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Sample records for adult worm burden

  1. Og4C3 circulating antigen: a marker of infection and adult worm burden in Wuchereria bancrofti filariasis.

    PubMed

    Chanteau, S; Moulia-Pelat, J P; Glaziou, P; Nguyen, N L; Luquiaud, P; Plichart, C; Martin, P M; Cartel, J L

    1994-07-01

    Og4C3 circulating filarial antigen was detected in the sera of 94.5% (259/274) of microfilaremic patients, 32% (239/751) of persons with presumption of filariasis, and 23% (11/48) of chronic filariasis patients. The antigen level was correlated with the microfilariae (Mf) density and patient age (P < .01). It remained stable in patients treated with microfilaricidal drugs. Og4C3 antigen, undetectable in Mf culture media, was demonstrated to be a rare somatic Mf antigen. It appears to be an excreted or secreted antigen from adult filaria. It could be used as a marker of infection and an indicator of adult worm burden. PMID:8014511

  2. Integrating immune mechanisms to model nematode worm burden: an example in sheep.

    PubMed

    Garnier, Romain; Grenfell, Bryan T; Nisbet, Alasdair J; Matthews, Jacqueline B; Graham, Andrea L

    2016-06-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes represent important sources of economic losses in farmed ruminants, and the increasing frequency of anthelmintic resistance requires an increased ability to explore alternative strategies. Theoretical approaches at the crossroads of immunology and epidemiology are valuable tools in that context. In the case of Teladorsagia circumcincta in sheep, the immunological mechanisms important for resistance are increasingly well-characterized. However, despite the existence of a wide range of theoretical models, there is no framework integrating the characteristic features of this immune response into a tractable phenomenological model. Here, we propose to bridge that gap by developing a flexible modelling framework that allows for variability in nematode larval intake which can be used to track the variations in worm burdens. We parameterize this model using data from trickle infection of sheep and show that using simple immunological assumptions, our model can capture the dynamics of both adult worm burdens and nematode fecal egg counts. In addition, our analysis reveals interesting dose-dependent effects on the immune response. Finally, we discuss potential developments of this model and highlight how an improved cross-talk between empiricists and theoreticians would facilitate important advances in the study of infectious diseases. PMID:26283186

  3. Experimental centrocestiasis: Worm burden, morphology and fecundity of Centrocestus formosanus (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) in dexamethasone immunosuppressed mice.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Hudson Alves; Mati, Vitor Luís Tenório; de Melo, Alan Lane

    2015-10-01

    Centrocestus formosanus is an intestinal foodborne trematode with medical and veterinary importance that remains with the pathological and immunological aspects of the infection in definitive host poorly studied. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of pharmacological immunosuppression by glucocorticoids in experimental centrocestiasis. Mice of the AKR/J strain were orally inoculated with 100 metacercariae of C. formosanus obtained in naturally infected fish (Australoheros facetus) collected in an urban reservoir from Brazil. Treatment with dexamethasone (25 mg/kg, via subcutaneous injection) was started 1h before infection of mice and then continued daily during 14 days post-infection. Untreated mice also infected with C. formosanus were used as control. At the end of the treatment course, all rodents were euthanized and adult parasites recovered from host intestines were subjected to morphological and morphometric analysis under optical microscopy. The worm burden in dexamethasone treated group [70±14 (41-85)] was significantly greater (p<0.0001) than that in the control group [15±4 (10-22)]. In addition, the parasites recovered from immunosuppressed mice were larger, with more developed reproductive structures and greater number of intrauterine eggs than in control mice. These parasite developmental changes induced by dexamethasone treatment are reported for the first time in experimental centrocestiasis. Moreover the higher parasite fecundity induced by glucocorticoid treatment had so far not been reported for any heterophyid species, which can have implications for the pathology and morbidity in infections caused by these parasites. PMID:25724856

  4. Genetic variation for worm burdens in laying hens naturally infected with gastro-intestinal nematodes.

    PubMed

    Wongrak, K; Daş, G; von Borstel, U König; Gauly, M

    2015-01-01

    1. Genetic parameters were determined for the worm burden of the most common gastro-intestinal nematodes in two chicken genotypes after being exposed to free-range farming conditions for a laying period. 2. Seventeen-week-old hens of 2 brown genotypes, Lohmann Brown (LB) plus (n = 230) and LB classic (n = 230), were reared for a laying period and subjected to post-mortem parasitological examinations at 79 weeks (LB plus) or 88 weeks (LB classic) of age. 3. There was no significant difference in faecal egg counts between the genotypes. Almost all hens (>99%) were infected with at least one nematode species. Species-specific nematode prevalence ranged from 85.8% to 99.1% between the two genotypes. Heterakis gallinarum was the most prevalent nematode (98.5%), followed by Ascaridia galli (96.2%) and Capillaria spp. (86.1%). Capillaria spp. were composed of C. obsignata (79%), C. caudinflata (16%) and C. bursata (5%). 4. All phenotypic and genetic correlations among worm counts of different parasite species were positive in combined genotypes (rP ranged from 0.05 to 0.30 and rG ranged from 0.29 to 0.88). A strong genetic correlation (rG = 0.88 ± 0.34) between counts of A. galli and H. gallinarum was quantified. Heritability for total worm burden for LB plus and LB classic, respectively, were 0.55 ± 0.18 and 0.55 ± 0.34. Across both genotypes, the heritability of total worm burden was 0.56 ± 0.16. 5. In conclusion, there is a high variation attributable to genetic background of chickens in their responses to naturally acquired nematode infections. The high positive genetic correlation between counts of closely related worm species (e.g. A. galli and H. gallinarum) may indicate existence of similar genetically determined mechanism(s) in chickens for controlling these nematodes. PMID:25486507

  5. In Vitro Maintenance of Clonorchis sinensis Adult Worms

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Md. Hafiz; Li, Shunyu; Bae, Young Mee; Choi, Min-Ho

    2012-01-01

    Clonorchis sinensis is a biological carcinogen inducing human cholangiocarcinoma, and clonorchiasis is one of the important endemic infectious diseases in East Asia. The present study investigated survival longevity of C. sinensis adult worms in various in vitro conditions to find the best way of keeping the worms longer. The worms were maintained in 0.85% NaCl, 1×PBS, 1×Locke's solution, RPMI-1640, DMEM, and IMDM media, and in 1×Locke's solution with different supplements. All of the worms died within 3 and 7 days in 0.85% NaCl and 1×PBS, respectively, but survived up to 57 days in 1×Locke's solution. The worms lived for 106 days in DMEM, and 114 days in both RPMI-1640 and IMDM media. The survival rate in RPMI-1640 medium was the highest (50%) compared to that in DMEM (20±10%) and in IMDM (33.3±25.2%) after 3 months. The 1×Locke's solution with 0.005% bovine bile supplement showed increased duration of maximum survival from 42 days to 70 days. Higher concentration of bile supplements than 0.005% or addition of glucose were disadvantageous for the worm survival. The worms died rapidly in solutions containing L-aspartic acid, L-glutamic acid, and adenine compared to L-arginine, L-serine, and L-tryptophan. In conclusion, the 1×Locke's solution best supports the worms alive among inorganic solutions for 57 days, and the RPMI-1640 medium maintains living C. sinensis adults better and longer up to 114 days in vitro than other media. PMID:23230328

  6. The use of FAMACHA in estimation of gastrointestinal nematodes and total worm burden in Damara and Barbados Blackbelly cross sheep.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Konto; Abba, Yusuf; Ramli, Nur Syairah Binti; Marimuthu, Murugaiyah; Omar, Mohammed Ariff; Abdullah, Faez Firdaus Jesse; Sadiq, Muhammad Abubakar; Tijjani, Abdulnasir; Chung, Eric Lim Teik; Lila, Mohammed Azmi Mohammed

    2016-06-01

    The prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes and total worm burden of Damara and Barbados Blackbelly cross sheep was investigated among smallholder farms in Salak Tinggi district of Selangor, Malaysia. A total of 50 sheep raised in smallholder farms comprising of 27 Damara cross and 23 Barbados Blackbelly cross were categorized based on their age into young and adults. Fecal samples were collected and examined for strongyle egg count by using modified McMaster technique. Severity of infection was categorized into mild, moderate, and heavy, based on egg per gram (EPG). Five sheep were randomly selected and slaughtered to examine the presence of adult gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes through total worm count (TWC). Faffa Malan Chart (FAMACHA) score was used for investigation of worm load based on the degree of anemia. The study revealed an overall EPG prevalence of 88 %, of which 84.1 % had mild infection. There was a significant difference (p = 0.002) in EPG among the two breeds. Based on age, significant difference (p = 0. 004) in EPG was observed among Barbados Blackbelly cross, but not for Damara cross (p = 0.941). The correlation between severity of infection and the FAMACHA score was significant (r = 0.289; p = 0.042). Haemonchus spp. were the most predominant nematode found in the gastrointestinal tract, followed by Trichostrongylus and Oesophagostomum spps. EPG and TWC for Haemonchus were positively correlated, but not significant (r = 0.85, p = 0.066). From regression analysis, 73 % of the variability in TWC for Haemonchus could be explained by EPG. Thus, it can be concluded that FAMACHA score correlates well with severity of infection of a nematode and can be used to assess the strongyle nematode burden in the different sheep crosses. PMID:27038194

  7. Lethal body burdens of chlorophenols and mixtures of chlorophenols in an oligochaete worm, Lumbriculus variegatus

    SciTech Connect

    Kukkonen, J.

    1995-12-31

    The lethal body burdens (LBB) of a few chlorophenol congeners were measured in the oligochaete worm, Lumbriculus variegatus. LBB is defined as the concentration of the compound in the organism on molar basis to cause a death. Groups of 40 organisms were exposed to different chlorophenol concentrations in artificial soft freshwater to achieve differential mortality. Exposure times were either 24 hours or 48 hours. Besides exposures with individual congener, mixtures of chlorophenols were also tested. After each exposure, the surviving organisms were collected and the body burden of chlorophenols were measured by GC with electron capture detection. Only the surviving organisms were analyzed, because dead worms started to decay rather quickly. The analyzed tissue concentrations were actually lower than in surviving organisms. The trichlorophenols and pentachlorophenol have a LBB of 0.4--0.7 {micro}mol/g wet weight. The 2,6-dichlorophenol has a slightly higher LBB of 1.0--1.6 {micro}mol/g wet weight. The LBB of chlorophenol mixtures (two congeners at a time) were of the same, on molar basis, as individual congeners demonstrating fully additive toxicity. The lethal body burdens of 2,4,5-trichlorophenol and pentachlorophenol in Lumbriculus variegatus were the same for these water-only exposures as previously reported for these compounds in two different sediments. The use of lethal body burden approach in sediment toxicology is further discussed.

  8. Anthelmintic Activity In Vivo of Epiisopiloturine against Juvenile and Adult Worms of Schistosoma mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Maria A.; de Oliveira, Rosimeire N.; Véras, Leiz M. C.; Lima, David F.; Campelo, Yuri D. M.; Campos, Stefano Augusto; Kuckelhaus, Selma A. S.; Pinto, Pedro L. S.; Eaton, Peter; Mafud, Ana C.; Mascarenhas, Yvonne P.; Allegretti, Silmara M.; de Moraes, Josué; Lolić, Aleksandar; Verbić, Tatjana; Leite, José Roberto S. A.

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a serious disease currently estimated to affect more that 207 million people worldwide. Due to the intensive use of praziquantel, there is increasing concern about the development of drug-resistant strains. Therefore, it is necessary to search for and investigate new potential schistosomicidal compounds. This work reports the in vivo effect of the alkaloid epiisopiloturine (EPI) against adults and juvenile worms of Schistosoma mansoni. EPI was first purified its thermal behavior and theoretical solubility parameters charaterised. In the experiment, mice were treated with EPI over the 21 days post-infection with the doses of 40 and 200 mg/kg, and 45 days post-infection with single doses of 40, 100 and 300 mg/kg. The treatment with EPI at 40 mg/kg was more effective in adult worms when compared with doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg. The treatment with 40 mg/kg in adult worms reduced parasite burden significantly, lead to reduction in hepatosplenomegaly, reduced the egg burden in faeces, and decreased granuloma diameter. Scanning electron microscopy revealed morphological changes to the parasite tegument after treatment, including the loss of important features. Additionally, the in vivo treatment against juvenile with 40 mg/kg showed a reduction of the total worm burden of 50.2%. Histopathological studies were performed on liver, spleen, lung, kidney and brain and EPI was shown to have a DL50 of 8000 mg/kg. Therefore EPI shows potential to be used in schistosomiasis treatment. This is the first time that schistosomicidal in vivo activity of EPI has been reported. PMID:25816129

  9. Histamine 1 Receptor Blockade Enhances Eosinophil-Mediated Clearance of Adult Filarial Worms

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Ellen Mueller; Morris, Christopher P.; Hübner, Marc P.; Mitre, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Filariae are tissue-invasive nematodes that cause diseases such as elephantiasis and river blindness. The goal of this study was to characterize the role of histamine during Litomosoides sigmodontis infection of BALB/c mice, a murine model of filariasis. Time course studies demonstrated that while expression of histidine decarboxylase mRNA increases throughout 12 weeks of infection, serum levels of histamine exhibit two peaks—one 30 minutes after primary infection and one 8 weeks later. Interestingly, mice treated with fexofenadine, a histamine receptor 1 inhibitor, demonstrated significantly reduced worm burden in infected mice compared to untreated infected controls. Although fexofenadine-treated mice had decreased antigen-specific IgE levels as well as lower splenocyte IL-5 and IFNγ production, they exhibited a greater than fourfold rise in eosinophil numbers at the tissue site where adult L. sigmodontis worms reside. Fexofenadine-mediated clearance of L. sigmodontis worms was dependent on host eosinophils, as fexofenadine did not decrease worm burdens in eosinophil-deficient dblGATA mice. These findings suggest that histamine release induced by tissue invasive helminths may aid parasite survival by diminishing eosinophilic responses. Further, these results raise the possibility that combining H1 receptor inhibitors with current anthelmintics may improve treatment efficacy for filariae and other tissue-invasive helminths. PMID:26204515

  10. Potential role for mucosal IgA in modulating Haemonchus contortus adult worm infection in sheep.

    PubMed

    Hernández, J N; Hernández, A; Stear, M J; Conde-Felipe, M; Rodríguez, E; Piedrafita, D; González, J F

    2016-06-15

    Haemonchus contortus (H. contortus) is a haematophagous parasite which causes important economic losses in small ruminants. On the island of Gran Canaria, two sheep breeds coexist which differ in their susceptibility to the infection with H. contortus; the resistant Canaria Hair Breed (CHB) sheep and the susceptible Canaria Sheep (CS) breed. The major target of resistance mechanisms in CHB sheep are directed to the adult parasite stage, reducing the worm burden, and decreased length and fecundity of surviving worms. Mucosal IgA (mIgA) has been shown to be an important regulator of immunity in Haemonchus and Teladorsagia infections; through correlations with larval stages where such mechanisms as antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity and enzyme inhibition may mediate resistance. Here for the first time, we demonstrate a significant negative correlation between mIgA and adult worm length and fecundity only in the resistant CHB sheep. In contrast, and as reported in other sheep breeds, mIgA was only negatively correlated against the larval stage in the more susceptible CS breed. This study suggests mIgA may play a role in resistance to both larval and adult stages. PMID:27198794

  11. Role of adult worm antigen-specific immunoglobulin E in acquired immunity to Schistosoma mansoni infection in baboons.

    PubMed

    Nyindo, M; Kariuki, T M; Mola, P W; Farah, I O; Elson, L; Blanton, R E; King, C L

    1999-02-01

    Allergic-type immune responses, particularly immunoglobulin E (IgE), correlate with protective immunity in human schistosomiasis. To better understand the mechanisms of parasite elimination we examined the immune correlates of protection in baboons (Papio cynocephalus anubis), which are natural hosts for Schistosoma mansoni and also develop allergic-type immunity with infection. In one experiment, animals were exposed to a single infection (1,000 cercariae) or were exposed multiple times (100 cercariae per week for 10 weeks) and subsequently were cured with praziquantel prior to challenge with 1, 000 cercariae. Singly and multiply infected animals mounted 59 and 80% reductions in worm burden, respectively (P < 0.01). In a second experiment, animals were inoculated with S. mansoni ova and recombinant human interleukin 12 (IL-12). This produced a 37 to 39% reduction in adult worm burden after challenge (P < 0.05). Parasite-specific IgG, IgE, IgM, and peripheral blood cytokine production were evaluated. The only immune correlate of protection in both experiments was levels of soluble adult worm antigen (SWAP)-specific IgE in serum at the time of challenge infection and/or 6 weeks later. Baboons repeatedly infected with cercariae or immunized with ova and IL-12 developed two- to sixfold-greater levels of SWAP-specific IgE in serum than did controls, and this correlated with reductions in worm burden (r2, -0.40 to -0.64; P, <0. 01). Thus, in baboons and unlike mice, adult worm-specific IgE is uniquely associated with acquired immunity to S. mansoni infection. This similar association of parasite-specific IgE and protection among primates infected with schistosomiasis, along with similar pathology, anatomy, and genetic make-up, indicates that baboons provide an excellent permissive experimental model for better understanding the mechanisms of innate and acquired immunity to schistosomiasis in humans. PMID:9916070

  12. Trichuris suis: thiol protease activity from adult worms.

    PubMed

    Hill, D E; Sakanari, J A

    1997-01-01

    Trichuris suis, the whipworm of swine, causes anemia, weight loss, anorexia, mucohemorrhagic diarrhea, and death in heavy infections. A zinc metalloprotease has been suggested to play a role in the severe enteric pathology associated with infection and the infiltration of opportunistic bacteria into deeper tissues in the swine colon. In this study, a thiol protease from gut extracts of adult T. suis and from excretory/secretory components (E/S) of adult worms was characterized using fluorogenic peptide substrates and protein substrate gels. The protease cleaved the fluorogenic substrate Z-Phe-Arg-AMC, and this cleavage was completely inhibited by the thiol protease inhibitors E-64, leupeptin, Z-Phe-Ala-CH2F, and Z-Phe-Arg-CH2F. Gelatin substrate gels and fluorescence assays using both the gut and the stichosome extracts and E/S revealed enhanced activity when 2 mM dithiothreitol or 5 mM cysteine was included in the incubation buffer, and optimal activity was seen over a pH range of 5.5 to 8.5. Incubation of gut extracts or E/S material with inhibitors of aspartic, serine, or metalloproteases had no effect on the cleavage of Z-Phe-Arg-AMC. Thiol protease activity was found in extracts of gut tissue but not in the extracts of stichocytes of adult worms. N-terminal amino acid sequencing of the protease revealed sequence homologies with cathepsin B-like thiol protease identified from parasitic and free-living nematodes. PMID:9024202

  13. Age-related differences of Ascaridia galli egg output and worm burden in chickens following a single dose infection.

    PubMed

    Gauly, M; Homann, T; Erhardt, G

    2005-03-10

    Ninety white chickens (Lohmann LSL) were reared under helminth-free conditions and divided into five groups. Four groups were artificially infected with 250 embryonated Ascaridia galli eggs at the age of 6, 12, 18 or 24 weeks. Ten birds were kept as uninfected controls. Six and 10 weeks after infection (p.i.), individual faecal egg counts (FEC) were performed. The birds were slaughtered after the second sampling and their gastrointestinal tracts were examined for the presence of adult A. galli. The FEC increased from the first to the second sampling significantly in all the infected groups. The highest increase was shown in the group infected at 12 weeks of age, whereas the increase in the other groups was relatively moderate. However, the total worm burden and mean FEC at the second sampling were highest (p<0.01) in those birds infected at an age of 12 or 18 weeks. The serum protein and triiodothyronine (T3) levels did not differ significantly (p>0.05) between any of the groups. Thyroxine (T4) was significantly different between the groups infected at 6 and 18 weeks of age (p<0.05), and those at 6 and 24 weeks of age (p<0.01). The thyroid hormone levels correlated significantly with the FEC. Age does not seem to play a major role in resistance to A. galli infections in layers, whereas a bird's hormonal and immune status, related to laying activity, seems to have a significant negative impact on resistance. PMID:15725544

  14. Vaccination with a cocktail of Ancylostoma ceylanicum recombinant antigens leads to worm burden reduction in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Wiśniewski, Marcin; Łapiński, Maciej; Daniłowicz-Luebert, Emilia; Jaros, Sławomir; Długosz, Ewa; Wędrychowicz, Halina

    2016-09-01

    Hookworms, a group to which Ancylostoma ceylanicum belongs, are gastrointestinal nematodes that infect more than 700 million people around the world. They are a leading cause of anemia in developing countries. In order to effectively prevent hookworm infections research is conducted to develop an effective vaccine using recombinant antigens of the parasite. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of the hosts' on protection against ancylostomiasis and the shaping of the humoral immune response among Syrian hamsters after immunization with a cocktail of five A. ceylanicum recombinant antigens. Ace-ASP-3, Ace-ASP-4, Ace-APR-1, Ace-MEP-6 and Ace-MEP-7 were obtained in the pET expression system. Immunization with a vaccine cocktail resulted in a 33.5% worm burden reduction. The immunogenicity of the recombinant proteins were determined using ELISA. Statistical analysis showed that vaccinated hamsters developed stronger humoral responses to four of five recombinant antigens (the exception being Ace-ASP-3) compared to hamsters from the control group. PMID:27447220

  15. The onchocercal nodule: interrelationship of adult worms and blood vessels.

    PubMed

    George, G H; Palmieri, J R; Connor, D H

    1985-11-01

    This study of onchocercal nodules reveals an intimate relationship between the cuticle of Onchocerca volvulus and the capillaries of the host. Perfusion of blood vessels with India ink and other special techniques reveal a proliferation of capillaries around the worms and communication between small vessels and the spaces around the worms. The space around the worm is continuous with the central fibrin lake. These findings, together with the fact that the worm's gut contains hemosiderin, suggest that the worm subverts the vascular reaction and causes within the nodule a controlled hemorrhage that serves the worm's nutritional needs. We believe this explains, in part, how worms survive in fibrous nodules for many years. PMID:3834800

  16. Serological Screening of the Schistosoma mansoni Adult Worm Proteome

    PubMed Central

    Ludolf, Fernanda; Patrocínio, Paola R.; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Gazzinelli, Andréa; Falcone, Franco H.; Teixeira-Ferreira, André; Perales, Jonas; Oliveira, Guilherme C.; Silva-Pereira, Rosiane A.

    2014-01-01

    Background New interventions tools are a priority for schistosomiasis control and elimination, as the disease is still highly prevalent. The identification of proteins associated with active infection and protective immune response may constitute the basis for the development of a successful vaccine and could also indicate new diagnostic candidates. In this context, post-genomic technologies have been progressing, resulting in a more rational discovery of new biomarkers of resistance and antigens for diagnosis. Methodology/Principal Findings Two-dimensional electrophoresed Schistosoma mansoni adult worm protein extracts were probed with pooled sera of infected and non-infected (naturally resistant) individuals from a S. mansoni endemic area. A total of 47 different immunoreactive proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. Although the different pooled sera shared most of the immunoreactive protein spots, nine protein spots reacted exclusively with the serum pool of infected individuals, which correspond to annexin, major egg antigen, troponin T, filamin, disulphide-isomerase ER-60 precursor, actin and reticulocalbin. One protein spot, corresponding to eukaryotic translation elongation factor, reacted exclusively with the pooled sera of non-infected individuals living in the endemic area. Western blotting of two selected recombinant proteins, major egg antigen and hemoglobinase, showed a similar recognition pattern of that of the native protein. Concluding/Significance Using a serological proteome analysis, a group of antigens related to the different infection status of the endemic area residents was identified and may be related to susceptibility or resistance to infection. PMID:24651847

  17. Understanding the Burden of Adult Female Acne

    PubMed Central

    Kawata, Ariane K.; Daniels, Selena R.; Yeomans, Karen; Burk, Caroline T.; Callender, Valerie D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Typically regarded as an adolescent condition, acne among adult females is also prevalent. Limited data are available on the clinical characteristics and burden of adult female acne. The study objective was to describe clinical characteristics and psychosocial impact of acne in adult women. Design: Cross-sectional, web-based survey. Setting: Data were collected from a diverse sample of United States females. Participants: Women ages 25 to 45 years with facial acne (≥25 visible lesions). Measurements: Outcomes included sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, perceptions, coping behaviors, psychosocial impact of acne (health-related quality of life using acne-specific Quality of Life questionnaire and psychological status using Patient Health Questionnaire), and work/productivity. Results: A total of 208 women completed the survey (mean age 35±6 years), comprising White/Caucasian (51.4%), Black/African American (24.5%), Hispanic/Latino (11.1%), Asian (7.7%), and Other (5.3%). Facial acne presented most prominently on cheeks, chin, and forehead and was characterized by erythema, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, and scarring. Average age of adult onset was 25±6 years, and one-third (33.7%) were diagnosed with acne as an adult. The majority (80.3%) had 25 to 49 visible facial lesions. Acne was perceived as troublesome and impacted self-confidence. Makeup was frequently used to conceal acne. Facial acne negatively affected health-related quality of life, was associated with mild/moderate symptoms of depression and/or anxiety, and impacted ability to concentrate on work or school. Conclusion: Results highlight the multifaceted impact of acne and provide evidence that adult female acne is under-recognized and burdensome. PMID:24578779

  18. Ectopic Human Fasciola hepatica Infection by an Adult Worm in the Mesocolon

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ah Jin; Choi, Chang Hwan; Choi, Sun Keun; Shin, Yong Woon; Park, Yun-Kyu; Kim, Lucia; Choi, Suk Jin; Han, Jee Young; Kim, Joon Mee; Chu, Young Chae; Park, In Suh

    2015-01-01

    We report here an ectopic case of Fasciola hepatica infection confirmed by recovery of an adult worm in the mesocolon. A 56-year-old female was admitted to our hospital with discomfort and pain in the left lower quadrant of the abdomen. Abdominal CT showed 3 abscesses in the left upper quadrant, mesentery, and pelvic cavity. On surgical exploration, abscess pockets were found in the mesocolon of the sigmoid colon and transverse colon. A leaf-like worm found in the abscess pocket of the mesocolon of the left colon was diagnosed as an adult fluke of F. hepatica. Histologically, numerous eggs of F. hepatica were noted with acute and chronic granulomatous inflammations in the subserosa and pericolic adipose tissues. Conclusively, a rare case of ectopic fascioliasis has been confirmed in this study by the adult worm recovery of F. hepatica in the mesocolon. PMID:26797440

  19. Ectopic Human Fasciola hepatica Infection by an Adult Worm in the Mesocolon.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ah Jin; Choi, Chang Hwan; Choi, Sun Keun; Shin, Yong Woon; Park, Yun-Kyu; Kim, Lucia; Choi, Suk Jin; Han, Jee Young; Kim, Joon Mee; Chu, Young Chae; Park, In Suh

    2015-12-01

    We report here an ectopic case of Fasciola hepatica infection confirmed by recovery of an adult worm in the mesocolon. A 56-year-old female was admitted to our hospital with discomfort and pain in the left lower quadrant of the abdomen. Abdominal CT showed 3 abscesses in the left upper quadrant, mesentery, and pelvic cavity. On surgical exploration, abscess pockets were found in the mesocolon of the sigmoid colon and transverse colon. A leaf-like worm found in the abscess pocket of the mesocolon of the left colon was diagnosed as an adult fluke of F. hepatica. Histologically, numerous eggs of F. hepatica were noted with acute and chronic granulomatous inflammations in the subserosa and pericolic adipose tissues. Conclusively, a rare case of ectopic fascioliasis has been confirmed in this study by the adult worm recovery of F. hepatica in the mesocolon. PMID:26797440

  20. In vitro antifilarial effects of three plant species against adult worms of subperiodic Brugia malayi.

    PubMed

    Zaridah, M Z; Idid, S Z; Omar, A W; Khozirah, S

    2001-11-01

    Five aqueous extracts from three plant species, i.e., dried husks (HX), dried seeds (SX) and dried leaves (LX) of Xylocarpus granatum (Meliaceae), dried stems (ST) of Tinospora crispa (Menispermaceae) and dried leaves (LA) of Andrographis paniculata (Acanthaceae) were tested in vitro against adult worms of subperiodic Brugia malayi. The relative movability (RM) value of the adult worms over the 24-h observation period was used as a measure of the antifilarial activity of the aqueous extracts. SX extract of X. granatum demonstrated the strongest activity, followed by the LA extract of A. paniculata, ST extract of T. crispa, HX extract and LX extract of X. granatum. PMID:11585692

  1. Sediment toxicity and lethal body burdens of chlorophenols in an oligochaete worm, Lumbriculus variegatus

    SciTech Connect

    Kukkonen, J.; Halme, A.; Nikkilae, A.

    1995-12-31

    The toxicokinetics, acute toxicity and lethal body burden of 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (TCP) and pentachlorophenol (PCP) in Lumbriculus variegatus were measured in two different clean sediments. The sediments had an organic carbon content of 0.5% and 6.5%. The uptake rate coefficients (k{sub s}) of TCP at low TCP concentration (0.25 {micro}g g{sup {minus}1}) were 0.67 and 0.13 g dry sed. g{sup {minus}1} org. h{sup {minus}1} in low and high organic carbon content sediments, respectively. Organic carbon normalized uptake rate coefficient (k{sub oc}) was 0.0034 gOC g{sup {minus}1} org. h{sup {minus}1} for the low organic content sediment and 0.0085 gOC g{sup {minus}1} org. h{sup {minus}1} for the high organic content sediment showing that the organic carbon content does not explain all of the difference between the sediments. Similar to that, LC{sub 50} (24h) for the TCP was 37.4 and 121.5 {micro}g g{sup {minus}1} dw in low and high organic carbon content sediments, respectively. If organic carbon normalization is done the figures are 7,880 and 1,869 {micro}g g{sup {minus}1} OC. However, the lethal body burden of TCP in Lumbriculus variegatus is between 0.5--0.9 {micro}mol g{sup {minus}1} in both sediments. Similar type of results will be shown for PCP and the use of lethal body burden approach in sediment toxicology will be discussed.

  2. Moxidectin causes adult worm mortality of human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi in rodent models.

    PubMed

    Verma, Meenakshi; Pathak, Manisha; Shahab, Mohd; Singh, Kavita; Mitra, Kalyan; Misra-Bhattacharya, Shailja

    2014-12-01

    Moxidectin is a macrocyclic lactone belonging to milbemycin family closely related to ivermectin and is currently progressing towards Phase III clinical trial against human infection with the filaria Onchocerca volvulus (Leuckart, 1894). There is a single report on the microfilaricidal and embryostatic activity of moxidectin in case of the human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi (Brug, 1927) in Mastomys coucha (Smith) but without any adulticidal action. In the present study, the in vitro and in vivo antifilarial efficacy of moxidectin was evaluated on, B. malayi. In vitro moxidectin showed 100% reduction in adult female worm motility at 0.6 μM concentration within 7 days with 68% inhibition in the reduction of MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide dye) (which is used to detect viability of worms). A 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of moxidectin for adult female parasite was 0.242 μM, for male worm 0.186 μM and for microfilaria IC50 was 0.813 μM. In adult B. malayi-transplanted primary screening model (Meriones unguiculatus Milne-Edwards), moxidectin at a single optimal dose of 20 mg/kg by oral and subcutaneous route was found effective on both adult parasites and microfilariae. In secondary screening (M coucha, subcutaneously inoculated with infective larvae), moxidectin at the same dose by subcutaneous route brought about death of 49% of adult worms besides causing sterilisation in 54% of the recovered live female worms. The treated animals exhibited a continuous and sustained reduction in peripheral blood microfilaraemia throughout the observation period of 90 days. The mechanism of action of moxidectin is suggested to be similar to avermectins. The in silico studies were also designed to explore the interaction of moxidectin with glutamate-gated chloride channels of B. malayi. The docking results revealed a close interaction of moxidectin with various GluCl ligand sites of B. malayi. PMID:25651699

  3. Adult filarial worm from the breast aspirate of a young man.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Hilda; Thomas, Beena Mary; Putran, Indira

    2016-06-01

    Microfilariae and adult filarial worm have been incidentally detected in fine needle aspirates of various lesions in clinically unsuspected cases. Here we report a male patient who presented with a tender breast nodule and single enlarged lymph node. Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) yielded 1 ml of yellow coloured fluid and single thread like worm measuring 6 × 0.2 cm. A diagnosis of breast abscess with a worm morphologically consistent with filariasis was offered. A follow up visit after 2 months showed regression of the breast lesion and the lymph node. Filariasis of the breast is an uncommon condition and can cause a diagnostic dilemma at times. FNA cytology appears to be a more convenient and effective diagnostic tool in patients with mass lesions. Demonstration and identification of the parasite in smears helps in avoiding surgical excision and early institution of prompt therapy especially in young patients. PMID:27413335

  4. The relationships between the burden of adult parasites, host age and the microfilarial density in human onchocerciasis.

    PubMed

    Duerr, H P; Dietz, K; Schulz-Key, H; Büttner, D W; Eichner, M

    2004-03-29

    We investigate the relationship between the microfilarial density in the skin and the burden of adult female Onchocerca volvulus by analysing pre-control nodulectomy data which allow for a direct approach, independent of exposure. The data of 169 patients in Burkina Faso and 182 patients in Liberia represent savannah and forest onchocerciasis in West Africa, respectively. Whereas in Burkina Faso, a saturating relationship between microfilarial density and worm burden suggests the operation of density-dependent processes within human hosts, the Liberian data show a linear relationship implying no density dependence. The differences may derive from differences between both parasite strains, i.e. the savannah or the forest strain of O. volvulus. Consistently for both parasite strains and independent of the worm burden, the microfilarial density increases with host age emphasising the concept of the acquisition of immunological tolerance. In male hosts in Liberia, the microfilarial density increases stronger with the worm burden than in female hosts, whereas such sex-specific differences cannot be found in Burkina Faso. In the methodological part of this investigation, we suggest the beta-distribution to be most appropriate for describing variability in microfilarial densities and we present an approach to consider the uncertainty in the adult parasite burden which cannot be determined precisely in helminth infections. Implications of density dependence are discussed with respect to immunological processes in the human host and with respect to the success of control programs. The relationships described show that regulatory processes between the parasite and the human host are multi-dimensional, operating within a high degree of biological variability. PMID:15013736

  5. Synergy of Omeprazole and Praziquantel In Vitro Treatment against Schistosoma mansoni Adult Worms

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Leticia; Venancio, Thiago M.; Nakaya, Helder I.; Miyasato, Patrícia A.; Rofatto, Henrique K.; Zerlotini, Adhemar; Nakano, Eliana; Oliveira, Guilherme; Verjovski-Almeida, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Background Treatment and morbidity control of schistosomiasis relies on a single drug, praziquantel (PZQ), and the selection of resistant worms under repeated treatment is a concern. Therefore, there is a pressing need to understand the molecular effects of PZQ on schistosomes and to investigate alternative or synergistic drugs against schistosomiasis. Methodology We used a custom-designed Schistosoma mansoni expression microarray to explore the effects of sublethal doses of PZQ on large-scale gene expression of adult paired males and females and unpaired mature females. We also assessed the efficacy of PZQ, omeprazole (OMP) or their combination against S. mansoni adult worms with a survival in vitro assay. Principal Findings We identified sets of genes that were affected by PZQ in paired and unpaired mature females, however with opposite gene expression patterns (up-regulated in paired and down-regulated in unpaired mature females), indicating that PZQ effects are heavily influenced by the mating status. We also identified genes that were similarly affected by PZQ in males and females. Functional analyses of gene interaction networks were performed with parasite genes that were differentially expressed upon PZQ treatment, searching for proteins encoded by these genes whose human homologs are targets of different drugs used for other diseases. Based on these results, OMP, a widely prescribed proton pump inhibitor known to target the ATP1A2 gene product, was chosen and tested. Sublethal doses of PZQ combined with OMP significantly increased worm mortality in vitro when compared with PZQ or OMP alone, thus evidencing a synergistic effect. Conclusions Functional analysis of gene interaction networks is an important approach that can point to possible novel synergistic drug candidates. We demonstrated the potential of this strategy by showing that PZQ in combination with OMP displayed increased efficiency against S. mansoni adult worms in vitro when compared with

  6. Effects of doxycycline on heartworm embryogenesis, transmission, circulating microfilaria, and adult worms in microfilaremic dogs.

    PubMed

    McCall, J W; Kramer, L; Genchi, C; Guerrero, J; Dzimianski, M T; Mansour, A; McCall, S D; Carson, B

    2014-11-15

    Tetracycline treatment of animals or humans infected with filariae that harbor Wolbachia endosymbionts blocks further embryogenesis, and existing microfilariae gradually die. This treatment also kills developing larvae and has a slow-kill effect on adult filariae, all presumably due to elimination of the Wolbachia. Also, Dirofilaria immitis microfilariae in blood collected from dogs up to 25 days after the last dose of doxycycline developed to infective L3 that were normal in appearance and motility in mosquitoes but did not continue to develop or migrate normally after subcutaneous (SC) injection into dogs. The present study was designed to determine whether heartworm microfilariae collected at later times after treatment would regain the ability to continue normal development in a dog. The study also was expected to yield valuable data on the effects of treatment on microfilariae and antigen levels and adult worms. The study was conducted in 16 dogs as two separate replicates at different times. A total of five dogs (two in Replicate A and three in Replicate B) infected either by SC injection of L3 or intravenous transplantation of adult heartworms were given doxycycline orally at 10mg/kg twice daily for 30 days, with three untreated controls. Microfilarial counts in the five treated dogs gradually declined during the 12-13 months after treatment initiation. Two dogs were amicrofilaremic before necropsy and three had 13 or fewer microfilariae/ml. Only one treated dog was negative for heartworm antigen before necropsy. Overall, treated dogs generally had fewer live adult heartworms than controls, and most of their live worms were moribund. All three control dogs remained positive for microfilariae and antigen and had many live worms. L3 from mosquitoes fed on blood collected 73-77 or 161-164 days after initiation of doxycycline treatments were injected SC into five dogs. None of the dogs injected with L3 from mosquitoes fed on blood from doxycycline-treated dogs

  7. Hope and burden among Latino families of adults with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Mercedes; Barrio, Concepción; Yamada, Ann-Marie

    2013-12-01

    This study examined hope and family burden among Latino families of individuals with schizophrenia. The sample consisted of 54 family members, one family member per outpatient adult recruited from public mental health programs in a diverse urban community. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were used to test the hypothesis that the family member's increased hope for the patient's future would be associated with decreased family burden beyond effects explained by the patient's length of illness and severity of symptoms. Results supported the study hypothesis. Family hope for the patient's future was associated with four of five types of family burden. Findings point to the prominent role of hope as a source of resilience for Latino families dealing with severe mental illness of a loved one. PMID:24329411

  8. Association study in naturally infected helminth layers shows evidence for influence of interferon-gamma gene variants on Ascaridia galli worm burden.

    PubMed

    Lühken, Gesine; Gauly, Matthias; Kaufmann, Falko; Erhardt, Georg

    2011-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes for interleukin-4, -13 and interferon-gamma, and 21 additional SNPs which previously had been significantly associated with immune traits in the chicken, were genotyped in white and brown layer hens and analyzed for their association with helminth burden following natural infections. A nucleotide substitution located upstream of the promoter of the interferon-gamma gene was significantly associated with the log transformed number of Ascaridia galli in the brown layer line (genotype CC: 6.4 ± 1.0 worms; genotype CT: 11.7 ± 2.2 worms). Therefore, IFNG seems to be a promising candidate gene for further studies on helminth resistance in the chicken. PMID:21749701

  9. Association study in naturally infected helminth layers shows evidence for influence of interferon-gamma gene variants on Ascaridia galli worm burden

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes for interleukin-4, -13 and interferon-gamma, and 21 additional SNPs which previously had been significantly associated with immune traits in the chicken, were genotyped in white and brown layer hens and analyzed for their association with helminth burden following natural infections. A nucleotide substitution located upstream of the promoter of the interferon-gamma gene was significantly associated with the log transformed number of Ascaridia galli in the brown layer line (genotype CC: 6.4 ± 1.0 worms; genotype CT: 11.7 ± 2.2 worms). Therefore, IFNG seems to be a promising candidate gene for further studies on helminth resistance in the chicken. PMID:21749701

  10. Metagonimus yokogawai: metacercariae survey in fishes and its development to adult worms in various rodents.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming-Hsien; Huang, Hai-I; Chen, Pei-Lain; Huang, Chiung-Hua; Chen, Yu-Hsuan; Ooi, Hong-Kean

    2013-04-01

    A parasitological survey for Metagonimus yokogawai metacercariae was carried out by examining a total of 321 freshwater fish comprising of 7 species. Of the 321 fish samples examined, 182 (56.7%) were found to be infected with M. yokogawai metacercariae. The prevalence of M. yokogawai metacercariae in Opsariichthys pachycephalus was 93.4% (86/92), Zacco platypus 75.0% (30/40), Distoechodon turmirostris 61.3% (38/62), Varicorhinus barbatulus 56.5% (13/23), Hemibarbus labeo 33.3% (1/3), Acrossocheilus formosanus 15.9% (14/88), and 0% in Sinibrama macrops (0/13), respectively. This is the first record of M. yokogawai infection in Z. platypus, D. turmirostris, V. barbatulus, and H. labeo in Taiwan. The major site of predilection of the metacercariae in the fishes was in the scale, but some metacercariae were also observed in the flesh and fins. The M. yokogawai metacercariae were orally inoculated into mice, rat, gerbil, and golden hamster to study their infectivity and also to obtain the adult worms for taxonomic study. Worm recovery in hamsters was 75.3%, in mice was 70.0%, in rats was 23.3%, and in gerbils was 6.0%, respectively. Moreover, larger worms were recovered from the golden hamster. Golden hamster was thus found to be the most susceptible experimental rodent host for the infectivity study of Metagonimus. Besides M. yokogawai, metacercariae of Centrocestus formosanus was also observed in the fishes examined. PMID:23388732

  11. Identification of antigenic Brugia adult worm proteins by peptide mass fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Weinkopff, Tiffany; Atwood, James A; Punkosdy, George A; Moss, Delynn; Weatherly, D Brent; Orlando, Ron; Lammie, Patrick

    2009-12-01

    With the recent completion of the Brugia malayi genome, proteomics offers a new resource for a deeper understanding of the biology of filarial parasites. We employed 2-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis followed by peptide mass fingerprinting on a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-ToF) mass spectrometer to identify Brugia adult worm proteins and then determined which proteins were recognized by the host humoral immune response. We identified 18 unique proteins, several of which were determined to be antigenic by immunoblot. The proteins identified here may contribute to future studies to analyze the transmission and pathogenesis of lymphatic filariasis. PMID:19537848

  12. Effects of Doxycycline on gene expression in Wolbachia and Brugia malayi adult female worms in vivo

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Most filarial nematodes contain Wolbachia symbionts. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of doxycycline on gene expression in Wolbachia and adult female Brugia malayi. Methods Brugia malayi infected gerbils were treated with doxycycline for 6-weeks. This treatment largely cleared Wolbachia and arrested worm reproduction. RNA recovered from treated and control female worms was labeled by random priming and hybridized to the Version 2- filarial microarray to obtain expression profiles. Results and discussion Results showed significant changes in expression for 200 Wolbachia (29% of Wolbachia genes with expression signals in untreated worms) and 546 B. malayi array elements after treatment. These elements correspond to known genes and also to novel genes with unknown biological functions. Most differentially expressed Wolbachia genes were down-regulated after treatment (98.5%). In contrast, doxycycline had a mixed effect on B. malayi gene expression with many more genes being significantly up-regulated after treatment (85% of differentially expressed genes). Genes and processes involved in reproduction (gender-regulated genes, collagen, amino acid metabolism, ribosomal processes, and cytoskeleton) were down-regulated after doxycycline while up-regulated genes and pathways suggest adaptations for survival in response to stress (energy metabolism, electron transport, anti-oxidants, nutrient transport, bacterial signaling pathways, and immune evasion). Conclusions Doxycycline reduced Wolbachia and significantly decreased bacterial gene expression. Wolbachia ribosomes are believed to be the primary biological target for doxycycline in filarial worms. B. malayi genes essential for reproduction, growth and development were also down-regulated; these changes are consistent with doxycycline effects on embryo development and reproduction. On the other hand, many B. malayi genes involved in energy production, electron-transport, metabolism, anti

  13. Expression of five acetylcholine receptor subunit genes in Brugia malayi adult worms

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ben-Wen; Rush, Amy C.; Weil, Gary J.

    2015-01-01

    Acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) are required for body movement in parasitic nematodes and are targets of “classical” anthelmintic drugs such as levamisole and pyrantel and of newer drugs such as tribendimidine and derquantel. While neurotransmission explains the effects of these drugs on nematode movement, their effects on parasite reproduction are unexplained. The levamisole AChR type (L-AChRs) in Caenorhabditis elegans is comprised of five subunits: Cel-UNC-29, Cel-UNC-38, Cel-UNC-63, Cel-LEV-1 and Cel-LEV-8. The genome of the filarial parasite Brugia malayi contains nine AChRs subunits including orthologues of Cel-unc-29, Cel-unc-38, and Cel-unc-63. We performed in situ hybridization with RNA probes to localize the expression of five AChR genes (Bm1_35890-Bma-unc-29, Bm1_20330-Bma-unc-38, Bm1_38195-Bma-unc-63, Bm1_48815-Bma-acr-26 and Bm1_40515-Bma-acr-12) in B. malayi adult worms. Four of these genes had similar expression patterns with signals in body muscle, developing embryos, spermatogonia, uterine wall adjacent to stretched microfilariae, wall of Vas deferens, and lateral cord. Three L-AChR subunit genes (Bma-unc-29, Bma-unc-38 and Bma-unc-63) were expressed in body muscle, which is a known target of levamisole. Bma-acr-12 was co-expressed with these levamisole subunit genes in muscle, and this suggests that its protein product may form receptors with other alpha subunits. Bma-acr-26 was expressed in male muscle but not in female muscle. Strong expression signals of these genes in early embryos and gametes in uterus and testis suggest that AChRs may have a role in nervous system development of embryogenesis and spermatogenesis. This would be consistent with embryotoxic effects of drugs that target these receptors in filarial worms. Our data show that the expression of these receptor genes is tightly regulated with regard to localization in adult worms and developmental stage in embryos and gametes. These results may help to explain the broad effects

  14. De novo assembly and characterization of the Trichuris trichiura adult worm transcriptome using Ion Torrent sequencing.

    PubMed

    Santos, Leonardo N; Silva, Eduardo S; Santos, André S; De Sá, Pablo H; Ramos, Rommel T; Silva, Artur; Cooper, Philip J; Barreto, Maurício L; Loureiro, Sebastião; Pinheiro, Carina S; Alcantara-Neves, Neuza M; Pacheco, Luis G C

    2016-07-01

    Infection with helminthic parasites, including the soil-transmitted helminth Trichuris trichiura (human whipworm), has been shown to modulate host immune responses and, consequently, to have an impact on the development and manifestation of chronic human inflammatory diseases. De novo derivation of helminth proteomes from sequencing of transcriptomes will provide valuable data to aid identification of parasite proteins that could be evaluated as potential immunotherapeutic molecules in near future. Herein, we characterized the transcriptome of the adult stage of the human whipworm T. trichiura, using next-generation sequencing technology and a de novo assembly strategy. Nearly 17.6 million high-quality clean reads were assembled into 6414 contiguous sequences, with an N50 of 1606bp. In total, 5673 protein-encoding sequences were confidentially identified in the T. trichiura adult worm transcriptome; of these, 1013 sequences represent potential newly discovered proteins for the species, most of which presenting orthologs already annotated in the related species T. suis. A number of transcripts representing probable novel non-coding transcripts for the species T. trichiura were also identified. Among the most abundant transcripts, we found sequences that code for proteins involved in lipid transport, such as vitellogenins, and several chitin-binding proteins. Through a cross-species expression analysis of gene orthologs shared by T. trichiura and the closely related parasites T. suis and T. muris it was possible to find twenty-six protein-encoding genes that are consistently highly expressed in the adult stages of the three helminth species. Additionally, twenty transcripts could be identified that code for proteins previously detected by mass spectrometry analysis of protein fractions of the whipworm somatic extract that present immunomodulatory activities. Five of these transcripts were amongst the most highly expressed protein-encoding sequences in the T

  15. Human TNF-α induces differential protein phosphorylation in Schistosoma mansoni adult male worms.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Katia C; Carvalho, Mariana L P; Bonatto, José Matheus C; Schechtman, Debora; Verjovski-Almeida, Sergio

    2016-02-01

    Schistosoma mansoni and its vertebrate host have a complex and intimate connection in which several molecular stimuli are exchanged and affect both organisms. Human tumor necrosis factor alpha (hTNF-α), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, is known to induce large-scale gene expression changes in the parasite and to affect several parasite biological processes such as metabolism, egg laying, and worm development. Until now, the molecular mechanisms for TNF-α activity in worms are not completely understood. Here, we aimed at exploring the effect of hTNF-α on S. mansoni protein phosphorylation by 2D gel electrophoresis followed by a quantitative analysis of phosphoprotein staining and protein identification by mass spectrometry. We analyzed three biological replicates of adult male worms exposed to hTNF-α and successfully identified 32 protein spots with a statistically significant increase in phosphorylation upon in vitro exposure to hTNF-α. Among the differentially phosphorylated proteins, we found proteins involved in metabolism, such as glycolysis, galactose metabolism, urea cycle, and aldehyde metabolism, as well as proteins related to muscle contraction and to cytoskeleton remodeling. The most differentially phosphorylated protein (30-fold increase in phosphorylation) was 14-3-3, whose function is known to be modulated by phosphorylation, belonging to a signal transduction protein family that regulates a variety of processes in all eukaryotic cells. Further, 75% of the identified proteins are known in mammals to be related to TNF-α signaling, thus suggesting that TNF-α response may be conserved in the parasite. We propose that this work opens new perspectives to be explored in the study of the molecular crosstalk between host and pathogen. PMID:26547565

  16. Influence of immunoprotection on genetic variability of cysteine proteinases from Haemonchus contortus adult worms.

    PubMed

    Martín, S; Molina, J M; Hernández, Y I; Ferrer, O; Muñoz, Ma C; López, A; Ortega, L; Ruiz, A

    2015-11-01

    The limitations associated with the use of anthelmintic drugs in the control of gastrotintestinal nematodosis, such as the emergence of anthelmintic resistance, have stimulated the study of the immunological control of many parasites. In the case of Haemonchus contortus, several vaccination trials using native and recombinant antigens have been conducted. A group of antigens with demonstrated immunoprotective value are cathepsin B - like proteolytic enzymes of the cysteine proteinase type. These enzymes, which have been observed in both excretory-secretory products and somatic extracts of H. contortus, may vary among different geographic isolates and on strains isolated from different hosts, or even from the same host, as has been demonstrated in some comparative studies of genetic variability. In the present study, we evaluated the genetic variability of the worms that fully developed their endogenous cycle in immunised sheep and goat in order to identify the alleles of most immunoprotective value. To address these objectives, groups of sheep and goats were immunised with PBS soluble fractions enriched for cysteine proteinases from adult worms of H. contortus from either a strain of H. contortus isolated from goats of Gran Canaria Island (SP) or a strain isolated from sheep of North America (NA). The results confirmed the immunoprophylactic value of this type of enzyme against haemonchosis in both sheep and goats in association with increased levels of specific IgG. The genetic analysis demonstrated that the immunisation had a genetic selection on proteinase-encoding genes. In all the immunised animals, allelic frequencies were statistically different from those observed in non-immunised control animals in the four analysed genes. The reduction in the allelic frequencies suggests that parasites expressing these proteases are selectively targeted by the vaccine, and hence they should be considered in any subunit vaccine approach to control haemonchosis in small

  17. The Mood Disorder Burden Index: A Scale for Assessing the Burden of Caregivers to Adults with Unipolar or Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Martire, Lynn M.; Hinrichsen, Gregory A.; Morse, Jennifer Q.; Reynolds, Charles F.; Gildengers, Ariel G.; Mulsant, Benoit H.; Schulz, Richard

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present a brief measure of caregiver burden, the Mood Disorder Burden Index (MDBI), for use with family members and close friends of adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) or bipolar disorder (BD). The MDBI assesses burden in three core domains (patients’ mood symptoms, caregivers’ worry about the future, and caregivers’ interpersonal difficulties with the patient) and includes an optional module that assesses caregiver burden associated with patients’ pharmacotherapy or psychotherapy. The MDBI was administered to caregivers of older individuals (i.e., 58 years and older) with MDD (n = 123) or BD (n = 38 who were receiving treatment through a research study. Analyses indicated evidence of convergent and discriminant validity of the new measure well as internal consistency within both caregiver groups. It will be important for future research to administer the MDBI to caregivers of middle-aged and older patients as well as those receiving treatment through inpatient settings or community outpatient clinics. PMID:19427705

  18. iTRAQ-based comparative proteomic analysis of excretory-secretory proteins of schistosomula and adult worms of Schistosoma japonicum.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiaodan; Fu, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Min; Han, Yanhui; Han, Hongxiao; Han, Qian; Lu, Ke; Hong, Yang; Lin, Jiaojiao

    2016-04-14

    Schistosomiasis remains a serious public health problem with 200 million people infected and 779 million people at risk worldwide. The schistosomulum and adult worm are two stages of the complex lifecycle of Schistosoma japonicum and excretory/secretory proteins (ESPs) play a major role in host-parasite interactions. In this study, iTRAQ-coupled LC-MS/MS was used to investigate the proteome of ESPs obtained from schistosomula and adult worms of S. japonicum, and 298 differential ESPs were identified. Bioinformatics analysis of differential ESPs in the two developmental stages showed that 161 ESPs upregulated in schistosomula were associated with stress responses, carbohydrate metabolism and protein degradation, whereas ESPs upregulated in adult worms were mainly related to immunoregulation and purine metabolism. Recombinant heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and thioredoxin peroxidase (TPx), two differential proteins identified in this study, were expressed. Further studies showed that rSjHSP70 and rSjTPx stimulated macrophages expressing high levels of the anti-inflammatory factors TGF-β, IL-10 and Arg-1, and suppressed the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and iNOS in LPS-induced macrophages. This study provides new insights into the survival and development of schistosomes in the final host and helps identify vaccine candidates or new diagnostic reagents for schistosomiasis. PMID:26915583

  19. Worm-stars and half-worms

    PubMed Central

    Hodgkin, Jonathan; Clark, Laura C; Gravato-Nobre, Maria J

    2014-01-01

    In a recent paper, we reported the isolation and surprising effects of two new bacterial pathogens for Caenorhabditis and related nematodes. These two pathogens belong to the genus Leucobacter and were discovered co-infecting a wild isolate of Caenorhabditis that had been collected in Cape Verde. The interactions of these bacteria with C. elegans revealed both unusual mechanisms of pathogenic attack, and an unexpected defense mechanism on the part of the worm. One pathogen, known as Verde1, is able to trap swimming nematodes by sticking their tails together, resulting in the formation of “worm-star” aggregates, within which worms are killed and degraded. Trapped larval worms, but not adults, can sometimes escape by undergoing whole-body autotomy into half-worms. The other pathogen, Verde2, kills worms by a different mechanism associated with rectal infection. Many C. elegans mutants with alterations in surface glycosylation are resistant to Verde2 infection, but hypersensitive to Verde1, being rapidly killed without worm-star formation. Conversely, surface infection of wild-type worms with Verde1 is mildly protective against Verde2. Thus, there are trade-offs in susceptibility to the two bacteria. The Leucobacter pathogens reveal novel nematode biology and provide powerful tools for exploring nematode surface properties and bacterial susceptibility. PMID:25254146

  20. Chromatographic Fingerprint Analysis and Effects of the Medicinal Plant Species Mitracarpus frigidus on Adult Schistosoma mansoni Worms

    PubMed Central

    Fabri, Rodrigo Luiz; Aragão, Danielle Maria de Oliveira; Florêncio, Jônatas Rodrigues; Pinto, Nícolas de Castro Campos; Mattos, Ana Carolina Alves; Coelho, Paulo Marcos Zech; Castañon, Maria Christina Marques Nogueira; Vasconcelos, Eveline Gomes; Pinto, Priscila de Faria; Scio, Elita

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this work were to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo schistosomicidal properties of the methanolic extract of the aerial parts of Mitracarpus frigidus (MFM) and to determine its HPLC profile. For the in vitro experiment, four pairs of adult worms, obtained from infected mice, were exposed to different concentrations of MFM (100 to 400 μg/mL) for 24 and 48 h and analyzed under an inverted microscope. For the in vivo experiment, mice were inoculated with cercariae and, 20 days after infection, MFM (100 and 300 mg/kg) was administered orally for the following 25 days. Mice were euthanized after 60 days. MFM showed in vitro schistosomicidal activity, exhibiting the opening of the gynaecophoral canal of some male schistosomes, the presence of contorted muscles, vesicles, and the darkening of the paired worms skin. In vivo experiments showed that MFM treatments significantly reduced total worm count, as praziquantel, showing a decrease in liver and spleen weight. Also, a significant reduction in granuloma density was observed. MFM treatment did not cause alterations in the liver function of either infected or noninfected mice. The HPLC chromatogram profile showed the presence of kaempferol-O-rutinoside, rutin, kaempferol, psychorubrin, and ursolic acid. PMID:24901000

  1. Effect of condensed tannins supplementation through leaf meal mixture on voluntary feed intake, immune response and worm burden in Haemonchus contortus infected sheep.

    PubMed

    Pathak, A K; Dutta, Narayan; Banerjee, P S; Goswami, T K; Sharma, K

    2016-03-01

    The study was carried out to assess the effect of condensed tannins (CT) supplementation through leaf meal mixture (LMM) on feed intake, humoral [Immunoglobulin G (IgG)], cell mediated immune response (CMI) and faecal egg counts in Haemonchus contortus infected sheep. Eighteen sheep were randomly divided into three groups (negative control-NC, infected control-C and Infected treatment-T) of six animals in each group in a completely randomized block design for a period of 90 days. Twelve H. contortus infected adult sheep were allocated into two equal groups C and T, supplemented with 0 and 1.5 % of CT, respectively. Six non-infected sheep of similar age and body weight of NC group were included in this study to compare their immune response with H. contortus C and CT supplemented T groups. Intake of dry matter and organic matter (g day(-1) and % live weight) was statistically similar (P < 0.05) among the three groups. The anti-Haemonchus IgG and CMI response was higher in T group as compared to C group. The mean faecal egg counts was significantly (P < 0.001) higher in C group as compared to T group. It may be concluded that dietary supplementation of CT (1.5 %) through LMM improved humoral and CMI immune response and decreased worm load in H. contortus infected sheep. PMID:27065606

  2. High prevalence of haplorchiasis in Nan and Lampang provinces, Thailand, proven by adult worm recovery from suspected opisthorchiasis cases.

    PubMed

    Wijit, Adulsak; Morakote, Nimit; Klinchid, Jaewwaew

    2013-12-01

    Opisthorchiasis, a risk factor for cholangiocarcinoma in humans, is of public health importance in Thailand. The Annual Surveillance Reports from Nan and Lampang Provinces, Thailand, for the year 2011 showed an opisthorchiasis prevalence of over 70% by recovery of eggs in the feces. This study investigated whether most cases are actually due to minute intestinal flukes (MIF) rather than Opisthorchis viverrini, as the eggs of both can hardly be differentiated by morphology. Fifty and 100 cases from residents in Nan and Lampang, respectively, had stools positive for eggs initially assumed to be those of O. viverrini. Each patient was given praziquantel at 40 mg/kg in a single dose. After 2 hr, 30-45 ml of the purgative magnesium sulfate was given, and stools were collected up to 4 times sequentially. The stools were examined for adult worms by simple sedimentation. It was found that 39 of 50 cases (78.0%) from Nan Province had Haplorchis taichui, with intensities ranging from 5 to 1,250 with an average of 62 worms/case. Taenia saginata (7 cases) and Enterobius vermicularis (1 case) were other helminths recovered as the co-infectants. In Lampang Province, H. taichui was recovered from 69 cases (69.0%). The number of flukes recovered ranged from 1 to 4,277, with an average of 326 worms/case. Four cases had Phaneropsolus bonnei, and 10 T. saginata as the co-infectants. Adult specimens of O. viverrini were not recovered from any stool. Clearly, MIF infection, especially haplorchiasis, is more common in northern Thailand. These findings should encourage the Public Health Office to employ more specific tools than Kato's method for surveillance of opisthorchiasis in Thailand. PMID:24516289

  3. Chemotherapeutic studies on Litomosoides carinii infection of Mastomys natalensis. 8. The action of furazolidone on adult worms and microfilariae.

    PubMed

    Wegerhof, P H; Lämmler, G; Sänger, I; Zahner, H

    1979-09-01

    After oral administration of furazolidone in doses of 5 x 50 mg/kg and 1 x 100 mg/kg body weight to Litomosoides carinii--infected Mastomys natalensis microfilaraemia decreased continuously and was reduced by more than 98% 42 days after start of treatment. After the 5-day treatment all adult female and male worms were found dead and encapsulated within 2 weeks, whereas after the single dose 100% of the female parasites were encapsulated 28 days after treatment. In untreated animals quantiative examinations of the intrauterine stages showed an average number of 500 x 103 embryos per adult female worm. Following the 5-day treatment the number of embryos per female parasite was reduced after 42 days to 12.5 x 103, and after the single treatment to 26.9 x 103. By classification into 5 different stages (2- and 4-cell stages, Morula stage, "Horse-shoe" stage, "Ring" and "Brezel" stages, and intruterine microfilariae) an embryogram showed a continuous increase in pathologically-altered embryos during the whole observation period. The 2- and 4-cell stages suffered the most damaged. By 16 days after the end of the 5-day treatment and by 28 days after the single treatment all embryonic stages in the uteri were found to be pathologically altered. Furazolidone possessess high macrofilaricidal activity together with a considerable adverse effect on embryognesis and some delayed effect on microfilaraemia. PMID:543002

  4. Programmed Worms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Donald T.

    1982-01-01

    A hungry worm is looking for something to eat according to very specific rules, and the path he takes is a graph. The problem is detailed in Applesoft BASIC using low resolution graphics for worms that turn 90 degrees and high resolution for worms that can turn 45 degrees. (MP)

  5. The Contribution of Attachment to Burden in Adult Children of Institutionalized Parents with Dementia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crispi, Esther Loring; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Studied 108 adults to investigate the impact of adult attachment to parents, perceived disease severity, and caregiving behaviors, moderated by perceived caregiving adequacy. Results indicate that attachment style and the trait aspect of attachment predicted both aspects of caregiver burden. Attachment preoccupation predicted psychologic…

  6. Comparison of apoptosis between adult worms of Schistosoma japonicum from susceptible (BALB/c mice) and less-susceptible (Wistar rats) hosts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Guo, Xiaoyong; Hong, Yang; Han, Hongxiao; Cao, Xiaodan; Han, Yanhui; Zhang, Min; Wu, Miaoli; Fu, Zhiqiang; Lu, Ke; Li, Hao; Zhao, Zhixin; Lin, Jiaojiao

    2016-10-30

    Schistosomiasis remains a serious public health concern in China. BALB/c mice are susceptible to Schistosoma japonicum infection, whereas the Wistar rats are less susceptible. Apoptosis phenomenon was observed in 42d adult worms of S. japonicum from both rats and mice at the morphologic, DNA, cellular, and gene levels by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), fluorometric terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) analysis, fluorescein isothiocyanate-annexin-V/propidium iodide staining flow cytometry (FCM) analysis, and real-time PCR. The results showed that the apoptotic state in worms from two different susceptible hosts was diverse. Several classical hallmarks of apoptosis, including cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation and lunate marginalization, splitting of the nucleoli, nuclear shrinkage and apoptotic body formation were observed by TEM. TUNEL analysis showed that there were much more apoptosis spots in adult worms from rats than those from mice. Statistical analysis revealed that the degree of apoptosis and percentage of necrotic cells in adult worms from Wistar rats were significantly greater (P<0.01) than those from BALB/c mice by flow cytometry. A total of 15 apoptosis-associated genes including the major components of an intrinsic cell-death pathway were identified from S. japonicum in this study, suggested that a similar apoptosis pathway might occur in S. japonicum. Real-time PCR analyses revealed that the expression levels of most of the tested apoptosis-associated genes, except CASP7, were significantly higher or at the similar level in adult worms from Wistar rats, as compared to those from BALB/c mice. The results obtained in this study collectively demonstrated that differential development of adult S. japonicum in less-susceptible rats and susceptible mice was significantly associated with apoptosis in the worm, and provided valuable information to guide further investigations of the mechanisms governing

  7. Social burden and lifestyle in adults with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Zomer, A Carla; Vaartjes, Ilonca; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P; van der Velde, Enno T; Sieswerda, Gert-Jan T; Wajon, Elly M C; Plomp, Koos; van Bergen, Paul F M; Verheugt, Carianne L; Krivka, Eva; de Vries, Cees J; Lok, Dirk J A; Grobbee, Diederick E; Mulder, Barbara J M

    2012-06-01

    We aimed to evaluate how the presence and severity of congenital heart disease (CHD) influence social life and lifestyle in adult patients. A random sample (n = 1,496) from the CONgenital CORvitia (n = 11,047), the Dutch national registry of adult patients with CHD, completed a questionnaire on educational attainment, employment and marital statuses, and lifestyle (response 76%). The Utrecht Health Project provided a large reference group (n = 6,810) of unaffected subjects. Logistic regression models were used for subgroup analyses and to adjust for age, gender, and socioeconomic status where appropriate. Of all patients 51.5% were men (median age 39 years, interquartile range 29 to 51) with mild (46%), moderate (44%), and severe (10%) CHD. Young (<40-year-old) patients with CHD were more likely to have achieved a lower education (adjusted odds ratios [ORs] 1.6 for men and 1.9 for women, p <0.05 for the 2 comparisons), significantly more often unemployed (adjusted ORs 5.9 and 2.0 for men and women, respectively), and less likely to be in a relationship compared to the reference group (adjusted ORs 8.5 for men and 4.5 for women). These poorer outcomes were seen in all severity groups. Overall, the CHD population smoked less (adjusted OR 0.5, p <0.05), had more sports participation (adjusted OR 1.2, p <0.05), and had less obesity (adjusted OR 0.7, p <0.05) than the reference group. In conclusion, there was a substantial social disadvantage in adult patients with CHD, which was seen in all severity groups and primarily in young men. In contrast, adults with CHD had healthier lifestyles compared to the reference group. PMID:22444325

  8. In vitro effects of three woody plant and sainfoin extracts on 3rd-stage larvae and adult worms of three gastrointestinal nematodes.

