaka; Ouédraogo, Jean-Bosco; Ruppel, Andreas

    2005-02-01

    The performance of indirect haemagglutination assays (IHA), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescent antibody tests (IFAT) were compared with 450 sera from a Schistosoma mansoni-endemic area in Burkina Faso. All participants in this survey provided at least one sample each of stool, urine and serum. From those with an egg-negative Kato-Katz thick smear, a second stool sample was examined. IHA was based on either extracts of adult S. mansoni worms (SmIHA) or S. japonicum egg antigen (SjIHA). For ELISA, three antigen preparations were used, namely: (i) soluble S. mansoni adult worm antigens (SWAP); (ii) soluble S. mansoni egg antigens (SEA); and (iii) a cationic exchange fraction of S. mansoni eggs (CEF6). IFAT was performed with S. mansoni male worm sections. Among the egg-excretors, the sensitivity of ELISA was high and egg antigens performed slightly better (SEA, 96%; CEF6, 97%) than worm antigen (94%). Sensitivity of IHA was satisfactory with homologous (Sm, >85%), but not heterologous (Sj, 56%) parasite antigen. In IFAT, the parenchyma-associated fluorescence showed high sensitivity (95%), but gut-associated fluorescence, which is known to be a sensitive diagnostic marker for schistosome-infected European travelers, was observed only in 76% of a sub-sample of 100 of the endemic sera. Among sera from egg-negative individuals, many gave positive reactions in several or all of the tests employed. These reactions (formally "false positive") are considered to represent true infections, since chemotherapy had not yet been delivered to this population. For the purpose of further surveys in Burkina Faso or other resource-poor settings, we suggest IHA as an accurate diagnostic test and propose to further improve its performance by including egg rather than worm antigens. PMID:15652331

  10. Acanthocheilonema viteae: Vaccination of jirds with irradiation-attenuated stage-3 larvae and with exported larval antigens

    SciTech Connect

    Lucius, R.; Textor, G.; Kern, A.; Kirsten, C. )

    1991-08-01

    Jirds (Meriones unguiculatus) were immunized with irradiated (35 krad) stage-3 larvae (L3) of Acanthocheilonema viteae. The induced resistance against homologous challenge infection and the antibody response of the animals were studied. Immunization with 3, 2, or 1 dose of 50 irradiated L3 induced approximately 90% resistance. Immunization with a single dose of only 5 irradiated L3 resulted in 60.8% protection while immunization with a single dose of 25 L3 induced 94.1% protection. The protection induced with 3 doses of 50 irradiated L3 did not decrease significantly during a period of 6 months. Sera of a proportion, but not all resistant jirds, contained antibodies against the surface of vector derived L3 as defined by IFAT. No surface antigens of microfilariae or adult worms were recognized by the sera. Vaccinated animals had antibody responses against antigens in the inner organs of L3 and in the cuticle and reproductive organs of adult worms as shown by IFAT. Immunoblotting with SDS-PAGE-separated L3 antigens and L3-CSN revealed that all sera contained antibodies against two exported antigens of 205 and 68 kDa, and against a nonexported antigen of 18 kDa. The 205-kDa antigen easily degraded into fragments of 165, 140, 125, and 105 kDa which were recognized by resistant jird sera. Various antigens of adult worms, but relatively few antigens of microfilariae, were also recognized. To test the relevance of exported antigens of L3 to resistance, jirds were immunized with L3-CSN together with a mild adjuvant. This immunization induced 67.7% resistance against challenge infection and sera of the immunized animals recognized the 205- and 68-kDa antigens of L3.

  11. Discovery of novel Schistosoma japonicum antigens using a targeted protein microarray approach

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Novel vaccine candidates against Schistosoma japonicum are required, and antigens present in the vulnerable larval developmental stage are attractive targets. Post-genomic technologies are now available which can contribute to such antigen discovery. Methods A schistosome-specific protein microarray was probed using the local antibody response against migrating larvae. Antigens were assessed for their novelty and predicted larval expression and host-exposed features. One antigen was further characterised and its sequence and structure were analysed in silico. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to analyse transcript expression throughout development, and immunoblotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays employed to determine antigen recognition by antibody samples. Results Several known and novel antigens were discovered, two of which showed up-regulated transcription in schistosomula. One novel antigen, termed S. japonicum Ly-6-like protein 1 (Sj-L6L-1), was further characterised and shown to share structural and sequence features with the Ly-6 protein family. It was found to be present in the worm tegument and expressed in both the larval and adult worms, but was found to be antigenic only in the lungs that the larvae migrate to and traverse. Conclusions This study represents a novel approach to vaccine antigen discovery and may contribute to schistosome vaccine development against this important group of human and veterinary pathogens. PMID:24964958

  12. A Can of Sea Worms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinn, Donald J.

    1977-01-01

    A comprehensive discussion of the free-living worms that inhabit the beaches and subtidal bottoms of the Cape Cod shoreline is presented. Methods for the location, collection, preservation, and identification of sea worms are identified. (BT)

  13. Welcome to Worm Central

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madison, Lisa; Rydant, A. L.; Jobin, Raymond A.; Sterling, Cindy

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a vermicomposting program at Epping Elementary School in New Hampshire. The "Feed It to the Worms: A Vermicomposting Geographic Curriculum," developed by the New Hampshire Geographic Alliance and led by fourth grade teacher, Lisa Madison, fits perfectly into the school's ongoing Artist-in-Residence program, where students…

  14. "Mighty Worm" Piezoelectric Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bamford, Robert M.; Wada, Ben K.; Moore, Donald M.

    1994-01-01

    "Mighty Worm" piezoelectric actuator used as adjustable-length structural member, active vibrator or vibration suppressor, and acts as simple (fixed-length) structural member when inactive. Load force not applied to piezoelectric element in simple-structural-member mode. Piezoelectric element removed from load path when not in use.

  15. Measuring naturally acquired immune responses to candidate malaria vaccine antigens in Ghanaian adults

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To prepare field sites for malaria vaccine trials, it is important to determine baseline antibody and T cell responses to candidate malaria vaccine antigens. Assessing T cell responses is especially challenging, given genetic restriction, low responses observed in endemic areas, their variability over time, potential suppression by parasitaemia and the intrinsic variability of the assays. Methods In Part A of this study, antibody titres were measured in adults from urban and rural communities in Ghana to recombinant Plasmodium falciparum CSP, SSP2/TRAP, LSA1, EXP1, MSP1, MSP3 and EBA175 by ELISA, and to sporozoites and infected erythrocytes by IFA. Positive ELISA responses were determined using two methods. T cell responses to defined CD8 or CD4 T cell epitopes from CSP, SSP2/TRAP, LSA1 and EXP1 were measured by ex vivo IFN-γ ELISpot assays using HLA-matched Class I- and DR-restricted synthetic peptides. In Part B, the reproducibility of the ELISpot assay to CSP and AMA1 was measured by repeating assays of individual samples using peptide pools and low, medium or high stringency criteria for defining positive responses, and by comparing samples collected two weeks apart. Results In Part A, positive antibody responses varied widely from 17%-100%, according to the antigen and statistical method, with blood stage antigens showing more frequent and higher magnitude responses. ELISA titres were higher in rural subjects, while IFA titres and the frequencies and magnitudes of ex vivo ELISpot activities were similar in both communities. DR-restricted peptides showed stronger responses than Class I-restricted peptides. In Part B, the most stringent statistical criteria gave the fewest, and the least stringent the most positive responses, with reproducibility slightly higher using the least stringent method when assays were repeated. Results varied significantly between the two-week time-points for many participants. Conclusions All participants were positive for

  16. Galactic worms. I - Catalog of worm candidates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koo, Bon-Chul; Heiles, Carl; Reach, William T.

    1992-01-01

    A catalog of candidates for the Galactic worms that are possibly the walls surrounding the superbubbles is compiled; 118 isolated structures that appear both in H I and in IR (60 and 100 microns). Fifty-two are possibly associated with H II regions. It is found that the 100-micron emissivity increases systematically toward the Galactic interior, which is consistent with the increase of the general interstellar radiation field. The 100-micron emissivity of the structures associated with the H II regions is larger than that of the structures without associated H II regions. The 60-100-micron ratio is large, 0.28 +/- 0.03, which may indicate that the grains associated with the atomic gas have a relatively large population of small grains. Thirty-five structures appear in the 408-MHz continuum. The IR and the radio continuum properties suggest that the 408-MHz continuum emission in those structures is very likely thermal. The implications of these results on the ionization of gas far from the Galactic plane are discussed.

  17. Preparation of Samples for Single-Worm Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Yemini, Eviatar; Kerr, Rex A.; Schafer, William R.

    2016-01-01

    Neurobiological research in genetically tractable organisms relies heavily on robust assays for behavioral phenotypes. The simple body plan of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans makes it particularly amenable to the use of automated microscopy and image analysis to describe behavioral patterns quantitatively. This protocol first describes the preparation and use of media for growing and maintaining worms for tracking. The second part of the protocol describes how to prepare a single young adult worm for recording during video analysis. Although the protocol was developed for use in a single-worm tracker, it addresses factors important for the generation of reproducible, standardized images in all systems. PMID:22135667

  18. The design of worm gear sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Razzaghi, Andrea I.

    1987-01-01

    A method is presented for designing worm gear sets to meet torque multiplication requirements. First, the fundamentals of worm gear design are discussed, covering worm gear set nomenclature, kinematics and proportions, force analysis, and stress analysis. Then, a suggested design method is discussed, explaining how to take a worm gear set application, and specify a complete worm gear set design. The discussions are limited to cylindrical worm gear sets that have a 90 deg shaft angle between the worm and the mating gear.

  19. Worm Gear With Hydrostatic Engagement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaiko, Lev I.

    1994-01-01

    In proposed worm-gear transmission, oil pumped at high pressure through meshes between teeth of gear and worm coil. Pressure in oil separates meshing surfaces slightly, and oil reduces friction between surfaces. Conceived for use in drive train between gas-turbine engine and rotor of helicopter. Useful in other applications in which weight critical. Test apparatus simulates and measures some loading conditions of proposed worm gear with hydrostatic engagement.

  20. Self-Antigen Presentation by Keratinocytes in the Inflamed Adult Skin Modulates T-Cell Auto-Reactivity.

    PubMed

    Meister, Michael; Tounsi, Amel; Gaffal, Evelyn; Bald, Tobias; Papatriantafyllou, Maria; Ludwig, Julia; Pougialis, Georg; Bestvater, Felix; Klotz, Luisa; Moldenhauer, Gerhard; Tüting, Thomas; Hämmerling, Günter J; Arnold, Bernd; Oelert, Thilo

    2015-08-01

    Keratinocytes have a pivotal role in the regulation of immune responses, but the impact of antigen presentation by these cells is still poorly understood, particularly in a situation where the antigen will be presented only in adult life. Here, we generated a transgenic mouse model in which keratinocytes exclusively present a myelin basic protein (MBP) peptide covalently linked to the major histocompatibility complex class II β-chain, solely under inflammatory conditions. In these mice, inflammation caused by epicutaneous contact sensitizer treatment resulted in keratinocyte-mediated expansion of MBP-specific CD4(+) T cells in the skin. Moreover, repeated contact sensitizer application preceding a systemic MBP immunization reduced the reactivity of the respective CD4(+) T cells and lowered the symptoms of the resulting experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. This downregulation was CD4(+) T-cell-mediated and dependent on the presence of the immune modulator Dickkopf-3. Thus, presentation of a neo self-antigen by keratinocytes in the inflamed, adult skin can modulate CD4(+) T-cell auto-aggression at a distal organ. PMID:25835957

  1. Potential Use of Biomphalaria alexandrina Snail Antigens for Serodiagnosis of Schistosomiasis Mansoni by Immunoblot Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Basyoni, Maha MA; EL-Wahab, Azza Abd

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible use of Biomphalaria alexandrina snail antigens in diagnosis of schistosomiasis mansoni using enzyme linked immunolectrotransfere blot (EITB). Methods S. mansoni adult worm crude antigens (AWA), feet and visceral humps of B. alexandrina and Bulinus truncatus were used. Hyperimmune mice sera (HIS) versus each antigen were prepared for diagnosis of S. mansoni using western blot (WB). Results Snail foot antigens were more specific in antibodies detection than visceral hump antigens. Three of five polypeptides of B. alexandrina foot antigen identified by S. mansoni HIS showed specific positive reactivity. These polypeptides were at MW of 31/32 and 43 kDa. While, only one of the six polypeptides of B. alexandrina hepatopancrease antigen identified by S. mansoni HIS, at a MW of 43 kDa was specific. Similarly, 2 polypeptides at MW of 44 and 55 kDa were specific in detection of anti- S. haematobium antibodies. However, the antigenically active polypeptide of B. truncatus hepatopancrease antigen had no specific reactivity towards anti-S. haematobium antibodies. Conclusion B. alexandrina foot antigens were the most specific of the tested snail antigens in diagnosis of schistosomiasis mansoni. PMID:23682262

  2. In vitro production of Toxocara canis excretory-secretory (TES) antigen.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Divyamol; Jeyathilakan, N; Abdul Basith, S; Senthilkumar, T M A

    2016-09-01

    Toxocara canis is a widespread gastrointestinal nematode parasite of dogs and cause Toxocara larva migrans, an important zoonotic disease in humans on ingestion of infective eggs. Toxocarosis is one of the few human parasitic diseases whose serodiagnosis uses a standardized antigen, T. canis excretory secretory antigen (TES). The present study describes collection of T. canis adult worm, collection and embryonation of T. canis eggs, hatching and separation of T. canis larvae, in vitro maintenance of T. canis second stage larvae for production of TES, concentration of culture fluid TES and yield of TES in correlation with various methods cited in literature. PMID:27605834

  3. [Immunofluorescent study of the distribution of adult neuro-specific antigens in the chick embryo (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Touzet, N; Jeanmaire-Zylberberg, R; Chaminade, M

    1977-06-01

    The adult neuro-specific antigens have been localized by immunofluorescence techniques in diencephalon and mesencephalon of chick embryo. This study has been made using fresh or fixed tissues from embryos 72, 48 or 36 h old. At 72 h of incubation the wall of diencephalon shows marked fluorescence; at 48 h of incubation the fluorescent cells are localized in an outer layer and an inner one. In the 48 h-old embryo the reaction is more distinct and intensive in fresh tissues than in fixed tissues. At 36 h of incubation no fluorescence has been detected either in fresh tissues or in fixed tissues. PMID:328815

  4. The internet worm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1989-01-01

    In November 1988 a worm program invaded several thousand UNIX-operated Sun workstations and VAX computers attached to the Research Internet, seriously disrupting service for several days but damaging no files. An analysis of the work's decompiled code revealed a battery of attacks by a knowledgeable insider, and demonstrated a number of security weaknesses. The attack occurred in an open network, and little can be inferred about the vulnerabilities of closed networks used for critical operations. The attack showed that passwork protection procedures need review and strengthening. It showed that sets of mutually trusting computers need to be carefully controlled. Sharp public reaction crystalized into a demand for user awareness and accountability in a networked world.

  5. The worm that lived

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hwei-yen; Maklakov, Alexei A

    2013-01-01

    Organisms age because of the “selection shadow”—the decline of the force of natural selection with age. Seemingly straightforward corollary of this theory is the Medawar-Williams prediction, which maintains that increased extrinsic (non-aging) mortality will result in the evolution of accelerated aging and decreased longevity. Despite its centrality to modern thinking about the ultimate causes of aging, this prediction ignores the fact that mortality is often a non-random process depending on individual condition. Increased condition-dependent mortality inescapably results in increased selection for resistance against the agent of mortality. Provided that resistance to various stressors is commonly associated with increased longevity, the evolutionary outcome is no longer certain. We recently documented this experimentally by showing that populations of Caenorhabditis remanei evolved to live shorter under high extrinsic mortality, but only when mortality was applied haphazardly. On the contrary, when extrinsic mortality was caused by heat-shock, populations experiencing the same rate of increased mortality evolved greater longevities, notwithstanding increased “selection shadow.” Intriguingly, stress-resistant and long-lived worms were also more fecund. We discuss these results in the light of recent theoretical developments, such as condition-environment interactions and hyperfunction theory of aging. PMID:24778930

  6. Zoology: War of the Worms.

    PubMed

    Telford, Maximilian J; Copley, Richard R

    2016-04-25

    The phylogenetic affinities of Xenacoelomorpha - the phylum comprising Xenoturbella bocki and acoelomorph worms - are debated. Two recent studies conclude they represent the earliest branching bilaterally symmetrical animals, but additional tests may be needed to confirm this notion. PMID:27115693

  7. Pre and post-natal antigen exposure can program the stress axis of adult zebra finches: evidence for environment matching.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Loren; Grindstaff, Jennifer L

    2015-03-01

    Both maternal exposure to stressors and exposure of offspring to stressors during early life can have lifelong effects on the physiology and behavior of offspring. Stress exposure can permanently shape an individual's phenotype by influencing the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which is responsible for the production and regulation of glucocorticoids such as corticosterone (CORT). In this study we used captive zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) to examine the effects of matching and mismatching maternal and early post-natal exposure to one of two types of antigens or a control on HPA axis reactivity in adult offspring. Prior to breeding, adult females were injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) or a control. Offspring of females in each of the three treatments were themselves exposed to LPS, KLH or a control injection at 5 and 28days post-hatch. When offspring were at least 18months of age, standardized capture and restraint stress tests were conducted to determine the impact of the treatments on adult stress responsiveness. We found significant interaction effects between maternal and offspring treatments on stress-induced CORT levels, and evidence in support of the environment matching hypothesis for KLH-treated birds, not LPS-treated birds. KLH-treated offspring of KLH-treated mothers exhibited reduced stress-induced CORT levels, whereas LPS-treated or control offspring of KLH-treated mothers exhibited elevated stress-induced CORT levels. Although the treatment effects on baseline CORT were non-significant, the overall pattern was similar to the effects observed on stress-induced CORT levels. Our results highlight the complex nature of HPA axis programming, and to our knowledge, provide the first evidence that a match or mismatch between pre and post-natal antigen exposure can have life-long consequences for HPA axis function. PMID:25535860

  8. Pre and post-natal antigen exposure can program the stress axis of adult zebra finches: evidence for environment matching

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, Loren; Grindstaff, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Both maternal exposure to stressors and exposure of offspring to stressors during early life can have lifelong effects on the physiology and behavior of offspring. Stress exposure can permanently shape an individual’s phenotype by influencing the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which is responsible for the production and regulation of glucocorticoids such as corticosterone (CORT). In this study we used captive zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) to examine the effects of matching and mismatching maternal and early post-natal exposure to one of two types of antigens or a control on HPA axis reactivity in adult offspring. Prior to breeding, adult females were injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) or a control. Offspring of females in each of the three treatments were themselves exposed to LPS, KLH or a control injection at 5 and 28 days post-hatch. When offspring were at least 18 months of age, standardized capture and restraint stress tests were conducted to determine the impact of the treatments on adult stress responsiveness. We found significant interaction effects between maternal and offspring treatments on stress-induced CORT levels, and evidence in support of the environment matching hypothesis for KLH-treated birds not LPS-treated birds. KLH-treated offspring of KLH-treated mothers exhibited reduced stress-induced CORT levels, whereas LPS-treated or control offspring of KLH-treated mothers exhibited elevated stress-induced CORT levels. Although the treatment effects on baseline CORT were non-significant, the overall pattern was similar to the effects observed on stress-induced CORT levels. Our results highlight the complex nature of HPA axis programming, and to our knowledge, provide the first evidence that a match or mismatch between pre and post-natal antigen exposure can have life-long consequences for HPA axis function. PMID:25535860

  9. Thomsen-Friedenreich-related carbohydrate antigens in normal adult human tissues: a systematic and comparative study.

    PubMed

    Cao, Y; Stosiek, P; Springer, G F; Karsten, U

    1996-08-01

    A broad variety of normal human tissues were examined for the expression of Thomsen-Friedenreich (TF)-related histo-blood group antigens, TF (Gal beta 1-3GalNAc alpha 1-R), Tn (TF precursor, GalNAc alpha 1-R), sialosyl-Tn (NeuAc alpha 2-6GalNAc alpha 1-R), considered to be useful in cancer diagnosis and immunotherapy, and sialosyl-TF, the cryptic form of TF. These antigens or, more correctly, glycotopes, were determined by immunohistochemistry with at least two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) each (except sialosyl-TF) as well as by lectin histochemistry. For a better dissection of sialosyl-TF and TF glycotopes, tissue sections were pretreated with galactose oxidase or the galactose oxidase-Schiff sequence. Staining with mAbs appeared to be more restricted than with the lectins used. Distribution patterns among normal epithelia were different for all four antigens. These antigens were also detected in some non-epithelial tissues. They can be classified in the following sequence according to the frequency of their occurrence in normal tissues: sialosyl-TF > > sialosyl-Tn > Tn > TF. Most of the positively staining sites for TF, Tn, and sialosyl-Tn are located in immunologically privileged areas. The complex results obtained with anti-TF mAbs (after treatment of the tissue sections with sialidase from Vibrio cholerae) and the lectins amaranthin and jacalin revealed a differential distribution of the subtypes of sialosyl-TF [NeuAc alpha 2-3Gal beta 1-3GalNAc alpha 1-R and Gal beta 1-3 (NeuAc alpha 2-6)GalNAc alpha 1-R] in normal human tissues. From our data it can be inferred that TF, Tn, and sialosyl-Tn are promising targets for a cancer vaccine. PMID:8877380

  10. Evaluation of defined antigen vaccines against Schistosoma bovis and S. japonicum in bovines.

    PubMed

    Bashir, M; Bickle, Q; Bushara, H; Cook, L; Shi, F; He, D; Huggins, M; Lin, J; Malik, K; Moloney, A

    1994-01-01

    Our objective is to contribute to the development of defined antigen vaccines for schistosomiasis by evaluating the protective efficacy of Schistosoma bovis and S. japonicum antigens in their natural bovine hosts. Antigens under evaluation include some already identified as vaccine candidates: glutathione S-transferases (GSTs); KLH, which shares protective epitopes with the protective antigen GP38 of S. mansoni; and Sj23, the analogue of the vaccine candidate Sm23 antigen. In another approach, since crude freeze/thaw schistosomular antigen plus BCG(F/T vaccine) has proved protective against S. japonicum in bovines, as it was against S. mansoni in mice, we are carrying out further evaluations both of this crude antigen and of recombinant-derived paramyosins. In a third line of work, novel vaccine candidate antigens identified by screening our cDNA libraries with various passively protective animal sera are being evaluated in animal experiments. In the Sudan we have shown that vaccination of calves with either native S. bovis GSTs or KLH induces high levels of fecundity-suppression without causing a significant reduction in adult worm recoveries. Therefore, recombinant-derived S. bovis 28kD GST is now being evaluated, as are the effects of combined GST/KLH vaccination. In China, sheep have been vaccinated with either S. japonicum GSTs, with KLH, or with the F/T vaccine, as a prelude to trials in bovines. As judged by adult worm recoveries, each type of vaccine induced significant protection, and there was also evidence, particularly with the GST and F/T vaccines, of fecundity-suppressive effects. As with the S. bovis/cattle system therefore, both GST and KLH showed protective effects against S. japonicum in sheep.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7825230

  11. The Wonder of Worms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Cynthia; Landry, Melinda

    2013-01-01

    Kindergarten students have an amazing capacity for wonder and inquisitiveness--two important characteristics for future scientists. Much of what young students "know" about the natural world stems from their daily interactions with peers, adults, the outdoors, and the media. What can be especially challenging to uncover and redirect are…

  12. An Integrated Multiomics Approach to Identify Candidate Antigens for Serodiagnosis of Human Onchocerciasis*

    PubMed Central

    McNulty, Samantha N.; Rosa, Bruce A.; Fischer, Peter U.; Rumsey, Jeanne M.; Erdmann-Gilmore, Petra; Curtis, Kurt C.; Specht, Sabine; Townsend, R. Reid; Weil, Gary J.; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2015-01-01

    Improved diagnostic methods are needed to support ongoing efforts to eliminate onchocerciasis (river blindness). This study used an integrated approach to identify adult female Onchocerca volvulus antigens that can be explored for developing serodiagnostic tests. The first step was to develop a detailed multi-omics database of all O. volvulus proteins deduced from the genome, gene transcription data for different stages of the parasite including eight individual female worms (providing gene expression information for 94.8% of all protein coding genes), and the adult female worm proteome (detecting 2126 proteins). Next, female worm proteins were purified with IgG antibodies from onchocerciasis patients and identified using LC-MS with a high-resolution hybrid quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometer. A total of 241 immunoreactive proteins were identified among those bound by IgG from infected individuals but not IgG from uninfected controls. These included most of the major diagnostic antigens described over the past 25 years plus many new candidates. Proteins of interest were prioritized for further study based on a lack of conservation with orthologs in the human host and other helminthes, their expression pattern across the life cycle, and their consistent expression among individual female worms. Based on these criteria, we selected 33 proteins that should be carried forward for testing as serodiagnostic antigens to supplement existing diagnostic tools. These candidates, together with the extensive pan-omics dataset generated in this study are available to the community (http://nematode.net) to facilitate basic and translational research on onchocerciasis. PMID:26472727

  13. An Integrated Multiomics Approach to Identify Candidate Antigens for Serodiagnosis of Human Onchocerciasis.

    PubMed

    McNulty, Samantha N; Rosa, Bruce A; Fischer, Peter U; Rumsey, Jeanne M; Erdmann-Gilmore, Petra; Curtis, Kurt C; Specht, Sabine; Townsend, R Reid; Weil, Gary J; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2015-12-01

    Improved diagnostic methods are needed to support ongoing efforts to eliminate onchocerciasis (river blindness). This study used an integrated approach to identify adult female Onchocerca volvulus antigens that can be explored for developing serodiagnostic tests. The first step was to develop a detailed multi-omics database of all O. volvulus proteins deduced from the genome, gene transcription data for different stages of the parasite including eight individual female worms (providing gene expression information for 94.8% of all protein coding genes), and the adult female worm proteome (detecting 2126 proteins). Next, female worm proteins were purified with IgG antibodies from onchocerciasis patients and identified using LC-MS with a high-resolution hybrid quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometer. A total of 241 immunoreactive proteins were identified among those bound by IgG from infected individuals but not IgG from uninfected controls. These included most of the major diagnostic antigens described over the past 25 years plus many new candidates. Proteins of interest were prioritized for further study based on a lack of conservation with orthologs in the human host and other helminthes, their expression pattern across the life cycle, and their consistent expression among individual female worms. Based on these criteria, we selected 33 proteins that should be carried forward for testing as serodiagnostic antigens to supplement existing diagnostic tools. These candidates, together with the extensive pan-omics dataset generated in this study are available to the community (http://nematode.net) to facilitate basic and translational research on onchocerciasis. PMID:26472727

  14. Immunodetection of Fasciola gigantica Circulating Antigen in Sera of Infected Individuals for Laboratory Diagnosis of Human Fascioliasis

    PubMed Central

    Attallah, Abdelfattah M.; Bughdadi, Faisal A.; El-Shazly, Atef M.

    2013-01-01

    Currently, the laboratory diagnosis of human fascioliasis is based on the parasitological examination of parasite eggs in stool specimens and serological detection of specific antibodies in serum samples, which are often unreliable diagnostic approaches. Ideally, a sensitive and specific diagnostic test for Fasciola infection should be based on the detection of circulating Fasciola antigen, which implies active infection. Here, a 27-kDa-molecular-mass antigen was identified in a Fasciola gigantica adult worm antigen preparation, excretory-secretory products, and sera from F. gigantica-infected individuals, and it was not detected in antigenic extracts of other parasites and sera from noninfected individuals. The target antigen was isolated and partially characterized as a protein. Immunoperoxidase staining located the target epitope within teguments and guts of F. gigantica adult worms. The performance characteristics of a newly developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on F. gigantica circulating antigen detection in serum (FgCA-27 ELISA) were investigated using sera of 120 parasitologically diagnosed F. gigantica-infected individuals and 80 noninfected individuals. The area under the receiving operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) for ELISA was significantly high (AUC = 0.961, P < 0.0001) for discriminating Fasciola-infected and noninfected individuals. The developed assay showed high degrees of sensitivity, specificity, and efficiency (>93%), and a significant correlation (r = 0.715, P < 0.0001) between antigen level and parasite egg count was shown. In conclusion, a 27-kDa Fasciola antigen was identified in sera of F. gigantica-infected individuals. A highly sensitive and specific Fasciola antigen detection assay, FgCA-27 ELISA, was developed for laboratory diagnosis of human fascioliasis. PMID:23945158

  15. Detection and quantification of circulating antigen in schistosomiasis by a monoclonal antibody. I. Specificity analysis of a monoclonal antibody with immunodiagnostic capacity.

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira-Queiroz, J A; Lutsch, C; Capron, M; Dessaint, J P; Capron, A

    1986-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies were obtained after immunization of mice with Schistosoma mansoni excretory/secretory antigen, previously shown to contain the circulating cathodic (M) antigen. Among these, the 40:B1 monoclonal antibody proved to be specific for the schistosome genus and to detect only adult worm-derived antigens as shown both by immunoprecipitation and with a two-site immunoradiometric assay using the monoclonal as both the solid-phase and the labelled antibody. The two-site immunoradiometric assay allows a sensitive measurement (detection limit: 5 ng) of circulating schistosome antigen in blood and in urine from patients with schistosomiasis. The amount of circulating schistosome M antigen is correlated with schistosome egg excretion in stool. Images Fig. 2 PMID:3098474

  16. Antigen-Bound and Free β-Amyloid Autoantibodies in Serum of Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Leirer, Vera Maria; von Arnim, Christine A. F.; Elbert, Thomas; Przybylski, Michael; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana; Manea, Marilena

    2012-01-01

    Physiological β-amyloid autoantibodies (Aβ-autoantibodies) are currently investigated as potential diagnostic and therapeutic tools for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In previous studies, their determination in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) using indirect ELISA has provided controversial results, which may be due to the presence of preformed Aβ antigen-antibody immune complexes. Based on the epitope specificity of the Aβ-autoantibodies, recently elucidated in our laboratory, we developed (a) a sandwich ELISA for the determination of circulating Aβ-IgG immune complexes and (b) an indirect ELISA for the determination of free Aβ-autoantibodies. This methodology was applied to the analysis of serum samples from healthy individuals within the age range of 18 to 89 years. Neuropsychological examination of the participants in this study indicated non-pathological, age-related cognitive decline, revealed especially by tests of visual memory and executive function, as well as speed-related tasks. The ELISA serum determinations showed significantly higher levels of Aβ-IgG immune complexes compared to free Aβ-autoantibodies, while no correlation with age or cognitive performance of the participants was found. PMID:22973459

  17. Of FOXes and Forgetful Worms.

    PubMed

    Alic, Nazif

    2016-03-01

    Age-related cognitive decline is one of the most haunting aspects of human aging. In a recent publication, Coleen Murphy and colleagues (Kaletsky et al., 2016) describe the transcriptional program that maintains youthful function of aging neurons in the nematode worm. PMID:26959183

  18. The developing schistosome worms elicit distinct immune responses in different tissue regions.

    PubMed

    McWilliam, Hamish E G; Driguez, Patrick; Piedrafita, David; Maupin, Kevin A; Haab, Brian B; McManus, Donald P; Meeusen, Els N T

    2013-08-01

    Schistosome parasites follow a complex migration path through various tissues, changing their antigenic profile as they develop. A thorough understanding of the antibody response in each tissue region could help unravel the complex immunology of these developing parasites and aid vaccine design. Here we used a novel strategy for analysing the local antibody responses induced by Schistosoma japonicum infection at each site of infection. Cells from rat lymph nodes draining the sites of larval migration (the skin and lungs), the liver-lymph nodes where adults reside and the spleens were cultured to allow the in vivo-induced antibody-secreting cells to release antibody into the media. The amount and isotype of antibodies secreted in the supernatants differed significantly in the different lymph nodes and spleen, corresponding with the migration path of the schistosome worms. In addition, there were significant differences in binding specificity, as determined by surface labelling, western blots and by screening a glycan array. Through capturing the local antibody response, this study has revealed dramatic differences in the quality and specificity of the immune response at different tissue sites, and highlighted the existence of stage-specific protein and carbohydrate antigens. This will provide a valuable tool for the isolation of novel vaccine targets against the larval stages of schistosomes. PMID:23856766

  19. Critical Considerations for WORM Software Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Brian A.

    1987-01-01

    Addresses advantages and disadvantages of write-once read-many (WORM) optical disks and other software considerations resulting from the write-once nature of WORM media to provide guidelines for determining whether this technology is appropriate for an application. Three brief case studies describe WORM software development efforts. (MES)

  20. Subretinal Worm and Repeat Laser Photocoagulation

    PubMed Central

    Natesh, Sribhargava; K, Harsha; Nair, Unnikrishna; Nair, KGR

    2010-01-01

    Diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis (DUSN) can be a diagnostic dilemma. Laser photocoagulation of the subretinal worm is an effective treatment for eradication. Early laser photocoagulation has been advocated. We report a case of a middle aged man who presented with decreased vision and a sub retinal macular worm that required two laser sessions for complete eradication of the worm. PMID:20616929

  1. Insights into the biological features of the antigenic determinants recognized by four monoclonal antibodies in redia and adult stages of the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica.

    PubMed

    Alba, Annia; Sánchez, Jorge; Hernández, Hilda; Mosqueda, Maryani; Rodríguez, Suanel Y; Capó, Virginia; Otero, Oscar; Alfonso, Carlos; Marcet, Ricardo; Sarracent, Jorge

    2016-09-01

    Fasciola hepatica is a digenean trematode which infects a wide variety of domestic animals and also humans. Previous studies have demonstrated that four monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) against the total extract of F. hepatica redia (named as 1E4, 6G11, 4E5 and 4G11) also recognized the excretion - secretion antigens (ES Ag) of adult parasites, which is a biologically-relevant mixture of molecules with functional roles during infection and immune evasion on definitive hosts. In the present report we describe the partial characterization of the epitopes recognized by these Mabs by heat treatment, mercaptoethanol reduction, pronase proteolysis and sodium peryodate oxidation, which suggested their predominant protein and conformational nature. Also, a comparative study using immunodetection assays on crude extracts and on histological sections of both rediae and adults of F. hepatica were performed to explore the expression pattern of the antigenic determinants in these developmental stages. From these experiments it was found that the Mabs reacted most likely with the same proteins of approximately 64 and 105 kDa present on both rediae and adult's extracts. However, the 1E4, 6G11 and 4E5 Mabs also recognized other molecules of the total extract of F. hepatica adults, a fact that constitutes an evidence of the antigenic variation between both stages and points at a certain biological relevance of the recognized antigenic determinants. Immunolocalization studies on histological sections revealed that all Mabs reacted with the tegument of F. hepatica in both rediae and adults stages, while the epitopes recognized by 1E4, 6G11 and 4E5 antibodies were also preferentially localized in the intestinal caeca and in different organs of the reproductive system of adult specimens. The immunogenicity of these antigenic determinants, their conserved status among different stages of the life cycle of F. hepatica and their presence in both tegument and ES Ag of adult parasites

  2. Detection of Schistosoma mansoni circulating cathodic antigen for evaluation of resistance induced by irradiated cercariae.

    PubMed

    Barsoum, I S; Bogitsh, B J; Colley, D G

    1992-08-01

    The appearance of serum levels of circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) detectable by a monoclonal antibody (mAb) (5H11) antigen-capture sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system was evaluated during acute Schistosoma mansoni infections in female CF1 mice exposed to either 100 or 25 cercariae. Measurable CCA levels occurred in these groups at 5 and 7 wk after infection, respectively. The kinetics of appearance of CCA were thus related to the intensity of infection. The level of resistance developed by female C57BL/6 mice upon immunization with irradiated cercariae, as expressed by both worm burden and CCA levels after cercarial challenge was evaluated. Immunization conferred 44% protection against the challenge infection, and the level of CCA detected in the sera of the control group was significantly (P less than 0.02) higher than that found in the sera of the immunized group, 6 wk after challenge. These results demonstrate that CCA detection by the 5H11 mAb antigen-capture sandwich ELISA can reflect vaccine-induced resistance against S. mansoni. Localization studies showed that 5H11 reacts with a CCA epitope in the adult worm gut and to a lesser extent with the male tegument. Adaptations of this and other antigen detection systems may prove useful in monitoring the efficacy of developmental vaccines, an ability that may be essential for the extension of such studies to humans. PMID:1635027

  3. Production and immunological characterization of a recombinant subunit of a Loa loa polyprotein antigen.

    PubMed

    Azzibrouck, G Blampain; Akue, J P; Lenoble, D Richard

    2010-06-01

    Diagnosis of loiasis and analysis of the specific immune response are limited by a paucity of parasite material. To circumvent this problem, a Loa loa antigen has been expressed in a prokaryote vector (pTrcHis). Immunization of Balb/c mice with this soluble recombinant protein produced a strong antibody response, with antibodies recognizing 2 major bands of 38 and 20 kDa in a native crude extract of Loa loa adult worms and microfilariae on Western blots. The target molecule was located mainly in the hypodermis and cuticle of the adult worm. Analysis of human IgG subclasses against this antigen by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed IgG1, IgG2 and IgG3 but not IgG4 reactivity. IgG2 against this recombinant antigen was 100% specific for loiasis when tested against samples from European donor individuals. The same IgG2 antibodies showed 91% specificity for loiasis by comparison with Wuchereria bancrofti, Onchocerca volvulus, Mansonnella perstans and other helminth infections. Furthermore, the IgG2 antibody level correlated with the density of Loa loa microfilariae (r=0.400; P=0.02). This recombinant 15r3 molecule and specific IgG2 assay may be useful for monitoring control programmes. PMID:20441677

  4. Human herpesvirus 7: antigenic properties and prevalence in children and adults.

    PubMed Central

    Wyatt, L S; Rodriguez, W J; Balachandran, N; Frenkel, N

    1991-01-01

    The recent isolation of human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) from activated CD4+ T lymphocytes of a healthy individual raises questions regarding the prevalence of this virus in humans and its immunological relationship to previously characterized human herpesviruses. We report that HHV-7 is a ubiquitous virus which is immunologically distinct from the highly prevalent T-lymphotropic HHV-6. Thus, (i) only two of six monoclonal antibodies to HHV-6 cross-reacted with HHV-7-infected cells, (ii) Western immunoblot analyses of viral proteins revealed different patterns for HHV-6- and HHV-7-infected cells, (iii) tests of sequential serum samples from children revealed seroconversion to HHV-6 without concomitant seroconversion to HHV-7, and (iv) in some instances HHV-7 infection occurred in the presence of high titers of HHV-6 antibodies, suggesting the lack of apparent protection of children seropositive for HHV-6 against subsequent infection with HHV-7. On the basis of the analyses of sera from children and adults it can be concluded that HHV-7 is a prevalent human herpesvirus which, like other human herpesviruses, infects during childhood. The age of infection appears to be somewhat later than the very early age documented for HHV-6. Images PMID:1656093

  5. [World Collections of Parasitic Worms].

    PubMed

    Zinovieva, S V; Butorina, N N; Udalova, Zh V; Khasanova, S; Filimonova, L V; Petrosyan, V G; Pel'gunov, A N

    2015-01-01

    This article provides information about the depositories of parasitic worms in the scientific institutes and museums in the United States, Japan, and Europe (the total number of samples and the availability of types of helminths from various classes), as well as information on the availability of electronic catalogues of the collections in the continental, national, and regional centers for collective use. The extent of this material has determined the necessity of creating digital collections and libraries that would represent a new form of storing, displaying, and exchanging information for scientific research. An analysis was performed of the current state of approaches and methods of development of the specialized information retrieval system (IRS) and databases (DBs) on the parasitic worms in Russia on the basis of a common conceptual data model, taking into account their local use (as desktop systems of database management) and access by scientists worldwide via the Internet. PMID:26852482

  6. Anti-ulcer drugs promote IgE formation toward dietary antigens in adult patients.

    PubMed

    Untersmayr, Eva; Bakos, Noémi; Schöll, Isabella; Kundi, Michael; Roth-Walter, Franziska; Szalai, Krisztina; Riemer, Angelika B; Ankersmit, Hendrik J; Scheiner, Otto; Boltz-Nitulescu, George; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika

    2005-04-01

    Recently, we have demonstrated that anti-ulcer drugs, such as H2-receptor blockers and proton pump inhibitors, promote the development of immediate type food allergy toward digestion-labile proteins in mice. The aim of this study was to examine the allergological relevance of these findings in humans. In an observational cohort study, we screened 152 adult patients from a gastroenterological outpatient clinic with negative case histories for atopy or allergy, who were medicated with H2-receptor blockers or proton pump inhibitors for 3 months. IgE reactivities to food allergens before and after 3 months of anti-acid treatment were compared serologically. Ten percent of the patients showed a boost of preexisting IgE antibodies and 15% de novo IgE formation toward numerous digestion-labile dietary compounds, like milk, potato, celery, carrots, apple, orange, wheat, and rye flour. Thus, the relative risk to develop food-specific IgE after anti-acid therapy was 10.5 (95% confidence interval: 1.44-76.48). The long-term effect was evaluated 5 months after therapy. Food-specific IgE could still be measured in 6% of the patients, as well as significantly elevated serum concentrations of ST2, a Th2-specific marker. An unspecific boost during the pollen season could be excluded, as 50 untreated control patients revealed no changes in their IgE pattern. In line with our previous animal experiments, our data strongly suggest that anti-ulcer treatment primes the development of IgE toward dietary compounds in long-term acid-suppressed patients. PMID:15671152

  7. Clinical assessment of coded Unani formulation D-worm and mebandazole for the treatment of hook worm, roundworm and whip worm.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Khalil; Usmanghani, Khan; Akhtar, Naveed; Nazar, Halima

    2015-11-01

    A case control, multicenter, prospective randomized two arm parallel group clinical trials was conducted on 190 patients. The main objective of this study is to provide comparative efficacy results of both trialed medicines. The comparison was done in between herbal medicine D-Worm and Mebandazole allopathic drug for the treatment of helminthiasis. All the rules of GCP (Good Clinical Practices) were followed including clinical history, clinical presentation, examination findings and stool tests. Stool D/R and Parasite antigen tests were performed before and after treatment. The comparison of symptoms were also done including the improvement in abdominal pain, worms in stool, anal itching, nausea and vomiting, loss of appetite, and fatigue etc. The data on clinical proforma was gathered and subjected to statistical analysis. Parasite specific antigen test and stool D/R is considered as gold standard test for the diagnosis and confirmation of helminthes infection. Different parameter i.e. age, sex, and other clinical sign and symptoms were studied and compared between two treatment groups (Control and Test groups) at baseline and end of therapeutic application. Consent of patient was taken at first before the start of examination. Majority of the patients (90%) included in this study group get cured after herbal treatment. The statistical analysis used for the assessment of the effect of the treatment also showed significant improvement after treatment. PMID:26639505

  8. Two Leucobacter strains exert complementary virulence on Caenorhabditis including death by worm-star formation.

    PubMed

    Hodgkin, Jonathan; Félix, Marie-Anne; Clark, Laura C; Stroud, Dave; Gravato-Nobre, Maria J

    2013-11-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been much studied as a host for microbial infection. Some pathogens can infect its intestine, while others attack via its external surface. Cultures of Caenorhabditis isolated from natural environments have yielded new nematode pathogens, such as microsporidia and viruses. We report here a novel mechanism for bacterial attack on worms, discovered during investigation of a diseased and coinfected natural isolate of Caenorhabditis from Cape Verde. Two related coryneform pathogens (genus Leucobacter) were obtained from this isolate, which had complementary effects on C. elegans and related nematodes. One pathogen, Verde1, was able to cause swimming worms to stick together irreversibly by their tails, leading to the rapid formation of aggregated "worm-stars." Adult worms trapped in these aggregates were immobilized and subsequently died, with concomitant growth of bacteria. Trapped larval worms were sometimes able to escape from worm-stars by undergoing autotomy, separating their bodies into two parts. The other pathogen, Verde2, killed worms after rectal invasion, in a more virulent version of a previously studied infection. Resistance to killing by Verde2, by means of alterations in host surface glycosylation, resulted in hypersensitivity to Verde1, revealing a trade-off in bacterial susceptibility. Conversely, a sublethal surface infection of worms with Verde1 conferred partial protection against Verde2. The formation of worm-stars by Verde1 occurred only when worms were swimming in liquid but provides a striking example of asymmetric warfare as well as a bacterial equivalent to the trapping strategies used by nematophagous fungi. PMID:24206844

  9. Detection of human herpesvirus-6 in adult central nervous system tumors: predominance of early and late viral antigens in glial tumors.

    PubMed

    Crawford, John R; Santi, Maria Rita; Cornelison, Robbie; Sallinen, Satu-Leena; Haapasalo, Hannu; MacDonald, Tobey J

    2009-10-01

    The purpose is to determine the incidence of active and latent human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) infection in a large cohort of adult primary and recurrent CNS tumors. We screened a tissue microarray (TMA) containing more than 200 adult primary and recurrent CNS tumors with known clinical information for the presence of HHV-6 DNA by in situ hybridization (ISH) and protein by immunohistochemistry (IHC). One hundred six of 224 (47%) CNS tumors were positive for HHV-6 U57 Major Capsid Protein (MCP) gene by ISH compared to 0/25 non tumor control brain (P = 0.001). Fourteen of 30 (47%) tumors were HHV-6 MCP positive by nested PCR compared to 0/25 non-tumor brain controls (P = 0.001), revealing HHV-6 Variant A in 6 of 14 samples. HHV-6A/B early (p41) and late (gp116/64/54) antigens were detected by IHC in 66 of 277 (24%) (P = 0.003) and 84 of 282 (35%) (P = 0.002) tumors, respectively, suggesting active infection. HHV-6 p41 (P = 0.645) and gp116/64/54 (P = 0.198) antigen detection was independent of recurrent disease. Glial tumors were 3 times more positive by IHC compared to non glial tumors for both HHV-6 gp116/64/54 (P = 0.0002) and HHV-6 p41 (P = 0.004). Kaplan Meier survival analysis showed no effect of HHV-6 gp116/64/54 (P = 0.852) or HHV-6 p41 (P = 0.817) antigen detection on survival. HHV-6 early and late antigens are detected in adult primary and recurrent CNS tumors more frequently in glial tumors. We hypothesize that the glial-tropic features of HHV-6 may play an important modifying role in tumor biology that warrants further investigation. PMID:19424665

  10. The Plasmodium falciparum Antigen MB2 Induces Interferon-γ and Interleukin-10 Responses in Adults in Malaria Endemic Areas of Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Ochola, Lyticia A; Ng’wena, Gideon M; Noland, Gregory S; Ondigo, Bartholomew N; Ayodo, George; John, Chandy C

    2013-01-01

    Background: MB2 is a novel Plasmodium falciparum antigen of unknown function expressed in pre-erythrocytic and blood stages of infection in the human host. Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin (IL)-10 responses to other P. falciparum antigens have been associated with protection from clinical malaria, but these responses have not been studied for MB2. The present study was undertaken to characterize IFN-γ and IL-10 responses to P. falciparum MB2 antigen in adults living in areas of differing malaria transmission in Western Kenya. Materials and Methods: Cytokine responses to two 9-mer MB2 peptides predicted to be human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I restricted T-cell epitopes were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (IFN-γ and IL-10) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) (IFN-γ) in adults (n = 228) in areas of unstable and stable malaria transmission. HLA class I restriction of responses was assessed in a sub-group of the study population. Results: IFN-γ and IL-10 responses to MB2 peptides by ELISA were observed in both sites with no significant difference in prevalence (IFN-γ, unstable transmission area, 18.8%, stable transmission area, 27.5%, P = 0.33; IL-10, unstable transmission area, 22.5%, stable transmission area, 25.0%, P = 0.78). Prevalence of IFN-γ responses by ELISPOT was also similar in both areas (unstable, 10.8%, stable, 10.9%, P = 0.98). Neither IFN-γ nor IL-10 responses showed evidence of HLA class I restriction. Conclusions: MB2 induces IFN-γ and IL-10 responses in adults living in both stable and unstable malaria transmission areas. Future studies should assess if these responses are associated with protection from clinical malaria. PMID:24672173

  11. Polyanhydride Nanoparticle Delivery Platform Dramatically Enhances Killing of Filarial Worms

    PubMed Central

    Binnebose, Andrea M.; Haughney, Shannon L.; Martin, Richard; Imerman, Paula M.; Narasimhan, Balaji; Bellaire, Bryan H.

    2015-01-01

    Filarial diseases represent a significant social and economic burden to over 120 million people worldwide and are caused by endoparasites that require the presence of symbiotic bacteria of the genus Wolbachia for fertility and viability of the host parasite. Targeting Wolbachia for elimination is a therapeutic approach that shows promise in the treatment of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. Here we demonstrate the use of a biodegradable polyanhydride nanoparticle-based platform for the co-delivery of the antibiotic doxycycline with the antiparasitic drug, ivermectin, to reduce microfilarial burden and rapidly kill adult worms. When doxycycline and ivermectin were co-delivered within polyanhydride nanoparticles, effective killing of adult female Brugia malayi filarial worms was achieved with approximately 4,000-fold reduction in the amount of drug used. Additionally the time to death of the macrofilaria was also significantly reduced (five-fold) when the anti-filarial drug cocktail was delivered within polyanhydride nanoparticles. We hypothesize that the mechanism behind this dramatically enhanced killing of the macrofilaria is the ability of the polyanhydride nanoparticles to behave as a Trojan horse and penetrate the cuticle, bypassing excretory pumps of B. malayi, and effectively deliver drug directly to both the worm and Wolbachia at high enough microenvironmental concentrations to cause death. These provocative findings may have significant consequences for the reduction in the amount of drug and the length of treatment required for filarial infections in terms of patient compliance and reduced cost of treatment. PMID:26496201

  12. Polyanhydride Nanoparticle Delivery Platform Dramatically Enhances Killing of Filarial Worms.

    PubMed

    Binnebose, Andrea M; Haughney, Shannon L; Martin, Richard; Imerman, Paula M; Narasimhan, Balaji; Bellaire, Bryan H

    2015-01-01

    Filarial diseases represent a significant social and economic burden to over 120 million people worldwide and are caused by endoparasites that require the presence of symbiotic bacteria of the genus Wolbachia for fertility and viability of the host parasite. Targeting Wolbachia for elimination is a therapeutic approach that shows promise in the treatment of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. Here we demonstrate the use of a biodegradable polyanhydride nanoparticle-based platform for the co-delivery of the antibiotic doxycycline with the antiparasitic drug, ivermectin, to reduce microfilarial burden and rapidly kill adult worms. When doxycycline and ivermectin were co-delivered within polyanhydride nanoparticles, effective killing of adult female Brugia malayi filarial worms was achieved with approximately 4,000-fold reduction in the amount of drug used. Additionally the time to death of the macrofilaria was also significantly reduced (five-fold) when the anti-filarial drug cocktail was delivered within polyanhydride nanoparticles. We hypothesize that the mechanism behind this dramatically enhanced killing of the macrofilaria is the ability of the polyanhydride nanoparticles to behave as a Trojan horse and penetrate the cuticle, bypassing excretory pumps of B. malayi, and effectively deliver drug directly to both the worm and Wolbachia at high enough microenvironmental concentrations to cause death. These provocative findings may have significant consequences for the reduction in the amount of drug and the length of treatment required for filarial infections in terms of patient compliance and reduced cost of treatment. PMID:26496201

  13. Keeping track of worm trackers.

    PubMed

    Husson, Steven J; Costa, Wagner Steuer; Schmitt, Cornelia; Gottschalk, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    C. elegans is used extensively as a model system in the neurosciences due to its well defined nervous system. However, the seeming simplicity of this nervous system in anatomical structure and neuronal connectivity, at least compared to higher animals, underlies a rich diversity of behaviors. The usefulness of the worm in genome-wide mutagenesis or RNAi screens, where thousands of strains are assessed for phenotype, emphasizes the need for computational methods for automated parameterization of generated behaviors. In addition, behaviors can be modulated upon external cues like temperature, O(subscript)2(/subscript) and CO(subscript)2(/subscript) concentrations, mechanosensory and chemosensory inputs. Different machine vision tools have been developed to aid researchers in their efforts to inventory and characterize defined behavioral "outputs". Here we aim at providing an overview of different worm-tracking packages or video analysis tools designed to quantify different aspects of locomotion such as the occurrence of directional changes (turns, omega bends), curvature of the sinusoidal shape (amplitude, body bend angles) and velocity (speed, backward or forward movement). PMID:23436808

  14. Identification of surface antigens of schistosomula of Schistosoma mansoni recognized by antibodies from mice immunized by chronic infection and by exposure to highly irradiated cercariae

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, A.J.; James, S.L.; Sher, A.

    1983-08-01

    Surface components of mechanically transformed schistosomula of Schistosoma mansoni were labeled by lactoperoxidase-catalyzed iodination. After solubilization with Triton X-100, antigens were identified by immunoprecipitation. Serum from chronically infected Swiss mice reproducibly precipitated seven major polypeptides with approximate molecular weights (X 10/sup 3/) of 94, 68, 45, 40 to 32, 22, and 16. The antigens of molecular weights (X 10/sup 3/) of 94, 40 to 32, 22, and 16 were shown to be exposed on the parasite surface by interaction of the antibodies with intact labeled schistosomula. Sera from several strains of infected inbred mice precipitated the same polypeptides. The antibodies produced during chronic infection were found to be stimulated by adult worms since sera from 6-week-infected animals precipitated none of the surface antigens, and the pattern produced by precipitation with antibodies from a mouse infected with male worms only was indistinguishable from the pattern obtained with sera from mice with bisexual infections. Antibodies from mice immunized with highly irradiated cercariae reproducibly precipitated major polypeptides of approximately (X 10/sup 3/) 94, 68, 45, 32, 22, 19, and 15 daltons. The antigens of (X 10/sup 3/) 94, 43, 32, 22, and 15 daltons were shown to be exposed on the parasite surface by interaction of the antibodies with intact labeled schistosomula. The 15 X 10(3)-dalton surface protein was recognized by sera from vaccinated, but not chronically infected, mice, suggesting that it represents a stage-specific immunogen present on schistosomula but not on adult worms. Sera from two inbred strains of mice which develop different degrees of immunity recognized the same antigens.

  15. Cloning of a cDNA encoding a surface antigen of Schistosoma mansoni schistosomula recognized by sera of vassinated mice

    SciTech Connect

    Dalton, J.P.; Tom, T.D.; Strand, M.

    1987-06-01

    Spleen cells of mice vaccinated with radiation-attenuated Schistosoma mansoni cercariae were used to produce monoclonal antibodies directed against newly transformed schistosomular surface antigens. One of these monoclonal antibodies recognized a polypeptide of 18 kDa. Binding was measured by radioimmunoassay. This glycoprotein was purified by monoclonal antibody immunoaffinity chromatography and a polyclonal antiserum was prepared against it. Immunofluorescence assays showed that the polyclonal antiserum bound to the surface of newly transformed schistosomula and lung-stage organisms but not to the surface of liver-stage and adult worms. Using this polyclonal antiserum we isolated recombinant clones from an adult worm cDNA expression library constructed in lambdagt11. Clone 654.2 contained an insert of 0.52 kilobase and hybridized to a 1.2-kilobase mRNA species from adult worms. Most importantly, clone 654.2 produced a fusion protein of 125 kDa that was reactive with sera of vaccinated mice that are capable of transferring resistance. This result encourages future vaccination trials with the fusion protein.

  16. Animal Models for Echinostoma malayanum Infection: Worm Recovery and Some Pathology.

    PubMed

    Songsri, Jiraporn; Aukkanimart, Ratchadawan; Boonmars, Thidarut; Ratanasuwan, Panaratana; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Sriraj, Pranee; Sripan, Panupan

    2016-02-01

    Echinostomes are intestinal trematodes that infect a wide range of vertebrate hosts, including humans, in their adult stage and also parasitize numerous invertebrate and cold-blooded vertebrate hosts in their larval stages. The purpose of this study was to compare Echinostoma malayanum parasite growth, including worm recovery, body size of adult worms, eggs per worm, eggs per gram of feces, and pathological changes in the small intestine of experimental animals. In this study, 6-8-week-old male hamsters, rats, mice, and gerbils were infected with echinostome metacercariae and then sacrificed at day 60 post-infection. The small intestine and feces of each infected animal were collected and then processed for analysis. The results showed that worm recovery, eggs per worm, and eggs per gram of feces from all infected hamsters were higher compared with infected rats and mice. However, in infected gerbils, no parasites were observed in the small intestine, and there were no parasite eggs in the feces. The volume of eggs per gram of feces and eggs per worm were related to parasite size. The results of histopathological changes in the small intestine of infected groups showed abnormal villi and goblet cells, as evidenced by short villi and an increase in the number and size of goblet cells compared with the normal control group. PMID:26951978

  17. Animal Models for Echinostoma malayanum Infection: Worm Recovery and Some Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Songsri, Jiraporn; Aukkanimart, Ratchadawan; Boonmars, Thidarut; Ratanasuwan, Panaratana; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Sriraj, Pranee; Sripan, Panupan

    2016-01-01

    Echinostomes are intestinal trematodes that infect a wide range of vertebrate hosts, including humans, in their adult stage and also parasitize numerous invertebrate and cold-blooded vertebrate hosts in their larval stages. The purpose of this study was to compare Echinostoma malayanum parasite growth, including worm recovery, body size of adult worms, eggs per worm, eggs per gram of feces, and pathological changes in the small intestine of experimental animals. In this study, 6-8-week-old male hamsters, rats, mice, and gerbils were infected with echinostome metacercariae and then sacrificed at day 60 post-infection. The small intestine and feces of each infected animal were collected and then processed for analysis. The results showed that worm recovery, eggs per worm, and eggs per gram of feces from all infected hamsters were higher compared with infected rats and mice. However, in infected gerbils, no parasites were observed in the small intestine, and there were no parasite eggs in the feces. The volume of eggs per gram of feces and eggs per worm were related to parasite size. The results of histopathological changes in the small intestine of infected groups showed abnormal villi and goblet cells, as evidenced by short villi and an increase in the number and size of goblet cells compared with the normal control group. PMID:26951978

  18. Potential antigenic explanation for atypical H1N1 infections among middle-aged adults during the 2013–2014 influenza season

    PubMed Central

    Linderman, Susanne L.; Chambers, Benjamin S.; Zost, Seth J.; Parkhouse, Kaela; Li, Yang; Herrmann, Christin; Ellebedy, Ali H.; Carter, Donald M.; Andrews, Sarah F.; Zheng, Nai-Ying; Huang, Min; Huang, Yunping; Strauss, Donna; Shaz, Beth H.; Hodinka, Richard L.; Reyes-Terán, Gustavo; Ross, Ted M.; Wilson, Patrick C.; Ahmed, Rafi; Bloom, Jesse D.; Hensley, Scott E.

    2014-01-01

    Influenza viruses typically cause the most severe disease in children and elderly individuals. However, H1N1 viruses disproportionately affected middle-aged adults during the 2013–2014 influenza season. Although H1N1 viruses recently acquired several mutations in the hemagglutinin (HA) glycoprotein, classic serological tests used by surveillance laboratories indicate that these mutations do not change antigenic properties of the virus. Here, we show that one of these mutations is located in a region of HA targeted by antibodies elicited in many middle-aged adults. We find that over 42% of individuals born between 1965 and 1979 possess antibodies that recognize this region of HA. Our findings offer a possible antigenic explanation of why middle-aged adults were highly susceptible to H1N1 viruses during the 2013–2014 influenza season. Our data further suggest that a drifted H1N1 strain should be included in future influenza vaccines to potentially reduce morbidity and mortality in this age group. PMID:25331901

  19. Effects of cytokines and periodontopathic bacteria on the leukocyte function-associated antigen 1/intercellular adhesion molecule 1 pathway in gingival fibroblasts in adult periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, J; Saito, I; Ishikawa, I; Miyasaka, N

    1994-12-01

    We investigated the effects of inflammatory cytokines and periodontopathic bacteria on expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, and E-selectin (endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule 1) in cultured human gingival fibroblasts (HGF). Cell surface ICAM-1 was upregulated on HGF under transcriptional control by exposure not only to interleukin-1 beta, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and gamma interferon but also to sonic extracts prepared from Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia (nigrescens) and lipopolysaccharides from Escherichia coli. However, these stimuli induced only minimal expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 and E-selectin on HGF. Binding assays using HGF and Molt 4, the human T-cell leukemia cell line, showed induced ICAM-1 to be functional, and the increased binding was blocked by a combination of monoclonal antibodies against ICAM-1 and leukocyte function-associated antigen 1. Furthermore, gingival tissues from adult periodontitis patients showed increased mRNA expression of ICAM-1 compared with that in tissues from normal healthy donors. In immunohistological analysis, we also observed in vivo that the expression of ICAM-1 on fibroblasts in adult periodontitis tissues was greater than that in normal gingiva. Thus, the overexpression of ICAM-1 on gingival fibroblasts induced by cytokines and periodontopathic bacteria is speculated to be deeply involved in the accumulation and retention of leukocyte function-associated antigen 1-bearing leukocytes in adult periodontitis lesions. PMID:7525481

  20. The network of antigen-antibody reactions in adult women with breast cancer or benign breast pathology or without breast pathology.

    PubMed

    Romo-González, Tania; Esquivel-Velázquez, Marcela; Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro; Lara, Carlos; Zentella, Alejandro; León-Díaz, Rosalba; Lamoyi, Edmundo; Larralde, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody response to different protein antigens of the mammary ductal carcinoma by adult women affected by Breast Cancer (BC) distinguishes at least 103 proteins that differ in their molecular weights (MW). The IgG producing cell clones (nodes) coexist with each other in each individual organism and share energy resources among themselves, as well as factors that control the level of expression and Specificity of their IgG antibodies. So, it can be proposed that among them there is a Network of interconnections (links) unveiled by the antigens, which specifically react with the IgG antibodies produced by the clones. This Network possibly regulates IgG antibodies' activity and effectiveness. We describe the Network of nodes and links that exists between the different antigens and their respective IgG producing cell clones against the extracted protein antigens from the cells of the T47D Cell-Line, in 50 women with BC, 50 women with Benign Breast Pathology (BBP) and 50 women without breast pathology (H). We have found that women with BBP have the highest number of Links, followed by the H group and, lastly, the women with BC, a finding which suggests that cancer interferes with the Connectivity between the IgG producing cell clones and blocks the expression of 322 links in women with BBP and 32 links in women with H. It is also plausible that the largest number of links in the women with BBP indicates the Network's state of arousal that provides protection against BC. On the other hand, there were many missing links in the BC group of women; the clone which lost more links in the BC group was the hub 24, which point to some of the antigens of T47D as potentially useful as vaccines, as the immune system of women with BBP is well aware of them. PMID:25781932

  1. The Network of Antigen-Antibody Reactions in Adult Women with Breast Cancer or Benign Breast Pathology or without Breast Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Romo-González, Tania; Esquivel-Velázquez, Marcela; Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro; Lara, Carlos; Zentella, Alejandro; León-Díaz, Rosalba; Lamoyi, Edmundo; Larralde, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody response to different protein antigens of the mammary ductal carcinoma by adult women affected by Breast Cancer (BC) distinguishes at least 103 proteins that differ in their molecular weights (MW). The IgG producing cell clones (nodes) coexist with each other in each individual organism and share energy resources among themselves, as well as factors that control the level of expression and Specificity of their IgG antibodies. So, it can be proposed that among them there is a Network of interconnections (links) unveiled by the antigens, which specifically react with the IgG antibodies produced by the clones. This Network possibly regulates IgG antibodies' activity and effectiveness. We describe the Network of nodes and links that exists between the different antigens and their respective IgG producing cell clones against the extracted protein antigens from the cells of the T47D Cell-Line, in 50 women with BC, 50 women with Benign Breast Pathology (BBP) and 50 women without breast pathology (H). We have found that women with BBP have the highest number of Links, followed by the H group and, lastly, the women with BC, a finding which suggests that cancer interferes with the Connectivity between the IgG producing cell clones and blocks the expression of 322 links in women with BBP and 32 links in women with H. It is also plausible that the largest number of links in the women with BBP indicates the Network’s state of arousal that provides protection against BC. On the other hand, there were many missing links in the BC group of women; the clone which lost more links in the BC group was the hub 24, which point to some of the antigens of T47D as potentially useful as vaccines, as the immune system of women with BBP is well aware of them. PMID:25781932

  2. From Flowers to Worms: Understanding Nature's Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Gardening helps children learn how plants sprout, grow, bloom, and then wither away, leaving seeds behind. Participating in this natural process allows children to experience the stages of life. Suggested gardening activities include studying dandelions, focusing on culture for garden plant selection, and constructing a worm box or worm terrarium…

  3. Dew Worms in the White Nights

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lumbricus terrestris L. (the dew worm) forages, mates and migrates on the soil surface during the night. Its distribution covers a broad latitudinal gradient and variation in day length conditions. Since soil-surface activity is crucial for the survival and reproduction of dew worms, it is conceivab...

