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Sample records for adult worm recovery

  1. High prevalence of haplorchiasis in Nan and Lampang provinces, Thailand, proven by adult worm recovery from suspected opisthorchiasis cases.

    PubMed

    Wijit, Adulsak; Morakote, Nimit; Klinchid, Jaewwaew

    2013-12-01

    Opisthorchiasis, a risk factor for cholangiocarcinoma in humans, is of public health importance in Thailand. The Annual Surveillance Reports from Nan and Lampang Provinces, Thailand, for the year 2011 showed an opisthorchiasis prevalence of over 70% by recovery of eggs in the feces. This study investigated whether most cases are actually due to minute intestinal flukes (MIF) rather than Opisthorchis viverrini, as the eggs of both can hardly be differentiated by morphology. Fifty and 100 cases from residents in Nan and Lampang, respectively, had stools positive for eggs initially assumed to be those of O. viverrini. Each patient was given praziquantel at 40 mg/kg in a single dose. After 2 hr, 30-45 ml of the purgative magnesium sulfate was given, and stools were collected up to 4 times sequentially. The stools were examined for adult worms by simple sedimentation. It was found that 39 of 50 cases (78.0%) from Nan Province had Haplorchis taichui, with intensities ranging from 5 to 1,250 with an average of 62 worms/case. Taenia saginata (7 cases) and Enterobius vermicularis (1 case) were other helminths recovered as the co-infectants. In Lampang Province, H. taichui was recovered from 69 cases (69.0%). The number of flukes recovered ranged from 1 to 4,277, with an average of 326 worms/case. Four cases had Phaneropsolus bonnei, and 10 T. saginata as the co-infectants. Adult specimens of O. viverrini were not recovered from any stool. Clearly, MIF infection, especially haplorchiasis, is more common in northern Thailand. These findings should encourage the Public Health Office to employ more specific tools than Kato's method for surveillance of opisthorchiasis in Thailand.

  2. Worm recovery and precipitin antibody response in guinea pigs and rats infected with Clonorchis sinensis.

    PubMed

    Su, K E; Wang, F Y; Chi, P Y

    1998-12-01

    Guinea pigs (Hartley strain) and rats (Wistar strain) were each fed 200 and 100 Clonorchis sinensis metacercariae, respectively. Five animals from each species were sacrificed weekly between 1-8 weeks postinfection (WPI) and then at 12, 16, 20 and 30 WPI for collection of worms, bile and sera. The overall worm recovery rates for guinea pigs and rats were 18.7% and 12.4%, respectively. Only one of the five rats examined at 20 WPI still harbored one worm, while all were worm-free at 30 WPI. By a double diffusion test, no antibodies were detected against C. sinensis adult antigens in the bile juice. Serum antibodies were detected in at least 95% of the infected guinea pigs between 4-30 WPI and rats between 3-16 WPI. Precipitin antibodies seemed to be correlated with the presence of live worms in rats that had been infected for more than 12 weeks.

  3. Animal Models for Echinostoma malayanum Infection: Worm Recovery and Some Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Songsri, Jiraporn; Aukkanimart, Ratchadawan; Boonmars, Thidarut; Ratanasuwan, Panaratana; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Sriraj, Pranee; Sripan, Panupan

    2016-01-01

    Echinostomes are intestinal trematodes that infect a wide range of vertebrate hosts, including humans, in their adult stage and also parasitize numerous invertebrate and cold-blooded vertebrate hosts in their larval stages. The purpose of this study was to compare Echinostoma malayanum parasite growth, including worm recovery, body size of adult worms, eggs per worm, eggs per gram of feces, and pathological changes in the small intestine of experimental animals. In this study, 6-8-week-old male hamsters, rats, mice, and gerbils were infected with echinostome metacercariae and then sacrificed at day 60 post-infection. The small intestine and feces of each infected animal were collected and then processed for analysis. The results showed that worm recovery, eggs per worm, and eggs per gram of feces from all infected hamsters were higher compared with infected rats and mice. However, in infected gerbils, no parasites were observed in the small intestine, and there were no parasite eggs in the feces. The volume of eggs per gram of feces and eggs per worm were related to parasite size. The results of histopathological changes in the small intestine of infected groups showed abnormal villi and goblet cells, as evidenced by short villi and an increase in the number and size of goblet cells compared with the normal control group. PMID:26951978

  4. Ectopic Human Fasciola hepatica Infection by an Adult Worm in the Mesocolon

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ah Jin; Choi, Chang Hwan; Choi, Sun Keun; Shin, Yong Woon; Park, Yun-Kyu; Kim, Lucia; Choi, Suk Jin; Han, Jee Young; Kim, Joon Mee; Chu, Young Chae; Park, In Suh

    2015-01-01

    We report here an ectopic case of Fasciola hepatica infection confirmed by recovery of an adult worm in the mesocolon. A 56-year-old female was admitted to our hospital with discomfort and pain in the left lower quadrant of the abdomen. Abdominal CT showed 3 abscesses in the left upper quadrant, mesentery, and pelvic cavity. On surgical exploration, abscess pockets were found in the mesocolon of the sigmoid colon and transverse colon. A leaf-like worm found in the abscess pocket of the mesocolon of the left colon was diagnosed as an adult fluke of F. hepatica. Histologically, numerous eggs of F. hepatica were noted with acute and chronic granulomatous inflammations in the subserosa and pericolic adipose tissues. Conclusively, a rare case of ectopic fascioliasis has been confirmed in this study by the adult worm recovery of F. hepatica in the mesocolon. PMID:26797440

  5. Ectopic Human Fasciola hepatica Infection by an Adult Worm in the Mesocolon.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ah Jin; Choi, Chang Hwan; Choi, Sun Keun; Shin, Yong Woon; Park, Yun-Kyu; Kim, Lucia; Choi, Suk Jin; Han, Jee Young; Kim, Joon Mee; Chu, Young Chae; Park, In Suh

    2015-12-01

    We report here an ectopic case of Fasciola hepatica infection confirmed by recovery of an adult worm in the mesocolon. A 56-year-old female was admitted to our hospital with discomfort and pain in the left lower quadrant of the abdomen. Abdominal CT showed 3 abscesses in the left upper quadrant, mesentery, and pelvic cavity. On surgical exploration, abscess pockets were found in the mesocolon of the sigmoid colon and transverse colon. A leaf-like worm found in the abscess pocket of the mesocolon of the left colon was diagnosed as an adult fluke of F. hepatica. Histologically, numerous eggs of F. hepatica were noted with acute and chronic granulomatous inflammations in the subserosa and pericolic adipose tissues. Conclusively, a rare case of ectopic fascioliasis has been confirmed in this study by the adult worm recovery of F. hepatica in the mesocolon.

  6. Hymenolepis nana: worm recovery from congenitally athymic nude and phenotypically normal rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Ito, A; Kamiyama, T

    1984-10-01

    When eggs or mouse-derived cysticercoids of Hymenolepis nana were inoculated into previously uninfected congenitally athymic nude (rnu/rnu) rats of an outbred Rowett strain, they failed to mature in the intestinal lumen. They also failed to mature in phenotypically normal (rnu/+) littermates, except when these hosts were treated with cortisone acetate from the beginning of the lumen phase. The Rowett rat, either thymus-deficient or not, was susceptible to tissue cysticercoids but resistant to luminal adults. It is therefore considered to be an unnatural host, at least for mouse-derived H. nana. There was little or no difference in susceptibility to initial tissue cysticercoids between these nude rats and phenotypically normal ones. The normal rats became completely resistant to reinfection with eggs and no secondary cysticercoids developed in their intestinal tissue, whereas the nude rats showed unaltered susceptibility to secondary tissue cysticercoids. Thus, acquired resistance to egg challenge, assessed by the failure of tissue cysticercoid recovery, was thymus-dependent. However, innate resistance to both a primary egg dose, assessed by the low recovery rates of tissue cysticercoids, and to a primary cysticercoid dose, assessed by the failure of luminal adult recovery, were thymus-independent. The effect of cortisone acetate to initiate maturation of H. nana appeared to be unrelated to thymus function. In contrast, all mice, either thymus-deficient or not, were highly susceptible to both phases. The number of worms recovered was more than 10 times greater than that of cysticercoids established in the rat's intestinal tissue.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Echinostoma friedi: the effect of age of adult worms on the infectivity of miracidia.

    PubMed

    Toledo, R; Espert, A; Carpena, I; Trelis, M; Muñoz-Antoli, C; Esteban, J G

    2004-03-01

    The effect of ageing of adults of Echinostoma friedi (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) on the infectivity of miracidia yielded was analysed. Miracidia were obtained after hatching of eggs obtained from adult worms of E. friedi collected weekly during the course of experimental infections in golden hamsters. Miracidial infectivity, measured in terms of percentage of infection in Lymnaea peregra, was significantly influenced by the age of the adult worms from which the miracidia were derived. Infective miracidia only were obtained from adult worms in the age range from 4 to 9 weeks post-infection. Infectivity was maximal in those miracidia derived from adults collected 8 and 9 weeks post-infection. The results suggest that adult worms producing viable eggs require additional maturation to be able to yield eggs containing infective miracidia.

  8. Curcumin Generates Oxidative Stress and Induces Apoptosis in Adult Schistosoma mansoni Worms

    PubMed Central

    de Paula Aguiar, Daniela; Brunetto Moreira Moscardini, Mayara; Rezende Morais, Enyara; Graciano de Paula, Renato; Ferreira, Pedro Manuel; Afonso, Ana; Belo, Silvana; Tomie Ouchida, Amanda; Curti, Carlos; Cunha, Wilson Roberto; Rodrigues, Vanderlei

    2016-01-01

    Inducing apoptosis is an interesting therapeutic approach to develop drugs that act against helminthic parasites. Researchers have investigated how curcumin (CUR), a biologically active compound extracted from rhizomes of Curcuma longa, affects Schistosoma mansoni and several cancer cell lines. This study evaluates how CUR influences the induction of apoptosis and oxidative stress in couples of adult S. mansoni worms. CUR decreased the viability of adult worms and killed them. The tegument of the parasite suffered morphological changes, the mitochondria underwent alterations, and chromatin condensed. Different apoptotic parameters were determined in an attempt to understand how CUR affected adult S. mansoni worms. CUR induced DNA damage and fragmentation and increased the expression of SmCASP3/7 transcripts and the activity of Caspase 3 in female and male worms. However, CUR did not intensify the activity of Caspase 8 in female or male worms. Evaluation of the superoxide anion and different antioxidant enzymes helped to explore the mechanism of parasite death further. The level of superoxide anion and the activity of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) increased, whereas the activity of Glutathione-S-Transferase (GST), Glutathione reductase (GR), and Glutathione peroxidase (GPX) decreased, which culminated in the oxidation of proteins in adult female and male worms incubated with CUR. In conclusion, CUR generated oxidative stress followed by apoptotic-like-events in both adult female and male S. mansoni worms, ultimately killing them. PMID:27875592

  9. Guinea worm cause of adult onset asthmatic attack, a radiological diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Marchie, T T

    1999-01-01

    A case report of a fifty years old Hausa male from Sokoto town, Nigeria an endemic region of guinea worm infestation, who presented with sudden adult onset of asthmatic attack and was evaluated radiologically and the diagnosis of acute obstructive airway disease was confirmed. It was noted, that there were associated calcified chain of guinea worms in the lung parenchyma. A rare association of acute asthmatic attack. Patient responded there-after to an anti-asthmatic regime of management.

  10. Filarial abscess: Aspiration of adult gravid female worm from submandibular region, an unusual presentation

    PubMed Central

    Afrose, Ruquiya; Alam, Mohammad Feroz; Ahmad, Syed Shamshad; Naim, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Microfilaria is a major public health problem in tropical and subtropical countries and is an endemic problem in India. Wuchereria bancrofti is the most common filarial infection. In some cases, microfilariae and adult filarial worm have been incidentally detected in fine-needle aspirates of various lesions; detection of microfilaria from subcutaneous site or from abscess site is even rarer. We here report an unusual case of Bancroftian microfilariasis in a 68-year-old female coming from endemic area presenting with right submandibular abscess. Our aim is to highlight the chances of finding microfilaria and adult worm in cytology of an unsuspected case at an unusual site. PMID:28182103

  11. Filarial abscess: Aspiration of adult gravid female worm from submandibular region, an unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Afrose, Ruquiya; Alam, Mohammad Feroz; Ahmad, Syed Shamshad; Naim, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Microfilaria is a major public health problem in tropical and subtropical countries and is an endemic problem in India. Wuchereria bancrofti is the most common filarial infection. In some cases, microfilariae and adult filarial worm have been incidentally detected in fine-needle aspirates of various lesions; detection of microfilaria from subcutaneous site or from abscess site is even rarer. We here report an unusual case of Bancroftian microfilariasis in a 68-year-old female coming from endemic area presenting with right submandibular abscess. Our aim is to highlight the chances of finding microfilaria and adult worm in cytology of an unsuspected case at an unusual site.

  12. Ultrastructural alterations in Schistosoma mansoni juvenile and adult male worms after in vitro incubation with primaquine

    PubMed Central

    Kamel, Reem Osama A; Bayaumy, Fatma El-Zahraa Anwar

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Praziquantel has been cited as the only drug for treating schistosomiasis. However, concerns over drug resistance have encouraged the search for novel drug leads. The antimalarial drug primaquine possesses interesting anti-schistosmal properties. OBJECTIVES This study is the first to document the potential role of primaquine as a schistosomicide and the ultrastructural changes induced by primaquine on juvenile or adult male worms of Schistosoma mansoni. METHODS Ultrastructural alterations in the tegumental surface of 21-day-old juvenile and adult male worms of S. mansoni were demonstrated following primaquine treatment at different concentrations (2, 5, 10, 15, and 20 µg/mL) and incubation periods (1, 3, 6, 24, and 48 h) in vitro, using both scanning and transmission electron microscopy. FINDINGS At low concentrations (2, 5, and 10 µg/mL) both juvenile and adult male worms were alive after 24 h of incubation, whereas contraction, paralysis, and death of all worms were observed after 24 h of drug exposure at 20 µg/mL. The tegument of juvenile and adult male worms treated with primaquine exhibited erosion, peeling, and sloughing. Furthermore, extensive damage of both tegumental and subtegumental layers included embedded spines, and shrinkage of muscles with vacuoles. The in vitro results confirmed that primaquine has dose-dependent effects with 20 µg/mL as the most effective concentration in a short incubation period. MAIN CONCLUSIONS The schistosomicidal activity of primaquine indicates that this drug possesses moderate in vitro activity against juvenile and adult male worms, since it caused high mortality and tegumental alterations. This study confirmed that the antimalarial drug primaquine possesses anti-schistosomal activity. Further investigation is needed to elucidate its mechanism of action. PMID:28327785

  13. Moxidectin causes adult worm mortality of human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi in rodent models.

    PubMed

    Verma, Meenakshi; Pathak, Manisha; Shahab, Mohd; Singh, Kavita; Mitra, Kalyan; Misra-Bhattacharya, Shailja

    2014-12-01

    Moxidectin is a macrocyclic lactone belonging to milbemycin family closely related to ivermectin and is currently progressing towards Phase III clinical trial against human infection with the filaria Onchocerca volvulus (Leuckart, 1894). There is a single report on the microfilaricidal and embryostatic activity of moxidectin in case of the human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi (Brug, 1927) in Mastomys coucha (Smith) but without any adulticidal action. In the present study, the in vitro and in vivo antifilarial efficacy of moxidectin was evaluated on, B. malayi. In vitro moxidectin showed 100% reduction in adult female worm motility at 0.6 μM concentration within 7 days with 68% inhibition in the reduction of MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide dye) (which is used to detect viability of worms). A 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of moxidectin for adult female parasite was 0.242 μM, for male worm 0.186 μM and for microfilaria IC50 was 0.813 μM. In adult B. malayi-transplanted primary screening model (Meriones unguiculatus Milne-Edwards), moxidectin at a single optimal dose of 20 mg/kg by oral and subcutaneous route was found effective on both adult parasites and microfilariae. In secondary screening (M coucha, subcutaneously inoculated with infective larvae), moxidectin at the same dose by subcutaneous route brought about death of 49% of adult worms besides causing sterilisation in 54% of the recovered live female worms. The treated animals exhibited a continuous and sustained reduction in peripheral blood microfilaraemia throughout the observation period of 90 days. The mechanism of action of moxidectin is suggested to be similar to avermectins. The in silico studies were also designed to explore the interaction of moxidectin with glutamate-gated chloride channels of B. malayi. The docking results revealed a close interaction of moxidectin with various GluCl ligand sites of B. malayi.

  14. Isoforms of Hsp70-binding human LDL in adult Schistosoma mansoni worms.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Adriana S A; Cavalcanti, Marília G S; Zingali, Russolina B; Lima-Filho, José L; Chaves, Maria E C

    2015-03-01

    Schistosoma mansoni is one of the most common parasites infecting humans. They are well adapted to the host, and this parasite's longevity is a consequence of effective escape from the host immune system. In the blood circulation, lipoproteins not only help to conceal the worm from attack by host antibodies but also act as a source of lipids for S. mansoni. Previous SEM studies showed that the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles present on the surface of adult S. mansoni worms decreased in size when the incubation time increased. In this study, immunocytochemical and proteomic analyses were used to locate and identify S. mansoni binding proteins to human plasma LDL. Ultrathin sections of adult worms were cut transversely from the anterior, medial and posterior regions of the parasite. Immunocytochemical experiments revealed particles of gold in the tegument, muscle region and spine in male worms and around vitelline cells in females. Immunoblotting and 2D-electrophoresis using incubations with human serum, anti-LDL antibodies and anti-chicken IgG peroxidase conjugate were performed to identify LDL-binding proteins in S. mansoni. Analysis of the binding proteins using LC-MS identified two isoforms of the Hsp70 chaperone in S. mansoni. Hsp70 is involved in the interaction with apoB in the cytoplasm and its transport to the endoplasmic reticulum. However, further studies are needed to clarify the functional role of Hsp70 in S. mansoni, mainly related to the interaction with human LDL.

  15. Mapping fucosylated epitopes on glycoproteins and glycolipids of Schistosoma mansoni cercariae, adult worms and eggs.

    PubMed

    Robijn, M L M; Wuhrer, M; Kornelis, D; Deelder, A M; Geyer, R; Hokke, C H

    2005-01-01

    The developmental expression of the antigenic fucosylated glycan motifs Fucalpha1-3GalNAcbeta1-4GlcNAc (F-LDN), Fucalpha1-3GalNAcbeta1-4(Fucalpha1-3)GlcNAc (F-LDN-F), GalNAcbeta1-4(Fucalpha1-3)GlcNAc (LDN-F), Galbeta1-4(Fucalpha1-3)GlcNAc (Lewis X), and GalNAcbeta1-4(Fucalpha1-2Fucalpha1-3)GlcNAc (LDN-DF) in Schistosoma mansoni cercariae, adult worms and eggs, was surveyed using previously defined anti-carbohydrate monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Lewis X was found both on glycolipids and glycoproteins, yet with completely different expression patterns during the life-cycle: on glycolipids, Lewis X was mainly found in the cercarial stage, while protein-conjugated Lewis X was mainly present in the egg stage. Also protein-conjugated LDN-F and LDN-DF were most highly expressed in the egg-stage. On glycolipids LDN-DF was found in all three examined stages, whereas LDN-F containing glycolipids were restricted to adult worms and eggs. The motifs F-LDN and F-LDN-F were found both on glycoproteins and glycolipids of the cercarial and egg stage, while in the adult stage, they appeared to occur predominantly on glycolipids. Immunofluorescence assays (IFA) showed that these F-LDN and F-LDN-F containing glycolipids were localized in a yet undefined duct or excretory system of adult worms. Murine infection serum showed major reactivity with this adult worm duct-system, which could be fully inhibited by pre-incubation with keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH). Clearly, the use of defined mAbs provides a quick and convenient way to map expression profiles of carbohydrate epitopes.

  16. [Biological identification on sub-cultivation cells of Schistosoma japonicum adult worms in vitro].

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Zeng, Tie-bing; Zeng, Qing-ren; Cai, Chun; Zhang, Zu-ping; Gong, Yan-fei; Cai, Li-ting; Zhang, Shun-ke; Xu, Xi-ping

    2006-10-01

    Cultivation of cells from 30-day old Schistosoma japonicum (S.j) adult worms showed that the growth features of the cells were semi-floating and accumulative. The survival rate of the primary cells, passage cells prior to the 5th generation and recovered cells was all up to 90%. Phases of cell division were observed during cultivation. Chromosome karyotype of the 5th generation cells possessed diploid feature of the blood-flukes (2n=8 in number). Ultrastructure of the 5th generation cells showed that four types of cells in normal morphology and three types of cells in abnormal morphology were both viewed. It is suggested that some of the cells from S.j adult worms were subcultured successfuly in the 1640-40 defined medium.

  17. Schistosomicidal Activity of Alkyl-phenols from the Cashew Anacardium occidentale against Schistosoma mansoni Adult Worms.

    PubMed

    Alvarenga, Tavane A; de Oliveira, Pollyanna F; de Souza, Julia M; Tavares, Denise C; Andrade E Silva, Márcio L; Cunha, Wilson R; Groppo, Milton; Januário, Ana H; Magalhães, Lizandra G; Pauletti, Patrícia M

    2016-11-23

    Bioassay-guided study of the ethanol extract from the cashew Anacardium occidentale furnished cardol triene (1), cardol diene (2), anacardic acid triene (3), cardol monoene (4), anacardic acid diene (5), 2-methylcardol triene (6), and 2-methylcardol diene (7). 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments and HRMS analysis confirmed the structures of compounds 1-7. Compounds 2 and 7 were active against Schistosoma mansoni adult worms in vitro, with LC50 values of 32.2 and 14.5 μM and selectivity indices of 6.1 and 21.2, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy of the tegument of male worms in the presence of compound 7 at 25 μM after 24 h of incubation showed severe damage as well as peeling and reduction in the number of spine tubercles. Transmission electron microscopy analyses revealed swollen mitochondrial membrane, vacuoles, and altered tegument in worms incubated with compound 2 (25 μM after 24 h). Worms incubated with compound 7 (25 μM after 24 h) had lysed interstitial tissue, degenerated mitochondria, and drastically altered tegument. Together, the results indicated that compound 7 presents promising in vitro schistosomicidal activity.

  18. Synergy of Omeprazole and Praziquantel In Vitro Treatment against Schistosoma mansoni Adult Worms

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Leticia; Venancio, Thiago M.; Nakaya, Helder I.; Miyasato, Patrícia A.; Rofatto, Henrique K.; Zerlotini, Adhemar; Nakano, Eliana; Oliveira, Guilherme; Verjovski-Almeida, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Background Treatment and morbidity control of schistosomiasis relies on a single drug, praziquantel (PZQ), and the selection of resistant worms under repeated treatment is a concern. Therefore, there is a pressing need to understand the molecular effects of PZQ on schistosomes and to investigate alternative or synergistic drugs against schistosomiasis. Methodology We used a custom-designed Schistosoma mansoni expression microarray to explore the effects of sublethal doses of PZQ on large-scale gene expression of adult paired males and females and unpaired mature females. We also assessed the efficacy of PZQ, omeprazole (OMP) or their combination against S. mansoni adult worms with a survival in vitro assay. Principal Findings We identified sets of genes that were affected by PZQ in paired and unpaired mature females, however with opposite gene expression patterns (up-regulated in paired and down-regulated in unpaired mature females), indicating that PZQ effects are heavily influenced by the mating status. We also identified genes that were similarly affected by PZQ in males and females. Functional analyses of gene interaction networks were performed with parasite genes that were differentially expressed upon PZQ treatment, searching for proteins encoded by these genes whose human homologs are targets of different drugs used for other diseases. Based on these results, OMP, a widely prescribed proton pump inhibitor known to target the ATP1A2 gene product, was chosen and tested. Sublethal doses of PZQ combined with OMP significantly increased worm mortality in vitro when compared with PZQ or OMP alone, thus evidencing a synergistic effect. Conclusions Functional analysis of gene interaction networks is an important approach that can point to possible novel synergistic drug candidates. We demonstrated the potential of this strategy by showing that PZQ in combination with OMP displayed increased efficiency against S. mansoni adult worms in vitro when compared with

  19. Effects of doxycycline on heartworm embryogenesis, transmission, circulating microfilaria, and adult worms in microfilaremic dogs.

    PubMed

    McCall, J W; Kramer, L; Genchi, C; Guerrero, J; Dzimianski, M T; Mansour, A; McCall, S D; Carson, B

    2014-11-15

    Tetracycline treatment of animals or humans infected with filariae that harbor Wolbachia endosymbionts blocks further embryogenesis, and existing microfilariae gradually die. This treatment also kills developing larvae and has a slow-kill effect on adult filariae, all presumably due to elimination of the Wolbachia. Also, Dirofilaria immitis microfilariae in blood collected from dogs up to 25 days after the last dose of doxycycline developed to infective L3 that were normal in appearance and motility in mosquitoes but did not continue to develop or migrate normally after subcutaneous (SC) injection into dogs. The present study was designed to determine whether heartworm microfilariae collected at later times after treatment would regain the ability to continue normal development in a dog. The study also was expected to yield valuable data on the effects of treatment on microfilariae and antigen levels and adult worms. The study was conducted in 16 dogs as two separate replicates at different times. A total of five dogs (two in Replicate A and three in Replicate B) infected either by SC injection of L3 or intravenous transplantation of adult heartworms were given doxycycline orally at 10mg/kg twice daily for 30 days, with three untreated controls. Microfilarial counts in the five treated dogs gradually declined during the 12-13 months after treatment initiation. Two dogs were amicrofilaremic before necropsy and three had 13 or fewer microfilariae/ml. Only one treated dog was negative for heartworm antigen before necropsy. Overall, treated dogs generally had fewer live adult heartworms than controls, and most of their live worms were moribund. All three control dogs remained positive for microfilariae and antigen and had many live worms. L3 from mosquitoes fed on blood collected 73-77 or 161-164 days after initiation of doxycycline treatments were injected SC into five dogs. None of the dogs injected with L3 from mosquitoes fed on blood from doxycycline-treated dogs

  20. On the recovery of horsehair worms, Gordius sp. (Nematomorpha: Gordiida) from pork in Shillong, India.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Arun K; Schmidt-Rhaesa, Andreas; Laha, R; Sen, A

    2017-03-01

    The members of the phylum Nematomorpha, called as horsehair or gordian worms, are the parasites of arthropods and emerge from their host for reproduction and early development in water. There are about 360 species of nematomorphs described till date. Although, horsehair worms are parasites of arthropod species, sporadic cases of their occurrence have also been reported from several other hosts, including man. This paper describes a case history of the occurrence of two nematomorph worms in the meat of a pig in Shillong, India. The worms were reported to have emerged in live condition from pork bought by a consumer from local market in Shillong. One of the recovered specimens was studied by scanning electron microscopy for species determination and identified as Gordius sp., mainly on the basis of flat polygonal areoles and fine bristles on the cuticle.

  1. Effects of Doxycycline on gene expression in Wolbachia and Brugia malayi adult female worms in vivo

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Most filarial nematodes contain Wolbachia symbionts. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of doxycycline on gene expression in Wolbachia and adult female Brugia malayi. Methods Brugia malayi infected gerbils were treated with doxycycline for 6-weeks. This treatment largely cleared Wolbachia and arrested worm reproduction. RNA recovered from treated and control female worms was labeled by random priming and hybridized to the Version 2- filarial microarray to obtain expression profiles. Results and discussion Results showed significant changes in expression for 200 Wolbachia (29% of Wolbachia genes with expression signals in untreated worms) and 546 B. malayi array elements after treatment. These elements correspond to known genes and also to novel genes with unknown biological functions. Most differentially expressed Wolbachia genes were down-regulated after treatment (98.5%). In contrast, doxycycline had a mixed effect on B. malayi gene expression with many more genes being significantly up-regulated after treatment (85% of differentially expressed genes). Genes and processes involved in reproduction (gender-regulated genes, collagen, amino acid metabolism, ribosomal processes, and cytoskeleton) were down-regulated after doxycycline while up-regulated genes and pathways suggest adaptations for survival in response to stress (energy metabolism, electron transport, anti-oxidants, nutrient transport, bacterial signaling pathways, and immune evasion). Conclusions Doxycycline reduced Wolbachia and significantly decreased bacterial gene expression. Wolbachia ribosomes are believed to be the primary biological target for doxycycline in filarial worms. B. malayi genes essential for reproduction, growth and development were also down-regulated; these changes are consistent with doxycycline effects on embryo development and reproduction. On the other hand, many B. malayi genes involved in energy production, electron-transport, metabolism, anti

  2. Defining recovery in adult bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jessica; Agras, W Stewart; Bryson, Susan

    2013-01-01

    To examine how different definitions of recovery lead to varying rates of recovery, maintenance of recovery, and relapse in bulimia nervosa (BN), end-of-treatment (EOT) and follow-up data were obtained from 96 adults with BN. Combining behavioral, physical, and psychological criteria led to recovery rates between 15.5% and 34.4% at EOT, though relapse was approximately 50%. Combining these criteria and requiring abstinence from binge eating and purging when defining recovery may lead to lower recovery rates than those found in previous studies; however, a strength of this definition is that individuals who meet this criteria have no remaining disordered behaviors or symptoms.

  3. Expression of five acetylcholine receptor subunit genes in Brugia malayi adult worms

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ben-Wen; Rush, Amy C.; Weil, Gary J.

    2015-01-01

    Acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) are required for body movement in parasitic nematodes and are targets of “classical” anthelmintic drugs such as levamisole and pyrantel and of newer drugs such as tribendimidine and derquantel. While neurotransmission explains the effects of these drugs on nematode movement, their effects on parasite reproduction are unexplained. The levamisole AChR type (L-AChRs) in Caenorhabditis elegans is comprised of five subunits: Cel-UNC-29, Cel-UNC-38, Cel-UNC-63, Cel-LEV-1 and Cel-LEV-8. The genome of the filarial parasite Brugia malayi contains nine AChRs subunits including orthologues of Cel-unc-29, Cel-unc-38, and Cel-unc-63. We performed in situ hybridization with RNA probes to localize the expression of five AChR genes (Bm1_35890-Bma-unc-29, Bm1_20330-Bma-unc-38, Bm1_38195-Bma-unc-63, Bm1_48815-Bma-acr-26 and Bm1_40515-Bma-acr-12) in B. malayi adult worms. Four of these genes had similar expression patterns with signals in body muscle, developing embryos, spermatogonia, uterine wall adjacent to stretched microfilariae, wall of Vas deferens, and lateral cord. Three L-AChR subunit genes (Bma-unc-29, Bma-unc-38 and Bma-unc-63) were expressed in body muscle, which is a known target of levamisole. Bma-acr-12 was co-expressed with these levamisole subunit genes in muscle, and this suggests that its protein product may form receptors with other alpha subunits. Bma-acr-26 was expressed in male muscle but not in female muscle. Strong expression signals of these genes in early embryos and gametes in uterus and testis suggest that AChRs may have a role in nervous system development of embryogenesis and spermatogenesis. This would be consistent with embryotoxic effects of drugs that target these receptors in filarial worms. Our data show that the expression of these receptor genes is tightly regulated with regard to localization in adult worms and developmental stage in embryos and gametes. These results may help to explain the broad effects

  4. De novo assembly and characterization of the Trichuris trichiura adult worm transcriptome using Ion Torrent sequencing.

    PubMed

    Santos, Leonardo N; Silva, Eduardo S; Santos, André S; De Sá, Pablo H; Ramos, Rommel T; Silva, Artur; Cooper, Philip J; Barreto, Maurício L; Loureiro, Sebastião; Pinheiro, Carina S; Alcantara-Neves, Neuza M; Pacheco, Luis G C

    2016-07-01

    Infection with helminthic parasites, including the soil-transmitted helminth Trichuris trichiura (human whipworm), has been shown to modulate host immune responses and, consequently, to have an impact on the development and manifestation of chronic human inflammatory diseases. De novo derivation of helminth proteomes from sequencing of transcriptomes will provide valuable data to aid identification of parasite proteins that could be evaluated as potential immunotherapeutic molecules in near future. Herein, we characterized the transcriptome of the adult stage of the human whipworm T. trichiura, using next-generation sequencing technology and a de novo assembly strategy. Nearly 17.6 million high-quality clean reads were assembled into 6414 contiguous sequences, with an N50 of 1606bp. In total, 5673 protein-encoding sequences were confidentially identified in the T. trichiura adult worm transcriptome; of these, 1013 sequences represent potential newly discovered proteins for the species, most of which presenting orthologs already annotated in the related species T. suis. A number of transcripts representing probable novel non-coding transcripts for the species T. trichiura were also identified. Among the most abundant transcripts, we found sequences that code for proteins involved in lipid transport, such as vitellogenins, and several chitin-binding proteins. Through a cross-species expression analysis of gene orthologs shared by T. trichiura and the closely related parasites T. suis and T. muris it was possible to find twenty-six protein-encoding genes that are consistently highly expressed in the adult stages of the three helminth species. Additionally, twenty transcripts could be identified that code for proteins previously detected by mass spectrometry analysis of protein fractions of the whipworm somatic extract that present immunomodulatory activities. Five of these transcripts were amongst the most highly expressed protein-encoding sequences in the T

  5. Human TNF-α induces differential protein phosphorylation in Schistosoma mansoni adult male worms.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Katia C; Carvalho, Mariana L P; Bonatto, José Matheus C; Schechtman, Debora; Verjovski-Almeida, Sergio

    2016-02-01

    Schistosoma mansoni and its vertebrate host have a complex and intimate connection in which several molecular stimuli are exchanged and affect both organisms. Human tumor necrosis factor alpha (hTNF-α), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, is known to induce large-scale gene expression changes in the parasite and to affect several parasite biological processes such as metabolism, egg laying, and worm development. Until now, the molecular mechanisms for TNF-α activity in worms are not completely understood. Here, we aimed at exploring the effect of hTNF-α on S. mansoni protein phosphorylation by 2D gel electrophoresis followed by a quantitative analysis of phosphoprotein staining and protein identification by mass spectrometry. We analyzed three biological replicates of adult male worms exposed to hTNF-α and successfully identified 32 protein spots with a statistically significant increase in phosphorylation upon in vitro exposure to hTNF-α. Among the differentially phosphorylated proteins, we found proteins involved in metabolism, such as glycolysis, galactose metabolism, urea cycle, and aldehyde metabolism, as well as proteins related to muscle contraction and to cytoskeleton remodeling. The most differentially phosphorylated protein (30-fold increase in phosphorylation) was 14-3-3, whose function is known to be modulated by phosphorylation, belonging to a signal transduction protein family that regulates a variety of processes in all eukaryotic cells. Further, 75% of the identified proteins are known in mammals to be related to TNF-α signaling, thus suggesting that TNF-α response may be conserved in the parasite. We propose that this work opens new perspectives to be explored in the study of the molecular crosstalk between host and pathogen.

  6. Influence of immunoprotection on genetic variability of cysteine proteinases from Haemonchus contortus adult worms.

    PubMed

    Martín, S; Molina, J M; Hernández, Y I; Ferrer, O; Muñoz, Ma C; López, A; Ortega, L; Ruiz, A

    2015-11-01

    The limitations associated with the use of anthelmintic drugs in the control of gastrotintestinal nematodosis, such as the emergence of anthelmintic resistance, have stimulated the study of the immunological control of many parasites. In the case of Haemonchus contortus, several vaccination trials using native and recombinant antigens have been conducted. A group of antigens with demonstrated immunoprotective value are cathepsin B - like proteolytic enzymes of the cysteine proteinase type. These enzymes, which have been observed in both excretory-secretory products and somatic extracts of H. contortus, may vary among different geographic isolates and on strains isolated from different hosts, or even from the same host, as has been demonstrated in some comparative studies of genetic variability. In the present study, we evaluated the genetic variability of the worms that fully developed their endogenous cycle in immunised sheep and goat in order to identify the alleles of most immunoprotective value. To address these objectives, groups of sheep and goats were immunised with PBS soluble fractions enriched for cysteine proteinases from adult worms of H. contortus from either a strain of H. contortus isolated from goats of Gran Canaria Island (SP) or a strain isolated from sheep of North America (NA). The results confirmed the immunoprophylactic value of this type of enzyme against haemonchosis in both sheep and goats in association with increased levels of specific IgG. The genetic analysis demonstrated that the immunisation had a genetic selection on proteinase-encoding genes. In all the immunised animals, allelic frequencies were statistically different from those observed in non-immunised control animals in the four analysed genes. The reduction in the allelic frequencies suggests that parasites expressing these proteases are selectively targeted by the vaccine, and hence they should be considered in any subunit vaccine approach to control haemonchosis in small

  7. Proteomic analysis of Trichinella spiralis adult worm excretory-secretory proteins recognized by early infection sera.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruo Dan; Qi, Xin; Sun, Ge Ge; Jiang, Peng; Zhang, Xi; Wang, Li Ang; Liu, Xiao Lin; Wang, Zhong Quan; Cui, Jing

    2016-11-15

    At the intestinal stage of a Trichinella spiralis (T. spiralis) infection, the excretory-secretory (ES) antigens produced by adult worms (AWs) result in an early exposure to the host's immune system and elicit the production of specific antibodies; the AW ES proteins might provide early diagnostic markers of trichinellosis. The aim of this study was to identify early serodiagnostic markers from T. spiralis AW ES antigens. T. spiralis AWs were collected at 72h post infection, and their ES antigens were analysed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot. Then, the immunoreactive bands were subjected to shotgun LC-MS/MS and bioinformatics analyses. Our results showed that only one protein band (33kDa) was recognized by the sera of mice infected with T. spiralis at 8 days after infection. The shotgun LC-MS/MS analysis identified 23 proteins that were then clustered into 10 types; these proteins had molecular weights of 28.13-71.62kDa and pI 5.05-9.20. Certain enzymes (e.g., serine protease, adult-specific deoxyribonuclease [DNase] II, peptidase S1A subfamily, and multi cystatin-like domain protein) were found to be highly represented. The functions of the 10 proteins were further analysed: of the 6 annotated proteins, 3 had serine hydrolase activity and 2 had DNase II activity. These results provide a valuable basis for identifying early diagnostic antigens and vaccine candidates for trichinellosis.

  8. Occurrence of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Railliet, 1898) in Danish cats: A modified lung digestion method for isolating adult worms.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Caroline Salling; Willesen, Jakob L; Pipper, Christian B; Mejer, Helena

    2015-05-30

    As Aelurostrongylus abstrusus has not previously received any attention in Denmark, the study investigated the occurrence of A. abstrusus amongst outdoor cats from three regions (Zealand, Møn and Falster). Faeces and lungs were collected from a total of 147 feral (n=125) and domesticated cats (n=22) that were euthanized for reasons outside of this project. Using a modified Baermann technique 13.6% of the cats was found to be positive. A new lung digestion technique was developed to isolate eggs, L1 and adult worms from the lungs and this revealed a prevalence of 15.6% although with regional differences. There was no difference between feral and domesticated cats just as sex and age did not appear to influence prevalence and worm burden. Lungs from 87% of the positive cats had the gross appearance compatible with A. abstrusus and the severity of lung damage was proportional to LPG and number of adult worms. Within the current range of worm burdens (0-22) with a mean intensity of 7 per cat, there was a correlation with faecal excretion levels of L1 that ranged from 0-39,000 with a mean of 3586 per cat. The results did not indicate that the infection levels of the naturally infected cats were substantially affected by acquired immunity, but further studies are needed to determine the importance of host immune responses in regulating parasite populations.

  9. CpG oligodeoxynucleotides with crude parasite antigens reduce worm recovery in Opisthorchis viverrini infected hamsters.

    PubMed

    Kaewraemruaen, Chamraj; Sermswan, Rasana W; Wongratanacheewin, Surasakdi

    2016-12-01

    Opisthorchis viverrini, a human liver fluke, is still an endemic parasitic infection in Thailand and nearly all countries in Southeast Asia. O. viverrini induces a chronic stage of infection in hamsters. During the first 2 weeks of infection, Th1 inducing cytokine, IL-12, increased but was down regulated in chronic infection. In this study it was found that unmethylated-CpG ODN (oligodeoxynucleotides) 1826 increased hamster mononuclear cell proliferation and stimulated IFN-γ production in vitro. The IFN-γ levels in hamster sera were significantly increased in hamsters injected with CpG ODN 1826 alone or plus crude somatic antigens (CSAg). Further investigation using the flow cytometer found that CD4(+)T cells and IFN-γ(+) CD4(+)T cells (Th1-like cells) in the hamster blood were significantly increased. The role of these cells in the protective responses in hamsters was evaluated by challenging with 25 metacercaria and observation for 3 months. The number of worms recovered was significantly reduced in the hamsters injected with CpG ODN 1826 with CSAg, but not in CpG ODN 1826 alone groups when compared to PBS control. The percent of reduction in hamsters against this parasite were 32.95% and 21.49% in the CpG ODN 1826 with CSAg and CpG ODN 1826 alone. This study indicates that CpG ODN 1826 plus parasite antigens elicit a Th1-like response that leads to the enhancement of worm reduction.

  10. iTRAQ-based comparative proteomic analysis of excretory-secretory proteins of schistosomula and adult worms of Schistosoma japonicum.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiaodan; Fu, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Min; Han, Yanhui; Han, Hongxiao; Han, Qian; Lu, Ke; Hong, Yang; Lin, Jiaojiao

    2016-04-14

    Schistosomiasis remains a serious public health problem with 200 million people infected and 779 million people at risk worldwide. The schistosomulum and adult worm are two stages of the complex lifecycle of Schistosoma japonicum and excretory/secretory proteins (ESPs) play a major role in host-parasite interactions. In this study, iTRAQ-coupled LC-MS/MS was used to investigate the proteome of ESPs obtained from schistosomula and adult worms of S. japonicum, and 298 differential ESPs were identified. Bioinformatics analysis of differential ESPs in the two developmental stages showed that 161 ESPs upregulated in schistosomula were associated with stress responses, carbohydrate metabolism and protein degradation, whereas ESPs upregulated in adult worms were mainly related to immunoregulation and purine metabolism. Recombinant heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and thioredoxin peroxidase (TPx), two differential proteins identified in this study, were expressed. Further studies showed that rSjHSP70 and rSjTPx stimulated macrophages expressing high levels of the anti-inflammatory factors TGF-β, IL-10 and Arg-1, and suppressed the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and iNOS in LPS-induced macrophages. This study provides new insights into the survival and development of schistosomes in the final host and helps identify vaccine candidates or new diagnostic reagents for schistosomiasis.

  11. Exosome-like vesicles derived by Schistosoma japonicum adult worms mediates M1 type immune- activity of macrophage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lifu; Li, Zhitao; Shen, Jia; Liu, Zhen; Liang, Jinyi; Wu, Xiaoying; Sun, Xi; Wu, Zhongdao

    2015-05-01

    Exosomes are 30-100-nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin that are released into the extracellular space upon fusion of the multi-vesicular bodies (MVB) with the plasma membrane, while initial studies described that the role of exosomes was a reticulocyte cargo-disposal mechanism allowing remodeling of the plasma membrane during the maturation of reticulocytes to erythrocytes. Recent studies indicate that exosomes are secreted by most cells and pathogens and play an important role in intercellular signaling and exert regulatory function by carrying bioactive molecules. As numerous pathogens, adult worm of Schistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum) reside in mesenteric veins of definitive host including man and mammal animals. It was reported that the worms or the eggs also have specialized secretion systems to export effector proteins or other molecules into host target cells. However, the mechanisms involved remained unclear. This study investigated the isolation of the exosome-like vesicles secreted by S. japonicum adult worms and its immune activity on microphage in vitro. In this report, we identified exosome-based secretion as a new mechanism for protein secretion by S. japonicum. Electron microscopy tomography revealed the previously unidentified ultrastructural detail of exosome-like vesicles with high resolution; they were found to be typical spherical shape and to have a diverse population that varies in size of 30-100 nm. Exosome-like vesicles isolated from S. japonicum contained a significantly different protein compared with debris pelleted and the apoptosis body. We also demonstrate that macrophages were preferentially differentiated into the M1 subtype while being treated with S. japonicum exosome-like vesicles. This study reveals there are exosome-like vesicles derived by S. japonicum adult worms, and the exosome-like vesicles can mediate M1-type immune- activity of macrophage.

  12. Og4C3 circulating antigen: a marker of infection and adult worm burden in Wuchereria bancrofti filariasis.

    PubMed

    Chanteau, S; Moulia-Pelat, J P; Glaziou, P; Nguyen, N L; Luquiaud, P; Plichart, C; Martin, P M; Cartel, J L

    1994-07-01

    Og4C3 circulating filarial antigen was detected in the sera of 94.5% (259/274) of microfilaremic patients, 32% (239/751) of persons with presumption of filariasis, and 23% (11/48) of chronic filariasis patients. The antigen level was correlated with the microfilariae (Mf) density and patient age (P < .01). It remained stable in patients treated with microfilaricidal drugs. Og4C3 antigen, undetectable in Mf culture media, was demonstrated to be a rare somatic Mf antigen. It appears to be an excreted or secreted antigen from adult filaria. It could be used as a marker of infection and an indicator of adult worm burden.

  13. Protective immunity to Schistosoma haematobium infection is primarily an anti-fecundity response stimulated by the death of adult worms

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Kate M.; Mutapi, Francisca; Savill, Nicholas J.; Woolhouse, Mark E.J.

    2012-01-01

    Protective immunity against human schistosome infection develops slowly, for reasons that are not yet fully understood. For many decades, researchers have attempted to infer properties of the immune response from epidemiological studies, with mathematical models frequently being used to bridge the gap between immunological theory and population-level data on schistosome infection and immune responses. Here, building upon earlier model findings, stochastic individual-based models were used to identify model structures consistent with observed field patterns of Schistosoma haematobium infection and antibody responses, including their distributions in cross-sectional surveys, and the observed treatment-induced antibody switch. We found that the observed patterns of infection and antibody were most consistent with models in which a long-lived protective antibody response is stimulated by the death of adult S. haematobium worms and reduces worm fecundity. These findings are discussed with regard to current understanding of human immune responses to schistosome infection. PMID:22847410

  14. Immunization of proteins from Toxascaris leonina adult worm inhibits allergic specific Th2 response.

    PubMed

    Lee, Keun Hee; Park, Hye Kyung; Jeong, Hae Jin; Park, Sang Kyun; Lee, Sun Joo; Choi, Sun Hee; Cho, Min Kyoung; Ock, Mee Sun; Hong, Yeon-Chul; Yu, Hak Sun

    2008-10-01

    Recently, the influence of parasitic infections on the incidence of allergic diseases has become the focus of increased attention. In order to ascertain whether parasite-derived proteins could inhibit the allergic specific Th2 response, we applied excretory-secretory protein (Tl-ES) or total protein (Tl-TP) of the adult worm Toxascaris leonina to asthma model mice prior to or simultaneously with OVA challenge, after which we assessed the OVA-specific Th2 responses. The group subjected to immunization with Tl-ES and Tl-TP (immunized group) evidenced a thinning of the bronchial epithelial and muscle layer, a disruption and shedding of epithelial cells, a reduction in the number of goblet cells, and a reduction in mucus production as compared to the group treated with Tl-ES coupled with OVA challenge (challenge with OVA groups) and the OVA-induced asthma group. The administration of Tl-ES and Tl-TP, regardless of injection time, was shown to inhibit the recruitment of inflammatory cells into the airway, and in particular, macrophages, neutrophils, and lymphocytes were significantly reduced as the result of the parasite proteins. However, the total number of eosinophils was slightly reduced as the result of the administration of parasite proteins. Sensitization and OVA challenge was shown to accelerate the secretion of Th2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-5) within the lung, but in the immunized groups, those levels were lower. The administration of Tl-TP and OVA challenge group also evidenced a significant reduction in IL-4 levels as compared to the OVA-challenged group. The concentrations of Th2 cytokines in the Tl-ES and OVA challenge group were more similar to those observed in the OVA-challenged group. The concentration of IL-10 and TGF-beta in the lung was decreased substantially in the OVA-only challenge group, but the Tl-TP immunized group exhibited significantly induced IL-10 cytokine. OVA-specific IgG2a, IgG1, and IgE levels in the immunized groups were significantly

  15. Programmed Worms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Donald T.

    1982-01-01

    A hungry worm is looking for something to eat according to very specific rules, and the path he takes is a graph. The problem is detailed in Applesoft BASIC using low resolution graphics for worms that turn 90 degrees and high resolution for worms that can turn 45 degrees. (MP)

  16. Blood parasites of two Costa Rican amphibians with comments on detection and microfilaria density associated with adult filarial worm intensity.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Valerie J; Starks, Hilary A

    2008-08-01

    The 2 objectives of this study were: (1) to compare parasite detectability in blood smears obtained from toe-clips versus the heart from amphibian hosts; and (2) to test whether microfilariae density is correlated with adult filarial worm intensity. We examined blood parasites of 2 species of amphibians, Rana vaillanti (n = 45) and Eleutherodactylus fitzingeri (n = 36), from Costa Rica collected during the summer of 2003. Separate blood smears were obtained from toe-clips and the heart during necrospy. Eight species of blood parasites were identified from R. vaillanti and 1 from E. fitzingeri. Each parasite species was counted in a 2 x 2.2-cm2 area on each blood smear, and the density of host red blood cells (RBCs) was estimated using a sub-sampling approach, allowing parasite infections to be expressed as individuals per RBC. The detection failure rate for toe-cut smears ranged from 71-100% (x = 92.3%) and from 0-9% (x = 2.4%) for heart smears, depending on parasite species. The density of RBCs was significantly higher in smears produced from heart samples and may explain the differences in detectability. Foleyellides striatus microfilariae densities (per RBC) were significantly correlated with adult female worm intensity (R2 = 0.32, P = 0.011).

  17. Taurine drinking attenuates the burden of intestinal adult worms and muscle larvae in mice with Trichinella spiralis infection.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yan-Rong; Liu, Xi-Cheng; Zhang, Jin-Sheng; Ji, Chao-Yue; Qi, Yong-Fen

    2013-10-01

    The parasitic nematode Trichinella spiralis can cause trichinellosis, which leads to pathological processes in the intestine and muscle. The intestinal invasion determines the development, subsequent course, and consequences of the disease. Gastrointestinal nematode infection, including with T. spiralis, is accompanied by a rapid and reversible expansion of mucosal mast cell and goblet cell in the intestinal epithelium, which play important roles in the host immune response to parasite and worm expulsion from the intestine. Taurine and its derivatives have anti-infection and anti-inflammatory properties. We investigated whether taurine supplementation in mice could influence the development and pathological processes of infection with T. spiralis. Supplementing 1% taurine in drinking water in mice infected with T. spiralis could alleviate the burden of intestinal adult worms on days 7 and 10 postinfection (all p < 0.01) and the formation of infective muscle larvae in striated muscle during T. spiralis infection (p < 0.01). As compared with T. spiralis infection alone, taurine treatment increased the number of goblet cells on days 7, 10, and 15 (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05) and alleviated intestinal mucosal mast cell hyperplasia on days 10 and 15 (all p < 0.01). So taurine supplementation in drinking water increased infection-induced intestinal goblet cell hyperplasia and ameliorated mucosal mastocytosis. Thus, taurine can ameliorate the pathological processes of trichinellosis and may be of great value for the treatment and prevention of infection with T. spiralis and other gastrointestinal nematodes.

  18. In vivo schistosomicidal activity of three novels 8-hydroxyquinoline derivatives against adult and immature worms of Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Allam, Gamal; Eweas, Ahmad F; Abuelsaad, Abdelaziz S A

    2013-09-01

    Schistosomiasis control is widely dependent on a single drug, praziquantel (PZQ). The potential for development of resistance to PZQ has justified the search for new alternative chemotherapies. In a previous study, we have been reported that three of 8-hydroxyquinoline derivatives namely: 3-((8-hydroxyquinolin-5-yl) sulfonyl) pentane-2,4-dione (HQSP), 5-((2,4-diphenyl-3H-benzo[b][1,4]diazepin-3-yl) sulfonyl) quinolin-8-ol (HQBD), and 5-((2,4-diphenyl-3H-pyrido[3,4-b][1,4] diazepin-3-yl) sulfonyl) quinolin-8-ol (HQPD) possess a potent anti-schistosomal activity in vitro. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vivo schistosomicidal effect of these three compounds on adult and immature worms of Schistosoma mansoni and their induced pathology. Treatment of S. mansoni-infected mice with 1000, 250, 150, and 200 mg/kg body weight of PZQ, HQSP, HQBD, and HQPD, respectively, reduced adult and immature worm burden by 94.63 and 31.32%, 73.63 and 5.45%, 76.5 and 28.11%, and 81.25 and 56.84%, respectively, compared to infected untreated mice. Moreover, numbers of egg per gram liver and intestine were decreased by 84 and 95.51%, 47.84 and 46.28 %, 53.18 and 59.37 %, and 54.22 and 67.26 as a result of PZQ, HQSP, HQBD, and HQPD treatment, respectively. Hepatic granuloma volume was also reduced by 40.10, 42.96, 35.72, and 72.09% due to PZQ, HQSP, HQBD, and HQPD treatment, respectively. In addition, hepatic histopathological alterations and collagen fiber deposition that accompanied with S. mansoni infection were largely retrieved with different treatments, especially HQPD treatment. Furthermore, humoral immune response, especially IgG response against S. mansoni antigens, was augmented with different treatments. This study concluded that among the three tested 8-hydroxyquinoline derivatives, HQPD is the most effective compound against adult and pre-mature worms of S. mansoni and can be used for the development of a new schistosomicidal drug.

  19. In vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity of (-)-6,6'-dinitrohinokinin against schistosomula and juvenile and adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Ana C; Silva, Márcio L A E; Souza, Julia Medeiros; Laurentiz, Rosangela S de; Rodrigues, Vanderlei; Januário, Ana H; Pauletti, Patrícia M; Tavares, Denise C; Filho, Ademar A Da Silva; Cunha, Wilson R; Bastos, Jairo K; Magalhães, Lizandra G

    2015-09-01

    The chemotherapy of schistosomiasis relies on the use of praziquantel. However, concerns over drug resistance have encouraged the search for new drug leads. This paper is the first report on the in vitro and in vivo activity of (-)-6,6'-dinitrohinokinin (DNK) against Schistosoma mansoni. In vitro, the lethal concentrations for 50% of parasites (LC50) of DNK against adult worms were 103.9±3.6 and 102.5±4.8μM at 24 and 72h, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy images showed extensive tegumental alterations such as peeling and smaller numbers of tubercles in the spine of adult worms. DNK also elicited high mortality of schistosomula, with LC50 values of 57.4±2.3, 32.5±0.9, and 20.4±1.2μM at 24, 48, and 72h, respectively. DNK displayed moderate activity against the juvenile liver parasite, with an LC50 value of 179.5±2.3 μM at 72h. This compound reduced the total number of eggs by over 83%, and it affected the development of eggs produced by adult worms. The selectivity index showed that at 24h, DNK was 8.5 and 15.4 times more toxic to the adult worms and schistosomula than to Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cells, respectively. Treatment of infected mice with DNK moderately decreased worm burden (33.8-52.3%), egg production (40.7-60.0%), and spleen and liver weights. Together, our results indicated that DNK presents moderate in vitro and in vivo activities against S. mansoni, and it might therefore be interesting to explore the structure-activity relationship of the antischistosomal activity of this compound.

  20. Schistosoma mansoni infection of Syrian golden hamsters: the host humoral immune response in relation to the adult worm burdens after primary infection.

    PubMed

    Yong, W K; Das, P K; Dachlan, Y P

    1983-01-01

    Seven-week-old female Syrian golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) showed different degrees of susceptibility to Schistosoma mansoni, as assessed by the percentage of cercariae recovered as adult worms 6 weeks after infection. Plasma of the low (A), medium (B) and high (C) susceptibility groups were tested immunochemically. No differences were observed in the concentrations of albumin, alpha 1-, alpha 2-, beta- and gamma-globulins as measured by cellulose acetate electrophoresis. However, a significantly higher percentage of animals in groups A and B than in group C had an S. mansoni specific "beforked" IgG precipitin band and specific antibodies against a worm tegumental antigen preparation (AWT). Conversely, more animals in group C made antibodies against a "denuded" worm-body antigen preparation (AWB) than in groups A and B. However, by using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, no significant differences in antibody titres against AWT, AWB and a total worm antigen (AVA) were observed in the animals in groups A, B and C. Upon consideration of the immunochemical data in relation to the distribution pattern of susceptibility to infection, we propose that the intensity of S. mansoni infection in the hamster is a polygene-controlled phenomenon and depends upon the presentation of differing parasite antigenic component(s) to the host.

  1. Dracunculiasis (guinea worm disease).

    PubMed

    Greenaway, Chris

    2004-02-17

    Dracunculiasis (guinea worm disease) is a parasitic disease that is limited to remote, rural villages in 13 sub-Saharan African countries that do not have access to safe drinking water. It is one the next diseases targeted for eradication by the World Health Organization. Guinea worm disease is transmitted by drinking water containing copepods (water fleas) that are infected with Dracunculiasis medinensis larvae. One year after human ingestion of infected water a female adult worm emerges, typically from a lower extremity, producing painful ulcers that can impair mobility for up to several weeks. This disease occurs annually when agricultural activities are at their peak. Large proportions of economically productive individuals of a village are usually affected simultaneously, resulting in decreased agricultural productivity and economic hardship. Eradication of guinea worm disease depends on prevention, as there is no effective treatment or vaccine. Since 1986, there has been a 98% reduction in guinea worm disease worldwide, achieved primarily through community-based programs. These programs have educated local populations on how to filter drinking water to remove the parasite and how to prevent those with ulcers from infecting drinking-water sources. Complete eradication will require sustained high-level political, financial and community support.

  2. In vitro evaluation of schistosomicidal activity of essential oil of Mentha x villosa and some of its chemical constituents in adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Matos-Rocha, Thiago José; dos Santos Cavalcanti, Marília Gabriela; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; Lúcio, Ana Silvia Suassuna Carneiro; Veras, Dyana Leal; Feitosa, Ana Paula Sampaio; de Siqueira Júnior, José Pinto; de Almeida, Reinaldo Nóbrega; Marques, Márcia Ortiz Mayo; Alves, Luiz Carlos; Brayner, Fábio André

    2013-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the composition of the essential oil of Mentha x villosa and to evaluate its biological effects in vitro on adult worms of S. mansoni. Rotundifolone (70.96 %), limonene (8.75 %), trans-caryophyllene (1.46 %), and β-pinene (0.81 %) were shown to be the major constituents of this oil. Adult worms of S. mansoni were incubated with different concentrations of the essential oil (1, 10, 100, 250, 500, and 1000 µg/mL) and of its constituents rotundifolone (0.7, 3.54, 7.09, 70.96, 177.4, 354.8, and 700.96 µg/mL), limonene (43.75 µg/mL), trans-caryophyllene (7.3 µg/mL), and β-pinene (4.03 µg/mL). No schistosomicidal activity was identified at the trans-caryophyllene and β-pinene concentrations studied. However, use of the essential oil (10 µg/mL), rotundifolone (7.09 µg/mL), and limonene (43.75 µg/mL) resulted in decreased worm motility continuing until 96 hours of observation. At higher concentrations (100 and 70.96 µg/mL, respectively), both the essential oil and rotundifolone caused mortality among adult worms of S. mansoni. The positive control praziquantel caused the death of all parasites after 24 h of evaluation. The results from this study suggest that the essential oil of Mentha x villosa presents schistosomicidal efficacy.

  3. Infection of the intermediate mite host with Wolbachia-depleted Litomosoides sigmodontis microfilariae: impaired L1 to L3 development and subsequent sex-ratio distortion in adult worms.

    PubMed

    Arumugam, Sridhar; Pfarr, Kenneth M; Hoerauf, Achim

    2008-07-01

    The rodent filaria Litomosoides sigmodontis harbour Wolbachia, endosymbionts essential for worm embryogenesis, larval development and adult survival. To study the effect of tetracycline, which depletes Wolbachia, on the development of microfilariae (L1s, MF) to L3 in the intermediate host Ornithonyssus bacoti, and to observe the development of Wolbachia-depleted L3s in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus); microfilaremic gerbils were treated orally with tetracycline for 6 weeks (primary infected Tet) or untreated (primary Con). Treatment resulted in a significant reduction of Wolbachia per MF in primary Tet gerbils. Naïve mites then fed on the primary Tet and primary Con gerbils in the week after treatment ended, when MF levels were not significantly different, and used to infect new gerbils (secondary infected ) Tet, secondary Con) via natural infection. The infection rate from dissected mites was 9% and 54% (primary Tet and primary Con, respectively). After 3 months, worms were isolated from secondary gerbils. Significantly fewer female worms developed in secondary Tet gerbils. In contrast, there was no difference in the number of male worms that developed in secondary gerbils, resulting in a male biased sex-ratio. Although secondary Tet male worms had fewer Wolbachia than secondary Con males, development was not impaired. Female worms that developed from Wolbachia-depleted MF had Wolbachia levels equivalent to worms from secondary Con animals. Thus, tetracycline pre-treatment selected for female worms with high numbers of Wolbachia, whereas male worms had median Wolbachia levels significantly lower than secondary Con males. Therefore, female worms require a higher threshold of Wolbachia for their development. The worms analysed were only exposed to tetracycline as MF, ruling out direct effects of tetracycline during larval development in the mites or secondary gerbils, suggesting that the depletion of Wolbachia in MF was the cause of impaired larval

  4. [Studies on the immunodiagnosis of rabbit clonorchiasis II. Immunoaffinity purification of whole worm antigen and characterization of egg, metacercaria and adult antigens of Clonorchis sinensis

    PubMed

    Lee, Ok Ran; Chung, Pyung Rim; Nam, Hae Seon

    1988-06-01

    The sensitivity and specificity of crude and affinity-purified antigens of Clonorchis sinensis obtained from the infected rabbits were studied. Stage-specific antigenic proteins from the eggs, metacercariae and adult worms were characterized by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) The results were as follows: The antibody-binding antigen (ABA) purified from whole worm crude antigen (WWA) by CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B affinity chromatography made 4 specific bands against rabbit anti-sera on Ouchterlony gel diffusion plate, while WWA made 7 bands. Major WWA protein bands by SDS-PAGE were found at 16,300-18,500 and 28,000-29,000 daltons, while major ABA protein bands were at 18,000-21,000 and 29,000-31,000 daltons. The reactivity of ABA with rabbit anti-sera in ELISA was remarkably less sensitive than that of WWA. Molecular weights of egg antigen (EGA), metacercarial antigen (MEA) and adult worm antigen (WWA) of C. sinensis ranged from 15,000-200,000 daltons, 15,000-100,000 daltons and 11,000-80,000 daltons, respectively. Major WWA proteins consisted mainly of polypeptide bands of low molecular weight, less than 31,000 daltons, while those of EGA and MEA consisted of higher molecular weights than 30,000 daltons. The ELISA reactivities of WWA to rabbit anti-sera were remarkably greater than those of MEA. EGA showed negative reaction throughout the experiments. WWA showed higher optical density (O.D.) than 1.0, when reacted with rabbit anti-sera obtained at 4-6 weeks after the infection. In the rabbit anti-sera later than 12 weeks after the infection, the O.D. reacting with WWA showed a plateau without variation. MEA showed relatively low O.D. values (<0.6), when reacted with anti-sera from lightly infected groups throughout the experiments, although there were some weak positive cases (O.D.>0.6) in heavily infected groups. MEA reacted with rabbit anti-sera showed negative results on Ouchterlony gel diffusion

  5. Effectiveness of hyperbaric oxygen for experimental treatment of schistosomiasis mansoni using praziquantel-free and encapsulated into liposomes: assay in adult worms and oviposition.

    PubMed

    Frezza, Tarsila Ferraz; de Souza, Ana Luiza Ribeiro; Prado, César Corat Ribeiro; de Oliveira, Claudineide Nascimento Fernandes; Gremião, Maria Palmira Daflon; Giorgio, Selma; Dolder, Mary Anne Heidi; Joazeiro, Paulo Pinto; Allegretti, Silmara Marques

    2015-10-01

    The treatment of schistosomiasis depends on a single drug: praziquantel (PZQ). However, this treatment presents limitations such as low and/or erratic bioavailability that can contribute to cases of tolerance. Improvements to the available drug are urgently needed and studies with a controlled system of drug release, like liposomes, have been gaining prominence. The present study evaluated the activity and synergy between liposomal-praziquantel (lip.PZQ) and hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO). Mice received doses of 60 or 100mg/kg PZQ or lip.PZQ, 50 days post-infection, and after the treatment, were exposed to HBO (3 atmosphere absolute - ATA) for 1h. The viability of adult worms and oviposition were analyzed, by necropsy and Kato-Katz examination performed after 15 days of treatment. A concentration of 100mg/kg of lip.PZQ+HBO was more effective (48.0% reduction of worms, 83.3% reduction of eggs/gram of feces) and 100% of the mice had altered of oograms (indicating interruption of oviposition) compared to other treatments and to the Control group (infected and untreated). It is known that PZQ requires participation of the host immune system to complete its antischistosomal activity and that HBO is able to stimulate the immune system. The drug became more available in the body when incorporated into liposomes and, used with HBO, the HBO worked as an adjuvant. This explains the decreases of oviposition and worms recovered form hepatic portal system.

  6. Loiasis: African eye worm.

    PubMed

    Padgett, Jeannie J; Jacobsen, Kathryn H

    2008-10-01

    The filarial parasite Loa loa is transmitted by Chrysops fly bites. Loiasis is endemic in rainforest areas of West and Central Africa, and sporadic cases have also been diagnosed in travellers and migrants. Whilst many infected persons are asymptomatic, microfilariae may be detected in the blood or adult worms may be seen under the skin or the sclera of the eye. Mass treatment programmes for onchocerciasis have raised concern about the risk of severe adverse effects when ivermectin is distributed in areas co-endemic for onchocerciasis and loiasis.

  7. Intraocular live male filarial Loa loa worm.

    PubMed

    Eballe, André Omgbwa; Epée, Emillienne; Koki, Godefroy; Owono, Didier; Mvogo, Côme Ebana; Bella, Assumpta Lucienne

    2008-12-01

    We report a case of Loa loa filariasis in an 8-month-old child who presented with a 3-month history of irritated acute red eye and insomnia. Examination revealed a living and active adult Loa loa worm in the anterior chamber of the left eye. The worm was extracted under general anesthetic.

  8. Reduced Acute Recovery from Alcohol Impairment in Adults with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Walter; Milich, Richard; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Prior research has found that adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show increased sensitivity to the impairing effects of alcohol (Weafer et al. 2009). However, these studies have focused exclusively on the ascending limb of the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) curve, and it is unclear whether these adults continue to show increased sensitivity during the later phase of the dose as BAC is declining. Objective This study tested the hypothesis that those with ADHD would display increased response to alcohol during the ascending limb of the BAC curve and less recovery from the impairing effects during the descending limb. Methods Adult social drinkers with ADHD and control adults completed measures of motor coordination, reaction time, and subjective intoxication twice following 0.64 g/kg alcohol and placebo. The measures were administered during the ascending limb of the BAC curve and again during the descending limb. Results During the ascending limb, alcohol reduced motor coordination, slowed reaction time (RT), and increased self-reports of subjective intoxication. Those with ADHD displayed greater impairment of motor coordination compared with controls. During the descending limb, controls reported diminished subjective intoxication and showed recovery from the impairing effects of alcohol on both their motor coordination and their RT. Those with ADHD showed reduced subjective intoxication and faster RT during this time, but they did not recover motor control. Conclusions The protracted time course of motor impairment in adults with ADHD despite reductions in subjective intoxication may contribute to poor decision making and diminished behavioral control in this group. PMID:23430161

  9. Recovery of stereo acuity in adults with amblyopia

    PubMed Central

    Astle, Andrew T; McGraw, Paul V; Webb, Ben S

    2011-01-01

    Disruption of visual input to one eye during early development leads to marked functional impairments of vision, commonly referred to as amblyopia. A major consequence of amblyopia is the inability to encode binocular disparity information leading to impaired depth perception or stereo acuity. If amblyopia is treated early in life (before 4 years of age), then recovery of normal stereoscopic function is possible. Treatment is rarely undertaken later in life (adulthood) because declining levels of neural plasticity are thought to limit the effectiveness of standard treatments. Here, the authors show that a learning-based therapy, designed to exploit experience-dependent plastic mechanisms, can be used to recover stereoscopic visual function in adults with amblyopia. These cases challenge the long-held dogma that the critical period for visual development and the window for treating amblyopia are one and the same. PMID:22707543

  10. Gummy Worm Measurements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callison, Priscilla L.; Anshutz, Ramona J.; Wright, Emmett L.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a science activity using gummy worms to help primary students develop the mathematical skills of measurement concepts, units of measure, estimation, and graphing needed for science learning. Groups of two begin by estimating the number of gummy worms in their package and identifying the colors they expect to find. Individual worms are…

  11. Worms and Humans: A Happy Divorce?

    PubMed Central

    Akuffo, Hannah; Britton, Sven; Schön, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Chronic asymptomatic worm infection, often in combination with tuberculosis (TB), is common in low-income countries. Indeed, a life without worm infestation, as is now the case in most high-income countries, is a recent condition for humankind. Worms and Mycobacterium tuberculosis give rise to different immune response patterns (Th2 vs. Th1 driven), and we have studied whether chronic worm infection affects the susceptibility to and control of TB in the low income country of Ethiopia. Our results, as well of those in the general literature, are inconclusive, although we have some rather strong data in support of adult deworming in relation to vaccination with bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) against TB. In addition, we discuss briefly the putative relationship between chronic worm infestation and autoimmunity/allergy.

  12. The Father Christmas worm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, James L.; Sisson, Patricia L.

    1989-01-01

    Given here is an overview analysis of the Father Christmas Worm, a computer worm that was released onto the DECnet Internet three days before Christmas 1988. The purpose behind the worm was to send an electronic mail message to all users on the computer system running the worm. The message was a Christmas greeting and was signed 'Father Christmas'. From the investigation, it was determined that the worm was released from a computer (node number 20597::) at a university in Switzerland. The worm was designed to travel quickly. Estimates are that it was copied to over 6,000 computer nodes. However, it was believed to have executed on only a fraction of those computers. Within ten minutes after it was released, the worm was detected at the Space Physics Analysis Network (SPAN), NASA's largest space and Earth science network. Once the source program was captured, a procedural cure, using the existing functionality of the computer operating systems, was quickly devised and distributed. A combination of existing computer security measures, the quick and accurate procedures devised to stop copies of the worm from executing, and the network itself, were used to rapidly provide the cure. These were the main reasons why the worm executed on such a small percentage of nodes. This overview of the analysis of the events concerning the worm is based on an investigation made by the SPAN Security Team and provides some insight into future security measures that will be taken to handle computer worms and viruses that may hit similar networks.

  13. Utility of Schistosoma bovis Adult Worm Antigens for Diagnosis of Human Schistosomiasis by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and Electroimmunotransfer Blot Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Pardo, J.; Carranza, C.; Turrientes, M. C.; Arellano, J. L. Pérez; Vélez, R. López; Ramajo, V.; Muro, A.

    2004-01-01

    Immunodiagnostic methods based on the detection of antibodies continue to be the most effective and practical methods for the diagnosis of imported schistosomiasis. Schistosoma bovis is a species whose final natural hosts are bovines, ovines, caprines, and small wild ruminants. Different studies have demonstrated the analogies existing between S. bovis and other Schistosoma species which affect humans. The objective of this work was to evaluate the utility of S. bovis adult worm antigens (AWA) for the diagnosis of imported human schistosomiasis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and electroimmunotransfer blotting (EITB) techniques. By detecting eggs, the ELISA for S. bovis AWA was able to definitively detect imported cases with a sensitivity of 94%. The specificity of the ELISA for S. bovis AWA was 97%. There were no differences between the results of the S. bovis AWA ELISA for patients infected with Schistosoma mansoni and those infected with Schistosoma haematobium. The EITB technique showed bands of 85, 37, and 20 kDa, which are characteristic of infections with Schistosoma spp. Specific bands to indicate infection by different species of Schistosoma have not been detected. The combined use of the ELISA for S. bovis AWA and EITB increased the global sensitivity of the study to 97%. Our findings suggest that the ELISA for S. bovis AWA is a useful test for the immunodiagnosis of imported schistosomiasis and that EITB for detecting S. bovis AWA permits the confirmation of diagnosis when the ELISA for S. bovis AWA is positive. PMID:15539523

  14. Utility of Schistosoma bovis adult worm antigens for diagnosis of human schistosomiasis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and electroimmunotransfer blot techniques.