    PubMed

    Paolini, V; Fouraste, I; Hoste, H

    2004-07-01

    Most studies on the effects of tanniferous plants on nematodes have examined forages but have neglected the woody plants. Therefore, in vitro effects of extracts from 3 woody plants (Rubus fructicosus, Quercus robur, Corylus avellana) have been tested on trichostrongyles and compared to sainfoin, a legume forage. Because some in vivo results indicated that the effects of tannins differed depending on the parasitic species and/or stages, the effects were measured on 3rd-stage larvae (L3) and adult worms of Teladorsagia circumcincta, Haemonchlus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis. The effects of plant extracts varied according to the plant sources, the parasite species and stages. For the woody plants, significant inhibitory effects were obtained on both stages of abomasal species. Results for T. colubriformis were more variable. Effects of sainfoin extracts were significant on T. colubriformis and H. contortus L3, and on abomasal adult worms. In order to assess the implications of tannins, polyethylene glycol (PEG), an inhibitor of tannins, was added to hazel tree, oak and sainfoin extracts. Without PEG, significant inhibitory effects on L3 and adult worms were confirmed. After addition of PEG, the larval migration and motility of adult worms were restored in most cases. These results confirm variations in effects depending on factors related to plants or parasites and suggest that tannins are partly responsible for the effects. PMID:15267113

  9. The global burden of chronic respiratory disease in adults.

    PubMed

    Burney, P; Jarvis, D; Perez-Padilla, R

    2015-01-01

    With an aging global population, chronic respiratory diseases are becoming a more prominent cause of death and disability. Age-standardised death rates from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are highest in low-income regions of the world, particularly South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, although airflow obstruction is relatively uncommon in these areas. Airflow obstruction is, by contrast, more common in regions with a high prevalence of cigarette smoking. COPD mortality is much more closely related to the prevalence of a low forced vital capacity which is, in turn, associated with poverty. Mortality from asthma is less common than mortality from COPD, but it is also relatively more common in poorer areas, particularly Oceania, South and South-East Asia, the Middle East and Africa. Again this contrasts with the asthma prevalence among adults, which is highest in high-income regions. In high-income areas, mortality due to asthma, which is predominantly an adult problem, has fallen substantially in recent decades with the spread of new guidelines for treatment that emphasise the use of inhaled steroids to control the disease. Although mortality rates have been falling, the prevalence of atopy has been increasing between generations in Western Europe. Changes in the prevalence of wheeze among adults has been more varied and may have been influenced by the reduction in smoking and the increase in the use of inhaled steroids. PMID:25519785

  10. Self-characterizations of adult female informal caregivers: gender identity and the bearing of burden.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Maeona K

    2005-01-01

    Gender identity is a powerful aspect of self that shapes values, attitudes, and conduct. Family caregivers, particularly women, tend to forgo institutionalization of care recipients even when care demands are overwhelming. The reluctance of women to relinquish care raises questions about the relationship between gender identity and the bearing of burden. To illuminate the relationship between gender and burden, 36 adult women caring for highly dependent adults were asked to describe the nature of "self"; that is, how they characterized themselves as a person. Results were tabulated and critically examined in relation to stereotypical gender traits, as well as social and political processes that create gender dichotomies. Overall, self-characterizations indicated caregivers had internalized stereotypical female gender traits that support and facilitate the enduring of burden. PMID:16025695

  11. The Disease Burden of Childhood Adversities in Adults: A Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuijpers, Pim; Smit, Filip; Unger, Froukje; Stikkelbroek, Yvonne; ten Have, Margreet; de Graaf, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: There is much evidence showing that childhood adversities have considerable effects on the mental and physical health of adults. It could be assumed therefore, that the disease burden of childhood adversities is high. It has not yet been examined, however, whether this is true. Method: We used data of a large representative sample (N =…

  12. Family Caregiver Uplift and Burden: Associations with Aggressive Behavior in Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unwin, Gemma; Deb, Shoumitro

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the experience of family caregivers caring for adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) who display aggressive behavior in terms of associations with caregiver burden and uplift. The family caregivers of 44 people with ID and aggressive behavior were interviewed using a suite of questionnaires and…

  13. Physical activity, motor function, and white matter hyperintensity burden in healthy older adults

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jingyun; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; Arvanitakis, Zoe; Leurgans, Sue E.; Turner, Arlener D.; Barnes, Lisa L.; Bennett, David A.; Buchman, Aron S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that physical activity modifies the association between white matter hyperintensity (WMH) burden and motor function in healthy older persons without dementia. Methods: Total daily activity (exercise and nonexercise physical activity) was measured for up to 11 days with actigraphy (Actical; Philips Respironics, Bend, OR) in 167 older adults without dementia participating in the Rush Memory and Aging Project. Eleven motor performances were summarized into a previously described global motor score. WMH volume was expressed as percent of intracranial volume. Linear regression models, adjusted for age, education, and sex, were performed with total WMH volume as the predictor and global motor score as the outcome. Terms for total daily physical activity and its interaction with WMH volume were then added to the model. Results: Higher WMH burden was associated with lower motor function (p = 0.006), and total daily activity was positively associated with motor function (p = 0.002). Total daily activity modified the association between WMH and motor function (p = 0.007). WMH burden was not associated with motor function in persons with high activity (90th percentile). By contrast, higher WMH burden remained associated with lower motor function in persons with average (50th percentile; estimate = −0.304, slope = −0.133) and low (10th percentile; estimate = −1.793, slope = −0.241) activity. Conclusions: Higher levels of physical activity may reduce the effect of WMH burden on motor function in healthy older adults. PMID:25762710

  14. Human eosinophils modulate peripheral blood mononuclear cell response to Schistosoma mansoni adult worm antigen in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tweyongyere, R; Namanya, H; Naniima, P; Cose, S; Tukahebwa, E M; Elliott, A M; Dunne, D W; Wilson, S

    2016-08-01

    High numbers of eosinophils are observed in parasitic infections and allergic diseases, where they are proposed to be terminally differentiated effector cells that play beneficial role in host defence, or cause harmful inflammatory response. Eosinophils have been associated with killing of schistosomulae in vitro, but there is growing evidence that eosinophils can play additional immuno-regulatory role. Here, we report results of a study that examines peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cytokine responses to Schistosoma mansoni adult worm antigen (SWA) when stimulated alone or enriched with autologous eosinophils. Production of the Th-2 type cytokines interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5 and IL-13 was lower (P = 0·017, 0·018 and <0·001, respectively) in PBMC + eosinophil cultures than in PBMC-only cultures stimulated with SWA. Substantial levels of IL-13, IL-10, interferon gamma and tumour necrosis factor alpha were recorded in cultures of eosinophils, but none of these cytokines showed significant association with the observed eosinophil-induced drop in cytokine responses of PBMC. Transwell experiments suggested that the observed effect is due to soluble mediators that downmodulate production of Th-2 type cytokines. This study shows that eosinophils may down-modulate schistosome-specific Th-2 type cytokine responses in S. mansoni-infected individuals. The mechanism of this immune modulation remains to be elucidated. PMID:27169695

  15. Disruption of functional connectivity in clinically normal older adults harboring amyloid burden.

    PubMed

    Hedden, Trey; Van Dijk, Koene R A; Becker, J Alex; Mehta, Angel; Sperling, Reisa A; Johnson, Keith A; Buckner, Randy L

    2009-10-01

    Amyloid deposition is present in 20-50% of nondemented older adults yet the functional consequences remain unclear. The current study found that amyloid accumulation is correlated with functional disruption of the default network as measured by intrinsic activity correlations. Clinically normal participants (n = 38, aged 60-88 years) were characterized using (11)C-labeled Pittsburgh Compound B positron emission tomography imaging to estimate fibrillar amyloid burden and, separately, underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The integrity of the default network was estimated by correlating rest-state fMRI time courses extracted from a priori regions including the posterior cingulate, lateral parietal, and medial prefrontal cortices. Clinically normal participants with high amyloid burden displayed significantly reduced functional correlations within the default network relative to participants with low amyloid burden. These reductions were also observed when amyloid burden was treated as a continuous, rather than a dichotomous, measure and when controlling for age and structural atrophy. Whole-brain analyses initiated by seeding the posterior cingulate cortex, a region of high amyloid burden in Alzheimer's disease, revealed significant disruption in the default network including functional disconnection of the hippocampal formation. PMID:19812343

  16. Worm Infections in Children.

    PubMed

    Weatherhead, Jill E; Hotez, Peter J

    2015-08-01

    • On the basis of research evidence, worm infections are important global child health conditions causing chronic disability that lasts from childhood into adulthood (Table 1). (2)(3) Evidence Quality: B • On the basis of research evidence, the major worm infections found in developing countries include ascariasis, trichuriasis, hookworm infection, and schistosomiasis; toxocariasis, enterobiasis, and cysticercosis are also found in poor regions of North America and Europe. (4)(9)(13) Evidence Quality: B • On the basis of expert consensus, children and adolescents are often vulnerable to acquiring large numbers of worms, ie, high-intensity infections (Fig 1)(21)(22)(23) Evidence Quality: D • On the basis of expert consensus and research evidence, moderate and heavy worm burdens cause increased morbidity because of growth and intellectual stunting in children and adolescents. Many of these effects may result from helminth-induced malnutrition. (21)(22)(23) Evidence Quality: C • On the basis of expert consensus and research evidence, worm infections are also commonly associated with eosinophilia. (48) (49) Evidence Quality: B • On the basis of research evidence as well as consensus, helminthes can cause inflammation in the lung (asthma), gastrointestinal tract (enteritis and colitis), liver (hepatitis and fibrosis), and urogenital tract. (7)(21)(22)(23)(27)(28)(40)(41)(43) Evidence Quality: B • On the basis of research evidence, microscopy techniques for diagnosis of worm infections in children often exhibit suboptimal sensitivities and specificities, necessitating new or improved diagnostic modalities such as polymerase chain reaction. (54)(55) Evidence Quality: A • On the basis of research evidence and expert consensus, mass drug administration (“preventive chemotherapy”) has becomea standard practice for ministries of health in low- and middle-income countries to control intestinal helminth infections and schistosomiasis. (67)(68) Evidence

  17. Secreted adhesion molecules of Strongyloides venezuelensis are produced by oesophageal glands and are components of the wall of tunnels constructed by adult worms in the host intestinal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, H; El-Malky, M; Kumagai, T; Ohta, N

    2003-02-01

    The parasitic female of Strongyloides venezuelensis keeps invading the epithelial layer of the host intestinal mucosa. Upon invasion, it adheres to the surface of the intestinal epithelial cells with adhesion molecules secreted from the mouth. It has been demonstrated that S. venezuelensis are expelled from the intestine because mucosal mast cells inhibit the attachment of adult worms to the mucosal surface. In the present study, we generated specific antibodies against secreted adhesion molecules to investigate their function in vivo, because these molecules have been demonstrated only in vitro in spite of the importance in the infection processes. A mouse monoclonal antibody specific to S. venezuelensis adhesion molecules inhibited the attachment of adult worms to plastic dishes and the binding of adhesion molecules to rat intestinal epithelial cells. Immunohistochemical study revealed that adhesion molecules were produced by oesophageal glands and were continuously secreted in vivo to line the wall of the tunnels formed by adult worms in the intestinal mucosa. Our findings indicate that adhesion molecules play essential roles in the infection processes of S. venezuelensis in the host intestine. PMID:12636354

  18. Polyanhydride Nanoparticle Delivery Platform Dramatically Enhances Killing of Filarial Worms

    PubMed Central

    Binnebose, Andrea M.; Haughney, Shannon L.; Martin, Richard; Imerman, Paula M.; Narasimhan, Balaji; Bellaire, Bryan H.

    2015-01-01

    Filarial diseases represent a significant social and economic burden to over 120 million people worldwide and are caused by endoparasites that require the presence of symbiotic bacteria of the genus Wolbachia for fertility and viability of the host parasite. Targeting Wolbachia for elimination is a therapeutic approach that shows promise in the treatment of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. Here we demonstrate the use of a biodegradable polyanhydride nanoparticle-based platform for the co-delivery of the antibiotic doxycycline with the antiparasitic drug, ivermectin, to reduce microfilarial burden and rapidly kill adult worms. When doxycycline and ivermectin were co-delivered within polyanhydride nanoparticles, effective killing of adult female Brugia malayi filarial worms was achieved with approximately 4,000-fold reduction in the amount of drug used. Additionally the time to death of the macrofilaria was also significantly reduced (five-fold) when the anti-filarial drug cocktail was delivered within polyanhydride nanoparticles. We hypothesize that the mechanism behind this dramatically enhanced killing of the macrofilaria is the ability of the polyanhydride nanoparticles to behave as a Trojan horse and penetrate the cuticle, bypassing excretory pumps of B. malayi, and effectively deliver drug directly to both the worm and Wolbachia at high enough microenvironmental concentrations to cause death. These provocative findings may have significant consequences for the reduction in the amount of drug and the length of treatment required for filarial infections in terms of patient compliance and reduced cost of treatment. PMID:26496201

  19. Polyanhydride Nanoparticle Delivery Platform Dramatically Enhances Killing of Filarial Worms.

    PubMed

    Binnebose, Andrea M; Haughney, Shannon L; Martin, Richard; Imerman, Paula M; Narasimhan, Balaji; Bellaire, Bryan H

    2015-01-01

    Filarial diseases represent a significant social and economic burden to over 120 million people worldwide and are caused by endoparasites that require the presence of symbiotic bacteria of the genus Wolbachia for fertility and viability of the host parasite. Targeting Wolbachia for elimination is a therapeutic approach that shows promise in the treatment of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. Here we demonstrate the use of a biodegradable polyanhydride nanoparticle-based platform for the co-delivery of the antibiotic doxycycline with the antiparasitic drug, ivermectin, to reduce microfilarial burden and rapidly kill adult worms. When doxycycline and ivermectin were co-delivered within polyanhydride nanoparticles, effective killing of adult female Brugia malayi filarial worms was achieved with approximately 4,000-fold reduction in the amount of drug used. Additionally the time to death of the macrofilaria was also significantly reduced (five-fold) when the anti-filarial drug cocktail was delivered within polyanhydride nanoparticles. We hypothesize that the mechanism behind this dramatically enhanced killing of the macrofilaria is the ability of the polyanhydride nanoparticles to behave as a Trojan horse and penetrate the cuticle, bypassing excretory pumps of B. malayi, and effectively deliver drug directly to both the worm and Wolbachia at high enough microenvironmental concentrations to cause death. These provocative findings may have significant consequences for the reduction in the amount of drug and the length of treatment required for filarial infections in terms of patient compliance and reduced cost of treatment. PMID:26496201

  20. Comparison of the burden of illness for adults with ADHD across seven countries: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to expand the understanding of the burden of illness experienced by adults with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) living in different countries and treated through different health care systems. Methods Fourteen focus groups and five telephone interviews were conducted in seven countries in North America and Europe, comprised of adults who had received a diagnosis of ADHD. The countries included Canada, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, United Kingdom, and United States (two focus groups in each country). There were 108 participants. The focus groups were designed to elicit narratives of the experience of ADHD in key domains of symptoms, daily life, and social relationships. Consonant with grounded theory, the transcripts were analyzed using descriptive coding and then themed into larger domains. Results Participants’ statements regarding the presentation of symptoms, childhood experience, impact of ADHD across the life course, addictive and risk-taking behavior, work and productivity, finances, relationships and psychological health impacts were similarly themed across all seven countries. These similarities were expressed through the domains of symptom presentation, childhood experience, medication treatment issues, impacts in adult life and across the life cycle, addictive and risk-taking behavior, work and productivity, finances, psychological and social impacts. Conclusions These data suggest that symptoms associated with adult ADHD affect individuals similarly in different countries and that the relevance of the diagnostic category for adults is not necessarily limited to certain countries and sociocultural milieus. PMID:22583562

  1. Purification of a chymotrypsin-like enzyme present on adult Schistosoma mansoni worms from infected mice and its characterization as a host carboxylesterase.

    PubMed

    Igetei, Joseph E; Liddell, Susan; El-Faham, Marwa; Doenhoff, Michael J

    2016-04-01

    A serine protease-like enzyme found in detergent extracts of Schistosoma mansoni adult worms perfused from infected mice has been purified from mouse blood and further characterized. The enzyme is approximately 85 kDa and hydrolyses N-acetyl-DL-phenylalanine β-naphthyl-ester, a chromogenic substrate for chymotrypsin-like enzymes. The enzyme from S. mansoni worms appears to be antigenically and enzymatically similar to a molecule that is present in normal mouse blood and so is seemingly host-derived. The enzyme was partially purified by depleting normal mouse serum of albumin using sodium chloride and cold ethanol, followed by repeated rounds of purification by one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The purified material was subjected to tandem mass spectrometry and its derived peptides found to belong to mouse carboxylesterase 1C. Its ability to hydrolyse α- or β-naphthyl acetates, which are general esterase substrates, has been confirmed. A similar carboxylesterase was purified and characterized from rat blood. Additional evidence to support identification of the enzyme as a carboxylesterase has been provided. Possible roles of the enzyme in the mouse host-parasite relationship could be to ease the passage of worms through the host's blood vessels and/or in immune evasion. PMID:26924446

  2. Effectiveness of hyperbaric oxygen for experimental treatment of schistosomiasis mansoni using praziquantel-free and encapsulated into liposomes: assay in adult worms and oviposition.

    PubMed

    Frezza, Tarsila Ferraz; de Souza, Ana Luiza Ribeiro; Prado, César Corat Ribeiro; de Oliveira, Claudineide Nascimento Fernandes; Gremião, Maria Palmira Daflon; Giorgio, Selma; Dolder, Mary Anne Heidi; Joazeiro, Paulo Pinto; Allegretti, Silmara Marques

    2015-10-01

    The treatment of schistosomiasis depends on a single drug: praziquantel (PZQ). However, this treatment presents limitations such as low and/or erratic bioavailability that can contribute to cases of tolerance. Improvements to the available drug are urgently needed and studies with a controlled system of drug release, like liposomes, have been gaining prominence. The present study evaluated the activity and synergy between liposomal-praziquantel (lip.PZQ) and hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO). Mice received doses of 60 or 100mg/kg PZQ or lip.PZQ, 50 days post-infection, and after the treatment, were exposed to HBO (3 atmosphere absolute - ATA) for 1h. The viability of adult worms and oviposition were analyzed, by necropsy and Kato-Katz examination performed after 15 days of treatment. A concentration of 100mg/kg of lip.PZQ+HBO was more effective (48.0% reduction of worms, 83.3% reduction of eggs/gram of feces) and 100% of the mice had altered of oograms (indicating interruption of oviposition) compared to other treatments and to the Control group (infected and untreated). It is known that PZQ requires participation of the host immune system to complete its antischistosomal activity and that HBO is able to stimulate the immune system. The drug became more available in the body when incorporated into liposomes and, used with HBO, the HBO worked as an adjuvant. This explains the decreases of oviposition and worms recovered form hepatic portal system. PMID:26215128

  3. Infectious disease burden and cognitive function in young to middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Gale, Shawn D; Erickson, Lance D; Berrett, Andrew; Brown, Bruce L; Hedges, Dawson W

    2016-02-01

    Prior research has suggested an association between exposure to infectious disease and neurocognitive function in humans. While most of these studies have explored individual viral, bacterial, and even parasitic sources of infection, few have considered the potential neurocognitive burden associated with multiple infections. In this study, we utilized publically available data from a large dataset produced by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that included measures of neurocognitive function, sociodemographic variables, and serum antibody data for several infectious diseases. Specifically, immunoglobulin G antibodies for toxocariasis, toxoplasmosis, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C, cytomegalovirus, and herpes 1 and 2 were available in 5662 subjects. We calculated an overall index of infectious-disease burden to determine if an aggregate measure of exposure to infectious disease would be associated with neurocognitive function in adults aged 20-59 years. The index predicted processing speed and learning and memory but not reaction time after controlling for age, sex, race-ethnicity, immigration status, education, and the poverty-to-income ratio. Interactions between the infectious-disease index and some sociodemographic variables were also associated with neurocognitive function. In summary, an index aggregating exposure to several infectious diseases was associated with neurocognitive function in young- to middle-aged adults. PMID:26598104

  4. A Dimensional Analysis of Caregiver Burden among Spouses and Adult Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savundranayagam, Marie Y.; Montgomery, Rhonda J. V.; Kosloski, Karl

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the study: Caregiver burden is a multidimensional construct, addressing tension and anxiety (stress burden), changes in dyadic relationships (relationship burden), and time infringements (objective burden) resulting from caregiving. The study aims were to assess (a) whether the dimensions of burden were the same for caregiving spouses…

  5. Improvement of POC-CCA Interpretation by Using Lyophilization of Urine from Patients with Schistosoma mansoni Low Worm Burden: Towards an Elimination of Doubts about the Concept of Trace

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Paulo Marcos Zech; Siqueira, Liliane Maria Vidal; Grenfell, Rafaella Fortini Queiroz; Almeida, Nathalie Bonatti Franco; Katz, Naftale; Almeida, Áureo; Carneiro, Nídia Francisca de Figueiredo; Oliveira, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Background Accurate diagnostic techniques for schistosomiasis are essential for prevalence determination and identification of positive patients. A point-of-care test for detecting schistosome circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA) has been evaluated for its accuracy in different endemic regions. This reagent strip/dipstick based assay has showed high sensitivity for individuals with high or moderate worm burden, but the interpretation of light infections is less clear, especially for trace readings. Methodology/Principal Findings We introduced a urine lyophilization step to the POC-CCA assay to improve its sensitivity and clarify the interpretation of traces. We evaluated POC-CCA sensitivity and specificity within individuals with low parasite burdens in a Brazilian endemic area where a high number of traces were detected. Patients that were positive for other helminths were also evaluated for cross reactions. In all cases, a combined parasitological diagnosis using Kato-Katz (24 slides) and Saline Gradient (1 g of feces) were used as reference. At baseline, diagnosis by POC-CCA (1–2 cassettes) showed 6% sensitivity, inaccurately predicting a low prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infections (2 POC-CCA positives/32 egg positives). After urine lyophilization, the sensitivity was increased significantly (p < 0.05). Prevalence rates changed from 2% to 32% (27 POC-CCA positives/32 egg positives), equivalent to parasitological techniques. Most of the trace readings changed to positive after lyophilization while some negatives turned into traces. Cross reaction analysis confirmed the specificity of POC-CCA. Conclusions/Significance Trace readings cannot be primarily defined as positive or negative cases. It is critical to verify case-by-case by concentrating urine 10 fold by lyophilization for the diagnosis. Following lyophilization, persistent trace readings should be read as negatives. No trained technician is needed and cost is restricted to the cost of a

  6. Sleep disturbance, nocturnal agitation behaviors, and medical comorbidity in older adults with dementia: relationship to reported caregiver burden.

    PubMed

    Kim, Suk-Sun; Oh, Kyeung Mi; Richards, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this secondary analysis study was to determine whether care recipients' nighttime sleep patterns, medical comorbidity, observed nocturnal agitation behaviors, and caregivers' perceptions of nocturnal agitation behaviors in care recipients with dementia are associated with caregiver burden. Sixty care recipient-caregiver dyads, comprising older adults with geriatrician-diagnosed dementia living at home with caregivers, participated. Caregivers' perceptions of the frequency of care recipients' nocturnal agitation behaviors were associated with caregiver burden; however, objective, real-time data on the frequency of nocturnal agitation behaviors were not associated with burden. Care recipients' increased minutes of wakefulness before falling asleep and severe cognitive impairment with musculoskeletal/integument and neurological comorbidities were associated with higher caregiver burden. These results suggest that targeted interventions to reduce sleep onset latency, medical comorbidity, and caregivers' perception of frequency of nocturnal behaviors may reduce caregiver burden. PMID:24877599

  7. Amyloid burden is associated with self-reported sleep in nondemented late middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Sprecher, Kate E; Bendlin, Barbara B; Racine, Annie M; Okonkwo, Ozioma C; Christian, Bradley T; Koscik, Rebecca L; Sager, Mark A; Asthana, Sanjay; Johnson, Sterling C; Benca, Ruth M

    2015-09-01

    Midlife may be an ideal window for intervention in Alzheimer's disease (AD). To determine whether sleep is associated with early signs of AD neuropathology (amyloid deposition) in late midlife, we imaged brain amyloid deposits using positron emission tomography with [C-11]Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB), and assessed sleep with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and the Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Scale in 98 cognitively healthy adults (aged 62.4 ± 5.7 years) from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention. We used multiple regressions to test the extent to which sleep scores predicted regional amyloid burden. Participants reporting less adequate sleep, more sleep problems, and greater somnolence on the Medical Outcomes Study had greater amyloid burden in AD-sensitive brain regions (angular gyrus, frontal medial orbital cortex, cingulate gyrus, and precuneus). Amyloid was not associated with reported sleep amount, symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing, trouble falling asleep, or Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Poor sleep may be a risk factor for AD and a potential early marker of AD or target for preventative interventions in midlife. PMID:26059712

  8. Calving season is a stronger determinant of worm burdens in pasture-based beef production than the level of residual larval contamination at turnout

    PubMed Central

    Höglund, J.; Hessle, A.; Dahlström, F.

    2013-01-01

    The combined influence of (1) calving period (early or late) and (2) overwintering contamination by residual infective larvae (high or low) on subsequent exposure of suckler calves to gastrointestinal nematodes was investigated. We found that the effect of calving date was greater than the level of residual contamination. This was because the adult cows produced large quantities of manure containing small amounts of nematode eggs from turnout, which significantly contaminated the pasture, and thereby, reduced the effect of prior high-low contamination. Early born calves were found to be more heavily exposed to parasites, most likely due to ingesting more herbage than those born later. Late-born calves also had relatively high antibody levels at turnout, which first decreased and then increased again. We suggest that the high antibody levels at turnout reflect passive transfer of maternal antibodies through the milk. There was also a significant difference in animal performance, with the more heavily exposed early born calves having significantly lower daily weight gain than the late-born calves. However, this might not be entirely due to increased parasitism. PMID:23482238

  9. Burden of vaccine-preventable disease in adult Medicaid and commercially insured populations

    PubMed Central

    Krishnarajah, Girishanthy; Carroll, Charlotte; Priest, Julie; Arondekar, Bhakti; Burstin, Stuart; Levin, Myron

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination rates among United States (US) adults are suboptimal, resulting in morbidity, mortality, and financial burden attributable to potentially vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs). Unadjusted annual incidence proportions of VPDs were estimated for Medicaid and commercially insured adults aged 19–64 years using 2006–2010 claims, along with age/gender-adjusted incidence proportions for 2010. In 2010, 1.6 million Medicaid adults (mean age 34 ± 12 years; 73.4% female) and 33 million commercially insured (mean age 42 ± 13 years; 52.2% female) were included. Age/gender-adjusted incidence proportions (per 100 000) in 2010 among Medicaid vs commercially insured adults for meningococcal disease were 26.2 (95% CI 22.9–29.8) vs 2.0 (1.9–2.2) (P < 0.001); hepatitis B 88.9 (82.6–95.6) vs 17.5 (17.0–17.9) (P < 0.001); pneumococcal disease 98.2 (91.7–105.1) vs 21.1 (20.7–21.6) (P < 0.001); hepatitis A 19.8 (16.9–23.1) vs 4.5 (4.3–4.7) (P < 0.001); mumps 2.1 (1.3–3.3) vs 1.4 (1.3–1.6) (P = 0.14); measles 0.3 (0.1–1.0) vs 0.3 (0.2–0.3) (P = 0.38); herpes zoster (60- to 64-year-olds only) 459 (408–515) vs 473 (466–481) (P = 0.35); varicella (19- to 39-year-olds only) 6.5 (4.8–8.5) vs 8.0 (7.5–8.5) (P = 0.12); influenza 586 (573–598) vs 633 (631–636) (P < 0.001); and pertussis 1.8 (1.1–2.8) vs 3.2 (3.0–3.4) (P < 0.001). Research is needed to fully understand the causes of the disparity of the coded incidence of some VPDs in adult Medicaid population than commercially insured adults in the US. PMID:25424956

  10. Burden of disease from atrial fibrillation in adults from seven countries in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Cubillos, Luz; Haddad, Alexandra; Kuznik, Andreas; Mould-Quevedo, Joaquin

    2014-01-01

    Background While some international studies have published epidemiologic overviews of atrial fibrillation (AF) for the Latin America region, detailed data at the national level are lacking. The aim of this study was to estimate the burden of disease and morbidity associated with AF in adults over 40 years of age in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru, and Venezuela. Methods National health care system databases for each country in the analysis were used to identify cases of AF during 2010 based on ICD-10 codes. Patient comorbidities and treatment patterns in each country were assessed based on available data and extrapolation from relevant published information where local data were incomplete or unavailable. The prevalence of AF in each country was estimated using country-specific, national census data, and assumptions based on a review of the available literature. Results Patients in outpatient or hospital care represented over half of the estimated total cases of AF, of whom around 60% were treated as outpatients. Across the seven countries analyzed, 74.5% of AF cases were adults ≥60 years old. However, with increasing age, the proportion of individuals with AF receiving treatment within the national health care systems decreased overall across all seven countries. The most commonly reported comorbidities associated with AF included arterial hypertension (51%–57%), heart failure (14.5%–30%), diabetes (12%–36.5%), and stroke (3%–12.7%). Conclusion This epidemiologic survey quantifies the scale of the challenge posed by AF to the various national health care systems in Latin America. Overall, ambulatory patients in the national health care systems carry a high risk of developing a stroke, yet a significant proportion of these patients do not receive appropriate anticoagulant therapy. PMID:25214802

  11. In vitro pairing of Echinostoma revolutum (trematoda) metacercariae and adults, and characterization of worm products involved in chemoattraction.

    PubMed

    Fried, B; Tancer, R B; Fleming, S J

    1980-12-01

    In vitro pairing studies were done on chemically excysted metacercariae and on adults of Echinostoma revolutum maintained in vitro in agar-Locke's petri dish cultures at 39 +/- 1 C for up to 24 hr. Whereas newly excysted metacercariae did not pair, both immature and mature adults showed significant pairing. Adult echinostomes confined in dialysis sacs emitted excretory-secretory (EC) products which significantly attracted single echinostome adults in vitro. Only the lipophilic fraction of ES products was found to elicit attraction. Preparative TLC analysis of adult echinostomes produced three major bands as follows: I (phospholipids); II (free sterols); and III (free fatty acids + triglycerides). When tested in vitro, only the free sterol fraction significantly attracted single adult echinostomes. TLC and GLC analyses of free sterols of E. revolutum have indicated that cholesterol is the major free sterol. PMID:7218094

  12. The Co-Morbidity Burden of Children and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kohane, Isaac S.; McMurry, Andrew; Weber, Griffin; MacFadden, Douglas; Rappaport, Leonard; Kunkel, Louis; Bickel, Jonathan; Wattanasin, Nich; Spence, Sarah; Murphy, Shawn; Churchill, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Use electronic health records Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) to assess the comorbidity burden of ASD in children and young adults. Study Design A retrospective prevalence study was performed using a distributed query system across three general hospitals and one pediatric hospital. Over 14,000 individuals under age 35 with ASD were characterized by their co-morbidities and conversely, the prevalence of ASD within these comorbidities was measured. The comorbidity prevalence of the younger (Age<18 years) and older (Age 18–34 years) individuals with ASD was compared. Results 19.44% of ASD patients had epilepsy as compared to 2.19% in the overall hospital population (95% confidence interval for difference in percentages 13.58–14.69%), 2.43% of ASD with schizophrenia vs. 0.24% in the hospital population (95% CI 1.89–2.39%), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) 0.83% vs. 0.54% (95% CI 0.13–0.43%), bowel disorders (without IBD) 11.74% vs. 4.5% (95% CI 5.72–6.68%), CNS/cranial anomalies 12.45% vs. 1.19% (95% CI 9.41–10.38%), diabetes mellitus type I (DM1) 0.79% vs. 0.34% (95% CI 0.3–0.6%), muscular dystrophy 0.47% vs 0.05% (95% CI 0.26–0.49%), sleep disorders 1.12% vs. 0.14% (95% CI 0.79–1.14%). Autoimmune disorders (excluding DM1 and IBD) were not significantly different at 0.67% vs. 0.68% (95% CI −0.14-0.13%). Three of the studied comorbidities increased significantly when comparing ages 0–17 vs 18–34 with p<0.001: Schizophrenia (1.43% vs. 8.76%), diabetes mellitus type I (0.67% vs. 2.08%), IBD (0.68% vs. 1.99%) whereas sleeping disorders, bowel disorders (without IBD) and epilepsy did not change significantly. Conclusions The comorbidities of ASD encompass disease states that are significantly overrepresented in ASD with respect to even the patient populations of tertiary health centers. This burden of comorbidities goes well beyond those routinely managed in developmental medicine centers and requires broad multidisciplinary management

  13. The WORM site: worm.csirc.net

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, T.

    2000-07-01

    The Write One, Run Many (WORM) site (worm.csirc.net) is the on-line home of the WORM language and is hosted by the Criticality Safety Information Resource Center (CSIRC) (www.csirc.net). The purpose of this web site is to create an on-line community for WORM users to gather, share, and archive WORM-related information. WORM is an embedded, functional, programming language designed to facilitate the creation of input decks for computer codes that take standard ASCII text files as input. A functional programming language is one that emphasizes the evaluation of expressions, rather than execution of commands. The simplest and perhaps most common example of a functional language is a spreadsheet such as Microsoft Excel. The spreadsheet user specifies expressions to be evaluated, while the spreadsheet itself determines the commands to execute, as well as the order of execution/evaluation. WORM functions in a similar fashion and, as a result, is very simple to use and easy to learn. WORM improves the efficiency of today's criticality safety analyst by allowing: (1) input decks for parameter studies to be created quickly and easily; (2) calculations and variables to be embedded into any input deck, thus allowing for meaningful parameter specifications; (3) problems to be specified using any combination of units; and (4) complex mathematically defined models to be created. WORM is completely written in Perl. Running on all variants of UNIX, Windows, MS-DOS, MacOS, and many other operating systems, Perl is one of the most portable programming languages available. As such, WORM works on practically any computer platform.

  14. Estimated Human and Economic Burden of Four Major Adult Vaccine-Preventable Diseases in the United States, 2013.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, John M; McGinnis, Justin J; Tan, Litjen; Mercatante, Annette; Fortuna, Joseph

    2015-08-01

    Low uptake of routinely recommended adult immunizations is a public health concern. Using data from the peer-reviewed literature, government disease-surveillance programs, and the US Census, we developed a customizable model to estimate human and economic burden caused by four major adult vaccine-preventable diseases (VPD) in 2013 in the United States, and for each US state individually. To estimate the number of cases for each adult VPD for a given population, we multiplied age-specific incidence rates obtained from the literature by age-specific 2013 Census population data. We then multiplied the estimated number of cases for a given population by age-specific, estimated medical and indirect (non-medical) costs per case. Adult VPDs examined were: (1) influenza, (2) pneumococcal disease (both invasive disease and pneumonia), (3) herpes zoster (shingles), and (4) pertussis (whooping cough). Sensitivity analyses simulated the impact of various epidemiological scenarios on the total estimated economic burden. Estimated US annual cost for the four adult VPDs was $26.5 billion (B) among adults aged 50 years and older, $15.3B (58 %) of which was attributable to those 65 and older. Among adults 50 and older, influenza, pneumococcal disease, herpes zoster, and pertussis made up $16.0B (60 %), $5.1B (19 %), $5.0B (19 %), and $0.4B (2 %) of the cost, respectively. Among those 65 and older, they made up $8.3B (54 %), $3.8B (25 %), $3.0B (20 %), and 0.2B (1 %) of the cost, respectively. Most (80-85 %) pneumococcal costs stemmed from nonbacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia (NPP). Cost attributable to adult VPD in the United States is substantial. Broadening adult immunization efforts beyond influenza only may help reduce the economic burden of adult VPD, and a pneumococcal vaccination effort, primarily focused on reducing NPP, may constitute a logical starting place. Sensitivity analyses revealed that a pandemic influenza season or change in size of the US elderly population

  15. Gummy Worm Measurements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callison, Priscilla L.; Anshutz, Ramona J.; Wright, Emmett L.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a science activity using gummy worms to help primary students develop the mathematical skills of measurement concepts, units of measure, estimation, and graphing needed for science learning. Groups of two begin by estimating the number of gummy worms in their package and identifying the colors they expect to find. Individual worms are…

  16. Validation of the Subjective and Objective Family Burden Interview (SOFBI/ECFOS) in Primary Caregivers to Adults with Intellectual Disabilities Living in the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martorell, A.; Pereda, A.; Salvador-Carulla, L.; Ochoa, S.; Ayuso-Mateos, J. L.

    2007-01-01

    Background: There is little information on the psychometric properties of instruments for assessing family care burden in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). The aim of this study is therefore to analyse the usefulness of the 'Subjective and Objective Family Burden Interview' (SOFBI) in the assessment of principal caregivers in Spain.…

  17. Caregiver Burden among Adults Caring for People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Chandran, Vishnu; Chowta, Nithyananda; Ramapuram, John; Bhaskaran, Unnikrishnan; Achappa, Basavaprabhu; Jose, Hyma

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In India, family caregivers provide bulk of care to People Living With HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Caregiver burden refers to the physical, emotional and financial hardships associated with providing care to a diseased individual. Attending to the needs of PLWHA can place a significant burden on family members. This may adversely affect their Quality of Life (QOL). Aim The main aim of our study was to assess the caregiver burden and QOL among the family members of PLWHA in Southern India. We also determined the impact of caregiver burden on QOL. Materials and Methods This facility based cross-sectional study was carried out at Kasturba Medical College (KMC) Mangalore. The study was conducted over a period of 18 months starting from October 2013. A total of 360 caregivers participated in our study. The data were collected by face-to-face interview. Caregiver burden was assessed using the Zarit Burden scale & WHOQOL-BREF scale was used to assess the QOL of caregivers. The collected data was entered and analysed using SPSS version 11.5. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The mean age of caregivers was 36.09± 10.18 years. Most of the caregivers were females 279 (77.5%). Majority of caregivers 184 (51.1%) belonged to Middle/Lower Middle socioeconomic class (Kuppuswamy class III). Majority of PLWHA 155 (43.1%) had Stage 2 disease. Mean CD4 count of the patients was 405.2± 240 cells/μL. In our study 88(24.4%) caregivers had moderate to severe burden and 36(10%) had very severe burden. Physical domain of QOL showed maximum score of 60.28±13.08, while a minimum score of 51.88 ± 14.20 was seen in social domain. With increase in caregiver burden, the mean QOL scores decreased which was statistically significant. Conclusion Our study highlights the need to counsel the caregivers on how to deal with PLWHA in the family. Family care plays a major role in the general wellbeing of PLWHA. Majority of national HIV programmes all

  18. The Father Christmas worm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, James L.; Sisson, Patricia L.

    1989-01-01

    Given here is an overview analysis of the Father Christmas Worm, a computer worm that was released onto the DECnet Internet three days before Christmas 1988. The purpose behind the worm was to send an electronic mail message to all users on the computer system running the worm. The message was a Christmas greeting and was signed 'Father Christmas'. From the investigation, it was determined that the worm was released from a computer (node number 20597::) at a university in Switzerland. The worm was designed to travel quickly. Estimates are that it was copied to over 6,000 computer nodes. However, it was believed to have executed on only a fraction of those computers. Within ten minutes after it was released, the worm was detected at the Space Physics Analysis Network (SPAN), NASA's largest space and Earth science network. Once the source program was captured, a procedural cure, using the existing functionality of the computer operating systems, was quickly devised and distributed. A combination of existing computer security measures, the quick and accurate procedures devised to stop copies of the worm from executing, and the network itself, were used to rapidly provide the cure. These were the main reasons why the worm executed on such a small percentage of nodes. This overview of the analysis of the events concerning the worm is based on an investigation made by the SPAN Security Team and provides some insight into future security measures that will be taken to handle computer worms and viruses that may hit similar networks.

  19. Prescription Drug Use Among Adults With Chronic Conditions in South Korea: Dual Burden of Health Care Needs and Socioeconomic Vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Jung, Youn; Byeon, Jinok; Chung, Haejoo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the social determinants of prescription drug use among adults with chronic diseases by examining the associations between socioeconomic position and prescription medicine use and perceived burden for pharmaceutical expenditure, using a sample of the Korean population from the 2008 Korea Health Panel, with 4 analytic models. Controlled with health status and the type of health insurance, the probability of using prescription drugs and overall spending on drugs significantly increased with rising income level, while perceived burden for out-of-pocket payment significantly decreased. These results imply that the poor are likely to underuse prescription drugs compared with their wealthier counterparts with the same need for health care, probably due to economic barriers. PMID:26512028

  20. Predictors of Alzheimer's Disease Caregiver Depression and Burden: What Noncaregiving Adults Can Learn from Active Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayslip, Bert, Jr.; Han, GiBaeg; Anderson, Cristina L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined similarities and differences between active caregivers (adult children and spouses whose family member had Alzheimer's disease) and not-as-yet caregiving adults (adult children and spouses whose family members are older, but do not as yet suffer from Alzheimer's disease). The objective was to determine what factors predict…

  1. Informal Support and Burden among Parents of Adults with Intellectual and/or Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Suzanne; Weiss, Jonathan A.; Lunsky, Yona; Ouellette-Kuntz, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    Background: Parents often play a lifelong role in supporting their sons and daughters with intellectual and/or developmental disabilities (IDD). There is a need to better understand parent resources, particularly when the individual with IDD has behaviour problems, as the latter has consistently been linked to parental burden. Methods: The current…

  2. Association between serum vitamin D levels and subclinical coronary atherosclerosis and plaque burden/composition in young adult population

    PubMed Central

    Satilmis, Seckin; Celik, Omer; Biyik, Ismail; Ozturk, Derya; Celik, Kubra Asik; Akın, Fatih; Ayca, Burak; Yalcin, Burce; Dagdelen, Sinan

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests that low 25-OH vitamin D 25(OH)D concentrations may increase the risk of several cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension, peripheral vascular disease, diabetes mellitus, obesity, myocardial infarction, heart failure and cardiovascular mortality. Recent studies suggested a possible relationship between vitamin D deficiency and increased carotid intima-media wall thickness and vascular calcification. We hypothesized that low 25(OH)D may be associated with coronary atherosclerosis and coronary plaque burden and composition, and investigated the relationship between serum vitamin D levels and coronary atherosclerosis, plaque burden or structure, in young adult patients by using dual-source 128x2 slice coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). We included 98 patients with coronary atherosclerosis and 110, age and gender matched, subjects with normal findings on CCTA examinations. Patients with subclinical atherosclerosis had significantly higher serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, hs-CRP, uric acid, HbA1c and creatinine levels and lower serum 25(OH)D levels in comparison with controls. There was no significant correlation between 25(OH)D and plaque morphology. There was also a positive relationship between 25(OH)D and plaque burden of coronary atherosclerosis. In multivariate analysis, coronary atherosclerosis was associated high hs-CRP (adjusted OR: 2.832), uric acid (adjusted OR: 3.671) and low 25(OH)D (adjusted OR: 0.689). Low levels of 25(OH)D were associated with coronary atherosclerosis and plaque burden, but there was no significant correlation between 25(OH)D and plaque morphology. PMID:25725147

  3. MAINE MARINE WORM HABITAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    WORM provides a generalized representation at 1:24,000 scale of commercially harvested marine worm habitat in Maine, based on Maine Department of Marine Resources data from 1970's. Original maps were created by MDMR and published by USF&WS as part of the ""&quo...

  4. Contribution of Chronic Conditions to the Disability Burden across Smoking Categories in Middle-Aged Adults, Belgium

    PubMed Central

    Yokota, Renata Tiene de Carvalho; Nusselder, Wilma Johanna; Robine, Jean-Marie; Tafforeau, Jean; Deboosere, Patrick; Van Oyen, Herman

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Smoking is considered the single most important preventable cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, contributing to increased incidence and severity of disabling conditions. The aim of this study was to assess the contribution of chronic conditions to the disability burden across smoking categories in middle-aged adults in Belgium. Methods Data from 10,224 individuals aged 40 to 60 years who participated in the 1997, 2001, 2004, or 2008 Health Interview Surveys in Belgium were used. Smoking status was defined as never, former (cessation ≥2 years), former (cessation <2 years), occasional light (<20 cigarettes/day), daily light, and daily heavy (≥20 cigarettes/day). To attribute disability to chronic conditions, binomial additive hazards models were fitted separately for each smoking category adjusted for gender, except for former (cessation <2 years) and occasional light smokers due to the small sample size. Results An increasing trend in the disability prevalence was observed across smoking categories in men (never = 4.8%, former (cessation ≥2 years) = 5.8%, daily light = 7.8%, daily heavy = 10.7%) and women (never = 7.6%, former (cessation ≥2 years) = 8.0%, daily light = 10.2%, daily heavy = 12.0%). Musculoskeletal conditions showed a substantial contribution to the disability burden in men and women across all smoking categories. Other important contributors were depression and cardiovascular diseases in never smokers; depression, chronic respiratory diseases, and diabetes in former smokers (cessation ≥2 years); chronic respiratory diseases, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases in daily light smokers; cardiovascular diseases and chronic respiratory diseases in men and depression and diabetes in women daily heavy smokers. Conclusions Beyond the well-known effect of smoking on mortality, our findings showed an increasing trend of the disability prevalence and different contributors to the disability burden across smoking categories. This

  5. Outstanding AFCPE[R] Conference Paper: Debt Burden of Young Adults in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jinhee; Chatterjee, Swarn; Kim, Jung Eun

    2012-01-01

    Factors associated with the borrowing behavior of young adults who are transitioning from financial dependence to financial independence were identified. Data used were from the 2009 Transition to Adulthood and its parental companion data set, Panel Studies of Income Dynamics. Results indicate that age, gender, race, and work status are associated…

  6. The African eye worm: a case report and review.

    PubMed

    Ali, Sadia; Fisher, Melanie; Juckett, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    Loiasis, caused by the filarial nematode Loa loa, is often asymptomatic but frequently manifests as episodic angioedema and periocular migration of adult worms. Hence also known as the eye worm.(1) It is rarely encountered in the United States among travelers and immigrants. This report describes a case of loiasis in a Cameroonian student seen at a US university clinic. PMID:18217870

  7. Burden of Oral Disease Among Older Adults and Implications for Public Health Priorities

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Judith A.; Brunson, Diane; Griffin, Paul M.; Bailey, William D.

    2012-01-01

    Dental disease is largely preventable. Many older adults, however, experience poor oral health. National data for older adults show racial/ethnic and income disparities in untreated dental disease and oral health–related quality of life. Persons reporting poor versus good health also report lower oral health–related quality of life. On the basis of these findings, suggested public health priorities include better integrating oral health into medical care, implementing community programs to promote healthy behaviors and improve access to preventive services, developing a comprehensive strategy to address the oral health needs of the homebound and long-term-care residents, and assessing the feasibility of ensuring a safety net that covers preventive and basic restorative services to eliminate pain and infection. PMID:22390504

  8. Adolescent Alcohol Exposure: Burden of Epigenetic Reprogramming, Synaptic Remodeling, and Adult Psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Kyzar, Evan J; Floreani, Christina; Teppen, Tara L; Pandey, Subhash C

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence represents a crucial phase of synaptic maturation characterized by molecular changes in the developing brain that shape normal behavioral patterns. Epigenetic mechanisms play an important role in these neuromaturation processes. Perturbations of normal epigenetic programming during adolescence by ethanol can disrupt these molecular events, leading to synaptic remodeling and abnormal adult behaviors. Repeated exposure to binge levels of alcohol increases the risk for alcohol use disorder (AUD) and comorbid psychopathology including anxiety in adulthood. Recent studies in the field clearly suggest that adolescent alcohol exposure causes widespread and persistent changes in epigenetic, neurotrophic, and neuroimmune pathways in the brain. These changes are manifested by altered synaptic remodeling and neurogenesis in key brain regions leading to adult psychopathology such as anxiety and alcoholism. This review details the molecular mechanisms underlying adolescent alcohol exposure-induced changes in synaptic plasticity and the development of alcohol addiction-related phenotypes in adulthood. PMID:27303256

  9. Adolescent Alcohol Exposure: Burden of Epigenetic Reprogramming, Synaptic Remodeling, and Adult Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Kyzar, Evan J.; Floreani, Christina; Teppen, Tara L.; Pandey, Subhash C.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence represents a crucial phase of synaptic maturation characterized by molecular changes in the developing brain that shape normal behavioral patterns. Epigenetic mechanisms play an important role in these neuromaturation processes. Perturbations of normal epigenetic programming during adolescence by ethanol can disrupt these molecular events, leading to synaptic remodeling and abnormal adult behaviors. Repeated exposure to binge levels of alcohol increases the risk for alcohol use disorder (AUD) and comorbid psychopathology including anxiety in adulthood. Recent studies in the field clearly suggest that adolescent alcohol exposure causes widespread and persistent changes in epigenetic, neurotrophic, and neuroimmune pathways in the brain. These changes are manifested by altered synaptic remodeling and neurogenesis in key brain regions leading to adult psychopathology such as anxiety and alcoholism. This review details the molecular mechanisms underlying adolescent alcohol exposure-induced changes in synaptic plasticity and the development of alcohol addiction-related phenotypes in adulthood. PMID:27303256

  10. Celebrate Worm Week!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crocker, Betty; Garrett, Sandra; Trammell, Laura Z.

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on an extended learning experience with worms as the main topic in which students collect and organize information and choose an experimental question. Based on the constructivist theory of learning. Contains 17 references. (DDR)

  11. Physical and Psychological Burden of Chronic Kidney Disease among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    McClellan, William M.; Abramson, Jerome; Newsome, Britt; Temple, Ella; Wadley, Virginia G.; Audhya, Paul; McClure, Leslie A.; Howard, Virginia J.; Warnock, David G.; Kimmel, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of the study is to determine if functional status and quality of life (QoL) vary with glomerular filtration rate (GFR) among older adults. Methods We studied adults aged 45 years and older participating in the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort study. Data included demographic and health information, serum creatinine and hemoglobin, the 4-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D-4), the 4-item Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-4), reported health status and inactivity and the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-12 (SF-12) QoL scores. Results CKD (GFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2) was present in 11.6% of the subjects. As GFR declined, the SF-12 physical component score, adjusted for other participant attributes, declined from 38.9 to 35.9 (p = 0.0001). After adjustment for other risk factors, poorer personal health scores (p < 0.0001) and decreased physical activity (p < 0.0001) were reported as GFR declined. In contrast, after adjusting for other participant characteristics, depression scores and stress scores and the mental component score of the SF-12 were not associated with kidney function. Conclusion Older individuals with CKD in the US population experience an increased prevalence of impaired QoL that cannot be fully explained by other individual characteristics. PMID:20164652

  12. Worms, Worms, and Even More Worms: A Vermicomposting Guide for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Integrated Waste Management Board, Sacramento.

    This guide is designed to help teachers gain a better understanding of how to get a worm vermicomposting system started. It provides reference curricula materials for using worms in the classroom. Chapters include: (1) "Why Worm Vermicomposting;" (2) "Basics of Vermicomposting;" (3) "Worm Facts;" (4) "Classroom Activities;" (5) "Lab Activities;"…

  13. Burden of Hospital Acquired Infections and Antimicrobial Use in Vietnamese Adult Intensive Care Units

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Mattias; Nadjm, Behzad; Dinh, Quynh-Dao; Nilsson, Lennart E.; Rydell, Ulf; Le, Tuyet Thi Diem; Trinh, Son Hong; Pham, Hung Minh; Tran, Cang Thanh; Doan, Hanh Thi Hong; Tran, Nguyen Thua; Le, Nhan Duc; Huynh, Nhuan Van; Tran, Thao Phuong; Tran, Bao Duc; Nguyen, Son Truong; Pham, Thao Thi Ngoc; Dang, Tam Quang; Nguyen, Chau Van Vinh; Lam, Yen Minh; Thwaites, Guy; Van Nguyen, Kinh; Hanberger, Hakan

    2016-01-01

    Background Vietnam is a lower middle-income country with no national surveillance system for hospital-acquired infections (HAIs). We assessed the prevalence of hospital-acquired infections and antimicrobial use in adult intensive care units (ICUs) across Vietnam. Methods Monthly repeated point prevalence surveys were systematically conducted to assess HAI prevalence and antimicrobial use in 15 adult ICUs across Vietnam. Adults admitted to participating ICUs before 08:00 a.m. on the survey day were included. Results Among 3287 patients enrolled, the HAI prevalence was 29.5% (965/3266 patients, 21 missing). Pneumonia accounted for 79.4% (804/1012) of HAIs Most HAIs (84.5% [855/1012]) were acquired in the survey hospital with 42.5% (363/855) acquired prior to ICU admission and 57.5% (492/855) developed during ICU admission. In multivariate analysis, the strongest risk factors for HAI acquired in ICU were: intubation (OR 2.76), urinary catheter (OR 2.12), no involvement of a family member in patient care (OR 1.94), and surgery after admission (OR 1.66). 726 bacterial isolates were cultured from 622/1012 HAIs, most frequently Acinetobacter baumannii (177/726 [24.4%]), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (100/726 [13.8%]), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (84/726 [11.6%]), with carbapenem resistance rates of 89.2%, 55.7%, and 14.9% respectively. Antimicrobials were prescribed for 84.8% (2787/3287) patients, with 73.7% of patients receiving two or more. The most common antimicrobial groups were third generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, and carbapenems (20.1%, 19.4%, and 14.1% of total antimicrobials, respectively). Conclusion A high prevalence of HAIs was observed, mainly caused by Gram-negative bacteria with high carbapenem resistance rates. This in combination with a high rate of antimicrobial use illustrates the urgent need to improve rational antimicrobial use and infection control efforts. PMID:26824228

  14. A combined proteomic and immunologic approach for the analysis of Schistosoma mansoni cercariae and adult worm protein extracts and the detection of one of the vaccine candidates, Sm28GST, from a Venezuelan parasite isolate.

    PubMed

    Losada, Sandra; Sabatier, Laurence; Hammann, Philippe; Guillier, Christelle; Matos, César; Bermúdez, Henry; Lorenzo, María Angelita; Noya, Oscar

    2011-06-01

    Understanding the mode of Schistosoma mansoni larval invasion and the mechanism of immune evasion utilized by larvae and adult worms is essential for a rational development of vaccines or drugs to prevent or cure the disease. This parasite has a very complex molecular organization in all parasite stages, and identifying the major parasite proteins would give clues to schistosome metabolism and to the interaction of the parasite with the host immune system. Our goal was the evaluation of the protein parasite repertoire using a proteomic approach, and the characterization of protein extracts from two different parasite stages of a Venezuelan isolate, such as cercariae and adult worms, previously performed by other authors in some other strains. A comparison among authors was made. Besides, we aimed to identify different isoforms of one of the vaccine candidates, the gluthation-S-transferase protein (Sm28GST), by 2D SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry, and to achieve its immunologic detection using sera from rabbits immunized with synthetic peptides derived from the Sm28GST protein. These techniques allowed the identification of some of the target molecules of the protective immune response that are being evaluated as potential members of a multi-component and multi-stage anti-S. mansoni vaccine and to clarify if the selected peptides induce antibodies that are able to recognize different isoforms of the Sm28GST. PMID:21866785

  15. Blessing or burden? The role of appraisal for family rituals and flourishing among LGBT adults.

    PubMed

    Hanke, Katja; van Egmond, Marieke Christina; Crespo, Carla; Boer, Diana

    2016-08-01

    Despite recent trends toward greater societal acceptance of LGBT individuals in many Western countries, the elevated chances of being confronted by rejection and hostility or fear are still likely to lead to detrimental psychological health outcomes for this population. The current study assesses how the family can be a resource for psychological well-being. Based on self-determination theory and the family ritual literature, we hypothesize that the various family rituals enhance the chances that the human need for relatedness will be satisfied and positively contribute to the degree to which the person flourishes in life. Second, we test which factors mediate this pathway. For this purpose, a 3-factorial scale (Family Ritual Appraisal Scale) that assesses the appraisal with which LGBT adults evaluate the participation in family rituals was developed. In a multiple-mediation analysis, 3 factors (inclusion of self, inclusion of partner, and sense of obligation) were found to mediate significantly the degree by which family rituals lead to higher levels of relatedness in the family and thereby to higher levels of flourishing. Together, the results suggest that it is meaningful to assess the ways in which family rituals are conducted and experienced by individual family members on the effects of family rituals on psychological well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27159796

  16. Increasing wrist fracture rates in children may have major implications for future adult fracture burden

    PubMed Central

    Jerrhag, Daniel; Englund, Martin; Petersson, Ingmar; Lempesis, Vasileios; Landin, Lennart; Karlsson, Magnus K; Rosengren, Bjorn E

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Childhood fractures are associated with lower peak bone mass (a determinant of osteoporosis in old age) and higher adult fracture risk. By examining time trends in childhood fracture epidemiology, it may be possible to estimate the vector of fragility fracture risk in the future. Patients and methods By using official inpatient and outpatient data from the county of Skåne in Sweden, 1999–2010, we ascertained distal forearm fractures in children aged ≤ 16 years and estimated overall and age- and sex-specific rates and time trends (over 2.8 million patient years) and compared the results to earlier estimations in the same region from 1950 onwards. Results During the period 1999–2010, the distal forearm fracture rate was 634 per 105 patient years (750 in boys and 512 in girls). This was 50% higher than in the 1950s with a different age-rate distribution (p < 0.001) that was most evident during puberty. Also, within the period 1999–2010, there were increasing fracture rates per 105 and year (boys +2.0% (95% CI: 1.5–2.6), girls +2.4% (95% CI: 1.7–3.1)). Interpretation The distal forearm fracture rate in children is currently 50% higher than in the 1950s, and it still appears to be increasing. If this higher fracture risk follows the children into old age, numbers of fragility fractures may increase sharply—as an upturn in life expectancy has also been predicted. The origin of the increase remains unknown, but it may be associated with a more sedentary lifestyle or with changes in risk behavior. PMID:26905618

  17. Increasing wrist fracture rates in children may have major implications for future adult fracture burden.

    PubMed

    Jerrhag, Daniel; Englund, Martin; Petersson, Ingmar; Lempesis, Vasileios; Landin, Lennart; Karlsson, Magnus K; Rosengren, Bjorn E

    2016-06-01

    Background and purpose - Childhood fractures are associated with lower peak bone mass (a determinant of osteoporosis in old age) and higher adult fracture risk. By examining time trends in childhood fracture epidemiology, it may be possible to estimate the vector of fragility fracture risk in the future. Patients and methods - By using official inpatient and outpatient data from the county of Skåne in Sweden, 1999-2010, we ascertained distal forearm fractures in children aged ≤ 16 years and estimated overall and age- and sex-specific rates and time trends (over 2.8 million patient years) and compared the results to earlier estimations in the same region from 1950 onwards. Results - During the period 1999-2010, the distal forearm fracture rate was 634 per 10(5) patient years (750 in boys and 512 in girls). This was 50% higher than in the 1950s with a different age-rate distribution (p < 0.001) that was most evident during puberty. Also, within the period 1999-2010, there were increasing fracture rates per 10(5) and year (boys +2.0% (95% CI: 1.5-2.6), girls +2.4% (95% CI: 1.7-3.1)). Interpretation - The distal forearm fracture rate in children is currently 50% higher than in the 1950s, and it still appears to be increasing. If this higher fracture risk follows the children into old age, numbers of fragility fractures may increase sharply-as an upturn in life expectancy has also been predicted. The origin of the increase remains unknown, but it may be associated with a more sedentary lifestyle or with changes in risk behavior. PMID:26905618

  18. Concept, Characteristics and Defending Mechanism of Worms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yong; Luo, Jiaqing; Xiao, Bin; Wei, Guiyi

    Worms are a common phenomenon in today's Internet and cause tens of billions of dollars in damages to businesses around the world each year. This article first presents various concepts related to worms, and then classifies the existing worms into four types- Internet worms, P2P worms, email worms and IM (Instant Messaging) worms, based on the space in which a worm finds a victim target. The Internet worm is the focus of this article. We identify the characteristics of Internet worms in terms of their target finding strategy, propagation method and anti-detection capability. Then, we explore state-of-the-art worm detection and worm containment schemes. This article also briefly presents the characteristics, defense methods and related research work of P2P worms, email worms and IM worms. Nowadays, defense against worms remains largely an open problem. In the end of this article, we outline some future directions on the worm research.

  19. Knee pain and osteoarthritis in older adults: a review of community burden and current use of primary health care

    PubMed Central

    Peat, G; McCarney, R; Croft, P

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Osteoarthritis is the single most common cause of disability in older adults, and most patients with the condition will be managed in the community and primary care.
AIM—To discuss case definition of knee osteoarthritis for primary care and to summarise the burden of the condition in the community and related use of primary health care in the United Kingdom.
DESIGN—Narrative review.
METHOD—A literature search identified studies of incidence and prevalence of knee pain, disability, and radiographic osteoarthritis in the general population, and data related to primary care consultations. Findings from UK studies were summarised with reference to European and international studies.
RESULTS—During a one year period 25% of people over 55 years have a persistent episode of knee pain, of whom about one in six in the UK and the Netherlands consult their general practitioner about it in the same time period. The prevalence of painful disabling knee osteoarthritis in people over 55 years is 10%, of whom one quarter are severely disabled.
CONCLUSION—Knee osteoarthritis sufficiently severe to consider joint replacement represents a minority of all knee pain and disability suffered by older people. Healthcare provision in primary care needs to focus on this broader group to impact on community levels of pain and disability.

 PMID:11156538

  20. A Can of Sea Worms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinn, Donald J.

    1977-01-01

    A comprehensive discussion of the free-living worms that inhabit the beaches and subtidal bottoms of the Cape Cod shoreline is presented. Methods for the location, collection, preservation, and identification of sea worms are identified. (BT)

  1. Welcome to Worm Central

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madison, Lisa; Rydant, A. L.; Jobin, Raymond A.; Sterling, Cindy

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a vermicomposting program at Epping Elementary School in New Hampshire. The "Feed It to the Worms: A Vermicomposting Geographic Curriculum," developed by the New Hampshire Geographic Alliance and led by fourth grade teacher, Lisa Madison, fits perfectly into the school's ongoing Artist-in-Residence program, where students…

  2. "Mighty Worm" Piezoelectric Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bamford, Robert M.; Wada, Ben K.; Moore, Donald M.

    1994-01-01

    "Mighty Worm" piezoelectric actuator used as adjustable-length structural member, active vibrator or vibration suppressor, and acts as simple (fixed-length) structural member when inactive. Load force not applied to piezoelectric element in simple-structural-member mode. Piezoelectric element removed from load path when not in use.

  3. Studies on nodules and adult Onchocerca volvulus during a nodulectomy trial in hyperendemic villages in Liberia and Upper Volta. II. Comparison of the macrofilaria population in adult nodule carriers.

    PubMed

    Albiez, E J; Büttner, D W; Schulz-Key, H

    1984-09-01

    In the Liberian rain-forest and the savanna of Upper Volta 189 adult nodule carriers were operated on. From 2231 extirpated nodules 3327 male and 5713 female macrofilariae were isolated. About 98% of the male worms and 88% of the female worms were found alive. The sex ratio of the live male and female worms was 1:1.5 in Liberia and 1:1.6 in Upper Volta. Less than 1% of all live macrofilariae were immature in both countries. 22% of the live male worms in Liberia were regarded as old. The percentage of old male and female worms in Upper Volta and that of the old female worms in Liberia were similar (5-7%). The portion of old worms was independent of the age of the patients in Liberia. Dead worms were found in 66% of the Liberians and in 85% of the Voltaics. The percentage of patients with dead worms increased with the age. About 0.5% of all male and 8% of all female worms were calcified. In Liberia the percentage of calcified worms increased with the age of the patients. In both countries the highest number of live and dead worms were found on the pelvic girdle. On the thorax many more macrofilariae were found in Upper Volta than in Liberia. This may contribute to the severe eye lesions in this savanna area. The presented findings provide some basic information for the planning and performance of trials with macrofilaricidal drugs in hyperendemic areas of West Africa. However, the striking differences between individual worm burdens have to be considered. PMID:6541822

  4. Pill Burden Influences the Association Between Time-Based Prospective Memory and Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence in Younger But Not Older HIV-Infected Adults.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, David P; Weber, Erica; Casaletto, Kaitlin B; Avci, Gunes; Woods, Steven Paul

    2016-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) is associated with antiretroviral (ARV) adherence in HIV, but little is known about how pill burden and age might affect this association. One hundred seventeen older (≥50 years) and 82 younger (<50 years) HIV-infected adults were administered a measure of PM in the laboratory and subsequently were monitored for ARV adherence for 30 days using the Medication Event Monitoring System. In the older group, better time-based PM performance was associated with higher likelihood of adherence, irrespective of pill burden. Within the younger sample, time-based PM was positively related to adherence only in participants with lower pill burdens. Younger HIV-infected individuals with higher pill burdens may overcome the normal effects of time-based PM on adherence through compensatory medication-taking strategies, whereas suboptimal use of these strategies by younger HIV-infected individuals with lower pill burdens may heighten their risk of ARV nonadherence secondary to deficits in time-based PM. PMID:27160771

  5. Galactic worms. I - Catalog of worm candidates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koo, Bon-Chul; Heiles, Carl; Reach, William T.

    1992-01-01

    A catalog of candidates for the Galactic worms that are possibly the walls surrounding the superbubbles is compiled; 118 isolated structures that appear both in H I and in IR (60 and 100 microns). Fifty-two are possibly associated with H II regions. It is found that the 100-micron emissivity increases systematically toward the Galactic interior, which is consistent with the increase of the general interstellar radiation field. The 100-micron emissivity of the structures associated with the H II regions is larger than that of the structures without associated H II regions. The 60-100-micron ratio is large, 0.28 +/- 0.03, which may indicate that the grains associated with the atomic gas have a relatively large population of small grains. Thirty-five structures appear in the 408-MHz continuum. The IR and the radio continuum properties suggest that the 408-MHz continuum emission in those structures is very likely thermal. The implications of these results on the ionization of gas far from the Galactic plane are discussed.

  6. Preparation of Samples for Single-Worm Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Yemini, Eviatar; Kerr, Rex A.; Schafer, William R.

    2016-01-01

    Neurobiological research in genetically tractable organisms relies heavily on robust assays for behavioral phenotypes. The simple body plan of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans makes it particularly amenable to the use of automated microscopy and image analysis to describe behavioral patterns quantitatively. This protocol first describes the preparation and use of media for growing and maintaining worms for tracking. The second part of the protocol describes how to prepare a single young adult worm for recording during video analysis. Although the protocol was developed for use in a single-worm tracker, it addresses factors important for the generation of reproducible, standardized images in all systems. PMID:22135667

  7. The design of worm gear sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Razzaghi, Andrea I.

    1987-01-01

    A method is presented for designing worm gear sets to meet torque multiplication requirements. First, the fundamentals of worm gear design are discussed, covering worm gear set nomenclature, kinematics and proportions, force analysis, and stress analysis. Then, a suggested design method is discussed, explaining how to take a worm gear set application, and specify a complete worm gear set design. The discussions are limited to cylindrical worm gear sets that have a 90 deg shaft angle between the worm and the mating gear.