  4. ULTRASTRUCTURAL CHANGES IN Schistosoma mansoni MALE WORMS AFTER in vitro INCUBATION WITH THE ESSENTIAL OIL OF Mentha x villosa Huds

    PubMed Central

    MATOS-ROCHA, Thiago José; CAVALCANTI, Marília Gabriela dos Santos; VERAS, Dyana Leal; FEITOSA, Ana Paula Sampaio; GONÇALVES, Gabriel Gazzoni Araújo; PORTELA-JUNIOR, Nairomberg Cavalcanti; LÚCIO, Ana Silvia Suassuna Carneiro; da SILVA, Anekécia Lauro; PADILHA, Rafael José Ribeiro; MARQUES, Márcia Ortiz Mayo; BARBOSA-FILHO, José Maria; ALVES, Luiz Carlos; BRAYNER, Fábio André

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The essential oil Mentha x villosa (MVEO) has a wide range of actions, including antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal and schistosomicidal actions. The present study aimed to investigate the ultrastructural changes of MVEO on the tegument of adult Schistosoma mansoni. Materials and Methods: Different concentrations of MVEO were tested on S. mansoni adult worms in vitro. Ultrastructural changes on the tegument of these adult worms were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results: The MVEO caused the death of all worms at 500 μg mL-1 after 24 h. After 24h of 500 μg mL-1 MVEO treatment, bubble lesions were observed over the entire body of worms and they presented loss of tubercles in some regions of the ventral portion. In the evaluation by TEM, S. mansoni adult worms treated with MVEO, 500 μg mL-1, presented changes in the tegument and vacuoles in the syncytial matrix region. Glycogen granules close to the muscle fibers were visible. Conclusion: The ability of MVEO to cause extensive ultrastructural damage to S. mansoni adult worms correlates with its schistosomicidal effects and confirms earlier findings with S. mansoni. PMID:26910448

  5. Plasmodium falciparum schizont sonic extracts suppress lymphoproliferative responses to mitogens and antigens in malaria-immune adults.

    PubMed Central

    Riley, E M; Jobe, O; Blackman, M; Whittle, H C; Greenwood, B M

    1989-01-01

    Cellular immune responses to malaria antigens are suppressed during acute Plasmodium falciparum infection, and evidence from both murine and human studies suggests that parasite-derived factors may be directly immunosuppressive. In this study we have shown that P. falciparum schizont sonic extract will suppress in vitro lymphoproliferative responses to purified malaria antigens and other soluble antigens. The degree of suppression appears to correlate with the level of the lymphoproliferative response to the schizont preparation and is correspondingly more marked in malaria-immune donors than in nonimmune individuals. The effect can be transferred with primed mononuclear cells and is partially abrogated by removal of CD8+ lymphocytes. The suppressive component of the schizont preparation is nondialyzable and partially heat labile and comigrates with hemoglobin-derived proteins in the molecular mass range 10 to 20 kilodaltons. PMID:2528508

  6. Immunocapture of circulating Schistosoma mansoni cathepsin B antigen (Sm31) by anti-Sm31 polyclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    González, Amelia Y; Sulbarán, Guidenn S; Ballen, Diana E; Cesari, Italo M

    2016-06-01

    Adult Schistosoma mansoni parasites have the capacity to degrade ingested host hemoglobin and other host plasma proteins by using a series of gut proteolytic enzymes, including cathepsin B; this enzyme is released to the host intravascular environment during regurgitations of adult worms. Cathepsin B becomes thus a circulating parasite component that has been shown to be specifically recognized as the Sm31 antigen by antibodies present in most S. mansoni infected patients. Taking advantage of this immunological property, we attempted here to immunocapture Sm31 from sera of infected patients using specific polyclonal rabbit antibodies raised against a highly enriched preparation of Sm31 and detect its intrinsic proteolytic activity using a previously described solid-phase procedure called Cysteine Protease Immuno Assay (CPIA). To produce highly specific anti-Sm31/cathepsin B antibodies, cathepsin B (Sm31 or SmCB) was enriched more than 3000-folds from an adult worm preparation using a series of conventional biochemical steps including ion exchange and affinity chromatography. Anti-cathepsin B antibodies were generated by immunizing rabbits with the enriched cathepsin B fraction; these antibodies recognized a band of Mr.~31 kDa in Western-blot (WB) analysis of this fraction and were able to capture, in a modified CPIA procedure, Sm31/SmCB present in sera from infected Venezuelan patients living in low endemic areas for schistosomiasis. CPIA showed 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity; representing a new diagnostic tool to detect circulating Sm31 antigen in actual infections. PMID:26709076

  7. Tandem repeat recombinant proteins as potential antigens for the sero-diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni infection.

    PubMed

    Kalenda, Yombo Dan Justin; Kato, Kentaro; Goto, Yasuyuki; Fujii, Yoshito; Hamano, Shinjiro

    2015-12-01

    The diagnosis of schistosome infection, followed by effective treatment and/or mass drug administration, is crucial to reduce the disease burden. Suitable diagnostic tests and field-applicable tools are required to sustain schistosomiasis control programs. We therefore assessed the potential of tandem repeat (TR) proteins for sero-diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni infection using an experimental mouse model. TR genes in the genome of S. mansoni were searched in silico and 7 candidates, named SmTR1, 3, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 15, were selected. Total RNA was extracted from S. mansoni adult worms and eggs. Target TR genes were amplified, cloned, and the proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli competent cells. Female BALB/c mice were infected with 100 S. mansoni cercariae and sera were collected each week post-infection for 18 weeks. The levels of IgG antibodies to SmTR antigens were compared to those to soluble egg antigen (SEA) and to soluble worm antigen preparation (SWAP). Sera of infected mice reacted to all the antigens whereas those of naïve mice did not. IgG responses to SmTR1, 3, 9 and 10 were detected at the early stage of infection. Interestingly, antibodies reacting to SmTR3, 9, 10 and 15 dramatically decreased 4 weeks after treatment with praziquantel, while those against SEA and SWAP remained elevated. Our study suggests that TR proteins, especially SmTR10, may be suitable antigens for sero-diagnosis of infection by S. mansoni and are potential markers for monitoring and surveillance of schistosomiasis, including re-infection after treatment with praziquantel. PMID:26148816

  8. A Common Worm in a Rare Place.

    PubMed

    Sheikhian, Mohammed Reza

    2013-11-01

    A case of a 40-year-old female, in whom a 6-meter long worm (Taenia saginata) was found in stomach, is reported here. In this patient, T. saginata upward migration of the worm to the stomach, its rare phenomenon, worm mostly seen in the small intestine. This is mainly because of the high gastric acidity. In this patient, we believe proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use caused hypochlorhydria and coexistence H. pylori infection caused chronic atrophic gastritis, which resulted in the retrograde migration of the tapeworm to the stomach in our patient. PMID:26171346

  9. Efficacy of the Bm86 antigen against immature instars and adults of the dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Perez-Perez, D; Bechara, G H; Machado, R Z; Andrade, G M; Del Vecchio, R E M; Pedroso, M S; Hernández, M V; Farnós, O

    2010-02-10

    The Bm86 antigen has been used to control ticks of the Boophilus genera in integrated programs that also include the use of acaricides. Because of recent phylogenetic studies have lead to the inclusion of all Boophilus species within the Rhipicephalus genera, we aimed to investigate the efficacy of the Bm86 antigen on the biotic potential of Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Domestic dogs were vaccinated with Bm86 and challenged with the three instars of R. sanguineus. Male and female mongrel dogs were divided into two groups of four animals each, comprising non-vaccinated and vaccinated animals. Immunized dogs were given two doses of an experimental formulation containing 50mug of recombinant Bm86, at 21 days interval while the other group was given placebo, consisting of the same preparation without Bm86. Each dog was challenged 21 days after the last dose with 250 larvae, 100 nymphs and 55 adults (25 females and 30 males) released inside feeding chambers (one per instar) glued to their shaved flank. The effect of the vaccination was evaluated by determining biological parameters of ticks including the yield rates of larvae, nymphs and adult females. Adult females engorged weight, egg mass weight, efficiency rate of conversion to eggs (ERCE) and hatchability. In addition, sera were collected from dogs at 0, 21, 36, 45 and 75 days after the vaccination and used for the detection of specific antibodies by ELISA. Collection rates of larvae, nymphs and adult females fed on vaccinated dogs were significantly (p<0.05) reduced by 38%, 29% and 31%, respectively, as compared with non-vaccinated controls. Significant reductions were also observed in weight of engorged females and egg mass, in ERCE, but not in the hatch rate of ticks fed on immunized dogs. ELISA data revealed a marked and significant increase in optical densities of sera from vaccinated animals after the second dose of Bm86. We concluded that the Bm86 antigen used as a vaccine for dogs reduced the viability and

  10. WDDD: Worm Developmental Dynamics Database.

    PubMed

    Kyoda, Koji; Adachi, Eru; Masuda, Eriko; Nagai, Yoko; Suzuki, Yoko; Oguro, Taeko; Urai, Mitsuru; Arai, Ryoko; Furukawa, Mari; Shimada, Kumiko; Kuramochi, Junko; Nagai, Eriko; Onami, Shuichi

    2013-01-01

    During animal development, cells undergo dynamic changes in position and gene expression. A collection of quantitative information about morphological dynamics under a wide variety of gene perturbations would provide a rich resource for understanding the molecular mechanisms of development. Here, we created a database, the Worm Developmental Dynamics Database (http://so.qbic.riken.jp/wddd/), which stores a collection of quantitative information about cell division dynamics in early Caenorhabditis elegans embryos with single genes silenced by RNA-mediated interference. The information contains the three-dimensional coordinate values of the outlines of nuclear regions and the dynamics of the outlines over time. The database provides free access to 50 sets of quantitative data for wild-type embryos and 136 sets of quantitative data for RNA-mediated interference embryos corresponding to 72 of the 97 essential embryonic genes on chromosome III. The database also provides sets of four-dimensional differential interference contrast microscopy images on which the quantitative data were based. The database will provide a novel opportunity for the development of computational methods to obtain fresh insights into the mechanisms of development. The quantitative information and microscopy images can be synchronously viewed through a web browser, which is designed for easy access by experimental biologists. PMID:23172286

  11. Viability of developmental stages of Schistosoma mansoni quantified with xCELLigence worm real-time motility assay (xWORM)

    PubMed Central

    Rinaldi, Gabriel; Loukas, Alex; Brindley, Paul J.; Irelan, Jeff T.; Smout, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Infection with helminth parasites causes morbidity and mortality in billions of people and livestock worldwide. Where anthelmintic drugs are available, drug resistance is a major problem in livestock parasites, and a looming threat to public health. Monitoring the efficacy of these medicines and screening for new drugs has been hindered by the lack of objective, high-throughput approaches. Several cell monitoring technologies have been adapted for parasitic worms, including video-, fluorescence-, metabolism enzyme- and impedance-based tools that minimize the screening bottleneck. Using the xCELLigence impedance-based system we previously developed a motility-viability assay that is applicable for a range of helminth parasites. Here we have improved substantially the assay by using diverse frequency settings, and have named it the xCELLigence worm real-time motility assay (xWORM). By utilizing strictly standardized mean difference analysis we compared the xWORM output measured with 10, 25 and 50 kHz frequencies to quantify the motility of schistosome adults (human blood flukes) and hatching of schistosome eggs. Furthermore, we have described a novel application of xWORM to monitor movement of schistosome cercariae, the developmental stage that is infectious to humans. For all three stages, 25 kHz was either optimal or near-optimal for monitoring and quantifying schistosome motility. These improvements in methodology sensitivity should enhance the capacity to screen small compound libraries for new drugs both for schistosomes and other helminth pathogens at large. PMID:26288742

  12. Viability of developmental stages of Schistosoma mansoni quantified with xCELLigence worm real-time motility assay (xWORM).

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Gabriel; Loukas, Alex; Brindley, Paul J; Irelan, Jeff T; Smout, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    Infection with helminth parasites causes morbidity and mortality in billions of people and livestock worldwide. Where anthelmintic drugs are available, drug resistance is a major problem in livestock parasites, and a looming threat to public health. Monitoring the efficacy of these medicines and screening for new drugs has been hindered by the lack of objective, high-throughput approaches. Several cell monitoring technologies have been adapted for parasitic worms, including video-, fluorescence-, metabolism enzyme- and impedance-based tools that minimize the screening bottleneck. Using the xCELLigence impedance-based system we previously developed a motility-viability assay that is applicable for a range of helminth parasites. Here we have improved substantially the assay by using diverse frequency settings, and have named it the xCELLigence worm real-time motility assay (xWORM). By utilizing strictly standardized mean difference analysis we compared the xWORM output measured with 10, 25 and 50 kHz frequencies to quantify the motility of schistosome adults (human blood flukes) and hatching of schistosome eggs. Furthermore, we have described a novel application of xWORM to monitor movement of schistosome cercariae, the developmental stage that is infectious to humans. For all three stages, 25 kHz was either optimal or near-optimal for monitoring and quantifying schistosome motility. These improvements in methodology sensitivity should enhance the capacity to screen small compound libraries for new drugs both for schistosomes and other helminth pathogens at large. PMID:26288742

  13. Impact of pneumococcal vaccination in children on serotype distribution in adult community-acquired pneumonia using the serotype-specific multiplex urinary antigen detection assay.

    PubMed

    Pletz, Mathias W; Ewig, Santiago; Rohde, Gernot; Schuette, Hartwig; Rupp, Jan; Welte, Tobias; Suttorp, Norbert; Forstner, Christina

    2016-04-29

    The aim of the study was to compare the distribution of the vaccine-serotypes covered by pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV7 and PCV13) in adult patients with pneumococcal community-acquired pneumonia in Germany between the periods 2002-2006 and 2007-2011 using a novel serotype-specific multiplex urinary antigen detection assay (SSUA). Vaccination of children started with PCV7 in 2007, which was replaced by PCV13 in 2010. Following confirmation of the accuracy of SSUA in long-term stored urine samples from 112 patients with confirmed pneumonia and known pneumococcal serotype, urine samples of 391 CAPNETZ patients with documented pneumococcal pneumonia (i.e. positive BinaxNOW(®) Streptococcus pneumoniae urine antigen test) but unknown serotype were tested for the 13 vaccine-serotypes using SSUA. The proportion of PCV7-serotypes significantly decreased in adult patients with pneumonia from 30.6% (2002-6) to 13.3% (2007-11, p<0.001); in bacteremic pneumonia, PCV7-serotypes completely disappeared (3/14 versus 0/19, p=0.058). Conversely, pneumococcal serotypes included by PCV13 remained stable during study period with a coverage of 61.5% (2002-06) and 59.7% (2007-11) in non-bacteremic pneumonia and 79% (for both periods) in bacteremic pneumonia, mainly due to an increase in pneumococcal serotypes 1, 3 and 7F during the second period. Thus, implementation of PCV7 in children in Germany in 2007 was associated with a significant decrease in vaccine-serotypes covered by PCV7 in adult patients with non-bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia and with an elimination of PCV7 vaccine-serotypes in bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia. PCV13 coverage remained high up to 2011, mainly due to an increase in serotypes 1, 3 and 7F. German Clinical Trials Register: DRKS00005274. PMID:27016653

  14. Worm epidemics in wireless ad hoc networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nekovee, Maziar

    2007-06-01

    A dramatic increase in the number of computing devices with wireless communication capability has resulted in the emergence of a new class of computer worms which specifically target such devices. The most striking feature of these worms is that they do not require Internet connectivity for their propagation but can spread directly from device to device using a short-range radio communication technology, such as WiFi or Bluetooth. In this paper, we develop a new model for epidemic spreading of these worms and investigate their spreading in wireless ad hoc networks via extensive Monte Carlo simulations. Our studies show that the threshold behaviour and dynamics of worm epidemics in these networks are greatly affected by a combination of spatial and temporal correlations which characterize these networks, and are significantly different from the previously studied epidemics in the Internet.

  15. Assessment of worm gearing for helicopter transmissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaiko, Lev

    1990-01-01

    A high-efficiency hydrostatic worm gear drive for helicopter transmissions is assessed. The example given is for a large cargo helicopter with three 4000-kW engines and transmission reduction ratio of 110. Also contained are: an efficiency calculation, a description of the test stand for evaluating the feasibility of worm gear hydrostatic mesh, a weight calculation, and a comparison with conventional helicopter transmissions of the same power and transmission reduction ratio.

  16. Vaccine adjuvant systems containing monophosphoryl lipid A and QS21 induce strong and persistent humoral and T cell responses against hepatitis B surface antigen in healthy adult volunteers.

    PubMed

    Vandepapelière, Pierre; Horsmans, Yves; Moris, Philippe; Van Mechelen, Marcelle; Janssens, Michel; Koutsoukos, Marguerite; Van Belle, Pascale; Clement, Frédéric; Hanon, Emmanuel; Wettendorff, Martine; Garçon, Nathalie; Leroux-Roels, Geert

    2008-03-01

    A randomised, double-blind study assessing the potential of four adjuvants in combination with recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen has been conducted to evaluate humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in healthy adults after three vaccine doses at months 0, 1 and 10. Three Adjuvant Systems (AS) contained 3-O-desacyl-4'-monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) and QS21, formulated either with an oil-in-water emulsion (AS02B and AS02V) or with liposomes (AS01B). The fourth adjuvant was CpG oligonucleotide. High levels of antibodies were induced by all adjuvants, whereas cell-mediated immune responses, including cytolytic T cells and strong and persistent CD4(+) T cell response were mainly observed with the three MPL/QS21-containing Adjuvant Systems. The CD4(+) T cell response was characterised in vitro by vigorous lymphoproliferation, high IFN-gamma and moderate IL-5 production. Antigen-specific T cell immune response was further confirmed ex vivo by detection of IL-2- and IFN-gamma-producing CD4(+) T cells, and in vivo by measuring increased levels of IFN-gamma in the serum and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses. The CpG adjuvanted vaccine induced consistently lower immune responses for all parameters. All vaccine adjuvants were shown to be safe with acceptable reactogenicity profiles. The majority of subjects reported local reactions at the injection site after vaccination while general reactions were recorded less frequently. No vaccine-related serious adverse event was reported. Importantly, no increase in markers of auto-immunity and allergy was detected over the whole study course. In conclusion, the Adjuvant Systems containing MPL/QS21, in combination with hepatitis B surface antigen, induced very strong humoral and cellular immune responses in healthy adults. The AS01B-adjuvanted vaccine induced the strongest and most durable specific cellular immune responses after two doses. These Adjuvant Systems, when added to recombinant protein antigens, can be

  17. Time course of the effect of praziquantel on Schistosoma mansoni attachment in vitro: comparison with its effects on worm length and motility.

    PubMed

    da Silva, S P; Noël, F

    1995-01-01

    We report herein that praziquantel inhibits the capacity of adult male Schistosoma mansoni to attach to the bottom of a glass dish and produces a diminution of worm length and motility, acting under a similar concentration and time dependency. After removal of 1 microM praziquantel from the medium, the worms progressively recuperated their initial length and motility without recovering their attachment capability. The absence of calcium or presence of 1 microM verapamil did not change the praziquantel-induced effect on worm attachment, causing only a transient decrease in worm length and motility. The present data indicate that the diminution of motility induced by praziquantel results from the progressive contraction of the longitudinal musculature of the worm. In contrast, the loss of attachment should not be causally related to the contraction of the worm since these two praziquantel-induced effects have distinct patterns of response under some experimental conditions. PMID:7479644

  18. Prevalence of giant kidney worm (Dioctophyma renale) in wild mink (Mustela vison) in Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; Tracy, S.P.

    2001-01-01

    Of 138 wild mink (Mustela vison) from eastern Minnesota, 27% contained Dioctophyma renale, primarily in the right kidney. No significant difference between prevalence in adult male and immature male mink was found, nor between the prevalence in males versus female mink. Thirteen worms were found in one male mink, representing the highest documented infection intensity of a single wild mink.

  19. Altered resistance to Trichinella spiralis infection following subchronic exposure of adult mice to chemicals of environmental concern

    SciTech Connect

    Luebke, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of subchronic chemical exposure on expulsion of adult Trichinella spiralis from the small intestine of mice and encystment of newborn larvae in the host's musculature were investigated. Exposure to diethylstilbestrol, benzo(a)pyrene, tris-(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate, cyclophosphamide, phorbol myristate acetate, and dimethylvinylchloride prior to infection of mice with 200 infective larvae resulted in larger worm burdens in treated animals than in controls 14 days after infection. Worm expulsion was not affected by exposure to tris-(2,3-dibromopropyl)phosphate, orthophenylphenol, and indomethacin. Increased burdens of muscle-phase larvae were found in animals that maintained significant numbers of adult worms in the gut at 14 days, except in mice administered diethylstilbestrol and dimethylvinylchloride. Exposure to diethylstilbestrol and cyclophosphamide resulted in decreased inflammatory reactions in the tissues of the small intestine and development of bone marrow eosinophilia in infected mice. Marrow eosinophilia was likewise decreased in mice given tris-(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate before infection. Additional studies with diethylstilbestrol administered either before, at the time of, or after infection showed inhibition of worm expulsion. Drug exposure during a primary infection inhibited the expulsion of a second T. spiralis infection, but did not affect worm elimination when given during a second infection. Treatment with diethylstilbestrol after artificial sensitization of mice with Trichinella antigens decreased delayed hypersensitivity responses to the sensitizing antigen. Immune functions, assessed by lymphoproliferative responses to mitogens and antibody responses to sheep red blood cells, generally correlated with altered host resistance to T. spiralis infection.

  20. WORM - WINDOWED OBSERVATION OF RELATIVE MOTION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, F.

    1994-01-01

    The Windowed Observation of Relative Motion, WORM, program is primarily intended for the generation of simple X-Y plots from data created by other programs. It allows the user to label, zoom, and change the scale of various plots. Three dimensional contour and line plots are provided, although with more limited capabilities. The input data can be in binary or ASCII format, although all data must be in the same format. A great deal of control over the details of the plot is provided, such as gridding, size of tick marks, colors, log/semilog capability, time tagging, and multiple and phase plane plots. Many color and monochrome graphics terminals and hard copy printer/plotters are supported. The WORM executive commands, menu selections and macro files can be used to develop plots and tabular data, query the WORM Help library, retrieve data from input files, and invoke VAX DCL commands. WORM generated plots are displayed on local graphics terminals and can be copied using standard hard copy capabilities. Some of the graphics features of WORM include: zooming and dezooming various portions of the plot; plot documentation including curve labeling and function listing; multiple curves on the same plot; windowing of multiple plots and insets of the same plot; displaying a specific on a curve; and spinning the curve left, right, up, and down. WORM is written in PASCAL for interactive execution and has been implemented on a DEC VAX computer operating under VMS 4.7 with a virtual memory requirement of approximately 392K of 8 bit bytes. It uses the QPLOT device independent graphics library included with WORM. It was developed in 1988.

  1. Aquatic worms eat sludge: mass balances and processing of worm faeces.

    PubMed

    Hendrickx, T L G; Temmink, H; Elissen, H J H; Buisman, C J N

    2010-05-15

    Reduction of the amount of waste sludge from waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) can be achieved with the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus in a new reactor concept. In addition to reducing the amount of waste sludge, further processing of produced worm faeces and released nutrients should also be considered. This study gives the mass balances for sludge consumed by L. variegatus, showing the fate of the consumed organic material, nutrients and heavy metals associated with the sludge. A distinction is made between conversion into worm biomass, release as dissolved metabolites and what remains in the worm faeces. The results showed that 39% of the nitrogen and 12% of the phosphorus in the sludge digested by the worms are used in the formation of new worm biomass, which has potential for reuse. Experiments showed that settling of the worm faeces leads to a factor 2.5 higher solids concentration, compared to settling of waste sludge. This could lead to a 67% reduction of the volumetric load on thickening equipment. The worm reactor is expected to be most interesting for smaller WWTPs where a decrease on the volumetric load on sludge handling operations will have most impact. PMID:20060212

  2. Disulfide-Functionalized Diblock Copolymer Worm Gels.

    PubMed

    Warren, Nicholas J; Rosselgong, Julien; Madsen, Jeppe; Armes, Steven P

    2015-08-10

    Two strategies for introducing disulfide groups at the outer surface of RAFT-synthesized poly(glycerol monomethacrylate)-poly(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate) (PGMA-PHPMA, or Gx-Hy for brevity) diblock copolymer worms are investigated. The first approach involved statistical copolymerization of GMA with a small amount of disulfide dimethacrylate (DSDMA, or D) comonomer to afford a G54-D0.50 macromolecular chain transfer agent (macro-CTA); this synthesis was conducted in relatively dilute solution in order to ensure mainly intramolecular cyclization and hence the formation of linear chains. Alternatively, a new disulfide-based bifunctional RAFT agent (DSDB) was used to prepare a G45-S-S-G45 (or (G45-S)2) macro-CTA. A binary mixture of a non-functionalized G55 macro-CTA was utilized with each of these two disulfide-based macro-CTAs in turn for the RAFT aqueous dispersion polymerization of 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate (HPMA). By targeting a PHPMA DP of 130 and systematically varying the molar ratio of the two macro-CTAs, a series of disulfide-functionalized diblock copolymer worm gels were obtained. For both formulations, oscillatory rheology studies confirmed that higher disulfide contents led to stronger gels, presumably as a result of inter-worm covalent bond formation via disulfide/thiol exchange. Using the DSDB-based macro-CTA led to the strongest worm gels, and this formulation also proved to be more effective in suppressing the thermosensitive behavior that is observed for the nondisulfide-functionalized control worm gel. However, macroscopic precipitation occurred when the proportion of DSDB-based macro-CTA was increased to 50 mol %, whereas the DSDMA-based macro-CTA could be utilized at up to 80 mol %. Finally, the worm gel modulus could be reduced to that of a nondisulfide-containing worm gel by reductive cleavage of the inter-worm disulfide bonds using excess tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine (TCEP) to yield thiol groups. These new biomimetic worm gels are

  3. HLA-A is a Predictor of Hepatitis B e Antigen Status in HIV-Positive African Adults.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Philippa C; Carlson, Jonathan M; Beloukas, Apostolos; Malik, Amna; Jooste, Pieter; Ogwu, Anthony; Shapiro, Roger; Riddell, Lynn; Chen, Fabian; Luzzi, Graz; Jesuthasan, Gerald; Jeffery, Katie; Jojic, Nebojsa; Ndung'u, Thumbi; Carrington, Mary; Goulder, Philip J R; Geretti, Anna Maria; Klenerman, Paul

    2016-04-15

    Outcomes of chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) are varied, with increased morbidity reported in the context of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection. The factors driving different outcomes are not well understood, but there is increasing interest in an HLA class I effect. We therefore studied the influence of HLA class I on HBV in an African HIV-positive cohort. We demonstrated that virologic markers of HBV disease activity (hepatitis B e antigen status or HBV DNA level) are associated with HLA-A genotype. This finding supports the role of the CD8(+) T-cell response in HBV control, and potentially informs future therapeutic T-cell vaccine strategies. PMID:26655301

  4. HLA-A is a Predictor of Hepatitis B e Antigen Status in HIV-Positive African Adults

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Philippa C.; Carlson, Jonathan M.; Beloukas, Apostolos; Malik, Amna; Jooste, Pieter; Ogwu, Anthony; Shapiro, Roger; Riddell, Lynn; Chen, Fabian; Luzzi, Graz; Jesuthasan, Gerald; Jeffery, Katie; Jojic, Nebojsa; Ndung'u, Thumbi; Carrington, Mary; Goulder, Philip J. R.; Geretti, Anna Maria; Klenerman, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Outcomes of chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) are varied, with increased morbidity reported in the context of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection. The factors driving different outcomes are not well understood, but there is increasing interest in an HLA class I effect. We therefore studied the influence of HLA class I on HBV in an African HIV-positive cohort. We demonstrated that virologic markers of HBV disease activity (hepatitis B e antigen status or HBV DNA level) are associated with HLA-A genotype. This finding supports the role of the CD8+ T-cell response in HBV control, and potentially informs future therapeutic T-cell vaccine strategies. PMID:26655301

  5. Marine worms (genus Osedax) colonize cow bones

    PubMed Central

    Jones, William J; Johnson, Shannon B; Rouse, Greg W; Vrijenhoek, Robert C

    2007-01-01

    Bone-eating worms of the genus Osedax colonized and grew on cow bones deployed at depths ranging from 385 to 2893 m in Monterey Bay, California. Colonization occurred as rapidly as two months following deployment of the cow bones, similar to the time it takes to colonize exposed whalebones. Some Osedax females found on the cow bones were producing eggs and some hosted dwarf males in their tubes. Morphological and molecular examinations of these worms confirmed the presence of six Osedax species, out of the eight species presently known from Monterey Bay. The ability of Osedax species to colonize, grow and reproduce on cow bones challenges previous notions that these worms are ‘whale-fall specialists.’ PMID:18077256

  6. Arthropod larvae misidentified as parasitic worm infection.

    PubMed

    Munisamy, Sreetharan; Kilner, Rachael

    2011-01-01

    A healthy, asymptomatic man living in London, presented with seeing 'worms' in his toilet for two successive summer seasons. Repeated microscopic examination and cultures of both his faeces and urine were normal. He was empirically treated with multiple courses of antihelminthics without resolution of this problem. A sample of the worms was obtained, and positively identified as arthropod larvae under microscopic examination. These larvae do not parasitically colonise humans. It was subsequently deduced that a flying arthropod (most likely Culex pipiens mosquito) had laid eggs in standing toilet water, and the hatched larvae had been mistaken for parasitic worms. The patient was declared free of parasites and remains healthy. This case illustrates the dangers of starting empirical treatment without positive confirmation of causative organisms, which can result in unnecessary and potentially harmful treatment. PMID:22675109

  7. Live Worms Found Amid STS-107 Debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    NASA Project Manager Fred Ahmay holds a Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) container in which C. elegans nemotodes (round worms) were found. The container was part of a middeck experiment that was among Columbia's debris recovered in East Texas. The worms were found alive after flying on Columbia's last mission, STS-107. The experiment was designed to verify a new synthetic nutrient solution for an International Space Station 'model' specimen planned to be used extensively for ISS gene expression studies and was sponsored by the NASA Ames Research Center. For more information on STS-107, please see GRIN Columbia General Explanation

  8. Generation of a Novel Bacteriophage Library Displaying scFv Antibody Fragments from the Natural Buffalo Host to Identify Antigens from Adult Schistosoma japonicum for Diagnostic Development.

    PubMed

    Hosking, Christopher G; McWilliam, Hamish E G; Driguez, Patrick; Piedrafita, David; Li, Yuesheng; McManus, Donald P; Ilag, Leodevico L; Meeusen, Els N T; Veer, Michael J de

    2015-12-01

    The development of effective diagnostic tools will be essential in the continuing fight to reduce schistosome infection; however, the diagnostic tests available to date are generally laborious and difficult to implement in current parasite control strategies. We generated a series of single-chain antibody Fv domain (scFv) phage display libraries from the portal lymph node of field exposed water buffaloes, Bubalus bubalis, 11-12 days post challenge with Schistosoma japonicum cercariae. The selected scFv-phages showed clear enrichment towards adult schistosomes and excretory-secretory (ES) proteins by immunofluorescence, ELISA and western blot analysis. The enriched libraries were used to probe a schistosome specific protein microarray resulting in the recognition of a number of proteins, five of which were specific to schistosomes, with RNA expression predominantly in the adult life-stage based on interrogation of schistosome expressed sequence tags (EST). As the libraries were enriched by panning against ES products, these antigens may be excreted or secreted into the host vasculature and hence may make good targets for a diagnostic assay. Further selection of the scFv library against infected mouse sera identified five soluble scFv clones that could selectively recognise soluble whole adult preparations (SWAP) relative to an irrelevant protein control (ovalbumin). Furthermore, two of the identified scFv clones also selectively recognised SWAP proteins when spiked into naïve mouse sera. These host B-cell derived scFvs that specifically bind to schistosome protein preparations will be valuable reagents for further development of a cost effective point-of-care diagnostic test. PMID:26684756

  9. Generation of a Novel Bacteriophage Library Displaying scFv Antibody Fragments from the Natural Buffalo Host to Identify Antigens from Adult Schistosoma japonicum for Diagnostic Development

    PubMed Central

    Hosking, Christopher G.; McWilliam, Hamish E. G.; Driguez, Patrick; Piedrafita, David; Li, Yuesheng; McManus, Donald P.; Ilag, Leodevico L.; Meeusen, Els N. T.; de Veer, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The development of effective diagnostic tools will be essential in the continuing fight to reduce schistosome infection; however, the diagnostic tests available to date are generally laborious and difficult to implement in current parasite control strategies. We generated a series of single-chain antibody Fv domain (scFv) phage display libraries from the portal lymph node of field exposed water buffaloes, Bubalus bubalis, 11–12 days post challenge with Schistosoma japonicum cercariae. The selected scFv-phages showed clear enrichment towards adult schistosomes and excretory-secretory (ES) proteins by immunofluorescence, ELISA and western blot analysis. The enriched libraries were used to probe a schistosome specific protein microarray resulting in the recognition of a number of proteins, five of which were specific to schistosomes, with RNA expression predominantly in the adult life-stage based on interrogation of schistosome expressed sequence tags (EST). As the libraries were enriched by panning against ES products, these antigens may be excreted or secreted into the host vasculature and hence may make good targets for a diagnostic assay. Further selection of the scFv library against infected mouse sera identified five soluble scFv clones that could selectively recognise soluble whole adult preparations (SWAP) relative to an irrelevant protein control (ovalbumin). Furthermore, two of the identified scFv clones also selectively recognised SWAP proteins when spiked into naïve mouse sera. These host B-cell derived scFvs that specifically bind to schistosome protein preparations will be valuable reagents for further development of a cost effective point-of-care diagnostic test. PMID:26684756

  10. Serological response to Epstein-Barr virus early antigen is associated with gastric cancer and human immunodeficiency virus infection in Zambian adults: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Kayamba, Violet; Monze, Mwaka; Asombang, Akwi Wasi; Zyambo, Kanekwa; Kelly, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Gastric cancer is one of the major causes of cancer related deaths, but data from sub-Saharan Africa are very scanty. The cancer genome atlas (TCGA) initiative confirmed Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) related cancer as a distinct subtype, and we set out to look for serological evidence of its role in a sub-Saharan African patient group. Methods We used stored serum samples obtained from a gastric cancer case-control study conducted between 2010 and 2012 in Lusaka, Zambia. A total of 147 patients were included with 51 gastric adenocarcinoma cases and 96 age and sex matched controls. The presence of antibodies to EBV nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1) and early antigen (EA) was determined using commercially available ELISA kits. Data were analysed in STATA Stata Corp, College Station TX. Results Over 90% of all the samples analysed were positive for antibodies to EBNA-1. The presence of antibodies to EBV EA was significantly higher in gastric cancer cases than in controls, (OR 4.38; 95% CI 1.53-13.06, P = 0.0027), with an attributable risk of 23%. HIV infection was also associated with EBV EA seroprevalence (OR 10.97; 95% CI 2.26 -13.06, P = 0.001) but not EBNA-1 (OR 0.81; 95% CI 0.10 -38.75, P = 0.596). There was no association of EBV infection with age below 45 years, Helicobacter pylori infection, intestinal metaplasia, gastric atrophy or inflammation. Conclusion We therefore conclude that EBV exposure is common among Zambian adults and that EBV EA seropositivity is associated with gastric cancer and HIV infection, but not premalignant lesions. PMID:27217871

  11. ONE ANTIGEN MISMATCHED RELATED VS. HLA-MATCHED UNRELATED DONOR HEMATOPOIETIC TRANSPLANTATION IN ADULTS WITH ACUTE LEUKEMIA: CIBMTR RESULTS IN THE ERA OF MOLECULAR HLA TYPING

    PubMed Central

    Valcárcel, David; Sierra, Jorge; Wang, Tao; Kan, Fangyu; Gupta, Vikas; Hale, Gregory A.; Marks, David I.; McCarthy, Philip L; Oudshoorn, Machteld; Petersdorf, Effie W; Ringdén, Olle; Setterholm, Michelle; Spellman, Stephen R; Waller, Edmund K.; Gajewski, James L; Marino, Susana R.; Senitzer, David; Lee, Stephanie J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Approximately 13% of patients lacking an HLA-identical sibling have a 1-antigen-mismatched related donor (MMRD). Historically, outcomes using a 1-antigen MMRD were considered equivalent to a matched unrelated donor (UD). Recent improvements in unrelated donor (UD) stem cell transplantation (SCT) due to better molecular HLA-matching justifies investigating if UD should be preferred to MMRD in adult patients with acute leukemia. Patients and Methods The outcomes of MMRD (n=89) and HLA-A, B, C, DRB1 allele matched UD (n=700) SCT reported to the CIBMTR between 1995 and 2005 were compared. Patients were transplanted for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL) in first or second complete remission. Results Donor type was not associated with hematological recovery. Univariate and multivariate comparisons of MMRD vs. HLA-matched UD transplants showed no statistically significant differences in overall survival, disease free survival, transplant related mortality, relapse, and 100-day grade III–IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). MMRD SCT was associated with a lower rate of chronic GVHD at 1-year, 35% vs 47% p=0.03, which was confirmed in multivariate analysis (RR 0.58, 95% CI 0.39-0.85, p<0.01). Conclusion HLA-matched UD and MMRD SCT are associated with comparable survival. Since less chronic GVHD was observed in MMRD, this option when available remains the first choice in acute leukemia patients without an HLA-identical sibling in need of allogeneic transplantation. PMID:20674756

  12. Practical experiences with worm gearing for spacecraft power transmission applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purdy, William; Mccown, William

    1989-01-01

    Experiences of several organizations using worm gearing for spacecraft are discussed. Practical aspects and subtleties of using worm gearing for design and operation is included. Knowledge gained from these applications is analyzed, and guidelines for usage are proposed.

  13. High Rates of Self-Fertilization in a Marine Ribbon Worm (Nemertea).

    PubMed

    Caplins, Serena A; Turbeville, James M

    2015-12-01

    Organisms capable of self-fertilization ("selfing") typically exhibit two evolutionary syndromes: uniting high inbreeding depression with low levels of selfing, or low inbreeding depression with high levels of selfing. We examined the effect of inbreeding on fecundity and time to first reproduction in an apparently self-compatible, simultaneously hermaphroditic marine nemertean worm Prosorhochmus americanus. Adult and juvenile worms were raised in isolation or in pairs. Isolated worms produced significantly more offspring than paired worms (in the adult experiment), and did not exhibit inbreeding avoidance (in the juvenile experiment). The selfing rate of six natural populations was evaluated using 17 species-specific, microsatellite markers, and was consistent with preferential selfing (mean: 0.843, SD: 0.027). Our results showed that P. americanus exhibited an interesting suite of life-history traits, uniting high colonization potential through self-fertilization and high fecundity, with no dispersive larval stage, and with moderate levels of gene flow. We believe that P. americanus is an ideal model system for studies of mating system evolution, inbreeding, and sex allocation. PMID:26695824

  14. Postembryonic development of the bone-eating worm Osedax japonicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Norio; Yamamoto, Tomoko; Yusa, Yoichi; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro

    2013-03-01

    Bone-eating worms of the genus Osedax exclusively inhabit sunken vertebrate bones on the seafloor. The unique lifestyle and morphology of Osedax spp. have received much scientific attention, but the whole process of their development has not been observed. We herein report the postembryonic development and settlement of Osedax japonicus Fujikura et al. (Zool Sci 23:733-740, 2006). Fertilised eggs were spawned into the mucus of a female, and the larvae swam out from the mucus at the trochophore stage. Larvae survived for 10 days under laboratory conditions. The larvae settled on bones, elongated their bodies and crawled around on the bones. Then they secreted mucus to create a tube and the palps started to develop. The palps of O. japonicus arose from the prostomium, whereas the anterior appendages of other siboglinids arose from the peristomium. The recruitment of dwarf males was induced by rearing larvae with adult females. Females started to spawn eggs 6 weeks after settlement.

  15. Understanding Human-Plasmodium falciparum Immune Interactions Uncovers the Immunological Role of Worms

    PubMed Central

    Roussilhon, Christian; Brasseur, Philippe; Agnamey, Patrice; Pérignon, Jean-Louis; Druilhe, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Background Former studies have pointed to a monocyte-dependant effect of antibodies in protection against malaria and thereby to cytophilic antibodies IgG1 and IgG3, which trigger monocyte receptors. Field investigations have further documented that a switch from non-cytophilic to cytophilic classes of antimalarial antibodies was associated with protection. The hypothesis that the non-cytophilic isotype imbalance could be related to concomittant helminthic infections was supported by several interventions and case-control studies. Methods and Findings We investigated here the hypothesis that the delayed acquisition of immunity to malaria could be related to a worm-induced Th2 drive on antimalarial immune responses. IgG1 to IgG4 responses against 6 different parasite-derived antigens were analyzed in sera from 203 Senegalese children, half carrying intestinal worms, presenting 421 clinical malaria attacks over 51 months. Results show a significant correlation between the occurrence of malaria attacks, worm carriage (particularly that of hookworms) and a decrease in cytophilic IgG1 and IgG3 responses and an increase in non-cytophilic IgG4 response to the merozoite stage protein 3 (MSP3) vaccine candidate. Conclusion The results confirm the association with protection of anti-MSP3 cytophilic responses, confirm in one additional setting that worms increase malaria morbidity and show a Th2 worm-driven pattern of anti-malarial immune responses. They document why large anthelminthic mass treatments may be worth being assessed as malaria control policies. PMID:20174576

  16. Measurement of Circulating Filarial Antigen Levels in Human Blood with a Point-of-Care Test Strip and a Portable Spectrodensitometer.

    PubMed

    Chesnais, Cédric B; Vlaminck, Johnny; Kunyu-Shako, Billy; Pion, Sébastien D; Awaca-Uvon, Naomi-Pitchouna; Weil, Gary J; Mumba, Dieudonné; Boussinesq, Michel

    2016-06-01

    The Alere Filariasis Test Strip (FTS) is a qualitative, point-of-care diagnostic tool that detects Wuchereria bancrofti circulating filarial antigen (CFA) in human blood, serum, or plasma. The Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis employs the FTS for mapping filariasis-endemic areas and assessing the success of elimination efforts. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between the intensity of positive test lines obtained by FTS with CFA levels as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with blood and plasma samples from 188 individuals who live in a filariasis-endemic area. The intensity of the FTS test line was assessed visually to provide a semiquantitative score (visual Filariasis Test Strip [vFTS]), and line intensity was measured with a portable spectrodensitometer (quantitative Filariasis Test Strip [qFTS]). These results were compared with antigen levels measured by ELISA in plasma from the same subjects. qFTS measurements were highly correlated with vFTS scores (ρ = 0.94; P < 0.001) and with plasma CFA levels (ρ = 0.91; P < 0.001). Thus, qFTS assessment is a convenient method for quantifying W. bancrofti CFA levels in human blood, which are correlated with adult worm burdens. This tool may be useful for assessing the impact of treatment on adult filarial worms in individuals and communities. PMID:27114288

  17. Measurement of Circulating Filarial Antigen Levels in Human Blood with a Point-of-Care Test Strip and a Portable Spectrodensitometer

    PubMed Central

    Chesnais, Cédric B.; Vlaminck, Johnny; Kunyu-Shako, Billy; Pion, Sébastien D.; Awaca-Uvon, Naomi-Pitchouna; Weil, Gary J.; Mumba, Dieudonné; Boussinesq, Michel

    2016-01-01

    The Alere Filariasis Test Strip (FTS) is a qualitative, point-of-care diagnostic tool that detects Wuchereria bancrofti circulating filarial antigen (CFA) in human blood, serum, or plasma. The Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis employs the FTS for mapping filariasis-endemic areas and assessing the success of elimination efforts. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between the intensity of positive test lines obtained by FTS with CFA levels as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with blood and plasma samples from 188 individuals who live in a filariasis-endemic area. The intensity of the FTS test line was assessed visually to provide a semiquantitative score (visual Filariasis Test Strip [vFTS]), and line intensity was measured with a portable spectrodensitometer (quantitative Filariasis Test Strip [qFTS]). These results were compared with antigen levels measured by ELISA in plasma from the same subjects. qFTS measurements were highly correlated with vFTS scores (ρ = 0.94; P < 0.001) and with plasma CFA levels (ρ = 0.91; P < 0.001). Thus, qFTS assessment is a convenient method for quantifying W. bancrofti CFA levels in human blood, which are correlated with adult worm burdens. This tool may be useful for assessing the impact of treatment on adult filarial worms in individuals and communities. PMID:27114288

  18. Humoral and cell-mediated immunity to the Plasmodium falciparum ring-infected erythrocyte surface antigen in an adult population exposed to highly endemic malaria.

    PubMed Central

    Beck, H P; Felger, I; Genton, B; Alexander, N; al-Yaman, F; Anders, R F; Alpers, M

    1995-01-01

    A parasitological and immunological survey was carried out in an area in Papua New Guinea highly endemic for malaria. Two hundred fourteen adult individuals were selected for studies to assess their immune responses against the malaria vaccine candidate ring-infected erythrocyte surface antigen (RESA). Total immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies directed against RESA as well as specific IgG1, IgG2, and IgG3 antibodies were determined. Humoral responses directed against RESA were frequent in all IgG subclasses. Only IgG3 responses were found to be age dependent. Total anti-RESA IgG antibodies were not correlated with protection against malaria as measured by parasite prevalence, parasite density, or health center attendance. In contrast, cytophilic antibodies (IgG1 and IgG3) were associated with reduced Plasmodium falciparum prevalence and reduced health center attendance. T-cell proliferation in general was low and very infrequent. No correlation between humoral and cellular immune responses could be found. Parasite density, parasite prevalence, and health center visits tended to be reduced in individuals with good humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. PMID:7822028

  19. Impact of rapid antigen detection testing on antibiotic prescription in acute pharyngitis in adults. FARINGOCAT STUDY: a multicentric randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Acute pharyngitis is one of the most frequent consultations to the general practitioner and in most of the cases an antibiotic is prescribed in primary care in Spain. Bacterial etiology, mainly by group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus (GABHS), accounts for 10-20% of all these infections in adults. The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of rapid antigen detection testing (RADT) to identify GABHS in acute pharyngitis on the utilization of antibiotics in primary care. Methods/design Multicentric randomized controlled trial in which antibiotic prescription between two groups of patients with acute pharyngitis will be compared. The trial will include two arms, a control and an intervention group in which RADT will be performed. The primary outcome measure will be the proportion of inappropriate antibiotic prescription in each group. Two hundred seventy-six patients are required to detect a reduction in antibiotic prescription from 85% in the control group to 75% in the intervention group with a power of 90% and a level of significance of 5%. Secondary outcome measures will be specific antibiotic treatment, antibiotic resistance rates, secondary effects, days without working, medical visits during the first month and patient satisfaction. Discussion The implementation of RADT would allow a more rational use of antibiotics and would prevent adverse effects of antibiotics, emergence of antibiotic resistance and the growth of inefficient health expenses. Trial registration ISRCTN23587778 PMID:20331895

  20. Gene cloning, expression, and localization of antigen 5 in the life cycle of Echinococcus granulosus.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuzhe; Xu, Hongxu; Chen, Jiajia; Gan, Wenjia; Wu, Weihua; Wu, Weiping; Hu, Xuchu

    2012-06-01

    Antigen 5 (Ag5) has been identified as a dominant component of cyst fluid of Echinococcus granulosus and is considered as a member of serine proteases family, which in other helminth, plays an important role in the egg hatch and larva invasion. However, whether Ag5 is expressed and secreted in all life stages is unknown. In this study, according to the sequence in GenBank, we cloned and sequenced the open reading frame (ORF) of Ag5 gene from the protoscolices of E. granulosus isolated from the sheep in Qinhai Province of China, and found several substitutions and a base insert and deletion in a short region near the stop code, leading to a frameshift mutation which is conserved with the homologue of other cestode. The ORF is 1,455 bp in length, encoding 484 amino acids with a secretory signal peptide. Bioinformatics analysis predicted several phosphorylation and myristoylation sites and a N-glycosylation site and a species-specific linear B epitope in the protein. The ORF was cloned into the plasmid pET28a(+) vector and expressed in Escherichia coli . The recombinant protein was purified by affinity chromatography. Anti-rEgAg5 antiserum was prepared in rats and used to analyze the localization of Ag5 in protoscolex and adult worm by immunofluorescence technique. Results demonstrated that the Ag5 is strongly expressed in the tegument of protoscolex and the embryonic membrane of egg and surface of oncosphere; meanwhile, it is also weakly expressed in tegument of the adult. This study showed that Ag5 is expressed in all stages of life cycle, secreted from the surface of the worm and may be anchored in membrane by its myristoylation sites; these characteristics make it a candidate antigen for diagnosis and vaccine for both intermediate and definitive hosts. PMID:22200957

  1. Adult Mansonella perstans in the abdominal cavity in nine Africans.

    PubMed

    Baird, J K; Neafie, R C; Lanoie, L; Connor, D H

    1987-11-01

    Adult Mansonella perstans infected the abdominal cavity of nine patients seen at Karawa Hospital in the Ubangi territory of Zaire. In four patients the worms were removed at laparotomy, and in the other five they were removed at autopsy. Twelve adult worms were identified in the nine patients. None of the worms caused symptoms or contributed to the patient's death. Worms were in the hernial sac in three patients, and one each was in connective tissue beside a reactive mesenteric lymph node, in peripancreatic connective tissue, in perirenal connective tissue, in hepatic portal connective tissue, on the serosal surface of the small intestine, and in connective tissue adjacent to rectum. The diameter of male worms was 45 microns to 60 microns and of female worms, 80 microns to 125 microns. One female worm was removed intact. It was 6 cm long and had a bifurcated tail characteristic of M. perstans. PMID:3688309

  2. Parametric analysis of the end face engagement worm gear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xingqiao; Wang, Jueling; Wang, Jinge; Chen, Shouan; Yang, Jie

    2015-11-01

    A novel specific type of worm drive, so-called end face engagement worm gear(EFEWD), is originally presented to minimize or overcome the gear backlash. Different factors, including the three different types, contact curves, tooth profile, lubrication angle and the induced normal curvature are taken into account to investigate the meshing characteristics and create the profile of a novel specific type of worm drive through mathematical models and theoretical analysis. The tooth of the worm wheel is very specific with the sine-shaped tooth which is located at the alveolus of the worm and the tooth profile of a worm is generated by the meshing movement of the worm wheel with the sine-shaped tooth, but just the end face of the worm(with three different typical meshing types) is adapted to meshing, and therefore an extraordinary manufacturing methods is used to generate the profile of the end face engagement worm. The research results indicates that the bearing contacts of the generated conjugate hourglass worm gear set are in line contacts, with certain advantages of no-backlash, high precision and high operating efficiency over other gears and gear systems besides the end face engagement worm gear drive may improve bearing contact, reduce the level of transmission errors and lessen the sensitivity to errors of alignment. Also, the end face engagement worm can be easily made with superior meshing and lubrication performance compared with the conventional techniques. In particular, the meshing and lubrication performance of the end face engagement worm gear by using the end face to meshing can be increased over 10% and 7%, respectively. This investigate is expect to provide a new insight on the design of the future no-backlash worm drive for industry.

  3. Selenium (Se) deficiency alters intestinal diaphorase activity in mice infected with the intestinal parasitic worm Heligmosomoides polygyrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mice fed a diet deficient in Se show reduced resistance to a secondary infection with H. polygyrus. IL-4 and IL-13-dependent- increases in intestinal smooth muscle hyper-contractility and decreased glucose absorption correlate with expulsion of the adult worm following a challenge infection. Selen...

  4. Evaluation of recombinant protein r140, a polypeptide segment of tegumental glycoprotein Sm25, as a defined antigen vaccine against Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Suri, P K; Goldberg, M; Madikizela, M; Petzke, M M; Bungiro, R D; Davies, S J; Chakraborty, B; Nguyen, K B; McCray, J W; Knopf, P M

    1997-11-01

    To investigate the role of tegumental glycoprotein Sm25 in protective immunity against schistosomiasis, codons 43-182 of its gene (GP22) were amplified by PCR and cloned in the pET 15b bacterial expression system. Recombinant protein r140 was inducibly expressed in the presence of rifampicin and purified by Ni-affinity chromatography. In different vaccination trials, Balb/c mice and Fischer rats repeatedly immunized with r140 in combination with one of several adjuvants (alum, cholera toxin or complexed into proteosomes) produced high titre anti-r140 responses. These antibodies detected an N-glycanase sensitive. 25 kDa antigen in a detergent solubilized worm fraction using Western immunoblotting. The choice of adjuvant affected the isotype distribution of the specific anti-r140 antibodies. Despite the presence of high antibody titres and isotypes which have been shown to correlate with protective immunity, protection against subsequent cercarial challenge was not observed. In addition, no appreciable effects on worm sex ratios or liver egg yields were detected in mice. Studies involving biotin labelling of membrane proteins in live worms showed that the majority of anti-r140 reactive molecules present in adult schistosomes are biotinylated after permeabilization of the parasite surface. Several possibilities to account for the lack of protective immunity are analysed. PMID:9427998

  5. Mini-hemoglobins from nemertean worms.

    PubMed

    Vandergon, Thomas L; Riggs, Austen F

    2008-01-01

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) found in members of the phylum Nemertea are smaller than any other known Hb molecules. These mini-Hbs have been of great interest because of their unique three-dimensional structure and their stable ligand-binding properties. Also of interest is the expression of mini-Hb in neural tissue, body wall muscle tissue, and red blood cells. This chapter outlines methods that may be used to isolate and purify functional mini-Hbs from all three tissue types in nemertean worms. PMID:18237651

  6. Worms Eat My Garbage. How To Set Up and Maintain a Worm Composting System. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appelhof, Mary

    This book is a resource for parents and teachers who want to teach about recycling and composting by setting up and maintaining a worm composting system. It is designed to be a detailed yet simple manual of vermicomposting. The manual covers the basics of vermicomposting and answers such questions as where to store a composting container, what…

  7. Sampling of general correlators in worm-algorithm based simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rindlisbacher, Tobias; Åkerlund, Oscar; de Forcrand, Philippe

    2016-08-01

    Using the complex ϕ4-model as a prototype for a system which is simulated by a worm algorithm, we show that not only the charged correlator <ϕ* (x) ϕ (y) >, but also more general correlators such as < | ϕ (x) | | ϕ (y) | > or < arg ⁡ (ϕ (x)) arg ⁡ (ϕ (y)) >, as well as condensates like < | ϕ | >, can be measured at every step of the Monte Carlo evolution of the worm instead of on closed-worm configurations only. The method generalizes straightforwardly to other systems simulated by worms, such as spin or sigma models.

  8. The barber's pole worm CAP protein superfamily--A basis for fundamental discovery and biotechnology advances.

    PubMed

    Mohandas, Namitha; Young, Neil D; Jabbar, Abdul; Korhonen, Pasi K; Koehler, Anson V; Amani, Parisa; Hall, Ross S; Sternberg, Paul W; Jex, Aaron R; Hofmann, Andreas; Gasser, Robin B

    2015-12-01

    Parasitic worm proteins that belong to the cysteine-rich secretory proteins, antigen 5 and pathogenesis-related 1 (CAP) superfamily are proposed to play key roles in the infection process and the modulation of immune responses in host animals. However, there is limited information on these proteins for most socio-economically important worms. Here, we review the CAP protein superfamily of Haemonchus contortus (barber's pole worm), a highly significant parasitic roundworm (order Strongylida) of small ruminants. To do this, we mined genome and transcriptomic datasets, predicted and curated full-length amino acid sequences (n=45), undertook systematic phylogenetic analyses of these data and investigated transcription throughout the life cycle of H. contortus. We inferred functions for selected Caenorhabditis elegans orthologs (including vap-1, vap-2, scl-5 and lon-1) based on genetic networking and by integrating data and published information, and were able to infer that a subset of orthologs and their interaction partners play pivotal roles in growth and development via the insulin-like and/or the TGF-beta signalling pathways. The identification of the important and conserved growth regulator LON-1 led us to appraise the three-dimensional structure of this CAP protein by comparative modelling. This model revealed the presence of different topological moieties on the canonical fold of the CAP domain, which coincide with an overall charge separation as indicated by the electrostatic surface potential map. These observations suggest the existence of separate sites for effector binding and receptor interactions, and thus support the proposal that these worm molecules act in similar ways as venoms act as ligands for chemokine receptors or G protein-coupled receptor effectors. In conclusion, this review should guide future molecular studies of these molecules, and could support the development of novel interventions against haemonchosis. PMID:26239368

  9. Expression of actin genes in the arrow worm Paraspadella gotoi (Chaetognatha).

    PubMed

    Yasuda, E; Goto, T; Makabe, K W; Satoh, N

    1997-12-01

    Arrow worms (the phylum Chaetognatha), one of the major marine planktonic animals, exhibit features characteristic to both deuterostomes and protostomes, and their ancestry therefore remains unknown. As the first step to elucidate the molecular bases of arrow worm phylogeny, physiology and embryology, we isolated cDNA clones for three different actin genes (PgAct1, PgAct2 and PgAct3) from the benthic species Paraspadella gotoi, and examined their expression patterns in adults and juveniles. The amino acid sequences of the three actins resembled each other, with identities ranging from 86% to 92%. However, the patterns of the spatial expression of the genes were independent. The PgAct1 gene might encode a cytoplasmic actin and was expressed in oogenic cells, spermatogenic cells, and cells in the ventral ganglion. The PgAct2 and PgAct3 genes encoded actins of divergent types. The former was expressed in well-developed muscle of the head (gnathic) region and trunk muscle cells, whereas the latter was expressed in muscle of the trunk and tail regions and oogenic cells. These results suggest that, similarly to other metazoans, the chaetognath contains multiple forms of actins, which are expressed in various manners in the adult and juvenile arrow worm. PMID:9520638

  10. Chordodes ferox, a new record of horsehair worms (Nematomorpha, Gordiida) from South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt-Rhaesa, Andreas; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Three females and one male specimen of a previously unconfirmed species of horsehair worms (Nematomorpha) from South Africa are described using Scanning Electron Microscopy. The females correspond to the description of Chordodes ferox Camerano, 1897, a species previously described from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Congo-Kinshasa) and an adjacent, not further specified region of the Republic of Congo (Congo-Brazzaville). Characteristic is the presence of enlarged and elevated simple areoles around the base of a thorn areole, in combination with further cuticular characters. This is the latest of a total of six species of horsehair worms reported from South Africa so far. Two species of praying mantids, Polyspilota aeruginosa (Goeze, 1778) and Sphodromantis gastrica Stål, 1858, have been identified as hosts of Chordodes ferox, while its distribution range in the region and the period of adult emergence from the host remain largely unknown. PMID:27047243

  11. Secretion of Protective Antigens by Tissue-Stage Nematode Larvae Revealed by Proteomic Analysis and Vaccination-Induced Sterile Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Hewitson, James P.; Ivens, Al C.; Harcus, Yvonne; Filbey, Kara J.; McSorley, Henry J.; Murray, Janice; Bridgett, Stephen; Ashford, David; Dowle, Adam A.; Maizels, Rick M.

    2013-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematode parasites infect over 1 billion humans, with little evidence for generation of sterilising immunity. These helminths are highly adapted to their mammalian host, following a developmental program through successive niches, while effectively down-modulating host immune responsiveness. Larvae of Heligmosomoides polygyrus, for example, encyst in the intestinal submucosa, before emerging as adult worms into the duodenal lumen. Adults release immunomodulatory excretory-secretory (ES) products, but mice immunised with adult H. polygyrus ES become fully immune to challenge infection. ES products of the intestinal wall 4th stage (L4) larvae are similarly important in host-parasite interactions, as they readily generate sterile immunity against infection, while released material from the egg stage is ineffective. Proteomic analyses of L4 ES identifies protective antigen targets as well as potential tissue-phase immunomodulatory molecules, using as comparators the adult ES proteome and a profile of H. polygyrus egg-released material. While 135 proteins are shared between L4 and adult ES, 72 are L4 ES-specific; L4-specific proteins correspond to those whose transcription is restricted to larval stages, while shared proteins are generally transcribed by all life cycle forms. Two protein families are more heavily represented in the L4 secretome, the Sushi domain, associated with complement regulation, and the ShK/SXC domain related to a toxin interfering with T cell signalling. Both adult and L4 ES contain extensive but distinct arrays of Venom allergen/Ancylostoma secreted protein-Like (VAL) members, with acetylcholinesterases (ACEs) and apyrase APY-3 particularly abundant in L4 ES. Serum antibodies from mice vaccinated with L4 and adult ES react strongly to the VAL-1 protein and to ACE-1, indicating that these two antigens represent major vaccine targets for this intestinal nematode. We have thus defined an extensive and novel repertoire of H

  12. Secretion of protective antigens by tissue-stage nematode larvae revealed by proteomic analysis and vaccination-induced sterile immunity.

    PubMed

    Hewitson, James P; Ivens, Al C; Harcus, Yvonne; Filbey, Kara J; McSorley, Henry J; Murray, Janice; Bridgett, Stephen; Ashford, David; Dowle, Adam A; Maizels, Rick M

    2013-08-01

    Gastrointestinal nematode parasites infect over 1 billion humans, with little evidence for generation of sterilising immunity. These helminths are highly adapted to their mammalian host, following a developmental program through successive niches, while effectively down-modulating host immune responsiveness. Larvae of Heligmosomoides polygyrus, for example, encyst in the intestinal submucosa, before emerging as adult worms into the duodenal lumen. Adults release immunomodulatory excretory-secretory (ES) products, but mice immunised with adult H. polygyrus ES become fully immune to challenge infection. ES products of the intestinal wall 4th stage (L4) larvae are similarly important in host-parasite interactions, as they readily generate sterile immunity against infection, while released material from the egg stage is ineffective. Proteomic analyses of L4 ES identifies protective antigen targets as well as potential tissue-phase immunomodulatory molecules, using as comparators the adult ES proteome and a profile of H. polygyrus egg-released material. While 135 proteins are shared between L4 and adult ES, 72 are L4 ES-specific; L4-specific proteins correspond to those whose transcription is restricted to larval stages, while shared proteins are generally transcribed by all life cycle forms. Two protein families are more heavily represented in the L4 secretome, the Sushi domain, associated with complement regulation, and the ShK/SXC domain related to a toxin interfering with T cell signalling. Both adult and L4 ES contain extensive but distinct arrays of Venom allergen/Ancylostoma secreted protein-Like (VAL) members, with acetylcholinesterases (ACEs) and apyrase APY-3 particularly abundant in L4 ES. Serum antibodies from mice vaccinated with L4 and adult ES react strongly to the VAL-1 protein and to ACE-1, indicating that these two antigens represent major vaccine targets for this intestinal nematode. We have thus defined an extensive and novel repertoire of H

  13. Molecular characterization of Trichinella spiralis aminopeptidase and its potential as a novel vaccine candidate antigen against trichinellosis in BALB/c mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Trichinella spiralis is an intracellular parasite that can cause a serious threat to human health by causing trichinellosis. The aminopeptidase (AP) was found in the proteins produced by T. spiralis infective larvae after in vitro co-culture with intestinal epithelial cells, but its characteristics and function are unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify the T. spiralis aminopeptidase (TsAP) and to investigate its potential as a vaccine candidate antigen against T. spiralis infection. Methods T. spiralis aminopeptidase (TsAP) gene encoding a 54.7 kDa protein was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified recombinant TsAP protein was used to immunize BALB/c mice. The antibodies obtained were used to determine where TsAP was localized in the parasite. Transcription and expression of TsAP in different developmental stages of T. spiralis were observed by RT-PCR and Immunofluorescence test (IFT). The immune protection of recombinant TsAP protein against T. spiralis infection in BALB/c mice was evaluated. Results Anti-TsAP antibodies recognized the native protein migrating at 54.7 kDa by Western blotting of the crude antigens from muscle larvae. Transcription and expression of TsAP gene was observed in different developmental stages (adult worms, newborn larvae, pre-encapsulated larvae and muscle larvae). TsAP appears to be a cytoplasmic protein located primarily at the cuticle and internal organs of this parasite. After a challenge infection with T. spiralis infective larvae, mice immunized with the recombinant TsAP protein displayed a 38.1% reduction in adult worm burden and 59.1% reduction in muscle larval burden. Conclusions In this study, T. spiralis aminopeptidase (TsAP) was first characterized and will help reveal its potential biological functions. TsAP is a novel potential vaccine candidate antigen that merits further investigation. PMID:23972034

  14. Examination of the relationship between host worm community structure on transmission of the parasite, Myxobolus cerebralis by developing taxon-specific probes for multiplex qPCR to identify worm taxa in stream communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fytilis, N.; Lamb, R.; Kerans, B.; Stevens, L.; Rizzo, D. M.