    PubMed

    Pardo, J; Carranza, C; Turrientes, M C; Pérez Arellano, J L; López Vélez, R; Ramajo, V; Muro, A

    2004-11-01

    Immunodiagnostic methods based on the detection of antibodies continue to be the most effective and practical methods for the diagnosis of imported schistosomiasis. Schistosoma bovis is a species whose final natural hosts are bovines, ovines, caprines, and small wild ruminants. Different studies have demonstrated the analogies existing between S. bovis and other Schistosoma species which affect humans. The objective of this work was to evaluate the utility of S. bovis adult worm antigens (AWA) for the diagnosis of imported human schistosomiasis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and electroimmunotransfer blotting (EITB) techniques. By detecting eggs, the ELISA for S. bovis AWA was able to definitively detect imported cases with a sensitivity of 94%. The specificity of the ELISA for S. bovis AWA was 97%. There were no differences between the results of the S. bovis AWA ELISA for patients infected with Schistosoma mansoni and those infected with Schistosoma haematobium. The EITB technique showed bands of 85, 37, and 20 kDa, which are characteristic of infections with Schistosoma spp. Specific bands to indicate infection by different species of Schistosoma have not been detected. The combined use of the ELISA for S. bovis AWA and EITB increased the global sensitivity of the study to 97%. Our findings suggest that the ELISA for S. bovis AWA is a useful test for the immunodiagnosis of imported schistosomiasis and that EITB for detecting S. bovis AWA permits the confirmation of diagnosis when the ELISA for S. bovis AWA is positive.

  15. Development of Adult Worms and Granulomatous Pathology Are Collectively Regulated by T- and B-Cells in Mice Infected with Schistosoma japonicum

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Hongbin; Ming, Zhenping; Liu, Rong; Xiong, Tao; Grevelding, Christoph G.; Dong, Huifeng; Jiang, Mingsen

    2013-01-01

    Schistosoma blood flukes, which cause schistosomiasis affecting 200 million people in the world, are dependent on signals from host CD4+ T cells to facilitate parasite growth and development in the mammalian host and to induce Th2-biased inflammatory granulomas. B cells, however, are reported to down-regulate granulomatous pathology in schistosomiasis, but not to affect the development of blood flukes together with CD4+ T lymphocytes. Thus it is not clear whether B cells mediate parasite development, reproduction and egg granuloma formation of schistosomes without the help of CD4+ T lymphocytes. Using mice that have severe combined immunodeficiency (scid) and mice lacking T cells (nude), we found that the absence of B cells can more seriously hamper the development and paring of adult worms, but granuloma formation of Schistosoma japonicum in scid mice was not down-regulated comparing with that in nude mice. The level of IL-10 in the sera of nude mice was significantly higher than of scid mice at 43 days post infection (p.i.). Thus multiple mechanisms of immune modulation seem to be involved in parasite development and reproduction by helminth-induced regulatory B cells. Our findings have significance for understanding the molecular connections between schistosomes and T- and B-cells, indicating that more research is needed to develop efficient vaccine-based therapies for schistosomiasis. PMID:23349889

  16. The ultrastructure of the anterior end of male Onchocerca volvulus: papillae, amphids, nerve ring and first indication of an excretory system in the adult filarial worm.

    PubMed

    Strote, G; Bonow, I; Attah, S

    1996-07-01

    A detailed morphological investigation of the anterior sensory organs, the nerve ring and a glomerulus-like structure in male Onchocerca volvulus was performed by means of electron microscopy. The 8 head papillae are arranged in the common 4 + 4 pattern of most filarial worms in circles around the mouth opening. The amphidial openings are found between the circles of inner and outer papillae on both sides of the mouth. Inside, several additional nerve axons are seen in the tissue of the anterior tip not related to one of the identified papillar structures. The inner and outer papillae exhibit a remarkably different fine structure, and are part of a complex system of at least 2 different receptor cell types at the anterior tip of the worm. The amphidial channel contains 8 modified cilia; accessory axons are associated with the cytoplasm of the sheath cell. The anterior nerve ring of male worms is located about 150 micrometers posterior from the outermost tip of the head region. It consists of several fibres coiled around the oesophagus. The comparison of the fine structure of the central nervous system did not show the expected morphological differences associated with the heterogeneous age distribution in the natural worm population. This was in contrast to previous findings with respect to tissues in different parts of the worm. The study also provides the first evidence that suggests the existence of an excretory organ in a filarial worm in the region of the anterior nerve ring. Paired glomerulus-like structures in the lateral chords and a canal formed by a projection of the basal zone of the cuticles were identified.

  17. The efficacy of a topically applied imidacloprid 10 % / moxidectin 2.5 % formulation (Advocate®, Advantage® Multi, Bayer) against Immature and Adult Spirocerca lupi worms in experimentally infected dogs.

    PubMed

    Austin, Clinton M; Kok, Dawie J; Crafford, Dionne; Schaper, Roland

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated the efficacy and safety of an imidacloprid 10 %/moxidectin 2.5 % spot-on combination (Advocate®, Advantage® Multi, Bayer) against immature and mature stages of Spirocerca lupi in experimentally infected dogs. 24 dogs were allocated to 3 groups and infected with approximately 10 L3 larvae of S. lupi orally on study day (SD) +2, +14, +28 and +42. Group 1 remained as untreated control group. Group 2 dogs were treated on SD –28, 0, and thereafter monthly until Day 280 (12 treatments). Group 3 dogs were treated weekly on 19 occasions starting on SD +170. The dosage for all treatments was the licensed dose of 10–25 mg imidacloprid/2.5–6.25 mg moxidectin per kg body weight. All dogs were examined on SD +169 or +176 by endoscopy. Group 3 dogs were additionally examined approximately every two weeks up to Day 296. On Day +308 or +310, all dogs were necropsied to recover S. lupi worms and to quantify lesions in the thoracic aorta and oesophagus. Dogs in the control group were adequately infected with S. lupi, demonstrated by the extensive damage to the thoracic aorta, the nodules in the oesophagus and the large numbers of worms recovered. In total 144 worms were collected (geometric mean of 16.8 worms per dog). Dogs in group 2 had no or very slight damage to the thoracic aorta and no nodules or worms in the oesophagus, indicating 100 % efficacy of the monthly treatments. Dogs in group 3 were also adequately infected, showing nodules in the oesophagus before initiation of weekly treatment, and at necropsy extensive damage was seen in the thoracic aorta. After treatment, three dogs of 8 still had a few nodules and in total three worms (GM of 0.25 per dog) were recovered, demonstrating an efficacy of 98.5 % against adult S. lupi. All dogs tolerated the treatment well and no treatment- related adverse events occurred.

  18. Celebrate Worm Week!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crocker, Betty; Garrett, Sandra; Trammell, Laura Z.

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on an extended learning experience with worms as the main topic in which students collect and organize information and choose an experimental question. Based on the constructivist theory of learning. Contains 17 references. (DDR)

  19. Autovideography: The Lived Experience of Recovery for Adults with Serious Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Petros, Ryan; Solomon, Phyllis; Linz, Sheila; DeCesaris, Marissa; Hanrahan, Nancy P

    2016-09-01

    Mental health services have been transforming toward a recovery orientation for more than a decade, yet a robust understanding of recovery eludes many providers, and consensus on a conceptual definition has yet to be reached. This article examines mental health consumers' lived experience of recovery and evaluates the usefulness and comprehensiveness of CHIME, a major framework conceptually defining recovery for adults with serious mental illness. Researchers partnered with a mental health association in a major US city to engage in research with graduates of a recovery and education class for adults diagnosed with serious mental illness. Twelve participants were loaned video cameras and invited to "Tell us about your recovery" through autovideography. Of the 12 participants, six produced videos directly responding to the overall research question and were subsequently included in the present analysis. Data were analyzed thematically, and CHIME adequately represented the major domains presented in consumer videos with two notable modifications: subdomains of "reciprocity" within relationships and "contributing to others" were added to comprehensively represent consumer perspectives about recovery. Adding two subdomains to CHIME more effectively represents consumer narratives about recovery, contributes to the social construction of the personhood of people with serious mental illness, and offers a more robust description of the process of recovery.

  20. Worms, Worms, and Even More Worms: A Vermicomposting Guide for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Integrated Waste Management Board, Sacramento.

    This guide is designed to help teachers gain a better understanding of how to get a worm vermicomposting system started. It provides reference curricula materials for using worms in the classroom. Chapters include: (1) "Why Worm Vermicomposting;" (2) "Basics of Vermicomposting;" (3) "Worm Facts;" (4) "Classroom…

  1. Recovery from supraspinal fatigue is slowed in old adults after fatiguing maximal isometric contractions.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Sandra K; Todd, Gabrielle; Butler, Jane E; Gandevia, Simon C; Taylor, Janet L

    2008-10-01

    This study compared the contribution of supraspinal fatigue to muscle fatigue in old and young adults. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of motor cortex was used to assess voluntary activation during maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) of elbow flexor muscles in 17 young adults (25.5 +/- 3.6 yr; mean +/- SD) and 7 old adults (73.0 +/- 3.3 yr). Subjects performed a fatigue task involving six sustained MVCs (22-s duration, separated by 10 s). Young adults exhibited greater reductions in maximal voluntary torque (67 +/- 15% of baseline) than the old (37 +/- 6%; P < 0.001). Increments in torque (superimposed twitch) generated by TMS during sustained MVCs increased for the young and old (P < 0.001) but were larger for the old adults at the start of the sustained contractions and during recovery (P < 0.05). Voluntary activation was less for the old adults at the start of some sustained contractions and during recovery (P = 0.02). Motor-evoked potential area increased similarly with age during the fatiguing task but was greater for the old adults than young during recovery. Silent period duration lengthened less for the old adults during the fatigue task. At the end of the fatiguing task, peak relaxation rate of muscle fibers had declined more in the young than the old adults. The greater endurance with age is largely due to a difference in mechanisms located within the muscle. However, recovery from the fatiguing exercise is impaired for old adults because of greater supraspinal fatigue than in the young.

  2. Supraspinal fatigue impedes recovery from a low-intensity sustained contraction in old adults.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Tejin; Schlinder-Delap, Bonnie; Keller, Manda L; Hunter, Sandra K

    2012-03-01

    This study determined the contribution of supraspinal fatigue and contractile properties to the age difference in neuromuscular fatigue during and recovery from a low-intensity sustained contraction. Cortical stimulation was used to evoke measures of voluntary activation and muscle relaxation during and after a contraction sustained at 20% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) until task failure with elbow flexor muscles in 14 young adults (20.9 ± 3.6 yr, 7 men) and 14 old adults (71.6 ± 5.4 yr, 7 men). Old adults exhibited a longer time to task failure than the young adults (23.8 ± 9.0 vs. 11.5 ± 3.9 min, respectively, P < 0.001). The time to failure was associated with initial peak rates of relaxation of muscle fibers and pressor response (P < 0.05). Increments in torque (superimposed twitch; SIT) generated by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) during brief MVCs, increased during the fatiguing contraction (P < 0.001) and then decreased during recovery (P = 0.02). The increase in the SIT was greater for the old adults than the young adults during the fatiguing contraction and recovery (P < 0.05). Recovery of MVC torque was less for old than young adults at 10 min post-fatiguing contraction (75.1 ± 8.7 vs. 83.6 ± 7.8% of control MVC, respectively, P = 0.01) and was associated with the recovery of the SIT (r = -0.59, r(2) = 0.35, P < 0.001). Motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitude and the silent period elicited during the fatiguing contraction increased less for old adults than young adults (P < 0.05). The greater fatigue resistance with age during a low-intensity sustained contraction was attributable to mechanisms located within the muscle. Recovery of maximal strength after the low-intensity fatiguing contraction however, was impeded more for old adults than young because of greater supraspinal fatigue. Recovery of strength could be an important variable to consider in exercise prescription of old populations.

  3. Efficacy of thiabendazole, mebendazole, levamisole and ivermectin against gullet worm, Gongylonema pulchrum: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Noboru; Kubota, Hiroki; Gotoh, Hideyuki; Ishida, Hidekazu; Ikadai, Hiromi; Oyamada, Takashi

    2008-01-25

    In vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of thiabendazole, mebendazole, levamisole and ivermectin against Gongylonema pulchrum. For in vitro assays, third-stage larvae (L3) incubated with the drugs were administered orally to mice and the ability of larvae to invade the gastric mucosa of the animals was examined. After incubation, only those larvae treated with high concentrations of levamisole (1 and 10 microg/ml) were tightly coiled with intestines exhibiting morphological abnormalities. Good dose-response data for the drugs tested was observed at the time of worm recovery from mice, with no worms recovered at the two highest concentrations of levamisole. In vivo efficacy of the drugs against adult worms was evaluated in six groups of three rabbits, each of which was infected with 30 L3 of G. pulchrum and treated with thiabendazole at 100 mg/kg for 3 days, mebendazole at 70 mg/kg for 3 days, levamisole as a single dose of 8 mg/kg, and subcutaneously injected ivermectin as a single dose of 0.2 mg/kg or vehicles of the drugs (control) at 4 months post-infection. Necropsy 14 days after treatment revealed that levamisole, mebendazole and ivermectin reduced worm burdens by 63.2%, 22.8% and 25.8%, respectively, with no reductions in worms observed with thiabendazole. The surviving worms were principally found in the esophagus with the remainder distributed among the buccal mucosa, the tongue, and/or pharyngeal mucosa in all groups. A number of morphologically abnormal eggs were observed within the uterus and ovijector in female worms recovered from the thiabendazole-treated group. These findings suggest that levamisole exhibits in vivo efficacy against G. pulchrum infection and that the larval invasion tests using mice could be used to screen for anthelmintic susceptibility of nematodes.

  4. Guinea worm infection of urinary bladder manifesting as obstructive uropathy in rural Maharashtra.

    PubMed

    Birare, Shivaji D; Kamble, M H; Lanjewar, D N; Parija, S C; Girji, D D; Kulkarni, P V; Gupta, Rashmi S; Abdul Jabbar, A M

    2005-10-01

    Guinea worm or Dracunculus medinensis is a well-documented helminthic infestation in many areas of Asia. In this report, we describe a rare case of guinea worm infestation in a 25-year-old woman who had developed symptoms of obstructive uropathy, in whom fragments of guinea worm were removed after urethral catheterization. To the best of our knowledge, adult guinea worm occurring in the urinary bladder has not been previously described.

  5. Sensory experience during locomotion promotes recovery of function in adult visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Megumi; Stryker, Michael P

    2014-06-26

    Recovery from sensory deprivation is slow and incomplete in adult visual cortex. In this study, we show that visual stimulation during locomotion, which increases the gain of visual responses in primary visual cortex, dramatically enhances recovery in the mouse. Excitatory neurons regained normal levels of response, while narrow-spiking (inhibitory) neurons remained less active. Visual stimulation or locomotion alone did not enhance recovery. Responses to the particular visual stimuli viewed by the animal during locomotion recovered, while those to another normally effective stimulus did not, suggesting that locomotion promotes the recovery only of the neural circuits that are activated concurrent with the locomotion. These findings may provide an avenue for improving recovery from amblyopia in humans.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02798.001.

  6. Worm Infections in Children.

    PubMed

    Weatherhead, Jill E; Hotez, Peter J

    2015-08-01

    • On the basis of research evidence, worm infections are important global child health conditions causing chronic disability that lasts from childhood into adulthood (Table 1). (2)(3) Evidence Quality: B • On the basis of research evidence, the major worm infections found in developing countries include ascariasis, trichuriasis, hookworm infection, and schistosomiasis; toxocariasis, enterobiasis, and cysticercosis are also found in poor regions of North America and Europe. (4)(9)(13) Evidence Quality: B • On the basis of expert consensus, children and adolescents are often vulnerable to acquiring large numbers of worms, ie, high-intensity infections (Fig 1)(21)(22)(23) Evidence Quality: D • On the basis of expert consensus and research evidence, moderate and heavy worm burdens cause increased morbidity because of growth and intellectual stunting in children and adolescents. Many of these effects may result from helminth-induced malnutrition. (21)(22)(23) Evidence Quality: C • On the basis of expert consensus and research evidence, worm infections are also commonly associated with eosinophilia. (48) (49) Evidence Quality: B • On the basis of research evidence as well as consensus, helminthes can cause inflammation in the lung (asthma), gastrointestinal tract (enteritis and colitis), liver (hepatitis and fibrosis), and urogenital tract. (7)(21)(22)(23)(27)(28)(40)(41)(43) Evidence Quality: B • On the basis of research evidence, microscopy techniques for diagnosis of worm infections in children often exhibit suboptimal sensitivities and specificities, necessitating new or improved diagnostic modalities such as polymerase chain reaction. (54)(55) Evidence Quality: A • On the basis of research evidence and expert consensus, mass drug administration (“preventive chemotherapy”) has becomea standard practice for ministries of health in low- and middle-income countries to control intestinal helminth infections and schistosomiasis. (67)(68) Evidence

  7. Adult Schistosoma mansoni worms positively modulate soluble egg antigen-induced inflammatory hepatic granuloma formation in vivo. Stereological analysis and immunophenotyping of extracellular matrix proteins, adhesion molecules, and chemokines.

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, W.; Bogers, J.; Deelder, A.; Wéry, M.; Van Marck, E.

    1997-01-01

    Synchronized liver granulomas were induced by injecting Sepharose beads to which SEA soluble egg antigen (SEA) or the concanavalin A binding fraction of SEA had been coupled into a mesenteric vein in naive, single-sex (35 days) and bisexually (28 days) Schistosoma mansoni-infected and Plasmodium berghei-immunized mice. Stereological analysis revealed that peak granuloma formation was already reached 8 days after injection in single-sex infected mice compared with 16 days in naive animals. No difference in granuloma formation between naive and P. berghei-immunized animals and between unisexually and bisexually S. mansoni-infected mice was observed. This suggests that the positive immunomodulatory effect on the granulomogenesis is worm specific and not likely to be due to arousal of the immune system by unrelated factors, nor is it influenced by the gender or degree of maturation of female worms. At all stages in time, the concanavalin A binding-fraction-induced granulomas reached only 65 to 70% of the volume of SEA-induced granulomas. Immunophenotyping of extracellular matrix proteins around deposited heads revealed that fibronectin was the dominant extracellular matrix protein and that also type I and IV collagen and laminin were deposited. Temporal analysis of the expression of the adhesion molecules ICAM-1, LFA-1, VLA-4, and VLA-6 was performed. Morphological evidence is presented for the role of adhesion molecules in the initiation and maintenance of hepatic granuloma formation. The chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 was expressed in the granuloma and in hepatic artery branches. From these data, it is concluded that adult S. mansoni worms positively modulate schistosomal hepatic granuloma formation in vivo. Adhesion molecules and chemokines play important roles in schistosomal granuloma formation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9176396

  8. A Can of Sea Worms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinn, Donald J.

    1977-01-01

    A comprehensive discussion of the free-living worms that inhabit the beaches and subtidal bottoms of the Cape Cod shoreline is presented. Methods for the location, collection, preservation, and identification of sea worms are identified. (BT)

  9. "Mighty Worm" Piezoelectric Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bamford, Robert M.; Wada, Ben K.; Moore, Donald M.

    1994-01-01

    "Mighty Worm" piezoelectric actuator used as adjustable-length structural member, active vibrator or vibration suppressor, and acts as simple (fixed-length) structural member when inactive. Load force not applied to piezoelectric element in simple-structural-member mode. Piezoelectric element removed from load path when not in use.

  10. Welcome to Worm Central

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madison, Lisa; Rydant, A. L.; Jobin, Raymond A.; Sterling, Cindy

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a vermicomposting program at Epping Elementary School in New Hampshire. The "Feed It to the Worms: A Vermicomposting Geographic Curriculum," developed by the New Hampshire Geographic Alliance and led by fourth grade teacher, Lisa Madison, fits perfectly into the school's ongoing Artist-in-Residence program, where…

  11. Attachment, skin deep? Relationships between adult attachment and skin barrier recovery.

    PubMed

    Robles, Theodore F; Brooks, Kathryn P; Kane, Heidi S; Schetter, Christine Dunkel

    2013-06-01

    This study examined the relationship between individual differences in adult attachment and skin barrier recovery. Dating couples (N = 34) completed a self-report measure of attachment anxiety and avoidance, and during two separate laboratory visits, normal skin barrier function was disrupted using a tape-stripping procedure, followed by a 20 min discussion of personal concerns in one visit and relationship problems in the other, counterbalanced randomly across visits. Skin barrier recovery was assessed by measuring transepidermal water loss up to 2 h after skin disruption. Multilevel modeling showed that skin barrier recovery did not differ between the personal concern or relationship problem discussions. Among women, greater attachment anxiety predicted faster skin barrier recovery across the two visits, while greater attachment avoidance predicted slower skin barrier recovery. Among men, greater attachment anxiety predicted slower skin barrier recovery during the personal concern discussion only. The observed effects remained significant after controlling for transepidermal water loss in undisturbed skin, suggesting that the relationship between attachment security and skin barrier recovery was not due to other skin-related factors like sweating. Cortisol changes, self-reported emotions, stress appraisals, and supportiveness ratings were tested as potential mediators, and none explained the relationships between attachment and skin barrier recovery. These findings are the first to demonstrate associations between individual differences in attachment style and restorative biological processes in the skin, even in a sample of young dating couples in satisfied relationships.

  12. Optimization of Visual Training for Full Recovery from Severe Amblyopia in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Nicolette C.; Sheehan, Hanna Marie; Quinlan, Elizabeth M.

    2016-01-01

    The severe amblyopia induced by chronic monocular deprivation is highly resistant to reversal in adulthood. Here we use a rodent model to show that recovery from deprivation amblyopia can be achieved in adults by a two-step sequence, involving enhancement of synaptic plasticity in the visual cortex by dark exposure followed immediately by visual…

  13. Impact of Remembering Childhood Sexual Abuse on Addiction Recovery for Young Adult Lesbians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galvin, Christina R.; Brooks-Livingston, Angela

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the impact of childhood sexual abuse on young adult lesbians' sexual identity and their recovery from chemical dependency. The authors recommend that counselors assess for sexual orientation (past and present), sexual abuse, and possible dual diagnosis. Implications for counselors are discussed.

  14. Mechanisms of recovery of visual function in adult amblyopia through a tailored action video game

    PubMed Central

    Vedamurthy, Indu; Nahum, Mor; Bavelier, Daphne; Levi, Dennis M.

    2015-01-01

    Amblyopia is a deficit in vision that arises from abnormal visual experience early in life. It was long thought to develop into a permanent deficit, unless properly treated before the end of the sensitive period for visual recovery. However, a number of studies now suggest that adults with long-standing amblyopia may at least partially recover visual acuity and stereopsis following perceptual training. Eliminating or reducing interocular suppression has been hypothesized to be at the root of these changes. Here we show that playing a novel dichoptic video game indeed results in reduced suppression, improved visual acuity and, in some cases, improved stereopsis. Our relatively large cohort of adults with amblyopia, allowed us, for the first time, to assess the link between visual function recovery and reduction in suppression. Surprisingly, no significant correlation was found between decreased suppression and improved visual function. This finding challenges the prevailing view and suggests that while dichoptic training improves visual acuity and stereopsis in adult amblyopia, reduced suppression is unlikely to be at the root of visual recovery. These results are discussed in the context of their implication on recovery of amblyopia in adults. PMID:25719537

  15. Variability in heart rate recovery measurements over 1 year in healthy, middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Mellis, M G; Ingle, L; Carroll, S

    2014-02-01

    This study assessed the longer-term (12-month) variability in post-exercise heart rate recovery following a submaximal exercise test. Longitudinal data was analysed for 97 healthy middle-aged adults (74 male, 23 female) from 2 occasions, 12 months apart. Participants were retrospectively selected if they had stable physical activity habits, submaximal treadmill fitness and anthropometric measurements between the 2 assessment visits. A submaximal Bruce treadmill test was performed to at least 85% age-predicted maximum heart rate. Absolute heart rate and Δ heart rate recovery (change from peak exercise heart rate) were recorded for 1 and 2 min post-exercise in an immediate supine position. Heart rate recovery at both time-points was shown to be reliable with intra-class correlation coefficient values ≥ 0.714. Absolute heart rate 1-min post-exercise showed the strongest agreement between repeat tests (r = 0.867, P < 0.001). Lower coefficient of variation (≤ 10.2%) and narrower limits of agreement were found for actual heart rate values rather than Δ heart rate recovery, and for 1-min rather than 2-min post-exercise recovery time points. Log-transformed values generated better variability with acceptable coefficient of variation for all measures (2.2-10%). Overall, 1 min post-exercise heart rate recovery data had least variability over the 12-month period in apparently healthy middle-aged adults.

  16. Hip joint contact loads in older adults during recovery from forward loss of balance by stepping.

    PubMed

    Graham, David F; Modenese, Luca; Trewartha, Grant; Carty, Christopher P; Constantinou, Maria; Lloyd, David G; Barrett, Rod S

    2016-09-06

    Hip joint contact loads during activities of daily living are not generally considered high enough to cause acute bone or joint injury. However there is some evidence that hip joint loads may be higher in stumble recovery from loss of balance. A common laboratory method used to evaluate balance recovery performance involves suddenly releasing participants from various static forward lean magnitudes (perturbation intensities). Prior studies have shown that when released from the same perturbation intensity, some older adults are able to recover with a single step, whereas others require multiple steps. The main purpose of this study was to use a musculoskeletal model to determine the effect of three balance perturbation intensities and the use of single versus multiple recovery steps on hip joint contact loads during recovery from forward loss of balance in community dwelling older adults (n=76). We also evaluated the association of peak hip contact loads with perturbation intensity, step length and trunk flexion angle at foot contact at each participant׳s maximum recoverable lean angle (MRLA). Peak hip joint contact loads were computed using muscle force estimates obtained using Static Optimisation and increased as lean magnitude was increased and were on average 32% higher for Single Steppers compared to Multiple Steppers. At the MRLA, peak hip contact loads ranged from 4.3 to 12.7 body weights and multiple linear stepwise regression further revealed that initial lean angle, step length and trunk angle at foot contact together explained 27% of the total variance in hip joint contact load. Overall findings indicated that older adults experience peak hip joint contact loads during maximal balance recovery by stepping that in some cases exceeded loads reported to cause mechanical failure of cadaver femurs. While step length and trunk flexion angle are strong predictors of step recovery performance they are at best moderate predictors of peak hip joint loading.

  17. Galactic worms. I - Catalog of worm candidates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koo, Bon-Chul; Heiles, Carl; Reach, William T.

    1992-01-01

    A catalog of candidates for the Galactic worms that are possibly the walls surrounding the superbubbles is compiled; 118 isolated structures that appear both in H I and in IR (60 and 100 microns). Fifty-two are possibly associated with H II regions. It is found that the 100-micron emissivity increases systematically toward the Galactic interior, which is consistent with the increase of the general interstellar radiation field. The 100-micron emissivity of the structures associated with the H II regions is larger than that of the structures without associated H II regions. The 60-100-micron ratio is large, 0.28 +/- 0.03, which may indicate that the grains associated with the atomic gas have a relatively large population of small grains. Thirty-five structures appear in the 408-MHz continuum. The IR and the radio continuum properties suggest that the 408-MHz continuum emission in those structures is very likely thermal. The implications of these results on the ionization of gas far from the Galactic plane are discussed.

  18. Guinea worm disease outcomes in Ghana: determinants of broken worms.

    PubMed

    Glenshaw, Mary T; Roy, Sharon; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Downs, Philip; Williamson, John; Eberhard, Mark

    2009-08-01

    In 2006, Ghana ranked second in Guinea worm disease (GWD) incidence and reported a previously undocumented 20% prevalence of worm breakage. A prospective study was conducted in 2007 to validate and describe worm breakage and determinants. Among 221 patients with known outcomes, the worm breakage rate observed was 46%. After controlling for demographics, worm and wound presentation, and treatment course and provision, worm breakage was associated with narrow-diameter worms (< 2 mm) (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.79; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03-7.53). Protective factors against worm breakage included antibiotic ointment use (AOR 0.31; 95% CI = 0.14-0.70), bandage protocol compliance (AOR: 0.38; 95% CI = 0.16-0.89), intact bandages (AOR 0.27; 95% CI = 0.09-0.82), and bloody compared with dry wounds (AOR 0.09; 95% CI = 0.01-0.7). The high worm breakage rate observed warrants improvement in case management and patient care. Adherence to established treatment protocols should be facilitated through improved provider training and supervision to reduce the disabling consequences of broken worms.

  19. Preparation of Samples for Single-Worm Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Yemini, Eviatar; Kerr, Rex A.; Schafer, William R.

    2016-01-01

    Neurobiological research in genetically tractable organisms relies heavily on robust assays for behavioral phenotypes. The simple body plan of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans makes it particularly amenable to the use of automated microscopy and image analysis to describe behavioral patterns quantitatively. This protocol first describes the preparation and use of media for growing and maintaining worms for tracking. The second part of the protocol describes how to prepare a single young adult worm for recording during video analysis. Although the protocol was developed for use in a single-worm tracker, it addresses factors important for the generation of reproducible, standardized images in all systems. PMID:22135667

  20. The Association of Growth Hormone Parameters with Skeletal Muscle Phosphocreatine Recovery in Adult Men

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Takara L.; Sun, Noelle; Hrovat, Mirko I.; Systrom, David M.; Grinspoon, Steven K.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Previous studies have suggested a relationship between GH and mitochondrial function. However, little is known about the relationship of specific GH indices and in vivo measures of mitochondrial function in humans. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the association between GH, IGF-I, and phosphocreatine (PCr) recovery, a measure of mitochondrial function, in otherwise healthy adults. Design: Thirty-seven healthy men and women were studied at a single university medical center. Subjects underwent GH stimulation testing with GH releasing hormone-arginine and measurement of IGF-I. Mitochondrial function was determined by PCr recovery after submaximal exercise by 31Phosphorous magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Subjects underwent assessment of lean and fat mass with use of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results: There were no differences in PCr recovery between men and women (men 20.7±1.5 vs. women 24.8±1.4 mm/min; P > 0.05). IGF-I (r = 0.33; P = 0.04) was associated with PCr recovery in all subjects. Among men, IGF-I (r = 0.69; P = 0.003), peak stimulated GH (r = 0.52; P = 0.04), and GH area under the curve (AUC) (r = 0.53; P = 0.04) were significantly associated with PCr recovery. However, neither IGF-I, peak stimulated GH, nor GH AUC (all P > 0.05) were associated with PCr recovery in women. After adjusting for age, race, and physical activity, IGF-I remained significantly associated with PCr recovery (β = 0.10; P = 0.02) among men. Conclusions: IGF-I, peak stimulated GH, and GH AUC are associated with skeletal muscle PCr recovery in men. PMID:21177784

  1. The design of worm gear sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Razzaghi, Andrea I.

    1987-01-01

    A method is presented for designing worm gear sets to meet torque multiplication requirements. First, the fundamentals of worm gear design are discussed, covering worm gear set nomenclature, kinematics and proportions, force analysis, and stress analysis. Then, a suggested design method is discussed, explaining how to take a worm gear set application, and specify a complete worm gear set design. The discussions are limited to cylindrical worm gear sets that have a 90 deg shaft angle between the worm and the mating gear.

  2. Single and multiple worm infections of Echinostoma caproni (Trematoda) in the golden hamster.

    PubMed

    Fried, B; Huffman, J E; Weiss, P M

    1990-03-01

    Six of 10 hamsters fed a single metacercarial cyst of Echinostoma caproni (single-worm infections) and 13 of 19 hamsters fed either 2 or 5 cysts (multiple-worm infections) were infected with adult echinostomes at necropsy 22 days post-infection. Considerable histopathological changes to the small intestine occurred in hamsters carrying single-worm infections. There were no differences in either mean length, width or wet weight of echinostomes in single- versus multiple-worm infections. The mean number of eggs/worm from single-worm infections (525) was significantly greater than that from multiple-worm infections (288). The average percentage of fully developed miracidia/worm from single worms (94%) was similar to that from worms in multiple infections (92-95%). Single worms of E. caproni were capable of self-fertilization and production of viable eggs. Miracidia derived from single worms were as capable of infecting laboratory-reared Biomphalaria glabrata and producing patent rediae as were those from multiple infections.

  3. Worm Gear With Hydrostatic Engagement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaiko, Lev I.

    1994-01-01

    In proposed worm-gear transmission, oil pumped at high pressure through meshes between teeth of gear and worm coil. Pressure in oil separates meshing surfaces slightly, and oil reduces friction between surfaces. Conceived for use in drive train between gas-turbine engine and rotor of helicopter. Useful in other applications in which weight critical. Test apparatus simulates and measures some loading conditions of proposed worm gear with hydrostatic engagement.

  4. Interdependent Recovery of Adults with Schizophrenia: Asian American Consumer Perspectives of Family Involvement and Influence

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Karen Kyeunghae; Yamada, Ann-Marie; Kim, Min Ah; Dinh, Tam Q.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Family involvement is important in the recovery experience of culturally diverse adults with schizophrenia. However, little is known about the influence of family among consumers purported to have close family ties without regular contact. This study explored Asian American consumers ‘views about family relationships and participation in their recovery. Methods Secondary analysis of qualitative data from a larger project was conducted to explore family-related themes of eight Asian Americans receiving services from recovery-focused programs in urban Southern California. Results Most consumers described their family support as adequate while simultaneously reporting limited family involvement. Asia-born and U.S.-born Asian consumers varied in describing family support, suggesting providers consider nativity in culturally responsive service delivery. Conclusions and Practice Implications Families need not be present to affect the perspectives of Asian Americans receiving recovery-oriented services. The extent of family influences on recovery, beyond the initial determination of current family contact, requires further exploration. PMID:25000120

  5. Intestinal worms: strategies to control disease.

    PubMed

    Hall, A; Chan, M S

    1994-11-01

    Of the 512 million inhabitants of sub-Saharan Africa, an estimated 200-250 million are infected with the following intestinal nematodes: Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm. Disease in not more common or evident in this population, however, because most species of worms do not multiply in their hosts and because these worms have a life-span of 1-3 years so worm burdens are acquired gradually over a period of years. Also, disease caused by worms is usually related to worm burden (which has indistinct characteristics) as well as to age and health of the host. Thus, onset of disease can be slow and the diseases tend to be chronic rather than acute. Infestation can be diagnosed easily by microscopic examination of stool which will reveal the prevalence of infection but not the prevalence of disease (heavy infection). Prevalence is affected by age group, and 70% of all worms are present in only 20% of a given community (who are, therefore, the most likely to be diseased from the worms and most likely to transmit disease). With the goal of most control programs being the control of disease rather than of infection, the first task is to identify and treat the heavily-infected people. Since individual identification can be costly, one strategy is to treat everyone or to treat those groups who are most heavily infected. For example, adults in Africa are the most appropriate targets for hookworm treatment, and a large proportion of all disease due to A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura can be eliminated through mass treatment of school children. Removing sources of infection will also remove sources of transmission. It will still be necessary to identify localities where prevalence is above 50% and, thus, call for treatment. Albendazole and mebendazole are effective drugs to treat all species. Levamisole is effective against S. lumbricoides and hookworm, and pyrantel pamoate is effective against A. lumbricoides. The school delivery system for treatment is

  6. Intraoperative Neural Response Telemetry and Neural Recovery Function: a Comparative Study between Adults and Children

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Bettina; Hamerschmidt, Rogerio; Wiemes, Gislaine

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Neural response telemetry (NRT) is a method of capturing the action potential of the distal portion of the auditory nerve in cochlear implant (CI) users, using the CI itself to elicit and record the answers. In addition, it can also measure the recovery function of the auditory nerve (REC), that is, the refractory properties of the nerve. It is not clear in the literature whether the responses from adults are the same as those from children. Objective To compare the results of NRT and REC between adults and children undergoing CI surgery. Methods Cross-sectional, descriptive, and retrospective study of the results of NRT and REC for patients undergoing IC at our service. The NRT is assessed by the level of amplitude (microvolts) and REC as a function of three parameters: A (saturation level, in microvolts), t0 (absolute refractory period, in seconds), and tau (curve of the model function), measured in three electrodes (apical, medial, and basal). Results Fifty-two patients were evaluated with intraoperative NRT (26 adults and 26 children), and 24 with REC (12 adults and 12 children). No statistically significant difference was found between intraoperative responses of adults and children for NRT or for REC's three parameters, except for parameter A of the basal electrode. Conclusion The results of intraoperative NRT and REC were not different between adults and children, except for parameter A of the basal electrode. PMID:25992145

  7. WormKill to WormBoss--can we sell sustainable sheep worm control?

    PubMed

    Woodgate, R G; Love, S

    2012-05-04

    Despite the economic importance of nematodes for sheep enterprises, it is often difficult to convince producers to adopt best practice in worm control. In this paper we discuss key issues in effecting change by communicating worm control messages. The adoption of new strategies is affected by many factors including the relative advantage, complexity, compatibility and the ability to trial the proposed change. The visibility of the problem to be solved and proposed positive outcome are also important. Extension campaigns from the last 30 years, including "WormKill" and "CRACK", are used as examples, and future opportunities and tools, including the internet, for promoting best practice in sheep worm management are discussed.

  8. Contribution of lower limb eccentric work and different step responses to balance recovery among older adults.

    PubMed

    Nagano, Hanatsu; Levinger, Pazit; Downie, Calum; Hayes, Alan; Begg, Rezaul

    2015-09-01

    Falls during walking reflect susceptibility to balance loss and the individual's capacity to recover stability. Balance can be recovered using either one step or multiple steps but both responses are impaired with ageing. To investigate older adults' (n=15, 72.5±4.8 yrs) recovery step control a tether-release procedure was devised to induce unanticipated forward balance loss. Three-dimensional position-time data combined with foot-ground reaction forces were used to measure balance recovery. Dependent variables were; margin of stability (MoS) and available response time (ART) for spatial and temporal balance measures in the transverse and sagittal planes; lower limb joint angles and joint negative/positive work; and spatio-temporal gait parameters. Relative to multi-step responses, single-step recovery was more effective in maintaining balance, indicated by greater MoS and longer ART. MoS in the sagittal plane measure and ART in the transverse plane distinguished single step responses from multiple steps. When MoS and ART were negative (<0), balance was not secured and additional steps would be required to establish the new base of support for balance recovery. Single-step responses demonstrated greater step length and velocity and when the recovery foot landed, greater centre of mass downward velocity. Single-step strategies also showed greater ankle dorsiflexion, increased knee maximum flexion and more negative work at the ankle and knee. Collectively these findings suggest that single-step responses are more effective in forward balance recovery by directing falling momentum downward to be absorbed as lower limb eccentric work.

  9. Recovery

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video discusses the recovery events that occur in high-power rocketry and the various devices used in safely recovering the rocket. The video includes a discussion of black powder and ejection...

  10. The internet worm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1989-01-01

    In November 1988 a worm program invaded several thousand UNIX-operated Sun workstations and VAX computers attached to the Research Internet, seriously disrupting service for several days but damaging no files. An analysis of the work's decompiled code revealed a battery of attacks by a knowledgeable insider, and demonstrated a number of security weaknesses. The attack occurred in an open network, and little can be inferred about the vulnerabilities of closed networks used for critical operations. The attack showed that passwork protection procedures need review and strengthening. It showed that sets of mutually trusting computers need to be carefully controlled. Sharp public reaction crystalized into a demand for user awareness and accountability in a networked world.

  11. Immunosuppressive PAS-1 is an excretory/secretory protein released by larval and adult worms of the ascarid nematode Ascaris suum.

    PubMed

    Antunes, M F P; Titz, T O; Batista, I F C; Marques-Porto, R; Oliveira, C F; Alves de Araujo, C A; Macedo-Soares, M F

    2015-05-01

    Helminths use several strategies to evade and/or modify the host immune response, including suppression or inactivation of the host antigen-specific response. Several helminth immunomodulatory molecules have been identified. Our studies have focused on immunosuppression induced by the roundworm Ascaris suum and an A. suum-derived protein named protein 1 from A. suum (PAS-1). Here we assessed whether PAS-1 is an excretory/secretory (E/S) protein and whether it can suppress lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation. Larvae from infective eggs were cultured in unsupplemented Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium (DMEM) for 2 weeks. PAS-1 was then measured in the culture supernatants and in adult A. suum body fluid at different time points by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with the monoclonal antibody MAIP-1. Secreted PAS-1 was detected in both larval culture supernatant and adult body fluid. It suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced leucocyte migration and pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and stimulated interleukin (IL)-10 secretion, indicating that larval and adult secreted PAS-1 suppresses inflammation in this model. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory activity of PAS-1 was abolished by treatment with MAIP-1, a PAS-1-specific monoclonal antibody, confirming the crucial role of PAS-1 in suppressing LPS-induced inflammation. These findings demonstrate that PAS-1 is an E/S protein with anti-inflammatory properties likely to be attributable to IL-10 production.

  12. First report of the isolation of an adult worm of the genus Brachylaima (Digenea: Brachylaimidae), from the gastrointestinal tract of a human.

    PubMed

    Butcher, A R; Parasuramar, P; Thompson, C S; Grove, D I

    1998-04-01

    A 78-year-old woman presented with an 18-month history of intermittent diarrhoea. Examination of her stools revealed brachylaimid eggs, which were present in three separate specimens over a week. After treatment with praziquantel a degenerate adult Brachylaima species was recovered from her faeces. She lived in a rural area of South Australia and ate vegetables grown in her own garden which had been infested with helicid snails. In south Australia these introduced European helicid snails are commonly infected with brachylaimid intermediate larval stages and are considered to be the source of the human infection.

  13. Intravenous multipotent adult progenitor cell treatment decreases inflammation leading to functional recovery following spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    DePaul, Marc A.; Palmer, Marc; Lang, Bradley T.; Cutrone, Rochelle; Tran, Amanda P.; Madalena, Kathryn M.; Bogaerts, Annelies; Hamilton, Jason A.; Deans, Robert J.; Mays, Robert W.; Busch, Sarah A.; Silver, Jerry

    2015-01-01

    Following spinal cord injury (SCI), immune-mediated secondary processes exacerbate the extent of permanent neurological deficits. We investigated the capacity of adult bone marrow-derived stem cells, which exhibit immunomodulatory properties, to alter inflammation and promote recovery following SCI. In vitro, we show that human multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPCs) have the ability to modulate macrophage activation, and prior exposure to MAPC secreted factors can reduce macrophage-mediated axonal dieback of dystrophic axons. Using a contusion model of SCI, we found that intravenous delivery of MAPCs one day, but not immediately, after SCI significantly improves urinary and locomotor recovery, which was associated with marked spinal cord tissue sparing. Intravenous MAPCs altered the immune response in the spinal cord and periphery, however biodistribution studies revealed that no MAPCs were found in the cord and instead preferentially homed to the spleen. Our results demonstrate that MAPCs exert their primary effects in the periphery and provide strong support for the use of these cells in acute human contusive SCI. PMID:26582249

  14. Maternal separation exaggerates spontaneous recovery of extinguished contextual fear in adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Gui-Jing; Yang, Yuan; Wang, Li-Ping; Xu, Lin; Mao, Rong-Rong

    2014-08-01

    Early life stress increases the risk of posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD). Patients with PTSD show impaired extinction of traumatic memory, and in women, this occurs more often when PTSD is preceded by child trauma. However, it is still unclear how early life stress accounts for extinction impairment. Here, we studied the effects of maternal separation (MS, postnatal day 2 to 14) on contextual fear extinction in adult female rats. Additionally, to examine changes in synaptic function affected by MS, we measured long-term potentiation (LTP) in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in vitro, both of which have been implicated in fear extinction. We found that adult female rats had been subjected to MS exhibited significant spontaneous recovery of fear to the extinguished context. Furthermore, MS exposure resulted in LTP impairment in both infralimbic prefrontal cortex layer 2/3-layer 5 and hippocampal SC-CA1 pathways. Interestingly, no obvious effects of MS on contextual fear conditioning, fear recall as well as extinction training and recall were observed. Innate fear in the elevated plus maze or open field test remained nearly unaffected. These findings provided the first evidence that MS may exaggerate spontaneous recovery after contextual fear extinction, for which LTP impairment in the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus may be responsible, thereby possibly leading to impaired extinction associated with PTSD.

  15. Worms by number.

    PubMed

    Glasby, C J; Glasby, S P; Pleijel, F

    2008-09-22

    This paper investigates alternation patterns in length, shape and orientation of dorsal cirri (fleshy segmental appendages) of phyllodocidans, a large group of polychaete worms (Annelida). We document the alternation patterns in several families of Phyllodocida (Syllidae, Hesionidae, Sigalionidae, Polynoidae, Aphroditidae and Acoetidae) and identify the simple mathematical rule bases that describe the progression of these sequences. Two fundamentally different binary alternation patterns were found on the first four segments: 1011 for nereidiform families and 1010 for aphroditiform families. The alternation pattern in all aphroditiform families matches a simple one-dimensional cellular automaton and that for Syllidae (nereidiform) matches the Fibonacci string sequence. Hesionidae (nereidiform) showed the greatest variation in alternation patterns, but all corresponded to various known substitution rules. Comparison of binary patterns of the first 22 segments using a distance measure supports the current ideas on phylogeny within Phyllodocida. These results suggest that gene(s) involved in post-larval segmental growth employ a switching sequence that corresponds to simple mathematical substitution rules.

  16. Zoology: War of the Worms.

    PubMed

    Telford, Maximilian J; Copley, Richard R

    2016-04-25

    The phylogenetic affinities of Xenacoelomorpha - the phylum comprising Xenoturbella bocki and acoelomorph worms - are debated. Two recent studies conclude they represent the earliest branching bilaterally symmetrical animals, but additional tests may be needed to confirm this notion.

  17. Haemonchus contortus infection in sheep: parasite fecundity correlates with worm size and host lymphocyte counts.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Anthony; McMaster, Kate; Emery, David; Sangster, Nicholas

    2008-05-31

    Two experiments were conducted to elucidate the timing and nature of the sheep immune response to Haemonchus contortus (Barber's pole worm). The first experiment examined the establishment of H. contortus populations and the immune response by comparing a bolus infection of third-stage larvae in naïve sheep with a group previously primed by a trickle infection. The second experiment used staggered doses of ivermectin-resistant larvae to compare the development of adult worms during different durations of trickle infection with ivermectin-sensitive larvae. Infections successfully generated pathological signs of haemonchosis such as anaemia. Image analysis software was used to measure the area and perimeter of worms collected at post-mortem, and the number of eggs present in individual adult females (fecundity) was significantly correlated with worm size. A significant inverse correlation was found between blood lymphocyte counts and worm fecundity. The absence of correlation between worm fecundity and other leukocyte and erythrocyte counts highlighted the specificity of the lymphocyte response. This is the first report of a link between haematology profiles and worm fecundity in haemonchosis. The correlation observed between adult worm size and egg content leads to the hypothesis that egg production in H. contortus is limited by immune regulation of worm size and presumably growth. Mean worm size and fecundity declined as sheep received more prolonged trickle infections before necropsy, confirming previous reports that immune responses to adult worms are enhanced by ongoing larval challenge. Immunohistochemical results showed trends consistent with a Th2 (humoral) immune response which has been implicated in reducing nematode burdens in several species.

  18. The addicted brain craves new neurons: putative role for adult-born progenitors in promoting recovery.

    PubMed

    Mandyam, Chitra D; Koob, George F

    2012-04-01

    Addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder associated with compulsive drug taking, drug seeking and a loss of control in limiting intake, reflected in three stages of a recurrent cycle: binge/intoxication, withdrawal/negative affect, and preoccupation/anticipation ("craving"). This review discusses the role of adult-born neural and glial progenitors in drug seeking associated with the different stages of the addiction cycle. A review of the current literature suggests that the loss of newly born progenitors, particularly in hippocampal and cortical regions, plays a role in determining vulnerability to relapse in rodent models of drug addiction. The normalization of drug-impaired neurogenesis or gliogenesis may help reverse neuroplasticity during abstinence and, thus, may help reduce the vulnerability to relapse and aid recovery.

  19. Effects of enriched housing on functional recovery after spinal cord contusive injury in the adult rat.

    PubMed

    Lankhorst, A J; ter Laak, M P; van Laar, T J; van Meeteren, N L; de Groot, J C; Schrama, L H; Hamers, F P; Gispen, W H

    2001-02-01

    To date, most research performed in the area of spinal cord injury focuses on treatments designed to either prevent spreading lesion (secondary injury) or to enhance outgrowth of long descending and ascending fiber tracts around or through the lesion. In the last decade, however, several authors have shown that it is possible to enhance locomotor function after spinal cord injury in both animals and patients using specific training paradigms. As a first step towards combining such training paradigms with pharmacotherapy, we evaluated recovery of function in adult rats sustaining a spinal cord contusion injury (MASCIS device, 12.5 mm at T8), either housed in an enriched environment or in standard cages (n = 15 in both groups). The animals in the enriched environment were stimulated to increase their locomotor activity by placing water and food on opposite sides of the cage. As extra stimuli, a running wheel and several other objects were added to the cage. We show that exposure to the enriched environment improves gross and fine locomotor recovery as measured by the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor rating scale, the BBB subscale, the Gridwalk, and the Thoracolumbar height test. However, no group differences were found on our electrophysiological parameters nor on the amount of spared white matter. These data justify further studies on enriched housing and more controlled exercise training, with their use as potential additive to pharmacological intervention.

  20. Delayed intramuscular human neurotrophin-3 improves recovery in adult and elderly rats after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Duricki, Denise A.; Hutson, Thomas H.; Kathe, Claudia; Soleman, Sara; Gonzalez-Carter, Daniel; Petruska, Jeffrey C.; Shine, H. David; Chen, Qin; Wood, Tobias C.; Bernanos, Michel; Cash, Diana; Williams, Steven C. R.; Gage, Fred H.

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need for a therapy that reverses disability after stroke when initiated in a time frame suitable for the majority of new victims. We show here that intramuscular delivery of neurotrophin-3 (NT3, encoded by NTF3) can induce sensorimotor recovery when treatment is initiated 24 h after stroke. Specifically, in two randomized, blinded preclinical trials, we show improved sensory and locomotor function in adult (6 months) and elderly (18 months) rats treated 24 h following cortical ischaemic stroke with human NT3 delivered using a clinically approved serotype of adeno-associated viral vector (AAV1). Importantly, AAV1-hNT3 was given in a clinically-feasible timeframe using a straightforward, targeted route (injections into disabled forelimb muscles). Magnetic resonance imaging and histology showed that recovery was not due to neuroprotection, as expected given the delayed treatment. Rather, treatment caused corticospinal axons from the less affected hemisphere to sprout in the spinal cord. This treatment is the first gene therapy that reverses disability after stroke when administered intramuscularly in an elderly body. Importantly, phase I and II clinical trials by others show that repeated, peripherally administered high doses of recombinant NT3 are safe and well tolerated in humans with other conditions. This paves the way for NT3 as a therapy for stroke. PMID:26614754

  1. The Wonder of Worms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Cynthia; Landry, Melinda

    2013-01-01

    Kindergarten students have an amazing capacity for wonder and inquisitiveness--two important characteristics for future scientists. Much of what young students "know" about the natural world stems from their daily interactions with peers, adults, the outdoors, and the media. What can be especially challenging to uncover and redirect are…

  2. Lack of effect of ivermectin on prepatent guinea-worm: a single-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Issaka-Tinorgah, A; Magnussen, P; Bloch, P; Yakubu, A

    1994-01-01

    The effect of ivermectin on prepatent guinea-worm was tested in a single-blind placebo-controlled trial; 400 adults were randomly allocated to a single dose of ivermectin (150 micrograms/kg) or placebo. Fifty-four of the 385 participants who were followed for 15 months developed a total of 69 emergent guinea-worms. There was no significant difference in the proportion of persons with emergent guinea-worms between the 2 treatment groups; 58% appeared in males. 80% of emergent guinea-worms were located below the knee. Migration of guinea-worms in the tissues was not affected. It is concluded that ivermectin has no effect on prepatent guinea-worms nor does it disturb their migration pattern. No adverse reaction to treatment was seen. It appears that ivermectin can be used safely as mass chemotherapy against onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis in areas where guinea-worm is also endemic.

  3. SKNy worms and long life.

    PubMed

    Jasper, Heinrich

    2008-03-21

    Interactions between insulin signaling and stress-response pathways can markedly impact life span. In this issue, Tullet et al. (2008) demonstrate that the worm homolog of Nrf2, called SKN-1, a transcription factor that switches on expression of antioxidant genes, is an important component of such signaling interactions.

  4. Testing a family-centered intervention to promote functional and cognitive recovery in hospitalized older adults.

    PubMed

    Boltz, Marie; Resnick, Barbara; Chippendale, Tracy; Galvin, James

    2014-12-01

    A comparative trial using a repeated-measures design was designed to evaluate the feasibility and outcomes of the Family-Centered Function-Focused-Care (Fam-FFC) intervention, which is intended to promote functional recovery in hospitalized older adults. A family-centered resource nurse and a facility champion implemented a three-component intervention (environmental assessment and modification, staff education, individual and family education and partnership in care planning with follow-up after hospitalization for an acute illness). Control units were exposed to function-focused-care education only. Ninety-seven dyads of medical patients aged 65 and older and family caregivers (FCGs) were recruited from three medical units of a community teaching hospital. Fifty-three percent of patients were female, 89% were white, 51% were married, and 40% were widowed, and they had a mean age of 80.8 ± 7.5. Seventy-eight percent of FCGs were married, 34% were daughters, 31% were female spouses or partners, and 38% were aged 46 to 65. Patient outcomes included functional outcomes (activities of daily living (ADLs), walking performance, gait, balance) and delirium severity and duration. FCG outcomes included preparedness for caregiving, anxiety, depression, role strain, and mutuality. The intervention group demonstrated less severity and shorter duration of delirium and better ADL and walking performance but not better gait and balance performance than the control group. FCGs who participated in Fam-FFC showed a significant increase in preparedness for caregiving and a decrease in anxiety and depression from admission to 2 months after discharge but no significant differences in strain or quality of the relationship with the care recipient from FCGs in the control group. Fam-FFC is feasible and has the potential to improve outcomes for hospitalized older adults and their caregivers.

  5. Critical Considerations for WORM Software Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Brian A.

    1987-01-01

    Addresses advantages and disadvantages of write-once read-many (WORM) optical disks and other software considerations resulting from the write-once nature of WORM media to provide guidelines for determining whether this technology is appropriate for an application. Three brief case studies describe WORM software development efforts. (MES)

  6. Heart rate recovery after the 10-m incremental shuttle walking test in older adults with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Oppewal, Alyt; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I M; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M

    2014-03-01

    Heart rate recovery (HRR) after exercise is an independent predictor for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. To investigate the usefulness of HRR in cardiorespiratory exercise testing in older adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), the aims of this study were (a) to assess HRR in older adults with ID after the 10-m incremental shuttle walking test (ISWT) and (b) its association with personal characteristics (gender, age, distance walked on the ISWT, level of ID, genetic syndrome causing ID, autism, behavioral problems, and peak heart rate (HRpeak)). HRR was assessed after the 10-m incremental shuttle walking test in 300 older adults (>50 years) with borderline to profound ID. HRR was defined as the change from HRpeak during the ISWT to heart rate measured after 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 min of passive recovery. The largest decrease in heart rate was in the first minute of recovery leveling off toward the fifth minute of recovery. An abnormal HHR (≤12 bpm) was seen in 36.1% of the participants with Down syndrome (DS) and in 30.7% of the participants with ID by other causes. After the fifth minute the heart rates of 69.4% of the participants with DS and of 61.4% of the participants with ID by other causes returned to resting levels. HRpeak and distance walked on the ISWT were positively related to all HRR measures. More severe ID was negatively related and having DS positively related to HRR after 3-5 min of recovery. The other characteristics were not significantly associated to HRR. HRR is a potentially useful outcome measure in cardiorespiratory fitness testing of older adults with ID with a direct, objective, and non-invasive measurement. Further research is needed to identify the relation between HRR and adverse health outcomes in this population.

  7. Delayed intervention with transplants and neurotrophic factors supports recovery of forelimb function after cervical spinal cord injury in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Lynskey, James V; Sandhu, Faheem A; Sandhu, Faheen A; Dai, Hai-Ning; Dai, Hail-Ning; McAtee, Marietta; Slotkin, Jonathan R; Slotkin, Jon R; MacArthur, Linda; Bregman, Barbara S

    2006-05-01

    The adult central nervous system is capable of considerable anatomical reorganization and functional recovery after injury. Functional outcomes, however, vary greatly, depending upon size and location of injury, type and timing of intervention, and type of recovery and plasticity evaluated. The present study was undertaken to assess the recovery of skilled and unskilled forelimb function in adult rats after a C5/C6 spinal cord over-hemisection and delayed intervention with fetal spinal cord transplants and neurotrophins. Recovery of forelimb function was evaluated during both target reaching (a skilled behavior) and vertical exploration (an unskilled behavior). Anatomical tracing and immunohistochemistry were used to assess the growth of descending raphespinal, corticospinal, and rubrospinal fibers at the injury site, tracts that normally confer forelimb function. Delayed intervention with transplants and either brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) or neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) restored skilled left forelimb reaching to pre-injury levels. Animals showed recovery of normal reaching movements rather than compensation with abnormal movements. Transplants and NT-3 also improved right forelimb use during an unskilled vertical exploration, but not skilled right reaching. Intervention with fetal transplant tissue supported the growth of descending serotonergic, corticospinal, and rubrospinal fibers into the transplant at the lesion site. The addition of neurotrophins, however, did not significantly increase axonal growth at the lesion site. These studies suggest that the recovery of skilled and unskilled forelimb use is possible after a large cervical spinal cord injury following delayed intervention with fetal spinal cord and neurotrophins. Plasticity of both spared and axotomized descending pathways likely contributes to the functional recovery observed.

  8. Flavonoids and Sesquiterpene Lactones from Artemisia absinthium and Tanacetum parthenium against Schistosoma mansoni Worms

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Luísa Maria Silveira; Gazolla, Matheus Coutinho; Silva Pinto, Pedro Luiz; da Silva, Marcos Paulo Nascimento; de Moraes, Josué

    2016-01-01

    Human schistosomiasis, caused by trematode worms of the genus Schistosoma, is one of the most significant neglected tropical diseases, affecting more than 200 million individuals worldwide and praziquantel is the only available drug to treat this disease. Artemisia absinthium L. and Tanacetum parthenium L. are species popularly used as anthelmintics. We investigated the in vitro schistosomicidal activity of crude extracts of A. absinthium (AA) and T. parthenium (TP) and their isolated compounds. AA and TP, at 200 μg/mL, were active, causing 100% mortality of all adult worms. Chromatographic fractionation of AA leads to isolation of artemetin and hydroxypelenolide, while santin, apigenin, and parthenolide were isolated from TP. Artemetin, hydroxypelenolide, santin, and apigenin, at 100 μM, were inactive against adult worms. Parthenolide (12.5 to 100 μM) caused 100% mortality, tegumental alterations, and reduction of motor activity of all adult worms of S. mansoni, without affecting mammalian cells. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed tegumental morphological alterations and changes on the numbers of tubercles of S. mansoni worms. This report provides the first evidence for the in vitro activity of parthenolide against adult worms of S. mansoni, opening the route to further schistosomicidal studies with this compound. PMID:27980595

  9. India eradicates guinea worm disease.

    PubMed

    Sharma, R

    2000-03-11

    The WHO officially certifies India and other countries of the South East Asian regions as free of guinea worm disease. The eradication was made possible through the efforts of the Indian government to launch a national guinea worm eradication program in 1983-84, and a sustained campaign at the grass-roots level by agencies such as the UN International Children's Fund and the WHO in collaboration with the government. The recognition was based on the report gathered by three members of the 4th International Commission for Certification of Dracunculiasis Eradication, who visited India in November 1999 and conducted an investigation in 62 villages in 5 states where the disease had been endemic. Also, the national eradication program had been evaluated 7 times and showed remarkable achievement.

  10. Plasticity of connections underlying locomotor recovery after central and/or peripheral lesions in the adult mammals

    PubMed Central

    Rossignol, Serge

    2006-01-01

    This review discusses some aspects of plasticity of connections after spinal injury in adult animal models as a basis for functional recovery of locomotion. After reviewing some pitfalls that must be avoided when claiming functional recovery and the importance of a conceptual framework for the control of locomotion, locomotor recovery after spinal lesions, mainly in cats, is summarized. It is concluded that recovery is partly due to plastic changes within the existing spinal locomotor networks. Locomotor training appears to change the excitability of simple reflex pathways as well as more complex circuitry. The spinal cord possesses an intrinsic capacity to adapt to lesions of central tracts or peripheral nerves but, as a rule, adaptation to lesions entails changes at both spinal and supraspinal levels. A brief summary of the spinal capacity of the rat, mouse and human to express spinal locomotor patterns is given, indicating that the concepts derived mainly from work in the cat extend to other adult mammals. It is hoped that some of the issues presented will help to evaluate how plasticity of existing connections may combine with and potentiate treatments designed to promote regeneration to optimize remaining motor functions. PMID:16939980

  11. Ionic mechanism underlying recovery of rhythmic activity in adult isolated neurons

    PubMed Central

    Haedo, Rodolfo J.; Golowasch, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Neurons exhibit long-term excitability changes necessary for maintaining proper cell and network activity in response to various inputs and perturbations. For instance, the adult crustacean pyloric network can spontaneously recover rhythmic activity after complete shutdown resulting from permanent removal of neuromodulatory inputs. Dissociated lobster stomatogastric ganglion (STG) neurons have been shown to spontaneously develop oscillatory activity via excitability changes. Rhythmic electrical stimulation can eliminate these oscillatory patterns in some cells. The ionic mechanisms underlying these changes are only partially understood. We used dissociated crab STG neurons to study the ionic mechanisms underlying spontaneous recovery of rhythmic activity and stimulation-induced activity changes. Similar to lobster neurons, rhythmic activity spontaneously develops in crab STG neurons. Rhythmic hyperpolarizing stimulation can eliminate, but more commonly accelerate the emergence of stable oscillatory activity depending on Ca++ influx at hyperpolarized voltages. Our main finding is that up-regulation of a Ca++-current and down-regulation of a high-threshold K+-current underlies the spontaneous homeostatic development of oscillatory activity. However, because of a non-linear dependence on stimulus frequency, hyperpolarization-induced oscillations appear to be inconsistent with a homeostatic regulation of activity. We find no difference in the activity patterns or the underlying ionic currents involved between neurons of the fast pyloric and the slow gastric mill networks during the first ten days in isolation. Dynamic-clamp experiments confirm that these conductance modifications can explain the observed activity changes. We conclude that spontaneous and stimulation-induced excitability changes in STG neurons can both result in intrinsic oscillatory activity via regulation of the same two conductances. PMID:16807346

  12. A neurochemical signature of visual recovery after extrastriate cortical damage in the adult cat.

    PubMed

    Huxlin, Krystel R; Williams, Jennifer M; Price, Tracy

    2008-05-01

    In adult cats, damage to the extrastriate visual cortex on the banks of the lateral suprasylvian (LS) sulcus causes severe deficits in motion perception that can recover as a result of intensive direction discrimination training. The fact that recovery is restricted to trained visual field locations suggests that the neural circuitry of early visual cortical areas, with their tighter retinotopy, may play an important role in attaining perceptual improvements after damage to higher level visual cortex. The present study tests this hypothesis by comparing the manner in which excitatory and inhibitory components of the supragranular circuitry in an early visual cortical area (area 18) are affected by LS lesions and postlesion training. First, the proportion of LS-projecting pyramidal cells as well as calbindin- and parvalbumin-positive interneurons expressing each of the four AMPA receptor subunits was estimated in layers II and III of area 18 in intact animals. The degree to which LS lesions and visual retraining altered these expression patterns was then assessed. Both LS-projecting pyramidal cells and inhibitory interneurons exhibited long-term, differential reductions in the expression of glutamate receptor (GluR)1, -2, -2/3, and -4 following LS lesions. Intensive visual training post lesion restored normal AMPAR subunit expression in all three cell-types examined. Furthermore, for LS-projecting and calbindin-positive neurons, this restoration occurred only in portions of the ipsi-lesional area 18 representing trained visual field locations. This supports our hypothesis that stimulation of early visual cortical areas-in this case, area 18-by training is an important factor in restoring visual perception after permanent damage to LS cortex.

  13. [Cuticle ultrastructure of the fresh-water horsehair worm Gordionus alpestris (Villot, 1885) (Nematomorpha)].

    PubMed

    Guzeeva, E A; Efeykin, B D; Schmatko, V Yu; Spiridonov, S E

    2015-01-01

    The cuticular structure of the horsehair worm Gordionus alpestris (Villot, 1885) was studied under scanning and transmission electron microscopes. Adult worms were collected in the Syuk River near Nickel' Village in the Republic of Adygea (Russia) in June 2013. In the sampling area, the G. alpestris juveniles parasitize diplopods Pachyiulus krivolutskyi Golovatch, 1977. Similarities with other Nematomorpha species with the known cuticle ultrastucture are discussed.

  14. White - cGMP Interaction Promotes Fast Locomotor Recovery from Anoxia in Adult Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that the white (w) gene in Drosophila possesses extra-retinal functions in addition to its classical role in eye pigmentation. We have previously shown that w+ promotes fast and consistent locomotor recovery from anoxia, but how w+ modulates locomotor recovery is largely unknown. Here we show that in the absence of w+, several PDE mutants, especially cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-specific PDE mutants, display wildtype-like fast locomotor recovery from anoxia, and that during the night time, locomotor recovery was light-sensitive in white-eyed mutant w1118, and light-insensitive in PDE mutants under w1118 background. Data indicate the involvement of cGMP in the modulation of recovery timing and presumably, light-evoked cGMP fluctuation is associated with light sensitivity of locomotor recovery. This was further supported by the observations that w-RNAi-induced delay of locomotor recovery was completely eliminated by upregulation of cGMP through multiple approaches, including PDE mutation, simultaneous overexpression of an atypical soluble guanylyl cyclase Gyc88E, or sildenafil feeding. Lastly, prolonged sildenafil feeding promoted fast locomotor recovery from anoxia in w1118. Taken together, these data suggest that a White-cGMP interaction modulates the timing of locomotor recovery from anoxia. PMID:28060942

  15. Results of an innovative university-based recovery education program for adults with psychiatric disabilities.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Erin C; Sally Rogers, E; Hutchinson, Dori S; Lyass, Asya; MacDonald Wilson, Kim L; Wallace, Lori R; Furlong-Norman, Kathleen

    2008-09-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of an educational approach to psychiatric rehabilitation called the Recovery Center. Using a quasi-experimental design we recruited 97 intervention and 81 comparison participants and examined the intervention's impact on health, mental health, subjective, and role functioning outcomes. Results suggested that this intervention was effective in improving subjective outcomes, especially empowerment and recovery attitudes, both of which received primary emphasis in the intervention. The Recovery Center, which integrates a bio-psychosocial framework with psycho-educational interventions shows promise as a complement to traditional mental health services in developing readiness for rehabilitation and promoting recovery among individuals with severe psychiatric disabilities.

  16. The Role of Religion in the Recovery from Alcohol and Substance Abuse Among Jordanian Adults.

    PubMed

    Al-Omari, Hasan; Hamed, Razan; Abu Tariah, Hashem

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand religious factors role during recovery period among Jordanian receiving treatment for alcohol and substances abuse. Participants were asked to answer open-ended questions related to role of religion on their recovery from alcohol and substances abuse. Content analysis was used to explore the role of religion on their recovery process. One hundred and forty-six clients from two treatment centers participated with two main themes that emerged from the analysis: role of religion and role of religious men. Religion not only helps during the recovery process, but also is considered as a protector from drug and alcohol abuse in the future.

  17. Effects of PAHs on the feeding activity of tubificid worms

    SciTech Connect

    Lotufo, G.R.

    1994-12-31

    Sediment collected from a clean site in LA was sieved through a 125{mu}m screen and contaminated with individual PAHs (pyrene, phenanthrene and dibenzofuran) at increasing concentrations using spiking procedure and with a mixture of the 3 PAHs at a single concentration by shell coating. Feeding activity was estimated by defecation rate. Groups of 15 worms were assigned to defecation chambers in 4 replicates per treatment. Feces were collected daily for 10 days, filtered through a 8{mu}m membrane filter and dry weight measured. Results obtained with phenanthrene and mixture of 3 PAHs indicate that PHA bulk concentration of 100 mg/dry kg and higher significantly reduce tubificid ingestion of sediment. Total recovery to control levels occurred when worms exposed to high concentration of PAH were transferred to clean sediment. Total OC was determined to be 3.2 %.

  18. Two Leucobacter strains exert complementary virulence on Caenorhabditis including death by worm-star formation.

    PubMed

    Hodgkin, Jonathan; Félix, Marie-Anne; Clark, Laura C; Stroud, Dave; Gravato-Nobre, Maria J

    2013-11-04

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been much studied as a host for microbial infection. Some pathogens can infect its intestine, while others attack via its external surface. Cultures of Caenorhabditis isolated from natural environments have yielded new nematode pathogens, such as microsporidia and viruses. We report here a novel mechanism for bacterial attack on worms, discovered during investigation of a diseased and coinfected natural isolate of Caenorhabditis from Cape Verde. Two related coryneform pathogens (genus Leucobacter) were obtained from this isolate, which had complementary effects on C. elegans and related nematodes. One pathogen, Verde1, was able to cause swimming worms to stick together irreversibly by their tails, leading to the rapid formation of aggregated "worm-stars." Adult worms trapped in these aggregates were immobilized and subsequently died, with concomitant growth of bacteria. Trapped larval worms were sometimes able to escape from worm-stars by undergoing autotomy, separating their bodies into two parts. The other pathogen, Verde2, killed worms after rectal invasion, in a more virulent version of a previously studied infection. Resistance to killing by Verde2, by means of alterations in host surface glycosylation, resulted in hypersensitivity to Verde1, revealing a trade-off in bacterial susceptibility. Conversely, a sublethal surface infection of worms with Verde1 conferred partial protection against Verde2. The formation of worm-stars by Verde1 occurred only when worms were swimming in liquid but provides a striking example of asymmetric warfare as well as a bacterial equivalent to the trapping strategies used by nematophagous fungi.

