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Sample records for adult worms recovered

  1. Moxidectin causes adult worm mortality of human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi in rodent models.

    PubMed

    Verma, Meenakshi; Pathak, Manisha; Shahab, Mohd; Singh, Kavita; Mitra, Kalyan; Misra-Bhattacharya, Shailja

    2014-12-01

    Moxidectin is a macrocyclic lactone belonging to milbemycin family closely related to ivermectin and is currently progressing towards Phase III clinical trial against human infection with the filaria Onchocerca volvulus (Leuckart, 1894). There is a single report on the microfilaricidal and embryostatic activity of moxidectin in case of the human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi (Brug, 1927) in Mastomys coucha (Smith) but without any adulticidal action. In the present study, the in vitro and in vivo antifilarial efficacy of moxidectin was evaluated on, B. malayi. In vitro moxidectin showed 100% reduction in adult female worm motility at 0.6 μM concentration within 7 days with 68% inhibition in the reduction of MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide dye) (which is used to detect viability of worms). A 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of moxidectin for adult female parasite was 0.242 μM, for male worm 0.186 μM and for microfilaria IC50 was 0.813 μM. In adult B. malayi-transplanted primary screening model (Meriones unguiculatus Milne-Edwards), moxidectin at a single optimal dose of 20 mg/kg by oral and subcutaneous route was found effective on both adult parasites and microfilariae. In secondary screening (M coucha, subcutaneously inoculated with infective larvae), moxidectin at the same dose by subcutaneous route brought about death of 49% of adult worms besides causing sterilisation in 54% of the recovered live female worms. The treated animals exhibited a continuous and sustained reduction in peripheral blood microfilaraemia throughout the observation period of 90 days. The mechanism of action of moxidectin is suggested to be similar to avermectins. The in silico studies were also designed to explore the interaction of moxidectin with glutamate-gated chloride channels of B. malayi. The docking results revealed a close interaction of moxidectin with various GluCl ligand sites of B. malayi.

  2. [Biological identification on sub-cultivation cells of Schistosoma japonicum adult worms in vitro].

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Zeng, Tie-bing; Zeng, Qing-ren; Cai, Chun; Zhang, Zu-ping; Gong, Yan-fei; Cai, Li-ting; Zhang, Shun-ke; Xu, Xi-ping

    2006-10-01

    Cultivation of cells from 30-day old Schistosoma japonicum (S.j) adult worms showed that the growth features of the cells were semi-floating and accumulative. The survival rate of the primary cells, passage cells prior to the 5th generation and recovered cells was all up to 90%. Phases of cell division were observed during cultivation. Chromosome karyotype of the 5th generation cells possessed diploid feature of the blood-flukes (2n=8 in number). Ultrastructure of the 5th generation cells showed that four types of cells in normal morphology and three types of cells in abnormal morphology were both viewed. It is suggested that some of the cells from S.j adult worms were subcultured successfuly in the 1640-40 defined medium.

  3. Agar Sediment Test for Assessing the Suitability of Organic Waste Streams for Recovering Nutrients by the Aquatic Worm Lumbriculus variegatus

    PubMed Central

    Laarhoven, Bob; Elissen, H. J. H.; Temmink, H.; Buisman, C. J. N.

    2016-01-01

    An agar sediment test was developed to evaluate the suitability of organic waste streams from the food industry for recovering nutrients by the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus (Lv). The effects of agar gel, sand, and food quantities in the sediment test on worm growth, reproduction, and water quality were studied. Agar gel addition ameliorated growth conditions by reducing food hydrolysis and altering sediment structure. Best results for combined reproduction and growth were obtained with 0.6% agar-gel (20 ml), 10 g. fine sand, 40 g. coarse sand, and 105 mg fish food (Tetramin). With agar gel, ingestion and growth is more the result of addition of food in its original quality. Final tests with secondary potato starch sludge and wheat bran demonstrated that this test is appropriate for the comparison of solid feedstuffs and suspended organic waste streams. This test method is expected to be suitable for organic waste studies using other sediment dwelling invertebrates. PMID:26937632

  4. Agar Sediment Test for Assessing the Suitability of Organic Waste Streams for Recovering Nutrients by the Aquatic Worm Lumbriculus variegatus.

    PubMed

    Laarhoven, Bob; Elissen, H J H; Temmink, H; Buisman, C J N

    2016-01-01

    An agar sediment test was developed to evaluate the suitability of organic waste streams from the food industry for recovering nutrients by the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus (Lv). The effects of agar gel, sand, and food quantities in the sediment test on worm growth, reproduction, and water quality were studied. Agar gel addition ameliorated growth conditions by reducing food hydrolysis and altering sediment structure. Best results for combined reproduction and growth were obtained with 0.6% agar-gel (20 ml), 10 g. fine sand, 40 g. coarse sand, and 105 mg fish food (Tetramin). With agar gel, ingestion and growth is more the result of addition of food in its original quality. Final tests with secondary potato starch sludge and wheat bran demonstrated that this test is appropriate for the comparison of solid feedstuffs and suspended organic waste streams. This test method is expected to be suitable for organic waste studies using other sediment dwelling invertebrates.

  5. Echinostoma friedi: the effect of age of adult worms on the infectivity of miracidia.

    PubMed

    Toledo, R; Espert, A; Carpena, I; Trelis, M; Muñoz-Antoli, C; Esteban, J G

    2004-03-01

    The effect of ageing of adults of Echinostoma friedi (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) on the infectivity of miracidia yielded was analysed. Miracidia were obtained after hatching of eggs obtained from adult worms of E. friedi collected weekly during the course of experimental infections in golden hamsters. Miracidial infectivity, measured in terms of percentage of infection in Lymnaea peregra, was significantly influenced by the age of the adult worms from which the miracidia were derived. Infective miracidia only were obtained from adult worms in the age range from 4 to 9 weeks post-infection. Infectivity was maximal in those miracidia derived from adults collected 8 and 9 weeks post-infection. The results suggest that adult worms producing viable eggs require additional maturation to be able to yield eggs containing infective miracidia.

  6. Effects of Doxycycline on gene expression in Wolbachia and Brugia malayi adult female worms in vivo

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Most filarial nematodes contain Wolbachia symbionts. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of doxycycline on gene expression in Wolbachia and adult female Brugia malayi. Methods Brugia malayi infected gerbils were treated with doxycycline for 6-weeks. This treatment largely cleared Wolbachia and arrested worm reproduction. RNA recovered from treated and control female worms was labeled by random priming and hybridized to the Version 2- filarial microarray to obtain expression profiles. Results and discussion Results showed significant changes in expression for 200 Wolbachia (29% of Wolbachia genes with expression signals in untreated worms) and 546 B. malayi array elements after treatment. These elements correspond to known genes and also to novel genes with unknown biological functions. Most differentially expressed Wolbachia genes were down-regulated after treatment (98.5%). In contrast, doxycycline had a mixed effect on B. malayi gene expression with many more genes being significantly up-regulated after treatment (85% of differentially expressed genes). Genes and processes involved in reproduction (gender-regulated genes, collagen, amino acid metabolism, ribosomal processes, and cytoskeleton) were down-regulated after doxycycline while up-regulated genes and pathways suggest adaptations for survival in response to stress (energy metabolism, electron transport, anti-oxidants, nutrient transport, bacterial signaling pathways, and immune evasion). Conclusions Doxycycline reduced Wolbachia and significantly decreased bacterial gene expression. Wolbachia ribosomes are believed to be the primary biological target for doxycycline in filarial worms. B. malayi genes essential for reproduction, growth and development were also down-regulated; these changes are consistent with doxycycline effects on embryo development and reproduction. On the other hand, many B. malayi genes involved in energy production, electron-transport, metabolism, anti

  7. Curcumin Generates Oxidative Stress and Induces Apoptosis in Adult Schistosoma mansoni Worms

    PubMed Central

    de Paula Aguiar, Daniela; Brunetto Moreira Moscardini, Mayara; Rezende Morais, Enyara; Graciano de Paula, Renato; Ferreira, Pedro Manuel; Afonso, Ana; Belo, Silvana; Tomie Ouchida, Amanda; Curti, Carlos; Cunha, Wilson Roberto; Rodrigues, Vanderlei

    2016-01-01

    Inducing apoptosis is an interesting therapeutic approach to develop drugs that act against helminthic parasites. Researchers have investigated how curcumin (CUR), a biologically active compound extracted from rhizomes of Curcuma longa, affects Schistosoma mansoni and several cancer cell lines. This study evaluates how CUR influences the induction of apoptosis and oxidative stress in couples of adult S. mansoni worms. CUR decreased the viability of adult worms and killed them. The tegument of the parasite suffered morphological changes, the mitochondria underwent alterations, and chromatin condensed. Different apoptotic parameters were determined in an attempt to understand how CUR affected adult S. mansoni worms. CUR induced DNA damage and fragmentation and increased the expression of SmCASP3/7 transcripts and the activity of Caspase 3 in female and male worms. However, CUR did not intensify the activity of Caspase 8 in female or male worms. Evaluation of the superoxide anion and different antioxidant enzymes helped to explore the mechanism of parasite death further. The level of superoxide anion and the activity of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) increased, whereas the activity of Glutathione-S-Transferase (GST), Glutathione reductase (GR), and Glutathione peroxidase (GPX) decreased, which culminated in the oxidation of proteins in adult female and male worms incubated with CUR. In conclusion, CUR generated oxidative stress followed by apoptotic-like-events in both adult female and male S. mansoni worms, ultimately killing them. PMID:27875592

  8. High prevalence of haplorchiasis in Nan and Lampang provinces, Thailand, proven by adult worm recovery from suspected opisthorchiasis cases.

    PubMed

    Wijit, Adulsak; Morakote, Nimit; Klinchid, Jaewwaew

    2013-12-01

    Opisthorchiasis, a risk factor for cholangiocarcinoma in humans, is of public health importance in Thailand. The Annual Surveillance Reports from Nan and Lampang Provinces, Thailand, for the year 2011 showed an opisthorchiasis prevalence of over 70% by recovery of eggs in the feces. This study investigated whether most cases are actually due to minute intestinal flukes (MIF) rather than Opisthorchis viverrini, as the eggs of both can hardly be differentiated by morphology. Fifty and 100 cases from residents in Nan and Lampang, respectively, had stools positive for eggs initially assumed to be those of O. viverrini. Each patient was given praziquantel at 40 mg/kg in a single dose. After 2 hr, 30-45 ml of the purgative magnesium sulfate was given, and stools were collected up to 4 times sequentially. The stools were examined for adult worms by simple sedimentation. It was found that 39 of 50 cases (78.0%) from Nan Province had Haplorchis taichui, with intensities ranging from 5 to 1,250 with an average of 62 worms/case. Taenia saginata (7 cases) and Enterobius vermicularis (1 case) were other helminths recovered as the co-infectants. In Lampang Province, H. taichui was recovered from 69 cases (69.0%). The number of flukes recovered ranged from 1 to 4,277, with an average of 326 worms/case. Four cases had Phaneropsolus bonnei, and 10 T. saginata as the co-infectants. Adult specimens of O. viverrini were not recovered from any stool. Clearly, MIF infection, especially haplorchiasis, is more common in northern Thailand. These findings should encourage the Public Health Office to employ more specific tools than Kato's method for surveillance of opisthorchiasis in Thailand.

  9. Can the adult skeleton recover lost bone?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leblanc, Adrian; Schneider, Victor

    1991-01-01

    The loss of bone mineral with aging and subsequent development of osteoporosis is a common problem in elderly women, and as life expectancy increases, in elderly men as well. Space flight also causes bone loss and could be a limiting factor for long duration missions, such as, a Mars expedition or extended occupation of a Space Station. Before effective countermeasures can be devised, a thorough knowledge of the extent, location, and rate of bone loss during weightlessness is needed from actual space flight data or ground-based disuse models. In addition, the rate and extent that these losses are reversed after return from space flight are of primary importance. Although the mechanisms are not likely to be the same in aging and space flight, there are common elements. For example, strategies developed to prevent disuse bone loss or to enhance the rate of recovery following space flight might have direct applicability to clinical medicine. For various reasons, little attention has been given to recovery of bone mass following space flight. As a prelude to the design of strategies to enhance recovery of bone, this paper reviews published literature related to bone recovery in the adult. We conclude that recovery can be expected, but the rate and extent will be individual and bone site dependent. The development of strategies to encourage or enhance bone formation following space flight may be as important as implementing countermeasures during flight.

  10. Guinea worm cause of adult onset asthmatic attack, a radiological diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Marchie, T T

    1999-01-01

    A case report of a fifty years old Hausa male from Sokoto town, Nigeria an endemic region of guinea worm infestation, who presented with sudden adult onset of asthmatic attack and was evaluated radiologically and the diagnosis of acute obstructive airway disease was confirmed. It was noted, that there were associated calcified chain of guinea worms in the lung parenchyma. A rare association of acute asthmatic attack. Patient responded there-after to an anti-asthmatic regime of management.

  11. Ectopic Human Fasciola hepatica Infection by an Adult Worm in the Mesocolon

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ah Jin; Choi, Chang Hwan; Choi, Sun Keun; Shin, Yong Woon; Park, Yun-Kyu; Kim, Lucia; Choi, Suk Jin; Han, Jee Young; Kim, Joon Mee; Chu, Young Chae; Park, In Suh

    2015-01-01

    We report here an ectopic case of Fasciola hepatica infection confirmed by recovery of an adult worm in the mesocolon. A 56-year-old female was admitted to our hospital with discomfort and pain in the left lower quadrant of the abdomen. Abdominal CT showed 3 abscesses in the left upper quadrant, mesentery, and pelvic cavity. On surgical exploration, abscess pockets were found in the mesocolon of the sigmoid colon and transverse colon. A leaf-like worm found in the abscess pocket of the mesocolon of the left colon was diagnosed as an adult fluke of F. hepatica. Histologically, numerous eggs of F. hepatica were noted with acute and chronic granulomatous inflammations in the subserosa and pericolic adipose tissues. Conclusively, a rare case of ectopic fascioliasis has been confirmed in this study by the adult worm recovery of F. hepatica in the mesocolon. PMID:26797440

  12. Ectopic Human Fasciola hepatica Infection by an Adult Worm in the Mesocolon.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ah Jin; Choi, Chang Hwan; Choi, Sun Keun; Shin, Yong Woon; Park, Yun-Kyu; Kim, Lucia; Choi, Suk Jin; Han, Jee Young; Kim, Joon Mee; Chu, Young Chae; Park, In Suh

    2015-12-01

    We report here an ectopic case of Fasciola hepatica infection confirmed by recovery of an adult worm in the mesocolon. A 56-year-old female was admitted to our hospital with discomfort and pain in the left lower quadrant of the abdomen. Abdominal CT showed 3 abscesses in the left upper quadrant, mesentery, and pelvic cavity. On surgical exploration, abscess pockets were found in the mesocolon of the sigmoid colon and transverse colon. A leaf-like worm found in the abscess pocket of the mesocolon of the left colon was diagnosed as an adult fluke of F. hepatica. Histologically, numerous eggs of F. hepatica were noted with acute and chronic granulomatous inflammations in the subserosa and pericolic adipose tissues. Conclusively, a rare case of ectopic fascioliasis has been confirmed in this study by the adult worm recovery of F. hepatica in the mesocolon.

  13. Tetrathyridia of Mesocestoides lineatus in Chinese snakes and their adults recovered from experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Kim, Tong-Soo; Kong, Yoon; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Sohn, Woon-Mok

    2013-10-01

    Morphological characteristics of Mesocestoides lineatus tetrathyridia collected from Chinese snakes and their adults recovered from experimental animals were studied. The tetrathyridia were detected mainly in the mesentery of 2 snake species, Agkistrodon saxatilis (25%) and Elaphe schrenckii (20%). They were 1.73 by 1.02 mm in average size and had an invaginated scolex with 4 suckers. Adult tapeworms were recovered from 2 hamsters and 1 dog, which were orally infected with 5-10 larvae each. Adults from hamsters were about 32 cm long and those from a dog were about 58 cm long. The scolex was 0.56 mm in average width with 4 suckers of 0.17 by 0.15 mm in average size. Mature proglottids measured 0.29 by 0.91 mm (av.). Ovaries and vitellaria bilobed and located in the posterior portion of proglottids. The cirrus sac was oval-shaped and located median. Testes were follicular, distributed in both lateral fields of proglottids, and 41-52 in number per proglottid. Gravid proglottids were 1.84 by 1.39 mm (av.) with a characteristic paruterine organ. Eggs were 35 by 27 µm in average size with a hexacanth embryo. These morphological characteristics of adult worms were identical with those of M. lineatus reported previously. Therefore, it has been confirmed that the tetrathyridia detected in 2 species of Chinese snakes are the metacestodes of M. lineatus, and 2 snake species, A. saxatilis and E. schrenckii, play the role of intermediate hosts.

  14. Filarial abscess: Aspiration of adult gravid female worm from submandibular region, an unusual presentation

    PubMed Central

    Afrose, Ruquiya; Alam, Mohammad Feroz; Ahmad, Syed Shamshad; Naim, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Microfilaria is a major public health problem in tropical and subtropical countries and is an endemic problem in India. Wuchereria bancrofti is the most common filarial infection. In some cases, microfilariae and adult filarial worm have been incidentally detected in fine-needle aspirates of various lesions; detection of microfilaria from subcutaneous site or from abscess site is even rarer. We here report an unusual case of Bancroftian microfilariasis in a 68-year-old female coming from endemic area presenting with right submandibular abscess. Our aim is to highlight the chances of finding microfilaria and adult worm in cytology of an unsuspected case at an unusual site. PMID:28182103

  15. Filarial abscess: Aspiration of adult gravid female worm from submandibular region, an unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Afrose, Ruquiya; Alam, Mohammad Feroz; Ahmad, Syed Shamshad; Naim, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Microfilaria is a major public health problem in tropical and subtropical countries and is an endemic problem in India. Wuchereria bancrofti is the most common filarial infection. In some cases, microfilariae and adult filarial worm have been incidentally detected in fine-needle aspirates of various lesions; detection of microfilaria from subcutaneous site or from abscess site is even rarer. We here report an unusual case of Bancroftian microfilariasis in a 68-year-old female coming from endemic area presenting with right submandibular abscess. Our aim is to highlight the chances of finding microfilaria and adult worm in cytology of an unsuspected case at an unusual site.

  16. Ultrastructural alterations in Schistosoma mansoni juvenile and adult male worms after in vitro incubation with primaquine

    PubMed Central

    Kamel, Reem Osama A; Bayaumy, Fatma El-Zahraa Anwar

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Praziquantel has been cited as the only drug for treating schistosomiasis. However, concerns over drug resistance have encouraged the search for novel drug leads. The antimalarial drug primaquine possesses interesting anti-schistosmal properties. OBJECTIVES This study is the first to document the potential role of primaquine as a schistosomicide and the ultrastructural changes induced by primaquine on juvenile or adult male worms of Schistosoma mansoni. METHODS Ultrastructural alterations in the tegumental surface of 21-day-old juvenile and adult male worms of S. mansoni were demonstrated following primaquine treatment at different concentrations (2, 5, 10, 15, and 20 µg/mL) and incubation periods (1, 3, 6, 24, and 48 h) in vitro, using both scanning and transmission electron microscopy. FINDINGS At low concentrations (2, 5, and 10 µg/mL) both juvenile and adult male worms were alive after 24 h of incubation, whereas contraction, paralysis, and death of all worms were observed after 24 h of drug exposure at 20 µg/mL. The tegument of juvenile and adult male worms treated with primaquine exhibited erosion, peeling, and sloughing. Furthermore, extensive damage of both tegumental and subtegumental layers included embedded spines, and shrinkage of muscles with vacuoles. The in vitro results confirmed that primaquine has dose-dependent effects with 20 µg/mL as the most effective concentration in a short incubation period. MAIN CONCLUSIONS The schistosomicidal activity of primaquine indicates that this drug possesses moderate in vitro activity against juvenile and adult male worms, since it caused high mortality and tegumental alterations. This study confirmed that the antimalarial drug primaquine possesses anti-schistosomal activity. Further investigation is needed to elucidate its mechanism of action. PMID:28327785

  17. Isoforms of Hsp70-binding human LDL in adult Schistosoma mansoni worms.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Adriana S A; Cavalcanti, Marília G S; Zingali, Russolina B; Lima-Filho, José L; Chaves, Maria E C

    2015-03-01

    Schistosoma mansoni is one of the most common parasites infecting humans. They are well adapted to the host, and this parasite's longevity is a consequence of effective escape from the host immune system. In the blood circulation, lipoproteins not only help to conceal the worm from attack by host antibodies but also act as a source of lipids for S. mansoni. Previous SEM studies showed that the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles present on the surface of adult S. mansoni worms decreased in size when the incubation time increased. In this study, immunocytochemical and proteomic analyses were used to locate and identify S. mansoni binding proteins to human plasma LDL. Ultrathin sections of adult worms were cut transversely from the anterior, medial and posterior regions of the parasite. Immunocytochemical experiments revealed particles of gold in the tegument, muscle region and spine in male worms and around vitelline cells in females. Immunoblotting and 2D-electrophoresis using incubations with human serum, anti-LDL antibodies and anti-chicken IgG peroxidase conjugate were performed to identify LDL-binding proteins in S. mansoni. Analysis of the binding proteins using LC-MS identified two isoforms of the Hsp70 chaperone in S. mansoni. Hsp70 is involved in the interaction with apoB in the cytoplasm and its transport to the endoplasmic reticulum. However, further studies are needed to clarify the functional role of Hsp70 in S. mansoni, mainly related to the interaction with human LDL.

  18. Mapping fucosylated epitopes on glycoproteins and glycolipids of Schistosoma mansoni cercariae, adult worms and eggs.

    PubMed

    Robijn, M L M; Wuhrer, M; Kornelis, D; Deelder, A M; Geyer, R; Hokke, C H

    2005-01-01

    The developmental expression of the antigenic fucosylated glycan motifs Fucalpha1-3GalNAcbeta1-4GlcNAc (F-LDN), Fucalpha1-3GalNAcbeta1-4(Fucalpha1-3)GlcNAc (F-LDN-F), GalNAcbeta1-4(Fucalpha1-3)GlcNAc (LDN-F), Galbeta1-4(Fucalpha1-3)GlcNAc (Lewis X), and GalNAcbeta1-4(Fucalpha1-2Fucalpha1-3)GlcNAc (LDN-DF) in Schistosoma mansoni cercariae, adult worms and eggs, was surveyed using previously defined anti-carbohydrate monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Lewis X was found both on glycolipids and glycoproteins, yet with completely different expression patterns during the life-cycle: on glycolipids, Lewis X was mainly found in the cercarial stage, while protein-conjugated Lewis X was mainly present in the egg stage. Also protein-conjugated LDN-F and LDN-DF were most highly expressed in the egg-stage. On glycolipids LDN-DF was found in all three examined stages, whereas LDN-F containing glycolipids were restricted to adult worms and eggs. The motifs F-LDN and F-LDN-F were found both on glycoproteins and glycolipids of the cercarial and egg stage, while in the adult stage, they appeared to occur predominantly on glycolipids. Immunofluorescence assays (IFA) showed that these F-LDN and F-LDN-F containing glycolipids were localized in a yet undefined duct or excretory system of adult worms. Murine infection serum showed major reactivity with this adult worm duct-system, which could be fully inhibited by pre-incubation with keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH). Clearly, the use of defined mAbs provides a quick and convenient way to map expression profiles of carbohydrate epitopes.

  19. Tetrathyridia of Mesocestoides lineatus in Chinese Snakes and Their Adults Recovered from Experimental Animals

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Kim, Tong-Soo; Kong, Yoon; Na, Byoung-Kuk

    2013-01-01

    Morphological characteristics of Mesocestoides lineatus tetrathyridia collected from Chinese snakes and their adults recovered from experimental animals were studied. The tetrathyridia were detected mainly in the mesentery of 2 snake species, Agkistrodon saxatilis (25%) and Elaphe schrenckii (20%). They were 1.73 by 1.02 mm in average size and had an invaginated scolex with 4 suckers. Adult tapeworms were recovered from 2 hamsters and 1 dog, which were orally infected with 5-10 larvae each. Adults from hamsters were about 32 cm long and those from a dog were about 58 cm long. The scolex was 0.56 mm in average width with 4 suckers of 0.17 by 0.15 mm in average size. Mature proglottids measured 0.29 by 0.91 mm (av.). Ovaries and vitellaria bilobed and located in the posterior portion of proglottids. The cirrus sac was oval-shaped and located median. Testes were follicular, distributed in both lateral fields of proglottids, and 41-52 in number per proglottid. Gravid proglottids were 1.84 by 1.39 mm (av.) with a characteristic paruterine organ. Eggs were 35 by 27 µm in average size with a hexacanth embryo. These morphological characteristics of adult worms were identical with those of M. lineatus reported previously. Therefore, it has been confirmed that the tetrathyridia detected in 2 species of Chinese snakes are the metacestodes of M. lineatus, and 2 snake species, A. saxatilis and E. schrenckii, play the role of intermediate hosts. PMID:24327778

  20. Transmission electron microscopic observations on ultrastructural alterations in Schistosoma mansoni adult worms recovered from C57BL/6 mice treated with radiation-attenuated vaccine and/or praziquantel in addition to passive immunization with normal and vaccinated rabbit sera against infection.

    PubMed

    El-Shabasy, Eman A; Reda, Enayat S; Abdeen, Sherif H; Said, Ashraf E; Ouhtit, Allal

    2015-04-01

    Although the current treatment of schistosomiasis relies largely on praziquantel (PZQ), it has not been successful in significantly reducing the overall rate of disease cases, one of the suggested reasons being the inevitable resistance to PZQ. Previous studies showed that radiation-attenuated vaccine provides protection against Schistosoma mansoni in a host of various species. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of various vaccination strategies in C57BL/6 mice, including single or multiple vaccination strategy, subcurative dose (20 mg/kg) of PZQ, and a combination of single vaccination with subcurative dose of PZQ. Treatment either with subcurative dose of PZQ or with a single vaccination of attenuated cercariae (500 per mouse), caused significant reduction in total worm burden, hepatic, and intestinal ova counts of 43.03, 73.2, and 59.5 and 37.97, 52.02, and 26.3%, respectively. Furthermore, tegumental changes were observed. In multiple vaccinated group, there was an extensive lysis in tegumental layers. High deformations in gastrodermis, testis cells, vitelline cells, and oocytes were recorded. Also, this study is to explore the role of humoral immunity using highly resistant rabbits that had been exposed to three immunizations with ultraviolet (UV)-irradiated cercariae (8000 per rabbit in each immunization), and their sera were tested for their ability to transfer protection. The reduction in challenge worm burden had reached 32.76-43.64% when compared with recipients of normal serum or no serum. The reduction in hepatic and intestinal ova counts reached to 74.4 and 71.08% in group immunized with vaccinated rabbit sera. Swelling and extensive lysis of tegumental layers, gastrodermis lumen, spermatocytes, and deformation of oocytes were recorded with more severity than that recorded in normal rabbit sera group. Our findings recorded that multiple vaccination strategy is the most effective strategy then passive transfer of vaccinated rabbit. This gives

  1. Schistosomicidal Activity of Alkyl-phenols from the Cashew Anacardium occidentale against Schistosoma mansoni Adult Worms.

    PubMed

    Alvarenga, Tavane A; de Oliveira, Pollyanna F; de Souza, Julia M; Tavares, Denise C; Andrade E Silva, Márcio L; Cunha, Wilson R; Groppo, Milton; Januário, Ana H; Magalhães, Lizandra G; Pauletti, Patrícia M

    2016-11-23

    Bioassay-guided study of the ethanol extract from the cashew Anacardium occidentale furnished cardol triene (1), cardol diene (2), anacardic acid triene (3), cardol monoene (4), anacardic acid diene (5), 2-methylcardol triene (6), and 2-methylcardol diene (7). 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments and HRMS analysis confirmed the structures of compounds 1-7. Compounds 2 and 7 were active against Schistosoma mansoni adult worms in vitro, with LC50 values of 32.2 and 14.5 μM and selectivity indices of 6.1 and 21.2, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy of the tegument of male worms in the presence of compound 7 at 25 μM after 24 h of incubation showed severe damage as well as peeling and reduction in the number of spine tubercles. Transmission electron microscopy analyses revealed swollen mitochondrial membrane, vacuoles, and altered tegument in worms incubated with compound 2 (25 μM after 24 h). Worms incubated with compound 7 (25 μM after 24 h) had lysed interstitial tissue, degenerated mitochondria, and drastically altered tegument. Together, the results indicated that compound 7 presents promising in vitro schistosomicidal activity.

  2. Synergy of Omeprazole and Praziquantel In Vitro Treatment against Schistosoma mansoni Adult Worms

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Leticia; Venancio, Thiago M.; Nakaya, Helder I.; Miyasato, Patrícia A.; Rofatto, Henrique K.; Zerlotini, Adhemar; Nakano, Eliana; Oliveira, Guilherme; Verjovski-Almeida, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Background Treatment and morbidity control of schistosomiasis relies on a single drug, praziquantel (PZQ), and the selection of resistant worms under repeated treatment is a concern. Therefore, there is a pressing need to understand the molecular effects of PZQ on schistosomes and to investigate alternative or synergistic drugs against schistosomiasis. Methodology We used a custom-designed Schistosoma mansoni expression microarray to explore the effects of sublethal doses of PZQ on large-scale gene expression of adult paired males and females and unpaired mature females. We also assessed the efficacy of PZQ, omeprazole (OMP) or their combination against S. mansoni adult worms with a survival in vitro assay. Principal Findings We identified sets of genes that were affected by PZQ in paired and unpaired mature females, however with opposite gene expression patterns (up-regulated in paired and down-regulated in unpaired mature females), indicating that PZQ effects are heavily influenced by the mating status. We also identified genes that were similarly affected by PZQ in males and females. Functional analyses of gene interaction networks were performed with parasite genes that were differentially expressed upon PZQ treatment, searching for proteins encoded by these genes whose human homologs are targets of different drugs used for other diseases. Based on these results, OMP, a widely prescribed proton pump inhibitor known to target the ATP1A2 gene product, was chosen and tested. Sublethal doses of PZQ combined with OMP significantly increased worm mortality in vitro when compared with PZQ or OMP alone, thus evidencing a synergistic effect. Conclusions Functional analysis of gene interaction networks is an important approach that can point to possible novel synergistic drug candidates. We demonstrated the potential of this strategy by showing that PZQ in combination with OMP displayed increased efficiency against S. mansoni adult worms in vitro when compared with

  3. Effects of doxycycline on heartworm embryogenesis, transmission, circulating microfilaria, and adult worms in microfilaremic dogs.