    2011-12-01

    Fish diseases are often caused by waterborne parasites, making them ideal systems for modeling the non-linear relationships between disease dynamics, stream dwelling oligochaete communities and geochemical features. Myxobolus cerebralis, the causative agent of whirling disease in salmonid fishes, has been a major contributor to the loss of wild rainbow trout populations in numerous streams within the Intermountain West. The parasite alternates between an invertebrate and vertebrate host, being transmitted between the sediment feeding worm Tubifex tubifex (T.tubifex) and salmonid fishes. Worm community biodiversity and abundance are influenced by biogeochemical features and have been linked to disease severity in fish. The worm (T.tubifex) lives in communities with 3-4 other types of worms in stream sediments. Unfortunately, taxonomic identification of oligochaetes is largely dependent on morphological characteristics of sexually mature adults. We have collected and identified ~700 worms from eight sites using molecular genetic probes and a taxonomic key. Additionally, ~1700 worms were identified using only molecular genetic probes. To facilitate distinguishing among tubificids, we developed two multiplex molecular genetic probe-based quantitative polymerase reaction (qPCR) assays to assess tubificid communities in the study area. Similar qPCR techniques specific for M.cerebralis used to determine if individual worms were infected with the parasite. We show how simple Bayesian analysis of the qPCR data can predict the worm community structure and reveal relationships between biodiversity of host communities and host-parasite dynamics. To our knowledge, this is the first study that combines molecular data of both the host and the parasite to examine the effects of host community structure on the transmission of a parasite. Our work can be extended to examine the links between worm community structure and biogeochemical features using molecular genetics and Bayesian

  15. Notions and treatment of guinea worm in northern Ghana.

    PubMed

    Bierlich, B

    1995-08-01

    Dracunculiasis, infection with Dracunculus medinensis or guinea worm, is widespread in the Northern Region of Ghana, where rural people drink from unprotected water sources such as ponds and small-scale dams. This paper discusses the results of an anthropological study of beliefs and practices concerning commonly occurring illnesses, such as infection with guinea worm (nierifu), in two rural Dagomba communities in the Northern Region of Ghana. The importance of knowing about local perceptions and treatment of guinea worm is stressed. Guinea worm is not attributed to water. The general understanding is that guinea worm is an innate part of human anatomy. It is not seen as an alien presence in the body. Guinea worm is rather said to be 'in people's blood', and sooner or later to 'stand up'. Guinea worm is considered an 'inevitable' feature of living. After a description of the background to the study, the methods are characterized. Brief background information on the people, their environment and their water sources are given. The central portion of the paper focuses on local perceptions of illness and notions of guinea worm ('guinea worm is in the human blood'), which are very different from those of biomedicine ('guinea worm is a disease'). Attention is also given to perceptions of water ('bitter' vs 'sweet') and the prevention of guinea worm. The social limitations to the filter technology are addressed. People's choice of therapy and the role of medicines (herbs and Western pharmaceuticals) in treatment of guinea worm are also considered. The paper concludes with a discussion of health education and stresses the importance of showing respect for the local view of guinea worm, which is said to be 'in the blood'. It is suggested that, since people are not adverse to the use of Western pharmaceuticals, the use of Western medicines to treat guinea worm should be further promoted. The social constraints on filtering must also be appreciated. These relate to the

  16. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with worm vomit and cercarial secretions of Schistosoma mansoni to detect infections in an endemic focus of Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Bahgat, M; Sorgho, H; Ouédraogo, J B; Poda, J N; Sawadogo, L; Ruppel, A

    2006-03-01

    Cercariae and adult Schistosoma mansoni were used to prepare, respectively, cercarial secretions (CS) and worm vomit (WoV). These were used as antigens in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to test the IgG-reactivity of sera obtained in an S. mansoni-endemic area of Burkina Faso. Among the egg-excreting individuals (n = 240), 94.6% reacted positively with WoV, but only 62.9% with CS, thus suggesting a high diagnostic sensitivity of WoV, but not of CS. Among those individuals without detectable eggs in two Kato-Katz thick smears from different stool specimens (n = 215), the respective percentages of positive IgG reactivity were 78.1% and 63.3%. These positive reactions in the absence of detectable eggs are interpreted in terms of limited sensitivity of parasitological stool examinations. Optical density values in ELISA with CS, but not with WoV, correlated negatively with age, which may reflect decreasing exposure to cercariae in older individuals. PMID:16469168

  17. The occurrence of gizzard worms in Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Wehr, E.E.

    1954-01-01

    Amidostomum anseris, a roundworm which occurs under the horny lining of the gizzard in birds, is a widely distributed parasite in Canada geese. It is also reported from snow geese (Chen hyperborea). Although the extent of erosion of the gizzard wall by these worms is not precisely correlated with the number of worms present, it is usually severe in Canada geese when 150 or more worms are present. Gizzard worm infection is considered a contributing factor to low weights, poor condition and to losses among the Canada geese which winter at the Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge in North Carolina. The mean number of gizzard worms per bird is considerably higher for Pea Island than for areas where winter losses have not been reported.

  18. Can aquatic worms enhance methane production from waste activated sludge?

    PubMed

    Serrano, Antonio; Hendrickx, Tim L G; Elissen, Hellen H J; Laarhoven, Bob; Buisman, Cees J N; Temmink, Hardy

    2016-07-01

    Although literature suggests that aquatic worms can help to enhance the methane production from excess activated sludge, clear evidence for this is missing. Therefore, anaerobic digestion tests were performed at 20 and at 30°C with sludge from a high-loaded membrane bioreactor, the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus, feces from these worms and with mixtures of these substrates. A significant synergistic effect of the worms or their feces on methane production from the high-loaded sludge or on its digestion rate was not observed. However, a positive effect on low-loaded activated sludge, which generally has a lower anaerobic biodegradability, cannot be excluded. The results furthermore showed that the high-loaded sludge provides an excellent feed for L. variegatus, which is promising for concepts where worm biomass is considered a resource for technical grade products such as coatings and glues. PMID:26998797

  19. "Qupirruit": insects and worms in Inuit traditions.

    PubMed

    Laugrand, Frédéric; Oosten, Jarich

    2010-01-01

    Although small beings such as the "qupirruit" (insects and worms) appear in many different contexts in Inuit culture, they have not received much attention from scholars. In this paper we examine the symbolism associated with these small animals. We show that their small size makes them suitable to operate on the level of the "tarniq," a miniature image of a being. We discuss how insects often connect different scales and easily transform into other beings. We first deal with the perceptions of insects as they take shape in narratives and practices, and their roles in the manufacture and use of amulets. Then we move to a more specific analysis of the distinctive features of the various "qupirruit". PMID:20648981

  20. Subconjunctival Loa loa worm: first case report in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Passos, Renato Magalhães; Barbosa, Carolina Pelegrini; Almeida, Juliana de Souza; Ogawa, Guilherme Maerschner; Camargo, Luis Marcelo Aranha

    2012-01-01

    We report the first case of ocular infestation by Loa loa in Brazil. Loiasis is caused by infestation with Loa loa, a filarial parasite originally found in the rainforests of western and central Africa. It is transmitted by the bite of the fly Chrysops and has been recently described in other places other than Africa, in African immigrants or travellers. Our case is a 33 year-old woman from Cameroon who was living in São Paulo, Brazil, for 5 years. She was asymptomatic until one morning she started feeling "something moving" in the left eye. Under topical anesthesia, on the slit lamp, a moving worm was removed from the subconjunctival space, which later was confirmed to be a male Loa loa adult specimen. Blood tests revealed microfilaraemia of 129 mf/mL. The patient was treated with 400 mg oral albendazole for 3 weeks and 60 mg prednisone. This report illustrates an unusual ocular disease, which is extremely rare outside of Africa, but easily diagnosed and treated. Ophthalmologists should be aware of it, in face of an increasingly globalized world. PMID:22552423

  1. Functional brain regeneration in the acoel worm Symsagittifera roscoffensis

    PubMed Central

    Sprecher, Simon G.; Bernardo-Garcia, F. Javier; van Giesen, Lena; Hartenstein, Volker; Reichert, Heinrich; Neves, Ricardo; Bailly, Xavier; Martinez, Pedro; Brauchle, Michael

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The ability of some animals to regrow their head and brain after decapitation provides a striking example of the regenerative capacity within the animal kingdom. The acoel worm Symsagittifera roscoffensis can regrow its head, brain and sensory head organs within only a few weeks after decapitation. How rapidly and to what degree it also reacquires its functionality to control behavior however remains unknown. We provide here a neuroanatomical map of the brain neuropils of the adult S. roscoffensis and show that after decapitation a normal neuroanatomical organization of the brain is restored in the majority of animals. By testing different behaviors we further show that functionality of both sensory perception and the underlying brain architecture are restored within weeks after decapitation. Interestingly not all behaviors are restored at the same speed and to the same extent. While we find that phototaxis recovered rapidly, geotaxis is not restored within 7 weeks. Our findings show that regeneration of the head, sensory organs and brain result in the restoration of directed navigation behavior, suggesting a tight coordination in the regeneration of certain sensory organs with that of their underlying neural circuits. Thus, at least in S. roscoffensis, the regenerative capacity of different sensory modalities follows distinct paths. PMID:26581588

  2. Functional brain regeneration in the acoel worm Symsagittifera roscoffensis.

    PubMed

    Sprecher, Simon G; Bernardo-Garcia, F Javier; van Giesen, Lena; Hartenstein, Volker; Reichert, Heinrich; Neves, Ricardo; Bailly, Xavier; Martinez, Pedro; Brauchle, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The ability of some animals to regrow their head and brain after decapitation provides a striking example of the regenerative capacity within the animal kingdom. The acoel worm Symsagittifera roscoffensis can regrow its head, brain and sensory head organs within only a few weeks after decapitation. How rapidly and to what degree it also reacquires its functionality to control behavior however remains unknown. We provide here a neuroanatomical map of the brain neuropils of the adult S. roscoffensis and show that after decapitation a normal neuroanatomical organization of the brain is restored in the majority of animals. By testing different behaviors we further show that functionality of both sensory perception and the underlying brain architecture are restored within weeks after decapitation. Interestingly not all behaviors are restored at the same speed and to the same extent. While we find that phototaxis recovered rapidly, geotaxis is not restored within 7 weeks. Our findings show that regeneration of the head, sensory organs and brain result in the restoration of directed navigation behavior, suggesting a tight coordination in the regeneration of certain sensory organs with that of their underlying neural circuits. Thus, at least in S. roscoffensis, the regenerative capacity of different sensory modalities follows distinct paths. PMID:26581588

  3. The larval nervous system of the penis worm Priapulus caudatus (Ecdysozoa).

    PubMed

    Martín-Durán, José M; Wolff, Gabriella H; Strausfeld, Nicholas J; Hejnol, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The origin and extreme diversification of the animal nervous system is a central question in biology. While most of the attention has traditionally been paid to those lineages with highly elaborated nervous systems (e.g. arthropods, vertebrates, annelids), only the study of the vast animal diversity can deliver a comprehensive view of the evolutionary history of this organ system. In this regard, the phylogenetic position and apparently conservative molecular, morphological and embryological features of priapulid worms (Priapulida) place this animal lineage as a key to understanding the evolution of the Ecdysozoa (i.e. arthropods and nematodes). In this study, we characterize the nervous system of the hatching larva and first lorica larva of the priapulid worm Priapulus caudatus by immunolabelling against acetylated and tyrosinated tubulin, pCaMKII, serotonin and FMRFamide. Our results show that a circumoral brain and an unpaired ventral nerve with a caudal ganglion characterize the central nervous system of hatching embryos. After the first moult, the larva attains some adult features: a neck ganglion, an introvert plexus, and conspicuous secondary longitudinal neurites. Our study delivers a neuroanatomical framework for future embryological studies in priapulid worms, and helps illuminate the course of nervous system evolution in the Ecdysozoa. PMID:26598729

  4. The larval nervous system of the penis worm Priapulus caudatus (Ecdysozoa)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The origin and extreme diversification of the animal nervous system is a central question in biology. While most of the attention has traditionally been paid to those lineages with highly elaborated nervous systems (e.g. arthropods, vertebrates, annelids), only the study of the vast animal diversity can deliver a comprehensive view of the evolutionary history of this organ system. In this regard, the phylogenetic position and apparently conservative molecular, morphological and embryological features of priapulid worms (Priapulida) place this animal lineage as a key to understanding the evolution of the Ecdysozoa (i.e. arthropods and nematodes). In this study, we characterize the nervous system of the hatching larva and first lorica larva of the priapulid worm Priapulus caudatus by immunolabelling against acetylated and tyrosinated tubulin, pCaMKII, serotonin and FMRFamide. Our results show that a circumoral brain and an unpaired ventral nerve with a caudal ganglion characterize the central nervous system of hatching embryos. After the first moult, the larva attains some adult features: a neck ganglion, an introvert plexus, and conspicuous secondary longitudinal neurites. Our study delivers a neuroanatomical framework for future embryological studies in priapulid worms, and helps illuminate the course of nervous system evolution in the Ecdysozoa. PMID:26598729

  5. Characterization of antigens from Schistosoma mansoni and construction of a cDNA library for the study of schistosomiasis

    SciTech Connect

    Bugra, K.

    1986-01-01

    To examine the antigens of adult Schistosoma mansoni, /sup 35/S-methionine-labelled, detergent-extracted proteins were immunoprecipitated and analyzed on SDS-PAGE. Human infection serum immunoprecipitated 14 polypeptides with M/sub r/'s of 120, 105, 88, 86, 66, 64, 54, 48, 42, 38, 35, 32, 29, and 20 Kd. Upon digestion with endoglycosidase F polypeptides with M/sub r/'s of 120, 105, 54, 48, and 29 appeared to have carbohydrate moieties. Extracts of female and male S. mansoni were analyzed by immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting. Two polypeptides with M/sub r/'s of 86 Kd and 54 Kd were detected only in extracts of males. Polyadenylated RNA was extracted from S. mansoni and translated in rabbit reticulocyte lysates. Among the in vitro translation products, polypeptides with 120, 94, 64, 43, 37, 35, 30, 26 and 22 Kd apparent molecular weights were immunoprecipitated by human infection serum. When the translation products of female worms and male worms were compared, the polypeptides with M/sub r/'s of 94 and 64 Kd were only observed in males.

  6. Stability analysis of an e-SEIAR model with point-to-group worm propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fangwei; Zhang, Yunkai; Wang, Changguang; Ma, Jianfeng

    2015-03-01

    Internet worms have drawn significant attention due to their enormous threats to the Internet. The main goal of this paper is to explore the interaction dynamics between a malicious worm and an benign worm, using a mathematical model, namely e-SEIAR. The e-SEIAR model takes two important network environment factors into consideration: point-to-group worm propagation mode and benign worms. Furthermore, some related dynamics properties are studied, along with the analysis of how to combat the worm prevalence based on the stability of equilibria. Simulation results show that the performance of our proposed models is effective in combating such worms, in terms of decreasing the number of hosts infected by the malicious worm and reducing the malicious worm propagation speed. Based on our simulations, we believe there is great potential for an effective method to use benign worms to combat malicious worms in some point-to-group applications.

  7. Fossilization of an ancient (devonian) soft-bodied worm.

    PubMed

    Cameron, B

    1967-03-10

    A shell-boring polychaete worm was found replaced by the min eral limonite-goethite; this fossil is probably a limonite-goethite pseudo morph after pyrite, suggesting that the soft-bodied worm was originally re placed by pyrite. External structures such as a prostomium, anterior tentacle like palps, peristomial cirri, parapodia, setae bundles of the parapodia, and dorsal cirri of the parapodia are pre served. This worm resembles living members of the family Spionidae in form and habit. This discovery extends the known range of this family (Cre taceous?, Miocene to Recent) back about 365 million years to the Devo nian period. PMID:17847539

  8. Velvet worm development links myriapods with chelicerates.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Georg; Whitington, Paul M

    2009-10-22

    Despite the advent of modern molecular and computational methods, the phylogeny of the four major arthropod groups (Chelicerata, Myriapoda, Crustacea and Hexapoda, including the insects) remains enigmatic. One particular challenge is the position of myriapods as either the closest relatives to chelicerates (Paradoxopoda/Myriochelata hypothesis), or to crustaceans and hexapods (Mandibulata hypothesis). While neither hypothesis receives conclusive support from molecular analyses, most morphological studies favour the Mandibulata concept, with the mandible being the most prominent feature of this group. Although no morphological evidence was initially available to support the Paradoxopoda hypothesis, a putative synapomorphy of chelicerates and myriapods has recently been put forward based on studies of neurogenesis. However, this and other morphological characters remain of limited use for phylogenetic systematics owing to the lack of data from an appropriate outgroup. Here, we show that several embryonic characters are synapomorphies uniting the chelicerates and myriapods, as revealed by an outgroup comparison with the Onychophora or velvet worms. Our findings, thus provide, to our knowledge, first morphological/embryological support for the monophyly of the Paradoxopoda and suggest that the mandible might have evolved twice within the arthropods. PMID:19640885

  9. Characterization of the N-glycans of female Angiostrongylus cantonensis worms.

    PubMed

    Veríssimo, Carolina M; Morassutti, Alessandra L; von Itzstein, Mark; Sutov, Grigorij; Hartley-Tassell, Lauren; McAtamney, Sarah; Dell, Anne; Haslam, Stuart M; Graeff-Teixeira, Carlos

    2016-07-01

    Glycoconjugates play a crucial role in the host-parasite relationships of helminthic infections, including angiostrongyliasis. It has previously been shown that the antigenicity of proteins from female Angiostrongylus cantonensis worms may depend on their associated glycan moieties. Here, an N-glycan profile of A. cantonensis is reported. A total soluble extract (TE) was prepared from female A. cantonensis worms and was tested by western blot before and after glycan oxidation or N- and O-glycosidase treatment. The importance of N-glycans for the immunogenicity of A. cantonensis was demonstrated when deglycosylation of the TE with PNGase F completely abrogated IgG recognition. The TE was also fractionated using various lectin columns [Ulex europaeus (UEA), concanavalin A (Con A), Arachis hypogaea (PNA), Triticum vulgaris (WGA) and Lycopersicon esculentum (LEA)], and then each fraction was digested with PNGase F. Released N-glycans were analyzed with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI)-time-of-flight (TOF)-mass spectrometry (MS) and MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS/MS. Complex-type, high mannose, and truncated glycan structures were identified in all five fractions. Sequential MALDI-TOF-TOF analysis of the major MS peaks identified complex-type structures, with a α1-6 fucosylated core and truncated antennas. Glycoproteins in the TE were labeled with BodipyAF558-SE dye for a lectin microarray analysis. Fluorescent images were analyzed with ProScanArray imaging software followed by statistical analysis. A total of 29 lectins showed positive binding to the TE. Of these, Bandeiraea simplicifolia (BS-I), PNA, and Wisteria floribunda (WFA), which recognize galactose (Gal) and N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc), exhibited high affinity binding. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that female A. cantonensis worms have characteristic helminth N-glycans. PMID:27107931

  10. Anisakis simplex: from Obscure Infectious Worm to Inducer of Immune Hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Audicana, M. Teresa; Kennedy, Malcolm W.

    2008-01-01

    Summary: Infection of humans with the nematode worm parasite Anisakis simplex was first described in the 1960s in association with the consumption of raw or undercooked fish. During the 1990s it was realized that even the ingestion of dead worms in food fish can cause severe hypersensitivity reactions, that these may be more prevalent than infection itself, and that this outcome could be associated with food preparations previously considered safe. Not only may allergic symptoms arise from infection by the parasites (“gastroallergic anisakiasis”), but true anaphylactic reactions can also occur following exposure to allergens from dead worms by food-borne, airborne, or skin contact routes. This review discusses A. simplex pathogenesis in humans, covering immune hypersensitivity reactions both in the context of a living infection and in terms of exposure to its allergens by other routes. Over the last 20 years, several studies have concentrated on A. simplex antigen characterization and innate as well as adaptive immune response to this parasite. Molecular characterization of Anisakis allergens and isolation of their encoding cDNAs is now an active field of research that should provide improved diagnostic tools in addition to tools with which to enhance our understanding of pathogenesis and controversial aspects of A. simplex allergy. We also discuss the potential relevance of parasite products such as allergens, proteinases, and proteinase inhibitors and the activation of basophils, eosinophils, and mast cells in the induction of A. simplex-related immune hypersensitivity states induced by exposure to the parasite, dead or alive. PMID:18400801

  11. 19. WORM AND SPUR GEARS FOR CONTROLLING THE PADDLE VALVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. WORM AND SPUR GEARS FOR CONTROLLING THE PADDLE VALVE IN ONE OF THE LOCK GATES WHICH SEPARATES UPPER AND LOWER CHAMBERS: 1976 - Pawtucket Canal, Swamp Locks, Pawtucket & Merrimack Canals, Lowell, Middlesex County, MA

  12. 20. WORM AND SPUR GEARS FOR CONTROLLING THE PADDLE VALVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. WORM AND SPUR GEARS FOR CONTROLLING THE PADDLE VALVE IN ONE OF THE GATES BETWEEN THE UPPER AND LOWER CHAMBERS: 1976 - Pawtucket Canal, Swamp Locks, Pawtucket & Merrimack Canals, Lowell, Middlesex County, MA

  13. 2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Big Creek Road, Between State Route 284 & Big Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  14. Detail, terra cotta, ironwork, and painted wood "worm gear" carved ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, terra cotta, ironwork, and painted wood "worm gear" carved columns, north rear. - San Bernardino Valley College, Library, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  15. 18. WORM AND SPUR GEARS FOR CONTROLLING THE PADDLE VALVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. WORM AND SPUR GEARS FOR CONTROLLING THE PADDLE VALVE IN ONE OF THE GATES BETWEEN THE UPPER AND LOWER CHAMBERS: 1976 - Pawtucket Canal, Swamp Locks, Pawtucket & Merrimack Canals, Lowell, Middlesex County, MA

  16. Worm drive detail, roller hoist mechanism, rolling crest roller gate ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Worm drive detail, roller hoist mechanism, rolling crest roller gate - plan and sections - Grand Valley Diversion Dam, Half a mile north of intersection of I-70 & Colorado State Route 65, Cameo, Mesa County, CO

  17. 6. VIEW OF DRIFT SHAFT, HOIST MOTOR, WORM WHEEL GEAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF DRIFT SHAFT, HOIST MOTOR, WORM WHEEL GEAR ASSEMBLY, CROSS SHAFT, AND INTERMEDIATE GEAR HOIST ASSEMBLY FOR CONTROL GATE NO. 6, LOOKING WEST - Long Lake Hydroelectric Plant, Spillway Dam, Spanning Spokane River, Ford, Stevens County, WA

  18. Metagenomic Analysis of Microbial Symbionts in a Gutless Worm

    SciTech Connect

    Woyke, Tanja; Teeling, Hanno; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Hunteman, Marcel; Richter, Michael; Gloeckner, Frank Oliver; Boeffelli, Dario; Barry, Kerrie W.; Shapiro, Harris J.; Anderson, Iain J.; Szeto, Ernest; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Mussmann, Marc; Amann, Rudolf; Bergin, Claudia; Ruehland, Caroline; Rubin, Edward M.; Dubilier, Nicole

    2006-05-01

    Symbioses between bacteria and eukaryotes are ubiquitous, yet our understanding of the interactions driving these associations is hampered by our inability to cultivate most host-associated microbes. Here we use a metagenomic approach to describe four co-occurring symbionts from the marine oligochaete Olavius algarvensis, a worm lacking a mouth, gut and nephridia. Shotgun sequencing and metabolic pathway reconstruction revealed that the symbionts are sulphur-oxidizing and sulphate-reducing bacteria, all of which are capable of carbon fixation, thus providing the host with multiple sources of nutrition. Molecular evidence for the uptake and recycling of worm waste products by the symbionts suggests how the worm could eliminate its excretory system, an adaptation unique among annelid worms. We propose a model that describes how the versatile metabolism within this symbiotic consortium provides the host with an optimal energy supply as it shuttles between the upper oxic and lower anoxic coastal sediments that it inhabits.

  19. WormBase: methods for data mining and comparative genomics.

    PubMed

    Harris, Todd W; Stein, Lincoln D

    2006-01-01

    WormBase is a comprehensive repository for information on Caenorhabditis elegans and related nematodes. Although the primary web-based interface of WormBase (http:// www.wormbase.org/) is familiar to most C. elegans researchers, WormBase also offers powerful data-mining features for addressing questions of comparative genomics, genome structure, and evolution. In this chapter, we focus on data mining at WormBase through the use of flexible web interfaces, custom queries, and scripts. The intended audience includes users wishing to query the database beyond the confines of the web interface or fetch data en masse. No knowledge of programming is necessary or assumed, although users with intermediate skills in the Perl scripting language will be able to utilize additional data-mining approaches. PMID:16988424

  20. Improved Gear Shapes for Face Worm Gear Drives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvin, Faydor L.; Nava, Alessandro; Fan, Qi; Fuentes, Alfonso

    2005-01-01

    Shapes different from the traditional ones have been proposed for face worm gears and for conical and cylindrical worms that mesh with them. The proposed shapes are based on the concept of generating a face worm gear surface by use of a tilted head cutter instead of by the traditional use of a hob. (As used here, head cutter is also meant to signify, alternatively, a head grinding tool.) The gear-surface-generation equipment would be similar to that used for generation of spiral bevel and hypoid gears. In comparison with the corresponding traditional hob, a tilted head cutter according to the proposal would be larger, could be fabricated with greater precision, and would enable the generation of gear surfaces with greater precision and greater productivity. A face worm gear would be generated (see figure) by use of a tilted head cutter, the blades or grinding surfaces of which would have straight-line profiles. The tilt of the head cutter would prevent interference with teeth adjacent to the groove being cut or ground. A worm to mesh with the face worm gear would be generated by use of a tilted head cutter mounted on the cradle of a generating machine. The blades or grinding surfaces of the head cutter would have a parabolic profile and would deviate from the straight-line profiles of the head cutter for the face worm gear. The shortest distance between the worm and the cradle would follow a parabolic function during the cycle of meshing in the generating process to provide a parabolic function of transmission errors to the gear drive. The small mismatch between the profiles of the face-worm-gear and worm head cutters would make it possible to localize the bearing contact in the worm gear drive. The parabolic function of transmission errors could absorb discontinuous linear functions of transmission errors caused by errors of alignment; this could afford a significant benefit, in that such errors are main sources of noise and vibration in gear drives. The main

  1. A trial to produce an anti-schistosomal vaccine using heterophyid antigens.

    PubMed

    Youssef, M M; Boulos, L M; Amin, S M; Fadali, G A; el-Azzouni, M Z; Mashelli, R I

    1989-01-01

    Heterophyid metacercariae, crude and partially purified heterophyid antigens were given prior to S. mansoni infections in an attempt to produce a potent antischistosomal vaccine. Three main groups of albino mice were used. Each group after receiving the appropriate heterophyid antigen prior to S. mansoni infection was studied parasitologically as regards worm load and tissue egg count and histopathologically as regards granulomata number, size and cellular constituents as well as immunologically by the indirect immunofluorescent test. The results showed a reduction in worm burden recoveries and egg load resulting in lesser number of granulomata and diminution in size of granulomata as well as acceleration in their reaction together with inhibition of fluorescence. These results were more obvious in the group infected one month post heterophyid infection, as well as in mice immunized with the highest dose of crude heterophyid antigen (200 micrograms protein). However, a low dose of 50 micrograms of partially purified fractionated antigen gave the most evident results. PMID:2520151

  2. Using Lateral Coupled Snakes for Modeling the Contours of Worms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing; Ronneberger, Olaf; Schulze, Ekkehard; Baumeister, Ralf; Burkhardt, Hans

    A model called lateral coupled snakes is proposed to describe the contours of moving C. elegans worms on 2D images with high accuracy. The model comprises two curves with point correspondence between them. The line linking a corresponding pair is approximately perpendicular to the curves at the two points, which is ensured by shear restoring forces. Experimental proofs reveal that the model is a promising tool for locating and segmenting worms or objects with similar shapes.

  3. Tolerance and efficacy of autologous or donor-derived T cells expressing CD19 chimeric antigen receptors in adult B-ALL with extramedullary leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Hanren; Zhang, Wenying; Li, Xiaolei; Han, Qingwang; Guo, Yelei; Zhang, Yajing; Wang, Yao; Wang, Chunmeng; Shi, Fengxia; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Meixia; Feng, Kaichao; Wang, Quanshun; Zhu, Hongli; Fu, Xiaobing; Li, Suxia; Han, Weidong

    2015-01-01

    The engineering of T lymphocytes to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) aims to establish T cell-mediated tumor immunity rapidly. In this study, we conducted a pilot clinical trial of autologous or donor- derived T cells genetically modified to express a CAR targeting the B-cell antigen CD19 harboring 4-1BB and the CD3ζ moiety. All enrolled patients had relapsed or chemotherapy-refractory B-cell lineage acute lymphocytic leukemia (B-ALL). Of the nine patients, six had definite extramedullary involvement, and the rate of overall survival at 18 weeks was 56%. One of the two patients who received conditioning chemotherapy achieved a three-month durable complete response with partial regression of extramedullary lesions. Four of seven patients who did not receive conditioning chemotherapy achieved dramatic regression or a mixed response in the haematopoietic system and extramedullary tissues for two to nine months. Grade 2–3 graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was observed in two patients who received substantial donor-derived anti-CD19 CART (chimeric antigen receptor-modified T) cells 3–4 weeks after cell infusions. These results show for the first time that donor-derived anti-CD19 CART cells can cause GVHD and regression of extramedullary B-ALL. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01864889. PMID:26451310

  4. Social behaviour and collective motion in plant-animal worms.

    PubMed

    Franks, Nigel R; Worley, Alan; Grant, Katherine A J; Gorman, Alice R; Vizard, Victoria; Plackett, Harriet; Doran, Carolina; Gamble, Margaret L; Stumpe, Martin C; Sendova-Franks, Ana B

    2016-02-24

    Social behaviour may enable organisms to occupy ecological niches that would otherwise be unavailable to them. Here, we test this major evolutionary principle by demonstrating self-organizing social behaviour in the plant-animal, Symsagittifera roscoffensis. These marine aceol flat worms rely for all of their nutrition on the algae within their bodies: hence their common name. We show that individual worms interact with one another to coordinate their movements so that even at low densities they begin to swim in small polarized groups and at increasing densities such flotillas turn into circular mills. We use computer simulations to: (i) determine if real worms interact socially by comparing them with virtual worms that do not interact and (ii) show that the social phase transitions of the real worms can occur based only on local interactions between and among them. We hypothesize that such social behaviour helps the worms to form the dense biofilms or mats observed on certain sun-exposed sandy beaches in the upper intertidal of the East Atlantic and to become in effect a super-organismic seaweed in a habitat where macro-algal seaweeds cannot anchor themselves. Symsagittifera roscoffensis, a model organism in many other areas in biology (including stem cell regeneration), also seems to be an ideal model for understanding how individual behaviours can lead, through collective movement, to social assemblages. PMID:26911961

  5. New Geometry of Worm Face Gear Drives with Conical and Cylindrical Worms: Generation, Simulation of Meshing, and Stress Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvin, Faydor L.; Nava, Alessandro; Fan, Qi; Fuentes, Alfonso

    2002-01-01

    New geometry of face worm gear drives with conical and cylindrical worms is proposed. The generation of the face worm-gear is based on application of a tilted head-cutter (grinding tool) instead of application of a hob applied at present. The generation of a conjugated worm is based on application of a tilted head-cutter (grinding tool) as well. The bearing contact of the gear drive is localized and is oriented longitudinally. A predesigned parabolic function of transmission errors for reduction of noise and vibration is provided. The stress analysis of the gear drive is performed using a three-dimensional finite element analysis. The contacting model is automatically generated. The developed theory is illustrated with numerical examples.

  6. Navigating molecular worms inside chemical labyrinths.

    PubMed

    Haranczyk, M; Sethian, J A

    2009-12-22

    Predicting whether a molecule can traverse chemical labyrinths of channels, tunnels, and buried cavities usually requires performing computationally intensive molecular dynamics simulations. Often one wants to screen molecules to identify ones that can pass through a given chemical labyrinth or screen chemical labyrinths to identify those that allow a given molecule to pass. Because it is impractical to test each molecule/labyrinth pair using computationally expensive methods, faster, approximate methods are used to prune possibilities, "triaging" the ability of a proposed molecule to pass through the given chemical labyrinth. Most pruning methods estimate chemical accessibility solely on geometry, treating atoms or groups of atoms as hard spheres with appropriate radii. Here, we explore geometric configurations for a moving "molecular worm," which replaces spherical probes and is assembled from solid blocks connected by flexible links. The key is to extend the fast marching method, which is an ordered upwind one-pass Dijkstra-like method to compute optimal paths by efficiently solving an associated Eikonal equation for the cost function. First, we build a suitable cost function associated with each possible configuration, and second, we construct an algorithm that works in ensuing high-dimensional configuration space: at least seven dimensions are required to account for translational, rotational, and internal degrees of freedom. We demonstrate the algorithm to study shortest paths, compute accessible volume, and derive information on topology of the accessible part of a chemical labyrinth. As a model example, we consider an alkane molecule in a porous material, which is relevant to designing catalysts for oil processing. PMID:20018716

  7. Navigating molecular worms inside chemical labyrinths

    PubMed Central

    Haranczyk, M.; Sethian, J. A.

    2009-01-01

    Predicting whether a molecule can traverse chemical labyrinths of channels, tunnels, and buried cavities usually requires performing computationally intensive molecular dynamics simulations. Often one wants to screen molecules to identify ones that can pass through a given chemical labyrinth or screen chemical labyrinths to identify those that allow a given molecule to pass. Because it is impractical to test each molecule/labyrinth pair using computationally expensive methods, faster, approximate methods are used to prune possibilities, “triaging” the ability of a proposed molecule to pass through the given chemical labyrinth. Most pruning methods estimate chemical accessibility solely on geometry, treating atoms or groups of atoms as hard spheres with appropriate radii. Here, we explore geometric configurations for a moving “molecular worm,” which replaces spherical probes and is assembled from solid blocks connected by flexible links. The key is to extend the fast marching method, which is an ordered upwind one-pass Dijkstra-like method to compute optimal paths by efficiently solving an associated Eikonal equation for the cost function. First, we build a suitable cost function associated with each possible configuration, and second, we construct an algorithm that works in ensuing high-dimensional configuration space: at least seven dimensions are required to account for translational, rotational, and internal degrees of freedom. We demonstrate the algorithm to study shortest paths, compute accessible volume, and derive information on topology of the accessible part of a chemical labyrinth. As a model example, we consider an alkane molecule in a porous material, which is relevant to designing catalysts for oil processing. PMID:20018716

  8. Assessing drivers of the IgG4 antibody reactivity to recombinant antigen Bm14 in Wuchereria bancrofti endemic populations in East Africa.

    PubMed

    Damgaard, Johanne; Meyrowitsch, Dan W; Rwegoshora, Rwehumbiza T; Magesa, Stephen M; Mukoko, Dunstan A; Simonsen, Paul E

    2016-09-01

    A high proportion of the human population in lymphatic filariasis (LF) endemic areas is positive for filarial specific IgG4 antibodies, including many individuals without microfilariae (mf; circulating larvae in the human blood) or circulating filarial antigens (CFA; marker of adult worm infection). The antibodies are commonly regarded as markers of infection and/or exposure to filarial larvae, but a direct association between the antibodies and these indices has not been well documented. The present study assessed the role and relative effect of potential drivers of the human IgG4 antibody reactivity to the recombinant filarial antigen Bm14 in Wuchereria bancrofti endemic populations in East Africa. Sera collected during previous studies from 395 well characterized individuals with regard to age, sex, mf, CFA, household vector biting and household exposure to infective filarial larvae were tested for IgG4 antibodies to Bm14, and associations between antibody reactivity and the different variables were statistically analyzed. IgG4 reactivity to Bm14 was highly positively associated with CFA, and to a lesser extent with age. However, an expected association with household exposure to infective filarial larvae was not found. Bm14 antibody reactivity thus appeared mainly to reflect actual infection of individuals with adult filarial worms rather than ongoing exposure to transmission. The analyses moreover suggested that many of the CFA negative but Bm14 positive individuals had early or low level infections where antibodies had been induced but where CFA was not (yet?) measurable. Although the study indicated that IgG4 reactivity to Bm14 is a marker of filarial infection, assessment of this reactivity, especially in children, will still be useful for indirect monitoring of changes in transmission intensity, including break of transmission and post-elimination surveillance, in LF control. PMID:27172877

  9. Enhanced protective efficacy of a chimeric form of the schistosomiasis vaccine antigen Sm-TSP-2.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Mark S; Pickering, Darren A; McSorley, Henry J; Bethony, Jeffrey M; Tribolet, Leon; Dougall, Annette M; Hotez, Peter J; Loukas, Alex

    2012-01-01

    The large extracellular loop of the Schistosoma mansoni tetraspanin, Sm-TSP-2, when fused to a thioredoxin partner and formulated with Freund's adjuvants, has been shown to be an efficacious vaccine against murine schistosomiasis. Moreover, Sm-TSP-2 is uniquely recognised by IgG(1) and IgG(3) from putatively resistant individuals resident in S. mansoni endemic areas in Brazil. In the present study, we expressed Sm-TSP-2 at high yield and in soluble form in E. coli without the need for a solubility enhancing fusion partner. We also expressed in E. coli a chimera called Sm-TSP-2/5B, which consisted of Sm-TSP-2 fused to the immunogenic 5B region of the hookworm aspartic protease and vaccine antigen, Na-APR-1. Sm-TSP-2 formulated with alum/CpG showed significant reductions in adult worm and liver egg burdens in two separate murine schistosomiasis challenge studies. Sm-TSP-2/5B afforded significantly greater protection than Sm-TSP-2 alone when both antigens were formulated with alum/CpG. The enhanced protection obtained with the chimeric fusion protein was associated with increased production of anti-Sm-TSP-2 antibodies and IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-γ from spleen cells of vaccinated animals. Sera from 666 individuals from Brazil who were infected with S. mansoni were screened for potentially deleterious IgE responses to Sm-TSP-2. Anti-Sm-TSP-2 IgE to this protein was not detected (also shown previously for Na-APR-1), suggesting that the chimeric antigen Sm-TSP-2/5B could be used to safely and effectively vaccinate people in areas where schistosomes and hookworms are endemic. PMID:22428079

  10. Antigenic sites in carcinoembryonic antigen.

    PubMed

    Hammarstrom, S; Shively, J E; Paxton, R J; Beatty, B G; Larsson, A; Ghosh, R; Bormer, O; Buchegger, F; Mach, J P; Burtin, P

    1989-09-01

    The epitope reactivities of 52 well-characterized monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) against carcinoembryonic antigen from 11 different research groups were studied using competitive solid-phase immunoassays. About 60% of all possible combinations of Mabs as inhibitors and as the primary binding antibody were investigated. The inhibition data were analyzed by a specially developed computer program "EPITOPES" which measures concordance and discordance in inhibition patterns between Mabs. The analysis showed that 43 of the 52 Mabs (83%) could be classified into one of five essentially noninteracting epitope groups (GOLD 1-5) containing between four and 15 Mabs each. The epitopes recognized by the Mabs belonging to groups 1 to 5 were peptide in nature. With one or two possible exceptions non-classifiable Mabs were either directed against carbohydrate epitopes (4 Mabs) or were inactive in the tests used. Within epitope groups GOLD 1, 4, and 5 two partially overlapping subgroups were distinguished. Mabs with a high degree of carcinoembryonic antigen specificity generally belonged to epitope groups GOLD 1 and 3. PMID:2474375

  11. Annual Survey of Horsehair Worm Cysts in Northern Taiwan, with Notes on a Single Seasonal Infection Peak in Chironomid Larvae (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Chiu, Ming-Chung; Huang, Chin-Gi; Wu, Wen-Jer; Shiao, Shiuh-Feng

    2016-06-01

    The life cycle of the freshwater horsehair worm typically includes a free-living phase (adult, egg, larva) and a multiple-host parasitic phase (aquatic paratenic host, terrestrial definitive host). Such a life cycle involving water and land can improve energy flow in riparian ecosystems; however, its temporal dynamics in nature have rarely been investigated. This study examined seasonal infection with cysts in larval Chironominae (Diptera: Chironomidae) in northern Taiwan. In the larval chironomids, cysts of 3 horsehair worm species were identified. The cysts of the dominant species were morphologically similar to those of Chordodes formosanus. Infection with these cysts increased suddenly and peaked 2 mo after the reproductive season of the adult horsehair worms. Although adult C. formosanus emerged several times in a year, only 1 distinct infection peak was detected in September in the chironomid larvae. Compared with the subfamily Chironominae, samples from the subfamilies Tanypodinae and Orthocladiinae were less parasitized. This indicates that the feeding behavior of the chironomid host likely affects horsehair worm cyst infections; however, bioconcentration in predatory chironomids was not detected. PMID:26885875

  12. Diet of Worms Emended: An Update of Polychaete Feeding Guilds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jumars, Peter A.; Dorgan, Kelly M.; Lindsay, Sara M.

    2015-01-01

    Polychaetes are common in most marine habitats and dominate many infaunal communities. Functional guild classification based on taxonomic identity and morphology has linked community structure to ecological function. The functional guilds now include osmotrophic siboglinids as well as sipunculans, echiurans, and myzostomes, which molecular genetic analyses have placed within Annelida. Advances in understanding of encounter mechanisms explicitly relate motility to feeding mode. New analyses of burrowing mechanics explain the prevalence of bilateral symmetry and blur the boundary between surface and subsurface feeding. The dichotomy between microphagous deposit and suspension feeders and macrophagous carnivores, herbivores, and omnivores is further supported by divergent digestive strategies. Deposit feeding appears to be limited largely to worms longer than 1 cm, with juveniles and small worms in general restricted to ingesting highly digestible organic material and larger, rich food items, blurring the macrophage-microphage dichotomy that applies well to larger worms.

  13. Logistics of Guinea Worm Disease Eradication in South Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Alexander H.; Becknell, Steven; Withers, P. Craig; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Hopkins, Donald R.; Stobbelaar, David; Makoy, Samuel Yibi

    2014-01-01

    From 2006 to 2012, the South Sudan Guinea Worm Eradication Program reduced new Guinea worm disease (dracunculiasis) cases by over 90%, despite substantial programmatic challenges. Program logistics have played a key role in program achievements to date. The program uses disease surveillance and program performance data and integrated technical–logistical staffing to maintain flexible and effective logistical support for active community-based surveillance and intervention delivery in thousands of remote communities. Lessons learned from logistical design and management can resonate across similar complex surveillance and public health intervention delivery programs, such as mass drug administration for the control of neglected tropical diseases and other disease eradication programs. Logistical challenges in various public health scenarios and the pivotal contribution of logistics to Guinea worm case reductions in South Sudan underscore the need for additional inquiry into the role of logistics in public health programming in low-income countries. PMID:24445199

  14. Higher throughput high resolution multi-worm tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javer, Avelino; Li, Kezhi; Gyenes, Bertalan; Brown, Andre; Behavioural Genomics Team

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a high throughput imaging system for tracking multiple nematode worms at high resolution. The tracker consists of 6 cameras mounted on a motorized gantry so that up to 48 plates (each with approximately 30 worms) can be imaged without user intervention. To deal with the high data rate of the cameras we use real time processing to find worms and only save the immediately surrounding pixels. The system is also equipped with automatic oxygen and carbon dioxide control for observing stimulus response behaviour. We will describe the design and performance of the new system, some of the challenges of truly high throughput behaviour recording, and report preliminary results on inter-individual variation in behaviour as well as a quantitative analysis of C. elegans response to hypoxia, oxygen reperfusion, and carbon dioxide. Funding provided by the Medical Research Council.

  15. Hybrid epidemics--a case study on computer worm conficker.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Changwang; Zhou, Shi; Chain, Benjamin M

    2015-01-01

    Conficker is a computer worm that erupted on the Internet in 2008. It is unique in combining three different spreading strategies: local probing, neighbourhood probing, and global probing. We propose a mathematical model that combines three modes of spreading: local, neighbourhood, and global, to capture the worm's spreading behaviour. The parameters of the model are inferred directly from network data obtained during the first day of the Conficker epidemic. The model is then used to explore the tradeoff between spreading modes in determining the worm's effectiveness. Our results show that the Conficker epidemic is an example of a critically hybrid epidemic, in which the different modes of spreading in isolation do not lead to successful epidemics. Such hybrid spreading strategies may be used beneficially to provide the most effective strategies for promulgating information across a large population. When used maliciously, however, they can present a dangerous challenge to current internet security protocols. PMID:25978309

  16. WormBase: new content and better access

    PubMed Central

    Bieri, Tamberlyn; Blasiar, Darin; Ozersky, Philip; Antoshechkin, Igor; Bastiani, Carol; Canaran, Payan; Chan, Juancarlos; Chen, Nansheng; Chen, Wen J.; Davis, Paul; Fiedler, Tristan J.; Girard, Lisa; Han, Michael; Harris, Todd W.; Kishore, Ranjana; Lee, Raymond; McKay, Sheldon; Müller, Hans-Michael; Nakamura, Cecilia; Petcherski, Andrei; Rangarajan, Arun; Rogers, Anthony; Schindelman, Gary; Schwarz, Erich M.; Spooner, Will; Tuli, Mary Ann; Auken, Kimberly Van; Wang, Daniel; Wang, Xiaodong; Williams, Gary; Durbin, Richard; Stein, Lincoln D.; Sternberg, Paul W.; Spieth, John

    2007-01-01

    WormBase (), a model organism database for Caenorhabditis elegans and other related nematodes, continues to evolve and expand. Over the past year WormBase has added new data on C.elegans, including data on classical genetics, cell biology and functional genomics; expanded the annotation of closely related nematodes with a new genome browser for Caenorhabditis remanei; and deployed new hardware for stronger performance. Several existing datasets including phenotype descriptions and RNAi experiments have seen a large increase in new content. New datasets such as the C.remanei draft assembly and annotations, the Vancouver Fosmid library and TEC-RED 5′ end sites are now available as well. Access to and searching WormBase has become more dependable and flexible via multiple mirror sites and indexing through Google. PMID:17099234

  17. Continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo using worm sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunacker, P.; Wallerberger, M.; Gull, E.; Hausoel, A.; Sangiovanni, G.; Held, K.

    2015-10-01

    We present a worm sampling method for calculating one- and two-particle Green's functions using continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo simulations in the hybridization expansion (CT-HYB). Instead of measuring Green's functions by removing hybridization lines from partition function configurations, as in conventional CT-HYB, the worm algorithm directly samples the Green's function. We show that worm sampling is necessary to obtain general two-particle Green's functions which are not of density-density type and that it improves the sampling efficiency when approaching the atomic limit. Such two-particle Green's functions are needed to compute off-diagonal elements of susceptibilities and occur in diagrammatic extensions of the dynamical mean-field theory and in efficient estimators for the single-particle self-energy.

  18. Diet of worms emended: an update of polychaete feeding guilds.

    PubMed

    Jumars, Peter A; Dorgan, Kelly M; Lindsay, Sara M

    2015-01-01

    Polychaetes are common in most marine habitats and dominate many infaunal communities. Functional guild classification based on taxonomic identity and morphology has linked community structure to ecological function. The functional guilds now include osmotrophic siboglinids as well as sipunculans, echiurans, and myzostomes, which molecular genetic analyses have placed within Annelida. Advances in understanding of encounter mechanisms explicitly relate motility to feeding mode. New analyses of burrowing mechanics explain the prevalence of bilateral symmetry and blur the boundary between surface and subsurface feeding. The dichotomy between microphagous deposit and suspension feeders and macrophagous carnivores, herbivores, and omnivores is further supported by divergent digestive strategies. Deposit feeding appears to be limited largely to worms longer than 1 cm, with juveniles and small worms in general restricted to ingesting highly digestible organic material and larger, rich food items, blurring the macrophage-microphage dichotomy that applies well to larger worms. PMID:25251269

  19. Shai-Hulud: The quest for worm sign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaenisch, Holger M.; Handley, James W.; Faucheux, Jeffery P.; Lamkin, Ken

    2005-03-01

    Successful worm detection at real-time OC-48 and OC-192 speed requires hardware to extract web based binary sequences at faster than these speeds, and software to process the incoming sequences to identify worms. Computer hardware advancement in the form of field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) makes real-time extraction of these sequences possible. Lacking are mathematical algorithms for worm detection in the real time data sequence, and the ability to convert these algorithms into lookup tables (LUTs) that can be compiled into FPGAs. Data Modeling provides the theory and algorithms for an effective mathematical framework for real-time worm detection and conversion of algorithms into LUTs. Detection methods currently available such as pattern recognition algorithms are limited both by the amount of time to compare the current data sequence with a historical database of potential candidates, and by the inability to accurately classify information that was unseen in the training process. Data Modeling eliminates these limitations by training only on examples of nominal behavior. This results in a highly tuned and fast running equation model that is compiled in a FPGA as a LUT and used at real-time OC-48 and OC-192 speeds to detect worms and other anomalies. This paper provides an overview of our approach for generating these Data Change Models for detecting worms, and their subsequent conversion into LUTs. A proof of concept is given using binary data from a WEBDAV, SLAMMER packet, and RED PROBE attack, with BASIC source code for the detector and LUT provided.

  20. Preparation of Pickering double emulsions using block copolymer worms.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Kate L; Mable, Charlotte J; Lane, Jacob A; Derry, Mathew J; Fielding, Lee A; Armes, Steven P

    2015-04-14

    The rational formulation of Pickering double emulsions is described using a judicious combination of hydrophilic and hydrophobic block copolymer worms as highly anisotropic emulsifiers. More specifically, RAFT dispersion polymerization was utilized to prepare poly(lauryl methacrylate)-poly(benzyl methacrylate) worms at 20% w/w solids in n-dodecane and poly(glycerol monomethacrylate)-poly(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate)-poly(benzyl methacrylate) worms at 13% w/w solids in water by polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA). Water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) double emulsions can be readily prepared with mean droplet diameters ranging from 30 to 80 μm using a two-stage approach. First, a w/o precursor emulsion comprising 25 μm aqueous droplets is prepared using the hydrophobic worms, followed by encapsulation within oil droplets stabilized by the hydrophilic worms. The double emulsion droplet diameter and number of encapsulated water droplets can be readily varied by adjusting the stirring rate employed during the second stage. For each stage, the droplet volume fraction is relatively high at 0.50. The double emulsion nature of the final formulation was confirmed by optical and fluorescence microscopy studies. Such double emulsions are highly stable to coalescence, with little or no change in droplet diameter being detected over storage at 20 °C for 10 weeks as judged by laser diffraction. Preliminary experiments indicate that the complementary o/w/o emulsions can also be prepared using the same pair of worms by changing the order of homogenization, although somewhat lower droplet volume fractions were required in this case. Finally, we demonstrate that triple and even quadruple emulsions can be formulated using these new highly anisotropic Pickering emulsifiers. PMID:25834923

  1. Preparation of Pickering Double Emulsions Using Block Copolymer Worms

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The rational formulation of Pickering double emulsions is described using a judicious combination of hydrophilic and hydrophobic block copolymer worms as highly anisotropic emulsifiers. More specifically, RAFT dispersion polymerization was utilized to prepare poly(lauryl methacrylate)–poly(benzyl methacrylate) worms at 20% w/w solids in n-dodecane and poly(glycerol monomethacrylate)–poly(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate)–poly(benzyl methacrylate) worms at 13% w/w solids in water by polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA). Water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) double emulsions can be readily prepared with mean droplet diameters ranging from 30 to 80 μm using a two-stage approach. First, a w/o precursor emulsion comprising 25 μm aqueous droplets is prepared using the hydrophobic worms, followed by encapsulation within oil droplets stabilized by the hydrophilic worms. The double emulsion droplet diameter and number of encapsulated water droplets can be readily varied by adjusting the stirring rate employed during the second stage. For each stage, the droplet volume fraction is relatively high at 0.50. The double emulsion nature of the final formulation was confirmed by optical and fluorescence microscopy studies. Such double emulsions are highly stable to coalescence, with little or no change in droplet diameter being detected over storage at 20 °C for 10 weeks as judged by laser diffraction. Preliminary experiments indicate that the complementary o/w/o emulsions can also be prepared using the same pair of worms by changing the order of homogenization, although somewhat lower droplet volume fractions were required in this case. Finally, we demonstrate that triple and even quadruple emulsions can be formulated using these new highly anisotropic Pickering emulsifiers. PMID:25834923

  2. Localization of Waves without Bistability: Worms in Nematic Electroconvection

    SciTech Connect

    Riecke, H.; Granzow, G.D.

    1998-07-01

    A general localization mechanism for waves in dissipative systems is identified that does not require the bistability of the basic state and the nonlinear plane-wave state. We conjecture that the mechanism explains the two-dimensional localized wave structures ({open_quotes}worms{close_quotes}) that recently have been observed in experiments on electroconvection in nematic liquid crystals where the transition to extended waves is supercritical. The mechanism accounts for the shape of the worms, their propagation direction, and certain aspects of their interaction. The dynamics of the localized waves can be steady or irregular. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  3. Microbubble array for on-chip worm processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yuhao; Hashmi, Ali; Yu, Gan; Lu, Xiaonan; Kwon, Hyuck-Jin; Chen, Xiaolin; Xu, Jie

    2013-01-01

    We present an acoustic non-contact technique for achieving trapping, enrichment, and manipulation of Caenorhabditis elegans using an array of oscillating microbubbles. We characterize the trapping efficiency and enrichment ratio under various flow conditions, and demonstrate a single-worm manipulation mechanism through temporal actuation of bubbles. The reason for oscillating bubbles being versatile in processing worms in a microfluidic environment is due to the complex interactions among acoustic field, microbubbles, fluid flow, and live animals. We explain the operating mechanisms used in our device by the interplay among secondary acoustic radiation force, drag force, and the propulsive force of C. elegans.

  4. Transmission electron microscopic observations on ultrastructural alterations in Schistosoma mansoni adult worms recovered from C57BL/6 mice treated with radiation-attenuated vaccine and/or praziquantel in addition to passive immunization with normal and vaccinated rabbit sera against infection.

    PubMed

    El-Shabasy, Eman A; Reda, Enayat S; Abdeen, Sherif H; Said, Ashraf E; Ouhtit, Allal

    2015-04-01

    Although the current treatment of schistosomiasis relies largely on praziquantel (PZQ), it has not been successful in significantly reducing the overall rate of disease cases, one of the suggested reasons being the inevitable resistance to PZQ. Previous studies showed that radiation-attenuated vaccine provides protection against Schistosoma mansoni in a host of various species. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of various vaccination strategies in C57BL/6 mice, including single or multiple vaccination strategy, subcurative dose (20 mg/kg) of PZQ, and a combination of single vaccination with subcurative dose of PZQ. Treatment either with subcurative dose of PZQ or with a single vaccination of attenuated cercariae (500 per mouse), caused significant reduction in total worm burden, hepatic, and intestinal ova counts of 43.03, 73.2, and 59.5 and 37.97, 52.02, and 26.3%, respectively. Furthermore, tegumental changes were observed. In multiple vaccinated group, there was an extensive lysis in tegumental layers. High deformations in gastrodermis, testis cells, vitelline cells, and oocytes were recorded. Also, this study is to explore the role of humoral immunity using highly resistant rabbits that had been exposed to three immunizations with ultraviolet (UV)-irradiated cercariae (8000 per rabbit in each immunization), and their sera were tested for their ability to transfer protection. The reduction in challenge worm burden had reached 32.76-43.64% when compared with recipients of normal serum or no serum. The reduction in hepatic and intestinal ova counts reached to 74.4 and 71.08% in group immunized with vaccinated rabbit sera. Swelling and extensive lysis of tegumental layers, gastrodermis lumen, spermatocytes, and deformation of oocytes were recorded with more severity than that recorded in normal rabbit sera group. Our findings recorded that multiple vaccination strategy is the most effective strategy then passive transfer of vaccinated rabbit. This gives

  5. Glycomic Analysis of Life Stages of the Human Parasite Schistosoma mansoni Reveals Developmental Expression Profiles of Functional and Antigenic Glycan Motifs*

    PubMed Central

    Smit, Cornelis H.; van Diepen, Angela; Nguyen, D. Linh; Wuhrer, Manfred; Hoffmann, Karl F.; Deelder, André M.; Hokke, Cornelis H.

    2015-01-01

    Glycans present on glycoproteins and glycolipids of the major human parasite Schistosoma mansoni induce innate as well as adaptive immune responses in the host. To be able to study the molecular characteristics of schistosome infections it is therefore required to determine the expression profiles of glycans and antigenic glycan-motifs during a range of critical stages of the complex schistosome lifecycle. We performed a longitudinal profiling study covering schistosome glycosylation throughout worm- and egg-development using a mass spectrometry-based glycomics approach. Our study revealed that during worm development N-glycans with Galβ1–4(Fucα1–3)GlcNAc (LeX) and core-xylose motifs were rapidly lost after cercariae to schistosomula transformation, whereas GalNAcβ1–4GlcNAc (LDN)-motifs gradually became abundant and predominated in adult worms. LeX-motifs were present on glycolipids up to 2 weeks of schistosomula development, whereas glycolipids with mono- and multifucosylated LDN-motifs remained present up to the adult worm stage. In contrast, expression of complex O-glycans diminished to undetectable levels within days after transformation. During egg development, a rich diversity of N-glycans with fucosylated motifs was expressed, but with α3-core fucose and a high degree of multifucosylated antennae only in mature eggs and miracidia. N-glycan antennae were exclusively LDN-based in miracidia. O-glycans in the mature eggs were also diverse and contained LeX- and multifucosylated LDN, but none of these were associated with miracidia in which we detected only the Galβ1–3(Galβ1–6)GalNAc core glycan. Immature eggs also exhibited short O-glycan core structures only, suggesting that complex fucosylated O-glycans of schistosome eggs are derived primarily from glycoproteins produced by the subshell envelope in the developed egg. Lipid glycans with multifucosylated GlcNAc repeats were present throughout egg development, but with the longer highly

  6. Glycomic Analysis of Life Stages of the Human Parasite Schistosoma mansoni Reveals Developmental Expression Profiles of Functional and Antigenic Glycan Motifs.

    PubMed

    Smit, Cornelis H; van Diepen, Angela; Nguyen, D Linh; Wuhrer, Manfred; Hoffmann, Karl F; Deelder, André M; Hokke, Cornelis H

    2015-07-01

    Glycans present on glycoproteins and glycolipids of the major human parasite Schistosoma mansoni induce innate as well as adaptive immune responses in the host. To be able to study the molecular characteristics of schistosome infections it is therefore required to determine the expression profiles of glycans and antigenic glycan-motifs during a range of critical stages of the complex schistosome lifecycle. We performed a longitudinal profiling study covering schistosome glycosylation throughout worm- and egg-development using a mass spectrometry-based glycomics approach. Our study revealed that during worm development N-glycans with Galβ1-4(Fucα1-3)GlcNAc (LeX) and core-xylose motifs were rapidly lost after cercariae to schistosomula transformation, whereas GalNAcβ1-4GlcNAc (LDN)-motifs gradually became abundant and predominated in adult worms. LeX-motifs were present on glycolipids up to 2 weeks of schistosomula development, whereas glycolipids with mono- and multifucosylated LDN-motifs remained present up to the adult worm stage. In contrast, expression of complex O-glycans diminished to undetectable levels within days after transformation. During egg development, a rich diversity of N-glycans with fucosylated motifs was expressed, but with α3-core fucose and a high degree of multifucosylated antennae only in mature eggs and miracidia. N-glycan antennae were exclusively LDN-based in miracidia. O-glycans in the mature eggs were also diverse and contained LeX- and multifucosylated LDN, but none of these were associated with miracidia in which we detected only the Galβ1-3(Galβ1-6)GalNAc core glycan. Immature eggs also exhibited short O-glycan core structures only, suggesting that complex fucosylated O-glycans of schistosome eggs are derived primarily from glycoproteins produced by the subshell envelope in the developed egg. Lipid glycans with multifucosylated GlcNAc repeats were present throughout egg development, but with the longer highly fucosylated

  7. Integrating immune mechanisms to model nematode worm burden: an example in sheep.

    PubMed

    Garnier, Romain; Grenfell, Bryan T; Nisbet, Alasdair J; Matthews, Jacqueline B; Graham, Andrea L

    2016-06-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes represent important sources of economic losses in farmed ruminants, and the increasing frequency of anthelmintic resistance requires an increased ability to explore alternative strategies. Theoretical approaches at the crossroads of immunology and epidemiology are valuable tools in that context. In the case of Teladorsagia circumcincta in sheep, the immunological mechanisms important for resistance are increasingly well-characterized. However, despite the existence of a wide range of theoretical models, there is no framework integrating the characteristic features of this immune response into a tractable phenomenological model. Here, we propose to bridge that gap by developing a flexible modelling framework that allows for variability in nematode larval intake which can be used to track the variations in worm burdens. We parameterize this model using data from trickle infection of sheep and show that using simple immunological assumptions, our model can capture the dynamics of both adult worm burdens and nematode fecal egg counts. In addition, our analysis reveals interesting dose-dependent effects on the immune response. Finally, we discuss potential developments of this model and highlight how an improved cross-talk between empiricists and theoreticians would facilitate important advances in the study of infectious diseases. PMID:26283186

  8. 11. INTERIOR VIEW OF OPERATING HOUSE NO. 4, SHOWING WORM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. INTERIOR VIEW OF OPERATING HOUSE NO. 4, SHOWING WORM WHEEL GEAR ASSEMBLY, ORIGINAL 20 HP EAST HOIST MOTOR, AND CONTROL GATES 7 AND 8 HAND BRAKES, WITH MOTOR SELECTOR SWITCH, MOTOR STARTING SWITCH, AND OIL CIRCUIT BREAKER IN BACKGROUND - Long Lake Hydroelectric Plant, Spillway Dam, Spanning Spokane River, Ford, Stevens County, WA

  9. Opinion Dynamics Driven by Leaders, Media, Viruses and Worms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuncay, Çağlar

    A model on the effects of leader, media, viruses, worms, and other agents on the opinion of individuals is developed and utilized to simulate the formation of consensus in society and price in market via excess between supply and demand. The effects of some time varying drives (harmonic and hyperbolic) are also investigated.

  10. Metagenomics of the Methane Ice Worm, Hesiocaeca methanicola

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwin, K. D.; Edsall, L.; Xin, W.; Head, S. R.; Gelbart, T.; Wood, A. M.; Gaasterland, T.

    2012-12-01

    The methane ice worm (Hesiocaeca methanicola) is a polychaete found on methane hydrate deposits for which there appears to be no publically available genomic or metagenomic data. Methane ice worms were collected in 2009 by the Johnson-Sea-Link submersible (543m depth; N 27:44.7526 W 91:13.3168). Next-generation sequencing (HiSeq2000) was applied to samples of tissue and gut contents. A subset of the assembled data (40M reads, randomly selected) was run through MG-RAST. Preliminary results for the gut content (1,269,153 sequences, average length 202 bp) indicated that 0.1% of the sequences contained ribosomal RNA genes with the majority (67%) classified as Bacteria, a relatively small per cent (1.4%) as Archae, and 31% as Eukaryota. Campylobacterales was the predominant order (14%), with unclassified (7.5%) and Desulfobacterales (4%) being the next dominant. Preliminary results for the worm tissue (2,716,461 sequences, average length 241 bp) indicated that the majority of sequences were Eukaryota (73%), with 256 sequences classified as phylum Annelida and 58% of those belonging to class Polychaeta. For the bacterial sequences obtained from the tissue samples, the predominant order was Actinomycetales (2.7%). For both the tissue and gut content samples, the majority of proteins were classified as clustering-based subsystems. This preliminary analysis will be compared to an assembly consisting of 40M of the highest quality reads.; methane ice worms on methane hydrate

  11. CHROMOSOME COMPLEMENT OF THE MARINE WORM 'NEANTHES ARENACEODENTATA' (POLYCHAETA: ANNELIDA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chromosome complement for the marine worm, Neanthes arenaceodentata, consists of nine pairs; one pair has a median centromere, seven pairs have submedian centromeres, and one pair is polymorphic with either a subterminal or terminal centromere. A technique for studying polych...

  12. The Worm Process for the Ising Model is Rapidly Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collevecchio, Andrea; Garoni, Timothy M.; Hyndman, Timothy; Tokarev, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    We prove rapid mixing of the worm process for the zero-field ferromagnetic Ising model, on all finite connected graphs, and at all temperatures. As a corollary, we obtain a fully-polynomial randomized approximation scheme for the Ising susceptibility, and for a certain restriction of the two-point correlation function.

  13. The Worm Guide: A Vericomposting Guide for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Integrated Waste Management Board, Sacramento.