  8. Burden of disease in adults admitted to hospital in a rural region of coastal Kenya: an analysis of data from linked clinical and demographic surveillance systems

    PubMed Central

    Etyang, Anthony O; Munge, Kenneth; Bunyasi, Erick W; Matata, Lena; Ndila, Carolyne; Kapesa, Sailoki; Owiti, Maureen; Khandwalla, Iqbal; Brent, Andrew J; Tsofa, Benjamin; Kabibu, Pamela; Morpeth, Susan; Bauni, Evasius; Otiende, Mark; Ojal, John; Ayieko, Philip; Knoll, Maria D; Smeeth, Liam; Williams, Thomas N; Griffiths, Ulla K; Scott, J Anthony G

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Estimates of the burden of disease in adults in sub-Saharan Africa largely rely on models of sparse data. We aimed to measure the burden of disease in adults living in a rural area of coastal Kenya with use of linked clinical and demographic surveillance data. Methods We used data from 18 712 adults admitted to Kilifi District Hospital (Kilifi, Kenya) between Jan 1, 2007, and Dec 31, 2012, linked to 790 635 person-years of observation within the Kilifi Health and Demographic Surveillance System, to establish the rates and major causes of admission to hospital. These data were also used to model disease-specific disability-adjusted life-years lost in the population. We used geographical mapping software to calculate admission rates stratified by distance from the hospital. Findings The main causes of admission to hospital in women living within 5 km of the hospital were infectious and parasitic diseases (303 per 100 000 person-years of observation), pregnancy-related disorders (239 per 100 000 person-years of observation), and circulatory illnesses (105 per 100 000 person-years of observation). Leading causes of hospital admission in men living within 5 km of the hospital were infectious and parasitic diseases (169 per 100 000 person-years of observation), injuries (135 per 100 000 person-years of observation), and digestive system disorders (112 per 100 000 person-years of observation). HIV-related diseases were the leading cause of disability-adjusted life-years lost (2050 per 100 000 person-years of observation), followed by non-communicable diseases (741 per 100 000 person-years of observation). For every 5 km increase in distance from the hospital, all-cause admission rates decreased by 11% (95% CI 7–14) in men and 20% (17–23) in women. The magnitude of this decline was highest for endocrine disorders in women (35%; 95% CI 22–46) and neoplasms in men (30%; 9–45). Interpretation Adults in rural Kenya face a combined

  9. Worm Gear With Hydrostatic Engagement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaiko, Lev I.

    1994-01-01

    In proposed worm-gear transmission, oil pumped at high pressure through meshes between teeth of gear and worm coil. Pressure in oil separates meshing surfaces slightly, and oil reduces friction between surfaces. Conceived for use in drive train between gas-turbine engine and rotor of helicopter. Useful in other applications in which weight critical. Test apparatus simulates and measures some loading conditions of proposed worm gear with hydrostatic engagement.

  10. The Growing Costs and Burden of Family Caregiving of Older Adults: A Review of Paid Sick Leave and Family Leave Policies.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mei-Lan

    2016-06-01

    Many family caregivers of older adults suffer from a high burden of care and struggle with the balance of jobs and caregiving tasks. However, the United States is the only developed country without paid sick leave policies for all workers and their families. The purpose of this article is to review the federal Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) and empirical studies about paid sick policy, propose policy recommendations, and provide a starting point for future research. The result has shown that the FMLA only applies to certain employees and the provided leave is unpaid under the act. Working women, Latinos, low-wage workers, and less-educated employees are less likely to access paid sick leave and family leave. Obviously, social injustice exists in the FMLA and paid sick leave policies. This article proposes that the Family and Medical Leave Act coverage should be expanded to protect all workers, especially for primary family caregivers of older adults, regardless of family relationships. Also, paid sick and family leave laws should be passed, and requirements to contribute to a family-friendly workplace added to relieve the growing burden of family caregiving of older adults. Policy recommendations including the exemplar of the San Francisco Paid Sick Leave Ordinance, and suggestions for more comprehensive policies are proposed for federal, state, or/and city legislation. PMID:25335873

  11. The internet worm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1989-01-01

    In November 1988 a worm program invaded several thousand UNIX-operated Sun workstations and VAX computers attached to the Research Internet, seriously disrupting service for several days but damaging no files. An analysis of the work's decompiled code revealed a battery of attacks by a knowledgeable insider, and demonstrated a number of security weaknesses. The attack occurred in an open network, and little can be inferred about the vulnerabilities of closed networks used for critical operations. The attack showed that passwork protection procedures need review and strengthening. It showed that sets of mutually trusting computers need to be carefully controlled. Sharp public reaction crystalized into a demand for user awareness and accountability in a networked world.

  12. Immunosuppressive PAS-1 is an excretory/secretory protein released by larval and adult worms of the ascarid nematode Ascaris suum.

    PubMed

    Antunes, M F P; Titz, T O; Batista, I F C; Marques-Porto, R; Oliveira, C F; Alves de Araujo, C A; Macedo-Soares, M F

    2015-05-01

    Helminths use several strategies to evade and/or modify the host immune response, including suppression or inactivation of the host antigen-specific response. Several helminth immunomodulatory molecules have been identified. Our studies have focused on immunosuppression induced by the roundworm Ascaris suum and an A. suum-derived protein named protein 1 from A. suum (PAS-1). Here we assessed whether PAS-1 is an excretory/secretory (E/S) protein and whether it can suppress lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation. Larvae from infective eggs were cultured in unsupplemented Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium (DMEM) for 2 weeks. PAS-1 was then measured in the culture supernatants and in adult A. suum body fluid at different time points by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with the monoclonal antibody MAIP-1. Secreted PAS-1 was detected in both larval culture supernatant and adult body fluid. It suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced leucocyte migration and pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and stimulated interleukin (IL)-10 secretion, indicating that larval and adult secreted PAS-1 suppresses inflammation in this model. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory activity of PAS-1 was abolished by treatment with MAIP-1, a PAS-1-specific monoclonal antibody, confirming the crucial role of PAS-1 in suppressing LPS-induced inflammation. These findings demonstrate that PAS-1 is an E/S protein with anti-inflammatory properties likely to be attributable to IL-10 production. PMID:24703095

  13. Burden of Common Multiple-Morbidity Constellations on Out-of-Pocket Medical Expenditures among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Kim, Hyungsoo; Edwards, William; Fleming, Steven T.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: On average, adults aged 60 years or older have 2.2 chronic diseases, contributing to the over 60 million Americans with multiple morbidities. We aimed to understand the financial implications of the most frequent multiple morbidities among older adults. Design and Methods: We analyzed Health and Retirement Study data, determining…

  14. Adult tick burdens and habitat use of sympatric wild and domestic ungulates in a mixed ranch in Zimbabwe: no evidence of a direct relationship.

    PubMed

    De Garine-Wichatitsky, M

    2002-10-01

    Ticks do not usually infest sympatric hosts species according to their availability in a given environment, and it has been suggested that habitat use by hosts is a major determinant of tick burdens. The knowledge of such infestation patterns and their relationship with host habitat use is important for the control of the vectors of some major stock diseases in Africa, particularly in the context of mixed game/cattle ranching. In a ranch of Zimbabwe, we monitored the number of adult ticks found on cattle and wild ungulates. Tick burdens were measured weekly during one year on 12 heifers of an experimental herd (no acaricide used), and on wild ungulates occasionally shot for meat. Adult ticks were not evenly distributed among wild hosts, and infestation patterns corresponded to observations made by several authors in similar conditions. However, these infestation patterns could not be related to habitat use by ungulates, which had been previously monitored by road transect at the scale of the ranch, as these authors found a high niche overlap and no habitat segregation between ungulate species. In an attempt to relate habitat use by Brahman and Simmental heifers with the number of adult ticks collected during one day of grazing, we followed the heifers and recorded their position and activity (one or two days per week; each recording session was 7 h 30 min on average, for a total of 940 hours of survey). No correlation was found between the number of ticks collected and the distance (or time spent) traveled in each vegetation type or the number of grooming episodes. The possible role of other behavioral and physiological parameters is discussed, and the results are compared with those found for other tick-host associations. PMID:12381610

  15. The worm that lived

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hwei-yen; Maklakov, Alexei A

    2013-01-01

    Organisms age because of the “selection shadow”—the decline of the force of natural selection with age. Seemingly straightforward corollary of this theory is the Medawar-Williams prediction, which maintains that increased extrinsic (non-aging) mortality will result in the evolution of accelerated aging and decreased longevity. Despite its centrality to modern thinking about the ultimate causes of aging, this prediction ignores the fact that mortality is often a non-random process depending on individual condition. Increased condition-dependent mortality inescapably results in increased selection for resistance against the agent of mortality. Provided that resistance to various stressors is commonly associated with increased longevity, the evolutionary outcome is no longer certain. We recently documented this experimentally by showing that populations of Caenorhabditis remanei evolved to live shorter under high extrinsic mortality, but only when mortality was applied haphazardly. On the contrary, when extrinsic mortality was caused by heat-shock, populations experiencing the same rate of increased mortality evolved greater longevities, notwithstanding increased “selection shadow.” Intriguingly, stress-resistant and long-lived worms were also more fecund. We discuss these results in the light of recent theoretical developments, such as condition-environment interactions and hyperfunction theory of aging. PMID:24778930

  16. Zoology: War of the Worms.

    PubMed

    Telford, Maximilian J; Copley, Richard R

    2016-04-25

    The phylogenetic affinities of Xenacoelomorpha - the phylum comprising Xenoturbella bocki and acoelomorph worms - are debated. Two recent studies conclude they represent the earliest branching bilaterally symmetrical animals, but additional tests may be needed to confirm this notion. PMID:27115693

  17. Ruminal paramphistomosis in cattle from northeastern Algeria: prevalence, parasite burdens and species identification

    PubMed Central

    Titi, Amal; Mekroud, Abdeslam; Chibat, Mohamed el Hadi; Boucheikhchoukh, Mehdi; Zein-Eddine, Rima; Djuikwo-Teukeng, Félicité F.; Vignoles, Philippe; Rondelaud, Daniel; Dreyfuss, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Slaughterhouse samples were analysed over a two-year period (September 2010–August 2012) in Jijel (northeastern Algeria) in order to determine seasonal variations in the prevalence and intensity of bovine paramphistomosis in a Mediterranean climate and identify paramphistome species using molecular biology. In spring and summer, significantly higher prevalences and lower parasite burdens were noted in bull calves, thus indicating an effect of season on these parameters. In contrast, the differences among seasonal prevalences or among seasonal parasite burdens were not significant in the case of old cows. Eleven adult worms from the slaughterhouses of Jijel and three neighbouring departments (Constantine, El Tarf and Setif) were analysed using molecular markers for species identification. Two different species, Calicophoron daubneyi and C. microbothrium, were found. The presence of these two paramphistomids raises the question of their respective frequency in the definitive host and local intermediate hosts. PMID:25279553

  18. The Wonder of Worms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Cynthia; Landry, Melinda

    2013-01-01

    Kindergarten students have an amazing capacity for wonder and inquisitiveness--two important characteristics for future scientists. Much of what young students "know" about the natural world stems from their daily interactions with peers, adults, the outdoors, and the media. What can be especially challenging to uncover and redirect are…

  19. Pattern of blood pressure distribution and prevalence of hypertension and prehypertension among adults in Northern Ethiopia: disclosing the hidden burden

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hypertension is the 3rd cause of death accounting for one in eight deaths worldwide. Hypertension was thought to be rare in Africa, but it is now recognized as one of the most important cerebrovascular diseases contributing to about 40% of these diseases in the continent. The aims of this study were to describe the pattern of blood pressure distribution among adults, and determine prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension among adults in Northern Ethiopia. Method The study was done on a community-based sample of 1183 adults of 697 (58.8%) urban and 486 (41.1%) rural residents using statistical multistage sampling procedures. The study was based on the recent WHO and JNC-7 classification of blood pressure. Multi-item structured questionnaires were also developed to elicit additional information on the subjects. Results The overall prevalence of hypertension and prehypertension in the study population was 18.1% and 37.2%, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension positively correlated with body mass index and age in both urban and rural residents (P = 0.001). Sex and age adjusted mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) was statistically higher in urban than in rural population (P = 0.001). Conclusion Hypertension was found to have high prevalence in the study region. However, people’s awareness and control of hypertension was found to be very poor. Lack of a clear hypertension prevention guidelines and strategies nationwide can aggravate the impact of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24592854

  20. The Economic Burden of All-Terrain Vehicle Related Adult Deaths in the U.S. Workplace, 2003–2006

    PubMed Central

    Helmkamp, James C.; Biddle, Elyce; Marsh, Suzanne M.; Campbell, Corey R.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the societal economic burden associated with work-related ATV fatalities among civilian persons more than 17 years of age in the U.S. from 2003 through 2006. ATV death data were obtained from the Bureau of Labor Statistics’ annual Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries. Costs were estimated using a model employing a cost-of-illness method developed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. From 2003 to 2006, a total of 129 work-related ATV deaths occurred among persons more than 17 years of age in the U.S., nearly doubling from 20 deaths in 2003 to 39 deaths in 2006. The collective lifetime cost of the deaths was $103.6 million (M), with a four-year mean of $803,100 and a four-year median of $772,100. Decedents age 35 to 54 years accounted for one-third of the deaths (n = 41) at a cost of $50.1 M. Montana had the most deaths (13). Fifty-two percent of the deaths were overturns costing $48.3 M. Eighty-four (65%) of the deaths were workers in agricultural production at a cost of $62.3 M. Short-term investment in prevention measures, such as training and helmets for workers, could provide lasting dividends by preventing work-related ATV deaths and reducing their economic impact. PMID:22900435

  1. Cultural Influences on Caregiving Burden: Cases of Koreans and Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yoon-Ro; Sung, Kyu-Taik

    1998-01-01

    Compares cultural influences on caregiver burdens of Korean adult children and American adult children caring for parents with dementia. Identifies culturally specific values, norms, and customs associated with low or high burden. Findings show low burden for Korean caregivers and high burden for American caregivers. (MKA)

  2. Burden of vaccine-preventable disease in adult Medicaid and commercially insured populations: analysis of claims-based databases, 2006–2010.

    PubMed

    Krishnarajah, Girishanthy; Carroll, Charlotte; Priest, Julie; Arondekar, Bhakti; Burstin, Stuart; Levin, Myron

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination rates among United States (US) adults are suboptimal, resulting in morbidity, mortality, and financial burden attributable to potentially vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs). Unadjusted annual incidence proportions of VPDs were estimated for Medicaid and commercially insured adults aged 19-64 years using 2006-2010 claims, along with age/gender-adjusted incidence proportions for 2010. In 2010, 1.6 million Medicaid adults (mean age 34 ± 12 years; 73.4% female) and 33 million commercially insured (mean age 42 ± 13 years; 52.2% female) were included. Age/gender-adjusted incidence proportions (per 100 000) in 2010 among Medicaid vs commercially insured adults for meningococcal disease were 26.2 (95% CI 22.9-29.8) vs 2.0 (1.9-2.2) (P < 0.001); hepatitis B 88.9 (82.6-95.6) vs 17.5 (17.0-17.9) (P < 0.001); pneumococcal disease 98.2 (91.7-105.1) vs 21.1 (20.7-21.6) (P < 0.001); hepatitis A 19.8 (16.9-23.1) vs 4.5 (4.3-4.7) (P < 0.001); mumps 2.1 (1.3-3.3) vs 1.4 (1.3-1.6) (P = 0.14); measles 0.3 (0.1-1.0) vs 0.3 (0.2-0.3) (P = 0.38); herpes zoster (60- to 64-year-olds only) 459 (408-515) vs 473 (466-481) (P = 0.35); varicella (19- to 39-year-olds only) 6.5 (4.8-8.5) vs 8.0 (7.5-8.5) (P = 0.12); influenza 586 (573-598) vs 633 (631-636) (P < 0.001); and pertussis 1.8 (1.1-2.8) vs 3.2 (3.0-3.4) (P < 0.001). Research is needed to fully understand the causes of the disparity of the coded incidence of some VPDs in adult Medicaid population than commercially insured adults in the US. PMID:25424956

  3. Posttraumatic stress mediates the relationship between childhood victimization and current mental health burden in newly incarcerated adults.

    PubMed

    Greene, Carolyn A; Ford, Julian D; Wakefield, Dorothy B; Barry, Lisa C

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the interrelationship among childhood abuse and traumatic loss, posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), and Axis I psychiatric disorders other than PTSD among newly incarcerated adults, and to test a proposed model in which the severity of PTSS mediates the relationship between childhood abuse/loss and adult psychiatric disorders. Four hundred sixty-five male and female inmates participated in a structured clinical research interview. Four types of interpersonal potentially traumatic experiences (physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and traumatic loss) were assessed for occurrence prior to the age of 18 years old. Current psychiatric disorders and PTSS were also assessed by structured interview. Negative binomial regression was used to evaluate the association between the cumulative number of types of childhood abuse/loss experienced and number of current Axis I disorders, and to test the mediation model. Approximately half of the sample (51%) experienced 1 or more types of childhood abuse/loss, and 30% of the sample had at least one psychiatric disorder other than PTSD. For both men and women, childhood physical abuse and childhood sexual abuse were independently associated with psychiatric morbidity, and an increasing number of types of childhood trauma experienced was associated with an increase in the number of current Axis I diagnoses. However, these associations were no longer statistically significant when severity of PTSS was added to the model, providing support for the proposed mediation model. Implications for secondary prevention services for at-risk inmates are discussed. PMID:25073733

  4. Virus Genotype Distribution and Virus Burden in Children and Adults Hospitalized for Norovirus Gastroenteritis, 2012–2014, Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Martin C.W.; Leung, Ting F.; Chung, Tracy W.S.; Kwok, Angela K.; Nelson, E. Anthony S.; Lee, Nelson; Chan, Paul K.S.

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a 2-year hospital-based study on norovirus gastroenteritis among children and adults between August 2012 and September 2014. A total of 1,146 norovirus cases were identified. Young children (aged ≤ 5 years) accounted for a majority (53.3%) of cases. Hospitalization incidence exhibited a U-shaped pattern with the highest rate in young children (1,475 per 100,000 person-years), followed by the elderly aged > 84 years (581 per 100,000 person-years). A subset (n = 395, 34.5%) of cases were selected for norovirus genotyping and noroviral load measurement. Non-GII.4 infections were more commonly observed in young children than in older adults (aged > 65 years) (20.5% versus 9.2%; p < 0.05). In young children, the median noroviral load of GII.4 and non-GII.4 cases was indistinguishably high (cycle threshold value, median [interquartile range]: 16.6 [15.2–19.3] versus 16.6 [14.9–21.6]; p = 0.45). Two age-specific non-GII.4 genotypes (GII.3 and GII.6) were identified among young children. These findings may have implications in norovirus vaccination strategy. PMID:26082165

  5. Economic and humanistic burden of post-trauma and post-surgical neuropathic pain among adults in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Bruce; Schaefer, Caroline; Mann, Rachael; Sadosky, Alesia; Daniel, Shoshana; Nalamachu, Srinivas; Stacey, Brett R; Nieshoff, Edward C; Tuchman, Michael; Anschel, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Background Neuropathic pain (NeP) can be chronic, debilitating, and can interfere with sleep, functioning, and emotional well being. While there are multiple causes of NeP, few studies have examined the disease burden and treatment patterns associated with post-traumatic/post-surgical (PTPS) NeP. Objective To characterize pain, health status, function, health care resource utilization, lost productivity, and costs among subjects with PTPS NeP in the United States. Methods This observational study enrolled 100 PTPS NeP subjects recruited during routine visits from general practitioner and specialist sites. Subjects completed a one-time questionnaire with validated measures of pain severity and pain interference, health status, sleep, anxiety and depression, productivity, and study-specific items on demographics, employment status, and out-of-pocket expenses. Investigators completed a case report form based on a 6-month retrospective chart review, recording subjects’ clinical characteristics as well as current and previous medications/treatments for NeP. Subjects were stratified into mild, moderate, and severe pain groups. Results Subjects’ demographic characteristics were: mean age of 54.9 years, 53% female, and 22% employed for pay. Mean pain severity score was 5.6 (0–10 scale), with 48% and 35% classified as having moderate and severe pain, respectively. The mean number of comorbidities increased with greater pain severity (P = 0.0009). Patient-reported outcomes were worse among PTPS NeP subjects with more severe pain, including pain interference with function, health state utility, sleep, and depression (P < 0.0001). Eighty-two percent of subjects were prescribed two or more NeP medications. The total mean annualized adjusted direct and indirect costs per subject were $11,846 and $29,617, respectively. Across pain severity levels, differences in annualized adjusted direct and indirect costs were significant (P < 0.0001). Conclusion PTPS NeP subjects

  6. Burden of Hepatitis C Virus Infection Among Older Adults in Long-Term Care Settings: a Systematic Review of the Literature and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Kimberly J.; Smaldone, Arlene; Larson, Elaine L.

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The magnitude of the HCV burden has previously been the subject of debate, as representative data tend to exclude high-risk populations, including institutionalized persons. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to estimate the prevalence of HCV infection among older adults in long-term care (LTC) and assess factors associated with the prevalence of HCVin this setting. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses checklist was used as the methodological guide. Two reviewers independently assessed the study quality using a validated modified quality assessment tool. Six articles met inclusion criteria; the majority were cross-sectional studies (83.3 %) designed to estimate HCV infection prevalence rates and identify associated risk factors. HCV prevalence ranged from 1.4 to 11.8 %. A pooled HCV infection prevalence of 3.3 % (95 % confidence interval: 1.5–7.2 %) was estimated based on 1920 LTC residents with substantial heterogeneity noted (Q=51.1, p<0.001; I2=90.2). Three of six studies reported statistically significant factors associated with an increased risk for HCV infection, including older age, female gender, history of blood transfusions, short duration of LTC residence, and hepatitis B virus positivity. This study reports a higher prevalence of HCV infection among older adults in LTC settings compared to community-dwelling older adults; however, accurate estimation of prevalence is limited by heterogeneity between and within studies, variation in sampling and recruitment methodologies, and absence of the HCV-RNA test to confirm active infection. PMID:26915098

  7. Computer modelling of anthelmintic resistance and worm control outcomes for refugia-based nematode control strategies in Merino ewes in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Cornelius, M P; Jacobson, C; Dobson, R; Besier, R B

    2016-04-15

    This study utilised computer simulation modelling (Risk Management Model for Nematodes) to investigate the impact of different parasite refugia scenarios on the development of anthelmintic resistance and worm control effectiveness. The simulations were conducted for adult ewe flocks in a Mediterranean climatic region over a 20 year time period. Factors explored in the simulation exercise were environment (different weather conditions), drug efficacy, the percentage of the flock left untreated, the timing of anthelmintic treatments, the initial worm egg count, and the number of drenches per annum. The model was run with variable proportions of the flock untreated (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50%), with ewes selected at random so that reductions in the mean worm burden or egg count were proportional to the treated section of the flock. Treatments to ewes were given either in summer (December; low refugia potential, hence highly selective) or autumn (March; less selective due to a greater refugia potential), and the use of different anthelmintics was simulated to indicate the difference between active ingredients of different efficacy. Each model scenario was run for two environments, specifically a lower rainfall area (more selective) and a higher rainfall area (less selective) within a Mediterranean climatic zone, characterised by hot, dry summers and cool, wet winters. Univariate general linear models with least square difference post-hoc tests were used to examine differences between means of factors. The results confirmed that leaving a proportion of sheep in a flock untreated was effective in delaying the development of anthelmintic resistance, with as low as 10% of a flock untreated sufficient to significantly delay resistance, although this strategy was associated with a small reduction in worm control. Administering anthelmintics in autumn rather than summer was also effective in delaying the development of anthelmintic resistance in the lower rainfall

  8. The Economic Burden of Exposure to Secondhand Smoke for Child and Adult Never Smokers Residing in U.S. Public Housing

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, William; Brown, Mary Jean

    2015-01-01

    Objective The World Health Organization (WHO) reports that nonsmokers experience disease and death due to secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in the home. We estimated the total excess burden and costs to society due to SHS exposure in U.S. public housing. Methods We quantified the public health burden for outcomes causally related to SHS exposure for nationally representative never-smoking residents in U.S. public housing using (1) WHO-recommended health outcomes and methodology, (2) publicly available and other large databases, and (3) published estimates of morbidity and mortality rates. We used published estimates of direct medical and nonmedical care costs and the value of productivity losses to estimate SHS-related societal costs for disease and death. We estimated the public health and economic burden for two serum cotinine limits of detection (LODs): 0.05 nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL) and 0.015 ng/mL. Results In 2011, an estimated 37,791 never-smoking child and adult U.S. public housing residents experienced illness and death due to SHS exposure at home based on an LOD=0.05 ng/mL (50,967 residents at LOD=0.015 ng/mL). Costs incurred by society for these illnesses and deaths totaled $183 million (LOD=0.05 ng/mL) and $267 million (LOD=0.015 ng/mL) annually. Of the total costs, direct costs (medical and nonmedical) accounted for $128 million and $176 million for LOD=0.05 ng/mL and LOD=0.015 ng/mL, respectively. Medical care accounted for the majority of direct costs—$110 million at LOD=0.05 ng/mL and $153 million at LOD=0.015 ng/mL. Adverse respiratory health outcomes accounted for approximately one-half (56% at LOD=0.05 ng/mL and 52% at LOD=0.015 ng/mL) of total societal costs. Conclusion Implementing smoke-free policies in all U.S. public housing could save lives and decrease SHS-related morbidity and mortality in never-smoking residents, resulting in annual societal savings of $183 million at LOD=0.05 ng/mL and $267 million at LOD=0.015 ng/mL. PMID

  9. Of FOXes and Forgetful Worms.

    PubMed

    Alic, Nazif

    2016-03-01

    Age-related cognitive decline is one of the most haunting aspects of human aging. In a recent publication, Coleen Murphy and colleagues (Kaletsky et al., 2016) describe the transcriptional program that maintains youthful function of aging neurons in the nematode worm. PMID:26959183

  10. Addiction in the family is a major but neglected contributor to the global burden of adult ill-health.

    PubMed

    Orford, Jim; Velleman, Richard; Natera, Guillermina; Templeton, Lorna; Copello, Alex

    2013-02-01

    This paper offers a conceptual overview of a neglected field. Evidence is presented to suggest that, globally, addiction is sufficiently stressful to cause pain and suffering to a large but uncounted number of adult affected family members (AFMs), possibly in the region of 100 million worldwide. A non-pathological stress-strain-coping-support model of the experience of AFMs is presented. The model is based on research in a number of different sociocultural groups in Mexico, England, Australia and Italy and aims to be sensitive to the circumstances of AFMs in low and middle income countries and in minority ethnic and indigenous groups as well to those of majorities in wealthier nations. It highlights the social and economic stressors of many kinds which AFMs face, their lack of information and social support, dilemmas about how to cope, and resulting high risk for ill-health. The public sector and personal costs are likely to be high. Attention is drawn to the relative lack of forms of help designed for AFMs in their own right. A 5-Step form of help aiming to fill that gap is briefly described. Family members affected by addiction have for too long been a group without a collective voice; research and action using the model and method described can make a contribution to changing that state of affairs. PMID:23268776

  11. Critical Considerations for WORM Software Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Brian A.

    1987-01-01

    Addresses advantages and disadvantages of write-once read-many (WORM) optical disks and other software considerations resulting from the write-once nature of WORM media to provide guidelines for determining whether this technology is appropriate for an application. Three brief case studies describe WORM software development efforts. (MES)

  12. Subretinal Worm and Repeat Laser Photocoagulation

    PubMed Central

    Natesh, Sribhargava; K, Harsha; Nair, Unnikrishna; Nair, KGR

    2010-01-01

    Diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis (DUSN) can be a diagnostic dilemma. Laser photocoagulation of the subretinal worm is an effective treatment for eradication. Early laser photocoagulation has been advocated. We report a case of a middle aged man who presented with decreased vision and a sub retinal macular worm that required two laser sessions for complete eradication of the worm. PMID:20616929

  13. Intestinal establishment and reproduction of adult Trichinella spp. in single and mixed species infections in foxes (Vulpes vulpes).

    PubMed

    Webster, Pia; Kapel, Christian M O

    2005-06-30

    Intestinal establishment and reproduction of adult Trichinella spiralis, Trichinella nativa, Trichinella britovi and Trichinella pseudospiralis were examined as single species or mixed species infections in foxes. This is the first study of intestinal dynamics of Trichinella spp. in a carnivore model and the results suggest that the intestinal phase is relatively short as only very few worms were recovered 10 days post-inoculation (dpi). In mixed species infection with equal doses of T. nativa and T. spiralis, molecular typing demonstrated that 64% of the intestinal worms and 78% of the muscle larvae were T. nativa. Conversely, T. spiralis dominated in the mixed species infections with T. pseudospiralis, constituting 66% of the intestinal worms and 94% of the muscle larvae. Although, the individual recoveries of intestinal worms were only up to 5.6% on day 1, and up to 1.5% on day 4 post-infection, the muscle larvae establishment was comparable to other fox studies. Infectivity, measured as muscle larvae burden did not differ among the four species of Trichinella, which is in contrast to other models with mice, rats, pigs or herbivores. Although statistically significant differences in intestinal worm burdens were found for some days, no distinct species were recovered in consistently higher numbers than the others. PMID:15925724

  14. Transmission electron microscopic observations on ultrastructural alterations in Schistosoma mansoni adult worms recovered from C57BL/6 mice treated with radiation-attenuated vaccine and/or praziquantel in addition to passive immunization with normal and vaccinated rabbit sera against infection.

    PubMed

    El-Shabasy, Eman A; Reda, Enayat S; Abdeen, Sherif H; Said, Ashraf E; Ouhtit, Allal

    2015-04-01

    Although the current treatment of schistosomiasis relies largely on praziquantel (PZQ), it has not been successful in significantly reducing the overall rate of disease cases, one of the suggested reasons being the inevitable resistance to PZQ. Previous studies showed that radiation-attenuated vaccine provides protection against Schistosoma mansoni in a host of various species. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of various vaccination strategies in C57BL/6 mice, including single or multiple vaccination strategy, subcurative dose (20 mg/kg) of PZQ, and a combination of single vaccination with subcurative dose of PZQ. Treatment either with subcurative dose of PZQ or with a single vaccination of attenuated cercariae (500 per mouse), caused significant reduction in total worm burden, hepatic, and intestinal ova counts of 43.03, 73.2, and 59.5 and 37.97, 52.02, and 26.3%, respectively. Furthermore, tegumental changes were observed. In multiple vaccinated group, there was an extensive lysis in tegumental layers. High deformations in gastrodermis, testis cells, vitelline cells, and oocytes were recorded. Also, this study is to explore the role of humoral immunity using highly resistant rabbits that had been exposed to three immunizations with ultraviolet (UV)-irradiated cercariae (8000 per rabbit in each immunization), and their sera were tested for their ability to transfer protection. The reduction in challenge worm burden had reached 32.76-43.64% when compared with recipients of normal serum or no serum. The reduction in hepatic and intestinal ova counts reached to 74.4 and 71.08% in group immunized with vaccinated rabbit sera. Swelling and extensive lysis of tegumental layers, gastrodermis lumen, spermatocytes, and deformation of oocytes were recorded with more severity than that recorded in normal rabbit sera group. Our findings recorded that multiple vaccination strategy is the most effective strategy then passive transfer of vaccinated rabbit. This gives

  15. [World Collections of Parasitic Worms].

    PubMed

    Zinovieva, S V; Butorina, N N; Udalova, Zh V; Khasanova, S; Filimonova, L V; Petrosyan, V G; Pel'gunov, A N

    2015-01-01

    This article provides information about the depositories of parasitic worms in the scientific institutes and museums in the United States, Japan, and Europe (the total number of samples and the availability of types of helminths from various classes), as well as information on the availability of electronic catalogues of the collections in the continental, national, and regional centers for collective use. The extent of this material has determined the necessity of creating digital collections and libraries that would represent a new form of storing, displaying, and exchanging information for scientific research. An analysis was performed of the current state of approaches and methods of development of the specialized information retrieval system (IRS) and databases (DBs) on the parasitic worms in Russia on the basis of a common conceptual data model, taking into account their local use (as desktop systems of database management) and access by scientists worldwide via the Internet. PMID:26852482

  16. Risks and Population Burden of Cardiovascular Diseases Associated with Diabetes in China: A Prospective Study of 0.5 Million Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bragg, Fiona; Li, Liming; Yang, Ling; Guo, Yu; Chen, Yiping; Bian, Zheng; Chen, Junshi; Collins, Rory; Peto, Richard; Dong, Caixia; Pan, Rong; Xu, Xin; Chen, Zhengming

    2016-01-01

    681,202) cardiovascular deaths annually in China. Conclusions Among Chinese adults, diabetes is associated with significantly increased risks of major cardiovascular diseases. The increasing prevalence and younger age of onset of diabetes foreshadow greater diabetes-attributable disease burden in China. PMID:27379518

  17. Two Leucobacter strains exert complementary virulence on Caenorhabditis including death by worm-star formation.

    PubMed

    Hodgkin, Jonathan; Félix, Marie-Anne; Clark, Laura C; Stroud, Dave; Gravato-Nobre, Maria J

    2013-11-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been much studied as a host for microbial infection. Some pathogens can infect its intestine, while others attack via its external surface. Cultures of Caenorhabditis isolated from natural environments have yielded new nematode pathogens, such as microsporidia and viruses. We report here a novel mechanism for bacterial attack on worms, discovered during investigation of a diseased and coinfected natural isolate of Caenorhabditis from Cape Verde. Two related coryneform pathogens (genus Leucobacter) were obtained from this isolate, which had complementary effects on C. elegans and related nematodes. One pathogen, Verde1, was able to cause swimming worms to stick together irreversibly by their tails, leading to the rapid formation of aggregated "worm-stars." Adult worms trapped in these aggregates were immobilized and subsequently died, with concomitant growth of bacteria. Trapped larval worms were sometimes able to escape from worm-stars by undergoing autotomy, separating their bodies into two parts. The other pathogen, Verde2, killed worms after rectal invasion, in a more virulent version of a previously studied infection. Resistance to killing by Verde2, by means of alterations in host surface glycosylation, resulted in hypersensitivity to Verde1, revealing a trade-off in bacterial susceptibility. Conversely, a sublethal surface infection of worms with Verde1 conferred partial protection against Verde2. The formation of worm-stars by Verde1 occurred only when worms were swimming in liquid but provides a striking example of asymmetric warfare as well as a bacterial equivalent to the trapping strategies used by nematophagous fungi. PMID:24206844

  18. Keeping track of worm trackers.

    PubMed

    Husson, Steven J; Costa, Wagner Steuer; Schmitt, Cornelia; Gottschalk, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    C. elegans is used extensively as a model system in the neurosciences due to its well defined nervous system. However, the seeming simplicity of this nervous system in anatomical structure and neuronal connectivity, at least compared to higher animals, underlies a rich diversity of behaviors. The usefulness of the worm in genome-wide mutagenesis or RNAi screens, where thousands of strains are assessed for phenotype, emphasizes the need for computational methods for automated parameterization of generated behaviors. In addition, behaviors can be modulated upon external cues like temperature, O(subscript)2(/subscript) and CO(subscript)2(/subscript) concentrations, mechanosensory and chemosensory inputs. Different machine vision tools have been developed to aid researchers in their efforts to inventory and characterize defined behavioral "outputs". Here we aim at providing an overview of different worm-tracking packages or video analysis tools designed to quantify different aspects of locomotion such as the occurrence of directional changes (turns, omega bends), curvature of the sinusoidal shape (amplitude, body bend angles) and velocity (speed, backward or forward movement). PMID:23436808

  19. Animal Models for Echinostoma malayanum Infection: Worm Recovery and Some Pathology.

    PubMed

    Songsri, Jiraporn; Aukkanimart, Ratchadawan; Boonmars, Thidarut; Ratanasuwan, Panaratana; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Sriraj, Pranee; Sripan, Panupan

    2016-02-01

    Echinostomes are intestinal trematodes that infect a wide range of vertebrate hosts, including humans, in their adult stage and also parasitize numerous invertebrate and cold-blooded vertebrate hosts in their larval stages. The purpose of this study was to compare Echinostoma malayanum parasite growth, including worm recovery, body size of adult worms, eggs per worm, eggs per gram of feces, and pathological changes in the small intestine of experimental animals. In this study, 6-8-week-old male hamsters, rats, mice, and gerbils were infected with echinostome metacercariae and then sacrificed at day 60 post-infection. The small intestine and feces of each infected animal were collected and then processed for analysis. The results showed that worm recovery, eggs per worm, and eggs per gram of feces from all infected hamsters were higher compared with infected rats and mice. However, in infected gerbils, no parasites were observed in the small intestine, and there were no parasite eggs in the feces. The volume of eggs per gram of feces and eggs per worm were related to parasite size. The results of histopathological changes in the small intestine of infected groups showed abnormal villi and goblet cells, as evidenced by short villi and an increase in the number and size of goblet cells compared with the normal control group. PMID:26951978

  20. Animal Models for Echinostoma malayanum Infection: Worm Recovery and Some Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Songsri, Jiraporn; Aukkanimart, Ratchadawan; Boonmars, Thidarut; Ratanasuwan, Panaratana; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Sriraj, Pranee; Sripan, Panupan

    2016-01-01

    Echinostomes are intestinal trematodes that infect a wide range of vertebrate hosts, including humans, in their adult stage and also parasitize numerous invertebrate and cold-blooded vertebrate hosts in their larval stages. The purpose of this study was to compare Echinostoma malayanum parasite growth, including worm recovery, body size of adult worms, eggs per worm, eggs per gram of feces, and pathological changes in the small intestine of experimental animals. In this study, 6-8-week-old male hamsters, rats, mice, and gerbils were infected with echinostome metacercariae and then sacrificed at day 60 post-infection. The small intestine and feces of each infected animal were collected and then processed for analysis. The results showed that worm recovery, eggs per worm, and eggs per gram of feces from all infected hamsters were higher compared with infected rats and mice. However, in infected gerbils, no parasites were observed in the small intestine, and there were no parasite eggs in the feces. The volume of eggs per gram of feces and eggs per worm were related to parasite size. The results of histopathological changes in the small intestine of infected groups showed abnormal villi and goblet cells, as evidenced by short villi and an increase in the number and size of goblet cells compared with the normal control group. PMID:26951978

  1. Changes Over Time in High Out-of-Pocket Health Care Burden in U.S. Adults With Diabetes, 2001–2011

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rui; Barker, Lawrence E.; Shrestha, Sundar; Zhang, Ping; Kenrick Duru, O.; Pearson-Clarke, Tony; Gregg, Edward W.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE High out-of-pocket (OOP) costs can be an obstacle to health care access and treatment compliance. This study investigated trends in high OOP health care burden in people with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Using Medical Expenditure Panel Survey 2001–2011 data, we examined trends in the proportion of people aged 18–64 years with diabetes facing a high OOP burden. We also examined whether the trend differed by insurance status (private insurance, public insurance, or no insurance) or by income level (poor and near poor, low income, middle income, or high income). RESULTS In 2011, 23% of people with diabetes faced high OOP burden. Between 2001–2002 and 2011, the proportion of people facing high OOP burden fell by 5 percentage points (P < 0.01). The proportion of those who were publicly insured decreased by 22 percentage points (P < 0.001) and of those who were uninsured by 12 percentage points (P = 0.01). Among people with diabetes who were poor and near poor and those with low income, the proportion facing high OOP burden decreased by 21 (P < 0.001) and 13 (P = 0.01) percentage points, respectively; no significant change occurred in the proportion with private insurance or middle and high incomes between 2001–2002 and 2011. CONCLUSIONS The past decade has seen a narrowing of insurance coverage and income-related disparities in high OOP burden in people with diabetes; yet, almost one-fourth of all people with diabetes still face a high OOP burden. PMID:24667459

  2. From Flowers to Worms: Understanding Nature's Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Gardening helps children learn how plants sprout, grow, bloom, and then wither away, leaving seeds behind. Participating in this natural process allows children to experience the stages of life. Suggested gardening activities include studying dandelions, focusing on culture for garden plant selection, and constructing a worm box or worm terrarium…

  3. Dew Worms in the White Nights

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lumbricus terrestris L. (the dew worm) forages, mates and migrates on the soil surface during the night. Its distribution covers a broad latitudinal gradient and variation in day length conditions. Since soil-surface activity is crucial for the survival and reproduction of dew worms, it is conceivab...

  4. ULTRASTRUCTURAL CHANGES IN Schistosoma mansoni MALE WORMS AFTER in vitro INCUBATION WITH THE ESSENTIAL OIL OF Mentha x villosa Huds

    PubMed Central

    MATOS-ROCHA, Thiago José; CAVALCANTI, Marília Gabriela dos Santos; VERAS, Dyana Leal; FEITOSA, Ana Paula Sampaio; GONÇALVES, Gabriel Gazzoni Araújo; PORTELA-JUNIOR, Nairomberg Cavalcanti; LÚCIO, Ana Silvia Suassuna Carneiro; da SILVA, Anekécia Lauro; PADILHA, Rafael José Ribeiro; MARQUES, Márcia Ortiz Mayo; BARBOSA-FILHO, José Maria; ALVES, Luiz Carlos; BRAYNER, Fábio André

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The essential oil Mentha x villosa (MVEO) has a wide range of actions, including antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal and schistosomicidal actions. The present study aimed to investigate the ultrastructural changes of MVEO on the tegument of adult Schistosoma mansoni. Materials and Methods: Different concentrations of MVEO were tested on S. mansoni adult worms in vitro. Ultrastructural changes on the tegument of these adult worms were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results: The MVEO caused the death of all worms at 500 μg mL-1 after 24 h. After 24h of 500 μg mL-1 MVEO treatment, bubble lesions were observed over the entire body of worms and they presented loss of tubercles in some regions of the ventral portion. In the evaluation by TEM, S. mansoni adult worms treated with MVEO, 500 μg mL-1, presented changes in the tegument and vacuoles in the syncytial matrix region. Glycogen granules close to the muscle fibers were visible. Conclusion: The ability of MVEO to cause extensive ultrastructural damage to S. mansoni adult worms correlates with its schistosomicidal effects and confirms earlier findings with S. mansoni. PMID:26910448

  5. A Common Worm in a Rare Place.

    PubMed

    Sheikhian, Mohammed Reza

    2013-11-01

    A case of a 40-year-old female, in whom a 6-meter long worm (Taenia saginata) was found in stomach, is reported here. In this patient, T. saginata upward migration of the worm to the stomach, its rare phenomenon, worm mostly seen in the small intestine. This is mainly because of the high gastric acidity. In this patient, we believe proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use caused hypochlorhydria and coexistence H. pylori infection caused chronic atrophic gastritis, which resulted in the retrograde migration of the tapeworm to the stomach in our patient. PMID:26171346

  6. The societal burden of osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Becker, David J; Kilgore, Meredith L; Morrisey, Michael A

    2010-06-01

    Osteoporosis currently affects 10 million Americans and is responsible for more than 1.5 million fractures annually. The financial burden of osteoporosis is substantial, with annual direct medical costs estimated at 17 to 20 billion dollars. Most of these costs are related to the acute and rehabilitative care following osteoporotic fractures, particularly hip fractures. The societal burden of osteoporosis includes these direct medical costs and the monetary (eg, caregiver time) and nonmonetary costs of poor health. The aging of the US population is expected to increase the prevalence of osteoporosis and the number of osteoporotic fractures. Growth of the older adult population will pose significant challenges to Medicare and Medicaid, which bear most of the cost of osteoporosis. Efforts to address the looming financial burden must focus on reducing the prevalence of osteoporosis and the incidence of costly fragility fractures. PMID:20425518

  7. You Don't Want to Burden Them

    PubMed Central

    Cahill, Eileen; Lewis, Lisa M.; Barg, Frances K.; Bogner, Hillary R.

    2010-01-01

    Burden emerged as an important concept among older adults in a study of how older adults interact with their families around care. The authors conducted 50 semistructured interviews with adults older than the age of 65 years and a spouse or adult child. The sample was stratified by ethnicity thus giving the opportunity to explore both ethnic similarities and differences. Older adults who expressed the concept of burden were more likely to be White compared with older adults who did not express burden. Older respondents discussed burden in relation to not wanting to complicate the busy lives of adult children, guilt about health problems, and concern that children were overly worried about the care of their older family member. The expression and meaning of burden differed according to ethnicity. This study has implications for practice and policies to meet the needs of families and promote the independence of older persons. PMID:19474397

  8. WDDD: Worm Developmental Dynamics Database.

    PubMed

    Kyoda, Koji; Adachi, Eru; Masuda, Eriko; Nagai, Yoko; Suzuki, Yoko; Oguro, Taeko; Urai, Mitsuru; Arai, Ryoko; Furukawa, Mari; Shimada, Kumiko; Kuramochi, Junko; Nagai, Eriko; Onami, Shuichi

    2013-01-01

    During animal development, cells undergo dynamic changes in position and gene expression. A collection of quantitative information about morphological dynamics under a wide variety of gene perturbations would provide a rich resource for understanding the molecular mechanisms of development. Here, we created a database, the Worm Developmental Dynamics Database (http://so.qbic.riken.jp/wddd/), which stores a collection of quantitative information about cell division dynamics in early Caenorhabditis elegans embryos with single genes silenced by RNA-mediated interference. The information contains the three-dimensional coordinate values of the outlines of nuclear regions and the dynamics of the outlines over time. The database provides free access to 50 sets of quantitative data for wild-type embryos and 136 sets of quantitative data for RNA-mediated interference embryos corresponding to 72 of the 97 essential embryonic genes on chromosome III. The database also provides sets of four-dimensional differential interference contrast microscopy images on which the quantitative data were based. The database will provide a novel opportunity for the development of computational methods to obtain fresh insights into the mechanisms of development. The quantitative information and microscopy images can be synchronously viewed through a web browser, which is designed for easy access by experimental biologists. PMID:23172286

  9. Viability of developmental stages of Schistosoma mansoni quantified with xCELLigence worm real-time motility assay (xWORM)

    PubMed Central

    Rinaldi, Gabriel; Loukas, Alex; Brindley, Paul J.; Irelan, Jeff T.; Smout, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Infection with helminth parasites causes morbidity and mortality in billions of people and livestock worldwide. Where anthelmintic drugs are available, drug resistance is a major problem in livestock parasites, and a looming threat to public health. Monitoring the efficacy of these medicines and screening for new drugs has been hindered by the lack of objective, high-throughput approaches. Several cell monitoring technologies have been adapted for parasitic worms, including video-, fluorescence-, metabolism enzyme- and impedance-based tools that minimize the screening bottleneck. Using the xCELLigence impedance-based system we previously developed a motility-viability assay that is applicable for a range of helminth parasites. Here we have improved substantially the assay by using diverse frequency settings, and have named it the xCELLigence worm real-time motility assay (xWORM). By utilizing strictly standardized mean difference analysis we compared the xWORM output measured with 10, 25 and 50 kHz frequencies to quantify the motility of schistosome adults (human blood flukes) and hatching of schistosome eggs. Furthermore, we have described a novel application of xWORM to monitor movement of schistosome cercariae, the developmental stage that is infectious to humans. For all three stages, 25 kHz was either optimal or near-optimal for monitoring and quantifying schistosome motility. These improvements in methodology sensitivity should enhance the capacity to screen small compound libraries for new drugs both for schistosomes and other helminth pathogens at large. PMID:26288742

  10. Viability of developmental stages of Schistosoma mansoni quantified with xCELLigence worm real-time motility assay (xWORM).

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Gabriel; Loukas, Alex; Brindley, Paul J; Irelan, Jeff T; Smout, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    Infection with helminth parasites causes morbidity and mortality in billions of people and livestock worldwide. Where anthelmintic drugs are available, drug resistance is a major problem in livestock parasites, and a looming threat to public health. Monitoring the efficacy of these medicines and screening for new drugs has been hindered by the lack of objective, high-throughput approaches. Several cell monitoring technologies have been adapted for parasitic worms, including video-, fluorescence-, metabolism enzyme- and impedance-based tools that minimize the screening bottleneck. Using the xCELLigence impedance-based system we previously developed a motility-viability assay that is applicable for a range of helminth parasites. Here we have improved substantially the assay by using diverse frequency settings, and have named it the xCELLigence worm real-time motility assay (xWORM). By utilizing strictly standardized mean difference analysis we compared the xWORM output measured with 10, 25 and 50 kHz frequencies to quantify the motility of schistosome adults (human blood flukes) and hatching of schistosome eggs. Furthermore, we have described a novel application of xWORM to monitor movement of schistosome cercariae, the developmental stage that is infectious to humans. For all three stages, 25 kHz was either optimal or near-optimal for monitoring and quantifying schistosome motility. These improvements in methodology sensitivity should enhance the capacity to screen small compound libraries for new drugs both for schistosomes and other helminth pathogens at large. PMID:26288742

  11. Worm epidemics in wireless ad hoc networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nekovee, Maziar

    2007-06-01

    A dramatic increase in the number of computing devices with wireless communication capability has resulted in the emergence of a new class of computer worms which specifically target such devices. The most striking feature of these worms is that they do not require Internet connectivity for their propagation but can spread directly from device to device using a short-range radio communication technology, such as WiFi or Bluetooth. In this paper, we develop a new model for epidemic spreading of these worms and investigate their spreading in wireless ad hoc networks via extensive Monte Carlo simulations. Our studies show that the threshold behaviour and dynamics of worm epidemics in these networks are greatly affected by a combination of spatial and temporal correlations which characterize these networks, and are significantly different from the previously studied epidemics in the Internet.

  12. Altered resistance to Trichinella spiralis infection following subchronic exposure of adult mice to chemicals of environmental concern

    SciTech Connect

    Luebke, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of subchronic chemical exposure on expulsion of adult Trichinella spiralis from the small intestine of mice and encystment of newborn larvae in the host's musculature were investigated. Exposure to diethylstilbestrol, benzo(a)pyrene, tris-(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate, cyclophosphamide, phorbol myristate acetate, and dimethylvinylchloride prior to infection of mice with 200 infective larvae resulted in larger worm burdens in treated animals than in controls 14 days after infection. Worm expulsion was not affected by exposure to tris-(2,3-dibromopropyl)phosphate, orthophenylphenol, and indomethacin. Increased burdens of muscle-phase larvae were found in animals that maintained significant numbers of adult worms in the gut at 14 days, except in mice administered diethylstilbestrol and dimethylvinylchloride. Exposure to diethylstilbestrol and cyclophosphamide resulted in decreased inflammatory reactions in the tissues of the small intestine and development of bone marrow eosinophilia in infected mice. Marrow eosinophilia was likewise decreased in mice given tris-(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate before infection. Additional studies with diethylstilbestrol administered either before, at the time of, or after infection showed inhibition of worm expulsion. Drug exposure during a primary infection inhibited the expulsion of a second T. spiralis infection, but did not affect worm elimination when given during a second infection. Treatment with diethylstilbestrol after artificial sensitization of mice with Trichinella antigens decreased delayed hypersensitivity responses to the sensitizing antigen. Immune functions, assessed by lymphoproliferative responses to mitogens and antibody responses to sheep red blood cells, generally correlated with altered host resistance to T. spiralis infection.

  13. Assessment of worm gearing for helicopter transmissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaiko, Lev

    1990-01-01

    A high-efficiency hydrostatic worm gear drive for helicopter transmissions is assessed. The example given is for a large cargo helicopter with three 4000-kW engines and transmission reduction ratio of 110. Also contained are: an efficiency calculation, a description of the test stand for evaluating the feasibility of worm gear hydrostatic mesh, a weight calculation, and a comparison with conventional helicopter transmissions of the same power and transmission reduction ratio.

  14. Time course of the effect of praziquantel on Schistosoma mansoni attachment in vitro: comparison with its effects on worm length and motility.

    PubMed

    da Silva, S P; Noël, F

    1995-01-01

    We report herein that praziquantel inhibits the capacity of adult male Schistosoma mansoni to attach to the bottom of a glass dish and produces a diminution of worm length and motility, acting under a similar concentration and time dependency. After removal of 1 microM praziquantel from the medium, the worms progressively recuperated their initial length and motility without recovering their attachment capability. The absence of calcium or presence of 1 microM verapamil did not change the praziquantel-induced effect on worm attachment, causing only a transient decrease in worm length and motility. The present data indicate that the diminution of motility induced by praziquantel results from the progressive contraction of the longitudinal musculature of the worm. In contrast, the loss of attachment should not be causally related to the contraction of the worm since these two praziquantel-induced effects have distinct patterns of response under some experimental conditions. PMID:7479644

  15. Prevalence of giant kidney worm (Dioctophyma renale) in wild mink (Mustela vison) in Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; Tracy, S.P.

    2001-01-01

    Of 138 wild mink (Mustela vison) from eastern Minnesota, 27% contained Dioctophyma renale, primarily in the right kidney. No significant difference between prevalence in adult male and immature male mink was found, nor between the prevalence in males versus female mink. Thirteen worms were found in one male mink, representing the highest documented infection intensity of a single wild mink.

  16. WORM - WINDOWED OBSERVATION OF RELATIVE MOTION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, F.

    1994-01-01

    The Windowed Observation of Relative Motion, WORM, program is primarily intended for the generation of simple X-Y plots from data created by other programs. It allows the user to label, zoom, and change the scale of various plots. Three dimensional contour and line plots are provided, although with more limited capabilities. The input data can be in binary or ASCII format, although all data must be in the same format. A great deal of control over the details of the plot is provided, such as gridding, size of tick marks, colors, log/semilog capability, time tagging, and multiple and phase plane plots. Many color and monochrome graphics terminals and hard copy printer/plotters are supported. The WORM executive commands, menu selections and macro files can be used to develop plots and tabular data, query the WORM Help library, retrieve data from input files, and invoke VAX DCL commands. WORM generated plots are displayed on local graphics terminals and can be copied using standard hard copy capabilities. Some of the graphics features of WORM include: zooming and dezooming various portions of the plot; plot documentation including curve labeling and function listing; multiple curves on the same plot; windowing of multiple plots and insets of the same plot; displaying a specific on a curve; and spinning the curve left, right, up, and down. WORM is written in PASCAL for interactive execution and has been implemented on a DEC VAX computer operating under VMS 4.7 with a virtual memory requirement of approximately 392K of 8 bit bytes. It uses the QPLOT device independent graphics library included with WORM. It was developed in 1988.

  17. Aquatic worms eat sludge: mass balances and processing of worm faeces.

    PubMed

    Hendrickx, T L G; Temmink, H; Elissen, H J H; Buisman, C J N

    2010-05-15

    Reduction of the amount of waste sludge from waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) can be achieved with the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus in a new reactor concept. In addition to reducing the amount of waste sludge, further processing of produced worm faeces and released nutrients should also be considered. This study gives the mass balances for sludge consumed by L. variegatus, showing the fate of the consumed organic material, nutrients and heavy metals associated with the sludge. A distinction is made between conversion into worm biomass, release as dissolved metabolites and what remains in the worm faeces. The results showed that 39% of the nitrogen and 12% of the phosphorus in the sludge digested by the worms are used in the formation of new worm biomass, which has potential for reuse. Experiments showed that settling of the worm faeces leads to a factor 2.5 higher solids concentration, compared to settling of waste sludge. This could lead to a 67% reduction of the volumetric load on thickening equipment. The worm reactor is expected to be most interesting for smaller WWTPs where a decrease on the volumetric load on sludge handling operations will have most impact. PMID:20060212

  18. Disulfide-Functionalized Diblock Copolymer Worm Gels.

    PubMed

    Warren, Nicholas J; Rosselgong, Julien; Madsen, Jeppe; Armes, Steven P

    2015-08-10

    Two strategies for introducing disulfide groups at the outer surface of RAFT-synthesized poly(glycerol monomethacrylate)-poly(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate) (PGMA-PHPMA, or Gx-Hy for brevity) diblock copolymer worms are investigated. The first approach involved statistical copolymerization of GMA with a small amount of disulfide dimethacrylate (DSDMA, or D) comonomer to afford a G54-D0.50 macromolecular chain transfer agent (macro-CTA); this synthesis was conducted in relatively dilute solution in order to ensure mainly intramolecular cyclization and hence the formation of linear chains. Alternatively, a new disulfide-based bifunctional RAFT agent (DSDB) was used to prepare a G45-S-S-G45 (or (G45-S)2) macro-CTA. A binary mixture of a non-functionalized G55 macro-CTA was utilized with each of these two disulfide-based macro-CTAs in turn for the RAFT aqueous dispersion polymerization of 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate (HPMA). By targeting a PHPMA DP of 130 and systematically varying the molar ratio of the two macro-CTAs, a series of disulfide-functionalized diblock copolymer worm gels were obtained. For both formulations, oscillatory rheology studies confirmed that higher disulfide contents led to stronger gels, presumably as a result of inter-worm covalent bond formation via disulfide/thiol exchange. Using the DSDB-based macro-CTA led to the strongest worm gels, and this formulation also proved to be more effective in suppressing the thermosensitive behavior that is observed for the nondisulfide-functionalized control worm gel. However, macroscopic precipitation occurred when the proportion of DSDB-based macro-CTA was increased to 50 mol %, whereas the DSDMA-based macro-CTA could be utilized at up to 80 mol %. Finally, the worm gel modulus could be reduced to that of a nondisulfide-containing worm gel by reductive cleavage of the inter-worm disulfide bonds using excess tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine (TCEP) to yield thiol groups. These new biomimetic worm gels are

  19. Fluoxetine Exhibits Pharmacological Effects and Trait-Based Sensitivity in a Marine Worm.

    PubMed

    Hird, Cameron M; Urbina, Mauricio A; Lewis, Ceri N; Snape, Jason R; Galloway, Tamara S

    2016-08-01

    Global production of pharmacologically active compounds exceeds 100 000 tons annually, a proportion of which enters aquatic environments through patient use, improper medicine disposal, and production. These compounds are designed to have mode-of-action (MoA) effects on specific biological pathways, with potential to impact nontarget species. Here, we used MoA and trait-based approaches to quantify uptake and biological effects of fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, in filter and deposit feeding marine worms (Hediste diversicolor). Worms exposed to 10 μg L(-1), accumulated fluoxetine with a body burden over 270 times greater than exposure concentrations, resulting in ∼10% increased coelomic fluid serotonin, a pharmacological effect. Observed effects included weight loss (up to 2% at 500 μg L(-1)), decreased feeding rate (68% at 500 μg L(-1)), and altered metabolism (oxygen consumption, ammonia excretion, and O/N from 10 μg L(-1)). Bioconcentration of fluoxetine was dependent on route of uptake, with filter feeding worms experiencing up to 130 times greater body burden ratios and increased magnitudes of effects than deposit feeders, a trait-based sensitivity likely as a consequence of fluoxetine partitioning to sediment. This study highlights how novel approaches such as MoA and trait-based methods can supplement environmental risk assessments of pharmaceuticals. PMID:27379928

  20. Marine worms (genus Osedax) colonize cow bones

    PubMed Central

    Jones, William J; Johnson, Shannon B; Rouse, Greg W; Vrijenhoek, Robert C

    2007-01-01

    Bone-eating worms of the genus Osedax colonized and grew on cow bones deployed at depths ranging from 385 to 2893 m in Monterey Bay, California. Colonization occurred as rapidly as two months following deployment of the cow bones, similar to the time it takes to colonize exposed whalebones. Some Osedax females found on the cow bones were producing eggs and some hosted dwarf males in their tubes. Morphological and molecular examinations of these worms confirmed the presence of six Osedax species, out of the eight species presently known from Monterey Bay. The ability of Osedax species to colonize, grow and reproduce on cow bones challenges previous notions that these worms are ‘whale-fall specialists.’ PMID:18077256

  1. Arthropod larvae misidentified as parasitic worm infection.

    PubMed

    Munisamy, Sreetharan; Kilner, Rachael

    2011-01-01

    A healthy, asymptomatic man living in London, presented with seeing 'worms' in his toilet for two successive summer seasons. Repeated microscopic examination and cultures of both his faeces and urine were normal. He was empirically treated with multiple courses of antihelminthics without resolution of this problem. A sample of the worms was obtained, and positively identified as arthropod larvae under microscopic examination. These larvae do not parasitically colonise humans. It was subsequently deduced that a flying arthropod (most likely Culex pipiens mosquito) had laid eggs in standing toilet water, and the hatched larvae had been mistaken for parasitic worms. The patient was declared free of parasites and remains healthy. This case illustrates the dangers of starting empirical treatment without positive confirmation of causative organisms, which can result in unnecessary and potentially harmful treatment. PMID:22675109

  2. Live Worms Found Amid STS-107 Debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    NASA Project Manager Fred Ahmay holds a Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) container in which C. elegans nemotodes (round worms) were found. The container was part of a middeck experiment that was among Columbia's debris recovered in East Texas. The worms were found alive after flying on Columbia's last mission, STS-107. The experiment was designed to verify a new synthetic nutrient solution for an International Space Station 'model' specimen planned to be used extensively for ISS gene expression studies and was sponsored by the NASA Ames Research Center. For more information on STS-107, please see GRIN Columbia General Explanation

  3. C. elegans maximum velocity correlates with healthspan and is maintained in worms with an insulin receptor mutation

    PubMed Central

    Hahm, Jeong-Hoon; Kim, Sunhee; DiLoreto, Race; Shi, Cheng; Lee, Seung-Jae V.; Murphy, Coleen T.; Nam, Hong Gil

    2015-01-01

    Ageing is marked by physical decline. Caenorhabditis elegans is a valuable model for identifying genetic regulatory mechanisms of ageing and longevity. Here we report a simple method to assess C. elegans' maximum physical ability based on the worms' maximum movement velocity. We show maximum velocity declines with age, correlates well with longevity, accurately reports movement ability and, if measured in mid-adulthood, is predictive of maximal lifespan. Contrary to recent findings, we observe that maximum velocity of worm with mutations in daf-2(e1370) insulin/IGF-1 signalling scales with lifespan. Because of increased odorant receptor expression, daf-2(e1370) mutants prefer food over exploration, causing previous on-food motility assays to underestimate movement ability and, thus, worm health. Finally, a disease-burden analysis of published data reveals that the daf-2(e1370) mutation improves quality of life, and therefore combines lifespan extension with various signs of an increased healthspan. PMID:26586186

  4. C. elegans maximum velocity correlates with healthspan and is maintained in worms with an insulin receptor mutation.

    PubMed

    Hahm, Jeong-Hoon; Kim, Sunhee; DiLoreto, Race; Shi, Cheng; Lee, Seung-Jae V; Murphy, Coleen T; Nam, Hong Gil

    2015-01-01

    Ageing is marked by physical decline. Caenorhabditis elegans is a valuable model for identifying genetic regulatory mechanisms of ageing and longevity. Here we report a simple method to assess C. elegans' maximum physical ability based on the worms' maximum movement velocity. We show maximum velocity declines with age, correlates well with longevity, accurately reports movement ability and, if measured in mid-adulthood, is predictive of maximal lifespan. Contrary to recent findings, we observe that maximum velocity of worm with mutations in daf-2(e1370) insulin/IGF-1 signalling scales with lifespan. Because of increased odorant receptor expression, daf-2(e1370) mutants prefer food over exploration, causing previous on-food motility assays to underestimate movement ability and, thus, worm health. Finally, a disease-burden analysis of published data reveals that the daf-2(e1370) mutation improves quality of life, and therefore combines lifespan extension with various signs of an increased healthspan. PMID:26586186

  5. Evaluation of Echinostoma liei worm, metacercaria and redia antigens for schistosomiasis control.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Monaem, G; Farid, A; Rabia, I; El-Amir, A

    2015-10-01

    While chemotherepeutic drugs, such as praziquantel, oxamniquine and metrifonate, are currently considered safe and effective drugs for schistosomiasis treatment, reinfection occurs frequently after drug treatment. Thus, a vaccine is sought to provide long-term treatment. Antigens from worm, metacercaria and redia of Echinostoma liei (E. liei) were purified using CNBr-activated Sepharose column, then used for immunization of mice prior to infection with Schistosomiasis mansoni. Worm burden, hepatic and intestinal eggs and oogram count was significantly reduced and that was reflected in normalization of liver architecture. This referred to a significant increase in the tested immunoglobulin level (IgM, IgG1 and IgG2). PMID:26115938

  6. Education and Assessment of Pharmacists on the Use of the Drug Burden Index in Older Adults Using a Continuing Professional Development Education Method.

    PubMed

    Kouladjian, Lisa; Chen, Timothy F; Gnjidic, Danijela; Hilmer, Sarah N

    2016-05-25

    Objective. To educate pharmacists and assess their knowledge of and ability to calculate the Drug Burden Index (DBI) using a continuing professional development (CPD) intervention. Methods. The intervention included designing education surrounding the DBI and its application in practice and assessing knowledge in the form of a CPD education article with four multiple-choice questions (MCQs). Deidentified demographic data on participants were collected. Results. Multiple-choice questions were completed by 2522 pharmacist participants: 97.9% of participants successfully completed the CPD assessment (answered three or four MCQs correctly), and 76.5% of participants achieved a perfect score (answered four MCQs correctly). The question that required calculation of the DBI for a fictional patient was answered correctly least often (81.8%). Conclusion. Pharmacist participants had good knowledge of using DBI in practice; difficulty was observed in calculating the DBI for a hypothetical patient. This CPD intervention provided a practical medium for educating and assessing pharmacists' knowledge of the DBI. PMID:27293230

  7. Education and Assessment of Pharmacists on the Use of the Drug Burden Index in Older Adults Using a Continuing Professional Development Education Method

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Timothy F.; Gnjidic, Danijela; Hilmer, Sarah N.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To educate pharmacists and assess their knowledge of and ability to calculate the Drug Burden Index (DBI) using a continuing professional development (CPD) intervention. Methods. The intervention included designing education surrounding the DBI and its application in practice and assessing knowledge in the form of a CPD education article with four multiple-choice questions (MCQs). Deidentified demographic data on participants were collected. Results. Multiple-choice questions were completed by 2522 pharmacist participants: 97.9% of participants successfully completed the CPD assessment (answered three or four MCQs correctly), and 76.5% of participants achieved a perfect score (answered four MCQs correctly). The question that required calculation of the DBI for a fictional patient was answered correctly least often (81.8%). Conclusion. Pharmacist participants had good knowledge of using DBI in practice; difficulty was observed in calculating the DBI for a hypothetical patient. This CPD intervention provided a practical medium for educating and assessing pharmacists’ knowledge of the DBI. PMID:27293230

  8. Practical experiences with worm gearing for spacecraft power transmission applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purdy, William; Mccown, William

    1989-01-01

    Experiences of several organizations using worm gearing for spacecraft are discussed. Practical aspects and subtleties of using worm gearing for design and operation is included. Knowledge gained from these applications is analyzed, and guidelines for usage are proposed.