    PubMed

    McCall, J W; Kramer, L; Genchi, C; Guerrero, J; Dzimianski, M T; Mansour, A; McCall, S D; Carson, B

    2014-11-15

    Tetracycline treatment of animals or humans infected with filariae that harbor Wolbachia endosymbionts blocks further embryogenesis, and existing microfilariae gradually die. This treatment also kills developing larvae and has a slow-kill effect on adult filariae, all presumably due to elimination of the Wolbachia. Also, Dirofilaria immitis microfilariae in blood collected from dogs up to 25 days after the last dose of doxycycline developed to infective L3 that were normal in appearance and motility in mosquitoes but did not continue to develop or migrate normally after subcutaneous (SC) injection into dogs. The present study was designed to determine whether heartworm microfilariae collected at later times after treatment would regain the ability to continue normal development in a dog. The study also was expected to yield valuable data on the effects of treatment on microfilariae and antigen levels and adult worms. The study was conducted in 16 dogs as two separate replicates at different times. A total of five dogs (two in Replicate A and three in Replicate B) infected either by SC injection of L3 or intravenous transplantation of adult heartworms were given doxycycline orally at 10mg/kg twice daily for 30 days, with three untreated controls. Microfilarial counts in the five treated dogs gradually declined during the 12-13 months after treatment initiation. Two dogs were amicrofilaremic before necropsy and three had 13 or fewer microfilariae/ml. Only one treated dog was negative for heartworm antigen before necropsy. Overall, treated dogs generally had fewer live adult heartworms than controls, and most of their live worms were moribund. All three control dogs remained positive for microfilariae and antigen and had many live worms. L3 from mosquitoes fed on blood collected 73-77 or 161-164 days after initiation of doxycycline treatments were injected SC into five dogs. None of the dogs injected with L3 from mosquitoes fed on blood from doxycycline-treated dogs

  4. Schistosoma mansoni infection of Syrian golden hamsters: the host humoral immune response in relation to the adult worm burdens after primary infection.

    PubMed

    Yong, W K; Das, P K; Dachlan, Y P

    1983-01-01

    Seven-week-old female Syrian golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) showed different degrees of susceptibility to Schistosoma mansoni, as assessed by the percentage of cercariae recovered as adult worms 6 weeks after infection. Plasma of the low (A), medium (B) and high (C) susceptibility groups were tested immunochemically. No differences were observed in the concentrations of albumin, alpha 1-, alpha 2-, beta- and gamma-globulins as measured by cellulose acetate electrophoresis. However, a significantly higher percentage of animals in groups A and B than in group C had an S. mansoni specific "beforked" IgG precipitin band and specific antibodies against a worm tegumental antigen preparation (AWT). Conversely, more animals in group C made antibodies against a "denuded" worm-body antigen preparation (AWB) than in groups A and B. However, by using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, no significant differences in antibody titres against AWT, AWB and a total worm antigen (AVA) were observed in the animals in groups A, B and C. Upon consideration of the immunochemical data in relation to the distribution pattern of susceptibility to infection, we propose that the intensity of S. mansoni infection in the hamster is a polygene-controlled phenomenon and depends upon the presentation of differing parasite antigenic component(s) to the host.

  5. Expression of five acetylcholine receptor subunit genes in Brugia malayi adult worms

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ben-Wen; Rush, Amy C.; Weil, Gary J.

    2015-01-01

    Acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) are required for body movement in parasitic nematodes and are targets of “classical” anthelmintic drugs such as levamisole and pyrantel and of newer drugs such as tribendimidine and derquantel. While neurotransmission explains the effects of these drugs on nematode movement, their effects on parasite reproduction are unexplained. The levamisole AChR type (L-AChRs) in Caenorhabditis elegans is comprised of five subunits: Cel-UNC-29, Cel-UNC-38, Cel-UNC-63, Cel-LEV-1 and Cel-LEV-8. The genome of the filarial parasite Brugia malayi contains nine AChRs subunits including orthologues of Cel-unc-29, Cel-unc-38, and Cel-unc-63. We performed in situ hybridization with RNA probes to localize the expression of five AChR genes (Bm1_35890-Bma-unc-29, Bm1_20330-Bma-unc-38, Bm1_38195-Bma-unc-63, Bm1_48815-Bma-acr-26 and Bm1_40515-Bma-acr-12) in B. malayi adult worms. Four of these genes had similar expression patterns with signals in body muscle, developing embryos, spermatogonia, uterine wall adjacent to stretched microfilariae, wall of Vas deferens, and lateral cord. Three L-AChR subunit genes (Bma-unc-29, Bma-unc-38 and Bma-unc-63) were expressed in body muscle, which is a known target of levamisole. Bma-acr-12 was co-expressed with these levamisole subunit genes in muscle, and this suggests that its protein product may form receptors with other alpha subunits. Bma-acr-26 was expressed in male muscle but not in female muscle. Strong expression signals of these genes in early embryos and gametes in uterus and testis suggest that AChRs may have a role in nervous system development of embryogenesis and spermatogenesis. This would be consistent with embryotoxic effects of drugs that target these receptors in filarial worms. Our data show that the expression of these receptor genes is tightly regulated with regard to localization in adult worms and developmental stage in embryos and gametes. These results may help to explain the broad effects

  6. De novo assembly and characterization of the Trichuris trichiura adult worm transcriptome using Ion Torrent sequencing.

    PubMed

    Santos, Leonardo N; Silva, Eduardo S; Santos, André S; De Sá, Pablo H; Ramos, Rommel T; Silva, Artur; Cooper, Philip J; Barreto, Maurício L; Loureiro, Sebastião; Pinheiro, Carina S; Alcantara-Neves, Neuza M; Pacheco, Luis G C

    2016-07-01

    Infection with helminthic parasites, including the soil-transmitted helminth Trichuris trichiura (human whipworm), has been shown to modulate host immune responses and, consequently, to have an impact on the development and manifestation of chronic human inflammatory diseases. De novo derivation of helminth proteomes from sequencing of transcriptomes will provide valuable data to aid identification of parasite proteins that could be evaluated as potential immunotherapeutic molecules in near future. Herein, we characterized the transcriptome of the adult stage of the human whipworm T. trichiura, using next-generation sequencing technology and a de novo assembly strategy. Nearly 17.6 million high-quality clean reads were assembled into 6414 contiguous sequences, with an N50 of 1606bp. In total, 5673 protein-encoding sequences were confidentially identified in the T. trichiura adult worm transcriptome; of these, 1013 sequences represent potential newly discovered proteins for the species, most of which presenting orthologs already annotated in the related species T. suis. A number of transcripts representing probable novel non-coding transcripts for the species T. trichiura were also identified. Among the most abundant transcripts, we found sequences that code for proteins involved in lipid transport, such as vitellogenins, and several chitin-binding proteins. Through a cross-species expression analysis of gene orthologs shared by T. trichiura and the closely related parasites T. suis and T. muris it was possible to find twenty-six protein-encoding genes that are consistently highly expressed in the adult stages of the three helminth species. Additionally, twenty transcripts could be identified that code for proteins previously detected by mass spectrometry analysis of protein fractions of the whipworm somatic extract that present immunomodulatory activities. Five of these transcripts were amongst the most highly expressed protein-encoding sequences in the T

  7. Effectiveness of hyperbaric oxygen for experimental treatment of schistosomiasis mansoni using praziquantel-free and encapsulated into liposomes: assay in adult worms and oviposition.

    PubMed

    Frezza, Tarsila Ferraz; de Souza, Ana Luiza Ribeiro; Prado, César Corat Ribeiro; de Oliveira, Claudineide Nascimento Fernandes; Gremião, Maria Palmira Daflon; Giorgio, Selma; Dolder, Mary Anne Heidi; Joazeiro, Paulo Pinto; Allegretti, Silmara Marques

    2015-10-01

    The treatment of schistosomiasis depends on a single drug: praziquantel (PZQ). However, this treatment presents limitations such as low and/or erratic bioavailability that can contribute to cases of tolerance. Improvements to the available drug are urgently needed and studies with a controlled system of drug release, like liposomes, have been gaining prominence. The present study evaluated the activity and synergy between liposomal-praziquantel (lip.PZQ) and hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO). Mice received doses of 60 or 100mg/kg PZQ or lip.PZQ, 50 days post-infection, and after the treatment, were exposed to HBO (3 atmosphere absolute - ATA) for 1h. The viability of adult worms and oviposition were analyzed, by necropsy and Kato-Katz examination performed after 15 days of treatment. A concentration of 100mg/kg of lip.PZQ+HBO was more effective (48.0% reduction of worms, 83.3% reduction of eggs/gram of feces) and 100% of the mice had altered of oograms (indicating interruption of oviposition) compared to other treatments and to the Control group (infected and untreated). It is known that PZQ requires participation of the host immune system to complete its antischistosomal activity and that HBO is able to stimulate the immune system. The drug became more available in the body when incorporated into liposomes and, used with HBO, the HBO worked as an adjuvant. This explains the decreases of oviposition and worms recovered form hepatic portal system.

  8. Human TNF-α induces differential protein phosphorylation in Schistosoma mansoni adult male worms.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Katia C; Carvalho, Mariana L P; Bonatto, José Matheus C; Schechtman, Debora; Verjovski-Almeida, Sergio

    2016-02-01

    Schistosoma mansoni and its vertebrate host have a complex and intimate connection in which several molecular stimuli are exchanged and affect both organisms. Human tumor necrosis factor alpha (hTNF-α), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, is known to induce large-scale gene expression changes in the parasite and to affect several parasite biological processes such as metabolism, egg laying, and worm development. Until now, the molecular mechanisms for TNF-α activity in worms are not completely understood. Here, we aimed at exploring the effect of hTNF-α on S. mansoni protein phosphorylation by 2D gel electrophoresis followed by a quantitative analysis of phosphoprotein staining and protein identification by mass spectrometry. We analyzed three biological replicates of adult male worms exposed to hTNF-α and successfully identified 32 protein spots with a statistically significant increase in phosphorylation upon in vitro exposure to hTNF-α. Among the differentially phosphorylated proteins, we found proteins involved in metabolism, such as glycolysis, galactose metabolism, urea cycle, and aldehyde metabolism, as well as proteins related to muscle contraction and to cytoskeleton remodeling. The most differentially phosphorylated protein (30-fold increase in phosphorylation) was 14-3-3, whose function is known to be modulated by phosphorylation, belonging to a signal transduction protein family that regulates a variety of processes in all eukaryotic cells. Further, 75% of the identified proteins are known in mammals to be related to TNF-α signaling, thus suggesting that TNF-α response may be conserved in the parasite. We propose that this work opens new perspectives to be explored in the study of the molecular crosstalk between host and pathogen.

  9. Influence of immunoprotection on genetic variability of cysteine proteinases from Haemonchus contortus adult worms.

    PubMed

    Martín, S; Molina, J M; Hernández, Y I; Ferrer, O; Muñoz, Ma C; López, A; Ortega, L; Ruiz, A

    2015-11-01

    The limitations associated with the use of anthelmintic drugs in the control of gastrotintestinal nematodosis, such as the emergence of anthelmintic resistance, have stimulated the study of the immunological control of many parasites. In the case of Haemonchus contortus, several vaccination trials using native and recombinant antigens have been conducted. A group of antigens with demonstrated immunoprotective value are cathepsin B - like proteolytic enzymes of the cysteine proteinase type. These enzymes, which have been observed in both excretory-secretory products and somatic extracts of H. contortus, may vary among different geographic isolates and on strains isolated from different hosts, or even from the same host, as has been demonstrated in some comparative studies of genetic variability. In the present study, we evaluated the genetic variability of the worms that fully developed their endogenous cycle in immunised sheep and goat in order to identify the alleles of most immunoprotective value. To address these objectives, groups of sheep and goats were immunised with PBS soluble fractions enriched for cysteine proteinases from adult worms of H. contortus from either a strain of H. contortus isolated from goats of Gran Canaria Island (SP) or a strain isolated from sheep of North America (NA). The results confirmed the immunoprophylactic value of this type of enzyme against haemonchosis in both sheep and goats in association with increased levels of specific IgG. The genetic analysis demonstrated that the immunisation had a genetic selection on proteinase-encoding genes. In all the immunised animals, allelic frequencies were statistically different from those observed in non-immunised control animals in the four analysed genes. The reduction in the allelic frequencies suggests that parasites expressing these proteases are selectively targeted by the vaccine, and hence they should be considered in any subunit vaccine approach to control haemonchosis in small

  10. Proteomic analysis of Trichinella spiralis adult worm excretory-secretory proteins recognized by early infection sera.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruo Dan; Qi, Xin; Sun, Ge Ge; Jiang, Peng; Zhang, Xi; Wang, Li Ang; Liu, Xiao Lin; Wang, Zhong Quan; Cui, Jing

    2016-11-15

    At the intestinal stage of a Trichinella spiralis (T. spiralis) infection, the excretory-secretory (ES) antigens produced by adult worms (AWs) result in an early exposure to the host's immune system and elicit the production of specific antibodies; the AW ES proteins might provide early diagnostic markers of trichinellosis. The aim of this study was to identify early serodiagnostic markers from T. spiralis AW ES antigens. T. spiralis AWs were collected at 72h post infection, and their ES antigens were analysed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot. Then, the immunoreactive bands were subjected to shotgun LC-MS/MS and bioinformatics analyses. Our results showed that only one protein band (33kDa) was recognized by the sera of mice infected with T. spiralis at 8 days after infection. The shotgun LC-MS/MS analysis identified 23 proteins that were then clustered into 10 types; these proteins had molecular weights of 28.13-71.62kDa and pI 5.05-9.20. Certain enzymes (e.g., serine protease, adult-specific deoxyribonuclease [DNase] II, peptidase S1A subfamily, and multi cystatin-like domain protein) were found to be highly represented. The functions of the 10 proteins were further analysed: of the 6 annotated proteins, 3 had serine hydrolase activity and 2 had DNase II activity. These results provide a valuable basis for identifying early diagnostic antigens and vaccine candidates for trichinellosis.

  11. Occurrence of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Railliet, 1898) in Danish cats: A modified lung digestion method for isolating adult worms.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Caroline Salling; Willesen, Jakob L; Pipper, Christian B; Mejer, Helena

    2015-05-30

    As Aelurostrongylus abstrusus has not previously received any attention in Denmark, the study investigated the occurrence of A. abstrusus amongst outdoor cats from three regions (Zealand, Møn and Falster). Faeces and lungs were collected from a total of 147 feral (n=125) and domesticated cats (n=22) that were euthanized for reasons outside of this project. Using a modified Baermann technique 13.6% of the cats was found to be positive. A new lung digestion technique was developed to isolate eggs, L1 and adult worms from the lungs and this revealed a prevalence of 15.6% although with regional differences. There was no difference between feral and domesticated cats just as sex and age did not appear to influence prevalence and worm burden. Lungs from 87% of the positive cats had the gross appearance compatible with A. abstrusus and the severity of lung damage was proportional to LPG and number of adult worms. Within the current range of worm burdens (0-22) with a mean intensity of 7 per cat, there was a correlation with faecal excretion levels of L1 that ranged from 0-39,000 with a mean of 3586 per cat. The results did not indicate that the infection levels of the naturally infected cats were substantially affected by acquired immunity, but further studies are needed to determine the importance of host immune responses in regulating parasite populations.

  12. iTRAQ-based comparative proteomic analysis of excretory-secretory proteins of schistosomula and adult worms of Schistosoma japonicum.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiaodan; Fu, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Min; Han, Yanhui; Han, Hongxiao; Han, Qian; Lu, Ke; Hong, Yang; Lin, Jiaojiao

    2016-04-14

    Schistosomiasis remains a serious public health problem with 200 million people infected and 779 million people at risk worldwide. The schistosomulum and adult worm are two stages of the complex lifecycle of Schistosoma japonicum and excretory/secretory proteins (ESPs) play a major role in host-parasite interactions. In this study, iTRAQ-coupled LC-MS/MS was used to investigate the proteome of ESPs obtained from schistosomula and adult worms of S. japonicum, and 298 differential ESPs were identified. Bioinformatics analysis of differential ESPs in the two developmental stages showed that 161 ESPs upregulated in schistosomula were associated with stress responses, carbohydrate metabolism and protein degradation, whereas ESPs upregulated in adult worms were mainly related to immunoregulation and purine metabolism. Recombinant heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and thioredoxin peroxidase (TPx), two differential proteins identified in this study, were expressed. Further studies showed that rSjHSP70 and rSjTPx stimulated macrophages expressing high levels of the anti-inflammatory factors TGF-β, IL-10 and Arg-1, and suppressed the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and iNOS in LPS-induced macrophages. This study provides new insights into the survival and development of schistosomes in the final host and helps identify vaccine candidates or new diagnostic reagents for schistosomiasis.

  13. Exosome-like vesicles derived by Schistosoma japonicum adult worms mediates M1 type immune- activity of macrophage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lifu; Li, Zhitao; Shen, Jia; Liu, Zhen; Liang, Jinyi; Wu, Xiaoying; Sun, Xi; Wu, Zhongdao

    2015-05-01

    Exosomes are 30-100-nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin that are released into the extracellular space upon fusion of the multi-vesicular bodies (MVB) with the plasma membrane, while initial studies described that the role of exosomes was a reticulocyte cargo-disposal mechanism allowing remodeling of the plasma membrane during the maturation of reticulocytes to erythrocytes. Recent studies indicate that exosomes are secreted by most cells and pathogens and play an important role in intercellular signaling and exert regulatory function by carrying bioactive molecules. As numerous pathogens, adult worm of Schistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum) reside in mesenteric veins of definitive host including man and mammal animals. It was reported that the worms or the eggs also have specialized secretion systems to export effector proteins or other molecules into host target cells. However, the mechanisms involved remained unclear. This study investigated the isolation of the exosome-like vesicles secreted by S. japonicum adult worms and its immune activity on microphage in vitro. In this report, we identified exosome-based secretion as a new mechanism for protein secretion by S. japonicum. Electron microscopy tomography revealed the previously unidentified ultrastructural detail of exosome-like vesicles with high resolution; they were found to be typical spherical shape and to have a diverse population that varies in size of 30-100 nm. Exosome-like vesicles isolated from S. japonicum contained a significantly different protein compared with debris pelleted and the apoptosis body. We also demonstrate that macrophages were preferentially differentiated into the M1 subtype while being treated with S. japonicum exosome-like vesicles. This study reveals there are exosome-like vesicles derived by S. japonicum adult worms, and the exosome-like vesicles can mediate M1-type immune- activity of macrophage.

  14. Og4C3 circulating antigen: a marker of infection and adult worm burden in Wuchereria bancrofti filariasis.

    PubMed

    Chanteau, S; Moulia-Pelat, J P; Glaziou, P; Nguyen, N L; Luquiaud, P; Plichart, C; Martin, P M; Cartel, J L

    1994-07-01

    Og4C3 circulating filarial antigen was detected in the sera of 94.5% (259/274) of microfilaremic patients, 32% (239/751) of persons with presumption of filariasis, and 23% (11/48) of chronic filariasis patients. The antigen level was correlated with the microfilariae (Mf) density and patient age (P < .01). It remained stable in patients treated with microfilaricidal drugs. Og4C3 antigen, undetectable in Mf culture media, was demonstrated to be a rare somatic Mf antigen. It appears to be an excreted or secreted antigen from adult filaria. It could be used as a marker of infection and an indicator of adult worm burden.

  15. Protective immunity to Schistosoma haematobium infection is primarily an anti-fecundity response stimulated by the death of adult worms

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Kate M.; Mutapi, Francisca; Savill, Nicholas J.; Woolhouse, Mark E.J.

    2012-01-01

    Protective immunity against human schistosome infection develops slowly, for reasons that are not yet fully understood. For many decades, researchers have attempted to infer properties of the immune response from epidemiological studies, with mathematical models frequently being used to bridge the gap between immunological theory and population-level data on schistosome infection and immune responses. Here, building upon earlier model findings, stochastic individual-based models were used to identify model structures consistent with observed field patterns of Schistosoma haematobium infection and antibody responses, including their distributions in cross-sectional surveys, and the observed treatment-induced antibody switch. We found that the observed patterns of infection and antibody were most consistent with models in which a long-lived protective antibody response is stimulated by the death of adult S. haematobium worms and reduces worm fecundity. These findings are discussed with regard to current understanding of human immune responses to schistosome infection. PMID:22847410

  16. The efficacy of a topically applied imidacloprid 10 % / moxidectin 2.5 % formulation (Advocate®, Advantage® Multi, Bayer) against Immature and Adult Spirocerca lupi worms in experimentally infected dogs.

    PubMed

    Austin, Clinton M; Kok, Dawie J; Crafford, Dionne; Schaper, Roland

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated the efficacy and safety of an imidacloprid 10 %/moxidectin 2.5 % spot-on combination (Advocate®, Advantage® Multi, Bayer) against immature and mature stages of Spirocerca lupi in experimentally infected dogs. 24 dogs were allocated to 3 groups and infected with approximately 10 L3 larvae of S. lupi orally on study day (SD) +2, +14, +28 and +42. Group 1 remained as untreated control group. Group 2 dogs were treated on SD –28, 0, and thereafter monthly until Day 280 (12 treatments). Group 3 dogs were treated weekly on 19 occasions starting on SD +170. The dosage for all treatments was the licensed dose of 10–25 mg imidacloprid/2.5–6.25 mg moxidectin per kg body weight. All dogs were examined on SD +169 or +176 by endoscopy. Group 3 dogs were additionally examined approximately every two weeks up to Day 296. On Day +308 or +310, all dogs were necropsied to recover S. lupi worms and to quantify lesions in the thoracic aorta and oesophagus. Dogs in the control group were adequately infected with S. lupi, demonstrated by the extensive damage to the thoracic aorta, the nodules in the oesophagus and the large numbers of worms recovered. In total 144 worms were collected (geometric mean of 16.8 worms per dog). Dogs in group 2 had no or very slight damage to the thoracic aorta and no nodules or worms in the oesophagus, indicating 100 % efficacy of the monthly treatments. Dogs in group 3 were also adequately infected, showing nodules in the oesophagus before initiation of weekly treatment, and at necropsy extensive damage was seen in the thoracic aorta. After treatment, three dogs of 8 still had a few nodules and in total three worms (GM of 0.25 per dog) were recovered, demonstrating an efficacy of 98.5 % against adult S. lupi. All dogs tolerated the treatment well and no treatment- related adverse events occurred.

  17. Immunization of proteins from Toxascaris leonina adult worm inhibits allergic specific Th2 response.

    PubMed

    Lee, Keun Hee; Park, Hye Kyung; Jeong, Hae Jin; Park, Sang Kyun; Lee, Sun Joo; Choi, Sun Hee; Cho, Min Kyoung; Ock, Mee Sun; Hong, Yeon-Chul; Yu, Hak Sun

    2008-10-01

    Recently, the influence of parasitic infections on the incidence of allergic diseases has become the focus of increased attention. In order to ascertain whether parasite-derived proteins could inhibit the allergic specific Th2 response, we applied excretory-secretory protein (Tl-ES) or total protein (Tl-TP) of the adult worm Toxascaris leonina to asthma model mice prior to or simultaneously with OVA challenge, after which we assessed the OVA-specific Th2 responses. The group subjected to immunization with Tl-ES and Tl-TP (immunized group) evidenced a thinning of the bronchial epithelial and muscle layer, a disruption and shedding of epithelial cells, a reduction in the number of goblet cells, and a reduction in mucus production as compared to the group treated with Tl-ES coupled with OVA challenge (challenge with OVA groups) and the OVA-induced asthma group. The administration of Tl-ES and Tl-TP, regardless of injection time, was shown to inhibit the recruitment of inflammatory cells into the airway, and in particular, macrophages, neutrophils, and lymphocytes were significantly reduced as the result of the parasite proteins. However, the total number of eosinophils was slightly reduced as the result of the administration of parasite proteins. Sensitization and OVA challenge was shown to accelerate the secretion of Th2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-5) within the lung, but in the immunized groups, those levels were lower. The administration of Tl-TP and OVA challenge group also evidenced a significant reduction in IL-4 levels as compared to the OVA-challenged group. The concentrations of Th2 cytokines in the Tl-ES and OVA challenge group were more similar to those observed in the OVA-challenged group. The concentration of IL-10 and TGF-beta in the lung was decreased substantially in the OVA-only challenge group, but the Tl-TP immunized group exhibited significantly induced IL-10 cytokine. OVA-specific IgG2a, IgG1, and IgE levels in the immunized groups were significantly

  18. Programmed Worms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Donald T.

    1982-01-01

    A hungry worm is looking for something to eat according to very specific rules, and the path he takes is a graph. The problem is detailed in Applesoft BASIC using low resolution graphics for worms that turn 90 degrees and high resolution for worms that can turn 45 degrees. (MP)

  19. Blood parasites of two Costa Rican amphibians with comments on detection and microfilaria density associated with adult filarial worm intensity.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Valerie J; Starks, Hilary A

    2008-08-01

    The 2 objectives of this study were: (1) to compare parasite detectability in blood smears obtained from toe-clips versus the heart from amphibian hosts; and (2) to test whether microfilariae density is correlated with adult filarial worm intensity. We examined blood parasites of 2 species of amphibians, Rana vaillanti (n = 45) and Eleutherodactylus fitzingeri (n = 36), from Costa Rica collected during the summer of 2003. Separate blood smears were obtained from toe-clips and the heart during necrospy. Eight species of blood parasites were identified from R. vaillanti and 1 from E. fitzingeri. Each parasite species was counted in a 2 x 2.2-cm2 area on each blood smear, and the density of host red blood cells (RBCs) was estimated using a sub-sampling approach, allowing parasite infections to be expressed as individuals per RBC. The detection failure rate for toe-cut smears ranged from 71-100% (x = 92.3%) and from 0-9% (x = 2.4%) for heart smears, depending on parasite species. The density of RBCs was significantly higher in smears produced from heart samples and may explain the differences in detectability. Foleyellides striatus microfilariae densities (per RBC) were significantly correlated with adult female worm intensity (R2 = 0.32, P = 0.011).

  20. Taurine drinking attenuates the burden of intestinal adult worms and muscle larvae in mice with Trichinella spiralis infection.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yan-Rong; Liu, Xi-Cheng; Zhang, Jin-Sheng; Ji, Chao-Yue; Qi, Yong-Fen

    2013-10-01

    The parasitic nematode Trichinella spiralis can cause trichinellosis, which leads to pathological processes in the intestine and muscle. The intestinal invasion determines the development, subsequent course, and consequences of the disease. Gastrointestinal nematode infection, including with T. spiralis, is accompanied by a rapid and reversible expansion of mucosal mast cell and goblet cell in the intestinal epithelium, which play important roles in the host immune response to parasite and worm expulsion from the intestine. Taurine and its derivatives have anti-infection and anti-inflammatory properties. We investigated whether taurine supplementation in mice could influence the development and pathological processes of infection with T. spiralis. Supplementing 1% taurine in drinking water in mice infected with T. spiralis could alleviate the burden of intestinal adult worms on days 7 and 10 postinfection (all p < 0.01) and the formation of infective muscle larvae in striated muscle during T. spiralis infection (p < 0.01). As compared with T. spiralis infection alone, taurine treatment increased the number of goblet cells on days 7, 10, and 15 (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05) and alleviated intestinal mucosal mast cell hyperplasia on days 10 and 15 (all p < 0.01). So taurine supplementation in drinking water increased infection-induced intestinal goblet cell hyperplasia and ameliorated mucosal mastocytosis. Thus, taurine can ameliorate the pathological processes of trichinellosis and may be of great value for the treatment and prevention of infection with T. spiralis and other gastrointestinal nematodes.

  1. In vivo schistosomicidal activity of three novels 8-hydroxyquinoline derivatives against adult and immature worms of Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Allam, Gamal; Eweas, Ahmad F; Abuelsaad, Abdelaziz S A

    2013-09-01

    Schistosomiasis control is widely dependent on a single drug, praziquantel (PZQ). The potential for development of resistance to PZQ has justified the search for new alternative chemotherapies. In a previous study, we have been reported that three of 8-hydroxyquinoline derivatives namely: 3-((8-hydroxyquinolin-5-yl) sulfonyl) pentane-2,4-dione (HQSP), 5-((2,4-diphenyl-3H-benzo[b][1,4]diazepin-3-yl) sulfonyl) quinolin-8-ol (HQBD), and 5-((2,4-diphenyl-3H-pyrido[3,4-b][1,4] diazepin-3-yl) sulfonyl) quinolin-8-ol (HQPD) possess a potent anti-schistosomal activity in vitro. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vivo schistosomicidal effect of these three compounds on adult and immature worms of Schistosoma mansoni and their induced pathology. Treatment of S. mansoni-infected mice with 1000, 250, 150, and 200 mg/kg body weight of PZQ, HQSP, HQBD, and HQPD, respectively, reduced adult and immature worm burden by 94.63 and 31.32%, 73.63 and 5.45%, 76.5 and 28.11%, and 81.25 and 56.84%, respectively, compared to infected untreated mice. Moreover, numbers of egg per gram liver and intestine were decreased by 84 and 95.51%, 47.84 and 46.28 %, 53.18 and 59.37 %, and 54.22 and 67.26 as a result of PZQ, HQSP, HQBD, and HQPD treatment, respectively. Hepatic granuloma volume was also reduced by 40.10, 42.96, 35.72, and 72.09% due to PZQ, HQSP, HQBD, and HQPD treatment, respectively. In addition, hepatic histopathological alterations and collagen fiber deposition that accompanied with S. mansoni infection were largely retrieved with different treatments, especially HQPD treatment. Furthermore, humoral immune response, especially IgG response against S. mansoni antigens, was augmented with different treatments. This study concluded that among the three tested 8-hydroxyquinoline derivatives, HQPD is the most effective compound against adult and pre-mature worms of S. mansoni and can be used for the development of a new schistosomicidal drug.