    This guide focuses on vermicomposting of food waste. Contents include: (1) "Integrated Waste Management"; (2) "Basics of Vermicomposting"; (3) "Other Worm Bin Residents"; (4) "The Garden Connection"; (5) "Closing the Food Loop at Your School"; (6) "Fundraising"; (7) "Activities for Classroom"; and (8) "Case Studies". Appendices include educational…

  14. The opportunistic transmission of wireless worms between mobile devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, C. J.; Nekovee, M.

    2008-12-01

    The ubiquity of portable wireless-enabled computing and communications devices has stimulated the emergence of malicious codes (wireless worms) that are capable of spreading between spatially proximal devices. The potential exists for worms to be opportunistically transmitted between devices as they move around, so human mobility patterns will have an impact on epidemic spread. The scenario we address in this paper is proximity attacks from fleetingly in-contact wireless devices with short-range communication range, such as Bluetooth-enabled smart phones. An individual-based model of mobile devices is introduced and the effect of population characteristics and device behaviour on the outbreak dynamics is investigated. The model uses straight-line motion to achieve population, though it is recognised that this is a highly simplified representation of human mobility patterns. We show that the contact rate can be derived from the underlying mobility model and, through extensive simulation, that mass-action epidemic models remain applicable to worm spreading in the low density regime studied here. The model gives useful analytical expressions against which more refined simulations of worm spread can be developed and tested.

  15. WormBase 2014: new views of curated biology

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Todd W.; Baran, Joachim; Bieri, Tamberlyn; Cabunoc, Abigail; Chan, Juancarlos; Chen, Wen J.; Davis, Paul; Done, James; Grove, Christian; Howe, Kevin; Kishore, Ranjana; Lee, Raymond; Li, Yuling; Muller, Hans-Michael; Nakamura, Cecilia; Ozersky, Philip; Paulini, Michael; Raciti, Daniela; Schindelman, Gary; Tuli, Mary Ann; Auken, Kimberly Van; Wang, Daniel; Wang, Xiaodong; Williams, Gary; Wong, J. D.; Yook, Karen; Schedl, Tim; Hodgkin, Jonathan; Berriman, Matthew; Kersey, Paul; Spieth, John; Stein, Lincoln; Sternberg, Paul W.

    2014-01-01

    WormBase (http://www.wormbase.org/) is a highly curated resource dedicated to supporting research using the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. With an electronic history predating the World Wide Web, WormBase contains information ranging from the sequence and phenotype of individual alleles to genome-wide studies generated using next-generation sequencing technologies. In recent years, we have expanded the contents to include data on additional nematodes of agricultural and medical significance, bringing the knowledge of C. elegans to bear on these systems and providing support for underserved research communities. Manual curation of the primary literature remains a central focus of the WormBase project, providing users with reliable, up-to-date and highly cross-linked information. In this update, we describe efforts to organize the original atomized and highly contextualized curated data into integrated syntheses of discrete biological topics. Next, we discuss our experiences coping with the vast increase in available genome sequences made possible through next-generation sequencing platforms. Finally, we describe some of the features and tools of the new WormBase Web site that help users better find and explore data of interest. PMID:24194605

  16. The Worm Process for the Ising Model is Rapidly Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collevecchio, Andrea; Garoni, Timothy M.; Hyndman, Timothy; Tokarev, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    We prove rapid mixing of the worm process for the zero-field ferromagnetic Ising model, on all finite connected graphs, and at all temperatures. As a corollary, we obtain a fully-polynomial randomized approximation scheme for the Ising susceptibility, and for a certain restriction of the two-point correlation function.

  17. Making sense of genomes of parasitic worms: Tackling bioinformatic challenges.

    PubMed

    Korhonen, Pasi K; Young, Neil D; Gasser, Robin B

    2016-01-01

    Billions of people and animals are infected with parasitic worms (helminths). Many of these worms cause diseases that have a major socioeconomic impact worldwide, and are challenging to control because existing treatment methods are often inadequate. There is, therefore, a need to work toward developing new intervention methods, built on a sound understanding of parasitic worms at molecular level, the relationships that they have with their animal hosts and/or the diseases that they cause. Decoding the genomes and transcriptomes of these parasites brings us a step closer to this goal. The key focus of this article is to critically review and discuss bioinformatic tools used for the assembly and annotation of these genomes and transcriptomes, as well as various post-genomic analyses of transcription profiles, biological pathways, synteny, phylogeny, biogeography and the prediction and prioritisation of drug target candidates. Bioinformatic pipelines implemented and established recently provide practical and efficient tools for the assembly and annotation of genomes of parasitic worms, and will be applicable to a wide range of other parasites and eukaryotic organisms. Future research will need to assess the utility of long-read sequence data sets for enhanced genomic assemblies, and develop improved algorithms for gene prediction and post-genomic analyses, to enable comprehensive systems biology explorations of parasitic organisms. PMID:26956711

  18. Repair of liver mediated by adult mouse liver neuro-glia antigen 2-positive progenitor cell transplantation in a mouse model of cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongyu; Siegel, Christopher T.; Shuai, Ling; Lai, Jiejuan; Zeng, Linli; Zhang, Yujun; Lai, Xiangdong; Bie, Ping; Bai, Lianhua

    2016-01-01

    NG2-expressing cells are a population of periportal vascular stem/progenitors (MLpvNG2+ cells) that were isolated from healthy adult mouse liver by using a “Percoll-Plate-Wait” procedure. We demonstrated that isolated cells are able to restore liver function after transplantation into a cirrhotic liver, and co-localized with the pericyte marker (immunohistochemistry: PDGFR-β) and CK19. Cells were positive for: stem cell (Sca-1, CD133, Dlk) and liver stem cell markers (EpCAM, CD14, CD24, CD49f); and negative for: hematopoietic (CD34, CD45) and endothelial markers (CD31, vWf, von Willebrand factor). Cells were transplanted (1 × 106 cells) in mice with diethylnitrosamine-induced cirrhosis at week 6. Cells showed increased hepatic associated gene expression of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), Albumin (Alb), Glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pc), SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 9 (Sox9), hepatic nuclear factors (HNF1a, HNF1β, HNF3β, HNF4α, HNF6, Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), Leucine-rich repeated-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5-positive (Lgr5) and Tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT). Cells showed decreased fibrogenesis, hepatic stellate cell infiltration, Kupffer cells and inflammatory cytokines. Liver function markers improved. In a cirrhotic liver environment, cells could differentiate into hepatic lineages. In addition, grafted MLpvNG2+ cells could mobilize endogenous stem/progenitors to participate in liver repair. These results suggest that MLpvNG2+ cells may be novel adult liver progenitors that participate in liver regeneration. PMID:26905303

  19. Repair of liver mediated by adult mouse liver neuro-glia antigen 2-positive progenitor cell transplantation in a mouse model of cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongyu; Siegel, Christopher T; Shuai, Ling; Lai, Jiejuan; Zeng, Linli; Zhang, Yujun; Lai, Xiangdong; Bie, Ping; Bai, Lianhua

    2016-01-01

    NG2-expressing cells are a population of periportal vascular stem/progenitors (MLpvNG2(+) cells) that were isolated from healthy adult mouse liver by using a "Percoll-Plate-Wait" procedure. We demonstrated that isolated cells are able to restore liver function after transplantation into a cirrhotic liver, and co-localized with the pericyte marker (immunohistochemistry: PDGFR-β) and CK19. Cells were positive for: stem cell (Sca-1, CD133, Dlk) and liver stem cell markers (EpCAM, CD14, CD24, CD49f); and negative for: hematopoietic (CD34, CD45) and endothelial markers (CD31, vWf, von Willebrand factor). Cells were transplanted (1 × 10(6) cells) in mice with diethylnitrosamine-induced cirrhosis at week 6. Cells showed increased hepatic associated gene expression of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), Albumin (Alb), Glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pc), SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 9 (Sox9), hepatic nuclear factors (HNF1a, HNF1β, HNF3β, HNF4α, HNF6, Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), Leucine-rich repeated-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5-positive (Lgr5) and Tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT). Cells showed decreased fibrogenesis, hepatic stellate cell infiltration, Kupffer cells and inflammatory cytokines. Liver function markers improved. In a cirrhotic liver environment, cells could differentiate into hepatic lineages. In addition, grafted MLpvNG2(+) cells could mobilize endogenous stem/progenitors to participate in liver repair. These results suggest that MLpvNG2(+) cells may be novel adult liver progenitors that participate in liver regeneration. PMID:26905303

  20. Characteristics of natural infections of the stomach worm, Obeliscoides cuniculi (Graybill), in lagomorphs and woodchucks in Canada.

    PubMed

    Measures, L N; Anderson, R C

    1983-07-01

    Wild lagomorphs and woodchucks collected predominantly in southern Ontario, Canada were examined for subspecies of Obeliscoides cuniculi (Graybill). Obeliscoides cuniculi multistriatus was found in snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus). Obeliscoides cuniculi cuniculi was found in cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus), European hares (Lepus capensis) and woodchucks (Marmota monax). Prevalence of Obeliscoides cuniculi multistriatus in snowshoe hares was 100% and mean intensity (and range of intensity) was 760 (9-4, 198) in Lindsay, Ontario in 1980. Mean intensity in hares varied trimonthly. The highest mean intensity of worms occurred in spring when most worms were adult. Transmission occurred mainly in spring. Most worms present in fall (70%) and winter (54%) were fourth stage. Immature fifth-stage and gravid females were present in hares during fall and winter. Prevalence and mean intensity of O. c. cuniculi in cottontails was 15% and 29 (1-118). Prevalence and mean intensity of O. c. cuniculi in woodchucks was 6% and 56 (16-118). European hares were infected with O. c. cuniculi, prevalence was 10% and mean intensity was 60 (36-83). In Ontario woodchucks and European hares were common in areas frequented by cottontail rabbits and probably acquired sporadic infections of O. c. cuniculi from infected cottontails. PMID:6644920

  1. Molecular cloning and characterization of a nematode polyprotein antigen/allergen from the human and animal hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum

    PubMed Central

    Fairfax, Keke C.; Harrison, Lisa M.; Cappello, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Nematodes are unable to synthesize fatty acids de novo and must acquire them from the environment or host. It is hypothesized that two unique classes of fatty acid and retinol binding proteins that nematodes produce (fatty acid and retinol binding (FAR) and nematode polyprotein antigen/allergen (NPA)) are used to meet this need. A partial cDNA has been cloned corresponding to four subunits of a putative Ancylostoma ceylanicum NPA (AceNPA). The translated amino acid sequence of AceNPA share sequence identity with similar proteins from Dictyocaulus viviparus, Ascaris suum, and Ostertagia ostertagi. Immunoblot experiments using a polyclonal anti-AceNPA IgG revealed proteins corresponding to the expected sizes of single, as well as two or three un-cleaved NPA subunits in adult excretory/secretory proteins and soluble adult worm extracts. Immunohistochemistry experiments localize AceNPA to the cuticle and pseudocoelomic space, suggesting a role in hookworm biology that is distinct from what has previously been defined for other hookworm lipid binding proteins. A single recombinant subunit of AceNPA (rAceNPAb) demonstrated binding in vitro to fluorescent fatty acids DAUDA, cis-parinaric acid, as well as retinol, at equilibrium dissociation constants in the low micromolar range. Further, in vitro data reveal that rAceNPAb binds fatty acids with chain lengths of C12–C22, with the greatest affinities for arachidonic, linoleic (C18), and eicosapentaenoic (C20) acids. PMID:25481749

  2. Scanning electron microscopy observations of the hedgehog stomach worm, Physaloptera clausa (Spirurida: Physalopteridae)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Physaloptera clausa (Spirurida: Physalopteridae) nematodes parasitize the stomach of the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) and cause weight loss, anorexia and gastric lesions. The present study provides the first morphological description of adult P. clausa from the stomachs of infected hedgehogs, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Methods From June to October 2011, 10 P. clausa from European hedgehogs were fixed, dried, coated and subjected to SEM examination. Results Males and females (22–30 mm and 28–47 mm, respectively) were stout, with the cuticle reflecting over the lips to form a large cephalic collarette and showing fine transverse striations in both sexes. The mouth was characterized by two large, simple triangular lateral pseudolabia, each armed with external and internal teeth. Inside the buccal cavity, a circle of internal small teeth can be observed. Around the mouth, four sub-median cephalic papillae and two large amphids were also observed. The anterior end of both male and female bore an excretory pore on the ventral side and a pair of lateral ciliated cervical papillae. In the female worm, the vulva was located in the middle and the eggs were characterized by smooth surfaces. The posterior end of the female worm was stumpy with two large phasmids in proximity to its extremity. The posterior end of the male had large lateral alae, joined together anteriorly across the ventral surface, with subequal and dissimilar spicules, as well as four pairs of stalked pre-cloacal papillae, three pairs of post-cloacal papillae, and two phasmids. Three sessile papillae occured anteriorly and four posteriorly to the cloaca. Conclusions The present SEM study provides the first in-depth morphological characterization of adult P. clausa, and highlights similarities and differences with P. bispiculata P. herthameyerae, Heliconema longissimum and Turgida turgida. PMID:23566611

  3. QuantWorm: a comprehensive software package for Caenorhabditis elegans phenotypic assays.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sang-Kyu; Aleman-Meza, Boanerges; Riepe, Celeste; Zhong, Weiwei

    2014-01-01

    Phenotypic assays are crucial in genetics; however, traditional methods that rely on human observation are unsuitable for quantitative, large-scale experiments. Furthermore, there is an increasing need for comprehensive analyses of multiple phenotypes to provide multidimensional information. Here we developed an automated, high-throughput computer imaging system for quantifying multiple Caenorhabditis elegans phenotypes. Our imaging system is composed of a microscope equipped with a digital camera and a motorized stage connected to a computer running the QuantWorm software package. Currently, the software package contains one data acquisition module and four image analysis programs: WormLifespan, WormLocomotion, WormLength, and WormEgg. The data acquisition module collects images and videos. The WormLifespan software counts the number of moving worms by using two time-lapse images; the WormLocomotion software computes the velocity of moving worms; the WormLength software measures worm body size; and the WormEgg software counts the number of eggs. To evaluate the performance of our software, we compared the results of our software with manual measurements. We then demonstrated the application of the QuantWorm software in a drug assay and a genetic assay. Overall, the QuantWorm software provided accurate measurements at a high speed. Software source code, executable programs, and sample images are available at www.quantworm.org. Our software package has several advantages over current imaging systems for C. elegans. It is an all-in-one package for quantifying multiple phenotypes. The QuantWorm software is written in Java and its source code is freely available, so it does not require use of commercial software or libraries. It can be run on multiple platforms and easily customized to cope with new methods and requirements. PMID:24416295

  4. The Schistosoma mansoni Cytochrome P450 (CYP3050A1) Is Essential for Worm Survival and Egg Development

    PubMed Central

    Ziniel, Peter D.; Karumudi, Bhargava; Barnard, Andrew H.; Fisher, Ethan M. S.; Thatcher, Gregory R. J.; Podust, Larissa M.; Williams, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis affects millions of people in developing countries and is responsible for more than 200,000 deaths annually. Because of toxicity and limited spectrum of activity of alternatives, there is effectively only one drug, praziquantel, available for its treatment. Recent data suggest that drug resistance could soon be a problem. There is therefore the need to identify new drug targets and develop drugs for the treatment of schistosomiasis. Analysis of the Schistosoma mansoni genome sequence for proteins involved in detoxification processes found that it encodes a single cytochrome P450 (CYP450) gene. Here we report that the 1452 bp open reading frame has a characteristic heme-binding region in its catalytic domain with a conserved heme ligating cysteine, a hydrophobic leader sequence present as the membrane interacting region, and overall structural conservation. The highest sequence identity to human CYP450s is 22%. Double stranded RNA (dsRNA) silencing of S. mansoni (Sm)CYP450 in schistosomula results in worm death. Treating larval or adult worms with antifungal azole CYP450 inhibitors results in worm death at low micromolar concentrations. In addition, combinations of SmCYP450-specific dsRNA and miconazole show additive schistosomicidal effects supporting the hypothesis that SmCYP450 is the target of miconazole. Treatment of developing S. mansoni eggs with miconazole results in a dose dependent arrest in embryonic development. Our results indicate that SmCYP450 is essential for worm survival and egg development and validates it as a novel drug target. Preliminary structure-activity relationship suggests that the 1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-2-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)ethan-1-ol moiety of miconazole is necessary for activity and that miconazole activity and selectivity could be improved by rational drug design. PMID:26713732

  5. Microfluidic platform integrated with worm-counting setup for assessing manganese toxicity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Beibei; Li, Yinbao; He, Qidi; Qin, Jun; Yu, Yanyan; Li, Xinchun; Zhang, Lin; Yao, Meicun; Liu, Junshan; Chen, Zuanguang

    2014-09-01

    We reported a new microfluidic system integrated with worm responders for evaluating the environmental manganese toxicity. The micro device consists of worm loading units, worm observing chambers, and a radial concentration gradient generator (CGG). Eight T-shape worm loading units of the micro device were used to load the exact number of worms into the corresponding eight chambers with the assistance of worm responders and doorsills. The worm responder, as a key component, was employed for performing automated worm-counting assay through electric impedance sensing. This label-free and non-invasive worm-counting technique was applied to the microsystem for the first time. In addition, the disk-shaped CGG can generate a range of stepwise concentrations of the appointed chemical automatically and simultaneously. Due to the scalable architecture of radial CGG, it has the potential to increase the throughput of the assay. Dopaminergic (DAergic) neurotoxicity of manganese on C. elegans was quantitatively assessed via the observation of green fluorescence protein-tagged DAergic neurons of the strain BZ555 on-chip. In addition, oxidative stress triggered by manganese was evaluated by the quantitative fluorescence intensity of the strain CL2166. By scoring the survival ratio and stroke frequency of worms, we characterized the dose- and time-dependent mobility defects of the manganese-exposed worms. Furthermore, we applied the microsystem to investigate the effect of natural antioxidants to protect manganese-induced toxicity. PMID:25538805

  6. Microfluidic platform integrated with worm-counting setup for assessing manganese toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Beibei; Li, Yinbao; He, Qidi; Qin, Jun; Yu, Yanyan; Li, Xinchun; Zhang, Lin; Yao, Meicun; Liu, Junshan; Chen, Zuanguang

    2014-01-01

    We reported a new microfluidic system integrated with worm responders for evaluating the environmental manganese toxicity. The micro device consists of worm loading units, worm observing chambers, and a radial concentration gradient generator (CGG). Eight T-shape worm loading units of the micro device were used to load the exact number of worms into the corresponding eight chambers with the assistance of worm responders and doorsills. The worm responder, as a key component, was employed for performing automated worm-counting assay through electric impedance sensing. This label-free and non-invasive worm-counting technique was applied to the microsystem for the first time. In addition, the disk-shaped CGG can generate a range of stepwise concentrations of the appointed chemical automatically and simultaneously. Due to the scalable architecture of radial CGG, it has the potential to increase the throughput of the assay. Dopaminergic (DAergic) neurotoxicity of manganese on C. elegans was quantitatively assessed via the observation of green fluorescence protein-tagged DAergic neurons of the strain BZ555 on-chip. In addition, oxidative stress triggered by manganese was evaluated by the quantitative fluorescence intensity of the strain CL2166. By scoring the survival ratio and stroke frequency of worms, we characterized the dose- and time-dependent mobility defects of the manganese-exposed worms. Furthermore, we applied the microsystem to investigate the effect of natural antioxidants to protect manganese-induced toxicity. PMID:25538805

  7. Preliminary crystallographic studies of a Schistosoma mansoni antigen (Sm21.7) dynein light-chain (DLC) domain

    PubMed Central

    Costa, M. A. F.; Rodrigues, F. T. G.; Chagas, B. C. A.; Rezende, C. M. F.; Goes, A. M.; Nagem, R. A. P.

    2014-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is an inflammatory chronic disease that represents a major health problem in tropical and subtropical countries. The drug of choice for treatment, praziquantel, is effective in killing adult worms but fails to kill immature forms and prevent reinfection. One prominent antigen candidate for an anti-schistosomiasis vaccine is the protein Sm21.7 (184 amino-acid residues) from Schistosoma mansoni, a tegumental protein capable of reducing the worm burden in a murine immunization model. In the present work, the Sm21.7 gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli and the full-length protein was purified to homogeneity. Crystals of recombinant Sm21.7 suitable for X-ray diffraction were obtained using PEG monomethyl ether 2000 as a precipitant. X-ray diffraction images of a native crystal (at 2.05 Å resolution) and a quick-cryosoaked NaI derivative (at 1.95 Å resolution) were collected on the W01B-MX2 beamline at the Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncrotron (LNLS, Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory/MCT). Both crystals belonged to the hexagonal space group P6122, with similar unit-cell parameters a = b = 108.5, c = 55.8 Å. SIRAS-derived phases were used to generate the first electron-density map, from which a partial three-dimensional model of Sm21.7 (from Gln89 to Asn184) was automatically constructed. Anaysis of dissolved crystals by SDS–PAGE confirmed that the protein was cleaved in the crystallization drop and only the Sm21.7 C-terminal domain was crystallized. The structure of the Sm21.7 C-terminal domain will help in the localization of the epitopes responsible for its protective immune responses, constituting important progress in the development of an anti-schistosomiasis vaccine. PMID:24915098

  8. Effects of PAHs on the feeding activity of tubificid worms

    SciTech Connect

    Lotufo, G.R.

    1994-12-31

    Sediment collected from a clean site in LA was sieved through a 125{mu}m screen and contaminated with individual PAHs (pyrene, phenanthrene and dibenzofuran) at increasing concentrations using spiking procedure and with a mixture of the 3 PAHs at a single concentration by shell coating. Feeding activity was estimated by defecation rate. Groups of 15 worms were assigned to defecation chambers in 4 replicates per treatment. Feces were collected daily for 10 days, filtered through a 8{mu}m membrane filter and dry weight measured. Results obtained with phenanthrene and mixture of 3 PAHs indicate that PHA bulk concentration of 100 mg/dry kg and higher significantly reduce tubificid ingestion of sediment. Total recovery to control levels occurred when worms exposed to high concentration of PAH were transferred to clean sediment. Total OC was determined to be 3.2 %.

  9. Hi shells, supershells, shell-like objects, and ''worms''

    SciTech Connect

    Heiles, C.

    1984-08-01

    We present photographic representations of the combination of two Hi surveys, so as to eliminate the survey boundaries at Vertical BarbVertical Bar = 10/sup 0/. We also present high-contrast photographs for particular velocities to exhibit weak Hi features. All of these photographs were used to prepare a new list of Hi shells, supershells, and shell-like objects. We discuss the structure of three shell-like objects that are associated with high-velocity gas, and with gas at all velocities that is associated with radio continuum loops I, II, and III. We use spatial filtering to find wiggly gas filaments: ''worms'': crawling away from the galactic plane in the inner Galaxy. The ''worms'' are probably parts of shells that are open at the top; such shells should be good sources of hot gas for the galactic halo.

  10. A worm algorithm for the fully-packed loop model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Garoni, Timothy M.; Deng, Youjin

    2009-06-01

    We present a Markov-chain Monte Carlo algorithm of worm type that correctly simulates the fully-packed loop model with n=1 on the honeycomb lattice, and we prove that it is ergodic and has uniform stationary distribution. The honeycomb-lattice fully-packed loop model with n=1 is equivalent to the zero-temperature triangular-lattice antiferromagnetic Ising model, which is fully frustrated and notoriously difficult to simulate. We test this worm algorithm numerically and estimate the dynamic exponent z=0.515(8). We also measure several static quantities of interest, including loop-length and face-size moments. It appears numerically that the face-size moments are governed by the magnetic dimension for percolation.

  11. Genome size and chromosome number in velvet worms (Onychophora).

    PubMed

    Jeffery, Nicholas W; Oliveira, Ivo S; Gregory, T Ryan; Rowell, David M; Mayer, Georg

    2012-12-01

    The Onychophora (velvet worms) represents a small group of invertebrates (~180 valid species), which is commonly united with Tardigrada and Arthropoda in a clade called Panarthropoda. As with the majority of invertebrate taxa, genome size data are very limited for the Onychophora, with only one previously published estimate. Here we use both flow cytometry and Feulgen image analysis densitometry to provide genome size estimates for seven species of velvet worms from both major subgroups, Peripatidae and Peripatopsidae, along with karyotype data for each species. Genome sizes in these species range from roughly 5-19 pg, with densitometric estimates being slightly larger than those obtained by flow cytometry for all species. Chromosome numbers range from 2n = 8 to 2n = 54. No relationship is evident between genome size, chromosome number, or reproductive mode. Various avenues for future genomic research are presented based on these results. PMID:23307271

  12. Rotavirus antigen test

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003349.htm Rotavirus antigen test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The rotavirus antigen test detects rotavirus in the feces. This ...

  13. Parasites in Kentucky Thoroughbreds at necropsy: emphasis on stomach worms and tapeworms.

    PubMed

    Lyons, E T; Tolliver, S C; Drudge, J H; Swerczek, T W; Crowe, M W

    1983-05-01

    A total of 363 Thoroughbreds (62 males, 292 females, and 9 geldings), 1 to 26 years of age, were examined at necropsy for internal parasites for about a 12-month period from February 1981 through February 1982. Emphasis was on examining the stomach for nematodes and the small intestine and cecum for tapeworms. Parasites recovered from the stomach and infection rates were: Habronema spp--immature (24%), H muscae--adult (38%), Draschia megastoma--immature (13%), D megastoma--adult (62%), and Trichostrongylus axei--adult (4%); lesions caused by D megastoma were found upon gross observation in 58% of the stomachs. The tapeworm, Anoplocephala perfoliata, was recovered from 54% of the horses; A magna was not found. There was no obvious difference in infection rates of the stomach worms and tapeworms according to age or sex of the horses. Seasonal differences were apparent only for immature Habronema spp and immature D megastoma for which infection rates began increasing in June, peaking in October, and declining thereafter. Presence of 4 additional species of parasites was recorded, but only a cursory examination was made for them. These were the large strongyles, Strongylus vulgaris, S edentatus, and S equinus, from the cecum and a filariid, Setaria spp (probably S equina), from the abdominal cavity, for which recovery rates from the horses were 8%, 8%, 1%, and 7%, respectively. PMID:6869991

  14. WormBase 2012: more genomes, more data, new website.

    PubMed

    Yook, Karen; Harris, Todd W; Bieri, Tamberlyn; Cabunoc, Abigail; Chan, Juancarlos; Chen, Wen J; Davis, Paul; de la Cruz, Norie; Duong, Adrian; Fang, Ruihua; Ganesan, Uma; Grove, Christian; Howe, Kevin; Kadam, Snehalata; Kishore, Ranjana; Lee, Raymond; Li, Yuling; Muller, Hans-Michael; Nakamura, Cecilia; Nash, Bill; Ozersky, Philip; Paulini, Michael; Raciti, Daniela; Rangarajan, Arun; Schindelman, Gary; Shi, Xiaoqi; Schwarz, Erich M; Ann Tuli, Mary; Van Auken, Kimberly; Wang, Daniel; Wang, Xiaodong; Williams, Gary; Hodgkin, Jonathan; Berriman, Matthew; Durbin, Richard; Kersey, Paul; Spieth, John; Stein, Lincoln; Sternberg, Paul W

    2012-01-01

    Since its release in 2000, WormBase (http://www.wormbase.org) has grown from a small resource focusing on a single species and serving a dedicated research community, to one now spanning 15 species essential to the broader biomedical and agricultural research fields. To enhance the rate of curation, we have automated the identification of key data in the scientific literature and use similar methodology for data extraction. To ease access to the data, we are collaborating with journals to link entities in research publications to their report pages at WormBase. To facilitate discovery, we have added new views of the data, integrated large-scale datasets and expanded descriptions of models for human disease. Finally, we have introduced a dramatic overhaul of the WormBase website for public beta testing. Designed to balance complexity and usability, the new site is species-agnostic, highly customizable, and interactive. Casual users and developers alike will be able to leverage the public RESTful application programming interface (API) to generate custom data mining solutions and extensions to the site. We report on the growth of our database and on our work in keeping pace with the growing demand for data, efforts to anticipate the requirements of users and new collaborations with the larger science community. PMID:22067452

  15. WormBase 2016: expanding to enable helminth genomic research

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Kevin L.; Bolt, Bruce J.; Cain, Scott; Chan, Juancarlos; Chen, Wen J.; Davis, Paul; Done, James; Down, Thomas; Gao, Sibyl; Grove, Christian; Harris, Todd W.; Kishore, Ranjana; Lee, Raymond; Lomax, Jane; Li, Yuling; Muller, Hans-Michael; Nakamura, Cecilia; Nuin, Paulo; Paulini, Michael; Raciti, Daniela; Schindelman, Gary; Stanley, Eleanor; Tuli, Mary Ann; Van Auken, Kimberly; Wang, Daniel; Wang, Xiaodong; Williams, Gary; Wright, Adam; Yook, Karen; Berriman, Matthew; Kersey, Paul; Schedl, Tim; Stein, Lincoln; Sternberg, Paul W.

    2016-01-01

    WormBase (www.wormbase.org) is a central repository for research data on the biology, genetics and genomics of Caenorhabditis elegans and other nematodes. The project has evolved from its original remit to collect and integrate all data for a single species, and now extends to numerous nematodes, ranging from evolutionary comparators of C. elegans to parasitic species that threaten plant, animal and human health. Research activity using C. elegans as a model system is as vibrant as ever, and we have created new tools for community curation in response to the ever-increasing volume and complexity of data. To better allow users to navigate their way through these data, we have made a number of improvements to our main website, including new tools for browsing genomic features and ontology annotations. Finally, we have developed a new portal for parasitic worm genomes. WormBase ParaSite (parasite.wormbase.org) contains all publicly available nematode and platyhelminth annotated genome sequences, and is designed specifically to support helminth genomic research. PMID:26578572

  16. The use of FAMACHA in estimation of gastrointestinal nematodes and total worm burden in Damara and Barbados Blackbelly cross sheep.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Konto; Abba, Yusuf; Ramli, Nur Syairah Binti; Marimuthu, Murugaiyah; Omar, Mohammed Ariff; Abdullah, Faez Firdaus Jesse; Sadiq, Muhammad Abubakar; Tijjani, Abdulnasir; Chung, Eric Lim Teik; Lila, Mohammed Azmi Mohammed

    2016-06-01

    The prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes and total worm burden of Damara and Barbados Blackbelly cross sheep was investigated among smallholder farms in Salak Tinggi district of Selangor, Malaysia. A total of 50 sheep raised in smallholder farms comprising of 27 Damara cross and 23 Barbados Blackbelly cross were categorized based on their age into young and adults. Fecal samples were collected and examined for strongyle egg count by using modified McMaster technique. Severity of infection was categorized into mild, moderate, and heavy, based on egg per gram (EPG). Five sheep were randomly selected and slaughtered to examine the presence of adult gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes through total worm count (TWC). Faffa Malan Chart (FAMACHA) score was used for investigation of worm load based on the degree of anemia. The study revealed an overall EPG prevalence of 88 %, of which 84.1 % had mild infection. There was a significant difference (p = 0.002) in EPG among the two breeds. Based on age, significant difference (p = 0. 004) in EPG was observed among Barbados Blackbelly cross, but not for Damara cross (p = 0.941). The correlation between severity of infection and the FAMACHA score was significant (r = 0.289; p = 0.042). Haemonchus spp. were the most predominant nematode found in the gastrointestinal tract, followed by Trichostrongylus and Oesophagostomum spps. EPG and TWC for Haemonchus were positively correlated, but not significant (r = 0.85, p = 0.066). From regression analysis, 73 % of the variability in TWC for Haemonchus could be explained by EPG. Thus, it can be concluded that FAMACHA score correlates well with severity of infection of a nematode and can be used to assess the strongyle nematode burden in the different sheep crosses. PMID:27038194

  17. Single worm genotyping demonstrates that Onchocerca ochengi females simultaneously produce progeny sired by different males.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, Julia C; Eisenbarth, Albert; Renz, Alfons; Streit, Adrian

    2012-11-01

    Onchocerca ochengi is a filarial nematode parasite of African cattle and most closely related to Onchocerca volvulus, the causing agent of river blindness. O. ochengi females induce the formation of a nodule in the dermis of the host, in which they remain sedentary in very close association with the host's tissue. Males, which do not adhere to the host's tissue, are also found within the nodules at an average number of about one male per nodule. Young O. ochengi females tend to avoid the immediate proximity of existing nodules. Therefore, O. ochengi nodules are dispersed in the ventral inguinal skin at considerable distances from each other. It has been speculated that males avoid the risk of leaving a female once they have found one and remain in the nodule as territorial males rendering the reproductive strategy of O. ochengi essentially monogamous. We developed a protocol that allows reliable PCR amplification of single copy loci from different developmental stages of O. ochengi including embryos and microfilariae. From 32 O. ochengi nodules, we genotyped the female worms and the 67 adult male worms, found in these nodules, together with a fraction of the progeny from within the uteri of females. In 18 of 32 gravid females progeny derived from multiple males were found. In five nodules, the males isolated from the same nodule as the female were not sufficient to explain the genotypes of the entire progeny. We conclude that frequently O. ochengi females simultaneously produce progeny sired by different males and that most but not all males are still present in the nodule when their offspring is ready to hatch. PMID:22706958

  18. A Horsehair Worm, Gordius sp. (Nematomorpha: Gordiida), Passed in a Canine Feces

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Eui-Ju; Sim, Cheolho; Chae, Joon-Seok; Kim, Hyeon-Cheol; Park, Jinho; Choi, Kyoung-Seong; Yu, Do-Hyeon; Yoo, Jae-Gyu; Park, Bae-Keun

    2015-01-01

    Nematomorpha, horsehair or Gordian worms, include about 300 freshwater species in 22 genera (Gordiida) and 5 marine species in 1 marine genus (Nectonema). They are parasitic in arthropods during their juvenile stage. In the present study, the used gordian worm was found in the feces of a dog (5-month old, male) in July 2014. Following the worm analysis using light and scanning electron microscopes, the morphological classification was re-evaluated with molecular analysis. The worm was determined to be a male worm having a bi-lobed tail and had male gonads in cross sections. It was identified as Gordius sp. (Nematomorpha: Gordiidae) based on the characteristic morphologies of cross sections and areole on the cuticle. DNA analysis on 18S rRNA partial sequence arrangements was also carried out, and the gordiid worm was assumed to be close to the genus Gordius based on a phylogenic tree analysis. PMID:26797439

  19. Genetic and antigenic changes in porcine rubulavirus

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Betancourt, José I.; Trujillo, María E.; Mendoza, Susana E.; Reyes-Leyva, Julio; Alonso, Rogelio A.

    2012-01-01

    Blue eye disease, caused by a porcine rubulavirus (PoRV), is an emergent viral swine disease that has been endemic in Mexico since 1980. Atypical outbreaks were detected in 1990 and 2003. Growing and adult pigs presented neurological signs, mild neurological signs were observed in piglets, and severe reproductive problems were observed in adults. Amino acid sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein revealed genetically different lineages. We used cross-neutralization assays, with homologous and heterologous antisera, to determine the antigenic relatedness values for the PoRV isolates. We found antigenic changes among several strains and identified a highly divergent one, making up a new serogroup. It seems that genetically and antigenically different PoRV strains are circulating simultaneously in the swine population in the geographical region studied. The cross neutralization studies suggest that the HN is not the only antigenic determinant participating in the antigenic changes among the different PoRV strains. PMID:22754092

  20. Genetic and antigenic changes in porcine rubulavirus.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Betancourt, José I; Trujillo, María E; Mendoza, Susana E; Reyes-Leyva, Julio; Alonso, Rogelio A

    2012-01-01

    Blue eye disease, caused by a porcine rubulavirus (PoRV), is an emergent viral swine disease that has been endemic in Mexico since 1980. Atypical outbreaks were detected in 1990 and 2003. Growing and adult pigs presented neurological signs, mild neurological signs were observed in piglets, and severe reproductive problems were observed in adults. Amino acid sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein revealed genetically different lineages. We used cross-neutralization assays, with homologous and heterologous antisera, to determine the antigenic relatedness values for the PoRV isolates. We found antigenic changes among several strains and identified a highly divergent one, making up a new serogroup. It seems that genetically and antigenically different PoRV strains are circulating simultaneously in the swine population in the geographical region studied. The cross neutralization studies suggest that the HN is not the only antigenic determinant participating in the antigenic changes among the different PoRV strains. PMID:22754092

  1. Gestation and breastfeeding in schistosomotic mothers differently modulate the immune response of adult offspring to postnatal Schistosoma mansoni infection.

    PubMed

    Santos, Patrícia d'Emery Alves; Lorena, Virgínia Maria Barros de; Fernandes, Érica de Souza; Sales, Iana Rafaela Fernandes; Nascimento, Wheverton Ricardo Correia do; Gomes, Yara de Miranda; Albuquerque, Mônica Camelo Pessoa de Azevedo; Costa, Vlaudia Maria Assis; Souza, Valdênia Maria Oliveira de

    2016-02-01

    Schistosoma mansoni antigens in the early life alter homologous and heterologous immunity during postnatal infections. We evaluate the immunity to parasite antigens and ovalbumin (OA) in adult mice born/suckled by schistosomotic mothers. Newborns were divided into: born (BIM), suckled (SIM) or born/suckled (BSIM) in schistosomotic mothers, and animals from noninfected mothers (control). When adults, the mice were infected and compared the hepatic granuloma size and cellularity. Some animals were OA + adjuvant immunised. We evaluated hypersensitivity reactions (HR), antibodies levels (IgG1/IgG2a) anti-soluble egg antigen and anti-soluble worm antigen preparation, and anti-OA, cytokine production, and CD4+FoxP3+T-cells by splenocytes. Compared to control group, BIM mice showed a greater quantity of granulomas and collagen deposition, whereas SIM and BSIM presented smaller granulomas. BSIM group exhibited the lowest levels of anti-parasite antibodies. For anti-OA immunity, immediate HR was suppressed in all groups, with greater intensity in SIM mice accompanied of the remarkable level of basal CD4+FoxP3+T-cells. BIM and SIM groups produced less interleukin (IL)-4 and interferon (IFN)-g. In BSIM, there was higher production of IL-10 and IFN-g, but lower levels of IL-4 and CD4+FoxP3+T-cells. Thus, pregnancy in schistosomotic mothers intensified hepatic fibrosis, whereas breastfeeding diminished granulomas in descendants. Separately, pregnancy and breastfeeding could suppress heterologous immunity; however, when combined, the responses could be partially restored in infected descendants. PMID:26872339

  2. Gestation and breastfeeding in schistosomotic mothers differently modulate the immune response of adult offspring to postnatal Schistosoma mansoni infection

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Patrícia d‘Emery Alves; de Lorena, Virgínia Maria Barros; Fernandes, Érica de Souza; Sales, Iana Rafaela Fernandes; do Nascimento, Wheverton Ricardo Correia; Gomes, Yara de Miranda; Albuquerque, Mônica Camelo Pessoa de Azevedo; Costa, Vlaudia Maria Assis; de Souza, Valdênia Maria Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Schistosoma mansoni antigens in the early life alter homologous and heterologous immunity during postnatal infections. We evaluate the immunity to parasite antigens and ovalbumin (OA) in adult mice born/suckled by schistosomotic mothers. Newborns were divided into: born (BIM), suckled (SIM) or born/suckled (BSIM) in schistosomotic mothers, and animals from noninfected mothers (control). When adults, the mice were infected and compared the hepatic granuloma size and cellularity. Some animals were OA + adjuvant immunised. We evaluated hypersensitivity reactions (HR), antibodies levels (IgG1/IgG2a) anti-soluble egg antigen and anti-soluble worm antigen preparation, and anti-OA, cytokine production, and CD4+FoxP3+T-cells by splenocytes. Compared to control group, BIM mice showed a greater quantity of granulomas and collagen deposition, whereas SIM and BSIM presented smaller granulomas. BSIM group exhibited the lowest levels of anti-parasite antibodies. For anti-OA immunity, immediate HR was suppressed in all groups, with greater intensity in SIM mice accompanied of the remarkable level of basal CD4+FoxP3+T-cells. BIM and SIM groups produced less interleukin (IL)-4 and interferon (IFN)-g. In BSIM, there was higher production of IL-10 and IFN-g, but lower levels of IL-4 and CD4+FoxP3+T-cells. Thus, pregnancy in schistosomotic mothers intensified hepatic fibrosis, whereas breastfeeding diminished granulomas in descendants. Separately, pregnancy and breastfeeding could suppress heterologous immunity; however, when combined, the responses could be partially restored in infected descendants. PMID:26872339

  3. Towards global Guinea worm eradication in 2015: the experience of South Sudan.

    PubMed

    Awofeso, Niyi

    2013-08-01

    For centuries, the Guinea worm parasite (Dracunculus medinensis) has caused disabling misery, infecting people who drink stagnant water contaminated with the worm's larvae. In 2012, there were 542 cases of Guinea worm reported globally, of which 521 (96.1%) were reported in South Sudan. Protracted civil wars, an inadequate workforce, neglect of potable water provision programs, suboptimal Guinea worm surveillance and case containment, and fragmented health systems account for many of the structural and operational factors encumbering South Sudan's Guinea worm eradication efforts. This article reviews the impacts of six established Guinea worm control strategies in South Sudan: (1) surveillance to determine actual caseload distribution and trends in response to control measures; (2) educating community members from whom worms are emerging to avoid immersing affected parts in sources of drinking water; (3) filtering potentially contaminated drinking water using cloth filters or filtered drinking straws; (4) treating potentially contaminated surface water with the copepod larvicide temephos (Abate); (5) providing safe drinking water from boreholes or hand-dug wells; and (6) containment of transmission through voluntary isolation of each patient to prevent contamination of drinking water sources, provision of first aid, and manual extraction of the worm. Surveillance, community education, potable water provision, and case containment remain weak facets of the program. Abate pesticide is not a viable option for Guinea worm control in South Sudan. In light of current case detection and containment trends, as well as capacity building efforts for Guinea worm eradication, South Sudan is more likely to eradicate Guinea worm by 2020, rather than by 2015. The author highlights areas in which substantial improvements are required in South Sudan's Guinea worm eradication program, and suggests improvement strategies. PMID:23623648

  4. Experiences in the development of the Mighty Worm. [development of actuator for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bamford, R.; Moore, D.; Mon, G.; Wada, B.

    1993-01-01

    A 'Mighty Worm' actuator with the active member capable of carrying large loads during the launch phase was developed for adaptive structures applications. Two types of Mighty Worm performance are characterized, namely, long-stroke motion and incremental positioning at 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 lb. Long-stroke motion involves successive translations of all Mighty Worm moving elements, and incremental positioning involves only in-place stack expansion.

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Galactic Worms (Koo+, 1992)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, B.-C.; Heiles, C.; Reach, W. T.

    2016-02-01

    118 structures catalogued as "worm candidates" are found on the basis of the maps in HI-21cm, IRAS 100 and 60μm. The 21cm maps of the Galactic Plane (b < 10°) result from available surveys (Kerr et al. 1986A&AS...66..373K; Weaver & Williams 1973A&AS....8....1W, Cat. VIII/11) and from new observations near the Galactic center during 1989 and 1990 using the Hat Creek 26m telescope. (3 data files).

  6. Pet roundworms and hookworms: A continuing need for global worming

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Ascarids and ancylostomatids are the most important parasites affecting dogs and cats worldwide, in terms of diffusion and risk for animal and human health. Different misconceptions have led the general public and pet owners to minimize the importance of these intestinal worms. A low grade of interest is also registered among veterinary professions, although there is a significant merit in keeping our guard up against these parasites. This article reviews current knowledge of ascarids and ancylostomatids, with a special focus on pathogenicity, epidemiology and control methods in veterinary and human medicine. PMID:22574783

  7. Spatial and temporal differences in giant kidney worm, dictophyma renale, prevalence in Minnesota Mink, Mustela vison

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.

    2008-01-01

    Examination of 110 Mink (Mustela vison) carcasses from 1998 through 2007 indicated that the giant kidney worm, Dioctophyma renale, occurred in Pine and Kanabec Counties of eastern Minnesota with annual prevalences of 0-92%. Worm prevalence increased from 20% in 1999 to 92% in 2001 and decreased to 6% in 2005. During 2000 to 2007, no worms were found in Mink from Anoka and Chisago Counties (n = 54), and in 2000, none in 107 Mink from LeSeur, Freeborn, Redwood, Brown and Watonwan Counties. Changes in kidney worm prevalence were positively related to trapping success, considered an index of Mink density.

  8. Computer modelling of anthelmintic resistance and worm control outcomes for refugia-based nematode control strategies in Merino ewes in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Cornelius, M P; Jacobson, C; Dobson, R; Besier, R B

    2016-04-15

    This study utilised computer simulation modelling (Risk Management Model for Nematodes) to investigate the impact of different parasite refugia scenarios on the development of anthelmintic resistance and worm control effectiveness. The simulations were conducted for adult ewe flocks in a Mediterranean climatic region over a 20 year time period. Factors explored in the simulation exercise were environment (different weather conditions), drug efficacy, the percentage of the flock left untreated, the timing of anthelmintic treatments, the initial worm egg count, and the number of drenches per annum. The model was run with variable proportions of the flock untreated (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50%), with ewes selected at random so that reductions in the mean worm burden or egg count were proportional to the treated section of the flock. Treatments to ewes were given either in summer (December; low refugia potential, hence highly selective) or autumn (March; less selective due to a greater refugia potential), and the use of different anthelmintics was simulated to indicate the difference between active ingredients of different efficacy. Each model scenario was run for two environments, specifically a lower rainfall area (more selective) and a higher rainfall area (less selective) within a Mediterranean climatic zone, characterised by hot, dry summers and cool, wet winters. Univariate general linear models with least square difference post-hoc tests were used to examine differences between means of factors. The results confirmed that leaving a proportion of sheep in a flock untreated was effective in delaying the development of anthelmintic resistance, with as low as 10% of a flock untreated sufficient to significantly delay resistance, although this strategy was associated with a small reduction in worm control. Administering anthelmintics in autumn rather than summer was also effective in delaying the development of anthelmintic resistance in the lower rainfall

  9. Studies on nodules and adult Onchocerca volvulus during a nodulectomy trial in hyperendemic villages in Liberia and Upper Volta. II. Comparison of the macrofilaria population in adult nodule carriers.

    PubMed

    Albiez, E J; Büttner, D W; Schulz-Key, H

    1984-09-01

    In the Liberian rain-forest and the savanna of Upper Volta 189 adult nodule carriers were operated on. From 2231 extirpated nodules 3327 male and 5713 female macrofilariae were isolated. About 98% of the male worms and 88% of the female worms were found alive. The sex ratio of the live male and female worms was 1:1.5 in Liberia and 1:1.6 in Upper Volta. Less than 1% of all live macrofilariae were immature in both countries. 22% of the live male worms in Liberia were regarded as old. The percentage of old male and female worms in Upper Volta and that of the old female worms in Liberia were similar (5-7%). The portion of old worms was independent of the age of the patients in Liberia. Dead worms were found in 66% of the Liberians and in 85% of the Voltaics. The percentage of patients with dead worms increased with the age. About 0.5% of all male and 8% of all female worms were calcified. In Liberia the percentage of calcified worms increased with the age of the patients. In both countries the highest number of live and dead worms were found on the pelvic girdle. On the thorax many more macrofilariae were found in Upper Volta than in Liberia. This may contribute to the severe eye lesions in this savanna area. The presented findings provide some basic information for the planning and performance of trials with macrofilaricidal drugs in hyperendemic areas of West Africa. However, the striking differences between individual worm burdens have to be considered. PMID:6541822

  10. Complete mitochondrial genome of yellow meal worm(Tenebrio molitor)

    PubMed Central

    LIU, Li-Na; WANG, Cheng-Ye

    2014-01-01

    The yellow meal worm(Tenebrio molitor L.) is an important resource insect typically used as animal feed additive. It is also widely used for biological research. The first complete mitochondrial genome of T. molitor was determined for the first time by long PCR and conserved primer walking approaches. The results showed that the entire mitogenome of T. molitor was 15 785 bp long, with 72.35% A+T content [deposited in GenBank with accession number KF418153]. The gene order and orientation were the same as the most common type suggested as ancestral for insects. Two protein-coding genes used atypical start codons(CTA in ND2 and AAT in COX1), and the remaining 11 protein-coding genes started with a typical insect initiation codon ATN. All tRNAs showed standard clover-leaf structure, except for tRNASer(AGN), which lacked a dihydrouridine(DHU) arm. The newly added T. molitor mitogenome could provide information for future studies on yellow meal worm. PMID:25465087

  11. Meandering worms: mechanics of undulatory burrowing in muds.

    PubMed

    Dorgan, Kelly M; Law, Chris J; Rouse, Greg W

    2013-04-22

    Recent work has shown that muddy sediments are elastic solids through which animals extend burrows by fracture, whereas non-cohesive granular sands fluidize around some burrowers. These different mechanical responses are reflected in the morphologies and behaviours of their respective inhabitants. However, Armandia brevis, a mud-burrowing opheliid polychaete, lacks an expansible anterior consistent with fracturing mud, and instead uses undulatory movements similar to those of sandfish lizards that fluidize desert sands. Here, we show that A. brevis neither fractures nor fluidizes sediments, but instead uses a third mechanism, plastically rearranging sediment grains to create a burrow. The curvature of the undulating body fits meander geometry used to describe rivers, and changes in curvature driven by muscle contraction are similar for swimming and burrowing worms, indicating that the same gait is used in both sediments and water. Large calculated friction forces for undulatory burrowers suggest that sediment mechanics affect undulatory and peristaltic burrowers differently; undulatory burrowing may be more effective for small worms that live in sediments not compacted or cohesive enough to extend burrows by fracture. PMID:23446526

  12. Meandering worms: mechanics of undulatory burrowing in muds

    PubMed Central

    Dorgan, Kelly M.; Law, Chris J.; Rouse, Greg W.

    2013-01-01

    Recent work has shown that muddy sediments are elastic solids through which animals extend burrows by fracture, whereas non-cohesive granular sands fluidize around some burrowers. These different mechanical responses are reflected in the morphologies and behaviours of their respective inhabitants. However, Armandia brevis, a mud-burrowing opheliid polychaete, lacks an expansible anterior consistent with fracturing mud, and instead uses undulatory movements similar to those of sandfish lizards that fluidize desert sands. Here, we show that A. brevis neither fractures nor fluidizes sediments, but instead uses a third mechanism, plastically rearranging sediment grains to create a burrow. The curvature of the undulating body fits meander geometry used to describe rivers, and changes in curvature driven by muscle contraction are similar for swimming and burrowing worms, indicating that the same gait is used in both sediments and water. Large calculated friction forces for undulatory burrowers suggest that sediment mechanics affect undulatory and peristaltic burrowers differently; undulatory burrowing may be more effective for small worms that live in sediments not compacted or cohesive enough to extend burrows by fracture. PMID:23446526

  13. Distribution of meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) in South Dakota.

    PubMed

    Jacques, Christopher N; Jenks, Jonathan A

    2004-01-01

    Heads of hunter-harvested deer (Odocoileus sp.) and elk (Cervus elaphus) were collected from meat processing plants throughout South Dakota (USA) from 1997 through 1999 to determine distribution of meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) in eastern and western South Dakota. A total of 2,848 white-tailed deer (WTD) were examined for P. tenuis, of which 578 (20.3%) were infected with the parasite. Of 578 deer infected, 570 (98.6%) were harvested east of the Missouri River. Our results indicate that P. tenuis is widely distributed throughout eastern South Dakota and limited to the southcentral region of western South Dakota. Infected WTD were documented in 37 of 44 counties in eastern South Dakota and three of 22 counties in western South Dakota. No meningeal worms were found on the meninges or cranial surfaces of 215 mule deer ( Odocoileus hemionus) or 344 elk examined. These findings further define the distribution of the parasite throughout the state. We suggest that the Missouri River acts, in part, as a physical barrier to the westward expansion of P. tenuis to the grasslands of western South Dakota. PMID:15137501

  14. Bio-inspired microfluidics: The case of the velvet worm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Concha, Andres; Mellado, Paula; Morera-Brenes, Bernal; Sampaio-Costa, Cristiano; Mahadevan, L.; Monge-Najera, Julian

    The rapid squirt of a proteinaceous slime jet endow velvet worms (Onychophora) with a unique mechanism for defense from predators and for capturing prey by entangling them in a disordered web that immobilizes their target. However, to date neither qualitative nor quantitative descriptions have been provided for this unique adaptation. We have investigated the mechanism that allows velvet worms the fast oscillatory motion of their oral papillae and the exiting liquid jet that oscillates with frequencies f ~ 30 - 60 Hz. Using anatomical images and high speed videography, we show that even without fast muscular action of the papilla, a strong contraction of the slime reservoir and the geometry of the reservoir-papilla system suffices to accelerate the slime to speeds up to v ~ 5 m /s in about Δt ~ 60 ms. A theoretical analysis and a physical simulacrum allow us to infer that this fast oscillatory motion is the result of an elastohydrodynamic instability driven by the interplay between the elasticity of oral papillae and the fast unsteady flow during squirting. We propose several applications that can be implemented using this instability, ranging from high-throughput droplet production, printing, and micro-nanofiber production among others. A.C was partially supported by Fondecyt Grant 11130075.

  15. Developmental expression of autoimmune target antigens during organogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Akashi, T; Eishi, Y

    1991-01-01

    A common factor existing among autoimmune target antigens was sought in association with their developmental expression during organogenesis. Autoimmunity against a certain organ was experimentally induced in rats by deliberate immunization with whole tissue extract of the respective organ. Histopathological changes in a target organ of the immunized rats were recorded, and tissue specificity of the raised autoantibodies was immunohistologically examined with tissue sections of normal adult rats. These immune sera were also reacted with tissue sections of a target organ in each stage of organogenesis, and the time of first expression of the target antigen was determined for each immune serum. As a result, induced autoantibodies were directed only to a limited number of tissue antigens, such as thyroid follicular antigens [gestation day 17 (17 GD)], salivary ductal antigens (18 GD), anterior pituitary antigens (21 GD), gastric parietal cell antigens (22 GD), neural myelin antigens (2 days after birth), retinal photo-receptor cell antigens (3 days after birth) and testicular germ cell antigens (4 weeks after birth). They were first expressed on the day indicated in parentheses. Comparing with the development of the immune system, which was monitored by demonstrating CD4- and/or CD8-positive cells in the developing thymus and spleen, a common feature of these potential autoimmune target antigens was found to be that they were expressed either in parallel with, or after, but never before, the development of the immune system. This observation might suggest why only a limited number of self antigens can be autoimmune target antigens among the enormously large number of antigen determinants existing in the whole extract of each organ. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:1769700

  16. Transcutaneous antigen delivery system

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi-Young; Shin, Meong-Cheol; Yang, Victor C.

    2013-01-01

    Transcutaneous immunization refers to the topical application of antigens onto the epidermis. Transcutaneous immunization targeting the Langerhans cells of the skin has received much attention due to its safe, needle-free, and noninvasive antigen delivery. The skin has important immunological functions with unique roles for antigen-presenting cells such as epidermal Langerhans cells and dermal dendritic cells. In recent years, novel vaccine delivery strategies have continually been developed; however, transcutaneous immunization has not yet been fully exploited due to the penetration barrier represented by the stratum corneum, which inhibits the transport of antigens and adjuvants. Herein we review recent achievements in transcutaneous immunization, focusing on the various strategies for the enhancement of antigen delivery and vaccination efficacy. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(1): 17-24] PMID:23351379

  17. Screening and characterization of early diagnostic antigens in excretory-secretory proteins from Trichinella spiralis intestinal infective larvae by immunoproteomics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruo Dan; Jiang, Peng; Wen, Hui; Duan, Jiang Yang; Wang, Li Ang; Li, Jie Feng; Liu, Chun Ying; Sun, Ge Ge; Wang, Zhong Quan; Cui, Jing

    2016-02-01

    The excretory-secretory (ES) antigens from Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae are the most commonly used diagnostic antigens for trichinellosis, but specific IgG antibodies were not detected in early stage of infection. The aim of this study was to identify early diagnostic antigens from ES proteins of intestinal infective larvae (IIL), the first invasive stage of T. spiralis. Six bands (92, 52, 45, 35, 32, and 29 kDa) of IIL ES proteins were recognized by infection sera in Western blotting as early as 10 days post infection. Total of 54 T. spiralis proteins in six bands were identified by shotgun LC-MS/MS, 30 proteins were annotated, and 27 had hydrolase activity. Several proteins (serine protease, putative trypsin, deoxyribonuclease II family protein, etc.) could be considered as the potential early diagnostic antigens for trichinellosis. Our study provides new insights for screening early diagnostic antigens from intestinal worms of T. spiralis. PMID:26468148

  18. Defending against Internet worms using a phase space method from chaos theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jing; Gao, Jianbo; Rao, Nageswara S.

    2007-04-01

    Enterprise networks are facing ever-increasing security threats from Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks, worms, viruses, intrusions, Trojans, port scans, and network misuses, and thus effective monitoring approaches to quickly detect these activities are greatly needed. In this paper, we employ chaos theory and propose an interesting phase space method to detect Internet worms. An Internet worm is a self-propagating program that automatically replicates itself to vulnerable systems and spreads across the Internet. Most deployed worm-detection systems are signature-based. They look for specific byte sequences (called attack signatures) that are known to appear in the attack traffic. Conventionally, the signatures are manually identified by human experts through careful analysis of the byte sequence from captured attack traffic. We propose to embed the traffic sequence to a high-dimensional phase space using chaos theory. We have observed that the signature sequence of a specific worm will occupy specific regions in the phase space, which may be appropriately called the invariant subspace of the worm. The invariant subspace of the worm separates itself widely from the subspace of the normal traffic. This separation allows us to construct three simple metrics, each of which completely separates 100 normal traffic streams from 200 worm traffic streams, without training in the conventional sense. Therefore, the method is at least as accurate as any existing methods. More importantly, our method is much faster than existing methods, such as based on expectation maximization and hidden Markov models.

  19. Worms in the College Classroom: More than Just a Composting Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Rebecca L.

    2010-01-01

    Although worm bins have been used by K-12 and nonformal educators for decades, there is little evidence of their use in postsecondary education. The ease of use, maintenance, affordability, portability, and diversity of scientific concepts that can be demonstrated with a worm bin make it a valuable tool in college science classrooms. The purpose…

  20. Worms Expelled With the Urine From a Bosniak Cyst III of the Left Kidney.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Li, Pu; Su, Chuan; Zhang, Jia-Yi; Gu, Min

    2016-07-01

    An old fishman presented with left lumbago and finding worms in his urine. Type-B ultrasonic inspection and computed tomography scan found a Bosniak cyst III, containing several wire-like elements, in the middle of the left kidney. Expelled worms were confirmed to be Dioctophyma renale. After two courses of albendazole, the man was cured. PMID:27015940

  1. Global dynamics of a novel multi-group model for computer worms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Yong-Wang; Song, Yu-Rong; Jiang, Guo-Ping

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we study worm dynamics in computer networks composed of many autonomous systems. A novel multi-group SIQR (susceptible-infected-quarantined-removed) model is proposed for computer worms by explicitly considering anti-virus measures and the network infrastructure. Then, the basic reproduction number of worm R0 is derived and the global dynamics of the model are established. It is shown that if R0 is less than or equal to 1, the disease-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable and the worm dies out eventually, whereas, if R0 is greater than 1, one unique endemic equilibrium exists and it is globally asymptotically stable, thus the worm persists in the network. Finally, numerical simulations are given to illustrate the theoretical results.

  2. Ethnophysiology and herbal treatments of intestinal worms in Dominica, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Quinlan, Marsha B; Quinlan, Robert J; Nolan, Justin M

    2002-04-01

    In rural Dominican ethnophysiology worms reside in a human organ called the 'worm bag'. Unchecked, worms can cause illness by growing in size and number, spreading out of the worm bag and into other organs. In this study of 'bush medicine', we use a measure of cognitive salience in free-listing tasks, which reveals five plants commonly used to treat intestinal worms. These were Ambrosia hispida (Asteraceae), Aristolochia trilobata (Aristlochiaceae), Chenopodium ambrosioides (Chenopodiaceae), Portulaca oleracea (Portulacaceae), and Artemisia absinthium (Asteraceae). Bioactive compounds appear to be present in all of these plants. The cognitive salience of these plant remedies coupled with evidence of biochemical properties suggest that they provide efficacious treatments for controlling intestinal parasite loads. PMID:11891089

  3. Trichinella spiralis: monoclonal antibody against the muscular larvae for the detection of circulating and fecal antigens in experimentally infected rats.

    PubMed

    Zumaquero-Ríos, José-Lino; García-Juarez, Jazmín; de-la-Rosa-Arana, Jorge-Luis; Marcet, Ricardo; Sarracent-Pérez, Jorge

    2012-12-01

    In this work we search for antigens of Trichinella spiralis in sera and stool of rats experimentally infected. The kinetic of antibodies to excretory and secretory (ES) antigens of muscle larvae (ML) was also determined. Wistar rats were infected with 15 ML per gram of body weight and blood samples were collected weekly for 10 weeks. Antibodies were studied using an indirect ELISA. For detection of circulating antigens and coproantigens, a sandwich ELISA was developed with the use of polyclonal rabbit antibodies obtained against the total extract of ML and an IgM monoclonal antibody (Mab) against ES antigens of ML. No reactivity was observed between Mab and the total worm antigens of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, Ascaris suum, Echinococcus granulosus, Fasciola hepatica, Strongyloides stercoralis, Taenia solium, Toxocara canis and Trichuris trichiura. The IgM Mab recognized antigens of 45, 49, and 55 kDa in ES antigens and was unable to bind ES antigens deglycosylated with trifluoromethanesulphonic acid (TFMS) indicating that a glycan structure is present in the epitope recognized by this Mab. The sensitivity of sandwich ELISA was 1 ng/mL. Circulating antigens were detected in all infected rats between 3 and 8 weeks post infection and coproantigens were found during the first two days post infection. Antibodies were detected since the third week post infection through the end of experiment. These results suggested that antigen detection by our sandwich ELISA could be a useful complementary laboratory test for antibody detection. PMID:23026455

  4. Graphical method for profiling hob mill that generate cycloid worms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodor, V.; Berbinschi, S.; Baroiu, N.; Oancea, N.

    2015-11-01

    The hob mill for generating ordered curls of cycloid surface with non involute profiles may be profiled based on the fundamental theorems of surface enveloping - Olivier - as surface reciprocally enveloping with point like contact. In this paper, is proposed a methodology based on a complementary theorem of the surface enveloping in a graphical expression developed in a graphical design environment - CATIA. The graphical method presented in this paper is developed in two stages: determining of the rack gear model based on the solid model of the surface to be generated, using an original algorithm, following this, based on 3D modelling is determined the solid model of the primary peripheral surface of the hob mill. An application for a cycloid worm is presented - a central screw of helical pumps. In order to prove the quality of method, the analytical and graphical solutions are comparatively presented.

  5. Not whale-fall specialists, Osedax worms also consume fishbones

    PubMed Central

    Rouse, Greg W.; Goffredi, Shana K.; Johnson, Shannon B.; Vrijenhoek, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    Marine annelid worms of the genus Osedax exploit sunken vertebrate bones for food. To date, the named species occur on whale or other mammalian bones, and it is argued that Osedax is a whale-fall specialist. To assess whether extant Osedax species could obtain nutrition from non-mammalian resources, we deployed teleost bones and calcified shark cartilage at approximately 1000 m depth for five months. Although the evidence from shark cartilage was inconclusive, the teleost bones hosted three species of Osedax, each of which also lives off whalebones. This suggests that rather than being a whale-fall specialist, Osedax has exploited and continues to exploit a variety of food sources. The ability of Osedax to colonize and to grow on fishbone lends credibility to a hypothesis that it might have split from its siboglinid relatives to assume the bone-eating lifestyle during the Cretaceous, well before the origin of marine mammals. PMID:21490008

  6. Worm-like instability of a vibrated sessile drop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmerle, A.; Froehlicher, G.; Bergeron, V.; Charitat, T.; Farago, J.

    2015-07-01

    We study the effects of vertical sinusoidal vibrations on a liquid droplet with a low surface tension (ethanol) deposited on a solid substrate. In a precise range of amplitudes and frequencies, the drop exhibits a dramatic worm-like shape instability with a strong symmetry breaking, comparable to the one observed by Pucci et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett., 106 (2011) 024503) on a vibrated floating lens. However, the geometry of our system is much simpler since it does not involve the oscillation and deformation of a liquid-liquid-air contact line. We show that the Faraday waves appearing on the surface of the droplet control its shape and we draw a systematic phase diagram of the instability. A simple theoretical model allows us to derive a relation between the elongation of the droplet and the amplitude of the Faraday wave, in good agreement with measurements of both quantities.