  19. Mortality and immunological recovery among older adults on antiretroviral therapy at a large urban HIV clinic in Kampala, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Semeere, Aggrey Semwendero; Lwanga, Isaac; Sempa, Joseph; Parikh, Sujal; Nakasujja, Noeline; Cumming, Robert; Kambugu, Andrew; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet

    2014-01-01

    Background We describe older (> 50 years) HIV-infected adults after ART initiation, evaluating immunological recovery by age category, considering individual trajectories based on the pre-treatment CD4. We also describe mortality on ART and its risk factors by age category including the contribution of poor immunological recovery at a large urban clinic in Kampala, Uganda. Methods We performed a cohort analysis of adult (>18 years) HIV-infected patients who initiated ART between January 1, 2004 and January 3, 2012. Immunological response was evaluated using mixed-effects linear regression. We described mortality using Kaplan Meier survival methods analyzing for risk factors of mortality using multivariate Weibull survival regression stratified by age category. Results Among 9,806 individuals who initiated ART, mean age was 37 years (S.D 8.8), average follow-up 5.7 years (S.D 1.7) and median baseline CD4 was 115 cells/mm3 (IQR; 42-184). Adults <50 years had on average a higher CD4 increase of 45 cells/mm3 (95% CI; 17, 72, p=0.001) compared to counterparts aged ≥ 60 years. Mortality was highest among older adults compared to younger counterparts. Only CD4 count <100 cells/mm3 after 1 year on ART and a CD4 count less than baseline were associated with a statistically significant higher rate of death among older adults. Conclusion Older adults had a slower immunological response which was associated with mortality, but this mortality was not typically associated with opportunistic infections. Future steps would require more evaluation of possible causes of death among these older individuals if survival on ART is to be further improved. PMID:25171733

  20. The effect of treadmill training on motor recovery after a partial spinal cord compression-injury in the adult rat.

    PubMed

    Multon, Sylvie; Franzen, Rachelle; Poirrier, Anne-Lise; Scholtes, Felix; Schoenen, Jean

    2003-08-01

    Locomotor training on a treadmill is a therapeutic strategy used for several years in human paraplegics in whom it was shown to improve functional recovery mainly after incomplete spinal cord lesions. The precise mechanisms underlying its effects are not known. Experimental studies in adult animals were chiefly performed after complete spinal transections. The objective of this experiment was to assess the effects of early treadmill training on recovery of spontaneous walking capacity after a partial spinal cord lesion in adult rats. Following a compression-injury by a subdurally inflated microballoon, seven rats were trained daily on a treadmill with a body weight support system, whereas six other animals were used as controls and only handled. Spontaneous walking ability in an open field was compared weekly between both groups by two blinded observers, using the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor rating scale. Mean BBB score during 12 weeks was globally significantly greater in the treadmill-trained animals than in the control group, the benefit of training appearing as early as the 2nd week. At week 7, locomotor recovery reached a plateau in both animal groups, but remained superior in trained rats. Daily treadmill training started early after a partial spinal cord lesion in adult rats, which accelerates recovery of locomotion and produces a long-term benefit. These findings in an animal model mimicking the closed spinal cord injury occurring in most human paraplegics are useful for future studies of optimal locomotor training programs, their neurobiologic mechanisms, and their combination with other treatment strategies.

  1. PTSD Symptoms and Self-Rated Recovery among Adult Sexual Assault Survivors: The Effects of Traumatic Life Events and Psychosocial Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Najdowski, Cynthia J.; Ullman, Sarah E.

    2009-01-01

    Prior research has demonstrated that self-blame is predictive of more posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and poorer recovery (Frazier, 2003; Koss, Figueredo, & Prince, 2002), and perceived control over recovery is associated with less distress (Frazier, 2003) in adult sexual assault (ASA) survivors. A structural equation model was…

  2. Worms--a "license to kill".

    PubMed

    Kaminsky, Ronald; Rufener, Lucien; Bouvier, Jacques; Lizundia, Regina; Schorderet Weber, Sandra; Sager, Heinz

    2013-08-01

    Worm infections can cause severe harm and death to both humans and numerous domestic and wild animals. Despite the fact that there are many beneficial worm species, veterinarians, physicians and parasitologists have multiple reasons to combat parasitic worms. The pros and cons of various approaches for the discovery of new control methods are discussed, including novel anthelmintics, vaccines and genetic approaches to identify novel drug and vaccine targets. Currently, the mainstay of worm control remains chemotherapy and prophylaxis. The importance of knowledgeable and wise use of the available anthelmintics is highlighted.

  3. A Dietary Supplementation with Leucine and Antioxidants Is Capable to Accelerate Muscle Mass Recovery after Immobilization in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Savary-Auzeloux, Isabelle; Magne, Hugues; Migné, Carole; Oberli, Marion; Breuillé, Denis; Faure, Magali; Vidal, Karine; Perrot, Marie; Rémond, Didier; Combaret, Lydie; Dardevet, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Prolonged inactivity induces muscle loss due to an activation of proteolysis and decreased protein synthesis; the latter is also involved in the recovery of muscle mass. The aim of the present work was to explore the evolution of muscle mass and protein metabolism during immobilization and recovery and assess the effect of a nutritional strategy for counteracting muscle loss and facilitating recovery. Adult rats (6–8 months) were subjected to unilateral hindlimb casting for 8 days (I0–I8) and then permitted to recover for 10 to 40 days (R10–R40). They were fed a Control or Experimental diet supplemented with antioxidants/polyphenols (AOX) (I0 to I8), AOX and leucine (AOX + LEU) (I8 to R15) and LEU alone (R15 to R40). Muscle mass, absolute protein synthesis rate and proteasome activities were measured in gastrocnemius muscle in casted and non-casted legs in post prandial (PP) and post absorptive (PA) states at each time point. Immobilized gastrocnemius protein content was similarly reduced (-37%) in both diets compared to the non-casted leg. Muscle mass recovery was accelerated by the AOX and LEU supplementation (+6% AOX+LEU vs. Control, P<0.05 at R40) due to a higher protein synthesis both in PA and PP states (+23% and 31% respectively, Experimental vs. Control diets, P<0.05, R40) without difference in trypsin- and chymotrypsin-like activities between diets. Thus, this nutritional supplementation accelerated the recovery of muscle mass via a stimulation of protein synthesis throughout the entire day (in the PP and PA states) and could be a promising strategy to be tested during recovery from bed rest in humans. PMID:24312309

  4. Polyanhydride Nanoparticle Delivery Platform Dramatically Enhances Killing of Filarial Worms

    PubMed Central

    Binnebose, Andrea M.; Haughney, Shannon L.; Martin, Richard; Imerman, Paula M.; Narasimhan, Balaji; Bellaire, Bryan H.

    2015-01-01

    Filarial diseases represent a significant social and economic burden to over 120 million people worldwide and are caused by endoparasites that require the presence of symbiotic bacteria of the genus Wolbachia for fertility and viability of the host parasite. Targeting Wolbachia for elimination is a therapeutic approach that shows promise in the treatment of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. Here we demonstrate the use of a biodegradable polyanhydride nanoparticle-based platform for the co-delivery of the antibiotic doxycycline with the antiparasitic drug, ivermectin, to reduce microfilarial burden and rapidly kill adult worms. When doxycycline and ivermectin were co-delivered within polyanhydride nanoparticles, effective killing of adult female Brugia malayi filarial worms was achieved with approximately 4,000-fold reduction in the amount of drug used. Additionally the time to death of the macrofilaria was also significantly reduced (five-fold) when the anti-filarial drug cocktail was delivered within polyanhydride nanoparticles. We hypothesize that the mechanism behind this dramatically enhanced killing of the macrofilaria is the ability of the polyanhydride nanoparticles to behave as a Trojan horse and penetrate the cuticle, bypassing excretory pumps of B. malayi, and effectively deliver drug directly to both the worm and Wolbachia at high enough microenvironmental concentrations to cause death. These provocative findings may have significant consequences for the reduction in the amount of drug and the length of treatment required for filarial infections in terms of patient compliance and reduced cost of treatment. PMID:26496201

  5. Effects of active and passive recovery on blood lactate and blood pH after a repeated sprint protocol in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Kappenstein, Jennifer; Engel, Florian; Fernández-Fernández, Jaime; Ferrauti, Alexander

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of active (AR) and passive recovery (PR) after a high-intensive repeated sprint running protocol on physiological parameters in children and adults. Blood lactate (La) and blood pH were obtained during two sets of 5 × 5 s all-out sprints and several times during subsequent 30-min recovery in 16 children and 16 adults. End-exercise La was significantly lower and pH significantly higher in children (La: 5.21 ± 2.73 mmol·L-1; pH: 7.37 ± 0.06) compared with adults (La: 10.35 ± 5.76 mmol·L-1; pH: 7.27 ± 0.10) (p < .01). La half-life during postexercise recovery was significantly shorter in children (AR: 436 ± 371 s, PR: 830 ± 349 s) than in adults (AR: 733 ± 371 s, PR: 1361 ± 372 s), as well as in active compared with passive recovery for both age groups (p < .01). The age x recovery interaction for La half-life only approached statistical significance (p = .06). The results suggest a faster lactate disappearance and an earlier return to resting pH after a repeated sprint running protocol in children compared with adults and a less pronounced advantage of active recovery in children.

  6. The Development and Recovery of Social Capital through Community-Based Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, Janis

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the connection between participation in community-based adult learning (CBAL) and the development of social capital. It is based on a life-history study of participation in community-based adult learning opportunities undertaken in two local authority areas in Scotland. A life-history approach was chosen in order to ensure that…

  7. Adult Visual Experience Promotes Recovery of Primary Visual Cortex from Long-Term Monocular Deprivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Quentin S.; Aleem, Salman; Zhou, Hongyi; Pham, Tony A.

    2007-01-01

    Prolonged visual deprivation from early childhood to maturity is believed to cause permanent visual impairment. However, there have been case reports of substantial improvement of binocular vision in human adults following lifelong visual impairment or deprivation. These observations, together with recent findings of adult ocular dominance…

  8. Evaluation of a Rural-Based Community Aged Intensive Recovery Program for Older Adults With Severe Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Sadler, Paul; McIlvena, Andrea

    2015-09-01

    Community Aged Intensive Recovery (CAIR) programs are an integral part of Aged Persons Mental Health Services (APMHS); however, no study has investigated whether a rural-based intensive program benefits older clients with severe mental illness. The current sample comprised 119 older adults who were being managed by a CAIR program from July 2011 to June 2013. Three key results were found: (a) approximately three quarters of clients admitted to the CAIR program remained treated in the community; (b) the program assisted in significantly reducing the level of psychiatric symptom severity from CAIR entry to CAIR exit; and (c) the APMHS team with the CAIR program had a lower psychiatric inpatient rate compared to the APMHS team without the program. The current study highlights the importance of delivering effective rural-based CAIR programs to older adults experiencing severe mental illness.

  9. From Flowers to Worms: Understanding Nature's Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Gardening helps children learn how plants sprout, grow, bloom, and then wither away, leaving seeds behind. Participating in this natural process allows children to experience the stages of life. Suggested gardening activities include studying dandelions, focusing on culture for garden plant selection, and constructing a worm box or worm terrarium…

  10. Sensorimotor experience influences recovery of forelimb abilities but not tissue loss after focal cortical compression in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Marina; Brezun, Jean-Michel; Xerri, Christian

    2011-02-16

    Sensorimotor activity has been shown to play a key role in functional outcome after extensive brain damage. This study was aimed at assessing the influence of sensorimotor experience through subject-environment interactions on the time course of both lesion and gliosis volumes as well as on the recovery of forelimb sensorimotor abilities following focal cortical injury. The lesion consisted of a cortical compression targeting the forepaw representational area within the primary somatosensory cortex of adult rats. After the cortical lesion, rats were randomly subjected to various postlesion conditions: unilateral C5-C6 dorsal root transection depriving the contralateral cortex from forepaw somatosensory inputs, standard housing or an enriched environment promoting sensorimotor experience and social interactions. Behavioral tests were used to assess forelimb placement during locomotion, forelimb-use asymmetry, and forepaw tactile sensitivity. For each group, the time course of tissue loss was described and the gliosis volume over the first postoperative month was evaluated using an unbiased stereological method. Consistent with previous studies, recovery of behavioral abilities was found to depend on post-injury experience. Indeed, increased sensorimotor activity initiated early in an enriched environment induced a rapid and more complete behavioral recovery compared with standard housing. In contrast, severe deprivation of peripheral sensory inputs led to a delayed and only partial sensorimotor recovery. The dorsal rhizotomy was found to increase the perilesional gliosis in comparison to standard or enriched environments. These findings provide further evidence that early sensory experience has a beneficial influence on the onset and time course of functional recovery after focal brain injury.

  11. Global eradication of Guinea worm.

    PubMed

    Periès, H; Cairncross, S

    1997-11-01

    Little more than a decade ago, it was estimated that over three million cases of dracunculiasis occurred worldwide. Since then, the numbers have fallen dramatically, thanks to the water supply initiatives of the 1980s and, more recently, the national guinea worm eradication programmes implemented in a score of endemic countries. Hervé Periès and Sandy Cairncross discuss how eradication will require the containment of cases in the remaining endemic areas, together with the simultaneous strengthening of surveillance to permit the certification of eradication. This aim requires existing strategies to be adapted to maintain their efficacy and also to improve their sustainability and cost-effectiveness. Sudan with its civil war, and more than a hundred thousand reported cases, remains a major obstacle to rapid achievement of the goal.

  12. Enhanced Behavioral Recovery from Sensorimotor Cortex Lesions After Pyramidotomy in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Fanardjian, V. V.; Gevorkyan, O. V.; Mallina, R. K.; Melik-Moussian, A. B.; Meliksetyan, I. B.

    2000-01-01

    Unilateral transection of the bulbar pyramid, performed before the ablation of the ipsilateral sensorimotor cortex, has been shown to facilitate the recovery of operantly conditioned reflexes and compensatory processes in rats. Such enhanced behaviorai recovery was absent when only the sensorimotor cortex was ablated. This phenomenon is explained by the switching of motor activity under the control of the cortico-rubrospinal system. Switching of the descending influences is accomplished through the following loop: cortico-rubrai projectionred nucleus-inferior olive-cerebellum-thalamuscerebral cortex. This suggests that a preliminary lesion of the peripheral part of the system, represented by a descending spinal projection, facilitates the recovery processes to develop during the subsequent destruction of its central part. PMID:11486486

  13. Vaccination with a genetically modified Brugia malayi cysteine protease inhibitor-2 reduces adult parasite numbers and affects the fertility of female worms following a subcutaneous challenge of Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) with B. malayi infective larvae.

    PubMed

    Arumugam, Sridhar; Wei, Junfei; Ward, Danielle; Abraham, David; Lustigman, Sara; Zhan, Bin; Klei, Thomas R

    2014-09-01

    Vaccination of Mongolian gerbils with Brugia malayi cysteine protease inhibitor-2 in which the amino acid Asn66 was mutated to Lys66 (Bm-CPI-2M) resulted in reduced parasite numbers of 48.6% and 48.0% at 42 and 90 days p.i. with B. malayi L3s. Fertility of female worms was also affected at 90 days p.i. In vitro killing of L3s observed in the presence of gerbil peritoneal exudate cells and anti-Bm-CPI-2M sera suggests antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity as a putative protective mechanism. These observations suggest that Bm-CPI-2M is a promising prophylactic and anti-fecundity vaccine candidate.

  14. Cardiorespiratory performance and blood chemistry during swimming and recovery in three populations of elite swimmers: Adult sockeye salmon.

    PubMed

    Eliason, Erika J; Clark, Timothy D; Hinch, Scott G; Farrell, Anthony P

    2013-10-01

    Every year, millions of adult sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) perform an arduous, once-in-a-lifetime migration up the Fraser River (BC, Canada) to return to their natal stream to spawn. The changes in heart rate, stroke volume, and arterio-venous oxygen extraction (i.e., factors determining rates of oxygen delivery to the tissues by the cardiovascular system) have never been directly and simultaneously measured along with whole animal oxygen uptake in a maximally swimming fish. Here, such measurements were made using three sockeye salmon populations (Early Stuart, Chilko and Quesnel), which each performed two consecutive critical swimming speed (Ucrit) challenges to provide a comprehensive quantification of cardiovascular physiology, oxygen status and blood chemistry associated with swimming and recovery. Swim performance, oxygen uptake, cardiac output, heart rate and stroke volume did not significantly vary at rest, during swimming or during recovery between populations or sexes. Despite incomplete metabolic recovery between swim challenges, all fish repeated their swim performance and similar quantitative changes in the cardiorespiratory variables were observed for each swim challenge. The high maximum cardiorespiratory performance and excellent repeat swim performance are clearly beneficial in allowing the salmon to maintain steady ground speeds and reach the distant spawning grounds in a timely manner.

  15. ULTRASTRUCTURAL CHANGES IN Schistosoma mansoni MALE WORMS AFTER in vitro INCUBATION WITH THE ESSENTIAL OIL OF Mentha x villosa Huds

    PubMed Central

    MATOS-ROCHA, Thiago José; CAVALCANTI, Marília Gabriela dos Santos; VERAS, Dyana Leal; FEITOSA, Ana Paula Sampaio; GONÇALVES, Gabriel Gazzoni Araújo; PORTELA-JUNIOR, Nairomberg Cavalcanti; LÚCIO, Ana Silvia Suassuna Carneiro; da SILVA, Anekécia Lauro; PADILHA, Rafael José Ribeiro; MARQUES, Márcia Ortiz Mayo; BARBOSA-FILHO, José Maria; ALVES, Luiz Carlos; BRAYNER, Fábio André

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The essential oil Mentha x villosa (MVEO) has a wide range of actions, including antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal and schistosomicidal actions. The present study aimed to investigate the ultrastructural changes of MVEO on the tegument of adult Schistosoma mansoni. Materials and Methods: Different concentrations of MVEO were tested on S. mansoni adult worms in vitro. Ultrastructural changes on the tegument of these adult worms were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results: The MVEO caused the death of all worms at 500 μg mL-1 after 24 h. After 24h of 500 μg mL-1 MVEO treatment, bubble lesions were observed over the entire body of worms and they presented loss of tubercles in some regions of the ventral portion. In the evaluation by TEM, S. mansoni adult worms treated with MVEO, 500 μg mL-1, presented changes in the tegument and vacuoles in the syncytial matrix region. Glycogen granules close to the muscle fibers were visible. Conclusion: The ability of MVEO to cause extensive ultrastructural damage to S. mansoni adult worms correlates with its schistosomicidal effects and confirms earlier findings with S. mansoni. PMID:26910448

  16. Desensitization and Incomplete Recovery of Hepatic Target Genes After Chronic Thyroid Hormone Treatment and Withdrawal in Male Adult Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ohba, Kenji; Singh, Brijesh Kumar; Sinha, Rohit Anthony; Lesmana, Ronny; Liao, Xiao-Hui; Ghosh, Sujoy; Refetoff, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Clinical symptoms may vary and not necessarily reflect serum thyroid hormone (TH) levels during acute and chronic hyperthyroidism as well as recovery from hyperthyroidism. We thus examined changes in hepatic gene expression and serum TH/TSH levels in adult male mice treated either with a single T3 (20 μg per 100 g body weight) injection (acute T3) or daily injections for 14 days (chronic T3) followed by 10 days of withdrawal. Gene expression arrays from livers harvested at these time points showed that among positively-regulated target genes, 320 were stimulated acutely and 429 chronically by T3. Surprisingly, only 69 of 680 genes (10.1%) were induced during both periods, suggesting desensitization of the majority of acutely stimulated target genes. About 90% of positively regulated target genes returned to baseline expression levels after 10 days of withdrawal; however, 67 of 680 (9.9%) did not return to baseline despite normalization of serum TH/TSH levels. Similar findings also were observed for negatively regulated target genes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis of representative positively regulated target genes suggested that acetylation of H3K9/K14 was associated with acute stimulation, whereas trimethylation of H3K4 was associated with chronic stimulation. In an in vivo model of chronic intrahepatic hyperthyroidism since birth, adult male monocarboxylate transporter-8 knockout mice also demonstrated desensitization of most acutely stimulated target genes that were examined. In summary, we have identified transcriptional desensitization and incomplete recovery of gene expression during chronic hyperthyroidism and recovery. Our findings may be a potential reason for discordance between clinical symptoms and serum TH levels observed in these conditions. PMID:26866609

  17. An introduction to worm lab: from culturing worms to mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Jyotiska; Parihar, Manish; Pires-daSilva, Andre

    2011-01-11

    This protocol describes procedures to maintain nematodes in the laboratory and how to mutagenize them using two alternative methods: ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) and 4, 5', 8-trimethylpsoralen combined with ultraviolet light (TMP/UV). Nematodes are powerful biological systems for genetics studies because of their simple body plan and mating system, which is composed of self-fertilizing hermaphrodites and males that can generate hundreds of progeny per animal. Nematodes are maintained in agar plates containing a lawn of bacteria and can be easily transferred from one plate to another using a pick. EMS is an alkylating agent commonly used to induce point mutations and small deletions, while TMP/UV mainly induces deletions. Depending on the species of nematode being used, concentrations of EMS and TMP will have to be optimized. To isolate recessive mutations of the nematode Pristionchus pacificus, animals of the F2 generation were visually screened for phenotypes. To illustrate these methods, we mutagenized worms and looked for Uncoordinated (Unc), Dumpy (Dpy) and Transformer (Tra) mutants.

  18. Internet worms and global routing instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowie, James; Ogielski, Andy T.; Premore, B. J.; Yuan, Yougu

    2002-07-01

    We analyze the global BGP routing instabilities observed during the Code Red II and Nimda worm attacks in July and September 2001, respectively. Compelling analysis is shown on the correlation between the observed instabilities and the worm attacks. We analyze router failure modes that can be triggered by the abnormal traffic during the worm attack and how they can lead to global routing instability. Independent research has partially confirmed that such failure modes can and likely do occur in practice. Highly detailed large-scale simulations help close the loop, indicating that such failure modes do in fact trigger the kind of widespread BGP instabilities that were observed empirically.

  19. Maturing out, natural recovery, and dual diagnosis: What are the implications for older adult mental health services?

    PubMed

    Searby, Adam; Maude, Phil; McGrath, Ian

    2015-12-01

    In 1962, Charles Winick proposed that addiction was a self-limiting process, whereby individuals stopped using substances once the stresses of life transitions ceased. The notion of maturing out, as labelled by Winick, often forms the basis of the natural recovery movement in alcohol and other drug (AOD) research, aiding the notion that older individuals either cease their substance use or fall victim to the higher mortality rates prevalent in substance-using populations. As more consumers present to adult mental health treatment settings with co-occurring substance use disorders, the idea that individuals will simply cease using AOD is outdated. Given the future challenges of an ageing population, it is prudent to explore those who fail to mature out of substance use, as well as challenge the notion that older adult mental health services rarely encounter substance-using individuals. The present study explores Winick's research in the context of an ageing population and older adult mental health services. It also ponders the proposition put forth in subsequent research that older individuals with lifelong substance use switch to substances that are easier to obtain and better tolerated by their ageing bodies.

  20. Guinea worm in southern Ghana: its epidemiology and impact on agricultural productivity.

    PubMed

    Belcher, D W; Wurapa, F K; Ward, W B; Lourie, I M

    1975-03-01

    In southern Ghana guinea worm disease was found to occur almost exclusively in villages dependent upon pond water during the dry season. The recent occurrence of guinea worm for the first time in many villages in the survey area suggests that the disease is spreading. The risk of increasing disease in the Accra plains is serious, because almost half of the 159 villages surveyed use pond water, and residents frequently travel to endemic areas. In this study adult male farmers were at greatest risk of becoming infected. The average work loss in untreated adults was more than 5 weeks. Because guinea worm disease is seasonal, conciding with peak agricultural activities, and few alternative labor sources are available for the incapacitated farmer, a marked reduction in agricultural output occurs. Additional research is needed to guide health education programs, to evaluate the effectiveness of chemical control of cyclops in ponds, and to develop low-cost improved rural water supplies.

  1. WDDD: Worm Developmental Dynamics Database.

    PubMed

    Kyoda, Koji; Adachi, Eru; Masuda, Eriko; Nagai, Yoko; Suzuki, Yoko; Oguro, Taeko; Urai, Mitsuru; Arai, Ryoko; Furukawa, Mari; Shimada, Kumiko; Kuramochi, Junko; Nagai, Eriko; Onami, Shuichi

    2013-01-01

    During animal development, cells undergo dynamic changes in position and gene expression. A collection of quantitative information about morphological dynamics under a wide variety of gene perturbations would provide a rich resource for understanding the molecular mechanisms of development. Here, we created a database, the Worm Developmental Dynamics Database (http://so.qbic.riken.jp/wddd/), which stores a collection of quantitative information about cell division dynamics in early Caenorhabditis elegans embryos with single genes silenced by RNA-mediated interference. The information contains the three-dimensional coordinate values of the outlines of nuclear regions and the dynamics of the outlines over time. The database provides free access to 50 sets of quantitative data for wild-type embryos and 136 sets of quantitative data for RNA-mediated interference embryos corresponding to 72 of the 97 essential embryonic genes on chromosome III. The database also provides sets of four-dimensional differential interference contrast microscopy images on which the quantitative data were based. The database will provide a novel opportunity for the development of computational methods to obtain fresh insights into the mechanisms of development. The quantitative information and microscopy images can be synchronously viewed through a web browser, which is designed for easy access by experimental biologists.

  2. WDDD: Worm Developmental Dynamics Database

    PubMed Central

    Kyoda, Koji; Adachi, Eru; Masuda, Eriko; Nagai, Yoko; Suzuki, Yoko; Oguro, Taeko; Urai, Mitsuru; Arai, Ryoko; Furukawa, Mari; Shimada, Kumiko; Kuramochi, Junko; Nagai, Eriko; Onami, Shuichi

    2013-01-01

    During animal development, cells undergo dynamic changes in position and gene expression. A collection of quantitative information about morphological dynamics under a wide variety of gene perturbations would provide a rich resource for understanding the molecular mechanisms of development. Here, we created a database, the Worm Developmental Dynamics Database (http://so.qbic.riken.jp/wddd/), which stores a collection of quantitative information about cell division dynamics in early Caenorhabditis elegans embryos with single genes silenced by RNA-mediated interference. The information contains the three-dimensional coordinate values of the outlines of nuclear regions and the dynamics of the outlines over time. The database provides free access to 50 sets of quantitative data for wild-type embryos and 136 sets of quantitative data for RNA-mediated interference embryos corresponding to 72 of the 97 essential embryonic genes on chromosome III. The database also provides sets of four-dimensional differential interference contrast microscopy images on which the quantitative data were based. The database will provide a novel opportunity for the development of computational methods to obtain fresh insights into the mechanisms of development. The quantitative information and microscopy images can be synchronously viewed through a web browser, which is designed for easy access by experimental biologists. PMID:23172286

  3. Viability of developmental stages of Schistosoma mansoni quantified with xCELLigence worm real-time motility assay (xWORM).

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Gabriel; Loukas, Alex; Brindley, Paul J; Irelan, Jeff T; Smout, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    Infection with helminth parasites causes morbidity and mortality in billions of people and livestock worldwide. Where anthelmintic drugs are available, drug resistance is a major problem in livestock parasites, and a looming threat to public health. Monitoring the efficacy of these medicines and screening for new drugs has been hindered by the lack of objective, high-throughput approaches. Several cell monitoring technologies have been adapted for parasitic worms, including video-, fluorescence-, metabolism enzyme- and impedance-based tools that minimize the screening bottleneck. Using the xCELLigence impedance-based system we previously developed a motility-viability assay that is applicable for a range of helminth parasites. Here we have improved substantially the assay by using diverse frequency settings, and have named it the xCELLigence worm real-time motility assay (xWORM). By utilizing strictly standardized mean difference analysis we compared the xWORM output measured with 10, 25 and 50 kHz frequencies to quantify the motility of schistosome adults (human blood flukes) and hatching of schistosome eggs. Furthermore, we have described a novel application of xWORM to monitor movement of schistosome cercariae, the developmental stage that is infectious to humans. For all three stages, 25 kHz was either optimal or near-optimal for monitoring and quantifying schistosome motility. These improvements in methodology sensitivity should enhance the capacity to screen small compound libraries for new drugs both for schistosomes and other helminth pathogens at large.

  4. Do 'Early Birds' Get the Healthier Worm?

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163902.html Do 'Early Birds' Get the Healthier Worm? Late-to-bed types ... 2017 FRIDAY, March 3, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Early birds may have a leg up over night owls ...

  5. Of water and worms: Guinea worm re-emergence in Niger.

    PubMed

    Royal, Nathaniel

    2014-03-01

    This paper aims to provide a better understanding of the re-emergence of Guinea worm into the water bodies of the Tillabéri region of the Niger Sahel. It examines the period of re-emergence and subsequent decline from 2002 until 2006. Using a geographic information system combined with a statistical approach to examine the location data of lakes with Guinea worm-associated cases, it is shown that the locations of population centers with cases of Guinea worm disease, the locations of lakes infected with Guinea worm larva, and features of the built environment are correlated in space.

  6. Optimal design for an end face engagement worm gear with multiple worm-wheel meshing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xingqiao; Zhu, Weibing; Chen, Yonghong; Chen, Shouan; Wang, Jinge

    2017-01-01

    To solve the problem for lacking a special mechanical transmission that could provide multiple outputs with high transmission efficiency and good lubrication in the modern industrial, a novel worm gear, named end face engagement worm gear, with multiple worm-wheel meshing is proposed for the first time. The essential parameters for the worm gear are optimized to enhance lubrication and meshing properties. Moreover, analysis of variance(ANOVA) is applied to determine the optimum levels and to determine the influence of parameters. The ANOVA results show that the novel end face engagement worm gear with multiple worm wheels provides high lubrication(the lubrication angle is more than 89°) and meshing performance(the induce normal curvature is less than 0.0002 mm-1). The interaction between center distance and roller slant distance most strongly influences the lubrication angle(contributed 51.6%), followed by the parameters of center distance(contributed 25.0%), roller slant distance(contributed 16.4%), tooth angle of gear, gear ratio, and roller radius. In addition, roller radius most strongly influences the induced normal curvature(contributed 39.4%), followed by roller slant distance(contributed 15.2%), tooth angle of the gear(contributed 9.0%), center distance, and gear ratio. The proposed worm gear helps to enrich the no-backlash high precision worm drive and the optimal design method can provide a useful reference on performance improvement of other worm gear.

  7. Assessment of worm gearing for helicopter transmissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaiko, Lev

    1990-01-01

    A high-efficiency hydrostatic worm gear drive for helicopter transmissions is assessed. The example given is for a large cargo helicopter with three 4000-kW engines and transmission reduction ratio of 110. Also contained are: an efficiency calculation, a description of the test stand for evaluating the feasibility of worm gear hydrostatic mesh, a weight calculation, and a comparison with conventional helicopter transmissions of the same power and transmission reduction ratio.

  8. Maslow and mental health recovery: a comparative study of homeless programs for adults with serious mental illness.

    PubMed

    Henwood, Benjamin F; Derejko, Katie-Sue; Couture, Julie; Padgett, Deborah K

    2015-03-01

    This mixed-methods study uses Maslow's hierarchy as a theoretical lens to investigate the experiences of 63 newly enrolled clients of housing first and traditional programs for adults with serious mental illness who have experienced homelessness. Quantitative findings suggests that identifying self-actualization goals is associated with not having one's basic needs met rather than from the fulfillment of basic needs. Qualitative findings suggest a more complex relationship between basic needs, goal setting, and the meaning of self-actualization. Transforming mental health care into a recovery-oriented system will require further consideration of person-centered care planning as well as the impact of limited resources especially for those living in poverty.

  9. Maslow and Mental Health Recovery: A Comparative Study of Homeless Programs for Adults with Serious Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Derejko, Katie-Sue; Couture, Julie; Padgett, Deborah K.

    2014-01-01

    This mixed-methods study uses Maslow’s hierarchy as a theoretical lens to investigate the experiences of 63 newly enrolled clients of housing first and traditional programs for adults with serious mental illness who have experienced homelessness. Quantitative findings suggests that identifying self-actualization goals is associated with not having one’s basic needs met rather than from the fulfillment of basic needs. Qualitative findings suggest a more complex relationship between basic needs, goal setting, and the meaning of self-actualization. Transforming mental health care into a recovery-oriented system will require further consideration of person-centered care planning as well as the impact of limited resources especially for those living in poverty. PMID:24518968

  10. Time course of the effect of praziquantel on Schistosoma mansoni attachment in vitro: comparison with its effects on worm length and motility.

    PubMed

    da Silva, S P; Noël, F

    1995-01-01

    We report herein that praziquantel inhibits the capacity of adult male Schistosoma mansoni to attach to the bottom of a glass dish and produces a diminution of worm length and motility, acting under a similar concentration and time dependency. After removal of 1 microM praziquantel from the medium, the worms progressively recuperated their initial length and motility without recovering their attachment capability. The absence of calcium or presence of 1 microM verapamil did not change the praziquantel-induced effect on worm attachment, causing only a transient decrease in worm length and motility. The present data indicate that the diminution of motility induced by praziquantel results from the progressive contraction of the longitudinal musculature of the worm. In contrast, the loss of attachment should not be causally related to the contraction of the worm since these two praziquantel-induced effects have distinct patterns of response under some experimental conditions.

  11. Association of heart rate recovery after exercise with indices of obesity in healthy, non-obese adults.

    PubMed

    Dimkpa, Uchechukwu; Oji, Jude O

    2010-03-01

    We aimed at determining whether body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) are associated with heart rate recovery (HRR) and to demonstrate which of the three indices of obesity, is the strongest predictor of HRR in apparently healthy non-obese adults. Three hundred and twenty-five subjects aged 18-66 years participated in the study. Anthropometric indices were measured, and subjects performed cycle ergometer exercise at 75-85% maximum heart rate. Heart rate (HR) was measured during the last minute of exercise and in the first minute of post-exercise recovery. A partial correlation test and a multiple linear regression analysis, after adjusting for age and peak oxygen uptake indicated that the best predictors of HRR were BMI in males and WHR in females. The present data suggest that, HRR is independently related to indices of obesity-BMI, WC, and WHR and strengthen the usefulness of these anthropometric indices in predicting cardiovascular risks. In addition, the findings suggest that BMI in men and WHR in women best express the relationship between obesity and cardiovascular risks.

  12. Prevalence of giant kidney worm (Dioctophyma renale) in wild mink (Mustela vison) in Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L. David; Tracy, Shawn P.

    2001-01-01

    Of 138 wild mink (Mustela vison) from eastern Minnesota, 27% contained Dioctophyma renale, primarily in the right kidney. No significant difference between prevalence in adult male and immature male mink was found, nor between the prevalence in males versus female mink. Thirteen worms were found in one male mink, representing the highest documented infection intensity of a single wild mink.

  13. Identifying effective and feasible interventions to accelerate functional recovery from hospitalization in older adults: A randomized controlled pilot trial.

    PubMed

    Deer, Rachel R; Dickinson, Jared M; Fisher, Steve R; Ju, Hyunsu; Volpi, Elena

    2016-07-01

    Hospitalization induces functional decline in older adults. Many geriatric patients fail to fully recover physical function after hospitalization, which increases the risk of frailty, disability, dependence, re-hospitalization, and mortality. There is a lack of evidence-based therapies that can be implemented following hospitalization to accelerate functional improvements. The aims of this Phase I clinical trial are to determine 1) the effect size and variability of targeted interventions in accelerating functional recovery from hospitalization and 2) the feasibility of implementing such interventions in community-dwelling older adults. Older patients (≥65years, n=100) will be recruited from a single site during hospitalization for an acute medical condition. Subjects will be randomized to one of five interventions initiated immediately upon discharge: 1. protein supplementation, 2. in-home rehabilitation plus placebo supplementation, 3. in-home rehabilitation plus protein supplementation, 4. single testosterone injection, or 5. isocaloric placebo supplementation. Testing will occur during hospitalization (baseline) and at 1 and 4weeks post-discharge. Each testing session will include measures of muscle strength, physical function/performance, body composition, and psychological function. Physical activity levels will be continuously monitored throughout study participation. Feasibility will be determined through collection of the number of eligible, contacted, and enrolled patients; intervention adherence and compliance; and reasons for declining enrollment and study withdrawal. This research will determine the feasibility of post-hospitalization strategies to improve physical function in older adults. These results will also provide a foundation for performing larger, multi-site clinical trials to improve physical function and reduce readmissions in geriatric patents.

  14. Stellantchasmus falcatus (Digenea: Heterophyidae) in Cambodia: Discovery of Metacercariae in Mullets and Recovery of Adult Flukes in an Experimental Hamster

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Jong-Yil; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Jeoung, Hoo-Gn; Sinuon, Muth; Socheat, Duong

    2016-01-01

    Stellantchasmus falcatus (Digenea: Heterophyidae) is first reported from Cambodia through recovery of the metacercariae from mullet fish and adult flukes from an experimentally infected hamster. We purchased 7 mullets, Chelon macrolepis, in a local market of Phnom Penh, Cambodia, and each of them was examined by the artificial digestion method on May 2010. The metacercariae of S. falcatus were detected in all mullets (100%) examined, and their average density was 177 per fish. They were elliptical, 220×168 μm in average size. They were orally infected to an hamster to obtain adult flukes. Adults recovered at day 10 post infection were observed with a light microscope and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). They were small, 450×237 μm in average size, had a small oral sucker (41×50 μm), subglobular pharynx (29×21 μm), slender esophagus (57 μm), long and thick-walled expulsor (119×32 μm), spherical ovary (58×69 μm), and 2 ovoid testes (right: 117×74 μm; left: 114×63 μm). Eggs were small, yellow, and 23×12 μm in average size. In SEM observations, tegumental spines were densely distributed on the whole tegument, and single small type I sensory papillae were distributed around the lip of oral sucker. The small ventral sucker was dextrally located and had 8 type I sensory papillae on the left margin. It has been first confirmed in the present study that the mullet, C. macrolepis, is playing the role of a second intermediate host of S. falcatus in Cambodia. PMID:27658608

  15. WORM - WINDOWED OBSERVATION OF RELATIVE MOTION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, F.

    1994-01-01

    The Windowed Observation of Relative Motion, WORM, program is primarily intended for the generation of simple X-Y plots from data created by other programs. It allows the user to label, zoom, and change the scale of various plots. Three dimensional contour and line plots are provided, although with more limited capabilities. The input data can be in binary or ASCII format, although all data must be in the same format. A great deal of control over the details of the plot is provided, such as gridding, size of tick marks, colors, log/semilog capability, time tagging, and multiple and phase plane plots. Many color and monochrome graphics terminals and hard copy printer/plotters are supported. The WORM executive commands, menu selections and macro files can be used to develop plots and tabular data, query the WORM Help library, retrieve data from input files, and invoke VAX DCL commands. WORM generated plots are displayed on local graphics terminals and can be copied using standard hard copy capabilities. Some of the graphics features of WORM include: zooming and dezooming various portions of the plot; plot documentation including curve labeling and function listing; multiple curves on the same plot; windowing of multiple plots and insets of the same plot; displaying a specific on a curve; and spinning the curve left, right, up, and down. WORM is written in PASCAL for interactive execution and has been implemented on a DEC VAX computer operating under VMS 4.7 with a virtual memory requirement of approximately 392K of 8 bit bytes. It uses the QPLOT device independent graphics library included with WORM. It was developed in 1988.

  16. Establishment of adult Parelaphostrongylus tenuis, patent infections, and acquired immunity after experimental infection of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus).

    PubMed

    Duffy, Michael S; Greaves, Trent A; Burt, Michael D B

    2004-04-01

    Experimental Parelaphostrongylus tenuis infections were established in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and an atypical host, red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus). Groups of deer were fed 10, 25, or 100 third-stage larvae (L3) of P. tenuis and received a single equivalent challenge exposure at varying intervals. Infections were monitored up to 6 yr in white-tailed deer and up to 2.8 yr in red deer. The prepatent period in white-tailed deer varied from 91 to 1,072 days (381 +/- 374) and in red deer from 105 to 358 days (167 +/- 77). Adult worms lived for up to 6 yr in white-tailed deer. Although most had patent infections until necropsy, latent periods were observed regardless of season. Adult worms lived for up to 2.8 yr in red deer, and patent infections persisted for 20-363 days (152 +/- 106). Patent infections were correlated with the presence of adult worms in blood vessels and sinuses of both deer species. Worms were restricted to the subdural space in all deer with latent and occult infections. Adult worm recovery in white-tailed deer fed 10 or 25 L3 corresponded to the mean intensities reported in natural infections of white-tailed deer Recovery from deer fed 100 L3 was not typical of natural infection intensities. Adult P. tenuis established in all groups of red deer, but neurologic disease was restricted to animals fed 100 L3. Acute neurologic disease was associated with subdural hemorrhage and occurred at 11 mo postinfection in 2 red deer. The absence of postchallenge patent periods and the persistence of occult infections indicated that challenge exposures did not establish. These data indicate that acquired immunity to P. tenuis was established by 6 mo postinfection in both white-tailed and red deer. Latent periods in white-tailed deer and latent infections in red deer reinforce the need for a reliable diagnostic assay.

  17. Prior swimming exercise favors muscle recovery in adult female rats after joint immobilization

    PubMed Central

    Petrini, Ana Claudia; Ramos, Douglas Massoni; Gomes de Oliveira, Luana; Alberto da Silva, Carlos; Pertille, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To evaluate the efficacy of pre-exercise on immobilization and subsequent recovery of white gastrocnemius (WG) and soleus (SOL) muscles of female rats. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty, 8-month-old, female Wistar rats were randomly and evenly allocated to six groups: sedentary (S); immobilized sedentary (IS); immobilized/rehabilitated sedentary (IRS); trained (T); immobilized trained (IT); and immobilized/rehabilitated trained (IRT). For four months, T, IT and IRT group animals performed swimming exercise (three sessions per week, 60 minutes per session), while S, IS and IRS groups animals remained housed in cages. After this period, the left hindlimb of the animals from the IS, IRS, IT and IRT groups was immobilized for five days, with the ankle at 90°. After removal of the orthosis, animals from the IRS and IRT groups followed a rehabilitation program based on swimming (five sessions per week, 60 minutes per session) for two weeks. [Results] Immobilization significantly reduced the cross-sectional area of the white gastrocnemius muscle; no changes were observed in the soleus muscles of the trained animals. Transforming growth factor-β1 protein levels were similar among the trained groups. [Conclusion] Prior swimming prevents hypotrophy of the soleus muscle after immobilization, and protein levels reflected the adaptive capacity of the skeletal muscle. PMID:27512267

  18. Status epilepticus during early development disrupts sexual behavior in adult female rats: recovery with sexual experience.

    PubMed

    Coria-Avila, Genaro Alfonso; Paredes-Ramos, Pedro; Galán, Ricardo; Herrera-Covarrubias, Deissy; López-Meraz, Maria-Leonor

    2014-05-01

    Female sexual behavior is sensitive to stress and diseases. Some studies have shown that status epilepticus (SE) can affect sexual proceptivity and receptivity in female rats and also increases reject responses towards males. However, epidemiologic studies indicate that SE is more frequent in young individuals. Herein, we assessed the effects of SE in infant females on their sexual behavior during adulthood. Thirteen-day-old (P13) rat pups received intraperitoneal injections of lithium chloride (3 mEq/kg). Twenty hours later, at P14, SE was induced by subcutaneous injection of pilocarpine hydrochloride (100 mg/kg s.c.). Control animals were given an equal volume of saline subcutaneously. The animals were weaned at P21 and, later in adulthood, were ovariectomized and hormone-primed with estradiol+progesterone, and their sexual behavior assessed during 4 separate trials of 30 min each with a stud male. Our results indicate that proceptive behaviors (solicitations and hops and darts) were impaired during the first trial, but no alterations were observed for receptivity and attractivity. By trial 3, all SE females displayed normal proceptivity. These results indicate that SE in infancy readily affects proceptivity in a reversible manner. We discuss the role of sexual experience in recovery.

  19. Disulfide-Functionalized Diblock Copolymer Worm Gels.

    PubMed

    Warren, Nicholas J; Rosselgong, Julien; Madsen, Jeppe; Armes, Steven P

    2015-08-10

    Two strategies for introducing disulfide groups at the outer surface of RAFT-synthesized poly(glycerol monomethacrylate)-poly(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate) (PGMA-PHPMA, or Gx-Hy for brevity) diblock copolymer worms are investigated. The first approach involved statistical copolymerization of GMA with a small amount of disulfide dimethacrylate (DSDMA, or D) comonomer to afford a G54-D0.50 macromolecular chain transfer agent (macro-CTA); this synthesis was conducted in relatively dilute solution in order to ensure mainly intramolecular cyclization and hence the formation of linear chains. Alternatively, a new disulfide-based bifunctional RAFT agent (DSDB) was used to prepare a G45-S-S-G45 (or (G45-S)2) macro-CTA. A binary mixture of a non-functionalized G55 macro-CTA was utilized with each of these two disulfide-based macro-CTAs in turn for the RAFT aqueous dispersion polymerization of 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate (HPMA). By targeting a PHPMA DP of 130 and systematically varying the molar ratio of the two macro-CTAs, a series of disulfide-functionalized diblock copolymer worm gels were obtained. For both formulations, oscillatory rheology studies confirmed that higher disulfide contents led to stronger gels, presumably as a result of inter-worm covalent bond formation via disulfide/thiol exchange. Using the DSDB-based macro-CTA led to the strongest worm gels, and this formulation also proved to be more effective in suppressing the thermosensitive behavior that is observed for the nondisulfide-functionalized control worm gel. However, macroscopic precipitation occurred when the proportion of DSDB-based macro-CTA was increased to 50 mol %, whereas the DSDMA-based macro-CTA could be utilized at up to 80 mol %. Finally, the worm gel modulus could be reduced to that of a nondisulfide-containing worm gel by reductive cleavage of the inter-worm disulfide bonds using excess tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine (TCEP) to yield thiol groups. These new biomimetic worm gels are

  20. Astounding recovery after resection of an intradural nerve sheath tumor in an adult male from Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    King, Paul; Khan, Saleen; Inamullah, Ovais

    2015-01-01

    Background: Spinal cord tumors can be classified as intramedullary, intradural extramedullary, or extradural. The differential diagnosis of spinal cord tumors includes meningiomas, astrocytomas, ependymomas, metastasis, nerve sheath tumors such as schwannomas or neurofibromas, and multiple sclerosis plaques. Radiology can provide clues to the type of tumor, but a pathology evaluation of a specimen is necessary to provide an accurate diagnosis. These tumors can cause a variety of neurological symptoms from spinal cord compression including pain, weakness, and paresthesia. They are treated by surgical resection, with a variety of outcomes possible depending on the severity of the preoperative symptoms, location and extent of the tumor, and efficacy of the surgery performed. Case Description: A 59-year-old male from Vietnam came to the Atlanta Medical Center for evaluation of severe ride sided hemiparesis and paresthesias. He first noticed alterations in his handwriting and quickly deteriorated to the point of being unable to walk or move his right arm. A cervical spinal mass was identified and analyzed on magnetic resonance imaging. Surgical resection was performed under a microscope in a joint operation between an orthopedic surgeon and neurosurgeon. A specimen of the tumor was sent to pathology for further evaluation. Conclusion: The mass was determined to be an intradural extramedullary schwannoma. The severity of the patient's symptoms and the location and size of the tumor made full recovery unlikely and postoperative quadriplegia a real possibility. The tumor was surgically resected, which led surprisingly, however, to a full and prompt resolution of the patient's symptoms. Less than 2 weeks after surgery, the patient was able to walk and had almost fully regained use of his hands. PMID:26425395

  1. Functional recovery and social outcome after cerebral infarction in young adults.

    PubMed

    Neau, J P; Ingrand, P; Mouille-Brachet, C; Rosier, M P; Couderq, C; Alvarez, A; Gil, R

    1998-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the return to work, the poststroke depression and the quality of life after a cerebral infarction in young adults and was conducted on 71 consecutive young patients (aged 15-45 years) affected by a cerebral infarct who were hospitalized for the first time and discharged at least 1 year before the study. Data about risk factors, etiology, side and territory of stroke, social characteristics of the patient (age, sex, profession, educational level, family situation), poststroke seizures, recurrent stroke, other vascular events, and deaths were collected. Neurological deficits were graded with the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Stroke Scale. Poststroke depression (PSD) was quantified using the DSM-IIIR criteria and the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale. Outcomes were rated with the Ranking Scale, the Barthel Index and the Glasgow Outcome Scale. Quality of life was assessed with the Sickness Impact Profile. Follow-up information was obtained by interview and neurological examination. Follow-up information was obtained in 65 patients at a mean of 31.7 +/- 13.0 (range 12-59) months, as 2 patients died and 4 were lost to follow-up and were thus excluded from this study. Poststroke seizures occurred in 7 patients (10.8%) and recurrent strokes in 4 patients (6.2%), but none were fatal. The outcome after stroke among survivors was usually good, since more than two-thirds of the patients (69.8%) reported no problem, 11.1% moderate handicap and one-fifth major handicap. Forty-six patients (73%) returned to work: the time period ranging from several days after stroke to 40 months, with a mean of 8 months. However, adjustments in their occupation were necessary for 12 patients (26.1%). PSD was common, since 48.31% of the patients were classified as depressed. PSD was associated with the localization of the infarct (carotid territory), a severe disability, a bad general outcome, and an absence of return to work. Their opinion about

  2. Ginkgo biloba extract facilitates recovery from penetrating brain injury in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Attella, M J; Hoffman, S W; Stasio, M J; Stein, D G

    1989-07-01

    Adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats received 100 mg/kg Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) intraperitoneally for 30 days. GBE reduced overall activity and decreased sensitivity to light in the open field maze. The rats were also less responsive to noxious stimuli after 13 days of treatment with GBE. After the last injection, all subjects were trained on a delayed-spatial alternation task. Subsequent to acquisition of the spatial task, the rats received either sham operations and saline or bilateral frontal cortex lesions treated with either saline or GBE. Thirty additional days of treatment began on the day of injury, and open field behavior, analgesia, and metabolic activity measurements were again measured. The rats with lesions treated with saline were more active than their GBE-treated counterparts and sham controls but there were no differences in response to illumination or noxious stimuli. Retention of the delayed-spatial alternation indicated that rats with lesions treated with GBE were less impaired than brain-injured subjects receiving saline treatment. Histological examination showed that GBE reduced the extent of brain swelling in response to the injury.

  3. [Nutritional implications on treatment and recovery of adult patients with chronic diarrhea].

    PubMed

    Dichi, I; Papini-Berto, S J; Dichi, J B; Di Lello, A; Victória, C R; Burini, R C

    1991-01-01

    The nutritional assessment by 24 hour-dietary recall, anthropometry and blood-components measurements was undertaken in 23 adult patients, 17 males and 6 females suffering of chronic diarrhea from pancreatitis (30%), inflammatory bowel disease (22%), short intestine syndrome (9%) and unknown diarrhea (35%). The nutritional assessment was done at the entry and repeated at the discharge of the hospitalization that averaged 35 days, during which the patients received specific medical treatment along with obstipating diets. The hospitalization resulted in overall improvement of the patients either clinically by reducing their defecation rate or nutritionally by increasing their protein-energy intake and the values of anthropometry and blood components (albumin, free-tryptophan and lymphocytes). When the patients where divided into two groups based on their fecal-fat output one could note the better nutritional response of the group showing steatorrhea than the non-steatorrhea group, with the serum albumin and the arm-muscle circumference being discriminatory between groups. However even in the better recovered patients the indicative values of a satisfactory nutritional status were not accomplished. Thus, these data suggest that besides the overall nutritional improvement seen in the studied chronic diarrhea patients the full-nutrition recovering would demand either or both a longer hospitalization and/or an early-aggressive nutritional support.

  4. Illumination for Worm Tracking and Behavioral Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yemini, Eviatar; Kerr, Rex A.; Schafer, William R.

    2016-01-01

    Neurobiological research in genetically tractable organisms relies heavily on robust assays for behavioral phenotypes. The simple body plan of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans makes it particularly amenable to the use of automated microscopy and image analysis to describe behavioral patterns quantitatively. This protocol provides an approach for obtaining uniform illumination during worm tracking. Good lighting can be more of an art than a science. Once the system is set up, it will be necessary to play with it, testing the results after each adjustment to ensure that the analysis software is able to clearly identify the worm and its boundaries. Although the protocol was developed for use in a single-worm tracker, it addresses factors important for the generation of reproducible, standardized images in all systems. PMID:22135668

  5. Misidentification of Onchocerca volvulus as guinea worm.

    PubMed

    Eberhard, M L; Melemoko, G; Zee, A K; Weisskopf, M G; Ruiz-Tiben, E

    2001-12-01

    Over the past 10 years, the status of human infection with guinea worm (Dracunculus medinensis) in the Central African Republic (CAR) has been difficult to ascertain. It is unclear if indigenous cases are occurring and whether cases are migrating into the CAR from surrounding countries. A team of investigators visited the CAR in July-August 2000, to attempt to ascertain the presence of indigenous transmission. No cases of true guinea-worm infection (i.e. dracunculiasis) were detected, but three cases of human infection with Onchocerca volvulus, each of which had been misidentified as dracunculiasis, were detected. The unusual presentation of skin blisters and extraction of an intact female O. volvulus are described. As a result of this investigation, and the confusion of onchocerciasis being misidentified as dracunculiasis, the presence of endemic transmission of guinea worm in the CAR remains in question.

  6. Guinea worm infection in northern Nigeria: Reflections on a disease approaching eradication.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Brian; Greenwood, Alice; Bradley, Andrew

    2017-02-14

    Global eradication of the Guinea worm (Dracunculus medinensis) is near, although perhaps delayed a little by the discovery of a transmission cycle in dogs. It is, therefore, an appropriate time to reflect on the severe impact of this infection on the life of the communities where it was endemic prior to the start of the global eradication programme in 1981. From 1971-74, we conducted a series of unpublished studies on Guinea worm in a group of villages in Katsina State, northern Nigeria, where the infection was highly endemic. These studies demonstrated the high rate of infection in affected communities, the frequent recurrence of the infection in some subjects and the long-standing disability that remained in some infected individuals. Immunological studies showed a high level of immediate hypersensitivity to adult worm and larval antigens but a down-regulation of TH1 type T cell responses to worm antigens. Freeing communities such as those described in this paper from the scourge of Guinea worm infection for good will be an important public health triumph. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Theophylline Regulates Inflammatory and Neurotrophic factor Signals in Functional Recovery after C2-Hemisection in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Singh, LP; Devi, TS; Nantwi, KD

    2012-01-01

    Recovery of respiratory activity in an upper cervical hemisection model (C2H) of spinal cord injury (SCI) can be induced by systemic theophylline administration 24–48 h after injury. The objectives in the present study are (1) to identify pro-inflammatory and neurotrophic factors expressed after C2H and (2) molecular signals involved in functional recovery. Four groups of adult female rats classified as (i) sham (SH) controls, (ii) subjected to a left C2 hemisection (C2H) only, (iii) C2H rats administered theophylline for 3 consecutive days 2 days after C2H (C2H-T Day 5) and (iv) C2H rats treated with theophylline for 3 consecutive days 2 days after C2H and then weaned for 12 days (C2H-T Day 17) prior to assessment of respiratory function and molecular analysis were employed. Corresponding Sham controls, C2H untreated (vehicle only controls) and C2H treated (theophylline) rats were sacrificed, C3-C6 spinal cord segments quickly dissected and left (ipsilateral) hemi spinal cord and right (contralateral) hemi spinal cord were separately harvested 2 days post surgery. SHAM operated and C2H untreated-controls corresponding to C2H-T Day 5 and C2H-T Day 17 rats, respectively, were prepared similarly. Messenger RNA levels for pro-inflammatory genes (TXNIP, IL-1β, TNF-α and iNOS) and neurotrophic and survival factors (BDNF, GDNF, and Bcl2) were analyzed by real time quantitative PCR. Gene expression pattern was unaltered in SH rats. TXNIP, iNOS, BDNF, GDNF and Bcl2 mRNA levels were significantly increased in the ipsilateral hemi spinal cord in C2H rats. BDNF, GDNF and Bcl2 levels remained elevated in the ipsilateral hemi spinal cord in C2H-T Day 5 rats. In this same group, there was further enhancement in TXNIP and IL-1β while iNOS returned to basal levels. Theophylline increased DNA binding activity of transcription factors - cyclic AMP responsive element (CRE) binding protein (CREB) and pro-inflammatory NF-κB. Messenger RNA levels for all genes returned to basal

  8. Live Worms Found Amid STS-107 Debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    NASA Project Manager Fred Ahmay holds a Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) container in which C. elegans nemotodes (round worms) were found. The container was part of a middeck experiment that was among Columbia's debris recovered in East Texas. The worms were found alive after flying on Columbia's last mission, STS-107. The experiment was designed to verify a new synthetic nutrient solution for an International Space Station 'model' specimen planned to be used extensively for ISS gene expression studies and was sponsored by the NASA Ames Research Center. For more information on STS-107, please see GRIN Columbia General Explanation

  9. Filarial Worms Reduce Plasmodium Infectivity in Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Aliota, Matthew T.; Chen, Cheng-Chen; Dagoro, Henry; Fuchs, Jeremy F.; Christensen, Bruce M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Co-occurrence of malaria and filarial worm parasites has been reported, but little is known about the interaction between filarial worm and malaria parasites with the same Anopheles vector. Herein, we present data evaluating the interaction between Wuchereria bancrofti and Anopheles punctulatus in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Our field studies in PNG demonstrated that An. punctulatus utilizes the melanization immune response as a natural mechanism of filarial worm resistance against invading W. bancrofti microfilariae. We then conducted laboratory studies utilizing the mosquitoes Armigeres subalbatus and Aedes aegypti and the parasites Brugia malayi, Brugia pahangi, Dirofilaria immitis, and Plasmodium gallinaceum to evaluate the hypothesis that immune activation and/or development by filarial worms negatively impact Plasmodium development in co-infected mosquitoes. Ar. subalbatus used in this study are natural vectors of P. gallinaceum and B. pahangi and they are naturally refractory to B. malayi (melanization-based refractoriness). Methodology/Principal Findings Mosquitoes were dissected and Plasmodium development was analyzed six days after blood feeding on either P. gallinaceum alone or after taking a bloodmeal containing both P. gallinaceum and B. malayi or a bloodmeal containing both P. gallinaceum and B. pahangi. There was a significant reduction in the prevalence and mean intensity of Plasmodium infections in two species of mosquito that had dual infections as compared to those mosquitoes that were infected with Plasmodium alone, and was independent of whether the mosquito had a melanization immune response to the filarial worm or not. However, there was no reduction in Plasmodium development when filarial worms were present in the bloodmeal (D. immitis) but midgut penetration was absent, suggesting that factors associated with penetration of the midgut by filarial worms likely are responsible for the observed reduction in malaria parasite infections

  10. Results from Two Randomized Clinical Trials Evaluating the Impact of Quarterly Recovery Management Checkups with Adult Chronic Substance Users

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Christy K; Dennis, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    Aims Post-discharge monitoring and early re-intervention have become standard practice when managing numerous chronic conditions. These two experiments tested the effectiveness of Recovery Management Checkup (RMC) protocols for adult chronic substance users. Intervention RMC included quarterly monitoring; motivational interviewing to provide personalized feedback and to resolve ambivalence about substance use; treatment linkage, engagement, and retention protocols to increase the amount of treatment received. Participants and Setting Recruited from sequential addiction treatment admissions, participants in the two experiments were on average 36 and 38 years of age, mostly female (59% vs. 46%), African American (85% vs. 80%), and met past-year criteria for dependence (87% vs. 76%). Design Participants in both experiments were randomly assigned to the RMC or control condition and interviewed quarterly for 2 years. Measurement The Global Appraisal of Individual Needs (GAIN) was the main assessment instrument. Findings RMC participant outcomes were better than control participants in both experiments. Effect sizes were larger in the second experiment in terms of reducing days to readmission (Cohen’s d=0.41 vs. d=0.22), successive quarters in the community using substances (d= −0.32 vs. −0.19), past-month symptoms of abuse/dependence (d=−0.23 vs. −0.02) and increasing the days of abstinence over 2 years (d=+0.29 vs. 0.04). Conclusion RMC, which provided ongoing monitoring and linkage, is feasible to conduct and is effective for adults with chronic substance dependence. PMID:19344441

  11. Morphological and molecular characterization of adult worms of Leucochloridium paradoxum Carus, 1835 and L. perturbatum Pojmańska, 1969 (Digenea: Leucochloridiidae) from the great tit, Parus major L., 1758 and similarity with the sporocyst stages.

    PubMed

    Rząd, I; Hofsoe, P; Panicz, R; Nowakowski, J K

    2014-12-01

    Unlike the sporocyst stages, adult leucochloridiid digeneans are difficult to differentiate. Sporocyst broodsacs can be identified on the basis of their colour and banding pattern, but in the absence of broodsacs and when experimental infection cannot be performed, tentative morphological identification needs to be verified, and molecular techniques offer a tool to do this. In this study, adult leucochloridiid digeneans were collected from the great tit (Parus major) found dead at three localities at or near the Baltic Sea coast (Hel, Bukowo-Kopań and Szczecin) in northern Poland. On the basis of differences in their morphological characters, Hel specimens were tentatively assigned to Leucochloridium perturbatum, Bukowo-Kopań and Szczecin specimens being identified tentatively as L. paradoxum. Subsequent ribosomal DNA sequence analysis confirmed the identification of these leucochloridiid flukes. Nucleotide sequences discriminating between the two species were identical to those used by earlier authors as characteristic of two distinctly different sporocyst broodsacs representing L. perturbatum and L. paradoxum.

  12. WormAssay: a novel computer application for whole-plate motion-based screening of macroscopic parasites.

    PubMed

    Marcellino, Chris; Gut, Jiri; Lim, K C; Singh, Rahul; McKerrow, James; Sakanari, Judy

    2012-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis is caused by filarial nematode parasites, including Brugia malayi. Adult worms live in the lymphatic system and cause a strong immune reaction that leads to the obstruction of lymph vessels and swelling of the extremities. Chronic disease leads to the painful and disfiguring condition known as elephantiasis. Current drug therapy is effective against the microfilariae (larval stage) of the parasite, but no drugs are effective against the adult worms. One of the major stumbling blocks toward developing effective macrofilaricides to kill the adult worms is the lack of a high throughput screening method for candidate drugs. Current methods utilize systems that measure one well at a time and are time consuming and often expensive. We have developed a low-cost and simple visual imaging system to automate and quantify screening entire plates based on parasite movement. This system can be applied to the study of many macroparasites as well as other macroscopic organisms.

  13. WormAssay: A Novel Computer Application for Whole-Plate Motion-based Screening of Macroscopic Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Marcellino, Chris; Gut, Jiri; Lim, K. C.; Singh, Rahul; McKerrow, James; Sakanari, Judy

    2012-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis is caused by filarial nematode parasites, including Brugia malayi. Adult worms live in the lymphatic system and cause a strong immune reaction that leads to the obstruction of lymph vessels and swelling of the extremities. Chronic disease leads to the painful and disfiguring condition known as elephantiasis. Current drug therapy is effective against the microfilariae (larval stage) of the parasite, but no drugs are effective against the adult worms. One of the major stumbling blocks toward developing effective macrofilaricides to kill the adult worms is the lack of a high throughput screening method for candidate drugs. Current methods utilize systems that measure one well at a time and are time consuming and often expensive. We have developed a low-cost and simple visual imaging system to automate and quantify screening entire plates based on parasite movement. This system can be applied to the study of many macroparasites as well as other macroscopic organisms. PMID:22303493

  14. Increased abundance of frost mRNA during recovery from cold stress is not essential for cold tolerance in adult Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Udaka, H; Percival-Smith, A; Sinclair, B J

    2013-10-01

    Frost (Fst) is a candidate gene associated with the response to cold in Drosophila melanogaster because Fst mRNA accumulation increases during recovery from low temperature exposure. We investigated the contribution of Fst expression to chill-coma recovery time, acute cold tolerance and rapid cold hardening (RCH) in adult D. melanogaster by knocking down Fst mRNA expression using GAL4/UAS-mediated RNA interference. In this experiment, four UAS-Fst and one tubulin-GAL4 lines were used. We predicted that if Fst is essential for cold tolerance phenotypes, flies with low Fst mRNA levels should be less cold tolerant than flies with normal levels of cold-induced Fst mRNA. Cold-induced Fst abundance and recovery time from chill-coma were not negatively correlated in male or female flies. Survival of 2 h exposures to sub-zero temperatures in Fst knockdown lines was not lower than that in a control line. Moreover, a low temperature pretreatment increased survival of severe cold exposure in flies regardless of Fst abundance level during recovery from cold stress, suggesting that Fst expression is not essential for RCH. Thus, cold-induced Fst accumulation is not essential for cold tolerance measured as chill-coma recovery time, survival to acute cold stress and RCH response in adult D. melanogaster.

  15. The economic costs of quarterly monitoring and recovery management checkups for adults with chronic substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Michael L; French, Michael T; McCollister, Kathryn E; Scott, Christy K

    2011-09-01

    Recovery management checkups (RMCs) for clients with substance use disorders reduce the time from relapse to treatment reentry, increase treatment retention, and improve long-term outcomes. The objectives of this article are to calculate and compare the economic costs of providing outcome monitoring (OM) only with those of providing OM + RMC to help understand the feasibility of disseminating this model more widely. We estimate the total and incremental costs of OM and OM + RMC using data from a recently completed randomized controlled trial with adult chronic substance users (N = 446). Adding RMC to OM increased total intervention costs by about 50% per person per year ($707 to $1,283) and quarter ($177 to $321). It cost an average of $834 to identify a person in relapse and $2,699 to identify, link, and retain them in treatment. The increased costs of RMC are modest relative to the substantial societal costs of chronic substance users returning to regular use, crime, and other risk behaviors.

  16. A Study to Examine the Uses of Personal Strength in Relation to Mental Health Recovery in Adults with Serious Mental Illnesses: A Research Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Huiting; Yuan, Peng; Cui, Song Song; Yen, Melissa Sng Siok

    2015-01-01

    This study will explore the relationships among strengths self-efficacy, resourcefulness, stigma experience and mental health recovery in community-dwelling adults with serious mental illnesses. Mental health practices have focued on psychopathphysiology. Stigma heavily plagued clients with mental illnesses and is one of the greatest barriers to mental health recovery. Personal strengths like strengths self-efficacy, people’s confidence in using their personal strengths, and resourcefulness, the ability to carry out daily activities, have been linked to positive mental health. However, the linkage between strengths self-efficacy, resourcefulness and mental health recovery remains uncharted. A cross-sectional, descriptive, mixed methods study will be conducted. A funded study by the Sigma Theta Tau, Upsilon Eta Chapter, August 2013, involving a convenience sample of 100 participants is planned. Included are community dwelling adults between 21 to 65 years old having been diagnosed with serious mental illnesses. Clients with current co-occurring substance abuse will be excluded. Participants complete questionnaires and undergo an interview. Correlations among the study variables will be examined. Regression analysis will determine if recovery can be predicted by strengths self-efficacy, resourcefulness and stigma experience. Interview data will be transcribed and analyzed by thematic analysis. This study will look beyond clients’ disability to focus on their recovery and healing capacities such as strengths self-efficacy and resourcefulness. Findings will expand our knowledge about mental health recovery. Knowledge gained from this study may pave the way for future nursing strategies to aid recovery and inform the development of positive, strengths-based interventions. PMID:26973963

  17. Proteomic analysis of different period excretory secretory products from Clonorchis sinensis adult worms: molecular characterization, immunolocalization, and serological reactivity of two excretory secretory antigens-methionine aminopeptidase 2 and acid phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Minghui; Hu, Kunhua; Liu, Wei; Li, Hongyu; Chen, Jingfang; Yu, Xinbing

    2013-03-01

    The excretory secretory products (ESP) of Clonorchis sinensis are the causative agents of clonorchiasis and biliary diseases. The parasites' ESP play important roles in host-parasite interactions. The protein compositions of ESP at different secretory times are different and have not been systemically investigated so far. In this study, we collected ESP from six different periods (0-3 h, 3-6 h, 6-12 h, 12-24 h, 24-36 h, and 36-48 h) from C. sinensis adults. Using a shotgun LC-MS/MS analysis, we found 187, 80, 103, 58, 248, and 383 proteins, respectively. Among these proteins, we selected methionine aminopeptidase 2 (MAP-2, presented in 24-36 h and 36-48 h ESP) and acid phosphatase (AP, presented in 3-6 h, 12-24 h, 24-36 h, and 36-48 h ESP) for further study. Bioinformatics analysis showed that CsMAP-2 has metallopeptidase family M24, unique lysine residue-rich and acidic residue-rich domain, SGTS motif, and auto-cleavage point; and that CsAP has possible signal sequence cleavage site, acid phosphate domain, and two histidine acid phosphatases active regions. CsMAP-2 and CsAP's cDNA have 1,425 bp and1,410 bp ORF, encoding 475 and 470 amino acid proteins and weighing 55.3840 kDa and 55.2875 kDa, respectively. MAP-2 and AP were identified as antigens present in the ESP and circulating antigens by immunoblot analysis, which were also found expressing in the eggs, metacercaria, and adult stages of C. sinensis. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that they were located in tegument and intestinal cecum of adult. MTT assay showed that they could inhibit hepatic stellate cell line (LX-2) proliferation. These findings presented the compositions of different period excretory secretary products from C. sinensis adults.

  18. Practical experiences with worm gearing for spacecraft power transmission applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purdy, William; Mccown, William

    1989-01-01

    Experiences of several organizations using worm gearing for spacecraft are discussed. Practical aspects and subtleties of using worm gearing for design and operation is included. Knowledge gained from these applications is analyzed, and guidelines for usage are proposed.

  19. Elastic mesh braided worm robot for locomotive endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Manwell, Thomas; Vítek, Tomáš; Ranzani, Tommaso; Menciassi, Arianna; Althoefer, Kaspar; Liu, Hongbin

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new design of worm robot whose body is constructed using a novel crimped elastic mesh braid inspired by the earthworm. The proposed worm robot is intended for inspection within the human body via natural orifices. The design and fabrication procedure of the worm robot are given in the paper. The imitation of peristalsis, used by natural worms, is used to control the worm robot for the purpose of producing motion while causing minimal trauma to biological tissue. The forward locomotive function of the worm robot has been tested on both a flat surface and in a rubber tube. It is shown that the worm robot is capable of propagating forwards for both test conditions in a form similar to the earthworm. The test results indicate the proposed worm robot design has promising application for natural tube inspection, like the colon and the esophagus.

  20. Guinea worm disease--the final chapter?

    PubMed

    Muller, Ralph

    2005-11-01

    The global campaign for the eradication of dracunculiasis has succeeded in reducing the incidence of guinea worm disease by >99% in the past 20 years. This has been accomplished by the provision of safe drinking water supplies, filtration of drinking water, chemical control of intermediate hosts, case containment and, crucially, local health-education initiatives.

  1. Ultrastructural characterization of male and female Physaloptera rara (Spirurida: Physalopteridae): feline stomach worms.

    PubMed

    Naem, Soraya; Asadi, Reza

    2013-05-01

    Physaloptera rara (Spirurida: Physalopteridae) has been found in dogs, coyotes, raccoons, wolves, foxes, cats, and bobcats in North America. The parasites' developmental cycles involve insects, including beetles, cockroaches, and crickets, as intermediate hosts. The nematodes firmly attach to the wall of the stomach and duodenum, where they feed on the mucosa and suck blood. Frequent movement of these nematodes results in erosions and ulcers in the gastrointestinal tract. The present study reports the morphological features of adult P. rara using scanning electron microscopy. Adult worms were removed from the stomach of an infected domestic cat. Male and female worms measured 25-29 and 27-41 mm, respectively. The worms were stout and the cuticle was reflected over the lips to form a large cephalic collarette with fine transverse striations. The worms possessed two large, simple triangular lateral pseudolabia, each armed with one external tooth, three internal teeth, two submedian cephalic papillae, an amphid, and three porous-like circumscribed regions. The internal margins of the lips had a pair of cuticular folds. At the anterior end of both male and female worms, an excretory pore was located on the ventral side and a pair of lateral ciliated cervical papillae was seen. The vulva was anterior to the middle of the body of female worms. The tail ends of the female worms were stumpy, with two large phasmids near their extremities. The males' tails bore large lateral alae. Ventral ornamentation, in male worms, was composed of three different cuticular patterns; coblestone-like formations, longitudinal cuticular ridges, and rows of bead-like structures. The spicules were unequal and dissimilar; the right spicule had a thick end and the left spicule had a sharp tip. At the posterior end of the males, four pairs of stalked precloacal papillae, three pairs of postcloacal papillae, and two phasmids were present. Three and four sessile papillae were seen directly

  2. Cardiac autonomic and haemodynamic recovery after a single session of aerobic exercise with and without blood flow restriction in older adults.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Marina Lívia Venturini; Sardeli, Amanda Veiga; Souza, Giovana Vergínia De; Bonganha, Valéria; Santos, Lucas Do Carmo; Castro, Alex; Cavaglieri, Cláudia Regina; Chacon-Mikahil, Mara Patrícia Traina

    2016-12-28

    This study investigated the autonomic and haemodynamic responses to different aerobic exercise loads, with and without blood flow restriction (BFR). In a crossover study, 21 older adults (8 males and 13 females) completed different aerobic exercise sessions: low load without BFR (LL) (40% VO2max), low load with BFR (LL-BFR) (40% VO2max + 50% BFR) and high load without BFR (HL) (70% VO2max). Heart rate variability and haemodynamic responses were recorded during rest and throughout 30 min of recovery. HL reduced R-R interval, the root mean square of successive difference of R-R intervals and high frequency during 30 min of recovery at a greater magnitude compared with LL and LL-BFR. Sympathetic-vagal balance increased the values for HL during 30 min of recovery at a greater magnitude when compared with LL and LL-BFR. Post-exercise haemodynamic showed reduced values of double product at 30 min of recovery compared to rest in LL-BFR, while HL showed higher values compared to rest, LL-BFR and LL. Reduced systolic blood pressure was observed for LL-BFR (30 min) compared to rest. Autonomic and haemodynamic responses indicate lower cardiovascular stress after LL-BFR compared to HL, being this method, besides the functional adaptations, a potential choice to attenuate the cardiovascular stress after exercise in older adults.