  2. In vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity of (-)-6,6'-dinitrohinokinin against schistosomula and juvenile and adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Ana C; Silva, Márcio L A E; Souza, Julia Medeiros; Laurentiz, Rosangela S de; Rodrigues, Vanderlei; Januário, Ana H; Pauletti, Patrícia M; Tavares, Denise C; Filho, Ademar A Da Silva; Cunha, Wilson R; Bastos, Jairo K; Magalhães, Lizandra G

    2015-09-01

    The chemotherapy of schistosomiasis relies on the use of praziquantel. However, concerns over drug resistance have encouraged the search for new drug leads. This paper is the first report on the in vitro and in vivo activity of (-)-6,6'-dinitrohinokinin (DNK) against Schistosoma mansoni. In vitro, the lethal concentrations for 50% of parasites (LC50) of DNK against adult worms were 103.9±3.6 and 102.5±4.8μM at 24 and 72h, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy images showed extensive tegumental alterations such as peeling and smaller numbers of tubercles in the spine of adult worms. DNK also elicited high mortality of schistosomula, with LC50 values of 57.4±2.3, 32.5±0.9, and 20.4±1.2μM at 24, 48, and 72h, respectively. DNK displayed moderate activity against the juvenile liver parasite, with an LC50 value of 179.5±2.3 μM at 72h. This compound reduced the total number of eggs by over 83%, and it affected the development of eggs produced by adult worms. The selectivity index showed that at 24h, DNK was 8.5 and 15.4 times more toxic to the adult worms and schistosomula than to Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cells, respectively. Treatment of infected mice with DNK moderately decreased worm burden (33.8-52.3%), egg production (40.7-60.0%), and spleen and liver weights. Together, our results indicated that DNK presents moderate in vitro and in vivo activities against S. mansoni, and it might therefore be interesting to explore the structure-activity relationship of the antischistosomal activity of this compound.

  3. Dracunculiasis (guinea worm disease).

    PubMed

    Greenaway, Chris

    2004-02-17

    Dracunculiasis (guinea worm disease) is a parasitic disease that is limited to remote, rural villages in 13 sub-Saharan African countries that do not have access to safe drinking water. It is one the next diseases targeted for eradication by the World Health Organization. Guinea worm disease is transmitted by drinking water containing copepods (water fleas) that are infected with Dracunculiasis medinensis larvae. One year after human ingestion of infected water a female adult worm emerges, typically from a lower extremity, producing painful ulcers that can impair mobility for up to several weeks. This disease occurs annually when agricultural activities are at their peak. Large proportions of economically productive individuals of a village are usually affected simultaneously, resulting in decreased agricultural productivity and economic hardship. Eradication of guinea worm disease depends on prevention, as there is no effective treatment or vaccine. Since 1986, there has been a 98% reduction in guinea worm disease worldwide, achieved primarily through community-based programs. These programs have educated local populations on how to filter drinking water to remove the parasite and how to prevent those with ulcers from infecting drinking-water sources. Complete eradication will require sustained high-level political, financial and community support.

  4. In vitro evaluation of schistosomicidal activity of essential oil of Mentha x villosa and some of its chemical constituents in adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Matos-Rocha, Thiago José; dos Santos Cavalcanti, Marília Gabriela; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; Lúcio, Ana Silvia Suassuna Carneiro; Veras, Dyana Leal; Feitosa, Ana Paula Sampaio; de Siqueira Júnior, José Pinto; de Almeida, Reinaldo Nóbrega; Marques, Márcia Ortiz Mayo; Alves, Luiz Carlos; Brayner, Fábio André

    2013-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the composition of the essential oil of Mentha x villosa and to evaluate its biological effects in vitro on adult worms of S. mansoni. Rotundifolone (70.96 %), limonene (8.75 %), trans-caryophyllene (1.46 %), and β-pinene (0.81 %) were shown to be the major constituents of this oil. Adult worms of S. mansoni were incubated with different concentrations of the essential oil (1, 10, 100, 250, 500, and 1000 µg/mL) and of its constituents rotundifolone (0.7, 3.54, 7.09, 70.96, 177.4, 354.8, and 700.96 µg/mL), limonene (43.75 µg/mL), trans-caryophyllene (7.3 µg/mL), and β-pinene (4.03 µg/mL). No schistosomicidal activity was identified at the trans-caryophyllene and β-pinene concentrations studied. However, use of the essential oil (10 µg/mL), rotundifolone (7.09 µg/mL), and limonene (43.75 µg/mL) resulted in decreased worm motility continuing until 96 hours of observation. At higher concentrations (100 and 70.96 µg/mL, respectively), both the essential oil and rotundifolone caused mortality among adult worms of S. mansoni. The positive control praziquantel caused the death of all parasites after 24 h of evaluation. The results from this study suggest that the essential oil of Mentha x villosa presents schistosomicidal efficacy.

  5. Time course of the effect of praziquantel on Schistosoma mansoni attachment in vitro: comparison with its effects on worm length and motility.

    PubMed

    da Silva, S P; Noël, F

    1995-01-01

    We report herein that praziquantel inhibits the capacity of adult male Schistosoma mansoni to attach to the bottom of a glass dish and produces a diminution of worm length and motility, acting under a similar concentration and time dependency. After removal of 1 microM praziquantel from the medium, the worms progressively recuperated their initial length and motility without recovering their attachment capability. The absence of calcium or presence of 1 microM verapamil did not change the praziquantel-induced effect on worm attachment, causing only a transient decrease in worm length and motility. The present data indicate that the diminution of motility induced by praziquantel results from the progressive contraction of the longitudinal musculature of the worm. In contrast, the loss of attachment should not be causally related to the contraction of the worm since these two praziquantel-induced effects have distinct patterns of response under some experimental conditions.

  6. Infection of the intermediate mite host with Wolbachia-depleted Litomosoides sigmodontis microfilariae: impaired L1 to L3 development and subsequent sex-ratio distortion in adult worms.

    PubMed

    Arumugam, Sridhar; Pfarr, Kenneth M; Hoerauf, Achim

    2008-07-01

    The rodent filaria Litomosoides sigmodontis harbour Wolbachia, endosymbionts essential for worm embryogenesis, larval development and adult survival. To study the effect of tetracycline, which depletes Wolbachia, on the development of microfilariae (L1s, MF) to L3 in the intermediate host Ornithonyssus bacoti, and to observe the development of Wolbachia-depleted L3s in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus); microfilaremic gerbils were treated orally with tetracycline for 6 weeks (primary infected Tet) or untreated (primary Con). Treatment resulted in a significant reduction of Wolbachia per MF in primary Tet gerbils. Naïve mites then fed on the primary Tet and primary Con gerbils in the week after treatment ended, when MF levels were not significantly different, and used to infect new gerbils (secondary infected ) Tet, secondary Con) via natural infection. The infection rate from dissected mites was 9% and 54% (primary Tet and primary Con, respectively). After 3 months, worms were isolated from secondary gerbils. Significantly fewer female worms developed in secondary Tet gerbils. In contrast, there was no difference in the number of male worms that developed in secondary gerbils, resulting in a male biased sex-ratio. Although secondary Tet male worms had fewer Wolbachia than secondary Con males, development was not impaired. Female worms that developed from Wolbachia-depleted MF had Wolbachia levels equivalent to worms from secondary Con animals. Thus, tetracycline pre-treatment selected for female worms with high numbers of Wolbachia, whereas male worms had median Wolbachia levels significantly lower than secondary Con males. Therefore, female worms require a higher threshold of Wolbachia for their development. The worms analysed were only exposed to tetracycline as MF, ruling out direct effects of tetracycline during larval development in the mites or secondary gerbils, suggesting that the depletion of Wolbachia in MF was the cause of impaired larval

  7. [Studies on the immunodiagnosis of rabbit clonorchiasis II. Immunoaffinity purification of whole worm antigen and characterization of egg, metacercaria and adult antigens of Clonorchis sinensis

    PubMed

    Lee, Ok Ran; Chung, Pyung Rim; Nam, Hae Seon

    1988-06-01

    The sensitivity and specificity of crude and affinity-purified antigens of Clonorchis sinensis obtained from the infected rabbits were studied. Stage-specific antigenic proteins from the eggs, metacercariae and adult worms were characterized by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) The results were as follows: The antibody-binding antigen (ABA) purified from whole worm crude antigen (WWA) by CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B affinity chromatography made 4 specific bands against rabbit anti-sera on Ouchterlony gel diffusion plate, while WWA made 7 bands. Major WWA protein bands by SDS-PAGE were found at 16,300-18,500 and 28,000-29,000 daltons, while major ABA protein bands were at 18,000-21,000 and 29,000-31,000 daltons. The reactivity of ABA with rabbit anti-sera in ELISA was remarkably less sensitive than that of WWA. Molecular weights of egg antigen (EGA), metacercarial antigen (MEA) and adult worm antigen (WWA) of C. sinensis ranged from 15,000-200,000 daltons, 15,000-100,000 daltons and 11,000-80,000 daltons, respectively. Major WWA proteins consisted mainly of polypeptide bands of low molecular weight, less than 31,000 daltons, while those of EGA and MEA consisted of higher molecular weights than 30,000 daltons. The ELISA reactivities of WWA to rabbit anti-sera were remarkably greater than those of MEA. EGA showed negative reaction throughout the experiments. WWA showed higher optical density (O.D.) than 1.0, when reacted with rabbit anti-sera obtained at 4-6 weeks after the infection. In the rabbit anti-sera later than 12 weeks after the infection, the O.D. reacting with WWA showed a plateau without variation. MEA showed relatively low O.D. values (<0.6), when reacted with anti-sera from lightly infected groups throughout the experiments, although there were some weak positive cases (O.D.>0.6) in heavily infected groups. MEA reacted with rabbit anti-sera showed negative results on Ouchterlony gel diffusion

  8. Echinostoma trivolvis: mating behavior of adults raised in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Nollen, P M

    1993-01-01

    Echinostoma trivolvis adults grown in golden hamsters were treated in vitro with [3H]-tyrosine to label sperm and transplanted to uninfected hamsters alone or with four to six unlabeled adults. After 4-5 days, worms were recovered, processed for autoradiography, and observed for silver grains over their seminal receptacles. Of 11 worms transplanted singly, 6 (55%) self-inseminated. In multiple-worm situations, 7 of 12 (58%) labeled worms self-inseminated, and in the process the 12 labeled worms inseminated only 5 of 35 (14%) possible unlabeled worms. E. trivolvis adults self-inseminated when isolated and both self- and cross-inseminated in groups, suggesting an unrestricted mating pattern. These results were compared with the mating patterns of other digenetic trematodes.

  9. Sleep paralysis in adults reporting repressed, recovered, or continuous memories of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    McNally, Richard J; Clancy, Susan A

    2005-01-01

    Sleep paralysis typically occurs as individuals awaken from rapid eye movement sleep before motor paralysis wanes. Many episodes are accompanied by tactile and visual hallucinations, often of threatening intruders in the bedroom. Pendergrast [Victims of Memory: Incest Accusations and Shattered Lives, HarperCollins, London, 1996] proposed that individuals who report repressed or recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) may misinterpret episodes of sleep paralysis as reemerging fragments of dissociated ("repressed") memories of CSA. To investigate this issue, we administered a sleep paralysis questionnaire to people reporting either repressed (n = 18), recovered (n = 14), or continuous (n = 36) memories of CSA, or to a control group reporting no history of CSA (n = 16). The prevalence of sleep paralysis was: repressed memory group (44%), recovered memory group (43%), continuous memory group (47%), and control group (13%). Among the six individuals in the recovered memory group who had experienced sleep paralysis, one interpreted it as related to sexual abuse (i.e., a rate of 17%). All other participants who had reported sleep paralysis embraced other interpretations (e.g., saw a ghost). Dissociation and depressive symptoms were more common among those who had experienced sleep paralysis than among those who denied having experienced it.

  10. Clinical Characteristics of Adults Reporting Repressed, Recovered, or Continuous Memories of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNally, Richard J.; Perlman, Carol A.; Ristuccia, Carel S.; Clancy, Susan A.

    2006-01-01

    The authors assessed women and men who either reported continuous memories of their childhood sexual abuse (CSA, n = 92), reported recovering memories of CSA (n = 38), reported believing they harbored repressed memories of CSA (n = 42), or reported never having been sexually abused (n = 36). Men and women were indistinguishable on all clinical and…

  11. Everyday problems with executive dysfunction and impulsivity in adults recovering from methamphetamine addiction

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Carilyn; Hoffman, William; Jaehnert, Sarah; Plagge, Jane; Loftis, Jennifer M.; Schwartz, Daniel; Huckans, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Compared with non-addicted controls (CTLs), adults in remission from methamphetamine addiction (MA-REM) evidence impairments on objective measures of executive functioning and impulsivity. Methods To evaluate the impact of these impairments in MA-REM adults, demographically matched groups (MA-REM, n=30; CTLs, n=24) completed objective and self-report measures of executive functioning and impulsivity. Results MA-REM adults demonstrated significantly (p < 0.050) greater objective and subjective problems with executive functioning and impulsivity. Conclusions These results suggest that adults in MA-REM are aware of their deficits and that these deficits have significant impact in everyday life. PMID:27034621

  12. Loiasis: African eye worm.

    PubMed

    Padgett, Jeannie J; Jacobsen, Kathryn H

    2008-10-01

    The filarial parasite Loa loa is transmitted by Chrysops fly bites. Loiasis is endemic in rainforest areas of West and Central Africa, and sporadic cases have also been diagnosed in travellers and migrants. Whilst many infected persons are asymptomatic, microfilariae may be detected in the blood or adult worms may be seen under the skin or the sclera of the eye. Mass treatment programmes for onchocerciasis have raised concern about the risk of severe adverse effects when ivermectin is distributed in areas co-endemic for onchocerciasis and loiasis.

  13. Directed forgetting of trauma cues in adults reporting repressed or recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    McNally, R J; Clancy, S A; Schacter, D L

    2001-02-01

    An item-cuing directed forgetting task was used to investigate whether women reporting repressed (n = 13) or recovered (n = 13) memories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) exhibit an avoidant encoding style (and resultant impaired memory) for trauma cues relative to women reporting no CSA experience (n = 15). All participants viewed intermixed trauma (e.g., molested), positive (e.g., confident), and categorized neutral (e.g., mailbox) words on a computer screen and were instructed either to remember or to forget each word. The results provided no support for the hypothesis that people reporting either repressed or recovered memories of CSA are especially adept at forgetting words related to trauma. These groups recalled words they were instructed to remember more often than words they were instructed to forget regardless of whether they were trauma related.

  14. Intraocular live male filarial Loa loa worm.

    PubMed

    Eballe, André Omgbwa; Epée, Emillienne; Koki, Godefroy; Owono, Didier; Mvogo, Côme Ebana; Bella, Assumpta Lucienne

    2008-12-01

    We report a case of Loa loa filariasis in an 8-month-old child who presented with a 3-month history of irritated acute red eye and insomnia. Examination revealed a living and active adult Loa loa worm in the anterior chamber of the left eye. The worm was extracted under general anesthetic.

  15. Gummy Worm Measurements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callison, Priscilla L.; Anshutz, Ramona J.; Wright, Emmett L.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a science activity using gummy worms to help primary students develop the mathematical skills of measurement concepts, units of measure, estimation, and graphing needed for science learning. Groups of two begin by estimating the number of gummy worms in their package and identifying the colors they expect to find. Individual worms are…

  16. Worms and Humans: A Happy Divorce?

    PubMed Central

    Akuffo, Hannah; Britton, Sven; Schön, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Chronic asymptomatic worm infection, often in combination with tuberculosis (TB), is common in low-income countries. Indeed, a life without worm infestation, as is now the case in most high-income countries, is a recent condition for humankind. Worms and Mycobacterium tuberculosis give rise to different immune response patterns (Th2 vs. Th1 driven), and we have studied whether chronic worm infection affects the susceptibility to and control of TB in the low income country of Ethiopia. Our results, as well of those in the general literature, are inconclusive, although we have some rather strong data in support of adult deworming in relation to vaccination with bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) against TB. In addition, we discuss briefly the putative relationship between chronic worm infestation and autoimmunity/allergy.

  17. The Father Christmas worm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, James L.; Sisson, Patricia L.

    1989-01-01

    Given here is an overview analysis of the Father Christmas Worm, a computer worm that was released onto the DECnet Internet three days before Christmas 1988. The purpose behind the worm was to send an electronic mail message to all users on the computer system running the worm. The message was a Christmas greeting and was signed 'Father Christmas'. From the investigation, it was determined that the worm was released from a computer (node number 20597::) at a university in Switzerland. The worm was designed to travel quickly. Estimates are that it was copied to over 6,000 computer nodes. However, it was believed to have executed on only a fraction of those computers. Within ten minutes after it was released, the worm was detected at the Space Physics Analysis Network (SPAN), NASA's largest space and Earth science network. Once the source program was captured, a procedural cure, using the existing functionality of the computer operating systems, was quickly devised and distributed. A combination of existing computer security measures, the quick and accurate procedures devised to stop copies of the worm from executing, and the network itself, were used to rapidly provide the cure. These were the main reasons why the worm executed on such a small percentage of nodes. This overview of the analysis of the events concerning the worm is based on an investigation made by the SPAN Security Team and provides some insight into future security measures that will be taken to handle computer worms and viruses that may hit similar networks.

  18. First report of the isolation of an adult worm of the genus Brachylaima (Digenea: Brachylaimidae), from the gastrointestinal tract of a human.

    PubMed

    Butcher, A R; Parasuramar, P; Thompson, C S; Grove, D I

    1998-04-01

    A 78-year-old woman presented with an 18-month history of intermittent diarrhoea. Examination of her stools revealed brachylaimid eggs, which were present in three separate specimens over a week. After treatment with praziquantel a degenerate adult Brachylaima species was recovered from her faeces. She lived in a rural area of South Australia and ate vegetables grown in her own garden which had been infested with helicid snails. In south Australia these introduced European helicid snails are commonly infected with brachylaimid intermediate larval stages and are considered to be the source of the human infection.

  19. Utility of Schistosoma bovis Adult Worm Antigens for Diagnosis of Human Schistosomiasis by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and Electroimmunotransfer Blot Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Pardo, J.; Carranza, C.; Turrientes, M. C.; Arellano, J. L. Pérez; Vélez, R. López; Ramajo, V.; Muro, A.

    2004-01-01

    Immunodiagnostic methods based on the detection of antibodies continue to be the most effective and practical methods for the diagnosis of imported schistosomiasis. Schistosoma bovis is a species whose final natural hosts are bovines, ovines, caprines, and small wild ruminants. Different studies have demonstrated the analogies existing between S. bovis and other Schistosoma species which affect humans. The objective of this work was to evaluate the utility of S. bovis adult worm antigens (AWA) for the diagnosis of imported human schistosomiasis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and electroimmunotransfer blotting (EITB) techniques. By detecting eggs, the ELISA for S. bovis AWA was able to definitively detect imported cases with a sensitivity of 94%. The specificity of the ELISA for S. bovis AWA was 97%. There were no differences between the results of the S. bovis AWA ELISA for patients infected with Schistosoma mansoni and those infected with Schistosoma haematobium. The EITB technique showed bands of 85, 37, and 20 kDa, which are characteristic of infections with Schistosoma spp. Specific bands to indicate infection by different species of Schistosoma have not been detected. The combined use of the ELISA for S. bovis AWA and EITB increased the global sensitivity of the study to 97%. Our findings suggest that the ELISA for S. bovis AWA is a useful test for the immunodiagnosis of imported schistosomiasis and that EITB for detecting S. bovis AWA permits the confirmation of diagnosis when the ELISA for S. bovis AWA is positive. PMID:15539523

  20. Utility of Schistosoma bovis adult worm antigens for diagnosis of human schistosomiasis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and electroimmunotransfer blot techniques.

    PubMed

    Pardo, J; Carranza, C; Turrientes, M C; Pérez Arellano, J L; López Vélez, R; Ramajo, V; Muro, A

    2004-11-01

    Immunodiagnostic methods based on the detection of antibodies continue to be the most effective and practical methods for the diagnosis of imported schistosomiasis. Schistosoma bovis is a species whose final natural hosts are bovines, ovines, caprines, and small wild ruminants. Different studies have demonstrated the analogies existing between S. bovis and other Schistosoma species which affect humans. The objective of this work was to evaluate the utility of S. bovis adult worm antigens (AWA) for the diagnosis of imported human schistosomiasis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and electroimmunotransfer blotting (EITB) techniques. By detecting eggs, the ELISA for S. bovis AWA was able to definitively detect imported cases with a sensitivity of 94%. The specificity of the ELISA for S. bovis AWA was 97%. There were no differences between the results of the S. bovis AWA ELISA for patients infected with Schistosoma mansoni and those infected with Schistosoma haematobium. The EITB technique showed bands of 85, 37, and 20 kDa, which are characteristic of infections with Schistosoma spp. Specific bands to indicate infection by different species of Schistosoma have not been detected. The combined use of the ELISA for S. bovis AWA and EITB increased the global sensitivity of the study to 97%. Our findings suggest that the ELISA for S. bovis AWA is a useful test for the immunodiagnosis of imported schistosomiasis and that EITB for detecting S. bovis AWA permits the confirmation of diagnosis when the ELISA for S. bovis AWA is positive.

  1. Development of Adult Worms and Granulomatous Pathology Are Collectively Regulated by T- and B-Cells in Mice Infected with Schistosoma japonicum

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Hongbin; Ming, Zhenping; Liu, Rong; Xiong, Tao; Grevelding, Christoph G.; Dong, Huifeng; Jiang, Mingsen

    2013-01-01

    Schistosoma blood flukes, which cause schistosomiasis affecting 200 million people in the world, are dependent on signals from host CD4+ T cells to facilitate parasite growth and development in the mammalian host and to induce Th2-biased inflammatory granulomas. B cells, however, are reported to down-regulate granulomatous pathology in schistosomiasis, but not to affect the development of blood flukes together with CD4+ T lymphocytes. Thus it is not clear whether B cells mediate parasite development, reproduction and egg granuloma formation of schistosomes without the help of CD4+ T lymphocytes. Using mice that have severe combined immunodeficiency (scid) and mice lacking T cells (nude), we found that the absence of B cells can more seriously hamper the development and paring of adult worms, but granuloma formation of Schistosoma japonicum in scid mice was not down-regulated comparing with that in nude mice. The level of IL-10 in the sera of nude mice was significantly higher than of scid mice at 43 days post infection (p.i.). Thus multiple mechanisms of immune modulation seem to be involved in parasite development and reproduction by helminth-induced regulatory B cells. Our findings have significance for understanding the molecular connections between schistosomes and T- and B-cells, indicating that more research is needed to develop efficient vaccine-based therapies for schistosomiasis. PMID:23349889

  2. Differences in zinc status and the leptin axis in anorexic and recovered adolescents and young adults: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Zepf, F.D.; Sungurtekin, I.; Glass, F.; Elstrodt, L.; Peetz, D.; Hintereder, G.; Kratzsch, J.; Biskup, C.S.; Poustka, F.; Wöckel, L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Evidence from animal studies suggests that leptin metabolism is associated with zinc (Zn) status. However, research investigating this relationship in adolescents and young adults with anorexia nervosa (AN) is scarce; the present study aims to fill that gap. Methods Serum concentrations of leptin, the soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R) and the free leptin index (FLI) were obtained in healthy control subjects (n=19), acutely ill individuals (n=14) and recovered patients with AN (n=15). Serum Zn concentrations noted in previous research data were also incorporated for all groups. Results Leptin, FLI and Zn concentrations were higher in recovered subjects with AN when compared with acutely ill AN patients. Remitted patients showed higher sOB-R concentrations but no difference in FLI compared with the control group. Leptin and FLI were lower in the acutely ill patients compared with the control subjects, who showed no differences in Zn concentrations. Zn concentrations were not correlated with leptin, sOB-R or FLI concentrations in any of the three investigated subgroups. Conclusions The present investigation does not entirely support an association between Zn, Leptin and FLI concentrations in subjects with AN, possibly due to limited statistical power. Further research and replication of the present findings related to the interaction between leptin and Zn is warranted. However, with respect to serum leptin levels the data of the present investigation indicate that acutely ill and remitted patients with AN differ as regards serum leptin concentrations and FLI, which is in line with previous research. PMID:22393314

  3. Efficacy of thiabendazole, mebendazole, levamisole and ivermectin against gullet worm, Gongylonema pulchrum: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Noboru; Kubota, Hiroki; Gotoh, Hideyuki; Ishida, Hidekazu; Ikadai, Hiromi; Oyamada, Takashi

    2008-01-25

    In vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of thiabendazole, mebendazole, levamisole and ivermectin against Gongylonema pulchrum. For in vitro assays, third-stage larvae (L3) incubated with the drugs were administered orally to mice and the ability of larvae to invade the gastric mucosa of the animals was examined. After incubation, only those larvae treated with high concentrations of levamisole (1 and 10 microg/ml) were tightly coiled with intestines exhibiting morphological abnormalities. Good dose-response data for the drugs tested was observed at the time of worm recovery from mice, with no worms recovered at the two highest concentrations of levamisole. In vivo efficacy of the drugs against adult worms was evaluated in six groups of three rabbits, each of which was infected with 30 L3 of G. pulchrum and treated with thiabendazole at 100 mg/kg for 3 days, mebendazole at 70 mg/kg for 3 days, levamisole as a single dose of 8 mg/kg, and subcutaneously injected ivermectin as a single dose of 0.2 mg/kg or vehicles of the drugs (control) at 4 months post-infection. Necropsy 14 days after treatment revealed that levamisole, mebendazole and ivermectin reduced worm burdens by 63.2%, 22.8% and 25.8%, respectively, with no reductions in worms observed with thiabendazole. The surviving worms were principally found in the esophagus with the remainder distributed among the buccal mucosa, the tongue, and/or pharyngeal mucosa in all groups. A number of morphologically abnormal eggs were observed within the uterus and ovijector in female worms recovered from the thiabendazole-treated group. These findings suggest that levamisole exhibits in vivo efficacy against G. pulchrum infection and that the larval invasion tests using mice could be used to screen for anthelmintic susceptibility of nematodes.

  4. Phosphorus Supplementation Recovers the Blunted Diet-Induced Thermogenesis of Overweight and Obese Adults: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Bassil, Maya S; Obeid, Omar A

    2016-12-09

    Diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) is believed to be largely related to ATP production, which is dependent on phosphorus (P) availability. We aimed to test the effect of P addition on DIT of lean and overweight/obese healthy subjects. DIT was measured with or without P in 10 lean and 13 overweight/obese adults in a double-blind randomized cross-over pilot study with one week washout period. After 10 h overnight fast, resting metabolic rate, respiratory quotient, and substrate utilization were measured at fasting and every 30 min for 3 h after subjects drank a standardized glucose solution, with P (500 mg) or placebo pills. Subjective ratings of hunger and satiety were assessed before and after the end of each experiment using validated visual analogue scale (VAS) questionnaires. Overweight/obese subjects had a blunted DIT with placebo, while P supplementation induced a 23% increase in their DIT area under the curve (p < 0.05), which was associated with a significant increase in carbohydrate oxidation. Subjects had lower appetite following P supplementation, which was expressed as a significantly (p = 0.02) lower desire to eat a meal (4.0 ± 0.7 cm) compared with placebo (5.8 ± 0.9 cm). P supplementation recovers the blunted diet-induced thermogenesis in overweight and obese subjects and enhances their postprandial satiety.

  5. Phosphorus Supplementation Recovers the Blunted Diet-Induced Thermogenesis of Overweight and Obese Adults: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Bassil, Maya S.; Obeid, Omar A.

    2016-01-01

    Diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) is believed to be largely related to ATP production, which is dependent on phosphorus (P) availability. We aimed to test the effect of P addition on DIT of lean and overweight/obese healthy subjects. DIT was measured with or without P in 10 lean and 13 overweight/obese adults in a double-blind randomized cross-over pilot study with one week washout period. After 10 h overnight fast, resting metabolic rate, respiratory quotient, and substrate utilization were measured at fasting and every 30 min for 3 h after subjects drank a standardized glucose solution, with P (500 mg) or placebo pills. Subjective ratings of hunger and satiety were assessed before and after the end of each experiment using validated visual analogue scale (VAS) questionnaires. Overweight/obese subjects had a blunted DIT with placebo, while P supplementation induced a 23% increase in their DIT area under the curve (p < 0.05), which was associated with a significant increase in carbohydrate oxidation. Subjects had lower appetite following P supplementation, which was expressed as a significantly (p = 0.02) lower desire to eat a meal (4.0 ± 0.7 cm) compared with placebo (5.8 ± 0.9 cm). P supplementation recovers the blunted diet-induced thermogenesis in overweight and obese subjects and enhances their postprandial satiety. PMID:27941661

  6. Live Worms Found Amid STS-107 Debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    NASA Project Manager Fred Ahmay holds a Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) container in which C. elegans nemotodes (round worms) were found. The container was part of a middeck experiment that was among Columbia's debris recovered in East Texas. The worms were found alive after flying on Columbia's last mission, STS-107. The experiment was designed to verify a new synthetic nutrient solution for an International Space Station 'model' specimen planned to be used extensively for ISS gene expression studies and was sponsored by the NASA Ames Research Center. For more information on STS-107, please see GRIN Columbia General Explanation

  7. Association between nematode larvae and "low worm egg count diarrhoea" in sheep in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Caroline; Bell, Kevin; Forshaw, David; Besier, Brown

    2009-10-28

    Nine flocks of sheep with a high prevalence (>30%) of diarrhoea and severe breech faecal soiling were investigated over a three-year period to examine the causes of diarrhoea in sheep with low mean faecal worm egg counts (WEC). All nine flocks were located in the southwest of Western Australia in areas with a winter rainfall pattern (Mediterranean climate). There was no difference (p=0.304) in WEC of diarrhoeic sheep (loose faeces and severe breech faecal soiling) and "normal sheep" (pelleted faeces and mild or no breech faecal soiling). Teladorsagia (Ostertagia) circumcincta and Trichostrongylus spp. were the nematodes most commonly identified by total worm counts and differentiation of larvae recovered from faeces and pasture. Larval stages of strongyle worms accounted for the largest proportion of total worm counts in both diarrhoeic and normal sheep. Adult worm burdens were small in most sheep. Diarrhoeic sheep had higher numbers of fourth stage larvae than normal sheep (p=0.046). There was no histopathological evidence of bacterial or viral causes of diarrhoea in any of the flocks or bacteriological evidence of bacterial infections associated with diarrhoea. Two flocks had marginal selenium glutathione peroxidase (selenium) levels. One flock was diagnosed with helminthosis based on rising WEC and high total worm counts. Larval hypersensitivity diarrhoea, nutritional factors or a combination of these two factors were the most likely causes of diarrhoea in the other eight flocks based on exclusion of other known causes of diarrhoea. Treatment with moxidectin and an ivermectin controlled-release capsule did not change faecal moisture content of treated sheep compared to untreated sheep three to five weeks after treatment. The findings suggest that the immune response to strongyle larvae may explain some cases of low WEC diarrhoea observed during winter-spring in immunocompetent mature sheep grazing in Mediterranean environments.