  7. Hybrid Epidemics—A Case Study on Computer Worm Conficker

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Changwang; Zhou, Shi; Chain, Benjamin M.

    2015-01-01

    Conficker is a computer worm that erupted on the Internet in 2008. It is unique in combining three different spreading strategies: local probing, neighbourhood probing, and global probing. We propose a mathematical model that combines three modes of spreading: local, neighbourhood, and global, to capture the worm’s spreading behaviour. The parameters of the model are inferred directly from network data obtained during the first day of the Conficker epidemic. The model is then used to explore the tradeoff between spreading modes in determining the worm’s effectiveness. Our results show that the Conficker epidemic is an example of a critically hybrid epidemic, in which the different modes of spreading in isolation do not lead to successful epidemics. Such hybrid spreading strategies may be used beneficially to provide the most effective strategies for promulgating information across a large population. When used maliciously, however, they can present a dangerous challenge to current internet security protocols. PMID:25978309

  8. Wombs, Worms and Wolves: Constructing Cancer in Early Modern England

    PubMed Central

    Skuse, Alanna

    2014-01-01

    This essay examines medical and popular attitudes to cancer in the early modern period, c.1580–1720. Cancer, it is argued, was understood as a cruel and usually incurable disease, diagnosable by a well-defined set of symptoms understood to correspond to its etymological root, karkinos (the crab). It was primarily understood as produced by an imbalance of the humours, with women being particularly vulnerable. However, such explanations proved inadequate to make sense of the condition's malignancy, and medical writers frequently constructed cancer as quasi-sentient, zoomorphising the disease as an eating worm or wolf. In turn, these constructions materially influenced medical practice, in which practitioners swung between anxiety over ‘aggravating’ the disease and an adversarial approach which fostered the use of radical and dangerous ‘cures’ including caustics and surgery. PMID:25352720

  9. Not whale-fall specialists, Osedax worms also consume fishbones.

    PubMed

    Rouse, Greg W; Goffredi, Shana K; Johnson, Shannon B; Vrijenhoek, Robert C

    2011-10-23

    Marine annelid worms of the genus Osedax exploit sunken vertebrate bones for food. To date, the named species occur on whale or other mammalian bones, and it is argued that Osedax is a whale-fall specialist. To assess whether extant Osedax species could obtain nutrition from non-mammalian resources, we deployed teleost bones and calcified shark cartilage at approximately 1000 m depth for five months. Although the evidence from shark cartilage was inconclusive, the teleost bones hosted three species of Osedax, each of which also lives off whalebones. This suggests that rather than being a whale-fall specialist, Osedax has exploited and continues to exploit a variety of food sources. The ability of Osedax to colonize and to grow on fishbone lends credibility to a hypothesis that it might have split from its siboglinid relatives to assume the bone-eating lifestyle during the Cretaceous, well before the origin of marine mammals. PMID:21490008

  10. An unusual and unsettling place for a worm.

    PubMed

    Samuel, M I; Taylor, C

    2010-07-01

    A 56-year-old man presented complaining of urinary frequency, passing urine eight times per day, urethral irritation and dysuria. Investigations showed no evidence of urinary tract infection or sexually transmitted infections. Three months later he presented, again complaining of increased urinary frequency and urethral irritation. He brought with him a urine specimen containing a small 'worm', 2 mm in length, identified as a drain fly (or moth fly) larva, of the genus Psychoda (dipterous flies). Psychoda lay eggs in organically polluted water such as sewage plants, sink drains or on decaying vegetables and fruits. Urogenital myiasis may arise from hatching of larvae near the urethral opening and ascending migration along the urethra with consequent urethritis. Following larval identification, ivermectin was prescribed and the man's symptoms improved after six weeks. PMID:20852207

  11. A new lectin from the sea worm Serpula vermicularis: isolation, characterization and anti-HIV activity.

    PubMed

    Molchanova, Valentina; Chikalovets, Irina; Chernikov, Oleg; Belogortseva, Natalia; Li, Wei; Wang, Jian-Hua; Yang, Dong-Yun Ou; Zheng, Yong-Tang; Lukyanov, Pavel

    2007-03-01

    A GlcNAc-specific lectin was isolated from the sea worm Serpula vermicularis (SVL) (Annelida) and purified by ion-exchange, affinity and gel permeation chromatography. SVL was a homotetrameric protein with native molecular mass of about 50 kDa, and consisted of identical subunits of 12.7 kDa. The carbohydrate content of 1.9% suggested that the lectin was a glycoprotein, and mainly composed by aspartic and glutamic acids, glycine, valine and serine; with relatively lower content of basic amino acids and cysteine. The first 15 residues of the N-terminal region were determined as ADTPCQMLGSRYGWR. It was stable at pH 6-9 and at temperatures up to 40 degrees C. SVL was Ca(2+)-independent lectin that agglutinated native and trypsinized human erythrocytes. Hapten inhibition studies indicated that SVL showed binding specificity only for N-acetyl-d-glucosamine and its derivatives among the monosaccharides tested and required the presence of hydroxyl group at the C-3 of GlcNAc. The presence of hydrophobic p-nitrophenyl aglycone improved inhibitory potency of N-acetyl-d-glucosamine. Ovomucoid and ovalbumin were found to be inhibitors among the glycoproteins used for inhibition assay. The anti-HIV-1 (human immunodeficiency virus) activity of SVL in vitro was determined: SVL inhibited the production of viral p24 antigen and cytopathic effect induced by HIV-1. The EC(50) values were 0.23 and 0.15 microg x mL(-1) respectively. PMID:17258940

  12. Assessment of indirect pesticide effects on worm-eating warbler populations in a managed forest ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Awkerman, Jill A; Marshall, Matthew R; Williams, Alan B; Gale, George A; Cooper, Robert J; Raimondo, Sandy

    2011-08-01

    Ecological risk assessments rarely evaluate indirect pesticide effects. Pesticides causing no direct mortality in wildlife can still reduce prey availability, resulting in a lower reproductive rate or poor juvenile condition. Few studies have examined these consequences at the population level. We use a four-year data set from a forest ecosystem in which Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki (Btk) was applied to control gypsy moths (Lymantria dispar L.). Lower worm-eating warbler (Helmitheros vermivorus) productivity on Btk plots contributed to an intrinsic growth rate <1. Altered provisioning behavior by adults led to lower nestling mass in Btk-treated plots, and simulations of reduced juvenile survival expected as a result further reduced population growth rate. The present study explored different spatial representations of treated areas, using a two-patch matrix model incorporating dispersal. Minimal migration from areas with increasing subpopulations could compensate for detrimental reductions in reproductive success and juvenile survival within treated subpopulations. We also simulated population dynamics with different proportions of treated areas to inform management strategies in similar systems. Nontoxic insecticides are capable of impacting nontarget populations with consistent, long-term use and should be evaluated based on the spatial connectivity representative of habitat availability and the time period appropriate for risk assessment of pesticide effects in wildlife populations. PMID:21538489

  13. Potential effects of warmer worms and vectors on onchocerciasis transmission in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Cheke, Robert A; Basáñez, Maria-Gloria; Perry, Malorie; White, Michael T; Garms, Rolf; Obuobie, Emmanuel; Lamberton, Poppy H L; Young, Stephen; Osei-Atweneboana, Mike Y; Intsiful, Joseph; Shen, Mingwang; Boakye, Daniel A; Wilson, Michael D

    2015-04-01

    Development times of eggs, larvae and pupae of vectors of onchocerciasis (Simulium spp.) and of Onchocerca volvulus larvae within the adult females of the vectors decrease with increasing temperature. At and above 25°C, the parasite could reach its infective stage in less than 7 days when vectors could transmit after only two gonotrophic cycles. After incorporating exponential functions for vector development into a novel blackfly population model, it was predicted that fly numbers in Liberia and Ghana would peak at air temperatures of 29°C and 34°C, about 3°C and 7°C above current monthly averages, respectively; parous rates of forest flies (Liberia) would peak at 29°C and of savannah flies (Ghana) at 30°C. Small temperature increases (less than 2°C) might lead to changes in geographical distributions of different vector taxa. When the new model was linked to an existing framework for the population dynamics of onchocerciasis in humans and vectors, transmission rates and worm loads were projected to increase with temperature to at least 33°C. By contrast, analyses of field data on forest flies in Liberia and savannah flies in Ghana, in relation to regional climate change predictions, suggested, on the basis of simple regressions, that 13-41% decreases in fly numbers would be expected between the present and before 2040. Further research is needed to reconcile these conflicting conclusions. PMID:25688018

  14. Experimental centrocestiasis: Worm burden, morphology and fecundity of Centrocestus formosanus (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) in dexamethasone immunosuppressed mice.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Hudson Alves; Mati, Vitor Luís Tenório; de Melo, Alan Lane

    2015-10-01

    Centrocestus formosanus is an intestinal foodborne trematode with medical and veterinary importance that remains with the pathological and immunological aspects of the infection in definitive host poorly studied. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of pharmacological immunosuppression by glucocorticoids in experimental centrocestiasis. Mice of the AKR/J strain were orally inoculated with 100 metacercariae of C. formosanus obtained in naturally infected fish (Australoheros facetus) collected in an urban reservoir from Brazil. Treatment with dexamethasone (25 mg/kg, via subcutaneous injection) was started 1h before infection of mice and then continued daily during 14 days post-infection. Untreated mice also infected with C. formosanus were used as control. At the end of the treatment course, all rodents were euthanized and adult parasites recovered from host intestines were subjected to morphological and morphometric analysis under optical microscopy. The worm burden in dexamethasone treated group [70±14 (41-85)] was significantly greater (p<0.0001) than that in the control group [15±4 (10-22)]. In addition, the parasites recovered from immunosuppressed mice were larger, with more developed reproductive structures and greater number of intrauterine eggs than in control mice. These parasite developmental changes induced by dexamethasone treatment are reported for the first time in experimental centrocestiasis. Moreover the higher parasite fecundity induced by glucocorticoid treatment had so far not been reported for any heterophyid species, which can have implications for the pathology and morbidity in infections caused by these parasites. PMID:25724856

  15. Potential effects of warmer worms and vectors on onchocerciasis transmission in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Cheke, Robert A.; Basáñez, Maria-Gloria; Perry, Malorie; White, Michael T.; Garms, Rolf; Obuobie, Emmanuel; Lamberton, Poppy H. L.; Young, Stephen; Osei-Atweneboana, Mike Y.; Intsiful, Joseph; Shen, Mingwang; Boakye, Daniel A.; Wilson, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Development times of eggs, larvae and pupae of vectors of onchocerciasis (Simulium spp.) and of Onchocerca volvulus larvae within the adult females of the vectors decrease with increasing temperature. At and above 25°C, the parasite could reach its infective stage in less than 7 days when vectors could transmit after only two gonotrophic cycles. After incorporating exponential functions for vector development into a novel blackfly population model, it was predicted that fly numbers in Liberia and Ghana would peak at air temperatures of 29°C and 34°C, about 3°C and 7°C above current monthly averages, respectively; parous rates of forest flies (Liberia) would peak at 29°C and of savannah flies (Ghana) at 30°C. Small temperature increases (less than 2°C) might lead to changes in geographical distributions of different vector taxa. When the new model was linked to an existing framework for the population dynamics of onchocerciasis in humans and vectors, transmission rates and worm loads were projected to increase with temperature to at least 33°C. By contrast, analyses of field data on forest flies in Liberia and savannah flies in Ghana, in relation to regional climate change predictions, suggested, on the basis of simple regressions, that 13–41% decreases in fly numbers would be expected between the present and before 2040. Further research is needed to reconcile these conflicting conclusions. PMID:25688018

  16. Potential of recombinant inorganic pyrophosphatase antigen as a new vaccine candidate against Baylisascaris schroederi in mice.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yue; Chen, Sijie; Yan, Yubo; Zhang, Zhihe; Li, Desheng; Yu, Hua; Wang, Chengdong; Nong, Xiang; Zhou, Xuan; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Shuxian; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

    2013-01-01

    The intestinal nematode Baylisascaris schroederi is an important cause of death for wild and captive giant pandas. Inorganic pyrophosphatases (PPases) are critical for development and molting in nematode parasites and represent potential targets for vaccination. Here, a new PPase homologue, Bsc-PYP-1, from B. schroederi was identified and characterized, and its potential as a vaccine candidate was evaluated in a mouse challenge model. Sequence alignment of PPases from nematode parasites and other organisms show that Bsc-PYP-1 is a nematode-specific member of the family I soluble PPases. Immunohistochemistry revealed strong localization of native Bsc-PYP-1 to the body wall, gut epithelium, ovary and uterus of adult female worms. Additionally, Bsc-PYP-1 homologues were found in roundworms infecting humans (Ascaris lumbricoides), swine (Ascaris suum) and dogs (Toxocara canis). In two vaccine trials, recombinant Bsc-PYP-1 (rBsc-PYP-1) formulated with Freund complete adjuvant induced significantly high antigen-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)G but no IgE or IgM responses. Analysis of IgG-subclass profiles revealed a greater increase of IgG1 than IgG2a. Splenocytes from rBsc-PYP-1/FCA-immunized mice secreted low levels of T helper (Th)1-type cytokines, interferon-γ and interleukin (IL)-2, while producing significantly high levels of IL-10 and significantly elevated levels of IL-4 (Th2 cytokines) after stimulation with rBsc-PYP-1 in vitro. Finally, vaccinated mice had 69.02-71.15% reductions (in 2 experiments) in larval recovery 7 days post-challenge (dpc) and 80% survival at 80 dpc. These results suggest that Th2-mediated immunity elicited by rBsc-PYP-1 provides protection against B. schroederi, and the findings should contribute to further development of Bsc-PYP-1 as a candidate vaccine against baylisascariasis. PMID:24090087

  17. Potential of recombinant inorganic pyrophosphatase antigen as a new vaccine candidate against Baylisascaris schroederi in mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The intestinal nematode Baylisascaris schroederi is an important cause of death for wild and captive giant pandas. Inorganic pyrophosphatases (PPases) are critical for development and molting in nematode parasites and represent potential targets for vaccination. Here, a new PPase homologue, Bsc-PYP-1, from B. schroederi was identified and characterized, and its potential as a vaccine candidate was evaluated in a mouse challenge model. Sequence alignment of PPases from nematode parasites and other organisms show that Bsc-PYP-1 is a nematode-specific member of the family I soluble PPases. Immunohistochemistry revealed strong localization of native Bsc-PYP-1 to the body wall, gut epithelium, ovary and uterus of adult female worms. Additionally, Bsc-PYP-1 homologues were found in roundworms infecting humans (Ascaris lumbricoides), swine (Ascaris suum) and dogs (Toxocara canis). In two vaccine trials, recombinant Bsc-PYP-1 (rBsc-PYP-1) formulated with Freund complete adjuvant induced significantly high antigen-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)G but no IgE or IgM responses. Analysis of IgG-subclass profiles revealed a greater increase of IgG1 than IgG2a. Splenocytes from rBsc-PYP-1/FCA-immunized mice secreted low levels of T helper (Th)1-type cytokines, interferon-γ and interleukin (IL)-2, while producing significantly high levels of IL-10 and significantly elevated levels of IL-4 (Th2 cytokines) after stimulation with rBsc-PYP-1 in vitro. Finally, vaccinated mice had 69.02–71.15% reductions (in 2 experiments) in larval recovery 7 days post-challenge (dpc) and 80% survival at 80 dpc. These results suggest that Th2-mediated immunity elicited by rBsc-PYP-1 provides protection against B. schroederi, and the findings should contribute to further development of Bsc-PYP-1 as a candidate vaccine against baylisascariasis. PMID:24090087

  18. Adult Toxocara cati infections in U.S. children: report of four cases.

    PubMed

    Eberhard, M L; Alfano, E

    1998-09-01

    We report four cases of passage of subadult or adult Toxocara cati worms by young children ages 20 months to seven years. Worms were expelled rectally in two cases and in two cases they were vomited. A single worm was passed in two cases, three worms in one case, and 15 worms in the fourth case. All worms that were available for study were identified as T. cati by morphologic criteria, including the arrow-shaped cervical alae and the digitiform shape of the male tail. None of the four children exhibited clinical signs of ocular or visceral larva migrans, and in two cases where serum samples were available, neither child had a titer to Toxocara. These results further the argument that these children acquired the worms through the ingestion of immature worms passed by infected cats, not through the ingestion of infective eggs. Although the children were generally not ill as a result of these unusual infections, it does serve to reinforce the public health issue that potential serious consequences can occur where children have exposure to an environment that has been contaminated with cat feces, or, more specifically, infective eggs, and could become infected with larval forms of Toxocara. PMID:9749634

  19. An anatomical description of a miniaturized acorn worm (hemichordata, enteropneusta) with asexual reproduction by paratomy.

    PubMed

    Worsaae, Katrine; Sterrer, Wolfgang; Kaul-Strehlow, Sabrina; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Giribet, Gonzalo

    2012-01-01

    The interstitial environment of marine sandy bottoms is a nutrient-rich, sheltered habitat whilst at the same time also often a turbulent, space-limited, and ecologically challenging environment dominated by meiofauna. The interstitial fauna is one of the most diverse on earth and accommodates miniaturized representatives from many macrofaunal groups as well as several exclusively meiofaunal phyla. The colonization process of this environment, with the restrictions imposed by limited space and low Reynolds numbers, has selected for great morphological and behavioral changes as well as new life history strategies.Here we describe a new enteropneust species inhabiting the interstices among sand grains in shallow tropical waters of the West Atlantic. With a maximum body length of 0.6 mm, it is the first microscopic adult enteropneust known, a group otherwise ranging from 2 cm to 250 cm in adult size. Asexual reproduction by paratomy has been observed in this new species, a reproductive mode not previously reported among enteropneusts. Morphologically, Meioglossus psammophilus gen. et sp. nov. shows closest resemblance to an early juvenile stage of the acorn worm family Harrimaniidae, a result congruent with its phylogenetic placement based on molecular data. Its position, clearly nested within the larger macrofaunal hemichordates, suggests that this represents an extreme case of miniaturization. The evolutionary pathway to this simple or juvenile appearance, as chiefly demonstrated by its small size, dense ciliation, and single pair of gill pores, may be explained by progenesis. The finding of M. psammophilus gen. et sp. nov. underscores the notion that meiofauna may constitute a rich source of undiscovered metazoan diversity, possibly disguised as juveniles of other species. PMID:23144898

  20. An Anatomical Description of a Miniaturized Acorn Worm (Hemichordata, Enteropneusta) with Asexual Reproduction by Paratomy

    PubMed Central

    Worsaae, Katrine; Sterrer, Wolfgang; Kaul-Strehlow, Sabrina; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Giribet, Gonzalo

    2012-01-01

    The interstitial environment of marine sandy bottoms is a nutrient-rich, sheltered habitat whilst at the same time also often a turbulent, space-limited, and ecologically challenging environment dominated by meiofauna. The interstitial fauna is one of the most diverse on earth and accommodates miniaturized representatives from many macrofaunal groups as well as several exclusively meiofaunal phyla. The colonization process of this environment, with the restrictions imposed by limited space and low Reynolds numbers, has selected for great morphological and behavioral changes as well as new life history strategies. Here we describe a new enteropneust species inhabiting the interstices among sand grains in shallow tropical waters of the West Atlantic. With a maximum body length of 0.6 mm, it is the first microscopic adult enteropneust known, a group otherwise ranging from 2 cm to 250 cm in adult size. Asexual reproduction by paratomy has been observed in this new species, a reproductive mode not previously reported among enteropneusts. Morphologically, Meioglossus psammophilus gen. et sp. nov. shows closest resemblance to an early juvenile stage of the acorn worm family Harrimaniidae, a result congruent with its phylogenetic placement based on molecular data. Its position, clearly nested within the larger macrofaunal hemichordates, suggests that this represents an extreme case of miniaturization. The evolutionary pathway to this simple or juvenile appearance, as chiefly demonstrated by its small size, dense ciliation, and single pair of gill pores, may be explained by progenesis. The finding of M. psammophilus gen. et sp. nov. underscores the notion that meiofauna may constitute a rich source of undiscovered metazoan diversity, possibly disguised as juveniles of other species. PMID:23144898

  1. Deep sequencing of New World screw-worm transcripts to discover genes involved in insecticide resistance

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The New World screw-worm (NWS), Cochliomyia hominivorax, is one of the most important myiasis-causing flies, causing severe losses to the livestock industry. In its current geographical distribution, this species has been controlled by the application of insecticides, mainly organophosphate (OP) compounds, but a number of lineages have been identified that are resistant to such chemicals. Despite its economic importance, only limited genetic information is available for the NWS. Here, as a part of an effort to characterize the C. hominivorax genome and identify putative genes involved in insecticide resistance, we sampled its transcriptome by deep sequencing of polyadenylated transcripts using the 454 sequencing technology. Results Deep sequencing on the 454 platform of three normalized libraries (larval, adult male and adult female) generated a total of 548,940 reads. Eighteen candidate genes coding for three metabolic detoxification enzyme families, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, glutathione S-transferases and carboxyl/cholinesterases were selected and gene expression levels were measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Of the investigated candidates, only one gene was expressed differently between control and resistant larvae with, at least, a 10-fold down-regulation in the resistant larvae. The presence of mutations in the acetylcholinesterase (target site) and carboxylesterase E3 genes was investigated and all of the resistant flies presented E3 mutations previously associated with insecticide resistance. Conclusions Here, we provided the largest database of NWS expressed sequence tags that is an important resource, not only for further studies on the molecular basis of the OP resistance in NWS fly, but also for functional and comparative studies among Calliphoridae flies. Among our candidates, only one gene was found differentially expressed in resistant individuals, and its role on insecticide resistance should

  2. Biouptake of chlorinated hydrocarbons from laboratory-spiked and field sediments by oligochaete worms

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, B.G.

    1987-08-01

    The uptake and depuration of 37 chemicals from spiked Lake Ontario sediments by oligochaete worms has been studied at 8 and 20/sup 0/C in laboratory aquaria. The worms were found to rapidly accumulate the chemicals and reach peak concentrations within 2 weeks. The concentration of chemical in the sediment pore water appeared to be the major factor controlling the bioconcentration of chemicals by worms. The worm bioconcentration factors increased with increasing octanol-water partition coefficient of the chemicals. The worm-mediated fluxes of the chemicals from the sediments have also been estimated. Depuration studies showed in the half-lives of the chemicals in the worms ranged from less than 5 days to several months. Field worms and associated sediments from Lake Ontario near the Niagara River were analyzed. The agreement between the field and laboratory results was good for the more persistent chemicals because of time differences for sorting the two samples types. 30 references, 3 figures, 5 tables.

  3. Aqueous worm gels can be reconstituted from freeze-dried diblock copolymer powder.

    PubMed

    Kocik, M K; Mykhaylyk, O O; Armes, S P

    2014-06-14

    Worm-like diblock copolymer nanoparticles comprising poly(glycerol monomethacrylate) (PGMA) as a stabilizer block and poly(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate) (PHPMA) as a core-forming block were readily synthesized at 10% w/w solids via aqueous dispersion polymerization at 70 °C using Reversible Addition-Fragmentation chain Transfer (RAFT) chemistry. On cooling to 20 °C, soft transparent free-standing gels are formed due to multiple inter-worm interactions. These aqueous PGMA-PHPMA diblock copolymer worms were freeze-dried, then redispersed in water with cooling to 3-5 °C before warming up to 20 °C; this protocol ensures molecular dissolution of the copolymer chains, which aids formation of a transparent aqueous gel. Rheology, SAXS and TEM studies confirm that such reconstituted gels comprise formed PGMA-PHPMA copolymer worms and they possess essentially the same physical properties determined for the original worm gels prior to freeze-drying. Such worm gel reconstitution is expected to be highly beneficial in the context of various biomedical applications, since it enables worm gels to be readily prepared using a wide range of cell growth media as the continuous aqueous phase. PMID:24733440

  4. Serum Concentrations of Antibodies against Outer Membrane Protein P6, Protein D, and T- and B-Cell Combined Antigenic Epitopes of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae in Children and Adults of Different Ages.

    PubMed

    Hua, Chun-Zhen; Hu, Wei-Lin; Shang, Shi-Qiang; Li, Jian-Ping; Hong, Li-Quan; Yan, Jie

    2016-02-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is one of the most common etiologies of acute otitis media, rhinosinusitis, and pneumonia. Outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are the main focus in new vaccine development against NTHi, as the H. influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine does not cover noncapsulated NTHi. The OMPs P6 and protein D are the most promising candidate antigens for an NTHi vaccine, and low antibody levels against them in serum may be correlated with infection caused by NTHi. In the current study, we measured the antibody titers against P6, protein D, and their T- and B-cell combined peptide epitopes in healthy individuals of different ages. We found that children <1 month old had the lowest antibody levels against NTHi P6, protein D, and their T- and B-cell combined antigenic epitopes. Antibody titers increased at ages 1 to 6 months, peaked at 7 months to 3 years, and remained high at 4 to 6 years. The antibody titers started to decrease after 6 years and were the lowest in the 21- to 30-year group. The geometric mean titers (GMTs) of T- and B-cell combined antigenic epitopes in P6 and protein D were positively correlated with those of the protein antigens. Among 12 peptides tested, P6-61, P6-123, and protein D-167 epitopes were better recognized than others in human serum. These findings might contribute to the development of an effective serotype-independent vaccine for H. influenzae. PMID:26677200

  5. Experimental transfer of adult Oesophagostomum dentatum from donor to helminth naive recipient pigs: a methodological study.

    PubMed

    Bjørn, H; Roepstorff, A; Grøndahl, C; Eriksen, L; Bjerregaard, J; Nansen, P

    1995-12-01

    This study was carried out to compare potential methods of transplanting adult Oesophagostomum dentatum from experimentally infected donor pigs to helminth naive recipient pigs. The following methods were each tested in five pigs: A. Transfer of worms by stomach tube to the gastric ventricle of pigs per os pretreated with 0.5 mg/kg cisapride to increase gastrointestinal peristalsis; B. Transfer by stomach tube to the gastric ventricle of pigs per os pre-treated with cisapride (0.5 mg/kg) and omeprazol 20 mg which blocks hydrochloric acid secretion; C. Surgical transfer of worms to caecum of pigs. Worms for transplantation to pigs were obtained after slaughter of experimentally infected donor pigs and following isolation from the contents of the large intestine, using an agar gel migration technique. A mean of 1054 nematodes were transferred into each recipient pig within 2 hours. Procedures A and B resulted in establishment rates corresponding to only 0.5% and 7.6% of the transferred worms. In contrast, surgical transfer allowed 74.2% of the transplanted worms to be established. In all groups the transplanted worms migrated to the normal predilection site, i.e. the middle part of the large intestine. More female than male worms established in all groups. It was concluded from this study that surgical transfer was the most reliable of the methods tested for experimental establishment of adult O. dentatum in helminth naive pigs. PMID:8583123

  6. Ocular oxyspirurosis of primates in zoos: intermediate host, worm morphology, and probable origin of the infection in the Moscow zoo.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, E; Spiridonov, S; Bain, O

    2007-12-01

    Over the last century, only two cases of ocular oxyspirurosis were recorded in primates, both in zoos, and two species were described: in Berlin, Germany, Oxyspirura (O.) conjunctivalis from the lemurid Microcebus murinus, later also found in the lorisid Loris gracilis; in Jacksonville, Florida, O. (O.) youngi from the cercopithecid monkey Erythrocebus patas. In the present case from the Moscow zoo, oxyspirurosis was recorded in several species of Old World lemuriforms and lorisiforms, and some South American monkeys. i) The intermediate host was discovered to be a cockroach, as for O. (O.) mansoni, a parasite of poultry. The complete sequence identity between ITS-1 rDNA from adult nematodes of the primate and that of the larval worms from the vector, Nauphoete cinerea, confirmed their conspecificity. ii) Parasites from Moscow zoo recovered from Nycticebus c. coucang were compared morphologically to those from other zoos. The length and shape of the gubernaculum, used previously as a distinct character, were found to be variable. However, the vulvar bosses arrangement, the distal extremity of left spicule and the position of papillae of the first postcloacal pair showed that the worms in the different samples were not exactly identical and that each set seemed characteristic of a particular zoo. iii) The presence of longitudinal cuticular crests in the infective stage as well as in adult worms was recorded. Together with several other morphological and biological characters (long tail and oesophagus, cockroach vector), this confirmed that Oxyspirura is not closely related to Thelazia, another ocular parasite genus. iv) The disease in the Moscow zoo is thought to have started with Nycticebus pygmaeus imported fromVietnam, thus the suggestion was that Asiatic lorisids were at the origin of the Moscow set of cases. The natural host(s) for the Berlin and Jacksonville cases remain unknown but they are unlikely to be the species found infected in zoos. Consequently the

  7. Thermo-responsive Diblock Copolymer Worm Gels in Non-polar Solvents

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Benzyl methacrylate (BzMA) is polymerized using a poly(lauryl methacrylate) macromolecular chain transfer agent (PLMA macro-CTA) using reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization at 70 °C in n-dodecane. This choice of solvent leads to an efficient dispersion polymerization, with polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA) occurring via the growing PBzMA block to produce a range of PLMA–PBzMA diblock copolymer nano-objects, including spheres, worms, and vesicles. In the present study, particular attention is paid to the worm phase, which forms soft free-standing gels at 20 °C due to multiple inter-worm contacts. Such worm gels exhibit thermo-responsive behavior: heating above 50 °C causes degelation due to the onset of a worm-to-sphere transition. Degelation occurs because isotropic spheres interact with each other much less efficiently than the highly anisotropic worms. This worm-to-sphere thermal transition is essentially irreversible on heating a dilute solution (0.10% w/w) but is more or less reversible on heating a more concentrated dispersion (20% w/w). The relatively low volatility of n-dodecane facilitates variable-temperature rheological studies, which are consistent with eventual reconstitution of the worm phase on cooling to 20 °C. Variable-temperature 1H NMR studies conducted in d26-dodecane confirm partial solvation of the PBzMA block at elevated temperature: surface plasticization of the worm cores is invoked to account for the observed change in morphology, because this is sufficient to increase the copolymer curvature and hence induce a worm-to-sphere transition. Small-angle X-ray scattering and TEM are used to investigate the structural changes that occur during the worm-to-sphere-to-worm thermal cycle; experiments conducted at 1.0 and 5.0% w/w demonstrate the concentration-dependent (ir)reversibility of these morphological transitions. PMID:24678949

  8. The early bird catches the worm: new technologies for the Caenorhabditis elegans toolkit

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiao; Kim, Stuart K.

    2014-01-01

    The inherent simplicity of Caenorhabditis elegans and its extensive genetic toolkit make it ideal for studying complex biological processes. Recent developments further increase the usefulness of the worm, including new methods for: altering gene expression, altering physiology using optogenetics, manipulating large numbers of worms, automating laborious processes and processing high-resolution images. These developments both enhance the worm as a model for studying processes such as development and ageing and make it an attractive model in areas such as neurobiology and behaviour. PMID:21969037

  9. Simulation of worms transmission in computer network based on SIRS fuzzy epidemic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darti, I.; Suryanto, A.; Yustianingsih, M.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we study numerically the behavior of worms transmission in a computer network. The model of worms transmission is derived by modifying a SIRS epidemic model. In this case, we consider that the transmission rate, recovery rate and rate of susceptible after recovery follows fuzzy membership functions, rather than constants. To study the transmission of worms in a computer network, we solve the model using the fourth order Runge-Kutta method. Our numerical results show that the fuzzy transmission rate and fuzzy recovery rate may lead to a changing of basic reproduction number which therefore also changes the stability properties of equilibrium points.

  10. How algae influence sessile marine organisms: The tube worms case of study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casoli, Edoardo; Bonifazi, Andrea; Ardizzone, Giandomenico; Gravina, Maria Flavia

    2016-09-01

    Tube worms and phytobenthic assemblages in three infralittoral and shallow circalittoral Mediterranean benthic communities developed between 5 and 35 m depth at Punta del Lazzaretto (Giglio Island, Central Thyrrenian sea) were investigated. Despite being three algae-dominated habitats, these displayed different covering both in terms of algal layers and algal morphologies, reflecting different structural organizations. Twenty-eight serpulid taxa have been reported, increasing both diversity and density values from most photophilic to most sciaphilous habitats. Multivariate analyses showed how algal thalli and tube worm assemblages were strongly correlated; substrata are influenced both physically and biologically, providing different conditions for tube worm settlement.

  11. Thermo-responsive diblock copolymer worm gels in non-polar solvents.

    PubMed

    Fielding, Lee A; Lane, Jacob A; Derry, Matthew J; Mykhaylyk, Oleksandr O; Armes, Steven P

    2014-04-16

    Benzyl methacrylate (BzMA) is polymerized using a poly(lauryl methacrylate) macromolecular chain transfer agent (PLMA macro-CTA) using reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization at 70 °C in n-dodecane. This choice of solvent leads to an efficient dispersion polymerization, with polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA) occurring via the growing PBzMA block to produce a range of PLMA-PBzMA diblock copolymer nano-objects, including spheres, worms, and vesicles. In the present study, particular attention is paid to the worm phase, which forms soft free-standing gels at 20 °C due to multiple inter-worm contacts. Such worm gels exhibit thermo-responsive behavior: heating above 50 °C causes degelation due to the onset of a worm-to-sphere transition. Degelation occurs because isotropic spheres interact with each other much less efficiently than the highly anisotropic worms. This worm-to-sphere thermal transition is essentially irreversible on heating a dilute solution (0.10% w/w) but is more or less reversible on heating a more concentrated dispersion (20% w/w). The relatively low volatility of n-dodecane facilitates variable-temperature rheological studies, which are consistent with eventual reconstitution of the worm phase on cooling to 20 °C. Variable-temperature (1)H NMR studies conducted in d26-dodecane confirm partial solvation of the PBzMA block at elevated temperature: surface plasticization of the worm cores is invoked to account for the observed change in morphology, because this is sufficient to increase the copolymer curvature and hence induce a worm-to-sphere transition. Small-angle X-ray scattering and TEM are used to investigate the structural changes that occur during the worm-to-sphere-to-worm thermal cycle; experiments conducted at 1.0 and 5.0% w/w demonstrate the concentration-dependent (ir)reversibility of these morphological transitions. PMID:24678949

  12. Comparative Finite Element Method Analysis of Spiroid Worm Gear Drives Having Arched Profile and Having Linear Profile in Axial Section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodzás, Sándor; Dudás, Illés

    2014-12-01

    With the knowledge of the advantageous characteristics of the cylindrical worm gear drives having arched profile in axial section and the conical worm gear drives having linear profile in axial section, a new geometric type conical worm gear drive has been designed and then manufactured, that is the conical worm gear drive having arched profile in axial section. Beside similar charging and marginal conditions in case of the same geometric spiroid worm gear drives having arched profile and having linear profile in axial section we have done comparative finite element method analysis for awarding of the strains, deformations and stresses of this gear drives.

  13. Presentation of hepatocellular antigens

    PubMed Central

    Grakoui, Arash; Crispe, Ian Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    The liver is an organ in which antigen-specific T-cell responses manifest a bias toward immune tolerance. This is clearly seen in the rejection of allogeneic liver transplants, and multiple other phenomena suggest that this effect is more general. These include tolerance toward antigens introduced via the portal vein, immune failure to several hepatotropic viruses, the lack of natural liver-stage immunity to malaria parasites, and the frequent metastasis of cancers to the liver. Here we review the mechanisms by which T cells engage with hepatocellular antigens, the context in which such encounters occur, and the mechanisms that act to suppress a full T-cell response. While many mechanisms play a role, we will argue that two important processes are the constraints on the cross-presentation of hepatocellular antigens, and the induction of negative feedback inhibition driven by interferons. The constant exposure of the liver to microbial products from the intestine may drive innate immunity, rendering the local environment unfavorable for specific T-cell responses through this mechanism. Nevertheless, tolerance toward hepatocellular antigens is not monolithic and under specific circumstances allows both effective immunity and immunopathology. PMID:26924525

  14. Dracunculiasis (Guinea Worm Disease) and the Eradication Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Cairncross, Sandy; Muller, Ralph; Zagaria, Nevio

    2002-01-01

    Dracunculiasis, also known as guinea worm disease, is caused by the large female of the nematode Dracunculus medinensis, which emerges painfully and slowly from the skin, usually on the lower limbs. The disease can infect animals, and sustainable animal cycles occur in North America and Central Asia but do not act as reservoirs of human infection. The disease is endemic across the Sahel belt of Africa from Mauritania to Ethiopia, having been eliminated from Asia and some African countries. It has a significant socioeconomic impact because of the temporary disability that it causes. Dracunculiasis is exclusively caught from drinking water, usually from ponds. A campaign to eradicate the disease was launched in the 1980s and has made significant progress. The strategy of the campaign is discussed, including water supply, health education, case management, and vector control. Current issues including the integration of the campaign into primary health care and the mapping of cases by using geographic information systems are also considered. Finally, some lessons for other disease control and eradication programs are outlined. PMID:11932231

  15. Methane Ice Worms: Hesiocaeca methanicola Colonizing Fossil Fuel Reserves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, C. R.; MacDonald, I. R.; Sassen, R.; Young, C. M.; Macko, S. A.; Hourdez, S.; Carney, R. S.; Joye, S.; McMullin, E.

    During a research cruise in July 1997 in the Gulf of Mexico we discovered a gas hydrate approximately 1m thick and over 2m in diameter which had recently breached the sea floor at a depth of 540m. The hydrate surface visible from the submarine was considerably greater than that of any other reported hydrate. Two distinct color bands of hydrate were present in the same mound, and the entire exposed surface of the hydrate was infested (2500 individuals/m2) with 2 to 4 cm-long worms, since described as a new species, Hesiocaecamethanicola, in the polychaete family Hesionidae (Desbruyères and Toulmond 1998). H.methanicola tissue stable isotope values are consistent with a chemoautotrophic food source. No evidence of chemoautotrophic symbionts was detected, but geochemical data support the presence of abundant free living bacteria on the hydrate. The activities of the polychaetes, grazing on the hydrate bacteria and supplying oxygen to their habitats, appears to contribute to the dissolution of hydrates in surface sediments.

  16. Methane ice worms: Hesiocaeca methanicola colonizing fossil fuel reserves.

    PubMed

    Fisher, C R; MacDonald, I R; Sassen, R; Young, C M; Macko, S A; Hourdez, S; Carney, R S; Joye, S; McMullin, E

    2000-04-01

    During a research cruise in July 1997 in the Gulf of Mexico we discovered a gas hydrate approximately 1 m thick and over 2 m in diameter which had recently breached the sea floor at a depth of 540 m. The hydrate surface visible from the submarine was considerably greater than that of any other reported hydrate. Two distinct color bands of hydrate were present in the same mound, and the entire exposed surface of the hydrate was infested (2500 individuals/m2) with 2 to 4 cm-long worms, since described as a new species, Hesiocaeca methanicola, in the polychaete family Hesionidae (Desbruyères and Toulmond 1998). H. methanicola tissue stable isotope values are consistent with a chemo-autotrophic food source. No evidence of chemo-autotrophic symbionts was detected, but geochemical data support the presence of abundant free living bacteria on the hydrate. The activities of the polychaetes, grazing on the hydrate bacteria and supplying oxygen to their habitats, appears to contribute to the dissolution of hydrates in surface sediments. PMID:10840806

  17. Bioaccumulation and biological effects of cigarette litter in marine worms.

    PubMed

    Wright, Stephanie L; Rowe, Darren; Reid, Malcolm J; Thomas, Kevin V; Galloway, Tamara S

    2015-01-01

    Marine debris is a global environmental issue. Smoked cigarette filters are the predominant coastal litter item; 4.5 trillion are littered annually, presenting a source of bioplastic microfibres (cellulose acetate) and harmful toxicants to marine environments. Despite the human health risks associated with smoking, little is known of the hazards cigarette filters present to marine life. Here we studied the impacts of smoked cigarette filter toxicants and microfibres on the polychaete worm Hediste diversicolor (ragworm), a widespread inhabitant of coastal sediments. Ragworms exposed to smoked cigarette filter toxicants in seawater at concentrations 60 fold lower than those reported for urban run-off exhibited significantly longer burrowing times, >30% weight loss, and >2-fold increase in DNA damage compared to ragworms maintained in control conditions. In contrast, ragworms exposed to smoked cigarette filter microfibres in marine sediment showed no significant effects. Bioconcentration factors for nicotine were 500 fold higher from seawater than from sediment. Our results illustrate the vulnerability of organisms in the water column to smoking debris and associated toxicants, and highlight the risks posed by smoked cigarette filter debris to aquatic life. PMID:26369692

  18. Evolutionarily Conserved, Multitasking TRP Channels: Lessons from Worms and Flies

    PubMed Central

    Venkatachalam, Kartik; Luo, Junjie; Montell, Craig

    2015-01-01

    The Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channel family is comprised of a large group of cation-permeable channels, which display an extraordinary diversity of roles in sensory signaling. TRPs allow animals to detect chemicals, mechanical force, light, and changes in temperature. Consequently, these channels control a plethora of animal behaviors. Moreover, their functions are not limited to the classical senses, as they are cellular sensors, which are critical for ionic homeostasis and metabolism. Two genetically tractable invertebrate model organisms, Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster, have led the way in revealing a wide array of sensory roles and behaviors that depend on TRP channels. Two overriding themes have emerged from these studies. First, TRPs are multitasking proteins, and second, many functions and modes of activation of these channels are evolutionarily conserved, including some that were formerly thought to be unique to invertebrates, such as phototransduction. Thus, worms and flies offer the potential to decipher roles for mammalian TRPs, which would otherwise not be suspected. PMID:24961975

  19. Do We Need Worms to Promote Immune Health?

    PubMed

    Weinstock, Joel V

    2015-10-01

    Many immune-mediated diseases like inflammatory bowel disease, multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes, asthma, and food allergy appeared to have increased in frequency in developed countries in the latter part of the twentieth century. Reports from less developed countries suggest that the "epidemic" of immune-mediated diseases now is spreading into these regions as well. The "hygiene hypothesis" was developed to partly explain this phenomenon. It has been proposed that modern-day sanitary living has altered our exposure to organisms that provided protection from these diseases in the past. Alternations in the composition of our intestinal flora and fauna could play a role. Helminths are a group of worm-like parasitic organisms that have adapted to live in various regions of their hosts. Epidemiological and some clinical data suggest that these organisms can protect people from developing immune-mediated diseases. Animal experimentation has shown that helminths stimulate the production of regulatory cytokines, activate regulatory T cells, and induce regulatory dendritic cells and macrophages. This could be the mechanism by which they protect the host from these diseases. Early clinical studies also suggest that helminths may prove useful for treating immunological diseases. More sophisticated clinical studies are underway, testing live helminth agents as therapeutic agents. Also, a strong effort is ongoing to discover the agents produced by helminths that modulate host immune responses with an eye on developing new, highly effective immune modulatory therapeutic agent. PMID:25326880

  20. Bioaccumulation and biological effects of cigarette litter in marine worms

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Stephanie L.; Rowe, Darren; Reid, Malcolm J.; Thomas, Kevin V.; Galloway, Tamara S.

    2015-01-01

    Marine debris is a global environmental issue. Smoked cigarette filters are the predominant coastal litter item; 4.5 trillion are littered annually, presenting a source of bioplastic microfibres (cellulose acetate) and harmful toxicants to marine environments. Despite the human health risks associated with smoking, little is known of the hazards cigarette filters present to marine life. Here we studied the impacts of smoked cigarette filter toxicants and microfibres on the polychaete worm Hediste diversicolor (ragworm), a widespread inhabitant of coastal sediments. Ragworms exposed to smoked cigarette filter toxicants in seawater at concentrations 60 fold lower than those reported for urban run-off exhibited significantly longer burrowing times, >30% weight loss, and >2-fold increase in DNA damage compared to ragworms maintained in control conditions. In contrast, ragworms exposed to smoked cigarette filter microfibres in marine sediment showed no significant effects. Bioconcentration factors for nicotine were 500 fold higher from seawater than from sediment. Our results illustrate the vulnerability of organisms in the water column to smoking debris and associated toxicants, and highlight the risks posed by smoked cigarette filter debris to aquatic life. PMID:26369692

  1. Evidence That Rhesus Macaques Self-Cure from a Schistosoma japonicum Infection by Disrupting Worm Esophageal Function: A New Route to an Effective Vaccine?

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-Hong; Xu, Yu-Xin; Vance, Gill; Wang, Yun; Lv, Long-Bao; van Dam, Govert J.; Cao, Jian-Ping; Wilson, R. Alan

    2015-01-01

    Background Rhesus macaques are unusual among schistosome hosts, self-curing from an established infection and thereafter manifesting solid immunity against a challenge, an ideal model for vaccine development. Previously, the immunological basis of self-cure was confirmed; surviving worms had ceased feeding but how immunological pressure achieved this was unclear. The schistosome esophagus is not simply a conduit for blood but plays a central role in its processing. Secretions from the anterior and posterior esophageal glands mix with incoming blood causing erythrocyte lysis and tethering and killing of leucocytes. Methodology/Principal Findings We have analysed the self-cure process in rhesus macaques infected with Schistosoma japonicum. Faecal egg output and circulating antigen levels were used to chart the establishment of a mature worm population and its subsequent demise. The physiological stress of surviving females at perfusion was especially evident from their pale, shrunken appearance, while changes in the structure and function of the esophagus were observed in both sexes. In the anterior region electron microscopy revealed that the vesicle secretory process was disrupted, the tips of lining corrugations being swollen by greatly enlarged vesicles and the putative sites of vesicle release obscured by intense deposits of IgG. The lumen of the posterior esophagus in starving worms was occluded by cellular debris and the lining cytoplasmic plates were closely adherent, also potentially preventing secretion. Seven proteins secreted by the posterior gland were identified and IgG responses were detected to some or all of them. Intrinsic rhesus IgG colocalized with secreted SjMEGs 4.1, 8.2, 9, 11 and VAL-7 on cryosections, suggesting they are potential targets for disruption of function. Conclusions/Significance Our data suggest that rhesus macaques self-cure by blocking esophagus function with antibody; the protein products of the glands provide a new class of

  2. CHRONIC EFFECTS OF THE HERBICIDE DIURON ON FRESHWATER CLADOCERANS,AMPHIPODS,MIDGES,MINNOWS,WORMS, AND SNAILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chronic effects of the herbicide diuron on survival and reproduction of Daphnia pulex, and survival and growth of the amphipod Hyalella azteca, the midge Chironomus tentans, juvenile and embro/larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, annelid worms, Lumbriculus variegatus,...

  3. Toxicity of metals to a freshwater tubificid worm Tubifex tubifex (Muller)

    SciTech Connect

    Khangarot, B.S. )

    1991-06-01

    Salts of various metals are being released in ever increasing amounts into the aquatic environment from mining operations, metal processing facilities, chemical industries and other similar sources. Although there has been considerable study of the acute and chronic toxicities of metals to freshwater fishes, crustaceans and snails, little information is available on the effects of metals to tubificid worms which are widely distributed in the aquatic environment. Tubificid worms are useful indicators of varying degrees of aquatic pollution. It is suggested that tubificid worms are an important element in the aquatic environment and therefore their use as a bioassay organism is logical one. The present study was undertaken to determine the acute toxicities of various metals to a fresh-water tubificid worm, Tubifex tubifex (Muller), which form an important link in aquatic food chain(s).

  4. Effect of Worm Predation on Changes in Waste Activated Sludge Properties.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xuefeng; Yuan, Wenyi; Wang, Zhiwei; Zhou, Mingyuan; Guan, Jie

    2016-05-01

    This study explored the effects of worm predation on changes in waste activated sludge properties. Results showed that the rate by which worm predation reduced mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS) was approximately 23.7% ± 3.1%. Particle size distribution and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) analyses indicated that the reduction of fine particles and EPS content in sludge predated by worms mainly increased dewaterability and reduced the ratio of MLVSS/mixed liquor suspended solids. Moreover, both mean particle size and protein/carbohydrate ratio increased. The results of three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix and gel filtration chromatogram analyses demonstrated the varied properties of soluble microbial products and EPS were attributed to the worms' selective predation of low molecular-weight organic matter, which facilitated the hydrolysis of macromolecular organic matter. PMID:27131302

  5. Comparison of the complete protein sets of worm and yeast: orthology and divergence.

    PubMed

    Chervitz, S A; Aravind, L; Sherlock, G; Ball, C A; Koonin, E V; Dwight, S S; Harris, M A; Dolinski, K; Mohr, S; Smith, T; Weng, S; Cherry, J M; Botstein, D

    1998-12-11

    Comparative analysis of predicted protein sequences encoded by the genomes of Caenorhabditis elegans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae suggests that most of the core biological functions are carried out by orthologous proteins (proteins of different species that can be traced back to a common ancestor) that occur in comparable numbers. The specialized processes of signal transduction and regulatory control that are unique to the multicellular worm appear to use novel proteins, many of which re-use conserved domains. Major expansion of the number of some of these domains seen in the worm may have contributed to the advent of multicellularity. The proteins conserved in yeast and worm are likely to have orthologs throughout eukaryotes; in contrast, the proteins unique to the worm may well define metazoans. PMID:9851918

  6. Methods and strategies for gene structure curation in WormBase

    PubMed Central

    Williams, G.W.; Davis, P.A.; Rogers, A.S.; Bieri, T.; Ozersky, P.; Spieth, J.

    2011-01-01

    The Caenorhabditis elegans genome sequence was published over a decade ago; this was the first published genome of a multi-cellular organism and now the WormBase project has had a decade of experience in curating this genome's sequence and gene structures. In one of its roles as a central repository for nematode biology, WormBase continues to refine the gene structure annotations using sequence similarity and other computational methods, as well as information from the literature- and community-submitted annotations. We describe the various methods of gene structure curation that have been tried by WormBase and the problems associated with each of them. We also describe the current strategy for gene structure curation, and introduce the WormBase ‘curation tool’, which integrates different data sources in order to identify new and correct gene structures. Database URL: http://www.wormbase.org/ PMID:21543339

  7. The polychaete worm Nereis diversicolor increases mercury lability and methylation in intertidal mudflats.

    PubMed

    Sizmur, Tom; Canário, João; Edmonds, Samuel; Godfrey, Adam; O'Driscoll, Nelson J

    2013-08-01

    The polychaete worm Nereis diversicolor engineers its environment by creating oxygenated burrows in anoxic intertidal sediments. The authors carried out a laboratory microcosm experiment to test the impact of polychaete burrowing and feeding activity on the lability and methylation of mercury in sediments from the Bay of Fundy, Canada. The concentration of labile inorganic mercury and methylmercury in burrow walls was elevated compared to worm-free sediments. Mucus secretions and organic detritus in worm burrows increased labile mercury concentrations. Worms decreased sulfide concentrations, which increased Hg bioavailability to sulfate-reducing bacteria and increased methylmercury concentrations in burrow linings. Because the walls of polychaete burrows have a greater interaction with organisms, and the overlying water, the concentrations of mercury and methylmercury they contain is more toxicologically relevant to the base of a coastal food web than bulk samples. The authors recommend that researchers examining Hg in marine environments account for sediment dwelling invertebrate activity to more fully assess mercury bioavailability. PMID:23633443

  8. Face Gear Drive with Spur Involute Pinion: Geometry, Generation by a Worm, Stress Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvin, Faydor L.; Fuentes, Alfonso; Zanzi, Claudio; Pontiggia, Matteo; Handschuh, Robert F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A face gear drive with a spur involute pinion is considered. The generation of the face gear is based on application of a grinding or cutting worm whereas the conventional method of generation is based on application of an involute shaper. An analytical approach is proposed for the determination of: (1) the worm thread surface; (2) avoidance of singularities of the worm thread surface, (air) dressing of the worm; and (3) determination of stresses of the face-gear drive. A computer program for simulation of meshing and contact of the pinion and face-gear has been developed. Correction of machine-tool settings is proposed for reduction of the shift of the bearing contact caused by misalignment. An automatic development of the model of five contacting teeth has been proposed for stress analysis. Numerical examples for illustration of the developed theory are provided.

  9. Schistosoma mansoni PIII antigen modulates in vitro granuloma formation by regulating CD28, CTLA-4, and CD86 expression in humans.

    PubMed

    Zouain, C S; Falcão, P L; Goes, T S; Leite, M F; Goes, A M

    2004-02-15

    We investigated the in vitro responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from intestinal chronic schistosomiasis patients to PIII, a multivalent antigen prepared from Schistosoma mansoni adult worm. PIII decreased cellular proliferation and granulomatous reaction. Moreover, induced the reduction of IFN-gamma levels and increased IL-10 production. To better understand the mechanism through which the observed suppression occurs, the present study focused on the phenotypic pattern displayed by PBMC treated with PIII in an in vitro granuloma assay. Expression of the surface markers CD28, CTLA-4 and CD86 by lymphocytes and monocytes were analyzed by flow cytometry. Our results demonstrated a significant decrease of CD28+CD4+ and CD28+CD8+ T-cell percentage stimulated by PIII compared to its non-infected counterparts. This suppressive effect was related to a significant increase in the percentage of T-cells expressing CTLA-4. PIII also promoted a significant increase in the percentage of cells expressing CD86. Indeed, our results demonstrated that PIII was capable of modulating in vitro granuloma reaction, and this event was related to the balance of IL-10, IFN-gamma and CD28, CTLA-4, CD86 bringing new insight to the immunoregulation of granulomatous hypersensitivity in human schistosomiasis. PMID:15019278

  10. Pathways of Antigen Processing

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Janice S.; Wearsch, Pamela A.; Cresswell, Peter

    2014-01-01

    T cell recognition of antigen presenting cells depends on their expression of a spectrum of peptides bound to Major Histocompatibility Complex class I (MHC-I) and class II (MHC-II) molecules. Conversion of antigens from pathogens or transformed cells into MHC-I and MHC-II-bound peptides is critical for mounting protective T cell responses, and similar processing of self proteins is necessary to establish and maintain tolerance. Cells use a variety of mechanisms to acquire protein antigens, from translation in the cytosol to variations on the theme of endocytosis, and to degrade them once acquired. In this review we highlight the aspects of MHC-I and MHC-II biosynthesis and assembly that have evolved to intersect these pathways and sample the peptides that are produced. PMID:23298205

  11. Laparoscopic common bile duct exploration for extraction of a round worm.

    PubMed

    Moirangthem, G S; Singh, C Arunkumar; Lokendra, K; Singh, L Deban

    2006-01-01

    A 35 years old lady presented with fever, biliary colic, mild jaundice, indigestion and flatulence. The upper abdominal ultrasonography revealed cholecystitis with sludge and a round worm in the common bile duct. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy and exploration of the bile duct for the removal of round worm was performed. The post-operative period was uneventful and the patient was discharged fit on the 4th post-operative day. PMID:17542295

  12. Infestation of the clam Chione fluctifraga by the burrowing worm Polydora sp. nov. in laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Tinoco-Orta, Gissel Dalila; Cáceres-Martínez, Jorge

    2003-07-01

    Burrowing worms that belong to Polydora spp. infest marine mollusks cultured worldwide, causing problems for production and marketing. The clam Chione fluctifraga is semi-cultured in Bahía Falsa, Baja California, NW Mexico, and some clams harbor burrowing worms. The present study was carried out to determine the identity of the worm species infesting the clam, the infesting process by cohabitation of infested and non-infested clams in aquaria with a variety of substrates (fine sand, gross sand, plastic bag used for clam culture, and aquarium without substrate) and turbulence conditions, and the occurrence of architomy phenomena in connection with infestation of the clam. The burrowing worm was considered as a nova species due to its singular limbate neurosetae and notosetae in the setiger 5, hooks in the setiger 6, eyes not present, and general pigmentation, among other characteristics. Infestation was similar in all substrates and turbulence conditions, but it was more abundant on clams previously infested than on those free of worms, showing a preferential settlement of worm infesting stages on pre-infested clams. Regeneration was observed in all segments of the worm: anterior (metastomium), medium, and posterior (prostomium); the complete regeneration time occurred in 40 days. This is the first record of architomy in a species of Polydora and this phenomenon could account for the increase of infestation intensity in pre-infested clams at the end of the study period. Infestation of clams by settling polichaete in the conditions studied, and the architomy process in this worm species, shows its great infesting capacity. PMID:12877826

  13. Lipid antigens in immunity

    PubMed Central

    Dowds, C. Marie; Kornell, Sabin-Christin

    2014-01-01

    Lipids are not only a central part of human metabolism but also play diverse and critical roles in the immune system. As such, they can act as ligands of lipid-activated nuclear receptors, control inflammatory signaling through bioactive lipids such as prostaglandins, leukotrienes, lipoxins, resolvins, and protectins, and modulate immunity as intracellular phospholipid- or sphingolipid-derived signaling mediators. In addition, lipids can serve as antigens and regulate immunity through the activation of lipid-reactive T cells, which is the topic of this review. We will provide an overview of the mechanisms of lipid antigen presentation, the biology of lipid-reactive T cells, and their contribution to immunity. PMID:23999493

  14. Influence of ecologic factors on prevalence of meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) infection in South Dakota, USA.

    PubMed

    Jacques, Christopher N; Jenks, Jonathan A; Grovenburg, Troy W; Klaver, Robert W; Dubay, Shelli A

    2015-04-01

    The meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) is a nematode parasite that commonly infects white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus; WTD) throughout the deciduous forest biome and deciduous-coniferous ecotone of eastern and central North America; the species is not known to occur west of the grassland biome of central North America. We used county-specific prevalence data to evaluate potential effects of landscape and climatologic factors on the spatial distribution of meningeal worm infection in South Dakota, US. Probability of infection increased 4-fold between eastern and western South Dakota and 1.3-fold for each 1-cm increase in summer precipitation. Sixty-three percent of WTD had only a single worm in the cranium. Expansion of meningeal worm infection across western South Dakota may be inherently low due to the combined effects of arid climate and potential attributes of the Missouri River that limit regional movements by infected WTD. Use of landscape genetic analyses to identify potential relationships between landscape features and population genetic structure of infected deer and parasites may contribute to a greater understanding of regional heterogeneity in meningeal worm infection rates across South Dakota, particularly in counties adjacent to the Missouri River. Future research evaluating heterogeneity in prevalence and intensity of infection between fawn and yearling deer, and the potential role of yearling male deer as dispersal agents of meningeal worms across the Missouri River, also is warranted. PMID:25588013

  15. Census of bacterial microbiota associated with the glacier ice worm Mesenchytraeus solifugus.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Takumi; Segawa, Takahiro; Bodington, Dylan; Dial, Roman; Takeuchi, Nozomu; Kohshima, Shiro; Hongoh, Yuichi

    2015-03-01

    The glacier ice worm, Mesenchytraeus solifugus, is a unique annelid, inhabiting only snow and ice in North American glaciers. Here, we analyzed the taxonomic composition of bacteria associated with M. solifugus based on the 16S rRNA gene. We analyzed four fixed-on-site and 10 starved ice worm individuals, along with glacier surface samples. In total, 1341 clones of 16S rRNA genes were analyzed for the ice worm samples, from which 65 bacterial phylotypes (99.0% cut-off) were identified. Of these, 35 phylotypes were closely related to sequences obtained from their habitat glacier and/or other components of cryosphere; whereas three dominant phylotypes were affiliated with animal-associated lineages of the class Mollicutes. Among the three, phylotype Ms-13 shared less than 89% similarity with database sequences and was closest to a gut symbiont of a terrestrial earthworm. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization, Ms-13 was located on the gut wall surface of the ice worms. We propose a novel genus and species, 'Candidatus Vermiplasma glacialis', for this bacterium. Our results raise the possibility that the ice worm has exploited indigenous glacier bacteria, while several symbiotic bacterial lineages have maintained their association with the ice worm during the course of adaptive evolution to the permanently cold environment. PMID:25764456

  16. Influence of ecological factors on prevalence of meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis infection in South Dakota, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacques, Christopher N.; Jenks, Jonathan A.; Grovenburg, Troy W.; Klaver, Robert W.; Dubay, Shelli A.

    2015-01-01

    The meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) is a nematode parasite that commonly infects white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus; WTD) throughout the deciduous forest biome and deciduous-coniferous ecotone of eastern and central North America; the species is not known to occur west of the grassland biome of central North America. We used county-specific prevalence data to evaluate potential effects of landscape and climatologic factors on the spatial distribution of meningeal worm infection in South Dakota, US. Probability of infection increased 4-fold between eastern and western South Dakota and 1.3-fold for each 1-cm increase in summer precipitation. Sixty-three percent of WTD had only a single worm in the cranium. Expansion of meningeal worm infection across western South Dakota may be inherently low due to the combined effects of arid climate and potential attributes of the Missouri River that limit regional movements by infected WTD. Use of landscape genetic analyses to identify potential relationships between landscape features and population genetic structure of infected deer and parasites may contribute to a greater understanding of regional heterogeneity in meningeal worm infection rates across South Dakota, particularly in counties adjacent to the Missouri River. Future research evaluating heterogeneity in prevalence and intensity of infection between fawn and yearling deer, and the potential role of yearling male deer as dispersal agents of meningeal worms across the Missouri River, also is warranted.

  17. Culturing Caenorhabditis elegans in Axenic Liquid Media and Creation of Transgenic Worms by Microparticle Bombardment

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Tamika K.; Sinclair, Jason W.; Pinter, Katherine L.; Hamza, Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    In this protocol, we present the required materials, and the procedure for making modified C. elegans Habituation and Reproduction media (mCeHR). Additionally, the steps for exposing and acclimatizing C. elegans grown on E. coli to axenic liquid media are described. Finally, downstream experiments that utilize axenic C. elegans illustrate the benefits of this procedure. The ability to analyze and determine C. elegans nutrient requirement was illustrated by growing N2 wild type worms in axenic liquid media with varying heme concentrations. This procedure can be replicated with other nutrients to determine the optimal concentration for worm growth and development or, to determine the toxicological effects of drug treatments. The effects of varied heme concentrations on the growth of wild type worms were determined through qualitative microscopic observation and by quantitating the number of worms that grew in each heme concentration. In addition, the effect of varied nutrient concentrations can be assayed by utilizing worms that express fluorescent sensors that respond to changes in the nutrient of interest. Furthermore, a large number of worms were easily produced for the generation of transgenic C. elegans using microparticle bombardment. PMID:25145601

  18. Viscoelastic properties of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a self-similar, shear-thinning worm

    PubMed Central

    Backholm, Matilda; Ryu, William S.; Dalnoki-Veress, Kari

    2013-01-01

    Undulatory motion is common to many creatures across many scales, from sperm to snakes. These organisms must push off against their external environment, such as a viscous medium, grains of sand, or a high-friction surface; additionally they must work to bend their own body. A full understanding of undulatory motion, and locomotion in general, requires the characterization of the material properties of the animal itself. The material properties of the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans were studied with a micromechanical experiment used to carry out a three-point bending measurement of the worm. Worms at various developmental stages (including dauer) were measured and different positions along the worm were probed. From these experiments we calculated the viscoelastic properties of the worm, including the effective spring constant and damping coefficient of bending. C. elegans moves by propagating sinusoidal waves along its body. Whereas previous viscoelastic approaches to describe the undulatory motion have used a Kelvin–Voigt model, where the elastic and viscous components are connected in parallel, our measurements show that the Maxwell model, where the elastic and viscous components are in series, is more appropriate. The viscous component of the worm was shown to be consistent with a non-Newtonian, shear-thinning fluid. We find that as the worm matures it is well described as a self-similar elastic object with a shear-thinning damping term and a stiffness that becomes smaller as one approaches the tail. PMID:23460699

  19. An inconvenient truth: global worming and anthelmintic resistance.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Ray M; Vidyashankar, Anand N

    2012-05-01

    Over the past 10-15 years, we have witnessed a rapid increase in both the prevalence and magnitude of anthelmintic resistance, and this increase appears to be a worldwide phenomenon. Reports of anthelmintic resistance to multiple drugs in individual parasite species, and in multiple parasite species across virtually all livestock hosts, are increasingly common. In addition, since the introduction of ivermectin in 1981, no novel anthelmintic classes were developed and introduced for use in livestock until recently with the launch of monepantel in New Zealand. Thus, livestock producers are often left with few options for effective treatment against many important parasite species. While new anthelmintic classes with novel mechanisms of action could potentially solve this problem, new drugs are extremely expensive to develop, and can be expected to be more expensive than older drugs. Thus, it seems clear that the "Global Worming" approach that has taken hold over the past 40-50 years must change, and livestock producers must develop a new vision for parasite control and sustainability of production. Furthermore, parasitologists must improve methods for study design and data analysis that are used for diagnosing anthelmintic resistance, especially for the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT). Currently, standards for diagnosis of anthelmintic resistance using FECRT exist only for sheep. Lack of standards in horses and cattle and arbitrarily defined cutoffs for defining resistance, combined with inadequate analysis of the data, mean that errors in assigning resistance status are common. Similarly, the lack of standards makes it difficult to compare data among different studies. This problem needs to be addressed, because as new drugs are introduced now and in the future, the lack of alternative treatments will make early and accurate diagnosis of anthelmintic resistance increasingly important. PMID:22154968

  20. Sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase from echiuran worm Urechis unicinctus.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yu-Bin; Zhang, Zhi-Feng; Shao, Ming-Yu; Kang, Kyoung-Ho; Tan, Zhi; Li, Jin-Long

    2011-02-01

    Sulfide is a natural, widely distributed, poisonous substance, and sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase (SQR) has been identified to be responsible for the initial oxidation of sulfide in mitochondria. In this study, full-length SQR cDNA was cloned from the echiuran worm Urechis unicinctus, a benthic organism living in marine sediments. The protein consisted of 451 amino acids with a theoretical pI of 8.98 and molecular weight of 50.5 kDa. Subsequently, the SQR mRNA expression in different tissues was assessed by real-time reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction and showed that the highest expression was in midgut, followed by anal sacs and coelomic fluid cells, and then body wall and hindgut. Furthermore, activated SQR was obtained by dilution refolding of recombinant SQR expression in E. coli, and the refolded product showed optimal activity at 37 °C and pH 8.5 and K (m) for ubiquinone and sulfide at 15.6 µM and 40.3 µM, respectively. EDTA and GSH had an activating effect on refolded SQR, while Zn(2+) caused decreased activity. Western blot showed that SQR in vivo was located in mitochondria and was ∼ 10 kDa heavier than the recombinant protein. In addition, SQR, detected by immunohistochemistry, was mainly located in the epithelium of all tissues examined. Ultrastructural observations of these tissues' epithelium by transmission electron microscopy provided indirect cytological evidence for its mitochondrial location. Interesting aspects of the U. unicinctus SQR amino acid sequence, its catalytic mechanism, and the different roles of these tissues in sulfide metabolic adaptation are also discussed. PMID:20419499

  1. A beta-galactose-specific lectin isolated from the marine worm Chaetopterus variopedatus possesses anti-HIV-1 activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Hua; Kong, Jing; Li, Wei; Molchanova, Valentina; Chikalovets, Irina; Belogortseva, Natalia; Luk'yanov, Pavel; Zheng, Yong-Tang

    2006-01-01

    A 30 kDa beta-galactose-specific lectin named CVL was isolated from the polychaete marine worm Chaetopterus variopedatus (Annelida) and its anti-HIV-1 activity in vitro was determined. Results showed that CVL inhibited cytopathic effect induced by HIV-1 and the production of viral p24 antigen. The EC(50) values were 0.0043 and 0.057 microM, respectively. Time-of-addition analysis of anti-HIV-1 activity indicated its action was at the early stage of virus replication. CVL could blocked the cell-to-cell fusion process of HIV infected and uninfected cells with an EC(50) of 0.073 microM. The inhibition of HIV-1 entry into host cells was demonstrated by using fluorescence-based real-time quantify PCR. At CVL concentration of 0.33 microM and 0.07 microM, 86% and 21% virus attachment were blocked, respectively. The anti-HIV-1 action of CVL might relate to blockade of HIV-1 entry into cells. PMID:16316787

  2. Antigen detection systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infectious agents or their constituent parts (antigens or nucleic acids) can be detected in fresh, frozen, or fixed tissue using a variety of direct or indirect assays. The assays can be modified to yield the greatest sensitivity and specificity but in most cases a particular methodology is chosen ...