  3. Association between nematode larvae and "low worm egg count diarrhoea" in sheep in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Caroline; Bell, Kevin; Forshaw, David; Besier, Brown

    2009-10-28

    Nine flocks of sheep with a high prevalence (>30%) of diarrhoea and severe breech faecal soiling were investigated over a three-year period to examine the causes of diarrhoea in sheep with low mean faecal worm egg counts (WEC). All nine flocks were located in the southwest of Western Australia in areas with a winter rainfall pattern (Mediterranean climate). There was no difference (p=0.304) in WEC of diarrhoeic sheep (loose faeces and severe breech faecal soiling) and "normal sheep" (pelleted faeces and mild or no breech faecal soiling). Teladorsagia (Ostertagia) circumcincta and Trichostrongylus spp. were the nematodes most commonly identified by total worm counts and differentiation of larvae recovered from faeces and pasture. Larval stages of strongyle worms accounted for the largest proportion of total worm counts in both diarrhoeic and normal sheep. Adult worm burdens were small in most sheep. Diarrhoeic sheep had higher numbers of fourth stage larvae than normal sheep (p=0.046). There was no histopathological evidence of bacterial or viral causes of diarrhoea in any of the flocks or bacteriological evidence of bacterial infections associated with diarrhoea. Two flocks had marginal selenium glutathione peroxidase (selenium) levels. One flock was diagnosed with helminthosis based on rising WEC and high total worm counts. Larval hypersensitivity diarrhoea, nutritional factors or a combination of these two factors were the most likely causes of diarrhoea in the other eight flocks based on exclusion of other known causes of diarrhoea. Treatment with moxidectin and an ivermectin controlled-release capsule did not change faecal moisture content of treated sheep compared to untreated sheep three to five weeks after treatment. The findings suggest that the immune response to strongyle larvae may explain some cases of low WEC diarrhoea observed during winter-spring in immunocompetent mature sheep grazing in Mediterranean environments.

  4. Worms to the rescue: can worm glycans protect from autoimmune diseases?

    PubMed

    Kuijk, Loes M; van Die, Irma

    2010-04-01

    Autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases represent a significant health burden, especially in Western societies. For the majority of these diseases, no cure exists. Recently, research on parasitic worms (helminths) has demonstrated great potential for whole worms, their eggs or their excretory/secretory proteins in down-regulating inflammatory responses both in vitro and in vivo, in various disease models and, in some cases, even in clinical trials. The worms are thought to induce Th2 and regulatory T cells, interfere with Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling and to down-regulate Th17 and Th1 responses. The molecular mechanisms underlying the worms' ability to modulate the host immune response are not well understood, and many hypotheses have been proposed to explain the observed immune modulation. Increasing evidence suggests that carbohydrate structures (glycans), for example, phosphorylcholine-modified glycans or Galbeta1-4(Fucalpha1-3)GlcNAc- (Lewis X, Le(X)) containing glycans, expressed by the worms contribute to these modulating properties by their interaction with antigen presenting cells. Helminths express a broad variety of protein- and lipid-linked glycans on their surface and on secretory products. These glycans differ in amount and composition and several of these structures are species specific. However, worms also express glycan antigens that are found in a wide variety of different species. Some of these "common" worm glycans are particularly interesting with regard to regulating host responses, because they have the potential to interact with C-type lectins on dendritic cells and thereby may interfere with T-cell polarization. Helminths and helminth-derived molecules form a novel and promising group of therapeutics for autoinflammatory diseases. However, much has to be learned about the molecular mechanisms behind the helminth-mediated antiinflammatory properties. This review will describe some of the emerging evidence in selected disease areas as

  5. Parametric analysis of the end face engagement worm gear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xingqiao; Wang, Jueling; Wang, Jinge; Chen, Shouan; Yang, Jie

    2015-11-01

    A novel specific type of worm drive, so-called end face engagement worm gear(EFEWD), is originally presented to minimize or overcome the gear backlash. Different factors, including the three different types, contact curves, tooth profile, lubrication angle and the induced normal curvature are taken into account to investigate the meshing characteristics and create the profile of a novel specific type of worm drive through mathematical models and theoretical analysis. The tooth of the worm wheel is very specific with the sine-shaped tooth which is located at the alveolus of the worm and the tooth profile of a worm is generated by the meshing movement of the worm wheel with the sine-shaped tooth, but just the end face of the worm(with three different typical meshing types) is adapted to meshing, and therefore an extraordinary manufacturing methods is used to generate the profile of the end face engagement worm. The research results indicates that the bearing contacts of the generated conjugate hourglass worm gear set are in line contacts, with certain advantages of no-backlash, high precision and high operating efficiency over other gears and gear systems besides the end face engagement worm gear drive may improve bearing contact, reduce the level of transmission errors and lessen the sensitivity to errors of alignment. Also, the end face engagement worm can be easily made with superior meshing and lubrication performance compared with the conventional techniques. In particular, the meshing and lubrication performance of the end face engagement worm gear by using the end face to meshing can be increased over 10% and 7%, respectively. This investigate is expect to provide a new insight on the design of the future no-backlash worm drive for industry.

  6. Dracunculiasis (guinea worm disease) in the Bume (Nyangaton) people of South Omo, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Jemaneh, L; Taticheff, S

    1993-07-01

    A village-to-village search for active dracunculiasis cases was carried out in an endemic area of the Bume (Nyangaton) tribe of South Omo Region, Ethiopia. A total of 21 cases, of which 6, 5, and 10 had pre-emergent, emergent and complicated Guinea worm disease, respectively, were identified. Twenty-two worms, ranging from 1-3 per patient, were removed mainly from the lower limbs; worm appearance seems to be associated more with the right limb. Adults between the ages of 20-30 years are highly affected and infection appears to be sex-related as 14/21 (66.7%) of the cases are females. Water procured from water-holes drug in dry river beds provides an ideal situation for the transmission of dracunculiasis amongst the tribesmen. The knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of the Bume people towards the disease and the public health significance of dracunculiasis are discussed in relation to the current goal of the national and global Guinea worm eradication programme.

  7. “Missing Pieces” – Functional, Social, and Environmental Barriers to Recovery for Vulnerable Older Adults Transitioning From Hospital to Home

    PubMed Central

    Greysen, S. Ryan; Hoi-Cheung, Doug; Garcia, Veronica; Kessell, Eric; Sarkar, Urmimala; Goldman, Lauren; Schneidermann, Michelle; Critchfield, Jeffrey; Pierluissi, Edgar; Kushel, Margot

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent interventions to improve transitions in care for older adults focus on hospital discharge processes. Limited data exists on patient concerns for care at home after discharge, particularly for vulnerable older adults. Design We used in-depth, in-person interviews to describe barriers to recovery at home after leaving the hospital for vulnerable, older adults. We purposefully sampled by age, gender, race, and English proficiency to ensure a wide breadth of experiences. Interviews were independently coded by two investigators using the constant comparative method. Thematic analysis was performed by the entire research team with diverse backgrounds in primary care, hospital medicine, geriatrics, and nursing. Setting and Participants We interviewed vulnerable older adults (low income/health literacy, and/or Limited English Proficiency) who were enrolled in a larger discharge interventional study within 30 days of discharge from an urban public hospital. All participants were interviewed in their native language (English, Spanish, or Chinese). Results We interviewed 24 patients: mean age 63 (55–84), 66% male, 67% Non-white, 16% Spanish-speaking, 16% Chinese-speaking. We identified an overarching theme of “missing pieces” in the plan for post-discharge recovery at home from which three specific sub-themes emerged: (1) functional limitations and difficulty with mobility and self-care tasks; (2) social isolation and lack of support from family and friends; (3) challenges from poverty and the built environment at home. In contrast, patients described mostly supportive experiences with traditional focuses of transition care such as following prescribed medication and diet regimens. Conclusion Hospital-based discharge interventions that focus on traditional aspects of care may overlook social and functional gaps in post-discharge care at home for vulnerable older adults. Post-discharge interventions that address these challenges may be necessary to

  8. Factors Affecting the Survival of Upstream Migrant Adult Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 9 of 11.

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, Dennis D.; Mueller, Robert P.

    1993-06-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is developing conservation planning documentation to support the National Marine Fisheries Service`s (NMFS) recovery plan for Columbia Basin salmonid stocks that are currently listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Information from the conservation planning documentation will be used as a partial scientific basis for identifying alternative conservation strategies and to make recommendations toward conserving, rebuilding, and ultimately removing these salmon stocks from the list of endangered species. This report describes the adult upstream survival study, a synthesis of biological analyses related to conditions affecting the survival of adult upstream migrant salmonids in the Columbia River system. The objective of the adult upstream survival study was to analyze existing data related to increasing the survival of adult migrant salmonids returning to the Snake River system. The fate and accountability of each stock during its upstream migration period and the uncertainties associated with measurements of escapement and survival were evaluated. Operational measures that affected the survival of adult salmon were evaluated including existing conditions, augmented flows from upstream storage release, and drawdown of mainstem reservoirs. The potential impacts and benefits of these measures to each ESA stock were, also described based on considerations of species behavior and run timing.

  9. Cortical PKC inhibition promotes axonal regeneration of the corticospinal tract and forelimb functional recovery after cervical dorsal spinal hemisection in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaofei; Hu, Jianguo; She, Yun; Smith, George M; Xu, Xiao-Ming

    2014-11-01

    Our previous study shows that conventional protein kinases C (cPKCs) are key signaling mediators that are activated by extracellular inhibitory molecules. Inhibition of cPKC by intrathecal infusion of a cPKC inhibitor, GÖ6976, into the site of dorsal hemisection (DH) induces regeneration of lesioned dorsal column sensory, but not corticospinal tract (CST), axons. Here, we investigated whether a direct cortical delivery of GÖ6976 into the soma of corticospinal neurons promotes regeneration of CST and the recovery of forelimb function in rats with cervical spinal cord injuries. We report that cortical delivery of GÖ6976 reduced injury-induced activation of conventional PKCα and PKCβ1 in CST neurons, promoted regeneration of CST axons through and beyond a cervical DH at C4, formed new synapses on target neurons caudal to the injury, and enhanced forelimb functional recovery in adult rats. When combined with lenti-Chondroitinase ABC treatment, cortical administration of GÖ6976 promoted even greater CST axonal regeneration and recovery of forelimb function. Thus, this study has demonstrated a novel strategy that can promote anatomical regeneration of damaged CST axons and partial recovery of forelimb function. Importantly, such an effect is critically dependent on the efficient blockage of injury-induced PKC activation in the soma of layer V CST neurons.

  10. Effect of sericea lespedeza leaf meal pellets on adult female Haemonchus contortus in goats.

    PubMed

    Kommuru, D S; Whitley, N C; Miller, J E; Mosjidis, J A; Burke, J M; Gujja, S; Mechineni, A; Terrill, T H

    2015-01-15

    Sericea lespedeza (SL; Lespedeza cuneata) is a perennial warm-season forage rich in condensed tannins (CT) that has been reported to have anthelmintic activity against small ruminant gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN), particularly Haemonchus contortus, a highly pathogenic blood-feeder, but the mechanism of action of CT against H. contortus is not clearly understood. An experiment with young goats was designed to study the effect of SL leaf meal pellets on (1) a mature H. contortus infection, and (2) the surface appearance of adult H. contortus female worms. Thirty-six female and castrated male Boer crossbred goats artificially infected with H. contortus larvae were fed 75% SL leaf meal pellets or alfalfa pellets (18 goats/treatment group) in a 28-day confinement feeding trial. Fecal and blood samples were collected weekly for fecal egg count (FEC) and packed cell volume (PCV) determination, respectively, and all goats were slaughtered at the end of the trial for adult GIN recovery and counting. Five adult female H. contortus were recovered from the abomasum of two goats from each treatment group and from a prior study in which 75% and 95% SL leaf meal pellets or a commercial feed pellet were group-fed to grazing goats (270 days old, Spanish males, 10/treatment group) at 0.91 kg/head/d for 11 weeks. Adult GIN collected were fixed and examined for evidence of surface damage using scanning electron microscopy. Feeding 75% SL pellets to young goats in confinement reduced (P<0.05) FEC compared with control animals, while total worm numbers and PCV were not influenced by treatment. Three out of the 5 adult H. contortus recovered from SL treatment goats in the confinement feeding trial had cuticular surface damage, while no damage was observed on worms from the control group. All five worms observed from both SL treatments in the grazing study showed a shrunken, disheveled cuticular surface, whereas this was not observed on worms from control animals. Overall, this work

  11. Impact of guinea worm disease on children in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ilegbodu, V A; Kale, O O; Wise, R A; Christensen, B L; Steele, J H; Chambers, L A

    1986-09-01

    School attendance records of all primary schools in a guinea worm-endemic village in southwestern Nigeria were examined to determine the cause of missed school days and school drop-outs. At the time of the survey, 1,495 pupils (768 boys and 727 girls were registered in the 4 primary schools in the village, of which 21% of the pupils were infected with guinea worm disease (GWD). Female pupils had a higher infection rate than their male counterparts. Guinea worm-infected pupils missed up to 25% of school year days compared to a non-guinea worm-infected absence of 2.5%. At the height of guinea worm season in the study area, guinea worm-related absences contributed virtually all of the absenteeism recorded in the schools. Implications of the findings within the context of educational attainment of the pupils are discussed.

  12. Inhibition of Poly-ADP-Ribosylation Fails to Increase Axonal Regeneration or Improve Functional Recovery after Adult Mammalian CNS Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xingxing; Byrne, Alexandra B.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract After traumatic damage of the brain or spinal cord, many surviving neurons are disconnected, and recovery of function is limited by poor axon regeneration. Recent data have suggested that poly ADP-ribosylation plays a role in limiting axonal regrowth such that inhibition of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) may have therapeutic efficacy for neurological recovery after trauma. Here, we tested systemic administration of the PARP inhibitor, veliparib, and showed effective suppression of PARylation in the mouse CNS. After optic nerve crush injury or dorsal hemisection of the thoracic spinal cord in mice, treatment with veliparib at doses with pharmacodynamic action had no benefit for axonal regeneration or functional recovery. We considered whether PARP gene family specificity might play a role. In vitro mouse cerebral cortex axon regeneration experiments revealed that short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated suppression of PARP1 promoted axonal regeneration, whereas suppression of other PARP isoforms either had no effect or decreased regeneration. Therefore, we examined recovery from neurological trauma in mice lacking PARP1. No increase of axonal regeneration was observed in Parp1–/– mice after optic nerve crush injury or dorsal hemisection of the thoracic spinal cord, and there was no improvement in motor function recovery. Thus, comprehensive in vivo analysis reveals no indication that clinical PARP inhibitors will on their own provide benefit for recovery from CNS trauma. PMID:28032120

  13. Neurogenic Potential of the Vestibular Nuclei and Behavioural Recovery Time Course in the Adult Cat Are Governed by the Nature of the Vestibular Damage

    PubMed Central

    Dutheil, Sophie; Lacour, Michel; Tighilet, Brahim

    2011-01-01

    Functional and reactive neurogenesis and astrogenesis are observed in deafferented vestibular nuclei after unilateral vestibular nerve section in adult cats. The newborn cells survive up to one month and contribute actively to the successful recovery of posturo-locomotor functions. This study investigates whether the nature of vestibular deafferentation has an incidence on the neurogenic potential of the vestibular nuclei, and on the time course of behavioural recovery. Three animal models that mimic different vestibular pathologies were used: unilateral and permanent suppression of vestibular input by unilateral vestibular neurectomy (UVN), or by unilateral labyrinthectomy (UL, the mechanical destruction of peripheral vestibular receptors), or unilateral and reversible blockade of vestibular nerve input using tetrodotoxin (TTX). Neurogenesis and astrogenesis were revealed in the vestibular nuclei using bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) as a newborn cell marker, while glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) were used to identify astrocytes and GABAergic neurons, respectively. Spontaneous nystagmus and posturo-locomotor tests (static and dynamic balance performance) were carried out to quantify the behavioural recovery process. Results showed that the nature of vestibular loss determined the cellular plastic events occurring in the vestibular nuclei and affected the time course of behavioural recovery. Interestingly, the deafferented vestibular nuclei express neurogenic potential after acute and total vestibular loss only (UVN), while non-structural plastic processes are involved when the vestibular deafferentation is less drastic (UL, TTX). This is the first experimental evidence that the vestibular complex in the brainstem can become neurogenic under specific injury. These new data are of interest for understanding the factors favouring the expression of functional neurogenesis in adult mammals in a brain repair perspective, and are of

  14. Trajectories of recovery among homeless adults with mental illness who participated in a randomised controlled trial of Housing First: a longitudinal, narrative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Michelle L; Rezansoff, Stefanie; Currie, Lauren; Somers, Julian M

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study used longitudinal, narrative data to identify trajectories of recovery among homeless adults with mental illness alongside the factors that contribute to positive, negative, mixed or neutral trajectories over time. We expected that participants who received Housing First (HF) would describe more positive trajectories of recovery than those who were assigned to Treatment as Usual (TAU; no housing or support provided through the study). Design Narrative interview data were collected from participants at baseline and 18 months after random assignment to HF or TAU. Setting Participants were sampled from the community in Vancouver, British Columbia. Participants Fifty-four participants were randomly and purposively selected from the larger trial; 52 were interviewed at baseline and 43 were reinterviewed 18 months after randomisation. Method Semistructured interviews were conducted at both time points. For each participant, paired baseline and follow-up narratives were classified as positive, negative, mixed or neutral trajectories of recovery, and thematic analysis was used to identify the factors underlying different trajectories. Results Participants assigned to HF (n=28) were generally classified as positive or mixed trajectories; those assigned to TAU (n=15) were generally classified as neutral or negative trajectories. Positive trajectories were characterised by a range of benefits associated with good-quality, stable housing (eg, reduced substance use, greater social support), positive expressions of identity and the willingness to self-reflect. Negative, neutral and mixed trajectories were characterised by hopelessness (‘things will never get better’) related to continued hardship (eg, eviction, substance use problems), perceived failures and loss. Conclusions HF is associated with positive trajectories of recovery among homeless adults with mental illness. Those who did not receive housing or support continued to struggle across a

  15. Echinostoma trivolvis: mating behavior of adults raised in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Nollen, P M

    1993-01-01

    Echinostoma trivolvis adults grown in golden hamsters were treated in vitro with [3H]-tyrosine to label sperm and transplanted to uninfected hamsters alone or with four to six unlabeled adults. After 4-5 days, worms were recovered, processed for autoradiography, and observed for silver grains over their seminal receptacles. Of 11 worms transplanted singly, 6 (55%) self-inseminated. In multiple-worm situations, 7 of 12 (58%) labeled worms self-inseminated, and in the process the 12 labeled worms inseminated only 5 of 35 (14%) possible unlabeled worms. E. trivolvis adults self-inseminated when isolated and both self- and cross-inseminated in groups, suggesting an unrestricted mating pattern. These results were compared with the mating patterns of other digenetic trematodes.

  16. Mechanisms of adaptation from a multiple to a single step recovery strategy following repeated exposure to forward loss of balance in older adults.

    PubMed

    Carty, Christopher P; Cronin, Neil J; Lichtwark, Glen A; Mills, Peter M; Barrett, Rod S

    2012-01-01

    When released from an initial, static, forward lean angle and instructed to recover with a single step, some older adults are able to meet the task requirements, whereas others either stumble or fall. The purpose of the present study was to use the concept of margin of stability (MoS) to investigate balance recovery responses in the anterior-posterior direction exhibited by older single steppers, multiple steppers and those that are able to adapt from multiple to single steps following exposure to repeated forward loss of balance. One hundred and fifty-one healthy, community dwelling, older adults, aged 65-80 years, participated in the study. Participants performed four trials of the balance recovery task from each of three initial lean angles. Balance recovery responses in the anterior-posterior direction were quantified at three events; cable release (CR), toe-off (TO) and foot contact (FC), for trials performed at the intermediate lean angle. MoS was computed as the anterior-posterior distance between the forward boundary of the Base of Support (BoS) and the vertical projection of the velocity adjusted centre of mass position (XCoM). Approximately one-third of participants adapted from a multiple to a single step recovery strategy following repeated exposure to the task. MoS at FC for the single and multiple step trials in the adaptation group were intermediate between the exclusively single step group and the exclusively multiple step group, with the single step trials having a significant, 3.7 times higher MoS at FC than the multiple step trials. Consistent with differences between single and multiple steppers, adaptation from multiple to single steps was attributed to an increased BoS at FC, a reduced XCoM at FC and an increased rate of BoS displacement from TO to FC. Adaptations occurred within a single test session and suggest older adults that are close to the threshold of successful recovery can rapidly improve dynamic stability following repeated

  17. Worms Eat My Garbage. How To Set Up and Maintain a Worm Composting System. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appelhof, Mary

    This book is a resource for parents and teachers who want to teach about recycling and composting by setting up and maintaining a worm composting system. It is designed to be a detailed yet simple manual of vermicomposting. The manual covers the basics of vermicomposting and answers such questions as where to store a composting container, what…

  18. Children Do Not Overcome Lexical Biases Where Adults Do: The Role of the Referential Scene in Garden-Path Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Evan; Stewart, Andrew J.; Serratrice, Ludovica

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we report on a visual world eye-tracking experiment that investigated the differing abilities of adults and children to use referential scene information during reanalysis to overcome lexical biases during sentence processing. The results showed that adults incorporated aspects of the referential scene into their parse as soon as it…

  19. Sampling of general correlators in worm-algorithm based simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rindlisbacher, Tobias; Åkerlund, Oscar; de Forcrand, Philippe

    2016-08-01

    Using the complex ϕ4-model as a prototype for a system which is simulated by a worm algorithm, we show that not only the charged correlator <ϕ* (x) ϕ (y) >, but also more general correlators such as < | ϕ (x) | | ϕ (y) | > or < arg ⁡ (ϕ (x)) arg ⁡ (ϕ (y)) >, as well as condensates like < | ϕ | >, can be measured at every step of the Monte Carlo evolution of the worm instead of on closed-worm configurations only. The method generalizes straightforwardly to other systems simulated by worms, such as spin or sigma models.

  20. Expression of actin genes in the arrow worm Paraspadella gotoi (Chaetognatha).

    PubMed

    Yasuda, E; Goto, T; Makabe, K W; Satoh, N

    1997-12-01

    Arrow worms (the phylum Chaetognatha), one of the major marine planktonic animals, exhibit features characteristic to both deuterostomes and protostomes, and their ancestry therefore remains unknown. As the first step to elucidate the molecular bases of arrow worm phylogeny, physiology and embryology, we isolated cDNA clones for three different actin genes (PgAct1, PgAct2 and PgAct3) from the benthic species Paraspadella gotoi, and examined their expression patterns in adults and juveniles. The amino acid sequences of the three actins resembled each other, with identities ranging from 86% to 92%. However, the patterns of the spatial expression of the genes were independent. The PgAct1 gene might encode a cytoplasmic actin and was expressed in oogenic cells, spermatogenic cells, and cells in the ventral ganglion. The PgAct2 and PgAct3 genes encoded actins of divergent types. The former was expressed in well-developed muscle of the head (gnathic) region and trunk muscle cells, whereas the latter was expressed in muscle of the trunk and tail regions and oogenic cells. These results suggest that, similarly to other metazoans, the chaetognath contains multiple forms of actins, which are expressed in various manners in the adult and juvenile arrow worm.

  1. Episodic Bouts of Activity Accompany Recovery of Rhythmic Output by a Neuromodulator-and Activity-Deprived Adult Neural Network

    PubMed Central

    Luther, Jason A.; Robie, Alice A.; Yarotsky, John; Reina, Christopher; Marder, Eve; Golowasch, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The pyloric rhythm of the stomatogastric ganglion of the crab, Cancer borealis, slows or stops when descending modulatory inputs are acutely removed. However, the rhythm spontaneously resumes after one or more days in the absence of neuromodulatory input. We recorded continuously for days to characterize quantitatively this recovery process. Activity bouts lasting 40 to 900 seconds began several hours after removal of neuromodulatory input and were followed by stable rhythm recovery after 1-4 days. Bout duration was not related to the intervals (0.3 to 800 minutes) between bouts. During an individual bout the frequency rapidly increased and then decreased more slowly. Photoablation of back-filled neuromodulatory terminals in the STG neuropil had no effect on activity bouts or recovery, suggesting that these processes are intrinsic to the STG neuronal network. After removal of neuromodulatory input the phase relationships of the components of the triphasic pyloric rhythm were altered, and then over time the phase relationships moved towards their control values. Although at low pyloric rhythm frequency the phase relationships among pyloric network neurons depended on frequency, the changes in frequency during recovery did not completely account for the change in phase seen after rhythm recovery. Additionally, we suggest that activity bouts represent underlying mechanisms controlling the restructuring of the pyloric network to allow resumption of an appropriate output following removal of neuromodulatory input. PMID:12840081

  2. Epidemiological studies on guinea-worm infection.

    PubMed

    Reddy, C R; Narasaiah, I L; Parvathi, G

    1969-04-01

    Dracontiasis is one of the most easily preventable of the tropical parasitic diseases, yet in India the infection is still present in large numbers of people and causes extreme degrees of morbidity and incapacitation.The 10 000 inhabitants of 4 villages in South India were interviewed and the prevalence of guinea-worm infection was found to vary from 11% to 54%; the prevalence increased with the proportion of the population using step-wells. Questioning revealed that infections with more than one worm at a time had occurred in 707 out of 1759 infected persons, that reinfections were common and that many people had suffered for long periods.A survey of the water supplies in a district of South India with a population of about 1.87 million showed that more than 0.5 million people were at risk of contracting the disease. The necessity for protected water supplies and for the conversion of step-wells into draw-wells is urgent.

  3. Chordodes ferox, a new record of horsehair worms (Nematomorpha, Gordiida) from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Rhaesa, Andreas; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2016-01-01

    Three females and one male specimen of a previously unconfirmed species of horsehair worms (Nematomorpha) from South Africa are described using Scanning Electron Microscopy. The females correspond to the description of Chordodes ferox Camerano, 1897, a species previously described from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Congo-Kinshasa) and an adjacent, not further specified region of the Republic of Congo (Congo-Brazzaville). Characteristic is the presence of enlarged and elevated simple areoles around the base of a thorn areole, in combination with further cuticular characters. This is the latest of a total of six species of horsehair worms reported from South Africa so far. Two species of praying mantids, Polyspilota aeruginosa (Goeze, 1778) and Sphodromantis gastrica Stål, 1858, have been identified as hosts of Chordodes ferox, while its distribution range in the region and the period of adult emergence from the host remain largely unknown.

  4. Chordodes ferox, a new record of horsehair worms (Nematomorpha, Gordiida) from South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt-Rhaesa, Andreas; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Three females and one male specimen of a previously unconfirmed species of horsehair worms (Nematomorpha) from South Africa are described using Scanning Electron Microscopy. The females correspond to the description of Chordodes ferox Camerano, 1897, a species previously described from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Congo-Kinshasa) and an adjacent, not further specified region of the Republic of Congo (Congo-Brazzaville). Characteristic is the presence of enlarged and elevated simple areoles around the base of a thorn areole, in combination with further cuticular characters. This is the latest of a total of six species of horsehair worms reported from South Africa so far. Two species of praying mantids, Polyspilota aeruginosa (Goeze, 1778) and Sphodromantis gastrica Stål, 1858, have been identified as hosts of Chordodes ferox, while its distribution range in the region and the period of adult emergence from the host remain largely unknown. PMID:27047243

  5. Silk worm Bm1 SINE RNA increases following cellular insults.

    PubMed

    Kimura, R H; Choudary, P V; Schmid, C W

    1999-08-15

    The effect of cell stresses upon the expression of the Bm1 short interspersed element (SINE) family in cultured silk worm cells is examined. Primer extension analysis shows that Bm1 repeats are transcribed by RNA polymerase III (Pol III) into cytoplasmic RNAs. Five consecutive T residues, which would normally terminate Pol III transcription, occur within the Bm1 consensus and are included within cDNA sequences representing these transcripts. In analogy to mammalian SINEs, the level of the Bm1 transcripts increases in response to either heat shock, inhibiting protein synthesis by cycloheximide or viral infection. The lifetime of Bm1 RNA increases following cell insults so that post-transcriptional events partially account for stress induced increases in its abundance. In the case of heat shock, the increase in Bm1 RNA follows the transient increase in hsp70 mRNA indicating that this response is temporally regulated to occur later in heat shock recovery. These results support the proposal that SINE RNAs serve a role in the cell stress response that predates the divergence of insects and mammals implying that SINEs are essentially a class of cell stress genes.

  6. Left heart bypass support with the Rotaflow Centrifugal Pump® as a bridge to decision and recovery in an adult.

    PubMed

    Kashiwa, Koichi; Nishimura, Takashi; Saito, Aya; Kubo, Hitoshi; Fukaya, Aoi; Tamai, Hisayoshi; Yambe, Tomoyuki; Kyo, Shunei; Ono, Minoru

    2012-06-01

    Since left heart bypass or biventricular circulatory assist with an extracorporeal centrifugal pump as a bridge to decision or recovery sometimes requires long-time support, the long-term durability of extracorporeal centrifugal pumps is crucial. The Rotaflow Centrifugal Pump(®) (MAQUET Cardiopulmonary AG, Hirrlingen, Germany) is one of the centrifugal pumps available for long-term use in Japan. However, there have been few reports of left heart bypass or biventricular circulatory support over the mid-term. This is a case report of left heart bypass support with the Rotaflow Centrifugal Pump(®) as a bridge to decision and recovery for an adult patient who could not be weaned from cardiopulmonary bypass and percutaneous cardiopulmonary support after cardiac surgery. We could confirm that the patient's consciousness level was normal; however, the patient could not be weaned from the left heart bypass support lasting 1 month. Therefore, the circulatory assist device was switched to the extracorporeal Nipro ventricular assist device (VAD). This time, left heart bypass support could be maintained for 30 days using a single Rotaflow Centrifugal Pump(®). There were no signs of hemolysis during left heart bypass support. The Rotaflow Centrifugal Pump(®) itself may be used as a device for a bridge to decision or recovery before using a VAD in cardiogenic shock patients.

  7. Set shifting in anorexia nervosa: an examination before and after weight gain, in full recovery and relationship to childhood and adult OCPD traits.

    PubMed

    Tchanturia, K; Morris, R G; Anderluh, M Brecelj; Collier, D A; Nikolaou, V; Treasure, J

    2004-01-01

    Deficits in set shifting tasks are present in anorexia nervosa (AN), but it is not known whether these deficits are traits independent of current disease or nutritional status or merely a temporary consequence of starvation or psychopathology. The aims of the present study were to determine if set-shifting sub-optimal performance are state or trait-related by examining set shifting in patients with current or past AN, and the extent of association of these deficits with obsessive compulsive traits and behaviours. To achieve this we examined set shifting abilities in three groups of subjects: (a) AN patients with current illness, prior to receiving treatment (AN); (b) people with past AN currently in long term recovery (ANRec) and a healthy comparison group (HC). We also longitudinally followed up a subset for the AN group who showed weight recovery in response to in patient treatment (ANWR). We administered a group of set shifting tests, which included cognitive, perceptual and motor shifting tasks. A semi-structured interview was obtained to ascertain obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) traits as a child and adult. Set-shifting difficulties were observed in the AN group, but to a lesser extent in the ANRec group. In the AN group these difficulties did not show any improvement follow re-testing after weight recovery. Performance on set shifting tasks was associated with childhood rigidity and inflexibility. Some aspects of set shifting sub-optimal performance in AN appear to be a trait rather than a state marker.

  8. Lifestyle intervention improves heart rate recovery from exercise in adults with Type 2 diabetes: Results from the Look AHEAD Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary aims of this paper were (1) to evaluate the influence of intensive lifestyle weight loss and exercise intervention (ILI) compared with diabetes support and education (DSE) upon Heart Rate Recovery (HRR) from graded exercise testing (GXT) and (2) to determine the independent and combined ...

  9. Lifestyle intervention improves heart rate recovery from exercise in adults with type 2 diabetes: Results from the Look AHEAD study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary aims of this paper were (1) to evaluate the influence of intensive lifestyle weight loss and exercise intervention (ILI) compared with diabetes support and education (DSE) upon Heart Rate Recovery (HRR) from graded exercise testing (GXT), and (2) to determine the independent and combined...

  10. Timing is everything: anticipatory stress dynamics among cortisol and blood pressure reactivity and recovery in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Juster, Robert-Paul; Perna, Andrea; Marin, Marie-France; Sindi, Shireen; Lupien, Sonia J

    2012-11-01

    Psychological states of anticipation modulate biological stress responsivity. While researchers generally investigate how subjective distress corresponds to the magnitude of stress reactivity, physiological recovery after acute stressors must also be considered when investigating disease vulnerabilities. This study assessed whether anticipatory stress would correspond to stress reactivity and recovery of salivary cortisol and blood pressure levels in response to a well-validated psychosocial stressor. Thirty participants (63% female; mean ± SEM age 45.4 ± 2.12 years) were exposed to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) consisting of a public speech and mental arithmetic. Ten salivary cortisol samples and systolic and diastolic blood pressure recordings were collected at time points spanning 50 min before and up to 50 min after stress exposure. These data were transformed into parameters representing stress reactivity (area under the curve) and stress recovery (percent change). The Primary Appraisal Secondary Appraisal scale assessed anticipatory stress before exposure to the TSST. Our results revealed that increased anticipatory stress predicted increased stress reactivity for cortisol (p = 0.009) but not blood pressure. For stress recovery, increased anticipatory stress predicted greater decrements of cortisol concentration (p = 0.015) and blood pressure (p = 0.039), even when controlling for total systemic "output" by incorporating baseline activity. This efficient shutdown of stress responses would have otherwise been ignored by solely investigating reactive increases. These findings underscore the importance of measuring multiple dynamic parameters such as recovery when investigating physiological stress response patterns as a function of psychosocial factors.

  11. Lentiviral-mediated transfer of CDNF promotes nerve regeneration and functional recovery after sciatic nerve injury in adult rats

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Lei; Liu, Yi; Zhao, Hua; Zhang, Wen; Guo, Ying-Jun; Nie, Lin

    2013-10-18

    Highlights: •CDNF was successfully transfected by a lentiviral vector into the distal sciatic nerve. •CDNF improved S-100, NF200 expression and nerve regeneration after sciatic injury. •CDNF improved the remyelination and thickness of the regenerated sciatic nerve. •CDNF improved gastrocnemius muscle weight and sciatic functional recovery. -- Abstract: Peripheral nerve injury is often followed by incomplete and unsatisfactory functional recovery and may be associated with sensory and motor impairment of the affected limb. Therefore, a novel method is needed to improve the speed of recovery and the final functional outcome after peripheral nerve injuries. This report investigates the effect of lentiviral-mediated transfer of conserved dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) on regeneration of the rat peripheral nerve in a transection model in vivo. We observed notable overexpression of CDNF protein in the distal sciatic nerve after recombinant CDNF lentiviral vector application. We evaluated sciatic nerve regeneration after surgery using light and electron microscopy and the functional recovery using the sciatic functional index and target muscle weight. HE staining revealed better ordered structured in the CDNF-treated group at 8 weeks post-surgery. Quantitative analysis of immunohistochemistry of NF200 and S-100 in the CDNF group revealed significant improvement of axonal and Schwann cell regeneration compared with the control groups at 4 weeks and 8 weeks after injury. The thickness of the myelination around the axons in the CDNF group was significantly higher than in the control groups at 8 weeks post-surgery. The CDNF group displayed higher muscle weights and significantly increased sciatic nerve index values. Our findings suggest that CDNF gene therapy could provide durable and stable CDNF protein concentration and has the potential to enhance peripheral nerve regeneration, morphological and functional recovery following nerve injury, which suggests a

  12. Examination of the relationship between host worm community structure on transmission of the parasite, Myxobolus cerebralis by developing taxon-specific probes for multiplex qPCR to identify worm taxa in stream communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fytilis, N.; Lamb, R.; Kerans, B.; Stevens, L.; Rizzo, D. M.

    2011-12-01

    Fish diseases are often caused by waterborne parasites, making them ideal systems for modeling the non-linear relationships between disease dynamics, stream dwelling oligochaete communities and geochemical features. Myxobolus cerebralis, the causative agent of whirling disease in salmonid fishes, has been a major contributor to the loss of wild rainbow trout populations in numerous streams within the Intermountain West. The parasite alternates between an invertebrate and vertebrate host, being transmitted between the sediment feeding worm Tubifex tubifex (T.tubifex) and salmonid fishes. Worm community biodiversity and abundance are influenced by biogeochemical features and have been linked to disease severity in fish. The worm (T.tubifex) lives in communities with 3-4 other types of worms in stream sediments. Unfortunately, taxonomic identification of oligochaetes is largely dependent on morphological characteristics of sexually mature adults. We have collected and identified ~700 worms from eight sites using molecular genetic probes and a taxonomic key. Additionally, ~1700 worms were identified using only molecular genetic probes. To facilitate distinguishing among tubificids, we developed two multiplex molecular genetic probe-based quantitative polymerase reaction (qPCR) assays to assess tubificid communities in the study area. Similar qPCR techniques specific for M.cerebralis used to determine if individual worms were infected with the parasite. We show how simple Bayesian analysis of the qPCR data can predict the worm community structure and reveal relationships between biodiversity of host communities and host-parasite dynamics. To our knowledge, this is the first study that combines molecular data of both the host and the parasite to examine the effects of host community structure on the transmission of a parasite. Our work can be extended to examine the links between worm community structure and biogeochemical features using molecular genetics and Bayesian

  13. Notions and treatment of guinea worm in northern Ghana.

    PubMed

    Bierlich, B

    1995-08-01

    Dracunculiasis, infection with Dracunculus medinensis or guinea worm, is widespread in the Northern Region of Ghana, where rural people drink from unprotected water sources such as ponds and small-scale dams. This paper discusses the results of an anthropological study of beliefs and practices concerning commonly occurring illnesses, such as infection with guinea worm (nierifu), in two rural Dagomba communities in the Northern Region of Ghana. The importance of knowing about local perceptions and treatment of guinea worm is stressed. Guinea worm is not attributed to water. The general understanding is that guinea worm is an innate part of human anatomy. It is not seen as an alien presence in the body. Guinea worm is rather said to be 'in people's blood', and sooner or later to 'stand up'. Guinea worm is considered an 'inevitable' feature of living. After a description of the background to the study, the methods are characterized. Brief background information on the people, their environment and their water sources are given. The central portion of the paper focuses on local perceptions of illness and notions of guinea worm ('guinea worm is in the human blood'), which are very different from those of biomedicine ('guinea worm is a disease'). Attention is also given to perceptions of water ('bitter' vs 'sweet') and the prevention of guinea worm. The social limitations to the filter technology are addressed. People's choice of therapy and the role of medicines (herbs and Western pharmaceuticals) in treatment of guinea worm are also considered. The paper concludes with a discussion of health education and stresses the importance of showing respect for the local view of guinea worm, which is said to be 'in the blood'. It is suggested that, since people are not adverse to the use of Western pharmaceuticals, the use of Western medicines to treat guinea worm should be further promoted. The social constraints on filtering must also be appreciated. These relate to the

  14. A pilot study examining the impact of exercise training on skeletal muscle genes related to the TLR signaling pathway in older adults following hip fracture recovery.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Alec I; Briggs, Robert A; Barrows, Katherine M; Nelson, Daniel S; Kwon, Oh Sung; Hopkins, Paul N; Higgins, Thomas F; Marcus, Robin L; Drummond, Micah J

    2017-01-01

    Older adults after hip fracture surgery experience progressive muscle atrophy and weakness, limiting full recovery. Further understanding of the molecular mechanisms in muscle with adaptation to exercise training in this vulnerable population is necessary. Therefore, we conducted a pilot study to investigate the skeletal muscle inflammatory and ceramide biosynthesis gene expression levels associated with the toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway before (Pre) and following a 3-mo multicomponent exercise training program in older adults (3M, 4F; 78.4 ± 13.3 yr; 25.5 ± 2.3 kg/m(2)) ~4 mo after repair from hip fracture (HipFx). Vastus lateralis biopsies from the surgical limb were obtained before (Pre) and after training. Molecular end points and muscle function data were also compared with matched nonexercise healthy controls (CON). As a follow-up analysis, we evaluated specific sphingolipid pools in HipFx and CON muscle. Following training, quadriceps cross-sectional area, strength, and 6-min walk (6MW) increased in the surgical limb (P < 0.05). Additionally, MYD88, TAK1, NFKB1, IL6, SPT2, and CERS1 gene expression decreased after training (P ≤ 0.05), but some remained elevated above CON levels. Interestingly, MYD88 mRNA was inversely correlated to quadriceps CSA, strength, and 6MW. Finally, muscle dihydroceramides and phosphoceramides in HipFx were lower than CON at Pre (P ≤ 0.05), but after training differences from CON were removed. Together, our pilot data support that exercise training alters skeletal muscle inflammation and ceramide metabolism associated with TLR signaling in older adults recovering from hip fracture surgery and may be related to improvements in muscle function recovery.

  15. The occurrence of gizzard worms in Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Wehr, E.E.

    1954-01-01

    Amidostomum anseris, a roundworm which occurs under the horny lining of the gizzard in birds, is a widely distributed parasite in Canada geese. It is also reported from snow geese (Chen hyperborea). Although the extent of erosion of the gizzard wall by these worms is not precisely correlated with the number of worms present, it is usually severe in Canada geese when 150 or more worms are present. Gizzard worm infection is considered a contributing factor to low weights, poor condition and to losses among the Canada geese which winter at the Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge in North Carolina. The mean number of gizzard worms per bird is considerably higher for Pea Island than for areas where winter losses have not been reported.

  16. Uganda's successful Guinea Worm Eradication Program.

    PubMed

    Rwakimari, John B; Hopkins, Donald R; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto

    2006-07-01

    Having begun its national Guinea Worm Eradication Program (UGWEP) in 1991 (1991 population, 16.6 million) with the third-highest number of cases reported by any endemic country, and ranked as the second-highest endemic country in the world in 1993, by 2004, Uganda celebrated its first full calendar year with no indigenous cases of the disease. Systematic interventions began in 1992 and were gradually intensified until the final indigenous case occurred in July 2003. The favorable concentration of most cases in relatively few northern districts of the country was partly offset by chronic insecurity in much of the endemic area and by repeated importations of cases from neighboring Sudan. Strong support and dedicated leadership by government officials and external partners were keys to this program's dramatic success. This program cost approximately US dollar 5.6 million.

  17. Early Cambrian sipunculan worms from southwest China.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Di-Ying; Chen, Jun-Yuan; Vannier, Jean; Saiz Salinas, J. I.

    2004-01-01

    We report the discovery of sipunculan worms from the Lower Cambrian Maotianshan Shale, near Kunming (southwest China). Their sipunculan identity is evidenced by the general morphology of the animals (sausage-shaped body with a slender retractable introvert and a wider trunk) and by other features, both external (e.g. perioral crown of tentacles, and hooks, papillae and wrinkle rings on the body surface) and internal (U-shaped gut, and the anus opening near the introvert-trunk junction). The three fossil forms (Archaeogolfingia caudata gen. et sp. nov., Cambrosipunculus tentaculatus gen. et sp. nov. and Cambrosipunculus sp.) have striking similarities to modern sipunculans, especially the Golfingiidae to which their evolutionary relationships are discussed. This study suggests that most typical features of extant sipunculans have undergone only limited changes since the Early Cambrian, thus indicating a possible evolutionary stasis over the past 520 Myr. PMID:15306286

  18. Early Cambrian sipunculan worms from southwest China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Di-Ying; Chen, Jun-Yuan; Vannier, Jean; Saiz Salinas, J I

    2004-08-22

    We report the discovery of sipunculan worms from the Lower Cambrian Maotianshan Shale, near Kunming (southwest China). Their sipunculan identity is evidenced by the general morphology of the animals (sausage-shaped body with a slender retractable introvert and a wider trunk) and by other features, both external (e.g. perioral crown of tentacles, and hooks, papillae and wrinkle rings on the body surface) and internal (U-shaped gut, and the anus opening near the introvert-trunk junction). The three fossil forms (Archaeogolfingia caudata gen. et sp. nov., Cambrosipunculus tentaculatus gen. et sp. nov. and Cambrosipunculus sp.) have striking similarities to modern sipunculans, especially the Golfingiidae to which their evolutionary relationships are discussed. This study suggests that most typical features of extant sipunculans have undergone only limited changes since the Early Cambrian, thus indicating a possible evolutionary stasis over the past 520 Myr.

  19. Interactions between worm infections and malaria.

    PubMed

    Nacher, Mathieu

    2004-04-01

    Helminths are the most prevalent parasitic infections and malaria is the deadliest parasitic disease. Helminths have been reported to be protective against the severe forms of malaria but they were also possibly linked to increased malaria-incidence and gametocyte carriage. Connecting the dots between observations suggests that statistical regularities throughout the evolution of worms and malaria parasites in the same hosts, may have led to the emergence of non-zero interactions as observed in iterated prisoners dilemma games. Thus by protecting the host, helminths protect themselves and their reproductive potential, but also favor the dissemination and reproduction of Plasmodium falciparum. The proximate causes of this evolutionarily stable strategy might be mediated by IgE and the CD23/NO pathway, the protective role of IL10 in helminth-infected patients, and possibly the hematological consequences of worms. The chronic activation of the CD23/NO pathway might be instrumental in downregulating the expression of cytoadherence receptors thus reducing sequestration of parasitized red blood cells in the deep organs. Mild anemia in helminth-infected patients might favor gametocytogenesis and send attractive cues to the vector. This framework leads to numerous testable hypotheses and could explain certain singularities regarding the double edged role of IgE and NO. Among these hypotheses, there are 2 practical ones: the impact of helminths on malaria vaccine candidates, and the theoretical risk of increasing the severity of malaria after anthelmintics. The capacity for increased IgE responses could thus have been vital in our ancestor's wormy and malarious past. Allergies may be what remains of it in the modern world.

  20. Adult neuron addition to the zebra finch song motor pathway correlates with the rate and extent of recovery from botox-induced paralysis of the vocal muscles.

    PubMed

    Pytte, Carolyn; Yu, Yi-Lo; Wildstein, Sara; George, Shanu; Kirn, John R

    2011-11-23

    In adult songbirds, neurons are continually incorporated into the telencephalic nucleus HVC (used as a proper name), a premotor region necessary for the production of learned vocalizations. Previous studies have demonstrated that neuron addition to HVC is highest when song is most variable: in juveniles during song learning, in seasonally singing adults during peaks in plasticity that precede the production of new song components, or during seasonal reestablishment of a previously learned song. These findings suggest that neuron addition provides motor flexibility for the transition from a variable song to a target song. Here we test the association between the quality of song structure and HVC neuron addition by experimentally manipulating syringeal muscle control with Botox, which produces a transient partial paralysis. We show that the quality of song structure covaries with new neuron addition to HVC. Both the magnitude of song distortion and the rate of song recovery after syringeal Botox injections were correlated with the number of new neurons incorporated into HVC. We suggest that the quality of song structure is either a cause or consequence of the number of new neurons added to HVC. Birds with naturally high rates of neuron addition may have had the greatest success in recovering song. Alternatively, or in addition, new neuron survival in the song motor pathway may be regulated by the quality of song-generated feedback as song regains its original stereotyped structure. Present results are the first to show a relationship between peripheral muscle control and adult neuron addition to cortical premotor circuits.

  1. Use of the Impella 5.0 Device as a Bridge to Recovery in Adult Fulminant Viral Myocarditis.

    PubMed

    Burns, Daniel J P; Quantz, Mackenzie A

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of a 48-year-old female patient successfully bridged to recovery with the Impella 5.0 microaxial pump (Abiomed, Danvers, MA USA) after presenting with cardiogenic shock secondary to acute fulminant viral myocarditis. After 1 week of flu-like symptoms, the patient presented to her community emergency department with chest pain and hypotension. A diagnosis of inferior ST elevation myocardial infarction was made; subsequent angiography demonstrated normal coronary arteries and a left ventricular ejection fraction of 10%. A provisional diagnosis of viral myocarditis was made. As her condition deteriorated further, she underwent insertion of an Impella 5.0 after failure of supportive medical therapy. Myocardial recovery occurred, and the Impella was removed after 1 week. After a prolonged cardiac intensive care unit stay requiring temporary hemodialysis, the patient recovered sufficiently to tolerate device explant, transfer to the recovery ward, and ultimate discharge home. This case report highlights the benefit of mechanical circulatory support in a patient with cardiogenic shock from viral myocarditis as well as some of the complications that can occur in this critically ill subset of patients.

  2. Horsehair worms (Gordius robustus in nests of the western bluebird (Sialia mexicana): evidence for anti-predator avoidance?

    PubMed

    Fair, Jeanne M; Hanelt, Ben; Burnett, Kassidy

    2010-04-01

    Hairworms (Nematomorpha: Gordiida) are internal parasites that alter the behavior of their terrestrial insect host, forcing it to enter the water to reach its reproductive habitat. After reproduction of the free-living adults, the larvae encyst in aquatic insects and are retained upon metamorphosis of the insect into an adult fly. This paratenic host links the aquatic and terrestrial environments after its consumption by omnivorous or predatory insects. Therefore, hairworms are usually only associated with invertebrates, and few reports discuss hairworm interactions with vertebrate species. Here, we report on the finding of horsehair worms in nests of a cavity-nesting bird species in Los Alamos County, New Mexico. From 2004 to 2008, 7 nests within nest boxes occupied by the western bluebird (Sialia mexicana) contained 8 hairworms that were identified as Gordius robustus. All of the nest boxes with worms were less than 100 m from stagnant or low-flowing streams. The most likely explanation for the presence of the worms in the nests is that worms engaged in anti-predator avoidance after their insect hosts were collected and before digestion by nestling birds.

  3. Worm control practices on sheep farms in the Slovak Republic.

    PubMed

    Cernanská, Dana; Várady, Marián; Cudeková, Patrícia; Corba, Július

    2008-07-04

    A questionnaire to obtain information on worm control practices and sheep management was performed on 49 sheep farms in 2003 and 2004. The majority of Slovak farms kept native breeds Tsigai (22 farms) and Improved Valachian (14 farms). Farms were divided according to their altitude to lowland, upland and lower highland farms. Sizes of pastures and stocking rates for lowland, upland and lower highland farms were 81.5, 269.2, and 316.7 ha and 6.3, 2.6, and 2.9 sheep/ha, respectively. One third of farmers (33.3%) used permanent pastures and two thirds of breeders (66.7%) rotated sheep between pastures. Mean drenching rate for lambs and yearlings/adults was 1.76 and 1.70, respectively. The most frequently used drugs during period from 1999 to 2004 were albendazole and ivermectin. On 13 farms benzimidazole drugs were applied in spring before turn out and macrocyclic lactones in autumn before turn in. Benzimidazoles and macrocyclic lactones were used almost exclusively on 7 and 9 farms, respectively. Visual appraisal was the most common practice to determine weight of animals (87.8% of farmers). Weights of the heaviest animals were used for determination of anthelmintic doses only on 16.7% of farms. Coprological examinations were performed on 47.9% of farms, usually in frequency once per year (75%).

  4. Functional brain regeneration in the acoel worm Symsagittifera roscoffensis

    PubMed Central

    Sprecher, Simon G.; Bernardo-Garcia, F. Javier; van Giesen, Lena; Hartenstein, Volker; Reichert, Heinrich; Neves, Ricardo; Bailly, Xavier; Martinez, Pedro; Brauchle, Michael

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The ability of some animals to regrow their head and brain after decapitation provides a striking example of the regenerative capacity within the animal kingdom. The acoel worm Symsagittifera roscoffensis can regrow its head, brain and sensory head organs within only a few weeks after decapitation. How rapidly and to what degree it also reacquires its functionality to control behavior however remains unknown. We provide here a neuroanatomical map of the brain neuropils of the adult S. roscoffensis and show that after decapitation a normal neuroanatomical organization of the brain is restored in the majority of animals. By testing different behaviors we further show that functionality of both sensory perception and the underlying brain architecture are restored within weeks after decapitation. Interestingly not all behaviors are restored at the same speed and to the same extent. While we find that phototaxis recovered rapidly, geotaxis is not restored within 7 weeks. Our findings show that regeneration of the head, sensory organs and brain result in the restoration of directed navigation behavior, suggesting a tight coordination in the regeneration of certain sensory organs with that of their underlying neural circuits. Thus, at least in S. roscoffensis, the regenerative capacity of different sensory modalities follows distinct paths. PMID:26581588

  5. A reversible bipolar WORM device based on AlOxNy thin film with Al nano phase embedded

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, W.; Li, J.; Zhang, L.; Hu, X. C.

    2017-03-01

    An Al-rich AlOxNy thin film based reversible Write-Once-Read-Many-Times (WORM) memory device with MIS structure could transit from high resistance state (HRS, ∼1011 Ω) to low resistance state (LRS, ∼105 Ω) by sweeping voltage up to ∼20 V. The first switching could be recorded as writing process for WORM device which may relate to conductive path are formed through the thin film. The conductive path should be formed by both Al nano phase and oxygen vacancies. Among of them, Al nano phases are not easy to move, but oxygen vacancies could migrate under high E-field or at high temperature environment. Such conductive path is not sensitive to charging effect after it formed, but it could be broken by heating effect, which may relate to the migration of excess Al ions and oxygen vacancies at high temperature. After baking LRS (ON state) WORM device at 200 °C for 2 min, the conductivity will decrease to HRS which indicates conductive path is broken and device back to HRS (OFF state) again. This phenomenon could be recorded as recovery process. Both writing and recovery process related to migration of oxygen vacancies and could be repeated over 10 times in this study. It also indicates that there is no permanent breakdown occurred in MIS structured WORM device operation. We suggest that this conductive path only can be dissolved by a temperature sensitive electro-chemical action. This WORM device could maintain at LRS over 105 s with on-off ratio over 4 orders.

  6. Urinary recovery of orally administered chromium 51-labeled EDTA, lactulose, rhamnose, d-xylose, 3-O-methyl-d-glucose, and sucrose in healthy adult male Beagles.

    PubMed

    Frias, Rafael; Steiner, Jörg M; Williams, David A; Sankari, Satu; Westermarck, Elias

    2012-05-01

    Objective-To provide values for gastrointestinal permeability and absorptive function tests (GIPFTs) with chromium 51 ((51)Cr)-labeled EDTA, lactulose, rhamnose, d-xylose, 3-O-methyl-d-glucose, and sucrose in Beagles and to evaluate potential correlations between markers. Animals-19 healthy adult male Beagles. Procedures-A test solution containing 3.7 MBq of (51)Cr-labeled EDTA, 2 g of lactulose, 2 g of rhamnose, 2 g of d-xylose, 1 g of 3-O-methyl-d-glucose, and 8 g of sucrose was administered intragastrically to each dog. Urinary recovery of each probe was determined 6 hours after administration. Results-Mean ± SD (range) percentage urinary recovery was 6.3 ± 1.6% (4.3% to 9.7%) for (51)Cr-labeled EDTA, 3.3 ± 1.1% (1.7% to 5.3%) for lactulose, 25.5 ± 5.0% (16.7% to 36.9%) for rhamnose, and 58.8% ± 11.0% (40.1% to 87.8%) for 3-O-methyl-d-glucose. Mean (range) recovery ratio was 0.25 ± 0.06 (0.17 to 0.37) for (51)Cr-labeled EDTA to rhamnose, 0.13 ± 0.04 (0.08 to 0.23) for lactulose to rhamnose, and 0.73 ± 0.09 (0.60 to 0.90) for d-xylose to 3-O-methyl-d-glucose. Median (range) percentage urinary recovery was 40.3% (31.6% to 62.7%) for d-xylose and 0% (0% to 0.8%) for sucrose. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Reference values in healthy adult male Beagles for 6 of the most commonly used GIPFT markers were determined. The correlation between results for (51)Cr-labeled EDTA and lactulose was not as prominent as that reported for humans and cats; thus, investigators should be cautious in the use and interpretation of GIPFTs performed with sugar probes in dogs with suspected intestinal dysbiosis.

  7. Confocal laser scanning microscopic observation on adult Schistosoma japonicum harbored in mice following treatment with single-dose mefloquine.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Shu-Hua; Sun, Jun; Xue, Jian

    2012-06-01

    desquamation of gut epithelial cells. As to the reproductive organs, the testes of male worms revealed in reduction of size, decrease in number of germinative cells, and some of them showed degeneration and collapse, or destruction of the capsule around the testis. In female worms, some ovaries only showed degenerated and collapsed cells accompanied with many cell fragments. Meanwhile, almost all of the vitelline cells lost their definition, which revealed in indistinct cell structure, fusion of some cells, and formation of many cell fragments due to their collapse. Fourteen days post-treatment, only some male worms survived the treatment were collected. Their tegument and musculature showed prominent recovery, but severe damage to the gut and testes was still observed. Our results confirm that under the observation by CLSM, mefloquine exhibits destructive effect on adult S. japonicum, particularly the morphological structure of digestive system and reproductive system of the worms.

  8. Effect of soil moisture on pesticide toxicity to an enchytraeid worm, Enchytraeus sp.

    PubMed

    Puurtinen, H M; Martikainen, E A

    1997-07-01

    The aim of the study was to find out whether soil moisture affects toxicity of organic pesticides to an enchytraeid worm. Laboratory experiments were carried out with dimethoate and benomyl, using a small Enchytraeus sp. as the test species. Substrate was natural agricultural field soil cultivated without pesticides for several years. Experimental design consisted of three soil moistures (40, 55, and 70% of water holding capacity) and five pesticide concentrations, plus controls. Measured parameters were survival, size of the parent worms and number and size of juveniles produced. Dimethoate was relatively non-toxic to this species. Dimethoate did not decrease survival, but sublethal effects on adult size and number of juveniles were observed. Adverse conditions in dry soil masked these effects; dimethoate appeared to be less toxic in dry soil than in moist soil. Benomyl caused significant mortality and the effects were very abrupt. Toxicity of benomyl decreased with increasing soil moisture content; in moist soil the worms survived at higher benomyl concentrations than in drier soils.

  9. The larval nervous system of the penis worm Priapulus caudatus (Ecdysozoa)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The origin and extreme diversification of the animal nervous system is a central question in biology. While most of the attention has traditionally been paid to those lineages with highly elaborated nervous systems (e.g. arthropods, vertebrates, annelids), only the study of the vast animal diversity can deliver a comprehensive view of the evolutionary history of this organ system. In this regard, the phylogenetic position and apparently conservative molecular, morphological and embryological features of priapulid worms (Priapulida) place this animal lineage as a key to understanding the evolution of the Ecdysozoa (i.e. arthropods and nematodes). In this study, we characterize the nervous system of the hatching larva and first lorica larva of the priapulid worm Priapulus caudatus by immunolabelling against acetylated and tyrosinated tubulin, pCaMKII, serotonin and FMRFamide. Our results show that a circumoral brain and an unpaired ventral nerve with a caudal ganglion characterize the central nervous system of hatching embryos. After the first moult, the larva attains some adult features: a neck ganglion, an introvert plexus, and conspicuous secondary longitudinal neurites. Our study delivers a neuroanatomical framework for future embryological studies in priapulid worms, and helps illuminate the course of nervous system evolution in the Ecdysozoa. PMID:26598729

  10. The larval nervous system of the penis worm Priapulus caudatus (Ecdysozoa).

    PubMed

    Martín-Durán, José M; Wolff, Gabriella H; Strausfeld, Nicholas J; Hejnol, Andreas

    2016-01-05

    The origin and extreme diversification of the animal nervous system is a central question in biology. While most of the attention has traditionally been paid to those lineages with highly elaborated nervous systems (e.g. arthropods, vertebrates, annelids), only the study of the vast animal diversity can deliver a comprehensive view of the evolutionary history of this organ system. In this regard, the phylogenetic position and apparently conservative molecular, morphological and embryological features of priapulid worms (Priapulida) place this animal lineage as a key to understanding the evolution of the Ecdysozoa (i.e. arthropods and nematodes). In this study, we characterize the nervous system of the hatching larva and first lorica larva of the priapulid worm Priapulus caudatus by immunolabelling against acetylated and tyrosinated tubulin, pCaMKII, serotonin and FMRFamide. Our results show that a circumoral brain and an unpaired ventral nerve with a caudal ganglion characterize the central nervous system of hatching embryos. After the first moult, the larva attains some adult features: a neck ganglion, an introvert plexus, and conspicuous secondary longitudinal neurites. Our study delivers a neuroanatomical framework for future embryological studies in priapulid worms, and helps illuminate the course of nervous system evolution in the Ecdysozoa.

  11. De-worming school children and hygiene intervention.

    PubMed

    Luong, T V

    2003-06-01

    Helminths or worm infestations refer to worms that live as parasites in the human body and are a fundamental cause of disease associated with health and nutrition problems beyond gastrointestinal tract disturbances. Globally, over 3.5 billion people are infected with intestinal worms, of which 1.47 billion are with roundworm, 1.3 billion people with hookworm and 1.05 billion with whipworm. School children aged 5 - 15 years suffer the highest infection rate and worm burden that attributes to poor sanitation and hygiene. About 400 million school-age children are infected with roundworm, whipworm and hookworm worldwide, a large proportion of whom are found in the East Asia region (Cambodia, China, Lao PDR, Thailand and Vietnam). These parasites consume nutrients from children they infect, thus retarding their physical development. They destroy tissues and organs, cause abdominal pain, diarrhoea, intestinal obstruction, anaemia, ulcers and other health problems. All of these consequences of infection can slow cognitive development and thus impair learning. De-worming school children by anthelmintic drug treatment is a curative approach for expelling the heavy worm load. However, drug therapy alone is only a short-term measure of reducing worm infection and re-infection is frequent. Control measures through improved sanitation, hygiene and de-worming are needed to prevent infection and re-infection. UNICEF has supported many governments in this (and other) regions to assist in the provision of water supply and sanitary facilities and intensive hygiene education in many schools through the Water, Environment and Sanitation (WES) programme. The UNICEF supported school sanitation and hygiene education (SSHE) programme, and other programmes, could effectively enhance behaviour change in children to break the routes of worm transmission and other waterborne diseases.

  12. Recombinant DNA vaccine against inhibition of neurite outgrowth promotes functional recovery associated with endogeous NGF expression in spinal cord hemisected adult rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Hao, Chun-Guang; Hu, Li-Qun; Dong, Jian; Wei, Peng; Xu, Dan; Xiao, Zhi-Cheng; Wang, Ting-Hua

    2009-09-01

    Axonal regeneration across the site of spinal cord lesion is often aborted in adult mammalian species. The use of DNA vaccine to nullify the inhibitory molecules has been shown to be effective in promoting axonal regeneration in injured spinal cord. The possible molecular mechanisms, however, remain to be elucidated. The present study showed that the administration of recombinant DNA vaccine encoding multiple domains, Nogo-66, Nogo-N, TnR, and MAG, significantly improved hindlimb locomotor functions in rats subjected to ablation of the dorsal halves of the cord. Western blot analysis demonstrated that nerve growth factor (NGF) levels in the spinal cord of immunized rats were significantly upregulated than those of control rats. Immunohistochemistry as well as in situ hybridization confirmed that NGF was expressed in neurons of the spinal cord. These findings indicated that functional recovery in immunized rats could be correlated with endogeous NGF expression in hemisected rat spinal cords.

  13. Molecular evidence of curcumin-induced apoptosis in the filarial worm Setaria cervi.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Ananya; Gayen, Prajna; Saini, Prasanta; Mukherjee, Niladri; Babu, Santi P Sinha

    2012-09-01

    Curcumin (diferuloyl methane) is a major curcuminoid from Curcuma longa that exhibits various pharmacological effects and has shown multiple beneficial activities. Our understanding of its anticarcinogenic and other activities occurring through curcumin-induced apoptosis in several cancer cells has greatly expanded in recent years. Lymphatic filariasis is a worldwide health problem causing global disability in humans and is caused by filarial nematodes. Development of efficient strategies to promote programmed cell death in filarial worms remains a key challenge for anti-filarial drug developing research and a crucial unmet medical need. In this study, we have taken molecular and biochemical approaches toward understanding the molecular basis for curcumin-mediated anti-filarial activity in the filarial nematode Setaria cervi. Results of MTT assay showed that curcumin causes a significant reduction in viability of Mf and adults and thus acts as a potent macro- and micro-filaricidal agent. Hoechst staining, TUNEL staining, showed several apoptotic nuclei in different parts of curcumin-treated adults. At 25 μM concentration it showed chromosomal DNA fragmentation in adult worms. Our results indicate that curcumin decreases protein and mRNA expression levels of anti-apoptotic gene ced-9 and enhances both the levels of pro-apoptotic genes ced-3 and ced-4 in a dose-dependent manner. All these observations ascertained the apoptogenicity of curcumin at a minimum concentration of 50 μM in this filarial worm. Furthermore, we showed that curcumin causes depletion of parasitic glutathione level, enhances the activities of glutathione S-transferase and superoxide dismutase and stimulates rapid generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here, we present molecular evidence on curcumin-induced apoptosis in the filarial nematode S. cervi with probable involvement of ROS in a caspase-dependent manner.

  14. Velvet worm development links myriapods with chelicerates.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Georg; Whitington, Paul M

    2009-10-22

    Despite the advent of modern molecular and computational methods, the phylogeny of the four major arthropod groups (Chelicerata, Myriapoda, Crustacea and Hexapoda, including the insects) remains enigmatic. One particular challenge is the position of myriapods as either the closest relatives to chelicerates (Paradoxopoda/Myriochelata hypothesis), or to crustaceans and hexapods (Mandibulata hypothesis). While neither hypothesis receives conclusive support from molecular analyses, most morphological studies favour the Mandibulata concept, with the mandible being the most prominent feature of this group. Although no morphological evidence was initially available to support the Paradoxopoda hypothesis, a putative synapomorphy of chelicerates and myriapods has recently been put forward based on studies of neurogenesis. However, this and other morphological characters remain of limited use for phylogenetic systematics owing to the lack of data from an appropriate outgroup. Here, we show that several embryonic characters are synapomorphies uniting the chelicerates and myriapods, as revealed by an outgroup comparison with the Onychophora or velvet worms. Our findings, thus provide, to our knowledge, first morphological/embryological support for the monophyly of the Paradoxopoda and suggest that the mandible might have evolved twice within the arthropods.

  15. Footwear width and balance-recovery reactions: A new approach to improving lateral stability in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Takeshi; Cheng, Kenneth C.; McKay, Sandra M.; Maki, Brian E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Age-related difficulty in controlling lateral stability is of crucial importance because lateral falls increase risk of debilitating hip-fracture injury. This study examined whether a small increase in footwear sole width can improve ability of older adults to regain lateral stability subsequent to balance perturbation. Methods The study involved sixteen healthy, ambulatory, community-dwelling older adults (aged 65–78). Widened base-of-support (WBOS) footwear was simulated by affixing polystyrene-foam blocks (20mm wide) on the medial and lateral sides of rubber overshoes; unaltered overshoes were worn in normal (NBOS) trials. Balance perturbations were applied using a motion platform. Results Gait, mobility and agility tests revealed no adverse effects of wearing the WBOS footwear. Lateral-perturbation tests showed that the WBOS footwear improved ability to stabilize the body without stepping (p=0.002). Depending on the perturbation magnitude, the frequency of stepping was reduced by up to 25% (64% of NBOS trials vs 39% of WBOS trials). In addition, the WBOS footwear appeared to improve ability to maintain lateral stability during forward-step reactions, as evidenced by reduced incidence of additional lateral steps (p=0.04) after stepping over an obstacle in response to a forward-fall perturbation. Conclusions A small increase in sole width can improve certain aspects of lateral stability in older adults, without compromising mobility and agility. This finding supports the viability of WBOS footwear as an intervention to improve balance. Further research is needed to test populations with more severe balance impairments, examine user compliance, and determine if WBOS footwear actually reduces falling risk in daily life. PMID:27099603

  16. Functional recovery of neuronal activity in rat whisker-barrel cortex sensory pathway from freezing injury after transplantation of adult bone marrow stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Mori, Kentaro; Iwata, Junko; Miyazaki, Masahiro; Nakao, Yasuaki; Maeda, Minoru

    2005-07-01

    The effect of transplantation of adult bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) into the freeze-lesioned left barrel field cortex in the rat was investigated by measurement of local cerebral glucose utilization (lCMR(glc)) in the anatomic structures of the whisker-to-barrel cortex sensory pathway. Bone marrow stromal cells or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) were injected intracerebrally into the boundary zone 1 h after induction of the freezing cortical lesion. Three weeks after surgery, the 2-[(14)C]deoxyglucose method was used to measure lCMR(glc) during right whisker stimulation. The volume of the primary necrotic freezing lesion was significantly reduced (P<0.05), and secondary retrograde degeneration in the left ventral posteromedial (VPM) thalamic nucleus was diminished in the MSC-treated group. Local cerebral glucose utilization measurements showed that the freezing cortical lesion did not alter the metabolic responses to stimulation in the brain stem trigeminal nuclei, but eliminated the responses in the left VPM nucleus and periphery of the barrel cortex in the PBS-treated group. The left/right (stimulated/unstimulated) lCMR(glc) ratios were significantly improved in both the VPM nucleus and periphery of the barrel cortex in the MSC-treated group compared with the PBS-treated group (P<0.05). These results indicate that MSC transplantation in adults may stimulate metabolic and functional recovery in injured neuronal pathways.

  17. 2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Big Creek Road, Between State Route 284 & Big Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  18. Detail, terra cotta, ironwork, and painted wood "worm gear" carved ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, terra cotta, ironwork, and painted wood "worm gear" carved columns, north rear. - San Bernardino Valley College, Library, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  19. Worm drive detail, roller hoist mechanism, rolling crest roller gate ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Worm drive detail, roller hoist mechanism, rolling crest roller gate - plan and sections - Grand Valley Diversion Dam, Half a mile north of intersection of I-70 & Colorado State Route 65, Cameo, Mesa County, CO

  20. Metagenomic Analysis of Microbial Symbionts in a Gutless Worm

    SciTech Connect

    Woyke, Tanja; Teeling, Hanno; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Hunteman, Marcel; Richter, Michael; Gloeckner, Frank Oliver; Boeffelli, Dario; Barry, Kerrie W.; Shapiro, Harris J.; Anderson, Iain J.; Szeto, Ernest; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Mussmann, Marc; Amann, Rudolf; Bergin, Claudia; Ruehland, Caroline; Rubin, Edward M.; Dubilier, Nicole

    2006-05-01

    Symbioses between bacteria and eukaryotes are ubiquitous, yet our understanding of the interactions driving these associations is hampered by our inability to cultivate most host-associated microbes. Here we use a metagenomic approach to describe four co-occurring symbionts from the marine oligochaete Olavius algarvensis, a worm lacking a mouth, gut and nephridia. Shotgun sequencing and metabolic pathway reconstruction revealed that the symbionts are sulphur-oxidizing and sulphate-reducing bacteria, all of which are capable of carbon fixation, thus providing the host with multiple sources of nutrition. Molecular evidence for the uptake and recycling of worm waste products by the symbionts suggests how the worm could eliminate its excretory system, an adaptation unique among annelid worms. We propose a model that describes how the versatile metabolism within this symbiotic consortium provides the host with an optimal energy supply as it shuttles between the upper oxic and lower anoxic coastal sediments that it inhabits.