  8. The ultrastructure of the anterior end of male Onchocerca volvulus: papillae, amphids, nerve ring and first indication of an excretory system in the adult filarial worm.

    PubMed

    Strote, G; Bonow, I; Attah, S

    1996-07-01

    A detailed morphological investigation of the anterior sensory organs, the nerve ring and a glomerulus-like structure in male Onchocerca volvulus was performed by means of electron microscopy. The 8 head papillae are arranged in the common 4 + 4 pattern of most filarial worms in circles around the mouth opening. The amphidial openings are found between the circles of inner and outer papillae on both sides of the mouth. Inside, several additional nerve axons are seen in the tissue of the anterior tip not related to one of the identified papillar structures. The inner and outer papillae exhibit a remarkably different fine structure, and are part of a complex system of at least 2 different receptor cell types at the anterior tip of the worm. The amphidial channel contains 8 modified cilia; accessory axons are associated with the cytoplasm of the sheath cell. The anterior nerve ring of male worms is located about 150 micrometers posterior from the outermost tip of the head region. It consists of several fibres coiled around the oesophagus. The comparison of the fine structure of the central nervous system did not show the expected morphological differences associated with the heterogeneous age distribution in the natural worm population. This was in contrast to previous findings with respect to tissues in different parts of the worm. The study also provides the first evidence that suggests the existence of an excretory organ in a filarial worm in the region of the anterior nerve ring. Paired glomerulus-like structures in the lateral chords and a canal formed by a projection of the basal zone of the cuticles were identified.

  9. Bacterial Microbiota Associated with the Glacier Ice Worm Is Dominated by Both Worm-Specific and Glacier-Derived Facultative Lineages

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Takumi; Segawa, Takahiro; Dial, Roman; Takeuchi, Nozomu; Kohshima, Shiro; Hongoh, Yuichi

    2017-01-01

    The community structure of bacteria associated with the glacier ice worm Mesenchytraeus solifugus was analyzed by amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA genes and their transcripts. Ice worms were collected from two distinct glaciers in Alaska, Harding Icefield and Byron Glacier, and glacier surfaces were also sampled for comparison. Marked differences were observed in bacterial community structures between the ice worm and glacier surface samples. Several bacterial phylotypes were detected almost exclusively in the ice worms, and these bacteria were phylogenetically affiliated with either animal-associated lineages or, interestingly, clades mostly consisting of glacier-indigenous species. The former included bacteria that belong to Mollicutes, Chlamydiae, Rickettsiales, and Lachnospiraceae, while the latter included Arcicella and Herminiimonas phylotypes. Among these bacteria enriched in ice worm samples, Mollicutes, Arcicella, and Herminiimonas phylotypes were abundantly and consistently detected in the ice worm samples; these phylotypes constituted the core microbiota associated with the ice worm. A fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis showed that Arcicella cells specifically colonized the epidermis of the ice worms. Other bacterial phylotypes detected in the ice worm samples were also abundantly recovered from the respective habitat glaciers; these bacteria may be food for ice worms to digest or temporary residents. Nevertheless, some were overrepresented in the ice worm RNA samples; they may also function as facultative gut bacteria. Our results indicate that the community structure of bacteria associated with ice worms is distinct from that in the associated glacier and includes worm-specific and facultative, glacier-indigenous lineages. PMID:28302989

  10. Celebrate Worm Week!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crocker, Betty; Garrett, Sandra; Trammell, Laura Z.

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on an extended learning experience with worms as the main topic in which students collect and organize information and choose an experimental question. Based on the constructivist theory of learning. Contains 17 references. (DDR)

  11. Worms, Worms, and Even More Worms: A Vermicomposting Guide for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Integrated Waste Management Board, Sacramento.

    This guide is designed to help teachers gain a better understanding of how to get a worm vermicomposting system started. It provides reference curricula materials for using worms in the classroom. Chapters include: (1) "Why Worm Vermicomposting;" (2) "Basics of Vermicomposting;" (3) "Worm Facts;" (4) "Classroom…

  12. Guinea worm infection of urinary bladder manifesting as obstructive uropathy in rural Maharashtra.

    PubMed

    Birare, Shivaji D; Kamble, M H; Lanjewar, D N; Parija, S C; Girji, D D; Kulkarni, P V; Gupta, Rashmi S; Abdul Jabbar, A M

    2005-10-01

    Guinea worm or Dracunculus medinensis is a well-documented helminthic infestation in many areas of Asia. In this report, we describe a rare case of guinea worm infestation in a 25-year-old woman who had developed symptoms of obstructive uropathy, in whom fragments of guinea worm were removed after urethral catheterization. To the best of our knowledge, adult guinea worm occurring in the urinary bladder has not been previously described.

  13. Worm Infections in Children.

    PubMed

    Weatherhead, Jill E; Hotez, Peter J

    2015-08-01

    • On the basis of research evidence, worm infections are important global child health conditions causing chronic disability that lasts from childhood into adulthood (Table 1). (2)(3) Evidence Quality: B • On the basis of research evidence, the major worm infections found in developing countries include ascariasis, trichuriasis, hookworm infection, and schistosomiasis; toxocariasis, enterobiasis, and cysticercosis are also found in poor regions of North America and Europe. (4)(9)(13) Evidence Quality: B • On the basis of expert consensus, children and adolescents are often vulnerable to acquiring large numbers of worms, ie, high-intensity infections (Fig 1)(21)(22)(23) Evidence Quality: D • On the basis of expert consensus and research evidence, moderate and heavy worm burdens cause increased morbidity because of growth and intellectual stunting in children and adolescents. Many of these effects may result from helminth-induced malnutrition. (21)(22)(23) Evidence Quality: C • On the basis of expert consensus and research evidence, worm infections are also commonly associated with eosinophilia. (48) (49) Evidence Quality: B • On the basis of research evidence as well as consensus, helminthes can cause inflammation in the lung (asthma), gastrointestinal tract (enteritis and colitis), liver (hepatitis and fibrosis), and urogenital tract. (7)(21)(22)(23)(27)(28)(40)(41)(43) Evidence Quality: B • On the basis of research evidence, microscopy techniques for diagnosis of worm infections in children often exhibit suboptimal sensitivities and specificities, necessitating new or improved diagnostic modalities such as polymerase chain reaction. (54)(55) Evidence Quality: A • On the basis of research evidence and expert consensus, mass drug administration (“preventive chemotherapy”) has becomea standard practice for ministries of health in low- and middle-income countries to control intestinal helminth infections and schistosomiasis. (67)(68) Evidence

  14. Adult Schistosoma mansoni worms positively modulate soluble egg antigen-induced inflammatory hepatic granuloma formation in vivo. Stereological analysis and immunophenotyping of extracellular matrix proteins, adhesion molecules, and chemokines.

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, W.; Bogers, J.; Deelder, A.; Wéry, M.; Van Marck, E.

    1997-01-01

    Synchronized liver granulomas were induced by injecting Sepharose beads to which SEA soluble egg antigen (SEA) or the concanavalin A binding fraction of SEA had been coupled into a mesenteric vein in naive, single-sex (35 days) and bisexually (28 days) Schistosoma mansoni-infected and Plasmodium berghei-immunized mice. Stereological analysis revealed that peak granuloma formation was already reached 8 days after injection in single-sex infected mice compared with 16 days in naive animals. No difference in granuloma formation between naive and P. berghei-immunized animals and between unisexually and bisexually S. mansoni-infected mice was observed. This suggests that the positive immunomodulatory effect on the granulomogenesis is worm specific and not likely to be due to arousal of the immune system by unrelated factors, nor is it influenced by the gender or degree of maturation of female worms. At all stages in time, the concanavalin A binding-fraction-induced granulomas reached only 65 to 70% of the volume of SEA-induced granulomas. Immunophenotyping of extracellular matrix proteins around deposited heads revealed that fibronectin was the dominant extracellular matrix protein and that also type I and IV collagen and laminin were deposited. Temporal analysis of the expression of the adhesion molecules ICAM-1, LFA-1, VLA-4, and VLA-6 was performed. Morphological evidence is presented for the role of adhesion molecules in the initiation and maintenance of hepatic granuloma formation. The chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 was expressed in the granuloma and in hepatic artery branches. From these data, it is concluded that adult S. mansoni worms positively modulate schistosomal hepatic granuloma formation in vivo. Adhesion molecules and chemokines play important roles in schistosomal granuloma formation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9176396

  15. A Can of Sea Worms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinn, Donald J.

    1977-01-01

    A comprehensive discussion of the free-living worms that inhabit the beaches and subtidal bottoms of the Cape Cod shoreline is presented. Methods for the location, collection, preservation, and identification of sea worms are identified. (BT)

  16. "Mighty Worm" Piezoelectric Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bamford, Robert M.; Wada, Ben K.; Moore, Donald M.

    1994-01-01

    "Mighty Worm" piezoelectric actuator used as adjustable-length structural member, active vibrator or vibration suppressor, and acts as simple (fixed-length) structural member when inactive. Load force not applied to piezoelectric element in simple-structural-member mode. Piezoelectric element removed from load path when not in use.

  17. Welcome to Worm Central

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madison, Lisa; Rydant, A. L.; Jobin, Raymond A.; Sterling, Cindy

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a vermicomposting program at Epping Elementary School in New Hampshire. The "Feed It to the Worms: A Vermicomposting Geographic Curriculum," developed by the New Hampshire Geographic Alliance and led by fourth grade teacher, Lisa Madison, fits perfectly into the school's ongoing Artist-in-Residence program, where…

  18. Decreased lower limb muscle recruitment contributes to the inability of older adults to recover with a single step following a forward loss of balance.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Neil J; Barrett, Rod S; Lichtwark, Glen; Mills, Peter M; Carty, Christopher P

    2013-10-01

    In response to a balance disturbance, older individuals often require multiple steps to prevent a fall. Reliance on multiple steps to recover balance is predictive of a future fall, so studies should determine the mechanisms underlying differences between older adults who can and cannot recover balance with a single step. This study compared neural activation parameters of the major leg muscles during balance recovery from a sudden forward loss of balance in older individuals capable of recovering with a single step and those who required multiple steps to regain balance. Eighty-one healthy, community dwelling adults aged 70±3 participated. Loss of balance was induced by releasing participants from a static forward lean. Participants performed four trials at three initial lean magnitudes and were subsequently classified as single or multiple steppers. Although step length was shorter in multiple compared to single steppers (F=9.64; p=0.02), no significant differences were found between groups in EMG onset time in the step limb muscles (F=0.033-0.769; p=0.478-0.967). However, peak EMG normalised to values obtained during maximal voluntary contraction was significantly higher in single steppers in 6 of the 7 stepping limb muscles (F=1.054-4.167; p=0.045-0.024). These data suggest that compared to multiple steppers, single steppers recruit a larger proportion of the available motor unit pool during balance recovery. Thus, modulation of EMG amplitude plays a larger role in balance recovery than EMG timing in this context.

  19. Galactic worms. I - Catalog of worm candidates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koo, Bon-Chul; Heiles, Carl; Reach, William T.

    1992-01-01

    A catalog of candidates for the Galactic worms that are possibly the walls surrounding the superbubbles is compiled; 118 isolated structures that appear both in H I and in IR (60 and 100 microns). Fifty-two are possibly associated with H II regions. It is found that the 100-micron emissivity increases systematically toward the Galactic interior, which is consistent with the increase of the general interstellar radiation field. The 100-micron emissivity of the structures associated with the H II regions is larger than that of the structures without associated H II regions. The 60-100-micron ratio is large, 0.28 +/- 0.03, which may indicate that the grains associated with the atomic gas have a relatively large population of small grains. Thirty-five structures appear in the 408-MHz continuum. The IR and the radio continuum properties suggest that the 408-MHz continuum emission in those structures is very likely thermal. The implications of these results on the ionization of gas far from the Galactic plane are discussed.

  20. Guinea worm disease outcomes in Ghana: determinants of broken worms.

    PubMed

    Glenshaw, Mary T; Roy, Sharon; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Downs, Philip; Williamson, John; Eberhard, Mark

    2009-08-01

    In 2006, Ghana ranked second in Guinea worm disease (GWD) incidence and reported a previously undocumented 20% prevalence of worm breakage. A prospective study was conducted in 2007 to validate and describe worm breakage and determinants. Among 221 patients with known outcomes, the worm breakage rate observed was 46%. After controlling for demographics, worm and wound presentation, and treatment course and provision, worm breakage was associated with narrow-diameter worms (< 2 mm) (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.79; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03-7.53). Protective factors against worm breakage included antibiotic ointment use (AOR 0.31; 95% CI = 0.14-0.70), bandage protocol compliance (AOR: 0.38; 95% CI = 0.16-0.89), intact bandages (AOR 0.27; 95% CI = 0.09-0.82), and bloody compared with dry wounds (AOR 0.09; 95% CI = 0.01-0.7). The high worm breakage rate observed warrants improvement in case management and patient care. Adherence to established treatment protocols should be facilitated through improved provider training and supervision to reduce the disabling consequences of broken worms.

  1. Guinea Worm (Dracunculus medinensis) Infection in a Wild-Caught Frog, Chad

    PubMed Central

    Cleveland, Christopher A.; Zirimwabagabo, Hubert; Yabsley, Michael J.; Ouakou, Philippe Tchindebet; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto

    2016-01-01

    A third-stage (infective) larva of Dracunculus medinensis, the causative agent of Guinea worm disease, was recovered from a wild-caught Phrynobatrachus francisci frog in Chad. Although green frogs (Lithobates clamitans) have been experimentally infected with D. medinensis worms, our findings prove that frogs can serve as natural paratenic hosts. PMID:27560598

  2. Guinea Worm (Dracunculus medinensis) Infection in a Wild-Caught Frog, Chad.

    PubMed

    Eberhard, Mark L; Cleveland, Christopher A; Zirimwabagabo, Hubert; Yabsley, Michael J; Ouakou, Philippe Tchindebet; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto

    2016-11-01

    A third-stage (infective) larva of Dracunculus medinensis, the causative agent of Guinea worm disease, was recovered from a wild-caught Phrynobatrachus francisci frog in Chad. Although green frogs (Lithobates clamitans) have been experimentally infected with D. medinensis worms, our findings prove that frogs can serve as natural paratenic hosts.

  3. Preparation of Samples for Single-Worm Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Yemini, Eviatar; Kerr, Rex A.; Schafer, William R.

    2016-01-01

    Neurobiological research in genetically tractable organisms relies heavily on robust assays for behavioral phenotypes. The simple body plan of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans makes it particularly amenable to the use of automated microscopy and image analysis to describe behavioral patterns quantitatively. This protocol first describes the preparation and use of media for growing and maintaining worms for tracking. The second part of the protocol describes how to prepare a single young adult worm for recording during video analysis. Although the protocol was developed for use in a single-worm tracker, it addresses factors important for the generation of reproducible, standardized images in all systems. PMID:22135667

  4. The design of worm gear sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Razzaghi, Andrea I.

    1987-01-01

    A method is presented for designing worm gear sets to meet torque multiplication requirements. First, the fundamentals of worm gear design are discussed, covering worm gear set nomenclature, kinematics and proportions, force analysis, and stress analysis. Then, a suggested design method is discussed, explaining how to take a worm gear set application, and specify a complete worm gear set design. The discussions are limited to cylindrical worm gear sets that have a 90 deg shaft angle between the worm and the mating gear.

  5. Taurine in drinking water recovers learning and memory in the adult APP/PS1 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Yun; Kim, Hyunjin V; Yoon, Jin H; Kang, Bo Ram; Cho, Soo Min; Lee, Sejin; Kim, Ji Yoon; Kim, Joo Won; Cho, Yakdol; Woo, Jiwan; Kim, YoungSoo

    2014-12-12

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a lethal progressive neurological disorder affecting the memory. Recently, US Food and Drug Administration mitigated the standard for drug approval, allowing symptomatic drugs that only improve cognitive deficits to be allowed to accelerate on to clinical trials. Our study focuses on taurine, an endogenous amino acid found in high concentrations in humans. It has demonstrated neuroprotective properties against many forms of dementia. In this study, we assessed cognitively enhancing property of taurine in transgenic mouse model of AD. We orally administered taurine via drinking water to adult APP/PS1 transgenic mouse model for 6 weeks. Taurine treatment rescued cognitive deficits in APP/PS1 mice up to the age-matching wild-type mice in Y-maze and passive avoidance tests without modifying the behaviours of cognitively normal mice. In the cortex of APP/PS1 mice, taurine slightly decreased insoluble fraction of Aβ. While the exact mechanism of taurine in AD has not yet been ascertained, our results suggest that taurine can aid cognitive impairment and may inhibit Aβ-related damages.

  6. Taurine in drinking water recovers learning and memory in the adult APP/PS1 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye Yun; Kim, Hyunjin V.; Yoon, Jin H.; Kang, Bo Ram; Cho, Soo Min; Lee, Sejin; Kim, Ji Yoon; Kim, Joo Won; Cho, Yakdol; Woo, Jiwan; Kim, YoungSoo

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a lethal progressive neurological disorder affecting the memory. Recently, US Food and Drug Administration mitigated the standard for drug approval, allowing symptomatic drugs that only improve cognitive deficits to be allowed to accelerate on to clinical trials. Our study focuses on taurine, an endogenous amino acid found in high concentrations in humans. It has demonstrated neuroprotective properties against many forms of dementia. In this study, we assessed cognitively enhancing property of taurine in transgenic mouse model of AD. We orally administered taurine via drinking water to adult APP/PS1 transgenic mouse model for 6 weeks. Taurine treatment rescued cognitive deficits in APP/PS1 mice up to the age-matching wild-type mice in Y-maze and passive avoidance tests without modifying the behaviours of cognitively normal mice. In the cortex of APP/PS1 mice, taurine slightly decreased insoluble fraction of Aβ. While the exact mechanism of taurine in AD has not yet been ascertained, our results suggest that taurine can aid cognitive impairment and may inhibit Aβ-related damages. PMID:25502280

  7. Single and multiple worm infections of Echinostoma caproni (Trematoda) in the golden hamster.

    PubMed

    Fried, B; Huffman, J E; Weiss, P M

    1990-03-01

    Six of 10 hamsters fed a single metacercarial cyst of Echinostoma caproni (single-worm infections) and 13 of 19 hamsters fed either 2 or 5 cysts (multiple-worm infections) were infected with adult echinostomes at necropsy 22 days post-infection. Considerable histopathological changes to the small intestine occurred in hamsters carrying single-worm infections. There were no differences in either mean length, width or wet weight of echinostomes in single- versus multiple-worm infections. The mean number of eggs/worm from single-worm infections (525) was significantly greater than that from multiple-worm infections (288). The average percentage of fully developed miracidia/worm from single worms (94%) was similar to that from worms in multiple infections (92-95%). Single worms of E. caproni were capable of self-fertilization and production of viable eggs. Miracidia derived from single worms were as capable of infecting laboratory-reared Biomphalaria glabrata and producing patent rediae as were those from multiple infections.

  8. Worm Gear With Hydrostatic Engagement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaiko, Lev I.

    1994-01-01

    In proposed worm-gear transmission, oil pumped at high pressure through meshes between teeth of gear and worm coil. Pressure in oil separates meshing surfaces slightly, and oil reduces friction between surfaces. Conceived for use in drive train between gas-turbine engine and rotor of helicopter. Useful in other applications in which weight critical. Test apparatus simulates and measures some loading conditions of proposed worm gear with hydrostatic engagement.

  9. Intestinal worms: strategies to control disease.

    PubMed

    Hall, A; Chan, M S

    1994-11-01

    Of the 512 million inhabitants of sub-Saharan Africa, an estimated 200-250 million are infected with the following intestinal nematodes: Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm. Disease in not more common or evident in this population, however, because most species of worms do not multiply in their hosts and because these worms have a life-span of 1-3 years so worm burdens are acquired gradually over a period of years. Also, disease caused by worms is usually related to worm burden (which has indistinct characteristics) as well as to age and health of the host. Thus, onset of disease can be slow and the diseases tend to be chronic rather than acute. Infestation can be diagnosed easily by microscopic examination of stool which will reveal the prevalence of infection but not the prevalence of disease (heavy infection). Prevalence is affected by age group, and 70% of all worms are present in only 20% of a given community (who are, therefore, the most likely to be diseased from the worms and most likely to transmit disease). With the goal of most control programs being the control of disease rather than of infection, the first task is to identify and treat the heavily-infected people. Since individual identification can be costly, one strategy is to treat everyone or to treat those groups who are most heavily infected. For example, adults in Africa are the most appropriate targets for hookworm treatment, and a large proportion of all disease due to A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura can be eliminated through mass treatment of school children. Removing sources of infection will also remove sources of transmission. It will still be necessary to identify localities where prevalence is above 50% and, thus, call for treatment. Albendazole and mebendazole are effective drugs to treat all species. Levamisole is effective against S. lumbricoides and hookworm, and pyrantel pamoate is effective against A. lumbricoides. The school delivery system for treatment is

  10. WormKill to WormBoss--can we sell sustainable sheep worm control?

    PubMed

    Woodgate, R G; Love, S

    2012-05-04

    Despite the economic importance of nematodes for sheep enterprises, it is often difficult to convince producers to adopt best practice in worm control. In this paper we discuss key issues in effecting change by communicating worm control messages. The adoption of new strategies is affected by many factors including the relative advantage, complexity, compatibility and the ability to trial the proposed change. The visibility of the problem to be solved and proposed positive outcome are also important. Extension campaigns from the last 30 years, including "WormKill" and "CRACK", are used as examples, and future opportunities and tools, including the internet, for promoting best practice in sheep worm management are discussed.

  11. The internet worm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1989-01-01

    In November 1988 a worm program invaded several thousand UNIX-operated Sun workstations and VAX computers attached to the Research Internet, seriously disrupting service for several days but damaging no files. An analysis of the work's decompiled code revealed a battery of attacks by a knowledgeable insider, and demonstrated a number of security weaknesses. The attack occurred in an open network, and little can be inferred about the vulnerabilities of closed networks used for critical operations. The attack showed that passwork protection procedures need review and strengthening. It showed that sets of mutually trusting computers need to be carefully controlled. Sharp public reaction crystalized into a demand for user awareness and accountability in a networked world.

  12. Immunosuppressive PAS-1 is an excretory/secretory protein released by larval and adult worms of the ascarid nematode Ascaris suum.

    PubMed

    Antunes, M F P; Titz, T O; Batista, I F C; Marques-Porto, R; Oliveira, C F; Alves de Araujo, C A; Macedo-Soares, M F

    2015-05-01

    Helminths use several strategies to evade and/or modify the host immune response, including suppression or inactivation of the host antigen-specific response. Several helminth immunomodulatory molecules have been identified. Our studies have focused on immunosuppression induced by the roundworm Ascaris suum and an A. suum-derived protein named protein 1 from A. suum (PAS-1). Here we assessed whether PAS-1 is an excretory/secretory (E/S) protein and whether it can suppress lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation. Larvae from infective eggs were cultured in unsupplemented Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium (DMEM) for 2 weeks. PAS-1 was then measured in the culture supernatants and in adult A. suum body fluid at different time points by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with the monoclonal antibody MAIP-1. Secreted PAS-1 was detected in both larval culture supernatant and adult body fluid. It suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced leucocyte migration and pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and stimulated interleukin (IL)-10 secretion, indicating that larval and adult secreted PAS-1 suppresses inflammation in this model. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory activity of PAS-1 was abolished by treatment with MAIP-1, a PAS-1-specific monoclonal antibody, confirming the crucial role of PAS-1 in suppressing LPS-induced inflammation. These findings demonstrate that PAS-1 is an E/S protein with anti-inflammatory properties likely to be attributable to IL-10 production.

  13. Functional brain regeneration in the acoel worm Symsagittifera roscoffensis

    PubMed Central

    Sprecher, Simon G.; Bernardo-Garcia, F. Javier; van Giesen, Lena; Hartenstein, Volker; Reichert, Heinrich; Neves, Ricardo; Bailly, Xavier; Martinez, Pedro; Brauchle, Michael

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The ability of some animals to regrow their head and brain after decapitation provides a striking example of the regenerative capacity within the animal kingdom. The acoel worm Symsagittifera roscoffensis can regrow its head, brain and sensory head organs within only a few weeks after decapitation. How rapidly and to what degree it also reacquires its functionality to control behavior however remains unknown. We provide here a neuroanatomical map of the brain neuropils of the adult S. roscoffensis and show that after decapitation a normal neuroanatomical organization of the brain is restored in the majority of animals. By testing different behaviors we further show that functionality of both sensory perception and the underlying brain architecture are restored within weeks after decapitation. Interestingly not all behaviors are restored at the same speed and to the same extent. While we find that phototaxis recovered rapidly, geotaxis is not restored within 7 weeks. Our findings show that regeneration of the head, sensory organs and brain result in the restoration of directed navigation behavior, suggesting a tight coordination in the regeneration of certain sensory organs with that of their underlying neural circuits. Thus, at least in S. roscoffensis, the regenerative capacity of different sensory modalities follows distinct paths. PMID:26581588

  14. Worms by number.

    PubMed

    Glasby, C J; Glasby, S P; Pleijel, F

    2008-09-22

    This paper investigates alternation patterns in length, shape and orientation of dorsal cirri (fleshy segmental appendages) of phyllodocidans, a large group of polychaete worms (Annelida). We document the alternation patterns in several families of Phyllodocida (Syllidae, Hesionidae, Sigalionidae, Polynoidae, Aphroditidae and Acoetidae) and identify the simple mathematical rule bases that describe the progression of these sequences. Two fundamentally different binary alternation patterns were found on the first four segments: 1011 for nereidiform families and 1010 for aphroditiform families. The alternation pattern in all aphroditiform families matches a simple one-dimensional cellular automaton and that for Syllidae (nereidiform) matches the Fibonacci string sequence. Hesionidae (nereidiform) showed the greatest variation in alternation patterns, but all corresponded to various known substitution rules. Comparison of binary patterns of the first 22 segments using a distance measure supports the current ideas on phylogeny within Phyllodocida. These results suggest that gene(s) involved in post-larval segmental growth employ a switching sequence that corresponds to simple mathematical substitution rules.

  15. Zoology: War of the Worms.

    PubMed

    Telford, Maximilian J; Copley, Richard R

    2016-04-25

    The phylogenetic affinities of Xenacoelomorpha - the phylum comprising Xenoturbella bocki and acoelomorph worms - are debated. Two recent studies conclude they represent the earliest branching bilaterally symmetrical animals, but additional tests may be needed to confirm this notion.

  16. Haemonchus contortus infection in sheep: parasite fecundity correlates with worm size and host lymphocyte counts.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Anthony; McMaster, Kate; Emery, David; Sangster, Nicholas

    2008-05-31

    Two experiments were conducted to elucidate the timing and nature of the sheep immune response to Haemonchus contortus (Barber's pole worm). The first experiment examined the establishment of H. contortus populations and the immune response by comparing a bolus infection of third-stage larvae in naïve sheep with a group previously primed by a trickle infection. The second experiment used staggered doses of ivermectin-resistant larvae to compare the development of adult worms during different durations of trickle infection with ivermectin-sensitive larvae. Infections successfully generated pathological signs of haemonchosis such as anaemia. Image analysis software was used to measure the area and perimeter of worms collected at post-mortem, and the number of eggs present in individual adult females (fecundity) was significantly correlated with worm size. A significant inverse correlation was found between blood lymphocyte counts and worm fecundity. The absence of correlation between worm fecundity and other leukocyte and erythrocyte counts highlighted the specificity of the lymphocyte response. This is the first report of a link between haematology profiles and worm fecundity in haemonchosis. The correlation observed between adult worm size and egg content leads to the hypothesis that egg production in H. contortus is limited by immune regulation of worm size and presumably growth. Mean worm size and fecundity declined as sheep received more prolonged trickle infections before necropsy, confirming previous reports that immune responses to adult worms are enhanced by ongoing larval challenge. Immunohistochemical results showed trends consistent with a Th2 (humoral) immune response which has been implicated in reducing nematode burdens in several species.