  9. High Rates of Self-Fertilization in a Marine Ribbon Worm (Nemertea).

    PubMed

    Caplins, Serena A; Turbeville, James M

    2015-12-01

    Organisms capable of self-fertilization ("selfing") typically exhibit two evolutionary syndromes: uniting high inbreeding depression with low levels of selfing, or low inbreeding depression with high levels of selfing. We examined the effect of inbreeding on fecundity and time to first reproduction in an apparently self-compatible, simultaneously hermaphroditic marine nemertean worm Prosorhochmus americanus. Adult and juvenile worms were raised in isolation or in pairs. Isolated worms produced significantly more offspring than paired worms (in the adult experiment), and did not exhibit inbreeding avoidance (in the juvenile experiment). The selfing rate of six natural populations was evaluated using 17 species-specific, microsatellite markers, and was consistent with preferential selfing (mean: 0.843, SD: 0.027). Our results showed that P. americanus exhibited an interesting suite of life-history traits, uniting high colonization potential through self-fertilization and high fecundity, with no dispersive larval stage, and with moderate levels of gene flow. We believe that P. americanus is an ideal model system for studies of mating system evolution, inbreeding, and sex allocation. PMID:26695824

  10. Postembryonic development of the bone-eating worm Osedax japonicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Norio; Yamamoto, Tomoko; Yusa, Yoichi; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro

    2013-03-01

    Bone-eating worms of the genus Osedax exclusively inhabit sunken vertebrate bones on the seafloor. The unique lifestyle and morphology of Osedax spp. have received much scientific attention, but the whole process of their development has not been observed. We herein report the postembryonic development and settlement of Osedax japonicus Fujikura et al. (Zool Sci 23:733-740, 2006). Fertilised eggs were spawned into the mucus of a female, and the larvae swam out from the mucus at the trochophore stage. Larvae survived for 10 days under laboratory conditions. The larvae settled on bones, elongated their bodies and crawled around on the bones. Then they secreted mucus to create a tube and the palps started to develop. The palps of O. japonicus arose from the prostomium, whereas the anterior appendages of other siboglinids arose from the peristomium. The recruitment of dwarf males was induced by rearing larvae with adult females. Females started to spawn eggs 6 weeks after settlement.

  11. Concordance among anticholinergic burden scales

    PubMed Central

    Naples, Jennifer G.; Marcum, Zachary A.; Perera, Subashan; Gray, Shelly L.; Newman, Anne B.; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Yaffe, Kristine; Shorr, Ronald I.; Hanlon, Joseph T.

    2015-01-01

    Background There is no gold standard to assess potential anticholinergic burden of medications. Objectives To evaluate concordance among five commonly used anticholinergic scales. Design Cross-sectional secondary analysis. Setting Pittsburgh, PA, and Memphis, TN. Participants 3,055 community-dwelling older adults aged 70–79 with baseline medication data from the Health, Aging, and Body Composition study. Measurements Any use, weighted scores, and total standardized daily dosage were calculated using five anticholinergic measures (i.e., Anticholinergic Cognitive Burden [ACB] Scale, Anticholinergic Drug Scale [ADS], Anticholinergic Risk Scale [ARS], Drug Burden Index anticholinergic component [DBI-ACh], and Summated Anticholinergic Medications Scale [SAMS]). Concordance was evaluated with kappa statistics and Spearman rank correlations. Results Any anticholinergic use in rank order was 51% for the ACB, 43% for the ADS, 29% for the DBI-ACh, 23% for the ARS, and 16% for the SAMS. Kappa statistics for all pairwise use comparisons ranged from 0.33 to 0.68. Similarly, concordance as measured by weighted kappa statistics ranged from 0.54 to 0.70 among the three scales not incorporating dosage (ADS, ARS, and ACB). Spearman rank correlation between the DBI-ACh and SAMS was 0.50. Conclusions Only low to moderate concordance was found among the five anticholinergic scales. Future research is needed to examine how these differences in measurement impact their predictive validity with respect to clinically relevant outcomes, such as cognitive impairment. PMID:26480974

  12. Diabetes-related Quality of Life and the Demands and Burdens of Diabetes Care among Emerging Adults with Type 1 Diabetes in the Year after High School Graduation

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Kathleen M.; Weaver, Michael T.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; DiMeglio, Linda A.

    2014-01-01

    The roles of glycemic control, diabetes management, diabetes care responsibility, living independently of parents, and time since high school graduation in predicting diabetes-related quality of life (DQOL) were examined in 184 emerging adults with type 1 diabetes. Data were collected at graduation and one year later. Analyses controlling for selected covariates were completed using generalized linear mixed models. Better diabetes management was associated with more positive responses on all four dimensions of DQOL. Impact and worry of DQOL were greater in the presence of depressive symptoms, and life satisfaction was lower. DQOL life satisfaction was lower in those living independently of parents. Young women reported lower diabetes-related health status than did young men. Time since graduation was not linked to DQOL. Further research is needed on ways to improve DQOL in conjunction with diabetes management and on ways that families can support DQOL when youth live independently. PMID:25164122

  13. Adult Mansonella perstans in the abdominal cavity in nine Africans.

    PubMed

    Baird, J K; Neafie, R C; Lanoie, L; Connor, D H

    1987-11-01

    Adult Mansonella perstans infected the abdominal cavity of nine patients seen at Karawa Hospital in the Ubangi territory of Zaire. In four patients the worms were removed at laparotomy, and in the other five they were removed at autopsy. Twelve adult worms were identified in the nine patients. None of the worms caused symptoms or contributed to the patient's death. Worms were in the hernial sac in three patients, and one each was in connective tissue beside a reactive mesenteric lymph node, in peripancreatic connective tissue, in perirenal connective tissue, in hepatic portal connective tissue, on the serosal surface of the small intestine, and in connective tissue adjacent to rectum. The diameter of male worms was 45 microns to 60 microns and of female worms, 80 microns to 125 microns. One female worm was removed intact. It was 6 cm long and had a bifurcated tail characteristic of M. perstans. PMID:3688309

  14. Parametric analysis of the end face engagement worm gear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xingqiao; Wang, Jueling; Wang, Jinge; Chen, Shouan; Yang, Jie

    2015-11-01

    A novel specific type of worm drive, so-called end face engagement worm gear(EFEWD), is originally presented to minimize or overcome the gear backlash. Different factors, including the three different types, contact curves, tooth profile, lubrication angle and the induced normal curvature are taken into account to investigate the meshing characteristics and create the profile of a novel specific type of worm drive through mathematical models and theoretical analysis. The tooth of the worm wheel is very specific with the sine-shaped tooth which is located at the alveolus of the worm and the tooth profile of a worm is generated by the meshing movement of the worm wheel with the sine-shaped tooth, but just the end face of the worm(with three different typical meshing types) is adapted to meshing, and therefore an extraordinary manufacturing methods is used to generate the profile of the end face engagement worm. The research results indicates that the bearing contacts of the generated conjugate hourglass worm gear set are in line contacts, with certain advantages of no-backlash, high precision and high operating efficiency over other gears and gear systems besides the end face engagement worm gear drive may improve bearing contact, reduce the level of transmission errors and lessen the sensitivity to errors of alignment. Also, the end face engagement worm can be easily made with superior meshing and lubrication performance compared with the conventional techniques. In particular, the meshing and lubrication performance of the end face engagement worm gear by using the end face to meshing can be increased over 10% and 7%, respectively. This investigate is expect to provide a new insight on the design of the future no-backlash worm drive for industry.

  15. Burden of Dementia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us FAQs Stay Connected You are here Home Global Health and Aging The Burden of Dementia The ... this total in less developed countries ( Figure 9 ). Global efforts are underway to understand and find cures ...

  16. Selenium (Se) deficiency alters intestinal diaphorase activity in mice infected with the intestinal parasitic worm Heligmosomoides polygyrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mice fed a diet deficient in Se show reduced resistance to a secondary infection with H. polygyrus. IL-4 and IL-13-dependent- increases in intestinal smooth muscle hyper-contractility and decreased glucose absorption correlate with expulsion of the adult worm following a challenge infection. Selen...

  17. Role of Social Support in Predicting Caregiver Burden

    PubMed Central

    Rodakowski, Juleen; Skidmore, Elizabeth R.; Rogers, Joan C.; Schulz, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine the unique contribution of social support to burden in caregivers of adults aging with spinal cord injuries (SCI). Design Secondary analyses of cross-sectional data from a large cohort of adults aging with SCI and their primary caregivers. Setting Multiple community locations in Pittsburgh, PA, and Miami, FL. Participants Caregivers of community-dwelling adults aging with SCI (n=173) were interviewed as part of a multisite randomized clinical trial. The mean age of caregivers was 53 years (SD=15) and of care-recipients 55 years (SD=13). Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures The primary outcome was caregiver burden measured with the Abridged Version of the Zarit Burden Interview. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis examined social supports (social integration, received social support, and negative social interactions) effect on burden in caregivers of adults aging while controlling for demographic characteristics and caregiving characteristics. Results After controlling for demographic characteristics and caregiving characteristics, social integration (β̂ =−.16, P<.05), received social support (β̂ =−.15, P<.05), and negative social interactions (β̂ =.21, P<.01) were significant independent predictors of caregiver burden. Conclusions Findings demonstrate that social support is an important factor associated with burden in caregivers of adults aging with SCI. Social support should be considered for assessments and interventions designed to identify and reduce caregiver burden. PMID:22824248

  18. Worm burden-dependent disruption of the porcine colon microbiota by Trichuris suis infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Helminth infection in pigs serves as an excellent model for the study of the interaction between human malnutrition and parasitic infection and could have important implications in human health. We had observed that pigs infected with Trichuris suis for 21 days showed significant changes in the prox...

  19. Worm burden-dependent disruption of the porcine colon microbiota by Trichuris suis infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The similar biology of several helminth infections in pigs and humans provides an excellent animal model to study the interaction between the host and parasite infection that could have important consequences for human health. We had observed that pigs infected with the whipworm Trichuris suis for 2...

  20. Mini-hemoglobins from nemertean worms.

    PubMed

    Vandergon, Thomas L; Riggs, Austen F

    2008-01-01

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) found in members of the phylum Nemertea are smaller than any other known Hb molecules. These mini-Hbs have been of great interest because of their unique three-dimensional structure and their stable ligand-binding properties. Also of interest is the expression of mini-Hb in neural tissue, body wall muscle tissue, and red blood cells. This chapter outlines methods that may be used to isolate and purify functional mini-Hbs from all three tissue types in nemertean worms. PMID:18237651

  1. Worms Eat My Garbage. How To Set Up and Maintain a Worm Composting System. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appelhof, Mary

    This book is a resource for parents and teachers who want to teach about recycling and composting by setting up and maintaining a worm composting system. It is designed to be a detailed yet simple manual of vermicomposting. The manual covers the basics of vermicomposting and answers such questions as where to store a composting container, what…

  2. Sampling of general correlators in worm-algorithm based simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rindlisbacher, Tobias; Åkerlund, Oscar; de Forcrand, Philippe

    2016-08-01

    Using the complex ϕ4-model as a prototype for a system which is simulated by a worm algorithm, we show that not only the charged correlator <ϕ* (x) ϕ (y) >, but also more general correlators such as < | ϕ (x) | | ϕ (y) | > or < arg ⁡ (ϕ (x)) arg ⁡ (ϕ (y)) >, as well as condensates like < | ϕ | >, can be measured at every step of the Monte Carlo evolution of the worm instead of on closed-worm configurations only. The method generalizes straightforwardly to other systems simulated by worms, such as spin or sigma models.

  3. Expression of actin genes in the arrow worm Paraspadella gotoi (Chaetognatha).

    PubMed

    Yasuda, E; Goto, T; Makabe, K W; Satoh, N

    1997-12-01

    Arrow worms (the phylum Chaetognatha), one of the major marine planktonic animals, exhibit features characteristic to both deuterostomes and protostomes, and their ancestry therefore remains unknown. As the first step to elucidate the molecular bases of arrow worm phylogeny, physiology and embryology, we isolated cDNA clones for three different actin genes (PgAct1, PgAct2 and PgAct3) from the benthic species Paraspadella gotoi, and examined their expression patterns in adults and juveniles. The amino acid sequences of the three actins resembled each other, with identities ranging from 86% to 92%. However, the patterns of the spatial expression of the genes were independent. The PgAct1 gene might encode a cytoplasmic actin and was expressed in oogenic cells, spermatogenic cells, and cells in the ventral ganglion. The PgAct2 and PgAct3 genes encoded actins of divergent types. The former was expressed in well-developed muscle of the head (gnathic) region and trunk muscle cells, whereas the latter was expressed in muscle of the trunk and tail regions and oogenic cells. These results suggest that, similarly to other metazoans, the chaetognath contains multiple forms of actins, which are expressed in various manners in the adult and juvenile arrow worm. PMID:9520638

  4. Efficacy of Emodepside/Praziquantel Spot-on (Profender®) against adult Aelurostrongylus abstrusus Nematodes in Experimentally Infected Cats.

    PubMed

    Böhm, Claudia; Wolken, Sonja; Schnyder, Manuela; Basso, Walter; Deplazes, Peter; Di Cesare, Angela; Deuster, Katrin; Schaper, Roland

    2015-08-01

    The adulticidal efficacy of a topical combination of emodepside 2.1 % (w/v) plus praziquantel 8.6 % (w/v) (Profender® spot-on for cats, Bayer) against adult Aelurostrongylus abstrusus nematodes was evaluated in two randomised, placebo-controlled laboratory efficacy studies. Each study involved 16 cats experimentally inoculated with L3 (800 and 600 each in studies no. 1 and 2, respectively) and randomised into two study groups of 8 cats each after onset of patency. While cats in the treatment group in study no. 1 received a single spot-on application at the minimum therapeutic dose (3 mg/kg emodepside and 12 mg/kg praziquantel), cats in study no. 2 were treated twice with an interval of 14 days. The faecal output of first stage larvae was monitored throughout the study. Necropsy was conducted 4 or 5 weeks after the (first) treatment and the worm counts were used for efficacy calculations. The control groups showed a geometric mean of the total worm count (live and dead worms) of 28.8 (study no. 1) and 17.6 (study no. 2), respectively. All control animals were infected. While the single treatment in study no. 1 resulted in a reduction of the total worm burden by 73.0 % (p = 0.0070), the treatment protocol in study no. 2 was 99.2 % effective (p = 0.0035). Based on live worm counts, the efficacy in study no. 2 was 100 % (p = 0.0030). It is concluded that two applications of Profender® spot-on given two weeks apart represent a safe and highly efficacious treatment regime against feline aelurostrongylosis. PMID:26152416

  5. Chordodes ferox, a new record of horsehair worms (Nematomorpha, Gordiida) from South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt-Rhaesa, Andreas; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Three females and one male specimen of a previously unconfirmed species of horsehair worms (Nematomorpha) from South Africa are described using Scanning Electron Microscopy. The females correspond to the description of Chordodes ferox Camerano, 1897, a species previously described from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Congo-Kinshasa) and an adjacent, not further specified region of the Republic of Congo (Congo-Brazzaville). Characteristic is the presence of enlarged and elevated simple areoles around the base of a thorn areole, in combination with further cuticular characters. This is the latest of a total of six species of horsehair worms reported from South Africa so far. Two species of praying mantids, Polyspilota aeruginosa (Goeze, 1778) and Sphodromantis gastrica Stål, 1858, have been identified as hosts of Chordodes ferox, while its distribution range in the region and the period of adult emergence from the host remain largely unknown. PMID:27047243

  6. Undue burden of abortion.

    PubMed

    Charo, A

    1992-07-01

    In Planned Parenthood vs. Casey, the US Supreme Court upheld all but 1 provision of Pennsylvania law that further restricts access to abortion. The law has a 24-hour waiting period, parental consent for minors with a judicial bypass, husband notification, and the circumstances of each abortion are to be reported to the state for statistical purposes. The Court overturned the husband notification provision even though it had a bypass procedure. The most important aspect of the decision was the change from the strict scrutiny in which abortion was to be left alone unless the state could show a compelling need to regulate it to an undue burden test in which the state is allowed to regulate abortion so long as it does not place an undue burden on women trying to seek abortion services. The 24-hour waiting period was upheld; however, it was also acknowledged that since 83% of women live in counties without abortion services, this may turn out to be an undue burden and it is open to review at later date when statistical evidence is available. The Opinion was written by Justices O'Connor, Kennedy, and Souter. Chief Justice Rehnquist and Justices Scalia, White, and Thomas dissented saying that the undue burden standard was unprecedented in constitutional law and undefinable in practice. It is likely now that the Court will begin writing abortion policy as it clarifies each specific point of the law rather than ruling on fundamental legal principles. PMID:1351612

  7. Symptom Burden in Chronically Ill Homebound Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Wajnberg, Ania; Ornstein, Katherine; Zhang, Meng; Smith, Kristofer L; Soriano, Theresa

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To document the degree of symptom burden in an urban homebound population. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting The Mount Sinai Visiting Doctors Program (MSVD). Participants All individuals newly enrolled in the MSVD. Measurements Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (ESAS), which consists of 10 visual analogue scales scored from 0 to 10; symptoms include pain, tiredness, nausea, depression, anxiety, drowsiness, appetite, well-being, shortness of breath, and other. Results ESAS scores were completed for 318 participants. Most participants were aged 80 and older (68%) and female (75%); 36% were white, 22% black, and 32% Hispanic. Forty-three percent had Medicaid, and 32% lived alone. Ninety-one percent required assistance with one or more activities of daily living, 45% had a Karnofsky Performance Scale score between 0 and 40 (unable to care for self), and 43% reported severe burden on one or more symptoms. The most commonly reported symptoms were loss of appetite, lack of well-being, tiredness, and pain; the symptoms with the highest scores were depression, pain, appetite, and shortness of breath. Participants were more likely to have severe symptom burden if they self-reported their ESAS, had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or diabetes mellitus with end organ damage, or had a Charlson Comorbidity Index greater than 3 and less likely to have severe burden if they had dementia. Conclusion In chronically ill homebound adults, symptom burden is a serious problem that needs to be addressed alongside primary and specialty care needs. PMID:23205716

  8. Examination of the relationship between host worm community structure on transmission of the parasite, Myxobolus cerebralis by developing taxon-specific probes for multiplex qPCR to identify worm taxa in stream communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fytilis, N.; Lamb, R.; Kerans, B.; Stevens, L.; Rizzo, D. M.

    2011-12-01

    Fish diseases are often caused by waterborne parasites, making them ideal systems for modeling the non-linear relationships between disease dynamics, stream dwelling oligochaete communities and geochemical features. Myxobolus cerebralis, the causative agent of whirling disease in salmonid fishes, has been a major contributor to the loss of wild rainbow trout populations in numerous streams within the Intermountain West. The parasite alternates between an invertebrate and vertebrate host, being transmitted between the sediment feeding worm Tubifex tubifex (T.tubifex) and salmonid fishes. Worm community biodiversity and abundance are influenced by biogeochemical features and have been linked to disease severity in fish. The worm (T.tubifex) lives in communities with 3-4 other types of worms in stream sediments. Unfortunately, taxonomic identification of oligochaetes is largely dependent on morphological characteristics of sexually mature adults. We have collected and identified ~700 worms from eight sites using molecular genetic probes and a taxonomic key. Additionally, ~1700 worms were identified using only molecular genetic probes. To facilitate distinguishing among tubificids, we developed two multiplex molecular genetic probe-based quantitative polymerase reaction (qPCR) assays to assess tubificid communities in the study area. Similar qPCR techniques specific for M.cerebralis used to determine if individual worms were infected with the parasite. We show how simple Bayesian analysis of the qPCR data can predict the worm community structure and reveal relationships between biodiversity of host communities and host-parasite dynamics. To our knowledge, this is the first study that combines molecular data of both the host and the parasite to examine the effects of host community structure on the transmission of a parasite. Our work can be extended to examine the links between worm community structure and biogeochemical features using molecular genetics and Bayesian

  9. Notions and treatment of guinea worm in northern Ghana.

    PubMed

    Bierlich, B

    1995-08-01

    Dracunculiasis, infection with Dracunculus medinensis or guinea worm, is widespread in the Northern Region of Ghana, where rural people drink from unprotected water sources such as ponds and small-scale dams. This paper discusses the results of an anthropological study of beliefs and practices concerning commonly occurring illnesses, such as infection with guinea worm (nierifu), in two rural Dagomba communities in the Northern Region of Ghana. The importance of knowing about local perceptions and treatment of guinea worm is stressed. Guinea worm is not attributed to water. The general understanding is that guinea worm is an innate part of human anatomy. It is not seen as an alien presence in the body. Guinea worm is rather said to be 'in people's blood', and sooner or later to 'stand up'. Guinea worm is considered an 'inevitable' feature of living. After a description of the background to the study, the methods are characterized. Brief background information on the people, their environment and their water sources are given. The central portion of the paper focuses on local perceptions of illness and notions of guinea worm ('guinea worm is in the human blood'), which are very different from those of biomedicine ('guinea worm is a disease'). Attention is also given to perceptions of water ('bitter' vs 'sweet') and the prevention of guinea worm. The social limitations to the filter technology are addressed. People's choice of therapy and the role of medicines (herbs and Western pharmaceuticals) in treatment of guinea worm are also considered. The paper concludes with a discussion of health education and stresses the importance of showing respect for the local view of guinea worm, which is said to be 'in the blood'. It is suggested that, since people are not adverse to the use of Western pharmaceuticals, the use of Western medicines to treat guinea worm should be further promoted. The social constraints on filtering must also be appreciated. These relate to the

  10. The occurrence of gizzard worms in Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Wehr, E.E.

    1954-01-01

    Amidostomum anseris, a roundworm which occurs under the horny lining of the gizzard in birds, is a widely distributed parasite in Canada geese. It is also reported from snow geese (Chen hyperborea). Although the extent of erosion of the gizzard wall by these worms is not precisely correlated with the number of worms present, it is usually severe in Canada geese when 150 or more worms are present. Gizzard worm infection is considered a contributing factor to low weights, poor condition and to losses among the Canada geese which winter at the Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge in North Carolina. The mean number of gizzard worms per bird is considerably higher for Pea Island than for areas where winter losses have not been reported.

  11. Can aquatic worms enhance methane production from waste activated sludge?

    PubMed

    Serrano, Antonio; Hendrickx, Tim L G; Elissen, Hellen H J; Laarhoven, Bob; Buisman, Cees J N; Temmink, Hardy

    2016-07-01

    Although literature suggests that aquatic worms can help to enhance the methane production from excess activated sludge, clear evidence for this is missing. Therefore, anaerobic digestion tests were performed at 20 and at 30°C with sludge from a high-loaded membrane bioreactor, the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus, feces from these worms and with mixtures of these substrates. A significant synergistic effect of the worms or their feces on methane production from the high-loaded sludge or on its digestion rate was not observed. However, a positive effect on low-loaded activated sludge, which generally has a lower anaerobic biodegradability, cannot be excluded. The results furthermore showed that the high-loaded sludge provides an excellent feed for L. variegatus, which is promising for concepts where worm biomass is considered a resource for technical grade products such as coatings and glues. PMID:26998797

  12. "Qupirruit": insects and worms in Inuit traditions.

    PubMed

    Laugrand, Frédéric; Oosten, Jarich

    2010-01-01

    Although small beings such as the "qupirruit" (insects and worms) appear in many different contexts in Inuit culture, they have not received much attention from scholars. In this paper we examine the symbolism associated with these small animals. We show that their small size makes them suitable to operate on the level of the "tarniq," a miniature image of a being. We discuss how insects often connect different scales and easily transform into other beings. We first deal with the perceptions of insects as they take shape in narratives and practices, and their roles in the manufacture and use of amulets. Then we move to a more specific analysis of the distinctive features of the various "qupirruit". PMID:20648981

  13. Subconjunctival Loa loa worm: first case report in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Passos, Renato Magalhães; Barbosa, Carolina Pelegrini; Almeida, Juliana de Souza; Ogawa, Guilherme Maerschner; Camargo, Luis Marcelo Aranha

    2012-01-01

    We report the first case of ocular infestation by Loa loa in Brazil. Loiasis is caused by infestation with Loa loa, a filarial parasite originally found in the rainforests of western and central Africa. It is transmitted by the bite of the fly Chrysops and has been recently described in other places other than Africa, in African immigrants or travellers. Our case is a 33 year-old woman from Cameroon who was living in São Paulo, Brazil, for 5 years. She was asymptomatic until one morning she started feeling "something moving" in the left eye. Under topical anesthesia, on the slit lamp, a moving worm was removed from the subconjunctival space, which later was confirmed to be a male Loa loa adult specimen. Blood tests revealed microfilaraemia of 129 mf/mL. The patient was treated with 400 mg oral albendazole for 3 weeks and 60 mg prednisone. This report illustrates an unusual ocular disease, which is extremely rare outside of Africa, but easily diagnosed and treated. Ophthalmologists should be aware of it, in face of an increasingly globalized world. PMID:22552423

  14. Functional brain regeneration in the acoel worm Symsagittifera roscoffensis

    PubMed Central

    Sprecher, Simon G.; Bernardo-Garcia, F. Javier; van Giesen, Lena; Hartenstein, Volker; Reichert, Heinrich; Neves, Ricardo; Bailly, Xavier; Martinez, Pedro; Brauchle, Michael

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The ability of some animals to regrow their head and brain after decapitation provides a striking example of the regenerative capacity within the animal kingdom. The acoel worm Symsagittifera roscoffensis can regrow its head, brain and sensory head organs within only a few weeks after decapitation. How rapidly and to what degree it also reacquires its functionality to control behavior however remains unknown. We provide here a neuroanatomical map of the brain neuropils of the adult S. roscoffensis and show that after decapitation a normal neuroanatomical organization of the brain is restored in the majority of animals. By testing different behaviors we further show that functionality of both sensory perception and the underlying brain architecture are restored within weeks after decapitation. Interestingly not all behaviors are restored at the same speed and to the same extent. While we find that phototaxis recovered rapidly, geotaxis is not restored within 7 weeks. Our findings show that regeneration of the head, sensory organs and brain result in the restoration of directed navigation behavior, suggesting a tight coordination in the regeneration of certain sensory organs with that of their underlying neural circuits. Thus, at least in S. roscoffensis, the regenerative capacity of different sensory modalities follows distinct paths. PMID:26581588

  15. Functional brain regeneration in the acoel worm Symsagittifera roscoffensis.

    PubMed

    Sprecher, Simon G; Bernardo-Garcia, F Javier; van Giesen, Lena; Hartenstein, Volker; Reichert, Heinrich; Neves, Ricardo; Bailly, Xavier; Martinez, Pedro; Brauchle, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The ability of some animals to regrow their head and brain after decapitation provides a striking example of the regenerative capacity within the animal kingdom. The acoel worm Symsagittifera roscoffensis can regrow its head, brain and sensory head organs within only a few weeks after decapitation. How rapidly and to what degree it also reacquires its functionality to control behavior however remains unknown. We provide here a neuroanatomical map of the brain neuropils of the adult S. roscoffensis and show that after decapitation a normal neuroanatomical organization of the brain is restored in the majority of animals. By testing different behaviors we further show that functionality of both sensory perception and the underlying brain architecture are restored within weeks after decapitation. Interestingly not all behaviors are restored at the same speed and to the same extent. While we find that phototaxis recovered rapidly, geotaxis is not restored within 7 weeks. Our findings show that regeneration of the head, sensory organs and brain result in the restoration of directed navigation behavior, suggesting a tight coordination in the regeneration of certain sensory organs with that of their underlying neural circuits. Thus, at least in S. roscoffensis, the regenerative capacity of different sensory modalities follows distinct paths. PMID:26581588

  16. Loan Burdens and Educational Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monks, James

    2001-01-01

    Studies the impact of the loan burden of seniors at 27 colleges and universities in 1998 on their plans to pursue graduate and professional degrees. Finds no adverse impact of loan burdens on student postgraduate degree plans. (PKP)

  17. The larval nervous system of the penis worm Priapulus caudatus (Ecdysozoa).

    PubMed

    Martín-Durán, José M; Wolff, Gabriella H; Strausfeld, Nicholas J; Hejnol, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The origin and extreme diversification of the animal nervous system is a central question in biology. While most of the attention has traditionally been paid to those lineages with highly elaborated nervous systems (e.g. arthropods, vertebrates, annelids), only the study of the vast animal diversity can deliver a comprehensive view of the evolutionary history of this organ system. In this regard, the phylogenetic position and apparently conservative molecular, morphological and embryological features of priapulid worms (Priapulida) place this animal lineage as a key to understanding the evolution of the Ecdysozoa (i.e. arthropods and nematodes). In this study, we characterize the nervous system of the hatching larva and first lorica larva of the priapulid worm Priapulus caudatus by immunolabelling against acetylated and tyrosinated tubulin, pCaMKII, serotonin and FMRFamide. Our results show that a circumoral brain and an unpaired ventral nerve with a caudal ganglion characterize the central nervous system of hatching embryos. After the first moult, the larva attains some adult features: a neck ganglion, an introvert plexus, and conspicuous secondary longitudinal neurites. Our study delivers a neuroanatomical framework for future embryological studies in priapulid worms, and helps illuminate the course of nervous system evolution in the Ecdysozoa. PMID:26598729

  18. The larval nervous system of the penis worm Priapulus caudatus (Ecdysozoa)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The origin and extreme diversification of the animal nervous system is a central question in biology. While most of the attention has traditionally been paid to those lineages with highly elaborated nervous systems (e.g. arthropods, vertebrates, annelids), only the study of the vast animal diversity can deliver a comprehensive view of the evolutionary history of this organ system. In this regard, the phylogenetic position and apparently conservative molecular, morphological and embryological features of priapulid worms (Priapulida) place this animal lineage as a key to understanding the evolution of the Ecdysozoa (i.e. arthropods and nematodes). In this study, we characterize the nervous system of the hatching larva and first lorica larva of the priapulid worm Priapulus caudatus by immunolabelling against acetylated and tyrosinated tubulin, pCaMKII, serotonin and FMRFamide. Our results show that a circumoral brain and an unpaired ventral nerve with a caudal ganglion characterize the central nervous system of hatching embryos. After the first moult, the larva attains some adult features: a neck ganglion, an introvert plexus, and conspicuous secondary longitudinal neurites. Our study delivers a neuroanatomical framework for future embryological studies in priapulid worms, and helps illuminate the course of nervous system evolution in the Ecdysozoa. PMID:26598729

  19. Stability analysis of an e-SEIAR model with point-to-group worm propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fangwei; Zhang, Yunkai; Wang, Changguang; Ma, Jianfeng

    2015-03-01

    Internet worms have drawn significant attention due to their enormous threats to the Internet. The main goal of this paper is to explore the interaction dynamics between a malicious worm and an benign worm, using a mathematical model, namely e-SEIAR. The e-SEIAR model takes two important network environment factors into consideration: point-to-group worm propagation mode and benign worms. Furthermore, some related dynamics properties are studied, along with the analysis of how to combat the worm prevalence based on the stability of equilibria. Simulation results show that the performance of our proposed models is effective in combating such worms, in terms of decreasing the number of hosts infected by the malicious worm and reducing the malicious worm propagation speed. Based on our simulations, we believe there is great potential for an effective method to use benign worms to combat malicious worms in some point-to-group applications.

  20. Fossilization of an ancient (devonian) soft-bodied worm.

    PubMed

    Cameron, B

    1967-03-10

    A shell-boring polychaete worm was found replaced by the min eral limonite-goethite; this fossil is probably a limonite-goethite pseudo morph after pyrite, suggesting that the soft-bodied worm was originally re placed by pyrite. External structures such as a prostomium, anterior tentacle like palps, peristomial cirri, parapodia, setae bundles of the parapodia, and dorsal cirri of the parapodia are pre served. This worm resembles living members of the family Spionidae in form and habit. This discovery extends the known range of this family (Cre taceous?, Miocene to Recent) back about 365 million years to the Devo nian period. PMID:17847539

  1. The landscape of human genes involved in the immune response to parasitic worms

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background More than 2 billion individuals worldwide suffer from helminth infections. The highest parasite burdens occur in children and helminth infection during pregnancy is a risk factor for preterm delivery and reduced birth weight. Therefore, helminth infections can be regarded as a strong selective pressure. Results Here we propose that candidate susceptibility genes for parasitic worm infections can be identified by searching for SNPs that display a strong correlation with the diversity of helminth species/genera transmitted in different geographic areas. By a genome-wide search we identified 3478 variants that correlate with helminth diversity. These SNPs map to 810 distinct human genes including loci involved in regulatory T cell function and in macrophage activation, as well as leukocyte integrins and co-inhibitory molecules. Analysis of functional relationships among these genes identified complex interaction networks centred around Th2 cytokines. Finally, several genes carrying candidate targets for helminth-driven selective pressure also harbour susceptibility alleles for asthma/allergy or are involved in airway hyper-responsiveness, therefore expanding the known parallelism between these conditions and parasitic infections. Conclusions Our data provide a landscape of human genes that modulate susceptibility to helminths and indicate parasitic worms as one of the major selective forces in humans. PMID:20807397

  2. Velvet worm development links myriapods with chelicerates.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Georg; Whitington, Paul M

    2009-10-22

    Despite the advent of modern molecular and computational methods, the phylogeny of the four major arthropod groups (Chelicerata, Myriapoda, Crustacea and Hexapoda, including the insects) remains enigmatic. One particular challenge is the position of myriapods as either the closest relatives to chelicerates (Paradoxopoda/Myriochelata hypothesis), or to crustaceans and hexapods (Mandibulata hypothesis). While neither hypothesis receives conclusive support from molecular analyses, most morphological studies favour the Mandibulata concept, with the mandible being the most prominent feature of this group. Although no morphological evidence was initially available to support the Paradoxopoda hypothesis, a putative synapomorphy of chelicerates and myriapods has recently been put forward based on studies of neurogenesis. However, this and other morphological characters remain of limited use for phylogenetic systematics owing to the lack of data from an appropriate outgroup. Here, we show that several embryonic characters are synapomorphies uniting the chelicerates and myriapods, as revealed by an outgroup comparison with the Onychophora or velvet worms. Our findings, thus provide, to our knowledge, first morphological/embryological support for the monophyly of the Paradoxopoda and suggest that the mandible might have evolved twice within the arthropods. PMID:19640885

  3. Salmonella burden in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Malaeb, M; Bizri, A R; Ghosn, N; Berry, A; Musharrafieh, U

    2016-06-01

    Salmonellosis is a disease that represents a major public health concern in both developing and developed countries. The aim of this article is to evaluate the public health burden of Salmonella illness in Lebanon. The current scope of the Salmonella infection problem was assessed in relation to disease incidence and distribution with respect to age, gender and district. Factors that provide a better understanding of the magnitude of the problem were explored and highlighted. Data reported to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Department at the Lebanese Ministry of Public Health between 2001 and 2013 was reviewed. Information obtained was compared to information reported regionally and globally. The estimated true incidence was derived using multipliers from the CDC and Jordan. A literature review of all published data from Lebanon about Salmonella susceptibility/resistance patterns and its serious clinical complications was conducted. The estimated incidence was 13·34 cases/100 000 individuals, most cases occurred in the 20-39 years age group with no significant gender variation. Poor and less developed districts of Lebanon had the highest number of cases and the peak incidence was in summer. Reflecting on the projected incidence derived from the use of multipliers indicates a major discrepancy between what is reported and what is estimated. We conclude that data about Salmonella infection in Lebanon and many Middle Eastern and developing countries lack crucial information and are not necessarily representative of the true incidence, prevalence and burden of illness. PMID:26743045

  4. Global burden of COPD.

    PubMed

    López-Campos, José Luis; Tan, Wan; Soriano, Joan B

    2016-01-01

    It is estimated that the world population will reach a record 7.3 billion in 2015, and the high burden of chronic conditions associated with ageing and smoking will increase further. Respiratory diseases in general receive little attention and funding in comparison with other major causes of global morbidity and mortality. In particular, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been a major public health problem and will remain a challenge for clinicians within the 21st century. Worldwide, COPD is in the spotlight, since its high prevalence, morbidity and mortality create formidable challenges for health-care systems. This review emphasizes the magnitude of the COPD problem from a clinician's standpoint by drawing extensively from the new findings of the Global Burden of Disease study. Updated, distilled information on the population distribution of COPD is useful for the clinician to help provide an appreciation of the relative impact of COPD in daily practice compared with other chronic conditions, and to allocate minimum resources in anticipation of future needs in care. Despite recent trends in reduction of COPD standardized mortality rates and some recent successes in anti-smoking efforts in a number of Western countries, the overarching demographic impact of ageing in an ever-expanding world population, joined with other factors such as high rates of smoking and air pollution in Asia, will ensure that COPD will continue to pose an ever-increasing problem well into the 21st century. PMID:26494423

  5. Burden of pediatric hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    El-Shabrawi, Mortada Hassan; Kamal, Naglaa Mohamed

    2013-11-28

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major health burden infecting 170-210 million people worldwide. Additional 3-4 millions are newly-infected annually. Prevalence of pediatric infection varies from 0.05%-0.36% in the United States and Europe; up to 1.8%-5.8% in some developing countries. The highest prevalence occurs in Egypt, sub-Saharan Africa, Amazon basin and Mongolia. HCV has been present in some populations for several centuries, notably genotypes 1 and 2 in West Africa. Parenteral anti-schistosomal therapy practiced in the 1960s until the early 1980s had spread HCV infection throughout Egypt. Parenteral acquisition of HCV remains a major route for infection among Egyptian children. Insufficient screening of transfusions, unsterilized injection equipment and re-used needles and syringes continue to be major routes of HCV transmission in developing countries, whereas vertical transmission and adolescent high-risk behaviors (e.g., injection drug abuse) are the major routes in developed countries. The risk of vertical transmission from an infected mother to her unborn/newborn infant is approximately 5%. Early stages of HCV infection in children do not lead to marked impairment in the quality of life nor to cognitive, behavioral or emotional dysfunction; however, caregiver stress and family system strain may occur. HCV slowly progresses to serious complications as cirrhosis (1%-2%) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) especially in the presence of risk factors as hemolytic anemias, obesity, treated malignancy, and concomitant human immune deficiency and/or hepatitis B virus co-infection. HCV vaccine remains elusive to date. Understanding the immune mechanisms in patients who successfully cleared the infection is essential for vaccine development. The pediatric standard of care treatment consists of pegylated interferon-α 2a or b plus ribavirin for 24-48 wk. The new oral direct acting antivirals, approved for adults, need further evaluation in children. Sustained

  6. 19. WORM AND SPUR GEARS FOR CONTROLLING THE PADDLE VALVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. WORM AND SPUR GEARS FOR CONTROLLING THE PADDLE VALVE IN ONE OF THE LOCK GATES WHICH SEPARATES UPPER AND LOWER CHAMBERS: 1976 - Pawtucket Canal, Swamp Locks, Pawtucket & Merrimack Canals, Lowell, Middlesex County, MA

  7. 20. WORM AND SPUR GEARS FOR CONTROLLING THE PADDLE VALVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. WORM AND SPUR GEARS FOR CONTROLLING THE PADDLE VALVE IN ONE OF THE GATES BETWEEN THE UPPER AND LOWER CHAMBERS: 1976 - Pawtucket Canal, Swamp Locks, Pawtucket & Merrimack Canals, Lowell, Middlesex County, MA

  8. 2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Big Creek Road, Between State Route 284 & Big Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  9. Detail, terra cotta, ironwork, and painted wood "worm gear" carved ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, terra cotta, ironwork, and painted wood "worm gear" carved columns, north rear. - San Bernardino Valley College, Library, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  10. 18. WORM AND SPUR GEARS FOR CONTROLLING THE PADDLE VALVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. WORM AND SPUR GEARS FOR CONTROLLING THE PADDLE VALVE IN ONE OF THE GATES BETWEEN THE UPPER AND LOWER CHAMBERS: 1976 - Pawtucket Canal, Swamp Locks, Pawtucket & Merrimack Canals, Lowell, Middlesex County, MA

  11. Worm drive detail, roller hoist mechanism, rolling crest roller gate ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Worm drive detail, roller hoist mechanism, rolling crest roller gate - plan and sections - Grand Valley Diversion Dam, Half a mile north of intersection of I-70 & Colorado State Route 65, Cameo, Mesa County, CO

  12. 6. VIEW OF DRIFT SHAFT, HOIST MOTOR, WORM WHEEL GEAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF DRIFT SHAFT, HOIST MOTOR, WORM WHEEL GEAR ASSEMBLY, CROSS SHAFT, AND INTERMEDIATE GEAR HOIST ASSEMBLY FOR CONTROL GATE NO. 6, LOOKING WEST - Long Lake Hydroelectric Plant, Spillway Dam, Spanning Spokane River, Ford, Stevens County, WA

  13. Metagenomic Analysis of Microbial Symbionts in a Gutless Worm

    SciTech Connect

    Woyke, Tanja; Teeling, Hanno; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Hunteman, Marcel; Richter, Michael; Gloeckner, Frank Oliver; Boeffelli, Dario; Barry, Kerrie W.; Shapiro, Harris J.; Anderson, Iain J.; Szeto, Ernest; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Mussmann, Marc; Amann, Rudolf; Bergin, Claudia; Ruehland, Caroline; Rubin, Edward M.; Dubilier, Nicole

    2006-05-01

    Symbioses between bacteria and eukaryotes are ubiquitous, yet our understanding of the interactions driving these associations is hampered by our inability to cultivate most host-associated microbes. Here we use a metagenomic approach to describe four co-occurring symbionts from the marine oligochaete Olavius algarvensis, a worm lacking a mouth, gut and nephridia. Shotgun sequencing and metabolic pathway reconstruction revealed that the symbionts are sulphur-oxidizing and sulphate-reducing bacteria, all of which are capable of carbon fixation, thus providing the host with multiple sources of nutrition. Molecular evidence for the uptake and recycling of worm waste products by the symbionts suggests how the worm could eliminate its excretory system, an adaptation unique among annelid worms. We propose a model that describes how the versatile metabolism within this symbiotic consortium provides the host with an optimal energy supply as it shuttles between the upper oxic and lower anoxic coastal sediments that it inhabits.

  14. WormBase: methods for data mining and comparative genomics.

    PubMed

    Harris, Todd W; Stein, Lincoln D

    2006-01-01

    WormBase is a comprehensive repository for information on Caenorhabditis elegans and related nematodes. Although the primary web-based interface of WormBase (http:// www.wormbase.org/) is familiar to most C. elegans researchers, WormBase also offers powerful data-mining features for addressing questions of comparative genomics, genome structure, and evolution. In this chapter, we focus on data mining at WormBase through the use of flexible web interfaces, custom queries, and scripts. The intended audience includes users wishing to query the database beyond the confines of the web interface or fetch data en masse. No knowledge of programming is necessary or assumed, although users with intermediate skills in the Perl scripting language will be able to utilize additional data-mining approaches. PMID:16988424

  15. Improved Gear Shapes for Face Worm Gear Drives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvin, Faydor L.; Nava, Alessandro; Fan, Qi; Fuentes, Alfonso

    2005-01-01

    Shapes different from the traditional ones have been proposed for face worm gears and for conical and cylindrical worms that mesh with them. The proposed shapes are based on the concept of generating a face worm gear surface by use of a tilted head cutter instead of by the traditional use of a hob. (As used here, head cutter is also meant to signify, alternatively, a head grinding tool.) The gear-surface-generation equipment would be similar to that used for generation of spiral bevel and hypoid gears. In comparison with the corresponding traditional hob, a tilted head cutter according to the proposal would be larger, could be fabricated with greater precision, and would enable the generation of gear surfaces with greater precision and greater productivity. A face worm gear would be generated (see figure) by use of a tilted head cutter, the blades or grinding surfaces of which would have straight-line profiles. The tilt of the head cutter would prevent interference with teeth adjacent to the groove being cut or ground. A worm to mesh with the face worm gear would be generated by use of a tilted head cutter mounted on the cradle of a generating machine. The blades or grinding surfaces of the head cutter would have a parabolic profile and would deviate from the straight-line profiles of the head cutter for the face worm gear. The shortest distance between the worm and the cradle would follow a parabolic function during the cycle of meshing in the generating process to provide a parabolic function of transmission errors to the gear drive. The small mismatch between the profiles of the face-worm-gear and worm head cutters would make it possible to localize the bearing contact in the worm gear drive. The parabolic function of transmission errors could absorb discontinuous linear functions of transmission errors caused by errors of alignment; this could afford a significant benefit, in that such errors are main sources of noise and vibration in gear drives. The main

  16. Using Lateral Coupled Snakes for Modeling the Contours of Worms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing; Ronneberger, Olaf; Schulze, Ekkehard; Baumeister, Ralf; Burkhardt, Hans

    A model called lateral coupled snakes is proposed to describe the contours of moving C. elegans worms on 2D images with high accuracy. The model comprises two curves with point correspondence between them. The line linking a corresponding pair is approximately perpendicular to the curves at the two points, which is ensured by shear restoring forces. Experimental proofs reveal that the model is a promising tool for locating and segmenting worms or objects with similar shapes.

  17. Partial purification and characterization of Ascaridia galli diagnostic worm antigen.

    PubMed

    Abdel Rahman, Eman H; Khalil, Fathia A M

    2005-08-01

    Partial purification of Ascaridia galli whole worm extract was conducted by Cyanogen bromide Sepharose 4B immunoaffinity column chromatography. The resulted fraction was characterized by sodium dodecyle sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and isoelectric focusing. The fraction was found to be consisted of six bands of 207 KDa, 157 KDa. 110 KDa, 103 KDa, 76 KDa and 41 KDa. This profile was compared with that of whole worm and excretory-secretory antigens. Both antigens were resolved into multiple bands in both high and low molecular weight ranges. The isoelectric focusing of the fraction displayed 8 bands of isoelectric points 7.5, 7.0, 6.8, 6.5, 6.2, 5.8. 5.3 and 4.6. The potency of this fraction in the diagnosis of natural ascaridiosis in chickens was assessed by ELISA compared with that of whole worm and ES antigens. The affinity purified fraction showed higher potentials in the diagnosis of A. galli infection in chickens than whole worm antigen at any sera dilution and than ES antigen at high sera dilutions. While ES antigen of the worms revealed higher diagnostic capabilities than whole worm extract. The current research recommends utilization of the affinity isolated fraction in the diagnosis of natural ascaridiosis in chickens. PMID:16083065

  18. Social behaviour and collective motion in plant-animal worms.

    PubMed

    Franks, Nigel R; Worley, Alan; Grant, Katherine A J; Gorman, Alice R; Vizard, Victoria; Plackett, Harriet; Doran, Carolina; Gamble, Margaret L; Stumpe, Martin C; Sendova-Franks, Ana B

    2016-02-24

    Social behaviour may enable organisms to occupy ecological niches that would otherwise be unavailable to them. Here, we test this major evolutionary principle by demonstrating self-organizing social behaviour in the plant-animal, Symsagittifera roscoffensis. These marine aceol flat worms rely for all of their nutrition on the algae within their bodies: hence their common name. We show that individual worms interact with one another to coordinate their movements so that even at low densities they begin to swim in small polarized groups and at increasing densities such flotillas turn into circular mills. We use computer simulations to: (i) determine if real worms interact socially by comparing them with virtual worms that do not interact and (ii) show that the social phase transitions of the real worms can occur based only on local interactions between and among them. We hypothesize that such social behaviour helps the worms to form the dense biofilms or mats observed on certain sun-exposed sandy beaches in the upper intertidal of the East Atlantic and to become in effect a super-organismic seaweed in a habitat where macro-algal seaweeds cannot anchor themselves. Symsagittifera roscoffensis, a model organism in many other areas in biology (including stem cell regeneration), also seems to be an ideal model for understanding how individual behaviours can lead, through collective movement, to social assemblages. PMID:26911961

  19. New Geometry of Worm Face Gear Drives with Conical and Cylindrical Worms: Generation, Simulation of Meshing, and Stress Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvin, Faydor L.; Nava, Alessandro; Fan, Qi; Fuentes, Alfonso

    2002-01-01

    New geometry of face worm gear drives with conical and cylindrical worms is proposed. The generation of the face worm-gear is based on application of a tilted head-cutter (grinding tool) instead of application of a hob applied at present. The generation of a conjugated worm is based on application of a tilted head-cutter (grinding tool) as well. The bearing contact of the gear drive is localized and is oriented longitudinally. A predesigned parabolic function of transmission errors for reduction of noise and vibration is provided. The stress analysis of the gear drive is performed using a three-dimensional finite element analysis. The contacting model is automatically generated. The developed theory is illustrated with numerical examples.

  20. Navigating molecular worms inside chemical labyrinths.

    PubMed

    Haranczyk, M; Sethian, J A

    2009-12-22

    Predicting whether a molecule can traverse chemical labyrinths of channels, tunnels, and buried cavities usually requires performing computationally intensive molecular dynamics simulations. Often one wants to screen molecules to identify ones that can pass through a given chemical labyrinth or screen chemical labyrinths to identify those that allow a given molecule to pass. Because it is impractical to test each molecule/labyrinth pair using computationally expensive methods, faster, approximate methods are used to prune possibilities, "triaging" the ability of a proposed molecule to pass through the given chemical labyrinth. Most pruning methods estimate chemical accessibility solely on geometry, treating atoms or groups of atoms as hard spheres with appropriate radii. Here, we explore geometric configurations for a moving "molecular worm," which replaces spherical probes and is assembled from solid blocks connected by flexible links. The key is to extend the fast marching method, which is an ordered upwind one-pass Dijkstra-like method to compute optimal paths by efficiently solving an associated Eikonal equation for the cost function. First, we build a suitable cost function associated with each possible configuration, and second, we construct an algorithm that works in ensuing high-dimensional configuration space: at least seven dimensions are required to account for translational, rotational, and internal degrees of freedom. We demonstrate the algorithm to study shortest paths, compute accessible volume, and derive information on topology of the accessible part of a chemical labyrinth. As a model example, we consider an alkane molecule in a porous material, which is relevant to designing catalysts for oil processing. PMID:20018716

  1. Navigating molecular worms inside chemical labyrinths

    PubMed Central

    Haranczyk, M.; Sethian, J. A.

    2009-01-01

    Predicting whether a molecule can traverse chemical labyrinths of channels, tunnels, and buried cavities usually requires performing computationally intensive molecular dynamics simulations. Often one wants to screen molecules to identify ones that can pass through a given chemical labyrinth or screen chemical labyrinths to identify those that allow a given molecule to pass. Because it is impractical to test each molecule/labyrinth pair using computationally expensive methods, faster, approximate methods are used to prune possibilities, “triaging” the ability of a proposed molecule to pass through the given chemical labyrinth. Most pruning methods estimate chemical accessibility solely on geometry, treating atoms or groups of atoms as hard spheres with appropriate radii. Here, we explore geometric configurations for a moving “molecular worm,” which replaces spherical probes and is assembled from solid blocks connected by flexible links. The key is to extend the fast marching method, which is an ordered upwind one-pass Dijkstra-like method to compute optimal paths by efficiently solving an associated Eikonal equation for the cost function. First, we build a suitable cost function associated with each possible configuration, and second, we construct an algorithm that works in ensuing high-dimensional configuration space: at least seven dimensions are required to account for translational, rotational, and internal degrees of freedom. We demonstrate the algorithm to study shortest paths, compute accessible volume, and derive information on topology of the accessible part of a chemical labyrinth. As a model example, we consider an alkane molecule in a porous material, which is relevant to designing catalysts for oil processing. PMID:20018716

  2. Annual Survey of Horsehair Worm Cysts in Northern Taiwan, with Notes on a Single Seasonal Infection Peak in Chironomid Larvae (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Chiu, Ming-Chung; Huang, Chin-Gi; Wu, Wen-Jer; Shiao, Shiuh-Feng

    2016-06-01

    The life cycle of the freshwater horsehair worm typically includes a free-living phase (adult, egg, larva) and a multiple-host parasitic phase (aquatic paratenic host, terrestrial definitive host). Such a life cycle involving water and land can improve energy flow in riparian ecosystems; however, its temporal dynamics in nature have rarely been investigated. This study examined seasonal infection with cysts in larval Chironominae (Diptera: Chironomidae) in northern Taiwan. In the larval chironomids, cysts of 3 horsehair worm species were identified. The cysts of the dominant species were morphologically similar to those of Chordodes formosanus. Infection with these cysts increased suddenly and peaked 2 mo after the reproductive season of the adult horsehair worms. Although adult C. formosanus emerged several times in a year, only 1 distinct infection peak was detected in September in the chironomid larvae. Compared with the subfamily Chironominae, samples from the subfamilies Tanypodinae and Orthocladiinae were less parasitized. This indicates that the feeding behavior of the chironomid host likely affects horsehair worm cyst infections; however, bioconcentration in predatory chironomids was not detected. PMID:26885875

  3. The double burden.

    PubMed

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel

    2013-07-01

    One third of the world's population is latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and with the lifestyle changes succeeding the on-going urbanization, populations already burdened by tuberculosis are experiencing a dramatic increase in chronic diseases, with diabetes being a serious challenge. Tuberculosis and diabetes are not only becoming co-existing diseases. In fact, the diseases interact, and there is evidence to suggest that especially diabetes disease increases the susceptibility for developing active tuberculosis disease. Furthermore, it is plausible that tuberculosis leads to, either transient or permanent, impairment of the glucose metabolism, which ultimately will turn into diabetes. A number of studies from the Americas, Europe, Asia, and, most lately, from sub-Saharan Africa have reported strong association between tuberculosis and diabetes; on average, the estimated risk of active tuberculosis is thrice as high among people with diabetes. The study from sub-Saharan Africa was conducted in Tanzania and is the basis of this thesis. Based on available evidence on the association between tuberculosis and diabetes, the primary aim of the study was to assess the role of diabetes for tuberculosis risk, manifestations, treatment outcomes and survival in a Tanzanian population of tuberculosis patients and non-tuberculosis neighbourhood controls. The study was conducted in Mwanza City in northern Tanzania, with a population exceeding half a million inhabitants, with tuberculosis and HIV being common infections in the region, but with little knowledge about the prevalence of diabetes. We recruited newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis patients from spring 2006 and continuously till the fall 2009, with all participating in a nutritional intervention running in parallel with the medical tuberculosis treatment. All participants underwent diabetes and HIV testing as well as a series of measurements such as anthropometric, clinical and paraclinical

  4. Benefits and burdens of genetic carrier identification.

    PubMed

    Williams, J K; Schutte, D L

    1997-02-01

    This qualitative study examined experiences of adults requesting genetic-carrier testing for four autosomal-recessive and X-linked-recessive disorders. The sample consisted of 34 adults with a positive family history or membership in an ethnic group at risk for the inherited disorder. A semistructured interview guide was used to collect data during an interview 1 month after receipt of test results. Noncarriers experienced benefits of emotional relief and freedom to move ahead with reproductive planning. Carriers experienced burdens of sadness and loss of reproductive expectations. Some subjects in both groups experienced difficulty disclosing results to selected family members and expressed concerns regarding disclosure of testing to insurance providers. PMID:9030039

  5. No Apparent Reduction in Schistosome Burden or Genetic Diversity Following Four Years of School-Based Mass Drug Administration in Mwea, Central Kenya, a Heavy Transmission Area

    PubMed Central

    Lelo, Agola E.; Mburu, David N.; Magoma, Gabriel N.; Mungai, Ben N.; Kihara, Jimmy H.; Mwangi, Ibrahim N.; Maina, Geoffrey M.; Kinuthia, Joseph M.; Mutuku, Martin W.; Loker, Eric S.; Mkoji, Gerald M.; Steinauer, Michelle L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis is a debilitating neglected tropical disease that infects over 200 million people worldwide. To combat this disease, in 2012, the World Health Organization announced a goal of reducing and eliminating transmission of schistosomes. Current control focuses primarily on mass drug administration (MDA). Therefore, we monitored transmission of Schistosoma mansoni via fecal egg counts and genetic markers in a typical school based MDA setting to ascertain the actual impacts of MDA on the targeted schistosome population. Methods For 4 years, we followed 67 children enrolled in a MDA program in Kenya. Infection status and egg counts were measured each year prior to treatment. For 15 of these children, for which there was no evidence of acquired resistance, meaning they became re-infected following each treatment, we collected microsatellite genotype data from schistosomes passed in fecal samples as a representation of the force of transmission between drug treatments. We genotyped a total of 4938 parasites from these children, with an average of 329.2 parasites per child for the entire study, and an average of 82.3 parasites per child per annual examination. We compared prevalence, egg counts, and genetic measures including allelic richness, gene diversity (expected heterozygosity), adult worm burdens and effective number of breeders among time points to search for evidence for a change in transmission or schistosome populations during the MDA program. Findings We found no evidence of reduced transmission or schistosome population decline over the course of the program. Although prevalence declined in the 67 children as it did in the overall program, reinfection rates were high, and for the 15 children studied in detail, schistosome egg counts and estimated adult worm burdens did not decline between years 1 and 4, and genetic diversity increased over the course of drug treatment. Interpretation School based control programs undoubtedly improve the

  6. Diet of Worms Emended: An Update of Polychaete Feeding Guilds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jumars, Peter A.; Dorgan, Kelly M.; Lindsay, Sara M.

    2015-01-01

    Polychaetes are common in most marine habitats and dominate many infaunal communities. Functional guild classification based on taxonomic identity and morphology has linked community structure to ecological function. The functional guilds now include osmotrophic siboglinids as well as sipunculans, echiurans, and myzostomes, which molecular genetic analyses have placed within Annelida. Advances in understanding of encounter mechanisms explicitly relate motility to feeding mode. New analyses of burrowing mechanics explain the prevalence of bilateral symmetry and blur the boundary between surface and subsurface feeding. The dichotomy between microphagous deposit and suspension feeders and macrophagous carnivores, herbivores, and omnivores is further supported by divergent digestive strategies. Deposit feeding appears to be limited largely to worms longer than 1 cm, with juveniles and small worms in general restricted to ingesting highly digestible organic material and larger, rich food items, blurring the macrophage-microphage dichotomy that applies well to larger worms.

  7. Logistics of Guinea Worm Disease Eradication in South Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Alexander H.; Becknell, Steven; Withers, P. Craig; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Hopkins, Donald R.; Stobbelaar, David; Makoy, Samuel Yibi

    2014-01-01

    From 2006 to 2012, the South Sudan Guinea Worm Eradication Program reduced new Guinea worm disease (dracunculiasis) cases by over 90%, despite substantial programmatic challenges. Program logistics have played a key role in program achievements to date. The program uses disease surveillance and program performance data and integrated technical–logistical staffing to maintain flexible and effective logistical support for active community-based surveillance and intervention delivery in thousands of remote communities. Lessons learned from logistical design and management can resonate across similar complex surveillance and public health intervention delivery programs, such as mass drug administration for the control of neglected tropical diseases and other disease eradication programs. Logistical challenges in various public health scenarios and the pivotal contribution of logistics to Guinea worm case reductions in South Sudan underscore the need for additional inquiry into the role of logistics in public health programming in low-income countries. PMID:24445199

  8. Higher throughput high resolution multi-worm tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javer, Avelino; Li, Kezhi; Gyenes, Bertalan; Brown, Andre; Behavioural Genomics Team

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a high throughput imaging system for tracking multiple nematode worms at high resolution. The tracker consists of 6 cameras mounted on a motorized gantry so that up to 48 plates (each with approximately 30 worms) can be imaged without user intervention. To deal with the high data rate of the cameras we use real time processing to find worms and only save the immediately surrounding pixels. The system is also equipped with automatic oxygen and carbon dioxide control for observing stimulus response behaviour. We will describe the design and performance of the new system, some of the challenges of truly high throughput behaviour recording, and report preliminary results on inter-individual variation in behaviour as well as a quantitative analysis of C. elegans response to hypoxia, oxygen reperfusion, and carbon dioxide. Funding provided by the Medical Research Council.

  9. Hybrid epidemics--a case study on computer worm conficker.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Changwang; Zhou, Shi; Chain, Benjamin M

    2015-01-01

    Conficker is a computer worm that erupted on the Internet in 2008. It is unique in combining three different spreading strategies: local probing, neighbourhood probing, and global probing. We propose a mathematical model that combines three modes of spreading: local, neighbourhood, and global, to capture the worm's spreading behaviour. The parameters of the model are inferred directly from network data obtained during the first day of the Conficker epidemic. The model is then used to explore the tradeoff between spreading modes in determining the worm's effectiveness. Our results show that the Conficker epidemic is an example of a critically hybrid epidemic, in which the different modes of spreading in isolation do not lead to successful epidemics. Such hybrid spreading strategies may be used beneficially to provide the most effective strategies for promulgating information across a large population. When used maliciously, however, they can present a dangerous challenge to current internet security protocols. PMID:25978309

  10. WormBase: new content and better access

    PubMed Central

    Bieri, Tamberlyn; Blasiar, Darin; Ozersky, Philip; Antoshechkin, Igor; Bastiani, Carol; Canaran, Payan; Chan, Juancarlos; Chen, Nansheng; Chen, Wen J.; Davis, Paul; Fiedler, Tristan J.; Girard, Lisa; Han, Michael; Harris, Todd W.; Kishore, Ranjana; Lee, Raymond; McKay, Sheldon; Müller, Hans-Michael; Nakamura, Cecilia; Petcherski, Andrei; Rangarajan, Arun; Rogers, Anthony; Schindelman, Gary; Schwarz, Erich M.; Spooner, Will; Tuli, Mary Ann; Auken, Kimberly Van; Wang, Daniel; Wang, Xiaodong; Williams, Gary; Durbin, Richard; Stein, Lincoln D.; Sternberg, Paul W.; Spieth, John

    2007-01-01

    WormBase (), a model organism database for Caenorhabditis elegans and other related nematodes, continues to evolve and expand. Over the past year WormBase has added new data on C.elegans, including data on classical genetics, cell biology and functional genomics; expanded the annotation of closely related nematodes with a new genome browser for Caenorhabditis remanei; and deployed new hardware for stronger performance. Several existing datasets including phenotype descriptions and RNAi experiments have seen a large increase in new content. New datasets such as the C.remanei draft assembly and annotations, the Vancouver Fosmid library and TEC-RED 5′ end sites are now available as well. Access to and searching WormBase has become more dependable and flexible via multiple mirror sites and indexing through Google. PMID:17099234

  11. Continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo using worm sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunacker, P.; Wallerberger, M.; Gull, E.; Hausoel, A.; Sangiovanni, G.; Held, K.

    2015-10-01

    We present a worm sampling method for calculating one- and two-particle Green's functions using continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo simulations in the hybridization expansion (CT-HYB). Instead of measuring Green's functions by removing hybridization lines from partition function configurations, as in conventional CT-HYB, the worm algorithm directly samples the Green's function. We show that worm sampling is necessary to obtain general two-particle Green's functions which are not of density-density type and that it improves the sampling efficiency when approaching the atomic limit. Such two-particle Green's functions are needed to compute off-diagonal elements of susceptibilities and occur in diagrammatic extensions of the dynamical mean-field theory and in efficient estimators for the single-particle self-energy.

  12. Diet of worms emended: an update of polychaete feeding guilds.

    PubMed

    Jumars, Peter A; Dorgan, Kelly M; Lindsay, Sara M

    2015-01-01

    Polychaetes are common in most marine habitats and dominate many infaunal communities. Functional guild classification based on taxonomic identity and morphology has linked community structure to ecological function. The functional guilds now include osmotrophic siboglinids as well as sipunculans, echiurans, and myzostomes, which molecular genetic analyses have placed within Annelida. Advances in understanding of encounter mechanisms explicitly relate motility to feeding mode. New analyses of burrowing mechanics explain the prevalence of bilateral symmetry and blur the boundary between surface and subsurface feeding. The dichotomy between microphagous deposit and suspension feeders and macrophagous carnivores, herbivores, and omnivores is further supported by divergent digestive strategies. Deposit feeding appears to be limited largely to worms longer than 1 cm, with juveniles and small worms in general restricted to ingesting highly digestible organic material and larger, rich food items, blurring the macrophage-microphage dichotomy that applies well to larger worms. PMID:25251269

  13. Shai-Hulud: The quest for worm sign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaenisch, Holger M.; Handley, James W.; Faucheux, Jeffery P.; Lamkin, Ken

    2005-03-01

    Successful worm detection at real-time OC-48 and OC-192 speed requires hardware to extract web based binary sequences at faster than these speeds, and software to process the incoming sequences to identify worms. Computer hardware advancement in the form of field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) makes real-time extraction of these sequences possible. Lacking are mathematical algorithms for worm detection in the real time data sequence, and the ability to convert these algorithms into lookup tables (LUTs) that can be compiled into FPGAs. Data Modeling provides the theory and algorithms for an effective mathematical framework for real-time worm detection and conversion of algorithms into LUTs. Detection methods currently available such as pattern recognition algorithms are limited both by the amount of time to compare the current data sequence with a historical database of potential candidates, and by the inability to accurately classify information that was unseen in the training process. Data Modeling eliminates these limitations by training only on examples of nominal behavior. This results in a highly tuned and fast running equation model that is compiled in a FPGA as a LUT and used at real-time OC-48 and OC-192 speeds to detect worms and other anomalies. This paper provides an overview of our approach for generating these Data Change Models for detecting worms, and their subsequent conversion into LUTs. A proof of concept is given using binary data from a WEBDAV, SLAMMER packet, and RED PROBE attack, with BASIC source code for the detector and LUT provided.

  14. Preparation of Pickering double emulsions using block copolymer worms.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Kate L; Mable, Charlotte J; Lane, Jacob A; Derry, Mathew J; Fielding, Lee A; Armes, Steven P

    2015-04-14

    The rational formulation of Pickering double emulsions is described using a judicious combination of hydrophilic and hydrophobic block copolymer worms as highly anisotropic emulsifiers. More specifically, RAFT dispersion polymerization was utilized to prepare poly(lauryl methacrylate)-poly(benzyl methacrylate) worms at 20% w/w solids in n-dodecane and poly(glycerol monomethacrylate)-poly(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate)-poly(benzyl methacrylate) worms at 13% w/w solids in water by polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA). Water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) double emulsions can be readily prepared with mean droplet diameters ranging from 30 to 80 μm using a two-stage approach. First, a w/o precursor emulsion comprising 25 μm aqueous droplets is prepared using the hydrophobic worms, followed by encapsulation within oil droplets stabilized by the hydrophilic worms. The double emulsion droplet diameter and number of encapsulated water droplets can be readily varied by adjusting the stirring rate employed during the second stage. For each stage, the droplet volume fraction is relatively high at 0.50. The double emulsion nature of the final formulation was confirmed by optical and fluorescence microscopy studies. Such double emulsions are highly stable to coalescence, with little or no change in droplet diameter being detected over storage at 20 °C for 10 weeks as judged by laser diffraction. Preliminary experiments indicate that the complementary o/w/o emulsions can also be prepared using the same pair of worms by changing the order of homogenization, although somewhat lower droplet volume fractions were required in this case. Finally, we demonstrate that triple and even quadruple emulsions can be formulated using these new highly anisotropic Pickering emulsifiers. PMID:25834923

  15. Preparation of Pickering Double Emulsions Using Block Copolymer Worms

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The rational formulation of Pickering double emulsions is described using a judicious combination of hydrophilic and hydrophobic block copolymer worms as highly anisotropic emulsifiers. More specifically, RAFT dispersion polymerization was utilized to prepare poly(lauryl methacrylate)–poly(benzyl methacrylate) worms at 20% w/w solids in n-dodecane and poly(glycerol monomethacrylate)–poly(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate)–poly(benzyl methacrylate) worms at 13% w/w solids in water by polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA). Water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) double emulsions can be readily prepared with mean droplet diameters ranging from 30 to 80 μm using a two-stage approach. First, a w/o precursor emulsion comprising 25 μm aqueous droplets is prepared using the hydrophobic worms, followed by encapsulation within oil droplets stabilized by the hydrophilic worms. The double emulsion droplet diameter and number of encapsulated water droplets can be readily varied by adjusting the stirring rate employed during the second stage. For each stage, the droplet volume fraction is relatively high at 0.50. The double emulsion nature of the final formulation was confirmed by optical and fluorescence microscopy studies. Such double emulsions are highly stable to coalescence, with little or no change in droplet diameter being detected over storage at 20 °C for 10 weeks as judged by laser diffraction. Preliminary experiments indicate that the complementary o/w/o emulsions can also be prepared using the same pair of worms by changing the order of homogenization, although somewhat lower droplet volume fractions were required in this case. Finally, we demonstrate that triple and even quadruple emulsions can be formulated using these new highly anisotropic Pickering emulsifiers. PMID:25834923

  16. Localization of Waves without Bistability: Worms in Nematic Electroconvection

    SciTech Connect

    Riecke, H.; Granzow, G.D.