  1. The Worm Guide: A Vericomposting Guide for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Integrated Waste Management Board, Sacramento.

    This guide focuses on vermicomposting of food waste. Contents include: (1) "Integrated Waste Management"; (2) "Basics of Vermicomposting"; (3) "Other Worm Bin Residents"; (4) "The Garden Connection"; (5) "Closing the Food Loop at Your School"; (6) "Fundraising"; (7) "Activities for…

  2. 19. WORM AND SPUR GEARS FOR CONTROLLING THE PADDLE VALVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. WORM AND SPUR GEARS FOR CONTROLLING THE PADDLE VALVE IN ONE OF THE LOCK GATES WHICH SEPARATES UPPER AND LOWER CHAMBERS: 1976 - Pawtucket Canal, Swamp Locks, Pawtucket & Merrimack Canals, Lowell, Middlesex County, MA

  3. 20. WORM AND SPUR GEARS FOR CONTROLLING THE PADDLE VALVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. WORM AND SPUR GEARS FOR CONTROLLING THE PADDLE VALVE IN ONE OF THE GATES BETWEEN THE UPPER AND LOWER CHAMBERS: 1976 - Pawtucket Canal, Swamp Locks, Pawtucket & Merrimack Canals, Lowell, Middlesex County, MA

  4. 18. WORM AND SPUR GEARS FOR CONTROLLING THE PADDLE VALVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. WORM AND SPUR GEARS FOR CONTROLLING THE PADDLE VALVE IN ONE OF THE GATES BETWEEN THE UPPER AND LOWER CHAMBERS: 1976 - Pawtucket Canal, Swamp Locks, Pawtucket & Merrimack Canals, Lowell, Middlesex County, MA

  5. 6. VIEW OF DRIFT SHAFT, HOIST MOTOR, WORM WHEEL GEAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF DRIFT SHAFT, HOIST MOTOR, WORM WHEEL GEAR ASSEMBLY, CROSS SHAFT, AND INTERMEDIATE GEAR HOIST ASSEMBLY FOR CONTROL GATE NO. 6, LOOKING WEST - Long Lake Hydroelectric Plant, Spillway Dam, Spanning Spokane River, Ford, Stevens County, WA

  6. Improved Gear Shapes for Face Worm Gear Drives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvin, Faydor L.; Nava, Alessandro; Fan, Qi; Fuentes, Alfonso

    2005-01-01

    Shapes different from the traditional ones have been proposed for face worm gears and for conical and cylindrical worms that mesh with them. The proposed shapes are based on the concept of generating a face worm gear surface by use of a tilted head cutter instead of by the traditional use of a hob. (As used here, head cutter is also meant to signify, alternatively, a head grinding tool.) The gear-surface-generation equipment would be similar to that used for generation of spiral bevel and hypoid gears. In comparison with the corresponding traditional hob, a tilted head cutter according to the proposal would be larger, could be fabricated with greater precision, and would enable the generation of gear surfaces with greater precision and greater productivity. A face worm gear would be generated (see figure) by use of a tilted head cutter, the blades or grinding surfaces of which would have straight-line profiles. The tilt of the head cutter would prevent interference with teeth adjacent to the groove being cut or ground. A worm to mesh with the face worm gear would be generated by use of a tilted head cutter mounted on the cradle of a generating machine. The blades or grinding surfaces of the head cutter would have a parabolic profile and would deviate from the straight-line profiles of the head cutter for the face worm gear. The shortest distance between the worm and the cradle would follow a parabolic function during the cycle of meshing in the generating process to provide a parabolic function of transmission errors to the gear drive. The small mismatch between the profiles of the face-worm-gear and worm head cutters would make it possible to localize the bearing contact in the worm gear drive. The parabolic function of transmission errors could absorb discontinuous linear functions of transmission errors caused by errors of alignment; this could afford a significant benefit, in that such errors are main sources of noise and vibration in gear drives. The main

  7. Discrete Modeling of the Worm Spread with Random Scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, Masato

    In this paper, we derive a set of discrete time difference equations that models the spreading process of computer worms such as Code-Red and Slammer, which uses a common strategy called “random scanning” to spread through the Internet. We show that the derived set of discrete time difference equations has an exact relationship with the Kermack and McKendrick susceptible-infectious-removed (SIR) model, which is known as a standard continuous time model for worm spreading.

  8. Social behaviour and collective motion in plant-animal worms

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Katherine A. J.; Gorman, Alice R.; Vizard, Victoria; Plackett, Harriet; Gamble, Margaret L.

    2016-01-01

    Social behaviour may enable organisms to occupy ecological niches that would otherwise be unavailable to them. Here, we test this major evolutionary principle by demonstrating self-organizing social behaviour in the plant-animal, Symsagittifera roscoffensis. These marine aceol flat worms rely for all of their nutrition on the algae within their bodies: hence their common name. We show that individual worms interact with one another to coordinate their movements so that even at low densities they begin to swim in small polarized groups and at increasing densities such flotillas turn into circular mills. We use computer simulations to: (i) determine if real worms interact socially by comparing them with virtual worms that do not interact and (ii) show that the social phase transitions of the real worms can occur based only on local interactions between and among them. We hypothesize that such social behaviour helps the worms to form the dense biofilms or mats observed on certain sun-exposed sandy beaches in the upper intertidal of the East Atlantic and to become in effect a super-organismic seaweed in a habitat where macro-algal seaweeds cannot anchor themselves. Symsagittifera roscoffensis, a model organism in many other areas in biology (including stem cell regeneration), also seems to be an ideal model for understanding how individual behaviours can lead, through collective movement, to social assemblages. PMID:26911961

  9. Social behaviour and collective motion in plant-animal worms.

    PubMed

    Franks, Nigel R; Worley, Alan; Grant, Katherine A J; Gorman, Alice R; Vizard, Victoria; Plackett, Harriet; Doran, Carolina; Gamble, Margaret L; Stumpe, Martin C; Sendova-Franks, Ana B

    2016-02-24

    Social behaviour may enable organisms to occupy ecological niches that would otherwise be unavailable to them. Here, we test this major evolutionary principle by demonstrating self-organizing social behaviour in the plant-animal, Symsagittifera roscoffensis. These marine aceol flat worms rely for all of their nutrition on the algae within their bodies: hence their common name. We show that individual worms interact with one another to coordinate their movements so that even at low densities they begin to swim in small polarized groups and at increasing densities such flotillas turn into circular mills. We use computer simulations to: (i) determine if real worms interact socially by comparing them with virtual worms that do not interact and (ii) show that the social phase transitions of the real worms can occur based only on local interactions between and among them. We hypothesize that such social behaviour helps the worms to form the dense biofilms or mats observed on certain sun-exposed sandy beaches in the upper intertidal of the East Atlantic and to become in effect a super-organismic seaweed in a habitat where macro-algal seaweeds cannot anchor themselves. Symsagittifera roscoffensis, a model organism in many other areas in biology (including stem cell regeneration), also seems to be an ideal model for understanding how individual behaviours can lead, through collective movement, to social assemblages.

  10. Bacterial Microbiota Associated with the Glacier Ice Worm Is Dominated by Both Worm-Specific and Glacier-Derived Facultative Lineages

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Takumi; Segawa, Takahiro; Dial, Roman; Takeuchi, Nozomu; Kohshima, Shiro; Hongoh, Yuichi

    2017-01-01

    The community structure of bacteria associated with the glacier ice worm Mesenchytraeus solifugus was analyzed by amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA genes and their transcripts. Ice worms were collected from two distinct glaciers in Alaska, Harding Icefield and Byron Glacier, and glacier surfaces were also sampled for comparison. Marked differences were observed in bacterial community structures between the ice worm and glacier surface samples. Several bacterial phylotypes were detected almost exclusively in the ice worms, and these bacteria were phylogenetically affiliated with either animal-associated lineages or, interestingly, clades mostly consisting of glacier-indigenous species. The former included bacteria that belong to Mollicutes, Chlamydiae, Rickettsiales, and Lachnospiraceae, while the latter included Arcicella and Herminiimonas phylotypes. Among these bacteria enriched in ice worm samples, Mollicutes, Arcicella, and Herminiimonas phylotypes were abundantly and consistently detected in the ice worm samples; these phylotypes constituted the core microbiota associated with the ice worm. A fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis showed that Arcicella cells specifically colonized the epidermis of the ice worms. Other bacterial phylotypes detected in the ice worm samples were also abundantly recovered from the respective habitat glaciers; these bacteria may be food for ice worms to digest or temporary residents. Nevertheless, some were overrepresented in the ice worm RNA samples; they may also function as facultative gut bacteria. Our results indicate that the community structure of bacteria associated with ice worms is distinct from that in the associated glacier and includes worm-specific and facultative, glacier-indigenous lineages. PMID:28302989

  11. New Geometry of Worm Face Gear Drives with Conical and Cylindrical Worms: Generation, Simulation of Meshing, and Stress Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvin, Faydor L.; Nava, Alessandro; Fan, Qi; Fuentes, Alfonso

    2002-01-01

    New geometry of face worm gear drives with conical and cylindrical worms is proposed. The generation of the face worm-gear is based on application of a tilted head-cutter (grinding tool) instead of application of a hob applied at present. The generation of a conjugated worm is based on application of a tilted head-cutter (grinding tool) as well. The bearing contact of the gear drive is localized and is oriented longitudinally. A predesigned parabolic function of transmission errors for reduction of noise and vibration is provided. The stress analysis of the gear drive is performed using a three-dimensional finite element analysis. The contacting model is automatically generated. The developed theory is illustrated with numerical examples.

  12. Navigating molecular worms inside chemical labyrinths

    PubMed Central

    Haranczyk, M.; Sethian, J. A.

    2009-01-01

    Predicting whether a molecule can traverse chemical labyrinths of channels, tunnels, and buried cavities usually requires performing computationally intensive molecular dynamics simulations. Often one wants to screen molecules to identify ones that can pass through a given chemical labyrinth or screen chemical labyrinths to identify those that allow a given molecule to pass. Because it is impractical to test each molecule/labyrinth pair using computationally expensive methods, faster, approximate methods are used to prune possibilities, “triaging” the ability of a proposed molecule to pass through the given chemical labyrinth. Most pruning methods estimate chemical accessibility solely on geometry, treating atoms or groups of atoms as hard spheres with appropriate radii. Here, we explore geometric configurations for a moving “molecular worm,” which replaces spherical probes and is assembled from solid blocks connected by flexible links. The key is to extend the fast marching method, which is an ordered upwind one-pass Dijkstra-like method to compute optimal paths by efficiently solving an associated Eikonal equation for the cost function. First, we build a suitable cost function associated with each possible configuration, and second, we construct an algorithm that works in ensuing high-dimensional configuration space: at least seven dimensions are required to account for translational, rotational, and internal degrees of freedom. We demonstrate the algorithm to study shortest paths, compute accessible volume, and derive information on topology of the accessible part of a chemical labyrinth. As a model example, we consider an alkane molecule in a porous material, which is relevant to designing catalysts for oil processing. PMID:20018716

  13. Collegiate Recovery Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Kitty S.; Kimball, Thomas G.; Casiraghi, Ann M.; Maison, Sara J.

    2014-01-01

    More than ever, people are seeking substance use disorder treatment during the adolescent and young adult stages of development. Developmentally, many of these young adults new to recovery are in the process of making career decisions that may require attendance at a college or university. However, the collegiate environment is not conducive to a…

  14. Lifestyle Intervention Improves Heart Rate Recovery from Exercise in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: Results from the Look AHEAD Study

    PubMed Central

    Ribisl, Paul M.; Gaussoin, Sarah A.; Lang, Wei; Bahnson, Judy; Connelly, Stephanie A.; Horton, Edward S.; Jakicic, John M.; Killean, Tina; Kitzman, Dalane W.; Knowler, William C.; Stewart, Kerry J.; Research Group, Look AHEAD

    2012-01-01

    The primary aims of this paper were (1) to evaluate the influence of intensive lifestyle weight loss and exercise intervention (ILI) compared with diabetes support and education (DSE) upon Heart Rate Recovery (HRR) from graded exercise testing (GXT) and (2) to determine the independent and combined effects of weight loss and fitness changes upon HRR. In 4503 participants (45–76 years) who completed 1 year of intervention, HRR was measured after a submaximal GXT to compare the influence of (ILI) with (DSE) upon HRR. Participants assigned to ILI lost an average 8.6% of their initial weight versus 0.7% in DSE group (P < 0.001) while mean fitness increased in ILI by 20.9% versus 5.8% in DSE (P < 0.001). At Year 1, all exercise and HRR variables in ILI improved (P < 0.0001) versus DSE: heart rate (HR) at rest was lower (72.8 ± 11.4 versus 77.7 ± 11.7 b/min), HR range was greater (57.7 ± 12.1 versus 53.1 ± 12.4 b/min), HR at 2 minutes was lower (89.3 ± 21.8 versus 93.0 ± 12.1 b/min), and HRR was greater (41.25 ± 22.0 versus 37.8 ± 12.5 b/min). Weight loss and fitness gain produced significant separate and independent improvements in HRR. PMID:23227314

  15. Lifestyle intervention improves heart rate recovery from exercise in adults with type 2 diabetes: results from the Look AHEAD study.

    PubMed

    Ribisl, Paul M; Gaussoin, Sarah A; Lang, Wei; Bahnson, Judy; Connelly, Stephanie A; Horton, Edward S; Jakicic, John M; Killean, Tina; Kitzman, Dalane W; Knowler, William C; Stewart, Kerry J

    2012-01-01

    The primary aims of this paper were (1) to evaluate the influence of intensive lifestyle weight loss and exercise intervention (ILI) compared with diabetes support and education (DSE) upon Heart Rate Recovery (HRR) from graded exercise testing (GXT) and (2) to determine the independent and combined effects of weight loss and fitness changes upon HRR. In 4503 participants (45-76 years) who completed 1 year of intervention, HRR was measured after a submaximal GXT to compare the influence of (ILI) with (DSE) upon HRR. Participants assigned to ILI lost an average 8.6% of their initial weight versus 0.7% in DSE group (P < 0.001) while mean fitness increased in ILI by 20.9% versus 5.8% in DSE (P < 0.001). At Year 1, all exercise and HRR variables in ILI improved (P < 0.0001) versus DSE: heart rate (HR) at rest was lower (72.8 ± 11.4 versus 77.7 ± 11.7 b/min), HR range was greater (57.7 ± 12.1 versus 53.1 ± 12.4 b/min), HR at 2 minutes was lower (89.3 ± 21.8 versus 93.0 ± 12.1 b/min), and HRR was greater (41.25 ± 22.0 versus 37.8 ± 12.5 b/min). Weight loss and fitness gain produced significant separate and independent improvements in HRR.

  16. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation improves open field locomotor recovery after low but not high thoracic spinal cord compression-injury in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Poirrier, Anne-Lise; Nyssen, Yves; Scholtes, Felix; Multon, Sylvie; Rinkin, Charline; Weber, Géraldine; Bouhy, Delphine; Brook, Gary; Franzen, Rachelle; Schoenen, Jean

    2004-01-15

    Electromagnetic fields are able to promote axonal regeneration in vitro and in vivo. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is used routinely in neuropsychiatric conditions and as an atraumatic method to activate descending motor pathways. After spinal cord injury, these pathways are disconnected from the spinal locomotor generator, resulting in most of the functional deficit. We have applied daily 10 Hz rTMS for 8 weeks immediately after an incomplete high (T4-5; n = 5) or low (T10-11; n = 6) thoracic closed spinal cord compression-injury in adult rats, using 6 high- and 6 low-lesioned non-stimulated animals as controls. Functional recovery of hindlimbs was assessed using the BBB locomotor rating scale. In the control group, the BBB score was significantly better from the 7th week post-injury in animals lesioned at T4-5 compared to those lesioned at T10-11. rTMS significantly improved locomotor recovery in T10-11-injured rats, but not in rats with a high thoracic injury. In rTMS-treated rats, there was significant positive correlation between final BBB score and grey matter density of serotonergic fibres in the spinal segment just caudal to the lesion. We propose that low thoracic lesions produce a greater functional deficit because they interfere with the locomotor centre and that rTMS is beneficial in such lesions because it activates this central pattern generator, presumably via descending serotonin pathways. The benefits of rTMS shown here suggest strongly that this non-invasive intervention strategy merits consideration for clinical trials in human paraplegics with low spinal cord lesions.

  17. Transplantation of human bone marrow stromal cell-derived Schwann cells reduces cystic cavity and promotes functional recovery after contusion injury of adult rat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Kamada, Takahito; Koda, Masao; Dezawa, Mari; Anahara, Reiko; Toyama, Yoshiro; Yoshinaga, Katsunori; Hashimoto, Masayuki; Koshizuka, Shuhei; Nishio, Yutaka; Mannoji, Chikato; Okawa, Akihiko; Yamazaki, Masashi

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether transplantation of human bone marrow stromal cell-derived Schwann cells (hBMSC-SC) promotes functional recovery after contusive spinal cord injury of adult rats. Human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSC) were cultured from bone marrow of adult human patients and induced into Schwann cells (hBMSC-SC) in vitro. Schwann cell phenotype was confirmed by immunocytochemistry. Growth factors secreted from hBMSC-SC were detected using cytokine antibody array. Immunosuppressed rats were laminectomized and their spinal cords were contused using NYU impactor (10 g, 25 mm). Nine days after injury, a mixture of Matrigel and hBMSC-SC (hBMSC-SC group) was injected into the lesioned site. Five weeks after transplantation, cresyl-violet staining revealed that the area of cystic cavity was smaller in the hBMSC-SC group than that in the control group. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the number of anti-growth-associated protein-43-positive nerve fibers was significantly larger in the hBMSC-SC group than that in the control group. At the same time, the number of tyrosine hydroxylase- or serotonin-positive fibers was significantly larger at the lesion epicenter and caudal level in the hBMSC-SC group than that in the control group. In electron microscopy, formation of peripheral-type myelin was recognized near the lesion epicenter in the hBMSC-SC group. Hind limb function recovered significantly in the hBMSC-SC group compared with the control group. In conclusion, the functions of hBMSC-SC are comparable to original Schwann cells in rat spinal cord injury models, and are thus potentially useful treatments for patients with spinal cord injury.

  18. Sludge reduction using aquatic worms under different aeration regimes.

    PubMed

    Cai, Lu; Gao, Ding; Wang, Kan; Liu, Hong-Tao; Wan, Xiao-Ming

    2017-03-01

    Adding aquatic worms to a wastewater treatment system can reduce sludge production through predation. The aeration level is crucial for success. To evaluate aeration impacts on sludge reduction and determine an optimal aeration regime, this study investigated the processes of in-situ sludge reduction, using aquatic worms exposed to different aeration levels. The experiment also compared treatment results between a conventional reactor and an aquatic worm reactor (WR). Results indicated that the recommended concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO) was 2.5 mg L(-1). The removal rate of chemical oxygen demand remained steady at 80% when the DO concentration was higher than 2.5 mg L(-1), while the removal rate of ammonia nitrogen continued to moderately increase. Increasing the DO concentration to 5 mg L(-1) did not improve sludge reduction, and consumed more power. With a DO concentration of 2.5 mg L(-1) and a power of 0.19 kWh t(-1) water, the absolute sludge reduction and relative sludge reduction rates in the WR were 60.0% and 45.7%, respectively, and the daily aquatic worm growth rate was 0.150 d(-1) during the 17-d test. Therefore, at the recommended aeration regime, aquatic worms reduced the sludge without increasing the power consumption or deteriorating the effluent.

  19. Tracking movement behavior of multiple worms on food.

    PubMed

    Yemini, Eviatar; Kerr, Rex A; Schafer, William R

    2011-12-01

    Neurobiological research in genetically tractable organisms relies heavily on robust assays for behavioral phenotypes. The simple body plan of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans makes it particularly amenable to the use of automated microscopy and image analysis to describe behavioral patterns quantitatively. Forward genetic screens and screens of drug libraries require high-throughput phenotyping, a task traditionally incompatible with manual scoring of quantitatively varying behaviors. High-throughput automated analysis of C. elegans movement behavior is now possible with several different tracking software packages. The Multiworm Tracker (MWT) described here is designed for high-throughput analysis: it can record dozens of worms simultaneously at 30 frames per second for hours or days at a time. This is accomplished by performing all image analysis in real time, saving only the worm centroid, bearing, and outline data to the disk. To simplify image processing, the system focuses only on worms that have moved, and detects and discards worms that are touching rather than trying to isolate them computationally. Because the software is entirely automated, protocols can run unattended once the worms have been placed and the software has been started. The MWT does not save images for later analysis, but behavior can be validated manually with a companion analysis tool that replays recorded body postures. This protocol describes a basic basal movement assay on food using the MWT; similar protocols apply to related assays and to similar multiple animal trackers. The protocol can be extended to a variety of assays ranging from tap response to chemotaxis.

  20. Nutritional Recovery with a Soybean Diet after Weaning Reduces Lipogenesis but Induces Inflammation in the Liver in Adult Rats Exposed to Protein Restriction during Intrauterine Life and Lactation

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Sílvia Regina de Lima; Feres, Naoel Hassan; Ignacio-Souza, Leticia Martins; Veloso, Roberto Vilela; Arantes, Vanessa Cristina; Kawashita, Nair Honda; Colodel, Edson Moleta; Botosso, Bárbara Laet; Reis, Marise Auxiliadora de Barros; Latorraca, Márcia Queiroz

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of postweaning nutritional recovery with a soybean flour diet on de novo hepatic lipogenesis and inflammation in adult rats exposed to protein restriction during intrauterine life and lactation. Rats from mothers fed with protein (casein) in a percentage of 17% (control, C) or 6% (low, L) during pregnancy and lactation were fed with diet that contained 17% casein (CC and LC groups, resp.) or soybean (CS and LS groups, resp.) after weaning until 90 days of age. LS and CS rats had low body weight, normal basal serum triglyceride levels, increased ALT concentrations, and high HOMA-IR indices compared with LC and CC rats. The soybean diet reduced PPARγ as well as malic enzyme and citrate lyase contents and activities. The lipogenesis rate and liver fat content were lower in LS and CS rats relative to LC and CC rats. TNFα mRNA and protein levels were higher in LS and CS rats than in LC and CC rats. NF-κB mRNA levels were lower in the LC and LS groups compared with the CC and LC groups. Thus, the soybean diet prevented hepatic steatosis at least in part through reduced lipogenesis but resulted in TNFα-mediated inflammation. PMID:25892856

  1. Logistics of Guinea worm disease eradication in South Sudan.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alexander H; Becknell, Steven; Withers, P Craig; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Hopkins, Donald R; Stobbelaar, David; Makoy, Samuel Yibi

    2014-03-01

    From 2006 to 2012, the South Sudan Guinea Worm Eradication Program reduced new Guinea worm disease (dracunculiasis) cases by over 90%, despite substantial programmatic challenges. Program logistics have played a key role in program achievements to date. The program uses disease surveillance and program performance data and integrated technical-logistical staffing to maintain flexible and effective logistical support for active community-based surveillance and intervention delivery in thousands of remote communities. Lessons learned from logistical design and management can resonate across similar complex surveillance and public health intervention delivery programs, such as mass drug administration for the control of neglected tropical diseases and other disease eradication programs. Logistical challenges in various public health scenarios and the pivotal contribution of logistics to Guinea worm case reductions in South Sudan underscore the need for additional inquiry into the role of logistics in public health programming in low-income countries.

  2. Logistics of Guinea Worm Disease Eradication in South Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Alexander H.; Becknell, Steven; Withers, P. Craig; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Hopkins, Donald R.; Stobbelaar, David; Makoy, Samuel Yibi

    2014-01-01

    From 2006 to 2012, the South Sudan Guinea Worm Eradication Program reduced new Guinea worm disease (dracunculiasis) cases by over 90%, despite substantial programmatic challenges. Program logistics have played a key role in program achievements to date. The program uses disease surveillance and program performance data and integrated technical–logistical staffing to maintain flexible and effective logistical support for active community-based surveillance and intervention delivery in thousands of remote communities. Lessons learned from logistical design and management can resonate across similar complex surveillance and public health intervention delivery programs, such as mass drug administration for the control of neglected tropical diseases and other disease eradication programs. Logistical challenges in various public health scenarios and the pivotal contribution of logistics to Guinea worm case reductions in South Sudan underscore the need for additional inquiry into the role of logistics in public health programming in low-income countries. PMID:24445199

  3. Farmers' loss due to Guinea worm disease: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Brieger, W R; Guyer, J

    1990-04-01

    Guinea worm disease has been blamed for much disability and loss of productivity among farmers in Africa and South Asia. Many studies have tried to equate days lost in illness to monetary values. These attempts often overlook the process of disability in relation to farming patterns. This pilot effort uses a qualitative case study approach to learn about how Guinea worm can cause loss to farmers. Twenty in-depth interviews with affected farmers showed that their losses are related to the time of year they are affected by Guinea worm. Some crops with flexible planting times, e.g. cassava, may not be as affected. Duration of disability is another determining factor. Insights from this pilot study can be used to design more appropriate large-scale survey instruments and guide development of longitudinal research.

  4. Community participation in the eradication of guinea worm disease.

    PubMed

    Cairncross, S; Braide, E I; Bugri, S Z

    1996-04-01

    As Guinea worm eradication programmes have got under way in endemic countries over the last decade, there has been a shift towards more participatory methods. The approach to surveillance has changed from periodic cross-sectional surveys to monthly village-based reporting of cases by a volunteer village health worker. At the same time, the emphasis regarding control interventions has moved from the provision of safe water supplies to health education. The new approach has proved very effective. The village health volunteers who carry out both surveillance and health education seem to be motivated largely by the social status of their role; still more commitment will be required of them in the final stages of eradication. It is to be hoped that the networks of village health workers established for Guinea worm eradication will find a useful role in health promotion after the worms have gone.

  5. Diet of Worms Emended: An Update of Polychaete Feeding Guilds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jumars, Peter A.; Dorgan, Kelly M.; Lindsay, Sara M.

    2015-01-01

    Polychaetes are common in most marine habitats and dominate many infaunal communities. Functional guild classification based on taxonomic identity and morphology has linked community structure to ecological function. The functional guilds now include osmotrophic siboglinids as well as sipunculans, echiurans, and myzostomes, which molecular genetic analyses have placed within Annelida. Advances in understanding of encounter mechanisms explicitly relate motility to feeding mode. New analyses of burrowing mechanics explain the prevalence of bilateral symmetry and blur the boundary between surface and subsurface feeding. The dichotomy between microphagous deposit and suspension feeders and macrophagous carnivores, herbivores, and omnivores is further supported by divergent digestive strategies. Deposit feeding appears to be limited largely to worms longer than 1 cm, with juveniles and small worms in general restricted to ingesting highly digestible organic material and larger, rich food items, blurring the macrophage-microphage dichotomy that applies well to larger worms.

  6. The use of age-clustered pooled faecal samples for monitoring worm control in horses.

    PubMed

    Eysker, M; Bakker, J; van den Berg, M; van Doorn, D C K; Ploeger, H W

    2008-02-14

    A study was performed on two horse farms to evaluate the use of age-clustered pooled faecal samples for monitoring worm control in horses. In total 109 horses, 57 on farm A and 52 on farm B, were monitored at weekly intervals between 6 and 14 weeks after ivermectin treatment. This was performed through pooled faecal samples of pools of up to 10 horses of the groups 'yearlings' (both farms), '2-year-old' (two pools in farm A), '3-year-old' (farm A) and adult horses (four pools on farm A and five pools on farm B), which were compared with the mean individual faecal egg counts of the same pools. A very high correlation between the faecal egg counts in pooled samples and the mean faecal egg counts was seen and also between the faecal egg counts in pooled samples and larval counts from pooled faecal larval cultures. Faecal egg counts increased more rapidly in yearlings and 2-year-old horses than in older horses. This implied that in these groups of young animals faecal egg counts of more than 200 EPG were reached at or just after the egg reappearance period (ERP) of 8 weeks that is usually indicated for ivermectin. This probably means that, certainly under intensive conditions, repeated treatment at this ERP is warranted in these young animals, with or without monitoring through faecal examination. A different situation is seen in adult animals. Based on the mean faecal egg counts on both farms and on the results of pooled samples in farm A, using 100 EPG as threshold, no justification for treatment was seen throughout the experimental period. However, on farm B values of 100 EPG were seen at 9 and 11, 13 and 14 and 14 weeks after ivermectin treatment in pools 10, 12 and 13, respectively. This coincided with the presence of one or two horses with egg counts above 200 EPG. The conclusion is that random pooled faecal samples of 10 adult horses from a larger herd, starting at the ERP and repeating it at, for instance, 4-week intervals, could be used for decisions on worm

  7. Failure of thiabendazole and metronidazole in the treatment and suppression of guinea worm disease.

    PubMed

    Belcher, D W; Wunapa, F K; Ward, W B

    1975-05-01

    Guinea worm disease is endemic in West Africa. In 1973 a field drug trial was conducted to compare effectiveness, cost, and side-effects of thiabendazole and metronidazole in treating active guinea worm disease and preventing latent worms from emerging. A mass chemotherapy campaign was planned to follow the drug trial. Only 15.5% of the treated patients expelled the worm completely, and in 28.4% of the cases worms continued to appear. Both drugs were equally unsatisfactory in their anti-helminthic effect. Consequently, our efforts to control guinea worm have shifted from chemotherapy to chemical control of cyclops and improvement of rural water supplies.

  8. Preparation of Pickering Double Emulsions Using Block Copolymer Worms

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The rational formulation of Pickering double emulsions is described using a judicious combination of hydrophilic and hydrophobic block copolymer worms as highly anisotropic emulsifiers. More specifically, RAFT dispersion polymerization was utilized to prepare poly(lauryl methacrylate)–poly(benzyl methacrylate) worms at 20% w/w solids in n-dodecane and poly(glycerol monomethacrylate)–poly(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate)–poly(benzyl methacrylate) worms at 13% w/w solids in water by polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA). Water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) double emulsions can be readily prepared with mean droplet diameters ranging from 30 to 80 μm using a two-stage approach. First, a w/o precursor emulsion comprising 25 μm aqueous droplets is prepared using the hydrophobic worms, followed by encapsulation within oil droplets stabilized by the hydrophilic worms. The double emulsion droplet diameter and number of encapsulated water droplets can be readily varied by adjusting the stirring rate employed during the second stage. For each stage, the droplet volume fraction is relatively high at 0.50. The double emulsion nature of the final formulation was confirmed by optical and fluorescence microscopy studies. Such double emulsions are highly stable to coalescence, with little or no change in droplet diameter being detected over storage at 20 °C for 10 weeks as judged by laser diffraction. Preliminary experiments indicate that the complementary o/w/o emulsions can also be prepared using the same pair of worms by changing the order of homogenization, although somewhat lower droplet volume fractions were required in this case. Finally, we demonstrate that triple and even quadruple emulsions can be formulated using these new highly anisotropic Pickering emulsifiers. PMID:25834923

  9. Shai-Hulud: The quest for worm sign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaenisch, Holger M.; Handley, James W.; Faucheux, Jeffery P.; Lamkin, Ken

    2005-03-01

    Successful worm detection at real-time OC-48 and OC-192 speed requires hardware to extract web based binary sequences at faster than these speeds, and software to process the incoming sequences to identify worms. Computer hardware advancement in the form of field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) makes real-time extraction of these sequences possible. Lacking are mathematical algorithms for worm detection in the real time data sequence, and the ability to convert these algorithms into lookup tables (LUTs) that can be compiled into FPGAs. Data Modeling provides the theory and algorithms for an effective mathematical framework for real-time worm detection and conversion of algorithms into LUTs. Detection methods currently available such as pattern recognition algorithms are limited both by the amount of time to compare the current data sequence with a historical database of potential candidates, and by the inability to accurately classify information that was unseen in the training process. Data Modeling eliminates these limitations by training only on examples of nominal behavior. This results in a highly tuned and fast running equation model that is compiled in a FPGA as a LUT and used at real-time OC-48 and OC-192 speeds to detect worms and other anomalies. This paper provides an overview of our approach for generating these Data Change Models for detecting worms, and their subsequent conversion into LUTs. A proof of concept is given using binary data from a WEBDAV, SLAMMER packet, and RED PROBE attack, with BASIC source code for the detector and LUT provided.

  10. [Common tropical infections with protozoans, worms and ectoparasites].

    PubMed

    Schliemann, S

    2014-10-01

    Infectious diseases of the skin have become rarer in industrialized nations, but they still affect a considerable part of the population in tropical regions. Skin diseases induced by protozoa, worms and ectoparasites are among the 17 "neglected tropical diseases" defined by the WHO (leishmaniasis, dracunculiasis, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis). Skin symptoms in travellers returning from the tropics may challenge dermatologists in Germany regarding differential diagnostic assessment and therapy. Among the 12 most frequent skin diseases in travellers are cutaneous larva migrans, leishmaniasis and myiasis. In this review, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of some the most relevant tropical dermatoses due to protozoa, worms and ectoparasites are discussed.

  11. Localization of Waves without Bistability: Worms in Nematic Electroconvection

    SciTech Connect

    Riecke, H.; Granzow, G.D.

    1998-07-01

    A general localization mechanism for waves in dissipative systems is identified that does not require the bistability of the basic state and the nonlinear plane-wave state. We conjecture that the mechanism explains the two-dimensional localized wave structures ({open_quotes}worms{close_quotes}) that recently have been observed in experiments on electroconvection in nematic liquid crystals where the transition to extended waves is supercritical. The mechanism accounts for the shape of the worms, their propagation direction, and certain aspects of their interaction. The dynamics of the localized waves can be steady or irregular. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  12. Parallelized quantum Monte Carlo algorithm with nonlocal worm updates.

    PubMed

    Masaki-Kato, Akiko; Suzuki, Takafumi; Harada, Kenji; Todo, Synge; Kawashima, Naoki

    2014-04-11

    Based on the worm algorithm in the path-integral representation, we propose a general quantum Monte Carlo algorithm suitable for parallelizing on a distributed-memory computer by domain decomposition. Of particular importance is its application to large lattice systems of bosons and spins. A large number of worms are introduced and its population is controlled by a fictitious transverse field. For a benchmark, we study the size dependence of the Bose-condensation order parameter of the hard-core Bose-Hubbard model with L×L×βt=10240×10240×16, using 3200 computing cores, which shows good parallelization efficiency.

  13. Transmission electron microscopic observations on ultrastructural alterations in Schistosoma mansoni adult worms recovered from C57BL/6 mice treated with radiation-attenuated vaccine and/or praziquantel in addition to passive immunization with normal and vaccinated rabbit sera against infection.

    PubMed

    El-Shabasy, Eman A; Reda, Enayat S; Abdeen, Sherif H; Said, Ashraf E; Ouhtit, Allal

    2015-04-01

    Although the current treatment of schistosomiasis relies largely on praziquantel (PZQ), it has not been successful in significantly reducing the overall rate of disease cases, one of the suggested reasons being the inevitable resistance to PZQ. Previous studies showed that radiation-attenuated vaccine provides protection against Schistosoma mansoni in a host of various species. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of various vaccination strategies in C57BL/6 mice, including single or multiple vaccination strategy, subcurative dose (20 mg/kg) of PZQ, and a combination of single vaccination with subcurative dose of PZQ. Treatment either with subcurative dose of PZQ or with a single vaccination of attenuated cercariae (500 per mouse), caused significant reduction in total worm burden, hepatic, and intestinal ova counts of 43.03, 73.2, and 59.5 and 37.97, 52.02, and 26.3%, respectively. Furthermore, tegumental changes were observed. In multiple vaccinated group, there was an extensive lysis in tegumental layers. High deformations in gastrodermis, testis cells, vitelline cells, and oocytes were recorded. Also, this study is to explore the role of humoral immunity using highly resistant rabbits that had been exposed to three immunizations with ultraviolet (UV)-irradiated cercariae (8000 per rabbit in each immunization), and their sera were tested for their ability to transfer protection. The reduction in challenge worm burden had reached 32.76-43.64% when compared with recipients of normal serum or no serum. The reduction in hepatic and intestinal ova counts reached to 74.4 and 71.08% in group immunized with vaccinated rabbit sera. Swelling and extensive lysis of tegumental layers, gastrodermis lumen, spermatocytes, and deformation of oocytes were recorded with more severity than that recorded in normal rabbit sera group. Our findings recorded that multiple vaccination strategy is the most effective strategy then passive transfer of vaccinated rabbit. This gives

  14. Immunoaffinity fractionation of Schistosoma mansoni worm antigens using human antibodies and its application for serodiagnosis.

    PubMed Central

    Boctor, F N; Shaheen, H I

    1986-01-01

    A crude Schistosoma mansoni soluble worm antigen preparation (SWAP) was fractionated using an immunoaffinity column consisting of specific human anti-SWAP antibodies obtained from chronic S. mansoni-infected human sera and bound to CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B. The chromatographic separation resulted in three fractions: the unbound material (FW), and the eluted antigens with glycine-HCl (F1) and glycine-HCl-NaCl (F2). Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) showed that the purified antigens F1 and F2 consisted of several bands when stained with Coomassie blue and silver stain, with molecular weights between 20 X 10(3) and 200 X 10(3). The F1 and F2 fractions in addition to FW and SWAP were used in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to measure antibody levels in sera from schistosomiasis patients. Each individual serum assessed with the purified F2 antigen gave 100% positivity and three to four times higher optical density in comparison to SWAP with only 88% positivity. No detectable cross-reactive antibodies against F2 were found when a limited number of sera from filariasis, fascioliasis and trichinellosis patients were screened. Furthermore, F2 was also used and found to be more sensitive generally in detecting anti-adult worm antibodies than SWAP in recently schistosomiasis-infected persons. Thus, F2 appears to be a highly sensitive and specific reagent for the serodiagnosis of schistosomiasis infection. Images Figure 3 Figure 7 PMID:3082749

  15. Potential vector species of Guinea worm (Dracunculus medinensis) in Northern Ghana.

    PubMed

    Bimi, Langbong

    2007-01-01

    Guinea worm disease, also known as dracunculiasis (or dracunculosis), is caused by the large female of the nematode Dracunculus medinensis. It normally lives and grows in various places in the human body, before migrating to subcutaneous tissue and eventually emerging slowly from the skin, usually on the lower limbs. If the affected portion of the body comes into contact with water, first-stage juveniles (L(1)) are expelled in large numbers from the ruptured uterus. For further development, the juveniles need to be ingested by suitable predatory species of copepods. In this study, infectivity studies on the relative importance of various copepod species in the transmission of the Guinea worm disease was carried out. The infection potentials of the vectors were evaluated based on their ability to ingest the first stage juveniles (L(1)), and to remain alive for these juveniles to develop to the infective, third-stage juveniles (L(3)). The adults of the relatively larger species recorded very high mortality rates upon infection with the first stage juveniles (L(1)) of the parasite. The highest copepod mortality rate was recorded by M. kieferi (94%). However, the copepodid stages of these species were able to withstand infection for extremely longer periods. The smaller genera did not record any remarkable mortalities on ingesting parasite juveniles. The most important implicated potential vectors of Dracunculus medinensis evaluated in the area are Mesocyclops kieferi --> M. aspericornis --> Thermocyclops incisus --> T. inopinus --> T. oblongatus.

  16. Feasibility randomised controlled trial of Recovery-focused Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Older Adults with bipolar disorder (RfCBT-OA): study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, Elizabeth; Lobban, Fiona; Sutton, Chris; Depp, Colin; Johnson, Sheri; Laidlaw, Ken; Jones, Steven H

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Bipolar disorder is a severe and chronic mental health problem that persists into older adulthood. The number of people living with this condition is set to rise as the UK experiences a rapid ageing of its population. To date, there has been very little research or service development with respect to psychological therapies for this group of people. Methods and analysis A parallel two-arm randomised controlled trial comparing a 14-session, 6-month Recovery-focused Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for Older Adults with bipolar disorder (RfCBT-OA) plus treatment as usual (TAU) versus TAU alone. Participants will be recruited in the North-West of England via primary and secondary mental health services and through self-referral. The primary objective of the study is to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of RfCBT-OA; therefore, a formal power calculation is not appropriate. It has been estimated that randomising 25 participants per group will be sufficient to be able to reliably determine the primary feasibility outcomes (eg, recruitment and retention rates), in line with recommendations for sample sizes for feasibility/pilot trials. Participants in both arms will complete assessments at baseline and then every 3 months, over the 12-month follow-up period. We will gain an estimate of the likely effect size of RfCBT-OA on a range of clinical outcomes and estimate parameters needed to determine the appropriate sample size for a definitive, larger trial to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of RfCBT-OA. Data analysis is discussed further in the Analysis section in the main paper. Ethics and dissemination This protocol was approved by the UK National Health Service (NHS) Ethics Committee process (REC ref: 15/NW/0330). The findings of the trial will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals, national and international conference presentations and local, participating NHS trusts. Trial registration number ISRCTN13875321; Pre

  17. Enterobiasis: a neglected infection in adults.

    PubMed

    Sato, Megumi; Sanguankiat, Surapol; Pubampen, Somchit; Kusolsuk, Teera

    2008-03-01

    In this study, adult patients were treated with praziquantel to expel intestinal flukes. Unexpectedly, dozens of adult Enterobius vermicularis worms with disfigured morphology, which had not been detected on fecal examination using Kat's modified thick-smear technique, were expelled from 6 of 33 patients.

  18. 11. INTERIOR VIEW OF OPERATING HOUSE NO. 4, SHOWING WORM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. INTERIOR VIEW OF OPERATING HOUSE NO. 4, SHOWING WORM WHEEL GEAR ASSEMBLY, ORIGINAL 20 HP EAST HOIST MOTOR, AND CONTROL GATES 7 AND 8 HAND BRAKES, WITH MOTOR SELECTOR SWITCH, MOTOR STARTING SWITCH, AND OIL CIRCUIT BREAKER IN BACKGROUND - Long Lake Hydroelectric Plant, Spillway Dam, Spanning Spokane River, Ford, Stevens County, WA

  19. The Worm Process for the Ising Model is Rapidly Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collevecchio, Andrea; Garoni, Timothy M.; Hyndman, Timothy; Tokarev, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    We prove rapid mixing of the worm process for the zero-field ferromagnetic Ising model, on all finite connected graphs, and at all temperatures. As a corollary, we obtain a fully-polynomial randomized approximation scheme for the Ising susceptibility, and for a certain restriction of the two-point correlation function.

  20. Opinion Dynamics Driven by Leaders, Media, Viruses and Worms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuncay, Çağlar

    A model on the effects of leader, media, viruses, worms, and other agents on the opinion of individuals is developed and utilized to simulate the formation of consensus in society and price in market via excess between supply and demand. The effects of some time varying drives (harmonic and hyperbolic) are also investigated.

  1. 3-D worm tracker for freely moving C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Namseop; Pyo, Jaeyeon; Lee, Seung-Jae; Je, Jung Ho

    2013-01-01

    The manner in which the nervous system regulates animal behaviors in natural environments is a fundamental issue in biology. To address this question, C. elegans has been widely used as a model animal for the analysis of various animal behaviors. Previous behavioral assays have been limited to two-dimensional (2-D) environments, confining the worm motion to a planar substrate that does not reflect three-dimensional (3-D) natural environments such as rotting fruits or soil. Here, we develop a 3-D worm tracker (3DWT) for freely moving C. elegans in 3-D environments, based on a stereoscopic configuration. The 3DWT provides us with a quantitative trajectory, including the position and movement direction of the worm in 3-D. The 3DWT is also capable of recording and visualizing postures of the moving worm in 3-D, which are more complex than those in 2-D. Our 3DWT affords new opportunities for understanding the nervous system function that regulates animal behaviors in natural 3-D environments.

  2. Metagenomics of the Methane Ice Worm, Hesiocaeca methanicola

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwin, K. D.; Edsall, L.; Xin, W.; Head, S. R.; Gelbart, T.; Wood, A. M.; Gaasterland, T.

    2012-12-01

    The methane ice worm (Hesiocaeca methanicola) is a polychaete found on methane hydrate deposits for which there appears to be no publically available genomic or metagenomic data. Methane ice worms were collected in 2009 by the Johnson-Sea-Link submersible (543m depth; N 27:44.7526 W 91:13.3168). Next-generation sequencing (HiSeq2000) was applied to samples of tissue and gut contents. A subset of the assembled data (40M reads, randomly selected) was run through MG-RAST. Preliminary results for the gut content (1,269,153 sequences, average length 202 bp) indicated that 0.1% of the sequences contained ribosomal RNA genes with the majority (67%) classified as Bacteria, a relatively small per cent (1.4%) as Archae, and 31% as Eukaryota. Campylobacterales was the predominant order (14%), with unclassified (7.5%) and Desulfobacterales (4%) being the next dominant. Preliminary results for the worm tissue (2,716,461 sequences, average length 241 bp) indicated that the majority of sequences were Eukaryota (73%), with 256 sequences classified as phylum Annelida and 58% of those belonging to class Polychaeta. For the bacterial sequences obtained from the tissue samples, the predominant order was Actinomycetales (2.7%). For both the tissue and gut content samples, the majority of proteins were classified as clustering-based subsystems. This preliminary analysis will be compared to an assembly consisting of 40M of the highest quality reads.; methane ice worms on methane hydrate

  3. Worms in space? A model biological dosimeter.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yang; Johnsen, Robert; Baillie, David; Rose, Ann

    2005-06-01

    Although it is well known that radiation causes mutational damage, little is known about the biological effects of long-term exposure to radiation in space. Exposure to radiation can result in serious heritable defects in experimental animals, and in humans, susceptibility to cancer, radiation-sickness, and death at high dosages. It is possible to do ground controlled studies of different types of radiation on experimental animals and to physically measure radiation on the space station or on space probes. However, the actual biological affects of long-term exposure to the full range of space radiation have not been studied, and little information is available about the biological consequences of solar flares. Biological systems are not simply passive recording instruments. They respond differently under different conditions, and thus it is important to be able to collect data from a living animal. There are technical difficulties that restrict the placement of an experimental organism in a space environment for long periods of time, in a manner that allows for the recovery of genetic data. Use of the self-fertilizing hermaphroditic nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans offers potential for the design of a biological dosimeter. In this paper, we describe the advantages of this model system and review the literature of C. elegans in space.

  4. Tracking Movement Behavior of Multiple Worms on Food

    PubMed Central

    Yemini, Eviatar; Kerr, Rex A.; Schafer, William R.

    2016-01-01

    Neurobiological research in genetically tractable organisms relies heavily on robust assays for behavioral phenotypes. The simple body plan of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans makes it particularly amenable to the use of automated microscopy and image analysis to describe behavioral patterns quantitatively. Forward genetic screens and screens of drug libraries require high-throughput phenotyping, a task traditionally incompatible with manual scoring of quantitatively varying behaviors. High-throughput automated analysis of C. elegans movement behavior is now possible with several different tracking software packages. The Multiworm Tracker (MWT) described here is designed for high-throughput analysis: it can record dozens of worms simultaneously at 30 frames per second for hours or days at a time. This is accomplished by performing all image analysis in real time, saving only the worm centroid, bearing, and outline data to the disk. To simplify image processing, the system focuses only on worms that have moved, and detects and discards worms that are touching rather than trying to isolate them computationally. Because the software is entirely automated, protocols can run unattended once the worms have been placed and the software has been started. The MWT does not save images for later analysis, but behavior can be validated manually with a companion analysis tool that replays recorded body postures. This protocol describes a basic basal movement assay on food using the MWT; similar protocols apply to related assays and to similar multiple animal trackers. The protocol can be extended to a variety of assays ranging from tap response to chemotaxis. PMID:22135669

  5. The Schistosoma mansoni Cytochrome P450 (CYP3050A1) Is Essential for Worm Survival and Egg Development.

    PubMed

    Ziniel, Peter D; Karumudi, Bhargava; Barnard, Andrew H; Fisher, Ethan M S; Thatcher, Gregory R J; Podust, Larissa M; Williams, David L

    2015-12-01

    Schistosomiasis affects millions of people in developing countries and is responsible for more than 200,000 deaths annually. Because of toxicity and limited spectrum of activity of alternatives, there is effectively only one drug, praziquantel, available for its treatment. Recent data suggest that drug resistance could soon be a problem. There is therefore the need to identify new drug targets and develop drugs for the treatment of schistosomiasis. Analysis of the Schistosoma mansoni genome sequence for proteins involved in detoxification processes found that it encodes a single cytochrome P450 (CYP450) gene. Here we report that the 1452 bp open reading frame has a characteristic heme-binding region in its catalytic domain with a conserved heme ligating cysteine, a hydrophobic leader sequence present as the membrane interacting region, and overall structural conservation. The highest sequence identity to human CYP450s is 22%. Double stranded RNA (dsRNA) silencing of S. mansoni (Sm)CYP450 in schistosomula results in worm death. Treating larval or adult worms with antifungal azole CYP450 inhibitors results in worm death at low micromolar concentrations. In addition, combinations of SmCYP450-specific dsRNA and miconazole show additive schistosomicidal effects supporting the hypothesis that SmCYP450 is the target of miconazole. Treatment of developing S. mansoni eggs with miconazole results in a dose dependent arrest in embryonic development. Our results indicate that SmCYP450 is essential for worm survival and egg development and validates it as a novel drug target. Preliminary structure-activity relationship suggests that the 1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-2-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)ethan-1-ol moiety of miconazole is necessary for activity and that miconazole activity and selectivity could be improved by rational drug design.

  6. The Schistosoma mansoni Cytochrome P450 (CYP3050A1) Is Essential for Worm Survival and Egg Development

    PubMed Central

    Ziniel, Peter D.; Karumudi, Bhargava; Barnard, Andrew H.; Fisher, Ethan M. S.; Thatcher, Gregory R. J.; Podust, Larissa M.; Williams, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis affects millions of people in developing countries and is responsible for more than 200,000 deaths annually. Because of toxicity and limited spectrum of activity of alternatives, there is effectively only one drug, praziquantel, available for its treatment. Recent data suggest that drug resistance could soon be a problem. There is therefore the need to identify new drug targets and develop drugs for the treatment of schistosomiasis. Analysis of the Schistosoma mansoni genome sequence for proteins involved in detoxification processes found that it encodes a single cytochrome P450 (CYP450) gene. Here we report that the 1452 bp open reading frame has a characteristic heme-binding region in its catalytic domain with a conserved heme ligating cysteine, a hydrophobic leader sequence present as the membrane interacting region, and overall structural conservation. The highest sequence identity to human CYP450s is 22%. Double stranded RNA (dsRNA) silencing of S. mansoni (Sm)CYP450 in schistosomula results in worm death. Treating larval or adult worms with antifungal azole CYP450 inhibitors results in worm death at low micromolar concentrations. In addition, combinations of SmCYP450-specific dsRNA and miconazole show additive schistosomicidal effects supporting the hypothesis that SmCYP450 is the target of miconazole. Treatment of developing S. mansoni eggs with miconazole results in a dose dependent arrest in embryonic development. Our results indicate that SmCYP450 is essential for worm survival and egg development and validates it as a novel drug target. Preliminary structure-activity relationship suggests that the 1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-2-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)ethan-1-ol moiety of miconazole is necessary for activity and that miconazole activity and selectivity could be improved by rational drug design. PMID:26713732

  7. Microfluidic platform integrated with worm-counting setup for assessing manganese toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Beibei; Li, Yinbao; He, Qidi; Qin, Jun; Yu, Yanyan; Li, Xinchun; Zhang, Lin; Yao, Meicun; Liu, Junshan; Chen, Zuanguang

    2014-01-01

    We reported a new microfluidic system integrated with worm responders for evaluating the environmental manganese toxicity. The micro device consists of worm loading units, worm observing chambers, and a radial concentration gradient generator (CGG). Eight T-shape worm loading units of the micro device were used to load the exact number of worms into the corresponding eight chambers with the assistance of worm responders and doorsills. The worm responder, as a key component, was employed for performing automated worm-counting assay through electric impedance sensing. This label-free and non-invasive worm-counting technique was applied to the microsystem for the first time. In addition, the disk-shaped CGG can generate a range of stepwise concentrations of the appointed chemical automatically and simultaneously. Due to the scalable architecture of radial CGG, it has the potential to increase the throughput of the assay. Dopaminergic (DAergic) neurotoxicity of manganese on C. elegans was quantitatively assessed via the observation of green fluorescence protein-tagged DAergic neurons of the strain BZ555 on-chip. In addition, oxidative stress triggered by manganese was evaluated by the quantitative fluorescence intensity of the strain CL2166. By scoring the survival ratio and stroke frequency of worms, we characterized the dose- and time-dependent mobility defects of the manganese-exposed worms. Furthermore, we applied the microsystem to investigate the effect of natural antioxidants to protect manganese-induced toxicity. PMID:25538805

  8. Evaluation of the efficacy of monthly oral administration of afoxolaner plus milbemycin oxime (NexGard Spectra(®), Merial) in the prevention of adult Spirocerca lupi establishment in experimentally infected dogs.

    PubMed

    Beugnet, Frederic; Crafford, Dionne; de Vos, Christa; Kok, Dawid; Larsen, Diane; Fourie, Josephus

    2016-08-15

    The nematode Spirocerca lupi (Rudolphi, 1809) is widely distributed but mostly occurs sporadically with stable populations only in certain geographic areas. This helminth mainly infects dogs and wild canids. Primary pathology relates to migration of third stage larvae (L3) damaging the thoracic aorta and establishment of adults in nodules in the oesophagus. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of milbemycin oxime in combination with afoxolaner (NexGard Spectra(®), Merial), administered monthly, in preventing establishment of adult worms after experimental infection. Two groups consisting of eight animals each were experimentally infected with 15 L3 on Days -28, -14 and -2, respectively (45 L3 per animal in total). Group 1 dogs served as untreated (negative) control, whereas animals in group 2 were treated with NexGard Spectra(®) at a minimum dose of 0.5mg/kg milbemycin oxime on Day 0 and from then onwards every 28 days up to Day 140 (six treatment occasions). Endoscopy was performed on Day 112 and for some animals also Day 140. Necropsy for worm recovery and nodule/lesion scoring was performed on Day 168. All eight animals in the control group (group 1) presented with 1-3 nodules and worm counts ranging from 9 to 41. Six animals in the NexGard Spectra(®) group presented with 1-4 nodules and worm counts ranging from 1 to 5. Significantly (p<0.05) fewer worms were collected from treated animals in the treated group (geometric mean 1.7) versus the negative control group (geometric mean 22.0) with 92.3% efficacy calculated. There was no significant (p>0.05) difference between groups with reference to number of nodules in the oesophagus. However, nodules in the control group were significantly (p<0.05) larger than those in the treated group. Number and size of lesions in the dorsal aorta did not differ statistically between groups 1 and 2. Because NexGard Spectra(®) was administered 28 days after onset of inoculation, migrating and

  9. Worms and malaria: blind men feeling the elephant?

    PubMed

    Nacher, M

    2008-06-01

    For thousands of years the deadliest human parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, has been evolving in populations also infected by the most prevalent parasites, worms. This is likely to have shaped the genome of all 3 protagonists--man, worms and malaria. Observational studies in Thailand have shown that although P. falciparum malaria incidence increased two-fold in helminth-infected patients, there was a 64% reduction of cerebral malaria and an 84% reduction of acute renal failure in helminth-infected patients relative to those without helminths. In addition, it was suggested that mixed infections, anaemia and gametocyte carriage were more frequent in helminth-infected patients. On the contrary, fever was lower in helminth-infected patients. The present hypotheses, their implications and the limitations of the results described and of those from studies in Africa are discussed.

  10. Hi shells, supershells, shell-like objects, and ''worms''

    SciTech Connect

    Heiles, C.

    1984-08-01

    We present photographic representations of the combination of two Hi surveys, so as to eliminate the survey boundaries at Vertical BarbVertical Bar = 10/sup 0/. We also present high-contrast photographs for particular velocities to exhibit weak Hi features. All of these photographs were used to prepare a new list of Hi shells, supershells, and shell-like objects. We discuss the structure of three shell-like objects that are associated with high-velocity gas, and with gas at all velocities that is associated with radio continuum loops I, II, and III. We use spatial filtering to find wiggly gas filaments: ''worms'': crawling away from the galactic plane in the inner Galaxy. The ''worms'' are probably parts of shells that are open at the top; such shells should be good sources of hot gas for the galactic halo.

  11. Genome size and chromosome number in velvet worms (Onychophora).

    PubMed

    Jeffery, Nicholas W; Oliveira, Ivo S; Gregory, T Ryan; Rowell, David M; Mayer, Georg

    2012-12-01

    The Onychophora (velvet worms) represents a small group of invertebrates (~180 valid species), which is commonly united with Tardigrada and Arthropoda in a clade called Panarthropoda. As with the majority of invertebrate taxa, genome size data are very limited for the Onychophora, with only one previously published estimate. Here we use both flow cytometry and Feulgen image analysis densitometry to provide genome size estimates for seven species of velvet worms from both major subgroups, Peripatidae and Peripatopsidae, along with karyotype data for each species. Genome sizes in these species range from roughly 5-19 pg, with densitometric estimates being slightly larger than those obtained by flow cytometry for all species. Chromosome numbers range from 2n = 8 to 2n = 54. No relationship is evident between genome size, chromosome number, or reproductive mode. Various avenues for future genomic research are presented based on these results.

  12. The maturity of Nypa palm worm Namalycastis rhodochorde (Nereididae: Polychaeta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junardi, Anggraeni, Tjandra; Ridwan, Ahmad; Yuwono, Edy

    2014-03-01

    The Nypa Palm Worm Namalycastis rhodochorde has been used as bait for fishing and commercial species in Pontianak. Maturity is one important characteristic to learn the population dynamic and management. The Nypa Palm worm samples were collected from mangrove area in Kapuas Estuary, West Kalimantan. Fresh samples of gametes collected from the coelomic fluid were observed carefully under compound microscope for the initial determination of maturity. The presences of oocyte ≥120μm in diameter and lipid droplet are the indication of female maturity, while free swimming spermatozoon in the body fluid is the indication of male maturity. Morphologically, the maturity of N. rhodochorde was indicated by the change of body color, softer and fragile body, yet no modified chaetae and heteronereid form.

  13. Long-term disability due to guinea worm disease.

    PubMed

    Hours, M; Cairncross, S

    1994-01-01

    The village-based surveillance system for guinea worm disease (dracunculiasis), which has been established in all endemic villages in Ghana, was used to carry out a retrospective study of long-term disability due to the disease. A sample of 195 cases was interviewed and examined, 12-18 months after emergence of the worm. Currently continuing pain when walking or working, attributable by its location and date of onset to the episode of dracunculiasis, was reported by 55 persons (28.2%). Some difficulty in performing at least one of 6 everyday physical activities, attributable after careful interview to the episode, was reported by 66 respondents (34.0%), of whom 10 (5.1%) were unable to carry out one of the activities. In one case, the disease had caused impairment of movement of the joints of the right thumb. The prevalence of serious permanent physical impairment among the cases in the study was thus 0.5%.

  14. Toxical effect of Peganum harmala L. leaves on the cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera littoralis Boisd and its parasitoids Microplitis rufiventris Kok.

    PubMed

    Shonouda, Mourad; Osman, Salah; Salama, Osama; Ayoub, Amal

    2008-02-15

    The leaf extract and its fractions of Peganum harmala L. have shown pronounced mortal effect, decreased percent pupation and adult emergence of the cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera littoralis Boisd. The third instar larvae fed for two days on treated leaves were more susceptible to plant extract and its ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions. The active lowest concentration (5%) of the leaf fractions of P. harmala showed significant effect on the percentage of emerged adult parasitoids, Microplitis rufiventris Kok. GC/MS analysis showed the major constituent in ethyl acetate fraction was (23S) ethylcholest-5-en-3 beta-ol (28.04%) while those of chloroform fraction were hydroxyfuranocoumarin (Bergaptol) (15.68%), piperidinone (12.08%), thymol (11.82%), phosphoric acid, tributyl ester (9.80%) and trimethyl-nonenol (9.66%). The medicinal plant P. harmala could be carefully applied in integrated pest management due to its strong effect on cotton leaf worm pest.

  15. Analysis of Routing Worm Infection Rates on an IPV4

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    effort. The help of Major David M. Kaziska during the final weeks of my thesis writing was a Godsend and I owe him a large debt of gratitude. All...ANALYSIS OF ROUTING WORM INFECTION RATES ON AN IPV4 NETWORK THESIS James E. Gorsuch, First Lieutenant, USAF AFIT/GCS/ENG/07-04...DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED The views expressed in this thesis are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or

  16. WormBase 2016: expanding to enable helminth genomic research

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Kevin L.; Bolt, Bruce J.; Cain, Scott; Chan, Juancarlos; Chen, Wen J.; Davis, Paul; Done, James; Down, Thomas; Gao, Sibyl; Grove, Christian; Harris, Todd W.; Kishore, Ranjana; Lee, Raymond; Lomax, Jane; Li, Yuling; Muller, Hans-Michael; Nakamura, Cecilia; Nuin, Paulo; Paulini, Michael; Raciti, Daniela; Schindelman, Gary; Stanley, Eleanor; Tuli, Mary Ann; Van Auken, Kimberly; Wang, Daniel; Wang, Xiaodong; Williams, Gary; Wright, Adam; Yook, Karen; Berriman, Matthew; Kersey, Paul; Schedl, Tim; Stein, Lincoln; Sternberg, Paul W.

    2016-01-01

    WormBase (www.wormbase.org) is a central repository for research data on the biology, genetics and genomics of Caenorhabditis elegans and other nematodes. The project has evolved from its original remit to collect and integrate all data for a single species, and now extends to numerous nematodes, ranging from evolutionary comparators of C. elegans to parasitic species that threaten plant, animal and human health. Research activity using C. elegans as a model system is as vibrant as ever, and we have created new tools for community curation in response to the ever-increasing volume and complexity of data. To better allow users to navigate their way through these data, we have made a number of improvements to our main website, including new tools for browsing genomic features and ontology annotations. Finally, we have developed a new portal for parasitic worm genomes. WormBase ParaSite (parasite.wormbase.org) contains all publicly available nematode and platyhelminth annotated genome sequences, and is designed specifically to support helminth genomic research. PMID:26578572

  17. Th9 Cells Drive Host Immunity against Gastrointestinal Worm Infection.

    PubMed

    Licona-Limón, Paula; Henao-Mejia, Jorge; Temann, Angela U; Gagliani, Nicola; Licona-Limón, Ileana; Ishigame, Harumichi; Hao, Liming; Herbert, De'broski R; Flavell, Richard A

    2013-10-17

    Type 2 inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, IL-9, and IL-13, drive the characteristic features of immunity against parasitic worms and allergens. Whether IL-9 serves an essential role in the initiation of host-protective responses is controversial, and the importance of IL-9- versus IL-4-producing CD4⁺ effector T cells in type 2 immunity is incompletely defined. Herein, we generated IL-9-deficient and IL-9-fluorescent reporter mice that demonstrated an essential role for this cytokine in the early type 2 immunity against Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. Whereas T helper 9 (Th9) cells and type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) were major sources of infection-induced IL-9 production, the adoptive transfer of Th9 cells, but not Th2 cells, caused rapid worm expulsion, marked basophilia, and increased mast cell numbers in Rag2-deficient hosts. Taken together, our data show a critical and nonredundant role for Th9 cells and IL-9 in host-protective type 2 immunity against parasitic worm infection.

  18. Myiasis by screw worm Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in a wild maned wolf Chrysocyon brachyurus (Mammalia: Canidae), in Brasília, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cansi, E R; Bonorino, R; Ataíde, H S; Pujol-Luz, J R

    2011-01-01

    In April 2009, a wild maned wolf, Chrysocyon brachyurus, was captured in an area of cerrado in Brasília, DF, Brazil, with screw worm maggots in external wounds. Fifty larvae were bred in the laboratory and eight adults of Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) emerged 10 days after pupation. This is the first report of a myiasis by C. hominivorax in a free-living maned wolf in Brazil.

  19. Reading Recovery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Joanna R., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This issue of the Arizona Reading Journal focuses on the theme "reading recovery" and includes the following articles: "Why Is an Inservice Programme for Reading Recovery Teachers Necessary?" (Marie M. Clay); "What Is Reading Recovery?" (Gay Su Pinnell); "Teaching a Hard To Teach Child" (Constance A.…

  20. The use of FAMACHA in estimation of gastrointestinal nematodes and total worm burden in Damara and Barbados Blackbelly cross sheep.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Konto; Abba, Yusuf; Ramli, Nur Syairah Binti; Marimuthu, Murugaiyah; Omar, Mohammed Ariff; Abdullah, Faez Firdaus Jesse; Sadiq, Muhammad Abubakar; Tijjani, Abdulnasir; Chung, Eric Lim Teik; Lila, Mohammed Azmi Mohammed

    2016-06-01

    The prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes and total worm burden of Damara and Barbados Blackbelly cross sheep was investigated among smallholder farms in Salak Tinggi district of Selangor, Malaysia. A total of 50 sheep raised in smallholder farms comprising of 27 Damara cross and 23 Barbados Blackbelly cross were categorized based on their age into young and adults. Fecal samples were collected and examined for strongyle egg count by using modified McMaster technique. Severity of infection was categorized into mild, moderate, and heavy, based on egg per gram (EPG). Five sheep were randomly selected and slaughtered to examine the presence of adult gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes through total worm count (TWC). Faffa Malan Chart (FAMACHA) score was used for investigation of worm load based on the degree of anemia. The study revealed an overall EPG prevalence of 88 %, of which 84.1 % had mild infection. There was a significant difference (p = 0.002) in EPG among the two breeds. Based on age, significant difference (p = 0. 004) in EPG was observed among Barbados Blackbelly cross, but not for Damara cross (p = 0.941). The correlation between severity of infection and the FAMACHA score was significant (r = 0.289; p = 0.042). Haemonchus spp. were the most predominant nematode found in the gastrointestinal tract, followed by Trichostrongylus and Oesophagostomum spps. EPG and TWC for Haemonchus were positively correlated, but not significant (r = 0.85, p = 0.066). From regression analysis, 73 % of the variability in TWC for Haemonchus could be explained by EPG. Thus, it can be concluded that FAMACHA score correlates well with severity of infection of a nematode and can be used to assess the strongyle nematode burden in the different sheep crosses.

  1. Routes of uptake of diclofenac, fluoxetine, and triclosan into sediment-dwelling worms.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Maja V; Marshall, Stuart; Gouin, Todd; Boxall, Alistair B A

    2016-04-01

    The present study investigated the route and degree of uptake of 2 ionizable pharmaceuticals (diclofenac and fluoxetine) and 1 ionizable compound used in personal care products (triclosan) into the sediment-dwelling worm Lumbriculus variegatus. Studies were done on complete worms ("feeding") and worms where the head was absent ("nonfeeding") using (14) C-labeled ingredients. Biota sediment accumulation factors (BSAF), based on uptake of (14) C, for feeding worms increased in the order fluoxetine (0.3) < diclofenac (0.5) < triclosan (9), which is correlated with a corresponding increase in log octanol-water partition coefficient. Biota sediment accumulation factor estimates are representative of maximum values because the degree of biotransformation in the worms was not quantified. Although no significant differences were seen between the uptake of diclofenac and that of fluoxetine in feeding and nonfeeding worms, uptake of the more hydrophobic antimicrobial, triclosan, into the feeding worms was significantly greater than that in the nonfeeding worms, with the 48-h BSAF for feeding worms being 36% higher than that for the nonfeeding worms. The results imply that dietary uptake contributes to the uptake of triclosan, which may be a result of the high hydrophobicity of the compound. Models that estimate exposure of ionizable substances may need to consider uptake from both the water column and food, particularly when assessing risks from dynamic exposures to organic contaminants.

  2. Effects of deposit-feeding tubificid worms and filter-feeding bivalves on benthic-pelagic coupling: implications for the restoration of eutrophic shallow lakes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiufeng; Liu, Zhengwen; Jeppesen, Erik; Taylor, William D

    2014-03-01

    Benthic-pelagic coupling is a key factor in the dynamics of shallow lakes. A 12-week mesocosm experiment tested the hypothesis that deposit-feeding tubificid worms stimulate the growth of pelagic algae while filter-feeding bivalves promote the growth of benthic algae, using the deposit-feeding tubificid Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri and the filter-feeding bivalve Anodonta woodiana. A tube-microcosm experiment using a (32)P radiotracer tested for differential effects of tubificids and bivalves on the release of sediment phosphorus (P). In this experiment A. woodiana was replaced by Corbicula fluminea, a smaller bivalve from the same functional group whose size was more appropriate to the experimental tubes needed for the tracer study. The first experiment recorded greater nutrient concentrations in the overlying water, higher biomass of pelagic algae as measured by chlorophyll a (Chl a), lower light intensity at the sediment and lower biomass of benthic algae in the worm treatments than in the controls, while nutrients and Chl a of pelagic algae were lower and the light intensity and Chl a of benthic algae were higher in the bivalve treatments than in the controls. In the second experiment, (32)P activity in the overlying water was higher in both treatments than in the controls, but highest in the worm treatment indicating that both animals accelerated P release from the sediment, with the biggest effect associated with the presence of worms. Our study demonstrates that worms promote pelagic algal growth by enhancing the release of sediment nutrients, while bivalves, likely through their grazing on pelagic algae increasing available light levels, stimulate benthic algal growth despite enhanced P release from the sediment and thus aid the establishment of clear water states. The rehabilitation of native bivalve populations may therefore enhance the recovery of eutrophic shallow lakes.

  3. Activation of Akt/FKHR in the medulla oblongata contributes to spontaneous respiratory recovery after incomplete spinal cord injury in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Felix, M S; Bauer, S; Darlot, F; Muscatelli, F; Kastner, A; Gauthier, P; Matarazzo, V

    2014-09-01

    After incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI), patients and animals may exhibit some spontaneous functional recovery which can be partly attributed to remodeling of injured neural circuitry. This post-lesion plasticity implies spinal remodeling but increasing evidences suggest that supraspinal structures contribute also to the functional recovery. Here we tested the hypothesis that partial SCI may activate cell-signaling pathway(s) at the supraspinal level and that this molecular response may contribute to spontaneous recovery. With this aim, we used a rat model of partial cervical hemisection which injures the bulbospinal respiratory tract originating from the medulla oblongata of the brainstem but leads to a time-dependent spontaneous functional recovery of the paralyzed hemidiaphragm. We first demonstrate that after SCI the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is activated in the medulla oblongata of the brainstem, resulting in an inactivation of its pro-apoptotic downstream target, forkhead transcription factor (FKHR/FOXO1A). Retrograde labeling of medullary premotoneurons including respiratory ones which project to phrenic motoneurons reveals an increased FKHR phosphorylation in their cell bodies together with an unchanged cell number. Medulla infusion of the PI3K inhibitor, LY294002, prevents the SCI-induced Akt and FKHR phosphorylations and activates one of its death-promoting downstream targets, Fas ligand. Quantitative EMG analyses of diaphragmatic contractility demonstrate that the inhibition of medulla PI3K/Akt signaling prevents spontaneous respiratory recovery normally observed after partial cervical SCI. Such inhibition does not however affect either baseline contractile frequency or the ventilatory reactivity under acute respiratory challenge. Together, these findings provide novel evidence of supraspinal cellular contribution to the spontaneous respiratory recovery after partial SCI.