  17. Characterization of Nontypable Haemophilus influenzae Isolates Recovered from Adult Patients with Underlying Chronic Lung Disease Reveals Genotypic and Phenotypic Traits Associated with Persistent Infection

    PubMed Central

    Garmendia, Junkal; Viadas, Cristina; Calatayud, Laura; Mell, Joshua Chang; Martí-Lliteras, Pau; Euba, Begoña; Llobet, Enrique; Gil, Carmen; Bengoechea, José Antonio; Redfield, Rosemary J.; Liñares, Josefina

    2014-01-01

    Nontypable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) has emerged as an important opportunistic pathogen causing infection in adults suffering obstructive lung diseases. Existing evidence associates chronic infection by NTHi to the progression of the chronic respiratory disease, but specific features of NTHi associated with persistence have not been comprehensively addressed. To provide clues about adaptive strategies adopted by NTHi during persistent infection, we compared sequential persistent isolates with newly acquired isolates in sputa from six patients with chronic obstructive lung disease. Pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) identified three patients with consecutive persistent strains and three with new strains. Phenotypic characterisation included infection of respiratory epithelial cells, bacterial self-aggregation, biofilm formation and resistance to antimicrobial peptides (AMP). Persistent isolates differed from new strains in showing low epithelial adhesion and inability to form biofilms when grown under continuous-flow culture conditions in microfermenters. Self-aggregation clustered the strains by patient, not by persistence. Increasing resistance to AMPs was observed for each series of persistent isolates; this was not associated with lipooligosaccharide decoration with phosphorylcholine or with lipid A acylation. Variation was further analyzed for the series of three persistent isolates recovered from patient 1. These isolates displayed comparable growth rate, natural transformation frequency and murine pulmonary infection. Genome sequencing of these three isolates revealed sequential acquisition of single-nucleotide variants in the AMP permease sapC, the heme acquisition systems hgpB, hgpC, hup and hxuC, the 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid kinase kdkA, the long-chain fatty acid transporter ompP1, and the phosphoribosylamine glycine ligase purD. Collectively, we frame a range of pathogenic traits and a repertoire of genetic variants in the context of

  18. Strongyloides ratti: transplantation of adults recovered from the small intestine at different days after infection into the colon of naive and infection-primed Wistar rats, and the effect of antioxidant treatment on large intestinal parasitism.

    PubMed

    Shintoku, Y; Takagi, H; Kadosaka, T; Nagaoka, F; Kondo, S; Itoh, M; Honda, S; Kimura, E

    2011-07-01

    Strongyloides ratti (Nagoya strain) is unique in that a portion of adults parasitizing the small intestine withstands 'worm expulsion', which starts at around day 8 post-infection (p.i.) by host immunity, and establishes in the large intestine after day 19 p.i. To investigate the mechanism, adults obtained from the small intestine at day 7 or 19 p.i. were transplanted into the colon of infection-primed immune rats. Adults obtained at day 7 p.i. were rejected quickly, whereas those obtained at day 19 p.i. could establish infection. Moreover, the body length and the number of intrauterine eggs increased in the large intestine. In a separate experiment, large intestinal parasitism was abolished by the treatment of host rats with an anti-oxidant, butylated hydroxyanisole. These results indicate that small intestinal adults between days 7 and 19 p.i. acquired the ability to parasitize the large intestine of immune rats, and that free radicals produced by the host may have played a significant role in the process.

  19. The Wonder of Worms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Cynthia; Landry, Melinda

    2013-01-01

    Kindergarten students have an amazing capacity for wonder and inquisitiveness--two important characteristics for future scientists. Much of what young students "know" about the natural world stems from their daily interactions with peers, adults, the outdoors, and the media. What can be especially challenging to uncover and redirect are…

  20. Design and analysis of SEIQR worm propagation model in mobile internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Xi; Fu, Peng; Dou, Changsheng; Li, Qing; Hu, Guangwu; Xia, Shutao

    2017-02-01

    The mobile Internet has considerably facilitated daily life in recent years. However, it has become the breeding ground for lots of new worms, including the Bluetooth-based worm, the SMS/MMS-based worm and the Wi-Fi-based worm. At present, Wi-Fi is widely used for mobile devices to connect to the Internet. But it exposes these devices to the dangerous environment. Most current worm propagation models aim to solve the problems of computer worms. They cannot be used directly in the mobile environment, particularly in the Wi-Fi scenario, because of the differences between computers and mobile devices. In this paper, we propose a worm propagation model in the Wi-Fi environment, called SEIQR (Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious- Quarantined-Recovered). In the model, infected nodes can be quarantined by the Wi-Fi base station, and a new state named the Quarantined state (Q) is established to represent these infected nodes. Based on this model, we present an effective method to inhibit the spread of the Wi-Fi-based worms. Furthermore, related stabilities of the worm-free and endemic equilibriums are studied based on the basic reproduction number R0. The worm-free equilibrium is locally and globally asymptotically stable if R0 < 1, whereas the endemic equilibrium is locally asymptotically stable if R0 < 1. Finally, we evaluate the performance of our model by comprehensive experiments with different infection rates and quarantine rates. The results indicate that our mechanism can combat the worms propagated via Wi-Fi.

  1. Lack of effect of ivermectin on prepatent guinea-worm: a single-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Issaka-Tinorgah, A; Magnussen, P; Bloch, P; Yakubu, A

    1994-01-01

    The effect of ivermectin on prepatent guinea-worm was tested in a single-blind placebo-controlled trial; 400 adults were randomly allocated to a single dose of ivermectin (150 micrograms/kg) or placebo. Fifty-four of the 385 participants who were followed for 15 months developed a total of 69 emergent guinea-worms. There was no significant difference in the proportion of persons with emergent guinea-worms between the 2 treatment groups; 58% appeared in males. 80% of emergent guinea-worms were located below the knee. Migration of guinea-worms in the tissues was not affected. It is concluded that ivermectin has no effect on prepatent guinea-worms nor does it disturb their migration pattern. No adverse reaction to treatment was seen. It appears that ivermectin can be used safely as mass chemotherapy against onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis in areas where guinea-worm is also endemic.

  2. SKNy worms and long life.

    PubMed

    Jasper, Heinrich

    2008-03-21

    Interactions between insulin signaling and stress-response pathways can markedly impact life span. In this issue, Tullet et al. (2008) demonstrate that the worm homolog of Nrf2, called SKN-1, a transcription factor that switches on expression of antioxidant genes, is an important component of such signaling interactions.

  3. Critical Considerations for WORM Software Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Brian A.

    1987-01-01

    Addresses advantages and disadvantages of write-once read-many (WORM) optical disks and other software considerations resulting from the write-once nature of WORM media to provide guidelines for determining whether this technology is appropriate for an application. Three brief case studies describe WORM software development efforts. (MES)

  4. Worm recovery and precipitin antibody response in guinea pigs and rats infected with Clonorchis sinensis.

    PubMed

    Su, K E; Wang, F Y; Chi, P Y

    1998-12-01

    Guinea pigs (Hartley strain) and rats (Wistar strain) were each fed 200 and 100 Clonorchis sinensis metacercariae, respectively. Five animals from each species were sacrificed weekly between 1-8 weeks postinfection (WPI) and then at 12, 16, 20 and 30 WPI for collection of worms, bile and sera. The overall worm recovery rates for guinea pigs and rats were 18.7% and 12.4%, respectively. Only one of the five rats examined at 20 WPI still harbored one worm, while all were worm-free at 30 WPI. By a double diffusion test, no antibodies were detected against C. sinensis adult antigens in the bile juice. Serum antibodies were detected in at least 95% of the infected guinea pigs between 4-30 WPI and rats between 3-16 WPI. Precipitin antibodies seemed to be correlated with the presence of live worms in rats that had been infected for more than 12 weeks.

  5. Propagation Modeling and Defending of a Mobile Sensor Worm in Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tian; Wu, Qun; Wen, Sheng; Cai, Yiqiao; Tian, Hui; Chen, Yonghong; Wang, Baowei

    2017-01-01

    WSANs (Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks) are derived from traditional wireless sensor networks by introducing mobile actuator elements. Previous studies indicated that mobile actuators can improve network performance in terms of data collection, energy supplementation, etc. However, according to our experimental simulations, the actuator’s mobility also causes the sensor worm to spread faster if an attacker launches worm attacks on an actuator and compromises it successfully. Traditional worm propagation models and defense strategies did not consider the diffusion with a mobile worm carrier. To address this new problem, we first propose a microscopic mathematical model to describe the propagation dynamics of the sensor worm. Then, a two-step local defending strategy (LDS) with a mobile patcher (a mobile element which can distribute patches) is designed to recover the network. In LDS, all recovering operations are only taken in a restricted region to minimize the cost. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that our model estimations are rather accurate and consistent with the actual spreading scenario of the mobile sensor worm. Moreover, on average, the LDS outperforms other algorithms by approximately 50% in terms of the cost. PMID:28098748

  6. Propagation Modeling and Defending of a Mobile Sensor Worm in Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tian; Wu, Qun; Wen, Sheng; Cai, Yiqiao; Tian, Hui; Chen, Yonghong; Wang, Baowei

    2017-01-13

    WSANs (Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks) are derived from traditional wireless sensor networks by introducing mobile actuator elements. Previous studies indicated that mobile actuators can improve network performance in terms of data collection, energy supplementation, etc. However, according to our experimental simulations, the actuator's mobility also causes the sensor worm to spread faster if an attacker launches worm attacks on an actuator and compromises it successfully. Traditional worm propagation models and defense strategies did not consider the diffusion with a mobile worm carrier. To address this new problem, we first propose a microscopic mathematical model to describe the propagation dynamics of the sensor worm. Then, a two-step local defending strategy (LDS) with a mobile patcher (a mobile element which can distribute patches) is designed to recover the network. In LDS, all recovering operations are only taken in a restricted region to minimize the cost. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that our model estimations are rather accurate and consistent with the actual spreading scenario of the mobile sensor worm. Moreover, on average, the LDS outperforms other algorithms by approximately 50% in terms of the cost.

  7. Experimental centrocestiasis: Worm burden, morphology and fecundity of Centrocestus formosanus (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) in dexamethasone immunosuppressed mice.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Hudson Alves; Mati, Vitor Luís Tenório; de Melo, Alan Lane

    2015-10-01

    Centrocestus formosanus is an intestinal foodborne trematode with medical and veterinary importance that remains with the pathological and immunological aspects of the infection in definitive host poorly studied. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of pharmacological immunosuppression by glucocorticoids in experimental centrocestiasis. Mice of the AKR/J strain were orally inoculated with 100 metacercariae of C. formosanus obtained in naturally infected fish (Australoheros facetus) collected in an urban reservoir from Brazil. Treatment with dexamethasone (25 mg/kg, via subcutaneous injection) was started 1h before infection of mice and then continued daily during 14 days post-infection. Untreated mice also infected with C. formosanus were used as control. At the end of the treatment course, all rodents were euthanized and adult parasites recovered from host intestines were subjected to morphological and morphometric analysis under optical microscopy. The worm burden in dexamethasone treated group [70±14 (41-85)] was significantly greater (p<0.0001) than that in the control group [15±4 (10-22)]. In addition, the parasites recovered from immunosuppressed mice were larger, with more developed reproductive structures and greater number of intrauterine eggs than in control mice. These parasite developmental changes induced by dexamethasone treatment are reported for the first time in experimental centrocestiasis. Moreover the higher parasite fecundity induced by glucocorticoid treatment had so far not been reported for any heterophyid species, which can have implications for the pathology and morbidity in infections caused by these parasites.

  8. On the recovery of horsehair worms, Gordius sp. (Nematomorpha: Gordiida) from pork in Shillong, India.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Arun K; Schmidt-Rhaesa, Andreas; Laha, R; Sen, A

    2017-03-01

    The members of the phylum Nematomorpha, called as horsehair or gordian worms, are the parasites of arthropods and emerge from their host for reproduction and early development in water. There are about 360 species of nematomorphs described till date. Although, horsehair worms are parasites of arthropod species, sporadic cases of their occurrence have also been reported from several other hosts, including man. This paper describes a case history of the occurrence of two nematomorph worms in the meat of a pig in Shillong, India. The worms were reported to have emerged in live condition from pork bought by a consumer from local market in Shillong. One of the recovered specimens was studied by scanning electron microscopy for species determination and identified as Gordius sp., mainly on the basis of flat polygonal areoles and fine bristles on the cuticle.

  9. Flavonoids and Sesquiterpene Lactones from Artemisia absinthium and Tanacetum parthenium against Schistosoma mansoni Worms

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Luísa Maria Silveira; Gazolla, Matheus Coutinho; Silva Pinto, Pedro Luiz; da Silva, Marcos Paulo Nascimento; de Moraes, Josué

    2016-01-01

    Human schistosomiasis, caused by trematode worms of the genus Schistosoma, is one of the most significant neglected tropical diseases, affecting more than 200 million individuals worldwide and praziquantel is the only available drug to treat this disease. Artemisia absinthium L. and Tanacetum parthenium L. are species popularly used as anthelmintics. We investigated the in vitro schistosomicidal activity of crude extracts of A. absinthium (AA) and T. parthenium (TP) and their isolated compounds. AA and TP, at 200 μg/mL, were active, causing 100% mortality of all adult worms. Chromatographic fractionation of AA leads to isolation of artemetin and hydroxypelenolide, while santin, apigenin, and parthenolide were isolated from TP. Artemetin, hydroxypelenolide, santin, and apigenin, at 100 μM, were inactive against adult worms. Parthenolide (12.5 to 100 μM) caused 100% mortality, tegumental alterations, and reduction of motor activity of all adult worms of S. mansoni, without affecting mammalian cells. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed tegumental morphological alterations and changes on the numbers of tubercles of S. mansoni worms. This report provides the first evidence for the in vitro activity of parthenolide against adult worms of S. mansoni, opening the route to further schistosomicidal studies with this compound. PMID:27980595

  10. India eradicates guinea worm disease.

    PubMed

    Sharma, R

    2000-03-11

    The WHO officially certifies India and other countries of the South East Asian regions as free of guinea worm disease. The eradication was made possible through the efforts of the Indian government to launch a national guinea worm eradication program in 1983-84, and a sustained campaign at the grass-roots level by agencies such as the UN International Children's Fund and the WHO in collaboration with the government. The recognition was based on the report gathered by three members of the 4th International Commission for Certification of Dracunculiasis Eradication, who visited India in November 1999 and conducted an investigation in 62 villages in 5 states where the disease had been endemic. Also, the national eradication program had been evaluated 7 times and showed remarkable achievement.

  11. [Cuticle ultrastructure of the fresh-water horsehair worm Gordionus alpestris (Villot, 1885) (Nematomorpha)].

    PubMed

    Guzeeva, E A; Efeykin, B D; Schmatko, V Yu; Spiridonov, S E

    2015-01-01

    The cuticular structure of the horsehair worm Gordionus alpestris (Villot, 1885) was studied under scanning and transmission electron microscopes. Adult worms were collected in the Syuk River near Nickel' Village in the Republic of Adygea (Russia) in June 2013. In the sampling area, the G. alpestris juveniles parasitize diplopods Pachyiulus krivolutskyi Golovatch, 1977. Similarities with other Nematomorpha species with the known cuticle ultrastucture are discussed.

  12. Two Leucobacter strains exert complementary virulence on Caenorhabditis including death by worm-star formation.

    PubMed

    Hodgkin, Jonathan; Félix, Marie-Anne; Clark, Laura C; Stroud, Dave; Gravato-Nobre, Maria J

    2013-11-04

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been much studied as a host for microbial infection. Some pathogens can infect its intestine, while others attack via its external surface. Cultures of Caenorhabditis isolated from natural environments have yielded new nematode pathogens, such as microsporidia and viruses. We report here a novel mechanism for bacterial attack on worms, discovered during investigation of a diseased and coinfected natural isolate of Caenorhabditis from Cape Verde. Two related coryneform pathogens (genus Leucobacter) were obtained from this isolate, which had complementary effects on C. elegans and related nematodes. One pathogen, Verde1, was able to cause swimming worms to stick together irreversibly by their tails, leading to the rapid formation of aggregated "worm-stars." Adult worms trapped in these aggregates were immobilized and subsequently died, with concomitant growth of bacteria. Trapped larval worms were sometimes able to escape from worm-stars by undergoing autotomy, separating their bodies into two parts. The other pathogen, Verde2, killed worms after rectal invasion, in a more virulent version of a previously studied infection. Resistance to killing by Verde2, by means of alterations in host surface glycosylation, resulted in hypersensitivity to Verde1, revealing a trade-off in bacterial susceptibility. Conversely, a sublethal surface infection of worms with Verde1 conferred partial protection against Verde2. The formation of worm-stars by Verde1 occurred only when worms were swimming in liquid but provides a striking example of asymmetric warfare as well as a bacterial equivalent to the trapping strategies used by nematophagous fungi.

  13. Can Adults Who Have Recovered from Selective Mutism in Childhood and Adolescence Tell Us Anything about the Nature of the Condition and/or Recovery from It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omdal, Heidi

    2007-01-01

    The literature on selective mutism provides little information on the child's own perspective. Six adults who had been selectively mute were interviewed about their childhood and adolescence. Data analysis led to identification of five themes, each of which has potentially important implications for teachers. (1) Origins of selective mutism: all…

  14. Worms--a "license to kill".

    PubMed

    Kaminsky, Ronald; Rufener, Lucien; Bouvier, Jacques; Lizundia, Regina; Schorderet Weber, Sandra; Sager, Heinz

    2013-08-01

    Worm infections can cause severe harm and death to both humans and numerous domestic and wild animals. Despite the fact that there are many beneficial worm species, veterinarians, physicians and parasitologists have multiple reasons to combat parasitic worms. The pros and cons of various approaches for the discovery of new control methods are discussed, including novel anthelmintics, vaccines and genetic approaches to identify novel drug and vaccine targets. Currently, the mainstay of worm control remains chemotherapy and prophylaxis. The importance of knowledgeable and wise use of the available anthelmintics is highlighted.

  15. Polyanhydride Nanoparticle Delivery Platform Dramatically Enhances Killing of Filarial Worms

    PubMed Central

    Binnebose, Andrea M.; Haughney, Shannon L.; Martin, Richard; Imerman, Paula M.; Narasimhan, Balaji; Bellaire, Bryan H.

    2015-01-01

    Filarial diseases represent a significant social and economic burden to over 120 million people worldwide and are caused by endoparasites that require the presence of symbiotic bacteria of the genus Wolbachia for fertility and viability of the host parasite. Targeting Wolbachia for elimination is a therapeutic approach that shows promise in the treatment of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. Here we demonstrate the use of a biodegradable polyanhydride nanoparticle-based platform for the co-delivery of the antibiotic doxycycline with the antiparasitic drug, ivermectin, to reduce microfilarial burden and rapidly kill adult worms. When doxycycline and ivermectin were co-delivered within polyanhydride nanoparticles, effective killing of adult female Brugia malayi filarial worms was achieved with approximately 4,000-fold reduction in the amount of drug used. Additionally the time to death of the macrofilaria was also significantly reduced (five-fold) when the anti-filarial drug cocktail was delivered within polyanhydride nanoparticles. We hypothesize that the mechanism behind this dramatically enhanced killing of the macrofilaria is the ability of the polyanhydride nanoparticles to behave as a Trojan horse and penetrate the cuticle, bypassing excretory pumps of B. malayi, and effectively deliver drug directly to both the worm and Wolbachia at high enough microenvironmental concentrations to cause death. These provocative findings may have significant consequences for the reduction in the amount of drug and the length of treatment required for filarial infections in terms of patient compliance and reduced cost of treatment. PMID:26496201

  16. Animal Models for Echinostoma malayanum Infection: Worm Recovery and Some Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Songsri, Jiraporn; Aukkanimart, Ratchadawan; Boonmars, Thidarut; Ratanasuwan, Panaratana; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Sriraj, Pranee; Sripan, Panupan

    2016-01-01

    Echinostomes are intestinal trematodes that infect a wide range of vertebrate hosts, including humans, in their adult stage and also parasitize numerous invertebrate and cold-blooded vertebrate hosts in their larval stages. The purpose of this study was to compare Echinostoma malayanum parasite growth, including worm recovery, body size of adult worms, eggs per worm, eggs per gram of feces, and pathological changes in the small intestine of experimental animals. In this study, 6-8-week-old male hamsters, rats, mice, and gerbils were infected with echinostome metacercariae and then sacrificed at day 60 post-infection. The small intestine and feces of each infected animal were collected and then processed for analysis. The results showed that worm recovery, eggs per worm, and eggs per gram of feces from all infected hamsters were higher compared with infected rats and mice. However, in infected gerbils, no parasites were observed in the small intestine, and there were no parasite eggs in the feces. The volume of eggs per gram of feces and eggs per worm were related to parasite size. The results of histopathological changes in the small intestine of infected groups showed abnormal villi and goblet cells, as evidenced by short villi and an increase in the number and size of goblet cells compared with the normal control group. PMID:26951978

  17. From Flowers to Worms: Understanding Nature's Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Gardening helps children learn how plants sprout, grow, bloom, and then wither away, leaving seeds behind. Participating in this natural process allows children to experience the stages of life. Suggested gardening activities include studying dandelions, focusing on culture for garden plant selection, and constructing a worm box or worm terrarium…

  18. Global eradication of Guinea worm.

    PubMed

    Periès, H; Cairncross, S

    1997-11-01

    Little more than a decade ago, it was estimated that over three million cases of dracunculiasis occurred worldwide. Since then, the numbers have fallen dramatically, thanks to the water supply initiatives of the 1980s and, more recently, the national guinea worm eradication programmes implemented in a score of endemic countries. Hervé Periès and Sandy Cairncross discuss how eradication will require the containment of cases in the remaining endemic areas, together with the simultaneous strengthening of surveillance to permit the certification of eradication. This aim requires existing strategies to be adapted to maintain their efficacy and also to improve their sustainability and cost-effectiveness. Sudan with its civil war, and more than a hundred thousand reported cases, remains a major obstacle to rapid achievement of the goal.

  19. Vaccination with a genetically modified Brugia malayi cysteine protease inhibitor-2 reduces adult parasite numbers and affects the fertility of female worms following a subcutaneous challenge of Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) with B. malayi infective larvae.

    PubMed

    Arumugam, Sridhar; Wei, Junfei; Ward, Danielle; Abraham, David; Lustigman, Sara; Zhan, Bin; Klei, Thomas R

    2014-09-01

    Vaccination of Mongolian gerbils with Brugia malayi cysteine protease inhibitor-2 in which the amino acid Asn66 was mutated to Lys66 (Bm-CPI-2M) resulted in reduced parasite numbers of 48.6% and 48.0% at 42 and 90 days p.i. with B. malayi L3s. Fertility of female worms was also affected at 90 days p.i. In vitro killing of L3s observed in the presence of gerbil peritoneal exudate cells and anti-Bm-CPI-2M sera suggests antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity as a putative protective mechanism. These observations suggest that Bm-CPI-2M is a promising prophylactic and anti-fecundity vaccine candidate.

  20. ULTRASTRUCTURAL CHANGES IN Schistosoma mansoni MALE WORMS AFTER in vitro INCUBATION WITH THE ESSENTIAL OIL OF Mentha x villosa Huds

    PubMed Central

    MATOS-ROCHA, Thiago José; CAVALCANTI, Marília Gabriela dos Santos; VERAS, Dyana Leal; FEITOSA, Ana Paula Sampaio; GONÇALVES, Gabriel Gazzoni Araújo; PORTELA-JUNIOR, Nairomberg Cavalcanti; LÚCIO, Ana Silvia Suassuna Carneiro; da SILVA, Anekécia Lauro; PADILHA, Rafael José Ribeiro; MARQUES, Márcia Ortiz Mayo; BARBOSA-FILHO, José Maria; ALVES, Luiz Carlos; BRAYNER, Fábio André

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The essential oil Mentha x villosa (MVEO) has a wide range of actions, including antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal and schistosomicidal actions. The present study aimed to investigate the ultrastructural changes of MVEO on the tegument of adult Schistosoma mansoni. Materials and Methods: Different concentrations of MVEO were tested on S. mansoni adult worms in vitro. Ultrastructural changes on the tegument of these adult worms were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results: The MVEO caused the death of all worms at 500 μg mL-1 after 24 h. After 24h of 500 μg mL-1 MVEO treatment, bubble lesions were observed over the entire body of worms and they presented loss of tubercles in some regions of the ventral portion. In the evaluation by TEM, S. mansoni adult worms treated with MVEO, 500 μg mL-1, presented changes in the tegument and vacuoles in the syncytial matrix region. Glycogen granules close to the muscle fibers were visible. Conclusion: The ability of MVEO to cause extensive ultrastructural damage to S. mansoni adult worms correlates with its schistosomicidal effects and confirms earlier findings with S. mansoni. PMID:26910448

  1. An introduction to worm lab: from culturing worms to mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Jyotiska; Parihar, Manish; Pires-daSilva, Andre

    2011-01-11

    This protocol describes procedures to maintain nematodes in the laboratory and how to mutagenize them using two alternative methods: ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) and 4, 5', 8-trimethylpsoralen combined with ultraviolet light (TMP/UV). Nematodes are powerful biological systems for genetics studies because of their simple body plan and mating system, which is composed of self-fertilizing hermaphrodites and males that can generate hundreds of progeny per animal. Nematodes are maintained in agar plates containing a lawn of bacteria and can be easily transferred from one plate to another using a pick. EMS is an alkylating agent commonly used to induce point mutations and small deletions, while TMP/UV mainly induces deletions. Depending on the species of nematode being used, concentrations of EMS and TMP will have to be optimized. To isolate recessive mutations of the nematode Pristionchus pacificus, animals of the F2 generation were visually screened for phenotypes. To illustrate these methods, we mutagenized worms and looked for Uncoordinated (Unc), Dumpy (Dpy) and Transformer (Tra) mutants.

  2. Internet worms and global routing instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowie, James; Ogielski, Andy T.; Premore, B. J.; Yuan, Yougu

    2002-07-01

    We analyze the global BGP routing instabilities observed during the Code Red II and Nimda worm attacks in July and September 2001, respectively. Compelling analysis is shown on the correlation between the observed instabilities and the worm attacks. We analyze router failure modes that can be triggered by the abnormal traffic during the worm attack and how they can lead to global routing instability. Independent research has partially confirmed that such failure modes can and likely do occur in practice. Highly detailed large-scale simulations help close the loop, indicating that such failure modes do in fact trigger the kind of widespread BGP instabilities that were observed empirically.

  3. Guinea worm in southern Ghana: its epidemiology and impact on agricultural productivity.

    PubMed

    Belcher, D W; Wurapa, F K; Ward, W B; Lourie, I M

    1975-03-01

    In southern Ghana guinea worm disease was found to occur almost exclusively in villages dependent upon pond water during the dry season. The recent occurrence of guinea worm for the first time in many villages in the survey area suggests that the disease is spreading. The risk of increasing disease in the Accra plains is serious, because almost half of the 159 villages surveyed use pond water, and residents frequently travel to endemic areas. In this study adult male farmers were at greatest risk of becoming infected. The average work loss in untreated adults was more than 5 weeks. Because guinea worm disease is seasonal, conciding with peak agricultural activities, and few alternative labor sources are available for the incapacitated farmer, a marked reduction in agricultural output occurs. Additional research is needed to guide health education programs, to evaluate the effectiveness of chemical control of cyclops in ponds, and to develop low-cost improved rural water supplies.

  4. PROCESS OF RECOVERING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Carter, J.M.; Larson, C.E.

    1958-10-01

    A process is presented for recovering uranium values from calutron deposits. The process consists in treating such deposits to produce an oxidlzed acidic solution containing uranium together with the following imparities: Cu, Fe, Cr, Ni, Mn, Zn. The uranium is recovered from such an impurity-bearing solution by adjusting the pH of the solution to the range 1.5 to 3.0 and then treating the solution with hydrogen peroxide. This results in the precipitation of uranium peroxide which is substantially free of the metal impurities in the solution. The peroxide precipitate is then separated from the solution, washed, and calcined to produce uranium trioxide.

  5. Petri Net and Probabilistic Model Checking Based Approach for the Modelling, Simulation and Verification of Internet Worm Propagation.

    PubMed

    Razzaq, Misbah; Ahmad, Jamil

    2015-01-01

    Internet worms are analogous to biological viruses since they can infect a host and have the ability to propagate through a chosen medium. To prevent the spread of a worm or to grasp how to regulate a prevailing worm, compartmental models are commonly used as a means to examine and understand the patterns and mechanisms of a worm spread. However, one of the greatest challenge is to produce methods to verify and validate the behavioural properties of a compartmental model. This is why in this study we suggest a framework based on Petri Nets and Model Checking through which we can meticulously examine and validate these models. We investigate Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered (SEIR) model and propose a new model Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered-Delayed-Quarantined (Susceptible/Recovered) (SEIDQR(S/I)) along with hybrid quarantine strategy, which is then constructed and analysed using Stochastic Petri Nets and Continuous Time Markov Chain. The analysis shows that the hybrid quarantine strategy is extremely effective in reducing the risk of propagating the worm. Through Model Checking, we gained insight into the functionality of compartmental models. Model Checking results validate simulation ones well, which fully support the proposed framework.

  6. Petri Net and Probabilistic Model Checking Based Approach for the Modelling, Simulation and Verification of Internet Worm Propagation

    PubMed Central

    Razzaq, Misbah; Ahmad, Jamil

    2015-01-01

    Internet worms are analogous to biological viruses since they can infect a host and have the ability to propagate through a chosen medium. To prevent the spread of a worm or to grasp how to regulate a prevailing worm, compartmental models are commonly used as a means to examine and understand the patterns and mechanisms of a worm spread. However, one of the greatest challenge is to produce methods to verify and validate the behavioural properties of a compartmental model. This is why in this study we suggest a framework based on Petri Nets and Model Checking through which we can meticulously examine and validate these models. We investigate Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered (SEIR) model and propose a new model Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered-Delayed-Quarantined (Susceptible/Recovered) (SEIDQR(S/I)) along with hybrid quarantine strategy, which is then constructed and analysed using Stochastic Petri Nets and Continuous Time Markov Chain. The analysis shows that the hybrid quarantine strategy is extremely effective in reducing the risk of propagating the worm. Through Model Checking, we gained insight into the functionality of compartmental models. Model Checking results validate simulation ones well, which fully support the proposed framework. PMID:26713449

  7. WDDD: Worm Developmental Dynamics Database.

    PubMed

    Kyoda, Koji; Adachi, Eru; Masuda, Eriko; Nagai, Yoko; Suzuki, Yoko; Oguro, Taeko; Urai, Mitsuru; Arai, Ryoko; Furukawa, Mari; Shimada, Kumiko; Kuramochi, Junko; Nagai, Eriko; Onami, Shuichi

    2013-01-01

    During animal development, cells undergo dynamic changes in position and gene expression. A collection of quantitative information about morphological dynamics under a wide variety of gene perturbations would provide a rich resource for understanding the molecular mechanisms of development. Here, we created a database, the Worm Developmental Dynamics Database (http://so.qbic.riken.jp/wddd/), which stores a collection of quantitative information about cell division dynamics in early Caenorhabditis elegans embryos with single genes silenced by RNA-mediated interference. The information contains the three-dimensional coordinate values of the outlines of nuclear regions and the dynamics of the outlines over time. The database provides free access to 50 sets of quantitative data for wild-type embryos and 136 sets of quantitative data for RNA-mediated interference embryos corresponding to 72 of the 97 essential embryonic genes on chromosome III. The database also provides sets of four-dimensional differential interference contrast microscopy images on which the quantitative data were based. The database will provide a novel opportunity for the development of computational methods to obtain fresh insights into the mechanisms of development. The quantitative information and microscopy images can be synchronously viewed through a web browser, which is designed for easy access by experimental biologists.