  3. Antigen smuggling in tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Hudrisier, Denis; Neyrolles, Olivier

    2014-06-11

    The importance of CD4 T lymphocytes in immunity to M. tuberculosis is well established; however, how dendritic cells activate T cells in vivo remains obscure. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Srivastava and Ernst (2014) report a mechanism of antigen transfer for efficient activation of antimycobacterial T cells. PMID:24922567

  4. Antigen detection systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infectious agents or their constituent parts (antigens or nucleic acids) can be detected in fresh, frozen, or fixed tissues or other specimens, using a variety of direct or indirect assays. The assays can be modified to yield the greatest sensitivity and specificity but in most cases a particular m...

  5. [Purification of antigenic fraction 27-28 kDa from the metabolic antigen from metabolic secreted-excreted from Fasciola hepatica].

    PubMed

    Antitupa, Isidro; Quispe, William; Mayo, Jhon; Valverde, Fanny; Sanchez, Elizabeth

    2014-04-01

    Antigenic fractions of 27-28 kDa from Fasciola hepatica were purified by size-exclusion chromatography for use in the diagnosis of human fasciolosis. Excretion and secretion antigens were obtained from living adult flukes collected from sheep and cattle liver, and cultured in minimum essential medium. The reactivity of the purified antigen and efficacy were assessed by immunoblot test using four sera with human fascioliasis; four sera with other parasites, and two negative sera. We conclude that the purified antigenic fractions do not cross-react with other parasites by immunoblot. Therefore, purified proteins are considered as potential candidates to be used for the diagnosis of human fascioliasis. PMID:25123868

  6. Aspergillus antigen skin test (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The aspergillus antigen skin test determines whether or not a person has been exposed to the mold aspergillus. It is performed by injecting an aspergillus antigen under the skin with a needle. After 48 ...

  7. [Serological demonstration of experimental round worm infections-Ascaris suum, Toxocara canis--in swine by means of the indirect immunofluorescence antibody test].

    PubMed

    Buchwalder, R; Matthes, H F; Hiepe, T

    1981-11-01

    By means of indirect immunofluorescent antibody reaction (IFAR), using serum of experimentally infected pigs, various antigens were studied with regard to their usefulness for serological verification of prepatent Ascaris suum and Toxocara canis infections. Eggs, egg larvae, larvae received from livers, lungs and brains of experimentally infected white mice and sections of adult T. canis as well as eggs, egg larvae, liver larvae and sections of frozen adult A. suum proved to be not suitable for the reliable serum diagnosis of the infections. On the other hand, A. suum larvae, isolated from lungs of white mice or guinea pigs days after experimental infection, represent an antigen applicable to IFAR for the evidence of prepatent A. suum infections in pigs. The antigen, stored at -20 degree C, is durable without substantial impairment of its reactivity at least 7 months. PMID:7039425

  8. Cancer testis antigen and immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Krishnadas, Deepa Kolaseri; Bai, Fanqi; Lucas, Kenneth G

    2013-01-01

    The identification of cancer testis (CT) antigens has been an important advance in determining potential targets for cancer immunotherapy. Multiple previous studies have shown that CT antigen vaccines, using both peptides and dendritic cell vaccines, can elicit clinical and immunologic responses in several different tumors. This review details the expression of melanoma antigen family A, 1 (MAGE-A1), melanoma antigen family A, 3 (MAGE-A3), and New York esophageal squamous cell carcinoma-1 (NY-ESO-1) in various malignancies, and presents our current understanding of CT antigen based immunotherapy.

  9. Viability of adult Onchocerca volvulus after six 2-weekly doses of ivermectin.

    PubMed Central

    Duke, B. O.; Pacqué, M. C.; Muñoz, B.; Greene, B. M.; Taylor, H. R.

    1991-01-01

    Ivermectin is a safe, effective microfilaricide and microfilarial suppressant for Onchocerca volvulus; but in single doses of 100-200 micrograms/kg body weight it has no macrofilaricidal action. The present trial aimed to determine whether 6 doses of 100 micrograms/kg ivermectin, given at 2-week intervals, would kill the adult worms. Eighty-two nodules from 28 otherwise healthy adult male Liberian patients treated with this ivermectin schedule, and 102 nodules from a similar group of 25 control patients, were removed four months after the last dose of ivermectin. They were coded and assessed in a masked fashion either by routine histology or by examination of whole worms extracted from the nodules after collagenase digestion. The drug had no visible effect on adult male worms. More adult female worms were assessed as moribund or dead in the ivermectin-treated group than in the control group (for the collagenase digests P = 0.09; for the histological assessment P = 0.47). The data suggest that repeated dosage with ivermectin may lead to a slow attrition of some female worms and this possibility should be investigated in patients receiving regular doses every 3, 6 or 12 months as part of onchocerciasis control programmes. PMID:1860146

  10. Worm Grunting, Fiddling, and Charming—Humans Unknowingly Mimic a Predator to Harvest Bait

    PubMed Central

    Catania, Kenneth C.

    2008-01-01

    Background For generations many families in and around Florida's Apalachicola National Forest have supported themselves by collecting the large endemic earthworms (Diplocardia mississippiensis). This is accomplished by vibrating a wooden stake driven into the soil, a practice called “worm grunting”. In response to the vibrations, worms emerge to the surface where thousands can be gathered in a few hours. Why do these earthworms suddenly exit their burrows in response to vibrations, exposing themselves to predation? Principal Findings Here it is shown that a population of eastern American moles (Scalopus aquaticus) inhabits the area where worms are collected and that earthworms have a pronounced escape response from moles consisting of rapidly exiting their burrows to flee across the soil surface. Recordings of vibrations generated by bait collectors and moles suggest that “worm grunters” unknowingly mimic digging moles. An alternative possibility, that worms interpret vibrations as rain and surface to avoid drowning is not supported. Conclusions Previous investigations have revealed that both wood turtles and herring gulls vibrate the ground to elicit earthworm escapes, indicating that a range of predators may exploit the predator-prey relationship between earthworms and moles. In addition to revealing a novel escape response that may be widespread among soil fauna, the results show that humans have played the role of “rare predators” in exploiting the consequences of a sensory arms race. PMID:18852902

  11. WormFarm: a quantitative control and measurement device toward automated Caenorhabditis elegans aging analysis.

    PubMed

    Xian, Bo; Shen, Jie; Chen, Weiyang; Sun, Na; Qiao, Nan; Jiang, Dongqing; Yu, Tao; Men, Yongfan; Han, Zhijun; Pang, Yuhong; Kaeberlein, Matt; Huang, Yanyi; Han, Jing-Dong J

    2013-06-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans is a leading model organism for studying the basic mechanisms of aging. Progress has been limited, however, by the lack of an automated system for quantitative analysis of longevity and mean lifespan. To address this barrier, we developed 'WormFarm', an integrated microfluidic device for culturing nematodes. Cohorts of 30-50 animals are maintained throughout their lifespan in each of eight separate chambers on a single WormFarm polydimethylsiloxane chip. Design features allow for automated removal of progeny and efficient control of environmental conditions. In addition, we have developed computational algorithms for automated analysis of video footage to quantitate survival and other phenotypes, such as body size and motility. As proof-of-principle, we show here that WormFarm successfully recapitulates survival data obtained from a standard plate-based assay for both RNAi-mediated and dietary-induced changes in lifespan. Further, using a fluorescent reporter in conjunction with WormFarm, we report an age-associated decrease in fluorescent intensity of GFP in transgenic worms expressing GFP tagged with a mitochondrial import signal under the control of the myo-3 promoter. This marker may therefore serve as a useful biomarker of biological age and aging rate. PMID:23442149

  12. WormQTL--public archive and analysis web portal for natural variation data in Caenorhabditis spp.

    PubMed

    Snoek, L Basten; Van der Velde, K Joeri; Arends, Danny; Li, Yang; Beyer, Antje; Elvin, Mark; Fisher, Jasmin; Hajnal, Alex; Hengartner, Michael O; Poulin, Gino B; Rodriguez, Miriam; Schmid, Tobias; Schrimpf, Sabine; Xue, Feng; Jansen, Ritsert C; Kammenga, Jan E; Swertz, Morris A

    2013-01-01

    Here, we present WormQTL (http://www.wormqtl.org), an easily accessible database enabling search, comparative analysis and meta-analysis of all data on variation in Caenorhabditis spp. Over the past decade, Caenorhabditis elegans has become instrumental for molecular quantitative genetics and the systems biology of natural variation. These efforts have resulted in a valuable amount of phenotypic, high-throughput molecular and genotypic data across different developmental worm stages and environments in hundreds of C. elegans strains. WormQTL provides a workbench of analysis tools for genotype-phenotype linkage and association mapping based on but not limited to R/qtl (http://www.rqtl.org). All data can be uploaded and downloaded using simple delimited text or Excel formats and are accessible via a public web user interface for biologists and R statistic and web service interfaces for bioinformaticians, based on open source MOLGENIS and xQTL workbench software. WormQTL welcomes data submissions from other worm researchers. PMID:23180786

  13. An Echinococcus multilocularis Antigen B3 Proteoform That Shows Specific Antibody Responses to Active-Stage Alveolar Echinococcosis.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Chun-Seob; Cai, Huixia; Kim, Jeong-Geun; Han, Xiumin; Ma, Xiao; Bae, Young-An; Yang, Hyun-Jong; Kang, Insug; Wang, Hu; Kong, Yoon

    2015-10-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis (AE), caused by the Echinococcus multilocularis metacestode, represents one of the most frequently fatal zoonoses. Early diagnosis significantly reduces morbidity and mortality associated with AE. Diagnosis of AE largely depends on a combination of imaging and serological tests due to its minimal clinical manifestations. Several antigens derived from the whole worm and protoscolex have been targeted for AE serodiagnosis, while the antigenic properties of E. multilocularis hydatid fluid (EmHF) are unclear. We observed two AE-specific 6- and 8-kDa antigen proteoforms through an immunoproteome array of the EmHF. We identified these proteins as representing an E. multilocularis antigen B3 (EmAgB3) isoform, and the proteins were shown to be encoded by the same gene. We cloned the gene and expressed the recombinant EmAgB3 protein (rEmAgB3) in Escherichia coli. rEmAgB3 exhibited sensitivity of 90.9% (80/88 cases) and specificity of 98.5% (597/606 samples) by immunoblotting. The positive and negative predictive values were 89.9% and 98.6%, respectively. The protein did not show antibody responses to 33 AE sera collected during posttreatment follow-up monitoring. Mouse sera experimentally infected with AE protoscoleces began to demonstrate specific antibody responses to native and recombinant EmAgB3 6 months after infection. At that stage, fully mature metacestode vesicles that harbored the brood capsule, primary cell, and protoscolex were observed within an AE mass(es). The response declined along with worm degeneration. Our results demonstrate that the immune responses to this EmAgB3 isoform were highly correlated with worm viability accompanied with AE progression. rEmAgB3 is a promising biomarker for serological assessment of AE patients. PMID:26269620

  14. An Echinococcus multilocularis Antigen B3 Proteoform That Shows Specific Antibody Responses to Active-Stage Alveolar Echinococcosis

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Chun-Seob; Cai, Huixia; Kim, Jeong-Geun; Han, Xiumin; Ma, Xiao; Bae, Young-An; Yang, Hyun-Jong; Kang, Insug; Wang, Hu

    2015-01-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis (AE), caused by the Echinococcus multilocularis metacestode, represents one of the most frequently fatal zoonoses. Early diagnosis significantly reduces morbidity and mortality associated with AE. Diagnosis of AE largely depends on a combination of imaging and serological tests due to its minimal clinical manifestations. Several antigens derived from the whole worm and protoscolex have been targeted for AE serodiagnosis, while the antigenic properties of E. multilocularis hydatid fluid (EmHF) are unclear. We observed two AE-specific 6- and 8-kDa antigen proteoforms through an immunoproteome array of the EmHF. We identified these proteins as representing an E. multilocularis antigen B3 (EmAgB3) isoform, and the proteins were shown to be encoded by the same gene. We cloned the gene and expressed the recombinant EmAgB3 protein (rEmAgB3) in Escherichia coli. rEmAgB3 exhibited sensitivity of 90.9% (80/88 cases) and specificity of 98.5% (597/606 samples) by immunoblotting. The positive and negative predictive values were 89.9% and 98.6%, respectively. The protein did not show antibody responses to 33 AE sera collected during posttreatment follow-up monitoring. Mouse sera experimentally infected with AE protoscoleces began to demonstrate specific antibody responses to native and recombinant EmAgB3 6 months after infection. At that stage, fully mature metacestode vesicles that harbored the brood capsule, primary cell, and protoscolex were observed within an AE mass(es). The response declined along with worm degeneration. Our results demonstrate that the immune responses to this EmAgB3 isoform were highly correlated with worm viability accompanied with AE progression. rEmAgB3 is a promising biomarker for serological assessment of AE patients. PMID:26269620

  15. Expression pattern of the Brachyury gene in the arrow worm paraspadella gotoi (chaetognatha).

    PubMed

    Takada, Norio; Goto, Taichiro; Satoh, Nori

    2002-03-01

    Arrow worms (the phylum Chaetognatha), which are among the major marine planktonic animals, are direct developers and exhibit features characteristic of both deuterostomes and protostomes. In particular, the embryonic development of arrow worms appears to be of the deuterostome type. Brachyury functions critically in the formation of the notochord in chordates, whereas the gene is expressed in both the blastopore and stomodeum invagination regions in embryos of hemichordates and echinoderms. Here we analyzed the expression of Brachyury (Pg-Bra) in the arrow worm Paraspadella gotoi and showed that Pg-Bra is expressed in the blastopore region and the stomodeum region in the embryo and then around the mouth opening region at the time of hatching. The expression of Pg-Bra in the embryo resembles that of Brachyury in embryos of hemichordates and echinoderms, whereas that in the mouth opening region in the hatchling appears to be novel. PMID:11892013

  16. Chemo-paralysis for the removal of a live intraocular worm in ocular angiostrongyliasis.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Dinesh Kumar; Arora, Ritu; Chauhan, Deepender; Shroff, Daraius; Narula, Ritesh

    2006-07-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is also called the rodent lung worm. It was first discovered in 1935 by Chen in Rattus rattus, in Canton, China. The rodent is the definitive host while infected mollusks, snails and crabs act as the intermediate hosts. Humans are infected by the 3rd stage larvae, either by eating undercooked intermediate hosts or by consuming vegetables.(1) It is a delicate nematode reported in Asia Pacific region most commonly in South-east Asia and has been reported from Taiwan, Thailand, Indonesia, Vietnam and Sri Lanka.(2) Anterior chamber angiostrogyliasis is extremely rare, and no previous case of ocular angiostrogyliasis from India could be found on Medline search. We report a new technique in the removal of the actively motile thread-like worm by paralysing it with intracameral preservative free lidocaine, which aids in the easy removal of the intact worm. PMID:16872350

  17. Species richness and macronutrient content of wawo worms (Polychaeta, Annelida) from Ambonese waters, Maluku, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aims of this research were to: (1) investigate the species richness of wawo worms, and to (2) analyze macronutrient content of the worms. Wawo worms were sampled using a fishing net on March 18th-19th, 2014, from Ambonese waters, Maluku. As many as 26 wawo species belonging to 5 families were identified. Palola sp. was identified as the most abundant species of wawo, followed by Lysidice oele, Horst 1905, Eunice spp. and nereidids. Results of the proximate analysis reveal that female epitokes of Palola sp. contain 10.78 % ash, 10.71 % moisture, 11.67 % crude fat, 54.72 % crude protein and 12.12 % carbohydrate. PMID:25829856

  18. OpenWorm: an open-science approach to modeling Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Szigeti, Balázs; Gleeson, Padraig; Vella, Michael; Khayrulin, Sergey; Palyanov, Andrey; Hokanson, Jim; Currie, Michael; Cantarelli, Matteo; Idili, Giovanni; Larson, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    OpenWorm is an international collaboration with the aim of understanding how the behavior of Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) emerges from its underlying physiological processes. The project has developed a modular simulation engine to create computational models of the worm. The modularity of the engine makes it possible to easily modify the model, incorporate new experimental data and test hypotheses. The modeling framework incorporates both biophysical neuronal simulations and a novel fluid-dynamics-based soft-tissue simulation for physical environment-body interactions. The project's open-science approach is aimed at overcoming the difficulties of integrative modeling within a traditional academic environment. In this article the rationale is presented for creating the OpenWorm collaboration, the tools and resources developed thus far are outlined and the unique challenges associated with the project are discussed. PMID:25404913

  19. Identification of Antigenic Glycans from Schistosoma mansoni by Using a Shotgun Egg Glycan Microarray.

    PubMed

    Mickum, Megan L; Prasanphanich, Nina Salinger; Song, Xuezheng; Dorabawila, Nelum; Mandalasi, Msano; Lasanajak, Yi; Luyai, Anthony; Secor, W Evan; Wilkins, Patricia P; Van Die, Irma; Smith, David F; Nyame, A Kwame; Cummings, Richard D; Rivera-Marrero, Carlos A

    2016-05-01

    Infection of mammals by the parasitic helminth Schistosoma mansoni induces antibodies to glycan antigens in worms and eggs, but the differential nature of the immune response among infected mammals is poorly understood. To better define these responses, we used a shotgun glycomics approach in which N-glycans from schistosome egg glycoproteins were prepared, derivatized, separated, and used to generate an egg shotgun glycan microarray. This array was interrogated with sera from infected mice, rhesus monkeys, and humans and with glycan-binding proteins and antibodies to gather information about the structures of antigenic glycans, which also were analyzed by mass spectrometry. A major glycan antigen targeted by IgG from different infected species is the FLDNF epitope [Fucα3GalNAcβ4(Fucα3)GlcNAc-R], which is also recognized by the IgG monoclonal antibody F2D2. The FLDNF antigen is expressed by all life stages of the parasite in mammalian hosts, and F2D2 can kill schistosomula in vitro in a complement-dependent manner. Different antisera also recognized other glycan determinants, including core β-xylose and highly fucosylated glycans. Thus, the natural shotgun glycan microarray of schistosome eggs is useful in identifying antigenic glycans and in developing new anti-glycan reagents that may have diagnostic applications and contribute to developing new vaccines against schistosomiasis. PMID:26883596

  20. Mortality of rocky mountain elk in Michigan due to meningeal worm

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bender, L.C.; Schmitt, S.M.; Carlson, E.; Haufler, J.B.; Beyer, D.E., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Mortality from cerebrospinal parelaphostrongylosis caused by the meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) has been hypothesized to limit elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) populations in areas where elk are conspecific with white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Elk were reintroduced into Michigan (USA) in the early 1900s and subsequently greatly increased population size and distribution despite sympatric high-density (???12/km2) white-tailed deer populations. We monitored 100 radio-collared elk of all age and sex classes from 1981-94, during which time we documented 76 mortalities. Meningeal worm was a minor mortality factor for elk in Michigan and accounted for only 3% of mortalities, fewer than legal harvest (58%), illegal kills (22%), other diseases (7%), and malnutrition (4%). Across years, annual cause-specific mortality rates due to cerebrospinal parelaphostrongylosis were 0.033 (SE=0.006), 0.029 (SE=0.005), 0.000 (SE=0.001), and 0.000 (SE=0.000) for calves, 1-yr-old, 2-yr-old, and ???3-yr-old, respectively. The overall population-level mortality rate due to cerebrospinal parelaphostrongylosis was 0.009 (SE=0.001). Thus, meningeal worm had little impact on elk in Michigan during our study despite greater than normal precipitation (favoring gastropods) and record (???14 km2) deer densities. Further, elk in Michigan have shown sustained population rates-of-increase of ???18%/yr and among the highest levels of juvenile production and survival recorded for elk in North America, indicating that elk can persist in areas with meningeal worm at high levels of population productivity. it is likely that local ecologic characteristics among elk, white-tailed deer, and gastropods, and degree of exposure, age of elk, individual and population experience with meningeal worm, overall population vigor, and moisture determine the effects of meningeal worm on elk populations. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2005.

  1. Eradicating guinea worm without wells: unrealized hopes of the Water Decade.

    PubMed

    Brieger, W R; Otusanya, S; Adeniyi, J D; Tijani, J; Banjoko, M

    1997-12-01

    At the start of the United Nations International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade in the 1980s, guinea worm disease was targeted as the major indicator of the success of the Decade's efforts to promote safe water. By the late 1980s, most of the guinea worm endemic countries in Africa and South Asia had established guinea worm eradication programmes that included water supply as one of their main technical strategies. By surveying the water supply situation in Ifeloju Local Government Area (LGA) in Oyo State, Nigeria, in June 1996, as a case study, it was possible to determine the role that water supply has played in the eradication effort. Although two major agencies, the former Directorate for Food, Roads and Rural Infrastructure and UNICEF, provided hand dug and bore-hole wells respectively in many parts of the LGA, coverage of the smaller farm hamlets has been minor compared to efforts in the larger towns. This is ironic because the farm hamlets served as a reservoir for the disease in the 1980s, such that when the piped water system in the towns broke down, guinea worm was easily reintroduced into the towns. The survey of 188 ever-endemic hamlets with an estimated population of 23,556 found that 74.3% of the people still drink only pond water. Another 11.3% have wells that have become dysfunctional. Only 14.4% of this rural population has access' to functioning wells. Guinea worm was eliminated from 107 of the hamlets mainly by the use of cloth filters and chemical treatment of ponds. While this proves that it is possible to eradicate guinea worm, it fails to leave behind the legacy of reliable, safe water supplies that was the hope of the Water Decade. PMID:10176270

  2. Highly toxic ribbon worm Cephalothrix simula containing tetrodotoxin in Hiroshima Bay, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Asakawa, Manabu; Ito, Katsutoshi; Kajihara, Hiroshi

    2013-02-01

    In 1998, during a toxicological surveillance of various marine fouling organisms in Hiroshima Bay, Japan, specimens of the ribbon worm, Cephalothrix simula (Nemertea: Palaeonemertea) were found. These ribbon worms contained toxins with extremely strong paralytic activity. The maximum toxicity in terms of tetrodotoxin (TTX) was 25,590 mouse units (MU) per gram for the whole worm throughout the monitoring period. The main toxic component was isolated and recrystallized from an acidified methanolic solution. The crystalline with a specific toxicity of 3520 MU/mg was obtained and identified as TTX by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-fluorescent detection (FLD) (HPLC-FLD), electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), infrared (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The highest toxicity of C. simula exceeded the human lethal dose per a single worm. A toxicological surveillance of C. simula from 1998 to 2005 indicated approximately 80% of the individuals were ranked as "strongly toxic" (≥1000 MU/g). Forty-eight percent of the specimens possessed toxicity scores of more than 2000 MU/g. Seasonal variations were observed in the lethal potency of C. simula. Specimens collected on January 13, 2000 to December 26, 2000 showed mean toxicities of 665-5300 MU/g (n = 10). These data prompted a toxicological surveillance of ribbon worms from other localities with different habitats in Japan, including Akkeshi Bay (Hokkaido) under stones on rocky intertidal beaches, as well as Otsuchi (Iwate) among calcareous tubes of serpulid polychaetes on rocky shores. Within twelve species of ribbon worms examined, only C. simula possessed extremely high toxicity. Therefore, C. simula appears to show generally high toxicity irrespective of their locality and habitat. PMID:23430577

  3. Highly Toxic Ribbon Worm Cephalothrix simula Containing Tetrodotoxin in Hiroshima Bay, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Asakawa, Manabu; Ito, Katsutoshi; Kajihara, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    In 1998, during a toxicological surveillance of various marine fouling organisms in Hiroshima Bay, Japan, specimens of the ribbon worm, Cephalothrix simula (Nemertea: Palaeonemertea) were found. These ribbon worms contained toxins with extremely strong paralytic activity. The maximum toxicity in terms of tetrodotoxin (TTX) was 25,590 mouse units (MU) per gram for the whole worm throughout the monitoring period. The main toxic component was isolated and recrystallized from an acidified methanolic solution. The crystalline with a specific toxicity of 3520 MU/mg was obtained and identified as TTX by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-fluorescent detection (FLD) (HPLC-FLD), electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), infrared (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The highest toxicity of C. simula exceeded the human lethal dose per a single worm. A toxicological surveillance of C. simula from 1998 to 2005 indicated approximately 80% of the individuals were ranked as “strongly toxic” (≥1000 MU/g). Forty-eight percent of the specimens possessed toxicity scores of more than 2000 MU/g. Seasonal variations were observed in the lethal potency of C. simula. Specimens collected on January 13, 2000 to December 26, 2000 showed mean toxicities of 665–5300 MU/g (n = 10). These data prompted a toxicological surveillance of ribbon worms from other localities with different habitats in Japan, including Akkeshi Bay (Hokkaido) under stones on rocky intertidal beaches, as well as Otsuchi (Iwate) among calcareous tubes of serpulid polychaetes on rocky shores. Within twelve species of ribbon worms examined, only C. simula possessed extremely high toxicity. Therefore, C. simula appears to show generally high toxicity irrespective of their locality and habitat. PMID:23430577

  4. Evaluation of existing EPRI and INEL test data to determine the worm to worm gear coefficient of friction in Limitorque actuators

    SciTech Connect

    Garza, I.A.

    1996-12-01

    About the last sizing parameter for motor operated valves which has not been determined by utility or NRC sponsored testing is actuator efficiency. A by-product of EPRI testing for valve factors is the measurement of the actuator efficiencies. Motor sizing in this testing provides efficiency testing for motors running near synchronous speed. INEL testing, sponsored by the NRC, for stem factors and rate of loading provides complimentary data for motors loaded down to zero speed. This paper analyzes the data from these two test programs to determine the coefficient of friction for the worm to worm gear interface. This allowed the development of an algorithm for determining the efficiency of actuators which have not been tested. This paper compares the results of this algorithm to the test data to provide a measure of the accuracy of this method for calculating actuator efficiency.

  5. Typical Meteoritic Worm-Like Forms Seen in the Polonnaruwa Meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainwright, Milton; Rose, Christopher E.; Baker, Alexander J.; Briston, J. K.; Wickramasinghe, N. Chandra

    2013-03-01

    Fossilized "wormlike forms" were found in a putative new type of carbonaceous meteorite which recently fell on Polonnaruwa, Sri Lanka. Such worm-like forms have been found in other meteorites notably the Martian Allen Hills sample and a lunar meteorite. It has been claimed that such forms are fossilized bacteria, although this possibility is still disputed. The occurrence of worm-like forms in the Polonnaruwa sample adds weight to the view that it is a meteorite and not, as has been suggested, a fulgerite, formed by lightning striking the Earth's surface.

  6. Distribution, abundance and trail characteristics of acorn worms at Australian continental margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, T. J.; Przeslawski, R.; Tran, M.

    2011-04-01

    Acorn worms (Enteropneusta), which were previously thought to be a missing link in understanding the evolution of chordates, are an unusual and potentially important component of many deep-sea benthic environments, particularly for nutrient cycling. Very little is known about their distribution, abundance, or behaviour in deep-sea environments around the world, and almost nothing is known about their distribution within Australian waters. In this study, we take advantage of two large-scale deep-sea mapping surveys along the eastern (northern Lord Howe Rise) and western continental margins of Australia to quantify the distribution, abundance and trail-forming behaviour of this highly unusual taxon. This is the first study to quantify the abundance and trail behaviour of acorn worms within Australian waters and provides the first evidence of strong depth-related distributions. Acorn worm densities and trail activity were concentrated between transect-averaged depths of 1600 and 3000 m in both eastern and western continental margins. The shallow limit of their depth distribution was 1600 m. The deeper limit was less well-defined, as individuals were found in small numbers below 3000 down to 4225 m. This distributional pattern may reflect a preference for these depths, possibly due to higher availability of nutrients, rather than a physiological constraint to greater depths. Sediment characteristics alone were poor predictors of acorn worm densities and trail activity. High densities of acorn worms and trails were associated with sandy-mud sediments, but similar sediment characteristics in either shallower or deeper areas did not support similar densities of acorn worms or trails. Trail shapes varied between eastern and western margins, with proportionally more meandering trails recorded in the east, while spiral and meandering trails were both common in the west. Trail shape varied by depth, with spiral-shaped trails dominant in areas of high acorn worm densities

  7. Ontogenetic allometry constrains cranial shape of the head-first burrowing worm lizard Cynisca leucura (Squamata: Amphisbaenidae).

    PubMed

    Hipsley, Christy A; Rentinck, Marc-Nicolas; Rödel, Mark-Oliver; Müller, Johannes

    2016-09-01

    Amphisbaenians are fossorial, predominantly limbless squamate reptiles with distinct cranial shapes corresponding to specific burrowing behaviors. Due to their cryptic lifestyles and the scarcity of museum specimens, little is known of their intraspecific variation, particularly regarding cranial osteology. This represents a critical lack of information, because the majority of morphological investigations of squamate relationships are based on cranial characters. We investigated cranial variation in the West African Coast Worm Lizard Cynisca leucura, a round-headed member of the Amphisbaenidae. Using geometric morphometric analyses of three-dimensional computed tomographic scans, we found that cranial osteology of C. leucura is highly conserved, with the majority of shape changes occurring during growth as the cranium becomes more slender and elongate, accompanied by increasing interdigitation among the dermal roofing bones. Elements of the ventral portion of the cranium remain loosely connected in adults, possibly as a protective mechanism against repeated compression and torsion during burrow excavation. Intraspecific variation was strongly correlated with size change from juveniles to adults, indicating a dominant role of ontogenetic allometry in determining cranial shape. We found no evidence of sexual dimorphism, either during growth or among adults. Given the fossorial habits of C. leucura, we hypothesize that cranial allometry is under strong stabilizing selection to maintain adequate proportions for head-first digging, thereby constraining the ability of individuals to respond to differing selection pressures, including sexual selection and variation in diet or microhabitat. For species in which digging imposes less mechanical stress (e.g., in softer sand), allometric associations during growth may be weakened, allowing changes to the ontogenetic trajectory and subsequent morphological traits. Such developmental dissociation between size and shape, known

  8. Adult Olfactory Bulb Neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lledo, Pierre-Marie; Valley, Matt

    2016-01-01

    Most organisms use their olfactory system to detect and analyze chemical cues from the external world to guide essential behaviors. From worms to vertebrates, chemicals are detected by odorant receptors expressed by olfactory sensory neurons, which in vertebrates send an axon to the primary processing center called the olfactory bulb (OB). Within the OB, sensory neurons form excitatory synapses with projection neurons and with inhibitory interneurons. Thus, because of complex synaptic interactions, the output of a given projection neuron is determined not only by the sensory input, but also by the activity of local inhibitory interneurons that are regenerated throughout life in the process of adult neurogenesis. Herein, we discuss how it is optimized and why. PMID:27235474

  9. Human leucocyte antigens in tympanosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Dursun, G; Acar, A; Turgay, M; Calgüner, M

    1997-02-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the association between certain HLA antigens and tympanosclerosis. The serum concentrations of HLA antigens were measured by a microlymphocytotoxicity technique in patients with tympanosclerosis and compared with a healthy control group. The serum levels of HLA-B35 and -DR3 were significantly higher in the patients with tympanosclerosis. This result suggests that certain types of HLA antigens may play an important role as an indicator or mediator in the pathogenesis of tympanosclerosis. PMID:9088683

  10. Novel vaccine strategies to T-independent antigens.

    PubMed

    Lesinski, G B; Westerink, M A

    2001-11-01

    T cell independent antigens do not require T cell help to induce an immune response, and are characterized by a lack of immunologic memory. These antigens can be divided into two classes, TI-1 or TI-2. TI-1 antigens, such as bacterial lipopolysaccharide, are potent B-cell mitogens, capable of non-specific, polyclonal activation of B cells. In contrast, TI-2 antigens can only activate mature B cells and consist of highly repetitive structures, such as capsular polysaccharides (CPS) from bacteria. Many vaccines currently in use consist of purified capsular polysaccharides from pathogenic bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis. These vaccines are efficacious in immune-competent adults, however, due to their TI-2 nature, are not effective in children <2 years of age. Converting polysaccharides into T cell dependent (TD) antigens, allows children, <2, to produce an effective immune response. This review focuses on various strategies used to convert the immune response to polysaccharide antigens from TI-2 to a TD response. Conjugate vaccines, anti-idiotypic antibodies, phage display library technology and DNA vaccines are discussed. PMID:11576678

  11. Antigenic analyses of tissues and excretory and secretory products from Strongylus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Wynne, E; Slocombe, J O; Wilkie, B N

    1981-07-01

    Rabbit antisera were prepared against veronal buffered saline extracts of L4 and L5 Strongylus vulgaris, adult S. vulgaris and adult Strongylus equinus retrieved from naturally infected horses. In agar gel diffusion with these antisera, adult S vulgaris and S. equinus each appeared to have at least one unique antigen; larval S. vulgaris appeared to have two species-specific and two stage-specific antigens. There were several common antigens. Excretory and secretory products were collected also from L4 and L5 an maintained over several days in tissue culture fluid. In agar gel diffusion against the above rabbit antisera, a stage-specific antigen was found also in excretory and secretory products. In addition, excretory and secretory products had three antigens in common with adult and larval S. vulgaris, but only one of these was common to adult S. equinus. The excretory and secretory products appear, therefore, to have two species-specific and one stage-specific antigens. PMID:6804070

  12. Antigenic analyses of tissues and excretory and secretory products from Strongylus vulgaris.

    PubMed Central

    Wynne, E; Slocombe, J O; Wilkie, B N

    1981-01-01

    Rabbit antisera were prepared against veronal buffered saline extracts of L4 and L5 Strongylus vulgaris, adult S. vulgaris and adult Strongylus equinus retrieved from naturally infected horses. In agar gel diffusion with these antisera, adult S vulgaris and S. equinus each appeared to have at least one unique antigen; larval S. vulgaris appeared to have two species-specific and two stage-specific antigens. There were several common antigens. Excretory and secretory products were collected also from L4 and L5 an maintained over several days in tissue culture fluid. In agar gel diffusion against the above rabbit antisera, a stage-specific antigen was found also in excretory and secretory products. In addition, excretory and secretory products had three antigens in common with adult and larval S. vulgaris, but only one of these was common to adult S. equinus. The excretory and secretory products appear, therefore, to have two species-specific and one stage-specific antigens. Images Fig. 1 a and b. Fig. 2 a and b. Fig. 3 a and b. Fig. 4 a and b. Fig. 5 a and b. Fig. 6 a and b. Fig. 7 a and b. Fig. 8 a and b. PMID:6804070

  13. A Concept Space Approach to Addressing the Vocabulary Problem in Scientific Information Retrieval: An Experiment on the Worm Community System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsinchun; Ng, Tobun D.; Martinez, Joanne; Schatz, Bruce R.

    1997-01-01

    Presents an algorithmic approach to addressing the vocabulary problem in scientific information retrieval and information sharing, using the molecular biology domain as an example. A cognitive study and a follow-up document retrieval study were conducted using first a conjoined fly-worm thesaurus and then an actual worm database and the conjoined…

  14. Novel antigen delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Trovato, Maria; De Berardinis, Piergiuseppe

    2015-08-12

    Vaccines represent the most relevant contribution of immunology to human health. However, despite the remarkable success achieved in the past years, many vaccines are still missing in order to fight important human pathologies and to prevent emerging and re-emerging diseases. For these pathogens the known strategies for making vaccines have been unsuccessful and thus, new avenues should be investigated to overcome the failure of clinical trials and other important issues including safety concerns related to live vaccines or viral vectors, the weak immunogenicity of subunit vaccines and side effects associated with the use of adjuvants. A major hurdle of developing successful and effective vaccines is to design antigen delivery systems in such a way that optimizes antigen presentation and induces broad protective immune responses. Recent advances in vector delivery technologies, immunology, vaccinology and system biology, have led to a deeper understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms by which vaccines should stimulate both arms of the adaptive immune responses, offering new strategies of vaccinations. This review is an update of current strategies with respect to live attenuated and inactivated vaccines, DNA vaccines, viral vectors, lipid-based carrier systems such as liposomes and virosomes as well as polymeric nanoparticle vaccines and virus-like particles. In addition, this article will describe our work on a versatile and immunogenic delivery system which we have studied in the past decade and which is derived from a non-pathogenic prokaryotic organism: the "E2 scaffold" of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex from Geobacillus stearothermophilus. PMID:26279977

  15. Simvastatin and artesunate impact the structural organization of adult Schistosoma mansoni in hypercholesterolemic mice.

    PubMed

    Alencar, Alba Cristina Miranda de Barros; Santos, Thais da Silva; Neves, Renata Heisler; Lopes Torres, Eduardo José; Nogueira-Neto, José Firmino; Machado-Silva, José Roberto

    2016-08-01

    Experimental data have shown that simvastatin and artesunate possess activity against Schistosoma mansoni worms in mice fed standard chow. However, little is known regarding the roles of these drugs in mice fed high-fat chow. We have extended past studies by measuring the effects of these drugs on the structural organization of adult schistosomes in hypercholesterolemic mice. For this purpose, mice were gavaged with either simvastatin or artesunate at nine weeks post-infection and were euthanized by cervical dislocation at two weeks post-treatment. Adult worms were then collected and examined by conventional light microscopy, morphometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Plasma total cholesterol and worm reduction rates were significantly increased in mice fed high-fat chow compared with their respective control groups. Simvastatin and artesunate caused changes in the tegument, tubercles, and reproductive system (testicular lobes, vitelline glands and ovarian cells), particularly when administered to mice fed high-fat chow. In particular, the tegument and tubercles were significantly thinner in artesunate-treated worms in mice fed high-fat chow compared with mice fed standard chow. This study thus demonstrated that simvastatin and artesunate have several novel effects on the structural organization of adult worms. Together, these results show, for the first time, that simvastatin and artesunate display antischistosomal activity in hypercholesterolemic mice. PMID:27228897

  16. Normal adult ramified microglia separated from other central nervous system macrophages by flow cytometric sorting: Phenotypic differences defined and direct ex vivo antigen presentation to myelin basic protein-reactive CD4{sup +} T cells compared

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, A.L.; Goodsall, A.L.; Sedgwick, J.D.

    1995-05-01

    Ramified microglia in the adult central nervous system (CNS) are the principal glial element up-regulating MHC class I and II expression in response to inflammatory events or neuronal damage. A proportion of these cells also express MHC class II constitutively in the normal CNS. The role of microglia as APCs for CD4{sup +} cells extravasating into the CNS remains undefined. In this study, using irradiation bone marrow chimeras in CD45-congenic rats, the phenotype CD45{sup low}CD11b/c{sup +} is shown to identify microglial cells specifically within the CNS. Highly purified populations of microglia and nonmicroglial but CNS-associated macrophages (CD45{sup high}CD11b/c{sup +}) have been obtained directly from the adult CNS, by using flow cytometric sorting. Morphologically, freshly isolated microglia vs other CNS macrophages are quite distinct. Of the two populations recovered from the normal CNS, it is the minority CD45{sup high}CD11 b/c{sup +} transitional macrophage population, and not microglia, that is the effective APC for experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis-inducing CD4{sup +} myelin basic protein (MBP)-reactive T cells. CD45{sup high}CD11b/c{sup +} CNS macrophages also stimulate MBP-reactive T cells without addition of MBP to culture suggesting presentation of endogenous Ag. This is the first study in which microglia vs other CNS macrophages have been analyzed for APC ability directly from the CNS, with substantial cross-contamination between the two populations eliminated. The heterogeneity of these populations in terms of APC function is clearly demonstrated. Evidence is still lacking that adult CNS microglia have the capacity to interact with and stimulate CD4{sup +} T cells to proliferate or secrete IL-2. 60 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Suboptimal Detection of Influenza Virus in Adults by the Directigen Flu A+B Enzyme Immunoassay and Correlation of Results with the Number of Antigen-Positive Cells Detected by Cytospin Immunofluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Landry, Marie L.; Ferguson, David

    2003-01-01

    To provide 24-h influenza diagnosis for adults presenting to the emergency department, the Directigen Flu A+B enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was performed in the chemistry laboratory during the night shift. Nasopharyngeal swabs were retested by cytospin-enhanced direct immunofluorescence (DFA; SimulFluor respiratory screen) when the virology laboratory opened. The influenza EIA detected 16 influenza A virus infections, whereas cytospin-enhanced DFA detected 31 influenza A virus infections as well as 3 respiratory syncytial virus, 2 adenovirus, and 1 parainfluenza virus infections. A positive EIA result usually correlated with 50 or more influenza virus cells positive by DFA. PMID:12843105

  18. Contribution of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and their subfractions to the sludge aggregation in membrane bioreactor coupled with worm reactor.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhipeng; Tian, Yu; Ding, Yi; Wang, Haoyu; Chen, Lin

    2013-09-01

    This study focused on the effect of predated sludge recycle on the contribution of extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) and their subfractions to sludge aggregation in combined MBR system. It was observed that aggregation abilities of sludge samples were decreased by worm predation. Furthermore, worm predation enhanced the energy barriers and weakened the secondary energy minimum in the interaction energy profiles of slime, loosely bound EPS (LB-EPS) and tightly bound EPS (TB-EPS). Further investigations demonstrated that the content decrease and structural change of different EPS fractions induced by worm predation may be the reason for the decreased aggregation of sludge. Concomitantly, the adsorption tests and atomic force microscopy observation confirmed that the worm predation decreased the adsorption of slime, LB-EPS and TB-EPS on membrane. This would indicate the worm predation could keep an optimum EPS level for which floc structure was maintained and the fouling propensity of mixed liquid was reduced. PMID:23891833

  19. Intestinal epithelial cell secretion of RELM-beta protects against gastrointestinal worm infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    IL-4 and IL-13 protect against parasitic helminths, but little is known about the mechanism of host protection. We show that IL-4/IL-13 confer immunity against worms by inducing intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) to differentiate into goblet cells that secrete resistin-like molecule beta (RELMB). R...

  20. Toxicity of metallic oxides nanoparticle suspensions to a freshwater sludge worm Tubifex tubifex Müller.

    PubMed

    Verma, Surabhi; Das, Sangita; Khangarot, B S

    2011-02-01

    Toxic effects of selected metallic oxides nanoparticles were studied using the short-term static bioassays. Nanoparticles were more toxic than comparable bulk metallic oxides. Freshwater sludge worm Tubifex tubifex can be used as suitable test model for nanoecotoxicological studies in future studies. PMID:21485877

  1. Hypokalemic paralysis following severe vomiting in a child with intestinal obstruction due to round worms.

    PubMed

    Nagotkar, Leena; Shanbag, Preeti; Shenoy, Prithi

    2010-02-01

    Ascariasis is one of the most common helminthic infestations in humans. Massive infestation can give rise to serious complications such as intestinal obstruction. We present a 4-year-old boy, who presented with acute flaccid quadriparesis due to the hypokalemic alkalosis induced by severe vomiting. Severe vomiting was due to intestinal obstruction caused by round worms. PMID:19502600

  2. Optical and physicochemical characterization of the luminous mucous secreted by the marine worm Chaetopterus sp.

    PubMed

    Deheyn, Dimitri D; Enzor, Laura A; Dubowitz, Andrew; Urbach, Jeffrey S; Blair, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Bioluminescence of the marine worm Chaetopterus variopedatus was first investigated several decades ago mainly using tissue extract. Light production of the worm, however, originates from a secreted mucus only. Here, we report the optical and physicochemical properties of the luminous mucus. We show that the produced light occurs as a long glow in the blue range (455 nm), which is an unusual color for a shallow benthic invertebrate. We also show that the light originates from a photoprotein whose light production is independent of molecular oxygen yet somewhat related to the physicochemical (rheological) characteristics of the mucus itself. Indeed, the mucus seems to polymerize and become more viscous on exposure to H2O2, which in turn seems to inhibit the light production. Ferrous iron was not associated with any strong stimulatory effect. This is in contrast to past studies on worm tissues showing that the light production is strongly stimulated by H2O2 and ferrous iron. Overall, our results highlight the fact that working on the luminous mucus only (vs. worm tissues) provides the ability to study its chemical properties possibly involved in the fine control of light production-as well as its rheological properties-and identify the possible interactions between these two properties. PMID:24241067

  3. Molecular Phylogeny of Echiuran Worms (Phylum: Annelida) Reveals Evolutionary Pattern of Feeding Mode and Sexual Dimorphism

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Ryutaro; Okamoto, Tomoko; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Hamamura, Yoichi; Kato, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    The Echiura, or spoon worms, are a group of marine worms, most of which live in burrows in soft sediments. This annelid-like animal group was once considered as a separate phylum because of the absence of segmentation, although recent molecular analyses have placed it within the annelids. In this study, we elucidate the interfamily relationships of echiuran worms and their evolutionary pattern of feeding mode and sexual dimorphism, by performing molecular phylogenetic analyses using four genes (18S, 28S, H3, and COI) of representatives of all extant echiuran families. Our results suggest that Echiura is monophyletic and comprises two unexpected groups: [Echiuridae+Urechidae+Thalassematidae] and [Bonelliidae+Ikedidae]. This grouping agrees with the presence/absence of marked sexual dimorphism involving dwarf males and the paired/non-paired configuration of the gonoducts (genital sacs). Furthermore, the data supports the sister group relationship of Echiuridae and Urechidae. These two families share the character of having anal chaetae rings around the posterior trunk as a synapomorphy. The analyses also suggest that deposit feeding is a basal feeding mode in echiurans and that filter feeding originated once in the common ancestor of Urechidae. Overall, our results contradict the currently accepted order-level classification, especially in that Echiuroinea is polyphyletic, and provide novel insights into the evolution of echiuran worms. PMID:23457618

  4. "Kill the Army Worms! Let Them Live!:" Facing an Ecological Dilemma in a Democratic Classroom Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wister, Pam; Beaton, Kathy; Nason, Pam

    2000-01-01

    Describes how a primary teacher handled an argument among her students over what to do about army worms defoliating an apple tree, thereby illustrating how she cultivates a classroom community that nurtures democracy. Such stories of morally coherent practices counter the bureaucratic insistence on a narrowly construed outcomes-based education.…

  5. Energy Engineering Analysis Program (EEAP), Worms Military Community, West Germany, revised executive summary. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    1986-08-01

    This document is the Executive Summary of the Phase II Energy Report for the Energy Engineering Analysis Program (EEAP) for the Worms, West Germany Military Community. The purpose of this document is to present analysis of potential energy conservation projects at each of the sites.

  6. Integrated CD-ROM and WORM Optical Disk Systems on the Navy's Paperless Ship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiel, Thomas J.

    1992-01-01

    The integration of optical disk systems employing WORM (Write Once Read Many) technology with CD-ROM systems can enhance information management. Two integrated system applications are the Paperless Ship Project of the U.S. Navy and the FEDLOG (Federal Logistics Data on CD-ROM) of the Defense Logistics Agency. These initiatives are described and…

  7. CLIMATE AND HABITAT INFLUENCE PREVALENCE OF MENINGEAL WORM INFECTION IN NORTH DAKOTA, USA.

    PubMed

    Maskey, James J; Sweitzer, Rick A; Goodwin, Brett J

    2015-07-01

    The meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) is a parasite of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and is also a significant pathogen of moose (Alces alces) and other ungulates. Changes in climate or habitat may facilitate range expansion or increase the prevalence of meningeal worm infection in white-tailed deer, resulting in increased exposure to susceptible ungulates. We examined 3,730 white-tailed deer during 2002-05 to determine the prevalence and range of meningeal worm infection in North Dakota, US, and investigated whether these had changed since earlier surveys. We used multiple logistic regression to model potential effects of habitat and climate on prevalence in white-tailed deer. We also examined how habitat influences intermediate hosts by comparing gastropod abundance and microclimate among habitat types. Prevalence in deer was 14% statewide, and prevalence and geographic range had increased since the early 1990 s. Natural woodlands provided the best habitat for intermediate hosts, and increases in prevalence of infection in deer may be due to recent patterns in growing-season precipitation. This study has redefined the geographic distribution of meningeal worm infection and increased understanding of how climate and habitat influence the prevalence and distribution of this parasite. PMID:25973622

  8. Metallothioneins induction and antioxidative response in aquatic worms Tubifex tubifex (Oligochaeta, Tubificidae) exposed to copper.

    PubMed

    Mosleh, Yahia Y; Paris-Palacios, Séverine; Biagianti-Risbourg, Sylvie

    2006-06-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs), are low molecular weight proteins, mainly implicated in metal ion detoxification. Increase in MT contents is considered as a specific biomarker of metal exposure. Recently it has been demonstrated that MTs participate in several cellular functions such as regulation of growth, and antioxidative defences. Tubifex tubifex were exposed to different copper concentrations (50, 100, and 200 microgl(-1)) for 7 and 15 days. MT levels in exposed worms increased significantly (p<0.05) after 7 and 15 days of exposure to different concentrations of copper (maximum +208% for 100 microgl(-1) after 7 days of exposure). Also important perturbation in metal-metallothionein content occurred, along with an increase in total soluble protein content in all treated worms after 7 and 15 days (max. +88.49%). Catalase activities (CAT) in Cu treated-worms were significantly increased, and demonstrated a development of antioxidative defenses. Additionally a reduction of gulathione-S-transferase (GST) was observed in all treated worms after 7 days of exposure to Cu (max. -44.42%). The high induction of MTs observed during T. tubifex exposure to Cu make them potentially useful biomarkers to monitor metal pollution. PMID:16330073

  9. Impact of worm predation on pseudo-steady-state of the circulating fluidized bed biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Nakhla, George; Zhu, Jesse

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies integrated simultaneous carbon and nitrogen removal as well as worm predation, in a circulating fluidized bed biofilm reactor (CFBBR) operated with an anoxic-aerobic bioparticle recirculation. A lab-scale CFBBR with a 8.5-liter reaction zone comprising 2L anoxic and 6.5L aerobic compartments was designed to evaluate the aquatic Oligochaete worm effect. Long-term (200 days) performance showed that stable and high-rate chemical oxygen demand (COD) with sodium acetate as the carbon source and total nitrogen (NH(4)Cl as nitrogen source) conversions were achieved simultaneously, with low sludge production of 0.082 g VSS (volatile suspended solids) g COD(-1) at pseudo-steady-state. Worm predation, which causes considerable sludge reduction of the bioparticle process, was studied. The results proved that the worm predation has a significant impact on the pseudo-steady-state performance of the CFBBR, decreasing biomass yield, decreasing oxygen concentration and increasing expanded bed height. PMID:23201510

  10. Worm-like micelles of CTAB and sodium salicylate under turbulent flow.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Roberta K; da Silva, Marcelo A; Sabadini, Edvaldo

    2008-12-16

    Polymers with high molecular weight and worm-like micelles are drag-reducing agents under turbulent flow. However, in contrast to the polymeric systems, the worm-like micelles do not undergo mechanical degradation due to the turbulence, because their macromolecular structure can be spontaneously restored. This very favorable property, together with their drag-reduction capability, offer the possibility to use such worm-like micelles in heating and cooling systems to recirculate water while expending less energy. The formation, growth, and stability of worm-like micelles formed by cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium salicylate (NaSal) were investigated using the self-fluorescence of salicylate ions and the ability of the giant micelles to promote hydrodynamic drag reduction under turbulent flow. The turbulence in solutions of CTAB-Sal was produced within the double-gap cell of a rotational rheometer. Detailed diagrams were obtained for different ratios of Sal and CTAB, which revealed transitions associated with the thermal stability of giant micelles under turbulent flow. PMID:19053646

  11. From early lessons to new frontiers: the worm as a treasure trove of small RNA biology.

    PubMed

    Youngman, Elaine M; Claycomb, Julie M

    2014-01-01

    In the past 20 years, the tiny soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has provided critical insights into our understanding of the breadth of small RNA-mediated gene regulatory activities. The first microRNA was identified in C. elegans in 1993, and the understanding that dsRNA was the driving force behind RNA-mediated gene silencing came from experiments performed in C. elegans in 1998. Likewise, early genetic screens in C. elegans for factors involved in RNA interference pointed to conserved mechanisms for small RNA-mediated gene silencing pathways, placing the worm squarely among the founding fathers of a now extensive field of molecular biology. Today, the worm continues to be at the forefront of ground-breaking insight into small RNA-mediated biology. Recent studies have revealed with increasing mechanistic clarity that C. elegans possesses an extensive nuclear small RNA regulatory network that encompasses not only gene silencing but also gene activating roles. Further, a portrait is emerging whereby small RNA pathways play key roles in integrating responses to environmental stimuli and transmitting epigenetic information about such responses from one generation to the next. Here we discuss endogenous small RNA pathways in C. elegans and the insight worm biology has provided into the mechanisms employed by these pathways. We touch on the increasingly spectacular diversity of small RNA biogenesis and function, and discuss the relevance of lessons learned in the worm for human biology. PMID:25505902

  12. Diversity of Polychaeta (Annelida) and other worm taxa in mangrove habitats of Darwin Harbour, northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalfe, K. N.; Glasby, C. J.

    2008-02-01

    In this paper data on the diversity, distribution and abundance of polychaetes and other worm taxa in the mangroves of Darwin Harbour, northern Australia, are presented and compared with those of other tropical mangrove areas. Aspects of the feeding guild ecology and the effects of disturbance on mangrove worms are also examined. Data were collected over a period of four years, across four mangrove assemblages. Samples were obtained using three sampling techniques: 1 m × 1 m quadrat searches, epifauna searches and a new infaunal sampling technique, the anoxic mat. A total of 76 species (68 polychaetes, 1 oligochaete, 1 echiuran, 3 sipunculans, 2 nemerteans, 1 turbellarian) were recorded from the four main mangrove assemblages. Of these, 30 species are widespread, occurring in mangrove and non-mangrove habitats throughout the Indo-west Pacific. Only seven species (all polychaetes) appear to be restricted to the mangroves of Darwin Harbour and northern Australia. Polychaetes are predominant, comprising 80-96% of all worms sampled, with three families—Nereididae, Capitellidae and Spionidae—accounting for 46% of all species. The highest diversity and abundance was recorded in the soft, unconsolidated substrates of the seaward assemblage, with diversity and abundance decreasing progressively in the landward assemblages. Most of the worm fauna was infaunal (70%), but the intensive sampling regime revealed a hitherto unknown significant percentage of epifaunal species (18%) and species occurring as both infauna and epifauna (12%). Univariate analyses showed annual and seasonal differences in worm species richness and abundance—presumably associated with the intensity of the monsoon and recruitment success. The worm fauna differed between mangrove assemblages but the proportion of species in each feeding guild was relatively consistent across the four assemblages studied. Herbivores were the most species-rich and abundant, followed by carnivores and sub

  13. Age-related differences of Ascaridia galli egg output and worm burden in chickens following a single dose infection.

    PubMed

    Gauly, M; Homann, T; Erhardt, G

    2005-03-10

    Ninety white chickens (Lohmann LSL) were reared under helminth-free conditions and divided into five groups. Four groups were artificially infected with 250 embryonated Ascaridia galli eggs at the age of 6, 12, 18 or 24 weeks. Ten birds were kept as uninfected controls. Six and 10 weeks after infection (p.i.), individual faecal egg counts (FEC) were performed. The birds were slaughtered after the second sampling and their gastrointestinal tracts were examined for the presence of adult A. galli. The FEC increased from the first to the second sampling significantly in all the infected groups. The highest increase was shown in the group infected at 12 weeks of age, whereas the increase in the other groups was relatively moderate. However, the total worm burden and mean FEC at the second sampling were highest (p<0.01) in those birds infected at an age of 12 or 18 weeks. The serum protein and triiodothyronine (T3) levels did not differ significantly (p>0.05) between any of the groups. Thyroxine (T4) was significantly different between the groups infected at 6 and 18 weeks of age (p<0.05), and those at 6 and 24 weeks of age (p<0.01). The thyroid hormone levels correlated significantly with the FEC. Age does not seem to play a major role in resistance to A. galli infections in layers, whereas a bird's hormonal and immune status, related to laying activity, seems to have a significant negative impact on resistance. PMID:15725544

  14. Stool Test: H. Pylori Antigen

    MedlinePlus

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Stool Test: H. Pylori Antigen KidsHealth > For Parents > Stool Test: H. Pylori Antigen Print A A A Text Size ... en español Muestra de materia fecal: antígeno de H. pylori What It Is Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) ...

  15. Genetic variation for worm burdens in laying hens naturally infected with gastro-intestinal nematodes.

    PubMed

    Wongrak, K; Daş, G; von Borstel, U König; Gauly, M

    2015-01-01

    1. Genetic parameters were determined for the worm burden of the most common gastro-intestinal nematodes in two chicken genotypes after being exposed to free-range farming conditions for a laying period. 2. Seventeen-week-old hens of 2 brown genotypes, Lohmann Brown (LB) plus (n = 230) and LB classic (n = 230), were reared for a laying period and subjected to post-mortem parasitological examinations at 79 weeks (LB plus) or 88 weeks (LB classic) of age. 3. There was no significant difference in faecal egg counts between the genotypes. Almost all hens (>99%) were infected with at least one nematode species. Species-specific nematode prevalence ranged from 85.8% to 99.1% between the two genotypes. Heterakis gallinarum was the most prevalent nematode (98.5%), followed by Ascaridia galli (96.2%) and Capillaria spp. (86.1%). Capillaria spp. were composed of C. obsignata (79%), C. caudinflata (16%) and C. bursata (5%). 4. All phenotypic and genetic correlations among worm counts of different parasite species were positive in combined genotypes (rP ranged from 0.05 to 0.30 and rG ranged from 0.29 to 0.88). A strong genetic correlation (rG = 0.88 ± 0.34) between counts of A. galli and H. gallinarum was quantified. Heritability for total worm burden for LB plus and LB classic, respectively, were 0.55 ± 0.18 and 0.55 ± 0.34. Across both genotypes, the heritability of total worm burden was 0.56 ± 0.16. 5. In conclusion, there is a high variation attributable to genetic background of chickens in their responses to naturally acquired nematode infections. The high positive genetic correlation between counts of closely related worm species (e.g. A. galli and H. gallinarum) may indicate existence of similar genetically determined mechanism(s) in chickens for controlling these nematodes. PMID:25486507

  16. Are block copolymer worms more effective Pickering emulsifiers than block copolymer spheres?

    PubMed

    Thompson, K L; Mable, C J; Cockram, A; Warren, N J; Cunningham, V J; Jones, E R; Verber, R; Armes, S P

    2014-11-21

    RAFT-mediated polymerisation-induced self-assembly (PISA) is used to prepare six types of amphiphilic block copolymer nanoparticles which were subsequently evaluated as putative Pickering emulsifiers for the stabilisation of n-dodecane-in-water emulsions. It was found that linear poly(glycerol monomethacrylate)-poly(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate) (PGMA-PHPMA) diblock copolymer spheres and worms do not survive the high shear homogenisation conditions used for emulsification. Stable emulsions are obtained, but the copolymer acts as a polymeric surfactant; individual chains rather than particles are adsorbed at the oil-water interface. Particle dissociation during emulsification is attributed to the weakly hydrophobic character of the PHPMA block. Covalent stabilisation of these copolymer spheres or worms can be readily achieved by addition of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) during the PISA synthesis. TEM studies confirm that the resulting cross-linked spherical or worm-like nanoparticles survive emulsification and produce genuine Pickering emulsions. Alternatively, stabilisation can be achieved by either replacing or supplementing the PHPMA block with the more hydrophobic poly(benzyl methacrylate) (PBzMA). The resulting linear spheres or worms also survive emulsification and produce stable n-dodecane-in-water Pickering emulsions. The intrinsic advantages of anisotropic worms over isotropic spheres for the preparation of Pickering emulsions are highlighted. The former particles are more strongly adsorbed at similar efficiencies compared to spheres and also enable smaller oil droplets to be produced for a given copolymer concentration. The scalable nature of PISA formulations augurs well for potential applications of anisotropic block copolymer nanoparticles as Pickering emulsifiers. PMID:25254485

  17. Novel antigen delivery systems

    PubMed Central

    Trovato, Maria; Berardinis, Piergiuseppe De

    2015-01-01

    Vaccines represent the most relevant contribution of immunology to human health. However, despite the remarkable success achieved in the past years, many vaccines are still missing in order to fight important human pathologies and to prevent emerging and re-emerging diseases. For these pathogens the known strategies for making vaccines have been unsuccessful and thus, new avenues should be investigated to overcome the failure of clinical trials and other important issues including safety concerns related to live vaccines or viral vectors, the weak immunogenicity of subunit vaccines and side effects associated with the use of adjuvants. A major hurdle of developing successful and effective vaccines is to design antigen delivery systems in such a way that optimizes antigen presentation and induces broad protective immune responses. Recent advances in vector delivery technologies, immunology, vaccinology and system biology, have led to a deeper understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms by which vaccines should stimulate both arms of the adaptive immune responses, offering new strategies of vaccinations. This review is an update of current strategies with respect to live attenuated and inactivated vaccines, DNA vaccines, viral vectors, lipid-based carrier systems such as liposomes and virosomes as well as polymeric nanoparticle vaccines and virus-like particles. In addition, this article will describe our work on a versatile and immunogenic delivery system which we have studied in the past decade and which is derived from a non-pathogenic prokaryotic organism: the “E2 scaffold” of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex from Geobacillus stearothermophilus. PMID:26279977

  18. Additional Evaluation of the Point-of-Contact Circulating Cathodic Antigen Assay for Schistosoma mansoni Infection

    PubMed Central

    Mwinzi, Pauline N. M.; Kittur, Nupur; Ochola, Elizabeth; Cooper, Philip J.; Campbell, Carl H.; King, Charles H.; Colley, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the urine-based point-of-contact cathodic circulating antigen test (POC-CCA) in Schistosoma mansoni-endemic settings in Africa indicate it has good sensitivity in detecting infections, but in areas of low prevalence, the POC-CCA can be positive for persons who are egg-negative by Kato-Katz stool assays. We examined the POC-CCA assay for: (a) batch-to-batch stability; (b) intra-reader and inter-reader variability; (c) day-to-day variability compared to Kato-Katz stool assays, and (d) to see if praziquantel (PZQ) treatment converted Kato-Katz-negative/POC-CCA positive individuals to POC-CCA negativity. We found essentially no batch-to-batch variation, negligible intra-reader variability (2%), and substantial agreement for inter-reader reliability. Some day-to-day variation was observed over 5 days of urine collection, but less than the variation in Kato-Katz stool assays over 3 days. To evaluate the effect of treatment on Kato-Katz(−)/POC-CCA(+) children, 149 children in an area of 10–15% prevalence who were Kato-Katz(−) based on 3 stool samples but POC-CCA(+) were enrolled. Seven days after treatment (PZQ 40 mg/kg) samples were again collected and tested. Almost half (47%) POC-CCA positive children turned negative. Those still POC-CCA positive received a second treatment, and 34% of them turned POC-CCA negative upon this second treatment. Most who remained POC-CCA positive shifted each time to a “lesser” POC-CCA “level of positivity.” The data suggest that most Kato-Katz-negative/POC-CCA positive individuals harbor low-intensity infections, and each treatment kills all or some of their adult worms. The data also suggest that when evaluated by a more sensitive assay, the effective cure rates for PZQ are significantly less than those inferred from fecal testing. These findings have public health significance for the mapping and monitoring of Schistosoma infections and in planning the transition from schistosomiasis morbidity control to

  19. Radioimmunoassays of hidden viral antigens

    SciTech Connect

    Neurath, A.R.; Strick, N.; Baker, L.; Krugman, S.