  4. A Horsehair Worm, Gordius sp. (Nematomorpha: Gordiida), Passed in a Canine Feces.

    PubMed

    Hong, Eui-Ju; Sim, Cheolho; Chae, Joon-Seok; Kim, Hyeon-Cheol; Park, Jinho; Choi, Kyoung-Seong; Yu, Do-Hyeon; Yoo, Jae-Gyu; Park, Bae-Keun

    2015-12-01

    Nematomorpha, horsehair or Gordian worms, include about 300 freshwater species in 22 genera (Gordiida) and 5 marine species in 1 marine genus (Nectonema). They are parasitic in arthropods during their juvenile stage. In the present study, the used gordian worm was found in the feces of a dog (5-month old, male) in July 2014. Following the worm analysis using light and scanning electron microscopes, the morphological classification was re-evaluated with molecular analysis. The worm was determined to be a male worm having a bi-lobed tail and had male gonads in cross sections. It was identified as Gordius sp. (Nematomorpha: Gordiidae) based on the characteristic morphologies of cross sections and areole on the cuticle. DNA analysis on 18S rRNA partial sequence arrangements was also carried out, and the gordiid worm was assumed to be close to the genus Gordius based on a phylogenic tree analysis.

  5. Grunting for worms: seismic vibrations cause Diplocardia earthworms to emerge from the soil

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, O.; Callaham, M.A.; Smith, M.L.; Yack, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    Harvesting earthworms by a practice called ‘worm grunting’ is a widespread and profitable business in the southeastern USA. Although a variety of techniques are used, most involve rhythmically scraping a wooden stake driven into the ground, with a flat metal object. A common assumption is that vibrations cause the worms to surface, but this phenomenon has not been studied experimentally. We demonstrate that Diplocardia earthworms emerge from the soil within minutes following the onset of grunting. Broadband low frequency (below 500 Hz) pulsed vibrations were present in the soil throughout the area where worms were harvested, and the number of worms emerging decreased as the seismic signal decayed over distance. The findings are discussed in relation to two hypotheses: that worms are escaping vibrations caused by digging foragers and that worms are surfacing in response to vibrations caused by falling rain. PMID:18854292

  6. STUDIES ON THE METABOLISM OF THE FILARIAL WORM, LITOMOSOIDES CARINII

    PubMed Central

    Bueding, Ernest

    1949-01-01

    The filarial worm, Litomosoides carinii, has a high rate of aerobic and anaerobic glucose metabolism. Aerobically 30 to 45 per cent of the glucose utilized was converted to lactic acid, 25 to 35 per cent to acetic acid, and 10 to 20 per cent to a polysaccharide. Anaerobically over 80 per cent of the total carbohydrate removed by the filariae was metabolized to lactic acid, the remainder was accounted for by the production of acetic acid. The high rates of aerobic and anaerobic lactic acid production and of aerobic polysaccharide synthesis, as well as the absence of a postanaerobic increase of the oxygen uptake, differentiate the filarial worm, L. carinii, from the known metabolic characteristics of all other helminths and of most other invertebrates. The rate of aerobic lactate and pyruvate utilization by the filariae appears to be much slower than that of glucose. Anaerobically, dismutation of two moles of pyruvate to one mole of lactate, one mole of acetate, and one mole of CO2, occurred. Aerobically, acetate production from pyruvate exceeded that of lactate. A significant proportion of the pyruvate metabolized aerobically by the filariae was not oxidized to acetate. In the presence of fluoroacetate, aerobic incubation of the filariae in a glucose-containing medium produced a marked decrease in the respiration of the organisms, an accumulation of pyruvate, a decreased formation of acetate, and an increase in aerobic glycolysis. Low concentrations of fluoroacetate (1 x 10–3 M) inhibited the oxidative metabolism of pyruvate which did not result in the conversion of pyruvate to acetate; higher concentrations of this inhibitor produced also a decreased oxidation of pyruvate to acetate. No evidence has been obtained that fluoroacetate inhibits the respiration of the filariae because of a competitive inhibition of acetate oxidation. Respiration and glycolysis of filariae were markedly decreased by low concentrations of p-chloromercuric benzoate. This inhibition could

  7. Experiences in the development of the Mighty Worm. [development of actuator for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bamford, R.; Moore, D.; Mon, G.; Wada, B.

    1993-01-01

    A 'Mighty Worm' actuator with the active member capable of carrying large loads during the launch phase was developed for adaptive structures applications. Two types of Mighty Worm performance are characterized, namely, long-stroke motion and incremental positioning at 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 lb. Long-stroke motion involves successive translations of all Mighty Worm moving elements, and incremental positioning involves only in-place stack expansion.

  8. Towards global Guinea worm eradication in 2015: the experience of South Sudan.

    PubMed

    Awofeso, Niyi

    2013-08-01

    For centuries, the Guinea worm parasite (Dracunculus medinensis) has caused disabling misery, infecting people who drink stagnant water contaminated with the worm's larvae. In 2012, there were 542 cases of Guinea worm reported globally, of which 521 (96.1%) were reported in South Sudan. Protracted civil wars, an inadequate workforce, neglect of potable water provision programs, suboptimal Guinea worm surveillance and case containment, and fragmented health systems account for many of the structural and operational factors encumbering South Sudan's Guinea worm eradication efforts. This article reviews the impacts of six established Guinea worm control strategies in South Sudan: (1) surveillance to determine actual caseload distribution and trends in response to control measures; (2) educating community members from whom worms are emerging to avoid immersing affected parts in sources of drinking water; (3) filtering potentially contaminated drinking water using cloth filters or filtered drinking straws; (4) treating potentially contaminated surface water with the copepod larvicide temephos (Abate); (5) providing safe drinking water from boreholes or hand-dug wells; and (6) containment of transmission through voluntary isolation of each patient to prevent contamination of drinking water sources, provision of first aid, and manual extraction of the worm. Surveillance, community education, potable water provision, and case containment remain weak facets of the program. Abate pesticide is not a viable option for Guinea worm control in South Sudan. In light of current case detection and containment trends, as well as capacity building efforts for Guinea worm eradication, South Sudan is more likely to eradicate Guinea worm by 2020, rather than by 2015. The author highlights areas in which substantial improvements are required in South Sudan's Guinea worm eradication program, and suggests improvement strategies.

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Galactic Worms (Koo+, 1992)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, B.-C.; Heiles, C.; Reach, W. T.

    2016-02-01

    118 structures catalogued as "worm candidates" are found on the basis of the maps in HI-21cm, IRAS 100 and 60μm. The 21cm maps of the Galactic Plane (b < 10°) result from available surveys (Kerr et al. 1986A&AS...66..373K; Weaver & Williams 1973A&AS....8....1W, Cat. VIII/11) and from new observations near the Galactic center during 1989 and 1990 using the Hat Creek 26m telescope. (3 data files).

  10. Pet roundworms and hookworms: A continuing need for global worming

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Ascarids and ancylostomatids are the most important parasites affecting dogs and cats worldwide, in terms of diffusion and risk for animal and human health. Different misconceptions have led the general public and pet owners to minimize the importance of these intestinal worms. A low grade of interest is also registered among veterinary professions, although there is a significant merit in keeping our guard up against these parasites. This article reviews current knowledge of ascarids and ancylostomatids, with a special focus on pathogenicity, epidemiology and control methods in veterinary and human medicine. PMID:22574783

  11. Photonic crystal fiber in the polychaete worm Pherusa sp.

    PubMed

    Trzeciak, Tomasz M; Vukusic, Peter

    2009-12-01

    Setae of the polychaete worm Pherusa exhibit remarkably strong photonic effects, which arise from their two-dimensional-periodic internal structure of hexagonally packed cylindrical channels. The hexagonal order is limited to monocrystalline domains of different orientation, which results in an overall polycrystalline effect. A detailed experimental and theoretical investigation of this structure reveals that the internal photonic structure is carefully tuned with respect to its lattice constant in order to provide an optical response coinciding with the visible wavelength rage. A further optimization is observed for the packing fraction of cylindrical channels in order to maximize the width of photonic band gaps, and hence the reflectance of incident visible light.

  12. Pet roundworms and hookworms: a continuing need for global worming.

    PubMed

    Traversa, Donato

    2012-05-10

    Ascarids and ancylostomatids are the most important parasites affecting dogs and cats worldwide, in terms of diffusion and risk for animal and human health. Different misconceptions have led the general public and pet owners to minimize the importance of these intestinal worms. A low grade of interest is also registered among veterinary professions, although there is a significant merit in keeping our guard up against these parasites. This article reviews current knowledge of ascarids and ancylostomatids, with a special focus on pathogenicity, epidemiology and control methods in veterinary and human medicine.

  13. Spatial and temporal differences in giant kidney worm, dictophyma renale, prevalence in Minnesota Mink, Mustela vison

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.

    2008-01-01

    Examination of 110 Mink (Mustela vison) carcasses from 1998 through 2007 indicated that the giant kidney worm, Dioctophyma renale, occurred in Pine and Kanabec Counties of eastern Minnesota with annual prevalences of 0-92%. Worm prevalence increased from 20% in 1999 to 92% in 2001 and decreased to 6% in 2005. During 2000 to 2007, no worms were found in Mink from Anoka and Chisago Counties (n = 54), and in 2000, none in 107 Mink from LeSeur, Freeborn, Redwood, Brown and Watonwan Counties. Changes in kidney worm prevalence were positively related to trapping success, considered an index of Mink density.

  14. Surgical extraction of guinea worm: disability reduction and contribution to disease control.

    PubMed

    Rohde, J E; Sharma, B L; Patton, H; Deegan, C; Sherry, J M

    1993-01-01

    Surgical extraction of Guinea worm prior to eruption through the skin has long been performed by traditional healers in India. Using modern aseptic techniques under local anesthesia, unerupted worms can be completely and painlessly removed in several minutes. As a result, the average number of working days lost due to a single worm is reduced from three weeks or more to three days. In the field, the procedure results not only in a dramatic decrease in Guinea worm associated disability, but also in an improvement in detecting cases, and appears to reduce disease transmission.

  15. Bio-inspired microfluidics: The case of the velvet worm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Concha, Andres; Mellado, Paula; Morera-Brenes, Bernal; Sampaio-Costa, Cristiano; Mahadevan, L.; Monge-Najera, Julian

    The rapid squirt of a proteinaceous slime jet endow velvet worms (Onychophora) with a unique mechanism for defense from predators and for capturing prey by entangling them in a disordered web that immobilizes their target. However, to date neither qualitative nor quantitative descriptions have been provided for this unique adaptation. We have investigated the mechanism that allows velvet worms the fast oscillatory motion of their oral papillae and the exiting liquid jet that oscillates with frequencies f ~ 30 - 60 Hz. Using anatomical images and high speed videography, we show that even without fast muscular action of the papilla, a strong contraction of the slime reservoir and the geometry of the reservoir-papilla system suffices to accelerate the slime to speeds up to v ~ 5 m /s in about Δt ~ 60 ms. A theoretical analysis and a physical simulacrum allow us to infer that this fast oscillatory motion is the result of an elastohydrodynamic instability driven by the interplay between the elasticity of oral papillae and the fast unsteady flow during squirting. We propose several applications that can be implemented using this instability, ranging from high-throughput droplet production, printing, and micro-nanofiber production among others. A.C was partially supported by Fondecyt Grant 11130075.

  16. Lessons from bloodless worms: heme homeostasis in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Jason; Hamza, Iqbal

    2015-06-01

    Heme is an essential cofactor for proteins involved in diverse biological processes such as oxygen transport, electron transport, and microRNA processing. Free heme is hydrophobic and cytotoxic, implying that specific trafficking pathways must exist for the delivery of heme to target hemoproteins which reside in various subcellular locales. Although heme biosynthesis and catabolism have been well characterized, the pathways for trafficking heme within and between cells remain poorly understood. Caenorhabditis elegans serves as a unique animal model for uncovering these pathways because, unlike vertebrates, the worm lacks enzymes to synthesize heme and therefore is crucially dependent on dietary heme for sustenance. Using C. elegans as a genetic animal model, several novel heme trafficking molecules have been identified. Importantly, these proteins have corresponding homologs in vertebrates underscoring the power of using C. elegans, a bloodless worm, in elucidating pathways in heme homeostasis and hematology in humans. Since iron deficiency and anemia are often exacerbated by parasites such as helminths and protozoa which also rely on host heme for survival, C. elegans will be an ideal model to identify anti-parasitic drugs that target heme transport pathways unique to the parasite.

  17. Complete mitochondrial genome of yellow meal worm (Tenebrio molitor).

    PubMed

    Liu, Li-Na; Wang, Cheng-Ye

    2014-11-18

    The yellow meal worm (Tenebrio molitor L.) is an important resource insect typically used as animal feed additive. It is also widely used for biological research. The first complete mitochondrial genome of T. molitor was determined for the first time by long PCR and conserved primer walking approaches. The results showed that the entire mitogenome of T. molitor was 15 785 bp long, with 72.35% A+T content [deposited in GenBank with accession number KF418153]. The gene order and orientation were the same as the most common type suggested as ancestral for insects. Two protein-coding genes used atypical start codons (CTA in ND2 and AAT in COX1), and the remaining 11 protein-coding genes started with a typical insect initiation codon ATN. All tRNAs showed standard clover-leaf structure, except for tRNA(Ser) (AGN), which lacked a dihydrouridine (DHU) arm. The newly added T. molitor mitogenome could provide information for future studies on yellow meal worm.

  18. Meandering worms: mechanics of undulatory burrowing in muds

    PubMed Central

    Dorgan, Kelly M.; Law, Chris J.; Rouse, Greg W.

    2013-01-01

    Recent work has shown that muddy sediments are elastic solids through which animals extend burrows by fracture, whereas non-cohesive granular sands fluidize around some burrowers. These different mechanical responses are reflected in the morphologies and behaviours of their respective inhabitants. However, Armandia brevis, a mud-burrowing opheliid polychaete, lacks an expansible anterior consistent with fracturing mud, and instead uses undulatory movements similar to those of sandfish lizards that fluidize desert sands. Here, we show that A. brevis neither fractures nor fluidizes sediments, but instead uses a third mechanism, plastically rearranging sediment grains to create a burrow. The curvature of the undulating body fits meander geometry used to describe rivers, and changes in curvature driven by muscle contraction are similar for swimming and burrowing worms, indicating that the same gait is used in both sediments and water. Large calculated friction forces for undulatory burrowers suggest that sediment mechanics affect undulatory and peristaltic burrowers differently; undulatory burrowing may be more effective for small worms that live in sediments not compacted or cohesive enough to extend burrows by fracture. PMID:23446526

  19. A full scale worm reactor for efficient sludge reduction by predation in a wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Tamis, J; van Schouwenburg, G; Kleerebezem, R; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2011-11-15

    Sludge predation can be an effective solution to reduce sludge production at a wastewater treatment plant. Oligochaete worms are the natural consumers of biomass in benthic layers in ecosystems. In this study the results of secondary sludge degradation by the aquatic Oligochaete worm Aulophorus furcatus in a 125 m(3) reactor and further sludge conversion in an anaerobic tank are presented. The system was operated over a period of 4 years at WWTP Wolvega, the Netherlands and was fed with secondary sludge from a low loaded activated sludge process. It was possible to maintain a stable and active population of the aquatic worm species A. furcatus during the full period. Under optimal conditions a sludge conversion of 150-200 kg TSS/d or 1.2-1.6 kg TSS/m(3)/d was established in the worm reactor. The worms grew as a biofilm on carrier material in the reactor. The surface specific conversion rate reached 140-180 g TSS/m(2)d and the worm biomass specific conversion rate was 0.5-1 g TSS sludge/g dry weight worms per day. The sludge reduction under optimal conditions in the worm reactor was 30-40%. The degradation by worms was an order of magnitude larger than the endogenous conversion rate of the secondary sludge. Effluent sludge from the worm reactor was stored in an anaerobic tank where methanogenic processes became apparent. It appeared that besides reducing the sludge amount, the worms' activity increased anaerobic digestibility, allowing for future optimisation of the total system by maximising sludge reduction and methane formation. In the whole system it was possible to reduce the amount of sludge by at least 65% on TSS basis. This is a much better total conversion than reported for anaerobic biodegradability of secondary sludge of 20-30% efficiency in terms of TSS reduction.

  20. Design and analysis of SEIQR worm propagation model in mobile internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Xi; Fu, Peng; Dou, Changsheng; Li, Qing; Hu, Guangwu; Xia, Shutao

    2017-02-01

    The mobile Internet has considerably facilitated daily life in recent years. However, it has become the breeding ground for lots of new worms, including the Bluetooth-based worm, the SMS/MMS-based worm and the Wi-Fi-based worm. At present, Wi-Fi is widely used for mobile devices to connect to the Internet. But it exposes these devices to the dangerous environment. Most current worm propagation models aim to solve the problems of computer worms. They cannot be used directly in the mobile environment, particularly in the Wi-Fi scenario, because of the differences between computers and mobile devices. In this paper, we propose a worm propagation model in the Wi-Fi environment, called SEIQR (Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious- Quarantined-Recovered). In the model, infected nodes can be quarantined by the Wi-Fi base station, and a new state named the Quarantined state (Q) is established to represent these infected nodes. Based on this model, we present an effective method to inhibit the spread of the Wi-Fi-based worms. Furthermore, related stabilities of the worm-free and endemic equilibriums are studied based on the basic reproduction number R0. The worm-free equilibrium is locally and globally asymptotically stable if R0 < 1, whereas the endemic equilibrium is locally asymptotically stable if R0 < 1. Finally, we evaluate the performance of our model by comprehensive experiments with different infection rates and quarantine rates. The results indicate that our mechanism can combat the worms propagated via Wi-Fi.

  1. Recovery Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, John R.

    2007-01-01

    Since the founding of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) in 1935, programs offering opportunity for recovery from alcoholism and other addictions have undergone vast changes. The Internet has created nearly limitless opportunities for recovering people and those seeking recovery to find both meetings and places where they can gather virtually and discuss…

  2. Can Adults Who Have Recovered from Selective Mutism in Childhood and Adolescence Tell Us Anything about the Nature of the Condition and/or Recovery from It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omdal, Heidi

    2007-01-01

    The literature on selective mutism provides little information on the child's own perspective. Six adults who had been selectively mute were interviewed about their childhood and adolescence. Data analysis led to identification of five themes, each of which has potentially important implications for teachers. (1) Origins of selective mutism: all…

  3. Epidemiological studies on guinea-worm in some newly discovered villages of Jhabua District (M.P.) and test of carica papaya leaves of guinea worm infection.

    PubMed

    Sanghvi, P K

    1989-05-01

    Epidemiological survey was carried out for prevalence of guinea worm infection in 12 villages having a total population of 10281 persons in Jhabua district of M.P. The prevalence of 2.85 percent. Infection was more common in males. A paste of leaves of carica papya with opium and common salt applied for 3 days was helpful in relief of symptoms and easy extraction of worm from the body.

  4. Worms in the College Classroom: More than Just a Composting Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Rebecca L.

    2010-01-01

    Although worm bins have been used by K-12 and nonformal educators for decades, there is little evidence of their use in postsecondary education. The ease of use, maintenance, affordability, portability, and diversity of scientific concepts that can be demonstrated with a worm bin make it a valuable tool in college science classrooms. The purpose…

  5. Defending against Internet worms using a phase space method from chaos theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jing; Gao, Jianbo; Rao, Nageswara S.

    2007-04-01

    Enterprise networks are facing ever-increasing security threats from Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks, worms, viruses, intrusions, Trojans, port scans, and network misuses, and thus effective monitoring approaches to quickly detect these activities are greatly needed. In this paper, we employ chaos theory and propose an interesting phase space method to detect Internet worms. An Internet worm is a self-propagating program that automatically replicates itself to vulnerable systems and spreads across the Internet. Most deployed worm-detection systems are signature-based. They look for specific byte sequences (called attack signatures) that are known to appear in the attack traffic. Conventionally, the signatures are manually identified by human experts through careful analysis of the byte sequence from captured attack traffic. We propose to embed the traffic sequence to a high-dimensional phase space using chaos theory. We have observed that the signature sequence of a specific worm will occupy specific regions in the phase space, which may be appropriately called the invariant subspace of the worm. The invariant subspace of the worm separates itself widely from the subspace of the normal traffic. This separation allows us to construct three simple metrics, each of which completely separates 100 normal traffic streams from 200 worm traffic streams, without training in the conventional sense. Therefore, the method is at least as accurate as any existing methods. More importantly, our method is much faster than existing methods, such as based on expectation maximization and hidden Markov models.

  6. Guinea Worm (Dracunculus medinensis) Infection in a Wild-Caught Frog, Chad

    PubMed Central

    Cleveland, Christopher A.; Zirimwabagabo, Hubert; Yabsley, Michael J.; Ouakou, Philippe Tchindebet; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto

    2016-01-01

    A third-stage (infective) larva of Dracunculus medinensis, the causative agent of Guinea worm disease, was recovered from a wild-caught Phrynobatrachus francisci frog in Chad. Although green frogs (Lithobates clamitans) have been experimentally infected with D. medinensis worms, our findings prove that frogs can serve as natural paratenic hosts. PMID:27560598

  7. Guinea Worm (Dracunculus medinensis) Infection in a Wild-Caught Frog, Chad.

    PubMed

    Eberhard, Mark L; Cleveland, Christopher A; Zirimwabagabo, Hubert; Yabsley, Michael J; Ouakou, Philippe Tchindebet; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto

    2016-11-01

    A third-stage (infective) larva of Dracunculus medinensis, the causative agent of Guinea worm disease, was recovered from a wild-caught Phrynobatrachus francisci frog in Chad. Although green frogs (Lithobates clamitans) have been experimentally infected with D. medinensis worms, our findings prove that frogs can serve as natural paratenic hosts.

  8. Functional mapping of protein kinase A reveals its importance in adult Schistosoma mansoni motor activity.

    PubMed

    de Saram, Paulu S R; Ressurreição, Margarida; Davies, Angela J; Rollinson, David; Emery, Aidan M; Walker, Anthony J

    2013-01-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase/protein kinase A (PKA) is the major transducer of cAMP signalling in eukaryotic cells. Here, using laser scanning confocal microscopy and 'smart' anti-phospho PKA antibodies that exclusively detect activated PKA, we provide a detailed in situ analysis of PKA signalling in intact adult Schistosoma mansoni, a causative agent of debilitating human intestinal schistosomiasis. In both adult male and female worms, activated PKA was consistently found associated with the tegument, oral and ventral suckers, oesophagus and somatic musculature. In addition, the seminal vesicle and gynaecophoric canal muscles of the male displayed activated PKA whereas in female worms activated PKA localized to the ootype wall, the ovary, and the uterus particularly around eggs during expulsion. Exposure of live worms to the PKA activator forskolin (50 µM) resulted in striking PKA activation in the central and peripheral nervous system including at nerve endings at/near the tegument surface. Such neuronal PKA activation was also observed without forskolin treatment, but only in a single batch of worms. In addition, PKA activation within the central and peripheral nervous systems visibly increased within 15 min of worm-pair separation when compared to that observed in closely coupled worm pairs. Finally, exposure of adult worms to forskolin induced hyperkinesias in a time and dose dependent manner with 100 µM forskolin significantly increasing the frequency of gross worm movements to 5.3 times that of control worms (P≤0.001). Collectively these data are consistent with PKA playing a central part in motor activity and neuronal communication, and possibly interplay between these two systems in S. mansoni. This study, the first to localize a protein kinase when exclusively in an activated state in adult S. mansoni, provides valuable insight into the intricacies of functional protein kinase signalling in the context of whole schistosome physiology.

  9. Ethnophysiology and herbal treatments of intestinal worms in Dominica, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Quinlan, Marsha B; Quinlan, Robert J; Nolan, Justin M

    2002-04-01

    In rural Dominican ethnophysiology worms reside in a human organ called the 'worm bag'. Unchecked, worms can cause illness by growing in size and number, spreading out of the worm bag and into other organs. In this study of 'bush medicine', we use a measure of cognitive salience in free-listing tasks, which reveals five plants commonly used to treat intestinal worms. These were Ambrosia hispida (Asteraceae), Aristolochia trilobata (Aristlochiaceae), Chenopodium ambrosioides (Chenopodiaceae), Portulaca oleracea (Portulacaceae), and Artemisia absinthium (Asteraceae). Bioactive compounds appear to be present in all of these plants. The cognitive salience of these plant remedies coupled with evidence of biochemical properties suggest that they provide efficacious treatments for controlling intestinal parasite loads.

  10. High incidence of the gullet worm, Gongylonema pulchrum, in a squirrel monkey colony in a zoological garden in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hiroshi; Une, Yumi; Takada, Mariko

    2005-01-20

    Histological examination revealed the gullet worm (Gongylonema pulchrum) embedded in the lingual mucosa of two of four dead Bolivian squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis) from a zoological garden in Kyushu, Japan. The zoo had kept the monkeys as a colony of approximately 80-100 individuals in a moated, open ground since 1981. To assess the incidence of G. pulchrum infection in this colony, lingual scraping with disposable plastic sticks was conducted in February during 2 consecutive years (2003 and 2004). The oval, thick-shelled egg containing a larva was found in 15 of 27 arbitrarily-chosen adult monkeys (55.5%) in 2003, and 27 of 106 monkeys (25.5%) in 2004. Infection of other zoo-kept mammals with G. pulchrum was not assessed. Since the gullet worm infects a variety of mammals including primates as natural definitive hosts, and dung beetles and cockroaches as intermediate hosts, the zoological garden may provide an ideal environment for the parasite. Zoo veterinarians should be aware of this disease in kept mammals, and should consider in the case of primates, monthly or bimonthly prophylactic anthelmintic treatment.

  11. Worms, wisdom, and wealth: why deworming can make economic sense.

    PubMed

    Bundy, Donald A P; Walson, Judd L; Watkins, Kristie L

    2013-03-01

    For those of us who have had worms, getting rid of them seems a good idea, and multiple studies demonstrate the simplicity and benefit of deworming children. In the past decade or so, there has been a dramatic increase in efforts to provide inexpensive deworming medications, but at the same time there have been calls to re-evaluate the impact of deworming programs. In this review, we examine the history of deworming and explore the evidence for effects of deworming on health, on child development, and on economic returns. Important policy conclusions include that a paucity of randomized trial data suggesting benefit does not equate to a lack of benefit and that a greater emphasis on documenting such benefit should be pursued.

  12. Helminthic therapy: using worms to treat immune-mediated disease.

    PubMed

    Elliott, David E; Weinstock, Joel V

    2009-01-01

    There is an epidemic of immune-mediated disease in highly-developed industrialized countries. Such diseases, like inflammatory bowel disease, multiple sclerosis and asthma increase in prevalence as populations adopt modern hygienic practices. These practices prevent exposure to parasitic worms (helminths). Epidemiologic studies suggest that people who carry helminths have less immune-mediated disease. Mice colonized with helminths are protected from disease in models of colitis, encephalitis, Type 1 diabetes and asthma. Clinical trials show that exposure to helminths reduce disease activity in patients with ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease. This chapter reviews some of the work showing that colonization with helminths alters immune responses, against dysregulated inflammation. These helminth-host immune interactions have potentially important implications for the treatment of immune-mediated diseases.

  13. Laboratory Experiments on the Control of Cyclops Transmitting Guinea Worm

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Ralph

    1970-01-01

    Infection with the guinea worm (Dracunculus medinensis) affects millions of people living in rural areas in certain parts of the world. Usually, the standard of living is low and elaborate control measures would not be feasible. In this study, various insecticidal and molluscicidal compounds were tested in the laboratory for their toxicity to the intermediate hosts, namely, various species of cyclops, which often live in sources of potable water, such as step-wells, cisterns and ponds. Cheapness, low toxicity to mammals and ease of application, in conjunction with effectiveness against cyclops, are primary requisites for any compound accepted for widespread use. Abate, an insecticide, has been shown to be particularly promising in these respects. The timing and mode of application of compounds toxic to cyclops in various endemic regions are discussed. PMID:4247122

  14. Giant kidney worms in a patient with renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kuehn, Jemima; Lombardo, Lindsay; Janda, William M; Hollowell, Courtney M P

    2016-03-07

    Dioctophyma renale (D. renale), or giant kidney worms, are the largest nematodes that infect mammals. Approximately 20 cases of human infection have been reported. We present a case of a 71-year-old man with a recent history of unintentional weight loss and painless haematuria, passing elongated erythematous tissue via his urethra. CT revealed a left renal mass with pulmonary nodules and hepatic lesions. On microscopy, the erythematous tissue passed was identified as D. renale. On subsequent renal biopsy, pathology was consistent with renal cell carcinoma. This is the first reported case of concomitant D. renale infection and renal cell carcinoma, and the second reported case of D. renale infection of the left kidney alone.

  15. Graphical method for profiling hob mill that generate cycloid worms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodor, V.; Berbinschi, S.; Baroiu, N.; Oancea, N.

    2015-11-01

    The hob mill for generating ordered curls of cycloid surface with non involute profiles may be profiled based on the fundamental theorems of surface enveloping - Olivier - as surface reciprocally enveloping with point like contact. In this paper, is proposed a methodology based on a complementary theorem of the surface enveloping in a graphical expression developed in a graphical design environment - CATIA. The graphical method presented in this paper is developed in two stages: determining of the rack gear model based on the solid model of the surface to be generated, using an original algorithm, following this, based on 3D modelling is determined the solid model of the primary peripheral surface of the hob mill. An application for a cycloid worm is presented - a central screw of helical pumps. In order to prove the quality of method, the analytical and graphical solutions are comparatively presented.

  16. Structure-Property Relationships for Branched Worm-Like Micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaucage, Gregory; Rai, Durgesh

    2013-03-01

    Micellar solutions can display a wide range of phase structure as a function of counter ion content, surfactant concentration, and the presence of ternary components. Under some conditions, common to consumer products, extended cylindrical structures that display persistence and other chain features of polymers are produced. These worm-like micelles (WLMs) can form branched structures that dynamically change under shear and even in quiescent conditions. The rheology of these branched WLMs is strongly dependent on migration of the branch points, and the dynamics of branch formation and removal. Persistence and other polymer-based descriptions are also of importance. We have recently developed a scattering model for branched polyolefins and other topologically complex materials that can quantify the branching density, branch length, branch functionality and the hyperbranch (branch-on-branch) content of polymers. This work is being extended to study branching in WLMs in work coupled with Ron Larson at UMich to predict rheological properties.

  17. Marriage shrines and worms impacting our understanding of mammalian fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Krauchunas, Amber R.; Singson, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Genetic approaches in C. elegans are complementing the biochemical and antibody based strategies traditionally used to study the molecular underpinnings of fertilization in other organisms. A pair of worm studies, one based on forward genetics and one based on reverse genetics, converge on the sperm immunoglobulin superfamily molecule SPE-45. Loss of spe-45 function leads to the production of sperm that cannot fertilize wild-type eggs. This is a strikingly similar phenotype as those seen in mice lacking the immunoglobulin superfamily protein Izumo1. This work sets the stage for leveraging the power of the C. elegans model system to learn more about Izumo-like molecular function but also for the discovery of additional deeply conserved components of fertility pathways. PMID:27695649

  18. Wombs, Worms and Wolves: Constructing Cancer in Early Modern England

    PubMed Central

    Skuse, Alanna

    2014-01-01

    This essay examines medical and popular attitudes to cancer in the early modern period, c.1580–1720. Cancer, it is argued, was understood as a cruel and usually incurable disease, diagnosable by a well-defined set of symptoms understood to correspond to its etymological root, karkinos (the crab). It was primarily understood as produced by an imbalance of the humours, with women being particularly vulnerable. However, such explanations proved inadequate to make sense of the condition's malignancy, and medical writers frequently constructed cancer as quasi-sentient, zoomorphising the disease as an eating worm or wolf. In turn, these constructions materially influenced medical practice, in which practitioners swung between anxiety over ‘aggravating’ the disease and an adversarial approach which fostered the use of radical and dangerous ‘cures’ including caustics and surgery. PMID:25352720

  19. Microplastic ingestion decreases energy reserves in marine worms.

    PubMed

    Wright, Stephanie L; Rowe, Darren; Thompson, Richard C; Galloway, Tamara S

    2013-12-02

    The indiscriminate disposal of plastic to the environment is of concern. Microscopic plastic litter (<5 mm diameter; 'microplastic') is increasing in abundance in the marine environment, originating from the fragmentation of plastic items and from industry and personal-care products [1]. On highly impacted beaches, microplastic concentrations (<1mm) can reach 3% by weight, presenting a global conservation issue [2]. Microplastics are a novel substrate for the adherence of hydrophobic contaminants [1], deposition of eggs [3], and colonization by unique bacterial assemblages [4]. Ingestion by indiscriminate deposit-feeders has been reported, yet physical impacts remain understudied [1]. Here, we show that deposit-feeding marine worms maintained in sediments spiked with microscopic unplasticised polyvinylchloride (UPVC) at concentrations overlapping those in the environment had significantly depleted energy reserves by up to 50% (Figure 1). Our results suggest that depleted energy reserves arise from a combination of reduced feeding activity, longer gut residence times of ingested material and inflammation.

  20. Hybrid Epidemics—A Case Study on Computer Worm Conficker

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Changwang; Zhou, Shi; Chain, Benjamin M.

    2015-01-01

    Conficker is a computer worm that erupted on the Internet in 2008. It is unique in combining three different spreading strategies: local probing, neighbourhood probing, and global probing. We propose a mathematical model that combines three modes of spreading: local, neighbourhood, and global, to capture the worm’s spreading behaviour. The parameters of the model are inferred directly from network data obtained during the first day of the Conficker epidemic. The model is then used to explore the tradeoff between spreading modes in determining the worm’s effectiveness. Our results show that the Conficker epidemic is an example of a critically hybrid epidemic, in which the different modes of spreading in isolation do not lead to successful epidemics. Such hybrid spreading strategies may be used beneficially to provide the most effective strategies for promulgating information across a large population. When used maliciously, however, they can present a dangerous challenge to current internet security protocols. PMID:25978309

  1. Community perception and role in prevention of Guinea worm disease.

    PubMed

    Omar, M A; Sufi, Q M; Gamba-Osiga, A

    1993-01-01

    In Kitgum district of northern Uganda in 1992, natural group and focus group discussions and key informant interviews were conducted to examine the knowledge, attitudes, practices, and beliefs of the people concerning Guinea Worm disease (GW disease) and its transmission, prevention, and treatment. Most people could describe the cause and treatment of Coo (local name of GW disease). More than 58% thought dirty or bad water was the main cause of Coo. 63.2% believed that drinking contaminated water was the cause. 13.1% did not know the cause of GW disease. Few people clearly understood how GW is transmitted. People received treatment from the nearest health unit (42%), traditional healers (34%), self-medication (16%), and drug shops (8%). 55.3% of key informants believed that Coo cases had increased. The perceived reasons for the increase were drinking dirty water (42.8%), migration (38.1%), no medicine (9.5%), and increased population (4.8%). Suggestions for community action to halt transmission of GW included provision of safe water, educating each other, boiling water, and filtering water. The community perceived that the government and nongovernmental organizations could drill new boreholes, bring in medications, repair broken boreholes, protect water sources, and provide education to stop the spread of GW disease. Water sources were shallow wells, streams, rivers, valley dams, and boreholes. 77.3% of boreholes did not work. Most other water sources were inadequately protected from GW infestation. Some community members perceived boiling water as tedious and difficult. Most people thought that there was nothing or little they could do to prevent contamination of water sources. Few had heard health education messages about Guinea Worm disease. Many people wanted the use of plays, drama, and videos in villages to communicate GW prevention messages.

  2. Willamette Oxygen Supplementation Studies : Scale Analyses, Dexter Water Quality Parameters, and Adult Recoveries: Annual Progress Report, September 30, 1998-September 29, 1999.

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, R.D.

    1999-09-01

    This report examines the relationship between scale characteristics of returning adults to determine the fork length at which they entered the ocean. These lengths are then related to the length frequencies of fish in the various experimental groups at the time they left the hatchery. This report summarizes the water quality parameters at Dexter Rearing Ponds and presents the complete returns for all experimental groups.

  3. AAVshRNA-Mediated Suppression of PTEN in Adult Rats in Combination with Salmon Fibrin Administration Enables Regenerative Growth of Corticospinal Axons and Enhances Recovery of Voluntary Motor Function after Cervical Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Conditional genetic deletion of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) in the sensorimotor cortex of neonatal mice enables regeneration of corticospinal tract (CST) axons after spinal cord injury (SCI). The present study addresses three questions: (1) whether PTEN knockdown in adult rats by nongenetic techniques enables CST regeneration, (2) whether interventions to enable CST regeneration enhance recovery of voluntary motor function, and (3) whether delivery of salmon fibrin into the injury site further enhances CST regeneration and motor recovery. Adult rats were trained in a staircase-reaching task and then received either intracortical injections of AAVshPTEN to delete PTEN or a control vector expressing shRNA for luciferase (AAVshLuc). Rats then received cervical dorsal hemisection injuries and salmon fibrin was injected into the injury site in half the rats, yielding four groups (AAVshPTEN, AAVshLuc, AAVshPTEN + fibrin, and AAVshLuc + fibrin). Forepaw function was assessed for 10 weeks after injury and CST axons were traced by injecting biotin-conjugated dextran amine into the sensorimotor cortex. Rats that received AAVshPTEN alone did not exhibit improved motor function, whereas rats that received AAVshPTEN and salmon fibrin had significantly higher forelimb-reaching scores. Tract tracing revealed that CST axons extended farther caudally in the group that received AAVshPTEN and salmon fibrin versus other groups. There were no significant differences in lesion size between the groups. Together, these data suggest that the combination of PTEN deletion and salmon fibrin injection into the lesion can significantly improve voluntary motor function after SCI by enabling regenerative growth of CST axons. PMID:25057197

  4. AAVshRNA-mediated suppression of PTEN in adult rats in combination with salmon fibrin administration enables regenerative growth of corticospinal axons and enhances recovery of voluntary motor function after cervical spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Lewandowski, Gail; Steward, Oswald

    2014-07-23

    Conditional genetic deletion of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) in the sensorimotor cortex of neonatal mice enables regeneration of corticospinal tract (CST) axons after spinal cord injury (SCI). The present study addresses three questions: (1) whether PTEN knockdown in adult rats by nongenetic techniques enables CST regeneration, (2) whether interventions to enable CST regeneration enhance recovery of voluntary motor function, and (3) whether delivery of salmon fibrin into the injury site further enhances CST regeneration and motor recovery. Adult rats were trained in a staircase-reaching task and then received either intracortical injections of AAVshPTEN to delete PTEN or a control vector expressing shRNA for luciferase (AAVshLuc). Rats then received cervical dorsal hemisection injuries and salmon fibrin was injected into the injury site in half the rats, yielding four groups (AAVshPTEN, AAVshLuc, AAVshPTEN + fibrin, and AAVshLuc + fibrin). Forepaw function was assessed for 10 weeks after injury and CST axons were traced by injecting biotin-conjugated dextran amine into the sensorimotor cortex. Rats that received AAVshPTEN alone did not exhibit improved motor function, whereas rats that received AAVshPTEN and salmon fibrin had significantly higher forelimb-reaching scores. Tract tracing revealed that CST axons extended farther caudally in the group that received AAVshPTEN and salmon fibrin versus other groups. There were no significant differences in lesion size between the groups. Together, these data suggest that the combination of PTEN deletion and salmon fibrin injection into the lesion can significantly improve voluntary motor function after SCI by enabling regenerative growth of CST axons.

  5. Influence of the radius of the leading edge of worm vanes on the critical cavitation allowance of a pump

    SciTech Connect

    Shcherbatenko, I.V.; Khankin, V.P.

    1982-11-01

    This paper theoretically and experimentally investigates the influence of the cylindrical (curved) leading edge of the worm vanes on the cavitation characteristics of the pump. Considers the disruptive flow around the worm wheel with a constant screw spacing (pitch) of an ideal liquid flow. The proposed equations, verified on pumps with worms of different types and sizes with a wide range of attack angles, can be used for the calculation of the sucking capacity of high-speed worm centrifugal pumps.

  6. Detailed Morphology of All Life Stages of the Agave Red Worm, Comadia redtenbacheri (Hammerschmidt) (Lepidoptera: Cossidae).

    PubMed

    Castro-Torres, R; Llanderal-Cázares, C

    2016-12-01

    The agave red worm, Comadia redtenbacheri (Hammerschmidt), is an important source of food and income in Mexico. Despite its importance, several aspects of its biology, morphology, and behavior remain poorly studied. In this work, we describe and illustrate the morphology of all the life stages that may aid in understanding certain aspects of its biology. To obtain all life stages, last instar larvae were collected from agave plants and allowed to pupate; after the adults emerged, they were allowed to mate and oviposit. The frenulum is longer in males; epiphysis I is longer in females than in males; the abdomen bears two types of tubercles of unknown function. Eggs present a reticulate chorion; primary rosette cells are highly variable in shape; the micropylar formula is (10-14): (12-13). First instar larvae are white, becoming red as they develop; L3 in the prothorax is subprimary; the SV setal group in A1 is comprised of only SV1 on first instar larvae; last instars have several secondary setae. Pupae are adecticous and obtect; there are rows of spines on the dorsum of the abdomen. The biological significance of some of the findings is discussed.

  7. Potential effects of warmer worms and vectors on onchocerciasis transmission in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Cheke, Robert A.; Basáñez, Maria-Gloria; Perry, Malorie; White, Michael T.; Garms, Rolf; Obuobie, Emmanuel; Lamberton, Poppy H. L.; Young, Stephen; Osei-Atweneboana, Mike Y.; Intsiful, Joseph; Shen, Mingwang; Boakye, Daniel A.; Wilson, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Development times of eggs, larvae and pupae of vectors of onchocerciasis (Simulium spp.) and of Onchocerca volvulus larvae within the adult females of the vectors decrease with increasing temperature. At and above 25°C, the parasite could reach its infective stage in less than 7 days when vectors could transmit after only two gonotrophic cycles. After incorporating exponential functions for vector development into a novel blackfly population model, it was predicted that fly numbers in Liberia and Ghana would peak at air temperatures of 29°C and 34°C, about 3°C and 7°C above current monthly averages, respectively; parous rates of forest flies (Liberia) would peak at 29°C and of savannah flies (Ghana) at 30°C. Small temperature increases (less than 2°C) might lead to changes in geographical distributions of different vector taxa. When the new model was linked to an existing framework for the population dynamics of onchocerciasis in humans and vectors, transmission rates and worm loads were projected to increase with temperature to at least 33°C. By contrast, analyses of field data on forest flies in Liberia and savannah flies in Ghana, in relation to regional climate change predictions, suggested, on the basis of simple regressions, that 13–41% decreases in fly numbers would be expected between the present and before 2040. Further research is needed to reconcile these conflicting conclusions. PMID:25688018

  8. Assessment of indirect pesticide effects on worm-eating warbler populations in a managed forest ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Awkerman, Jill A; Marshall, Matthew R; Williams, Alan B; Gale, George A; Cooper, Robert J; Raimondo, Sandy

    2011-08-01

    Ecological risk assessments rarely evaluate indirect pesticide effects. Pesticides causing no direct mortality in wildlife can still reduce prey availability, resulting in a lower reproductive rate or poor juvenile condition. Few studies have examined these consequences at the population level. We use a four-year data set from a forest ecosystem in which Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki (Btk) was applied to control gypsy moths (Lymantria dispar L.). Lower worm-eating warbler (Helmitheros vermivorus) productivity on Btk plots contributed to an intrinsic growth rate <1. Altered provisioning behavior by adults led to lower nestling mass in Btk-treated plots, and simulations of reduced juvenile survival expected as a result further reduced population growth rate. The present study explored different spatial representations of treated areas, using a two-patch matrix model incorporating dispersal. Minimal migration from areas with increasing subpopulations could compensate for detrimental reductions in reproductive success and juvenile survival within treated subpopulations. We also simulated population dynamics with different proportions of treated areas to inform management strategies in similar systems. Nontoxic insecticides are capable of impacting nontarget populations with consistent, long-term use and should be evaluated based on the spatial connectivity representative of habitat availability and the time period appropriate for risk assessment of pesticide effects in wildlife populations.

  9. Experimental centrocestiasis: Worm burden, morphology and fecundity of Centrocestus formosanus (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) in dexamethasone immunosuppressed mice.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Hudson Alves; Mati, Vitor Luís Tenório; de Melo, Alan Lane

    2015-10-01

    Centrocestus formosanus is an intestinal foodborne trematode with medical and veterinary importance that remains with the pathological and immunological aspects of the infection in definitive host poorly studied. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of pharmacological immunosuppression by glucocorticoids in experimental centrocestiasis. Mice of the AKR/J strain were orally inoculated with 100 metacercariae of C. formosanus obtained in naturally infected fish (Australoheros facetus) collected in an urban reservoir from Brazil. Treatment with dexamethasone (25 mg/kg, via subcutaneous injection) was started 1h before infection of mice and then continued daily during 14 days post-infection. Untreated mice also infected with C. formosanus were used as control. At the end of the treatment course, all rodents were euthanized and adult parasites recovered from host intestines were subjected to morphological and morphometric analysis under optical microscopy. The worm burden in dexamethasone treated group [70±14 (41-85)] was significantly greater (p<0.0001) than that in the control group [15±4 (10-22)]. In addition, the parasites recovered from immunosuppressed mice were larger, with more developed reproductive structures and greater number of intrauterine eggs than in control mice. These parasite developmental changes induced by dexamethasone treatment are reported for the first time in experimental centrocestiasis. Moreover the higher parasite fecundity induced by glucocorticoid treatment had so far not been reported for any heterophyid species, which can have implications for the pathology and morbidity in infections caused by these parasites.

  10. Potential effects of warmer worms and vectors on onchocerciasis transmission in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Cheke, Robert A; Basáñez, Maria-Gloria; Perry, Malorie; White, Michael T; Garms, Rolf; Obuobie, Emmanuel; Lamberton, Poppy H L; Young, Stephen; Osei-Atweneboana, Mike Y; Intsiful, Joseph; Shen, Mingwang; Boakye, Daniel A; Wilson, Michael D

    2015-04-05

    Development times of eggs, larvae and pupae of vectors of onchocerciasis (Simulium spp.) and of Onchocerca volvulus larvae within the adult females of the vectors decrease with increasing temperature. At and above 25°C, the parasite could reach its infective stage in less than 7 days when vectors could transmit after only two gonotrophic cycles. After incorporating exponential functions for vector development into a novel blackfly population model, it was predicted that fly numbers in Liberia and Ghana would peak at air temperatures of 29°C and 34°C, about 3°C and 7°C above current monthly averages, respectively; parous rates of forest flies (Liberia) would peak at 29°C and of savannah flies (Ghana) at 30°C. Small temperature increases (less than 2°C) might lead to changes in geographical distributions of different vector taxa. When the new model was linked to an existing framework for the population dynamics of onchocerciasis in humans and vectors, transmission rates and worm loads were projected to increase with temperature to at least 33°C. By contrast, analyses of field data on forest flies in Liberia and savannah flies in Ghana, in relation to regional climate change predictions, suggested, on the basis of simple regressions, that 13-41% decreases in fly numbers would be expected between the present and before 2040. Further research is needed to reconcile these conflicting conclusions.

  11. Conditional Ablation of Neuroprogenitor Cells in Adult Mice Impedes Recovery of Poststroke Cognitive Function and Reduces Synaptic Connectivity in the Perforant Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Chongran; Sun, Hui; Wu, Steven; Lee, Chih Cheng; Akamatsu, Yosuke; Wang, Ruikang K.; Kernie, Steven G.

    2013-01-01

    The causal relationship between neurogenesis and the recovery of poststroke cognitive function has not been properly explored. The current study aimed to determine whether depleting neuroprogenitor cells (NPCs) affects poststroke functional outcome in nestin-δ-HSV-TK-EGFP transgenic mice, in which the expression of a truncated viral thymidine kinase gene and EGFP was restricted to nestin-expressing NPCs. Ganciclovir (GCV; 200 mg/kg/d) or saline was continuously administered via osmotic pumps in mice for 4 weeks before the induction of experimental stroke. Both baseline and stroke-induced type 1 and type 2 NPCs were conditionally ablated. GCV eliminated NPCs in a duration-dependent fashion, but it did not attenuate the genesis of astroglia or oligodendrocytes in the peri-infarct cortex, nor did it affect infarct size or cerebral blood reperfusion after stroke. Transgenic stroke mice given GCV displayed impaired spatial learning and memory in the Barnes maze test compared with saline control or wild-type stroke mice given GCV, suggesting a contributing role of stroke-induced neurogenesis in the recovery of cognitive function. However, there was no significant difference in poststroke motor function between transgenic mice treated with GCV and those treated with vehicle, despite a significant ablation of NPCs in the subventricular zone of the former. Furthermore, nestin-δ-HSV-TK-EGFP mice treated with GCV had fewer retrogradely labeled neurons in the entorhinal cortex (EC) when injected with the polysynaptic viral marker PRV614 in the dentate gyrus (DG), suggesting that there might be reduced synaptic connectivity between the DG and EC following ablation of NPCs, which may contribute to impaired poststroke memory function. PMID:24174664

  12. Adult Toxocara cati infections in U.S. children: report of four cases.

    PubMed

    Eberhard, M L; Alfano, E

    1998-09-01

    We report four cases of passage of subadult or adult Toxocara cati worms by young children ages 20 months to seven years. Worms were expelled rectally in two cases and in two cases they were vomited. A single worm was passed in two cases, three worms in one case, and 15 worms in the fourth case. All worms that were available for study were identified as T. cati by morphologic criteria, including the arrow-shaped cervical alae and the digitiform shape of the male tail. None of the four children exhibited clinical signs of ocular or visceral larva migrans, and in two cases where serum samples were available, neither child had a titer to Toxocara. These results further the argument that these children acquired the worms through the ingestion of immature worms passed by infected cats, not through the ingestion of infective eggs. Although the children were generally not ill as a result of these unusual infections, it does serve to reinforce the public health issue that potential serious consequences can occur where children have exposure to an environment that has been contaminated with cat feces, or, more specifically, infective eggs, and could become infected with larval forms of Toxocara.

  13. An anatomical description of a miniaturized acorn worm (hemichordata, enteropneusta) with asexual reproduction by paratomy.

    PubMed

    Worsaae, Katrine; Sterrer, Wolfgang; Kaul-Strehlow, Sabrina; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Giribet, Gonzalo

    2012-01-01

    The interstitial environment of marine sandy bottoms is a nutrient-rich, sheltered habitat whilst at the same time also often a turbulent, space-limited, and ecologically challenging environment dominated by meiofauna. The interstitial fauna is one of the most diverse on earth and accommodates miniaturized representatives from many macrofaunal groups as well as several exclusively meiofaunal phyla. The colonization process of this environment, with the restrictions imposed by limited space and low Reynolds numbers, has selected for great morphological and behavioral changes as well as new life history strategies.Here we describe a new enteropneust species inhabiting the interstices among sand grains in shallow tropical waters of the West Atlantic. With a maximum body length of 0.6 mm, it is the first microscopic adult enteropneust known, a group otherwise ranging from 2 cm to 250 cm in adult size. Asexual reproduction by paratomy has been observed in this new species, a reproductive mode not previously reported among enteropneusts. Morphologically, Meioglossus psammophilus gen. et sp. nov. shows closest resemblance to an early juvenile stage of the acorn worm family Harrimaniidae, a result congruent with its phylogenetic placement based on molecular data. Its position, clearly nested within the larger macrofaunal hemichordates, suggests that this represents an extreme case of miniaturization. The evolutionary pathway to this simple or juvenile appearance, as chiefly demonstrated by its small size, dense ciliation, and single pair of gill pores, may be explained by progenesis. The finding of M. psammophilus gen. et sp. nov. underscores the notion that meiofauna may constitute a rich source of undiscovered metazoan diversity, possibly disguised as juveniles of other species.

  14. An Anatomical Description of a Miniaturized Acorn Worm (Hemichordata, Enteropneusta) with Asexual Reproduction by Paratomy

    PubMed Central

    Worsaae, Katrine; Sterrer, Wolfgang; Kaul-Strehlow, Sabrina; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Giribet, Gonzalo

    2012-01-01

    The interstitial environment of marine sandy bottoms is a nutrient-rich, sheltered habitat whilst at the same time also often a turbulent, space-limited, and ecologically challenging environment dominated by meiofauna. The interstitial fauna is one of the most diverse on earth and accommodates miniaturized representatives from many macrofaunal groups as well as several exclusively meiofaunal phyla. The colonization process of this environment, with the restrictions imposed by limited space and low Reynolds numbers, has selected for great morphological and behavioral changes as well as new life history strategies. Here we describe a new enteropneust species inhabiting the interstices among sand grains in shallow tropical waters of the West Atlantic. With a maximum body length of 0.6 mm, it is the first microscopic adult enteropneust known, a group otherwise ranging from 2 cm to 250 cm in adult size. Asexual reproduction by paratomy has been observed in this new species, a reproductive mode not previously reported among enteropneusts. Morphologically, Meioglossus psammophilus gen. et sp. nov. shows closest resemblance to an early juvenile stage of the acorn worm family Harrimaniidae, a result congruent with its phylogenetic placement based on molecular data. Its position, clearly nested within the larger macrofaunal hemichordates, suggests that this represents an extreme case of miniaturization. The evolutionary pathway to this simple or juvenile appearance, as chiefly demonstrated by its small size, dense ciliation, and single pair of gill pores, may be explained by progenesis. The finding of M. psammophilus gen. et sp. nov. underscores the notion that meiofauna may constitute a rich source of undiscovered metazoan diversity, possibly disguised as juveniles of other species. PMID:23144898

  15. Biouptake of chlorinated hydrocarbons from laboratory-spiked and field sediments by oligochaete worms

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, B.G.

    1987-08-01

    The uptake and depuration of 37 chemicals from spiked Lake Ontario sediments by oligochaete worms has been studied at 8 and 20/sup 0/C in laboratory aquaria. The worms were found to rapidly accumulate the chemicals and reach peak concentrations within 2 weeks. The concentration of chemical in the sediment pore water appeared to be the major factor controlling the bioconcentration of chemicals by worms. The worm bioconcentration factors increased with increasing octanol-water partition coefficient of the chemicals. The worm-mediated fluxes of the chemicals from the sediments have also been estimated. Depuration studies showed in the half-lives of the chemicals in the worms ranged from less than 5 days to several months. Field worms and associated sediments from Lake Ontario near the Niagara River were analyzed. The agreement between the field and laboratory results was good for the more persistent chemicals because of time differences for sorting the two samples types. 30 references, 3 figures, 5 tables.

  16. The provision of potable water in eradication of Guinea worm infection in Ezza North, Southeastern, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ede, Alison Okorie; Nwaokoro, Joakin Chidozie; Iwuala, C C; Amadi, A N; Akpelu, Ugochinyere Alvana

    2014-10-01

    Guinea worm is a parasite found in unprotected drinking water sources, causes considerable morbidity and loss of agricultural production among rural people. The study was to determine the current status of Guinea worm infection in Ezza North and to evaluate the impact of control measures on guinea worm infection. A total of 200 individuals in Ezza North Southeastern, Nigeria were examined for guinea worm infection. A standardized questionnaire was used to determine the effect of potable water on guinea worm eradication/control, the source of drinking water, information on the knowledge, attitude, symptom management practices, availability of health facilities and boreholes installation status. The instrument for data collection was well constructed, validated and reliable tested questionnaire by an expert. Data obtained was analyzed using Epi-Info model 3.4 versions. Results of a study indicated majority of the respondents 195 (97.5 %) have access to safe drinking water supply which indicated no case of Guinea worm infection. The active use of potable water supply was found among the age group of 20-30 years 71 (35.5 %) and higher in male (57.5 %) than females (42.5 %). The drastic reduction of Guinea worm infection to zero (0) level in Ezza North were due to multiple factors as health education, availability of functional boreholes, presence of health centers for immediate treatment if any case discovered.

  17. Guinea worm disease--a chance for successful eradication in the Volta Region, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Diamenu, S K; Nyaku, A A

    1998-08-01

    A guinea worm eradication program in two farming communities in the Akatsi District in the Volta region of Ghana was initially threatened by failure to apply simple preventive practices. Persistent monitoring and education on the use of locally supplied, inexpensive materials for water filtration has turned the program around. In March 1996, the Volta rural water supply and sanitation (VRWSS) project commissioned a guinea worm prevalence and knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) study to collect baseline prevalence data. This study revealed some of the factors that contributed to the persistent high prevalence of guinea worm in the two communities. The community's only source of potable drinking water was irrigation dams which also served as the source of guinea worm infection. The Last quarterly report stated that guinea worm cases had been reduced from 62 to 5 in the two communities. Lessons learnt from Avega and Avevi will be extended to other guinea worm endemic communities that have registered with the project in the region. The prospect of total eradication of guinea worm in the region now exists.

  18. Worm infestations and development of autoimmunity in children – The ABIS study

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Michael P.; Faresjö, Åshild

    2017-01-01

    Worm infestations influence the immune system and may therefore decrease the risk for autoimmune diseases. The aim of the study was to determine whether children who have developed autoimmune disease were less likely to have had worm infestations in childhood. The ABIS-study is a prospective population-based cohort study of children born in southeast Sweden 1997/99. 17.055 children participated. As of June 2014 116 individuals had developed Type 1 diabetes, 181 celiac disease, and 53 Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis. The parents answered questions on worm infestations when the children were 1, 5 and 8 years of age. The ABIS registry was connected to the National Registry of Drug Prescriptions, and national registries for diagnosis of the studied diseases. We found no differences in incidence of worm infestations at 1, 5 or 8 years of age between children who developed autoimmune disease(s) or healthy controls. At 8 years in total 20.0% of the general child population had experienced a worm infestation; children who developed Type 1 diabetes, 21,3%, celiac disease 19,5% and JRA 18,8%. There was no difference in prescriptions of drugs for treatment of worm infestations between those who had and who had not developed Type 1 diabetes, celiac disease, Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis. We found no associations indicating that worm infestations in childhood does not play a role in the development of autoimmune diseases in Sweden. PMID:28333965

  19. Electro-worming: The behaviors of Caenorhabditis (C.) elegans in DC and AC electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Han-Sheng; Raizen, David M.; Dabbish, Nooreen; Bau, Haim H.

    2011-09-01

    The video showcases how C. elegans worms respond to DC and AC electrical stimulations. Gabel et al (2007) demonstrated that in the presence of DC and low frequency AC fields, worms of stage L2 and larger propel themselves towards the cathode. Rezai et al (2010) have demonstrated that this phenomenon, dubbed electrotaxis, can be used to control the motion of worms. In the video, we reproduce Rezai's experimental results. Furthermore, we show, for the first time, that worms can be trapped with high frequency, nonuniform electric fields. We studied the effect of the electric field on the nematode as a function of field intensity and frequency and identified a range of electric field intensities and frequencies that trap worms without apparent adverse effect on their viability. Worms tethered by dielectrophoresis (DEP) avoid blue light, indicating that at least some of the nervous system functions remain unimpaired in the presence of the electric field. DEP is useful to dynamically confine nematodes for observations, sort them according to size, and separate dead worms from live ones.

  20. Chemistry and the worm: Caenorhabditis elegans as a platform for integrating chemical and biological research.

    PubMed

    Hulme, S Elizabeth; Whitesides, George M

    2011-05-16

    This Review discusses the potential usefulness of the worm Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism for chemists interested in studying living systems. C. elegans, a 1 mm long roundworm, is a popular model organism in almost all areas of modern biology. The worm has several features that make it attractive for biology: it is small (<1000 cells), transparent, and genetically tractable. Despite its simplicity, the worm exhibits complex phenotypes associated with multicellularity: the worm has differentiated cells and organs, it ages and has a well-defined lifespan, and it is capable of learning and remembering. This Review argues that the balance between simplicity and complexity in the worm will make it a useful tool in determining the relationship between molecular-scale phenomena and organism-level phenomena, such as aging, behavior, cognition, and disease. Following an introduction to worm biology, the Review provides examples of current research with C. elegans that is chemically relevant. It also describes tools-biological, chemical, and physical-that are available to researchers studying the worm.

  1. How algae influence sessile marine organisms: The tube worms case of study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casoli, Edoardo; Bonifazi, Andrea; Ardizzone, Giandomenico; Gravina, Maria Flavia

    2016-09-01

    Tube worms and phytobenthic assemblages in three infralittoral and shallow circalittoral Mediterranean benthic communities developed between 5 and 35 m depth at Punta del Lazzaretto (Giglio Island, Central Thyrrenian sea) were investigated. Despite being three algae-dominated habitats, these displayed different covering both in terms of algal layers and algal morphologies, reflecting different structural organizations. Twenty-eight serpulid taxa have been reported, increasing both diversity and density values from most photophilic to most sciaphilous habitats. Multivariate analyses showed how algal thalli and tube worm assemblages were strongly correlated; substrata are influenced both physically and biologically, providing different conditions for tube worm settlement.

  2. Species richness and macronutrient content of wawo worms (Polychaeta, Annelida) from Ambonese waters, Maluku, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Pamungkas, Joko

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this research were to: (1) investigate the species richness of wawo worms, and to (2) analyze macronutrient content of the worms. Wawo worms were sampled using a fishing net on March 18(th)-19(th), 2014, from Ambonese waters, Maluku. As many as 26 wawo species belonging to 5 families were identified. Palola sp. was identified as the most abundant species of wawo, followed by Lysidiceoele, Horst 1905, Eunice spp. and nereidids. Results of the proximate analysis reveal that female epitokes of Palola sp. contain 10.78 % ash, 10.71 % moisture, 11.67 % crude fat, 54.72 % crude protein and 12.12 % carbohydrate.

  3. Thermo-responsive Diblock Copolymer Worm Gels in Non-polar Solvents

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Benzyl methacrylate (BzMA) is polymerized using a poly(lauryl methacrylate) macromolecular chain transfer agent (PLMA macro-CTA) using reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization at 70 °C in n-dodecane. This choice of solvent leads to an efficient dispersion polymerization, with polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA) occurring via the growing PBzMA block to produce a range of PLMA–PBzMA diblock copolymer nano-objects, including spheres, worms, and vesicles. In the present study, particular attention is paid to the worm phase, which forms soft free-standing gels at 20 °C due to multiple inter-worm contacts. Such worm gels exhibit thermo-responsive behavior: heating above 50 °C causes degelation due to the onset of a worm-to-sphere transition. Degelation occurs because isotropic spheres interact with each other much less efficiently than the highly anisotropic worms. This worm-to-sphere thermal transition is essentially irreversible on heating a dilute solution (0.10% w/w) but is more or less reversible on heating a more concentrated dispersion (20% w/w). The relatively low volatility of n-dodecane facilitates variable-temperature rheological studies, which are consistent with eventual reconstitution of the worm phase on cooling to 20 °C. Variable-temperature 1H NMR studies conducted in d26-dodecane confirm partial solvation of the PBzMA block at elevated temperature: surface plasticization of the worm cores is invoked to account for the observed change in morphology, because this is sufficient to increase the copolymer curvature and hence induce a worm-to-sphere transition. Small-angle X-ray scattering and TEM are used to investigate the structural changes that occur during the worm-to-sphere-to-worm thermal cycle; experiments conducted at 1.0 and 5.0% w/w demonstrate the concentration-dependent (ir)reversibility of these morphological transitions. PMID:24678949

  4. Nematode burdens and immunological responses following natural challenge in Romney lambs selectively bred for low or high faecal worm egg count.

    PubMed

    Bisset, S A; Vlassoff, A; Douch, P G; Jonas, W E; West, C J; Green, R S

    1996-02-01

    Breeding lines of Romney sheep, selected as lambs for consistently low or high faecal nematode egg count (FEC) following periods of natural challenge, have been maintained at Wallaceville for some years. In order to determine the extent to which FECs in low and high genotypes reflected their ability to resist the establishment of gastro-intestinal nematode burdens, we investigated the infection status and immune responses in 8- to 9-month-old progeny of selected rams from low and high FEC breeding lines following a period of grazing without anthelmintic treatment in autumn/early winter. In each of the 2 years of the study, outcross male progeny of the two lowest FEC (LFEC) (i.e. most 'resistant') and two highest FEC (HFEC) (i.e. most 'susceptible') rams from the divergent lines were slaughtered shortly after autumn/early winter FECs had been analysed. Post-mortem worm counts and examination of intestinal histology were then undertaken. Blood samples collected before slaughter in the second year of the study were assayed to measure serum levels of Trichostrongylus colubriformis-specific antibody and immunoglobulins (IgG1 and IgM), and numbers of circulating eosinophils. Overall, correlations between pre-slaughter FEC and total trichostrongyle burdens in the lambs proved to be very high (0.91 and 0.85, respectively, for the 2 years studied). In the first year, LFEC lambs, which were shedding only 28.6% as many strongyle eggs as their HFEC counterparts at slaughter, were found to harbour 37.6% as many adult trichostrongyle worms, while in the second year, LFEC lambs, which were shedding 16.1% as many strongyle eggs as their HFEC counterparts at slaughter, were found to harbour 33.5% as many adult trichostrongyle worms. Results, particularly in the second year, confirmed that significantly fewer worms of most of the important abomasal and small intestinal nematode species which infest lambs in New Zealand (i.e. Haemonchus contortus, Ostertagia circumcincta, Cooperia

  5. Evolutionarily Conserved, Multitasking TRP Channels: Lessons from Worms and Flies

    PubMed Central

    Venkatachalam, Kartik; Luo, Junjie; Montell, Craig

    2015-01-01

    The Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channel family is comprised of a large group of cation-permeable channels, which display an extraordinary diversity of roles in sensory signaling. TRPs allow animals to detect chemicals, mechanical force, light, and changes in temperature. Consequently, these channels control a plethora of animal behaviors. Moreover, their functions are not limited to the classical senses, as they are cellular sensors, which are critical for ionic homeostasis and metabolism. Two genetically tractable invertebrate model organisms, Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster, have led the way in revealing a wide array of sensory roles and behaviors that depend on TRP channels. Two overriding themes have emerged from these studies. First, TRPs are multitasking proteins, and second, many functions and modes of activation of these channels are evolutionarily conserved, including some that were formerly thought to be unique to invertebrates, such as phototransduction. Thus, worms and flies offer the potential to decipher roles for mammalian TRPs, which would otherwise not be suspected. PMID:24961975

  6. Multiphase adhesive coacervates inspired by the Sandcastle worm.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Sarbjit; Weerasekare, G Mahika; Stewart, Russell J

    2011-04-01

    Water-borne, underwater adhesives were created by complex coacervation of synthetic copolyelectrolytes that mimic the proteins of the natural underwater adhesive of the sandcastle worm. To increase bond strengths, we created a second polymer network within cross-linked coacervate network by entrapping polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEG-dA) monomers in the coacervate phase. Simultaneous polymerization of PEG-dA and cross-linking of the coacervate network resulted in maximum shear bond strengths of ∼1.2 MPa. Approximately 40% of the entrapped PEG-dA polymerized based on attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The monomer-filled coacervate had complex flow behavior, thickening at low shear rates and then thinning suddenly with a 16-fold drop in viscosity at shear rates near 6 s(-1). The microscale structure of the complex coacervates resembled a three-dimensional porous network of interconnected tubules. The sharp shear thinning behavior is conceptualized as a structural reorganization between the interspersed phases of the complex coacervate. The bond strength and complex fluid behavior of the monomer-filled coacervates have important implications for medical applications of the adhesives.

  7. Monosaccharide transport into hemocytes of a sipunculan worm Themiste dyscrita

    SciTech Connect

    Ingermann, R.L.; Hall, R.E.; Bissonnette, J.M.; Terwilliger, R.C.

    1985-07-01

    The hemerythrin-containing blood cells, or hemocytes, of the sipunculan worm Themiste dyscrita were found to have a stereospecific and nonconcentrative monosaccharide transport system. The transport system transferred both D-glucose and 3-O-methyl-D-glucose (3-OMG), and transport into cells by this system was rapid, reaching 50% equilibrium in approximately 20 s at 10 degrees C with an initial concentration gradient of 0.1 mM; the contribution to total uptake by simple diffusion was very small. 3-OMG uptake showed saturation kinetics with a low half-saturation constant (Km less than or equal to 0.1 mM). The uptake of labeled 3-OMG by the hemocytes was strongly inhibited by unlabeled 3-OMG, 2-deoxy-D-glucose, alpha- and beta-D-glucose, D-galactose, and D-mannose. It was moderately inhibited by D-xylose, only slightly by alpha-methyl-D-glucoside and D-fructose, and uninhibited by sucrose, L-glucose, or D-sorbitol. Phloretin was more potent than phloridzin in blocking entry of 3-OMG. Cytochalasin B did not bind tightly to the T. dyscrita transporter and was not a potent inhibitor of transport; it half-maximally inhibited 3-OMG transport at 0.1 mM. Therefore, despite some differences the data suggest functional similarities in the mechanism of monosaccharide transport into blood cells of mammals and this invertebrate.

  8. Dracunculiasis (Guinea Worm Disease) and the Eradication Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Cairncross, Sandy; Muller, Ralph; Zagaria, Nevio

    2002-01-01

    Dracunculiasis, also known as guinea worm disease, is caused by the large female of the nematode Dracunculus medinensis, which emerges painfully and slowly from the skin, usually on the lower limbs. The disease can infect animals, and sustainable animal cycles occur in North America and Central Asia but do not act as reservoirs of human infection. The disease is endemic across the Sahel belt of Africa from Mauritania to Ethiopia, having been eliminated from Asia and some African countries. It has a significant socioeconomic impact because of the temporary disability that it causes. Dracunculiasis is exclusively caught from drinking water, usually from ponds. A campaign to eradicate the disease was launched in the 1980s and has made significant progress. The strategy of the campaign is discussed, including water supply, health education, case management, and vector control. Current issues including the integration of the campaign into primary health care and the mapping of cases by using geographic information systems are also considered. Finally, some lessons for other disease control and eradication programs are outlined. PMID:11932231

  9. Methane ice worms: Hesiocaeca methanicola colonizing fossil fuel reserves.

    PubMed

    Fisher, C R; MacDonald, I R; Sassen, R; Young, C M; Macko, S A; Hourdez, S; Carney, R S; Joye, S; McMullin, E

    2000-04-01

    During a research cruise in July 1997 in the Gulf of Mexico we discovered a gas hydrate approximately 1 m thick and over 2 m in diameter which had recently breached the sea floor at a depth of 540 m. The hydrate surface visible from the submarine was considerably greater than that of any other reported hydrate. Two distinct color bands of hydrate were present in the same mound, and the entire exposed surface of the hydrate was infested (2500 individuals/m2) with 2 to 4 cm-long worms, since described as a new species, Hesiocaeca methanicola, in the polychaete family Hesionidae (Desbruyères and Toulmond 1998). H. methanicola tissue stable isotope values are consistent with a chemo-autotrophic food source. No evidence of chemo-autotrophic symbionts was detected, but geochemical data support the presence of abundant free living bacteria on the hydrate. The activities of the polychaetes, grazing on the hydrate bacteria and supplying oxygen to their habitats, appears to contribute to the dissolution of hydrates in surface sediments.

  10. Sex pheromone of the cranberry blossom worm, Epiglaea apiata.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Aijun; Polavarapu, Sridhar

    2003-09-01

    The cranberry blossom worm, Epiglaea apiata (Grote) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a major pest of cranberries in New Jersey. The female sex pheromone of this moth was identified as a blend of (Z)-9-hexadecenyl acetate (Z9-16:Ac), (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z9-14:Ac), and tetradecyl acetate (14:Ac) by gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The ratio of the components in extracts of the female pheromone gland was determined to be 65:2:33 of the Z9-16:Ac, Z9-14:Ac, and 14:Ac, respectively. The double bond positions of the pheromone components were confirmed by dimethyl disulfide derivatization. In addition to the above three components, a mixture of C4-C10 aliphatic acids was present in both gland extracts and effluvia collections, and the acids elicited significant EAD responses from male moth antennae. However, addition of the C4-C10 aliphatic acids to the pheromone blend did not significantly increase trap captures. Three-hundred- and 1000-microg doses of a synthetic blend containing Z9-16:Ac, Z9-14:Ac, and 14:Ac (65:2:33), on a rubber septum were more attractive to males than lower doses.