    1998-07-01

    A general localization mechanism for waves in dissipative systems is identified that does not require the bistability of the basic state and the nonlinear plane-wave state. We conjecture that the mechanism explains the two-dimensional localized wave structures ({open_quotes}worms{close_quotes}) that recently have been observed in experiments on electroconvection in nematic liquid crystals where the transition to extended waves is supercritical. The mechanism accounts for the shape of the worms, their propagation direction, and certain aspects of their interaction. The dynamics of the localized waves can be steady or irregular. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  17. Microbubble array for on-chip worm processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yuhao; Hashmi, Ali; Yu, Gan; Lu, Xiaonan; Kwon, Hyuck-Jin; Chen, Xiaolin; Xu, Jie

    2013-01-01

    We present an acoustic non-contact technique for achieving trapping, enrichment, and manipulation of Caenorhabditis elegans using an array of oscillating microbubbles. We characterize the trapping efficiency and enrichment ratio under various flow conditions, and demonstrate a single-worm manipulation mechanism through temporal actuation of bubbles. The reason for oscillating bubbles being versatile in processing worms in a microfluidic environment is due to the complex interactions among acoustic field, microbubbles, fluid flow, and live animals. We explain the operating mechanisms used in our device by the interplay among secondary acoustic radiation force, drag force, and the propulsive force of C. elegans.

  18. HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table ... Victoria Cargill talks to students about HIV and AIDS at the opening of a National Library of ...

  19. Caregiver Burden and Personal Authority: Differentiation and Connection in Caring for an Elderly Parent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabin, Claire; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Personal authority in family system (PAFS), intergenerational construct linking personal development and family interaction, was hypothesized to predict stress/strain of adult children caring for elderly disabled parents. Caregivers (n=70) completed measures of PAFS and of caregiver burden. Caregiving burden was significantly correlated to…

  20. The burden of childhood tuberculosis: a public health perspective.

    PubMed

    Marais, B J; Obihara, C C; Warren, R M; Schaaf, H S; Gie, R P; Donald, P R

    2005-12-01

    The burden of childhood tuberculosis (TB) reflects recent transmission within a community and the level of TB control achieved within the adult (maintenance host) population. Children contribute little to the maintenance of the TB epidemic, but they may suffer severe TB-related morbidity and mortality. This review describes the main determinants of the burden of childhood TB within a particular community. Basic infectious disease principles identify the community, and not the individual, as the central entity that sustains an epidemic. The prevalence of TB is determined by the community's exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and their vulnerability to developing disease following exposure. The main variables that influence both exposure and vulnerability are discussed. Multiple variables are linked to poverty, and it is their cumulative effect, rather than the exact degree of poverty, that seems most important. Diligent contact tracing and the use of preventive chemotherapy will reduce the TB-related suffering of children. The burden of childhood TB, however, is a reflection of our ability to control the epidemic; this remains the ultimate challenge. Current efforts to control the TB epidemic aim to reduce transmission by treating sputum smear-positive adults, while very little emphasis is placed on reducing the vulnerability of high-burden communities. Successful control of the epidemic is the most effective way to reduce the burden of childhood TB, but this will require a holistic approach that acknowledges the importance of sustainable poverty alleviation. PMID:16466051

  1. 11. INTERIOR VIEW OF OPERATING HOUSE NO. 4, SHOWING WORM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. INTERIOR VIEW OF OPERATING HOUSE NO. 4, SHOWING WORM WHEEL GEAR ASSEMBLY, ORIGINAL 20 HP EAST HOIST MOTOR, AND CONTROL GATES 7 AND 8 HAND BRAKES, WITH MOTOR SELECTOR SWITCH, MOTOR STARTING SWITCH, AND OIL CIRCUIT BREAKER IN BACKGROUND - Long Lake Hydroelectric Plant, Spillway Dam, Spanning Spokane River, Ford, Stevens County, WA

  2. Opinion Dynamics Driven by Leaders, Media, Viruses and Worms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuncay, Çağlar

    A model on the effects of leader, media, viruses, worms, and other agents on the opinion of individuals is developed and utilized to simulate the formation of consensus in society and price in market via excess between supply and demand. The effects of some time varying drives (harmonic and hyperbolic) are also investigated.

  3. Metagenomics of the Methane Ice Worm, Hesiocaeca methanicola

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwin, K. D.; Edsall, L.; Xin, W.; Head, S. R.; Gelbart, T.; Wood, A. M.; Gaasterland, T.

    2012-12-01

    The methane ice worm (Hesiocaeca methanicola) is a polychaete found on methane hydrate deposits for which there appears to be no publically available genomic or metagenomic data. Methane ice worms were collected in 2009 by the Johnson-Sea-Link submersible (543m depth; N 27:44.7526 W 91:13.3168). Next-generation sequencing (HiSeq2000) was applied to samples of tissue and gut contents. A subset of the assembled data (40M reads, randomly selected) was run through MG-RAST. Preliminary results for the gut content (1,269,153 sequences, average length 202 bp) indicated that 0.1% of the sequences contained ribosomal RNA genes with the majority (67%) classified as Bacteria, a relatively small per cent (1.4%) as Archae, and 31% as Eukaryota. Campylobacterales was the predominant order (14%), with unclassified (7.5%) and Desulfobacterales (4%) being the next dominant. Preliminary results for the worm tissue (2,716,461 sequences, average length 241 bp) indicated that the majority of sequences were Eukaryota (73%), with 256 sequences classified as phylum Annelida and 58% of those belonging to class Polychaeta. For the bacterial sequences obtained from the tissue samples, the predominant order was Actinomycetales (2.7%). For both the tissue and gut content samples, the majority of proteins were classified as clustering-based subsystems. This preliminary analysis will be compared to an assembly consisting of 40M of the highest quality reads.; methane ice worms on methane hydrate

  4. CHROMOSOME COMPLEMENT OF THE MARINE WORM 'NEANTHES ARENACEODENTATA' (POLYCHAETA: ANNELIDA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chromosome complement for the marine worm, Neanthes arenaceodentata, consists of nine pairs; one pair has a median centromere, seven pairs have submedian centromeres, and one pair is polymorphic with either a subterminal or terminal centromere. A technique for studying polych...

  5. The Worm Process for the Ising Model is Rapidly Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collevecchio, Andrea; Garoni, Timothy M.; Hyndman, Timothy; Tokarev, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    We prove rapid mixing of the worm process for the zero-field ferromagnetic Ising model, on all finite connected graphs, and at all temperatures. As a corollary, we obtain a fully-polynomial randomized approximation scheme for the Ising susceptibility, and for a certain restriction of the two-point correlation function.

  6. The Worm Guide: A Vericomposting Guide for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Integrated Waste Management Board, Sacramento.

    This guide focuses on vermicomposting of food waste. Contents include: (1) "Integrated Waste Management"; (2) "Basics of Vermicomposting"; (3) "Other Worm Bin Residents"; (4) "The Garden Connection"; (5) "Closing the Food Loop at Your School"; (6) "Fundraising"; (7) "Activities for Classroom"; and (8) "Case Studies". Appendices include educational…

  7. The opportunistic transmission of wireless worms between mobile devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, C. J.; Nekovee, M.

    2008-12-01

    The ubiquity of portable wireless-enabled computing and communications devices has stimulated the emergence of malicious codes (wireless worms) that are capable of spreading between spatially proximal devices. The potential exists for worms to be opportunistically transmitted between devices as they move around, so human mobility patterns will have an impact on epidemic spread. The scenario we address in this paper is proximity attacks from fleetingly in-contact wireless devices with short-range communication range, such as Bluetooth-enabled smart phones. An individual-based model of mobile devices is introduced and the effect of population characteristics and device behaviour on the outbreak dynamics is investigated. The model uses straight-line motion to achieve population, though it is recognised that this is a highly simplified representation of human mobility patterns. We show that the contact rate can be derived from the underlying mobility model and, through extensive simulation, that mass-action epidemic models remain applicable to worm spreading in the low density regime studied here. The model gives useful analytical expressions against which more refined simulations of worm spread can be developed and tested.

  8. WormBase 2014: new views of curated biology

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Todd W.; Baran, Joachim; Bieri, Tamberlyn; Cabunoc, Abigail; Chan, Juancarlos; Chen, Wen J.; Davis, Paul; Done, James; Grove, Christian; Howe, Kevin; Kishore, Ranjana; Lee, Raymond; Li, Yuling; Muller, Hans-Michael; Nakamura, Cecilia; Ozersky, Philip; Paulini, Michael; Raciti, Daniela; Schindelman, Gary; Tuli, Mary Ann; Auken, Kimberly Van; Wang, Daniel; Wang, Xiaodong; Williams, Gary; Wong, J. D.; Yook, Karen; Schedl, Tim; Hodgkin, Jonathan; Berriman, Matthew; Kersey, Paul; Spieth, John; Stein, Lincoln; Sternberg, Paul W.

    2014-01-01

    WormBase (http://www.wormbase.org/) is a highly curated resource dedicated to supporting research using the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. With an electronic history predating the World Wide Web, WormBase contains information ranging from the sequence and phenotype of individual alleles to genome-wide studies generated using next-generation sequencing technologies. In recent years, we have expanded the contents to include data on additional nematodes of agricultural and medical significance, bringing the knowledge of C. elegans to bear on these systems and providing support for underserved research communities. Manual curation of the primary literature remains a central focus of the WormBase project, providing users with reliable, up-to-date and highly cross-linked information. In this update, we describe efforts to organize the original atomized and highly contextualized curated data into integrated syntheses of discrete biological topics. Next, we discuss our experiences coping with the vast increase in available genome sequences made possible through next-generation sequencing platforms. Finally, we describe some of the features and tools of the new WormBase Web site that help users better find and explore data of interest. PMID:24194605

  9. The Worm Process for the Ising Model is Rapidly Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collevecchio, Andrea; Garoni, Timothy M.; Hyndman, Timothy; Tokarev, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    We prove rapid mixing of the worm process for the zero-field ferromagnetic Ising model, on all finite connected graphs, and at all temperatures. As a corollary, we obtain a fully-polynomial randomized approximation scheme for the Ising susceptibility, and for a certain restriction of the two-point correlation function.

  10. Making sense of genomes of parasitic worms: Tackling bioinformatic challenges.

    PubMed

    Korhonen, Pasi K; Young, Neil D; Gasser, Robin B

    2016-01-01

    Billions of people and animals are infected with parasitic worms (helminths). Many of these worms cause diseases that have a major socioeconomic impact worldwide, and are challenging to control because existing treatment methods are often inadequate. There is, therefore, a need to work toward developing new intervention methods, built on a sound understanding of parasitic worms at molecular level, the relationships that they have with their animal hosts and/or the diseases that they cause. Decoding the genomes and transcriptomes of these parasites brings us a step closer to this goal. The key focus of this article is to critically review and discuss bioinformatic tools used for the assembly and annotation of these genomes and transcriptomes, as well as various post-genomic analyses of transcription profiles, biological pathways, synteny, phylogeny, biogeography and the prediction and prioritisation of drug target candidates. Bioinformatic pipelines implemented and established recently provide practical and efficient tools for the assembly and annotation of genomes of parasitic worms, and will be applicable to a wide range of other parasites and eukaryotic organisms. Future research will need to assess the utility of long-read sequence data sets for enhanced genomic assemblies, and develop improved algorithms for gene prediction and post-genomic analyses, to enable comprehensive systems biology explorations of parasitic organisms. PMID:26956711

  11. Treatment of Late-Life Depression Alleviates Caregiver Burden

    PubMed Central

    Martire, Lynn M.; Schulz, Richard; Reynolds, Charles F.; Karp, Jordan F.; Gildengers, Ariel G.; Whyte, Ellen M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To describe the burden experienced by family caregivers of older adults with depression and to examine the positive effects on caregivers of treating late-life depression. Design Two-phase treatment study for major depressive disorder (MDD) that included 6 weeks of open treatment with antidepressant medication for all older patients followed by 16 weeks of randomized treatment for patients who were partial responders, comparing a combination of medication and interpersonal psychotherapy with medication alone. Setting Primary care and university late-life mental health research clinic. Participants Adults aged 60 and older participating in a randomized trial for treatment of MDD who enrolled in a family caregiver study and their caregiver (N = 244 dyads). Measurements Improvement in patient symptoms during open treatment (lower scores on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD)) and remission of depression during randomized treatment (3 consecutive weekly HRSD scores of ≤7) were examined as predictors of lower general caregiver burden and burden specific to patient depression. Results Caregivers reported a moderate to high level of general caregiver burden on average. Change in patient depression during open treatment was associated with significantly decreased depression-specific burden (β = −0.22, P =.001) and a trend toward lower general burden (β = − 0.08, P =.08). Caregivers of patients who remitted showed significantly decreased depression-specific burden (F (1,76) = 4.27, P =.04). Conclusion Treatment of late-life depression has benefits that extend to the family members on whom patients depend. Caregiver education and support may strengthen these effects. PMID:19943833

  12. Tick burden on European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus)

    PubMed Central

    Kiffner, Christian; Hagedorn, Peter; Niedrig, Matthias; Rühe, Ferdinand

    2010-01-01

    In our study we assessed the tick burden on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.) in relation to age, physical condition, sex, deer density and season. The main objective was to find predictive parameters for tick burden. In September 2007, May, July, and September 2008, and in May and July 2009 we collected ticks on 142 culled roe deer from nine forest departments in Southern Hesse, Germany. To correlate tick burden and deer density we estimated deer density using line transect sampling that accounts for different detectability in March 2008 and 2009, respectively. We collected more than 8,600 ticks from roe deer heads and necks, 92.6% of which were Ixodes spp., 7.4% Dermacentor spp. Among Ixodes, 3.3% were larvae, 50.5% nymphs, 34.8% females and 11.4% males, with significant seasonal deviation. Total tick infestation was high, with considerable individual variation (from 0 to 270 ticks/deer). Adult tick burden was positively correlated with roe deer body indices (body mass, age, hind foot length). Significantly more nymphs were found on deer from forest departments with high roe deer density indices, indicating a positive correlation with deer abundance. Overall, tick burden was highly variable. Seasonality and large scale spatial characteristics appeared to be the most important factors affecting tick burden on roe deer. PMID:20099011

  13. Characteristics of natural infections of the stomach worm, Obeliscoides cuniculi (Graybill), in lagomorphs and woodchucks in Canada.

    PubMed

    Measures, L N; Anderson, R C

    1983-07-01

    Wild lagomorphs and woodchucks collected predominantly in southern Ontario, Canada were examined for subspecies of Obeliscoides cuniculi (Graybill). Obeliscoides cuniculi multistriatus was found in snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus). Obeliscoides cuniculi cuniculi was found in cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus), European hares (Lepus capensis) and woodchucks (Marmota monax). Prevalence of Obeliscoides cuniculi multistriatus in snowshoe hares was 100% and mean intensity (and range of intensity) was 760 (9-4, 198) in Lindsay, Ontario in 1980. Mean intensity in hares varied trimonthly. The highest mean intensity of worms occurred in spring when most worms were adult. Transmission occurred mainly in spring. Most worms present in fall (70%) and winter (54%) were fourth stage. Immature fifth-stage and gravid females were present in hares during fall and winter. Prevalence and mean intensity of O. c. cuniculi in cottontails was 15% and 29 (1-118). Prevalence and mean intensity of O. c. cuniculi in woodchucks was 6% and 56 (16-118). European hares were infected with O. c. cuniculi, prevalence was 10% and mean intensity was 60 (36-83). In Ontario woodchucks and European hares were common in areas frequented by cottontail rabbits and probably acquired sporadic infections of O. c. cuniculi from infected cottontails. PMID:6644920

  14. Scanning electron microscopy observations of the hedgehog stomach worm, Physaloptera clausa (Spirurida: Physalopteridae)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Physaloptera clausa (Spirurida: Physalopteridae) nematodes parasitize the stomach of the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) and cause weight loss, anorexia and gastric lesions. The present study provides the first morphological description of adult P. clausa from the stomachs of infected hedgehogs, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Methods From June to October 2011, 10 P. clausa from European hedgehogs were fixed, dried, coated and subjected to SEM examination. Results Males and females (22–30 mm and 28–47 mm, respectively) were stout, with the cuticle reflecting over the lips to form a large cephalic collarette and showing fine transverse striations in both sexes. The mouth was characterized by two large, simple triangular lateral pseudolabia, each armed with external and internal teeth. Inside the buccal cavity, a circle of internal small teeth can be observed. Around the mouth, four sub-median cephalic papillae and two large amphids were also observed. The anterior end of both male and female bore an excretory pore on the ventral side and a pair of lateral ciliated cervical papillae. In the female worm, the vulva was located in the middle and the eggs were characterized by smooth surfaces. The posterior end of the female worm was stumpy with two large phasmids in proximity to its extremity. The posterior end of the male had large lateral alae, joined together anteriorly across the ventral surface, with subequal and dissimilar spicules, as well as four pairs of stalked pre-cloacal papillae, three pairs of post-cloacal papillae, and two phasmids. Three sessile papillae occured anteriorly and four posteriorly to the cloaca. Conclusions The present SEM study provides the first in-depth morphological characterization of adult P. clausa, and highlights similarities and differences with P. bispiculata P. herthameyerae, Heliconema longissimum and Turgida turgida. PMID:23566611

  15. QuantWorm: a comprehensive software package for Caenorhabditis elegans phenotypic assays.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sang-Kyu; Aleman-Meza, Boanerges; Riepe, Celeste; Zhong, Weiwei

    2014-01-01

    Phenotypic assays are crucial in genetics; however, traditional methods that rely on human observation are unsuitable for quantitative, large-scale experiments. Furthermore, there is an increasing need for comprehensive analyses of multiple phenotypes to provide multidimensional information. Here we developed an automated, high-throughput computer imaging system for quantifying multiple Caenorhabditis elegans phenotypes. Our imaging system is composed of a microscope equipped with a digital camera and a motorized stage connected to a computer running the QuantWorm software package. Currently, the software package contains one data acquisition module and four image analysis programs: WormLifespan, WormLocomotion, WormLength, and WormEgg. The data acquisition module collects images and videos. The WormLifespan software counts the number of moving worms by using two time-lapse images; the WormLocomotion software computes the velocity of moving worms; the WormLength software measures worm body size; and the WormEgg software counts the number of eggs. To evaluate the performance of our software, we compared the results of our software with manual measurements. We then demonstrated the application of the QuantWorm software in a drug assay and a genetic assay. Overall, the QuantWorm software provided accurate measurements at a high speed. Software source code, executable programs, and sample images are available at www.quantworm.org. Our software package has several advantages over current imaging systems for C. elegans. It is an all-in-one package for quantifying multiple phenotypes. The QuantWorm software is written in Java and its source code is freely available, so it does not require use of commercial software or libraries. It can be run on multiple platforms and easily customized to cope with new methods and requirements. PMID:24416295

  16. The Schistosoma mansoni Cytochrome P450 (CYP3050A1) Is Essential for Worm Survival and Egg Development

    PubMed Central

    Ziniel, Peter D.; Karumudi, Bhargava; Barnard, Andrew H.; Fisher, Ethan M. S.; Thatcher, Gregory R. J.; Podust, Larissa M.; Williams, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis affects millions of people in developing countries and is responsible for more than 200,000 deaths annually. Because of toxicity and limited spectrum of activity of alternatives, there is effectively only one drug, praziquantel, available for its treatment. Recent data suggest that drug resistance could soon be a problem. There is therefore the need to identify new drug targets and develop drugs for the treatment of schistosomiasis. Analysis of the Schistosoma mansoni genome sequence for proteins involved in detoxification processes found that it encodes a single cytochrome P450 (CYP450) gene. Here we report that the 1452 bp open reading frame has a characteristic heme-binding region in its catalytic domain with a conserved heme ligating cysteine, a hydrophobic leader sequence present as the membrane interacting region, and overall structural conservation. The highest sequence identity to human CYP450s is 22%. Double stranded RNA (dsRNA) silencing of S. mansoni (Sm)CYP450 in schistosomula results in worm death. Treating larval or adult worms with antifungal azole CYP450 inhibitors results in worm death at low micromolar concentrations. In addition, combinations of SmCYP450-specific dsRNA and miconazole show additive schistosomicidal effects supporting the hypothesis that SmCYP450 is the target of miconazole. Treatment of developing S. mansoni eggs with miconazole results in a dose dependent arrest in embryonic development. Our results indicate that SmCYP450 is essential for worm survival and egg development and validates it as a novel drug target. Preliminary structure-activity relationship suggests that the 1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-2-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)ethan-1-ol moiety of miconazole is necessary for activity and that miconazole activity and selectivity could be improved by rational drug design. PMID:26713732

  17. Burden of Proof in Bioethics.

    PubMed

    Koplin, Julian J; Selgelid, Michael J

    2015-11-01

    A common strategy in bioethics is to posit a prima facie case in favour of one policy, and to then claim that the burden of proof (that this policy should be rejected) falls on those with opposing views. If the burden of proof is not met, it is claimed, then the policy in question should be accepted. This article illustrates, and critically evaluates, examples of this strategy in debates about the sale of organs by living donors, human enhancement, and the precautionary principle. We highlight general problems with this style of argument, and particular problems with its use in specific cases. We conclude that the burden ultimately falls on decision-makers (i.e. policy-makers) to choose the policy supported by the best reasons. PMID:26481200

  18. The Burden of Asthma in Oman.

    PubMed

    Al-Busaidi, Nasser; Habibulla, Zulfikar; Bhatnagar, Malvika; Al-Lawati, Nabil; Al-Mahrouqi, Yaqoub

    2015-05-01

    Asthma is a common lung disease worldwide, although its prevalence varies from country to country. Oman is ranked in the intermediate range based on results from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. A 2009 study revealed that the majority of asthmatic patients in Oman reported both daytime and nocturnal symptoms, while 30% of adults and 52% of children reported absences from work or school due to their symptoms. Despite these findings, there is little data available on the economic burden of asthma in Oman. The only accessible information is from a 2013 study which concluded that Oman's highest asthma-related costs were attributable to inpatient (55%) and emergency room (25%) visits, while asthma medications contributed to less than 1% of the financial toll. These results indicate a low level of asthma control in Oman, placing a large economic burden on healthcare providers. Therefore, educating asthmatic patients and their families should be prioritised in order to improve the management and related costs of this disease within Oman. PMID:26052450

  19. The Burden of Asthma in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Al-Busaidi, Nasser; Habibulla, Zulfikar; Bhatnagar, Malvika; Al-Lawati, Nabil; Al-Mahrouqi, Yaqoub

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is a common lung disease worldwide, although its prevalence varies from country to country. Oman is ranked in the intermediate range based on results from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. A 2009 study revealed that the majority of asthmatic patients in Oman reported both daytime and nocturnal symptoms, while 30% of adults and 52% of children reported absences from work or school due to their symptoms. Despite these findings, there is little data available on the economic burden of asthma in Oman. The only accessible information is from a 2013 study which concluded that Oman’s highest asthma-related costs were attributable to inpatient (55%) and emergency room (25%) visits, while asthma medications contributed to less than 1% of the financial toll. These results indicate a low level of asthma control in Oman, placing a large economic burden on healthcare providers. Therefore, educating asthmatic patients and their families should be prioritised in order to improve the management and related costs of this disease within Oman. PMID:26052450

  20. The Psychosocial Burden of Obesity.

    PubMed

    Sarwer, David B; Polonsky, Heather M

    2016-09-01

    Obesity is associated with several comorbidities, including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, sleep apnea, osteoarthritis, and several forms of cancer. Obesity and its comorbidities also come with a significant psychosocial burden, impacting numerous areas of psychosocial functioning. The evaluation of psychosocial functioning is an important part of the assessment and treatment planning for the patient with obesity. This article provides an overview of the psychosocial burden of obesity. The article also describes the psychological changes typically seen with weight loss. A particular focus is on the psychosocial functioning of individuals with extreme obesity who present for and undergo bariatric surgery. PMID:27519139

  1. Patient Identified Disease Burden in Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Nicholas E; Quinn, Christine; Eastwood, Eileen; Tawil, Rabi; Heatwole, Chad R

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The multitude of symptoms associated with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) disease burden are of varying importance. The extent of these symptoms and their cumulative effect on the FSHD population is unknown. Methods We conducted interviews with adult FSHD patients to identify which symptoms have the greatest effect on their lives. Each interview was recorded, transcribed, coded, and analyzed using a qualitative framework technique, triangulation, and 3-investigator consensus approach. Results 1375 quotes were obtained through 20 patient interviews. 251 symptoms of importance were identified representing 14 themes of FSHD disease burden. Symptoms associated with mobility impairment, activity limitation, and social role limitation were most frequently mentioned by participants. Conclusions There are multiple themes and symptoms, some previously under-recognized, that play a key role in FSHD disease burden. PMID:23225386

  2. Microfluidic platform integrated with worm-counting setup for assessing manganese toxicity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Beibei; Li, Yinbao; He, Qidi; Qin, Jun; Yu, Yanyan; Li, Xinchun; Zhang, Lin; Yao, Meicun; Liu, Junshan; Chen, Zuanguang

    2014-09-01

    We reported a new microfluidic system integrated with worm responders for evaluating the environmental manganese toxicity. The micro device consists of worm loading units, worm observing chambers, and a radial concentration gradient generator (CGG). Eight T-shape worm loading units of the micro device were used to load the exact number of worms into the corresponding eight chambers with the assistance of worm responders and doorsills. The worm responder, as a key component, was employed for performing automated worm-counting assay through electric impedance sensing. This label-free and non-invasive worm-counting technique was applied to the microsystem for the first time. In addition, the disk-shaped CGG can generate a range of stepwise concentrations of the appointed chemical automatically and simultaneously. Due to the scalable architecture of radial CGG, it has the potential to increase the throughput of the assay. Dopaminergic (DAergic) neurotoxicity of manganese on C. elegans was quantitatively assessed via the observation of green fluorescence protein-tagged DAergic neurons of the strain BZ555 on-chip. In addition, oxidative stress triggered by manganese was evaluated by the quantitative fluorescence intensity of the strain CL2166. By scoring the survival ratio and stroke frequency of worms, we characterized the dose- and time-dependent mobility defects of the manganese-exposed worms. Furthermore, we applied the microsystem to investigate the effect of natural antioxidants to protect manganese-induced toxicity. PMID:25538805

  3. Microfluidic platform integrated with worm-counting setup for assessing manganese toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Beibei; Li, Yinbao; He, Qidi; Qin, Jun; Yu, Yanyan; Li, Xinchun; Zhang, Lin; Yao, Meicun; Liu, Junshan; Chen, Zuanguang

    2014-01-01

    We reported a new microfluidic system integrated with worm responders for evaluating the environmental manganese toxicity. The micro device consists of worm loading units, worm observing chambers, and a radial concentration gradient generator (CGG). Eight T-shape worm loading units of the micro device were used to load the exact number of worms into the corresponding eight chambers with the assistance of worm responders and doorsills. The worm responder, as a key component, was employed for performing automated worm-counting assay through electric impedance sensing. This label-free and non-invasive worm-counting technique was applied to the microsystem for the first time. In addition, the disk-shaped CGG can generate a range of stepwise concentrations of the appointed chemical automatically and simultaneously. Due to the scalable architecture of radial CGG, it has the potential to increase the throughput of the assay. Dopaminergic (DAergic) neurotoxicity of manganese on C. elegans was quantitatively assessed via the observation of green fluorescence protein-tagged DAergic neurons of the strain BZ555 on-chip. In addition, oxidative stress triggered by manganese was evaluated by the quantitative fluorescence intensity of the strain CL2166. By scoring the survival ratio and stroke frequency of worms, we characterized the dose- and time-dependent mobility defects of the manganese-exposed worms. Furthermore, we applied the microsystem to investigate the effect of natural antioxidants to protect manganese-induced toxicity. PMID:25538805

  4. Effects of PAHs on the feeding activity of tubificid worms

    SciTech Connect

    Lotufo, G.R.

    1994-12-31

    Sediment collected from a clean site in LA was sieved through a 125{mu}m screen and contaminated with individual PAHs (pyrene, phenanthrene and dibenzofuran) at increasing concentrations using spiking procedure and with a mixture of the 3 PAHs at a single concentration by shell coating. Feeding activity was estimated by defecation rate. Groups of 15 worms were assigned to defecation chambers in 4 replicates per treatment. Feces were collected daily for 10 days, filtered through a 8{mu}m membrane filter and dry weight measured. Results obtained with phenanthrene and mixture of 3 PAHs indicate that PHA bulk concentration of 100 mg/dry kg and higher significantly reduce tubificid ingestion of sediment. Total recovery to control levels occurred when worms exposed to high concentration of PAH were transferred to clean sediment. Total OC was determined to be 3.2 %.

  5. Hi shells, supershells, shell-like objects, and ''worms''

    SciTech Connect

    Heiles, C.

    1984-08-01

    We present photographic representations of the combination of two Hi surveys, so as to eliminate the survey boundaries at Vertical BarbVertical Bar = 10/sup 0/. We also present high-contrast photographs for particular velocities to exhibit weak Hi features. All of these photographs were used to prepare a new list of Hi shells, supershells, and shell-like objects. We discuss the structure of three shell-like objects that are associated with high-velocity gas, and with gas at all velocities that is associated with radio continuum loops I, II, and III. We use spatial filtering to find wiggly gas filaments: ''worms'': crawling away from the galactic plane in the inner Galaxy. The ''worms'' are probably parts of shells that are open at the top; such shells should be good sources of hot gas for the galactic halo.

  6. A worm algorithm for the fully-packed loop model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Garoni, Timothy M.; Deng, Youjin

    2009-06-01

    We present a Markov-chain Monte Carlo algorithm of worm type that correctly simulates the fully-packed loop model with n=1 on the honeycomb lattice, and we prove that it is ergodic and has uniform stationary distribution. The honeycomb-lattice fully-packed loop model with n=1 is equivalent to the zero-temperature triangular-lattice antiferromagnetic Ising model, which is fully frustrated and notoriously difficult to simulate. We test this worm algorithm numerically and estimate the dynamic exponent z=0.515(8). We also measure several static quantities of interest, including loop-length and face-size moments. It appears numerically that the face-size moments are governed by the magnetic dimension for percolation.

  7. Genome size and chromosome number in velvet worms (Onychophora).

    PubMed

    Jeffery, Nicholas W; Oliveira, Ivo S; Gregory, T Ryan; Rowell, David M; Mayer, Georg

    2012-12-01

    The Onychophora (velvet worms) represents a small group of invertebrates (~180 valid species), which is commonly united with Tardigrada and Arthropoda in a clade called Panarthropoda. As with the majority of invertebrate taxa, genome size data are very limited for the Onychophora, with only one previously published estimate. Here we use both flow cytometry and Feulgen image analysis densitometry to provide genome size estimates for seven species of velvet worms from both major subgroups, Peripatidae and Peripatopsidae, along with karyotype data for each species. Genome sizes in these species range from roughly 5-19 pg, with densitometric estimates being slightly larger than those obtained by flow cytometry for all species. Chromosome numbers range from 2n = 8 to 2n = 54. No relationship is evident between genome size, chromosome number, or reproductive mode. Various avenues for future genomic research are presented based on these results. PMID:23307271

  8. Parasites in Kentucky Thoroughbreds at necropsy: emphasis on stomach worms and tapeworms.

    PubMed

    Lyons, E T; Tolliver, S C; Drudge, J H; Swerczek, T W; Crowe, M W

    1983-05-01

    A total of 363 Thoroughbreds (62 males, 292 females, and 9 geldings), 1 to 26 years of age, were examined at necropsy for internal parasites for about a 12-month period from February 1981 through February 1982. Emphasis was on examining the stomach for nematodes and the small intestine and cecum for tapeworms. Parasites recovered from the stomach and infection rates were: Habronema spp--immature (24%), H muscae--adult (38%), Draschia megastoma--immature (13%), D megastoma--adult (62%), and Trichostrongylus axei--adult (4%); lesions caused by D megastoma were found upon gross observation in 58% of the stomachs. The tapeworm, Anoplocephala perfoliata, was recovered from 54% of the horses; A magna was not found. There was no obvious difference in infection rates of the stomach worms and tapeworms according to age or sex of the horses. Seasonal differences were apparent only for immature Habronema spp and immature D megastoma for which infection rates began increasing in June, peaking in October, and declining thereafter. Presence of 4 additional species of parasites was recorded, but only a cursory examination was made for them. These were the large strongyles, Strongylus vulgaris, S edentatus, and S equinus, from the cecum and a filariid, Setaria spp (probably S equina), from the abdominal cavity, for which recovery rates from the horses were 8%, 8%, 1%, and 7%, respectively. PMID:6869991

  9. Global Economic Burden of Norovirus Gastroenteritis

    PubMed Central

    Bartsch, Sarah M.; Lopman, Benjamin A.; Ozawa, Sachiko; Hall, Aron J.; Lee, Bruce Y.

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite accounting for approximately one fifth of all acute gastroenteritis illnesses, norovirus has received comparatively less attention than other infectious pathogens. With several candidate vaccines under development, characterizing the global economic burden of norovirus could help funders, policy makers, public health officials, and product developers determine how much attention and resources to allocate to advancing these technologies to prevent and control norovirus. Methods We developed a computational simulation model to estimate the economic burden of norovirus in every country/area (233 total) stratified by WHO region and globally, from the health system and societal perspectives. We considered direct costs of illness (e.g., clinic visits and hospitalization) and productivity losses. Results Globally, norovirus resulted in a total of $4.2 billion (95% UI: $3.2–5.7 billion) in direct health system costs and $60.3 billion (95% UI: $44.4–83.4 billion) in societal costs per year. Disease amongst children <5 years cost society $39.8 billion, compared to $20.4 billion for all other age groups combined. Costs per norovirus illness varied by both region and age and was highest among adults ≥55 years. Productivity losses represented 84–99% of total costs varying by region. While low and middle income countries and high income countries had similar disease incidence (10,148 vs. 9,935 illness per 100,000 persons), high income countries generated 62% of global health system costs. In sensitivity analysis, the probability of hospitalization had the largest impact on health system cost estimates ($2.8 billion globally, assuming no hospitalization costs), while the probability of missing productive days had the largest impact on societal cost estimates ($35.9 billion globally, with a 25% probability of missing productive days). Conclusions The total economic burden is greatest in young children but the highest cost per illness is among older age

  10. WormBase 2012: more genomes, more data, new website.

    PubMed

    Yook, Karen; Harris, Todd W; Bieri, Tamberlyn; Cabunoc, Abigail; Chan, Juancarlos; Chen, Wen J; Davis, Paul; de la Cruz, Norie; Duong, Adrian; Fang, Ruihua; Ganesan, Uma; Grove, Christian; Howe, Kevin; Kadam, Snehalata; Kishore, Ranjana; Lee, Raymond; Li, Yuling; Muller, Hans-Michael; Nakamura, Cecilia; Nash, Bill; Ozersky, Philip; Paulini, Michael; Raciti, Daniela; Rangarajan, Arun; Schindelman, Gary; Shi, Xiaoqi; Schwarz, Erich M; Ann Tuli, Mary; Van Auken, Kimberly; Wang, Daniel; Wang, Xiaodong; Williams, Gary; Hodgkin, Jonathan; Berriman, Matthew; Durbin, Richard; Kersey, Paul; Spieth, John; Stein, Lincoln; Sternberg, Paul W

    2012-01-01

    Since its release in 2000, WormBase (http://www.wormbase.org) has grown from a small resource focusing on a single species and serving a dedicated research community, to one now spanning 15 species essential to the broader biomedical and agricultural research fields. To enhance the rate of curation, we have automated the identification of key data in the scientific literature and use similar methodology for data extraction. To ease access to the data, we are collaborating with journals to link entities in research publications to their report pages at WormBase. To facilitate discovery, we have added new views of the data, integrated large-scale datasets and expanded descriptions of models for human disease. Finally, we have introduced a dramatic overhaul of the WormBase website for public beta testing. Designed to balance complexity and usability, the new site is species-agnostic, highly customizable, and interactive. Casual users and developers alike will be able to leverage the public RESTful application programming interface (API) to generate custom data mining solutions and extensions to the site. We report on the growth of our database and on our work in keeping pace with the growing demand for data, efforts to anticipate the requirements of users and new collaborations with the larger science community. PMID:22067452

  11. WormBase 2016: expanding to enable helminth genomic research

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Kevin L.; Bolt, Bruce J.; Cain, Scott; Chan, Juancarlos; Chen, Wen J.; Davis, Paul; Done, James; Down, Thomas; Gao, Sibyl; Grove, Christian; Harris, Todd W.; Kishore, Ranjana; Lee, Raymond; Lomax, Jane; Li, Yuling; Muller, Hans-Michael; Nakamura, Cecilia; Nuin, Paulo; Paulini, Michael; Raciti, Daniela; Schindelman, Gary; Stanley, Eleanor; Tuli, Mary Ann; Van Auken, Kimberly; Wang, Daniel; Wang, Xiaodong; Williams, Gary; Wright, Adam; Yook, Karen; Berriman, Matthew; Kersey, Paul; Schedl, Tim; Stein, Lincoln; Sternberg, Paul W.

    2016-01-01

    WormBase (www.wormbase.org) is a central repository for research data on the biology, genetics and genomics of Caenorhabditis elegans and other nematodes. The project has evolved from its original remit to collect and integrate all data for a single species, and now extends to numerous nematodes, ranging from evolutionary comparators of C. elegans to parasitic species that threaten plant, animal and human health. Research activity using C. elegans as a model system is as vibrant as ever, and we have created new tools for community curation in response to the ever-increasing volume and complexity of data. To better allow users to navigate their way through these data, we have made a number of improvements to our main website, including new tools for browsing genomic features and ontology annotations. Finally, we have developed a new portal for parasitic worm genomes. WormBase ParaSite (parasite.wormbase.org) contains all publicly available nematode and platyhelminth annotated genome sequences, and is designed specifically to support helminth genomic research. PMID:26578572

  12. The Physical Burdens of Secrecy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slepian, Michael L.; Masicampo, E. J.; Toosi, Negin R.; Ambady, Nalini

    2012-01-01

    The present work examined whether secrets are experienced as physical burdens, thereby influencing perception and action. Four studies examined the behavior of people who harbored important secrets, such as secrets concerning infidelity and sexual orientation. People who recalled, were preoccupied with, or suppressed an important secret estimated…

  13. Relationships between host body condition and immunocompetence, not host sex, best predict parasite burden in a bat-helminth system.

    PubMed

    Warburton, Elizabeth M; Pearl, Christopher A; Vonhof, Maarten J

    2016-06-01

    Sex-biased parasitism highlights potentially divergent approaches to parasite resistance resulting in differing energetic trade-offs for males and females; however, trade-offs between immunity and self-maintenance could also depend on host body condition. We investigated these relationships in the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus, to determine if host sex or body condition better predicted parasite resistance, if testosterone levels predicted male parasite burdens, and if immune parameters could predict male testosterone levels. We found that male and female hosts had similar parasite burdens and female bats scored higher than males in only one immunological measure. Top models of helminth burden revealed interactions between body condition index and agglutination score as well as between agglutination score and host sex. Additionally, the strength of the relationships between sex, agglutination, and helminth burden is affected by body condition. Models of male parasite burden provided no support for testosterone predicting helminthiasis. Models that best predicted testosterone levels did not include parasite burden but instead consistently included month of capture and agglutination score. Thus, in our system, body condition was a more important predictor of immunity and worm burden than host sex. PMID:26898834

  14. Clinical assessment of coded Unani formulation D-worm and mebandazole for the treatment of hook worm, roundworm and whip worm.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Khalil; Usmanghani, Khan; Akhtar, Naveed; Nazar, Halima

    2015-11-01

    A case control, multicenter, prospective randomized two arm parallel group clinical trials was conducted on 190 patients. The main objective of this study is to provide comparative efficacy results of both trialed medicines. The comparison was done in between herbal medicine D-Worm and Mebandazole allopathic drug for the treatment of helminthiasis. All the rules of GCP (Good Clinical Practices) were followed including clinical history, clinical presentation, examination findings and stool tests. Stool D/R and Parasite antigen tests were performed before and after treatment. The comparison of symptoms were also done including the improvement in abdominal pain, worms in stool, anal itching, nausea and vomiting, loss of appetite, and fatigue etc. The data on clinical proforma was gathered and subjected to statistical analysis. Parasite specific antigen test and stool D/R is considered as gold standard test for the diagnosis and confirmation of helminthes infection. Different parameter i.e. age, sex, and other clinical sign and symptoms were studied and compared between two treatment groups (Control and Test groups) at baseline and end of therapeutic application. Consent of patient was taken at first before the start of examination. Majority of the patients (90%) included in this study group get cured after herbal treatment. The statistical analysis used for the assessment of the effect of the treatment also showed significant improvement after treatment. PMID:26639505

  15. National Economic Burden Associated with Management of Periodontitis in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Mohd Dom, Tuti Ningseh; Ayob, Rasidah; Abd Muttalib, Khairiyah; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this study is to estimate the economic burden associated with the management of periodontitis in Malaysia from the societal perspective. Methods. We estimated the economic burden of periodontitis by combining the disease prevalence with its treatment costs. We estimated treatment costs (with 2012 value of Malaysian Ringgit) using the cost-of-illness approach and included both direct and indirect costs. We used the National Oral Health Survey for Adults (2010) data to estimate the prevalence of periodontitis and 2010 national census data to estimate the adult population at risk for periodontitis. Results. The economic burden of managing all cases of periodontitis at the national level from the societal perspective was approximately MYR 32.5 billion, accounting for 3.83% of the 2012 Gross Domestic Product of the country. It would cost the nation MYR 18.3 billion to treat patients with moderate periodontitis and MYR 13.7 billion to treat patients with severe periodontitis. Conclusion. The economic burden of periodontitis in Malaysia is substantial and comparable with that of other chronic diseases in the country. This is attributable to its high prevalence and high cost of treatment. Judicious application of promotive, preventive, and curative approaches to periodontitis management is decidedly warranted. PMID:27092180

  16. National Economic Burden Associated with Management of Periodontitis in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Ayob, Rasidah; Abd Muttalib, Khairiyah

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this study is to estimate the economic burden associated with the management of periodontitis in Malaysia from the societal perspective. Methods. We estimated the economic burden of periodontitis by combining the disease prevalence with its treatment costs. We estimated treatment costs (with 2012 value of Malaysian Ringgit) using the cost-of-illness approach and included both direct and indirect costs. We used the National Oral Health Survey for Adults (2010) data to estimate the prevalence of periodontitis and 2010 national census data to estimate the adult population at risk for periodontitis. Results. The economic burden of managing all cases of periodontitis at the national level from the societal perspective was approximately MYR 32.5 billion, accounting for 3.83% of the 2012 Gross Domestic Product of the country. It would cost the nation MYR 18.3 billion to treat patients with moderate periodontitis and MYR 13.7 billion to treat patients with severe periodontitis. Conclusion. The economic burden of periodontitis in Malaysia is substantial and comparable with that of other chronic diseases in the country. This is attributable to its high prevalence and high cost of treatment. Judicious application of promotive, preventive, and curative approaches to periodontitis management is decidedly warranted. PMID:27092180

  17. Single worm genotyping demonstrates that Onchocerca ochengi females simultaneously produce progeny sired by different males.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, Julia C; Eisenbarth, Albert; Renz, Alfons; Streit, Adrian

    2012-11-01

    Onchocerca ochengi is a filarial nematode parasite of African cattle and most closely related to Onchocerca volvulus, the causing agent of river blindness. O. ochengi females induce the formation of a nodule in the dermis of the host, in which they remain sedentary in very close association with the host's tissue. Males, which do not adhere to the host's tissue, are also found within the nodules at an average number of about one male per nodule. Young O. ochengi females tend to avoid the immediate proximity of existing nodules. Therefore, O. ochengi nodules are dispersed in the ventral inguinal skin at considerable distances from each other. It has been speculated that males avoid the risk of leaving a female once they have found one and remain in the nodule as territorial males rendering the reproductive strategy of O. ochengi essentially monogamous. We developed a protocol that allows reliable PCR amplification of single copy loci from different developmental stages of O. ochengi including embryos and microfilariae. From 32 O. ochengi nodules, we genotyped the female worms and the 67 adult male worms, found in these nodules, together with a fraction of the progeny from within the uteri of females. In 18 of 32 gravid females progeny derived from multiple males were found. In five nodules, the males isolated from the same nodule as the female were not sufficient to explain the genotypes of the entire progeny. We conclude that frequently O. ochengi females simultaneously produce progeny sired by different males and that most but not all males are still present in the nodule when their offspring is ready to hatch. PMID:22706958

  18. Interactive effects of vascular risk burden and advanced age on cerebral blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Bangen, Katherine J.; Nation, Daniel A.; Clark, Lindsay R.; Harmell, Alexandrea L.; Wierenga, Christina E.; Dev, Sheena I.; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Zlatar, Zvinka Z.; Salmon, David P.; Liu, Thomas T.; Bondi, Mark W.

    2014-01-01

    Vascular risk factors and cerebral blood flow (CBF) reduction have been linked to increased risk of cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease (AD); however the possible moderating effects of age and vascular risk burden on CBF in late life remain understudied. We examined the relationships among elevated vascular risk burden, age, CBF, and cognition. Seventy-one non-demented older adults completed an arterial spin labeling MR scan, neuropsychological assessment, and medical history interview. Relationships among vascular risk burden, age, and CBF were examined in a priori regions of interest (ROIs) previously implicated in aging and AD. Interaction effects indicated that, among older adults with elevated vascular risk burden (i.e., multiple vascular risk factors), advancing age was significantly associated with reduced cortical CBF whereas there was no such relationship for those with low vascular risk burden (i.e., no or one vascular risk factor). This pattern was observed in cortical ROIs including medial temporal (hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, uncus), inferior parietal (supramarginal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, angular gyrus), and frontal (anterior cingulate, middle frontal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus) cortices. Furthermore, among those with elevated vascular risk, reduced CBF was associated with poorer cognitive performance. Such findings suggest that older adults with elevated vascular risk burden may be particularly vulnerable to cognitive change as a function of CBF reductions. Findings support the use of CBF as a potential biomarker in preclinical AD and suggest that vascular risk burden and regionally-specific CBF changes may contribute to differential age-related cognitive declines. PMID:25071567

  19. The global burden of injuries.

    PubMed

    Krug, E G; Sharma, G K; Lozano, R

    2000-04-01

    The traditional view of injuries as "accidents", or random events, has resulted in the historical neglect of this area of public health. However, the most recent estimates show that injuries are among the leading causes of death and disability in the world. They affect all populations, regardless of age, sex, income, or geographic region. In 1998, about 5.8 million people (97.9 per 100,000 population) died of injuries worldwide, and injuries caused 16% of the global burden of disease. Road traffic injuries are the 10th leading cause of death and the 9th leading cause of the burden of disease; self-inflicted injuries, falls, and interpersonal violence follow closely. Injuries affect mostly young people, often causing long-term disability. Decreasing the burden of injuries is among the main challenges for public health in the next century--injuries are preventable, and many effective strategies are available. Public health officials must gain a better understanding of the magnitude and characteristics of the problem, contribute to the development and evaluation of injury prevention programs, and develop the best possible prehospital and hospital care and rehabilitation for injured persons. PMID:10754963

  20. Burden of disease from Cryptosporidiosis

    PubMed Central

    Shirley, Debbie-Ann T.; Moonah, Shannon N.; Kotloff, Karen L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review The global significance of cryptosporidiosis is widespread and far-reaching. In this review, we present recent data about strain diversity and the burden of disease, along with developments in therapeutic and preventative strategies. Recent findings Cryptosporidium is an emerging pathogen that disproportionately affects children in developing countries and immunocompromised individuals. Without a diagnostic tool amenable for use in developing countries the burden of infection and its relationship to growth faltering, malnutrition, and diarrheal mortality remain underappreciated. Disease incidence is also increasing in industrialized countries largely as a result of outbreaks in recreational water facilities. Advances in molecular methods, including subtyping analysis, have yielded new insights into the epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis. However, without practical point-of-care diagnostics, an effective treatment for immunocompromised patients, and a promising vaccine candidate, the ability to reduce the burden of disease in the near future is limited. This is compounded by inadequate coverage with antiretroviral therapy in developing countries, the only current means of managing HIV-infected patients with cryptosporidiosis. Summary Cryptosporidiosis is one of the most important diarrheal pathogens affecting people worldwide. Effective methods to control and treat cryptosporidiosis among high risk groups present an ongoing problem in need of attention. PMID:22907279

  1. A Horsehair Worm, Gordius sp. (Nematomorpha: Gordiida), Passed in a Canine Feces

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Eui-Ju; Sim, Cheolho; Chae, Joon-Seok; Kim, Hyeon-Cheol; Park, Jinho; Choi, Kyoung-Seong; Yu, Do-Hyeon; Yoo, Jae-Gyu; Park, Bae-Keun

    2015-01-01

    Nematomorpha, horsehair or Gordian worms, include about 300 freshwater species in 22 genera (Gordiida) and 5 marine species in 1 marine genus (Nectonema). They are parasitic in arthropods during their juvenile stage. In the present study, the used gordian worm was found in the feces of a dog (5-month old, male) in July 2014. Following the worm analysis using light and scanning electron microscopes, the morphological classification was re-evaluated with molecular analysis. The worm was determined to be a male worm having a bi-lobed tail and had male gonads in cross sections. It was identified as Gordius sp. (Nematomorpha: Gordiidae) based on the characteristic morphologies of cross sections and areole on the cuticle. DNA analysis on 18S rRNA partial sequence arrangements was also carried out, and the gordiid worm was assumed to be close to the genus Gordius based on a phylogenic tree analysis. PMID:26797439

  2. 76 FR 6123 - Reducing Regulatory Burden

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ... achieving its regulatory objectives. DATES: Written comments and information are requested on or before... the least burden on society, consistent with obtaining the regulatory objectives, taking into account... approaches that reduce burdens and maintain flexibility. Regulations be guided by objective...

  3. Towards global Guinea worm eradication in 2015: the experience of South Sudan.

    PubMed

    Awofeso, Niyi

    2013-08-01

    For centuries, the Guinea worm parasite (Dracunculus medinensis) has caused disabling misery, infecting people who drink stagnant water contaminated with the worm's larvae. In 2012, there were 542 cases of Guinea worm reported globally, of which 521 (96.1%) were reported in South Sudan. Protracted civil wars, an inadequate workforce, neglect of potable water provision programs, suboptimal Guinea worm surveillance and case containment, and fragmented health systems account for many of the structural and operational factors encumbering South Sudan's Guinea worm eradication efforts. This article reviews the impacts of six established Guinea worm control strategies in South Sudan: (1) surveillance to determine actual caseload distribution and trends in response to control measures; (2) educating community members from whom worms are emerging to avoid immersing affected parts in sources of drinking water; (3) filtering potentially contaminated drinking water using cloth filters or filtered drinking straws; (4) treating potentially contaminated surface water with the copepod larvicide temephos (Abate); (5) providing safe drinking water from boreholes or hand-dug wells; and (6) containment of transmission through voluntary isolation of each patient to prevent contamination of drinking water sources, provision of first aid, and manual extraction of the worm. Surveillance, community education, potable water provision, and case containment remain weak facets of the program. Abate pesticide is not a viable option for Guinea worm control in South Sudan. In light of current case detection and containment trends, as well as capacity building efforts for Guinea worm eradication, South Sudan is more likely to eradicate Guinea worm by 2020, rather than by 2015. The author highlights areas in which substantial improvements are required in South Sudan's Guinea worm eradication program, and suggests improvement strategies. PMID:23623648

  4. Experiences in the development of the Mighty Worm. [development of actuator for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bamford, R.; Moore, D.; Mon, G.; Wada, B.

    1993-01-01

    A 'Mighty Worm' actuator with the active member capable of carrying large loads during the launch phase was developed for adaptive structures applications. Two types of Mighty Worm performance are characterized, namely, long-stroke motion and incremental positioning at 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 lb. Long-stroke motion involves successive translations of all Mighty Worm moving elements, and incremental positioning involves only in-place stack expansion.

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Galactic Worms (Koo+, 1992)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, B.-C.; Heiles, C.; Reach, W. T.

    2016-02-01

    118 structures catalogued as "worm candidates" are found on the basis of the maps in HI-21cm, IRAS 100 and 60μm. The 21cm maps of the Galactic Plane (b < 10°) result from available surveys (Kerr et al. 1986A&AS...66..373K; Weaver & Williams 1973A&AS....8....1W, Cat. VIII/11) and from new observations near the Galactic center during 1989 and 1990 using the Hat Creek 26m telescope. (3 data files).

  6. Pet roundworms and hookworms: A continuing need for global worming

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Ascarids and ancylostomatids are the most important parasites affecting dogs and cats worldwide, in terms of diffusion and risk for animal and human health. Different misconceptions have led the general public and pet owners to minimize the importance of these intestinal worms. A low grade of interest is also registered among veterinary professions, although there is a significant merit in keeping our guard up against these parasites. This article reviews current knowledge of ascarids and ancylostomatids, with a special focus on pathogenicity, epidemiology and control methods in veterinary and human medicine. PMID:22574783

  7. Application of a Multidimensional Caregiver Burden Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Mark; Guest, Carol

    1989-01-01

    Developed 24-item, 5-subscale Caregiver Burden Inventory (CBI) as useful diagnostic tool for professional caregivers. Administered CBI to 107 caregivers of cognitively impaired older people. Individual cases illustrated that caregivers with same total burden scores can have markedly different patterns of burden and different social and…

  8. Spatial and temporal differences in giant kidney worm, dictophyma renale, prevalence in Minnesota Mink, Mustela vison

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.

    2008-01-01

    Examination of 110 Mink (Mustela vison) carcasses from 1998 through 2007 indicated that the giant kidney worm, Dioctophyma renale, occurred in Pine and Kanabec Counties of eastern Minnesota with annual prevalences of 0-92%. Worm prevalence increased from 20% in 1999 to 92% in 2001 and decreased to 6% in 2005. During 2000 to 2007, no worms were found in Mink from Anoka and Chisago Counties (n = 54), and in 2000, none in 107 Mink from LeSeur, Freeborn, Redwood, Brown and Watonwan Counties. Changes in kidney worm prevalence were positively related to trapping success, considered an index of Mink density.

  9. Family Burden Related to Clinical and Functional Variables of People with Intellectual Disability with and without a Mental Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irazabal, M.; Marsa, F.; Garcia, M.; Gutierrez-Recacha, P.; Martorell, A.; Salvador-Carulla, L.; Ochoa, S.

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have been found that to assess the factors that explain higher levels of family burden in adults with intellectual disability (ID) and intellectual disability and mental disorders (ID-MD). The aims of this study were to assess family burden in people with ID and ID-MD and to determine which sociodemographic, clinical and functional…

  10. Stratospheric carbonyl sulfide (OCS) burden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kloss, Corinna; Walker, Kaley A.; Deshler, Terry; von Hobe, Marc

    2015-04-01

    An estimation of the global stratospheric burden of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) calculated using satellite based measurements from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment - Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) will be presented. OCS is the most abundant sulfur containing gas in the atmosphere in the absence of volcanic eruptions. With a long lifetime of 2-6 years it reaches the stratosphere where it is photolyzed and the sulfur oxidized and condensed to aerosols, contributing to the stratospheric aerosol layer. The aerosol layer is the one factor of the middle-atmosphere with a direct impact on the Earth's climate by scattering incoming solar radiation back to space. Therefore it is crucial to understand and estimate the different processes and abundances of the species contributing to the aerosol layer. However, the exact amount of OCS in the stratosphere has not been quantified yet. A study on the OCS mixing ratio distribution based on ACE-FTS data has already been made by Barkley et al. (2008), also giving an estimation for the total atmospheric OCS mass. ACE-FTS is an infrared solar occultation spectrometer providing high- resolution profile observations since 2004. In the scope of this work the focus lies on the stratospheric OCS burden, calculated by integrating the ACE profiles. A global overview on the stratospheric OCS amount in the past and present based on the ACE data as well as a look at regional and seasonal variability will be given. Furthermore, the results of this work will be useful for further studies on OCS fluxes and lifetimes, and in quantifying the contribution of OCS to the global stratospheric sulfur burden. Barkley et al., 2008, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L14810.

  11. Burden of major musculoskeletal conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Woolf, Anthony D.; Pfleger, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    Musculoskeletal conditions are a major burden on individuals, health systems, and social care systems, with indirect costs being predominant. This burden has been recognized by the United Nations and WHO, by endorsing the Bone and Joint Decade 2000-2010. This paper describes the burden of four major musculoskeletal conditions: osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis, and low back pain. Osteoarthritis, which is characterized by loss of joint cartilage that leads to pain and loss of function primarily in the knees and hips, affects 9.6% of men and 18% of women aged > 60 years. Increases in life expectancy and ageing populations are expected to make osteoarthritis the fourth leading cause of disability by the year 2020. Joint replacement surgery, where available, provides effective relief. Rheumatoid arthritis is an inflammatory condition that usually affects multiple joints. It affects 0.3-1.0% of the general population and is more prevalent among women and in developed countries. Persistent inflammation leads to joint destruction, but the disease can be controlled with drugs. The incidence may be on the decline, but the increase in the number of older people in some regions makes it difficult to estimate future prevalence. Osteoporosis, which is characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration, is a major risk factor for fractures of the hip, vertebrae, and distal forearm. Hip fracture is the most detrimental fracture, being associated with 20% mortality and 50% permanent loss in function. Low back pain is the most prevalent of musculoskeletal conditions; it affects nearly everyone at some point in time and about 4-33% of the population at any given point. Cultural factors greatly influence the prevalence and prognosis of low back pain. PMID:14710506

  12. The burden of neglected tropical diseases in Ethiopia, and opportunities for integrated control and elimination

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are a group of chronic parasitic diseases and related conditions that are the most common diseases among the 2·7 billion people globally living on less than US$2 per day. In response to the growing challenge of NTDs, Ethiopia is preparing to launch a NTD Master Plan. The purpose of this review is to underscore the burden of NTDs in Ethiopia, highlight the state of current interventions, and suggest ways forward. Results This review indicates that NTDs are significant public health problems in Ethiopia. From the analysis reported here, Ethiopia stands out for having the largest number of NTD cases following Nigeria and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Ethiopia is estimated to have the highest burden of trachoma, podoconiosis and cutaneous leishmaniasis in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), the second highest burden in terms of ascariasis, leprosy and visceral leishmaniasis, and the third highest burden of hookworm. Infections such as schistosomiasis, trichuriasis, lymphatic filariasis and rabies are also common. A third of Ethiopians are infected with ascariasis, one quarter is infected with trichuriasis and one in eight Ethiopians lives with hookworm or is infected with trachoma. However, despite these high burdens of infection, the control of most NTDs in Ethiopia is in its infancy. In terms of NTD control achievements, Ethiopia reached the leprosy elimination target of 1 case/10,000 population in 1999. No cases of human African trypanosomiasis have been reported since 1984. Guinea worm eradication is in its final phase. The Onchocerciasis Control Program has been making steady progress since 2001. A national blindness survey was conducted in 2006 and the trachoma program has kicked off in some regions. Lymphatic Filariasis, podoconiosis and rabies mapping are underway. Conclusion Ethiopia bears a significant burden of NTDs compared to other SSA countries. To achieve success in integrated control of NTDs, integrated mapping

  13. 40 CFR 305.33 - Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... persuasion. 305.33 Section 305.33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Hearing Procedure § 305.33 Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion. The Requestor has the burden of... justified. Accordingly, the Requestor bears the burdens of presentation and persuasion. Following...

  14. 45 CFR 672.17 - Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion. 672.17 Section 672.17 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENFORCEMENT AND HEARING PROCEDURES § 672.17 Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion....

  15. 45 CFR 672.17 - Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion. 672.17 Section 672.17 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENFORCEMENT AND HEARING PROCEDURES § 672.17 Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion....

  16. 45 CFR 672.17 - Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion. 672.17 Section 672.17 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENFORCEMENT AND HEARING PROCEDURES § 672.17 Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion....

  17. 40 CFR 305.33 - Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... persuasion. 305.33 Section 305.33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Hearing Procedure § 305.33 Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion. The Requestor has the burden of... justified. Accordingly, the Requestor bears the burdens of presentation and persuasion. Following...

  18. 45 CFR 672.17 - Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion. 672.17 Section 672.17 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENFORCEMENT AND HEARING PROCEDURES § 672.17 Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion....

  19. 40 CFR 305.33 - Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... persuasion. 305.33 Section 305.33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Hearing Procedure § 305.33 Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion. The Requestor has the burden of... justified. Accordingly, the Requestor bears the burdens of presentation and persuasion. Following...

  20. 45 CFR 672.17 - Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion. 672.17 Section 672.17 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENFORCEMENT AND HEARING PROCEDURES § 672.17 Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion....

  1. 40 CFR 305.33 - Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... persuasion. 305.33 Section 305.33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Hearing Procedure § 305.33 Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion. The Requestor has the burden of... justified. Accordingly, the Requestor bears the burdens of presentation and persuasion. Following...

  2. 40 CFR 305.33 - Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... persuasion. 305.33 Section 305.33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Hearing Procedure § 305.33 Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion. The Requestor has the burden of... justified. Accordingly, the Requestor bears the burdens of presentation and persuasion. Following...

  3. Predicted burden of venous disease.

    PubMed

    Onida, Sarah; Davies, Alun Huw

    2016-03-01

    Chronic venous disease is a common condition with clinical signs and symptoms ranging from spider veins, to varicose veins, to active venous ulceration. Both superficial and deep venous dysfunction may be implicated in the development of this disease. Socio-economic factors are shaping our population, with increasing age and body mass index resulting in significant pressure on healthcare systems worldwide. These risk factors also lead to an increased risk of developing superficial and/or deep venous insufficiency, increasing disease prevalence and morbidity. In this chapter, the authors review the current and future burden of chronic venous disease from an epidemiological, quality of life and economic perspective. PMID:26916773

  4. Complete mitochondrial genome of yellow meal worm(Tenebrio molitor)

    PubMed Central

    LIU, Li-Na; WANG, Cheng-Ye

    2014-01-01

    The yellow meal worm(Tenebrio molitor L.) is an important resource insect typically used as animal feed additive. It is also widely used for biological research. The first complete mitochondrial genome of T. molitor was determined for the first time by long PCR and conserved primer walking approaches. The results showed that the entire mitogenome of T. molitor was 15 785 bp long, with 72.35% A+T content [deposited in GenBank with accession number KF418153]. The gene order and orientation were the same as the most common type suggested as ancestral for insects. Two protein-coding genes used atypical start codons(CTA in ND2 and AAT in COX1), and the remaining 11 protein-coding genes started with a typical insect initiation codon ATN. All tRNAs showed standard clover-leaf structure, except for tRNASer(AGN), which lacked a dihydrouridine(DHU) arm. The newly added T. molitor mitogenome could provide information for future studies on yellow meal worm. PMID:25465087

  5. Meandering worms: mechanics of undulatory burrowing in muds.

    PubMed

    Dorgan, Kelly M; Law, Chris J; Rouse, Greg W

    2013-04-22

    Recent work has shown that muddy sediments are elastic solids through which animals extend burrows by fracture, whereas non-cohesive granular sands fluidize around some burrowers. These different mechanical responses are reflected in the morphologies and behaviours of their respective inhabitants. However, Armandia brevis, a mud-burrowing opheliid polychaete, lacks an expansible anterior consistent with fracturing mud, and instead uses undulatory movements similar to those of sandfish lizards that fluidize desert sands. Here, we show that A. brevis neither fractures nor fluidizes sediments, but instead uses a third mechanism, plastically rearranging sediment grains to create a burrow. The curvature of the undulating body fits meander geometry used to describe rivers, and changes in curvature driven by muscle contraction are similar for swimming and burrowing worms, indicating that the same gait is used in both sediments and water. Large calculated friction forces for undulatory burrowers suggest that sediment mechanics affect undulatory and peristaltic burrowers differently; undulatory burrowing may be more effective for small worms that live in sediments not compacted or cohesive enough to extend burrows by fracture. PMID:23446526

  6. Meandering worms: mechanics of undulatory burrowing in muds

    PubMed Central

    Dorgan, Kelly M.; Law, Chris J.; Rouse, Greg W.

    2013-01-01

    Recent work has shown that muddy sediments are elastic solids through which animals extend burrows by fracture, whereas non-cohesive granular sands fluidize around some burrowers. These different mechanical responses are reflected in the morphologies and behaviours of their respective inhabitants. However, Armandia brevis, a mud-burrowing opheliid polychaete, lacks an expansible anterior consistent with fracturing mud, and instead uses undulatory movements similar to those of sandfish lizards that fluidize desert sands. Here, we show that A. brevis neither fractures nor fluidizes sediments, but instead uses a third mechanism, plastically rearranging sediment grains to create a burrow. The curvature of the undulating body fits meander geometry used to describe rivers, and changes in curvature driven by muscle contraction are similar for swimming and burrowing worms, indicating that the same gait is used in both sediments and water. Large calculated friction forces for undulatory burrowers suggest that sediment mechanics affect undulatory and peristaltic burrowers differently; undulatory burrowing may be more effective for small worms that live in sediments not compacted or cohesive enough to extend burrows by fracture. PMID:23446526

  7. Distribution of meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) in South Dakota.

    PubMed

    Jacques, Christopher N; Jenks, Jonathan A

    2004-01-01

    Heads of hunter-harvested deer (Odocoileus sp.) and elk (Cervus elaphus) were collected from meat processing plants throughout South Dakota (USA) from 1997 through 1999 to determine distribution of meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) in eastern and western South Dakota. A total of 2,848 white-tailed deer (WTD) were examined for P. tenuis, of which 578 (20.3%) were infected with the parasite. Of 578 deer infected, 570 (98.6%) were harvested east of the Missouri River. Our results indicate that P. tenuis is widely distributed throughout eastern South Dakota and limited to the southcentral region of western South Dakota. Infected WTD were documented in 37 of 44 counties in eastern South Dakota and three of 22 counties in western South Dakota. No meningeal worms were found on the meninges or cranial surfaces of 215 mule deer ( Odocoileus hemionus) or 344 elk examined. These findings further define the distribution of the parasite throughout the state. We suggest that the Missouri River acts, in part, as a physical barrier to the westward expansion of P. tenuis to the grasslands of western South Dakota. PMID:15137501

  8. Bio-inspired microfluidics: The case of the velvet worm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Concha, Andres; Mellado, Paula; Morera-Brenes, Bernal; Sampaio-Costa, Cristiano; Mahadevan, L.; Monge-Najera, Julian

    The rapid squirt of a proteinaceous slime jet endow velvet worms (Onychophora) with a unique mechanism for defense from predators and for capturing prey by entangling them in a disordered web that immobilizes their target. However, to date neither qualitative nor quantitative descriptions have been provided for this unique adaptation. We have investigated the mechanism that allows velvet worms the fast oscillatory motion of their oral papillae and the exiting liquid jet that oscillates with frequencies f ~ 30 - 60 Hz. Using anatomical images and high speed videography, we show that even without fast muscular action of the papilla, a strong contraction of the slime reservoir and the geometry of the reservoir-papilla system suffices to accelerate the slime to speeds up to v ~ 5 m /s in about Δt ~ 60 ms. A theoretical analysis and a physical simulacrum allow us to infer that this fast oscillatory motion is the result of an elastohydrodynamic instability driven by the interplay between the elasticity of oral papillae and the fast unsteady flow during squirting. We propose several applications that can be implemented using this instability, ranging from high-throughput droplet production, printing, and micro-nanofiber production among others. A.C was partially supported by Fondecyt Grant 11130075.