    1982-07-01

    Antigens corresponding to infectious agents may be present in biological specimens only in a cryptic form bound to antibodies and, thus, may elude detection. We describe a solid-phase technique for separation of antigens from antibodies. Immune complexes are precipitated from serum by polyethylene glycol, dissociated with NaSCN, and adsorbed onto nitrocellulose or polystyrene supports. Antigens remain topographically separated from antibodies after removal of NaSCN and can be detected with radiolabeled antibodies. Genomes from viruses immobilized on nitrocellulose can be identified by nucleic acid hybridization. Nanogram quantities of sequestered hepatitis B surface and core antigens and picogram amounts of hepatitis B virus DNA were detected. Antibody-bound adenovirus, herpesvirus, and measles virus antigens were discerned by the procedure.

  20. Identification of antigenic epitopes in a surface protein antigen of Streptococcus mutans in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Matsushita, K; Nisizawa, T; Nagaoka, S; Kawagoe, M; Koga, T

    1994-01-01

    The reactivities of antibodies in human serum and saliva to a cell surface protein antigen (PAc) of Streptococcus mutans and synthetic peptides covering the PAc molecule were examined. Both an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blotting (immunoblotting) showed that all the serum samples from five adult subjects harboring serotype c S. mutans in their oral cavity reacted with recombinant PAc (rPAc). On the other hand, the serum from a 4-month-old infant did not react with rPAc in ELISA. The immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies in saliva samples from the five adult subjects reacted with rPAc. However, in saliva samples from these subjects, the titers of IgA antibody to rPAc did not correlate with the titers of serum antibody to the antigen. To map continuous antigenic epitopes in the PAc molecule, we synthesized 153 decapeptides covering the entire mature PAc molecule, 121 overlapping decapeptides covering the alanine-rich repeating region (A-region) of the PAc molecule, and 21 overlapping decapeptides covering the middle region (residues 824 to 853) according to multiple pin-coupled peptide synthesis technology. Of 153 decapeptides covering the mature PAc, 27 decapeptides showed a strong reaction with the antibodies in serum from the adult subjects. The epitope-scanning patterns in the serum samples from these subjects were also very similar to each other. The antigenic epitope patterns in the saliva resembled those in the serum. However, the ELISA titers of salivary IgA antibodies to these decapeptides differed from the titers of the serum antibody. Of the 121 overlapping decapeptides covering the A-region, 27 decapeptides showed a positive reaction with the antibodies in serum from the adult subjects. All of these 27 decapeptides had either one or two of the five common sequences YQAXL, NADAKA, VQKAN, NNAKNA, and IKKRNA. Six decapeptides of the 21 overlapping decapeptides covering the middle region reacted strongly with the serum antibodies from a

  1. Formation of Worm-Like Micelles in Mixed N-Hexadecyl-N-Methylpyrrolidinium Bromide-Based Cationic Surfactant and Anionic Surfactant Systems

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Caili; Yan, Zhihu; You, Qing; Du, Mingyong; Zhao, Mingwei

    2014-01-01

    Through the descriptive and rheological characterization of worm-like micelles formed by N-hexadecyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bromide and sodium laurate, the formation and properties of the worm-like micelles were affected by the concentrations of sodium laurate and temperature. Additionally, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy images further validated the formation of worm-like micelles. PMID:25019152

  2. High Throughput Screening Identifies Novel Lead Compounds with Activity against Larval, Juvenile and Adult Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Nuha R; Paveley, Ross; Gardner, J Mark F; Bell, Andrew S; Parkinson, Tanya; Bickle, Quentin

    2016-04-01

    An estimated 600 million people are affected by the helminth disease schistosomiasis caused by parasites of the genus Schistosoma. There is currently only one drug recommended for treating schistosomiasis, praziquantel (PZQ), which is effective against adult worms but not against the juvenile stage. In an attempt to identify improved drugs for treating the disease, we have carried out high throughput screening of a number of small molecule libraries with the aim of identifying lead compounds with balanced activity against all life stages of Schistosoma. A total of almost 300,000 compounds were screened using a high throughput assay based on motility of worm larvae and image analysis of assay plates. Hits were screened against juvenile and adult worms to identify broadly active compounds and against a mammalian cell line to assess cytotoxicity. A number of compounds were identified as promising leads for further chemical optimization. PMID:27128493

  3. High Throughput Screening Identifies Novel Lead Compounds with Activity against Larval, Juvenile and Adult Schistosoma mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, J. Mark F.; Bell, Andrew S.; Parkinson, Tanya; Bickle, Quentin

    2016-01-01

    An estimated 600 million people are affected by the helminth disease schistosomiasis caused by parasites of the genus Schistosoma. There is currently only one drug recommended for treating schistosomiasis, praziquantel (PZQ), which is effective against adult worms but not against the juvenile stage. In an attempt to identify improved drugs for treating the disease, we have carried out high throughput screening of a number of small molecule libraries with the aim of identifying lead compounds with balanced activity against all life stages of Schistosoma. A total of almost 300,000 compounds were screened using a high throughput assay based on motility of worm larvae and image analysis of assay plates. Hits were screened against juvenile and adult worms to identify broadly active compounds and against a mammalian cell line to assess cytotoxicity. A number of compounds were identified as promising leads for further chemical optimization. PMID:27128493

  4. Pin Worms Presenting as Suspected Crohn’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Al-Saffar, Farah; Najjar, Nimeh; Ibrahim, Saif; Clark, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Female, 24 Final Diagnosis: Pinworms infection Symptoms: Abdominal pain • bloating Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Colonoscopy and biopsy Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Rare disease Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is well recognized in developed countries and is generally among the differential diagnoses of young patients presenting with refractory diarrhea once other more common etiologies have been excluded. Pinworm infections, on the other hand, are not as common among adults in the United States. Case Report: Based on computed tomography features, a 24-year-old female patient with a history of multiple autoimmune disorders presented with abdominal pain and was diagnosed recently with Crohn’s disease. Colonoscopy was significant for pinworms seen throughout the colon. Colonic biopsy was negative for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-related changes. Conclusions: The diagnosis of IBD is a serious label that requires biopsy confirmation before committing to possibly lifelong treatment and possible adverse effects. Even in the most typical patient and when the presentation and imaging are classical, uncommon conditions (like Enterobius infection in this case) may preclude appropriate diagnosis and management. PMID:26471462

  5. [Antigenic response against PPD and antigen 60 in tubercular patients: single antigen versus the combined test].

    PubMed

    Máttar, S; Broquetas, J M; Gea, J; Aran, X; el-Banna, N; Sauleda, J; Torres, J M

    1992-05-01

    We analyze serum samples from 70 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and 50 healthy individuals. The antigenic activity (IgG) against protein purified antigen (PPD) and antigen 60 (A60) from M. tuberculosis. Thirteen patients were also HIV infected, and three patients had AIDS defined by the presence of disseminated tuberculosis. The test using antigen alone showed a 77% sensitivity and 74% specificity when PPD is used. When A60 was used, both values improved (81% sensitivity, 94% specificity). The use of a combined test (PPD and A60) improves the sensitivity (89%) but reduces the specificity (82%). The HIV infected patients showed similar responses to those of other patients. The combined use of different antigens might be useful for diagnosing tuberculosis. PMID:1390996

  6. Gravity worms in the prospecting of epigenetic gold deposits: Example from the Northern Fennoscandian Shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahti, Ilkka; Nykänen, Vesa; Niiranen, Tero

    2010-05-01

    Mapping of mineralized geologic structures using geophysical potential field datasets has become an essential part of present-day exploration projects. Various geophysical processing and semiautomatic interpretation techniques have provided new tools into the field of conventional exploration process. Such is the multiscale edge detection or "worming-technique" introduced by Hornby et al., (1999). Worms are representations of the maxima of potential field horizontal gradients. They are calculated at different upward continuation levels providing an alternative view into potential field anomalies and geometry of the anomaly sources. In this work we use the worming-technique on the regional gravity dataset collected by the Geological Survey of Finland during the last four decades in the northern Finland. The dataset consists of more than 19 000 ground gravity observations covering an area of about 15000 km2 with an average site separation of 0.5 - 1 km. The study area covers the central part of the 2.4-2.0 Ga Central Lapland Greenstone belt (CLGB) which is one of the largest Proterozoic greenstone terrains in the world. The CLGB hosts numerous gold occurrences of varying type and size. The majority of the gold occurrences fall into the orogenic gold category but also Iron Oxide-Copper-Gold (IOCG) and paleoplacer types are known within the region (e.g. Eilu et al., 2007). Currently the largest known deposit in the area is the Suurikuusikko orogenic gold deposit with current resources exceeding 5 million ounces Au. The largest known gold resources in IOCG type deposit is in the Hannukainen deposit with ca. 200 000 ounces of gold. All the known orogenic gold and IOCG deposits in the CLGB show intimate spatial correlation to shear zones of varying scale. Processed gravity worms display striking spatial correlation with the known orogenic gold and IOCG deposits. In some cases the gold hosting shear zones are outlined by gravity worms either completely (Sirkka shear zone

  7. A Robust Cross-Linking Strategy for Block Copolymer Worms Prepared via Polymerization-Induced Self-Assembly

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A poly(glycerol monomethacrylate) (PGMA) chain transfer agent is chain-extended by reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) statistical copolymerization of 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate (HPMA) with glycidyl methacrylate (GlyMA) in concentrated aqueous solution via polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA). A series of five free-standing worm gels is prepared by fixing the overall degree of polymerization of the core-forming block at 144 while varying its GlyMA content from 0 to 20 mol %. 1H NMR kinetics indicated that GlyMA is consumed much faster than HPMA, producing a GlyMA-rich sequence close to the PGMA stabilizer block. Temperature-dependent oscillatory rheological studies indicate that increasing the GlyMA content leads to progressively less thermoresponsive worm gels, with no degelation on cooling being observed for worms containing 20 mol % GlyMA. The epoxy groups in the GlyMA residues can be ring-opened using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) in order to prepare core cross-linked worms via hydrolysis-condensation with the siloxane groups and/or hydroxyl groups on the HPMA residues. Perhaps surprisingly, 1H NMR analysis indicates that the epoxy–amine reaction and the intermolecular cross-linking occur on similar time scales. Cross-linking leads to stiffer worm gels that do not undergo degelation upon cooling. Dynamic light scattering studies and TEM analyses conducted on linear worms exposed to either methanol (a good solvent for both blocks) or anionic surfactant result in immediate worm dissociation. In contrast, cross-linked worms remain intact under such conditions, provided that the worm cores comprise at least 10 mol % GlyMA. PMID:27134311

  8. Altering the antigenicity of proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, H; Alexander, S; Getzoff, E D; Tainer, J A; Geysen, H M; Lerner, R A

    1992-01-01

    To better understand the binding interaction between antigen and antibody we need to distinguish protein residues critical to the binding energy and mechanism from residues merely localized in the interface. By analyzing the binding of monoclonal antibodies to recombinant wild-type and mutant myohemerythrin (MHr) proteins, we were able to test the role of individual critical residues at the highly antigenic site MHr-(79-84), within the context of the folded protein. The results directly show the existence of antigenically critical residues, whose mutations significantly reduce antibody binding to the folded protein, thus verifying peptide-based assignments of these critical residues and demonstrating the ability of buried side chains to influence antigenicity. Taken together, these results (i) distinguish the antigenic surface from the solvent-exposed protein surface before binding, (ii) support a two-stage interaction mechanism allowing inducible changes in protein antigens by antibody binding, and (iii) show that protein antigenicity can be significantly reduced by alteration of single critical residues without destroying biological activity. Images PMID:1373498

  9. Kv1.3 channel-blocking immunomodulatory peptides from parasitic worms: implications for autoimmune diseases

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, Sandeep; Chang, Shih Chieh; Nguyen, Hai M.; Huq, Redwan; Tanner, Mark R.; Londono, Luz M.; Estrada, Rosendo; Dhawan, Vikas; Chauhan, Satendra; Upadhyay, Sanjeev K.; Gindin, Mariel; Hotez, Peter J.; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Mohanty, Biswaranjan; Swarbrick, James D.; Wulff, Heike; Iadonato, Shawn P.; Gutman, George A.; Beeton, Christine; Pennington, Michael W.; Norton, Raymond S.; Chandy, K. George

    2014-01-01

    The voltage-gated potassium (Kv) 1.3 channel is widely regarded as a therapeutic target for immunomodulation in autoimmune diseases. ShK-186, a selective inhibitor of Kv1.3 channels, ameliorates autoimmune diseases in rodent models, and human phase 1 trials of this agent in healthy volunteers have been completed. In this study, we identified and characterized a large family of Stichodactyla helianthus toxin (ShK)–related peptides in parasitic worms. Based on phylogenetic analysis, 2 worm peptides were selected for study: AcK1, a 51-residue peptide expressed in the anterior secretory glands of the dog-infecting hookworm Ancylostoma caninum and the human-infecting hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum, and BmK1, the C-terminal domain of a metalloprotease from the filarial worm Brugia malayi. These peptides in solution adopt helical structures closely resembling that of ShK. At doses in the nanomolar–micromolar range, they block native Kv1.3 in human T cells and cloned Kv1.3 stably expressed in L929 mouse fibroblasts. They preferentially suppress the proliferation of rat CCR7− effector memory T cells without affecting naive and central memory subsets and inhibit the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response caused by skin-homing effector memory T cells in rats. Further, they suppress IFNγ production by human T lymphocytes. ShK-related peptides in parasitic worms may contribute to the potential beneficial effects of probiotic parasitic worm therapy in human autoimmune diseases.—Chhabra, S., Chang, S. C., Nguyen, H. M., Huq, R., Tanner, M. R., Londono, L. M., Estrada, R., Dhawan, V., Chauhan, S., Upadhyay, S. K., Gindin, M., Hotez, P. J., Valenzuela, J. G., Mohanty, B., Swarbrick, J. D., Wulff, H., Iadonato, S. P., Gutman, G. A., Beeton, C., Pennington, M. W., Norton, R. S., Chandy, K. G. Kv1.3 channel-blocking immunomodulatory peptides from parasitic worms: implications for autoimmune diseases. PMID:24891519

  10. Mapping Enterovirus A71 Antigenic Determinants from Viral Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Sheng-Wen; Tai, Ching-Hui; Fonville, Judith M.; Lin, Chin-Hui; Wang, Shih-Min; Liu, Ching-Chung; Su, Ih-Jen

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) belongs to the Enterovirus A species in the Picornaviridae family. Several vaccines against EV-A71, a disease causing severe neurological complications or even death, are currently under development and being tested in clinical trials, and preventative vaccination programs are expected to start soon. To characterize the potential for antigenic change of EV-A71, we compared the sequences of two antigenically diverse genotype B4 and B5 strains of EV-A71 and identified substitutions at residues 98, 145, and 164 in the VP1 capsid protein as antigenic determinants. To examine the effects of these three substitutions on antigenicity, we constructed a series of recombinant viruses containing different mutation combinations at these three residues with a reverse genetics system and then investigated the molecular basis of antigenic changes with antigenic cartography. We found that a novel EV-A71 mutant, containing lysine, glutamine, and glutamic acid at the respective residues 98, 145, and 164 in the VP1 capsid protein, exhibited neutralization reduction against patients' antisera and substantially increased virus binding ability to human cells. These observations indicated that this low-neutralization-reactive EV-A71 VP1-98K/145Q/164E mutant potentially increases viral binding ability and that surveillance studies should look out for these mutants, which could compromise vaccine efficacy. IMPORTANCE Emerging and reemerging EV-A71 viruses can cause severe neurological etiology, primarily affecting children, especially around Asia-Pacific countries. We identified a set of mutations in EV-A71 that both reduced neutralization activity against humoral immunity in antisera of patients and healthy adults and greatly increased the viral binding ability to cells. These findings provide important insights for EV-A71 antigenic determinants and emphasize the importance of continuous surveillance, especially after EV-A71 vaccination programs

  11. Antigen Retrieval Immunohistochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Shan-Rong; Shi, Yan; Taylor, Clive R.

    2011-01-01

    As a review for the 20th anniversary of publishing the antigen retrieval (AR) technique in this journal, the authors intend briefly to summarize developments in AR-immunohistochemistry (IHC)–based research and diagnostics, with particular emphasis on current challenges and future research directions. Over the past 20 years, the efforts of many different investigators have coalesced in extending the AR approach to all areas of anatomic pathology diagnosis and research and further have led to AR-based protein extraction techniques and tissue-based proteomics. As a result, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) archival tissue collections are now seen as a literal treasure of materials for clinical and translational research to an extent unimaginable just two decades ago. Further research in AR-IHC is likely to focus on tissue proteomics, developing a more efficient protocol for protein extraction from FFPE tissue based on the AR principle, and combining the proteomics approach with AR-IHC to establish a practical, sophisticated platform for identifying and using biomarkers in personalized medicine. PMID:21339172

  12. From the worm to the pill, the parasitic worm product ES-62 raises new horizons in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Pineda, M A; Eason, R J; Harnett, M M; Harnett, W

    2015-04-01

    Evidence from human studies suggests that parasitic worm infection can protect humans against rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and this idea is strengthened by data generated in model systems. Although therapeutic use of parasitic worms is currently being explored, there are obvious benefits in pursuing drug development through identification and isolation of the 'active ingredients'. ES-62 is a secreted glycoprotein of the filarial nematode Acanthocheilonema viteae, which we have found to protect against the development of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice. ES-62 activity is dependent on the inflammatory phenotype of the local environment and protection arises via inhibition of Th17- and γδT cell-dependent IL-17 production. At the same time, NK and NK T cell IL-17 production is left intact, and such selectivity suggests that ES-62 might make a particularly attractive therapeutic for RA. However, as a potentially immunogenic protein, ES-62 is unsuitable for development as a drug. Nevertheless, ES-62 activity is dependent on covalently attached phosphorylcholine (PC) residues and we have therefore produced a library of PC-based drug-like ES-62 small-molecule analogues (SMAs) as an alternative therapeutic strategy. Screening this library, we have found an ES-62 SMA that mirrors ES-62 in protecting against CIA and by the same IL-17-dependent mechanism of action. PMID:25801883

  13. Immunoregulation by Taenia crassiceps and Its Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Peón, Alberto N.; Espinoza-Jiménez, Arlett; Terrazas, Luis I.

    2013-01-01

    Taenia crassiceps is a cestode parasite of rodents (in its larval stage) and canids (in its adult stage) that can also parasitize immunocompromised humans. We have studied the immune response elicited by this helminth and its antigens in mice and human cells, and have discovered that they have a strong capacity to induce chronic Th2-type responses that are primarily characterized by high levels of Th2 cytokines, low proliferative responses in lymphocytes, an immature and LPS-tolerogenic profile in dendritic cells, the recruitment of myeloid-derived suppressor cells and, specially, alternatively activated macrophages. We also have utilized the immunoregulatory capabilities of this helminth to successfully modulate autoimmune responses and the outcome of other infectious diseases. In the present paper, we review the work of others and ourselves with regard to the immune response induced by T. crassiceps and its antigens, and we compare the advances in our understanding of this parasitic infection model with the knowledge that has been obtained from other selected models. PMID:23484125

  14. Biological effects of pyrimethinal on aquatic worms (Tubifex tubifex) under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Mosleh, Yahia Youssef; Mofeed, Jelan; Afifi, Mohamed; Almaghrabi, Omar A

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the effects of different concentrations of pyrimethinal on protein contents, and some oxidative stress in Tubifex tubifex after an exposure of 2, 4, and 7 days. Residues of the fungicide were followed in water and in the worms. In water, pyrimethinal concentration decreased slowly (maximum -6.4 % ± 0.8 % after 2 days for 25 mg L(-1)). In the worms, it increased after 4 days and decreased thereafter. LC50 values were between 49.2 ± 0.58 and 39.5 ± 0.95 mg L(-1) depending on exposure time. The activity of catalase increased in response to the fungicide after 2 days of exposure to 25 mg L(-1) of pyrimethinal (+90 %). The highest decrease of glutathione-S-transferase activity (-29.7 %) was found after 7 days in the presence of 25 mg L(-1). PMID:24213591

  15. [Chronic disseminated intravascular coagulopathy in a dog with lung worm infection].

    PubMed

    Schmitz, S; Moritz, A

    2009-06-01

    The clinical and laboratory findings in a 1-year-old male Jack Russel Terrier dog with lung worm induced coagulopathy are described. The diagnosis was based upon history, clinical findings, radiography, endoscopy, cytology and laboratory results. The presenting complaint was chronic cough. Radiographically, a diffuse interstitial to bronchial lung pattern was observed. Blood analysis revealed thrombocytopaenia and prolonged coagulation times. Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC) was diagnosed based on D-dimer and fibrinogen measurements, and by thrombelastogram results. After stabilisation of the patient, bronchoscopy with a bronchoalveolar lavage was performed, where large amounts of lung worm larvae were found cytologically. After treatment with fresh frozen plasma and fenbendazole, coagulation parameters improved and the cough resolved. PMID:19496048

  16. Worm watching: imaging nervous system structure and function in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Dittman, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans has become a model system of choice for optical approaches to cellular biology largely due to its extraordinary combination of transparency, well-defined anatomy, rapid generation time, and simple genetics. In particular, studies in nervous system development and function have benefited tremendously since C. elegans was first examined under the microscope. After the introduction of green fluorescent protein as a means of following gene expression and protein localization in living animals, a variety of optical approaches have been developed for probing and perturbing neuronal activity. Microfluidic technologies have opened new possibilities for high-resolution imaging during behavior. Femtosecond pulsed lasers allow for precise severing of individual processes in the living animal. This chapter will cover some recent methodological advances in imaging worm neurons as well as some of the many biological details of the worm nervous system revealed by these new optical approaches. Advantages and limitations of these methods will be discussed in this chapter. PMID:19615531

  17. Natural Selection Promotes Antigenic Evolvability

    PubMed Central

    Graves, Christopher J.; Ros, Vera I. D.; Stevenson, Brian; Sniegowski, Paul D.; Brisson, Dustin

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis that evolvability - the capacity to evolve by natural selection - is itself the object of natural selection is highly intriguing but remains controversial due in large part to a paucity of direct experimental evidence. The antigenic variation mechanisms of microbial pathogens provide an experimentally tractable system to test whether natural selection has favored mechanisms that increase evolvability. Many antigenic variation systems consist of paralogous unexpressed ‘cassettes’ that recombine into an expression site to rapidly alter the expressed protein. Importantly, the magnitude of antigenic change is a function of the genetic diversity among the unexpressed cassettes. Thus, evidence that selection favors among-cassette diversity is direct evidence that natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability. We used the Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, as a model to test the prediction that natural selection favors amino acid diversity among unexpressed vls cassettes and thereby promotes evolvability in a primary surface antigen, VlsE. The hypothesis that diversity among vls cassettes is favored by natural selection was supported in each B. burgdorferi strain analyzed using both classical (dN/dS ratios) and Bayesian population genetic analyses of genetic sequence data. This hypothesis was also supported by the conservation of highly mutable tandem-repeat structures across B. burgdorferi strains despite a near complete absence of sequence conservation. Diversification among vls cassettes due to natural selection and mutable repeat structures promotes long-term antigenic evolvability of VlsE. These findings provide a direct demonstration that molecular mechanisms that enhance evolvability of surface antigens are an evolutionary adaptation. The molecular evolutionary processes identified here can serve as a model for the evolution of antigenic evolvability in many pathogens which utilize similar strategies to establish chronic infections

  18. Defense role of the cocoon in the silk worm Bombyx mori L.

    PubMed

    Pandiarajan, Jeyaraj; Cathrin, Britto P; Pratheep, Thangaraj; Krishnan, Muthukalingan

    2011-11-15

    Silk from the domesticated silk worm Bombyx mori procures foreign body response naturally, so it has been utilized as a biomaterial for decades. In India the prime focus of the sericulture industry is to improve silk production with high quality silk. Naturally, the silk worm builds its cocoon not only with silk proteins, but also with antimicrobial proteins to avoid infection since the cocoon is non-motile and non-feeding. The aim of the present study is to elucidate the antimicrobial proteins that persist in the cocoon of the silk worm Bombyx mori. At the pupal stage, the silk worm cocoon shell extract was prepared from the day of pupation (P0) to the day of natural rupture of the cocoon for the eclosion of moth (NR). Using the cocoon shell extract a microbial susceptibility test was performed by the disc diffusion method against the microbes Escherchia coli, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The development of a zone of inhibition against the microbes confirmed the presence of antimicrobial/immunogenic activity of the cocoon shell extract. For further analysis, the cocoon shell extract was subjected to 7-15% sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The protein profile of the cocoon extract revealed the coomassie blue stained bands resolved from the 150-15 kDa molecular range. Interestingly, a polypeptide localized at around 29 kDa showed remarkable expressional changes during the development of pupa. To characterize the 29 kDa protein, it was eluted from the gel, digested with trypsin and analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). The trypsin-digested peptide peaks were analyzed through MASCOT and peptides were matched with the NCBI nr database. The peptides were very well matched with the 18 wheeler protein, which is reported to be responsible for innate immunity, belonging to the Toll family in insects and responsible for cellular

  19. Temporal variation and lack of host specificity among bacterial endosymbionts of Osedax bone worms (Polychaeta: Siboglinidae)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Osedax worms use a proliferative root system to extract nutrients from the bones of sunken vertebrate carcasses. The roots contain bacterial endosymbionts that contribute to the nutrition of these mouthless and gutless worms. The worms acquire these essential endosymbionts locally from the environment in which their larvae settle. Here we report on the temporal dynamics of endosymbiont diversity hosted by nine Osedax species sampled during a three-year investigation of an experimental whale fall at 1820-m depth in the Monterey Bay, California. The host species were identified by their unique mitochondrial COI haplotypes. The endosymbionts were identified by ribotyping with PCR primers specifically designed to target Oceanospirillales. Results Thirty-two endosymbiont ribotypes associated with these worms clustered into two distinct bacterial ribospecies that together comprise a monophyletic group, mostly restricted to deep waters (>1000 m). Statistical analyses confirmed significant changes in the relative abundances of host species and the two dominant endosymbiont ribospecies during the three-year sampling period. Bone type (whale vs. cow) also had a significant effect on host species, but not on the two dominant symbiont ribospecies. No statistically significant association existed between the host species and endosymbiont ribospecies. Conclusions Standard PCR and direct sequencing proved to be an efficient method for ribotyping the numerically dominant endosymbiont strains infecting a large sample of host individuals; however, this method did not adequately represent the frequency of mixed infections, which appears to be the rule rather than an exception for Osedax individuals. Through cloning and the use of experimental dilution series, we determined that minority ribotypes constituting less than 30% of a mixture would not likely be detected, leading to underestimates of the frequency of multiple infections in host individuals. PMID:23006795

  20. Carolus Linnaeus, the ash, worm-wood and other anti-malarial plants.

    PubMed

    Aydin-Schmidt, Berit; Thorsell, Walborg; Wahlgren, Mats

    2010-12-01

    In 1735 Carolus Linnaeus wrote that quinine was the preferred treatment for malaria but that the bark of the ash (Fraxinus excelsior) and worm-wood (Artemisia absinthium) also had effects on the disease. We here report that lipo- and hydrophilic extracts of the bark of the ash inhibit the in vitro growth of the asexual stages of P. falciparum. The data suggests that the knowledge of the treatment of malaria was already available in Europe some 300 years ago. PMID:20936911

  1. Aptamer-targeted Antigen Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Wengerter, Brian C; Katakowski, Joseph A; Rosenberg, Jacob M; Park, Chae Gyu; Almo, Steven C; Palliser, Deborah; Levy, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Effective therapeutic vaccines often require activation of T cell-mediated immunity. Robust T cell activation, including CD8 T cell responses, can be achieved using antibodies or antibody fragments to direct antigens of interest to professional antigen presenting cells. This approach represents an important advance in enhancing vaccine efficacy. Nucleic acid aptamers present a promising alternative to protein-based targeting approaches. We have selected aptamers that specifically bind the murine receptor, DEC205, a C-type lectin expressed predominantly on the surface of CD8α+ dendritic cells (DCs) that has been shown to be efficient at facilitating antigen crosspresentation and subsequent CD8+ T cell activation. Using a minimized aptamer conjugated to the model antigen ovalbumin (OVA), DEC205-targeted antigen crosspresentation was verified in vitro and in vivo by proliferation and cytokine production by primary murine CD8+ T cells expressing a T cell receptor specific for the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) I-restricted OVA257–264 peptide SIINFEKL. Compared with a nonspecific ribonucleic acid (RNA) of similar length, DEC205 aptamer-OVA-mediated antigen delivery stimulated strong proliferation and production of interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-2. The immune responses elicited by aptamer-OVA conjugates were sufficient to inhibit the growth of established OVA-expressing B16 tumor cells. Our results demonstrate a new application of aptamer technology for the development of effective T cell-mediated vaccines. PMID:24682172

  2. Zinc and mechanical prowess in the jaws of Nereis, a marine worm

    PubMed Central

    Lichtenegger, Helga C.; Schöberl, Thomas; Ruokolainen, Janne T.; Cross, Julie O.; Heald, Steve M.; Birkedal, Henrik; Waite, J. Herbert; Stucky, Galen D.

    2003-01-01

    Higher animals typically rely on calcification to harden certain tissues such as bones and teeth. Some notable exceptions can be found in invertebrates: The fangs, teeth, and mandibles of diverse arthropod species have been reported to contain high levels of zinc. Considerable quantities of zinc also occur in the jaws of the marine polychaete worm Nereis sp. High copper levels in the polychaete worm Glycera dibranchiata recently were attributed to a copper-based biomineral reinforcing the jaws. In the present article, we attempt to unravel the role of zinc in Nereis limbata jaws, using a combination of position-resolved state-of-the-art techniques. It is shown that the local hardness and stiffness of the jaws correlate with the local zinc concentration, pointing toward a structural role for zinc. Zinc always is detected in tight correlation with chlorine, suggesting the presence of a zinc–chlorine compound. No crystalline inorganic phase was found, however, and results from x-ray absorption spectroscopy further exclude the presence of simple inorganic zinc–chlorine compounds in amorphous form. The correlation of local histidine levels in the protein matrix and zinc concentration leads us to hypothesize a direct coordination of zinc and chlorine to the protein. A comparison of the role of the transition metals zinc and copper in the jaws of two polychaete worm species Nereis and Glycera, respectively, is presented. PMID:12886017

  3. Contaminant sensitivity in Neanthes arenaceodentata: The influence of worm age and food ration

    SciTech Connect

    Bridges, T.S.; Farrar, J.D.

    1995-12-31

    To evaluate the sensitivity of N. arenaceodentata to contaminated sediment the authors examined the survival and growth of newly emerged juveniles (EJ) and 3-week old (3WO) worms exposed to Black Rock Harbor sediment (BRH) diluted with uncontaminated control sediment (25, 50, 75, and 100% BRH). Worms were exposed for either 4 (EJs and 3WOs) or 7 (EJs) weeks to each concentration of BRH. Survival was significantly reduced in EJs exposed for 7 weeks to 25% BRH and for EJs and 3WOs exposed for 4 weeks to 100% BRH. Body weight, length, width, and projected area, were significantly reduced at 25% BRH. Setiger number was not reduced at 25% BRH. Calculation of the Minimum Detectable Difference (MDD) for each measure of growth indicated that body weight and projected area provided the most sensitive measure of effects. The MDD also indicated that statistical power and growth effects were of sufficient magnitude to distinguish much lower concentrations of BRH sediment (6--10% BRH). Both worm age and food ration influenced the nature of contaminant effects in Neanthes. EJs exposed to BRH showed greater effects of exposure than 3WOs. Previous work with Neanthes and BRH sediment, as well as subsequent experiments, indicate that high food ration can lessen contaminant effects. The results of this study emphasize that test animal age, food ration, and how growth measured can all influence the nature of contaminant effects and bioassay sensitivity.

  4. Influence of stability and fragmentation of a worm-reef on benthic macrofauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godet, Laurent; Fournier, Jérôme; Jaffré, Mikaël; Desroy, Nicolas

    2011-05-01

    In coastal areas, reef-builder worms often are bio-engineers by structuring their physical and biological environment. Many studies showed that this engineering role is determined by the densities of the engineer species itself, the highest densities approximately corresponding to the most stable areas from a sedimentological point of view, and hosting the richest and the most diverse benthic fauna. Here, we tested the potential influence of the spatio-temporal dynamics and the spatial fragmentation of one of the largest European intertidal reefs generated by the marine worm Lanice conchilega (Pallas, 1766) (Annelida, Polychaeta) on the associated benthic macrofauna. We demonstrated that the worm densities do have a significant positive role on the abundance, biomass, species richness and species diversity of the benthic macrofauna and that the reef stability also significantly influences the biomass and species diversity. Moreover, the reef fragmentation has significant negative effects on the abundance, biomass and species richness. In addition to L. conchilega densities, the stability and the spatial fragmentation of the reef also significantly structure the associated benthic assemblages. This study demonstrates the interest of "benthoscape ecology" in understanding the role played by marine engineer species from a spatial point of view.

  5. Worms under Pressure: Bulk Mechanical Properties of C. elegans Are Independent of the Cuticle

    PubMed Central

    Gilpin, William; Uppaluri, Sravanti; Brangwynne, Clifford P.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical properties of cells and tissues play a well-known role in physiology and disease. The model organism Caenorhabditis elegans exhibits mechanical properties that are still poorly understood, but are thought to be dominated by its collagen-rich outer cuticle. To our knowledge, we use a novel microfluidic technique to reveal that the worm responds linearly to low applied hydrostatic stress, exhibiting a volumetric compression with a bulk modulus, κ = 140 ± 20 kPa; applying negative pressures leads to volumetric expansion of the worm, with a similar bulk modulus. Surprisingly, however, we find that a variety of collagen mutants and pharmacological perturbations targeting the cuticle do not impact the bulk modulus. Moreover, the worm exhibits dramatic stiffening at higher stresses—behavior that is also independent of the cuticle. The stress-strain curves for all conditions can be scaled onto a master equation, suggesting that C. elegans exhibits a universal elastic response dominated by the mechanics of pressurized internal organs. PMID:25902429

  6. Worm development in hamsters infected with unisex and cross-mated Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium.

    PubMed

    Khalil, S B; Mansour, N S

    1995-02-01

    Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium coexist in Egypt and in other areas in Africa, and people frequently are infected with parasites of both species. The effects of the interactions between worms of both sexes of the 2 species on development and egg laying were evaluated in vivo by infecting hamsters with cercariae from Biomphalaria alexandrina and Bulinus truncatus snails infected with single miracidia. In hamsters with unisex infections, male worms of both species were small. Schistosoma mansoni females were stunted and partially mature but did not contain eggs. Schistosoma haematobium females, though stunted, sometimes contained and laid small eggs, which were deposited in the liver, but few of which contained motile embryos. This suggests that unisexual infection with S. haematobium female worms produces a risk for liver damage due to egg deposition in tissues. Both S. mansoni and S. haematobium females that mated with males of the heterologous species were significantly larger than females from unisexual infections; they were sexually mature and possessed eggs in the uterus. The eggs in the liver homogenates of cross-specific infected hamsters contained fully developed miracidia that hatched in filtered pond water. PMID:7876983

  7. Fluoxetine Exhibits Pharmacological Effects and Trait-Based Sensitivity in a Marine Worm.

    PubMed

    Hird, Cameron M; Urbina, Mauricio A; Lewis, Ceri N; Snape, Jason R; Galloway, Tamara S

    2016-08-01

    Global production of pharmacologically active compounds exceeds 100 000 tons annually, a proportion of which enters aquatic environments through patient use, improper medicine disposal, and production. These compounds are designed to have mode-of-action (MoA) effects on specific biological pathways, with potential to impact nontarget species. Here, we used MoA and trait-based approaches to quantify uptake and biological effects of fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, in filter and deposit feeding marine worms (Hediste diversicolor). Worms exposed to 10 μg L(-1), accumulated fluoxetine with a body burden over 270 times greater than exposure concentrations, resulting in ∼10% increased coelomic fluid serotonin, a pharmacological effect. Observed effects included weight loss (up to 2% at 500 μg L(-1)), decreased feeding rate (68% at 500 μg L(-1)), and altered metabolism (oxygen consumption, ammonia excretion, and O/N from 10 μg L(-1)). Bioconcentration of fluoxetine was dependent on route of uptake, with filter feeding worms experiencing up to 130 times greater body burden ratios and increased magnitudes of effects than deposit feeders, a trait-based sensitivity likely as a consequence of fluoxetine partitioning to sediment. This study highlights how novel approaches such as MoA and trait-based methods can supplement environmental risk assessments of pharmaceuticals. PMID:27379928

  8. Zinc and mechanical prowess in the jaws of Nereis, a marine worm

    SciTech Connect

    Lichtenegger, Helga C.; Schoberl, Thomas; Ruokolainen, Janne T.; Cross, Julie O.; Heald, Steve M.; Birkedal, Henrik; Waite, J. Herbert; Stucky, Galen

    2003-08-05

    Higher animals typically rely on calcification to harden certain tissues such as bones and teeth. Some notable exceptions can be found in invertebrates: The fangs, teeth, and mandibles of diverse arthropod species have been reported to contain high levels of zinc. Considerable quantities of zinc also occur in the jaws of the marine polychaete worm Nereis sp. High copper levels in the polychaete worm Glycera dibranchiata recently were attributed to a copper-based biomineral reinforcing the jaws. In the present article, we attempt to unravel the role of zinc in Nereis limbata jaws, using a combination of position-resolved state-of-the-art techniques. It is shown that the local hardness and stiffness of the jaws correlate with the local zinc concentration, pointing toward a structural role for zinc. Zinc always is detected in tight correlation with chlorine, suggesting the presence of a zinc-chlorine compound. No crystalline inorganic phase was found, however, and results from x-ray absorption spectroscopy further exclude the presence of simple inorganic zinc-chlorine compounds in amorphous form. The correlation of local histidine levels in the protein matrix and zinc concentration leads us to hypothesize a direct coordination of zinc and chlorine to the protein. A comparison of the role of the transition metals zinc and copper in the jaws of two polychaete worm species Nereis and Glycera, respectively, is presented.

  9. Zinc and mechanical prowess in the jaws of Nereis, a marine worm

    SciTech Connect

    Lichtenegger, Helga C.; Schoberl, Thomas; Ruokolainen, Janne T.; Cross, Julie O.; Heald, Steve M.; Birkedal, Henrik; Waite, J. Herbert; Stucky, Galen

    2003-08-05

    Higher animals typically rely on calcification to harden certain tissues such as bones and teeth. Some notable exceptions can be found in invertebrates: The fangs, teeth, and mandibles of diverse arthropod species have been reported to contain high levels of zinc. Considerable quantities of zinc also occur in the jaws of the marine polychaete worm Nereis sp. High copper levels in the polychaete worm Glycera dibranchiata recently were attributed to a copper-based biomineral reinforcing the jaws. In the present article, we attempt to unravel the role of zinc in Nereis limbata jaws, using a combination of position-resolved state-of-the-art techniques. It is shown that the local hardness and stiffness of the jaws correlate with the local zinc concentration, pointing toward a structural role for zinc. Zinc always is detected in tight correlation with chlorine, suggesting the presence of a zinc– chlorine compound. No crystalline inorganic phase was found, however, and results from x-ray absorption spectroscopy further exclude the presence of simple inorganic zinc– chlorine compounds in amorphous form. The correlation of local histidine levels in the protein matrix and zinc concentration leads us to hypothesize a direct coordination of zinc and chlorine to the protein. A comparison of the role of the transition metals zinc and copper in the jaws of two polychaete worm species Nereis and Glycera, respectively, is presented.

  10. Zinc and mechanical prowess in the jaws of Nereis, a marine worm.

    PubMed

    Lichtenegger, Helga C; Schöberl, Thomas; Ruokolainen, Janne T; Cross, Julie O; Heald, Steve M; Birkedal, Henrik; Waite, J Herbert; Stucky, Galen D

    2003-08-01

    Higher animals typically rely on calcification to harden certain tissues such as bones and teeth. Some notable exceptions can be found in invertebrates: The fangs, teeth, and mandibles of diverse arthropod species have been reported to contain high levels of zinc. Considerable quantities of zinc also occur in the jaws of the marine polychaete worm Nereis sp. High copper levels in the polychaete worm Glycera dibranchiata recently were attributed to a copper-based biomineral reinforcing the jaws. In the present article, we attempt to unravel the role of zinc in Nereis limbata jaws, using a combination of position-resolved state-of-the-art techniques. It is shown that the local hardness and stiffness of the jaws correlate with the local zinc concentration, pointing toward a structural role for zinc. Zinc always is detected in tight correlation with chlorine, suggesting the presence of a zinc-chlorine compound. No crystalline inorganic phase was found, however, and results from x-ray absorption spectroscopy further exclude the presence of simple inorganic zinc-chlorine compounds in amorphous form. The correlation of local histidine levels in the protein matrix and zinc concentration leads us to hypothesize a direct coordination of zinc and chlorine to the protein. A comparison of the role of the transition metals zinc and copper in the jaws of two polychaete worm species Nereis and Glycera, respectively, is presented. PMID:12886017

  11. Zygocotyle lunata: proteomic analysis of the adult stage.

    PubMed

    Sotillo, Javier; Valero, M Luz; Sánchez del Pino, Manuel M; Fried, Bernard; Esteban, J Guillermo; Marcilla, Antonio; Toledo, Rafael

    2011-06-01

    The somatic extract of Zygocotyle lunata (Trematoda: Paramphistomidae) adults collected from experimentally infected mice was investigated using a proteomic approach to separate and identify tryptic peptides from the somatic extract of Z. lunata adult worms. A shot-gun liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry procedure was used. We used the MASCOT search engine (Matrix-Science) and ProteinPilot software v2.0 (Applied Biosystems) for the database search. A total of 36 proteins were accurately identified from the worms. The largest protein family consisted of metabolic enzymes. Structural, motor and receptor binding proteins and proteins related to oxygen transport were identified in the somatic extract of Z. lunata. This is the first study that attempts to identify the proteome of Z. lunata. However, more work is needed to improve our knowledge of trematodiasis in general and more specifically to have a better understanding about host-parasite relationships in infections with paramphistomes. PMID:21334327

  12. Bell-shaped sol-gel-sol conversions in pH-responsive worm-based nanostructured fluid.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongmin; An, Pengyun; Liu, Xuefeng

    2015-03-21

    A pH-switchable worm system was fabricated by simply mixing two non-surface-active compounds, N-(3-(dimethylamino)propyl)palmitamide (PMA) and citric acid (HCA), at a molar ratio of 3 : 1. Such a nanostructured fluid exhibits bell-shaped sol-gel-sol transitions with sequential pH variation, reflecting continuous structural transformations from sphere to worm to no aggregates. PMID:25675411

  13. Performance of a laboratory-scale membrane bioreactor consisting mixed liquor with aquatic worms under toxic conditions.

    PubMed

    Navaratna, Dimuth; Shu, Li; Jegatheesan, Veeriah

    2014-03-01

    A laboratory scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) consisting of worms was operated for 214days. The objective was to evaluate the treatment and operating performance of the MBR with and without the addition of Ametryn which is a toxic and persistent herbicide. Removal of Ametryn was doubled (up to 80%) in the MBR when the worms were present. Increased rate (2.5kPa/day) of trans-membrane pressure (TMP) and low concentration of MLSS (5.5g/L) were recorded when the worm population was high (80-100 worms per 70μL). Short-term critical flux values were increased from 7.5 to 15 and then to 30L/m(2)/h when the worm numbers decreased from 90 to 35 and then to 18 per 70μL of mixed liquor respectively. Further, high levels of carbohydrate concentration of soluble microbial products (SMP) and smaller sludge floc-sizes were found when the worm numbers were high. PMID:24413480

  14. Identification and characterisation of microRNAs in young adults of Angiostrongylus cantonensis via a deep-sequencing approach

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Shih-Hsin; Tang, Petrus; Lai, Cheng-Hung; Kuo, Ming-Ling; Wang, Lian-Chen

    2013-01-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is an important causative agent of eosinophilic meningitis and eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in humans. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that participate in a wide range of biological processes. This study employed a deep-sequencing approach to study miRNAs from young adults of A. cantonensis. Based on 16,880,456 high-quality reads, 252 conserved mature miRNAs including 10 antisense miRNAs that belonging to 90 families, together with 10 antisense miRNAs were identified and characterised. Among these sequences, 53 miRNAs from 25 families displayed 50 or more reads. The conserved miRNA families were divided into four groups according to their phylogenetic distribution and a total of nine families without any members showing homology to other nematodes or adult worms were identified. Stem-loop real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of aca-miR-1-1 and aca-miR-71-1 demonstrated that their level of expression increased dramatically from infective larvae to young adults and then decreased in adult worms, with the male worms exhibiting significantly higher levels of expression than female worms. These findings provide information related to the regulation of gene expression during the growth, development and pathogenesis of young adults of A. cantonensis. PMID:24037191

  15. Metacercarial encystment and in vivo cultivation of Cercaria lebouri Stunkard 1932 (Digenea: Notocotylidae) to adults identified as Paramonostomum chabaudi Van Strydonck 1965.

    PubMed

    Evans, D W; Irwin, S W; Fitzpatrick, S M

    1997-11-01

    Cercariae found occurring in naturally infected gastropod molluscs, Littorina littorea, were identified as Cercaria lebouri Stunkard 1932. They were induced to form metacercarial cysts on the surface of glass Petri dishes. Each cercaria became attached by its oral sucker and adopted a disc-like shape before discarding its tail. A transparent cyst wall was secreted over and around each organism, inside which developmental changes were observed for up to 4 weeks. Six-week-old metacercariae were fed to 1-day-old chickens which yielded adult worms 12 days later. The worms were measured, photographed and described. Initially, attempts to identify the adult worms using a key and catalogue proved ineffective. However, comparison of the adult flukes grown from C. lebouri with the definitive description of Paramonostomum chabaudi van Strydonck 1965 indicated that the two organisms are synonymous. The larval stages of P. chabaudi had not, until now, been identified. PMID:9421714

  16. Parasiticidal and brine shrimp cytotoxicity potential of crude methanolic extract of rind of Punica granatum Linn against round worms and tape worms.

    PubMed

    Ali, Niaz; Jamil, Ayesha; Shah, Syed Wadood Ali; Shah, Ismail; Ahmed, Ghayour; Junaid, Muhammad; Ahmed, Zahoor

    2015-05-01

    Rind of Punica granatum is traditionally used for anthelmintic purposes. The current work describes the possible anthelmintic activity of crude methanolic extract of Punica granatum (Pg. Cr) against round worms (Ascaridia galli) and the tape worms (Raillietina spiralis). Brine shrimp cytotoxicity is also performed. Brine shrimp cytotoxic activity was tested using different concentrations (1000 μg/mL, 100 μg/mL and 10 μg/mL) of Pg.Cr. In vitro anthelmintic activity of Pg. Cr was determined against the parasites using albendazole and piperazine citrate as standard anthelmintic drugs in concentration 10 mg/ml. LC50 value for Brine shrimp cytotoxicity was 189.44 ±28 μg/mL. In test concentration of 40mg/ml of the Pg. Cr, Raillietina spiralis was paralyzed in 23 minutes. However, for parasiticidal activity (death of the parasite), it took less time (40 minutes) as compared to standard Albendazole. Time taken for death of the parasite Raillietina spiralis, in concentration 40 mg /ml, is 40 min. While standard drugs took more time to kill the Raillietina spiralis. Pg. Cr took 19 minutes to paralyze the Ascaridia galli at concentration 40 mg/ml whereas; it took 48 minutes for to kill the parasite Ascaridia galli. The current work confirms the traditional use of rind of Punica granatum as anthelmintic against Raillietina spiralis and Ascaridia galli. Results of brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay warrant for the isolation of cytotoxic compounds. List of abbreviation- Pg. Cr = Crude methanolic extract of Punica granatum. PMID:26004729

  17. Antigenic profile, isolation and characterization of whole body extract of Paramphistomum gracile.

    PubMed

    Anuracpreeda, P; Chawengkirttikul, R; Sobhon, P

    2016-07-01

    An antigenic component of adult Paramphistomum gracile was characterized by means of indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (indirect ELISA), sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting using sera from cattle naturally infected with P. gracile, Eurytrema pancreaticum, Fasciola gigantica, Moniezia benedeni, strongylids, Trichuris sp. and Strongyloides sp. The whole body (WB) extracts of P. gracile were fractionated by gel filtration chromatography in a Sephadex G-200 column. It was found that the WB extract fractions, F1-F3 were highly antigenic, F5 was moderately antigenic and F4 was poorly antigenic. For SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting, the antigenic molecules of WB extract and all five fractions were mostly at molecular weights (MW) ranging from 12 to 150 kDa. One antigenic protein of 16 kDa detected in WB extract and F1-F3 was found to give a consistent reaction with sera from infected cattle. The antigenicity of the purified 16 kDa protein was confirmed by immunoblotting and indirect ELISA using a pool of sera and individual serum samples from infected cattle (at 1 : 78 125 dilution) and hyperimmunized rabbit (at 1 : 390 625 dilution). This finding suggests that the 16 kDa protein may be a potential antigen for the immunodiagnosis of cattle paramphistomosis caused by P. gracile. PMID:27135198

  18. Chimeric Antigens of Toxoplasma gondii: Toward Standardization of Toxoplasmosis Serodiagnosis Using Recombinant Products

    PubMed Central

    Beghetto, Elisa; Spadoni, Andrea; Bruno, Luca; Buffolano, Wilma; Gargano, Nicola

    2006-01-01

    We have evaluated the diagnostic utility of six antigenic regions of the Toxoplasma gondii MIC2, MIC3, M2AP, GRA3, GRA7, and SAG1 gene products, assembled in recombinant chimeric antigens by genetic engineering, in order to replace the soluble, whole-cell tachyzoite extract in serological assays. Serum samples from 100 adults with acquired T. gondii infection and from 30 infants born to mothers with primary toxoplasmosis contracted during pregnancy, of whom 20 were congenitally infected, were included. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM antibodies against epitopes carried by chimeric antigens were measured by performing parallel enzyme immunoassays (recombinant enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays [Rec-ELISAs]), and the results obtained by standard commercial assays with the whole-cell Toxoplasma antigen and assays with the chimeric antigens were compared. Our results demonstrate that IgG and IgM Rec-ELISAs with individual chimeric antigens have performance characteristics comparable to those of the corresponding commercial assays. Furthermore, we show that IgM-capture assays based on chimeric antigens improve the ability to diagnose congenital toxoplasmosis postnatally compared with the ability to diagnose congenital toxoplasmosis by the use of standard assays. The use of recombinant chimeric antigens is effective in distinguishing T. gondii-infected individuals from T. gondii-uninfected individuals and shows that immunoassays based on recombinant products could provide the basis for standardized commercial tests for the serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis. PMID:16757610

  19. [A comparative analysis of various antigenic proteins found in Haemonchus contortus--a review].

    PubMed

    Tak, I R; Dar, J S; Dar, S A; Ganai, B A; Chishti, M Z; Ahmad, F

    2015-01-01

    Many innovative researches on the development and introduction of recombinant vaccines against many economically important parasites were carried out in the 20th century. Research continues to hold promise with the development of immunological and molecular approaches for control of these parasites and in this regard it has already been seen that blood-sucking parasites such as Haemonchus contortus and Ostertagia ostertagi are susceptible to control by vaccines containing "novel" or "concealed" antigens. Haemonchus contortus is primarily pathogenic to sheep and its blood-feeding behaviour causes effects ranging from mild anaemia to mortality in young animals. Current means of control which are dependent on repeated treatment with anthelmintics are responsible for the increasing drug resistance of this parasite. Together with the growing concern of residual chemicals in the environment and food chain, this has led to attempts to better understand the biology of the parasite with an aim to develop alternate means of control, including the development of molecular vaccines. More problematic and also important is the formulation and delivery strategy to induce expulsion of this parasite, using vaccines containing recombinant "conventional" antigens. Tremendous progress has been made in the last decade in identifying several antigens from Haemonchus contortus which in their native form stimulate useful levels of protective immunity. Vaccines have been developed against H. contortus using 'novel' gut antigens from the parasite, but variable responsiveness of the host sheep has resulted in varying degrees of protection which are stimulated by these vaccines. Computer models have also been used to simulate vaccine efficacy in worm control and have yielded good results. This review will try to summarise the protective efficacy and also the molecular properties of principal candidate antigens which are expressed by this parasite. The review will try to cover the aspirations

  20. Surface antigens of smooth brucellae.

    PubMed

    Diaz, R; Jones, L M; Leong, D; Wilson, J B

    1968-10-01

    Surface antigens of smooth brucellae were extracted by ether-water, phenol-water, trichloroacetic acid, and saline and examined by immunoelectrophoresis and gel diffusion with antisera from infected and immunized rabbits. Ether-water extracts of Brucella melitensis contained a lipopolysaccharide protein component, which was specific for the surface of smooth brucellae and was correlated with the M agglutinogen of Wilson and Miles, a polysaccharide protein component devoid of lipid which was not restricted to the surface of smooth brucellae and was not correlated with the smooth agglutinogen (component 1), and several protein components which were associated with internal antigens of rough and smooth brucellae. Immunoelectrophoretic analysis of ether-water extracts of B. abortus revealed only two components, a lipopolysaccharide protein component, which was correlated with the A agglutinogen, and component 1. Component 1 from B. melitensis and B. abortus showed identity in gel diffusion tests, whereas component M from B. melitensis and component A from B. abortus showed partial identity with unabsorbed antisera and no cross-reactions with monospecific sera. Attempts to prepare monospecific sera directly by immunization of rabbits with cell walls or ether-water extracts were unsuccessful. Absorption of antisera with heavy fraction of ether-water extracts did not always result in monospecific sera. It was concluded (as has been described before) that the A and M antigens are present on a single antigenic complex, in different proportions depending upon the species and biotype, and that this component is a lipopolysaccharide protein complex of high molecular weight that diffuses poorly through agar gel. Components 1, A, and M were also demonstrated in trichloroacetic acid and phenol-water extracts. With all extracts, B. melitensis antigen showed greater diffusibility in agar than B. abortus antigens. After mild acid hydrolysis, B. abortus ether-water extract was able

  1. Characterisation of Sarcoptes scabiei antigens.

    PubMed

    Hejduk, Gloria; Hofstätter, Katja; Löwenstein, Michael; Peschke, Roman; Miller, Ingrid; Joachim, Anja

    2011-02-01

    In pig herds, the status of Sarcoptes scabiei infections is routinely monitored by serodiagnosis. Crude antigen for ELISA is usually prepared from S. scabiei var. canis or other variations and may lead to variations in the outcome of different tests, making assay standardisation difficult. This study was performed to investigate the antigen profiles of S. scabiei, including differences between hydrophilic and more hydrophobic protein fractions, by Western blotting with sera from pigs with defined infection status. Potential cross-reactivity among S. scabiei (var. canis, suis and bovis), Dermatophagoides farinae and Tyrophagus putrescentiae was also analysed. Hydrophobic S. scabiei antigens were detectable in the range of 40-50 kDa, whilst the hydrophilic fraction showed no specific antigenicity. In the hydrophobic fractions of D. farinae and T. putrescentiae, two major protein fractions in a similar size range could be identified, but no cross-reactivity with Sarcoptes-positive sera was detectable. However, examination of the hydrophilic fractions revealed cross-reactivity between Sarcoptes-positive sera and both the house dust mite and the storage mite in the range of 115 and 28/38 kDa. Specific bands in the same range (42 and 48 kDa) could be detected in blots from hydrophobic fractions of all three tested variations of S. scabiei (var. canis, bovis and suis). These results show that there are considerable differences in mange antibody reactivity, including reactions with proteins from free-living mites, which may interfere with tests based on hydrophilic antigens. Further refinement of antigen and the use of specific hydrophobic proteins could improve ELISA performance and standardisation. PMID:20865427

  2. Track-a-worm, an open-source system for quantitative assessment of C. elegans locomotory and bending behavior.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sijie Jason; Wang, Zhao-Wen

    2013-01-01

    A major challenge of neuroscience is to understand the circuit and gene bases of behavior. C. elegans is commonly used as a model system to investigate how various gene products function at specific tissue, cellular, and synaptic foci to produce complicated locomotory and bending behavior. The investigation generally requires quantitative behavioral analyses using an automated single-worm tracker, which constantly records and analyzes the position and body shape of a freely moving worm at a high magnification. Many single-worm trackers have been developed to meet lab-specific needs, but none has been widely implemented for various reasons, such as hardware difficult to assemble, and software lacking sufficient functionality, having closed source code, or using a programming language that is not broadly accessible. The lack of a versatile system convenient for wide implementation makes data comparisons difficult and compels other labs to develop new worm trackers. Here we describe Track-A-Worm, a system rich in functionality, open in source code, and easy to use. The system includes plug-and-play hardware (a stereomicroscope, a digital camera and a motorized stage), custom software written to run with Matlab in Windows 7, and a detailed user manual. Grayscale images are automatically converted to binary images followed by head identification and placement of 13 markers along a deduced spline. The software can extract and quantify a variety of parameters, including distance traveled, average speed, distance/time/speed of forward and backward locomotion, frequency and amplitude of dominant bends, overall bending activities measured as root mean square, and sum of all bends. It also plots worm travel path, bend trace, and bend frequency spectrum. All functionality is performed through graphical user interfaces and data is exported to clearly-annotated and documented Excel files. These features make Track-A-Worm a good candidate for implementation in other labs. PMID

  3. [Farmer's lung antigens in Germany].

    PubMed

    Sennekamp, J; Joest, M; Sander, I; Engelhart, S; Raulf-Heimsoth, M

    2012-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that besides the long-known farmer's lung antigen sources Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula (Micropolyspora faeni), Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, and Aspergillus fumigatus, additionally the mold Absidia (Lichtheimia) corymbifera as well as the bacteria Erwinia herbicola (Pantoea agglomerans) and Streptomyces albus may cause farmer's lung in Germany. In this study the sera of 64 farmers with a suspicion of farmer's lung were examined for the following further antigens: Wallemia sebi, Cladosporium herbarum, Aspergillus versicolor, and Eurotium amstelodami. Our results indicate that these molds are not frequent causes of farmer's lung in Germany. PMID:22477566

  4. Facile Synthesis of Worm-like Micelles by Visible Light Mediated Dispersion Polymerization Using Photoredox Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Yeow, Jonathan; Xu, Jiangtao; Boyer, Cyrille

    2016-01-01

    Presented herein is a protocol for the facile synthesis of worm-like micelles by visible light mediated dispersion polymerization. This approach begins with the synthesis of a hydrophilic poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) (POEGMA) homopolymer using reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerization. Under mild visible light irradiation (λ = 460 nm, 0.7 mW/cm(2)), this macro-chain transfer agent (macro-CTA) in the presence of a ruthenium based photoredox catalyst, Ru(bpy)3Cl2 can be chain extended with a second monomer to form a well-defined block copolymer in a process known as Photoinduced Electron Transfer RAFT (PET-RAFT). When PET-RAFT is used to chain extend POEGMA with benzyl methacrylate (BzMA) in ethanol (EtOH), polymeric nanoparticles with different morphologies are formed in situ according to a polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA) mechanism. Self-assembly into nanoparticles presenting POEGMA chains at the corona and poly(benzyl methacrylate) (PBzMA) chains in the core occurs in situ due to the growing insolubility of the PBzMA block in ethanol. Interestingly, the formation of highly pure worm-like micelles can be readily monitored by observing the onset of a highly viscous gel in situ due to nanoparticle entanglements occurring during the polymerization. This process thereby allows for a more reproducible synthesis of worm-like micelles simply by monitoring the solution viscosity during the course of the polymerization. In addition, the light stimulus can be intermittently applied in an ON/OFF manner demonstrating temporal control over the nanoparticle morphology. PMID:27340940

  5. Animal-sediment interactions: the effect of ingestion and excretion by worms on mineralogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Needham, S. J.; Worden, R. H.; McIlroy, D.

    By controlled experiments that simulate marine depositional environments, it is shown that accelerated weathering and clay mineral authigenesis occur during the combined process of ingestion, digestion and excretion of fine-grained sediment by two species of annelid worms. Previously characterized synthetic mud was created using finely ground, low-grade metamorphic slate (temperature approximately 300°C) containing highly crystalline chlorite and muscovite. This was added to experiment and control tanks along with clean, wind-blown sand. Faecal casts were collected at regular intervals from the experimental tanks and, less frequently, from the control tanks. Over a period of many months the synthetic mud (slate) proved to be unchanged in the control tanks, but was significantly different in faecal casts from the experimental tanks that contained the worms Arenicola marina and Lumbricus terrestris. Chlorite was preferentially destroyed during digestion in the gut of A. marina. Both chlorite and muscovite underwent XRD peak broadening with a skew developing towards higher lattice spacing, characteristic of smectite formation. A neoformed Fe-Mg-rich clay mineral (possibly berthierine) and as-yet undefined clay minerals with very high d-spacing were detected in both A. marina and L. terrestris cast samples. We postulate that a combination of the low pH and bacteria-rich microenvironment in the guts of annelid worms may radically accelerate mineral dissolution and clay mineral precipitation processes during digestion. These results show that macrobiotic activity significantly accelerates weathering and mineral degradation as well as mineral authigenesis. The combined processes of sediment ingestion and digestion thus lead to early diagenetic growth of clay minerals in clastic sediments.

  6. Animal-sediment interactions: the effect of ingestion and excretion by worms on mineralogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Needham, S. J.; Worden, R. H.; McIlroy, D.

    2004-09-01

    By controlled experiments that simulate marine depositional environments, it is shown that accelerated weathering and clay mineral authigenesis occur during the combined process of ingestion, digestion and excretion of fine-grained sediment by two species of annelid worms. Previously characterized synthetic mud was created using finely ground, low-grade metamorphic slate (temperature approximately 300°C) containing highly crystalline chlorite and muscovite. This was added to experiment and control tanks along with clean, wind-blown sand. Faecal casts were collected at regular intervals from the experimental tanks and, less frequently, from the control tanks. Over a period of many months the synthetic mud (slate) proved to be unchanged in the control tanks, but was significantly different in faecal casts from the experimental tanks that contained the worms Arenicola marina and Lumbricus terrestris. Chlorite was preferentially destroyed during digestion in the gut of A. marina. Both chlorite and muscovite underwent XRD peak broadening with a skew developing towards higher lattice spacing, characteristic of smectite formation. A neoformed Fe-Mg-rich clay mineral (possibly berthierine) and as-yet undefined clay minerals with very high d-spacing were detected in both A. marina and L. terrestris cast samples. We postulate that a combination of the low pH and bacteria-rich microenvironment in the guts of annelid worms may radically accelerate mineral dissolution and clay mineral precipitation processes during digestion. These results show that macrobiotic activity significantly accelerates weathering and mineral degradation as well as mineral authigenesis. The combined processes of sediment ingestion and digestion thus lead to early diagenetic growth of clay minerals in clastic sediments.