  11. Bioaccumulation and biological effects of cigarette litter in marine worms

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Stephanie L.; Rowe, Darren; Reid, Malcolm J.; Thomas, Kevin V.; Galloway, Tamara S.

    2015-01-01

    Marine debris is a global environmental issue. Smoked cigarette filters are the predominant coastal litter item; 4.5 trillion are littered annually, presenting a source of bioplastic microfibres (cellulose acetate) and harmful toxicants to marine environments. Despite the human health risks associated with smoking, little is known of the hazards cigarette filters present to marine life. Here we studied the impacts of smoked cigarette filter toxicants and microfibres on the polychaete worm Hediste diversicolor (ragworm), a widespread inhabitant of coastal sediments. Ragworms exposed to smoked cigarette filter toxicants in seawater at concentrations 60 fold lower than those reported for urban run-off exhibited significantly longer burrowing times, >30% weight loss, and >2-fold increase in DNA damage compared to ragworms maintained in control conditions. In contrast, ragworms exposed to smoked cigarette filter microfibres in marine sediment showed no significant effects. Bioconcentration factors for nicotine were 500 fold higher from seawater than from sediment. Our results illustrate the vulnerability of organisms in the water column to smoking debris and associated toxicants, and highlight the risks posed by smoked cigarette filter debris to aquatic life. PMID:26369692

  12. Dracunculiasis (Guinea worm disease) and the eradication initiative.

    PubMed

    Cairncross, Sandy; Muller, Ralph; Zagaria, Nevio

    2002-04-01

    Dracunculiasis, also known as guinea worm disease, is caused by the large female of the nematode Dracunculus medinensis, which emerges painfully and slowly from the skin, usually on the lower limbs. The disease can infect animals, and sustainable animal cycles occur in North America and Central Asia but do not act as reservoirs of human infection. The disease is endemic across the Sahel belt of Africa from Mauritania to Ethiopia, having been eliminated from Asia and some African countries. It has a significant socioeconomic impact because of the temporary disability that it causes. Dracunculiasis is exclusively caught from drinking water, usually from ponds. A campaign to eradicate the disease was launched in the 1980s and has made significant progress. The strategy of the campaign is discussed, including water supply, health education, case management, and vector control. Current issues including the integration of the campaign into primary health care and the mapping of cases by using geographic information systems are also considered. Finally, some lessons for other disease control and eradication programs are outlined.

  13. Swimming behavior of the spoon worm Urechis unicinctus (Annelida, Echiura).

    PubMed

    Abe, Hirokazu; Sato-Okoshi, Waka; Tanaka, Masaatsu; Okoshi, Kenji; Teramoto, Wataru; Kondoh, Tomohiko; Nishitani, Goh; Endo, Yoshinari

    2014-06-01

    Large numbers of swimming and stranding Urechis unicinctus were observed at night during low tide in Sasuhama, Miyagi Prefecture, northeastern Japan, during the periods from January to February in 2012 and 2013. Worms did not drift passively but swam actively, therefore hinting at a certain purpose for such behavior. As trochophore larvae of U. unicinctus were observed to occur simultaneously in the plankton, we infer the possibility that this is an event of reproductive swarming. Anatomical observations of both swimming and stranding U. unicinctus showed that none of the specimens had gametes, which may suggest that these were completely spent after spawning. Urechis unicinctus seemed to begin swimming after dusk and the observed swimming behavior occurred during the evening ebb tide throughout the night low tide during winter time. Stranding U. unicinctus have long been known in Japan and have been attributed to sea storms. The present study shows for the first time the possibility that U. unicinctus swims in order to reproduce at night and that this swimming behavior is closely linked to the stranding of U. unicinctus individuals.

  14. Vestibular rehabilitation of older adults with dizziness.

    PubMed

    Alrwaily, Muhammad; Whitney, Susan L

    2011-04-01

    The role of rehabilitation for treatment of older adults with dizziness and balance disorders is reviewed. Theories related to functional recovery from peripheral and central vestibular disorders are presented. Suggestions on which older adults might benefit from vestibular rehabilitation therapy are presented. Promising innovative rehabilitation strategies and technologies that might enhance recovery of the older adult with balance dysfunction are discussed.

  15. Face Gear Drive with Spur Involute Pinion: Geometry, Generation by a Worm, Stress Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvin, Faydor L.; Fuentes, Alfonso; Zanzi, Claudio; Pontiggia, Matteo; Handschuh, Robert F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A face gear drive with a spur involute pinion is considered. The generation of the face gear is based on application of a grinding or cutting worm whereas the conventional method of generation is based on application of an involute shaper. An analytical approach is proposed for the determination of: (1) the worm thread surface; (2) avoidance of singularities of the worm thread surface, (air) dressing of the worm; and (3) determination of stresses of the face-gear drive. A computer program for simulation of meshing and contact of the pinion and face-gear has been developed. Correction of machine-tool settings is proposed for reduction of the shift of the bearing contact caused by misalignment. An automatic development of the model of five contacting teeth has been proposed for stress analysis. Numerical examples for illustration of the developed theory are provided.

  16. Toxicity of metals to a freshwater tubificid worm Tubifex tubifex (Muller)

    SciTech Connect

    Khangarot, B.S. )

    1991-06-01

    Salts of various metals are being released in ever increasing amounts into the aquatic environment from mining operations, metal processing facilities, chemical industries and other similar sources. Although there has been considerable study of the acute and chronic toxicities of metals to freshwater fishes, crustaceans and snails, little information is available on the effects of metals to tubificid worms which are widely distributed in the aquatic environment. Tubificid worms are useful indicators of varying degrees of aquatic pollution. It is suggested that tubificid worms are an important element in the aquatic environment and therefore their use as a bioassay organism is logical one. The present study was undertaken to determine the acute toxicities of various metals to a fresh-water tubificid worm, Tubifex tubifex (Muller), which form an important link in aquatic food chain(s).

  17. Angiotensin III as well as angiotensin II regulates water flow through aquaporins in a clam worm.

    PubMed

    Satou, Ryousuke; Nakagawa, Tsutomu; Ido, Hiroki; Tomomatsu, Masayuki; Suzuki, Fumiaki; Nakamura, Yukio

    2005-07-01

    Angiotensin III has been reported to exist in various animals and tissues. The physiological role, however, is still unclear except that brain angiotensin III is a central regulator of vasopressin release. In this study, angiotensin III as well as angiotensin II enhanced an increase in body weight of clam worms of Perinereis sp. under a hypo-osmotic condition and suppressed a decrease in body weight under a hyper-osmotic condition. When clam worms were treated with tetrachloroaurate (III) after angiotensin-treatment, these enhancing and suppressive effects of the angiotensins under hypo- and hyper-osmotic conditions were inhibited. In contrast, when clam worms were pretreated with tetrachloroaurate (III) before angiotensin-treatment, these effects of angiotensins were not inhibited. Since tetrachloroaurate (III) is a representative blocker of aquaporins, these results indicate that angiotensin III as well as angiotensin II regulates water flow through aquaporins in clam worms.

  18. CHRONIC EFFECTS OF THE HERBICIDE DIURON ON FRESHWATER CLADOCERANS,AMPHIPODS,MIDGES,MINNOWS,WORMS, AND SNAILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chronic effects of the herbicide diuron on survival and reproduction of Daphnia pulex, and survival and growth of the amphipod Hyalella azteca, the midge Chironomus tentans, juvenile and embro/larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, annelid worms, Lumbriculus variegatus,...

  19. Dual geometric worm algorithm for two-dimensional discrete classical lattice models.

    PubMed

    Hitchcock, Peter; Sørensen, Erik S; Alet, Fabien

    2004-01-01

    We present a dual geometrical worm algorithm for two-dimensional Ising models. The existence of such dual algorithms was first pointed out by Prokof'ev and Svistunov [Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 160601 (2001)

  20. Recovery from cannabis use disorders: Abstinence versus moderation and treatment-assisted recovery versus natural recovery.

    PubMed

    Stea, Jonathan N; Yakovenko, Igor; Hodgins, David C

    2015-09-01

    The present study of recovery from cannabis use disorders was undertaken with 2 primary objectives that address gaps in the literature. The first objective was to provide an exploratory portrait of the recovery process from cannabis use disorders, comparing individuals who recovered naturally with those who were involved in treatment. The second objective was to explore systematically the similarities and differences between abstinence and moderation recoveries. Adults who have recovered from a cannabis use disorder were recruited in the community (N = 119). The abstinence and treatment-assisted participants exhibited higher levels of lifetime cannabis problem severity than the moderation and natural recovery participants, respectively. As well, cognitive factors were identified as the most useful strategies for recovery (e.g., thinking about benefits and negative consequences of cannabis), followed by behavioral factors (e.g., avoidance of triggers for use and high-risk situations). Findings lend further support to the effectiveness of cognitive, motivational, and behavioral strategies as helpful actions and maintenance factors involved in the recovery process. The findings also generally support the idea that cannabis use disorders lie on a continuum of problem severity, with moderation and natural recoveries more likely to occur at the lower end of the continuum and abstinence and treatment-assisted recoveries more likely to occur at the upper end.

  1. Infestation of the clam Chione fluctifraga by the burrowing worm Polydora sp. nov. in laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Tinoco-Orta, Gissel Dalila; Cáceres-Martínez, Jorge

    2003-07-01

    Burrowing worms that belong to Polydora spp. infest marine mollusks cultured worldwide, causing problems for production and marketing. The clam Chione fluctifraga is semi-cultured in Bahía Falsa, Baja California, NW Mexico, and some clams harbor burrowing worms. The present study was carried out to determine the identity of the worm species infesting the clam, the infesting process by cohabitation of infested and non-infested clams in aquaria with a variety of substrates (fine sand, gross sand, plastic bag used for clam culture, and aquarium without substrate) and turbulence conditions, and the occurrence of architomy phenomena in connection with infestation of the clam. The burrowing worm was considered as a nova species due to its singular limbate neurosetae and notosetae in the setiger 5, hooks in the setiger 6, eyes not present, and general pigmentation, among other characteristics. Infestation was similar in all substrates and turbulence conditions, but it was more abundant on clams previously infested than on those free of worms, showing a preferential settlement of worm infesting stages on pre-infested clams. Regeneration was observed in all segments of the worm: anterior (metastomium), medium, and posterior (prostomium); the complete regeneration time occurred in 40 days. This is the first record of architomy in a species of Polydora and this phenomenon could account for the increase of infestation intensity in pre-infested clams at the end of the study period. Infestation of clams by settling polichaete in the conditions studied, and the architomy process in this worm species, shows its great infesting capacity.

  2. Census of bacterial microbiota associated with the glacier ice worm Mesenchytraeus solifugus.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Takumi; Segawa, Takahiro; Bodington, Dylan; Dial, Roman; Takeuchi, Nozomu; Kohshima, Shiro; Hongoh, Yuichi

    2015-03-01

    The glacier ice worm, Mesenchytraeus solifugus, is a unique annelid, inhabiting only snow and ice in North American glaciers. Here, we analyzed the taxonomic composition of bacteria associated with M. solifugus based on the 16S rRNA gene. We analyzed four fixed-on-site and 10 starved ice worm individuals, along with glacier surface samples. In total, 1341 clones of 16S rRNA genes were analyzed for the ice worm samples, from which 65 bacterial phylotypes (99.0% cut-off) were identified. Of these, 35 phylotypes were closely related to sequences obtained from their habitat glacier and/or other components of cryosphere; whereas three dominant phylotypes were affiliated with animal-associated lineages of the class Mollicutes. Among the three, phylotype Ms-13 shared less than 89% similarity with database sequences and was closest to a gut symbiont of a terrestrial earthworm. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization, Ms-13 was located on the gut wall surface of the ice worms. We propose a novel genus and species, 'Candidatus Vermiplasma glacialis', for this bacterium. Our results raise the possibility that the ice worm has exploited indigenous glacier bacteria, while several symbiotic bacterial lineages have maintained their association with the ice worm during the course of adaptive evolution to the permanently cold environment.

  3. Propagation Modeling and Defending of a Mobile Sensor Worm in Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tian; Wu, Qun; Wen, Sheng; Cai, Yiqiao; Tian, Hui; Chen, Yonghong; Wang, Baowei

    2017-01-01

    WSANs (Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks) are derived from traditional wireless sensor networks by introducing mobile actuator elements. Previous studies indicated that mobile actuators can improve network performance in terms of data collection, energy supplementation, etc. However, according to our experimental simulations, the actuator’s mobility also causes the sensor worm to spread faster if an attacker launches worm attacks on an actuator and compromises it successfully. Traditional worm propagation models and defense strategies did not consider the diffusion with a mobile worm carrier. To address this new problem, we first propose a microscopic mathematical model to describe the propagation dynamics of the sensor worm. Then, a two-step local defending strategy (LDS) with a mobile patcher (a mobile element which can distribute patches) is designed to recover the network. In LDS, all recovering operations are only taken in a restricted region to minimize the cost. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that our model estimations are rather accurate and consistent with the actual spreading scenario of the mobile sensor worm. Moreover, on average, the LDS outperforms other algorithms by approximately 50% in terms of the cost. PMID:28098748

  4. Influence of ecological factors on prevalence of meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis infection in South Dakota, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacques, Christopher N.; Jenks, Jonathan A.; Grovenburg, Troy W.; Klaver, Robert W.; Dubay, Shelli A.

    2015-01-01

    The meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) is a nematode parasite that commonly infects white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus; WTD) throughout the deciduous forest biome and deciduous-coniferous ecotone of eastern and central North America; the species is not known to occur west of the grassland biome of central North America. We used county-specific prevalence data to evaluate potential effects of landscape and climatologic factors on the spatial distribution of meningeal worm infection in South Dakota, US. Probability of infection increased 4-fold between eastern and western South Dakota and 1.3-fold for each 1-cm increase in summer precipitation. Sixty-three percent of WTD had only a single worm in the cranium. Expansion of meningeal worm infection across western South Dakota may be inherently low due to the combined effects of arid climate and potential attributes of the Missouri River that limit regional movements by infected WTD. Use of landscape genetic analyses to identify potential relationships between landscape features and population genetic structure of infected deer and parasites may contribute to a greater understanding of regional heterogeneity in meningeal worm infection rates across South Dakota, particularly in counties adjacent to the Missouri River. Future research evaluating heterogeneity in prevalence and intensity of infection between fawn and yearling deer, and the potential role of yearling male deer as dispersal agents of meningeal worms across the Missouri River, also is warranted.

  5. Propagation Modeling and Defending of a Mobile Sensor Worm in Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tian; Wu, Qun; Wen, Sheng; Cai, Yiqiao; Tian, Hui; Chen, Yonghong; Wang, Baowei

    2017-01-13

    WSANs (Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks) are derived from traditional wireless sensor networks by introducing mobile actuator elements. Previous studies indicated that mobile actuators can improve network performance in terms of data collection, energy supplementation, etc. However, according to our experimental simulations, the actuator's mobility also causes the sensor worm to spread faster if an attacker launches worm attacks on an actuator and compromises it successfully. Traditional worm propagation models and defense strategies did not consider the diffusion with a mobile worm carrier. To address this new problem, we first propose a microscopic mathematical model to describe the propagation dynamics of the sensor worm. Then, a two-step local defending strategy (LDS) with a mobile patcher (a mobile element which can distribute patches) is designed to recover the network. In LDS, all recovering operations are only taken in a restricted region to minimize the cost. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that our model estimations are rather accurate and consistent with the actual spreading scenario of the mobile sensor worm. Moreover, on average, the LDS outperforms other algorithms by approximately 50% in terms of the cost.

  6. Functional characterization in Caenorhabditis elegans of transmembrane worm-human orthologs

    PubMed Central

    Henricson, Anna; Sonnhammer, Erik LL; Baillie, David L; Gomes, Ana Vaz

    2004-01-01

    Background The complete genome sequences for human and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans offer an opportunity to learn more about human gene function through functional characterization of orthologs in the worm. Based on a previous genome-wide analysis of worm-human orthologous transmembrane proteins, we selected seventeen genes to explore experimentally in C. elegans. These genes were selected on the basis that they all have high confidence candidate human orthologs and that their function is unknown. We first analyzed their phylogeny, membrane topology and domain organization. Then gene functions were studied experimentally in the worm by using RNA interference and transcriptional gfp reporter gene fusions. Results The experiments gave functional insights for twelve of the genes studied. For example, C36B1.12, the worm ortholog of three presenilin-like genes, was almost exclusively expressed in head neurons, suggesting an ancient conserved role important to neuronal function. We propose a new transmembrane topology for the presenilin-like protein family. sft-4, the worm ortholog of surfeit locus gene Surf-4, proved to be an essential gene required for development during the larval stages of the worm. R155.1, whose human ortholog is entirely uncharacterized, was implicated in body size control and other developmental processes. Conclusions By combining bioinformatics and C. elegans experiments on orthologs, we provide functional insights on twelve previously uncharacterized human genes. PMID:15533247

  7. An inconvenient truth: global worming and anthelmintic resistance.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Ray M; Vidyashankar, Anand N

    2012-05-04

    Over the past 10-15 years, we have witnessed a rapid increase in both the prevalence and magnitude of anthelmintic resistance, and this increase appears to be a worldwide phenomenon. Reports of anthelmintic resistance to multiple drugs in individual parasite species, and in multiple parasite species across virtually all livestock hosts, are increasingly common. In addition, since the introduction of ivermectin in 1981, no novel anthelmintic classes were developed and introduced for use in livestock until recently with the launch of monepantel in New Zealand. Thus, livestock producers are often left with few options for effective treatment against many important parasite species. While new anthelmintic classes with novel mechanisms of action could potentially solve this problem, new drugs are extremely expensive to develop, and can be expected to be more expensive than older drugs. Thus, it seems clear that the "Global Worming" approach that has taken hold over the past 40-50 years must change, and livestock producers must develop a new vision for parasite control and sustainability of production. Furthermore, parasitologists must improve methods for study design and data analysis that are used for diagnosing anthelmintic resistance, especially for the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT). Currently, standards for diagnosis of anthelmintic resistance using FECRT exist only for sheep. Lack of standards in horses and cattle and arbitrarily defined cutoffs for defining resistance, combined with inadequate analysis of the data, mean that errors in assigning resistance status are common. Similarly, the lack of standards makes it difficult to compare data among different studies. This problem needs to be addressed, because as new drugs are introduced now and in the future, the lack of alternative treatments will make early and accurate diagnosis of anthelmintic resistance increasingly important.

  8. Condoms "contain worms" and "cause HIV" in Tanzania: Negative Condom Beliefs Scale development and implications for HIV prevention.

    PubMed

    Siegler, Aaron J; Mbwambo, Jessie K; McCarty, Frances A; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2012-11-01

    Condom promotion remains a key component of HIV prevention programs, complimenting recent successes in biomedical HIV prevention. Although condom use has increased in much of East Africa, it remains substantially below optimal levels. Negative rumors about condoms have been documented in East Africa, yet the prevalence and effects of belief in the negative rumors have not been explored. This study evaluated levels of belief in negative rumors about condoms, developed a Negative Condom Beliefs Scale, and assessed its accuracy in predicting willingness to use condoms. A cross-sectional, cluster survey (n = 370) was conducted representing adults in two rural districts in Northern Tanzania in 2008. Item agreement ranged from 35 to 53% for the following rumors regarding condoms: causing cancer, having holes, containing HIV, having worms, and the worms causing HIV. Items loaded on a single latent factor and had high internal consistency and convergent validity. In a multivariate model, negative condom score (AOR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.6, 0.8) was the strongest single predictor of willingness to use condoms, followed by greater perceived anonymity in acquiring condoms (AOR = 4.36, 95% CI = 2.2, 8.6) and higher condom self-efficacy (AOR = 4.24, 95% CI = 2.0, 8.9). Our findings indicate high levels of subscription to negative beliefs about condoms, with two out of three respondents affirming belief in at least one negative condom rumor. This study highlights the relation between condom rumor beliefs and willingness to use condoms, and indicates avenues for future research and means for improving the design of HIV prevention programs.

  9. A Deep Sequencing Approach to Comparatively Analyze the Transcriptome of Lifecycle Stages of the Filarial Worm, Brugia malayi

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Young-Jun; Ghedin, Elodie; Berriman, Matthew; McQuillan, Jacqueline; Holroyd, Nancy; Mayhew, George F.; Christensen, Bruce M.; Michalski, Michelle L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Developing intervention strategies for the control of parasitic nematodes continues to be a significant challenge. Genomic and post-genomic approaches play an increasingly important role for providing fundamental molecular information about these parasites, thus enhancing basic as well as translational research. Here we report a comprehensive genome-wide survey of the developmental transcriptome of the human filarial parasite Brugia malayi. Methodology/Principal Findings Using deep sequencing, we profiled the transcriptome of eggs and embryos, immature (≤3 days of age) and mature microfilariae (MF), third- and fourth-stage larvae (L3 and L4), and adult male and female worms. Comparative analysis across these stages provided a detailed overview of the molecular repertoires that define and differentiate distinct lifecycle stages of the parasite. Genome-wide assessment of the overall transcriptional variability indicated that the cuticle collagen family and those implicated in molting exhibit noticeably dynamic stage-dependent patterns. Of particular interest was the identification of genes displaying sex-biased or germline-enriched profiles due to their potential involvement in reproductive processes. The study also revealed discrete transcriptional changes during larval development, namely those accompanying the maturation of MF and the L3 to L4 transition that are vital in establishing successful infection in mosquito vectors and vertebrate hosts, respectively. Conclusions/Significance Characterization of the transcriptional program of the parasite's lifecycle is an important step toward understanding the developmental processes required for the infectious cycle. We find that the transcriptional program has a number of stage-specific pathways activated during worm development. In addition to advancing our understanding of transcriptome dynamics, these data will aid in the study of genome structure and organization by facilitating the identification of

  10. Two human cases infected by the horsehair worm, Parachordodes sp. (Nematomorpha: Chordodidae), in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Minoru; Tegoshi, Tatsuya; Abe, Niichiro; Urabe, Misako

    2012-09-01

    The present study was performed to describe 2 human cases infected by the horsehair worm, Parachordodes sp., in Japan. Two gordiid worms were collected in the vomit and excreta of an 80-year-old woman in November 2009 in Kyoto city, and in the mouth of 1-year-old boy in December 2009 in Nara city, Japan, respectively. Both worms were males having bifurcated posterior ends and male gonads in cross sectional specimens. They were identified as Parachordodes sp. (Nematomorpha: Chordodidae) based on the characteristic morphologies of cross sections and areoles in the cuticle. DNA analysis on 18S rRNA partial sequence arrangements was also carried out and both worms were assumed to be close to the genus Paragordionus based on tree analysis, and far from Gordius sp. which has already been reported in humans in Japan. DNA sequencing of the Parachordodes worm does not appear on the database; therefore, more information on the gene sequences of the genus Parachordodes from humans, animals, or intermediates is required.

  11. Target-based and whole-worm screening approaches to anthelmintic discovery.

    PubMed

    Kotze, A C

    2012-05-04

    Experimental approaches for identifying new anthelmintics include target-based and whole-worm screening methods. The former involves basic research into characterising and validating new targets, mostly proteins, followed by identification of inhibitors or agonists through the use of target-based screening assays and/or in silico drug design. The latter experimental approach uses whole-worm assays to identify anthelmintic agents with unknown modes of action, or where the primary interest lies in whether analogues are able to kill (or disable) worms rather than in measuring their direct impact on their likely target. This paper focuses initially on the intestine and external layers of nematodes as potential drug targets. Specific anthelmintic agents targeting either tissue are discussed to illustrate the impact of disruption to these structures. In both cases, the activity of these agents against insects was known, and activity against nematodes was identified using whole worm screening assays. Recent literature identifying ecdysone signalling pathway receptors in nematodes is then used to provide an example of basic research into a specific target that may lead to the development of high-throughput target-based drug screening assays. Finally, the role of whole-worm screening approaches versus target-based screening is discussed briefly.

  12. Worm Grunting, Fiddling, and Charming—Humans Unknowingly Mimic a Predator to Harvest Bait

    PubMed Central

    Catania, Kenneth C.

    2008-01-01

    Background For generations many families in and around Florida's Apalachicola National Forest have supported themselves by collecting the large endemic earthworms (Diplocardia mississippiensis). This is accomplished by vibrating a wooden stake driven into the soil, a practice called “worm grunting”. In response to the vibrations, worms emerge to the surface where thousands can be gathered in a few hours. Why do these earthworms suddenly exit their burrows in response to vibrations, exposing themselves to predation? Principal Findings Here it is shown that a population of eastern American moles (Scalopus aquaticus) inhabits the area where worms are collected and that earthworms have a pronounced escape response from moles consisting of rapidly exiting their burrows to flee across the soil surface. Recordings of vibrations generated by bait collectors and moles suggest that “worm grunters” unknowingly mimic digging moles. An alternative possibility, that worms interpret vibrations as rain and surface to avoid drowning is not supported. Conclusions Previous investigations have revealed that both wood turtles and herring gulls vibrate the ground to elicit earthworm escapes, indicating that a range of predators may exploit the predator-prey relationship between earthworms and moles. In addition to revealing a novel escape response that may be widespread among soil fauna, the results show that humans have played the role of “rare predators” in exploiting the consequences of a sensory arms race. PMID:18852902

  13. WormQTL—public archive and analysis web portal for natural variation data in Caenorhabditis spp

    PubMed Central

    Snoek, L. Basten; Van der Velde, K. Joeri; Arends, Danny; Li, Yang; Beyer, Antje; Elvin, Mark; Fisher, Jasmin; Hajnal, Alex; Hengartner, Michael O.; Poulin, Gino B.; Rodriguez, Miriam; Schmid, Tobias; Schrimpf, Sabine; Xue, Feng; Jansen, Ritsert C.; Kammenga, Jan E.; Swertz, Morris A.

    2013-01-01

    Here, we present WormQTL (http://www.wormqtl.org), an easily accessible database enabling search, comparative analysis and meta-analysis of all data on variation in Caenorhabditis spp. Over the past decade, Caenorhabditis elegans has become instrumental for molecular quantitative genetics and the systems biology of natural variation. These efforts have resulted in a valuable amount of phenotypic, high-throughput molecular and genotypic data across different developmental worm stages and environments in hundreds of C. elegans strains. WormQTL provides a workbench of analysis tools for genotype–phenotype linkage and association mapping based on but not limited to R/qtl (http://www.rqtl.org). All data can be uploaded and downloaded using simple delimited text or Excel formats and are accessible via a public web user interface for biologists and R statistic and web service interfaces for bioinformaticians, based on open source MOLGENIS and xQTL workbench software. WormQTL welcomes data submissions from other worm researchers. PMID:23180786

  14. WormQTL--public archive and analysis web portal for natural variation data in Caenorhabditis spp.

    PubMed

    Snoek, L Basten; Van der Velde, K Joeri; Arends, Danny; Li, Yang; Beyer, Antje; Elvin, Mark; Fisher, Jasmin; Hajnal, Alex; Hengartner, Michael O; Poulin, Gino B; Rodriguez, Miriam; Schmid, Tobias; Schrimpf, Sabine; Xue, Feng; Jansen, Ritsert C; Kammenga, Jan E; Swertz, Morris A

    2013-01-01

    Here, we present WormQTL (http://www.wormqtl.org), an easily accessible database enabling search, comparative analysis and meta-analysis of all data on variation in Caenorhabditis spp. Over the past decade, Caenorhabditis elegans has become instrumental for molecular quantitative genetics and the systems biology of natural variation. These efforts have resulted in a valuable amount of phenotypic, high-throughput molecular and genotypic data across different developmental worm stages and environments in hundreds of C. elegans strains. WormQTL provides a workbench of analysis tools for genotype-phenotype linkage and association mapping based on but not limited to R/qtl (http://www.rqtl.org). All data can be uploaded and downloaded using simple delimited text or Excel formats and are accessible via a public web user interface for biologists and R statistic and web service interfaces for bioinformaticians, based on open source MOLGENIS and xQTL workbench software. WormQTL welcomes data submissions from other worm researchers.

  15. Associations among habitat characteristics and meningeal worm prevalence in eastern South Dakota, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacques, Christopher N.; Jenks, Jonathan A.; Klaver, Robert W.; Dubay, Shelli A.

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated how wetland and forest characteristics influence the prevalence of meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) infection of deer throughout the grassland biome of central North America. We used previously collected, county-level prevalence data to evaluate associations between habitat characteristics and probability of meningeal worm infection in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) across eastern South Dakota, US. The highest-ranked binomial regression model for detecting probability of meningeal worm infection was spring temperature + summer precipitation + percent wetland; weight of evidence (wi=0.71) favored this model over alternative models, though predictive capability was low (Receiver operating characteristic=0.62). Probability of meningeal worm infection increased by 1.3- and 1.6-fold for each 1-cm and 1-C increase in summer precipitation and spring temperature, respectively. Similarly, probability of infection increased 1.2-fold for each 1% increase in wetland habitat. Our findings highlight the importance of wetland habitat in predicting meningeal worm infection across eastern South Dakota. Future research is warranted to evaluate the relationships between climatic conditions (e.g., drought, wet cycles) and deer habitat selection in maintaining P. tenuis along the western boundary of the parasite.

  16. Pyrosequencing of prey DNA in reptile faeces: analysis of earthworm consumption by slow worms.

    PubMed

    Brown, David S; Jarman, Simon N; Symondson, William O C

    2012-03-01

    Little quantitative ecological information exists on the diets of most invertebrate feeding reptiles, particularly nocturnal or elusive species that are difficult to observe. In the UK and elsewhere, reptiles are legally required to be relocated before land development can proceed, but without knowledge of their dietary requirements, the suitability of receptor sites cannot be known. Here, we tested the ability of non-invasive DNA-based molecular diagnostics (454 pyrosequencing) to analyse reptile diets, with the specific aims of determining which earthworm species are exploited by slow worms (the legless lizard Anguis fragilis) and whether they feed on the deeper-living earthworm species that only come to the surface at night. Slow worm faecal samples from four different habitats were analysed using earthworm-specific PCR primers. We found that 86% of slow worms (N=80) had eaten earthworms. In lowland heath and marshy/acid grassland, Lumbricus rubellus, a surface-dwelling epigeic species, dominated slow worm diet. In two other habitats, riverside pasture and calciferous coarse grassland, diet was dominated by deeper-living anecic and endogeic species. We conclude that all species of earthworm are exploited by these reptiles and lack of specialization allows slow worms to thrive in a wide variety of habitats. Pyrosequencing of prey DNA in faeces showed promise as a practical, rapid and relatively inexpensive means of obtaining detailed and valuable ecological information on the diets of reptiles.

  17. Efficacy of a novel topical combination of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel against adult and larval stages of Toxocara cati in cats.

    PubMed

    Knaus, Martin; Baker, Christine F; Reinemeyer, Craig R; Chester, S Theodore; Rosentel, Joseph; Rehbein, Steffen

    2014-04-28

    The efficacy of a novel topical combination of fipronil 8.3% (w/v), (S)-methoprene 10% (w/v), eprinomectin 0.4% (w/v), and praziquantel 8.3% (w/v) (BROADLINE(®), Merial) was evaluated against adult and larval Toxocara cati in four controlled studies. All studies included experimentally infected, purpose-bred, short-haired cats. In two studies, 22 or 20 cats harbouring patent infections as confirmed by pre-treatment faecal examination, were included. Within each study, cats were allocated to one of two groups: control or treated. In a further two studies, 30 cats were included in each; cats were allocated to one of three groups: control, treated when T. cati were expected to be either migrating third and/or fourth-stage larvae, or treated when T. cati were expected to be fourth-stage larvae. Cats allocated to the treated groups received a single topical application of the combination product at 0.12 mL/kg bodyweight (10mg fipronil+12 mg (S)-methoprene+0.5mg eprinomectin+10mg praziquantel per kg). For parasite recovery and count, cats were euthanized humanely at different intervals after treatment. In the studies targeting adult T. cati, ascarids were recovered from all controls (range 1-150) while only two worms were isolated from one treated cat. Thus, the efficacy of the novel combination was 99.4% and 100% against adult T. cati. For studies targeting larval T. cati, up to 21 worms were recovered from each of seven or eight of the control cats per study. No T. cati were recovered from the treated cats in two studies, corresponding to 100% efficacy against both, migrating third and/or fourth-stage larvae and luminal fourth-stage larvae. All cats accepted the treatment well and no adverse experiences or other health problems were observed throughout the studies.

  18. Viability of adult Onchocerca volvulus after six 2-weekly doses of ivermectin.

    PubMed Central

    Duke, B. O.; Pacqué, M. C.; Muñoz, B.; Greene, B. M.; Taylor, H. R.

    1991-01-01

    Ivermectin is a safe, effective microfilaricide and microfilarial suppressant for Onchocerca volvulus; but in single doses of 100-200 micrograms/kg body weight it has no macrofilaricidal action. The present trial aimed to determine whether 6 doses of 100 micrograms/kg ivermectin, given at 2-week intervals, would kill the adult worms. Eighty-two nodules from 28 otherwise healthy adult male Liberian patients treated with this ivermectin schedule, and 102 nodules from a similar group of 25 control patients, were removed four months after the last dose of ivermectin. They were coded and assessed in a masked fashion either by routine histology or by examination of whole worms extracted from the nodules after collagenase digestion. The drug had no visible effect on adult male worms. More adult female worms were assessed as moribund or dead in the ivermectin-treated group than in the control group (for the collagenase digests P = 0.09; for the histological assessment P = 0.47). The data suggest that repeated dosage with ivermectin may lead to a slow attrition of some female worms and this possibility should be investigated in patients receiving regular doses every 3, 6 or 12 months as part of onchocerciasis control programmes. PMID:1860146

  19. Recovery of Oswaldotrema nacinovici from Whimbrels (Aves) in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-Il; Chung, Ok-Sik; Seo, Min

    2016-01-01

    Adult specimens of Oswaldotrema nacinovici (Digenea: Philophthalmidae) have been first identified in Korea from 2 migratory birds (whimbrels, Numenius phaeopus) which were found dead at a western seashore area near Gunsan. The worms were recovered in the intestine of these birds. The worms were morphologically characterized by a large ventral sucker in comparison to the oral sucker, an external seminal vesicle extending beyond the posterior margin of the ventral sucker, and conspicuous uterine seminal receptacle. It was noteworthy that metacercariae-like bodies were contained within the inflated regions of 2 ceca. Other intestinal trematode species found in whimbrels included Spelotrema pygmeum, Gynaecotyla squatarolae, Maritrema obstipum, and Himasthla megacotyle. Zoonotic potential of these trematode species should be taken into considerations. PMID:28095668

  20. Expression pattern of the Brachyury gene in the arrow worm paraspadella gotoi (chaetognatha).

    PubMed

    Takada, Norio; Goto, Taichiro; Satoh, Nori

    2002-03-01

    Arrow worms (the phylum Chaetognatha), which are among the major marine planktonic animals, are direct developers and exhibit features characteristic of both deuterostomes and protostomes. In particular, the embryonic development of arrow worms appears to be of the deuterostome type. Brachyury functions critically in the formation of the notochord in chordates, whereas the gene is expressed in both the blastopore and stomodeum invagination regions in embryos of hemichordates and echinoderms. Here we analyzed the expression of Brachyury (Pg-Bra) in the arrow worm Paraspadella gotoi and showed that Pg-Bra is expressed in the blastopore region and the stomodeum region in the embryo and then around the mouth opening region at the time of hatching. The expression of Pg-Bra in the embryo resembles that of Brachyury in embryos of hemichordates and echinoderms, whereas that in the mouth opening region in the hatchling appears to be novel.

  1. Morphological characterization of the asexual reproduction in the acorn worm Balanoglossus simodensis.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Norio; Saito, Yasunori

    2010-09-01

    The acorn worm Balanoglossus simodensis reproduces asexually by fragmentation and subsequent regeneration from the body fragments. We examined the morphogenesis of its asexual reproduction. At first, we collected asexually reproducing specimens and observed their morphogenesis. Then, we succeeded in inducing the asexual reproduction artificially by cutting the worm at the end of the genital region. The process of morphogenesis is completely the same between naturally collected and artificially induced specimens. The stages during morphogenesis were established on the basis of the external features of the asexually reproducing fragments. The internal features of the fragments were also examined at each stage. In a separate phase of the study, the capacity for regeneration of some body parts was also examined by dividing intact worms into about 10 fragments. Although the capacity for regeneration varied among the different body parts, some fragments regenerated into complete individuals in 1 month. The process of regeneration was the same as that in the asexually produced fragments.

  2. [Current status of the global campaign to eradicate dracunculiasis (guinea worm disease)].

    PubMed

    Ranque, P; Hopkins, D

    1991-01-01

    Dracunculiasis is eradicable because it is easy to diagnose, it is only transmitted by drinking water, there is no animal reservoir, and there are three ways to prevent the infection. Global 2000 is assisting guinea worm eradication Programmes in Pakistan, Ghana and Nigeria. The draft criteria for certification of dracunculiasis elimination and the resolutions adopted during the 3rd African Regional Conference on dracunculiasis were described. The progress of Pakistan's guinea worm eradication Programme, which has nearly achieved its goal and the accomplishments of the eradication Programme in Nigeria, which is thought to have the most case of guinea worm in the world were described. Evidence of socio-economic impact of dracunculiasis, vector control, local treatment and case containment were presented during the question and answer period.

  3. OpenWorm: an open-science approach to modeling Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Szigeti, Balázs; Gleeson, Padraig; Vella, Michael; Khayrulin, Sergey; Palyanov, Andrey; Hokanson, Jim; Currie, Michael; Cantarelli, Matteo; Idili, Giovanni; Larson, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    OpenWorm is an international collaboration with the aim of understanding how the behavior of Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) emerges from its underlying physiological processes. The project has developed a modular simulation engine to create computational models of the worm. The modularity of the engine makes it possible to easily modify the model, incorporate new experimental data and test hypotheses. The modeling framework incorporates both biophysical neuronal simulations and a novel fluid-dynamics-based soft-tissue simulation for physical environment-body interactions. The project's open-science approach is aimed at overcoming the difficulties of integrative modeling within a traditional academic environment. In this article the rationale is presented for creating the OpenWorm collaboration, the tools and resources developed thus far are outlined and the unique challenges associated with the project are discussed. PMID:25404913

  4. Mortality of rocky mountain elk in Michigan due to meningeal worm

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bender, L.C.; Schmitt, S.M.; Carlson, E.; Haufler, J.B.; Beyer, D.E.

    2005-01-01

    Mortality from cerebrospinal parelaphostrongylosis caused by the meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) has been hypothesized to limit elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) populations in areas where elk are conspecific with white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Elk were reintroduced into Michigan (USA) in the early 1900s and subsequently greatly increased population size and distribution despite sympatric high-density (???12/km2) white-tailed deer populations. We monitored 100 radio-collared elk of all age and sex classes from 1981-94, during which time we documented 76 mortalities. Meningeal worm was a minor mortality factor for elk in Michigan and accounted for only 3% of mortalities, fewer than legal harvest (58%), illegal kills (22%), other diseases (7%), and malnutrition (4%). Across years, annual cause-specific mortality rates due to cerebrospinal parelaphostrongylosis were 0.033 (SE=0.006), 0.029 (SE=0.005), 0.000 (SE=0.001), and 0.000 (SE=0.000) for calves, 1-yr-old, 2-yr-old, and ???3-yr-old, respectively. The overall population-level mortality rate due to cerebrospinal parelaphostrongylosis was 0.009 (SE=0.001). Thus, meningeal worm had little impact on elk in Michigan during our study despite greater than normal precipitation (favoring gastropods) and record (???14 km2) deer densities. Further, elk in Michigan have shown sustained population rates-of-increase of ???18%/yr and among the highest levels of juvenile production and survival recorded for elk in North America, indicating that elk can persist in areas with meningeal worm at high levels of population productivity. it is likely that local ecologic characteristics among elk, white-tailed deer, and gastropods, and degree of exposure, age of elk, individual and population experience with meningeal worm, overall population vigor, and moisture determine the effects of meningeal worm on elk populations. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2005.

  5. Highly toxic ribbon worm Cephalothrix simula containing tetrodotoxin in Hiroshima Bay, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Asakawa, Manabu; Ito, Katsutoshi; Kajihara, Hiroshi

    2013-02-20

    In 1998, during a toxicological surveillance of various marine fouling organisms in Hiroshima Bay, Japan, specimens of the ribbon worm, Cephalothrix simula (Nemertea: Palaeonemertea) were found. These ribbon worms contained toxins with extremely strong paralytic activity. The maximum toxicity in terms of tetrodotoxin (TTX) was 25,590 mouse units (MU) per gram for the whole worm throughout the monitoring period. The main toxic component was isolated and recrystallized from an acidified methanolic solution. The crystalline with a specific toxicity of 3520 MU/mg was obtained and identified as TTX by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-fluorescent detection (FLD) (HPLC-FLD), electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), infrared (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The highest toxicity of C. simula exceeded the human lethal dose per a single worm. A toxicological surveillance of C. simula from 1998 to 2005 indicated approximately 80% of the individuals were ranked as "strongly toxic" (≥1000 MU/g). Forty-eight percent of the specimens possessed toxicity scores of more than 2000 MU/g. Seasonal variations were observed in the lethal potency of C. simula. Specimens collected on January 13, 2000 to December 26, 2000 showed mean toxicities of 665-5300 MU/g (n = 10). These data prompted a toxicological surveillance of ribbon worms from other localities with different habitats in Japan, including Akkeshi Bay (Hokkaido) under stones on rocky intertidal beaches, as well as Otsuchi (Iwate) among calcareous tubes of serpulid polychaetes on rocky shores. Within twelve species of ribbon worms examined, only C. simula possessed extremely high toxicity. Therefore, C. simula appears to show generally high toxicity irrespective of their locality and habitat.

  6. Highly Toxic Ribbon Worm Cephalothrix simula Containing Tetrodotoxin in Hiroshima Bay, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Asakawa, Manabu; Ito, Katsutoshi; Kajihara, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    In 1998, during a toxicological surveillance of various marine fouling organisms in Hiroshima Bay, Japan, specimens of the ribbon worm, Cephalothrix simula (Nemertea: Palaeonemertea) were found. These ribbon worms contained toxins with extremely strong paralytic activity. The maximum toxicity in terms of tetrodotoxin (TTX) was 25,590 mouse units (MU) per gram for the whole worm throughout the monitoring period. The main toxic component was isolated and recrystallized from an acidified methanolic solution. The crystalline with a specific toxicity of 3520 MU/mg was obtained and identified as TTX by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-fluorescent detection (FLD) (HPLC-FLD), electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), infrared (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The highest toxicity of C. simula exceeded the human lethal dose per a single worm. A toxicological surveillance of C. simula from 1998 to 2005 indicated approximately 80% of the individuals were ranked as “strongly toxic” (≥1000 MU/g). Forty-eight percent of the specimens possessed toxicity scores of more than 2000 MU/g. Seasonal variations were observed in the lethal potency of C. simula. Specimens collected on January 13, 2000 to December 26, 2000 showed mean toxicities of 665–5300 MU/g (n = 10). These data prompted a toxicological surveillance of ribbon worms from other localities with different habitats in Japan, including Akkeshi Bay (Hokkaido) under stones on rocky intertidal beaches, as well as Otsuchi (Iwate) among calcareous tubes of serpulid polychaetes on rocky shores. Within twelve species of ribbon worms examined, only C. simula possessed extremely high toxicity. Therefore, C. simula appears to show generally high toxicity irrespective of their locality and habitat. PMID:23430577

  7. Eradicating guinea worm without wells: unrealized hopes of the Water Decade.

    PubMed

    Brieger, W R; Otusanya, S; Adeniyi, J D; Tijani, J; Banjoko, M

    1997-12-01

    At the start of the United Nations International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade in the 1980s, guinea worm disease was targeted as the major indicator of the success of the Decade's efforts to promote safe water. By the late 1980s, most of the guinea worm endemic countries in Africa and South Asia had established guinea worm eradication programmes that included water supply as one of their main technical strategies. By surveying the water supply situation in Ifeloju Local Government Area (LGA) in Oyo State, Nigeria, in June 1996, as a case study, it was possible to determine the role that water supply has played in the eradication effort. Although two major agencies, the former Directorate for Food, Roads and Rural Infrastructure and UNICEF, provided hand dug and bore-hole wells respectively in many parts of the LGA, coverage of the smaller farm hamlets has been minor compared to efforts in the larger towns. This is ironic because the farm hamlets served as a reservoir for the disease in the 1980s, such that when the piped water system in the towns broke down, guinea worm was easily reintroduced into the towns. The survey of 188 ever-endemic hamlets with an estimated population of 23,556 found that 74.3% of the people still drink only pond water. Another 11.3% have wells that have become dysfunctional. Only 14.4% of this rural population has access' to functioning wells. Guinea worm was eliminated from 107 of the hamlets mainly by the use of cloth filters and chemical treatment of ponds. While this proves that it is possible to eradicate guinea worm, it fails to leave behind the legacy of reliable, safe water supplies that was the hope of the Water Decade.

  8. Learning from local knowledge to improve disease surveillance: perceptions of the guinea worm illness experience.

    PubMed

    Brieger, W R; Kendall, C

    1992-12-01

    Surveillance is an essential tool in any campaign to eradicate disease; guinea worm (dracunculiasis), which is targeted for eradication before the year 2000, is no exception. One criterion of an eradicable disease is that it be easy to recognize as the program advances. Few experts doubt that the experience of a meter-long subcutaneous worm protruding through a painful ulcer can be missed or confused with another disease, thus ensuring that guinea worm meets this criterion. Field experiences of anthropologists and health educators have shown that one should never assume that community perceptions of illness experience coincide fully with medical case definitions of disease. This paper describes efforts to learn how the Yoruba people of southwestern Nigeria perceive sobia, the local name for guinea worm. Qualitative methods including informal interview, village discussion and participant observation were used to discern a pattern of illness presentation and progression. Interestingly, local perceptions were found to include a variety of illness manifestations beyond the common clinical case definition of an emergent worm, thus creating the potential for a high level of false positive reports. Local knowledge was then used to design a pilot project that trained volunteers to become part of the surveillance network for the national eradication program. The volunteers, who were largely illiterate, were able to distinguish between cultural and clinical definitions, and submit quite accurate reports on the guinea worm status of their villages. Among the 164 volunteers, only two submitted false reports due to incorrect disease definition. In contrast local government health workers who were conducting village searches during the same period were significantly more likely to register false positive reports. The culturally sensitive training based on local knowledge received by the village volunteers is thought to have contributed to their superior performance.

  9. Evaluation of existing EPRI and INEL test data to determine the worm to worm gear coefficient of friction in Limitorque actuators

    SciTech Connect

    Garza, I.A.

    1996-12-01

    About the last sizing parameter for motor operated valves which has not been determined by utility or NRC sponsored testing is actuator efficiency. A by-product of EPRI testing for valve factors is the measurement of the actuator efficiencies. Motor sizing in this testing provides efficiency testing for motors running near synchronous speed. INEL testing, sponsored by the NRC, for stem factors and rate of loading provides complimentary data for motors loaded down to zero speed. This paper analyzes the data from these two test programs to determine the coefficient of friction for the worm to worm gear interface. This allowed the development of an algorithm for determining the efficiency of actuators which have not been tested. This paper compares the results of this algorithm to the test data to provide a measure of the accuracy of this method for calculating actuator efficiency.

  10. Worms from the Arctic are better adapted to freezing and high salinity than worms from temperate regions: oxidative stress responses in Enchytraeus albidus.

    PubMed

    Silva, A L Patrício; Holmstrup, M; Amorim, M J B

    2013-12-01

    Enchytraeus albidus is a freeze-tolerant enchytraeid found in diverse habitats, from supra-littoral to terrestrial, and spanning temperate to arctic regions. Thus, this worm is often exposed to sub-zero temperatures and fluctuating salinity regimes that can lead to physiological stress. We therefore studied the oxidative stress by measuring lipid peroxidation, anti-oxidant defenses and neurotransmission activity in E. albidus from arctic (Greenland) and temperate (Germany) regions during a short-term exposure to saline conditions (0, 15, 35 and 50‰ NaCl) and low temperatures (+2, -2 and -5 °C). Various enzymatic and non-enzymatic oxidative stress markers were analyzed. Results have shown that both salt and freezing caused oxidative stress in E. albidus, particularly from Germany, as confirmed by catalase, glutathione-S-transferase and superoxide dismutase activities and lipid peroxidation levels. Neurotransmission (as judged from acetylcholinesterase activity) was reduced by saline conditions at +2 °C, but stimulated at -2 and -5 °C. Worms from Greenland had relatively higher and more stable levels of antioxidants than worms from Germany, reflecting their higher tolerance of freezing and saline conditions.

  11. A Concept Space Approach to Addressing the Vocabulary Problem in Scientific Information Retrieval: An Experiment on the Worm Community System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsinchun; Ng, Tobun D.; Martinez, Joanne; Schatz, Bruce R.

    1997-01-01

    Presents an algorithmic approach to addressing the vocabulary problem in scientific information retrieval and information sharing, using the molecular biology domain as an example. A cognitive study and a follow-up document retrieval study were conducted using first a conjoined fly-worm thesaurus and then an actual worm database and the conjoined…

  12. Musculature in sipunculan worms: ontogeny and ancestral states.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Anja; Rice, Mary E

    2009-01-01

    Molecular phylogenetics suggests that the Sipuncula fall into the Annelida, although they are morphologically very distinct and lack segmentation. To understand the evolutionary transformations from the annelid to the sipunculan body plan, it is important to reconstruct the ancestral states within the respective clades at all life history stages. Here we reconstruct the ancestral states for the head/introvert retractor muscles and the body wall musculature in the Sipuncula using Bayesian statistics. In addition, we describe the ontogenetic transformations of the two muscle systems in four sipunculan species with different developmental modes, using F-actin staining with fluorescent-labeled phalloidin in conjunction with confocal laser scanning microscopy. All four species, which have smooth body wall musculature and less than the full set of four introvert retractor muscles as adults, go through developmental stages with four retractor muscles that are eventually reduced to a lower number in the adult. The circular and sometimes the longitudinal body wall musculature are split into bands that later transform into a smooth sheath. Our ancestral state reconstructions suggest with nearly 100% probability that the ancestral sipunculan had four introvert retractor muscles, longitudinal body wall musculature in bands and circular body wall musculature arranged as a smooth sheath. Species with crawling larvae have more strongly developed body wall musculature than those with swimming larvae. To interpret our findings in the context of annelid evolution, a more solid phylogenetic framework is needed for the entire group and more data on ontogenetic transformations of annelid musculature are desirable.

  13. Conscientiousness predicts greater recovery from negative emotion.

    PubMed

    Javaras, Kristin N; Schaefer, Stacey M; van Reekum, Carien M; Lapate, Regina C; Greischar, Lawrence L; Bachhuber, David R; Love, Gayle Dienberg; Ryff, Carol D; Davidson, Richard J

    2012-10-01

    Greater levels of conscientiousness have been associated with lower levels of negative affect. We focus on one mechanism through which conscientiousness may decrease negative affect: effective emotion regulation, as reflected by greater recovery from negative stimuli. In 273 adults who were 35-85 years old, we collected self-report measures of personality including conscientiousness and its self-control facet, followed on average 2 years later by psychophysiological measures of emotional reactivity and recovery. Among middle-aged adults (35-65 years old), the measures of conscientiousness and self-control predicted greater recovery from, but not reactivity to, negative emotional stimuli. The effect of conscientiousness and self-control on recovery was not driven by other personality variables or by greater task adherence on the part of high conscientiousness individuals. In addition, the effect was specific to negative emotional stimuli and did not hold for neutral or positive emotional stimuli.

  14. Simvastatin and artesunate impact the structural organization of adult Schistosoma mansoni in hypercholesterolemic mice.

    PubMed

    Alencar, Alba Cristina Miranda de Barros; Santos, Thais da Silva; Neves, Renata Heisler; Lopes Torres, Eduardo José; Nogueira-Neto, José Firmino; Machado-Silva, José Roberto

    2016-08-01

    Experimental data have shown that simvastatin and artesunate possess activity against Schistosoma mansoni worms in mice fed standard chow. However, little is known regarding the roles of these drugs in mice fed high-fat chow. We have extended past studies by measuring the effects of these drugs on the structural organization of adult schistosomes in hypercholesterolemic mice. For this purpose, mice were gavaged with either simvastatin or artesunate at nine weeks post-infection and were euthanized by cervical dislocation at two weeks post-treatment. Adult worms were then collected and examined by conventional light microscopy, morphometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Plasma total cholesterol and worm reduction rates were significantly increased in mice fed high-fat chow compared with their respective control groups. Simvastatin and artesunate caused changes in the tegument, tubercles, and reproductive system (testicular lobes, vitelline glands and ovarian cells), particularly when administered to mice fed high-fat chow. In particular, the tegument and tubercles were significantly thinner in artesunate-treated worms in mice fed high-fat chow compared with mice fed standard chow. This study thus demonstrated that simvastatin and artesunate have several novel effects on the structural organization of adult worms. Together, these results show, for the first time, that simvastatin and artesunate display antischistosomal activity in hypercholesterolemic mice.

  15. Recovery position - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... CPR, the victim should be placed in the recovery position. The recovery position helps keep the victim's airway open. To put the victim in the recovery position grab the victim's leg and shoulder and ...

  16. Heart Attack Recovery FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Heart Attack Recovery FAQs Updated:Sep 19,2016 Most people ... recovery. View an animation of a heart attack . Heart Attack Recovery Questions and Answers What treatments will I ...

  17. Energy Engineering Analysis Program (EEAP), Worms Military Community, West Germany, revised executive summary. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    1986-08-01

    This document is the Executive Summary of the Phase II Energy Report for the Energy Engineering Analysis Program (EEAP) for the Worms, West Germany Military Community. The purpose of this document is to present analysis of potential energy conservation projects at each of the sites.

  18. "Kill the Army Worms! Let Them Live!:" Facing an Ecological Dilemma in a Democratic Classroom Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wister, Pam; Beaton, Kathy; Nason, Pam

    2000-01-01

    Describes how a primary teacher handled an argument among her students over what to do about army worms defoliating an apple tree, thereby illustrating how she cultivates a classroom community that nurtures democracy. Such stories of morally coherent practices counter the bureaucratic insistence on a narrowly construed outcomes-based education.…

  19. Cold-adapted tubulins in the glacier ice worm, Mesenchytraeus solifugus.

    PubMed

    Tartaglia, Lawrence J; Shain, Daniel H

    2008-11-01

    Glacier ice worms, Mesenchytraeus solifugus and related species, are the only known annelids that survive obligately in glacier ice and snow. One fundamental component of cold temperature adaptation is the ability to polymerize tubulin, which typically depolymerizes at low physiological temperatures (e.g., <10 degrees C) in most temperate species. In this study, we isolated two alpha-tubulin (Msalpha1, Msalpha2) and two beta-tubulin (Msbeta1, Msbeta2) subunits from an ice worm cDNA library, and compared their predicted amino acid sequences with homologues from other cold-adapted organisms (e.g., Antarctic fish, ciliate) in an effort to identify species-specific amino acid substitutions that contribute to cold temperature-dependent tubulin polymerization. Our comparisons and predicted protein structures suggest that ice worm-specific amino acid substitutions stabilize lateral contact associations, particularly between beta-tubulin protofilaments, but these substitutions occur at different positions in comparison with other cold-adapted tubulins. The ice worm tubulin gene family appears relatively small, comprising one primary alpha- and one primary beta-tubulin monomers, though minor isoforms and pseudogenes were identified. Our analyses suggest that variation occurs in the strategies (i.e., species-specific amino acid substitutions, gene number) by which cold-adapted taxa have evolved the ability to polymerize tubulin at low physiological temperatures.

  20. A case of Fasciola hepatica infection mimicking cholangiocarcinoma and ITS-1 sequencing of the worm.

    PubMed

    Kang, Bong Kyun; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Lee, Yoon Suk; Hwang, In Kyeom; Lim, Hyemi; Cho, Jaeeun; Hwang, Jin-Hyeok; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2014-04-01

    Fascioliasis is a zoonotic infection caused by Fasciola hepatica or Fasciola gigantica. We report an 87-year-old Korean male patient with postprandial abdominal pain and discomfort due to F. hepatica infection who was diagnosed and managed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with extraction of 2 worms. At his first visit to the hospital, a gallbladder stone was suspected. CT and magnetic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) showed an intraductal mass in the common bile duct (CBD) without proximal duct dilatation. Based on radiological findings, the presumed diagnosis was intraductal cholangiocarcinoma. However, in ERCP which was performed for biliary decompression and tissue diagnosis, movable materials were detected in the CBD. Using a basket, 2 living leaf-like parasites were removed. The worms were morphologically compatible with F. hepatica. To rule out the possibility of the worms to be another morphologically close species, in particular F. gigantica, 1 specimen was processed for genetic analysis of its ITS-1 region. The results showed that the present worms were genetically identical (100%) with F. hepatica but different from F. gigantica.

  1. Performance of a worm algorithm in ϕ4 theory at finite quartic coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korzec, Tomasz; Vierhaus, Ingmar; Wolff, Ulli

    2011-07-01

    Worm algorithms have been very successful with the simulation of sigma models with fixed length spins which result from scalar field theories in the limit of infinite quartic coupling λ. Here we investigate closer their algorithmic efficiency at finite and even vanishing λ for the one component model in dimensions D = 2 , 3 , 4.

  2. Anisakiasis ('herring worm disease') as a cause of acute abdominal crisis.

    PubMed

    Kark, A E; McAlpine, J C

    1994-01-01

    A hazard associated with eating raw fish is presented. The larval nematode Anisakis marina ('herring worm') is a recognised public health problem in Japan, and cases have been reported in the UK. The intestinal burrowing of the larval form causes acute abdominal symptoms clinically resembling acute appendicitis. Operation is required; no antiparasitic agent is available.

  3. Intestinal epithelial cell secretion of RELM-beta protects against gastrointestinal worm infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    IL-4 and IL-13 protect against parasitic helminths, but little is known about the mechanism of host protection. We show that IL-4/IL-13 confer immunity against worms by inducing intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) to differentiate into goblet cells that secrete resistin-like molecule beta (RELMB). R...

  4. Analog modeling of Worm-Like Chain molecules using macroscopic beads-on-a-string.

    PubMed

    Tricard, Simon; Feinstein, Efraim; Shepherd, Robert F; Reches, Meital; Snyder, Phillip W; Bandarage, Dileni C; Prentiss, Mara; Whitesides, George M

    2012-07-07

    This paper describes an empirical model of polymer dynamics, based on the agitation of millimeter-sized polymeric beads. Although the interactions between the particles in the macroscopic model and those between the monomers of molecular-scale polymers are fundamentally different, both systems follow the Worm-Like Chain theory.

  5. Bore holes and the vanishing of guinea worm disease in Ghana's upper region.

    PubMed

    Hunter, J M

    1997-07-01

    Ghana's Upper Region provides an excellent example of the beneficial effects of improved water security provided by hand-pump tube wells. Following a Ghana-Canada bilateral development project that installed some 2500 pumps, protection rates against guinea worm disease may be estimated as 88% in the west, and 96% in the east. Survey comparisons between ca 1960 and 1990 show that dracunculiasis declined in 32 of a total of 38 areas. The shadow of guinea worm has been lifted from the land and, in many areas, a true "vanishing" has occurred. The few areas of disease increase are characterized by the lowest population densities, pioneer settlement for cotton farming, and an absence of bore holes. Vagaries of development have inadvertently produced disease transformations or "metamorphoses" from dracunculiasis to elephantiasis (lymphatic filariasis) in one area, and to red water disease (schistosomiasis hematobium) in other areas. Correlative associations between pump densities and guinea worm disease are weakened by the large size of areas for which disease is reported in 1990. One preliminary finding is that geographical distance to the pump is a stronger influence than demographic pressure on pumps, regarding dracunculiasis. Diminishing returns on higher pump densities in many areas support the idea of making fuller, safer use of supplementary non-pump water. Despite crises of fee payment and pump maintenance, the rural bore hole project has struck a mortal blow against guinea worm, and permanently raised the quality of life in the Upper Region.

  6. Integrated CD-ROM and WORM Optical Disk Systems on the Navy's Paperless Ship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiel, Thomas J.

    1992-01-01

    The integration of optical disk systems employing WORM (Write Once Read Many) technology with CD-ROM systems can enhance information management. Two integrated system applications are the Paperless Ship Project of the U.S. Navy and the FEDLOG (Federal Logistics Data on CD-ROM) of the Defense Logistics Agency. These initiatives are described and…

  7. Molecular phylogeny of echiuran worms (Phylum: Annelida) reveals evolutionary pattern of feeding mode and sexual dimorphism.

    PubMed

    Goto, Ryutaro; Okamoto, Tomoko; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Hamamura, Yoichi; Kato, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    The Echiura, or spoon worms, are a group of marine worms, most of which live in burrows in soft sediments. This annelid-like animal group was once considered as a separate phylum because of the absence of segmentation, although recent molecular analyses have placed it within the annelids. In this study, we elucidate the interfamily relationships of echiuran worms and their evolutionary pattern of feeding mode and sexual dimorphism, by performing molecular phylogenetic analyses using four genes (18S, 28S, H3, and COI) of representatives of all extant echiuran families. Our results suggest that Echiura is monophyletic and comprises two unexpected groups: [Echiuridae+Urechidae+Thalassematidae] and [Bonelliidae+Ikedidae]. This grouping agrees with the presence/absence of marked sexual dimorphism involving dwarf males and the paired/non-paired configuration of the gonoducts (genital sacs). Furthermore, the data supports the sister group relationship of Echiuridae and Urechidae. These two families share the character of having anal chaetae rings around the posterior trunk as a synapomorphy. The analyses also suggest that deposit feeding is a basal feeding mode in echiurans and that filter feeding originated once in the common ancestor of Urechidae. Overall, our results contradict the currently accepted order-level classification, especially in that Echiuroinea is polyphyletic, and provide novel insights into the evolution of echiuran worms.

  8. Diversity of Polychaeta (Annelida) and other worm taxa in mangrove habitats of Darwin Harbour, northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalfe, K. N.; Glasby, C. J.

    2008-02-01

    In this paper data on the diversity, distribution and abundance of polychaetes and other worm taxa in the mangroves of Darwin Harbour, northern Australia, are presented and compared with those of other tropical mangrove areas. Aspects of the feeding guild ecology and the effects of disturbance on mangrove worms are also examined. Data were collected over a period of four years, across four mangrove assemblages. Samples were obtained using three sampling techniques: 1 m × 1 m quadrat searches, epifauna searches and a new infaunal sampling technique, the anoxic mat. A total of 76 species (68 polychaetes, 1 oligochaete, 1 echiuran, 3 sipunculans, 2 nemerteans, 1 turbellarian) were recorded from the four main mangrove assemblages. Of these, 30 species are widespread, occurring in mangrove and non-mangrove habitats throughout the Indo-west Pacific. Only seven species (all polychaetes) appear to be restricted to the mangroves of Darwin Harbour and northern Australia. Polychaetes are predominant, comprising 80-96% of all worms sampled, with three families—Nereididae, Capitellidae and Spionidae—accounting for 46% of all species. The highest diversity and abundance was recorded in the soft, unconsolidated substrates of the seaward assemblage, with diversity and abundance decreasing progressively in the landward assemblages. Most of the worm fauna was infaunal (70%), but the intensive sampling regime revealed a hitherto unknown significant percentage of epifaunal species (18%) and species occurring as both infauna and epifauna (12%). Univariate analyses showed annual and seasonal differences in worm species richness and abundance—presumably associated with the intensity of the monsoon and recruitment success. The worm fauna differed between mangrove assemblages but the proportion of species in each feeding guild was relatively consistent across the four assemblages studied. Herbivores were the most species-rich and abundant, followed by carnivores and sub

  9. Low-level parasitic worm burdens may reduce body condition in free-ranging red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    PubMed

    Irvine, R J; Corbishley, H; Pilkington, J G; Albon, S D

    2006-10-01

    Regulation of ungulate populations by parasites relies on establishing a density-dependent relationship between infection and vital demographic rates which may act through the effect of parasites on body condition. We examine evidence for parasite impacts in 285 red deer (Cervus elaphus) harvested during 1991 and 1992 on the Isle of Rum. In the abomasa, prevalence of nematodes was 100% and the most abundant genus observed were Ostertagia species, however, mean intensity of infection was low (less than 1000) relative to other studies. Additional species, also present in low numbers, included Nematodirus spp., Capillaria spp., Cooperia spp., Monieza expanza, Oesophagostomum venulosum and Trichuris ovis. Lungworm (Dictyocaulus spp.) and tissue worm (Elaphostronygylus cervi) larvae were also observed in faecal samples. There was no evidence for acquired immunity to abomasal nematodes. Despite low levels of infection, both adult male and female deer showed significant negative correlation between indices of condition (kidney fat index, dressed carcass weight and larder weight) and intensity of Ostertagia spp. infection. However, there was no evidence that pregnancy rate in females was related to intensity of infection. For calves, there was no relationship between body condition and intensity of infection. The apparent subclinical effects of low-level parasite infection on red deer performance could alternatively be due to animals in poorer nutritional state being more susceptible to infection. Either way the results suggest that further studies of wild populations are justified, in particular where high local host densities exist or alternative ungulate hosts are present, and, where experimental treatments are tractable.

  10. Instruction in behavior modification can significantly alter soil-transmitted helminth (STH) re-infection following therapeutic de-worming.

    PubMed

    Albright, Julia W; Basaric-Keys, Jasna

    2006-01-01

    Five elementary ("prototypic") schools located in five districts in central Java were selected and the children examined for helminth infections (Ascaris, Trichuris, hookworm). They were de-wormed with a course of mebendazole and provided with 6-7 months of "behavioral remediation instruction" (BRI). In other ("control") schools, children were treated with mebendazole but were not provided BRI. The objective was to determine the effectiveness of BRI in minimizing infection/re-infection following deworming. After the 6-7 month course of BRI in the prototypic schools, all the children (in both the prototypic and control schools) were re-examined for geohelminth infection. The schools in two of the five districts were omitted from further analysis because the overall prevalence of infection was low (<10%) and the infections were dominated by hookworm which are only moderately susceptible to mebendazole. Comparisons of prototypic and control schools in the other three districts provided compelling evidence that BRI was quite effective in reducing both the frequency and intensity of infection with Ascaris and Trichuris. We suggest that instructing children and adults corrects personal habits which are conducive to infection and can be an effective and safe substitute for repeated deworming, reducing the opportunity for the emergence of drug-resistant helminthes, which should prolong the time benzimidazoles may be used for treatment of geohelminth infection.

  11. The further application of MTT-formazan colorimetry to studies on filarial worm viability.

    PubMed

    Comley, J C; Townson, S; Rees, M J; Dobinson, A

    1989-09-01

    Experiments have confirmed that MTT-formazan colorimetry in its simplest form (incubation of intact worms with MTT and direct visualisation of any formazan formed) can be readily applied to several species of filariae including Onchocerca volvulus. Data is presented which will assist the development of quantitative MTT reduction viability tests for a selection of the smaller filarial species. Assays of pieces of Onchocerca gutturosa and O. volvulus females have led us to tentatively conclude that the tips of filariae, particularly the anterior ends, may well be metabolically the most active part of the worm. Selective sampling of these regions for Onchocerca might therefore be a useful indicator for the viability of the parasite. An example of how MTT-formazan colorimetry has been applied to yield additional data to support motility observations on the in vitro survival of male O. gutturosa is also given. The in vitro timecourse of worm death caused by 10 microM CGP 20376 on Acanthocheilonema viteae females has been examined by MTT reduction and compared with 6 other non-subjective parameters. The results suggests that the parameters examined could be divided into two groups according to the time taken for CGP 20376 to cause 50% inhibition (t50) of the parameter. Fast response parameters had t50's between 1 and 6 h (motility indices, 14CO2 evolution, adenine uptake and leucine uptake), they are more sensitive measures of viability and indicate possible worm damage which may or may not be reversible. Slow response parameters had t50's between 34 and 48.5 h (lactate output, MTT reduction and adenine leakage), and are probably linked with severe degenerative changes and are indicative of worm death.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Understanding Human-Plasmodium falciparum Immune Interactions Uncovers the Immunological Role of Worms

    PubMed Central

    Roussilhon, Christian; Brasseur, Philippe; Agnamey, Patrice; Pérignon, Jean-Louis; Druilhe, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Background Former studies have pointed to a monocyte-dependant effect of antibodies in protection against malaria and thereby to cytophilic antibodies IgG1 and IgG3, which trigger monocyte receptors. Field investigations have further documented that a switch from non-cytophilic to cytophilic classes of antimalarial antibodies was associated with protection. The hypothesis that the non-cytophilic isotype imbalance could be related to concomittant helminthic infections was supported by several interventions and case-control studies. Methods and Findings We investigated here the hypothesis that the delayed acquisition of immunity to malaria could be related to a worm-induced Th2 drive on antimalarial immune responses. IgG1 to IgG4 responses against 6 different parasite-derived antigens were analyzed in sera from 203 Senegalese children, half carrying intestinal worms, presenting 421 clinical malaria attacks over 51 months. Results show a significant correlation between the occurrence of malaria attacks, worm carriage (particularly that of hookworms) and a decrease in cytophilic IgG1 and IgG3 responses and an increase in non-cytophilic IgG4 response to the merozoite stage protein 3 (MSP3) vaccine candidate. Conclusion The results confirm the association with protection of anti-MSP3 cytophilic responses, confirm in one additional setting that worms increase malaria morbidity and show a Th2 worm-driven pattern of anti-malarial immune responses. They document why large anthelminthic mass treatments may be worth being assessed as malaria control policies. PMID:20174576

  13. Are block copolymer worms more effective Pickering emulsifiers than block copolymer spheres?

    PubMed

    Thompson, K L; Mable, C J; Cockram, A; Warren, N J; Cunningham, V J; Jones, E R; Verber, R; Armes, S P

    2014-11-21

    RAFT-mediated polymerisation-induced self-assembly (PISA) is used to prepare six types of amphiphilic block copolymer nanoparticles which were subsequently evaluated as putative Pickering emulsifiers for the stabilisation of n-dodecane-in-water emulsions. It was found that linear poly(glycerol monomethacrylate)-poly(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate) (PGMA-PHPMA) diblock copolymer spheres and worms do not survive the high shear homogenisation conditions used for emulsification. Stable emulsions are obtained, but the copolymer acts as a polymeric surfactant; individual chains rather than particles are adsorbed at the oil-water interface. Particle dissociation during emulsification is attributed to the weakly hydrophobic character of the PHPMA block. Covalent stabilisation of these copolymer spheres or worms can be readily achieved by addition of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) during the PISA synthesis. TEM studies confirm that the resulting cross-linked spherical or worm-like nanoparticles survive emulsification and produce genuine Pickering emulsions. Alternatively, stabilisation can be achieved by either replacing or supplementing the PHPMA block with the more hydrophobic poly(benzyl methacrylate) (PBzMA). The resulting linear spheres or worms also survive emulsification and produce stable n-dodecane-in-water Pickering emulsions. The intrinsic advantages of anisotropic worms over isotropic spheres for the preparation of Pickering emulsions are highlighted. The former particles are more strongly adsorbed at similar efficiencies compared to spheres and also enable smaller oil droplets to be produced for a given copolymer concentration. The scalable nature of PISA formulations augurs well for potential applications of anisotropic block copolymer nanoparticles as Pickering emulsifiers.