  9. Caregiver burden at 1 year following severe traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Marsh, N V; Kersel, D A; Havill, J H; Sleigh, J W

    1998-12-01

    Sixty-nine primary caregivers of adults with a severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) were assessed at 1-year post-injury. Caregivers completed questionnaires on the physical, cognitive, emotional, behavioural, and social functioning of the person with TBI. Caregiver objective burden, psychosocial functioning, and subjective burden were also assessed. Clinically significant levels of anxiety and depression were evident in over a third of the caregivers. Similarly, a quarter of the caregivers reported poor social adjustment. There was no consistent relationship between the prevalence of various types of objective burden and the level of subjective distress that resulted from these changes. The person with TBI's emotional difficulties, in particular their anger, apathy, and dependency, caused the greatest distress for caregivers. With regard to the impact that caregiving had on their own lives, caregivers were most distressed by the loss of personal free time. Results from a regression analysis indicated that the person with TBI's physical impairment, number of behavioural problems, and social isolation were the strongest predictors of caregiver burden. The impact that caring for a person with severe TBI can have on the extended family unit is discussed. PMID:9876864

  10. The burden of allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Nathan, Robert A

    2007-01-01

    Although formerly regarded as a nuisance disease, allergic rhinitis (AR) has a considerable effect on quality of life and can have significant consequences if left untreated. The total burden of this disease lies not only in impaired physical and social functioning but also in a financial burden made greater when considering evidence that AR is a possible causal factor in comorbid diseases such as asthma or sinusitis. Compared with matched controls, patients with AR have an approximate twofold increase in medication costs and 1.8-fold the number of visits to health practitioners. Hidden direct costs include the treatment of comorbid asthma, chronic sinusitis, otitis media, upper respiratory infection, and nasal polyposis. Nasal congestion, the most prominent symptom in AR, is associated with sleep-disordered breathing, a condition that can have a profound effect on mental health, including increased psychiatric disorders, depression, anxiety, and alcohol abuse. Furthermore, sleep-disordered breathing in childhood and adolescence is associated with increased disorders of learning performance, behavior, and attention. In the United States, AR results in 3.5 million lost workdays and 2 million lost schooldays annually. Patients struggle to alleviate their misery, frequently self-adjusting their treatment regimen of over-the-counter and prescription medications because of lack of efficacy, deterioration of efficacy, lack of 24-hour relief, and bothersome side effects. Ironically, health care providers overestimate patient satisfaction with therapy. Therefore, improvement in patient-practitioner communication may enhance patient adherence with prescribed regimens. PMID:17390749

  11. Comparison of RELMα and RELMβ Single- and Double-Gene-Deficient Mice Reveals that RELMα Expression Dictates Inflammation and Worm Expulsion in Hookworm Infection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Wang, Spencer H; Jang, Jessica C; Odegaard, Justin I; Nair, Meera G

    2016-04-01

    Resistin-like molecules (RELMs) are highly expressed following helminth infection, where they impact both the host and helminth. While RELMα (Retnla) impairs helminth expulsion by inhibiting protective Th2 immunity, RELMβ (Retnlb) can promote its expulsion. We employed Retnla(-/-) and Retnlb(-/-) mice to delineate the function of both proteins following infection with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, a hookworm that infects the lung and intestine. Whereas wild-type (WT) and Retnlb(-/-)mice exhibited equivalent infection-induced inflammation, Retnla(-/-) mice suffered a heightened inflammatory response, including increased mortality, weight loss, and lung inflammation. In the intestine, Retnla(-/-)mice had low parasite egg burdens compared to those of WT mice, while Retnlb(-/-) mice exhibited high egg burdens, suggesting that RELMα and RELMβ have functionally distinct effects on immunity and inflammation to N. brasiliensis To test the importance of both proteins, we generated Retnla(-/-) Retnlb(-/-) mice. Infected Retnla(-/-)Retnlb(-/-) mice exhibited similar responses to Retnla(-/-) mice, including increased mortality and lung inflammation. This inflammatory response in Retnla(-/-) Retnlb(-/-) mice negatively impacted N. brasiliensis fitness, as demonstrated by significantly lower worm ATP levels and decreased intestinal worm burden and fecundity. Lung cytokine analysis revealed that Retnla(-/-) and Retnla(-/-) Retnlb(-/-) mice expressed significantly increased levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4). Finally, we generated Retnla(-/-) mice on the Rag(-/-) background and observed that the effects of RELMα were abrogated in the absence of adaptive immunity. Together, these data demonstrate that RELMα but not RELMβ significantly impacts the immune response toN. brasiliensis infection by downregulating the Th2 adaptive immune response in the lung, which protects the host but allows improved parasite fitness. PMID:26831469

  12. 'You say treatment, I say hard work': treatment burden among people with chronic illness and their carers in Australia.

    PubMed

    Sav, Adem; Kendall, Elizabeth; McMillan, Sara S; Kelly, Fiona; Whitty, Jennifer A; King, Michelle A; Wheeler, Amanda J

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to explore treatment burden among people with a variety of chronic conditions and comorbidities and their unpaid carers. The burden of living with ongoing chronic illness has been well established. However, the burden associated with proactively treating and managing chronic illness, commonly referred to as 'treatment burden', is less understood. This study helps to bridge this gap in our understanding by providing an in-depth analysis of qualitative data collected from a large sample of adults from diverse backgrounds and with various chronic conditions. Using semi-structured in-depth interviews, data were collected with a large sample of 97 participants that included a high representation of people from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds and indigenous populations across four regions of Australia. Interviews were conducted during May-October 2012, either face to face (n = 49) or over the telephone (n = 48) depending on the participant's preference and location. Data were analysed using an iterative thematic approach and the constant comparison method. The findings revealed four interrelated components of treatment burden: financial burden, time and travel burden, medication burden and healthcare access burden. However, financial burden was the most problematic component with the cost of treatment being significant for most people. Financial burden had a detrimental impact on a person's use of medication and also exacerbated other types of burden such as access to healthcare services and the time and travel associated with treatment. The four components of treatment burden operated in a cyclical manner and although treatment burden was objective in some ways (number of medications, and time to access treatment), it was also a subjective experience. Overall, this study underscores the urgent need for healthcare professionals to identify patients overwhelmed by their treatment and develop 'individualised' treatment

  13. Defending against Internet worms using a phase space method from chaos theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jing; Gao, Jianbo; Rao, Nageswara S.

    2007-04-01

    Enterprise networks are facing ever-increasing security threats from Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks, worms, viruses, intrusions, Trojans, port scans, and network misuses, and thus effective monitoring approaches to quickly detect these activities are greatly needed. In this paper, we employ chaos theory and propose an interesting phase space method to detect Internet worms. An Internet worm is a self-propagating program that automatically replicates itself to vulnerable systems and spreads across the Internet. Most deployed worm-detection systems are signature-based. They look for specific byte sequences (called attack signatures) that are known to appear in the attack traffic. Conventionally, the signatures are manually identified by human experts through careful analysis of the byte sequence from captured attack traffic. We propose to embed the traffic sequence to a high-dimensional phase space using chaos theory. We have observed that the signature sequence of a specific worm will occupy specific regions in the phase space, which may be appropriately called the invariant subspace of the worm. The invariant subspace of the worm separates itself widely from the subspace of the normal traffic. This separation allows us to construct three simple metrics, each of which completely separates 100 normal traffic streams from 200 worm traffic streams, without training in the conventional sense. Therefore, the method is at least as accurate as any existing methods. More importantly, our method is much faster than existing methods, such as based on expectation maximization and hidden Markov models.

  14. Worms in the College Classroom: More than Just a Composting Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Rebecca L.

    2010-01-01

    Although worm bins have been used by K-12 and nonformal educators for decades, there is little evidence of their use in postsecondary education. The ease of use, maintenance, affordability, portability, and diversity of scientific concepts that can be demonstrated with a worm bin make it a valuable tool in college science classrooms. The purpose…

  15. Worms Expelled With the Urine From a Bosniak Cyst III of the Left Kidney.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Li, Pu; Su, Chuan; Zhang, Jia-Yi; Gu, Min

    2016-07-01

    An old fishman presented with left lumbago and finding worms in his urine. Type-B ultrasonic inspection and computed tomography scan found a Bosniak cyst III, containing several wire-like elements, in the middle of the left kidney. Expelled worms were confirmed to be Dioctophyma renale. After two courses of albendazole, the man was cured. PMID:27015940

  16. Developing a Model of the Benefits and Burdens of Research Participation in Cancer Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Ulrich, Connie M.; Knafl, Kathleen A.; Ratcliffe, Sarah J.; Richmond, Therese S.; Grady, Christine; Miller-Davis, Claiborne; Wallen, Gwenyth R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Recruiting and retaining human participants in cancer clinical trials is challenging for many investigators. Although we expect participants to identify and weigh the benefits and burdens of research participation for themselves, it is not clear what burdens adult cancer participants perceive in relation to benefits. We identify key attributes and develop an initial conceptual framework of benefit and burden based on interviews with individuals enrolled in cancer clinical research. Methods Semistructured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 32 patients enrolled in cancer clinical trials at a large northeastern cancer center. Krueger's guidelines for qualitative methodology were followed. Results Respondents reported a range of benefits and burdens associated with research participation. Benefits such as access to needed medications that subjects otherwise might not be able to afford, early detection and monitoring of the disease, potential for remission or cure, and the ability to take control of their lives through actively participating in the trial were identified. Burdens included the potentiality of side effects, worry and fear of the unknown, loss of job support, and financial concerns. Conclusions Both benefit and burden influence research participation, including recruitment and retention in clinical trials. Dimensions of benefit and burden include physical, psychological, economic, familial, and social. Understanding the benefit-burden balance involved in the voluntary consent of human subjects is a fundamental tenet of research and important to ensure that subjects have made an informed decision regarding their decision to participate in clinical research. PMID:24748992

  17. Global dynamics of a novel multi-group model for computer worms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Yong-Wang; Song, Yu-Rong; Jiang, Guo-Ping

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we study worm dynamics in computer networks composed of many autonomous systems. A novel multi-group SIQR (susceptible-infected-quarantined-removed) model is proposed for computer worms by explicitly considering anti-virus measures and the network infrastructure. Then, the basic reproduction number of worm R0 is derived and the global dynamics of the model are established. It is shown that if R0 is less than or equal to 1, the disease-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable and the worm dies out eventually, whereas, if R0 is greater than 1, one unique endemic equilibrium exists and it is globally asymptotically stable, thus the worm persists in the network. Finally, numerical simulations are given to illustrate the theoretical results.

  18. Ethnophysiology and herbal treatments of intestinal worms in Dominica, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Quinlan, Marsha B; Quinlan, Robert J; Nolan, Justin M

    2002-04-01

    In rural Dominican ethnophysiology worms reside in a human organ called the 'worm bag'. Unchecked, worms can cause illness by growing in size and number, spreading out of the worm bag and into other organs. In this study of 'bush medicine', we use a measure of cognitive salience in free-listing tasks, which reveals five plants commonly used to treat intestinal worms. These were Ambrosia hispida (Asteraceae), Aristolochia trilobata (Aristlochiaceae), Chenopodium ambrosioides (Chenopodiaceae), Portulaca oleracea (Portulacaceae), and Artemisia absinthium (Asteraceae). Bioactive compounds appear to be present in all of these plants. The cognitive salience of these plant remedies coupled with evidence of biochemical properties suggest that they provide efficacious treatments for controlling intestinal parasite loads. PMID:11891089

  19. The increasing burden of depression.

    PubMed

    Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Briley, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Recent epidemiological surveys conducted in general populations have found that the lifetime prevalence of depression is in the range of 10% to 15%. Mood disorders, as defined by the World Mental Health and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, have a 12-month prevalence which varies from 3% in Japan to over 9% in the US. A recent American survey found the prevalence of current depression to be 9% and the rate of current major depression to be 3.4%. All studies of depressive disorders have stressed the importance of the mortality and morbidity associated with depression. The mortality risk for suicide in depressed patients is more than 20-fold greater than in the general population. Recent studies have also shown the importance of depression as a risk factor for cardiovascular death. The risk of cardiac mortality after an initial myocardial infarction is greater in patients with depression and related to the severity of the depressive episode. Greater severity of depressive symptoms has been found to be associated with significantly higher risk of all-cause mortality including cardiovascular death and stroke. In addition to mortality, functional impairment and disability associated with depression have been consistently reported. Depression increases the risk of decreased workplace productivity and absenteeism resulting in lowered income or unemployment. Absenteeism and presenteeism (being physically present at work but functioning suboptimally) have been estimated to result in a loss of $36.6 billion per year in the US. Worldwide projections by the World Health Organization for the year 2030 identify unipolar major depression as the leading cause of disease burden. This article is a brief overview of how depression affects the quality of life of the subject and is also a huge burden for both the family of the depressed patient and for society at large. PMID:21750622

  20. The global burden of cholera

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Anna Lena; You, Young Ae; Kim, Young Eun; Sah, Binod; Maskery, Brian; Clemens, John

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate the global burden of cholera using population-based incidence data and reports. Methods Countries with a recent history of cholera were classified as endemic or non-endemic, depending on whether they had reported cholera cases in at least three of the five most recent years. The percentages of the population in each country that lacked access to improved sanitation were used to compute the populations at risk for cholera, and incidence rates from published studies were applied to groups of countries to estimate the annual number of cholera cases in endemic countries. The estimates of cholera cases in non-endemic countries were based on the average numbers of cases reported from 2000 to 2008. Literature-based estimates of cholera case-fatality rates (CFRs) were used to compute the variance-weighted average cholera CFRs for estimating the number of cholera deaths. Findings About 1.4 billion people are at risk for cholera in endemic countries. An estimated 2.8 million cholera cases occur annually in such countries (uncertainty range: 1.4–4.3) and an estimated 87 000 cholera cases occur in non-endemic countries. The incidence is estimated to be greatest in children less than 5 years of age. Every year about 91 000 people (uncertainty range: 28 000 to 142 000) die of cholera in endemic countries and 2500 people die of the disease in non-endemic countries. Conclusion The global burden of cholera, as determined through a systematic review with clearly stated assumptions, is high. The findings of this study provide a contemporary basis for planning public health interventions to control cholera. PMID:22461716

  1. Graphical method for profiling hob mill that generate cycloid worms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodor, V.; Berbinschi, S.; Baroiu, N.; Oancea, N.

    2015-11-01

    The hob mill for generating ordered curls of cycloid surface with non involute profiles may be profiled based on the fundamental theorems of surface enveloping - Olivier - as surface reciprocally enveloping with point like contact. In this paper, is proposed a methodology based on a complementary theorem of the surface enveloping in a graphical expression developed in a graphical design environment - CATIA. The graphical method presented in this paper is developed in two stages: determining of the rack gear model based on the solid model of the surface to be generated, using an original algorithm, following this, based on 3D modelling is determined the solid model of the primary peripheral surface of the hob mill. An application for a cycloid worm is presented - a central screw of helical pumps. In order to prove the quality of method, the analytical and graphical solutions are comparatively presented.

  2. Not whale-fall specialists, Osedax worms also consume fishbones

    PubMed Central

    Rouse, Greg W.; Goffredi, Shana K.; Johnson, Shannon B.; Vrijenhoek, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    Marine annelid worms of the genus Osedax exploit sunken vertebrate bones for food. To date, the named species occur on whale or other mammalian bones, and it is argued that Osedax is a whale-fall specialist. To assess whether extant Osedax species could obtain nutrition from non-mammalian resources, we deployed teleost bones and calcified shark cartilage at approximately 1000 m depth for five months. Although the evidence from shark cartilage was inconclusive, the teleost bones hosted three species of Osedax, each of which also lives off whalebones. This suggests that rather than being a whale-fall specialist, Osedax has exploited and continues to exploit a variety of food sources. The ability of Osedax to colonize and to grow on fishbone lends credibility to a hypothesis that it might have split from its siboglinid relatives to assume the bone-eating lifestyle during the Cretaceous, well before the origin of marine mammals. PMID:21490008

  3. Worm-like instability of a vibrated sessile drop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmerle, A.; Froehlicher, G.; Bergeron, V.; Charitat, T.; Farago, J.

    2015-07-01

    We study the effects of vertical sinusoidal vibrations on a liquid droplet with a low surface tension (ethanol) deposited on a solid substrate. In a precise range of amplitudes and frequencies, the drop exhibits a dramatic worm-like shape instability with a strong symmetry breaking, comparable to the one observed by Pucci et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett., 106 (2011) 024503) on a vibrated floating lens. However, the geometry of our system is much simpler since it does not involve the oscillation and deformation of a liquid-liquid-air contact line. We show that the Faraday waves appearing on the surface of the droplet control its shape and we draw a systematic phase diagram of the instability. A simple theoretical model allows us to derive a relation between the elongation of the droplet and the amplitude of the Faraday wave, in good agreement with measurements of both quantities.

  4. Hybrid Epidemics—A Case Study on Computer Worm Conficker

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Changwang; Zhou, Shi; Chain, Benjamin M.

    2015-01-01

    Conficker is a computer worm that erupted on the Internet in 2008. It is unique in combining three different spreading strategies: local probing, neighbourhood probing, and global probing. We propose a mathematical model that combines three modes of spreading: local, neighbourhood, and global, to capture the worm’s spreading behaviour. The parameters of the model are inferred directly from network data obtained during the first day of the Conficker epidemic. The model is then used to explore the tradeoff between spreading modes in determining the worm’s effectiveness. Our results show that the Conficker epidemic is an example of a critically hybrid epidemic, in which the different modes of spreading in isolation do not lead to successful epidemics. Such hybrid spreading strategies may be used beneficially to provide the most effective strategies for promulgating information across a large population. When used maliciously, however, they can present a dangerous challenge to current internet security protocols. PMID:25978309

  5. Wombs, Worms and Wolves: Constructing Cancer in Early Modern England

    PubMed Central

    Skuse, Alanna

    2014-01-01

    This essay examines medical and popular attitudes to cancer in the early modern period, c.1580–1720. Cancer, it is argued, was understood as a cruel and usually incurable disease, diagnosable by a well-defined set of symptoms understood to correspond to its etymological root, karkinos (the crab). It was primarily understood as produced by an imbalance of the humours, with women being particularly vulnerable. However, such explanations proved inadequate to make sense of the condition's malignancy, and medical writers frequently constructed cancer as quasi-sentient, zoomorphising the disease as an eating worm or wolf. In turn, these constructions materially influenced medical practice, in which practitioners swung between anxiety over ‘aggravating’ the disease and an adversarial approach which fostered the use of radical and dangerous ‘cures’ including caustics and surgery. PMID:25352720

  6. Not whale-fall specialists, Osedax worms also consume fishbones.

    PubMed

    Rouse, Greg W; Goffredi, Shana K; Johnson, Shannon B; Vrijenhoek, Robert C

    2011-10-23

    Marine annelid worms of the genus Osedax exploit sunken vertebrate bones for food. To date, the named species occur on whale or other mammalian bones, and it is argued that Osedax is a whale-fall specialist. To assess whether extant Osedax species could obtain nutrition from non-mammalian resources, we deployed teleost bones and calcified shark cartilage at approximately 1000 m depth for five months. Although the evidence from shark cartilage was inconclusive, the teleost bones hosted three species of Osedax, each of which also lives off whalebones. This suggests that rather than being a whale-fall specialist, Osedax has exploited and continues to exploit a variety of food sources. The ability of Osedax to colonize and to grow on fishbone lends credibility to a hypothesis that it might have split from its siboglinid relatives to assume the bone-eating lifestyle during the Cretaceous, well before the origin of marine mammals. PMID:21490008

  7. An unusual and unsettling place for a worm.

    PubMed

    Samuel, M I; Taylor, C

    2010-07-01

    A 56-year-old man presented complaining of urinary frequency, passing urine eight times per day, urethral irritation and dysuria. Investigations showed no evidence of urinary tract infection or sexually transmitted infections. Three months later he presented, again complaining of increased urinary frequency and urethral irritation. He brought with him a urine specimen containing a small 'worm', 2 mm in length, identified as a drain fly (or moth fly) larva, of the genus Psychoda (dipterous flies). Psychoda lay eggs in organically polluted water such as sewage plants, sink drains or on decaying vegetables and fruits. Urogenital myiasis may arise from hatching of larvae near the urethral opening and ascending migration along the urethra with consequent urethritis. Following larval identification, ivermectin was prescribed and the man's symptoms improved after six weeks. PMID:20852207

  8. Atropinic (Anticholinergic) Burden in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    De Germay, Sibylle; Montastruc, Jean-Louis; Rousseau, Vanessa; Chebane, Leila; Bondon-Guitton, Emmanuelle; Moulis, Florence; Durrieu, Genevieve; Bagheri, Haleh; Rascol, Olivier; Pariente, Antoine; Bégaud, Bernard; Montastruc, François

    2016-05-01

    Use of atropinic drugs remains controversial in Parkinson's disease (PD) because there is insufficient evidence about their efficacy and they can induce serious adverse drug reactions. Atropinic risk scales were developed to help to identify atropinic drugs in prescription forms and to evaluate their burden in clinical practice. In the present review, we discuss the few studies investigating atropinic burden in PD and present the results of our study indicating that atropinic drugs are still widely prescribed in PD (almost 3 of 5 prescriptions) with a clinically significant atropinic burden in around 1 of 6 PD patients. Drugs mainly responsible for high values of atropinic burden were those used for nonmotor symptoms. Clinically significant atropinic burdens were mainly induced by associations of several "low-risk" drugs. Physicians must be aware that in addition to classical atropinic antiparkinsonian drugs, many others (psychotropics) can contribute to increased atropinic burden in PD patients. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. PMID:27028036

  9. Burden of schizophrenia on caregivers in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Singh, P M; Prajapati, A

    2013-06-01

    Schizophrenia is the one of the severest form of psychiatric disorder. The disorder affects not only the patient but the family also. This study is performed to assess the burden faced by care givers of schizophrenic patients. Family burden interview schedule was used in this study. There were forty patients in study, twenty six male and fourteen female. Forty caregivers were interviewed for assessment of burden, among whom thirty were female and ten male. And to compare burden forty care givers of bipolar patients were taken. Female parents were the most usual care givers, with average age of 58.3 years and most of them were housewives. The most burden were in the area of finance and family dynamics and overall burden was moderate. PMID:24696936

  10. Assessment of indirect pesticide effects on worm-eating warbler populations in a managed forest ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Awkerman, Jill A; Marshall, Matthew R; Williams, Alan B; Gale, George A; Cooper, Robert J; Raimondo, Sandy

    2011-08-01

    Ecological risk assessments rarely evaluate indirect pesticide effects. Pesticides causing no direct mortality in wildlife can still reduce prey availability, resulting in a lower reproductive rate or poor juvenile condition. Few studies have examined these consequences at the population level. We use a four-year data set from a forest ecosystem in which Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki (Btk) was applied to control gypsy moths (Lymantria dispar L.). Lower worm-eating warbler (Helmitheros vermivorus) productivity on Btk plots contributed to an intrinsic growth rate <1. Altered provisioning behavior by adults led to lower nestling mass in Btk-treated plots, and simulations of reduced juvenile survival expected as a result further reduced population growth rate. The present study explored different spatial representations of treated areas, using a two-patch matrix model incorporating dispersal. Minimal migration from areas with increasing subpopulations could compensate for detrimental reductions in reproductive success and juvenile survival within treated subpopulations. We also simulated population dynamics with different proportions of treated areas to inform management strategies in similar systems. Nontoxic insecticides are capable of impacting nontarget populations with consistent, long-term use and should be evaluated based on the spatial connectivity representative of habitat availability and the time period appropriate for risk assessment of pesticide effects in wildlife populations. PMID:21538489

  11. The developing schistosome worms elicit distinct immune responses in different tissue regions.

    PubMed

    McWilliam, Hamish E G; Driguez, Patrick; Piedrafita, David; Maupin, Kevin A; Haab, Brian B; McManus, Donald P; Meeusen, Els N T

    2013-08-01

    Schistosome parasites follow a complex migration path through various tissues, changing their antigenic profile as they develop. A thorough understanding of the antibody response in each tissue region could help unravel the complex immunology of these developing parasites and aid vaccine design. Here we used a novel strategy for analysing the local antibody responses induced by Schistosoma japonicum infection at each site of infection. Cells from rat lymph nodes draining the sites of larval migration (the skin and lungs), the liver-lymph nodes where adults reside and the spleens were cultured to allow the in vivo-induced antibody-secreting cells to release antibody into the media. The amount and isotype of antibodies secreted in the supernatants differed significantly in the different lymph nodes and spleen, corresponding with the migration path of the schistosome worms. In addition, there were significant differences in binding specificity, as determined by surface labelling, western blots and by screening a glycan array. Through capturing the local antibody response, this study has revealed dramatic differences in the quality and specificity of the immune response at different tissue sites, and highlighted the existence of stage-specific protein and carbohydrate antigens. This will provide a valuable tool for the isolation of novel vaccine targets against the larval stages of schistosomes. PMID:23856766

  12. Potential effects of warmer worms and vectors on onchocerciasis transmission in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Cheke, Robert A; Basáñez, Maria-Gloria; Perry, Malorie; White, Michael T; Garms, Rolf; Obuobie, Emmanuel; Lamberton, Poppy H L; Young, Stephen; Osei-Atweneboana, Mike Y; Intsiful, Joseph; Shen, Mingwang; Boakye, Daniel A; Wilson, Michael D

    2015-04-01

    Development times of eggs, larvae and pupae of vectors of onchocerciasis (Simulium spp.) and of Onchocerca volvulus larvae within the adult females of the vectors decrease with increasing temperature. At and above 25°C, the parasite could reach its infective stage in less than 7 days when vectors could transmit after only two gonotrophic cycles. After incorporating exponential functions for vector development into a novel blackfly population model, it was predicted that fly numbers in Liberia and Ghana would peak at air temperatures of 29°C and 34°C, about 3°C and 7°C above current monthly averages, respectively; parous rates of forest flies (Liberia) would peak at 29°C and of savannah flies (Ghana) at 30°C. Small temperature increases (less than 2°C) might lead to changes in geographical distributions of different vector taxa. When the new model was linked to an existing framework for the population dynamics of onchocerciasis in humans and vectors, transmission rates and worm loads were projected to increase with temperature to at least 33°C. By contrast, analyses of field data on forest flies in Liberia and savannah flies in Ghana, in relation to regional climate change predictions, suggested, on the basis of simple regressions, that 13-41% decreases in fly numbers would be expected between the present and before 2040. Further research is needed to reconcile these conflicting conclusions. PMID:25688018

  13. Potential effects of warmer worms and vectors on onchocerciasis transmission in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Cheke, Robert A.; Basáñez, Maria-Gloria; Perry, Malorie; White, Michael T.; Garms, Rolf; Obuobie, Emmanuel; Lamberton, Poppy H. L.; Young, Stephen; Osei-Atweneboana, Mike Y.; Intsiful, Joseph; Shen, Mingwang; Boakye, Daniel A.; Wilson, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Development times of eggs, larvae and pupae of vectors of onchocerciasis (Simulium spp.) and of Onchocerca volvulus larvae within the adult females of the vectors decrease with increasing temperature. At and above 25°C, the parasite could reach its infective stage in less than 7 days when vectors could transmit after only two gonotrophic cycles. After incorporating exponential functions for vector development into a novel blackfly population model, it was predicted that fly numbers in Liberia and Ghana would peak at air temperatures of 29°C and 34°C, about 3°C and 7°C above current monthly averages, respectively; parous rates of forest flies (Liberia) would peak at 29°C and of savannah flies (Ghana) at 30°C. Small temperature increases (less than 2°C) might lead to changes in geographical distributions of different vector taxa. When the new model was linked to an existing framework for the population dynamics of onchocerciasis in humans and vectors, transmission rates and worm loads were projected to increase with temperature to at least 33°C. By contrast, analyses of field data on forest flies in Liberia and savannah flies in Ghana, in relation to regional climate change predictions, suggested, on the basis of simple regressions, that 13–41% decreases in fly numbers would be expected between the present and before 2040. Further research is needed to reconcile these conflicting conclusions. PMID:25688018

  14. The burden of insomnia in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Mishima, Kazuo; DiBonaventura, Marco daCosta; Gross, Hillary

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Several studies have suggested that patients who experience insomnia report a number of significant impairments. However, despite this literature, fewer studies have focused on the burden of insomnia among patients in Japan. The objective of the current study is to extend this work in Japan to further understand the effect of insomnia on health-related quality of life (hrQOL). Further, another objective is to understand general predictors of hrQOL among patients with insomnia. Methods Data from the 2012 Japan National Health and Wellness Survey, an annual, cross-sectional study of adults aged 18 years or older, were used (N=30,000). All National Health and Wellness Survey respondents were categorized based on the incidence of self-reported insomnia diagnosis and prescription medication usage (clinical insomniacs under treatment versus [vs] good sleepers without insomnia or insomnia symptoms). Comparisons among different groups were made using multiple regression models controlling for demographics and health history. Results Clinical insomniacs (n=1,018; 3.4%) reported significantly worse hrQOL compared with good sleepers (n=20,542) (mental component summary: 34.2 vs 48.0; physical component summary: 48.0 vs 52.8; health utilities: 0.61 vs 0.76; all P<0.05). Health behaviors (smoking, exercise, alcohol use) and comorbidities were the strongest predictors of health utilities for clinical insomniacs. For all three clinical insomniac subgroups of interest, those with a physical comorbidity but not a psychiatric one, those with a psychiatric comorbidity but not a physical one, and those without either a physical or psychiatric comorbidity, large decrements in health utilities were observed for respondents who did not engage in any positive health behaviors (0.61, 0.57, 0.64, respectively) relative to good sleepers (0.78). However, the gap in health utility scores between these subgroups and good sleepers diminishes with an increasing number of positive

  15. Adult Toxocara cati infections in U.S. children: report of four cases.

    PubMed

    Eberhard, M L; Alfano, E

    1998-09-01

    We report four cases of passage of subadult or adult Toxocara cati worms by young children ages 20 months to seven years. Worms were expelled rectally in two cases and in two cases they were vomited. A single worm was passed in two cases, three worms in one case, and 15 worms in the fourth case. All worms that were available for study were identified as T. cati by morphologic criteria, including the arrow-shaped cervical alae and the digitiform shape of the male tail. None of the four children exhibited clinical signs of ocular or visceral larva migrans, and in two cases where serum samples were available, neither child had a titer to Toxocara. These results further the argument that these children acquired the worms through the ingestion of immature worms passed by infected cats, not through the ingestion of infective eggs. Although the children were generally not ill as a result of these unusual infections, it does serve to reinforce the public health issue that potential serious consequences can occur where children have exposure to an environment that has been contaminated with cat feces, or, more specifically, infective eggs, and could become infected with larval forms of Toxocara. PMID:9749634

  16. Alcohol Abuse: Critical Pathophysiological Processes and Contribution to Disease Burden

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Jason D.; Souza-Smith, Flavia M.; Whitaker, Annie M.

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol abuse; the most common and costly form of drug abuse, is a major contributing factor to many disease categories. The alcohol-attributable disease burden is closely related to the average volume of alcohol consumption, with dose-dependent relationships between amount and duration of alcohol consumption and the incidence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, stroke, and pneumonia. The frequent occurrence of alcohol use disorders in the adult population and the significant and widespread detrimental organ system effects highlight the importance of recognizing and further investigating the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying alcohol-induced tissue and organ injury. PMID:24789985

  17. An anatomical description of a miniaturized acorn worm (hemichordata, enteropneusta) with asexual reproduction by paratomy.

    PubMed

    Worsaae, Katrine; Sterrer, Wolfgang; Kaul-Strehlow, Sabrina; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Giribet, Gonzalo

    2012-01-01

    The interstitial environment of marine sandy bottoms is a nutrient-rich, sheltered habitat whilst at the same time also often a turbulent, space-limited, and ecologically challenging environment dominated by meiofauna. The interstitial fauna is one of the most diverse on earth and accommodates miniaturized representatives from many macrofaunal groups as well as several exclusively meiofaunal phyla. The colonization process of this environment, with the restrictions imposed by limited space and low Reynolds numbers, has selected for great morphological and behavioral changes as well as new life history strategies.Here we describe a new enteropneust species inhabiting the interstices among sand grains in shallow tropical waters of the West Atlantic. With a maximum body length of 0.6 mm, it is the first microscopic adult enteropneust known, a group otherwise ranging from 2 cm to 250 cm in adult size. Asexual reproduction by paratomy has been observed in this new species, a reproductive mode not previously reported among enteropneusts. Morphologically, Meioglossus psammophilus gen. et sp. nov. shows closest resemblance to an early juvenile stage of the acorn worm family Harrimaniidae, a result congruent with its phylogenetic placement based on molecular data. Its position, clearly nested within the larger macrofaunal hemichordates, suggests that this represents an extreme case of miniaturization. The evolutionary pathway to this simple or juvenile appearance, as chiefly demonstrated by its small size, dense ciliation, and single pair of gill pores, may be explained by progenesis. The finding of M. psammophilus gen. et sp. nov. underscores the notion that meiofauna may constitute a rich source of undiscovered metazoan diversity, possibly disguised as juveniles of other species. PMID:23144898

  18. An Anatomical Description of a Miniaturized Acorn Worm (Hemichordata, Enteropneusta) with Asexual Reproduction by Paratomy

    PubMed Central

    Worsaae, Katrine; Sterrer, Wolfgang; Kaul-Strehlow, Sabrina; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Giribet, Gonzalo

    2012-01-01

    The interstitial environment of marine sandy bottoms is a nutrient-rich, sheltered habitat whilst at the same time also often a turbulent, space-limited, and ecologically challenging environment dominated by meiofauna. The interstitial fauna is one of the most diverse on earth and accommodates miniaturized representatives from many macrofaunal groups as well as several exclusively meiofaunal phyla. The colonization process of this environment, with the restrictions imposed by limited space and low Reynolds numbers, has selected for great morphological and behavioral changes as well as new life history strategies. Here we describe a new enteropneust species inhabiting the interstices among sand grains in shallow tropical waters of the West Atlantic. With a maximum body length of 0.6 mm, it is the first microscopic adult enteropneust known, a group otherwise ranging from 2 cm to 250 cm in adult size. Asexual reproduction by paratomy has been observed in this new species, a reproductive mode not previously reported among enteropneusts. Morphologically, Meioglossus psammophilus gen. et sp. nov. shows closest resemblance to an early juvenile stage of the acorn worm family Harrimaniidae, a result congruent with its phylogenetic placement based on molecular data. Its position, clearly nested within the larger macrofaunal hemichordates, suggests that this represents an extreme case of miniaturization. The evolutionary pathway to this simple or juvenile appearance, as chiefly demonstrated by its small size, dense ciliation, and single pair of gill pores, may be explained by progenesis. The finding of M. psammophilus gen. et sp. nov. underscores the notion that meiofauna may constitute a rich source of undiscovered metazoan diversity, possibly disguised as juveniles of other species. PMID:23144898

  19. Deep sequencing of New World screw-worm transcripts to discover genes involved in insecticide resistance

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The New World screw-worm (NWS), Cochliomyia hominivorax, is one of the most important myiasis-causing flies, causing severe losses to the livestock industry. In its current geographical distribution, this species has been controlled by the application of insecticides, mainly organophosphate (OP) compounds, but a number of lineages have been identified that are resistant to such chemicals. Despite its economic importance, only limited genetic information is available for the NWS. Here, as a part of an effort to characterize the C. hominivorax genome and identify putative genes involved in insecticide resistance, we sampled its transcriptome by deep sequencing of polyadenylated transcripts using the 454 sequencing technology. Results Deep sequencing on the 454 platform of three normalized libraries (larval, adult male and adult female) generated a total of 548,940 reads. Eighteen candidate genes coding for three metabolic detoxification enzyme families, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, glutathione S-transferases and carboxyl/cholinesterases were selected and gene expression levels were measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Of the investigated candidates, only one gene was expressed differently between control and resistant larvae with, at least, a 10-fold down-regulation in the resistant larvae. The presence of mutations in the acetylcholinesterase (target site) and carboxylesterase E3 genes was investigated and all of the resistant flies presented E3 mutations previously associated with insecticide resistance. Conclusions Here, we provided the largest database of NWS expressed sequence tags that is an important resource, not only for further studies on the molecular basis of the OP resistance in NWS fly, but also for functional and comparative studies among Calliphoridae flies. Among our candidates, only one gene was found differentially expressed in resistant individuals, and its role on insecticide resistance should

  20. Biouptake of chlorinated hydrocarbons from laboratory-spiked and field sediments by oligochaete worms

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, B.G.

    1987-08-01

    The uptake and depuration of 37 chemicals from spiked Lake Ontario sediments by oligochaete worms has been studied at 8 and 20/sup 0/C in laboratory aquaria. The worms were found to rapidly accumulate the chemicals and reach peak concentrations within 2 weeks. The concentration of chemical in the sediment pore water appeared to be the major factor controlling the bioconcentration of chemicals by worms. The worm bioconcentration factors increased with increasing octanol-water partition coefficient of the chemicals. The worm-mediated fluxes of the chemicals from the sediments have also been estimated. Depuration studies showed in the half-lives of the chemicals in the worms ranged from less than 5 days to several months. Field worms and associated sediments from Lake Ontario near the Niagara River were analyzed. The agreement between the field and laboratory results was good for the more persistent chemicals because of time differences for sorting the two samples types. 30 references, 3 figures, 5 tables.

  1. Aqueous worm gels can be reconstituted from freeze-dried diblock copolymer powder.

    PubMed

    Kocik, M K; Mykhaylyk, O O; Armes, S P

    2014-06-14

    Worm-like diblock copolymer nanoparticles comprising poly(glycerol monomethacrylate) (PGMA) as a stabilizer block and poly(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate) (PHPMA) as a core-forming block were readily synthesized at 10% w/w solids via aqueous dispersion polymerization at 70 °C using Reversible Addition-Fragmentation chain Transfer (RAFT) chemistry. On cooling to 20 °C, soft transparent free-standing gels are formed due to multiple inter-worm interactions. These aqueous PGMA-PHPMA diblock copolymer worms were freeze-dried, then redispersed in water with cooling to 3-5 °C before warming up to 20 °C; this protocol ensures molecular dissolution of the copolymer chains, which aids formation of a transparent aqueous gel. Rheology, SAXS and TEM studies confirm that such reconstituted gels comprise formed PGMA-PHPMA copolymer worms and they possess essentially the same physical properties determined for the original worm gels prior to freeze-drying. Such worm gel reconstitution is expected to be highly beneficial in the context of various biomedical applications, since it enables worm gels to be readily prepared using a wide range of cell growth media as the continuous aqueous phase. PMID:24733440

  2. Self-perceived burden in chronic pain: Relevance, prevalence, and predictors

    PubMed Central

    Kowal, John; Wilson, Keith G.; McWilliams, Lachlan A.; Péloquin, Katherine; Duong, David

    2014-01-01

    Chronic pain is a debilitating condition that can impact various facets of interpersonal functioning. Although some studies have examined the extent to which family members are affected by an individual’s chronic pain, none have examined patients’ perceptions of feeling that they have become a burden to others. Research on self-perceived burden in different medical populations, such as cancer, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and stroke, has shown that it is associated with physical symptoms and, more robustly, with psychological difficulties and concerns. The present study examined the prevalence and predictors of self-perceived burden in a tertiary chronic pain sample. Participants were consecutive patients (N=238) admitted to an outpatient, interdisciplinary, chronic pain management program at a rehabilitation hospital. At admission, participants completed a battery of psychometric questionnaires assessing self-perceived burden, as well as a number of clinically-relevant constructs. Their significant others (n=80) also completed a measure of caregiver burden. Self-perceived burden was a commonly reported experience among chronic pain patients, with over 70% of participants endorsing clinically-elevated levels. It was significantly correlated with pain intensity ratings, functional limitations, depressive symptoms, attachment anxiety, pain self-efficacy, and caregiver burden. Self-perceived burden was also correlated with an item assessing suicidal ideation. In a hierarchical regression model, depressive symptoms, pain self-efficacy, and adult attachment significantly predicted self-perceived burden after controlling for demographic and pain-related variables. In conclusion, self-perceived burden is a clinically-relevant and commonly reported interpersonal experience in patients with longstanding pain. PMID:22703692

  3. Experimental transfer of adult Oesophagostomum dentatum from donor to helminth naive recipient pigs: a methodological study.

    PubMed

    Bjørn, H; Roepstorff, A; Grøndahl, C; Eriksen, L; Bjerregaard, J; Nansen, P

    1995-12-01

    This study was carried out to compare potential methods of transplanting adult Oesophagostomum dentatum from experimentally infected donor pigs to helminth naive recipient pigs. The following methods were each tested in five pigs: A. Transfer of worms by stomach tube to the gastric ventricle of pigs per os pretreated with 0.5 mg/kg cisapride to increase gastrointestinal peristalsis; B. Transfer by stomach tube to the gastric ventricle of pigs per os pre-treated with cisapride (0.5 mg/kg) and omeprazol 20 mg which blocks hydrochloric acid secretion; C. Surgical transfer of worms to caecum of pigs. Worms for transplantation to pigs were obtained after slaughter of experimentally infected donor pigs and following isolation from the contents of the large intestine, using an agar gel migration technique. A mean of 1054 nematodes were transferred into each recipient pig within 2 hours. Procedures A and B resulted in establishment rates corresponding to only 0.5% and 7.6% of the transferred worms. In contrast, surgical transfer allowed 74.2% of the transplanted worms to be established. In all groups the transplanted worms migrated to the normal predilection site, i.e. the middle part of the large intestine. More female than male worms established in all groups. It was concluded from this study that surgical transfer was the most reliable of the methods tested for experimental establishment of adult O. dentatum in helminth naive pigs. PMID:8583123

  4. Ocular oxyspirurosis of primates in zoos: intermediate host, worm morphology, and probable origin of the infection in the Moscow zoo.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, E; Spiridonov, S; Bain, O

    2007-12-01

    Over the last century, only two cases of ocular oxyspirurosis were recorded in primates, both in zoos, and two species were described: in Berlin, Germany, Oxyspirura (O.) conjunctivalis from the lemurid Microcebus murinus, later also found in the lorisid Loris gracilis; in Jacksonville, Florida, O. (O.) youngi from the cercopithecid monkey Erythrocebus patas. In the present case from the Moscow zoo, oxyspirurosis was recorded in several species of Old World lemuriforms and lorisiforms, and some South American monkeys. i) The intermediate host was discovered to be a cockroach, as for O. (O.) mansoni, a parasite of poultry. The complete sequence identity between ITS-1 rDNA from adult nematodes of the primate and that of the larval worms from the vector, Nauphoete cinerea, confirmed their conspecificity. ii) Parasites from Moscow zoo recovered from Nycticebus c. coucang were compared morphologically to those from other zoos. The length and shape of the gubernaculum, used previously as a distinct character, were found to be variable. However, the vulvar bosses arrangement, the distal extremity of left spicule and the position of papillae of the first postcloacal pair showed that the worms in the different samples were not exactly identical and that each set seemed characteristic of a particular zoo. iii) The presence of longitudinal cuticular crests in the infective stage as well as in adult worms was recorded. Together with several other morphological and biological characters (long tail and oesophagus, cockroach vector), this confirmed that Oxyspirura is not closely related to Thelazia, another ocular parasite genus. iv) The disease in the Moscow zoo is thought to have started with Nycticebus pygmaeus imported fromVietnam, thus the suggestion was that Asiatic lorisids were at the origin of the Moscow set of cases. The natural host(s) for the Berlin and Jacksonville cases remain unknown but they are unlikely to be the species found infected in zoos. Consequently the

  5. 40 CFR 22.24 - Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion; preponderance of the evidence standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... persuasion; preponderance of the evidence standard. 22.24 Section 22.24 Protection of Environment... Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion; preponderance of the evidence standard. (a) The complainant has the burdens of presentation and persuasion that the violation occurred as set forth in...

  6. 40 CFR 179.91 - Burden of going forward; burden of persuasion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... persuasion. 179.91 Section 179.91 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...; burden of persuasion. (a) The party whose request for an evidentiary hearing was granted has the burden... FFDCA has the burden of persuasion in the hearing on that issue, whether the proceeding concerns...

  7. 40 CFR 22.24 - Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion; preponderance of the evidence standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... persuasion; preponderance of the evidence standard. 22.24 Section 22.24 Protection of Environment... Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion; preponderance of the evidence standard. (a) The complainant has the burdens of presentation and persuasion that the violation occurred as set forth in...

  8. 40 CFR 179.91 - Burden of going forward; burden of persuasion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... persuasion. 179.91 Section 179.91 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...; burden of persuasion. (a) The party whose request for an evidentiary hearing was granted has the burden... FFDCA has the burden of persuasion in the hearing on that issue, whether the proceeding concerns...

  9. 40 CFR 179.91 - Burden of going forward; burden of persuasion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... persuasion. 179.91 Section 179.91 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...; burden of persuasion. (a) The party whose request for an evidentiary hearing was granted has the burden... FFDCA has the burden of persuasion in the hearing on that issue, whether the proceeding concerns...

  10. 40 CFR 22.24 - Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion; preponderance of the evidence standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... persuasion; preponderance of the evidence standard. 22.24 Section 22.24 Protection of Environment... Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion; preponderance of the evidence standard. (a) The complainant has the burdens of presentation and persuasion that the violation occurred as set forth in...

  11. 40 CFR 22.24 - Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion; preponderance of the evidence standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... persuasion; preponderance of the evidence standard. 22.24 Section 22.24 Protection of Environment... Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion; preponderance of the evidence standard. (a) The complainant has the burdens of presentation and persuasion that the violation occurred as set forth in...

  12. 40 CFR 22.24 - Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion; preponderance of the evidence standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... persuasion; preponderance of the evidence standard. 22.24 Section 22.24 Protection of Environment... Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion; preponderance of the evidence standard. (a) The complainant has the burdens of presentation and persuasion that the violation occurred as set forth in...

  13. 40 CFR 179.91 - Burden of going forward; burden of persuasion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... persuasion. 179.91 Section 179.91 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...; burden of persuasion. (a) The party whose request for an evidentiary hearing was granted has the burden... FFDCA has the burden of persuasion in the hearing on that issue, whether the proceeding concerns...

  14. 40 CFR 179.91 - Burden of going forward; burden of persuasion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... persuasion. 179.91 Section 179.91 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...; burden of persuasion. (a) The party whose request for an evidentiary hearing was granted has the burden... FFDCA has the burden of persuasion in the hearing on that issue, whether the proceeding concerns...

  15. Exploring the Caregiver Burden Inventory (CBI): Further Evidence for a Multidimensional View of Burden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caserta, Michael S.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined the multidimensional nature of caregiver burden by specifically analyzing the patterns of association between five dimensions (in a sample of 160 caregivers) as measured by the Caregiver Burden Inventory and selected demographic, health, functioning, and well-being indicators. Time dependence burden was most influenced by patient…

  16. Prevalence and burden of gastrointestinal helminthes among local chickens, in northern Jordan.

    PubMed

    Abdelqader, A; Gauly, M; Wollny, C B A; Abo-Shehada, M N

    2008-06-15

    We conducted a cross-sectional study from December 2004 to February 2005 and from June 2005 to August 2005. The study aimed to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal and tracheal helminthes among local chickens in northern Jordan. A total of 208 male and female local scavenging chickens were selected randomly. We examined the trachea and gastrointestinal tract of each bird for the presence of helminthes. We recovered three nematode and eight cestode species. No trematodes were found. One hundred and fifty-two birds (73.1%) (95% CI: 67, 79) were infected. The prevalences of different species were as follows: Ascaridia galli female 28%, male 43%; Capillaria obsignata 0.5%; Heterakis gallinarum 33%; Amoebotaenia cuneata 4.3%; Choanotaenia infundibulum female 23%, male 13%; Davainea proglottina 1.4%; Hymenolepsis cantaniana 11%; Hymenolepsis carioca female 35%, male 24%; Raillietina cesticillius female 5%, male 11%; Raillietina echinobothrida 16%; and Raillietina tetragona 18%. The prevalences of A. galli and R. cesticillus were higher in male than female hosts while those of C. infundibulum and H. carioca were higher in females. The median worm burden was 7 (range 0-168) worms per chicken. PMID:18329115

  17. Thermo-responsive Diblock Copolymer Worm Gels in Non-polar Solvents

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Benzyl methacrylate (BzMA) is polymerized using a poly(lauryl methacrylate) macromolecular chain transfer agent (PLMA macro-CTA) using reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization at 70 °C in n-dodecane. This choice of solvent leads to an efficient dispersion polymerization, with polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA) occurring via the growing PBzMA block to produce a range of PLMA–PBzMA diblock copolymer nano-objects, including spheres, worms, and vesicles. In the present study, particular attention is paid to the worm phase, which forms soft free-standing gels at 20 °C due to multiple inter-worm contacts. Such worm gels exhibit thermo-responsive behavior: heating above 50 °C causes degelation due to the onset of a worm-to-sphere transition. Degelation occurs because isotropic spheres interact with each other much less efficiently than the highly anisotropic worms. This worm-to-sphere thermal transition is essentially irreversible on heating a dilute solution (0.10% w/w) but is more or less reversible on heating a more concentrated dispersion (20% w/w). The relatively low volatility of n-dodecane facilitates variable-temperature rheological studies, which are consistent with eventual reconstitution of the worm phase on cooling to 20 °C. Variable-temperature 1H NMR studies conducted in d26-dodecane confirm partial solvation of the PBzMA block at elevated temperature: surface plasticization of the worm cores is invoked to account for the observed change in morphology, because this is sufficient to increase the copolymer curvature and hence induce a worm-to-sphere transition. Small-angle X-ray scattering and TEM are used to investigate the structural changes that occur during the worm-to-sphere-to-worm thermal cycle; experiments conducted at 1.0 and 5.0% w/w demonstrate the concentration-dependent (ir)reversibility of these morphological transitions. PMID:24678949

  18. The early bird catches the worm: new technologies for the Caenorhabditis elegans toolkit

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiao; Kim, Stuart K.

    2014-01-01

    The inherent simplicity of Caenorhabditis elegans and its extensive genetic toolkit make it ideal for studying complex biological processes. Recent developments further increase the usefulness of the worm, including new methods for: altering gene expression, altering physiology using optogenetics, manipulating large numbers of worms, automating laborious processes and processing high-resolution images. These developments both enhance the worm as a model for studying processes such as development and ageing and make it an attractive model in areas such as neurobiology and behaviour. PMID:21969037

  19. Simulation of worms transmission in computer network based on SIRS fuzzy epidemic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darti, I.; Suryanto, A.; Yustianingsih, M.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we study numerically the behavior of worms transmission in a computer network. The model of worms transmission is derived by modifying a SIRS epidemic model. In this case, we consider that the transmission rate, recovery rate and rate of susceptible after recovery follows fuzzy membership functions, rather than constants. To study the transmission of worms in a computer network, we solve the model using the fourth order Runge-Kutta method. Our numerical results show that the fuzzy transmission rate and fuzzy recovery rate may lead to a changing of basic reproduction number which therefore also changes the stability properties of equilibrium points.

  20. How algae influence sessile marine organisms: The tube worms case of study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casoli, Edoardo; Bonifazi, Andrea; Ardizzone, Giandomenico; Gravina, Maria Flavia

    2016-09-01

    Tube worms and phytobenthic assemblages in three infralittoral and shallow circalittoral Mediterranean benthic communities developed between 5 and 35 m depth at Punta del Lazzaretto (Giglio Island, Central Thyrrenian sea) were investigated. Despite being three algae-dominated habitats, these displayed different covering both in terms of algal layers and algal morphologies, reflecting different structural organizations. Twenty-eight serpulid taxa have been reported, increasing both diversity and density values from most photophilic to most sciaphilous habitats. Multivariate analyses showed how algal thalli and tube worm assemblages were strongly correlated; substrata are influenced both physically and biologically, providing different conditions for tube worm settlement.

  1. Thermo-responsive diblock copolymer worm gels in non-polar solvents.

    PubMed

    Fielding, Lee A; Lane, Jacob A; Derry, Matthew J; Mykhaylyk, Oleksandr O; Armes, Steven P

    2014-04-16

    Benzyl methacrylate (BzMA) is polymerized using a poly(lauryl methacrylate) macromolecular chain transfer agent (PLMA macro-CTA) using reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization at 70 °C in n-dodecane. This choice of solvent leads to an efficient dispersion polymerization, with polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA) occurring via the growing PBzMA block to produce a range of PLMA-PBzMA diblock copolymer nano-objects, including spheres, worms, and vesicles. In the present study, particular attention is paid to the worm phase, which forms soft free-standing gels at 20 °C due to multiple inter-worm contacts. Such worm gels exhibit thermo-responsive behavior: heating above 50 °C causes degelation due to the onset of a worm-to-sphere transition. Degelation occurs because isotropic spheres interact with each other much less efficiently than the highly anisotropic worms. This worm-to-sphere thermal transition is essentially irreversible on heating a dilute solution (0.10% w/w) but is more or less reversible on heating a more concentrated dispersion (20% w/w). The relatively low volatility of n-dodecane facilitates variable-temperature rheological studies, which are consistent with eventual reconstitution of the worm phase on cooling to 20 °C. Variable-temperature (1)H NMR studies conducted in d26-dodecane confirm partial solvation of the PBzMA block at elevated temperature: surface plasticization of the worm cores is invoked to account for the observed change in morphology, because this is sufficient to increase the copolymer curvature and hence induce a worm-to-sphere transition. Small-angle X-ray scattering and TEM are used to investigate the structural changes that occur during the worm-to-sphere-to-worm thermal cycle; experiments conducted at 1.0 and 5.0% w/w demonstrate the concentration-dependent (ir)reversibility of these morphological transitions. PMID:24678949

  2. Comparative Finite Element Method Analysis of Spiroid Worm Gear Drives Having Arched Profile and Having Linear Profile in Axial Section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodzás, Sándor; Dudás, Illés

    2014-12-01

    With the knowledge of the advantageous characteristics of the cylindrical worm gear drives having arched profile in axial section and the conical worm gear drives having linear profile in axial section, a new geometric type conical worm gear drive has been designed and then manufactured, that is the conical worm gear drive having arched profile in axial section. Beside similar charging and marginal conditions in case of the same geometric spiroid worm gear drives having arched profile and having linear profile in axial section we have done comparative finite element method analysis for awarding of the strains, deformations and stresses of this gear drives.

  3. A comprehensive review of the epidemiology and disease burden of Influenza B in 9 European countries

    PubMed Central

    Tafalla, Monica; Buijssen, Marleen; Geets, Régine; Vonk Noordegraaf-Schouten, Marije

    2016-01-01

    abstract This review was undertaken to consolidate information on the epidemiology and burden of influenza B, as well as the circulation patterns of influenza B lineage in 9 European countries. Following a comprehensive search of peer-reviewed and gray literature sources, we found that published data on influenza B epidemiology and burden are scarce. Surveillance data show frequent co-circulation of both influenza B lineages during influenza seasons, but little is known about its impact, especially in adults and the clinical burden of influenza B remains unknown. Mismatch between the circulating influenza B lineage and vaccine recommendations has been seen in at least one influenza season in every country. Such observations could impact the effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccination programs using trivalent vaccines, which contain only one influenza B lineage (B/Yamagata or B/Victoria) and highlight the need for local studies to better understand the epidemiology and burden of influenza B in these countries. PMID:26890005

  4. A comprehensive review of the epidemiology and disease burden of Influenza B in 9 European countries.

    PubMed

    Tafalla, Monica; Buijssen, Marleen; Geets, Régine; Vonk Noordegraaf-Schouten, Marije

    2016-04-01

    This review was undertaken to consolidate information on the epidemiology and burden of influenza B, as well as the circulation patterns of influenza B lineage in 9 European countries. Following a comprehensive search of peer-reviewed and gray literature sources, we found that published data on influenza B epidemiology and burden are scarce. Surveillance data show frequent co-circulation of both influenza B lineages during influenza seasons, but little is known about its impact, especially in adults and the clinical burden of influenza B remains unknown. Mismatch between the circulating influenza B lineage and vaccine recommendations has been seen in at least one influenza season in every country. Such observations could impact the effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccination programs using trivalent vaccines, which contain only one influenza B lineage (B/Yamagata or B/Victoria) and highlight the need for local studies to better understand the epidemiology and burden of influenza B in these countries. PMID:26890005

  5. The Burden of Musculoskeletal Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Palazzo, Clémence; Ravaud, Jean-François; Papelard, Agathe; Ravaud, Philippe; Poiraudeau, Serge

    2014-01-01

    Objective Despite the burden of rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (RMDs), these conditions probably deserve more attention from public health authorities in several countries including developed ones. We assessed their contribution to disability. Methods Data on disabilities associated with RMDs were extracted from the national 2008–2009 Disability-Health Survey of 29,931 subjects representative of the population in France. We used the core set of disability categories for RMDs of the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health for analysis. Diagnosis and disabilities were self-reported. We assessed the risk of disability associated with RMDs using odds ratios (ORs) and the societal impact of RMDs using the average attributable fraction (AAF). Results Overall 27.7% (about 17.3 million people) (95% CI 26.9–28.4%) of the population reported having RMDs. The most prevalent RMDs were low back pain (12.5%, 12.1–13.1) and osteoarthritis (12.3%, 11.8–12.7). People reporting osteoarthritis were more disabled in walking (adjusted OR 1.9, 1.7–2.2) than those without. People reporting inflammatory arthritis were more limited in activities of daily living (from 1.4, 1.2–1.8 for walking to 2.1, 1.5–2.9 for moving around). From a societal perspective, osteoarthritis was the main contributor to activity limitations (AAF 22% for walking difficulties). Changing jobs was mainly attributed to neck pain (AAF 13%) and low back pain (11.5%). Conclusion RMDs are highly prevalent and significantly affect activity limitations and participation restrictions. More effort is needed to improve care and research in this field. PMID:24595187

  6. Dracunculiasis (Guinea Worm Disease) and the Eradication Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Cairncross, Sandy; Muller, Ralph; Zagaria, Nevio

    2002-01-01

    Dracunculiasis, also known as guinea worm disease, is caused by the large female of the nematode Dracunculus medinensis, which emerges painfully and slowly from the skin, usually on the lower limbs. The disease can infect animals, and sustainable animal cycles occur in North America and Central Asia but do not act as reservoirs of human infection. The disease is endemic across the Sahel belt of Africa from Mauritania to Ethiopia, having been eliminated from Asia and some African countries. It has a significant socioeconomic impact because of the temporary disability that it causes. Dracunculiasis is exclusively caught from drinking water, usually from ponds. A campaign to eradicate the disease was launched in the 1980s and has made significant progress. The strategy of the campaign is discussed, including water supply, health education, case management, and vector control. Current issues including the integration of the campaign into primary health care and the mapping of cases by using geographic information systems are also considered. Finally, some lessons for other disease control and eradication programs are outlined. PMID:11932231

  7. Methane Ice Worms: Hesiocaeca methanicola Colonizing Fossil Fuel Reserves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, C. R.; MacDonald, I. R.; Sassen, R.; Young, C. M.; Macko, S. A.; Hourdez, S.; Carney, R. S.; Joye, S.; McMullin, E.

    During a research cruise in July 1997 in the Gulf of Mexico we discovered a gas hydrate approximately 1m thick and over 2m in diameter which had recently breached the sea floor at a depth of 540m. The hydrate surface visible from the submarine was considerably greater than that of any other reported hydrate. Two distinct color bands of hydrate were present in the same mound, and the entire exposed surface of the hydrate was infested (2500 individuals/m2) with 2 to 4 cm-long worms, since described as a new species, Hesiocaecamethanicola, in the polychaete family Hesionidae (Desbruyères and Toulmond 1998). H.methanicola tissue stable isotope values are consistent with a chemoautotrophic food source. No evidence of chemoautotrophic symbionts was detected, but geochemical data support the presence of abundant free living bacteria on the hydrate. The activities of the polychaetes, grazing on the hydrate bacteria and supplying oxygen to their habitats, appears to contribute to the dissolution of hydrates in surface sediments.

  8. Methane ice worms: Hesiocaeca methanicola colonizing fossil fuel reserves.

    PubMed

    Fisher, C R; MacDonald, I R; Sassen, R; Young, C M; Macko, S A; Hourdez, S; Carney, R S; Joye, S; McMullin, E

    2000-04-01

    During a research cruise in July 1997 in the Gulf of Mexico we discovered a gas hydrate approximately 1 m thick and over 2 m in diameter which had recently breached the sea floor at a depth of 540 m. The hydrate surface visible from the submarine was considerably greater than that of any other reported hydrate. Two distinct color bands of hydrate were present in the same mound, and the entire exposed surface of the hydrate was infested (2500 individuals/m2) with 2 to 4 cm-long worms, since described as a new species, Hesiocaeca methanicola, in the polychaete family Hesionidae (Desbruyères and Toulmond 1998). H. methanicola tissue stable isotope values are consistent with a chemo-autotrophic food source. No evidence of chemo-autotrophic symbionts was detected, but geochemical data support the presence of abundant free living bacteria on the hydrate. The activities of the polychaetes, grazing on the hydrate bacteria and supplying oxygen to their habitats, appears to contribute to the dissolution of hydrates in surface sediments. PMID:10840806

  9. Bioaccumulation and biological effects of cigarette litter in marine worms.

    PubMed

    Wright, Stephanie L; Rowe, Darren; Reid, Malcolm J; Thomas, Kevin V; Galloway, Tamara S

    2015-01-01

    Marine debris is a global environmental issue. Smoked cigarette filters are the predominant coastal litter item; 4.5 trillion are littered annually, presenting a source of bioplastic microfibres (cellulose acetate) and harmful toxicants to marine environments. Despite the human health risks associated with smoking, little is known of the hazards cigarette filters present to marine life. Here we studied the impacts of smoked cigarette filter toxicants and microfibres on the polychaete worm Hediste diversicolor (ragworm), a widespread inhabitant of coastal sediments. Ragworms exposed to smoked cigarette filter toxicants in seawater at concentrations 60 fold lower than those reported for urban run-off exhibited significantly longer burrowing times, >30% weight loss, and >2-fold increase in DNA damage compared to ragworms maintained in control conditions. In contrast, ragworms exposed to smoked cigarette filter microfibres in marine sediment showed no significant effects. Bioconcentration factors for nicotine were 500 fold higher from seawater than from sediment. Our results illustrate the vulnerability of organisms in the water column to smoking debris and associated toxicants, and highlight the risks posed by smoked cigarette filter debris to aquatic life. PMID:26369692

  10. Evolutionarily Conserved, Multitasking TRP Channels: Lessons from Worms and Flies

    PubMed Central

    Venkatachalam, Kartik; Luo, Junjie; Montell, Craig

    2015-01-01

    The Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channel family is comprised of a large group of cation-permeable channels, which display an extraordinary diversity of roles in sensory signaling. TRPs allow animals to detect chemicals, mechanical force, light, and changes in temperature. Consequently, these channels control a plethora of animal behaviors. Moreover, their functions are not limited to the classical senses, as they are cellular sensors, which are critical for ionic homeostasis and metabolism. Two genetically tractable invertebrate model organisms, Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster, have led the way in revealing a wide array of sensory roles and behaviors that depend on TRP channels. Two overriding themes have emerged from these studies. First, TRPs are multitasking proteins, and second, many functions and modes of activation of these channels are evolutionarily conserved, including some that were formerly thought to be unique to invertebrates, such as phototransduction. Thus, worms and flies offer the potential to decipher roles for mammalian TRPs, which would otherwise not be suspected. PMID:24961975

  11. Do We Need Worms to Promote Immune Health?

    PubMed

    Weinstock, Joel V

    2015-10-01

    Many immune-mediated diseases like inflammatory bowel disease, multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes, asthma, and food allergy appeared to have increased in frequency in developed countries in the latter part of the twentieth century. Reports from less developed countries suggest that the "epidemic" of immune-mediated diseases now is spreading into these regions as well. The "hygiene hypothesis" was developed to partly explain this phenomenon. It has been proposed that modern-day sanitary living has altered our exposure to organisms that provided protection from these diseases in the past. Alternations in the composition of our intestinal flora and fauna could play a role. Helminths are a group of worm-like parasitic organisms that have adapted to live in various regions of their hosts. Epidemiological and some clinical data suggest that these organisms can protect people from developing immune-mediated diseases. Animal experimentation has shown that helminths stimulate the production of regulatory cytokines, activate regulatory T cells, and induce regulatory dendritic cells and macrophages. This could be the mechanism by which they protect the host from these diseases. Early clinical studies also suggest that helminths may prove useful for treating immunological diseases. More sophisticated clinical studies are underway, testing live helminth agents as therapeutic agents. Also, a strong effort is ongoing to discover the agents produced by helminths that modulate host immune responses with an eye on developing new, highly effective immune modulatory therapeutic agent. PMID:25326880

  12. Bioaccumulation and biological effects of cigarette litter in marine worms

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Stephanie L.; Rowe, Darren; Reid, Malcolm J.; Thomas, Kevin V.; Galloway, Tamara S.