  7. Monitoring of the process of composting of kitchen waste in an institutional scale worm farm.

    PubMed

    Kristiana, R; Nair, J; Anda, M; Mathew, K

    2005-01-01

    Vermicomposting provides an alternative method of managing waste that is ecofriendly and cost-effective. The Environmental Technology Centre (ETC) at Murdoch University and St. John of God Hospital (SJOG) signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) to install a vermiculture system in SJOG to treat some of the organic waste generated by the on site kitchen facility. This is an effort made by SJOG to reduce the amount of organic waste sent to landfill each year and to treat the waste on site as part of a recycling/reuse program. The study is aimed at scientifically monitoring vermicomposting process and to understand the optimum management requirements to improve the operation of an institutional scale worm farm. In addition, an experiment was conducted to investigate the suitability of bedding materials: horse manure, cow manure, peat coir, and natural bedding (vermicast). The species of earthworms used in this experiment were Red (Lumbricus rubellus), Tiger (Eisenia fetida), and Blue (Lumbricus excavatus). The pH, temperature, worm population and quality of castings were tested in different beds. Results indicated that vermicast was the best bedding for vermicomposting, and there were no significant difference between the performances of the other three beds. However, it can be concluded that the bedding material of horse manure, cow manure, and peat coir were successfully established well within the experimental period of eight weeks, and cow manure with the lowest C:N ratio produced the best quality bedding. As using vermicast for the initial bedding creates a very high capital cost these organic substrates provide cost-effective alternative. Therefore they would be quite appropriate to initiate an institutional scale worm farm. PMID:16104419

  8. The effects of chronic radiation on reproductive success of the polychaete worm Neanthes arenaceodentata

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, F.L.; Anderson, S.L.

    1988-12-01

    The effects of lifetime exposure to chronic irradiation on reproductive success were assessed for laboratory populations of the polychaete worm Neanthes arenaceodentata. Lifetime exposure was initiated upon the spawning of the P1 female and was terminated upon spawning of the F1 female. Groups of experimental worms received either no radiation (controls) or 0.19, 2.1, or 17 mGy/h. The total dose received by the worms was either background or approximately 0.55, 6.5, or 54 Gy, respectively. The broods from the F1 mated pairs were sacrificed before hatching occurred, and information was obtained on brood size, on the number of normal and abnormal embryos, and on the number of embryos that were living, dying, and dead. The mean number of embryos in the broods from the F1 females exposed to lifetime radiation of 0.19 and 2.1 mGy/h was not significantly different from the mean number of embryos from control females; however, the mean number of embryos was different from those F1 females exposed to 17 mGy/h. There was a significant reduction in the number of live embryos in the broods from the F1 mated pairs that were exposed to the lowest dose rate given, 0.19 mGy/h, as well as those exposed to 2.1 and 17 mGy/h. Also, increased percentages of abnormal embryos were determined in the broods of all the radiation-exposed groups. 39 refs., 10 figs., 15 tabs.

  9. Epidemiology of the eye worm Thelazia callipaeda in cats from southern Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Motta, B; Nägeli, F; Nägeli, C; Solari-Basano, F; Schiessl, B; Deplazes, P; Schnyder, M

    2014-07-14

    Thelazia callipaeda is a spiruroid nematode of dogs, cats and wild carnivores transmitted by zoophilic drosophilid Phortica flies and found in an increasing number of European countries. In cats the disease is diagnosed sporadically. This study presents an epidemiological investigation of feline thelaziosis, performed in southern Ticino, Switzerland, an endemic area for T. callipaeda. Between January 2009 and July 2011 2171 cats, having outdoor access and presenting for various reasons, were examined by in-depth eye examinations, and clinical and anamnestic data were collected. The overall prevalence of T. callipaeda in the study area was 0.8% (17/2171 cats, 95% confidence interval: 0.5-1.3%). Among cats showing ocular illness, the prevalence was 9.2% (11/120, CI: 4.7-15.8%). Cats with eye worms had no international travel history and were significantly more often diagnosed between June and December than during other months. With one exception, one single eye per cat was infested, each harboring between 1 and 10 eye worms (arithmetic mean: 2.8 per cat). One cat presented with conjunctivitis and ulcers, seven with conjunctivitis only and 3 with a mildly increased lacrimation, while 6 cats were asymptomatic. Significantly more male than female cats had eye worms and cats older than one year were overrepresented. No pure-bred cats were infested. This study confirms the establishment of this potentially zoonotic parasite in cats from the study area. Due to the clinical relevance and pain caused by the infestations, increased disease awareness and in depth eye examination for the detection of T. callipaeda in cats are recommended, even in absence of obvious clinical signs, in order to initiate appropriate anthelmintic treatment. PMID:24810375

  10. Targeted selective treatment for worm management--how do we sell rational programs to farmers?

    PubMed

    van Wyk, J A; Hoste, H; Kaplan, R M; Besier, R B

    2006-07-31

    Seriously escalating global anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants has spawned a variety of alternatives to anthelmintics for worm management, based on the need for sustainable Integrated Parasite Management (sIPM). Pivotal to the sIPM approach is the concept of refugia, the proportion of a given parasite population that escapes exposure to control measures. By balancing drug applications with the maintenance of refugia, the accumulation of anthelmintic resistance alleles in worm populations can be considerably delayed, while still providing good levels of control. The over-dispersed nature of parasitic infections provides an opportunity to achieve this balance, by targeting treatments to the members of a flock or herd that are least tolerant to nematode infection. However, implementation of this strategy has only recently become feasible, with the development of the FAMACHA((c)) system for clinical evaluation of anaemia due to haemonchosis. Subsequently, the use of milk yields has proven an effective indicator in dairy goats infected predominantly with nematodes other than Haemonchus contortus. In addition, short-term weight changes and perhaps also body condition scoring may provide indices of parasitism, permitting the rapid identification of animals likely to benefit from treatment. However, sIPM and refugia-based approaches are more complex than whole-flock treatments in conventional programs, and adoption by farmers is most likely where the theoretical basis is understood. As close communication with informed advisors is generally limited, there is a danger that sIPM will remain a theoretical concept without alternative modes of communication. The development of computer-based decision support programs, which use epidemiological, seasonal and clinical information to provide recommendations for specific situations, should be accorded high priority in the future development of worm management systems. PMID:16774807

  11. Study of the Formation and Solution Properties of Worm-Like Micelles Formed Using Both N-Hexadecyl-N-Methylpiperidinium Bromide-Based Cationic Surfactant and Anionic Surfactant

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Zhihu; Dai, Caili; Feng, Haishun; Liu, Yifei; Wang, Shilu

    2014-01-01

    The viscoelastic properties of worm-like micelles formed by mixing the cationic surfactant N-hexadecyl-N-methylpiperidinium bromide (C16MDB) with the anionic surfactant sodium laurate (SL) in aqueous solutions were investigated using rheological measurements. The effects of sodium laurate and temperature on the worm-like micelles and the mechanism of the observed shear thinning phenomenon and pseudoplastic behavior were systematically investigated. Additionally, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy images further ascertained existence of entangled worm-like micelles. PMID:25296131

  12. Contribution to the mechanics of worm-like motion systems and artificial muscles.

    PubMed

    Steigenberger, J

    2003-08-01

    In this paper the author presents a mathematical model of a device that can be seen as a segment of an artificial worm (following the paradigm "earthworm") and as an artificial muscle as well. Confining considerations to statics, the model shows up as an ordinary parameter-dependent boundary value problem. It is tackled numerically in various particular forms by means of Maple and thus gives a good view of the segment's behavior during inflation and under longitudinal load. Segments of maximal volume present a useful preliminary stage of the investigations. PMID:14586816

  13. Organophilic worm-like ruthenium nanoparticles catalysts by the modification of CTAB on montmorillonite supports.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Limei; Qi, Xiaolong; Jiang, Xiaohui; Zhou, Yafen; Fu, Haiyan; Chen, Hua

    2013-02-15

    A supported Ru catalyst was prepared by using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) intercalated montmorillonite as the supporting matrix. The as-prepared Ru catalyst was subsequently characterized by XRD, XPS, N(2) sorption, TEM, and dispersibility measurement. The results showed that the Ru nanoparticles were in the modified montmorillonite interlayers, and the morphology of Ru nanoparticle was worm-like. Moreover, this supported Ru catalyst could be well dispersed in organic solvents such as toluene. The catalyst exhibited high activity and selectivity in the hydrogenation of quinoline even without stirring. PMID:23141762

  14. Cell Death and Sexual Differentiation of Behavior: Worms, Flies, and Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Forger, Nancy G.; de Vries, Geert J.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Sex differences in the nervous system are found throughout the animal kingdom. Here, we discuss three prominent genetic models: nematodes, fruit flies, and mice. In all three, differential cell death is central to sexual differentiation and shared molecular mechanisms have been identified. Our knowledge of the precise function of neural sex differences lags behind. One fruitful approach to the “function” question is to contrast sexual differentiation in standard laboratory animals with differentiation in species exhibiting unique social and reproductive organizations. Advanced genetic strategies are also addressing this question in worms and flies, and may soon be applicable to vertebrates. PMID:20934320

  15. Phylogeny of protostome worms derived from 18S rRNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Winnepenninckx, B; Backeljau, T; De Wachter, R

    1995-07-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of protostome worms were studied by comparing new complete 18S rRNA sequences of Vestimentifera, Pogonophora, Sipuncula, Echiura, Nemertea, and Annelida with existing 18S rRNA sequences of Mollusca, Arthropoda, Chordata, and Platyhelminthes. Phylogenetic trees were inferred via neighbor-joining and maximum parsimony analyses. These suggest that (1) Sipuncula and Echiura are not sister groups; (2) Nemertea are protostomes; (3) Vestimentifera and Pogonophora are protostomes that have a common ancestor with Echiura; and (4) Vestimentifera and Pogonophora are a monophyletic clade. PMID:7659019

  16. Fossils of hydrothermal vent worms from Cretaceous sulfide ores of the Samail ophiolite, Oman

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haymon, R.M.; Koski, R.A.; Sinclair, C.

    1984-01-01

    Fossil worm tubes of Cretaceous age preserved in the Bayda massive sulfide deposit of the Samail ophiolite, Oman, are apparently the first documented examples of fossils embedded in massive sulfide deposits from the geologic record. The geologic setting of the Bayda deposit and the distinctive mineralogic and textural features of the fossiliferous samples suggest that the Bayda sulfide deposit and fossil fauna are remnants of a Cretaceous sea-floor hydrothermal vent similar to modern hot springs on the East Pacific Rise and the Juan de Fuca Ridge.

  17. Regional immune responses with stage-specific antigen recognition profiles develop in lymph nodes of pigs following Ascaris suum larval migration.

    PubMed

    Jungersen, G; Eriksen, L; Nansen, P; Lind, P; Rasmussen, T; Meeusen, E N

    2001-04-01

    The early life-cycle of the pig round worm, Ascaris suum, involves well-defined larval development in the liver, lungs and finally the small intestine. Distinct regional immune responses to larval antigens of A. suum were observed in the draining lymph nodes of immunized and challenged pigs during larval migration. This was reflected in a transient enlargement of the stimulated lymph nodes, due to increases in numbers of B cells and CD4 T cells, and the production of A. suum-specific antibody by antibody secreting cell (ASC) cultures. Larval antigen recognition pattern of antibodies in serum, bile and draining lymph node ASC culture supernatant (ASC-probes) was examined by immunoblotting. This revealed distinct organ-specific recognition patterns of larval-specific antigens by the draining lymph nodes at different times after challenge. In particular, an early larval 42 kDa antigen was recognized specifically by ASC-probes of the liver lymph nodes at 7 but not 14 days postchallenge (pc) which was not detected in other lymph nodes, serum or bile of the same pig. Similarly, a late larval antigen of 34 kDa was uniquely detected by lung and jejunal ASC-probes at 14 days pc. These observations demonstrate how development of distinct regional immune responses in tissues with different antigen stimulation can be monitored with ASC-probes and flow cytometry. PMID:11298295

  18. Proteolysis, proteasomes and antigen presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, A. L.; Rock, K. L.

    1992-01-01

    Proteins presented to the immune system must first be cleaved to small peptides by intracellular proteinases. Proteasomes are proteolytic complexes that degrade cytosolic and nuclear proteins. These particles have been implicated in ATP-ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis and in the processing of intracellular antigens for cytolytic immune responses.

  19. Petri Net and Probabilistic Model Checking Based Approach for the Modelling, Simulation and Verification of Internet Worm Propagation

    PubMed Central

    Razzaq, Misbah; Ahmad, Jamil

    2015-01-01

    Internet worms are analogous to biological viruses since they can infect a host and have the ability to propagate through a chosen medium. To prevent the spread of a worm or to grasp how to regulate a prevailing worm, compartmental models are commonly used as a means to examine and understand the patterns and mechanisms of a worm spread. However, one of the greatest challenge is to produce methods to verify and validate the behavioural properties of a compartmental model. This is why in this study we suggest a framework based on Petri Nets and Model Checking through which we can meticulously examine and validate these models. We investigate Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered (SEIR) model and propose a new model Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered-Delayed-Quarantined (Susceptible/Recovered) (SEIDQR(S/I)) along with hybrid quarantine strategy, which is then constructed and analysed using Stochastic Petri Nets and Continuous Time Markov Chain. The analysis shows that the hybrid quarantine strategy is extremely effective in reducing the risk of propagating the worm. Through Model Checking, we gained insight into the functionality of compartmental models. Model Checking results validate simulation ones well, which fully support the proposed framework. PMID:26713449

  20. A new copepod with transformed body plan and unique phylogenetic position parasitic in the acorn worm Ptychodera flava.

    PubMed

    Tung, Che-Huang; Cheng, Yu-Rong; Lin, Ching-Yi; Ho, Ju-Shey; Kuo, Chih-Horng; Yu, Jr-Kai; Su, Yi-Hsien

    2014-02-01

    Symbiotic copepods compose one-third of the known copepod species and are associated with a wide range of animal groups. Two parasitic copepods endoparasitic in acorn worms (Hemichordata), Ive balanoglossi and Ubius hilli, collected in the Mediterranean Sea and Australian waters, respectively, were described a century ago. Here we report a new parasitic copepod species, Ive ptychoderae sp. nov., found in Ptychodera flava, a widespread acorn worm in the Indo-Pacific Ocean and an emerging organism for developmental and evolutionary studies. The female of I. ptychoderae is characterized by having a reduced maxilliped and five pairs of annular swellings along the body that are morphologically similar but distinguishable from those in the two previously described parasitic copepods in acorn worms. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 18S rDNA sequence shows that I. ptychoderae may belong to Poecilostomatoida but represent a new family, which we name Iveidae fam. nov. Ive ptychoderae is commonly found in the acorn worm population with an average prevalence of 42% during the collecting period. The infection of the parasite induces the formation of cysts and causes localized lesions of the host tissues, suggesting that it may have negative effects on its host. Interestingly, most cysts contain a single female with one or multiple male copepods, suggesting that their sex determination may be controlled by environmental conditions. The relationships between the parasitic copepods and acorn worms thus provide a platform for understanding physiological and ecological influences and coevolution between parasites and hosts. PMID:24648208

  1. A new nano-worm structure from gold-nanoparticle mediated random curving of zinc oxide nanorods.

    PubMed

    Perumal, Veeradasan; Hashim, Uda; Gopinath, Subash C B; Haarindraprasad, R; Poopalan, P; Liu, Wei-Wen; Ravichandran, M; Balakrishnan, S R; Ruslinda, A R

    2016-04-15

    Creating novel nanostructures is a primary step for high-performance analytical sensing. Herein, a new worm like nanostructure with Zinc Oxide-gold (ZnO/Au) hybrid was fabricated through an aqueous hydrothermal method, by doping Au-nanoparticle (AuNP) on the growing ZnO lattice. During ZnO growth, fine tuning the solution temperature expedites random curving of ZnO nanorods and forms nano-worms. The nano-worms which were evidenced by morphological, physical and structural analyses, revealed elongated structures protruding from the surface (length: 1 µm; diameter: ~100 nm). The appropriate peaks for the face centred cubic gold were (111) and (200), as seen from X-ray diffractogram. The strong interrelation between Au and ZnO was manifested by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The combined surface area increment from the nanoparticle radii and ZnO nanorod random curving gives raise an enhancement in detection sensitivity by increasing bio-loading. 'Au-decorated hybrid nano-worm' was immobilized with a probe DNA from Vibrio Cholera and duplexed with a target which was revealed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Our novel Au-decorated hybrid nano-worm is suitable for high-performance bio-sensing, as evidenced by impedance spectroscopy, having higher-specificity and attained femtomolar (10 fM) sensitivity. Further, higher stability, reproducibility and regeneration on this sensing surface were demonstrated. PMID:26584078

  2. Effect of pre-cardiac and adult stages of Dirofilaria immitis in pulmonary disease of cats: CBC, bronchial lavage cytology, serology, radiographs, CT images, bronchial reactivity, and histopathology.

    PubMed

    Ray Dillon, A; Tillson, D M; Wooldridge, A; Cattley, R; Hathcock, J; Brawner, W R; Cole, R; Welles, B; Christopherson, P W; Lee-Fowler, T; Bordelon, S; Barney, S; Sermersheim, M; Garbarino, R; Wells, S Z; Diffie, E B; Schachner, E R

    2014-11-15

    A controlled, blind study was conducted to define the initial inflammatory response and lung damage associated with the death of precardiac stages of Dirofilaria immitis in cats as compared to adult heartworm infections and normal cats. Three groups of six cats each were used: UU: uninfected untreated controls; PreS I: infected with 100 D. immitis L3 by subcutaneous injection and treated topically with selamectin 32 and 2 days pre-infection and once monthly for 8 months); IU: infected with 100 D. immitis L3 and left untreated. Peripheral blood, serum, bronchial lavage, and thoracic radiographic images were collected from all cats on Days 0, 70, 110, 168, and 240. CT images were acquired on Days 0, 110, and 240. Cats were euthanized, and necropsies were conducted on Day 240 to determine the presence of heartworms. Bronchial rings were collected for in vitro reactivity. Lung, heart, brain, kidney, and liver tissues were collected for histopathology. Results were compared for changes within each group. Pearson and Spearman correlations were performed for association between histologic, radiographic, serologic, hematologic and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) results. Infected cats treated with selamectin did not develop radiographically evident changes throughout the study, were heartworm antibody negative, and were free of adult heartworms and worm fragments at necropsy. Histologic lung scores and CT analysis were not significantly different between PreS I cats and UU controls. Subtle alveolar myofibrosis was noted in isolated areas of several PreS I cats and an eosinophilic BAL cytology was noted on Days 75 and 120. Bronchial ring reactivity was blunted in IU cats but was normal in PreS I and UU cats. The IU cats became antibody positive, and five cats developed adult heartworms. All cats with heartworms were antigen positive at one time point; but one cat was antibody positive, antigen negative, with viable adult females at necropsy. The CT revealed early involvement

  3. Excretory/secretory products of adult Haemonchus contortus and Teladorsagia circumcincta which increase the permeability of Caco-2 cell monolayers are neutralised by antibodies from immune hosts.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Z U; Deng, Q; Umair, S; Savoian, M S; Knight, J S; Pernthaner, A; Simpson, H V

    2016-05-15

    The onset of abomasal pathophysiology due to parasitism coincides with the presence of adult worms in the lumen, implicating worm excretory/secretory (ES) products acting on the surface mucosa. Caco-2 cell monolayers were grown to confluence on Transwell plates and exposed on the apical side to ES products of adult Haemonchus contortus and Teladorsagia circumcincta. ES products of both species significantly (p<0.001) reduced transepithelial electrical resistance after 2h to 81.1±1.0% and 82.9±1.1% respectively. Immunocytochemical staining of the Caco-2 monolayers for zona occludens-1 and occludin confirmed that the tight junctions remained intact in control medium, but these proteins were internalised from disrupted junctions after exposure to ES products. The components of H. contortus ES products responsible for increased epithelial permeability were partially blocked by phage displaying single chain antibodies derived from sheep immune to field infection and enriched by panning with H. contortus ES products. Immune hosts may therefore be able to reduce the effects of worm chemicals on the gastric epithelium. Permeabilisation of the abomasal surface mucosa by worm chemicals would also explain how cells deep in the gastric glands could rapidly be affected by parasites emerging from the glands or within a day of transplantation of adult worms into naïve hosts, resulting in the pathophysiology typically caused by abomasal nematode parasitism. PMID:27084480

  4. Biogeography of worm lizards (Amphisbaenia) driven by end-Cretaceous mass extinction.

    PubMed

    Longrich, Nicholas R; Vinther, Jakob; Pyron, R Alexander; Pisani, Davide; Gauthier, Jacques A

    2015-05-01

    Worm lizards (Amphisbaenia) are burrowing squamates that live as subterranean predators. Their underground existence should limit dispersal, yet they are widespread throughout the Americas, Europe and Africa. This pattern was traditionally explained by continental drift, but molecular clocks suggest a Cenozoic diversification, long after the break-up of Pangaea, implying dispersal. Here, we describe primitive amphisbaenians from the North American Palaeocene, including the oldest known amphisbaenian, and provide new and older molecular divergence estimates for the clade, showing that worm lizards originated in North America, then radiated and dispersed in the Palaeogene following the Cretaceous-Palaeogene (K-Pg) extinction. This scenario implies at least three trans-oceanic dispersals: from North America to Europe, from North America to Africa and from Africa to South America. Amphisbaenians provide a striking case study in biogeography, suggesting that the role of continental drift in biogeography may be overstated. Instead, these patterns support Darwin and Wallace's hypothesis that the geographical ranges of modern clades result from dispersal, including oceanic rafting. Mass extinctions may facilitate dispersal events by eliminating competitors and predators that would otherwise hinder establishment of dispersing populations, removing biotic barriers to dispersal. PMID:25833855

  5. The biocomposite tube of a chaetopterid marine worm constructed with highly-controlled orientation of nanofilaments.

    PubMed

    Shah, Darshil U; Vollrath, Fritz; Stires, John; Deheyn, Dimitri D

    2015-03-01

    The ultrastructure of the self-constructed tube housing of the bioluminescent marine worm, Chaetopterus sp. reveals that the bio-nanocomposite tube comprises of multiple non-woven plies of multi-axially oriented organic nanofilaments (ø 50-1100nm) cemented together by an unstructured organic matrix binder. The thin-walled, impermeable tubes are bio-inspirational for conventional pipe technology. Orientation distribution analyses revealed that the dominant orientation angles of nanofilaments in the tube were 0°, ±45° and ±65°, which correlate well with optimal winding angles for 'man-made' fibre reinforced composite pipes subjected to specific loading conditions. Such a use of high aspect ratio nanofilaments in multi-axial laminates would impart toughness and flexibility to the tube structure, and facilitate rapid tube growth. While the tube production mechanism is not entirely known at this stage, our time-lapse studies show that, contrary to generic assumptions in literature, the worm actively, rapidly and sporadically produces and expands the tube. PMID:25579941

  6. Lethal body burdens of chlorophenols and mixtures of chlorophenols in an oligochaete worm, Lumbriculus variegatus

    SciTech Connect

    Kukkonen, J.

    1995-12-31

    The lethal body burdens (LBB) of a few chlorophenol congeners were measured in the oligochaete worm, Lumbriculus variegatus. LBB is defined as the concentration of the compound in the organism on molar basis to cause a death. Groups of 40 organisms were exposed to different chlorophenol concentrations in artificial soft freshwater to achieve differential mortality. Exposure times were either 24 hours or 48 hours. Besides exposures with individual congener, mixtures of chlorophenols were also tested. After each exposure, the surviving organisms were collected and the body burden of chlorophenols were measured by GC with electron capture detection. Only the surviving organisms were analyzed, because dead worms started to decay rather quickly. The analyzed tissue concentrations were actually lower than in surviving organisms. The trichlorophenols and pentachlorophenol have a LBB of 0.4--0.7 {micro}mol/g wet weight. The 2,6-dichlorophenol has a slightly higher LBB of 1.0--1.6 {micro}mol/g wet weight. The LBB of chlorophenol mixtures (two congeners at a time) were of the same, on molar basis, as individual congeners demonstrating fully additive toxicity. The lethal body burdens of 2,4,5-trichlorophenol and pentachlorophenol in Lumbriculus variegatus were the same for these water-only exposures as previously reported for these compounds in two different sediments. The use of lethal body burden approach in sediment toxicology is further discussed.

  7. The Tortoise and the Hare: Guinea Worm, Polio and the Race to Eradication

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Brett; Canyon, Deon

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The eradication of a human infectious disease is a major challenge and, if achieved, represents a enormous achievement. This article explores the long and difficult journey towards eradication for polio and guinea worm. Methods: The authors reviewed the programmatic approaches taken in the eradication strategies for these two diseases and the unique socio-political contexts in which these strategies are couched. The epidemiology of the last 15 years is compared and contrasted. The specific challenges for both programs are outlined and some key elements for success are highlighted. Discussion: The success of these eradication programs is contingent upon many factors. Nothing is assured, and progress remains fragile and vulnerable to setbacks. Security must be ensured in guinea worm transmission areas in Africa and polio transmission areas in Pakistan and Afghanistan. Technical solutions alone cannot guarantee eradication. National leadership and continued international focus and support are necessary, today more than ever. The legacy of success would be extraordinary. It would reverberate to future generations in the same way that the eradication of smallpox does for this generation. PMID:26401418

  8. Microplastic moves pollutants and additives to worms, reducing functions linked to health and biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Browne, Mark Anthony; Niven, Stewart J; Galloway, Tamara S; Rowland, Steve J; Thompson, Richard C

    2013-12-01

    Inadequate products, waste management, and policy are struggling to prevent plastic waste from infiltrating ecosystems [1, 2]. Disintegration into smaller pieces means that the abundance of micrometer-sized plastic (microplastic) in habitats has increased [3] and outnumbers larger debris [2, 4]. When ingested by animals, plastic provides a feasible pathway to transfer attached pollutants and additive chemicals into their tissues [5-15]. Despite positive correlations between concentrations of ingested plastic and pollutants in tissues of animals, few, if any, controlled experiments have examined whether ingested plastic transfers pollutants and additives to animals. We exposed lugworms (Arenicola marina) to sand with 5% microplastic that was presorbed with pollutants (nonylphenol and phenanthrene) and additive chemicals (Triclosan and PBDE-47). Microplastic transferred pollutants and additive chemicals into gut tissues of lugworms, causing some biological effects, although clean sand transferred larger concentrations of pollutants into their tissues. Uptake of nonylphenol from PVC or sand reduced the ability of coelomocytes to remove pathogenic bacteria by >60%. Uptake of Triclosan from PVC diminished the ability of worms to engineer sediments and caused mortality, each by >55%, while PVC alone made worms >30% more susceptible to oxidative stress. As global microplastic contamination accelerates, our findings indicate that large concentrations of microplastic and additives can harm ecophysiological functions performed by organisms. PMID:24309271

  9. Modification design method for an enveloping hourglass worm gear with consideration of machining and misalignment errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xingqiao; Wang, Jinge; Horstemeyer, Mark F.

    2013-09-01

    The influences of machining and misalignment errors play a very critical role in the performance of the anti-backlash double-roller enveloping hourglass worm gear(ADEHWG). However, a corresponding efficient method for eliminating or reducing these errors on the tooth profile of the ADEHWG is seldom reported. The gear engagement equation and tooth profile equation for considering six different errors that could arise from the machining and gear misalignment are derived from the theories of differential geometry and gear meshing. Also, the tooth contact analysis(TCA) is used to systematically investigate the influence of the machining and misalignment errors on the contact curves and the tooth profile by means of numerical analysis and three-dimensional solid modeling. The research results show that vertical angular misalignment of the worm wheel(Δ β) has the strongest influences while the tooth angle error(Δ α) has the weakest influences on the contact curves and the tooth profile. A novel efficient approach is proposed and used to minimize the effect of the errors in manufacturing by changing the radius of the grinding wheel and the approaching point of contact. The results from the TCA and the experiment demonstrate that this tooth profile design modification method can indeed reduce the machining and misalignment errors. This modification design method is helpful in understanding the manufacturing technology of the ADEHWG.

  10. Bioaccumulation of isocarbophos enantiomers from laboratory-contaminated aquatic environment by tubificid worms.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tiantian; Diao, Jinling; Di, Shanshan; Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2015-04-01

    The benthic fauna is of great importance to assess the environmental fate of contaminations in aquatic ecosystem. In this study, tubificids were exposed to both laboratory-contaminated aqueous phases and spiked sediment to study the bioaccumulation of isocarbophos (ICP). Two types of spiked sediments were used in the spiked sediment experiment. During the exposure period, an enantioselective bioaccumulation was found in spiked water treatment, with concentrations of the (-)-ICP higher than that of the (+)-ICP, but no enantioselectivity was detected in the spiked sediment treatments. However, different bioaccumulation patterns were observed in the two spiked sediment treatments. Results showed that for spiked forest field sediment (FF sediment) incubation, bioaccumulation was governed by the concentrations in soil. Whereas ICP was bioaccumulated dominantly from overlying water in spiked Chagan Lake sediment (CG sediment) test. The dissipation rates were proved different in the two sediments and ICP dissipated much faster in CG sediment than that in FF sediment. Significant difference in ICP's half-life was also observed between worm-present and worm-free treatments in FF sediment. The detections of concentrations in overlying water indicated that much more ICP diffused to aquatic phase with the present of tubificids. PMID:25475969

  11. An externally brooding acorn worm (Hemichordata, Enteropneusta, Torquaratoridae) from the Russian arctic.

    PubMed

    Osborn, Karen J; Gebruk, Andrey V; Rogacheva, Antonina; Holland, Nicholas D

    2013-10-01

    A single specimen of a previously undescribed acorn worm in the family Torquaratoridae was trawled from a bottom depth of about 350 m in the Kara Sea (Russian Arctic). The new species is the shallowest of the exclusively deep-sea torquaratorids found to date, possibly an example of high-latitude emergence. On the basis of ribosomal DNA sequences and morphology, the worm is described here as the holotype of Coleodesmium karaensis n. gen., n. sp. It is most similar in overall body shape to the previously described enteropneust genus Allapasus, but is uniquely characterized by a tubular component of the proboscis skeleton ensheathing the collar nerve cord. Additionally, within the proboscis, the sparseness of the musculature of C. karaensis clearly distinguishes it from the much more muscular members of Allapasus. The holotype is a female bearing about a dozen embryos on the surface of her pharyngeal region, each recessed within a shallow depression in the dorsal epidermis. The embryos, ranging from late gastrula to an early stage of coelom formation, are a little more than 1 mm in diameter and surrounded by a thin membrane. Each embryo comprises an external ectoderm of monociliated cells (not arranged in obvious ciliated bands) and an internal endo-mesoderm; the blastopore is closed. In the most advanced embryos, the anterior coelom is starting to constrict off from the archenteron. Coleodesmium karaensis is the first enteropneust (and indeed the first hemichordate) found brooding embryos on the surface of the mother's body. PMID:24243964

  12. Propensity of undulatory swimmers, such as worms, to go against the flow

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Jinzhou; Raizen, David M.; Bau, Haim H.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to orient oneself in response to environmental cues is crucial to the survival and function of diverse organisms. One such orientation behavior is the alignment of aquatic organisms with (negative rheotaxis) or against (positive rheotaxis) fluid current. The questions of whether low-Reynolds-number, undulatory swimmers, such as worms, rheotax and whether rheotaxis is a deliberate or an involuntary response to mechanical forces have been the subject of conflicting reports. To address these questions, we use Caenorhabditis elegans as a model undulatory swimmer and examine, in experiment and theory, the orientation of C. elegans in the presence of flow. We find that when close to a stationary surface the animal aligns itself against the direction of the flow. We elucidate for the first time to our knowledge the mechanisms of rheotaxis in worms and show that rheotaxis can be explained solely by mechanical forces and does not require sensory input or deliberate action. The interaction between the flow field induced by the swimmer and a nearby surface causes the swimmer to tilt toward the surface and the velocity gradient associated with the flow rotates the animal to face upstream. Fluid mechanical computer simulations faithfully mimic the behavior observed in experiments, supporting the notion that rheotaxis behavior can be fully explained by hydrodynamics. Our study highlights the important role of hydrodynamics in the behavior of small undulating swimmers and may assist in developing control strategies to affect the animals’ life cycles. PMID:25775552

  13. The landscape of human genes involved in the immune response to parasitic worms

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background More than 2 billion individuals worldwide suffer from helminth infections. The highest parasite burdens occur in children and helminth infection during pregnancy is a risk factor for preterm delivery and reduced birth weight. Therefore, helminth infections can be regarded as a strong selective pressure. Results Here we propose that candidate susceptibility genes for parasitic worm infections can be identified by searching for SNPs that display a strong correlation with the diversity of helminth species/genera transmitted in different geographic areas. By a genome-wide search we identified 3478 variants that correlate with helminth diversity. These SNPs map to 810 distinct human genes including loci involved in regulatory T cell function and in macrophage activation, as well as leukocyte integrins and co-inhibitory molecules. Analysis of functional relationships among these genes identified complex interaction networks centred around Th2 cytokines. Finally, several genes carrying candidate targets for helminth-driven selective pressure also harbour susceptibility alleles for asthma/allergy or are involved in airway hyper-responsiveness, therefore expanding the known parallelism between these conditions and parasitic infections. Conclusions Our data provide a landscape of human genes that modulate susceptibility to helminths and indicate parasitic worms as one of the major selective forces in humans. PMID:20807397

  14. Molecular basis for the blue bioluminescence of the Australian glow-worm Arachnocampa richardsae (Diptera: Keroplatidae).

    PubMed

    Trowell, Stephen C; Dacres, Helen; Dumancic, Mira M; Leitch, Virginia; Rickards, Rodney W

    2016-09-16

    Bioluminescence is the emission of visible light by living organisms. Here we describe the isolation and characterisation of a cDNA encoding a MW ≈ 59,000 Da luciferase from the Australian glow-worm, Arachnocampa richardsae. The enzyme is a member of the acyl-CoA ligase superfamily and produces blue light on addition of D-luciferin. These results are contrary to earlier reports (Lee, J., Photochem Photobiol 24, 279-285 (1976), Viviani, V. R., Hastings, J. W. & Wilson, T., Photochem Photobiol 75, 22-27 (2002)), which suggested glow-worm luciferase has MW ≈ 36,000 Da and is unreactive with beetle luciferin. There are more than 2000 species of firefly, which all produce emissions from D-luciferin in the green to red regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Although blue-emitting luciferases are known from marine organisms, they belong to different structural families and use a different substrate. The observation of blue emission from a D-luciferin-using enzyme is therefore unprecedented. PMID:27457804

  15. Biogeography of worm lizards (Amphisbaenia) driven by end-Cretaceous mass extinction

    PubMed Central

    Longrich, Nicholas R.; Vinther, Jakob; Pyron, R. Alexander; Pisani, Davide; Gauthier, Jacques A.

    2015-01-01

    Worm lizards (Amphisbaenia) are burrowing squamates that live as subterranean predators. Their underground existence should limit dispersal, yet they are widespread throughout the Americas, Europe and Africa. This pattern was traditionally explained by continental drift, but molecular clocks suggest a Cenozoic diversification, long after the break-up of Pangaea, implying dispersal. Here, we describe primitive amphisbaenians from the North American Palaeocene, including the oldest known amphisbaenian, and provide new and older molecular divergence estimates for the clade, showing that worm lizards originated in North America, then radiated and dispersed in the Palaeogene following the Cretaceous-Palaeogene (K-Pg) extinction. This scenario implies at least three trans-oceanic dispersals: from North America to Europe, from North America to Africa and from Africa to South America. Amphisbaenians provide a striking case study in biogeography, suggesting that the role of continental drift in biogeography may be overstated. Instead, these patterns support Darwin and Wallace's hypothesis that the geographical ranges of modern clades result from dispersal, including oceanic rafting. Mass extinctions may facilitate dispersal events by eliminating competitors and predators that would otherwise hinder establishment of dispersing populations, removing biotic barriers to dispersal. PMID:25833855

  16. Distribution and role of trace transition metals in Glycera worm jaws studied with synchrotron microbeam techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Lichtenegger, Helga C.; Birkedal, Henrik; Casa, Deigo M.; Cross, Julie O.; Heald, Steve M.; Waite, J. Herbert; Stucky, Galen

    2005-05-31

    A combination of position-resolved synchrotron microbeam techniques was used to explore the distribution and role of trace transition metals in the jaws of Glycera dibranchiata. The mandibles of this marine sediment worm have recently been found to be reinforced by the copper-based biomineral atacamite [Cu2(OH)3Cl]. Here we show that the system is more complex, containing zinc and iron and unmineralized copper compounds as well. X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies showed that a fraction of copper is present in oxidation state, Cu(I), in contrast to the mineral that exclusively contains Cu(II). X-ray fluorescence imaging revealed traces of copper also in the jaw base devoid of mineral. Traces of iron were found as well, but occurred spatially correlated with the copper mineral, suggesting a substitution of copper atoms by iron in the atacamite mineral. Zinc was evenly dispersed throughout the jaw matrix, quite in analogy to zinc in Nereis jaw, a related worm species, where nonmineralized zinc serves to cross-link and harden the proteinaceous matrix.

  17. Detection of O antigens in Escherichia coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lipopolysaccharide on the surface of Escherichia coli constitute the O antigens, which are important virulence factors that are targets of both the innate and adaptive immune system and play a major role in host-pathogen interactions. O antigens that are responsible for antigenic specificity of the ...

  18. Antigenic determinants and functional domains in core antigen and e antigen from hepatitis B virus

    SciTech Connect

    Salfeld, J.; Pfaff, E.; Noah, M.; Schaller, H.

    1989-02-01

    The precore/core gene of hepatitis B virus directs the synthesis of two polypeptides, the 21-kilodalton subunit (p21c) forming the viral nucleocapsid (serologically defined as core antigen (HBcAg)) and a secreted processed protein (p17e, serologically defined as HBe antigen (HBeAg)). Although most of their primary amino acid sequences are identical, HBcAg and HBeAg display different antigenic properties that are widely used in hepatitis B virus diagnosis. To locate and to characterize the corresponding determinants, segments of the core gene were expressed in Escherichia coli and probed with a panel of polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies in radioimmunoassays or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, Western blots, and competition assays. Three distinct major determinants were characterized. It is postulated that HBcAg and HBeAg share common basic three-dimensional structure exposing the common linear determinant HBe1 but that they differ in the presentation of two conformational determinants that are either introduced (HBc) or masked (HBe2) in the assembled core. The simultaneous presentation of HBe1 and HBc, two distinctly different antigenic determinants with overlapping amino acid sequences, is interpreted to indicate the presence of slightly differently folded, stable conformational states of p21c in the hepatitis virus nucleocapsid.

  19. C. elegans maximum velocity correlates with healthspan and is maintained in worms with an insulin receptor mutation

    PubMed Central

    Hahm, Jeong-Hoon; Kim, Sunhee; DiLoreto, Race; Shi, Cheng; Lee, Seung-Jae V.; Murphy, Coleen T.; Nam, Hong Gil

    2015-01-01

    Ageing is marked by physical decline. Caenorhabditis elegans is a valuable model for identifying genetic regulatory mechanisms of ageing and longevity. Here we report a simple method to assess C. elegans' maximum physical ability based on the worms' maximum movement velocity. We show maximum velocity declines with age, correlates well with longevity, accurately reports movement ability and, if measured in mid-adulthood, is predictive of maximal lifespan. Contrary to recent findings, we observe that maximum velocity of worm with mutations in daf-2(e1370) insulin/IGF-1 signalling scales with lifespan. Because of increased odorant receptor expression, daf-2(e1370) mutants prefer food over exploration, causing previous on-food motility assays to underestimate movement ability and, thus, worm health. Finally, a disease-burden analysis of published data reveals that the daf-2(e1370) mutation improves quality of life, and therefore combines lifespan extension with various signs of an increased healthspan. PMID:26586186

  20. Preliminary effects of water hardness on triactinomyxon production and development from eastern tubifex worms infected with Myxobolus cerebralis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waldrop, Thomas B.; Densmore, Christine; Blazer, Vicki; Smith, Dave; Schill, Bane

    1999-01-01

    Whirling disease is caused by Myxobolus cerebralis and requires an intermediate oligochaete host identified as Tubifex tubifex (Wolf, Markiw, and Hiltunen, 1986). M. cerebralis spores ingested by the tubifex worms develop into triactinomyxons (tams) that are eventually released into the water column to infect salmonid fish. There may be many environmental parameters, biotic or abiotic, that may affect the development of waterborne tams in eastern tubifex worms. This study will focus on one of those environmental parameters, total water hardness. Total water hardness is defined as the concentration of calcium and magnesium in a water sample expressed in milligrams per liter of equivalent CACO3 (Boyd, 1990). This study will address whether different levels of water hardness affect the development and production of tams released by infected tubifex worms.

  1. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Florida): Reef-building tube worm

    SciTech Connect

    Zale, A.V.; Merrifield, S.G. )

    1989-12-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, morphology, distribution, life history, habitats, and environmental requirements of coastal species of fishes and aquatic invertebrates. They are designed to assist in environmental impact assessment. The reef-building tube worm is an ecologically and geologically significant invertebrate inhabiting the coastal zone of southeastern Florida. The reefs constructed by the worms retain beach sediments, protect shorelines from storm damage, and are the basis for an elaborate marine community of fishes and invertebrates. The reefs provide substrate, shelter, and food in the relatively inhospitable surf zone. Reef-building tube worms require stable settlement substrates within sandy beam habitats and intense turbulence to maintain suspension of sand grains and other particles for tube building. 37 refs., 2 figs.

  2. C. elegans maximum velocity correlates with healthspan and is maintained in worms with an insulin receptor mutation.

    PubMed

    Hahm, Jeong-Hoon; Kim, Sunhee; DiLoreto, Race; Shi, Cheng; Lee, Seung-Jae V; Murphy, Coleen T; Nam, Hong Gil

    2015-01-01

    Ageing is marked by physical decline. Caenorhabditis elegans is a valuable model for identifying genetic regulatory mechanisms of ageing and longevity. Here we report a simple method to assess C. elegans' maximum physical ability based on the worms' maximum movement velocity. We show maximum velocity declines with age, correlates well with longevity, accurately reports movement ability and, if measured in mid-adulthood, is predictive of maximal lifespan. Contrary to recent findings, we observe that maximum velocity of worm with mutations in daf-2(e1370) insulin/IGF-1 signalling scales with lifespan. Because of increased odorant receptor expression, daf-2(e1370) mutants prefer food over exploration, causing previous on-food motility assays to underestimate movement ability and, thus, worm health. Finally, a disease-burden analysis of published data reveals that the daf-2(e1370) mutation improves quality of life, and therefore combines lifespan extension with various signs of an increased healthspan. PMID:26586186

  3. Sperm protein 17 is an oncofetal antigen: a lesson from a murine model.

    PubMed

    Arnaboldi, F; Menon, A; Menegola, E; Di Renzo, F; Mirandola, L; Grizzi, F; Figueroa, J A; Cobos, E; Jenkins, M; Barajon, I; Chiriva-Internati, Maurizio

    2014-10-01

    Sperm protein 17 (Sp17) was originally identified in the flagellum of spermatozoa and subsequently included in the subfamily of tumor-associated antigens known as cancer-testes antigens (CTA). Sp17 has been associated with the motility and migratory capacity in tumor cells, representing a link between gene expression patterns in germinal and tumor cells of different histological origins. Here we review the relevance of Sp17 expression in the mouse embryo and cancerous tissues, and present additional data demonstrating Sp17 complex expression pattern in this murine model. The expression of Sp17 in embryonic as well as adult neoplastic cells, but not normal tissues, suggests this protein should be considered an "oncofetal antigen." Further investigations are necessary to elucidate the mechanisms and functional significance of Sp17 aberrant expression in human adult cells and its implication in the pathobiology of cancer. PMID:24811209

  4. Cloning and sequence analysis of the Schistosoma mansoni membrane glycoprotein antigen gene GP22.

    PubMed

    el-Sherbeini, M; Ramadan, N; Bostian, K A; Knopf, P M

    1991-11-01

    A family of Schistosoma mansoni proteins (18-22 kDa, pI 5.3-5.8) are biosynthesized in juvenile worms and immunoprecipitated by antibodies uniquely present in protective Fischer rat antiserum. A cDNA clone, lambda gt11-40, expressing epitopes common to this protein family was used to obtain a genomic DNA clone, by hybridization with a lambda gt11-40 oligonucleotide probe. In the 1.37 kb of genomic DNA sequenced, an open reading frame of 182 amino acids was identified on the strand corresponding to lambda gt11-40 coding sequences, and those of identical independently isolated cDNA clones defining a 25-kDa surface membrane glycoprotein. The new S. mansoni gene is termed GP22. There are two candidate promoters, confirmed by primer extension studies with worm RNA. Promoter 1 (P1) is preceded by a G + C-rich region and potential CAAT sequences, and is to the 5'-side of P2. Transcription from P1 is initiated at 2 different sites, apparently producing mRNAs with different translation start sites (ATG). Decoding these mRNAs yields protein products of 182 (P1), 175 (P1), 140 (P2) and 136 (P2) amino acids. The polypeptides share the following features: a hydrophobic segment near the carboxy terminus sufficient to span a lipid bilayer, with a consensus sequence for thio-esterification by a fatty acid; an external domain containing 2 potential N-linked glycosylation sites; and a candidate leucine-zipper motif, suggesting the protein may exist as a dimer on the worm surface. While sharing these common features in their carboxy terminal regions, the three proteins differ in the length and properties of their amino termini. The 140-amino acid protein has a short hydrophobic amino terminus, while the 175- and 182-amino acid proteins have more extensive hydrophobic sequences, each preceded by a hydrophilic amino terminal sequence. The heterogeneity observed in 2-dimensional gels of the antigen may be explained in part by the size and charge differences among the proteins deduced

  5. Doxycycline Leads to Sterility and Enhanced Killing of Female Onchocerca volvulus Worms in an Area With Persistent Microfilaridermia After Repeated Ivermectin Treatment: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Trial

    PubMed Central

    Debrah, Alexander Yaw; Specht, Sabine; Klarmann-Schulz, Ute; Batsa, Linda; Mand, Sabine; Marfo-Debrekyei, Yeboah; Fimmers, Rolf; Dubben, Bettina; Kwarteng, Alexander; Osei-Atweneboana, Mike; Boakye, Daniel; Ricchiuto, Arcangelo; Büttner, Marcelle; Adjei, Ohene; Mackenzie, Charles D.; Hoerauf, Achim

    2015-01-01

    Background. Ivermectin (IVM) has been the drug of choice for the treatment of onchocerciasis. However, there have been reports of persistent microfilaridermia in individuals from an endemic area in Ghana after many rounds of IVM, raising concerns of suboptimal response or even the emergence of drug resistance. Because it is considered risky to continue relying only on IVM to combat this phenomenon, we assessed the effect of targeting the Onchocerca volvulus Wolbachia endosymbionts with doxycycline for these individuals with suboptimal response. Methods. One hundred sixty-seven patients, most of them with multiple rounds of IVM, were recruited in areas with IVM suboptimal response and treated with 100 mg/day doxycycline for 6 weeks. Three and 12 months after doxycycline treatment, patients took part in standard IVM treatment. Results. At 20 months after treatment, 80% of living female worms from the placebo group were Wolbachia positive, whereas only 5.1% in the doxycycline-treated group contained bacteria. Consistent with interruption of embryogenesis, none of the nodules removed from doxycycline-treated patients contained microfilariae, and 97% of those patients were without microfilaridermia, in contrast to placebo patients who remained at pretreatment levels (P < .001). Moreover, a significantly enhanced number of dead worms were observed after doxycycline. Conclusions. Targeting the Wolbachia in O. volvulus is effective in clearing microfilariae in the skin of onchocerciasis patients with persistent microfilaridermia and in enhanced killing of adult worms after repeated standard IVM treatment. Strategies can now be developed that include doxycycline to control onchocerciasis in areas where infections persist despite the frequent use of IVM. Clinical Trials Registration. ISRCTN 66649839. PMID:25948064

  6. Comparative Analysis of Gingival Tissue Antigen Presentation Pathways in Aging and Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, O.A.; Novak, M.J.; Kirakodu, S.; Orraca, L.; Chen, K.C.; Strom-berg, A.; Gonzalez-Martinez, J.; Ebersole, J. L.

    2014-01-01

    Aim Gingival tissues of periodontitis lesions contribute to local elevations in mediators, including both specific T cell and antibody immune responses to oral bacterial antigens. Thus, antigen processing and presentation activities must exist in these tissues to link antigen-presenting cells with adaptive immunity. We hypothesized that alterations in the transcriptome of antigen processing and presentation genes occur in aging gingival tissues and that periodontitis enhances these differences reflecting tissues less capable of immune resistance to oral pathogens. Materials and Methods Rhesus monkeys (n=34) from 3–23 years of age were examined. A buccal gingival sample from healthy or periodontitis sites were obtained, total RNA isolated, and microarray analysis was used to describe the transcriptome. Results The results demonstrated increased transcription of genes related to the MHC class II and negative regulation of NK cells with aging in healthy gingival tissues. In contrast, both adult and aging periodontitis tissues showed decreased transcription of genes for MHC class II antigens, coincident with up-regulation of MHC class I-associated genes. Conclusion These transcriptional changes suggest a response of healthy aging tissues through the class II pathway (i.e., endocytosed antigens) and altered responses in periodontitis that could reflect host-associated self-antigens or targeting cytosolic intra-cellular microbial pathogens. PMID:24304139

  7. Serological identification of Tektin5 as a cancer/testis antigen and its immunogenicity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Identification of new cancer antigens is necessary for the efficient diagnosis and immunotherapy. A variety of tumor antigens have been identified by several methodologies. Among those antigens, cancer/testis (CT) antigens have became promising targets. Methods The serological identification of antigens by the recombinant expression cloning (SEREX) methodology has been successfully used for the identification of cancer/testis (CT) antigens. We performed the SEREX analysis of colon cancer. Results We isolated a total of 60 positive cDNA clones comprising 38 different genes. They included 2 genes with testis-specific expression profiles in the UniGene database, such as TEKT5 and a CT-like gene, A kinase anchoring protein 3 (AKAP3). Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that the expression of TEKT5 was restricted to the testis in normal adult tissues. In malignant tissues, TEKT5 was aberrantly expressed in a variety of cancers, including colon cancer. A serological survey of 101 cancer patients with different cancers by ELISA revealed antibodies to TEKT5 in 13 patients, including colon cancer. None of the 16 healthy donor serum samples were reactive in the same test. Conclusion We identified candidate new CT antigen of colon cancer, TEKT5. The findings indicate that TEKT5 is immunogenic in humans, and suggest its potential use as diagnostic as well as an immunotherapeutic reagent for cancer patients. PMID:23151147

  8. Antigen Export Reduces Antigen Presentation and Limits T Cell Control of M. tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Smita; Grace, Patricia S; Ernst, Joel D

    2016-01-13

    Persistence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis results from bacterial strategies that manipulate host adaptive immune responses. Infected dendritic cells (DCs) transport M. tuberculosis to local lymph nodes but activate CD4 T cells poorly, suggesting bacterial manipulation of antigen presentation. However, M. tuberculosis antigens are also exported from infected DCs and taken up and presented by uninfected DCs, possibly overcoming this blockade of antigen presentation by infected cells. Here we show that the first stage of this antigen transfer, antigen export, benefits M. tuberculosis by diverting bacterial proteins from the antigen presentation pathway. Kinesin-2 is required for antigen export and depletion of this microtubule-based motor increases activation of antigen-specific CD4 T cells by infected cells and improves control of intracellular infection. Thus, although antigen transfer enables presentation by bystander cells, it does not compensate for reduced antigen presentation by infected cells and represents a bacterial strategy for CD4 T cell evasion. PMID:26764596

  9. Setting of and mixed carbonate-siliciclastic facies associated with Holocene nearshore sabellid worm reefs, northern Belize

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzullo, S.J.; Burke, C.D.; Dunn, R.K.; bischoff, W.D. )

    1990-05-01

    Communities of sabellid worms (Polychaeta) in northern Belize (mouth of Northern River Lagoon) occur as areally discontinuous, unlithified patch reefs cresting positive features on an irregular depositional topography of Holocene and older sediments. They are found in nearshore marine, moderate energy, tidally influenced environments (intertidal to 60-cm depths) of normal salinity (36%) adjoining subtidal deposits. These colonies, as much as 30 cm thick, are composed of dense thickets of agglutinating worm tubes (1.0 mm diameter, 3.0 cm long) that trap and bind sand to silt-size bioclastic debris and micrite. Worm population density in these communities averages 30 tubes/cm{sup 2}. The antecedent depositional topography beneath the worm reefs and subjacent to adjoining Holocene deposits is characterized by ridges oriented normal to the present shoreline. These ridges are held up by pre-Holocene (latest Pleistocene ) terrigenous sands of probably fluvial distributary origin, occurring at approximately 2.0 m in the subsurface. The overlying Holocene deposits on these ridges are 2.0 m thick and consist of a general upward-coarsening section of terrigenous sandy, carbonate sandy muds to muddy sands punctuated by mangrove peats and capped by the worm reefs. Low areas on the antecedent topography are presently the sites of deposition of deeper subtidal (1.0 m), muddy carbonate sands with some admixed, reworked terrigenous sand. The Holocene section records drowning due to recent (approximately 6 Ka) transgression of the older, lowstand distributary sands on the northern Belize shelf. This mixed carbonate-siliciclastic section and the worm reefs presently are being reshaped and modified by littoral processes.

  10. [The singular story of Doctor Worm -Nicholas Andry de Boisregard- and of his daughters Parasitology and Orthopaedics].

    PubMed

    Ledermann, Walter

    2012-10-01

    Homini verminoso or Dr. Worm were the nicknames that Nicholas Aindry won in life for his consecration to the study of intestinal worms and for his bad temper, which led him to fiercely attack the surgeons. The article reassumes the studies and contributions that gave Andry the title of Father of Parasitology and the candidacy to Father of Orthopaedics, and mentions some other candidates to this honor. Quite a man, he had -besides his biological one- two famous daughters, growing till our days; wrote at least three valuable books; and planted the immortal "tree of Andry", the symbol of Orthopaedics. PMID:23282505

  11. [Polyagglutinability due to Hempas antigen].

    PubMed

    Rochant, H; Gerbal, A

    1976-03-01

    A new antigen has been recently discoverd in patients with congenital dyserythropoietic anemia type II. The acronyme Hempas was proposed for this disease as a remind of the main morphological feature of erythroblasts (hereditary erythroblastic multinuclearity) and the characteristic serological findings (positive acidified serum test). The patients red cells are agglutinated and lysed by an IgM cold reacting antibody present in the serum of most normal subjects and not previously recognized. This behaviour is thus reminding of cells carrying antigens such as T, Tn, Cad or acquired B. As for T and Tn cells, sialic acid and electrophoretic mobility are reduced, but in contrast, agglutinability of Hempas cells is enhanced by enzyme treatment. Agglutination by anti H and anti Pr specific reagents is reduced. I and mainly i activity are strongly increased. The relationship between the membrane abnormalities of Hempas red cells and the failure of normoblasts to divide their cytoplasm i still largely unknown. PMID:788106

  12. Common antigens between hydatid cyst and cancers

    PubMed Central

    Daneshpour, Shima; Bahadoran, Mehran; Hejazi, Seyed Hossein; Eskandarian, Abas Ali; Mahmoudzadeh, Mehdi; Darani, Hossein Yousofi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Different research groups reported a negative correlation between cancers and parasitical infections. As an example, the prevalence of a hydatid cyst among patients with cancer was significantly lower than its prevalence among normal population. Tn antigens exist both in cancer and hydatid cyst. This common antigen may be involved in the effect of parasite on cancer growth. So in this work, common antigens between hydatid cyst and cancers have been investigated. Materials and Methods: Different hydatid cyst antigens including hydatid fluid, laminated and germinal layer antigens, and excretory secretory antigens of protoscolices were run in SDS PAGE and transferred to NCP paper. In western immunoblotting, those antigens were probed with sera of patients with different cancer and also sera of non-cancer patients. Also, cross reaction among excretory secretory products of cancer cells and antisera raised against different hydatid cyst antigen was investigated. Results: In western immunoblotting, antisera raised against laminated and germinal layers of hydatid cyst reacted with excretory secretory products of cancer cells. Also, a reaction was detected between hydatid cyst antigens and sera of patients with some cancers. Conclusion: Results of this work emphasize existence of common antigens between hydatid cyst and cancers. More investigation about these common antigens is recommended. PMID:26962511

  13. Embryonation ability of Ascaridia galli eggs isolated from worm uteri or host faeces.

    PubMed

    Rahimian, Shayan; Gauly, Matthias; Daş, Gürbüz

    2016-01-15

    Experimental infection models for Ascaridia galli rely on the use of eggs isolated either directly from worm uteri or from host faeces. We investigated whether A. galli eggs isolated from the two sources differ in their embryonation ability. A. galli eggs originating from 12 worm infrapopulations were isolated both from faeces of the living host (faecal eggs) and directly from worm uteri after host necropsy (uterine eggs). The isolated eggs from each infrapopulation and source were incubated in Petri dishes (n=24) containing a potassium-dichromate (0.1%) medium for 28 days (d) at room temperature. Starting from the day of egg isolation (d0), in ovo larval development was evaluated every second day by examining morphological characteristics of 200 eggs/petri dish. A total of 72,000 eggs were classified into undeveloped, early development, vermiform or fully embryonated stages. Isolation procedures caused similar damage to uterine and faecal eggs (2.2% and 0.5%, respectively; P=0.180). The first sign of in ovo embryonic development in faecal eggs (7%) was observed during the 24-h period when faeces were collected. On d28, a higher percentage of uterine eggs remained undeveloped when compared with faecal eggs (58.6% vs 11.0%; P<0.001). Although a higher (P<0.001) percentage of faecal eggs entered both the early developmental and vermiform stages, which took place primarily within the first two weeks of incubation, there was no time-shift between the development of faecal and uterine eggs. Starting from day 10, higher (P<0.05) percentages of faecal eggs completed embryonation compared with uterine equivalents. Eggs from both sources reached a plateau of embryonation by the end of 2nd week of incubation, with faecal eggs having a greater than two-fold higher embryonation ability. Cumulative mortality was higher in uterine eggs (14.3%) than in faecal eggs (0.2%). We conclude that faecal eggs have a higher embryonation ability than uterine eggs possibly due to maturation

  14. Oscillation of the velvet worm slime jet by passive hydrodynamic instability

    PubMed Central

    Concha, Andrés; Mellado, Paula; Morera-Brenes, Bernal; Sampaio Costa, Cristiano; Mahadevan, L; Monge-Nájera, Julián

    2015-01-01

    The rapid squirt of a proteinaceous slime jet endows velvet worms (Onychophora) with a unique mechanism for defence from predators and for capturing prey by entangling them in a disordered web that immobilizes their target. However, to date, neither qualitative nor quantitative descriptions have been provided for this unique adaptation. Here we investigate the fast oscillatory motion of the oral papillae and the exiting liquid jet that oscillates with frequencies f~30–60 Hz. Using anatomical images, high-speed videography, theoretical analysis and a physical simulacrum, we show that this fast oscillatory motion is the result of an elastohydrodynamic instability driven by the interplay between the elasticity of oral papillae and the fast unsteady flow during squirting. Our results demonstrate how passive strategies can be cleverly harnessed by organisms, while suggesting future oscillating microfluidic devices, as well as novel ways for micro and nanofibre production using bioinspired strategies. PMID:25780995

  15. Counter-Rotatable Fan Gas Turbine Engine with Axial Flow Positive Displacement Worm Gas Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giffin, Rollin George (Inventor); Murrow, Kurt David (Inventor); Fakunle, Oladapo (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A counter-rotatable fan turbine engine includes a counter-rotatable fan section, a worm gas generator, and a low pressure turbine to power the counter-rotatable fan section. The low pressure turbine maybe counter-rotatable or have a single direction of rotation in which case it powers the counter-rotatable fan section through a gearbox. The gas generator has inner and outer bodies having offset inner and outer axes extending through first, second, and third sections of a core assembly. At least one of the bodies is rotatable about its axis. The inner and outer bodies have intermeshed inner and outer helical blades wound about the inner and outer axes and extending radially outwardly and inwardly respectively. The helical blades have first, second, and third twist slopes in the first, second, and third sections respectively. A combustor section extends through at least a portion of the second section.

  16. Basement membranes in the worm: a dynamic scaffolding that instructs cellular behaviors and shapes tissues

    PubMed Central

    Clay, Matthew R.; Sherwood, David R.

    2015-01-01

    The nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans has all the major basement membrane proteins found in vertebrates, usually with a smaller gene family encoding each component. With its powerful forward genetics, optical clarity, simple tissue organization, and the capability to functionally tag most basement membrane components with fluorescent proteins, C. elegans has facilitated novel insights into the assembly and function of basement membranes. Although basement membranes are generally thought of as static structures, studies in C. elegans have revealed their active properties and essential functions in tissue formation and maintenance. Here we review discoveries from C. elegans development that highlight dynamic aspects of basement membrane assembly, function, and regulation during organ growth, tissue polarity, cell migration, cell invasion, and tissue attachment. These studies have helped transform our view of basement membranes from static support structures to dynamic scaffoldings that play broad roles in regulating tissue organization and cellular behavior that are essential for development and have important implications in human diseases. PMID:26610919

  17. Chemically programmed ink-jet printed resistive WORM memory array and readout circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, H.; Manuilskiy, A.; Sidén, J.; Gao, J.; Hummelgård, M.; Kunninmel, G. V.; Nilsson, H.-E.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper an ink-jet printed write once read many (WORM) resistive memory fabricated on paper substrate is presented. The memory elements are programmed for different resistance states by printing triethylene glycol monoethyl ether on the substrate before the actual memory element is printed using silver nano particle ink. The resistance is thus able to be set to a broad range of values without changing the geometry of the elements. A memory card consisting of 16 elements is manufactured for which the elements are each programmed to one of four defined logic levels, providing a total of 4294 967 296 unique possible combinations. Using a readout circuit, originally developed for resistive sensors to avoid crosstalk between elements, a memory card reader is manufactured that is able to read the values of the memory card and transfer the data to a PC. Such printed memory cards can be used in various applications.

  18. [Research on the cat stomach worm, Ollulanus tricuspis (Leuckart, 1865)--state of the art].

    PubMed

    Hasslinger, M A

    1985-01-01

    The stomach worm of the cat with an unusual cycle has a special place among the nematodes. O. tricuspis can develop and breed endogen as well as exogen, the infection of other hosts with freedom of movement, takes place through the ingestion of vomitus material containing parasites. As the conventional coproscopic methods of routine diagnosis have failed, the examination of gastric mucus or gastric mucosal scrapings post mortem offers itself. Intra vitam a provocated vomitus or a gastric irrigation are the diagnostic methods of choice. Increased vomiting of unknown genesis should, however, evoke suspicion relating to an O. tricuspis-infection and suggest an examination of the material. Besides the cat, dog, pig, wild cat, fox, cheetah, lion and tiger act as natural or inadequate hosts. Pathological alterations or clinical symptoms are more obvious in unusual carriers of parasites. Therapeutically only Citarin 2,5% was convincing. PMID:3895570

  19. A new substance to relax polychaete worms (Annelida) prior to morphological study

    PubMed Central

    Bonyadi-Naeini, Alieh; Rahimian, Hassan; Glasby, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A variety of chemical substances have been used to relax and/or immobilize polychaete worms, and other invertebrates, prior to specimen preparation for morphological examination. To solve difficulties encountered during the study of nereidid polychaetes (Annelida: Phyllodocida), an experiment was designed and carried out to investigate a new relaxing agent to immobilize nereidid specimens and stimulate pharynx eversion. The new substance, Dentol® (Khoraman laboratory, Iran), a dental anesthetic and antiseptic medicine containing 10% Carvacrol as the effective ingredient, was used for the first time and compared with other substances that have been used traditionally in polychaete studies. Crosstab analysis showed significant differences between different treatment groups, with Dentol® providing much better results for all considered criteria. PMID:27408556

  20. A new substance to relax polychaete worms (Annelida) prior to morphological study.

    PubMed

    Bonyadi-Naeini, Alieh; Rahimian, Hassan; Glasby, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    A variety of chemical substances have been used to relax and/or immobilize polychaete worms, and other invertebrates, prior to specimen preparation for morphological examination. To solve difficulties encountered during the study of nereidid polychaetes (Annelida: Phyllodocida), an experiment was designed and carried out to investigate a new relaxing agent to immobilize nereidid specimens and stimulate pharynx eversion. The new substance, Dentol® (Khoraman laboratory, Iran), a dental anesthetic and antiseptic medicine containing 10% Carvacrol as the effective ingredient, was used for the first time and compared with other substances that have been used traditionally in polychaete studies. Crosstab analysis showed significant differences between different treatment groups, with Dentol® providing much better results for all considered criteria. PMID:27408556