  8. WDDD: Worm Developmental Dynamics Database

    PubMed Central

    Kyoda, Koji; Adachi, Eru; Masuda, Eriko; Nagai, Yoko; Suzuki, Yoko; Oguro, Taeko; Urai, Mitsuru; Arai, Ryoko; Furukawa, Mari; Shimada, Kumiko; Kuramochi, Junko; Nagai, Eriko; Onami, Shuichi

    2013-01-01

    During animal development, cells undergo dynamic changes in position and gene expression. A collection of quantitative information about morphological dynamics under a wide variety of gene perturbations would provide a rich resource for understanding the molecular mechanisms of development. Here, we created a database, the Worm Developmental Dynamics Database (http://so.qbic.riken.jp/wddd/), which stores a collection of quantitative information about cell division dynamics in early Caenorhabditis elegans embryos with single genes silenced by RNA-mediated interference. The information contains the three-dimensional coordinate values of the outlines of nuclear regions and the dynamics of the outlines over time. The database provides free access to 50 sets of quantitative data for wild-type embryos and 136 sets of quantitative data for RNA-mediated interference embryos corresponding to 72 of the 97 essential embryonic genes on chromosome III. The database also provides sets of four-dimensional differential interference contrast microscopy images on which the quantitative data were based. The database will provide a novel opportunity for the development of computational methods to obtain fresh insights into the mechanisms of development. The quantitative information and microscopy images can be synchronously viewed through a web browser, which is designed for easy access by experimental biologists. PMID:23172286

  9. Relationship between pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary thromboembolism associated with dead worms in canine heartworm disease.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Y; Kitagawa, H; Sasaki, Y

    1992-10-01

    To examine effects of thromboemboli due to dead worms on pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP), 20 to 50 dead heartworms were inserted into the pulmonary arteries of 4 heartworm uninfected dogs (uninfected group) and 11 dogs infected with heartworms (infected group). In the uninfected group, the mean PAP rose 1 week after worm insertion (10.9 to 166. mmHg), but it recovered by the 4th week. Clinical signs, hemodynamics and blood gas findings also deteriorated at the 1st week, but recovered at the 4th week. Angiographic and pathological findings indicated that blood flow recovered through the spaces between thromboemboli and vessel walls at the 4th week. The infected dogs were divided into three groups. In the infected-I group (5 dogs), the intimal lesions of the pulmonary arteries were slight, and clinical and laboratory findings showed changes similar to those of the uninfected group. In the infected-II group (4 dogs), the pulmonary arterial lesions were severe and the mean PAP was higher (25.7 mmHg) than in the uninfected group before worm insertion. An increase in PAP (34.1 mmHg) and worsening of clinical and laboratory findings were noticed till the 4th week. Thromboemboli adhered extensively to the vessel walls. Two dogs in the infected-III group died of severe dyspnea on the 9th and 10th day, and the mean PAP rose remarkably at the 1st week (from 19.4 to 28.2 mmHg). Severe pulmonary parenchymal lesions with edema or perforation were observed. From the above results, it was clarified that effects of dead worms on PAP and clinical signs depended on the severity of pulmonary arterial lesions before worm insertion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Viability of developmental stages of Schistosoma mansoni quantified with xCELLigence worm real-time motility assay (xWORM).

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Gabriel; Loukas, Alex; Brindley, Paul J; Irelan, Jeff T; Smout, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    Infection with helminth parasites causes morbidity and mortality in billions of people and livestock worldwide. Where anthelmintic drugs are available, drug resistance is a major problem in livestock parasites, and a looming threat to public health. Monitoring the efficacy of these medicines and screening for new drugs has been hindered by the lack of objective, high-throughput approaches. Several cell monitoring technologies have been adapted for parasitic worms, including video-, fluorescence-, metabolism enzyme- and impedance-based tools that minimize the screening bottleneck. Using the xCELLigence impedance-based system we previously developed a motility-viability assay that is applicable for a range of helminth parasites. Here we have improved substantially the assay by using diverse frequency settings, and have named it the xCELLigence worm real-time motility assay (xWORM). By utilizing strictly standardized mean difference analysis we compared the xWORM output measured with 10, 25 and 50 kHz frequencies to quantify the motility of schistosome adults (human blood flukes) and hatching of schistosome eggs. Furthermore, we have described a novel application of xWORM to monitor movement of schistosome cercariae, the developmental stage that is infectious to humans. For all three stages, 25 kHz was either optimal or near-optimal for monitoring and quantifying schistosome motility. These improvements in methodology sensitivity should enhance the capacity to screen small compound libraries for new drugs both for schistosomes and other helminth pathogens at large.

  11. Do 'Early Birds' Get the Healthier Worm?

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163902.html Do 'Early Birds' Get the Healthier Worm? Late-to-bed types ... 2017 FRIDAY, March 3, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Early birds may have a leg up over night owls ...

  12. Of water and worms: Guinea worm re-emergence in Niger.

    PubMed

    Royal, Nathaniel

    2014-03-01

    This paper aims to provide a better understanding of the re-emergence of Guinea worm into the water bodies of the Tillabéri region of the Niger Sahel. It examines the period of re-emergence and subsequent decline from 2002 until 2006. Using a geographic information system combined with a statistical approach to examine the location data of lakes with Guinea worm-associated cases, it is shown that the locations of population centers with cases of Guinea worm disease, the locations of lakes infected with Guinea worm larva, and features of the built environment are correlated in space.

  13. Optimal design for an end face engagement worm gear with multiple worm-wheel meshing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xingqiao; Zhu, Weibing; Chen, Yonghong; Chen, Shouan; Wang, Jinge

    2017-01-01

    To solve the problem for lacking a special mechanical transmission that could provide multiple outputs with high transmission efficiency and good lubrication in the modern industrial, a novel worm gear, named end face engagement worm gear, with multiple worm-wheel meshing is proposed for the first time. The essential parameters for the worm gear are optimized to enhance lubrication and meshing properties. Moreover, analysis of variance(ANOVA) is applied to determine the optimum levels and to determine the influence of parameters. The ANOVA results show that the novel end face engagement worm gear with multiple worm wheels provides high lubrication(the lubrication angle is more than 89°) and meshing performance(the induce normal curvature is less than 0.0002 mm-1). The interaction between center distance and roller slant distance most strongly influences the lubrication angle(contributed 51.6%), followed by the parameters of center distance(contributed 25.0%), roller slant distance(contributed 16.4%), tooth angle of gear, gear ratio, and roller radius. In addition, roller radius most strongly influences the induced normal curvature(contributed 39.4%), followed by roller slant distance(contributed 15.2%), tooth angle of the gear(contributed 9.0%), center distance, and gear ratio. The proposed worm gear helps to enrich the no-backlash high precision worm drive and the optimal design method can provide a useful reference on performance improvement of other worm gear.

  14. Assessment of worm gearing for helicopter transmissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaiko, Lev

    1990-01-01

    A high-efficiency hydrostatic worm gear drive for helicopter transmissions is assessed. The example given is for a large cargo helicopter with three 4000-kW engines and transmission reduction ratio of 110. Also contained are: an efficiency calculation, a description of the test stand for evaluating the feasibility of worm gear hydrostatic mesh, a weight calculation, and a comparison with conventional helicopter transmissions of the same power and transmission reduction ratio.

  15. Prevalence of giant kidney worm (Dioctophyma renale) in wild mink (Mustela vison) in Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L. David; Tracy, Shawn P.

    2001-01-01

    Of 138 wild mink (Mustela vison) from eastern Minnesota, 27% contained Dioctophyma renale, primarily in the right kidney. No significant difference between prevalence in adult male and immature male mink was found, nor between the prevalence in males versus female mink. Thirteen worms were found in one male mink, representing the highest documented infection intensity of a single wild mink.

  16. Hymenolepis nana: worm recovery from congenitally athymic nude and phenotypically normal rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Ito, A; Kamiyama, T

    1984-10-01

    When eggs or mouse-derived cysticercoids of Hymenolepis nana were inoculated into previously uninfected congenitally athymic nude (rnu/rnu) rats of an outbred Rowett strain, they failed to mature in the intestinal lumen. They also failed to mature in phenotypically normal (rnu/+) littermates, except when these hosts were treated with cortisone acetate from the beginning of the lumen phase. The Rowett rat, either thymus-deficient or not, was susceptible to tissue cysticercoids but resistant to luminal adults. It is therefore considered to be an unnatural host, at least for mouse-derived H. nana. There was little or no difference in susceptibility to initial tissue cysticercoids between these nude rats and phenotypically normal ones. The normal rats became completely resistant to reinfection with eggs and no secondary cysticercoids developed in their intestinal tissue, whereas the nude rats showed unaltered susceptibility to secondary tissue cysticercoids. Thus, acquired resistance to egg challenge, assessed by the failure of tissue cysticercoid recovery, was thymus-dependent. However, innate resistance to both a primary egg dose, assessed by the low recovery rates of tissue cysticercoids, and to a primary cysticercoid dose, assessed by the failure of luminal adult recovery, were thymus-independent. The effect of cortisone acetate to initiate maturation of H. nana appeared to be unrelated to thymus function. In contrast, all mice, either thymus-deficient or not, were highly susceptible to both phases. The number of worms recovered was more than 10 times greater than that of cysticercoids established in the rat's intestinal tissue.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. WORM - WINDOWED OBSERVATION OF RELATIVE MOTION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, F.

    1994-01-01

    The Windowed Observation of Relative Motion, WORM, program is primarily intended for the generation of simple X-Y plots from data created by other programs. It allows the user to label, zoom, and change the scale of various plots. Three dimensional contour and line plots are provided, although with more limited capabilities. The input data can be in binary or ASCII format, although all data must be in the same format. A great deal of control over the details of the plot is provided, such as gridding, size of tick marks, colors, log/semilog capability, time tagging, and multiple and phase plane plots. Many color and monochrome graphics terminals and hard copy printer/plotters are supported. The WORM executive commands, menu selections and macro files can be used to develop plots and tabular data, query the WORM Help library, retrieve data from input files, and invoke VAX DCL commands. WORM generated plots are displayed on local graphics terminals and can be copied using standard hard copy capabilities. Some of the graphics features of WORM include: zooming and dezooming various portions of the plot; plot documentation including curve labeling and function listing; multiple curves on the same plot; windowing of multiple plots and insets of the same plot; displaying a specific on a curve; and spinning the curve left, right, up, and down. WORM is written in PASCAL for interactive execution and has been implemented on a DEC VAX computer operating under VMS 4.7 with a virtual memory requirement of approximately 392K of 8 bit bytes. It uses the QPLOT device independent graphics library included with WORM. It was developed in 1988.

  18. Effect of sericea lespedeza leaf meal pellets on adult female Haemonchus contortus in goats.

    PubMed

    Kommuru, D S; Whitley, N C; Miller, J E; Mosjidis, J A; Burke, J M; Gujja, S; Mechineni, A; Terrill, T H

    2015-01-15

    Sericea lespedeza (SL; Lespedeza cuneata) is a perennial warm-season forage rich in condensed tannins (CT) that has been reported to have anthelmintic activity against small ruminant gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN), particularly Haemonchus contortus, a highly pathogenic blood-feeder, but the mechanism of action of CT against H. contortus is not clearly understood. An experiment with young goats was designed to study the effect of SL leaf meal pellets on (1) a mature H. contortus infection, and (2) the surface appearance of adult H. contortus female worms. Thirty-six female and castrated male Boer crossbred goats artificially infected with H. contortus larvae were fed 75% SL leaf meal pellets or alfalfa pellets (18 goats/treatment group) in a 28-day confinement feeding trial. Fecal and blood samples were collected weekly for fecal egg count (FEC) and packed cell volume (PCV) determination, respectively, and all goats were slaughtered at the end of the trial for adult GIN recovery and counting. Five adult female H. contortus were recovered from the abomasum of two goats from each treatment group and from a prior study in which 75% and 95% SL leaf meal pellets or a commercial feed pellet were group-fed to grazing goats (270 days old, Spanish males, 10/treatment group) at 0.91 kg/head/d for 11 weeks. Adult GIN collected were fixed and examined for evidence of surface damage using scanning electron microscopy. Feeding 75% SL pellets to young goats in confinement reduced (P<0.05) FEC compared with control animals, while total worm numbers and PCV were not influenced by treatment. Three out of the 5 adult H. contortus recovered from SL treatment goats in the confinement feeding trial had cuticular surface damage, while no damage was observed on worms from the control group. All five worms observed from both SL treatments in the grazing study showed a shrunken, disheveled cuticular surface, whereas this was not observed on worms from control animals. Overall, this work

  19. Disulfide-Functionalized Diblock Copolymer Worm Gels.

    PubMed

    Warren, Nicholas J; Rosselgong, Julien; Madsen, Jeppe; Armes, Steven P

    2015-08-10

    Two strategies for introducing disulfide groups at the outer surface of RAFT-synthesized poly(glycerol monomethacrylate)-poly(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate) (PGMA-PHPMA, or Gx-Hy for brevity) diblock copolymer worms are investigated. The first approach involved statistical copolymerization of GMA with a small amount of disulfide dimethacrylate (DSDMA, or D) comonomer to afford a G54-D0.50 macromolecular chain transfer agent (macro-CTA); this synthesis was conducted in relatively dilute solution in order to ensure mainly intramolecular cyclization and hence the formation of linear chains. Alternatively, a new disulfide-based bifunctional RAFT agent (DSDB) was used to prepare a G45-S-S-G45 (or (G45-S)2) macro-CTA. A binary mixture of a non-functionalized G55 macro-CTA was utilized with each of these two disulfide-based macro-CTAs in turn for the RAFT aqueous dispersion polymerization of 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate (HPMA). By targeting a PHPMA DP of 130 and systematically varying the molar ratio of the two macro-CTAs, a series of disulfide-functionalized diblock copolymer worm gels were obtained. For both formulations, oscillatory rheology studies confirmed that higher disulfide contents led to stronger gels, presumably as a result of inter-worm covalent bond formation via disulfide/thiol exchange. Using the DSDB-based macro-CTA led to the strongest worm gels, and this formulation also proved to be more effective in suppressing the thermosensitive behavior that is observed for the nondisulfide-functionalized control worm gel. However, macroscopic precipitation occurred when the proportion of DSDB-based macro-CTA was increased to 50 mol %, whereas the DSDMA-based macro-CTA could be utilized at up to 80 mol %. Finally, the worm gel modulus could be reduced to that of a nondisulfide-containing worm gel by reductive cleavage of the inter-worm disulfide bonds using excess tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine (TCEP) to yield thiol groups. These new biomimetic worm gels are

  20. Recovering plant biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Studying recovering plant biodiversity on Mount Pinatubo may provide valuable insights that improve our understanding of recovery of other ecosystems following disturbances of all types. Ongoing sheet and rill erosion coupled with mass waste events in the unstable pyroclastic flow deposits persist, effectively re-setting primary succession at micro-landscape scale without affecting habitat level diversity. Spatial factors and micro-habitat diversity may exert more control over continued succession as the riparian systems become more deeply dissected and complex. The number of taxa within functional groups and conservation concerns are botanical issues that deserve further research. PMID:22019638

  1. Illumination for Worm Tracking and Behavioral Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yemini, Eviatar; Kerr, Rex A.; Schafer, William R.

    2016-01-01

    Neurobiological research in genetically tractable organisms relies heavily on robust assays for behavioral phenotypes. The simple body plan of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans makes it particularly amenable to the use of automated microscopy and image analysis to describe behavioral patterns quantitatively. This protocol provides an approach for obtaining uniform illumination during worm tracking. Good lighting can be more of an art than a science. Once the system is set up, it will be necessary to play with it, testing the results after each adjustment to ensure that the analysis software is able to clearly identify the worm and its boundaries. Although the protocol was developed for use in a single-worm tracker, it addresses factors important for the generation of reproducible, standardized images in all systems. PMID:22135668

  2. Misidentification of Onchocerca volvulus as guinea worm.

    PubMed

    Eberhard, M L; Melemoko, G; Zee, A K; Weisskopf, M G; Ruiz-Tiben, E

    2001-12-01

    Over the past 10 years, the status of human infection with guinea worm (Dracunculus medinensis) in the Central African Republic (CAR) has been difficult to ascertain. It is unclear if indigenous cases are occurring and whether cases are migrating into the CAR from surrounding countries. A team of investigators visited the CAR in July-August 2000, to attempt to ascertain the presence of indigenous transmission. No cases of true guinea-worm infection (i.e. dracunculiasis) were detected, but three cases of human infection with Onchocerca volvulus, each of which had been misidentified as dracunculiasis, were detected. The unusual presentation of skin blisters and extraction of an intact female O. volvulus are described. As a result of this investigation, and the confusion of onchocerciasis being misidentified as dracunculiasis, the presence of endemic transmission of guinea worm in the CAR remains in question.

  3. Guinea worm infection in northern Nigeria: Reflections on a disease approaching eradication.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Brian; Greenwood, Alice; Bradley, Andrew

    2017-02-14

    Global eradication of the Guinea worm (Dracunculus medinensis) is near, although perhaps delayed a little by the discovery of a transmission cycle in dogs. It is, therefore, an appropriate time to reflect on the severe impact of this infection on the life of the communities where it was endemic prior to the start of the global eradication programme in 1981. From 1971-74, we conducted a series of unpublished studies on Guinea worm in a group of villages in Katsina State, northern Nigeria, where the infection was highly endemic. These studies demonstrated the high rate of infection in affected communities, the frequent recurrence of the infection in some subjects and the long-standing disability that remained in some infected individuals. Immunological studies showed a high level of immediate hypersensitivity to adult worm and larval antigens but a down-regulation of TH1 type T cell responses to worm antigens. Freeing communities such as those described in this paper from the scourge of Guinea worm infection for good will be an important public health triumph. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Filarial Worms Reduce Plasmodium Infectivity in Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Aliota, Matthew T.; Chen, Cheng-Chen; Dagoro, Henry; Fuchs, Jeremy F.; Christensen, Bruce M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Co-occurrence of malaria and filarial worm parasites has been reported, but little is known about the interaction between filarial worm and malaria parasites with the same Anopheles vector. Herein, we present data evaluating the interaction between Wuchereria bancrofti and Anopheles punctulatus in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Our field studies in PNG demonstrated that An. punctulatus utilizes the melanization immune response as a natural mechanism of filarial worm resistance against invading W. bancrofti microfilariae. We then conducted laboratory studies utilizing the mosquitoes Armigeres subalbatus and Aedes aegypti and the parasites Brugia malayi, Brugia pahangi, Dirofilaria immitis, and Plasmodium gallinaceum to evaluate the hypothesis that immune activation and/or development by filarial worms negatively impact Plasmodium development in co-infected mosquitoes. Ar. subalbatus used in this study are natural vectors of P. gallinaceum and B. pahangi and they are naturally refractory to B. malayi (melanization-based refractoriness). Methodology/Principal Findings Mosquitoes were dissected and Plasmodium development was analyzed six days after blood feeding on either P. gallinaceum alone or after taking a bloodmeal containing both P. gallinaceum and B. malayi or a bloodmeal containing both P. gallinaceum and B. pahangi. There was a significant reduction in the prevalence and mean intensity of Plasmodium infections in two species of mosquito that had dual infections as compared to those mosquitoes that were infected with Plasmodium alone, and was independent of whether the mosquito had a melanization immune response to the filarial worm or not. However, there was no reduction in Plasmodium development when filarial worms were present in the bloodmeal (D. immitis) but midgut penetration was absent, suggesting that factors associated with penetration of the midgut by filarial worms likely are responsible for the observed reduction in malaria parasite infections

  5. Morphological and molecular characterization of adult worms of Leucochloridium paradoxum Carus, 1835 and L. perturbatum Pojmańska, 1969 (Digenea: Leucochloridiidae) from the great tit, Parus major L., 1758 and similarity with the sporocyst stages.

    PubMed

    Rząd, I; Hofsoe, P; Panicz, R; Nowakowski, J K

    2014-12-01

    Unlike the sporocyst stages, adult leucochloridiid digeneans are difficult to differentiate. Sporocyst broodsacs can be identified on the basis of their colour and banding pattern, but in the absence of broodsacs and when experimental infection cannot be performed, tentative morphological identification needs to be verified, and molecular techniques offer a tool to do this. In this study, adult leucochloridiid digeneans were collected from the great tit (Parus major) found dead at three localities at or near the Baltic Sea coast (Hel, Bukowo-Kopań and Szczecin) in northern Poland. On the basis of differences in their morphological characters, Hel specimens were tentatively assigned to Leucochloridium perturbatum, Bukowo-Kopań and Szczecin specimens being identified tentatively as L. paradoxum. Subsequent ribosomal DNA sequence analysis confirmed the identification of these leucochloridiid flukes. Nucleotide sequences discriminating between the two species were identical to those used by earlier authors as characteristic of two distinctly different sporocyst broodsacs representing L. perturbatum and L. paradoxum.

  6. WormAssay: a novel computer application for whole-plate motion-based screening of macroscopic parasites.

    PubMed

    Marcellino, Chris; Gut, Jiri; Lim, K C; Singh, Rahul; McKerrow, James; Sakanari, Judy

    2012-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis is caused by filarial nematode parasites, including Brugia malayi. Adult worms live in the lymphatic system and cause a strong immune reaction that leads to the obstruction of lymph vessels and swelling of the extremities. Chronic disease leads to the painful and disfiguring condition known as elephantiasis. Current drug therapy is effective against the microfilariae (larval stage) of the parasite, but no drugs are effective against the adult worms. One of the major stumbling blocks toward developing effective macrofilaricides to kill the adult worms is the lack of a high throughput screening method for candidate drugs. Current methods utilize systems that measure one well at a time and are time consuming and often expensive. We have developed a low-cost and simple visual imaging system to automate and quantify screening entire plates based on parasite movement. This system can be applied to the study of many macroparasites as well as other macroscopic organisms.

  7. WormAssay: A Novel Computer Application for Whole-Plate Motion-based Screening of Macroscopic Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Marcellino, Chris; Gut, Jiri; Lim, K. C.; Singh, Rahul; McKerrow, James; Sakanari, Judy

    2012-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis is caused by filarial nematode parasites, including Brugia malayi. Adult worms live in the lymphatic system and cause a strong immune reaction that leads to the obstruction of lymph vessels and swelling of the extremities. Chronic disease leads to the painful and disfiguring condition known as elephantiasis. Current drug therapy is effective against the microfilariae (larval stage) of the parasite, but no drugs are effective against the adult worms. One of the major stumbling blocks toward developing effective macrofilaricides to kill the adult worms is the lack of a high throughput screening method for candidate drugs. Current methods utilize systems that measure one well at a time and are time consuming and often expensive. We have developed a low-cost and simple visual imaging system to automate and quantify screening entire plates based on parasite movement. This system can be applied to the study of many macroparasites as well as other macroscopic organisms. PMID:22303493

  8. Process for recovering uranium

    DOEpatents

    MacWood, G. E.; Wilder, C. D.; Altman, D.

    1959-03-24

    A process useful in recovering uranium from deposits on stainless steel liner surfaces of calutrons is presented. The deposit is removed from the stainless steel surface by washing with aqueous nitric acid. The solution obtained containing uranium, chromium, nickel, copper, and iron is treated with an excess of ammonium hydroxide to precipitnte the uranium, iron, and chromium and convert the nickel and copper to soluble ammonio complexions. The precipitated material is removed, dried and treated with carbon tetrachloride at an elevated temperature of about 500 to 600 deg C to form a vapor mixture of UCl/ sub 4/, UCl/sub 5/, FeCl/sub 3/, and CrCl/sub 4/. The UCl/sub 4/ is separated from this vapor mixture by selective fractional condensation at a temperature of about 500 to 400 deg C.

  9. PROCESS FOR RECOVERING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    MacWood, G.E.; Wilder, C.D.; Altman, D.

    1959-03-24

    A process is described for recovering uranium from deposits on stainless steel liner surfaces of calutrons. The deposit is removed from the stainless steel surface by washing with aqueous nitric acid. The solution obtained containing uranium, chromium, nickels copper, and iron is treated with excess of ammonium hydroxide to precipitatc the uranium, irons and chromium and convert thc nickel and copper to soluble ammonia complexions. The precipitated material is removed, dried, and treated with carbon tetrachloride at an elevated temperature of about 500 to 600 deg C to form a vapor mixture of UCl/sub 4/, UCl/sub 5/, FeCl/ sub 3/, and CrCl/sub 4/. The UCl/sub 4/ is separated from this vapor mixture by selective fractional condensation at a temprrature of about 300 to400 deg C.

  10. METHOD OF RECOVERING THORIUM

    DOEpatents

    Fisher, R.W.

    1957-12-10

    A method is described for recovering thorium from impurities found in a slag containing thorium and said impurities, comprising leaching a composition containing thorium with water, removing the water solution, treating the residue with hydrochloric acid, separating the solution from the insoluble residue, adjusting its acidity to 1 to 3 normal, adding oxalic acid, and thereafter separating the precipitated thorium oxalate digesting the residue from the hydrochloric acid treatment with a strong solution of sodium hydroxide at an elevated temperature, removing said solution and treating the insoluble residue with hydrochloric acid, separating the solution from the insoluble residue, adjusting the acidity of this solution to 1 to 3 normal, adding nitric acid to oxidize the iron present, adding oxalic acid and thereafter separating the thorium oxalate thus precipitated.

  11. Proteomic analysis of different period excretory secretory products from Clonorchis sinensis adult worms: molecular characterization, immunolocalization, and serological reactivity of two excretory secretory antigens-methionine aminopeptidase 2 and acid phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Minghui; Hu, Kunhua; Liu, Wei; Li, Hongyu; Chen, Jingfang; Yu, Xinbing

    2013-03-01

    The excretory secretory products (ESP) of Clonorchis sinensis are the causative agents of clonorchiasis and biliary diseases. The parasites' ESP play important roles in host-parasite interactions. The protein compositions of ESP at different secretory times are different and have not been systemically investigated so far. In this study, we collected ESP from six different periods (0-3 h, 3-6 h, 6-12 h, 12-24 h, 24-36 h, and 36-48 h) from C. sinensis adults. Using a shotgun LC-MS/MS analysis, we found 187, 80, 103, 58, 248, and 383 proteins, respectively. Among these proteins, we selected methionine aminopeptidase 2 (MAP-2, presented in 24-36 h and 36-48 h ESP) and acid phosphatase (AP, presented in 3-6 h, 12-24 h, 24-36 h, and 36-48 h ESP) for further study. Bioinformatics analysis showed that CsMAP-2 has metallopeptidase family M24, unique lysine residue-rich and acidic residue-rich domain, SGTS motif, and auto-cleavage point; and that CsAP has possible signal sequence cleavage site, acid phosphate domain, and two histidine acid phosphatases active regions. CsMAP-2 and CsAP's cDNA have 1,425 bp and1,410 bp ORF, encoding 475 and 470 amino acid proteins and weighing 55.3840 kDa and 55.2875 kDa, respectively. MAP-2 and AP were identified as antigens present in the ESP and circulating antigens by immunoblot analysis, which were also found expressing in the eggs, metacercaria, and adult stages of C. sinensis. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that they were located in tegument and intestinal cecum of adult. MTT assay showed that they could inhibit hepatic stellate cell line (LX-2) proliferation. These findings presented the compositions of different period excretory secretary products from C. sinensis adults.

  12. Practical experiences with worm gearing for spacecraft power transmission applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purdy, William; Mccown, William

    1989-01-01

    Experiences of several organizations using worm gearing for spacecraft are discussed. Practical aspects and subtleties of using worm gearing for design and operation is included. Knowledge gained from these applications is analyzed, and guidelines for usage are proposed.

  13. Elastic mesh braided worm robot for locomotive endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Manwell, Thomas; Vítek, Tomáš; Ranzani, Tommaso; Menciassi, Arianna; Althoefer, Kaspar; Liu, Hongbin

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new design of worm robot whose body is constructed using a novel crimped elastic mesh braid inspired by the earthworm. The proposed worm robot is intended for inspection within the human body via natural orifices. The design and fabrication procedure of the worm robot are given in the paper. The imitation of peristalsis, used by natural worms, is used to control the worm robot for the purpose of producing motion while causing minimal trauma to biological tissue. The forward locomotive function of the worm robot has been tested on both a flat surface and in a rubber tube. It is shown that the worm robot is capable of propagating forwards for both test conditions in a form similar to the earthworm. The test results indicate the proposed worm robot design has promising application for natural tube inspection, like the colon and the esophagus.

  14. Guinea worm disease--the final chapter?

    PubMed

    Muller, Ralph

    2005-11-01

    The global campaign for the eradication of dracunculiasis has succeeded in reducing the incidence of guinea worm disease by >99% in the past 20 years. This has been accomplished by the provision of safe drinking water supplies, filtration of drinking water, chemical control of intermediate hosts, case containment and, crucially, local health-education initiatives.

  15. Ultrastructural characterization of male and female Physaloptera rara (Spirurida: Physalopteridae): feline stomach worms.