    2015-01-01

    Marine debris is a global environmental issue. Smoked cigarette filters are the predominant coastal litter item; 4.5 trillion are littered annually, presenting a source of bioplastic microfibres (cellulose acetate) and harmful toxicants to marine environments. Despite the human health risks associated with smoking, little is known of the hazards cigarette filters present to marine life. Here we studied the impacts of smoked cigarette filter toxicants and microfibres on the polychaete worm Hediste diversicolor (ragworm), a widespread inhabitant of coastal sediments. Ragworms exposed to smoked cigarette filter toxicants in seawater at concentrations 60 fold lower than those reported for urban run-off exhibited significantly longer burrowing times, >30% weight loss, and >2-fold increase in DNA damage compared to ragworms maintained in control conditions. In contrast, ragworms exposed to smoked cigarette filter microfibres in marine sediment showed no significant effects. Bioconcentration factors for nicotine were 500 fold higher from seawater than from sediment. Our results illustrate the vulnerability of organisms in the water column to smoking debris and associated toxicants, and highlight the risks posed by smoked cigarette filter debris to aquatic life. PMID:26369692

  13. Older Caregiving Parents: Division of Household Labor, Marital Satisfaction, and Caregiver Burden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essex, Elizabeth Lehr; Hong, Jinkuk

    2005-01-01

    Based on a sample of 126 families, this study investigated how division of household labor is related to marital satisfaction and caregiving burden among older married parents caring for adult children with intellectual disabilities. For mothers, greater spousal participation in household work and satisfaction with the division of labor were…

  14. Global numbers of infection and disease burden of soil transmitted helminth infections in 2010

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Quantifying the burden of parasitic diseases in relation to other diseases and injuries requires reliable estimates of prevalence for each disease and an analytic framework within which to estimate attributable morbidity and mortality. Here we use data included in the Global Atlas of Helminth Infection to derive new global estimates of numbers infected with intestinal nematodes (soil-transmitted helminths, STH: Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and the hookworms) and use disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) to estimate disease burden. Methods Prevalence data for 6,091 locations in 118 countries were sourced and used to estimate age-stratified mean prevalence for sub-national administrative units via a combination of model-based geostatistics (for sub-Saharan Africa) and empirical approaches (for all other regions). Geographical variation in infection prevalence within these units was approximated using modelled logit-normal distributions, and numbers of individuals with infection intensities above given thresholds estimated for each species using negative binomial distributions and age-specific worm/egg burden thresholds. Finally, age-stratified prevalence estimates for each level of infection intensity were incorporated into the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 analytic framework to estimate the global burden of morbidity and mortality associated with each STH infection. Results Globally, an estimated 438.9 million people (95% Credible Interval (CI), 406.3 - 480.2 million) were infected with hookworm in 2010, 819.0 million (95% CI, 771.7 – 891.6 million) with A. lumbricoides and 464.6 million (95% CI, 429.6 – 508.0 million) with T. trichiura. Of the 4.98 million years lived with disability (YLDs) attributable to STH, 65% were attributable to hookworm, 22% to A. lumbricoides and the remaining 13% to T. trichiura. The vast majority of STH infections (67%) and YLDs (68%) occurred in Asia. When considering YLDs relative to total populations

  15. CHRONIC EFFECTS OF THE HERBICIDE DIURON ON FRESHWATER CLADOCERANS,AMPHIPODS,MIDGES,MINNOWS,WORMS, AND SNAILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chronic effects of the herbicide diuron on survival and reproduction of Daphnia pulex, and survival and growth of the amphipod Hyalella azteca, the midge Chironomus tentans, juvenile and embro/larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, annelid worms, Lumbriculus variegatus,...

  16. Toxicity of metals to a freshwater tubificid worm Tubifex tubifex (Muller)

    SciTech Connect

    Khangarot, B.S. )

    1991-06-01

    Salts of various metals are being released in ever increasing amounts into the aquatic environment from mining operations, metal processing facilities, chemical industries and other similar sources. Although there has been considerable study of the acute and chronic toxicities of metals to freshwater fishes, crustaceans and snails, little information is available on the effects of metals to tubificid worms which are widely distributed in the aquatic environment. Tubificid worms are useful indicators of varying degrees of aquatic pollution. It is suggested that tubificid worms are an important element in the aquatic environment and therefore their use as a bioassay organism is logical one. The present study was undertaken to determine the acute toxicities of various metals to a fresh-water tubificid worm, Tubifex tubifex (Muller), which form an important link in aquatic food chain(s).

  17. Effect of Worm Predation on Changes in Waste Activated Sludge Properties.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xuefeng; Yuan, Wenyi; Wang, Zhiwei; Zhou, Mingyuan; Guan, Jie

    2016-05-01

    This study explored the effects of worm predation on changes in waste activated sludge properties. Results showed that the rate by which worm predation reduced mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS) was approximately 23.7% ± 3.1%. Particle size distribution and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) analyses indicated that the reduction of fine particles and EPS content in sludge predated by worms mainly increased dewaterability and reduced the ratio of MLVSS/mixed liquor suspended solids. Moreover, both mean particle size and protein/carbohydrate ratio increased. The results of three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix and gel filtration chromatogram analyses demonstrated the varied properties of soluble microbial products and EPS were attributed to the worms' selective predation of low molecular-weight organic matter, which facilitated the hydrolysis of macromolecular organic matter. PMID:27131302

  18. Comparison of the complete protein sets of worm and yeast: orthology and divergence.

    PubMed

    Chervitz, S A; Aravind, L; Sherlock, G; Ball, C A; Koonin, E V; Dwight, S S; Harris, M A; Dolinski, K; Mohr, S; Smith, T; Weng, S; Cherry, J M; Botstein, D

    1998-12-11

    Comparative analysis of predicted protein sequences encoded by the genomes of Caenorhabditis elegans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae suggests that most of the core biological functions are carried out by orthologous proteins (proteins of different species that can be traced back to a common ancestor) that occur in comparable numbers. The specialized processes of signal transduction and regulatory control that are unique to the multicellular worm appear to use novel proteins, many of which re-use conserved domains. Major expansion of the number of some of these domains seen in the worm may have contributed to the advent of multicellularity. The proteins conserved in yeast and worm are likely to have orthologs throughout eukaryotes; in contrast, the proteins unique to the worm may well define metazoans. PMID:9851918

  19. Methods and strategies for gene structure curation in WormBase

    PubMed Central

    Williams, G.W.; Davis, P.A.; Rogers, A.S.; Bieri, T.; Ozersky, P.; Spieth, J.

    2011-01-01

    The Caenorhabditis elegans genome sequence was published over a decade ago; this was the first published genome of a multi-cellular organism and now the WormBase project has had a decade of experience in curating this genome's sequence and gene structures. In one of its roles as a central repository for nematode biology, WormBase continues to refine the gene structure annotations using sequence similarity and other computational methods, as well as information from the literature- and community-submitted annotations. We describe the various methods of gene structure curation that have been tried by WormBase and the problems associated with each of them. We also describe the current strategy for gene structure curation, and introduce the WormBase ‘curation tool’, which integrates different data sources in order to identify new and correct gene structures. Database URL: http://www.wormbase.org/ PMID:21543339

  20. The polychaete worm Nereis diversicolor increases mercury lability and methylation in intertidal mudflats.

    PubMed

    Sizmur, Tom; Canário, João; Edmonds, Samuel; Godfrey, Adam; O'Driscoll, Nelson J

    2013-08-01

    The polychaete worm Nereis diversicolor engineers its environment by creating oxygenated burrows in anoxic intertidal sediments. The authors carried out a laboratory microcosm experiment to test the impact of polychaete burrowing and feeding activity on the lability and methylation of mercury in sediments from the Bay of Fundy, Canada. The concentration of labile inorganic mercury and methylmercury in burrow walls was elevated compared to worm-free sediments. Mucus secretions and organic detritus in worm burrows increased labile mercury concentrations. Worms decreased sulfide concentrations, which increased Hg bioavailability to sulfate-reducing bacteria and increased methylmercury concentrations in burrow linings. Because the walls of polychaete burrows have a greater interaction with organisms, and the overlying water, the concentrations of mercury and methylmercury they contain is more toxicologically relevant to the base of a coastal food web than bulk samples. The authors recommend that researchers examining Hg in marine environments account for sediment dwelling invertebrate activity to more fully assess mercury bioavailability. PMID:23633443

  1. Face Gear Drive with Spur Involute Pinion: Geometry, Generation by a Worm, Stress Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvin, Faydor L.; Fuentes, Alfonso; Zanzi, Claudio; Pontiggia, Matteo; Handschuh, Robert F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A face gear drive with a spur involute pinion is considered. The generation of the face gear is based on application of a grinding or cutting worm whereas the conventional method of generation is based on application of an involute shaper. An analytical approach is proposed for the determination of: (1) the worm thread surface; (2) avoidance of singularities of the worm thread surface, (air) dressing of the worm; and (3) determination of stresses of the face-gear drive. A computer program for simulation of meshing and contact of the pinion and face-gear has been developed. Correction of machine-tool settings is proposed for reduction of the shift of the bearing contact caused by misalignment. An automatic development of the model of five contacting teeth has been proposed for stress analysis. Numerical examples for illustration of the developed theory are provided.

  2. Caregiver Stigma and Burden in Memory Disorders: An Evaluation of the Effects of Caregiver Type and Gender

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Phoebe V.; Wishart, Heather A.; Randolph, Jennifer S.; Santulli, Robert B.

    2016-01-01

    Despite considerable gains in public awareness of dementia, dementia patients and their caregivers continue to be stigmatized. Previous work has explored stigma and burden among adult children of persons with dementia in Israel, but no similar data exist for spousal caregivers or caregivers in general in the United States. This study examines the differences in stigma and burden experienced by spousal and adult child caregivers and male and female caregivers of persons with dementia. Eighty-two caregivers were given the Zarit Burden Inventory Short Form (ZBI) and the Caregiver Section of the Family Stigma in Alzheimer's Disease Scale (FS-ADS-C). Scores on the FS-ADS-C and ZBI were positively correlated (rs = .51, p < .001). Female caregivers reported experiencing more stigma on the FS-ADS-C (t(80) = −4.37, p < .001) and more burden on the ZBI (t(80) = −2.68, p = .009) compared to male caregivers, and adult child caregivers reported experiencing more stigma on the FS-ADS-C (t(30.8) = −2.22, p = .034) and more burden on the ZBI (t(80) = −2.65, p = .010) than spousal caregivers. These results reinforce the importance of support for caregivers, particularly adult child and female caregivers who may experience higher levels of stigma and burden. PMID:26941795

  3. Isotypic variation in antibody responses in a community in Papua New Guinea to larval and adult antigens during infection, and following reinfection, with the hookworm Necator americanus.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, D I; Walsh, E A; Quinell, R J; Raiko, A; Edmonds, P; Keymer, A E

    1992-11-01

    The natural infection of a community with the hookworm Necator americanus induces a vigorous humoral response to both larval and adult parasite antigens. This response occurs in all five human antibody isotypes, and data are presented to show that, at the population level, isotypes respond differently, following chemotherapy and during reinfection, to changes in antigen stimulation. The differential response probably reflects the fact that the parasite, during the course of its life cycle, presents different amounts of antigens at different anatomical locations. It is suggested that IgG and IgM responses against adult excretory-secretory (ES) products most accurately reflect the efficacy of chemotherapy, and the load of resident adult infection, while IgG responses against larval somatic antigens reflect continuous exposure to infection. These hypotheses should now be tested, at the level of the individual, in a longitudinal manner using more closely spaced sampling intervals. This repetitive sampling, and the inclusion of a measure of the exposure of the population to infective stages, will allow more definitive conclusions to be made about the role of the immune response in controlling worm burdens. PMID:1470481

  4. Laparoscopic common bile duct exploration for extraction of a round worm.

    PubMed

    Moirangthem, G S; Singh, C Arunkumar; Lokendra, K; Singh, L Deban

    2006-01-01

    A 35 years old lady presented with fever, biliary colic, mild jaundice, indigestion and flatulence. The upper abdominal ultrasonography revealed cholecystitis with sludge and a round worm in the common bile duct. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy and exploration of the bile duct for the removal of round worm was performed. The post-operative period was uneventful and the patient was discharged fit on the 4th post-operative day. PMID:17542295

  5. Infestation of the clam Chione fluctifraga by the burrowing worm Polydora sp. nov. in laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Tinoco-Orta, Gissel Dalila; Cáceres-Martínez, Jorge

    2003-07-01

    Burrowing worms that belong to Polydora spp. infest marine mollusks cultured worldwide, causing problems for production and marketing. The clam Chione fluctifraga is semi-cultured in Bahía Falsa, Baja California, NW Mexico, and some clams harbor burrowing worms. The present study was carried out to determine the identity of the worm species infesting the clam, the infesting process by cohabitation of infested and non-infested clams in aquaria with a variety of substrates (fine sand, gross sand, plastic bag used for clam culture, and aquarium without substrate) and turbulence conditions, and the occurrence of architomy phenomena in connection with infestation of the clam. The burrowing worm was considered as a nova species due to its singular limbate neurosetae and notosetae in the setiger 5, hooks in the setiger 6, eyes not present, and general pigmentation, among other characteristics. Infestation was similar in all substrates and turbulence conditions, but it was more abundant on clams previously infested than on those free of worms, showing a preferential settlement of worm infesting stages on pre-infested clams. Regeneration was observed in all segments of the worm: anterior (metastomium), medium, and posterior (prostomium); the complete regeneration time occurred in 40 days. This is the first record of architomy in a species of Polydora and this phenomenon could account for the increase of infestation intensity in pre-infested clams at the end of the study period. Infestation of clams by settling polichaete in the conditions studied, and the architomy process in this worm species, shows its great infesting capacity. PMID:12877826

  6. Influence of ecologic factors on prevalence of meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) infection in South Dakota, USA.

    PubMed

    Jacques, Christopher N; Jenks, Jonathan A; Grovenburg, Troy W; Klaver, Robert W; Dubay, Shelli A

    2015-04-01

    The meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) is a nematode parasite that commonly infects white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus; WTD) throughout the deciduous forest biome and deciduous-coniferous ecotone of eastern and central North America; the species is not known to occur west of the grassland biome of central North America. We used county-specific prevalence data to evaluate potential effects of landscape and climatologic factors on the spatial distribution of meningeal worm infection in South Dakota, US. Probability of infection increased 4-fold between eastern and western South Dakota and 1.3-fold for each 1-cm increase in summer precipitation. Sixty-three percent of WTD had only a single worm in the cranium. Expansion of meningeal worm infection across western South Dakota may be inherently low due to the combined effects of arid climate and potential attributes of the Missouri River that limit regional movements by infected WTD. Use of landscape genetic analyses to identify potential relationships between landscape features and population genetic structure of infected deer and parasites may contribute to a greater understanding of regional heterogeneity in meningeal worm infection rates across South Dakota, particularly in counties adjacent to the Missouri River. Future research evaluating heterogeneity in prevalence and intensity of infection between fawn and yearling deer, and the potential role of yearling male deer as dispersal agents of meningeal worms across the Missouri River, also is warranted. PMID:25588013

  7. Census of bacterial microbiota associated with the glacier ice worm Mesenchytraeus solifugus.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Takumi; Segawa, Takahiro; Bodington, Dylan; Dial, Roman; Takeuchi, Nozomu; Kohshima, Shiro; Hongoh, Yuichi

    2015-03-01

    The glacier ice worm, Mesenchytraeus solifugus, is a unique annelid, inhabiting only snow and ice in North American glaciers. Here, we analyzed the taxonomic composition of bacteria associated with M. solifugus based on the 16S rRNA gene. We analyzed four fixed-on-site and 10 starved ice worm individuals, along with glacier surface samples. In total, 1341 clones of 16S rRNA genes were analyzed for the ice worm samples, from which 65 bacterial phylotypes (99.0% cut-off) were identified. Of these, 35 phylotypes were closely related to sequences obtained from their habitat glacier and/or other components of cryosphere; whereas three dominant phylotypes were affiliated with animal-associated lineages of the class Mollicutes. Among the three, phylotype Ms-13 shared less than 89% similarity with database sequences and was closest to a gut symbiont of a terrestrial earthworm. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization, Ms-13 was located on the gut wall surface of the ice worms. We propose a novel genus and species, 'Candidatus Vermiplasma glacialis', for this bacterium. Our results raise the possibility that the ice worm has exploited indigenous glacier bacteria, while several symbiotic bacterial lineages have maintained their association with the ice worm during the course of adaptive evolution to the permanently cold environment. PMID:25764456

  8. Influence of ecological factors on prevalence of meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis infection in South Dakota, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacques, Christopher N.; Jenks, Jonathan A.; Grovenburg, Troy W.; Klaver, Robert W.; Dubay, Shelli A.

    2015-01-01

    The meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) is a nematode parasite that commonly infects white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus; WTD) throughout the deciduous forest biome and deciduous-coniferous ecotone of eastern and central North America; the species is not known to occur west of the grassland biome of central North America. We used county-specific prevalence data to evaluate potential effects of landscape and climatologic factors on the spatial distribution of meningeal worm infection in South Dakota, US. Probability of infection increased 4-fold between eastern and western South Dakota and 1.3-fold for each 1-cm increase in summer precipitation. Sixty-three percent of WTD had only a single worm in the cranium. Expansion of meningeal worm infection across western South Dakota may be inherently low due to the combined effects of arid climate and potential attributes of the Missouri River that limit regional movements by infected WTD. Use of landscape genetic analyses to identify potential relationships between landscape features and population genetic structure of infected deer and parasites may contribute to a greater understanding of regional heterogeneity in meningeal worm infection rates across South Dakota, particularly in counties adjacent to the Missouri River. Future research evaluating heterogeneity in prevalence and intensity of infection between fawn and yearling deer, and the potential role of yearling male deer as dispersal agents of meningeal worms across the Missouri River, also is warranted.

  9. Culturing Caenorhabditis elegans in Axenic Liquid Media and Creation of Transgenic Worms by Microparticle Bombardment

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Tamika K.; Sinclair, Jason W.; Pinter, Katherine L.; Hamza, Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    In this protocol, we present the required materials, and the procedure for making modified C. elegans Habituation and Reproduction media (mCeHR). Additionally, the steps for exposing and acclimatizing C. elegans grown on E. coli to axenic liquid media are described. Finally, downstream experiments that utilize axenic C. elegans illustrate the benefits of this procedure. The ability to analyze and determine C. elegans nutrient requirement was illustrated by growing N2 wild type worms in axenic liquid media with varying heme concentrations. This procedure can be replicated with other nutrients to determine the optimal concentration for worm growth and development or, to determine the toxicological effects of drug treatments. The effects of varied heme concentrations on the growth of wild type worms were determined through qualitative microscopic observation and by quantitating the number of worms that grew in each heme concentration. In addition, the effect of varied nutrient concentrations can be assayed by utilizing worms that express fluorescent sensors that respond to changes in the nutrient of interest. Furthermore, a large number of worms were easily produced for the generation of transgenic C. elegans using microparticle bombardment. PMID:25145601

  10. Viscoelastic properties of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a self-similar, shear-thinning worm

    PubMed Central

    Backholm, Matilda; Ryu, William S.; Dalnoki-Veress, Kari

    2013-01-01

    Undulatory motion is common to many creatures across many scales, from sperm to snakes. These organisms must push off against their external environment, such as a viscous medium, grains of sand, or a high-friction surface; additionally they must work to bend their own body. A full understanding of undulatory motion, and locomotion in general, requires the characterization of the material properties of the animal itself. The material properties of the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans were studied with a micromechanical experiment used to carry out a three-point bending measurement of the worm. Worms at various developmental stages (including dauer) were measured and different positions along the worm were probed. From these experiments we calculated the viscoelastic properties of the worm, including the effective spring constant and damping coefficient of bending. C. elegans moves by propagating sinusoidal waves along its body. Whereas previous viscoelastic approaches to describe the undulatory motion have used a Kelvin–Voigt model, where the elastic and viscous components are connected in parallel, our measurements show that the Maxwell model, where the elastic and viscous components are in series, is more appropriate. The viscous component of the worm was shown to be consistent with a non-Newtonian, shear-thinning fluid. We find that as the worm matures it is well described as a self-similar elastic object with a shear-thinning damping term and a stiffness that becomes smaller as one approaches the tail. PMID:23460699

  11. Easing the Burden of External Reporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoGrasso, Marc F.

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, the author presents suggestions for improving the effectiveness of external reporting while minimizing burden. Recommendations include repurposing existing internal reports to address the needs of external reports.

  12. The Burden of Diabetes in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    González, Lorena; Caporale, Joaquín E.; Elgart, Jorge F.; Gagliardino, Juan J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To measure the economic burden of diabetes in Argentina by age, gender and region for the year 2005, in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Methods: DALYs were estimated by the sum of years of life lost due to premature death (YLL) and years of life lived with disability (YLD). Results: In the population studied (20 to 85 years), the burden of diabetes without complications was 1.3 million DALYs, 85% of which were caused by disabilities. Whereas mortality rates (YLL) increased as a function of age, YLD showed the opposite relationship. Women had higher burden of disease values, represented by 51 and 61% of YLL and YLD, respectively, independently of age. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that disabilities are a key component of diabetes burden; its regular and systematic estimation would allow to design effective prevention strategies, to assess the impact of their implementation and to optimize resource allocation based on objective evidence. PMID:25948443

  13. An inconvenient truth: global worming and anthelmintic resistance.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Ray M; Vidyashankar, Anand N

    2012-05-01

    Over the past 10-15 years, we have witnessed a rapid increase in both the prevalence and magnitude of anthelmintic resistance, and this increase appears to be a worldwide phenomenon. Reports of anthelmintic resistance to multiple drugs in individual parasite species, and in multiple parasite species across virtually all livestock hosts, are increasingly common. In addition, since the introduction of ivermectin in 1981, no novel anthelmintic classes were developed and introduced for use in livestock until recently with the launch of monepantel in New Zealand. Thus, livestock producers are often left with few options for effective treatment against many important parasite species. While new anthelmintic classes with novel mechanisms of action could potentially solve this problem, new drugs are extremely expensive to develop, and can be expected to be more expensive than older drugs. Thus, it seems clear that the "Global Worming" approach that has taken hold over the past 40-50 years must change, and livestock producers must develop a new vision for parasite control and sustainability of production. Furthermore, parasitologists must improve methods for study design and data analysis that are used for diagnosing anthelmintic resistance, especially for the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT). Currently, standards for diagnosis of anthelmintic resistance using FECRT exist only for sheep. Lack of standards in horses and cattle and arbitrarily defined cutoffs for defining resistance, combined with inadequate analysis of the data, mean that errors in assigning resistance status are common. Similarly, the lack of standards makes it difficult to compare data among different studies. This problem needs to be addressed, because as new drugs are introduced now and in the future, the lack of alternative treatments will make early and accurate diagnosis of anthelmintic resistance increasingly important. PMID:22154968

  14. Sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase from echiuran worm Urechis unicinctus.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yu-Bin; Zhang, Zhi-Feng; Shao, Ming-Yu; Kang, Kyoung-Ho; Tan, Zhi; Li, Jin-Long

    2011-02-01

    Sulfide is a natural, widely distributed, poisonous substance, and sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase (SQR) has been identified to be responsible for the initial oxidation of sulfide in mitochondria. In this study, full-length SQR cDNA was cloned from the echiuran worm Urechis unicinctus, a benthic organism living in marine sediments. The protein consisted of 451 amino acids with a theoretical pI of 8.98 and molecular weight of 50.5 kDa. Subsequently, the SQR mRNA expression in different tissues was assessed by real-time reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction and showed that the highest expression was in midgut, followed by anal sacs and coelomic fluid cells, and then body wall and hindgut. Furthermore, activated SQR was obtained by dilution refolding of recombinant SQR expression in E. coli, and the refolded product showed optimal activity at 37 °C and pH 8.5 and K (m) for ubiquinone and sulfide at 15.6 µM and 40.3 µM, respectively. EDTA and GSH had an activating effect on refolded SQR, while Zn(2+) caused decreased activity. Western blot showed that SQR in vivo was located in mitochondria and was ∼ 10 kDa heavier than the recombinant protein. In addition, SQR, detected by immunohistochemistry, was mainly located in the epithelium of all tissues examined. Ultrastructural observations of these tissues' epithelium by transmission electron microscopy provided indirect cytological evidence for its mitochondrial location. Interesting aspects of the U. unicinctus SQR amino acid sequence, its catalytic mechanism, and the different roles of these tissues in sulfide metabolic adaptation are also discussed. PMID:20419499

  15. Relative financial burden of health care expenditures.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Kevin J; Powell, M Paige; Probst, Janice C

    2010-01-01

    Out-of-pocket health expenditures potentially have a large impact on patients, particularly those with low incomes, leading to reduced utilization of health services and even bankruptcy. This analysis examines the burden of out-of-pocket spending, relative to total income, across several demographic groups. Rural residents had a higher relative burden than urban residents, as did women and Whites. Important policy implications are discussed. PMID:20391250

  16. Psychological burden of food allergy

    PubMed Central

    Teufel, Martin; Biedermann, Tilo; Rapps, Nora; Hausteiner, Constanze; Henningsen, Peter; Enck, Paul; Zipfel, Stephan

    2007-01-01

    One fifth of the population report adverse reactions to food. Reasons for these symptoms are heterogeneous, varying from food allergy, food intolerance, irritable bowel syndrome to somatoform or other mental disorders. Literature reveals a large discrepancy between truly diagnosed food allergy and reports of food allergy symptoms by care seekers. In most studies currently available the characterization of patient groups is incomplete, because they did not distinguish between immunologic reactions and other kinds of food reactions. In analysing these adverse reactions, a thorough physical and psychological diagnostic approach is important. In our qualitative review, we present those diagnostic measures that are evidenced-based as well as clinically useful, and discuss the various psychological dimensions of adverse reactions to food. It is important to acknowledge the complex interplay between body and mind: Adults and children suffering from food allergy show impaired quality of life and a higher level of stress and anxiety. Pavlovian conditioning of adverse reactions plays an important role in maintaining symptoms. The role of personality, mood, or anxiety in food reactions is debatable. Somatoform disorders ought to be identified early to avoid lengthy and frustrating investigations. A future task will be to improve diagnostic algorithms, to describe psychological aspects in clearly characterised patient subgroups, and to develop strategies for an optimized management of the various types of adverse reactions to food. PMID:17659692

  17. Economic Burden of Colorectal Cancer in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Ju-Young; Oh, In-Hwan; Kim, Young Ae; Seo, Hye-Young; Lee, Yo-Han

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The incidence and survival rate of colorectal cancer in Korea are increasing because of improved screening, treatment technologies, and lifestyle changes. In this aging population, increases in economic cost result. This study was conducted to estimate the economic burden of colorectal cancer utilizing claims data from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service. Methods Economic burdens of colorectal cancer were estimated using prevalence data and patients were defined as those who received ambulatory treatment from medical institutions or who had been hospitalized due to colorectal cancer under the International Classification of Disease 10th revision codes from C18-C21. The economic burdens of colorectal cancer were calculated as direct costs and indirect costs. Results The prevalence rate (per 100 000 people) of those who were treated for colorectal cancer during 2010 was 165.48. The economic burdens of colorectal cancer in 2010 were 3 trillion and 100 billion Korean won (KRW), respectively. Direct costs included 1 trillion and 960 billion KRW (62.85%), respectively and indirect costs were 1 trillion and 160 billion (37.15%), respectively. Conclusions Colorectal cancer has a large economic burden. Efforts should be made to reduce the economic burden of the disease through primary and secondary prevention. PMID:24744825

  18. Mortality and economic burden of Krasnoyarsk region, Russia, caused by regular tobacco usage

    PubMed Central

    Artyukhov, Ivan P; Arshukova, Irina L; Dobretsova, Elena A; Shulmin, Andrey V

    2016-01-01

    Background This study assesses mortality and economic burden due to the regular tobacco usage among the population of the Krasnoyarsk region of the Russian Federation. This territory was chosen for the analysis because of two factors: high smoking prevalence in the Krasnoyarsk region (46% among the adult population) and premature mortality of the working-age population, which leads to a significant burden to the federal budget of the Russian Federation. Data sources In our work, three main causes of smoking-related deaths were considered: cardiovascular disease, lung cancer, and COPD. The working-age population was investigated (20–72 years old). The databases of mortality and population size of the territorial body of state statistics of the Krasnoyarsk region (data for 2013) were used as the information sources. Methods Joint application of population-attributable risk and disability-adjusted life years method allowed us to estimate medico-demographic and economic burden due to the tobacco-attributable premature mortality in the investigated population. Results We found that tobacco use-related economic burden is at least equal to 2% of the gross regional product of the Krasnoyarsk region in 2013. Conclusion An assessment of economic tobacco use-related burden is important for determining the volume of necessary funding for development of smoking prevention programs, proper estimation of tobacco companies’ taxation, and other measures for controlling tobacco use. Smoking cessation is a priority for prevention of the tobacco-related diseases and reduction of their burden on local economy. PMID:26955267

  19. Caregiver burden in chronic mental illness: the role of patient and caregiver characteristics.

    PubMed

    Möller-Leimkühler, Anne Maria; Wiesheu, Andreas

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the present study is to identify the relative contribution of patient and caregiver characteristics in a sample of primary carers of patients with chronic mental disorders living in the community. As carers were recruited from caregiver organizations, mainly mothers of an adult child suffering from schizophrenia participated in the study (n = 102). Within a comprehensive transactional stress model, burden was assessed with respect to objective and subjective burden, cognitive-emotional well-being, psychological distress and subjective quality of life. Primary stressors include illness-related characteristics of the patient, and a number of personal dispositions and resources of the caregivers were included as potential moderating variables. Multiple regression analyses were separately calculated for each dimension of burden. Interaction of carers' expressed emotion and external locus of control with the patient's problem with family communication as well as perceived social support was most predictive for objective and subjective burden, whereas carers' neuroticism appeared as the most relevant predictor of their well-being, psychological distress and subjective quality of life. Among the patients' variables, regular employment contributed significantly to reduce carers' distress and enhance their well-being. As the sample was recruited from caregiver organizations, a selection bias has to be taken into account. To reduce caregiver burden, especially mothers' burden, the patients' occupational abilities should be strongly enhanced at an early stage. Family interventions should improve dysfunctional interactions, enhance the carers' social activities and focus more intensely on the carers' own dispositions. PMID:21538092

  20. Human body burden of polychlorinated dibenzofurans associated with toxicity based on the yusho and yucheng incidents

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, J.J.; Gasiewicz, T.A.; Brown, J.F. Jr. )

    1990-11-01

    The polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are one group of man-made toxicants for which reasonably extensive data exist relevant to dose-response relationships in humans. Examination of contaminated food oil consumption from the yusho (Japan) poisoning incident indicates the mean uptake or body burden of 2, 3, 4, 7, 8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PnCDF) equivalents (PEQ) associated with nausea and anorexia to be 4.4 micrograms/kg body wt and that associated with chloracne to be 5.9 micrograms/kg. For the yucheng (Taiwan) poisoning incident, blood measurements for chloracne show a similar body burden of 4.0 micrograms/kg. The latter value is toxicologically equivalent to a 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalent (TEQ) body burden of 2.0 micrograms/kg body wt or about 150 micrograms for an adult person. This corresponds to an adipose tissue level of about 10 micrograms/kg fat, and is comparable to that known to cause chloracne in rhesus monkeys. These body burdens on a TEQ basis are more than 200 times higher than the average current levels of PCDDs/PCDFs found in North American populations and are the first to relate human body burdens of PCDFs with a known effect and to compare them to animal data. Since the effects reported may not be the most sensitive indicator of human toxicity, lower body burdens could be associated with more subtle toxicological events.

  1. Caregiver burden among nocturnal home hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Rioux, Jean-Philippe; Narayanan, Ranjit; Chan, Christopher T

    2012-04-01

    Recent studies have suggested improvements in quality of life (QOL) in patients on quotidian dialysis compared with conventional hemodialysis. Few studies have focused on the burden and QOL in caregivers of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on nocturnal home hemodialysis (NHD). We aim to assess the caregivers' burden, QOL, and depressive symptoms and to compare these parameters with their patients' counterparts. Cross-sectional surveys were sent to 61 prevalent NHD patients and their caregivers. Surveys assessed demographics, general self-perceived health using the 12-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) and the presence of depression using the Beck Depression Inventory. Subjective burden on caregivers was assessed by the Caregiver Burden scale and was compared with perceived burden by the patients. Thirty-six patients and 31 caregivers completed the survey. The majority of caregivers were female (66%), spouse (81%) with no comorbid illness (72%). Their mean age was 51 ± 11 years. Patients were mostly male (64%) with a median ESRD vintage of 60 months (interquartile range [IQR], 18-136 months) and a mean age of 52 ± 10 years. Compared to caregivers, patients had lower perceived physical health score but had similar mental health score. Depression criteria were present in 47% of patients and 25% of caregivers. Total global burden perceived by either caregivers or patients is relatively low. Although there is a relatively low global burden perceived by caregivers and patients undergoing NHD, a significant proportion of both groups fulfilled criteria for depression. Further innovative approaches are needed to support caregivers and patients performing NHD to reduce the intrusion of caring for a chronic illness and the risk of developing depression. PMID:22304491

  2. World Health Organization Global Estimates and Regional Comparisons of the Burden of Foodborne Disease in 2010

    PubMed Central

    Havelaar, Arie H.; Kirk, Martyn D.; Torgerson, Paul R.; Gibb, Herman J.; Hald, Tine; Lake, Robin J.; Praet, Nicolas; Bellinger, David C.; de Silva, Nilanthi R.; Gargouri, Neyla; Speybroeck, Niko; Cawthorne, Amy; Mathers, Colin; Stein, Claudia; Angulo, Frederick J.; Devleesschauwer, Brecht

    2015-01-01

    Illness and death from diseases caused by contaminated food are a constant threat to public health and a significant impediment to socio-economic development worldwide. To measure the global and regional burden of foodborne disease (FBD), the World Health Organization (WHO) established the Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG), which here reports their first estimates of the incidence, mortality, and disease burden due to 31 foodborne hazards. We find that the global burden of FBD is comparable to those of the major infectious diseases, HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis. The most frequent causes of foodborne illness were diarrheal disease agents, particularly norovirus and Campylobacter spp. Diarrheal disease agents, especially non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica, were also responsible for the majority of deaths due to FBD. Other major causes of FBD deaths were Salmonella Typhi, Taenia solium and hepatitis A virus. The global burden of FBD caused by the 31 hazards in 2010 was 33 million Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs); children under five years old bore 40% of this burden. The 14 subregions, defined on the basis of child and adult mortality, had considerably different burdens of FBD, with the greatest falling on the subregions in Africa, followed by the subregions in South-East Asia and the Eastern Mediterranean D subregion. Some hazards, such as non-typhoidal S. enterica, were important causes of FBD in all regions of the world, whereas others, such as certain parasitic helminths, were highly localised. Thus, the burden of FBD is borne particularly by children under five years old–although they represent only 9% of the global population–and people living in low-income regions of the world. These estimates are conservative, i.e., underestimates rather than overestimates; further studies are needed to address the data gaps and limitations of the study. Nevertheless, all stakeholders can contribute to improvements in food safety

  3. World Health Organization Global Estimates and Regional Comparisons of the Burden of Foodborne Disease in 2010.

    PubMed

    Havelaar, Arie H; Kirk, Martyn D; Torgerson, Paul R; Gibb, Herman J; Hald, Tine; Lake, Robin J; Praet, Nicolas; Bellinger, David C; de Silva, Nilanthi R; Gargouri, Neyla; Speybroeck, Niko; Cawthorne, Amy; Mathers, Colin; Stein, Claudia; Angulo, Frederick J; Devleesschauwer, Brecht

    2015-12-01

    Illness and death from diseases caused by contaminated food are a constant threat to public health and a significant impediment to socio-economic development worldwide. To measure the global and regional burden of foodborne disease (FBD), the World Health Organization (WHO) established the Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG), which here reports their first estimates of the incidence, mortality, and disease burden due to 31 foodborne hazards. We find that the global burden of FBD is comparable to those of the major infectious diseases, HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis. The most frequent causes of foodborne illness were diarrheal disease agents, particularly norovirus and Campylobacter spp. Diarrheal disease agents, especially non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica, were also responsible for the majority of deaths due to FBD. Other major causes of FBD deaths were Salmonella Typhi, Taenia solium and hepatitis A virus. The global burden of FBD caused by the 31 hazards in 2010 was 33 million Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs); children under five years old bore 40% of this burden. The 14 subregions, defined on the basis of child and adult mortality, had considerably different burdens of FBD, with the greatest falling on the subregions in Africa, followed by the subregions in South-East Asia and the Eastern Mediterranean D subregion. Some hazards, such as non-typhoidal S. enterica, were important causes of FBD in all regions of the world, whereas others, such as certain parasitic helminths, were highly localised. Thus, the burden of FBD is borne particularly by children under five years old-although they represent only 9% of the global population-and people living in low-income regions of the world. These estimates are conservative, i.e., underestimates rather than overestimates; further studies are needed to address the data gaps and limitations of the study. Nevertheless, all stakeholders can contribute to improvements in food safety

  4. Viability of adult Onchocerca volvulus after six 2-weekly doses of ivermectin.

    PubMed Central

    Duke, B. O.; Pacqué, M. C.; Muñoz, B.; Greene, B. M.; Taylor, H. R.

    1991-01-01

    Ivermectin is a safe, effective microfilaricide and microfilarial suppressant for Onchocerca volvulus; but in single doses of 100-200 micrograms/kg body weight it has no macrofilaricidal action. The present trial aimed to determine whether 6 doses of 100 micrograms/kg ivermectin, given at 2-week intervals, would kill the adult worms. Eighty-two nodules from 28 otherwise healthy adult male Liberian patients treated with this ivermectin schedule, and 102 nodules from a similar group of 25 control patients, were removed four months after the last dose of ivermectin. They were coded and assessed in a masked fashion either by routine histology or by examination of whole worms extracted from the nodules after collagenase digestion. The drug had no visible effect on adult male worms. More adult female worms were assessed as moribund or dead in the ivermectin-treated group than in the control group (for the collagenase digests P = 0.09; for the histological assessment P = 0.47). The data suggest that repeated dosage with ivermectin may lead to a slow attrition of some female worms and this possibility should be investigated in patients receiving regular doses every 3, 6 or 12 months as part of onchocerciasis control programmes. PMID:1860146

  5. Worm Grunting, Fiddling, and Charming—Humans Unknowingly Mimic a Predator to Harvest Bait

    PubMed Central

    Catania, Kenneth C.

    2008-01-01

    Background For generations many families in and around Florida's Apalachicola National Forest have supported themselves by collecting the large endemic earthworms (Diplocardia mississippiensis). This is accomplished by vibrating a wooden stake driven into the soil, a practice called “worm grunting”. In response to the vibrations, worms emerge to the surface where thousands can be gathered in a few hours. Why do these earthworms suddenly exit their burrows in response to vibrations, exposing themselves to predation? Principal Findings Here it is shown that a population of eastern American moles (Scalopus aquaticus) inhabits the area where worms are collected and that earthworms have a pronounced escape response from moles consisting of rapidly exiting their burrows to flee across the soil surface. Recordings of vibrations generated by bait collectors and moles suggest that “worm grunters” unknowingly mimic digging moles. An alternative possibility, that worms interpret vibrations as rain and surface to avoid drowning is not supported. Conclusions Previous investigations have revealed that both wood turtles and herring gulls vibrate the ground to elicit earthworm escapes, indicating that a range of predators may exploit the predator-prey relationship between earthworms and moles. In addition to revealing a novel escape response that may be widespread among soil fauna, the results show that humans have played the role of “rare predators” in exploiting the consequences of a sensory arms race. PMID:18852902

  6. WormFarm: a quantitative control and measurement device toward automated Caenorhabditis elegans aging analysis.

    PubMed

    Xian, Bo; Shen, Jie; Chen, Weiyang; Sun, Na; Qiao, Nan; Jiang, Dongqing; Yu, Tao; Men, Yongfan; Han, Zhijun; Pang, Yuhong; Kaeberlein, Matt; Huang, Yanyi; Han, Jing-Dong J

    2013-06-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans is a leading model organism for studying the basic mechanisms of aging. Progress has been limited, however, by the lack of an automated system for quantitative analysis of longevity and mean lifespan. To address this barrier, we developed 'WormFarm', an integrated microfluidic device for culturing nematodes. Cohorts of 30-50 animals are maintained throughout their lifespan in each of eight separate chambers on a single WormFarm polydimethylsiloxane chip. Design features allow for automated removal of progeny and efficient control of environmental conditions. In addition, we have developed computational algorithms for automated analysis of video footage to quantitate survival and other phenotypes, such as body size and motility. As proof-of-principle, we show here that WormFarm successfully recapitulates survival data obtained from a standard plate-based assay for both RNAi-mediated and dietary-induced changes in lifespan. Further, using a fluorescent reporter in conjunction with WormFarm, we report an age-associated decrease in fluorescent intensity of GFP in transgenic worms expressing GFP tagged with a mitochondrial import signal under the control of the myo-3 promoter. This marker may therefore serve as a useful biomarker of biological age and aging rate. PMID:23442149

  7. WormQTL--public archive and analysis web portal for natural variation data in Caenorhabditis spp.

    PubMed

    Snoek, L Basten; Van der Velde, K Joeri; Arends, Danny; Li, Yang; Beyer, Antje; Elvin, Mark; Fisher, Jasmin; Hajnal, Alex; Hengartner, Michael O; Poulin, Gino B; Rodriguez, Miriam; Schmid, Tobias; Schrimpf, Sabine; Xue, Feng; Jansen, Ritsert C; Kammenga, Jan E; Swertz, Morris A

    2013-01-01

    Here, we present WormQTL (http://www.wormqtl.org), an easily accessible database enabling search, comparative analysis and meta-analysis of all data on variation in Caenorhabditis spp. Over the past decade, Caenorhabditis elegans has become instrumental for molecular quantitative genetics and the systems biology of natural variation. These efforts have resulted in a valuable amount of phenotypic, high-throughput molecular and genotypic data across different developmental worm stages and environments in hundreds of C. elegans strains. WormQTL provides a workbench of analysis tools for genotype-phenotype linkage and association mapping based on but not limited to R/qtl (http://www.rqtl.org). All data can be uploaded and downloaded using simple delimited text or Excel formats and are accessible via a public web user interface for biologists and R statistic and web service interfaces for bioinformaticians, based on open source MOLGENIS and xQTL workbench software. WormQTL welcomes data submissions from other worm researchers. PMID:23180786

  8. Global burden of untreated caries: a systematic review and metaregression.

    PubMed

    Kassebaum, N J; Bernabé, E; Dahiya, M; Bhandari, B; Murray, C J L; Marcenes, W

    2015-05-01

    We aimed to consolidate all epidemiologic data about untreated caries and subsequently generate internally consistent prevalence and incidence estimates for all countries, 20 age groups, and both sexes for 1990 and 2010. The systematic search of the literature yielded 18,311 unique citations. After screening titles and abstracts, we excluded 10,461 citations as clearly irrelevant to this systematic review, leaving 1,682 for full-text review. Furthermore, 1,373 publications were excluded following the validity assessment. Overall, 192 studies of 1,502,260 children aged 1 to 14 y in 74 countries and 186 studies of 3,265,546 individuals aged 5 y or older in 67 countries were included in separate metaregressions for untreated caries in deciduous and permanent teeth, respectively, using modeling resources from the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study. In 2010, untreated caries in permanent teeth was the most prevalent condition worldwide, affecting 2.4 billion people, and untreated caries in deciduous teeth was the 10th-most prevalent condition, affecting 621 million children worldwide. The global age-standardized prevalence and incidence of untreated caries remained static between 1990 and 2010. There is evidence that the burden of untreated caries is shifting from children to adults, with 3 peaks in prevalence at ages 6, 25, and 70 y. Also, there were considerable variations in prevalence and incidence between regions and countries. Policy makers need to be aware of a predictable increasing burden of untreated caries due to population growth and longevity and a significant decrease in the prevalence of total tooth loss throughout the world from 1990 to 2010. PMID:25740856

  9. The relationship between burden and well-being among caregivers of Italian people diagnosed with severe neuromotor and cognitive disorders.

    PubMed

    Fianco, Andrea; Sartori, Raffaela D G; Negri, Luca; Lorini, Saverio; Valle, Giovanni; Delle Fave, Antonella

    2015-04-01

    In studies on caregiving, high levels of perceived burden are commonly considered as synonymous with poor well-being. This study aimed at better disentangling the relationship between burden and well-being dimensions through their joint investigation. To this purpose, perceived well-being and social resources were evaluated among caregivers reporting different levels of burden. Participants were 91 caregivers (mean age=50.4; SD=9.6), parents of people diagnosed with severe neuromotor and cognitive disorders. Participants completed a semi-structured interview and a set of scaled questionnaires: Caregiver Burden Inventory (CBI), Satisfaction with Life Scale, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale, Eudaimonic and Hedonic Happiness Investigation, Resilience Scale for Adults, and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Participants were divided into two groups according to their perceived burden level, assessed through CBI. In both groups, the subjective components of burden accounted for the major fraction of the total burden level. Participants perceiving high burden reported higher levels of depression related emotions, lower life satisfaction and lower resilience than participants perceiving low burden. No group difference emerged in perceived meaningfulness and social support. A regression analysis showed that the best predictor of perceived burden was life satisfaction, followed to a lesser extent by resilience, while depression related emotions did not provide significant contribution. Findings suggest that the joint assessment of burden and well-being dimensions, that are co-existing in caregivers' experience, allow for the identification of personal and relational resources that can be usefully included in interventions addressed to caregivers. PMID:25666898

  10. The burden of stroke in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khealani, Bhojo A; Wasay, Mohammad

    2008-11-01

    Epidemiologic literature on stroke burden, patterns of stroke is almost non existent from Pakistan. However, several hospital-based case series on the subject are available, mainly published in local medical journals. Despite the fact that true stroke incidence and prevalence of stroke in Pakistan is not known, the burden is assumed to be high because of highly prevalent stroke risk factors (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, dyslipidemia and smoking) in the community. High burden of these conventional stroke risk factors is further compounded by lack of awareness, poor compliance hence poor control, and inappropriate management/treatment practices. In addition certain risk factors like rheumatic valvular heart disease may be more prevalent in Pakistan. We reviewed the existing literature on stroke risk factors in community, the risk factor prevalence among stroke patients, patterns of stroke, out come of stroke, availability of diagnostic services/facilities related to stroke and resources for stroke care in Pakistan. PMID:18811747

  11. Burden attributable to child maltreatment in Australia.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sophie E; Scott, James G; Ferrari, Alize J; Mills, Ryan; Dunne, Michael P; Erskine, Holly E; Devries, Karen M; Degenhardt, Louisa; Vos, Theo; Whiteford, Harvey A; McCarthy, Molly; Norman, Rosana E

    2015-10-01

    Child maltreatment is a complex phenomenon, with four main types (childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect) highly interrelated. All types of maltreatment have been linked to adverse health consequences and exposure to multiple forms of maltreatment increases risk. In Australia to date, only burden attributable to childhood sexual abuse has been estimated. This study synthesized the national evidence and quantified the burden attributable to the four main types of child maltreatment. Meta-analyses, based on quality-effects models, generated pooled prevalence estimates for each maltreatment type. Exposure to child maltreatment was examined as a risk factor for depressive disorders, anxiety disorders and intentional self-harm using counterfactual estimation and comparative risk assessment methods. Adjustments were made for co-occurrence of multiple forms of child maltreatment. Overall, an estimated 23.5% of self-harm, 20.9% of anxiety disorders and 15.7% of depressive disorders burden in males; and 33.0% of self-harm, 30.6% of anxiety disorders and 22.8% of depressive disorders burden in females was attributable to child maltreatment. Child maltreatment was estimated to cause 1.4% (95% uncertainty interval 0.4-2.3%) of all disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in males, and 2.4% (0.7-4.1%) of all DALYs in females in Australia in 2010. Child maltreatment contributes to a substantial proportion of burden from depressive and anxiety disorders and intentional self-harm in Australia. This study demonstrates the importance of including all forms of child maltreatment as risk factors in future burden of disease studies. PMID:26056058

  12. Routine health check-ups: A boon or a burden?

    PubMed

    Honnekeri, Bianca; Vyas, Aniruddha; Lokhandwala, Disha; Vaishnav, Avani; Vaishnav, Aditi; Singhal, Mayank; Barwad, Parag; Panicker, Gopi Krishna; Lokhandwala, Yash

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare provider institutions in India now offer structured health check-up 'packages' for routine screening of common diseases. While some tests included within their ambit are in keeping with international and Indian recommendations, some are entirely unwarranted. Unnecessary and inappropriate screening tests may cause more harm than benefit. Besides financial and resource burden, there may be over-diagnosis and over-treatment, psychological distress due to false-positive test results, harm from invasive follow-up tests, and false reassurance due to false-negative test results. Clinicians must ensure a net benefit from tests and interventions in order to efficiently deliver preventive services. We reviewed current screening guidelines for cardiovascular disease and common cancers, and surveyed multiple 'packages' provided at 8 centres in Mumbai, India. We put forth our recommendations for routine health screening in asymptomatic adults in India. PMID:27492031

  13. The burden of serious fungal diseases in Russia.

    PubMed

    Klimko, N; Kozlova, Y; Khostelidi, S; Shadrivova, O; Borzova, Y; Burygina, E; Vasilieva, N; Denning, D W

    2015-10-01

    The incidence and prevalence of fungal infections in Russia is unknown. We estimated the burden of fungal infections in Russia according to the methodology of the LIFE program (www.LIFE-worldwide.org). The total number of patients with serious and chronic mycoses in Russia in 2011 was three million. Most of these patients (2,607,494) had superficial fungal infections (recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis, oral and oesophageal candidiasis with HIV infection and tinea capitis). Invasive and chronic fungal infections (invasive candidiasis, invasive and chronic aspergillosis, cryptococcal meningitis, mucormycosis and Pneumocystis pneumonia) affected 69,331 patients. The total number of adults with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and severe asthma with fungal sensitisation was 406,082. PMID:26449508

  14. Expression pattern of the Brachyury gene in the arrow worm paraspadella gotoi (chaetognatha).

    PubMed

    Takada, Norio; Goto, Taichiro; Satoh, Nori

    2002-03-01

    Arrow worms (the phylum Chaetognatha), which are among the major marine planktonic animals, are direct developers and exhibit features characteristic of both deuterostomes and protostomes. In particular, the embryonic development of arrow worms appears to be of the deuterostome type. Brachyury functions critically in the formation of the notochord in chordates, whereas the gene is expressed in both the blastopore and stomodeum invagination regions in embryos of hemichordates and echinoderms. Here we analyzed the expression of Brachyury (Pg-Bra) in the arrow worm Paraspadella gotoi and showed that Pg-Bra is expressed in the blastopore region and the stomodeum region in the embryo and then around the mouth opening region at the time of hatching. The expression of Pg-Bra in the embryo resembles that of Brachyury in embryos of hemichordates and echinoderms, whereas that in the mouth opening region in the hatchling appears to be novel. PMID:11892013

  15. Chemo-paralysis for the removal of a live intraocular worm in ocular angiostrongyliasis.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Dinesh Kumar; Arora, Ritu; Chauhan, Deepender; Shroff, Daraius; Narula, Ritesh

    2006-07-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is also called the rodent lung worm. It was first discovered in 1935 by Chen in Rattus rattus, in Canton, China. The rodent is the definitive host while infected mollusks, snails and crabs act as the intermediate hosts. Humans are infected by the 3rd stage larvae, either by eating undercooked intermediate hosts or by consuming vegetables.(1) It is a delicate nematode reported in Asia Pacific region most commonly in South-east Asia and has been reported from Taiwan, Thailand, Indonesia, Vietnam and Sri Lanka.(2) Anterior chamber angiostrogyliasis is extremely rare, and no previous case of ocular angiostrogyliasis from India could be found on Medline search. We report a new technique in the removal of the actively motile thread-like worm by paralysing it with intracameral preservative free lidocaine, which aids in the easy removal of the intact worm. PMID:16872350

  16. Species richness and macronutrient content of wawo worms (Polychaeta, Annelida) from Ambonese waters, Maluku, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aims of this research were to: (1) investigate the species richness of wawo worms, and to (2) analyze macronutrient content of the worms. Wawo worms were sampled using a fishing net on March 18th-19th, 2014, from Ambonese waters, Maluku. As many as 26 wawo species belonging to 5 families were identified. Palola sp. was identified as the most abundant species of wawo, followed by Lysidice oele, Horst 1905, Eunice spp. and nereidids. Results of the proximate analysis reveal that female epitokes of Palola sp. contain 10.78 % ash, 10.71 % moisture, 11.67 % crude fat, 54.72 % crude protein and 12.12 % carbohydrate. PMID:25829856

  17. OpenWorm: an open-science approach to modeling Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Szigeti, Balázs; Gleeson, Padraig; Vella, Michael; Khayrulin, Sergey; Palyanov, Andrey; Hokanson, Jim; Currie, Michael; Cantarelli, Matteo; Idili, Giovanni; Larson, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    OpenWorm is an international collaboration with the aim of understanding how the behavior of Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) emerges from its underlying physiological processes. The project has developed a modular simulation engine to create computational models of the worm. The modularity of the engine makes it possible to easily modify the model, incorporate new experimental data and test hypotheses. The modeling framework incorporates both biophysical neuronal simulations and a novel fluid-dynamics-based soft-tissue simulation for physical environment-body interactions. The project's open-science approach is aimed at overcoming the difficulties of integrative modeling within a traditional academic environment. In this article the rationale is presented for creating the OpenWorm collaboration, the tools and resources developed thus far are outlined and the unique challenges associated with the project are discussed. PMID:25404913

  18. Disease Burden Among Individuals with Severe Mental Illness in a Community Setting.

    PubMed

    Baughman, Kristin R; Bonfine, Natalie; Dugan, Sara E; Adams, Richard; Gallagher, Mary; Olds, R Scott; Piatt, Elizabeth; Ritter, Christian

    2016-05-01

    This study examines the prevalence of comorbid physical health conditions within a community sample of individuals with severe mental illness (SMI), compares them to a matched national sample without SMI, and identifies which comorbidities create the greatest disease burden for those with SMI. Self-reported health status, co-morbid medical conditions and perceived disease burden were collected from 203 adults with SMI. Prevalence of chronic health conditions was compared to a propensity-matched sample without SMI from the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication (NCS-R). Compared to NCS-R sample without SMI, our sample with SMI had a higher prevalence of seven out of nine categories of chronic health conditions. Chronic pain and headaches, as well as the number of chronic conditions, were associated with increased disease burden for individuals with SMI. Further investigation of possible interventions, including effective pain management, is needed to improve the health status of this population. PMID:26611625

  19. Mixed burden softening and melting phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushik, Pallav

    The blast furnace (BF) will remain the major iron producing unit for the foreseeable future. The cohesive zone, where ferrous materials soften and melt, affects the productivity of the BF. This research was focused on expanding the current understanding of the mechanism of softening and melting of the ferrous materials. The other objective of this project was to examine the potential use of direct reduced iron (DRI) and hot briquetted iron (HBI) as the BF burden. The materials used in this study were DRI, HBI, lump iron ore and pellets. A wide variety of experimental procedures were employed to completely understand the process phenomena. The softening and melting (SM) experiments were conducted under load and X-Ray fluoroscopy was used to visualize the process. The results of these experiments were conducive in determining a suitable mechanism of softening and melting of the burden. For single burdens of DRI and HBI, softening occurred when metal began to melt. For mixed burdens of DRI and pellets/lump ore, the initial deformation was not affected by DRI; however DRI dominated as the temperature increased and melting occurred only when DRI melted. Melt dripping was observed at temperatures close to meltdown. A FactSage slag model was used to obtain the evolution of liquid with temperature. It was compared with the bed shrinkage which indicated that the most likely reason of the softening of the burden is the deformation of solid, phases, especially iron. The bulk SM experiments were interrupted at temperatures of interest and samples were examined for the morphological changes. These experiments were instrumental in studying the burden interaction at different stages during softening and melting of the burden. In addition, in separate experiments (without load), the melting structure of DRI/HBI samples was studied. The results of these experiments were expanded to include viscosity, surface energy and deformation rate calculations which were helpful in

  20. Mortality of rocky mountain elk in Michigan due to meningeal worm

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bender, L.C.; Schmitt, S.M.; Carlson, E.; Haufler, J.B.; Beyer, D.E., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Mortality from cerebrospinal parelaphostrongylosis caused by the meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) has been hypothesized to limit elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) populations in areas where elk are conspecific with white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Elk were reintroduced into Michigan (USA) in the early 1900s and subsequently greatly increased population size and distribution despite sympatric high-density (???12/km2) white-tailed deer populations. We monitored 100 radio-collared elk of all age and sex classes from 1981-94, during which time we documented 76 mortalities. Meningeal worm was a minor mortality factor for elk in Michigan and accounted for only 3% of mortalities, fewer than legal harvest (58%), illegal kills (22%), other diseases (7%), and malnutrition (4%). Across years, annual cause-specific mortality rates due to cerebrospinal parelaphostrongylosis were 0.033 (SE=0.006), 0.029 (SE=0.005), 0.000 (SE=0.001), and 0.000 (SE=0.000) for calves, 1-yr-old, 2-yr-old, and ???3-yr-old, respectively. The overall population-level mortality rate due to cerebrospinal parelaphostrongylosis was 0.009 (SE=0.001). Thus, meningeal worm had little impact on elk in Michigan during our study despite greater than normal precipitation (favoring gastropods) and record (???14 km2) deer densities. Further, elk in Michigan have shown sustained population rates-of-increase of ???18%/yr and among the highest levels of juvenile production and survival recorded for elk in North America, indicating that elk can persist in areas with meningeal worm at high levels of population productivity. it is likely that local ecologic characteristics among elk, white-tailed deer, and gastropods, and degree of exposure, age of elk, individual and population experience with meningeal worm, overall population vigor, and moisture determine the effects of meningeal worm on elk populations. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2005.

  1. Eradicating guinea worm without wells: unrealized hopes of the Water Decade.

    PubMed

    Brieger, W R; Otusanya, S; Adeniyi, J D; Tijani, J; Banjoko, M

    1997-12-01

    At the start of the United Nations International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade in the 1980s, guinea worm disease was targeted as the major indicator of the success of the Decade's efforts to promote safe water. By the late 1980s, most of the guinea worm endemic countries in Africa and South Asia had established guinea worm eradication programmes that included water supply as one of their main technical strategies. By surveying the water supply situation in Ifeloju Local Government Area (LGA) in Oyo State, Nigeria, in June 1996, as a case study, it was possible to determine the role that water supply has played in the eradication effort. Although two major agencies, the former Directorate for Food, Roads and Rural Infrastructure and UNICEF, provided hand dug and bore-hole wells respectively in many parts of the LGA, coverage of the smaller farm hamlets has been minor compared to efforts in the larger towns. This is ironic because the farm hamlets served as a reservoir for the disease in the 1980s, such that when the piped water system in the towns broke down, guinea worm was easily reintroduced into the towns. The survey of 188 ever-endemic hamlets with an estimated population of 23,556 found that 74.3% of the people still drink only pond water. Another 11.3% have wells that have become dysfunctional. Only 14.4% of this rural population has access' to functioning wells. Guinea worm was eliminated from 107 of the hamlets mainly by the use of cloth filters and chemical treatment of ponds. While this proves that it is possible to eradicate guinea worm, it fails to leave behind the legacy of reliable, safe water supplies that was the hope of the Water Decade. PMID:10176270

  2. Highly toxic ribbon worm Cephalothrix simula containing tetrodotoxin in Hiroshima Bay, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Asakawa, Manabu; Ito, Katsutoshi; Kajihara, Hiroshi

    2013-02-01

    In 1998, during a toxicological surveillance of various marine fouling organisms in Hiroshima Bay, Japan, specimens of the ribbon worm, Cephalothrix simula (Nemertea: Palaeonemertea) were found. These ribbon worms contained toxins with extremely strong paralytic activity. The maximum toxicity in terms of tetrodotoxin (TTX) was 25,590 mouse units (MU) per gram for the whole worm throughout the monitoring period. The main toxic component was isolated and recrystallized from an acidified methanolic solution. The crystalline with a specific toxicity of 3520 MU/mg was obtained and identified as TTX by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-fluorescent detection (FLD) (HPLC-FLD), electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), infrared (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The highest toxicity of C. simula exceeded the human lethal dose per a single worm. A toxicological surveillance of C. simula from 1998 to 2005 indicated approximately 80% of the individuals were ranked as "strongly toxic" (≥1000 MU/g). Forty-eight percent of the specimens possessed toxicity scores of more than 2000 MU/g. Seasonal variations were observed in the lethal potency of C. simula. Specimens collected on January 13, 2000 to December 26, 2000 showed mean toxicities of 665-5300 MU/g (n = 10). These data prompted a toxicological surveillance of ribbon worms from other localities with different habitats in Japan, including Akkeshi Bay (Hokkaido) under stones on rocky intertidal beaches, as well as Otsuchi (Iwate) among calcareous tubes of serpulid polychaetes on rocky shores. Within twelve species of ribbon worms examined, only C. simula possessed extremely high toxicity. Therefore, C. simula appears to show generally high toxicity irrespective of their locality and habitat. PMID:23430577

  3. Highly Toxic Ribbon Worm Cephalothrix simula Containing Tetrodotoxin in Hiroshima Bay, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Asakawa, Manabu; Ito, Katsutoshi; Kajihara, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    In 1998, during a toxicological surveillance of various marine fouling organisms in Hiroshima Bay, Japan, specimens of the ribbon worm, Cephalothrix simula (Nemertea: Palaeonemertea) were found. These ribbon worms contained toxins with extremely strong paralytic activity. The maximum toxicity in terms of tetrodotoxin (TTX) was 25,590 mouse units (MU) per gram for the whole worm throughout the monitoring period. The main toxic component was isolated and recrystallized from an acidified methanolic solution. The crystalline with a specific toxicity of 3520 MU/mg was obtained and identified as TTX by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-fluorescent detection (FLD) (HPLC-FLD), electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), infrared (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The highest toxicity of C. simula exceeded the human lethal dose per a single worm. A toxicological surveillance of C. simula from 1998 to 2005 indicated approximately 80% of the individuals were ranked as “strongly toxic” (≥1000 MU/g). Forty-eight percent of the specimens possessed toxicity scores of more than 2000 MU/g. Seasonal variations were observed in the lethal potency of C. simula. Specimens collected on January 13, 2000 to December 26, 2000 showed mean toxicities of 665–5300 MU/g (n = 10). These data prompted a toxicological surveillance of ribbon worms from other localities with different habitats in Japan, including Akkeshi Bay (Hokkaido) under stones on rocky intertidal beaches, as well as Otsuchi (Iwate) among calcareous tubes of serpulid polychaetes on rocky shores. Within twelve species of ribbon worms examined, only C. simula possessed extremely high toxicity. Therefore, C. simula appears to show generally high toxicity irrespective of their locality and habitat. PMID:23430577

  4. Evaluation of existing EPRI and INEL test data to determine the worm to worm gear coefficient of friction in Limitorque actuators

    SciTech Connect

    Garza, I.A.

    1996-12-01

    About the last sizing parameter for motor operated valves which has not been determined by utility or NRC sponsored testing is actuator efficiency. A by-product of EPRI testing for valve factors is the measurement of the actuator efficiencies. Motor sizing in this testing provides efficiency testing for motors running near synchronous speed. INEL testing, sponsored by the NRC, for stem factors and rate of loading provides complimentary data for motors loaded down to zero speed. This paper analyzes the data from these two test programs to determine the coefficient of friction for the worm to worm gear interface. This allowed the development of an algorithm for determining the efficiency of actuators which have not been tested. This paper compares the results of this algorithm to the test data to provide a measure of the accuracy of this method for calculating actuator efficiency.

  5. Typical Meteoritic Worm-Like Forms Seen in the Polonnaruwa Meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainwright, Milton; Rose, Christopher E.; Baker, Alexander J.; Briston, J. K.; Wickramasinghe, N. Chandra

    2013-03-01

    Fossilized "wormlike forms" were found in a putative new type of carbonaceous meteorite which recently fell on Polonnaruwa, Sri Lanka. Such worm-like forms have been found in other meteorites notably the Martian Allen Hills sample and a lunar meteorite. It has been claimed that such forms are fossilized bacteria, although this possibility is still disputed. The occurrence of worm-like forms in the Polonnaruwa sample adds weight to the view that it is a meteorite and not, as has been suggested, a fulgerite, formed by lightning striking the Earth's surface.

  6. Distribution, abundance and trail characteristics of acorn worms at Australian continental margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, T. J.; Przeslawski, R.; Tran, M.

    2011-04-01

    Acorn worms (Enteropneusta), which were previously thought to be a missing link in understanding the evolution of chordates, are an unusual and potentially important component of many deep-sea benthic environments, particularly for nutrient cycling. Very little is known about their distribution, abundance, or behaviour in deep-sea environments around the world, and almost nothing is known about their distribution within Australian waters. In this study, we take advantage of two large-scale deep-sea mapping surveys along the eastern (northern Lord Howe Rise) and western continental margins of Australia to quantify the distribution, abundance and trail-forming behaviour of this highly unusual taxon. This is the first study to quantify the abundance and trail behaviour of acorn worms within Australian waters and provides the first evidence of strong depth-related distributions. Acorn worm densities and trail activity were concentrated between transect-averaged depths of 1600 and 3000 m in both eastern and western continental margins. The shallow limit of their depth distribution was 1600 m. The deeper limit was less well-defined, as individuals were found in small numbers below 3000 down to 4225 m. This distributional pattern may reflect a preference for these depths, possibly due to higher availability of nutrients, rather than a physiological constraint to greater depths. Sediment characteristics alone were poor predictors of acorn worm densities and trail activity. High densities of acorn worms and trails were associated with sandy-mud sediments, but similar sediment characteristics in either shallower or deeper areas did not support similar densities of acorn worms or trails. Trail shapes varied between eastern and western margins, with proportionally more meandering trails recorded in the east, while spiral and meandering trails were both common in the west. Trail shape varied by depth, with spiral-shaped trails dominant in areas of high acorn worm densities

  7. Addressing the burden of epilepsy: Many unmet needs.

    PubMed

    Beghi, Ettore

    2016-05-01

    Epilepsy is a heterogeneous clinical condition characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures, their causes and complications. The incidence, prevalence and mortality of epilepsy vary with age, place and time contributing to a variable extent to the burden of the disease. Diagnostic misclassification may have strong impact on personal and societal reflections of the disease in light of its clinical manifestations and the need for chronic treatment. Epilepsy accounts for a significant proportion of the world's disease burden ranking fourth after tension-type headache, migraine and Alzheimer disease. Among neurological diseases, it accounts for the highest disability-adjusted life year rates both in men and in women. Although epilepsy is self-remitting in up to 50% of cases, variable long-term prognostic patterns can be identified based on the response to the available treatments. Epilepsy carries an overall increased risk of premature mortality with variable estimates across countries. Premature mortality predominates in patients aged less than 50 years, with epilepsies due to structural/metabolic conditions, with generalized tonic-clonic seizures, and seizures not remitting under treatment. Among deaths directly attributable to epilepsy or seizures, included are sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP), status epilepticus, accidents, drowning, unintentional injuries, and suicide. Somatic and psychiatric disorders prevail in patients with epilepsy than in people without epilepsy. Asthma, migraine and cerebral tumors tend to occur more frequently in younger adults while cardiovascular disorders, stroke, dementia and meningioma predominate in the elderly. As being a fairly common clinical condition affecting all ages and requiring long-term (sometimes lifelong) treatment, epilepsy carries high health care costs for the society. Direct costs peak in the first year after diagnosis and then vary according to the severity of the disease, the response to treatment, and

  8. Ontogenetic allometry constrains cranial shape of the head-first burrowing worm lizard Cynisca leucura (Squamata: Amphisbaenidae).