  14. Relationship between pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary thromboembolism associated with dead worms in canine heartworm disease.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Y; Kitagawa, H; Sasaki, Y

    1992-10-01

    To examine effects of thromboemboli due to dead worms on pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP), 20 to 50 dead heartworms were inserted into the pulmonary arteries of 4 heartworm uninfected dogs (uninfected group) and 11 dogs infected with heartworms (infected group). In the uninfected group, the mean PAP rose 1 week after worm insertion (10.9 to 166. mmHg), but it recovered by the 4th week. Clinical signs, hemodynamics and blood gas findings also deteriorated at the 1st week, but recovered at the 4th week. Angiographic and pathological findings indicated that blood flow recovered through the spaces between thromboemboli and vessel walls at the 4th week. The infected dogs were divided into three groups. In the infected-I group (5 dogs), the intimal lesions of the pulmonary arteries were slight, and clinical and laboratory findings showed changes similar to those of the uninfected group. In the infected-II group (4 dogs), the pulmonary arterial lesions were severe and the mean PAP was higher (25.7 mmHg) than in the uninfected group before worm insertion. An increase in PAP (34.1 mmHg) and worsening of clinical and laboratory findings were noticed till the 4th week. Thromboemboli adhered extensively to the vessel walls. Two dogs in the infected-III group died of severe dyspnea on the 9th and 10th day, and the mean PAP rose remarkably at the 1st week (from 19.4 to 28.2 mmHg). Severe pulmonary parenchymal lesions with edema or perforation were observed. From the above results, it was clarified that effects of dead worms on PAP and clinical signs depended on the severity of pulmonary arterial lesions before worm insertion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Guinea worm disease in Ayod, Upper Nile Province, southern Sudan: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Guthmann, J P; Mercer, A J; Gandubert, C; Morin, F

    1996-02-01

    Upper Nile Province is one of the four main endemic areas for Guinea worm disease in the Sudan. In December 1994, a survey was conducted in the village of Ayod where the disease is endemic, to investigate morbidity and local knowledge of transmission and prevention. Interviews were conducted in households selected by standard cluster sampling procedures and of the 759 people examined, 156 (20.6%) had Guinea worm lesions. Adjusted odds ratios were used to estimate the relative risk for people with different personal or household characteristics in a multivariate analysis. After controlling for the possible confounding effects of other study variables, having a filter in the household, gender, and lack of knowledge about transmission and about prevention, were not associated with lesions. Only two variables were significantly associated with Guinea worm disease: getting water from a source other than a well increased the risk by a factor of 2.3, and being aged 5 years or more increased the risk by a factor of 31.1. This study demonstrates the clear association between the source of water for drinking and Guinea worm disease found elsewhere. We suggest the provision of reliable sources of pure drinking water and health education are the most suitable long-term preventive measures. The Sudan now represents the greatest challenge to the goal of global eradication of Guinea worm disease, following the reduction in cases in Nigeria. The continuing civil war and insecurity in southern Sudan hinder the implementation of an effective water programme and other control measures, but the potential benefits through reduced incapacity and improved agricultural productivity are considerable.

  16. Here, There and Everywhere: The Radiolar Eyes of Fan Worms (Annelida, Sabellidae).

    PubMed

    Bok, Michael J; Capa, María; Nilsson, Dan-Eric

    2016-11-01

    Fan worms (Annelida: Sabellidae) possess some of the strangest eyes in nature. Their eponymous fans are composed of two sets of radiolar tentacles that project from the head up out of the worm's protective tube into the water column. Primarily used for respiration and feeding, these radioles are also often involved in photoreception. They display a surprising diversity of eyes of varying levels of sophistication, ranging from scattered single ocelli to compound eyes with up to hundreds of facets. These photoreceptors could represent a relatively recent evolutionary development to cope with a sessile, tube-dwelling lifestyle, and the primary cerebral eyes (haplessly positioned within the tube most of the time) amount to little more than minute pigment cups with scant visual potential. The radiolar eyes on the other hand, appear to function as visual burglar alarms for detecting looming predators and eliciting a startle response for the worm to rapidly retreat within its fortified tube. Despite sometimes resembling arthropod compound eyes, the radiolar photoreceptors have many canonically vertebrate-like physiological characteristics. Considering the unusual and apparently recently evolved nature of the fan worm radiolar photoreceptors, these animals are an excellent case for examining the emergence of novel visual systems, the development of rudimentary visually guided behaviors, and the function of distributed sensory systems. Here, we review over 100 years of investigations into the anatomical diversity of sabellid radiolar photoreceptors and eyes in an evolutionary and functional context. We provide new information on radiolar eye structure in several species of fan worms, and we attempt to organize the various eye types and ocellar structures into meaningful hierarchies. We discuss the developmental, evolutionary, and functional significance of the radiolar eyes and highlight areas of future interest in deciphering their unique nature.

  17. Formation of Worm-Like Micelles in Mixed N-Hexadecyl-N-Methylpyrrolidinium Bromide-Based Cationic Surfactant and Anionic Surfactant Systems

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Caili; Yan, Zhihu; You, Qing; Du, Mingyong; Zhao, Mingwei

    2014-01-01

    Through the descriptive and rheological characterization of worm-like micelles formed by N-hexadecyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bromide and sodium laurate, the formation and properties of the worm-like micelles were affected by the concentrations of sodium laurate and temperature. Additionally, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy images further validated the formation of worm-like micelles. PMID:25019152

  18. Pin Worms Presenting as Suspected Crohn’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Al-Saffar, Farah; Najjar, Nimeh; Ibrahim, Saif; Clark, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Female, 24 Final Diagnosis: Pinworms infection Symptoms: Abdominal pain • bloating Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Colonoscopy and biopsy Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Rare disease Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is well recognized in developed countries and is generally among the differential diagnoses of young patients presenting with refractory diarrhea once other more common etiologies have been excluded. Pinworm infections, on the other hand, are not as common among adults in the United States. Case Report: Based on computed tomography features, a 24-year-old female patient with a history of multiple autoimmune disorders presented with abdominal pain and was diagnosed recently with Crohn’s disease. Colonoscopy was significant for pinworms seen throughout the colon. Colonic biopsy was negative for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-related changes. Conclusions: The diagnosis of IBD is a serious label that requires biopsy confirmation before committing to possibly lifelong treatment and possible adverse effects. Even in the most typical patient and when the presentation and imaging are classical, uncommon conditions (like Enterobius infection in this case) may preclude appropriate diagnosis and management. PMID:26471462

  19. Gravity worms in the prospecting of epigenetic gold deposits: Example from the Northern Fennoscandian Shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahti, Ilkka; Nykänen, Vesa; Niiranen, Tero

    2010-05-01

    Mapping of mineralized geologic structures using geophysical potential field datasets has become an essential part of present-day exploration projects. Various geophysical processing and semiautomatic interpretation techniques have provided new tools into the field of conventional exploration process. Such is the multiscale edge detection or "worming-technique" introduced by Hornby et al., (1999). Worms are representations of the maxima of potential field horizontal gradients. They are calculated at different upward continuation levels providing an alternative view into potential field anomalies and geometry of the anomaly sources. In this work we use the worming-technique on the regional gravity dataset collected by the Geological Survey of Finland during the last four decades in the northern Finland. The dataset consists of more than 19 000 ground gravity observations covering an area of about 15000 km2 with an average site separation of 0.5 - 1 km. The study area covers the central part of the 2.4-2.0 Ga Central Lapland Greenstone belt (CLGB) which is one of the largest Proterozoic greenstone terrains in the world. The CLGB hosts numerous gold occurrences of varying type and size. The majority of the gold occurrences fall into the orogenic gold category but also Iron Oxide-Copper-Gold (IOCG) and paleoplacer types are known within the region (e.g. Eilu et al., 2007). Currently the largest known deposit in the area is the Suurikuusikko orogenic gold deposit with current resources exceeding 5 million ounces Au. The largest known gold resources in IOCG type deposit is in the Hannukainen deposit with ca. 200 000 ounces of gold. All the known orogenic gold and IOCG deposits in the CLGB show intimate spatial correlation to shear zones of varying scale. Processed gravity worms display striking spatial correlation with the known orogenic gold and IOCG deposits. In some cases the gold hosting shear zones are outlined by gravity worms either completely (Sirkka shear zone

  20. A Robust Cross-Linking Strategy for Block Copolymer Worms Prepared via Polymerization-Induced Self-Assembly

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A poly(glycerol monomethacrylate) (PGMA) chain transfer agent is chain-extended by reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) statistical copolymerization of 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate (HPMA) with glycidyl methacrylate (GlyMA) in concentrated aqueous solution via polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA). A series of five free-standing worm gels is prepared by fixing the overall degree of polymerization of the core-forming block at 144 while varying its GlyMA content from 0 to 20 mol %. 1H NMR kinetics indicated that GlyMA is consumed much faster than HPMA, producing a GlyMA-rich sequence close to the PGMA stabilizer block. Temperature-dependent oscillatory rheological studies indicate that increasing the GlyMA content leads to progressively less thermoresponsive worm gels, with no degelation on cooling being observed for worms containing 20 mol % GlyMA. The epoxy groups in the GlyMA residues can be ring-opened using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) in order to prepare core cross-linked worms via hydrolysis-condensation with the siloxane groups and/or hydroxyl groups on the HPMA residues. Perhaps surprisingly, 1H NMR analysis indicates that the epoxy–amine reaction and the intermolecular cross-linking occur on similar time scales. Cross-linking leads to stiffer worm gels that do not undergo degelation upon cooling. Dynamic light scattering studies and TEM analyses conducted on linear worms exposed to either methanol (a good solvent for both blocks) or anionic surfactant result in immediate worm dissociation. In contrast, cross-linked worms remain intact under such conditions, provided that the worm cores comprise at least 10 mol % GlyMA. PMID:27134311

  1. From the worm to the pill, the parasitic worm product ES-62 raises new horizons in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Pineda, M A; Eason, R J; Harnett, M M; Harnett, W

    2015-04-01

    Evidence from human studies suggests that parasitic worm infection can protect humans against rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and this idea is strengthened by data generated in model systems. Although therapeutic use of parasitic worms is currently being explored, there are obvious benefits in pursuing drug development through identification and isolation of the 'active ingredients'. ES-62 is a secreted glycoprotein of the filarial nematode Acanthocheilonema viteae, which we have found to protect against the development of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice. ES-62 activity is dependent on the inflammatory phenotype of the local environment and protection arises via inhibition of Th17- and γδT cell-dependent IL-17 production. At the same time, NK and NK T cell IL-17 production is left intact, and such selectivity suggests that ES-62 might make a particularly attractive therapeutic for RA. However, as a potentially immunogenic protein, ES-62 is unsuitable for development as a drug. Nevertheless, ES-62 activity is dependent on covalently attached phosphorylcholine (PC) residues and we have therefore produced a library of PC-based drug-like ES-62 small-molecule analogues (SMAs) as an alternative therapeutic strategy. Screening this library, we have found an ES-62 SMA that mirrors ES-62 in protecting against CIA and by the same IL-17-dependent mechanism of action.

  2. Minimum Standards for Education: Preparedness, Response, Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inter-Agency Network for Education in Emergencies, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Education in emergencies comprises learning opportunities for all ages. It encompasses early childhood development, primary, secondary, non-formal, technical, vocational, higher and adult education. In emergency situations through to recovery, quality education provides physical, psychosocial and cognitive protection that can sustain and save…

  3. Neural Bases of Recovery after Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nudo, Randolph J.

    2011-01-01

    Substantial data have accumulated over the past decade indicating that the adult brain is capable of substantial structural and functional reorganization after stroke. While some limited recovery is known to occur spontaneously, especially within the first month post-stroke, there is currently significant optimism that new interventions based on…

  4. Extracorporeal worm extraction of Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense with amidotrizoic acid in a child.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hye Kyung; Roh, Joo-Hyung; Oh, Jae-Won; Ryu, Jae-Sook; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Chung, Dong-Il; Kim, Yong Joo

    2014-12-01

    Infection cases of diphyllobothriid tapeworms are not much in the below teen-age group. We report a case of Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense infection in a 13-year-old boy. He presented with severe fatigue, occasional abdominal pain at night time. He also had several episodes of tapeworm segment discharge in his stools. By his past history, he had frequently eaten raw fish including salmon and trout with his families. Numerous eggs of diphyllobothriid tapeworm were detected in the fecal examination. We introduced amidotrizoic acid as a cathartic agent through nasogastroduodenal tube and let nearly whole length (4.75 m) of D. nihonkaiense be excreted through his anus. After a single dose of praziquantel, the child's stool showed no further eggs, and his symptoms disappeared. The evacuated worm was identified as D. nihonkaiense by mitochondrial cox1 gene analysis. Here we report a successful extracorporeal worm extraction from an infection case of D. nihonkaiense by the injection of amidotrizoic acid.

  5. Extracorporeal Worm Extraction of Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense with Amidotrizoic Acid in a Child

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hye Kyung; Roh, Joo-Hyung; Oh, Jae-Won; Ryu, Jae-Sook; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Chung, Dong-Il

    2014-01-01

    Infection cases of diphyllobothriid tapeworms are not much in the below teen-age group. We report a case of Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense infection in a 13-year-old boy. He presented with severe fatigue, occasional abdominal pain at night time. He also had several episodes of tapeworm segment discharge in his stools. By his past history, he had frequently eaten raw fish including salmon and trout with his families. Numerous eggs of diphyllobothriid tapeworm were detected in the fecal examination. We introduced amidotrizoic acid as a cathartic agent through nasogastroduodenal tube and let nearly whole length (4.75 m) of D. nihonkaiense be excreted through his anus. After a single dose of praziquantel, the child's stool showed no further eggs, and his symptoms disappeared. The evacuated worm was identified as D. nihonkaiense by mitochondrial cox1 gene analysis. Here we report a successful extracorporeal worm extraction from an infection case of D. nihonkaiense by the injection of amidotrizoic acid. PMID:25548421

  6. Hooking some stem-group "worms": fossil lophotrochozoans in the Burgess Shale.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, Nicholas J

    2006-12-01

    The fossil record plays a key role in reconstructing deep evolutionary relationships through its documentation of the early diverging stem groups leading to extant phyla. In the middle Cambrian Burgess Shale, two famously problematic worms, Odontogriphus and Wiwaxia, have recently been reinterpreted as stem-group molluscs based on their shared expression of a putative radula and putative ctenidia in Odontogriphus. More detailed analysis of these fossil structures, however, reveals pronounced anatomical and histological discrepancies with molluscan analogues, such that they are more reliably interpreted as primitive features of the superphylum Lophotrochozoa. In the absence of any obviously derived characters, Odontogriphus could be placed in the stem group of the Lophotrochozoa or on the stem of any of its constituent phyla, whereas the dorsal covering of chaetae in Wiwaxia identifies it as a stem-group polychaete. Despite their close relationship, these two jawed, segmented worms could conceivably represent the early stages of two separate phyla.

  7. Defense role of the cocoon in the silk worm Bombyx mori L.

    PubMed

    Pandiarajan, Jeyaraj; Cathrin, Britto P; Pratheep, Thangaraj; Krishnan, Muthukalingan

    2011-11-15

    Silk from the domesticated silk worm Bombyx mori procures foreign body response naturally, so it has been utilized as a biomaterial for decades. In India the prime focus of the sericulture industry is to improve silk production with high quality silk. Naturally, the silk worm builds its cocoon not only with silk proteins, but also with antimicrobial proteins to avoid infection since the cocoon is non-motile and non-feeding. The aim of the present study is to elucidate the antimicrobial proteins that persist in the cocoon of the silk worm Bombyx mori. At the pupal stage, the silk worm cocoon shell extract was prepared from the day of pupation (P0) to the day of natural rupture of the cocoon for the eclosion of moth (NR). Using the cocoon shell extract a microbial susceptibility test was performed by the disc diffusion method against the microbes Escherchia coli, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The development of a zone of inhibition against the microbes confirmed the presence of antimicrobial/immunogenic activity of the cocoon shell extract. For further analysis, the cocoon shell extract was subjected to 7-15% sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The protein profile of the cocoon extract revealed the coomassie blue stained bands resolved from the 150-15 kDa molecular range. Interestingly, a polypeptide localized at around 29 kDa showed remarkable expressional changes during the development of pupa. To characterize the 29 kDa protein, it was eluted from the gel, digested with trypsin and analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). The trypsin-digested peptide peaks were analyzed through MASCOT and peptides were matched with the NCBI nr database. The peptides were very well matched with the 18 wheeler protein, which is reported to be responsible for innate immunity, belonging to the Toll family in insects and responsible for cellular

  8. The Vicious Worm: a computer-based Taenia solium education tool.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Maria Vang; Trevisan, Chiara; Braae, Uffe Christian; Magnussen, Pascal; Ertel, Rebekka Lund; Mejer, Helena; Saarnak, Christopher F L

    2014-08-01

    Ignorance is a major obstacle for the effective control of diseases. To provide evidence-based knowledge about prevention and control of Taenia solium cysticercosis, we have developed a computer-based education tool: 'The Vicious Worm'. The tool targets policy makers, professionals, and laypeople, and comprises educational materials including illustrated short stories, videos, and scientific texts designed for the different target groups. We suggest that evidence-based health education is included as a specific control measure in any control programme.

  9. ABC Triblock Copolymer Worms: Synthesis, Characterization, and Evaluation as Pickering Emulsifiers for Millimeter-Sized Droplets

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA) is used to prepare linear poly(glycerol monomethacrylate)–poly(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate)–poly(benzyl methacrylate) [PGMA–PHPMA–PBzMA] triblock copolymer nano-objects in the form of a concentrated aqueous dispersion via a three-step synthesis based on reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. First, GMA is polymerized via RAFT solution polymerization in ethanol, then HPMA is polymerized via RAFT aqueous solution polymerization, and finally BzMA is polymerized via “seeded” RAFT aqueous emulsion polymerization. For certain block compositions, highly anisotropic worm-like particles are obtained, which are characterized by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The design rules for accessing higher order morphologies (i.e., worms or vesicles) are briefly explored. Surprisingly, vesicular morphologies cannot be accessed by targeting longer PBzMA blocks—instead, only spherical nanoparticles are formed. SAXS is used to rationalize these counterintuitive observations, which are best explained by considering subtle changes in the relative enthalpic incompatibilities between the three blocks during the growth of the PBzMA block. Finally, the PGMA–PHPMA–PBzMA worms are evaluated as Pickering emulsifiers for the stabilization of oil-in-water emulsions. Millimeter-sized oil droplets can be obtained using low-shear homogenization (hand-shaking) in the presence of 20 vol % n-dodecane. In contrast, control experiments performed using PGMA–PHPMA diblock copolymer worms indicate that these more delicate nanostructures do not survive even these mild conditions. PMID:27795581

  10. Burial tolerances of reef-building Sabellariid worms from the east coast of Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sloan, N. J. B.; Irlandi, E. A.

    2008-04-01

    Sabellariid worms, such as Phragmatopoma lapidosa, are sessile suspension feeders that attach to exposed hard bottom and serve as foundation species for worm reefs which are complex, multifaceted habitats. While worm reefs are adapted to dynamic sedimentary environments, burial of these habitats by beach nourishment projects is a concern. This study determined duration and depth of burial that can be tolerated by P. lapidosa without death. Worm rock samples were buried in sand at 1-10 cm (1-cm intervals), and at 15, 25 and 40 cm for the duration of 72, 144, and 216 h and then surveyed for initial mortality after burial and one week after removal of sediment (latent effects). Initial mortality was similar across all burial depths for the 72-h duration with values ranging from 8.3% (±0.8 SE) for 1 cm to 24.0% (±8.0 SE) for 10 cm of sediment. As burial duration increased to 144 h, mortality generally increased as burial depth increased with an average mortality for 2 cm of sediment of 23.5% (±5.3 SE) increasing to 96.0% (±14.3 SE) with 40 cm of sediment. The mean percent mortality for burial samples in the 216 h treatment varied from a low of 71.2% (±3.3 SE) for 1 cm depth to a high of 100% (±0 SE) for 10, 15, 25, and 40 cm depths. Mortality for most treatments also increased over time after removal of sediment indicating latent effects of burial stress.

  11. Proteome adaptation to high temperatures in the ectothermic hydrothermal vent Pompeii worm.

    PubMed

    Jollivet, Didier; Mary, Jean; Gagnière, Nicolas; Tanguy, Arnaud; Fontanillas, Eric; Boutet, Isabelle; Hourdez, Stéphane; Segurens, Béatrice; Weissenbach, Jean; Poch, Olivier; Lecompte, Odile

    2012-01-01

    Taking advantage of the massive genome sequencing effort made on thermophilic prokaryotes, thermal adaptation has been extensively studied by analysing amino acid replacements and codon usage in these unicellular organisms. In most cases, adaptation to thermophily is associated with greater residue hydrophobicity and more charged residues. Both of these characteristics are positively correlated with the optimal growth temperature of prokaryotes. In contrast, little information has been collected on the molecular 'adaptive' strategy of thermophilic eukaryotes. The Pompeii worm A. pompejana, whose transcriptome has recently been sequenced, is currently considered as the most thermotolerant eukaryote on Earth, withstanding the greatest thermal and chemical ranges known. We investigated the amino-acid composition bias of ribosomal proteins in the Pompeii worm when compared to other lophotrochozoans and checked for putative adaptive changes during the course of evolution using codon-based Maximum likelihood analyses. We then provided a comparative analysis of codon usage and amino-acid replacements from a greater set of orthologous genes between the Pompeii worm and Paralvinella grasslei, one of its closest relatives living in a much cooler habitat. Analyses reveal that both species display the same high GC-biased codon usage and amino-acid patterns favoring both positively-charged residues and protein hydrophobicity. These patterns may be indicative of an ancestral adaptation to the deep sea and/or thermophily. In addition, the Pompeii worm displays a set of amino-acid change patterns that may explain its greater thermotolerance, with a significant increase in Tyr, Lys and Ala against Val, Met and Gly. Present results indicate that, together with a high content in charged residues, greater proportion of smaller aliphatic residues, and especially alanine, may be a different path for metazoans to face relatively 'high' temperatures and thus a novelty in thermophilic

  12. Proteome Adaptation to High Temperatures in the Ectothermic Hydrothermal Vent Pompeii Worm

    PubMed Central

    Jollivet, Didier; Mary, Jean; Gagnière, Nicolas; Tanguy, Arnaud; Fontanillas, Eric; Boutet, Isabelle; Hourdez, Stéphane; Segurens, Béatrice; Weissenbach, Jean; Poch, Olivier; Lecompte, Odile

    2012-01-01

    Taking advantage of the massive genome sequencing effort made on thermophilic prokaryotes, thermal adaptation has been extensively studied by analysing amino acid replacements and codon usage in these unicellular organisms. In most cases, adaptation to thermophily is associated with greater residue hydrophobicity and more charged residues. Both of these characteristics are positively correlated with the optimal growth temperature of prokaryotes. In contrast, little information has been collected on the molecular ‘adaptive’ strategy of thermophilic eukaryotes. The Pompeii worm A. pompejana, whose transcriptome has recently been sequenced, is currently considered as the most thermotolerant eukaryote on Earth, withstanding the greatest thermal and chemical ranges known. We investigated the amino-acid composition bias of ribosomal proteins in the Pompeii worm when compared to other lophotrochozoans and checked for putative adaptive changes during the course of evolution using codon-based Maximum likelihood analyses. We then provided a comparative analysis of codon usage and amino-acid replacements from a greater set of orthologous genes between the Pompeii worm and Paralvinella grasslei, one of its closest relatives living in a much cooler habitat. Analyses reveal that both species display the same high GC-biased codon usage and amino-acid patterns favoring both positively-charged residues and protein hydrophobicity. These patterns may be indicative of an ancestral adaptation to the deep sea and/or thermophily. In addition, the Pompeii worm displays a set of amino-acid change patterns that may explain its greater thermotolerance, with a significant increase in Tyr, Lys and Ala against Val, Met and Gly. Present results indicate that, together with a high content in charged residues, greater proportion of smaller aliphatic residues, and especially alanine, may be a different path for metazoans to face relatively ‘high’ temperatures and thus a novelty in

  13. The barber's pole worm CAP protein superfamily--A basis for fundamental discovery and biotechnology advances.

    PubMed

    Mohandas, Namitha; Young, Neil D; Jabbar, Abdul; Korhonen, Pasi K; Koehler, Anson V; Amani, Parisa; Hall, Ross S; Sternberg, Paul W; Jex, Aaron R; Hofmann, Andreas; Gasser, Robin B

    2015-12-01

    Parasitic worm proteins that belong to the cysteine-rich secretory proteins, antigen 5 and pathogenesis-related 1 (CAP) superfamily are proposed to play key roles in the infection process and the modulation of immune responses in host animals. However, there is limited information on these proteins for most socio-economically important worms. Here, we review the CAP protein superfamily of Haemonchus contortus (barber's pole worm), a highly significant parasitic roundworm (order Strongylida) of small ruminants. To do this, we mined genome and transcriptomic datasets, predicted and curated full-length amino acid sequences (n=45), undertook systematic phylogenetic analyses of these data and investigated transcription throughout the life cycle of H. contortus. We inferred functions for selected Caenorhabditis elegans orthologs (including vap-1, vap-2, scl-5 and lon-1) based on genetic networking and by integrating data and published information, and were able to infer that a subset of orthologs and their interaction partners play pivotal roles in growth and development via the insulin-like and/or the TGF-beta signalling pathways. The identification of the important and conserved growth regulator LON-1 led us to appraise the three-dimensional structure of this CAP protein by comparative modelling. This model revealed the presence of different topological moieties on the canonical fold of the CAP domain, which coincide with an overall charge separation as indicated by the electrostatic surface potential map. These observations suggest the existence of separate sites for effector binding and receptor interactions, and thus support the proposal that these worm molecules act in similar ways as venoms act as ligands for chemokine receptors or G protein-coupled receptor effectors. In conclusion, this review should guide future molecular studies of these molecules, and could support the development of novel interventions against haemonchosis.

  14. Host resistance and tolerance of parasitic gut worms depend on resource availability.

    PubMed

    Knutie, Sarah A; Wilkinson, Christina L; Wu, Qiu Chang; Ortega, C Nicole; Rohr, Jason R

    2017-04-01

    Resource availability can significantly alter host-parasite dynamics. Abundant food can provide more resources for hosts to resist infections, but also increase host tolerance of infections by reducing competition between hosts and parasites for food. Whether abundant food favors host resistance or tolerance (or both) might depend on the type of resource that the parasite exploits (e.g., host tissue vs. food), which can vary based on the stage of infection. In our study, we evaluated how low and high resource diets affect Cuban tree frog (Osteopilus septentrionalis) resistance and tolerance of a skin-penetrating, gut nematode Aplectana sp. at each stage of the infection. Compared to a low resource diet, a high resource diet enhanced frog resistance to worm penetration and tolerance while worms traveled to the gut. In contrast, a low resource diet increased resistance to establishment of the infection. After the infection established and worms could access food resources in the gut, a high resource diet enhanced host tolerance of parasites. On a high resource diet, parasitized frogs consumed significantly more food than non-parasitized frogs; when food was then restricted, mass of non-parasitized frogs did not change, whereas mass of parasitized frogs decreased significantly. Thus, a high resource diet increased frog tolerance of established worms because frogs could fully compensate for energy lost to the parasites. Our study shows that host-parasite dynamics are influenced by the effect of resource availability on host resistance and tolerance, which depends on when parasites have access to food and the stage of infection.

  15. Contaminant sensitivity in Neanthes arenaceodentata: The influence of worm age and food ration

    SciTech Connect

    Bridges, T.S.; Farrar, J.D.

    1995-12-31

    To evaluate the sensitivity of N. arenaceodentata to contaminated sediment the authors examined the survival and growth of newly emerged juveniles (EJ) and 3-week old (3WO) worms exposed to Black Rock Harbor sediment (BRH) diluted with uncontaminated control sediment (25, 50, 75, and 100% BRH). Worms were exposed for either 4 (EJs and 3WOs) or 7 (EJs) weeks to each concentration of BRH. Survival was significantly reduced in EJs exposed for 7 weeks to 25% BRH and for EJs and 3WOs exposed for 4 weeks to 100% BRH. Body weight, length, width, and projected area, were significantly reduced at 25% BRH. Setiger number was not reduced at 25% BRH. Calculation of the Minimum Detectable Difference (MDD) for each measure of growth indicated that body weight and projected area provided the most sensitive measure of effects. The MDD also indicated that statistical power and growth effects were of sufficient magnitude to distinguish much lower concentrations of BRH sediment (6--10% BRH). Both worm age and food ration influenced the nature of contaminant effects in Neanthes. EJs exposed to BRH showed greater effects of exposure than 3WOs. Previous work with Neanthes and BRH sediment, as well as subsequent experiments, indicate that high food ration can lessen contaminant effects. The results of this study emphasize that test animal age, food ration, and how growth measured can all influence the nature of contaminant effects and bioassay sensitivity.

  16. Effects of chitosan on oxidative stress and metallothioneins in aquatic worm Tubifex tubifex (Oligochaeta, Tubificidae).

    PubMed

    Mosleh, Yahia Y; Paris-Palacios, Séverine; Ahmed, Mohamed T; Mahmoud, F M; Osman, M A; Biagianti-Risbourg, Sylvie

    2007-02-01

    Chitosan is a natural polymer which has the property to elicit the natural defenses mechanism in plant and which can be an interesting biopesticides. It is then necessary to investigate the potential toxicity of chitosan for aquatic animal health. Metallothioneins (MTs) are low molecular weight proteins, mainly implicated in metal ion detoxification. Increase in MTs contents had been considered as a specific biomarker of metal exposure. However recently it has been demonstrated that MTs participate in several cellular functions such as regulation of growth and anti-oxidative defenses. Therefore, the induction of MTs has been investigated in the aquatic worms Tubifex tubifex exposed to chitosan. MTs levels in exposed worm increased significantly (p > 0.05) after 2, 4, and 7 days of exposure to different concentrations of chitosan (maximum + 158.19 +/- 10.2% after 2 days of exposure to 125 mgl(-1) of chitosan). Several antioxidant parameters including glutathione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), and catalase (CAT) were quantified in T. tubifex after 2, 4, and 7 days of exposure to chitosan. Exposure to chitosan had a negative effect on T. tubifex growth (maximum effect -6.11 +/- 1.6% after 7 days with 125 mgl(-1)) demonstrating the toxic effect of the pesticide. This growth rate decrease was accompanied by a reduction in protein contents. The activity of catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and glutathione reductase (GR) increased in response to the chitosan demonstrating an oxidative stress in the worms.

  17. Worms under Pressure: Bulk Mechanical Properties of C. elegans Are Independent of the Cuticle

    PubMed Central

    Gilpin, William; Uppaluri, Sravanti; Brangwynne, Clifford P.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical properties of cells and tissues play a well-known role in physiology and disease. The model organism Caenorhabditis elegans exhibits mechanical properties that are still poorly understood, but are thought to be dominated by its collagen-rich outer cuticle. To our knowledge, we use a novel microfluidic technique to reveal that the worm responds linearly to low applied hydrostatic stress, exhibiting a volumetric compression with a bulk modulus, κ = 140 ± 20 kPa; applying negative pressures leads to volumetric expansion of the worm, with a similar bulk modulus. Surprisingly, however, we find that a variety of collagen mutants and pharmacological perturbations targeting the cuticle do not impact the bulk modulus. Moreover, the worm exhibits dramatic stiffening at higher stresses—behavior that is also independent of the cuticle. The stress-strain curves for all conditions can be scaled onto a master equation, suggesting that C. elegans exhibits a universal elastic response dominated by the mechanics of pressurized internal organs. PMID:25902429

  18. Worms under Pressure: Bulk Mechanical Properties of C. elegans Are Independent of the Cuticle.

    PubMed

    Gilpin, William; Uppaluri, Sravanti; Brangwynne, Clifford P

    2015-04-21

    The mechanical properties of cells and tissues play a well-known role in physiology and disease. The model organism Caenorhabditis elegans exhibits mechanical properties that are still poorly understood, but are thought to be dominated by its collagen-rich outer cuticle. To our knowledge, we use a novel microfluidic technique to reveal that the worm responds linearly to low applied hydrostatic stress, exhibiting a volumetric compression with a bulk modulus, κ = 140 ± 20 kPa; applying negative pressures leads to volumetric expansion of the worm, with a similar bulk modulus. Surprisingly, however, we find that a variety of collagen mutants and pharmacological perturbations targeting the cuticle do not impact the bulk modulus. Moreover, the worm exhibits dramatic stiffening at higher stresses-behavior that is also independent of the cuticle. The stress-strain curves for all conditions can be scaled onto a master equation, suggesting that C. elegans exhibits a universal elastic response dominated by the mechanics of pressurized internal organs.

  19. Disinfectants/antiseptics in the management of guinea worm ulcers in the rural areas.

    PubMed

    Ogunniyi, T A; Oni, P O; Juba, A; Asaolu, S O; Kolawole, D O

    2000-01-05

    The effectiveness of trichlorophenol (TCP), chlorhexidine gluconate plus cetrimide (Savlon) and Izal in inhibiting the growth of bacterial isolates from guinea worm ulcers was investigated. Using an adaptation of the method of Russell and Furr (Russell, A.D., Furr, J.R., 1977. The antibacterial activity of a new chloroxylenol preparation containing ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 43, 253-260) the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of the three anti-microbial agents for each of the isolated bacteria was determined. Water drawn from the rural guinea worm endemic sites was autoclaved and used for the various dilutions of the anti-microbial agents. At the manufactures' recommended use-dilutions in cases of wounds/cuts/sores, Savlon showed greater effectiveness than Izal and TCP in this order. Probable organic and inorganic inhibitors in water that is usually employed in diluting anti-microbial agents in the rural areas for the dressing of guinea worm ulcers very likely had greatest effect(s) on TCP and least effect(s) on Savlon.

  20. Guinea worm: an in-depth study of what happens to mothers, families and communities.

    PubMed

    Watts, S J; Brieger, W R; Yacoob, M

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on the impact of maternal morbidity due to guinea worm, dracunculiasis, on the care and health of children under 24 months old, and the way in which the mothers and the family coped with the often extended periods of disability. This qualitative study is based on observation and in-depth interviewing, supplemented by focus group discussions. Of 42 mothers with guinea worm in two hyperendemic areas of Oyo and Kwara States, 28 were either bedridden or only able to hobble short distances with the help of a stick; the average period of incapacity was almost 9 weeks. Of the four maternal roles identified (child care, self care, domestic tasks, income generation), the women gave priority to child care; 34 of the 42 mothers needed help in child care. Coping networks operated principally within the extended family, but also included women in other households, and women from beyond the community. Thus the impact of a mother's illness extended beyond her children and family to the wider community. This qualitative study thus reveals the multifaceted impact of a disease on individuals and on the community. The study stresses the need for, and availability of, effective methods for controlling guinea worm by utilizing community cooperation to provide protected water sources and other preventive measures against the disease.

  1. WormBase ParaSite - a comprehensive resource for helminth genomics.

    PubMed

    Howe, Kevin L; Bolt, Bruce J; Shafie, Myriam; Kersey, Paul; Berriman, Matthew

    2016-11-27

    The number of publicly available parasitic worm genome sequences has increased dramatically in the past three years, and research interest in helminth functional genomics is now quickly gathering pace in response to the foundation that has been laid by these collective efforts. A systematic approach to the organisation, curation, analysis and presentation of these data is clearly vital for maximising the utility of these data to researchers. We have developed a portal called WormBase ParaSite (http://parasite.wormbase.org) for interrogating helminth genomes on a large scale. Data from over 100 nematode and platyhelminth species are integrated, adding value by way of systematic and consistent functional annotation (e.g. protein domains and Gene Ontology terms), gene expression analysis (e.g. alignment of life-stage specific transcriptome data sets), and comparative analysis (e.g. orthologues and paralogues). We provide several ways of exploring the data, including genome browsers, genome and gene summary pages, text search, sequence search, a query wizard, bulk downloads, and programmatic interfaces. In this review, we provide an overview of the back-end infrastructure and analysis behind WormBase ParaSite, and the displays and tools available to users for interrogating helminth genomic data.

  2. Dual geometric worm algorithm for two-dimensional discrete classical lattice models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hitchcock, Peter; Sørensen, Erik S.; Alet, Fabien

    2004-07-01

    We present a dual geometrical worm algorithm for two-dimensional Ising models. The existence of such dual algorithms was first pointed out by Prokof’ev and Svistunov [

    N. Prokof’ev and B. Svistunov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 160601 (2001)
    ]. The algorithm is defined on the dual lattice and is formulated in terms of bond variables and can therefore be generalized to other two-dimensional models that can be formulated in terms of bond variables. We also discuss two related algorithms formulated on the direct lattice, applicable in any dimension. These latter algorithms turn out to be less efficient but of considerable intrinsic interest. We show how such algorithms quite generally can be “directed” by minimizing the probability for the worms to erase themselves. Explicit proofs of detailed balance are given for all the algorithms. In terms of computational efficiency the dual geometrical worm algorithm is comparable to well known cluster algorithms such as the Swendsen-Wang and Wolff algorithms, however, it is quite different in structure and allows for a very simple and efficient implementation. The dual algorithm also allows for a very elegant way of calculating the domain wall free energy.

  3. Anisakis simplex: from obscure infectious worm to inducer of immune hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Audicana, M Teresa; Kennedy, Malcolm W

    2008-04-01

    Infection of humans with the nematode worm parasite Anisakis simplex was first described in the 1960s in association with the consumption of raw or undercooked fish. During the 1990s it was realized that even the ingestion of dead worms in food fish can cause severe hypersensitivity reactions, that these may be more prevalent than infection itself, and that this outcome could be associated with food preparations previously considered safe. Not only may allergic symptoms arise from infection by the parasites ("gastroallergic anisakiasis"), but true anaphylactic reactions can also occur following exposure to allergens from dead worms by food-borne, airborne, or skin contact routes. This review discusses A. simplex pathogenesis in humans, covering immune hypersensitivity reactions both in the context of a living infection and in terms of exposure to its allergens by other routes. Over the last 20 years, several studies have concentrated on A. simplex antigen characterization and innate as well as adaptive immune response to this parasite. Molecular characterization of Anisakis allergens and isolation of their encoding cDNAs is now an active field of research that should provide improved diagnostic tools in addition to tools with which to enhance our understanding of pathogenesis and controversial aspects of A. simplex allergy. We also discuss the potential relevance of parasite products such as allergens, proteinases, and proteinase inhibitors and the activation of basophils, eosinophils, and mast cells in the induction of A. simplex-related immune hypersensitivity states induced by exposure to the parasite, dead or alive.

  4. Influence of stability and fragmentation of a worm-reef on benthic macrofauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godet, Laurent; Fournier, Jérôme; Jaffré, Mikaël; Desroy, Nicolas

    2011-05-01

    In coastal areas, reef-builder worms often are bio-engineers by structuring their physical and biological environment. Many studies showed that this engineering role is determined by the densities of the engineer species itself, the highest densities approximately corresponding to the most stable areas from a sedimentological point of view, and hosting the richest and the most diverse benthic fauna. Here, we tested the potential influence of the spatio-temporal dynamics and the spatial fragmentation of one of the largest European intertidal reefs generated by the marine worm Lanice conchilega (Pallas, 1766) (Annelida, Polychaeta) on the associated benthic macrofauna. We demonstrated that the worm densities do have a significant positive role on the abundance, biomass, species richness and species diversity of the benthic macrofauna and that the reef stability also significantly influences the biomass and species diversity. Moreover, the reef fragmentation has significant negative effects on the abundance, biomass and species richness. In addition to L. conchilega densities, the stability and the spatial fragmentation of the reef also significantly structure the associated benthic assemblages. This study demonstrates the interest of "benthoscape ecology" in understanding the role played by marine engineer species from a spatial point of view.

  5. The Costs and Cost-Effectiveness of Mass Treatment for Intestinal Nematode Worm Infections Using Different Treatment Thresholds

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Andrew; Horton, Sue; de Silva, Nilanthi

    2009-01-01

    Background It is estimated that almost a half of all of people living in developing countries today are infected with roundworms, hookworms, or whipworms or combinations of these types of intestinal nematode worms. They can all be treated using safe, effective, and inexpensive single-dose generic drugs costing as little as USD 0.03 per person treated when bought in bulk. The disease caused by intestinal nematodes is strongly related to the number of worms in the gut, and it is typical to find that worms tend to be aggregated or clumped in their distribution so that <20% of people may harbour >80% of all worms. This clumping of worms is greatest when the prevalence is low. When the prevalence rises above 50%, the mean worm burden increases exponentially, worms are less clumped, and more people are likely to have moderate to heavy infections and may be diseased. Children are most at risk. For these reasons, the World Health Organization (WHO) currently recommends mass treatment of children ≥1 year old without prior diagnosis when the prevalence is ≥20% and treatment twice a year when the prevalence is ≥50%. Methods and Findings The risk of moderate to heavy infections with intestinal nematodes was estimated by applying the negative binomial probability distribution, then the drug cost of treating diseased individuals was calculated based on different threshold numbers of worms. Based on this cost analysis, a new three-tier treatment regime is proposed: if the combined prevalence is >40%, treat all children once a year; >60% treat twice a year; and >80% treat three times a year. Using average data on drug and delivery costs of USD 0.15 to treat a school-age child and USD 0.25 to treat a pre-school child (with provisos) the cost of treating children aged 2–14 years was calculated for 105 low- and low-middle-income countries and for constituent regions of India and China based on estimates of the combined prevalence of intestinal nematode worms therein. The

  6. Guinea worm (Dracunculus medinensis) eradication: a pilot study conducted at the Ohaukwu Local Government Areas, Ebonyi State, Nigeria, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Ogamdi, S O; Onwe, F

    2001-01-01

    The incidence and the prevalence of Guinea worm disease, a major cause of disability and a frequent cause of serious permanent deformity, were both drastically reduced in Ohaukwu Local Government Communities, with the provision (through bore holes) of a safer form of drinking water. Since 1986, the Carter Center program has been working to eradicate Guinea worm. The bore holes were dug through the Wasatan Project, a Japanese-funded grant awarded to the Enugu State Ministry of Health to help provide safer drinking water in the local communities. Bore holes were dug in several communities in Ohaukwu Local Government Areas between January 1991 and June 1991. The number of Guinea worm cases in the selected communities was ascertained and recorded by health workers. There was more than a 90% reduction in the number of Guinea worm (Dracunculus medinensis) cases after one year. Data collection began in June 1991, shortly after the completion of bore holes in the selected communities. By December 1998, when one of the villages was spot checked for Guinea worm infection, no active case was found. There is a need for post evaluation of all the villages studied to determine the current prevalence of Guinea worm disease.

  7. 21 CFR 520.1242a - Levamisole powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... infections: Stomach worms (Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, Ostertagia); intestinal worms (Trichostrongylus... the following adult nematode infections: Stomach worms (Haemonchus placei, Ostertagia ostertagi... infections: Stomach worms (Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, Ostertagia); intestinal worms...

  8. 21 CFR 520.1242a - Levamisole powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... infections: Stomach worms (Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, Ostertagia); intestinal worms (Trichostrongylus... the following adult nematode infections: Stomach worms (Haemonchus placei, Ostertagia ostertagi... infections: Stomach worms (Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, Ostertagia); intestinal worms...

  9. Recovery Act Milestones

    ScienceCinema

    Rogers, Matt

    2016-07-12

    Every 100 days, the Department of Energy is held accountable for a progress report on the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. Update at 200 days, hosted by Matt Rogers, Senior Advisor to Secretary Steven Chu for Recovery Act Implementation.

  10. Recovery Act Milestones

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, Matt

    2009-01-01

    Every 100 days, the Department of Energy is held accountable for a progress report on the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. Update at 200 days, hosted by Matt Rogers, Senior Advisor to Secretary Steven Chu for Recovery Act Implementation.

  11. ParaCalc®--a novel tool to evaluate the economic importance of worm infections on the dairy farm.

    PubMed

    Charlier, Johannes; Van der Voort, Mariska; Hogeveen, Henk; Vercruysse, Jozef

    2012-03-23

    Subclinical infections with gastrointestinal nematodes and liver fluke are important causes of production losses in grazing cattle. Although there is an extensive compilation of literature describing the effect of these infections on animal performance, only a few attempts have been made to convert these production losses to an economic cost. Here, we propose a novel tool (ParaCalc(®)), available as a web-application, to provide herd-specific estimates of the costs of these infections on dairy farms. ParaCalc(®) is a deterministic spread-sheet model where results from diagnostic methods to monitor the helminth infection status on a herd and anthelmintic usage are used as input parameters. Default values are provided to describe the effects of the infections on production and the cost of these production losses, but the latter can be adapted to improve the herd-specificity of the cost estimate. After development, ParaCalc(®) was applied on input parameters that were available for 93 Belgian dairy herds. In addition, the tool was provided to 6 veterinarians and their user experiences were evaluated. The estimated median [25th-75th percentile] cost per year per cow was € 46 [29-58] and € 6 [0-19] for gastrointestinal nematode and liver fluke infection, respectively. For both infections, the major components in the total costs were those associated with milk production losses in the adult cows. The veterinarians evaluated ParaCalc(®) as a useful tool to raise the farmers' awareness on the costs of worm infections, providing added value for their services. However, the score given for user-friendliness was diverse among users. Although the model behind ParaCalc(®) is a strong simplification of the real herd processes inducing economic losses, the tool may be used in the future to support economic decisions on helminth control.

  12. Youth in Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Miranda, John; Williams, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Young people are entering long-term recovery probably in greater numbers than ever before. A key word here is "probably" because we know precious little about the phenomenon of young people who recover from alcohol and drug addition. This article is a preliminary exploration of youth in recovery. It reviews several types of recovery support…

  13. What Is "No Recovery?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Thanatologists, as Balk recently commented (Balk, 2004), have been saying that there is no recovery from bereavement, or that we should not speak of bereavement as leading to a recovery. The term recovery has a high level of plasticity and can be shaped to fit diverse meanings, including contradictory meanings. We will sort our way through some of…

  14. Enhanced oil recovery update

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.V

    1989-03-01

    Technology continues to grow in the realm of enhanced oil recovery. Since 1950 several processes have proven economic for oil recovery. Others are still in their infancy and must be custom designed for each reservoir. This paper gives a general overview of these processes. The author focuses on the latest technology and the outlook for enhanced oil recovery operations.

  15. Identification and characterisation of microRNAs in young adults of Angiostrongylus cantonensis via a deep-sequencing approach

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Shih-Hsin; Tang, Petrus; Lai, Cheng-Hung; Kuo, Ming-Ling; Wang, Lian-Chen

    2013-01-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is an important causative agent of eosinophilic meningitis and eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in humans. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that participate in a wide range of biological processes. This study employed a deep-sequencing approach to study miRNAs from young adults of A. cantonensis. Based on 16,880,456 high-quality reads, 252 conserved mature miRNAs including 10 antisense miRNAs that belonging to 90 families, together with 10 antisense miRNAs were identified and characterised. Among these sequences, 53 miRNAs from 25 families displayed 50 or more reads. The conserved miRNA families were divided into four groups according to their phylogenetic distribution and a total of nine families without any members showing homology to other nematodes or adult worms were identified. Stem-loop real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of aca-miR-1-1 and aca-miR-71-1 demonstrated that their level of expression increased dramatically from infective larvae to young adults and then decreased in adult worms, with the male worms exhibiting significantly higher levels of expression than female worms. These findings provide information related to the regulation of gene expression during the growth, development and pathogenesis of young adults of A. cantonensis. PMID:24037191

  16. Praziquantel derivatives exhibit activity against both juvenile and adult Schistosoma japonicum.

    PubMed

    Duan, Wen-wen; Qiu, Si-jie; Zhao, Yue; Sun, Huan; Qiao, Chunhua; Xia, Chao-ming

    2012-02-15

    A praziquantel analog 10-hydroxy praziquantel and eight praziquantel/peroxide conjugates were synthesized. The biological activity of these compounds was evaluated against juvenile and adult stages of Schistosoma japonicum. Unlike praziquantel, 10-hydroxy praziquantel exhibits activity against both juvenile and adult Schistosoma japonicumin. All hybrid compounds displayed modest to significant worm killing activity. The present study has important significance for the development of hybrid antischistosomal drugs.

  17. Intestinal mast cells and eosinophils in relation to Strongyloides ratti adult expulsion from the small and large intestines of rats.

    PubMed

    Shintoku, Y; Kadosaka, T; Kimura, E; Takagi, H; Kondo, S; Itoh, M

    2013-04-01

    Mucosal mast cells (MMC) play a crucial role in the expulsion of Strongyloides ratti adults from the small intestine of mice. We reported the large intestinal parasitism of S. ratti in rats, and there has been no report on MMC in the large intestine of the natural host. We studied kinetics of MMC, together with eosinophils, in the upper and lower small intestines, caecum and colon of infected rats. Two distinct phases of mastocytosis were revealed: one in the upper small intestine triggered by stimulation of 'ordinary' adults, and the other in the colon stimulated by 'immune-resistant' adults that started parasitizing the colon around 19 days post-infection. In all 4 intestinal sites, the MMC peaks were observed 5-7 days after the number of adult worms became the maximum and the height of MMC peaks appeared to be dependent on the number of parasitic adults, suggesting an important role played by worms themselves in the MMC buildup.

  18. Battleground Energy Recovery Project

    SciTech Connect

    Bullock, Daniel

    2011-12-31

    In October 2009, the project partners began a 36-month effort to develop an innovative, commercial-scale demonstration project incorporating state-of-the-art waste heat recovery technology at Clean Harbors, Inc., a large hazardous waste incinerator site located in Deer Park, Texas. With financial support provided by the U.S. Department of Energy, the Battleground Energy Recovery Project was launched to advance waste heat recovery solutions into the hazardous waste incineration market, an area that has seen little adoption of heat recovery in the United States. The goal of the project was to accelerate the use of energy-efficient, waste heat recovery technology as an alternative means to produce steam for industrial processes. The project had three main engineering and business objectives: Prove Feasibility of Waste Heat Recovery Technology at a Hazardous Waste Incinerator Complex; Provide Low-cost Steam to a Major Polypropylene Plant Using Waste Heat; and Create a Showcase Waste Heat Recovery Demonstration Project.

  19. Track-a-worm, an open-source system for quantitative assessment of C. elegans locomotory and bending behavior.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sijie Jason; Wang, Zhao-Wen

    2013-01-01

    A major challenge of neuroscience is to understand the circuit and gene bases of behavior. C. elegans is commonly used as a model system to investigate how various gene products function at specific tissue, cellular, and synaptic foci to produce complicated locomotory and bending behavior. The investigation generally requires quantitative behavioral analyses using an automated single-worm tracker, which constantly records and analyzes the position and body shape of a freely moving worm at a high magnification. Many single-worm trackers have been developed to meet lab-specific needs, but none has been widely implemented for various reasons, such as hardware difficult to assemble, and software lacking sufficient functionality, having closed source code, or using a programming language that is not broadly accessible. The lack of a versatile system convenient for wide implementation makes data comparisons difficult and compels other labs to develop new worm trackers. Here we describe Track-A-Worm, a system rich in functionality, open in source code, and easy to use. The system includes plug-and-play hardware (a stereomicroscope, a digital camera and a motorized stage), custom software written to run with Matlab in Windows 7, and a detailed user manual. Grayscale images are automatically converted to binary images followed by head identification and placement of 13 markers along a deduced spline. The software can extract and quantify a variety of parameters, including distance traveled, average speed, distance/time/speed of forward and backward locomotion, frequency and amplitude of dominant bends, overall bending activities measured as root mean square, and sum of all bends. It also plots worm travel path, bend trace, and bend frequency spectrum. All functionality is performed through graphical user interfaces and data is exported to clearly-annotated and documented Excel files. These features make Track-A-Worm a good candidate for implementation in other labs.

  20. Efficacy of co-administered diethylcarbamazine and albendazole against adult Wuchereria bancrofti.

    PubMed

    Dreyer, Gerusa; Addiss, David; Williamson, John; Norões, Joaquim

    2006-12-01

    Although diethylcarbamazine (DEC) and albendazole are recommended to interrupt transmission of Wuchereria bancrofti, little is known about the macrofilaricidal effect of this drug combination. Forty-seven men with W. bancrofti infection were randomly assigned to receive a single dose of either DEC alone (6 mg/kg) (n=25) or a combination of DEC (6 mg/kg) and albendazole (400 mg) (n=22). Physical examinations for scrotal nodules (resulting from worm death) and ultrasound examinations (to detect living adult worms) were performed before treatment and 7, 14, 30, 45, 60, 90, 180, 270 and 360 days after treatment. Blood was examined for microfilariae before and 30 days and 360 days after treatment. Seven days post treatment, intrascrotal nodules were detected at the site of 21 (46.7%) adult worm nests in men who received DEC alone compared with 2 (6.1%) sites in men who received DEC and albendazole (P=0.002). One year after treatment, 10 (22.2%) original adult worm nests remained detectable by ultrasound among men who received DEC alone compared with 18/32 (56.3%) nests among men who received both drugs (P=0.016). Microfilaraemia prevalence and density decreased to a similar extent in both groups. Addition of albendazole appeared to decrease the macrofilaricidal effect of DEC against W. bancrofti, with no detectable enhancement in microfilarial suppression.

  1. Treatment Option Overview (Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia)

    MedlinePlus

    ... recovery) and treatment options. Adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a type of cancer in which the ... to radiation may increase the risk of developing ALL. Anything that increases your risk of getting a ...

  2. General Information about Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... recovery) and treatment options. Adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a type of cancer in which the ... to radiation may increase the risk of developing ALL. Anything that increases your risk of getting a ...

  3. Treatment Options for Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... recovery) and treatment options. Adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a type of cancer in which the ... to radiation may increase the risk of developing ALL. Anything that increases your risk of getting a ...

  4. Stages of Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... recovery) and treatment options. Adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a type of cancer in which the ... to radiation may increase the risk of developing ALL. Anything that increases your risk of getting a ...

  5. Source of drinking water supply and transmission of guinea worm disease in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ilegbodu, V A; Christensen, B L; Wise, R A; Ilegbodu, A E; Kale, O O

    1987-12-01

    During 1982, ecological factors associated with freshwater pollution were investigated in Idere, a rural Nigerian community with endemic guinea worm infection. Data were collected on the quality of all pond water sources, and on rainfall patterns and potable piped water available in the community. Pond water provided 76% of the total water used in Idere. This source of drinking water provided the classical ecological environment for the transmission of Dracunculus medinensis, other helminth parasites and bacterial enteric infections. The bacteriological analysis of drinking water from the ponds reflects the absence of sanitary arrangements for human waste disposal in the community, as the ponds are collectors of storm run-offs. Okina, the spring-fed pond which was nearest to the households, was the most reliable year-round source of water to the community; however, Okina also contained the highest density of infective Thermocyclops and the highest faecal coliform (FC) to faecal Streptococcus (FS) ratio (FC/FS), thus providing a central reservoir for guinea worm and bacterial infections. The transmission season of guinea worm infection corresponded with the period of greatest water scarcity in Idere. The amount of portable water available to Idere residents in 1981 was 3.6 litres per person per day. Frequent mechanical breakdowns, electric power failures, lack of fuel to run the water pumping engines and the direct link of the water pipeline supplying water to Idere with a water pipeline serving another major city in the same district were some of the reasons for potable water shortage in the community.

  6. Characterization of the N-glycans of female Angiostrongylus cantonensis worms.

    PubMed

    Veríssimo, Carolina M; Morassutti, Alessandra L; von Itzstein, Mark; Sutov, Grigorij; Hartley-Tassell, Lauren; McAtamney, Sarah; Dell, Anne; Haslam, Stuart M; Graeff-Teixeira, Carlos

    2016-07-01

    Glycoconjugates play a crucial role in the host-parasite relationships of helminthic infections, including angiostrongyliasis. It has previously been shown that the antigenicity of proteins from female Angiostrongylus cantonensis worms may depend on their associated glycan moieties. Here, an N-glycan profile of A. cantonensis is reported. A total soluble extract (TE) was prepared from female A. cantonensis worms and was tested by western blot before and after glycan oxidation or N- and O-glycosidase treatment. The importance of N-glycans for the immunogenicity of A. cantonensis was demonstrated when deglycosylation of the TE with PNGase F completely abrogated IgG recognition. The TE was also fractionated using various lectin columns [Ulex europaeus (UEA), concanavalin A (Con A), Arachis hypogaea (PNA), Triticum vulgaris (WGA) and Lycopersicon esculentum (LEA)], and then each fraction was digested with PNGase F. Released N-glycans were analyzed with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI)-time-of-flight (TOF)-mass spectrometry (MS) and MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS/MS. Complex-type, high mannose, and truncated glycan structures were identified in all five fractions. Sequential MALDI-TOF-TOF analysis of the major MS peaks identified complex-type structures, with a α1-6 fucosylated core and truncated antennas. Glycoproteins in the TE were labeled with BodipyAF558-SE dye for a lectin microarray analysis. Fluorescent images were analyzed with ProScanArray imaging software followed by statistical analysis. A total of 29 lectins showed positive binding to the TE. Of these, Bandeiraea simplicifolia (BS-I), PNA, and Wisteria floribunda (WFA), which recognize galactose (Gal) and N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc), exhibited high affinity binding. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that female A. cantonensis worms have characteristic helminth N-glycans.

  7. The effects of chronic radiation on reproductive success of the polychaete worm Neanthes arenaceodentata

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, F.L.; Anderson, S.L.

    1988-12-01

    The effects of lifetime exposure to chronic irradiation on reproductive success were assessed for laboratory populations of the polychaete worm Neanthes arenaceodentata. Lifetime exposure was initiated upon the spawning of the P1 female and was terminated upon spawning of the F1 female. Groups of experimental worms received either no radiation (controls) or 0.19, 2.1, or 17 mGy/h. The total dose received by the worms was either background or approximately 0.55, 6.5, or 54 Gy, respectively. The broods from the F1 mated pairs were sacrificed before hatching occurred, and information was obtained on brood size, on the number of normal and abnormal embryos, and on the number of embryos that were living, dying, and dead. The mean number of embryos in the broods from the F1 females exposed to lifetime radiation of 0.19 and 2.1 mGy/h was not significantly different from the mean number of embryos from control females; however, the mean number of embryos was different from those F1 females exposed to 17 mGy/h. There was a significant reduction in the number of live embryos in the broods from the F1 mated pairs that were exposed to the lowest dose rate given, 0.19 mGy/h, as well as those exposed to 2.1 and 17 mGy/h. Also, increased percentages of abnormal embryos were determined in the broods of all the radiation-exposed groups. 39 refs., 10 figs., 15 tabs.

  8. Facile Synthesis of Worm-like Micelles by Visible Light Mediated Dispersion Polymerization Using Photoredox Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Yeow, Jonathan; Xu, Jiangtao; Boyer, Cyrille

    2016-06-08

    Presented herein is a protocol for the facile synthesis of worm-like micelles by visible light mediated dispersion polymerization. This approach begins with the synthesis of a hydrophilic poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) (POEGMA) homopolymer using reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerization. Under mild visible light irradiation (λ = 460 nm, 0.7 mW/cm(2)), this macro-chain transfer agent (macro-CTA) in the presence of a ruthenium based photoredox catalyst, Ru(bpy)3Cl2 can be chain extended with a second monomer to form a well-defined block copolymer in a process known as Photoinduced Electron Transfer RAFT (PET-RAFT). When PET-RAFT is used to chain extend POEGMA with benzyl methacrylate (BzMA) in ethanol (EtOH), polymeric nanoparticles with different morphologies are formed in situ according to a polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA) mechanism. Self-assembly into nanoparticles presenting POEGMA chains at the corona and poly(benzyl methacrylate) (PBzMA) chains in the core occurs in situ due to the growing insolubility of the PBzMA block in ethanol. Interestingly, the formation of highly pure worm-like micelles can be readily monitored by observing the onset of a highly viscous gel in situ due to nanoparticle entanglements occurring during the polymerization. This process thereby allows for a more reproducible synthesis of worm-like micelles simply by monitoring the solution viscosity during the course of the polymerization. In addition, the light stimulus can be intermittently applied in an ON/OFF manner demonstrating temporal control over the nanoparticle morphology.

  9. Targeted selective treatment for worm management--how do we sell rational programs to farmers?

    PubMed

    van Wyk, J A; Hoste, H; Kaplan, R M; Besier, R B

    2006-07-31

    Seriously escalating global anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants has spawned a variety of alternatives to anthelmintics for worm management, based on the need for sustainable Integrated Parasite Management (sIPM). Pivotal to the sIPM approach is the concept of refugia, the proportion of a given parasite population that escapes exposure to control measures. By balancing drug applications with the maintenance of refugia, the accumulation of anthelmintic resistance alleles in worm populations can be considerably delayed, while still providing good levels of control. The over-dispersed nature of parasitic infections provides an opportunity to achieve this balance, by targeting treatments to the members of a flock or herd that are least tolerant to nematode infection. However, implementation of this strategy has only recently become feasible, with the development of the FAMACHA((c)) system for clinical evaluation of anaemia due to haemonchosis. Subsequently, the use of milk yields has proven an effective indicator in dairy goats infected predominantly with nematodes other than Haemonchus contortus. In addition, short-term weight changes and perhaps also body condition scoring may provide indices of parasitism, permitting the rapid identification of animals likely to benefit from treatment. However, sIPM and refugia-based approaches are more complex than whole-flock treatments in conventional programs, and adoption by farmers is most likely where the theoretical basis is understood. As close communication with informed advisors is generally limited, there is a danger that sIPM will remain a theoretical concept without alternative modes of communication. The development of computer-based decision support programs, which use epidemiological, seasonal and clinical information to provide recommendations for specific situations, should be accorded high priority in the future development of worm management systems.

  10. A closer look at bioaccumulation of petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures in aquatic worms.

    PubMed

    Muijs, Barry; Jonker, Michiel T O

    2010-09-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons (oils) are ubiquitous in the aquatic environment, and adequate risk assessment is thus essential. Bioaccumulation plays a key role in risk assessment, but the current knowledge on bioaccumulation of oils is limited. Therefore, this process was studied in detail, using the aquatic worm, Lumbriculus variegatus, and 14 field-contaminated sediments. The main focus during the present study was on uptake kinetics, the relationship between oil boiling point fraction and uptake, and effects of sediment characteristics. Uptake kinetics became slower with increasing boiling point fraction, but 70 to 90% of the equilibrium situation was reached within the standard exposure duration of 28 d. Worms accumulated sedimentary petroleum hydrocarbons in the range of C(10) to C(34), a range much wider than expected. Biota-to-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) for separate boiling point fractions were constant and around the proposed value of 1 to 2 up to C(22), but gradually decreased beyond this point. The decrease was probably caused by a combination of nonequilibrium conditions and enhanced sorption of higher boiling point fractions to sediments; the latter possibly due to the presence of strongly sorbing separate oil phases or black carbon. A negative relationship was observed between BSAF and oil concentration in sediment, which was explained by the presence of separate oil phases at high oil concentrations. These strongly sorbing phases may limit their own availability, particularly when being highly weathered; worms may also avoid them. The observed phenomena have obvious implications for bioaccumulation assessment of oils and suggest that the current risk assessment procedure for oils in sediments may lead to erroneous results.

  11. Cameroon: an African model for final stages of guinea worm eradication.

    PubMed

    Greer, G; Dama, M; Graham, S; Migliani, R; Alami, M; Sam-Abbenyi, A

    1994-04-01

    The Cameroon Guinea worm eradication program initiated case containment activities in 1991 in the Mayo-Sava Division, the only endemic region in the country. These activities differed from the Pakistan program, the only other operational model for dracunculiasis case containment, in two important ways. In Cameroon, next-level supervisors received reports of new cases from village health workers during routine weekly visits to endemic villages. The Pakistan program established a faster case reporting scheme that allowed higher level personnel (sector supervisors and regional managers) to confirm cases within one week of worm emergence. Second, in Cameroon case containment activities were extended only to villages reporting five or more cases the previous transmission season and villages with recent confirmed cases. In Pakistan, all villages reporting cases during the previous year were included in the program. A village-by-village case search one year after initiation of case containment in the Mayo-Sava indicated decreases of 60% in the number of cases and 51% in the number of villages reporting cases. Based on the apparent success of the efforts in Cameroon, we propose a two-stage scheme for implementation of case containment. Both stages are based on rapid detection and containment of cases, within 24 hr of worm emergence, by village-based health workers. In stage 1, cases are reported and confirmed during routine weekly visits to the endemic villages by next-level supervisors. Weekly reporting should be extended to all villages with recent confirmed cases and to as many villages reporting cases during the previous transmission season as logistically possible.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. An ancient lineage of slow worms, genus Anguis (Squamata: Anguidae), survived in the Italian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Gvoždík, Václav; Benkovský, Norbert; Crottini, Angelica; Bellati, Adriana; Moravec, Jiří; Romano, Antonio; Sacchi, Roberto; Jandzik, David

    2013-12-01

    Four species of legless anguid lizard genus Anguis have been currently recognized: A. fragilis from western and central Europe, A. colchica from eastern Europe and western Asia, A. graeca from southern Balkans, and A. cephallonica from the Peloponnese. Slow worms from the Italian Peninsula have been considered conspecific with A. fragilis, despite the fact that the region served as an important speciation center for European flora and fauna, and included some Pleistocene glacial refugia. We used mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences to investigate the systematic and phylogenetic position of the Italian slow-worm populations and morphological analyses to test for phenotypic differentiation from A. fragilis from other parts of Europe. Our phylogenetic analyses revealed that Italian slow worms form a distinct deeply differentiated mtDNA clade, which presumably diverged during or shortly after the basal radiation within the genus Anguis. In addition, the specimens assigned to this clade bear distinct haplotypes in nuclear PRLR gene and show morphological differentiation from A. fragilis. Based on the differentiation in all three independent markers, we propose to assign the Italian clade species level under the name Anguis veronensisPollini, 1818. The newly recognized species is distributed throughout the Italian Peninsula to the Southern Alps and south-eastern France. We hypothesize that the Tertiary Alpine orogeny with subsequent vicariance might have played a role in differentiation of this species. The current genetic variability was later presumably shaped in multiple glacial refugia within the Italian Peninsula, with the first splitting event separating populations from the region of the Dolomite Mountains.

  13. Monitoring of the process of composting of kitchen waste in an institutional scale worm farm.

    PubMed

    Kristiana, R; Nair, J; Anda, M; Mathew, K

    2005-01-01

    Vermicomposting provides an alternative method of managing waste that is ecofriendly and cost-effective. The Environmental Technology Centre (ETC) at Murdoch University and St. John of God Hospital (SJOG) signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) to install a vermiculture system in SJOG to treat some of the organic waste generated by the on site kitchen facility. This is an effort made by SJOG to reduce the amount of organic waste sent to landfill each year and to treat the waste on site as part of a recycling/reuse program. The study is aimed at scientifically monitoring vermicomposting process and to understand the optimum management requirements to improve the operation of an institutional scale worm farm. In addition, an experiment was conducted to investigate the suitability of bedding materials: horse manure, cow manure, peat coir, and natural bedding (vermicast). The species of earthworms used in this experiment were Red (Lumbricus rubellus), Tiger (Eisenia fetida), and Blue (Lumbricus excavatus). The pH, temperature, worm population and quality of castings were tested in different beds. Results indicated that vermicast was the best bedding for vermicomposting, and there were no significant difference between the performances of the other three beds. However, it can be concluded that the bedding material of horse manure, cow manure, and peat coir were successfully established well within the experimental period of eight weeks, and cow manure with the lowest C:N ratio produced the best quality bedding. As using vermicast for the initial bedding creates a very high capital cost these organic substrates provide cost-effective alternative. Therefore they would be quite appropriate to initiate an institutional scale worm farm.

  14. Study of the Formation and Solution Properties of Worm-Like Micelles Formed Using Both N-Hexadecyl-N-Methylpiperidinium Bromide-Based Cationic Surfactant and Anionic Surfactant

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Zhihu; Dai, Caili; Feng, Haishun; Liu, Yifei; Wang, Shilu

    2014-01-01

    The viscoelastic properties of worm-like micelles formed by mixing the cationic surfactant N-hexadecyl-N-methylpiperidinium bromide (C16MDB) with the anionic surfactant sodium laurate (SL) in aqueous solutions were investigated using rheological measurements. The effects of sodium laurate and temperature on the worm-like micelles and the mechanism of the observed shear thinning phenomenon and pseudoplastic behavior were systematically investigated. Additionally, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy images further ascertained existence of entangled worm-like micelles. PMID:25296131

  15. Experimental taphonomy of velvet worms (Onychophora) and implications for the Cambrian "explosion, disparity and decimation" model.

    PubMed

    Monge-Nájera, Julián; Hou, Xianguang

    2002-01-01

    Experimental preservation of velvet worms (phylum Onychophora), a very rare but evolutionarily important group that has existed for more than 500 million years, showed that the absence of bucal parts, adhesive-expelling organs, gonopore, eyes, legs, claws, annulation and papillation in fossils may not represent absence in the living animals. In fossils, leg thickness and claw orientation can be unreliable. The experiments indicate that not only absence, but even presence of certain structures can simply be the result of tissue decomposition. Computer-aided photorealistic reconstructions of fossi onychophorans are presented. We recommend future researchers to conduct taphonomy experiments specially before analysing unusual fossils.

  16. Worms, slugs and humans: the medical and popular construction of an emerging infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Grisotti, Márcia; Avila-Pires, Fernando Dias de

    2011-01-01

    The identification of the worm Angiostrongylus costaricensis parasitizing land snails and humans in Southern Brazil suggests under-diagnosis and under-notification of patients with abdominal angiostrongyliasis. This article analyzes how the concept of abdominal angiostrongyliasis was constructed in different ways in Costa Rica and Brazil and how these changes affected the understanding of its clinical and epidemiological diagnosis. The research shows that abdominal angiostrongyliasis is, de facto, a sociocultural construct, although the parasites and vectors are real. The analisys also shows the importance of an interdisciplinary approach for understanding disease.

  17. Contribution to the mechanics of worm-like motion systems and artificial muscles.

    PubMed

    Steigenberger, J

    2003-08-01

    In this paper the author presents a mathematical model of a device that can be seen as a segment of an artificial worm (following the paradigm "earthworm") and as an artificial muscle as well. Confining considerations to statics, the model shows up as an ordinary parameter-dependent boundary value problem. It is tackled numerically in various particular forms by means of Maple and thus gives a good view of the segment's behavior during inflation and under longitudinal load. Segments of maximal volume present a useful preliminary stage of the investigations.

  18. Ultrastructural investigation of spermatogenesis in the nemerine worm Procephalothrix sp. (Palaeonemertini, Anopla)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reunov, A. A.; Klepal, W.

    1997-08-01

    Spermatogenesis and sperm structure of the nemertine worm Procephalothrix sp. were studied by transmission electron microscopy. It is shown that a flagellum and proacrosomal vesicles are common in spermatogonia and spermatocytes as in spermatogenesis of a number of marine invertebrates with external fertilization. Originally, the animals were collected as Procephalothrix spiralis but they were found to have a type of spermatozoon different from that of P. spiralis as described by Turbeville & Ruppert (1985). The re-identification of the material collected in the Japan Sea has shown that the features are characteristic, of P. spiralis (Coe, 1930). This finding suggests that P. spiralis shows variations in different parts of the world.

  19. The other 'neglected' eradication programme: achieving the final mile for Guinea worm disease eradication?

    PubMed

    Al-Awadi, Abdul Rahman; Karam, Marc V; Molyneux, David H; Breman, Joel G

    2007-08-01

    Guinea worm disease is one of two diseases targeted for eradication, the other being polio. Since the late 1980s, the number of new cases per year has been reduced from approximately one million to some 25 000 in 2006. However, there was an increase from 2005 owing to improved surveillance in Sudan and problems in Ghana. The International Commission argues that more resources are required to ensure that the goal of eradication is completed. Elimination of transmission throughout Asia has now been confirmed and the disease is now confined to a small number of African countries requiring increased efforts to achieve the global goal.

  20. Copepod filters for guinea-worm control--users have their say.

    PubMed

    Akinsola, H A; Kale, O O

    1997-01-01

    In Nigerian communities where dracunculiasis is endemic a sewn filter is commonly used to remove the copepod intermediate host of guinea-worm from drinking-water. Unfortunately, it is not easy to handle, and the bucket lid filter used on a much smaller scale is comparatively expensive. A field investigation revealed that a large majority of people favoured the introduction of a user-friendly plastic funnel filter developed in India. Under Nigerian conditions this device requires the diameter of its outlet to be increased to permit a suitably fast flow of water and thus to avoid excessively rapid blocking of the monofilament filter material.