    PubMed

    Naem, Soraya; Asadi, Reza

    2013-05-01

    Physaloptera rara (Spirurida: Physalopteridae) has been found in dogs, coyotes, raccoons, wolves, foxes, cats, and bobcats in North America. The parasites' developmental cycles involve insects, including beetles, cockroaches, and crickets, as intermediate hosts. The nematodes firmly attach to the wall of the stomach and duodenum, where they feed on the mucosa and suck blood. Frequent movement of these nematodes results in erosions and ulcers in the gastrointestinal tract. The present study reports the morphological features of adult P. rara using scanning electron microscopy. Adult worms were removed from the stomach of an infected domestic cat. Male and female worms measured 25-29 and 27-41 mm, respectively. The worms were stout and the cuticle was reflected over the lips to form a large cephalic collarette with fine transverse striations. The worms possessed two large, simple triangular lateral pseudolabia, each armed with one external tooth, three internal teeth, two submedian cephalic papillae, an amphid, and three porous-like circumscribed regions. The internal margins of the lips had a pair of cuticular folds. At the anterior end of both male and female worms, an excretory pore was located on the ventral side and a pair of lateral ciliated cervical papillae was seen. The vulva was anterior to the middle of the body of female worms. The tail ends of the female worms were stumpy, with two large phasmids near their extremities. The males' tails bore large lateral alae. Ventral ornamentation, in male worms, was composed of three different cuticular patterns; coblestone-like formations, longitudinal cuticular ridges, and rows of bead-like structures. The spicules were unequal and dissimilar; the right spicule had a thick end and the left spicule had a sharp tip. At the posterior end of the males, four pairs of stalked precloacal papillae, three pairs of postcloacal papillae, and two phasmids were present. Three and four sessile papillae were seen directly

  16. Recover bromine on site

    SciTech Connect

    Schubert, P.; Mahajan, S.; Beatty, R.D.; Rostrup-Nielsen, T.; Schubert, D.W.; Lu, Phat Tan

    1993-04-01

    Chemists have long recognized the importance of recovering bromine from waste streams, and attempts to do so catalytically date back more than 50 years. Although the early interest in bromine recovery was driven primarily by economics, increased environmental pressures are providing additional incentives to recycle this element. As the acceptability of discharging wastes into the environment decreases, the cost of doing so increases, creating a need for alternative handling. The authors interest in waste bromine recovery was driven by both economic and environmental factors. In their evaluation of a research program that included a bromination step as part of a synthesis process, Catalytica researchers found that the process would be feasible commercially only if the waste HBr produced were recycled on site to bromine. A nonbromine route was eventually adopted for this particular research program, but the need for an economical and environmentally sound process for recycling HBr to bromine was recognized. The development of this process became a project in its own right. This process eliminates the need to form and ship aqueous sodium bromide offsite. It converts the waste HBr directly to bromine by catalytic oxidation.

  17. PROCESS OF RECOVERING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Kilner, S.B.

    1959-12-29

    A method is presented for separating and recovering uranium from a complex mixure of impurities. The uranium is dissolved to produce an aqueous acidic solution including various impurities. In accordance with one method, with the uranium in the uranyl state, hydrogen cyanide is introduced into the solution to complex the impurities. Subsequently, ammonia is added to the solution to precipitate the uraniunn as ammonium diuranate away from the impurities in the solution. Alternatively, the uranium is precipitated by adding an alkaline metal hydroxide. In accordance with the second method, the uranium is reduced to the uranous state in the solution. The reduced solution is then treated with solid alkali metal cyanide sufficient to render the solution about 0.1 to 1.0 N in cyanide ions whereat cyanide complex ions of the metal impurities are produced and the uranium is simultaneously precipituted as uranous hydroxide. Alternatively, hydrogen cyanide may be added to the reduced solution and the uranium precipitated subsequently by adding ammonium hydroxide or an alkali metal hydroxide. Other refinements of the method are also disclosed.

  18. Worms to the rescue: can worm glycans protect from autoimmune diseases?

    PubMed

    Kuijk, Loes M; van Die, Irma

    2010-04-01

    Autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases represent a significant health burden, especially in Western societies. For the majority of these diseases, no cure exists. Recently, research on parasitic worms (helminths) has demonstrated great potential for whole worms, their eggs or their excretory/secretory proteins in down-regulating inflammatory responses both in vitro and in vivo, in various disease models and, in some cases, even in clinical trials. The worms are thought to induce Th2 and regulatory T cells, interfere with Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling and to down-regulate Th17 and Th1 responses. The molecular mechanisms underlying the worms' ability to modulate the host immune response are not well understood, and many hypotheses have been proposed to explain the observed immune modulation. Increasing evidence suggests that carbohydrate structures (glycans), for example, phosphorylcholine-modified glycans or Galbeta1-4(Fucalpha1-3)GlcNAc- (Lewis X, Le(X)) containing glycans, expressed by the worms contribute to these modulating properties by their interaction with antigen presenting cells. Helminths express a broad variety of protein- and lipid-linked glycans on their surface and on secretory products. These glycans differ in amount and composition and several of these structures are species specific. However, worms also express glycan antigens that are found in a wide variety of different species. Some of these "common" worm glycans are particularly interesting with regard to regulating host responses, because they have the potential to interact with C-type lectins on dendritic cells and thereby may interfere with T-cell polarization. Helminths and helminth-derived molecules form a novel and promising group of therapeutics for autoinflammatory diseases. However, much has to be learned about the molecular mechanisms behind the helminth-mediated antiinflammatory properties. This review will describe some of the emerging evidence in selected disease areas as

  19. Parametric analysis of the end face engagement worm gear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xingqiao; Wang, Jueling; Wang, Jinge; Chen, Shouan; Yang, Jie

    2015-11-01

    A novel specific type of worm drive, so-called end face engagement worm gear(EFEWD), is originally presented to minimize or overcome the gear backlash. Different factors, including the three different types, contact curves, tooth profile, lubrication angle and the induced normal curvature are taken into account to investigate the meshing characteristics and create the profile of a novel specific type of worm drive through mathematical models and theoretical analysis. The tooth of the worm wheel is very specific with the sine-shaped tooth which is located at the alveolus of the worm and the tooth profile of a worm is generated by the meshing movement of the worm wheel with the sine-shaped tooth, but just the end face of the worm(with three different typical meshing types) is adapted to meshing, and therefore an extraordinary manufacturing methods is used to generate the profile of the end face engagement worm. The research results indicates that the bearing contacts of the generated conjugate hourglass worm gear set are in line contacts, with certain advantages of no-backlash, high precision and high operating efficiency over other gears and gear systems besides the end face engagement worm gear drive may improve bearing contact, reduce the level of transmission errors and lessen the sensitivity to errors of alignment. Also, the end face engagement worm can be easily made with superior meshing and lubrication performance compared with the conventional techniques. In particular, the meshing and lubrication performance of the end face engagement worm gear by using the end face to meshing can be increased over 10% and 7%, respectively. This investigate is expect to provide a new insight on the design of the future no-backlash worm drive for industry.

  20. Dracunculiasis (guinea worm disease) in the Bume (Nyangaton) people of South Omo, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Jemaneh, L; Taticheff, S

    1993-07-01

    A village-to-village search for active dracunculiasis cases was carried out in an endemic area of the Bume (Nyangaton) tribe of South Omo Region, Ethiopia. A total of 21 cases, of which 6, 5, and 10 had pre-emergent, emergent and complicated Guinea worm disease, respectively, were identified. Twenty-two worms, ranging from 1-3 per patient, were removed mainly from the lower limbs; worm appearance seems to be associated more with the right limb. Adults between the ages of 20-30 years are highly affected and infection appears to be sex-related as 14/21 (66.7%) of the cases are females. Water procured from water-holes drug in dry river beds provides an ideal situation for the transmission of dracunculiasis amongst the tribesmen. The knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of the Bume people towards the disease and the public health significance of dracunculiasis are discussed in relation to the current goal of the national and global Guinea worm eradication programme.

  1. Impact of guinea worm disease on children in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ilegbodu, V A; Kale, O O; Wise, R A; Christensen, B L; Steele, J H; Chambers, L A

    1986-09-01

    School attendance records of all primary schools in a guinea worm-endemic village in southwestern Nigeria were examined to determine the cause of missed school days and school drop-outs. At the time of the survey, 1,495 pupils (768 boys and 727 girls were registered in the 4 primary schools in the village, of which 21% of the pupils were infected with guinea worm disease (GWD). Female pupils had a higher infection rate than their male counterparts. Guinea worm-infected pupils missed up to 25% of school year days compared to a non-guinea worm-infected absence of 2.5%. At the height of guinea worm season in the study area, guinea worm-related absences contributed virtually all of the absenteeism recorded in the schools. Implications of the findings within the context of educational attainment of the pupils are discussed.

  2. Worms Eat My Garbage. How To Set Up and Maintain a Worm Composting System. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appelhof, Mary

    This book is a resource for parents and teachers who want to teach about recycling and composting by setting up and maintaining a worm composting system. It is designed to be a detailed yet simple manual of vermicomposting. The manual covers the basics of vermicomposting and answers such questions as where to store a composting container, what…

  3. Sampling of general correlators in worm-algorithm based simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rindlisbacher, Tobias; Åkerlund, Oscar; de Forcrand, Philippe

    2016-08-01

    Using the complex ϕ4-model as a prototype for a system which is simulated by a worm algorithm, we show that not only the charged correlator <ϕ* (x) ϕ (y) >, but also more general correlators such as < | ϕ (x) | | ϕ (y) | > or < arg ⁡ (ϕ (x)) arg ⁡ (ϕ (y)) >, as well as condensates like < | ϕ | >, can be measured at every step of the Monte Carlo evolution of the worm instead of on closed-worm configurations only. The method generalizes straightforwardly to other systems simulated by worms, such as spin or sigma models.

  4. Expression of actin genes in the arrow worm Paraspadella gotoi (Chaetognatha).

    PubMed

    Yasuda, E; Goto, T; Makabe, K W; Satoh, N

    1997-12-01

    Arrow worms (the phylum Chaetognatha), one of the major marine planktonic animals, exhibit features characteristic to both deuterostomes and protostomes, and their ancestry therefore remains unknown. As the first step to elucidate the molecular bases of arrow worm phylogeny, physiology and embryology, we isolated cDNA clones for three different actin genes (PgAct1, PgAct2 and PgAct3) from the benthic species Paraspadella gotoi, and examined their expression patterns in adults and juveniles. The amino acid sequences of the three actins resembled each other, with identities ranging from 86% to 92%. However, the patterns of the spatial expression of the genes were independent. The PgAct1 gene might encode a cytoplasmic actin and was expressed in oogenic cells, spermatogenic cells, and cells in the ventral ganglion. The PgAct2 and PgAct3 genes encoded actins of divergent types. The former was expressed in well-developed muscle of the head (gnathic) region and trunk muscle cells, whereas the latter was expressed in muscle of the trunk and tail regions and oogenic cells. These results suggest that, similarly to other metazoans, the chaetognath contains multiple forms of actins, which are expressed in various manners in the adult and juvenile arrow worm.

  5. Epidemiological studies on guinea-worm infection.

    PubMed

    Reddy, C R; Narasaiah, I L; Parvathi, G

    1969-04-01

    Dracontiasis is one of the most easily preventable of the tropical parasitic diseases, yet in India the infection is still present in large numbers of people and causes extreme degrees of morbidity and incapacitation.The 10 000 inhabitants of 4 villages in South India were interviewed and the prevalence of guinea-worm infection was found to vary from 11% to 54%; the prevalence increased with the proportion of the population using step-wells. Questioning revealed that infections with more than one worm at a time had occurred in 707 out of 1759 infected persons, that reinfections were common and that many people had suffered for long periods.A survey of the water supplies in a district of South India with a population of about 1.87 million showed that more than 0.5 million people were at risk of contracting the disease. The necessity for protected water supplies and for the conversion of step-wells into draw-wells is urgent.

  6. Chordodes ferox, a new record of horsehair worms (Nematomorpha, Gordiida) from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Rhaesa, Andreas; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2016-01-01

    Three females and one male specimen of a previously unconfirmed species of horsehair worms (Nematomorpha) from South Africa are described using Scanning Electron Microscopy. The females correspond to the description of Chordodes ferox Camerano, 1897, a species previously described from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Congo-Kinshasa) and an adjacent, not further specified region of the Republic of Congo (Congo-Brazzaville). Characteristic is the presence of enlarged and elevated simple areoles around the base of a thorn areole, in combination with further cuticular characters. This is the latest of a total of six species of horsehair worms reported from South Africa so far. Two species of praying mantids, Polyspilota aeruginosa (Goeze, 1778) and Sphodromantis gastrica Stål, 1858, have been identified as hosts of Chordodes ferox, while its distribution range in the region and the period of adult emergence from the host remain largely unknown.

  7. Chordodes ferox, a new record of horsehair worms (Nematomorpha, Gordiida) from South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt-Rhaesa, Andreas; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Three females and one male specimen of a previously unconfirmed species of horsehair worms (Nematomorpha) from South Africa are described using Scanning Electron Microscopy. The females correspond to the description of Chordodes ferox Camerano, 1897, a species previously described from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Congo-Kinshasa) and an adjacent, not further specified region of the Republic of Congo (Congo-Brazzaville). Characteristic is the presence of enlarged and elevated simple areoles around the base of a thorn areole, in combination with further cuticular characters. This is the latest of a total of six species of horsehair worms reported from South Africa so far. Two species of praying mantids, Polyspilota aeruginosa (Goeze, 1778) and Sphodromantis gastrica Stål, 1858, have been identified as hosts of Chordodes ferox, while its distribution range in the region and the period of adult emergence from the host remain largely unknown. PMID:27047243

  8. Examination of the relationship between host worm community structure on transmission of the parasite, Myxobolus cerebralis by developing taxon-specific probes for multiplex qPCR to identify worm taxa in stream communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fytilis, N.; Lamb, R.; Kerans, B.; Stevens, L.; Rizzo, D. M.

    2011-12-01

    Fish diseases are often caused by waterborne parasites, making them ideal systems for modeling the non-linear relationships between disease dynamics, stream dwelling oligochaete communities and geochemical features. Myxobolus cerebralis, the causative agent of whirling disease in salmonid fishes, has been a major contributor to the loss of wild rainbow trout populations in numerous streams within the Intermountain West. The parasite alternates between an invertebrate and vertebrate host, being transmitted between the sediment feeding worm Tubifex tubifex (T.tubifex) and salmonid fishes. Worm community biodiversity and abundance are influenced by biogeochemical features and have been linked to disease severity in fish. The worm (T.tubifex) lives in communities with 3-4 other types of worms in stream sediments. Unfortunately, taxonomic identification of oligochaetes is largely dependent on morphological characteristics of sexually mature adults. We have collected and identified ~700 worms from eight sites using molecular genetic probes and a taxonomic key. Additionally, ~1700 worms were identified using only molecular genetic probes. To facilitate distinguishing among tubificids, we developed two multiplex molecular genetic probe-based quantitative polymerase reaction (qPCR) assays to assess tubificid communities in the study area. Similar qPCR techniques specific for M.cerebralis used to determine if individual worms were infected with the parasite. We show how simple Bayesian analysis of the qPCR data can predict the worm community structure and reveal relationships between biodiversity of host communities and host-parasite dynamics. To our knowledge, this is the first study that combines molecular data of both the host and the parasite to examine the effects of host community structure on the transmission of a parasite. Our work can be extended to examine the links between worm community structure and biogeochemical features using molecular genetics and Bayesian

  9. Notions and treatment of guinea worm in northern Ghana.

    PubMed

    Bierlich, B

    1995-08-01

    Dracunculiasis, infection with Dracunculus medinensis or guinea worm, is widespread in the Northern Region of Ghana, where rural people drink from unprotected water sources such as ponds and small-scale dams. This paper discusses the results of an anthropological study of beliefs and practices concerning commonly occurring illnesses, such as infection with guinea worm (nierifu), in two rural Dagomba communities in the Northern Region of Ghana. The importance of knowing about local perceptions and treatment of guinea worm is stressed. Guinea worm is not attributed to water. The general understanding is that guinea worm is an innate part of human anatomy. It is not seen as an alien presence in the body. Guinea worm is rather said to be 'in people's blood', and sooner or later to 'stand up'. Guinea worm is considered an 'inevitable' feature of living. After a description of the background to the study, the methods are characterized. Brief background information on the people, their environment and their water sources are given. The central portion of the paper focuses on local perceptions of illness and notions of guinea worm ('guinea worm is in the human blood'), which are very different from those of biomedicine ('guinea worm is a disease'). Attention is also given to perceptions of water ('bitter' vs 'sweet') and the prevention of guinea worm. The social limitations to the filter technology are addressed. People's choice of therapy and the role of medicines (herbs and Western pharmaceuticals) in treatment of guinea worm are also considered. The paper concludes with a discussion of health education and stresses the importance of showing respect for the local view of guinea worm, which is said to be 'in the blood'. It is suggested that, since people are not adverse to the use of Western pharmaceuticals, the use of Western medicines to treat guinea worm should be further promoted. The social constraints on filtering must also be appreciated. These relate to the

  10. The occurrence of gizzard worms in Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Wehr, E.E.

    1954-01-01

    Amidostomum anseris, a roundworm which occurs under the horny lining of the gizzard in birds, is a widely distributed parasite in Canada geese. It is also reported from snow geese (Chen hyperborea). Although the extent of erosion of the gizzard wall by these worms is not precisely correlated with the number of worms present, it is usually severe in Canada geese when 150 or more worms are present. Gizzard worm infection is considered a contributing factor to low weights, poor condition and to losses among the Canada geese which winter at the Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge in North Carolina. The mean number of gizzard worms per bird is considerably higher for Pea Island than for areas where winter losses have not been reported.

  11. Uganda's successful Guinea Worm Eradication Program.

    PubMed

    Rwakimari, John B; Hopkins, Donald R; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto

    2006-07-01

    Having begun its national Guinea Worm Eradication Program (UGWEP) in 1991 (1991 population, 16.6 million) with the third-highest number of cases reported by any endemic country, and ranked as the second-highest endemic country in the world in 1993, by 2004, Uganda celebrated its first full calendar year with no indigenous cases of the disease. Systematic interventions began in 1992 and were gradually intensified until the final indigenous case occurred in July 2003. The favorable concentration of most cases in relatively few northern districts of the country was partly offset by chronic insecurity in much of the endemic area and by repeated importations of cases from neighboring Sudan. Strong support and dedicated leadership by government officials and external partners were keys to this program's dramatic success. This program cost approximately US dollar 5.6 million.

  12. Early Cambrian sipunculan worms from southwest China.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Di-Ying; Chen, Jun-Yuan; Vannier, Jean; Saiz Salinas, J. I.

    2004-01-01

    We report the discovery of sipunculan worms from the Lower Cambrian Maotianshan Shale, near Kunming (southwest China). Their sipunculan identity is evidenced by the general morphology of the animals (sausage-shaped body with a slender retractable introvert and a wider trunk) and by other features, both external (e.g. perioral crown of tentacles, and hooks, papillae and wrinkle rings on the body surface) and internal (U-shaped gut, and the anus opening near the introvert-trunk junction). The three fossil forms (Archaeogolfingia caudata gen. et sp. nov., Cambrosipunculus tentaculatus gen. et sp. nov. and Cambrosipunculus sp.) have striking similarities to modern sipunculans, especially the Golfingiidae to which their evolutionary relationships are discussed. This study suggests that most typical features of extant sipunculans have undergone only limited changes since the Early Cambrian, thus indicating a possible evolutionary stasis over the past 520 Myr. PMID:15306286

  13. Early Cambrian sipunculan worms from southwest China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Di-Ying; Chen, Jun-Yuan; Vannier, Jean; Saiz Salinas, J I

    2004-08-22

    We report the discovery of sipunculan worms from the Lower Cambrian Maotianshan Shale, near Kunming (southwest China). Their sipunculan identity is evidenced by the general morphology of the animals (sausage-shaped body with a slender retractable introvert and a wider trunk) and by other features, both external (e.g. perioral crown of tentacles, and hooks, papillae and wrinkle rings on the body surface) and internal (U-shaped gut, and the anus opening near the introvert-trunk junction). The three fossil forms (Archaeogolfingia caudata gen. et sp. nov., Cambrosipunculus tentaculatus gen. et sp. nov. and Cambrosipunculus sp.) have striking similarities to modern sipunculans, especially the Golfingiidae to which their evolutionary relationships are discussed. This study suggests that most typical features of extant sipunculans have undergone only limited changes since the Early Cambrian, thus indicating a possible evolutionary stasis over the past 520 Myr.

  14. Interactions between worm infections and malaria.

    PubMed

    Nacher, Mathieu

    2004-04-01

    Helminths are the most prevalent parasitic infections and malaria is the deadliest parasitic disease. Helminths have been reported to be protective against the severe forms of malaria but they were also possibly linked to increased malaria-incidence and gametocyte carriage. Connecting the dots between observations suggests that statistical regularities throughout the evolution of worms and malaria parasites in the same hosts, may have led to the emergence of non-zero interactions as observed in iterated prisoners dilemma games. Thus by protecting the host, helminths protect themselves and their reproductive potential, but also favor the dissemination and reproduction of Plasmodium falciparum. The proximate causes of this evolutionarily stable strategy might be mediated by IgE and the CD23/NO pathway, the protective role of IL10 in helminth-infected patients, and possibly the hematological consequences of worms. The chronic activation of the CD23/NO pathway might be instrumental in downregulating the expression of cytoadherence receptors thus reducing sequestration of parasitized red blood cells in the deep organs. Mild anemia in helminth-infected patients might favor gametocytogenesis and send attractive cues to the vector. This framework leads to numerous testable hypotheses and could explain certain singularities regarding the double edged role of IgE and NO. Among these hypotheses, there are 2 practical ones: the impact of helminths on malaria vaccine candidates, and the theoretical risk of increasing the severity of malaria after anthelmintics. The capacity for increased IgE responses could thus have been vital in our ancestor's wormy and malarious past. Allergies may be what remains of it in the modern world.

  15. Personality in recovered depressed elderly.

    PubMed

    Schneider, L S; Zemansky, M F; Bender, M; Sloane, R B

    1992-01-01

    Personality traits in euthymic elderly subjects with and without past histories of major depressive episodes were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R and the Social Adjustment Scale-SR. Recovered depressed subjects were characterized by significantly more personality traits from DSM-III-R Clusters B and C than controls, and they exhibited differences in social adjustment, as well. Subjects who have recovered from depressive episodes may show significant differences in personality and social adjustment that might represent residua of past depression, a trait characteristic, or a risk factor for recurrence.

  16. Horsehair worms (Gordius robustus in nests of the western bluebird (Sialia mexicana): evidence for anti-predator avoidance?

    PubMed

    Fair, Jeanne M; Hanelt, Ben; Burnett, Kassidy

    2010-04-01

    Hairworms (Nematomorpha: Gordiida) are internal parasites that alter the behavior of their terrestrial insect host, forcing it to enter the water to reach its reproductive habitat. After reproduction of the free-living adults, the larvae encyst in aquatic insects and are retained upon metamorphosis of the insect into an adult fly. This paratenic host links the aquatic and terrestrial environments after its consumption by omnivorous or predatory insects. Therefore, hairworms are usually only associated with invertebrates, and few reports discuss hairworm interactions with vertebrate species. Here, we report on the finding of horsehair worms in nests of a cavity-nesting bird species in Los Alamos County, New Mexico. From 2004 to 2008, 7 nests within nest boxes occupied by the western bluebird (Sialia mexicana) contained 8 hairworms that were identified as Gordius robustus. All of the nest boxes with worms were less than 100 m from stagnant or low-flowing streams. The most likely explanation for the presence of the worms in the nests is that worms engaged in anti-predator avoidance after their insect hosts were collected and before digestion by nestling birds.

  17. Worm control practices on sheep farms in the Slovak Republic.

    PubMed

    Cernanská, Dana; Várady, Marián; Cudeková, Patrícia; Corba, Július

    2008-07-04

    A questionnaire to obtain information on worm control practices and sheep management was performed on 49 sheep farms in 2003 and 2004. The majority of Slovak farms kept native breeds Tsigai (22 farms) and Improved Valachian (14 farms). Farms were divided according to their altitude to lowland, upland and lower highland farms. Sizes of pastures and stocking rates for lowland, upland and lower highland farms were 81.5, 269.2, and 316.7 ha and 6.3, 2.6, and 2.9 sheep/ha, respectively. One third of farmers (33.3%) used permanent pastures and two thirds of breeders (66.7%) rotated sheep between pastures. Mean drenching rate for lambs and yearlings/adults was 1.76 and 1.70, respectively. The most frequently used drugs during period from 1999 to 2004 were albendazole and ivermectin. On 13 farms benzimidazole drugs were applied in spring before turn out and macrocyclic lactones in autumn before turn in. Benzimidazoles and macrocyclic lactones were used almost exclusively on 7 and 9 farms, respectively. Visual appraisal was the most common practice to determine weight of animals (87.8% of farmers). Weights of the heaviest animals were used for determination of anthelmintic doses only on 16.7% of farms. Coprological examinations were performed on 47.9% of farms, usually in frequency once per year (75%).

  18. Recovering Zinc From Discarded Tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Du Fresne, E. R.

    1984-01-01

    Zinc sulfate monohydrate sold at profit. Shredded tire material steeped in three sulfuric acid baths to extract zinc. Final product removed by evaporating part of solution until product crystallizes out. Recovered as zinc sulfate monohydrate and sold as fertilizer or for general use.

  19. PROCESS OF RECOVERING ALKALI METALS

    DOEpatents

    Wolkoff, J.

    1961-08-15

    A process is described of recovering alkali metal vapor by sorption on activated alumina, activated carbon, dehydrated zeolite, activated magnesia, or Fuller's earth preheated above the vaporization temperature of the alkali metal and subsequent desorption by heating the solvent under vacuum. (AEC)

  20. Effect of soil moisture on pesticide toxicity to an enchytraeid worm, Enchytraeus sp.

    PubMed

    Puurtinen, H M; Martikainen, E A

    1997-07-01

    The aim of the study was to find out whether soil moisture affects toxicity of organic pesticides to an enchytraeid worm. Laboratory experiments were carried out with dimethoate and benomyl, using a small Enchytraeus sp. as the test species. Substrate was natural agricultural field soil cultivated without pesticides for several years. Experimental design consisted of three soil moistures (40, 55, and 70% of water holding capacity) and five pesticide concentrations, plus controls. Measured parameters were survival, size of the parent worms and number and size of juveniles produced. Dimethoate was relatively non-toxic to this species. Dimethoate did not decrease survival, but sublethal effects on adult size and number of juveniles were observed. Adverse conditions in dry soil masked these effects; dimethoate appeared to be less toxic in dry soil than in moist soil. Benomyl caused significant mortality and the effects were very abrupt. Toxicity of benomyl decreased with increasing soil moisture content; in moist soil the worms survived at higher benomyl concentrations than in drier soils.

  1. The larval nervous system of the penis worm Priapulus caudatus (Ecdysozoa)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The origin and extreme diversification of the animal nervous system is a central question in biology. While most of the attention has traditionally been paid to those lineages with highly elaborated nervous systems (e.g. arthropods, vertebrates, annelids), only the study of the vast animal diversity can deliver a comprehensive view of the evolutionary history of this organ system. In this regard, the phylogenetic position and apparently conservative molecular, morphological and embryological features of priapulid worms (Priapulida) place this animal lineage as a key to understanding the evolution of the Ecdysozoa (i.e. arthropods and nematodes). In this study, we characterize the nervous system of the hatching larva and first lorica larva of the priapulid worm Priapulus caudatus by immunolabelling against acetylated and tyrosinated tubulin, pCaMKII, serotonin and FMRFamide. Our results show that a circumoral brain and an unpaired ventral nerve with a caudal ganglion characterize the central nervous system of hatching embryos. After the first moult, the larva attains some adult features: a neck ganglion, an introvert plexus, and conspicuous secondary longitudinal neurites. Our study delivers a neuroanatomical framework for future embryological studies in priapulid worms, and helps illuminate the course of nervous system evolution in the Ecdysozoa. PMID:26598729

  2. The larval nervous system of the penis worm Priapulus caudatus (Ecdysozoa).

    PubMed

    Martín-Durán, José M; Wolff, Gabriella H; Strausfeld, Nicholas J; Hejnol, Andreas

    2016-01-05

    The origin and extreme diversification of the animal nervous system is a central question in biology. While most of the attention has traditionally been paid to those lineages with highly elaborated nervous systems (e.g. arthropods, vertebrates, annelids), only the study of the vast animal diversity can deliver a comprehensive view of the evolutionary history of this organ system. In this regard, the phylogenetic position and apparently conservative molecular, morphological and embryological features of priapulid worms (Priapulida) place this animal lineage as a key to understanding the evolution of the Ecdysozoa (i.e. arthropods and nematodes). In this study, we characterize the nervous system of the hatching larva and first lorica larva of the priapulid worm Priapulus caudatus by immunolabelling against acetylated and tyrosinated tubulin, pCaMKII, serotonin and FMRFamide. Our results show that a circumoral brain and an unpaired ventral nerve with a caudal ganglion characterize the central nervous system of hatching embryos. After the first moult, the larva attains some adult features: a neck ganglion, an introvert plexus, and conspicuous secondary longitudinal neurites. Our study delivers a neuroanatomical framework for future embryological studies in priapulid worms, and helps illuminate the course of nervous system evolution in the Ecdysozoa.

  3. De-worming school children and hygiene intervention.

    PubMed

    Luong, T V

    2003-06-01

    Helminths or worm infestations refer to worms that live as parasites in the human body and are a fundamental cause of disease associated with health and nutrition problems beyond gastrointestinal tract disturbances. Globally, over 3.5 billion people are infected with intestinal worms, of which 1.47 billion are with roundworm, 1.3 billion people with hookworm and 1.05 billion with whipworm. School children aged 5 - 15 years suffer the highest infection rate and worm burden that attributes to poor sanitation and hygiene. About 400 million school-age children are infected with roundworm, whipworm and hookworm worldwide, a large proportion of whom are found in the East Asia region (Cambodia, China, Lao PDR, Thailand and Vietnam). These parasites consume nutrients from children they infect, thus retarding their physical development. They destroy tissues and organs, cause abdominal pain, diarrhoea, intestinal obstruction, anaemia, ulcers and other health problems. All of these consequences of infection can slow cognitive development and thus impair learning. De-worming school children by anthelmintic drug treatment is a curative approach for expelling the heavy worm load. However, drug therapy alone is only a short-term measure of reducing worm infection and re-infection is frequent. Control measures through improved sanitation, hygiene and de-worming are needed to prevent infection and re-infection. UNICEF has supported many governments in this (and other) regions to assist in the provision of water supply and sanitary facilities and intensive hygiene education in many schools through the Water, Environment and Sanitation (WES) programme. The UNICEF supported school sanitation and hygiene education (SSHE) programme, and other programmes, could effectively enhance behaviour change in children to break the routes of worm transmission and other waterborne diseases.