    PubMed

    Hipsley, Christy A; Rentinck, Marc-Nicolas; Rödel, Mark-Oliver; Müller, Johannes

    2016-09-01

    Amphisbaenians are fossorial, predominantly limbless squamate reptiles with distinct cranial shapes corresponding to specific burrowing behaviors. Due to their cryptic lifestyles and the scarcity of museum specimens, little is known of their intraspecific variation, particularly regarding cranial osteology. This represents a critical lack of information, because the majority of morphological investigations of squamate relationships are based on cranial characters. We investigated cranial variation in the West African Coast Worm Lizard Cynisca leucura, a round-headed member of the Amphisbaenidae. Using geometric morphometric analyses of three-dimensional computed tomographic scans, we found that cranial osteology of C. leucura is highly conserved, with the majority of shape changes occurring during growth as the cranium becomes more slender and elongate, accompanied by increasing interdigitation among the dermal roofing bones. Elements of the ventral portion of the cranium remain loosely connected in adults, possibly as a protective mechanism against repeated compression and torsion during burrow excavation. Intraspecific variation was strongly correlated with size change from juveniles to adults, indicating a dominant role of ontogenetic allometry in determining cranial shape. We found no evidence of sexual dimorphism, either during growth or among adults. Given the fossorial habits of C. leucura, we hypothesize that cranial allometry is under strong stabilizing selection to maintain adequate proportions for head-first digging, thereby constraining the ability of individuals to respond to differing selection pressures, including sexual selection and variation in diet or microhabitat. For species in which digging imposes less mechanical stress (e.g., in softer sand), allometric associations during growth may be weakened, allowing changes to the ontogenetic trajectory and subsequent morphological traits. Such developmental dissociation between size and shape, known

  9. Adult Olfactory Bulb Neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lledo, Pierre-Marie; Valley, Matt

    2016-01-01

    Most organisms use their olfactory system to detect and analyze chemical cues from the external world to guide essential behaviors. From worms to vertebrates, chemicals are detected by odorant receptors expressed by olfactory sensory neurons, which in vertebrates send an axon to the primary processing center called the olfactory bulb (OB). Within the OB, sensory neurons form excitatory synapses with projection neurons and with inhibitory interneurons. Thus, because of complex synaptic interactions, the output of a given projection neuron is determined not only by the sensory input, but also by the activity of local inhibitory interneurons that are regenerated throughout life in the process of adult neurogenesis. Herein, we discuss how it is optimized and why. PMID:27235474

  10. Hospitalization Burden among Individuals with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lokhandwala, Tasneem; Khanna, Rahul; West-Strum, Donna

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the inpatient care burden among individuals with autism using the 2007 Health Care Utilization Project Nationwide Inpatient Sample [HCUP NIS]). There were approximately 26,000 hospitalizations among individuals with autism in 2007, with an overall rate of 65.6/100,000 admissions. Rates of hospitalizations…

  11. Burden of fungal disease in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Dorgan, Eileen; Denning, David W; McMullan, Ronan

    2015-04-01

    Our objective was to estimate the burden of fungal disease on the island of Ireland, as part of a coordinated project estimating the global burden. Published epidemiology data describing fungal infection in Ireland were identified. Population and underlying disease data were collected for 2010 and a structured set of assumptions were applied to estimate burden of fungal disease based on immunosuppression, chronic disease, and other demographic information indicating predisposition to fungal infection. From Ireland's population of 6.4 million, we estimate 117, 000 patients develop significant fungal disease each year. By far the most common fungal disease is recurrent Candida vaginitis, with an estimated 95, 000 episodes annually (3000 per 100 000 women). Other fungal diseases which may be less well recognized are severe asthma with fungal sensitization and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, with estimated episodes per year of 11, 700 and 9000, respectively (182 and 140 per 100, 000 population, respectively). The model also estimates 450 episodes of invasive aspergillosis, 200 of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis, 600 of oesophageal candidiasis and 450 of candidaemia per year (7, 3, 9 and 6 episodes per 100, 000 population, respectively). This is, we believe, the first attempt to estimate the burden of fungal disease in our population and provides a basis for estimating its impact on human health and resource use. PMID:25596121

  12. Decreasing informal caregiver burden with social media.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Tammi

    2014-05-01

    In 2008, there were 44 million informal family caregivers and the number is expected to rise in the next decade. Hospice clinicians need to explore ways to decrease the burden of care for these informal caregivers. The use of electronic technology and social media may be a key component in improving support at end of life in the home setting. PMID:24802601

  13. Informal Caregiving: Correlates of Perceived Burden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jutras, Sylvie; Veilleux, France

    1991-01-01

    Telephone interviews with 294 people in Quebec involved in informal care of elderly persons found that perceived burden was related to level of assistance provided, participation in personal care activities, the elderly person's functional independence and health status, caregiver's age, relationship between caregiver and patient, living…

  14. 76 FR 75798 - Reducing Regulatory Burden

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 5 CFR Chapter XXIII 10 CFR Chapters II, III, X Reducing Regulatory Burden AGENCY: Office... its implementation of Executive Order 13563, ``Improving Regulation and Regulatory Review,'' issued by... General Counsel for Legislation, Regulation, and Energy Efficiency, U.S. Department of Energy, Office...

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL DETERMINANTS OF LEAD BURDENS IN CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lead burdens in children were studied in relation to exposure to lead from soil and from automobile traffic in Charleston, SC. Preschool aged black children exposed to a variety of soil leads and traffic volumes were recruited in a house-to-house survey. Data regarding soil, traf...

  16. The burden of Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Landfeldt, Erik; Lindgren, Peter; Bell, Christopher F.; Schmitt, Claude; Guglieri, Michela; Straub, Volker; Lochmüller, Hanns

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to estimate the total cost of illness and economic burden of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Methods: Patients with DMD from Germany, Italy, United Kingdom, and United States were identified through Translational Research in Europe–Assessment & Treatment of Neuromuscular Diseases registries and invited to complete a questionnaire online together with a caregiver. Data on health care use, quality of life, work status, informal care, and household expenses were collected to estimate costs of DMD from the perspective of society and caregiver households. Results: A total of 770 patients (173 German, 122 Italian, 191 from the United Kingdom, and 284 from the United States) completed the questionnaire. Mean per-patient annual direct cost of illness was estimated at between $23,920 and $54,270 (2012 international dollars), 7 to 16 times higher than the mean per-capita health expenditure in these countries. Indirect and informal care costs were substantial, each constituting between 18% and 43% of total costs. The total societal burden was estimated at between $80,120 and $120,910 per patient and annum, and increased markedly with disease progression. The corresponding household burden was estimated at between $58,440 and $71,900. Conclusions: We show that DMD is associated with a substantial economic burden. Our results underscore the many different costs accompanying a rare condition such as DMD and the considerable economic burden carried by affected families. Our description of the previously unknown economic context of a rare disease serves as important intelligence input to health policy evaluations of intervention programs and novel therapies, financial support schemes for patients and their families, and the design of future cost studies. PMID:24991029

  17. Pill burden does not influence compliance with oral medication in recipients of renal transplant

    PubMed Central

    Adhikari, Uma Rani; Taraphder, Abhijit; Hazra, Avijit; Das, Tapas

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Insights about the predictors of noncompliance are key to develop compliance enhancing strategy in a given therapeutic situation. Renal transplantation is a critical surgical procedure that imposes a large medication burden on patients. There is a suspicion that the large pill burden may lead to noncompliance. Our objective was to ascertain the influence of pill burden on medication compliance in renal transplant patients in the Indian sociocultural context. Methods: A longitudinal observational study was conducted in two Tertiary Care Hospitals in Kolkata running renal transplant program – one each from the government and private sectors. Totally 120 literate adult transplant recipients were recruited through purposive sampling and followed up at 3 months intervals for 1 year. Data were collected through interview and review of prescriptions and medical records. Results: Data of 110 subjects were analyzed. The pill burden was high – ranging from 10-21 (median 14) at first visit shortly after discharge to 7–22 (median 11) at last visit at 12 months in the government sector; corresponding figures in the private sector were 14–32 (median 21) and 10–28 (median 17). Pill burden increased with age. Only 60.91% of the patients were fully compliant until 1 year after transplantation. The rate of immunosuppressant noncompliance was 27.78% in government sector and 25.00% in private sector. There was no significant association between median pill burden and medication compliance. Satisfaction with caregiver support was associated with better immunosuppressant compliance. Conclusions: Noncompliance in renal transplant recipients is likely to be multifactorial. Contrary to popular belief, pill burden was not a major determinant of noncompliant behavior. PMID:26997717

  18. The burden of disease in older people and implications for health policy and practice.

    PubMed

    Prince, Martin J; Wu, Fan; Guo, Yanfei; Gutierrez Robledo, Luis M; O'Donnell, Martin; Sullivan, Richard; Yusuf, Salim

    2015-02-01

    23% of the total global burden of disease is attributable to disorders in people aged 60 years and older. Although the proportion of the burden arising from older people (≥60 years) is highest in high-income regions, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) per head are 40% higher in low-income and middle-income regions, accounted for by the increased burden per head of population arising from cardiovascular diseases, and sensory, respiratory, and infectious disorders. The leading contributors to disease burden in older people are cardiovascular diseases (30·3% of the total burden in people aged 60 years and older), malignant neoplasms (15·1%), chronic respiratory diseases (9·5%), musculoskeletal diseases (7·5%), and neurological and mental disorders (6·6%). A substantial and increased proportion of morbidity and mortality due to chronic disease occurs in older people. Primary prevention in adults aged younger than 60 years will improve health in successive cohorts of older people, but much of the potential to reduce disease burden will come from more effective primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention targeting older people. Obstacles include misplaced global health priorities, ageism, the poor preparedness of health systems to deliver age-appropriate care for chronic diseases, and the complexity of integrating care for complex multimorbidities. Although population ageing is driving the worldwide epidemic of chronic diseases, substantial untapped potential exists to modify the relation between chronological age and health. This objective is especially important for the most age-dependent disorders (ie, dementia, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and vision impairment), for which the burden of disease arises more from disability than from mortality, and for which long-term care costs outweigh health expenditure. The societal cost of these disorders is enormous. PMID:25468153

  19. Lead burdens and behavioral impairments of the lined shore crab Pachygrapsus crassipes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hui, C.A.

    2002-01-01

    Sublethal burdens of lead impair behaviors critical to survival in a variety of animals. In a test arena, I measured refuge-seeking behaviors of adult, male, lined shore crabs from lead-free and lead-contaminated sites. The body sizes of the test groups did not differ although the mean total body lead burdens differed by over 2,300%. A lead-contaminated environment does not appear to affect growth. Each of the 31 crabs had at least six trials in the arena. The fraction of trials with more than one pause, number of pauses per trial, mean time per pause, and the fraction of time a crab spent in pauses did not differ between groups. The absence of behavioral effects of the lead burdens may be because a large portion of the lead burden was sequestered in the carapace. The neurological and other soft tissues would then have lower levels of lead. Predators that ingest primarily soft tissues would have little exposure to the lead burden of these crabs. Those that also ingest the carapace may benefit from its high calcium content that inhibits lead uptake from the gut, regardless of the location of lead in the crab body.

  20. The burden of disease due to tuberculosis in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil*, **

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer, Glênio César Nunes; da Silva, Rosemeri Maurici; Ferrer, Kelian Tenfen; Traebert, Jefferson

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the burden of disease due to tuberculosis in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, in 2009. METHODS: This was an epidemiological study with an ecological design. Data on tuberculosis incidence and mortality were collected from specific Brazilian National Ministry of Health databases. The burden of disease due to tuberculosis was based on the calculation of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). The DALYs were estimated by adding the years of life lost (YLLs) and years lived with disability (YLDs). Absolute values were transformed into rates per 100,000 population. The rates were calculated by gender, age group, and health care macroregion. RESULTS: The burden of disease due to tuberculosis was 5,644.27 DALYs (92.25 DALYs/100,000 population), YLLs and YLDs respectively accounting for 78.77% and 21.23% of that total. The highest rates were found in males in the 30-44 and 45-59 year age brackets, although that was not true in every health care macroregion. Overall, the highest estimated burden was in the Planalto Norte macroregion (179.56 DALYs/100,000 population), followed by the Nordeste macroregion (167.07 DALYs/100,000 population). CONCLUSIONS: In the majority of the health care macroregions of Santa Catarina, the burden of disease due to tuberculosis was concentrated in adult males, the level of that concentration varying among the various macroregions. PMID:24626271

  1. Economic Burden of HIV/AIDS Upon Households in Nepal: A Critical Review.

    PubMed

    Poudel, Ak Narayan; Newlands, David; Simkhada, Padam

    2015-09-01

    Thousands of people are infected with HIV/AIDS in Nepal and most of them are adults of working age. Therefore, HIV/AIDS is a big burden in Nepal. This review was conducted to find the existing knowledge gap about the economic burden of HIV/AIDS at the household level in Nepal, the extent of economic burden exerted by the disease, and to provide policy recommendations. It is concluded that there was a considerable knowledge gap about the issue, and the economic burden exerted by HIV/AIDS was big enough to push the affected households into poverty. It is suggested that more studies need to be conducted to fill the knowledge gap. Similarly, Government of Nepal and other organisations working in the field of HIV/AIDS need to provide economic supports (e.g.- support for travel costs) to the HIV positive people and need to increase the awareness level among general population for reducing stigma and discrimination, and reducing economic burden on them. PMID:26913211

  2. Economic Burden of HIV/AIDS Upon Households in Nepal: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Newlands, David; Simkhada, Padam

    2015-01-01

    Thousands of people are infected with HIV/AIDS in Nepal and most of them are adults of working age. Therefore, HIV/AIDS is a big burden in Nepal. This review was conducted to find the existing knowledge gap about the economic burden of HIV/AIDS at the household level in Nepal, the extent of economic burden exerted by the disease, and to provide policy recommendations. It is concluded that there was a considerable knowledge gap about the issue, and the economic burden exerted by HIV/AIDS was big enough to push the affected households into poverty. It is suggested that more studies need to be conducted to fill the knowledge gap. Similarly, Government of Nepal and other organisations working in the field of HIV/AIDS need to provide economic supports (e.g.- support for travel costs) to the HIV positive people and need to increase the awareness level among general population for reducing stigma and discrimination, and reducing economic burden on them. PMID:26913211

  3. A Concept Space Approach to Addressing the Vocabulary Problem in Scientific Information Retrieval: An Experiment on the Worm Community System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsinchun; Ng, Tobun D.; Martinez, Joanne; Schatz, Bruce R.

    1997-01-01

    Presents an algorithmic approach to addressing the vocabulary problem in scientific information retrieval and information sharing, using the molecular biology domain as an example. A cognitive study and a follow-up document retrieval study were conducted using first a conjoined fly-worm thesaurus and then an actual worm database and the conjoined…

  4. PAS-1, a protein affinity purified from Ascaris suum worms, maintains the ability to modulate the immune response to a bystander antigen.

    PubMed

    Oshiro, Telma M; Enobe, Cristina S; Araújo, Cláudia A; Macedo, Mahasti S; Macedo-Soares, Maria Fernanda

    2006-04-01

    Helminth infections and parasite components have potent immunomodulatory effects on a host's immune system. In the present study, we investigated the effect of PAS-1, a protein component of Ascaris suum adult worms recognized by a monoclonal antibody (MAIP-1), on humoral and cell-mediated responses to a bystander antigen (ovalbumin [OVA]). MAIP-1 recognized only one of the three polypeptide chains of PAS-1, but neutralized the suppressive effect of the whole worm extract on OVA-specific antibody production. PAS-1 inhibited antibody production against a T-cell-dependent, but not a T-cell-independent, antigen in a dose-dependent way. IgM, IgG1, IgG2b, and also IgE and anaphylactic IgG1 levels were downregulated. In addition, PAS-1 inhibited OVA-specific delayed type hypersensitivity reactions in the footpad of mice, showing a potent immunosuppressive activity on both Th1 and Th2 responses that seems to be mediated by the induction of large amounts of IL-10 and IL-4. Indeed, PAS-1-specific spleen cells secreted sevenfold more IL-10 and threefold more IL-4 than OVA-specific cells in response to in vitro restimulation with the respective antigens. In conclusion, we showed that PAS-1, a single protein component from A. suum, maintains all its immunosuppressive properties. PMID:16519731

  5. Simvastatin and artesunate impact the structural organization of adult Schistosoma mansoni in hypercholesterolemic mice.

    PubMed

    Alencar, Alba Cristina Miranda de Barros; Santos, Thais da Silva; Neves, Renata Heisler; Lopes Torres, Eduardo José; Nogueira-Neto, José Firmino; Machado-Silva, José Roberto

    2016-08-01

    Experimental data have shown that simvastatin and artesunate possess activity against Schistosoma mansoni worms in mice fed standard chow. However, little is known regarding the roles of these drugs in mice fed high-fat chow. We have extended past studies by measuring the effects of these drugs on the structural organization of adult schistosomes in hypercholesterolemic mice. For this purpose, mice were gavaged with either simvastatin or artesunate at nine weeks post-infection and were euthanized by cervical dislocation at two weeks post-treatment. Adult worms were then collected and examined by conventional light microscopy, morphometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Plasma total cholesterol and worm reduction rates were significantly increased in mice fed high-fat chow compared with their respective control groups. Simvastatin and artesunate caused changes in the tegument, tubercles, and reproductive system (testicular lobes, vitelline glands and ovarian cells), particularly when administered to mice fed high-fat chow. In particular, the tegument and tubercles were significantly thinner in artesunate-treated worms in mice fed high-fat chow compared with mice fed standard chow. This study thus demonstrated that simvastatin and artesunate have several novel effects on the structural organization of adult worms. Together, these results show, for the first time, that simvastatin and artesunate display antischistosomal activity in hypercholesterolemic mice. PMID:27228897

  6. Contribution of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and their subfractions to the sludge aggregation in membrane bioreactor coupled with worm reactor.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhipeng; Tian, Yu; Ding, Yi; Wang, Haoyu; Chen, Lin

    2013-09-01

    This study focused on the effect of predated sludge recycle on the contribution of extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) and their subfractions to sludge aggregation in combined MBR system. It was observed that aggregation abilities of sludge samples were decreased by worm predation. Furthermore, worm predation enhanced the energy barriers and weakened the secondary energy minimum in the interaction energy profiles of slime, loosely bound EPS (LB-EPS) and tightly bound EPS (TB-EPS). Further investigations demonstrated that the content decrease and structural change of different EPS fractions induced by worm predation may be the reason for the decreased aggregation of sludge. Concomitantly, the adsorption tests and atomic force microscopy observation confirmed that the worm predation decreased the adsorption of slime, LB-EPS and TB-EPS on membrane. This would indicate the worm predation could keep an optimum EPS level for which floc structure was maintained and the fouling propensity of mixed liquid was reduced. PMID:23891833

  7. Intestinal epithelial cell secretion of RELM-beta protects against gastrointestinal worm infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    IL-4 and IL-13 protect against parasitic helminths, but little is known about the mechanism of host protection. We show that IL-4/IL-13 confer immunity against worms by inducing intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) to differentiate into goblet cells that secrete resistin-like molecule beta (RELMB). R...

  8. Toxicity of metallic oxides nanoparticle suspensions to a freshwater sludge worm Tubifex tubifex Müller.

    PubMed

    Verma, Surabhi; Das, Sangita; Khangarot, B S

    2011-02-01

    Toxic effects of selected metallic oxides nanoparticles were studied using the short-term static bioassays. Nanoparticles were more toxic than comparable bulk metallic oxides. Freshwater sludge worm Tubifex tubifex can be used as suitable test model for nanoecotoxicological studies in future studies. PMID:21485877

  9. Hypokalemic paralysis following severe vomiting in a child with intestinal obstruction due to round worms.

    PubMed

    Nagotkar, Leena; Shanbag, Preeti; Shenoy, Prithi

    2010-02-01

    Ascariasis is one of the most common helminthic infestations in humans. Massive infestation can give rise to serious complications such as intestinal obstruction. We present a 4-year-old boy, who presented with acute flaccid quadriparesis due to the hypokalemic alkalosis induced by severe vomiting. Severe vomiting was due to intestinal obstruction caused by round worms. PMID:19502600

  10. Optical and physicochemical characterization of the luminous mucous secreted by the marine worm Chaetopterus sp.

    PubMed

    Deheyn, Dimitri D; Enzor, Laura A; Dubowitz, Andrew; Urbach, Jeffrey S; Blair, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Bioluminescence of the marine worm Chaetopterus variopedatus was first investigated several decades ago mainly using tissue extract. Light production of the worm, however, originates from a secreted mucus only. Here, we report the optical and physicochemical properties of the luminous mucus. We show that the produced light occurs as a long glow in the blue range (455 nm), which is an unusual color for a shallow benthic invertebrate. We also show that the light originates from a photoprotein whose light production is independent of molecular oxygen yet somewhat related to the physicochemical (rheological) characteristics of the mucus itself. Indeed, the mucus seems to polymerize and become more viscous on exposure to H2O2, which in turn seems to inhibit the light production. Ferrous iron was not associated with any strong stimulatory effect. This is in contrast to past studies on worm tissues showing that the light production is strongly stimulated by H2O2 and ferrous iron. Overall, our results highlight the fact that working on the luminous mucus only (vs. worm tissues) provides the ability to study its chemical properties possibly involved in the fine control of light production-as well as its rheological properties-and identify the possible interactions between these two properties. PMID:24241067

  11. Molecular Phylogeny of Echiuran Worms (Phylum: Annelida) Reveals Evolutionary Pattern of Feeding Mode and Sexual Dimorphism

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Ryutaro; Okamoto, Tomoko; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Hamamura, Yoichi; Kato, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    The Echiura, or spoon worms, are a group of marine worms, most of which live in burrows in soft sediments. This annelid-like animal group was once considered as a separate phylum because of the absence of segmentation, although recent molecular analyses have placed it within the annelids. In this study, we elucidate the interfamily relationships of echiuran worms and their evolutionary pattern of feeding mode and sexual dimorphism, by performing molecular phylogenetic analyses using four genes (18S, 28S, H3, and COI) of representatives of all extant echiuran families. Our results suggest that Echiura is monophyletic and comprises two unexpected groups: [Echiuridae+Urechidae+Thalassematidae] and [Bonelliidae+Ikedidae]. This grouping agrees with the presence/absence of marked sexual dimorphism involving dwarf males and the paired/non-paired configuration of the gonoducts (genital sacs). Furthermore, the data supports the sister group relationship of Echiuridae and Urechidae. These two families share the character of having anal chaetae rings around the posterior trunk as a synapomorphy. The analyses also suggest that deposit feeding is a basal feeding mode in echiurans and that filter feeding originated once in the common ancestor of Urechidae. Overall, our results contradict the currently accepted order-level classification, especially in that Echiuroinea is polyphyletic, and provide novel insights into the evolution of echiuran worms. PMID:23457618

  12. "Kill the Army Worms! Let Them Live!:" Facing an Ecological Dilemma in a Democratic Classroom Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wister, Pam; Beaton, Kathy; Nason, Pam

    2000-01-01

    Describes how a primary teacher handled an argument among her students over what to do about army worms defoliating an apple tree, thereby illustrating how she cultivates a classroom community that nurtures democracy. Such stories of morally coherent practices counter the bureaucratic insistence on a narrowly construed outcomes-based education.…

  13. Energy Engineering Analysis Program (EEAP), Worms Military Community, West Germany, revised executive summary. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    1986-08-01

    This document is the Executive Summary of the Phase II Energy Report for the Energy Engineering Analysis Program (EEAP) for the Worms, West Germany Military Community. The purpose of this document is to present analysis of potential energy conservation projects at each of the sites.

  14. Integrated CD-ROM and WORM Optical Disk Systems on the Navy's Paperless Ship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiel, Thomas J.

    1992-01-01

    The integration of optical disk systems employing WORM (Write Once Read Many) technology with CD-ROM systems can enhance information management. Two integrated system applications are the Paperless Ship Project of the U.S. Navy and the FEDLOG (Federal Logistics Data on CD-ROM) of the Defense Logistics Agency. These initiatives are described and…

  15. CLIMATE AND HABITAT INFLUENCE PREVALENCE OF MENINGEAL WORM INFECTION IN NORTH DAKOTA, USA.

    PubMed

    Maskey, James J; Sweitzer, Rick A; Goodwin, Brett J

    2015-07-01

    The meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) is a parasite of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and is also a significant pathogen of moose (Alces alces) and other ungulates. Changes in climate or habitat may facilitate range expansion or increase the prevalence of meningeal worm infection in white-tailed deer, resulting in increased exposure to susceptible ungulates. We examined 3,730 white-tailed deer during 2002-05 to determine the prevalence and range of meningeal worm infection in North Dakota, US, and investigated whether these had changed since earlier surveys. We used multiple logistic regression to model potential effects of habitat and climate on prevalence in white-tailed deer. We also examined how habitat influences intermediate hosts by comparing gastropod abundance and microclimate among habitat types. Prevalence in deer was 14% statewide, and prevalence and geographic range had increased since the early 1990 s. Natural woodlands provided the best habitat for intermediate hosts, and increases in prevalence of infection in deer may be due to recent patterns in growing-season precipitation. This study has redefined the geographic distribution of meningeal worm infection and increased understanding of how climate and habitat influence the prevalence and distribution of this parasite. PMID:25973622

  16. Metallothioneins induction and antioxidative response in aquatic worms Tubifex tubifex (Oligochaeta, Tubificidae) exposed to copper.

    PubMed

    Mosleh, Yahia Y; Paris-Palacios, Séverine; Biagianti-Risbourg, Sylvie

    2006-06-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs), are low molecular weight proteins, mainly implicated in metal ion detoxification. Increase in MT contents is considered as a specific biomarker of metal exposure. Recently it has been demonstrated that MTs participate in several cellular functions such as regulation of growth, and antioxidative defences. Tubifex tubifex were exposed to different copper concentrations (50, 100, and 200 microgl(-1)) for 7 and 15 days. MT levels in exposed worms increased significantly (p<0.05) after 7 and 15 days of exposure to different concentrations of copper (maximum +208% for 100 microgl(-1) after 7 days of exposure). Also important perturbation in metal-metallothionein content occurred, along with an increase in total soluble protein content in all treated worms after 7 and 15 days (max. +88.49%). Catalase activities (CAT) in Cu treated-worms were significantly increased, and demonstrated a development of antioxidative defenses. Additionally a reduction of gulathione-S-transferase (GST) was observed in all treated worms after 7 days of exposure to Cu (max. -44.42%). The high induction of MTs observed during T. tubifex exposure to Cu make them potentially useful biomarkers to monitor metal pollution. PMID:16330073

  17. Impact of worm predation on pseudo-steady-state of the circulating fluidized bed biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Nakhla, George; Zhu, Jesse

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies integrated simultaneous carbon and nitrogen removal as well as worm predation, in a circulating fluidized bed biofilm reactor (CFBBR) operated with an anoxic-aerobic bioparticle recirculation. A lab-scale CFBBR with a 8.5-liter reaction zone comprising 2L anoxic and 6.5L aerobic compartments was designed to evaluate the aquatic Oligochaete worm effect. Long-term (200 days) performance showed that stable and high-rate chemical oxygen demand (COD) with sodium acetate as the carbon source and total nitrogen (NH(4)Cl as nitrogen source) conversions were achieved simultaneously, with low sludge production of 0.082 g VSS (volatile suspended solids) g COD(-1) at pseudo-steady-state. Worm predation, which causes considerable sludge reduction of the bioparticle process, was studied. The results proved that the worm predation has a significant impact on the pseudo-steady-state performance of the CFBBR, decreasing biomass yield, decreasing oxygen concentration and increasing expanded bed height. PMID:23201510

  18. Worm-like micelles of CTAB and sodium salicylate under turbulent flow.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Roberta K; da Silva, Marcelo A; Sabadini, Edvaldo

    2008-12-16

    Polymers with high molecular weight and worm-like micelles are drag-reducing agents under turbulent flow. However, in contrast to the polymeric systems, the worm-like micelles do not undergo mechanical degradation due to the turbulence, because their macromolecular structure can be spontaneously restored. This very favorable property, together with their drag-reduction capability, offer the possibility to use such worm-like micelles in heating and cooling systems to recirculate water while expending less energy. The formation, growth, and stability of worm-like micelles formed by cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium salicylate (NaSal) were investigated using the self-fluorescence of salicylate ions and the ability of the giant micelles to promote hydrodynamic drag reduction under turbulent flow. The turbulence in solutions of CTAB-Sal was produced within the double-gap cell of a rotational rheometer. Detailed diagrams were obtained for different ratios of Sal and CTAB, which revealed transitions associated with the thermal stability of giant micelles under turbulent flow. PMID:19053646

  19. From early lessons to new frontiers: the worm as a treasure trove of small RNA biology.

    PubMed

    Youngman, Elaine M; Claycomb, Julie M

    2014-01-01

    In the past 20 years, the tiny soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has provided critical insights into our understanding of the breadth of small RNA-mediated gene regulatory activities. The first microRNA was identified in C. elegans in 1993, and the understanding that dsRNA was the driving force behind RNA-mediated gene silencing came from experiments performed in C. elegans in 1998. Likewise, early genetic screens in C. elegans for factors involved in RNA interference pointed to conserved mechanisms for small RNA-mediated gene silencing pathways, placing the worm squarely among the founding fathers of a now extensive field of molecular biology. Today, the worm continues to be at the forefront of ground-breaking insight into small RNA-mediated biology. Recent studies have revealed with increasing mechanistic clarity that C. elegans possesses an extensive nuclear small RNA regulatory network that encompasses not only gene silencing but also gene activating roles. Further, a portrait is emerging whereby small RNA pathways play key roles in integrating responses to environmental stimuli and transmitting epigenetic information about such responses from one generation to the next. Here we discuss endogenous small RNA pathways in C. elegans and the insight worm biology has provided into the mechanisms employed by these pathways. We touch on the increasingly spectacular diversity of small RNA biogenesis and function, and discuss the relevance of lessons learned in the worm for human biology. PMID:25505902

  20. The Economic Burden of PTSD in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Ferry, Finola R; Brady, Sharon E; Bunting, Brendan P; Murphy, Samuel D; Bolton, David; O'Neill, Siobhan M

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the economic costs of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among the Northern Ireland (NI) adult population. The authors present a prevalence-based, bottom-up study based primarily on data from 1,986 participants in the Northern Ireland Study of Health and Stress (NISHS). Both direct costs of treatment and indirect costs of productivity losses were included. Units of service and medication resource use were obtained from the NISHS and combined with their relevant unit costs from the Personal Social Services Research Unit and Prescription Costs Analysis data for NI. Indirect costs included the costs of incapacity days due to PTSD and presenteeism costs, with gender-specific wage rates used as the relevant unit costs. The total direct and indirect cost of PTSD in NI (2008) was £172,756,062. This figure is likely to be conservative due to the exclusion of a number of cost categories. Nevertheless, comparison of estimates of the burden of PTSD with the estimated cost of treating all adults with PTSD with the recommended treatments shows the potential for substantial economic gains to be made through extension and investment in effective evidence-based treatments. PMID:25990825

  1. Diversity of Polychaeta (Annelida) and other worm taxa in mangrove habitats of Darwin Harbour, northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalfe, K. N.; Glasby, C. J.

    2008-02-01

    In this paper data on the diversity, distribution and abundance of polychaetes and other worm taxa in the mangroves of Darwin Harbour, northern Australia, are presented and compared with those of other tropical mangrove areas. Aspects of the feeding guild ecology and the effects of disturbance on mangrove worms are also examined. Data were collected over a period of four years, across four mangrove assemblages. Samples were obtained using three sampling techniques: 1 m × 1 m quadrat searches, epifauna searches and a new infaunal sampling technique, the anoxic mat. A total of 76 species (68 polychaetes, 1 oligochaete, 1 echiuran, 3 sipunculans, 2 nemerteans, 1 turbellarian) were recorded from the four main mangrove assemblages. Of these, 30 species are widespread, occurring in mangrove and non-mangrove habitats throughout the Indo-west Pacific. Only seven species (all polychaetes) appear to be restricted to the mangroves of Darwin Harbour and northern Australia. Polychaetes are predominant, comprising 80-96% of all worms sampled, with three families—Nereididae, Capitellidae and Spionidae—accounting for 46% of all species. The highest diversity and abundance was recorded in the soft, unconsolidated substrates of the seaward assemblage, with diversity and abundance decreasing progressively in the landward assemblages. Most of the worm fauna was infaunal (70%), but the intensive sampling regime revealed a hitherto unknown significant percentage of epifaunal species (18%) and species occurring as both infauna and epifauna (12%). Univariate analyses showed annual and seasonal differences in worm species richness and abundance—presumably associated with the intensity of the monsoon and recruitment success. The worm fauna differed between mangrove assemblages but the proportion of species in each feeding guild was relatively consistent across the four assemblages studied. Herbivores were the most species-rich and abundant, followed by carnivores and sub

  2. Burden of celiac disease in the Mediterranean area

    PubMed Central

    Greco, Luigi; Timpone, Laura; Abkari, Abdelhak; Abu-Zekry, Mona; Attard, Thomas; Bouguerrà, Faouzi; Cullufi, Paskal; Kansu, Aydan; Micetic-Turk, Dusanka; Mišak, Zrinjka; Roma, Eleftheria; Shamir, Raanan; Terzic, Selma

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To estimate the burden of undiagnosed celiac disease (CD) in the Mediterranean area in terms of morbidity, mortality and health cost. METHODS: For statistics regarding the population of each country in the Mediterranean area, we accessed authoritative international sources (World Bank, World Health Organization and United Nations). The prevalence of CD was obtained for most countries from published reports. An overall prevalence rate of 1% cases/total population was finally estimated to represent the frequency of the disease in the area, since none of the available confidence intervals of the reported rates significantly excluded this rate. The distribution of symptoms and complications was obtained from reliable reports in the same cohort. A standardized mortality rate of 1.8 was obtained from recent reports. Crude health cost was estimated for the years between symptoms and diagnosis for adults and children, and was standardized for purchasing power parity to account for the different economic profiles amongst Mediterranean countries. RESULTS: In the next 10 years, the Mediterranean area will have about half a billion inhabitants, of which 120 million will be children. The projected number of CD diagnoses in 2020 is 5 million cases (1 million celiac children), with a relative increase of 11% compared to 2010. Based on the 2010 rate, there will be about 550 000 symptomatic adults and about 240 000 sick children: 85% of the symptomatic patients will suffer from gastrointestinal complaints, 40% are likely to have anemia, 30% will likely have osteopenia, 20% of children will have short stature, and 10% will have abnormal liver enzymes. The estimated standardized medical costs for symptomatic celiac patients during the delay between symptom onset and diagnosis (mean 6 years for adults, 2 years for children) will be about €4 billion (€387 million for children) over the next 10 years. A delay in diagnosis is expected to increase mortality: about 600 000

  3. Understanding Human-Plasmodium falciparum Immune Interactions Uncovers the Immunological Role of Worms

    PubMed Central

    Roussilhon, Christian; Brasseur, Philippe; Agnamey, Patrice; Pérignon, Jean-Louis; Druilhe, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Background Former studies have pointed to a monocyte-dependant effect of antibodies in protection against malaria and thereby to cytophilic antibodies IgG1 and IgG3, which trigger monocyte receptors. Field investigations have further documented that a switch from non-cytophilic to cytophilic classes of antimalarial antibodies was associated with protection. The hypothesis that the non-cytophilic isotype imbalance could be related to concomittant helminthic infections was supported by several interventions and case-control studies. Methods and Findings We investigated here the hypothesis that the delayed acquisition of immunity to malaria could be related to a worm-induced Th2 drive on antimalarial immune responses. IgG1 to IgG4 responses against 6 different parasite-derived antigens were analyzed in sera from 203 Senegalese children, half carrying intestinal worms, presenting 421 clinical malaria attacks over 51 months. Results show a significant correlation between the occurrence of malaria attacks, worm carriage (particularly that of hookworms) and a decrease in cytophilic IgG1 and IgG3 responses and an increase in non-cytophilic IgG4 response to the merozoite stage protein 3 (MSP3) vaccine candidate. Conclusion The results confirm the association with protection of anti-MSP3 cytophilic responses, confirm in one additional setting that worms increase malaria morbidity and show a Th2 worm-driven pattern of anti-malarial immune responses. They document why large anthelminthic mass treatments may be worth being assessed as malaria control policies. PMID:20174576

  4. Are block copolymer worms more effective Pickering emulsifiers than block copolymer spheres?

    PubMed

    Thompson, K L; Mable, C J; Cockram, A; Warren, N J; Cunningham, V J; Jones, E R; Verber, R; Armes, S P

    2014-11-21

    RAFT-mediated polymerisation-induced self-assembly (PISA) is used to prepare six types of amphiphilic block copolymer nanoparticles which were subsequently evaluated as putative Pickering emulsifiers for the stabilisation of n-dodecane-in-water emulsions. It was found that linear poly(glycerol monomethacrylate)-poly(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate) (PGMA-PHPMA) diblock copolymer spheres and worms do not survive the high shear homogenisation conditions used for emulsification. Stable emulsions are obtained, but the copolymer acts as a polymeric surfactant; individual chains rather than particles are adsorbed at the oil-water interface. Particle dissociation during emulsification is attributed to the weakly hydrophobic character of the PHPMA block. Covalent stabilisation of these copolymer spheres or worms can be readily achieved by addition of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) during the PISA synthesis. TEM studies confirm that the resulting cross-linked spherical or worm-like nanoparticles survive emulsification and produce genuine Pickering emulsions. Alternatively, stabilisation can be achieved by either replacing or supplementing the PHPMA block with the more hydrophobic poly(benzyl methacrylate) (PBzMA). The resulting linear spheres or worms also survive emulsification and produce stable n-dodecane-in-water Pickering emulsions. The intrinsic advantages of anisotropic worms over isotropic spheres for the preparation of Pickering emulsions are highlighted. The former particles are more strongly adsorbed at similar efficiencies compared to spheres and also enable smaller oil droplets to be produced for a given copolymer concentration. The scalable nature of PISA formulations augurs well for potential applications of anisotropic block copolymer nanoparticles as Pickering emulsifiers. PMID:25254485

  5. Mineral lung burden of an urban population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paoletti, L.; Falchi, M.; Batisti, D.; Carrieri, M. P.; Petrelli, M. G.; Ciallella, C.; Donelli, G.

    A study was carried out on mineral lung burden in 85 autopsy cases who died accidentally. Subjects of both sexes aged from 15 to 70 years were selected from all the autopsies performed at the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Rome. These subjects were living in an urban area and were not affected by neoplasm diseases. All selected subjects were residing in Rome at the time of their death. Information on years of legal residence in urban areas, smoking habits and occupational history were obtained by interviews with relatives. Lung parenchyma samples were obtained from the right upper lobe. The mineral particulate matter present in the tissue samples was studied by means of analytical transmission electron microscopy (ATEM) techniques: 16 mineral varieties and 22 metallic elements were identified. Smoke, age and residence seem to have influence on the lung burden.

  6. The burden of inhibitors in haemophilia patients.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Christopher E; Jiménez-Yuste, Víctor; Auerswald, Guenter; Grancha, Salvador

    2016-08-31

    The burden of disease in haemophilia patients has wide ranging implications for the family and to society. There is evidence that having a current inhibitor increases the risk of morbidity and mortality. Morbidity is increased by the inability to treat adequately and its consequent disabilities, which then equates to a poor quality of life compared with non-inhibitor patients. The societal cost of care, or `burden of inhibitors', increases with the ongoing presence of an inhibitor. Therefore, it is clear that successful eradication of inhibitors by immune tolerance induction (ITI) is the single most important milestone one can achieve in an inhibitor patient. The type of factor VIII (FVIII) product used in ITI regimens varies worldwide. Despite ongoing debate, there is in vitro and retrospective clinical evidence to support the use of plasma-derived VWF-containing FVIII concentrates in ITI regimens in order to achieve early and high inhibitor eradication success rates. PMID:27528280

  7. Global Burden of Thrombosis: Epidemiologic Aspects.

    PubMed

    Wendelboe, Aaron M; Raskob, Gary E

    2016-04-29

    Thromboembolic conditions were estimated to account for 1 in 4 deaths worldwide in 2010 and are the leading cause of mortality. Thromboembolic conditions are divided into arterial and venous thrombotic conditions. Ischemic heart disease and ischemic stroke comprise the major arterial thromboses and deep-vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism comprise venous thromboembolism. Atrial fibrillation is a major risk factor for stroke and systemic arterial thromboembolism. Estimates of the global burden of disease were obtained from Global Burden of Disease Project reports, recent systematic reviews, and searching the published literature for recent studies reporting measures of incidence, burden, and disability-adjusted life-years. Estimates per 100 000 of the global incidence rate (IR) for each condition are ischemic heart disease, IR=1518.7; myocardial infarction, IR=139.3; ischemic stroke, IR=114.3; atrial fibrillation, IR=77.5 in males and 59.5 in females; and venous thromboembolism, IR=115 to 269. Mortality rates (MRs) for each condition are ischemic heart disease, MR=105.5; ischemic stroke, MR=42.3; atrial fibrillation, MR=1.7; and venous thromboembolism, MR=9.4 to 32.3. Global public awareness is substantially lower for pulmonary embolism (54%) and deep-vein thrombosis (44%) than heart attack (88%) and stroke (85%). Over time, the incidence and MRs of these conditions have improved in developed countries, but are increasing in developing countries. Public health efforts to measure disease burden and increase awareness of symptoms and risk factors need to improve, particularly in low- and middle-income regions to address this leading cause of morbidity and mortality. PMID:27126645

  8. The Global Burden of Alveolar Echinococcosis

    PubMed Central

    Torgerson, Paul R.; Keller, Krista; Magnotta, Mellissa; Ragland, Natalie

    2010-01-01

    Background Human alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is known to be common in certain rural communities in China whilst it is generally rare and sporadic elsewhere. The objective of this study was to provide a first estimate of the global incidence of this disease by country. The second objective was to estimate the global disease burden using age and gender stratified incidences and estimated life expectancy with the disease from previous results of survival analysis. Disability weights were suggested from previous burden studies on echinococcosis. Methodology/Principal Findings We undertook a detailed review of published literature and data from other sources. We were unable to make a standardised systematic review as the quality of the data was highly variable from different countries and hence if we had used uniform inclusion criteria many endemic areas lacking data would not have been included. Therefore we used evidence based stochastic techniques to model uncertainty and other modelling and estimating techniques, particularly in regions where data quality was poor. We were able to make an estimate of the annual global incidence of disease and annual disease burden using standard techniques for calculation of DALYs. Our studies suggest that there are approximately 18,235 (CIs 11,900–28,200) new cases of AE per annum globally with 16,629 (91%) occurring in China and 1,606 outside China. Most of these cases are in regions where there is little treatment available and therefore will be fatal cases. Based on using disability weights for hepatic carcinoma and estimated age and gender specific incidence we were able to calculate that AE results in a median of 666,434 DALYs per annum (CIs 331,000-1.3 million). Conclusions/Significance The global burden of AE is comparable to several diseases in the neglected tropical disease cluster and is likely to be one of the most important diseases in certain communities in rural China on the Tibetan plateau. PMID:20582310

  9. The global distribution and burden of dengue

    PubMed Central

    Bhatt, Samir; Gething, Peter W.; Brady, Oliver J.; Messina, Jane P.; Farlow, Andrew W.; Moyes, Catherine L.; Drake, John M.; Brownstein, John S.; Hoen, Anne G.; Sankoh, Osman; Myers, Monica F.; George, Dylan B.; Jaenisch, Thomas; Wint, G.R. William; Simmons, Cameron P.; Scott, Thomas W.; Farrar, Jeremy J.; Hay, Simon I.

    2013-01-01

    Dengue is a systemic viral infection transmitted between humans by Aedes mosquitoes1. For some patients dengue is a life-threatening illness2. There are currently no licensed vaccines or specific therapeutics, and substantial vector control efforts have not stopped its rapid emergence and global spread3. The contemporary worldwide distribution of the risk of dengue virus infection4 and its public health burden are poorly known2,5. Here we undertake an exhaustive assembly of known records of dengue occurrence worldwide, and use a formal modelling framework to map the global distribution of dengue risk. We then pair the resulting risk map with detailed longitudinal information from dengue cohort studies and population surfaces to infer the public health burden of dengue in 2010. We predict dengue to be ubiquitous throughout the tropics, with local spatial variations in risk influenced strongly by rainfall, temperature and the degree of urbanisation. Using cartographic approaches, we estimate there to be 390 million (95 percent credible interval 284-528) dengue infections per year, of which 96 million (67-136) manifest apparently (any level of clinical or sub-clinical severity). This infection total is more than three times the dengue burden estimate of the World Health Organization2. Stratification of our estimates by country allows comparison with national dengue reporting, after taking into account the probability of an apparent infection being formally reported. The most notable differences are discussed. These new risk maps and infection estimates provide novel insights into the global, regional and national public health burden imposed by dengue. We anticipate that they will provide a starting point for a wider discussion about the global impact of this disease and will help guide improvements in disease control strategies using vaccine, drug and vector control methods and in their economic evaluation. [285] PMID:23563266

  10. Formation of Worm-Like Micelles in Mixed N-Hexadecyl-N-Methylpyrrolidinium Bromide-Based Cationic Surfactant and Anionic Surfactant Systems

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Caili; Yan, Zhihu; You, Qing; Du, Mingyong; Zhao, Mingwei

    2014-01-01

    Through the descriptive and rheological characterization of worm-like micelles formed by N-hexadecyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bromide and sodium laurate, the formation and properties of the worm-like micelles were affected by the concentrations of sodium laurate and temperature. Additionally, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy images further validated the formation of worm-like micelles. PMID:25019152

  11. Economic burden of dengue infections in India.

    PubMed

    Garg, Pankaj; Nagpal, Jitender; Khairnar, Prakash; Seneviratne, Suranjith L

    2008-06-01

    Dengue infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality and lead to adverse economic effects in many developing tropical countries. In this study, we estimated the economic burden faced by India during the 2006 dengue epidemic. Costs incurred in managing a cohort of serologically confirmed dengue patients at a tertiary-level private hospital in north India were calculated. The median cost of treatment per hospitalised dengue patient was US$432.2 (95% CI US$343.6-625). A sensitivity analysis was performed to estimate the costs to the health system in India using a regression model. Variables with potentially large variations, including the ratio of unreported to reported cases and of hospitalised to ambulatory cases, the proportion requiring transfusions, loss of economic activities due to loss of workdays and deaths, were used. The average total economic burden was estimated to be US$27.4 million (95% CI US$25.7-29.1 million). Costs in the private heath sector were estimated to be almost four times public sector expenditures. Considerable economic losses (at a macro level) are incurred by developing countries like India during each dengue epidemic. Accurate estimates of the proportions of reported to unreported and of hospitalised to ambulatory dengue cases in India are needed to refine further the estimates of financial burden due to dengue in India. PMID:18402995

  12. Understanding social support burden among family caregivers.

    PubMed

    Wittenberg-Lyles, Elaine; Washington, Karla; Demiris, George; Oliver, Debra Parker; Shaunfield, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Despite the abundance of research on social support, both as a variable in larger studies and as a central focus of examination, there is little consensus about the relationship between social support and health outcomes. Current social support measures typically account only for frequency and size of network, and a paucity of research exists that has explained social support burden, defined as the burden associated with accessing and receiving support from others. We analyzed audio-recorded discussions by hospice family caregivers about their caregiving problems and potential solutions to examine social relationships within networks and identify the processes that influence social support seeking and receiving. Using qualitative thematic analysis, we found that caregivers providing hospice care experience social support burden resulting from perceived relational barriers between friends and family, the inclination to remain in control, recognition of the loss of the patient as a source of social support and guidance in decision making, family dynamics, and decreased availability of emotional support. Social support researchers should consider how the quality of communication and relationships within social networks impacts the provision and subsequent outcomes of social support in varying contexts. Findings from this study suggest that hospice social support resources should be tailored to the caregiver's support needs and include assessment on the type of support to be offered. PMID:24345081

  13. Understanding Social Support Burden Among Family Caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Washington, Karla; Demiris, George; Parker Oliver, Debra; Shaunfield, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Despite the abundance of research on social support, both as a variable in larger studies and as a central focus of examination, there is little consensus about the relationship between social support and health outcomes. Current social support measures typically account only for frequency and size of network and a paucity of research exists that has explained social support burden, defined as the burden associated with accessing and receiving support from others. We analyzed audio-recorded discussions by hospice family caregivers about their caregiving problems and potential solutions to examine social relationships within networks and identify the processes that influence social support seeking and receiving. Using qualitative thematic analysis, we found that caregivers providing hospice care experience social support burden resulting from perceived relational barriers between friends and family, the inclination to remain in control, recognition of the loss of the patient as a source of social support and guidance in decision-making, family dynamics and decreased availability of emotional support. Social support researchers should consider how the quality of communication and relationships within social networks impacts the provision and subsequent outcomes of social support in varying contexts. Findings from this study suggest that hospice social support resources should be tailored to the caregiver’s support needs and include assessment on the type of support to be offered. PMID:24345081

  14. Tobacco and the Escalating Global Cancer Burden

    PubMed Central

    Oppeltz, Richard F.; Jatoi, Ismail

    2011-01-01

    The global burden of cancer is escalating as a result of dramatic increases in the use of tobacco in the developing world. The use of tobacco is linked to the development of a broad variety of cancers, mainly lung cancer, the single most common cancer in the world. Tobacco smoking-attributable deaths extends beyond cancer and include stroke, heart attack and COPD. Widening disparities in cancer-related mortality have shifted towards a more dramatic burden in the developing world. Appropriate interventions must be implemented to reduce tobacco use and prevent global mortality that has escalated to epidemic levels. Tobacco control policies, including public health advertisement campaigns, warning labels, adoption of smoke-free laws, comprehensive bans and tax policies are highly effective measures to control tobacco use. Clinicians and academic institutions have to be actively committed to support tobacco control initiatives. The reduction in cancer related morbidity and mortality should be viewed as a global crisis and definitive results will depend on a multilevel effort to effectively reduce the burden of cancer, particularly in underprivileged regions of the world. PMID:21869888

  15. Tobacco and the escalating global cancer burden.

    PubMed

    Oppeltz, Richard F; Jatoi, Ismail

    2011-01-01

    The global burden of cancer is escalating as a result of dramatic increases in the use of tobacco in the developing world. The use of tobacco is linked to the development of a broad variety of cancers, mainly lung cancer, the single most common cancer in the world. Tobacco smoking-attributable deaths extends beyond cancer and include stroke, heart attack and COPD. Widening disparities in cancer-related mortality have shifted towards a more dramatic burden in the developing world. Appropriate interventions must be implemented to reduce tobacco use and prevent global mortality that has escalated to epidemic levels. Tobacco control policies, including public health advertisement campaigns, warning labels, adoption of smoke-free laws, comprehensive bans and tax policies are highly effective measures to control tobacco use. Clinicians and academic institutions have to be actively committed to support tobacco control initiatives. The reduction in cancer related morbidity and mortality should be viewed as a global crisis and definitive results will depend on a multilevel effort to effectively reduce the burden of cancer, particularly in underprivileged regions of the world. PMID:21869888

  16. Curbing the burden of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Urman, Alexandra; Hosgood, H Dean

    2016-06-01

    Lung cancer contributes substantially to the global burden of disease and healthcare costs. New screening modalities using low-dose computerized tomography are promising tools for early detection leading to curative surgery. However, the screening and follow-up diagnostic procedures of these techniques may be costly. Focusing on prevention is an important factor to reduce the burden of screening, treatment, and lung cancer deaths. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has identified several lung carcinogens, which we believe can be considered actionable when developing prevention strategies. To curb the societal burden of lung cancer, healthcare resources need to be focused on early detection and screening and on mitigating exposure(s) of a person to known lung carcinogens, such as active tobacco smoking, household air pollution (HAP), and outdoor air pollution. Evidence has also suggested that these known lung carcinogens may be associated with genetic predispositions, supporting the hypothesis that lung cancers attributed to differing exposures may have developed from unique underlying genetic mechanisms attributed to the exposure of interest. For instance, smokingattributed lung cancer involves novel genetic markers of risk compared with HAP-attributed lung cancer. Therefore, genetic risk markers may be used in risk stratification to identify subpopulations that are at a higher risk for developing lung cancer attributed to a given exposure. Such targeted prevention strategies suggest that precision prevention strategies may be possible in the future; however, much work is needed to determine whether these strategies will be viable. PMID:27178304

  17. High Throughput Screening Identifies Novel Lead Compounds with Activity against Larval, Juvenile and Adult Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Nuha R; Paveley, Ross; Gardner, J Mark F; Bell, Andrew S; Parkinson, Tanya; Bickle, Quentin

    2016-04-01

    An estimated 600 million people are affected by the helminth disease schistosomiasis caused by parasites of the genus Schistosoma. There is currently only one drug recommended for treating schistosomiasis, praziquantel (PZQ), which is effective against adult worms but not against the juvenile stage. In an attempt to identify improved drugs for treating the disease, we have carried out high throughput screening of a number of small molecule libraries with the aim of identifying lead compounds with balanced activity against all life stages of Schistosoma. A total of almost 300,000 compounds were screened using a high throughput assay based on motility of worm larvae and image analysis of assay plates. Hits were screened against juvenile and adult worms to identify broadly active compounds and against a mammalian cell line to assess cytotoxicity. A number of compounds were identified as promising leads for further chemical optimization. PMID:27128493

  18. High Throughput Screening Identifies Novel Lead Compounds with Activity against Larval, Juvenile and Adult Schistosoma mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, J. Mark F.; Bell, Andrew S.; Parkinson, Tanya; Bickle, Quentin

    2016-01-01

    An estimated 600 million people are affected by the helminth disease schistosomiasis caused by parasites of the genus Schistosoma. There is currently only one drug recommended for treating schistosomiasis, praziquantel (PZQ), which is effective against adult worms but not against the juvenile stage. In an attempt to identify improved drugs for treating the disease, we have carried out high throughput screening of a number of small molecule libraries with the aim of identifying lead compounds with balanced activity against all life stages of Schistosoma. A total of almost 300,000 compounds were screened using a high throughput assay based on motility of worm larvae and image analysis of assay plates. Hits were screened against juvenile and adult worms to identify broadly active compounds and against a mammalian cell line to assess cytotoxicity. A number of compounds were identified as promising leads for further chemical optimization. PMID:27128493

  19. Pin Worms Presenting as Suspected Crohn’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Al-Saffar, Farah; Najjar, Nimeh; Ibrahim, Saif; Clark, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Female, 24 Final Diagnosis: Pinworms infection Symptoms: Abdominal pain • bloating Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Colonoscopy and biopsy Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Rare disease Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is well recognized in developed countries and is generally among the differential diagnoses of young patients presenting with refractory diarrhea once other more common etiologies have been excluded. Pinworm infections, on the other hand, are not as common among adults in the United States. Case Report: Based on computed tomography features, a 24-year-old female patient with a history of multiple autoimmune disorders presented with abdominal pain and was diagnosed recently with Crohn’s disease. Colonoscopy was significant for pinworms seen throughout the colon. Colonic biopsy was negative for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-related changes. Conclusions: The diagnosis of IBD is a serious label that requires biopsy confirmation before committing to possibly lifelong treatment and possible adverse effects. Even in the most typical patient and when the presentation and imaging are classical, uncommon conditions (like Enterobius infection in this case) may preclude appropriate diagnosis and management. PMID:26471462

  20. Burden of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases in Iran: Estimates Based on the Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study, 2010.

    PubMed

    Malekzadeh, Fatemeh; Sepanlou, Sadaf Ghajarieh; Poustchi, Hossein; Naghavi, Mohsen; Forouzanfar, Mohammad Hossein; Shahraz, Saeid; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2015-07-01

    BACKGROUND Gastrointestinal and liver diseases (GILD) constitute a noteworthy portion of causes of death and disability in Iran. However, data on their prevalence and burden is sparse in Iran. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study in 2010 has provided invaluable comprehensive data on the burden of GILD in Iran. METHODS Estimations of death, years of life lost due to premature death (YLL), years of life lost due to disability (YLD), disability-adjusted life years (DALY), life expectancy, and healthy life expectancy have been reported for 291 diseases, 67 risk factors, 1160 sequelae, for both sexes and 19 age groups, form 1990 to 2010 for 187 countries. In the current paper, 5 major categories of gastrointestinal (GI) and liver diseases have been investigated as follows: GI infectious diseases, GI and liver cancers, liver infections, chronic end stage liver disease, and other digestive diseases. RESULTS Among women, 7.6% of all deaths and 3.9% of all DALYs were due to digestive and liver diseases in 2010. The respective figures in men were 7.8% of deaths and 4.6% of DALYs. The most important cause of death among children under 5 is diarrhea. Among adults between 15 to 49 years old, the main causes of death are GI and liver cancers and cirrhosis, while diarrhea still remains a major cause of DALY. Among adults 50 years and above, GI and liver cancers and cirrhosis are the main causes of both deaths and DALYs. Gastritis and duodenitis, diarrheal diseases, gall bladder and bile duct diseases, acute hepatitis A, peptic ulcer disease, appendicitis, and acute hepatitis A mainly cause disability rather than death. CONCLUSION GBD study provides invaluable source of data on burden of GILD in Iran. However, there exist limitations, namely overestimation of burden of liver cancer and underestimation of the burden of GI diseases that are usually diagnosed in outpatient settings. The collaboration of scientists across the world and specifically those from developing countries

  1. Burden of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases in Iran: Estimates Based on the Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Malekzadeh, Fatemeh; Sepanlou, Sadaf Ghajarieh; Poustchi, Hossein; Naghavi, Mohsen; Forouzanfar, Mohammad Hossein; Shahraz, Saeid; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Gastrointestinal and liver diseases (GILD) constitute a noteworthy portion of causes of death and disability in Iran. However, data on their prevalence and burden is sparse in Iran. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study in 2010 has provided invaluable comprehensive data on the burden of GILD in Iran. METHODS Estimations of death, years of life lost due to premature death (YLL), years of life lost due to disability (YLD), disability-adjusted life years (DALY), life expectancy, and healthy life expectancy have been reported for 291 diseases, 67 risk factors, 1160 sequelae, for both sexes and 19 age groups, form 1990 to 2010 for 187 countries. In the current paper, 5 major categories of gastrointestinal (GI) and liver diseases have been investigated as follows: GI infectious diseases, GI and liver cancers, liver infections, chronic end stage liver disease, and other digestive diseases. RESULTS Among women, 7.6% of all deaths and 3.9% of all DALYs were due to digestive and liver diseases in 2010. The respective figures in men were 7.8% of deaths and 4.6% of DALYs. The most important cause of death among children under 5 is diarrhea. Among adults between 15 to 49 years old, the main causes of death are GI and liver cancers and cirrhosis, while diarrhea still remains a major cause of DALY. Among adults 50 years and above, GI and liver cancers and cirrhosis are the main causes of both deaths and DALYs. Gastritis and duodenitis, diarrheal diseases, gall bladder and bile duct diseases, acute hepatitis A, peptic ulcer disease, appendicitis, and acute hepatitis A mainly cause disability rather than death. CONCLUSION GBD study provides invaluable source of data on burden of GILD in Iran. However, there exist limitations, namely overestimation of burden of liver cancer and underestimation of the burden of GI diseases that are usually diagnosed in outpatient settings. The collaboration of scientists across the world and specifically those from developing countries

  2. In The Best Interest Of The (Adult) Child: Ideas About Kinship Care Of Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Tezra; Perry, Tam E; Valeriani, Julia

    2014-01-01

    This article uses a qualitative, ethnographic approach to examine the experiences older adults and their kin, as the older adult engages in relocation. Studies looking at caregiving by kin for older adults highlight burdens for the adult child. This study offers a life course perspective on kinship care, analyzing older adults' decisions' to move. It was found that many older adults are strongly influenced by the desire to not be cared for by their kin as well as to select housing near their existing social network, which might exclude kin. In conclusion, policy implications are discussed. PMID:25278741

  3. Gravity worms in the prospecting of epigenetic gold deposits: Example from the Northern Fennoscandian Shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahti, Ilkka; Nykänen, Vesa; Niiranen, Tero

    2010-05-01

    Mapping of mineralized geologic structures using geophysical potential field datasets has become an essential part of present-day exploration projects. Various geophysical processing and semiautomatic interpretation techniques have provided new tools into the field of conventional exploration process. Such is the multiscale edge detection or "worming-technique" introduced by Hornby et al., (1999). Worms are representations of the maxima of potential field horizontal gradients. They are calculated at different upward continuation levels providing an alternative view into potential field anomalies and geometry of the anomaly sources. In this work we use the worming-technique on the regional gravity dataset collected by the Geological Survey of Finland during the last four decades in the northern Finland. The dataset consists of more than 19 000 ground gravity observations covering an area of about 15000 km2 with an average site separation of 0.5 - 1 km. The study area covers the central part of the 2.4-2.0 Ga Central Lapland Greenstone belt (CLGB) which is one of the largest Proterozoic greenstone terrains in the world. The CLGB hosts numerous gold occurrences of varying type and size. The majority of the gold occurrences fall into the orogenic gold category but also Iron Oxide-Copper-Gold (IOCG) and paleoplacer types are known within the region (e.g. Eilu et al., 2007). Currently the largest known deposit in the area is the Suurikuusikko orogenic gold deposit with current resources exceeding 5 million ounces Au. The largest known gold resources in IOCG type deposit is in the Hannukainen deposit with ca. 200 000 ounces of gold. All the known orogenic gold and IOCG deposits in the CLGB show intimate spatial correlation to shear zones of varying scale. Processed gravity worms display striking spatial correlation with the known orogenic gold and IOCG deposits. In some cases the gold hosting shear zones are outlined by gravity worms either completely (Sirkka shear zone

  4. A Robust Cross-Linking Strategy for Block Copolymer Worms Prepared via Polymerization-Induced Self-Assembly

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A poly(glycerol monomethacrylate) (PGMA) chain transfer agent is chain-extended by reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) statistical copolymerization of 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate (HPMA) with glycidyl methacrylate (GlyMA) in concentrated aqueous solution via polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA). A series of five free-standing worm gels is prepared by fixing the overall degree of polymerization of the core-forming block at 144 while varying its GlyMA content from 0 to 20 mol %. 1H NMR kinetics indicated that GlyMA is consumed much faster than HPMA, producing a GlyMA-rich sequence close to the PGMA stabilizer block. Temperature-dependent oscillatory rheological studies indicate that increasing the GlyMA content leads to progressively less thermoresponsive worm gels, with no degelation on cooling being observed for worms containing 20 mol % GlyMA. The epoxy groups in the GlyMA residues can be ring-opened using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) in order to prepare core cross-linked worms via hydrolysis-condensation with the siloxane groups and/or hydroxyl groups on the HPMA residues. Perhaps surprisingly, 1H NMR analysis indicates that the epoxy–amine reaction and the intermolecular cross-linking occur on similar time scales. Cross-linking leads to stiffer worm gels that do not undergo degelation upon cooling. Dynamic light scattering studies and TEM analyses conducted on linear worms exposed to either methanol (a good solvent for both blocks) or anionic surfactant result in immediate worm dissociation. In contrast, cross-linked worms remain intact under such conditions, provided that the worm cores comprise at least 10 mol % GlyMA. PMID:27134311

  5. 12 CFR 508.10 - Burden of persuasion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Burden of persuasion. 508.10 Section 508.10 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REMOVALS, SUSPENSIONS, AND PROHIBITIONS WHERE A CRIME IS CHARGED OR PROVEN § 508.10 Burden of persuasion. The petitioner has the burden...

  6. 12 CFR 508.10 - Burden of persuasion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Burden of persuasion. 508.10 Section 508.10 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REMOVALS, SUSPENSIONS, AND PROHIBITIONS WHERE A CRIME IS CHARGED OR PROVEN § 508.10 Burden of persuasion. The petitioner has the burden...

  7. 43 CFR 4.1366 - Burdens of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... permit terms and conditions, and the permit applicant shall have the ultimate burden of persuasion as to... case and the ultimate burden of persuasion that the permit application fails in some manner to comply... permit should be revised and the permittee shall have the ultimate burden of persuasion. (c) In...

  8. 12 CFR 108.10 - Burden of persuasion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Burden of persuasion. 108.10 Section 108.10 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REMOVALS, SUSPENSIONS, AND PROHIBITIONS WHERE A CRIME IS CHARGED OR PROVEN § 108.10 Burden of persuasion. The petitioner has the burden...

  9. 43 CFR 4.1366 - Burdens of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... permit terms and conditions, and the permit applicant shall have the ultimate burden of persuasion as to... case and the ultimate burden of persuasion that the permit application fails in some manner to comply... permit should be revised and the permittee shall have the ultimate burden of persuasion. (c) In...

  10. 43 CFR 4.1366 - Burdens of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... permit terms and conditions, and the permit applicant shall have the ultimate burden of persuasion as to... case and the ultimate burden of persuasion that the permit application fails in some manner to comply... permit should be revised and the permittee shall have the ultimate burden of persuasion. (c) In...

  11. 12 CFR 390.19 - Burden of persuasion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Burden of persuasion. 390.19 Section 390.19 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY... Crime Is Charged or Proven § 390.19 Burden of persuasion. The petitioner has the burden of showing, by...

  12. 12 CFR 508.10 - Burden of persuasion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Burden of persuasion. 508.10 Section 508.10 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REMOVALS, SUSPENSIONS, AND PROHIBITIONS WHERE A CRIME IS CHARGED OR PROVEN § 508.10 Burden of persuasion. The petitioner has the burden...

  13. 12 CFR 508.10 - Burden of persuasion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Burden of persuasion. 508.10 Section 508.10 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REMOVALS, SUSPENSIONS, AND PROHIBITIONS WHERE A CRIME IS CHARGED OR PROVEN § 508.10 Burden of persuasion. The petitioner has the burden...

  14. 12 CFR 390.19 - Burden of persuasion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Burden of persuasion. 390.19 Section 390.19 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY... Crime Is Charged or Proven § 390.19 Burden of persuasion. The petitioner has the burden of showing, by...

  15. 12 CFR 108.10 - Burden of persuasion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Burden of persuasion. 108.10 Section 108.10 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REMOVALS, SUSPENSIONS, AND PROHIBITIONS WHERE A CRIME IS CHARGED OR PROVEN § 108.10 Burden of persuasion. The petitioner has the burden...

  16. 43 CFR 4.1366 - Burdens of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... permit terms and conditions, and the permit applicant shall have the ultimate burden of persuasion as to... case and the ultimate burden of persuasion that the permit application fails in some manner to comply... permit should be revised and the permittee shall have the ultimate burden of persuasion. (c) In...

  17. 12 CFR 390.19 - Burden of persuasion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Burden of persuasion. 390.19 Section 390.19 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY... Crime Is Charged or Proven § 390.19 Burden of persuasion. The petitioner has the burden of showing, by...

  18. 12 CFR 108.10 - Burden of persuasion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Burden of persuasion. 108.10 Section 108.10 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REMOVALS, SUSPENSIONS, AND PROHIBITIONS WHERE A CRIME IS CHARGED OR PROVEN § 108.10 Burden of persuasion. The petitioner has the burden...

  19. 43 CFR 4.1366 - Burdens of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... permit terms and conditions, and the permit applicant shall have the ultimate burden of persuasion as to... case and the ultimate burden of persuasion that the permit application fails in some manner to comply... permit should be revised and the permittee shall have the ultimate burden of persuasion. (c) In...

  20. 12 CFR 508.10 - Burden of persuasion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Burden of persuasion. 508.10 Section 508.10 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REMOVALS, SUSPENSIONS, AND PROHIBITIONS WHERE A CRIME IS CHARGED OR PROVEN § 508.10 Burden of persuasion. The petitioner has the burden...