  4. Return to Education for Recovering Drug Addicts: The Soilse Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barter, Eric

    2010-01-01

    This article is an account of a return to education course set up to cater to the needs of recovering heroin addicts in a Dublin rehabilitation project in the summer of 2008. It begins with a brief outline of the HSE Soilse rehabilitation and recovery programme and the rationale for seeking association with the Department of Adult and Community…

  5. Molecular evidence of curcumin-induced apoptosis in the filarial worm Setaria cervi.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Ananya; Gayen, Prajna; Saini, Prasanta; Mukherjee, Niladri; Babu, Santi P Sinha

    2012-09-01

    Curcumin (diferuloyl methane) is a major curcuminoid from Curcuma longa that exhibits various pharmacological effects and has shown multiple beneficial activities. Our understanding of its anticarcinogenic and other activities occurring through curcumin-induced apoptosis in several cancer cells has greatly expanded in recent years. Lymphatic filariasis is a worldwide health problem causing global disability in humans and is caused by filarial nematodes. Development of efficient strategies to promote programmed cell death in filarial worms remains a key challenge for anti-filarial drug developing research and a crucial unmet medical need. In this study, we have taken molecular and biochemical approaches toward understanding the molecular basis for curcumin-mediated anti-filarial activity in the filarial nematode Setaria cervi. Results of MTT assay showed that curcumin causes a significant reduction in viability of Mf and adults and thus acts as a potent macro- and micro-filaricidal agent. Hoechst staining, TUNEL staining, showed several apoptotic nuclei in different parts of curcumin-treated adults. At 25 μM concentration it showed chromosomal DNA fragmentation in adult worms. Our results indicate that curcumin decreases protein and mRNA expression levels of anti-apoptotic gene ced-9 and enhances both the levels of pro-apoptotic genes ced-3 and ced-4 in a dose-dependent manner. All these observations ascertained the apoptogenicity of curcumin at a minimum concentration of 50 μM in this filarial worm. Furthermore, we showed that curcumin causes depletion of parasitic glutathione level, enhances the activities of glutathione S-transferase and superoxide dismutase and stimulates rapid generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here, we present molecular evidence on curcumin-induced apoptosis in the filarial nematode S. cervi with probable involvement of ROS in a caspase-dependent manner.

  6. Recovering entanglement by local operations

    SciTech Connect

    D’Arrigo, A.; Lo Franco, R.; Benenti, G.; Paladino, E.; Falci, G.

    2014-11-15

    We investigate the phenomenon of bipartite entanglement revivals under purely local operations in systems subject to local and independent classical noise sources. We explain this apparent paradox in the physical ensemble description of the system state by introducing the concept of “hidden” entanglement, which indicates the amount of entanglement that cannot be exploited due to the lack of classical information on the system. For this reason this part of entanglement can be recovered without the action of non-local operations or back-transfer process. For two noninteracting qubits under a low-frequency stochastic noise, we show that entanglement can be recovered by local pulses only. We also discuss how hidden entanglement may provide new insights about entanglement revivals in non-Markovian dynamics.

  7. Methods of recovering alkali metals

    DOEpatents

    Krumhansl, James L; Rigali, Mark J

    2014-03-04

    Approaches for alkali metal extraction, sequestration and recovery are described. For example, a method of recovering alkali metals includes providing a CST or CST-like (e.g., small pore zeolite) material. The alkali metal species is scavenged from the liquid mixture by the CST or CST-like material. The alkali metal species is extracted from the CST or CST-like material.

  8. Velvet worm development links myriapods with chelicerates.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Georg; Whitington, Paul M

    2009-10-22

    Despite the advent of modern molecular and computational methods, the phylogeny of the four major arthropod groups (Chelicerata, Myriapoda, Crustacea and Hexapoda, including the insects) remains enigmatic. One particular challenge is the position of myriapods as either the closest relatives to chelicerates (Paradoxopoda/Myriochelata hypothesis), or to crustaceans and hexapods (Mandibulata hypothesis). While neither hypothesis receives conclusive support from molecular analyses, most morphological studies favour the Mandibulata concept, with the mandible being the most prominent feature of this group. Although no morphological evidence was initially available to support the Paradoxopoda hypothesis, a putative synapomorphy of chelicerates and myriapods has recently been put forward based on studies of neurogenesis. However, this and other morphological characters remain of limited use for phylogenetic systematics owing to the lack of data from an appropriate outgroup. Here, we show that several embryonic characters are synapomorphies uniting the chelicerates and myriapods, as revealed by an outgroup comparison with the Onychophora or velvet worms. Our findings, thus provide, to our knowledge, first morphological/embryological support for the monophyly of the Paradoxopoda and suggest that the mandible might have evolved twice within the arthropods.

  9. 2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Big Creek Road, Between State Route 284 & Big Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  10. Detail, terra cotta, ironwork, and painted wood "worm gear" carved ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, terra cotta, ironwork, and painted wood "worm gear" carved columns, north rear. - San Bernardino Valley College, Library, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  11. Worm drive detail, roller hoist mechanism, rolling crest roller gate ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Worm drive detail, roller hoist mechanism, rolling crest roller gate - plan and sections - Grand Valley Diversion Dam, Half a mile north of intersection of I-70 & Colorado State Route 65, Cameo, Mesa County, CO

  12. Metagenomic Analysis of Microbial Symbionts in a Gutless Worm

    SciTech Connect

    Woyke, Tanja; Teeling, Hanno; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Hunteman, Marcel; Richter, Michael; Gloeckner, Frank Oliver; Boeffelli, Dario; Barry, Kerrie W.; Shapiro, Harris J.; Anderson, Iain J.; Szeto, Ernest; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Mussmann, Marc; Amann, Rudolf; Bergin, Claudia; Ruehland, Caroline; Rubin, Edward M.; Dubilier, Nicole

    2006-05-01

    Symbioses between bacteria and eukaryotes are ubiquitous, yet our understanding of the interactions driving these associations is hampered by our inability to cultivate most host-associated microbes. Here we use a metagenomic approach to describe four co-occurring symbionts from the marine oligochaete Olavius algarvensis, a worm lacking a mouth, gut and nephridia. Shotgun sequencing and metabolic pathway reconstruction revealed that the symbionts are sulphur-oxidizing and sulphate-reducing bacteria, all of which are capable of carbon fixation, thus providing the host with multiple sources of nutrition. Molecular evidence for the uptake and recycling of worm waste products by the symbionts suggests how the worm could eliminate its excretory system, an adaptation unique among annelid worms. We propose a model that describes how the versatile metabolism within this symbiotic consortium provides the host with an optimal energy supply as it shuttles between the upper oxic and lower anoxic coastal sediments that it inhabits.

  13. The Worm Guide: A Vericomposting Guide for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Integrated Waste Management Board, Sacramento.

    This guide focuses on vermicomposting of food waste. Contents include: (1) "Integrated Waste Management"; (2) "Basics of Vermicomposting"; (3) "Other Worm Bin Residents"; (4) "The Garden Connection"; (5) "Closing the Food Loop at Your School"; (6) "Fundraising"; (7) "Activities for…

  14. 19. WORM AND SPUR GEARS FOR CONTROLLING THE PADDLE VALVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. WORM AND SPUR GEARS FOR CONTROLLING THE PADDLE VALVE IN ONE OF THE LOCK GATES WHICH SEPARATES UPPER AND LOWER CHAMBERS: 1976 - Pawtucket Canal, Swamp Locks, Pawtucket & Merrimack Canals, Lowell, Middlesex County, MA

  15. 20. WORM AND SPUR GEARS FOR CONTROLLING THE PADDLE VALVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. WORM AND SPUR GEARS FOR CONTROLLING THE PADDLE VALVE IN ONE OF THE GATES BETWEEN THE UPPER AND LOWER CHAMBERS: 1976 - Pawtucket Canal, Swamp Locks, Pawtucket & Merrimack Canals, Lowell, Middlesex County, MA

  16. 18. WORM AND SPUR GEARS FOR CONTROLLING THE PADDLE VALVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. WORM AND SPUR GEARS FOR CONTROLLING THE PADDLE VALVE IN ONE OF THE GATES BETWEEN THE UPPER AND LOWER CHAMBERS: 1976 - Pawtucket Canal, Swamp Locks, Pawtucket & Merrimack Canals, Lowell, Middlesex County, MA

  17. 6. VIEW OF DRIFT SHAFT, HOIST MOTOR, WORM WHEEL GEAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF DRIFT SHAFT, HOIST MOTOR, WORM WHEEL GEAR ASSEMBLY, CROSS SHAFT, AND INTERMEDIATE GEAR HOIST ASSEMBLY FOR CONTROL GATE NO. 6, LOOKING WEST - Long Lake Hydroelectric Plant, Spillway Dam, Spanning Spokane River, Ford, Stevens County, WA

  18. Improved Gear Shapes for Face Worm Gear Drives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvin, Faydor L.; Nava, Alessandro; Fan, Qi; Fuentes, Alfonso

    2005-01-01

    Shapes different from the traditional ones have been proposed for face worm gears and for conical and cylindrical worms that mesh with them. The proposed shapes are based on the concept of generating a face worm gear surface by use of a tilted head cutter instead of by the traditional use of a hob. (As used here, head cutter is also meant to signify, alternatively, a head grinding tool.) The gear-surface-generation equipment would be similar to that used for generation of spiral bevel and hypoid gears. In comparison with the corresponding traditional hob, a tilted head cutter according to the proposal would be larger, could be fabricated with greater precision, and would enable the generation of gear surfaces with greater precision and greater productivity. A face worm gear would be generated (see figure) by use of a tilted head cutter, the blades or grinding surfaces of which would have straight-line profiles. The tilt of the head cutter would prevent interference with teeth adjacent to the groove being cut or ground. A worm to mesh with the face worm gear would be generated by use of a tilted head cutter mounted on the cradle of a generating machine. The blades or grinding surfaces of the head cutter would have a parabolic profile and would deviate from the straight-line profiles of the head cutter for the face worm gear. The shortest distance between the worm and the cradle would follow a parabolic function during the cycle of meshing in the generating process to provide a parabolic function of transmission errors to the gear drive. The small mismatch between the profiles of the face-worm-gear and worm head cutters would make it possible to localize the bearing contact in the worm gear drive. The parabolic function of transmission errors could absorb discontinuous linear functions of transmission errors caused by errors of alignment; this could afford a significant benefit, in that such errors are main sources of noise and vibration in gear drives. The main

  19. Sleep paralysis and recovered memories of sexual abuse: comment on McNally and Clancy (2005).

    PubMed

    Pendergrast, Mark

    2006-01-01

    McNally and Clancy [McNally, R. J., & Clancy, S. A. (2005). Sleep paralysis in adults reporting repressed, recovered, or continuous memories of childhood sexual abuse. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 19, 595-602.] conducted a study on sleep paralysis among adults reporting either repressed, recovered, or continuous memories of sexual abuse. I suggest that the study be replicated with a larger number of recovered memory subjects (those who believe that they have recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse) who experienced sleep paralysis, using more neutral wording in order to identify the phenomenon of sleep paralysis.

  20. Discrete Modeling of the Worm Spread with Random Scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, Masato

    In this paper, we derive a set of discrete time difference equations that models the spreading process of computer worms such as Code-Red and Slammer, which uses a common strategy called “random scanning” to spread through the Internet. We show that the derived set of discrete time difference equations has an exact relationship with the Kermack and McKendrick susceptible-infectious-removed (SIR) model, which is known as a standard continuous time model for worm spreading.

  1. Social behaviour and collective motion in plant-animal worms

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Katherine A. J.; Gorman, Alice R.; Vizard, Victoria; Plackett, Harriet; Gamble, Margaret L.

    2016-01-01

    Social behaviour may enable organisms to occupy ecological niches that would otherwise be unavailable to them. Here, we test this major evolutionary principle by demonstrating self-organizing social behaviour in the plant-animal, Symsagittifera roscoffensis. These marine aceol flat worms rely for all of their nutrition on the algae within their bodies: hence their common name. We show that individual worms interact with one another to coordinate their movements so that even at low densities they begin to swim in small polarized groups and at increasing densities such flotillas turn into circular mills. We use computer simulations to: (i) determine if real worms interact socially by comparing them with virtual worms that do not interact and (ii) show that the social phase transitions of the real worms can occur based only on local interactions between and among them. We hypothesize that such social behaviour helps the worms to form the dense biofilms or mats observed on certain sun-exposed sandy beaches in the upper intertidal of the East Atlantic and to become in effect a super-organismic seaweed in a habitat where macro-algal seaweeds cannot anchor themselves. Symsagittifera roscoffensis, a model organism in many other areas in biology (including stem cell regeneration), also seems to be an ideal model for understanding how individual behaviours can lead, through collective movement, to social assemblages. PMID:26911961

  2. Social behaviour and collective motion in plant-animal worms.

    PubMed

    Franks, Nigel R; Worley, Alan; Grant, Katherine A J; Gorman, Alice R; Vizard, Victoria; Plackett, Harriet; Doran, Carolina; Gamble, Margaret L; Stumpe, Martin C; Sendova-Franks, Ana B

    2016-02-24

    Social behaviour may enable organisms to occupy ecological niches that would otherwise be unavailable to them. Here, we test this major evolutionary principle by demonstrating self-organizing social behaviour in the plant-animal, Symsagittifera roscoffensis. These marine aceol flat worms rely for all of their nutrition on the algae within their bodies: hence their common name. We show that individual worms interact with one another to coordinate their movements so that even at low densities they begin to swim in small polarized groups and at increasing densities such flotillas turn into circular mills. We use computer simulations to: (i) determine if real worms interact socially by comparing them with virtual worms that do not interact and (ii) show that the social phase transitions of the real worms can occur based only on local interactions between and among them. We hypothesize that such social behaviour helps the worms to form the dense biofilms or mats observed on certain sun-exposed sandy beaches in the upper intertidal of the East Atlantic and to become in effect a super-organismic seaweed in a habitat where macro-algal seaweeds cannot anchor themselves. Symsagittifera roscoffensis, a model organism in many other areas in biology (including stem cell regeneration), also seems to be an ideal model for understanding how individual behaviours can lead, through collective movement, to social assemblages.

  3. New Geometry of Worm Face Gear Drives with Conical and Cylindrical Worms: Generation, Simulation of Meshing, and Stress Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvin, Faydor L.; Nava, Alessandro; Fan, Qi; Fuentes, Alfonso

    2002-01-01

    New geometry of face worm gear drives with conical and cylindrical worms is proposed. The generation of the face worm-gear is based on application of a tilted head-cutter (grinding tool) instead of application of a hob applied at present. The generation of a conjugated worm is based on application of a tilted head-cutter (grinding tool) as well. The bearing contact of the gear drive is localized and is oriented longitudinally. A predesigned parabolic function of transmission errors for reduction of noise and vibration is provided. The stress analysis of the gear drive is performed using a three-dimensional finite element analysis. The contacting model is automatically generated. The developed theory is illustrated with numerical examples.

  4. Navigating molecular worms inside chemical labyrinths

    PubMed Central

    Haranczyk, M.; Sethian, J. A.

    2009-01-01

    Predicting whether a molecule can traverse chemical labyrinths of channels, tunnels, and buried cavities usually requires performing computationally intensive molecular dynamics simulations. Often one wants to screen molecules to identify ones that can pass through a given chemical labyrinth or screen chemical labyrinths to identify those that allow a given molecule to pass. Because it is impractical to test each molecule/labyrinth pair using computationally expensive methods, faster, approximate methods are used to prune possibilities, “triaging” the ability of a proposed molecule to pass through the given chemical labyrinth. Most pruning methods estimate chemical accessibility solely on geometry, treating atoms or groups of atoms as hard spheres with appropriate radii. Here, we explore geometric configurations for a moving “molecular worm,” which replaces spherical probes and is assembled from solid blocks connected by flexible links. The key is to extend the fast marching method, which is an ordered upwind one-pass Dijkstra-like method to compute optimal paths by efficiently solving an associated Eikonal equation for the cost function. First, we build a suitable cost function associated with each possible configuration, and second, we construct an algorithm that works in ensuing high-dimensional configuration space: at least seven dimensions are required to account for translational, rotational, and internal degrees of freedom. We demonstrate the algorithm to study shortest paths, compute accessible volume, and derive information on topology of the accessible part of a chemical labyrinth. As a model example, we consider an alkane molecule in a porous material, which is relevant to designing catalysts for oil processing. PMID:20018716

  5. CpG oligodeoxynucleotides with crude parasite antigens reduce worm recovery in Opisthorchis viverrini infected hamsters.

    PubMed

    Kaewraemruaen, Chamraj; Sermswan, Rasana W; Wongratanacheewin, Surasakdi

    2016-12-01

    Opisthorchis viverrini, a human liver fluke, is still an endemic parasitic infection in Thailand and nearly all countries in Southeast Asia. O. viverrini induces a chronic stage of infection in hamsters. During the first 2 weeks of infection, Th1 inducing cytokine, IL-12, increased but was down regulated in chronic infection. In this study it was found that unmethylated-CpG ODN (oligodeoxynucleotides) 1826 increased hamster mononuclear cell proliferation and stimulated IFN-γ production in vitro. The IFN-γ levels in hamster sera were significantly increased in hamsters injected with CpG ODN 1826 alone or plus crude somatic antigens (CSAg). Further investigation using the flow cytometer found that CD4(+)T cells and IFN-γ(+) CD4(+)T cells (Th1-like cells) in the hamster blood were significantly increased. The role of these cells in the protective responses in hamsters was evaluated by challenging with 25 metacercaria and observation for 3 months. The number of worms recovered was significantly reduced in the hamsters injected with CpG ODN 1826 with CSAg, but not in CpG ODN 1826 alone groups when compared to PBS control. The percent of reduction in hamsters against this parasite were 32.95% and 21.49% in the CpG ODN 1826 with CSAg and CpG ODN 1826 alone. This study indicates that CpG ODN 1826 plus parasite antigens elicit a Th1-like response that leads to the enhancement of worm reduction.

  6. Lung histopathology, radiography, high-resolution computed tomography, and bronchio-alveolar lavage cytology are altered by Toxocara cati infection in cats and is independent of development of adult intestinal parasites.

    PubMed

    Dillon, A Ray; Tillson, D M; Hathcock, J; Brawner, B; Wooldridge, A; Cattley, R; Welles, B; Barney, S; Lee-Fowler, T; Botzman, L; Sermersheim, M; Garbarino, R

    2013-04-15

    This study presents clinical findings after oral ingestion of Toxocara cati eggs which resulted in rapid pulmonary lung migration and parenchymal disease, noted on clinically relevant diagnostic methods. Further, the study investigated the efficacy of pre-infection applications of preventative medication on larval migration through the lungs. A third aim of the study was to determine if adult cats infected with T. cati developed lung disease. Cats in infected groups were administered five oral doses of L3 T. cati larvae. Four-month-old specific pathogen free (SPF) kittens were divided into three groups (six per group): an infected untreated group, an uninfected untreated control group, and an infected treated group (topical moxidectin and imidacloprid, Advantage Multi for Cats, Bayer Healthcare LLC). Six 2- to 3-year-old adult multiparous female SPF cats were an infected untreated adult group. The cats were evaluated by serial CBCs, bronchial-alveolar lavage (BAL), fecal examinations, thoracic radiographs, and thoracic computed tomography (CT) scans and were euthanized 65 days after the initial infection. Adult T. cati were recovered in infected untreated kittens (5/6) and infected untreated adults (5/6) in numbers consistent with natural infections. Eggs were identified in the feces of most but not all cats with adult worm infections. No adult worms were identified in the uninfected controls or the infected treated group. All cats in the infected groups, including treated cats and untreated cats without adult worms, had lung pathology based on evaluation of radiography, CT scans, and histopathology. The infected cats demonstrated a transient peripheral eosinophilia and marked eosinophilic BAL cytology, but normal bronchial reactivity based on in vivo CT and in vitro ring studies. Lung lesions initially identified by CT on day 11 were progressive. Thoracic radiographs in infected cats had a diffuse bronchial-interstitial pattern and enlarged pulmonary arteries

  7. Process for recovering actinide values

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Mason, George W.

    1980-01-01

    A process for rendering actinide values recoverable from sodium carbonate scrub waste solutions containing these and other values along with organic compounds resulting from the radiolytic and hydrolytic degradation of neutral organophosphorous extractants such as tri-n butyl phosphate (TBP) and dihexyl-N,N-diethyl carbamylmethylene phosphonate (DHDECAMP) which have been used in the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear reactor fuels. The scrub waste solution is preferably made acidic with mineral acid, to form a feed solution which is then contacted with a water-immiscible, highly polar organic extractant which selectively extracts the degradation products from the feed solution. The feed solution can then be processed to recover the actinides for storage or recycled back into the high-level waste process stream. The extractant is recycled after stripping the degradation products with a neutral sodium carbonate solution.

  8. Process for recovering acidic gases

    SciTech Connect

    Riggs, O.L. Jr.

    1989-09-26

    This patent describes an improvement in a continuous process for recovering carbon dioxide from a carbon dioxide-rich gas stream. The gas stream is contacted with an aqueous alknolamine solution in an absorption section contained in an absorption zone to produce a carbon dioxide-lean gaseous overhead stream and a carbon dioxide-rich liquid effluent stream. The carbon dioxide-rich effluent stream is heated in a regeneration zone to produce a carbon dioxide-rich gaseous overhead stream and a carbon dioxide-lean liquid effluent stream. The carbon dioxide-lean liquid effluent stream comprising a regenerated aqueous alkanolamine solution. The regenerated aqueous alkanolamine solution is returned to and introduced into the absorption zone.

  9. METHOD OF RECOVERING URANIUM COMPOUNDS

    DOEpatents

    Poirier, R.H.

    1957-10-29

    S>The recovery of uranium compounds which have been adsorbed on anion exchange resins is discussed. The uranium and thorium-containing residues from monazite processed by alkali hydroxide are separated from solution, and leached with an alkali metal carbonate solution, whereby the uranium and thorium hydrorides are dissolved. The carbonate solution is then passed over an anion exchange resin causing the uranium to be adsorbed while the thorium remains in solution. The uranium may be recovered by contacting the uranium-holding resin with an aqueous ammonium carbonate solution whereby the uranium values are eluted from the resin and then heating the eluate whereby carbon dioxide and ammonia are given off, the pH value of the solution is lowered, and the uranium is precipitated.

  10. Sludge reduction using aquatic worms under different aeration regimes.

    PubMed

    Cai, Lu; Gao, Ding; Wang, Kan; Liu, Hong-Tao; Wan, Xiao-Ming

    2017-03-01

    Adding aquatic worms to a wastewater treatment system can reduce sludge production through predation. The aeration level is crucial for success. To evaluate aeration impacts on sludge reduction and determine an optimal aeration regime, this study investigated the processes of in-situ sludge reduction, using aquatic worms exposed to different aeration levels. The experiment also compared treatment results between a conventional reactor and an aquatic worm reactor (WR). Results indicated that the recommended concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO) was 2.5 mg L(-1). The removal rate of chemical oxygen demand remained steady at 80% when the DO concentration was higher than 2.5 mg L(-1), while the removal rate of ammonia nitrogen continued to moderately increase. Increasing the DO concentration to 5 mg L(-1) did not improve sludge reduction, and consumed more power. With a DO concentration of 2.5 mg L(-1) and a power of 0.19 kWh t(-1) water, the absolute sludge reduction and relative sludge reduction rates in the WR were 60.0% and 45.7%, respectively, and the daily aquatic worm growth rate was 0.150 d(-1) during the 17-d test. Therefore, at the recommended aeration regime, aquatic worms reduced the sludge without increasing the power consumption or deteriorating the effluent.

  11. Tracking movement behavior of multiple worms on food.

    PubMed

    Yemini, Eviatar; Kerr, Rex A; Schafer, William R

    2011-12-01

    Neurobiological research in genetically tractable organisms relies heavily on robust assays for behavioral phenotypes. The simple body plan of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans makes it particularly amenable to the use of automated microscopy and image analysis to describe behavioral patterns quantitatively. Forward genetic screens and screens of drug libraries require high-throughput phenotyping, a task traditionally incompatible with manual scoring of quantitatively varying behaviors. High-throughput automated analysis of C. elegans movement behavior is now possible with several different tracking software packages. The Multiworm Tracker (MWT) described here is designed for high-throughput analysis: it can record dozens of worms simultaneously at 30 frames per second for hours or days at a time. This is accomplished by performing all image analysis in real time, saving only the worm centroid, bearing, and outline data to the disk. To simplify image processing, the system focuses only on worms that have moved, and detects and discards worms that are touching rather than trying to isolate them computationally. Because the software is entirely automated, protocols can run unattended once the worms have been placed and the software has been started. The MWT does not save images for later analysis, but behavior can be validated manually with a companion analysis tool that replays recorded body postures. This protocol describes a basic basal movement assay on food using the MWT; similar protocols apply to related assays and to similar multiple animal trackers. The protocol can be extended to a variety of assays ranging from tap response to chemotaxis.

  12. Recovering Radioactive Materials with OSRP team

    SciTech Connect

    2008-04-30

    The National Nuclear Security Administration sponsors a program, executed by Los Alamos National Laboratory, to recover radioisotopes used by industry and academia and no longer needed. Called the "Offsite Source Recovery Program (OSRP), it has recovered

  13. Recovering Radioactive Materials with OSRP team

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The National Nuclear Security Administration sponsors a program, executed by Los Alamos National Laboratory, to recover radioisotopes used by industry and academia and no longer needed. Called the "Offsite Source Recovery Program (OSRP), it has recovered

  14. Characterization of excretory-secretory antigens of adult Toxocara canis by western blotting.

    PubMed

    Sudhakar, N R; Samanta, S; Sahu, Shivani; Raina, O K; Gupta, S C; Goswami, T K; Lokesh, K M; Kumar, Ashok

    2014-06-01

    Toxocara canis is one of the most common helminth worm of dogs which continues to stimulate both public health concern alongside the higher scientific interest. It may cause visceral and ocular damage in humans especially in children. The identification of specific antigens of T. canis is important so as to develop better diagnostic techniques. Excretory-secretory (ES) antigens were prepared by culturing the adult T. canis worms in RPMI 1640 medium without serum supplementation followed by ammonium sulphate precipitation. These antigens were separated using sodium dodecyl sulphate-electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Recovered proteins ranged from 30 to 384 kDa. The specific reactivity of the T. canis excretory-secretory (TC-ES) proteins was checked by western blotting. The immuno-reactivity of the naturally infected dog sera with the TC-ES antigens showed five bands at 43, 57,105, 139 and 175 kDa. The immuno-reactivity of the hyper immune serum raised in rabbits against TC-ES antigens was observed with ten polypeptides of 21, 25, 30, 37, 45, 50, 57, 69, 77 and 105 kDa. Common antigens band were observed at 57 and 105 KDa. These antigens merit further evaluation as candidate for use in diagnosis of toxocariasis in humans and adult dogs.

  15. Logistics of Guinea worm disease eradication in South Sudan.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alexander H; Becknell, Steven; Withers, P Craig; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Hopkins, Donald R; Stobbelaar, David; Makoy, Samuel Yibi

    2014-03-01

    From 2006 to 2012, the South Sudan Guinea Worm Eradication Program reduced new Guinea worm disease (dracunculiasis) cases by over 90%, despite substantial programmatic challenges. Program logistics have played a key role in program achievements to date. The program uses disease surveillance and program performance data and integrated technical-logistical staffing to maintain flexible and effective logistical support for active community-based surveillance and intervention delivery in thousands of remote communities. Lessons learned from logistical design and management can resonate across similar complex surveillance and public health intervention delivery programs, such as mass drug administration for the control of neglected tropical diseases and other disease eradication programs. Logistical challenges in various public health scenarios and the pivotal contribution of logistics to Guinea worm case reductions in South Sudan underscore the need for additional inquiry into the role of logistics in public health programming in low-income countries.

  16. Logistics of Guinea Worm Disease Eradication in South Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Alexander H.; Becknell, Steven; Withers, P. Craig; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Hopkins, Donald R.; Stobbelaar, David; Makoy, Samuel Yibi

    2014-01-01

    From 2006 to 2012, the South Sudan Guinea Worm Eradication Program reduced new Guinea worm disease (dracunculiasis) cases by over 90%, despite substantial programmatic challenges. Program logistics have played a key role in program achievements to date. The program uses disease surveillance and program performance data and integrated technical–logistical staffing to maintain flexible and effective logistical support for active community-based surveillance and intervention delivery in thousands of remote communities. Lessons learned from logistical design and management can resonate across similar complex surveillance and public health intervention delivery programs, such as mass drug administration for the control of neglected tropical diseases and other disease eradication programs. Logistical challenges in various public health scenarios and the pivotal contribution of logistics to Guinea worm case reductions in South Sudan underscore the need for additional inquiry into the role of logistics in public health programming in low-income countries. PMID:24445199

  17. Farmers' loss due to Guinea worm disease: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Brieger, W R; Guyer, J

    1990-04-01

    Guinea worm disease has been blamed for much disability and loss of productivity among farmers in Africa and South Asia. Many studies have tried to equate days lost in illness to monetary values. These attempts often overlook the process of disability in relation to farming patterns. This pilot effort uses a qualitative case study approach to learn about how Guinea worm can cause loss to farmers. Twenty in-depth interviews with affected farmers showed that their losses are related to the time of year they are affected by Guinea worm. Some crops with flexible planting times, e.g. cassava, may not be as affected. Duration of disability is another determining factor. Insights from this pilot study can be used to design more appropriate large-scale survey instruments and guide development of longitudinal research.

  18. Community participation in the eradication of guinea worm disease.

    PubMed

    Cairncross, S; Braide, E I; Bugri, S Z

    1996-04-01

    As Guinea worm eradication programmes have got under way in endemic countries over the last decade, there has been a shift towards more participatory methods. The approach to surveillance has changed from periodic cross-sectional surveys to monthly village-based reporting of cases by a volunteer village health worker. At the same time, the emphasis regarding control interventions has moved from the provision of safe water supplies to health education. The new approach has proved very effective. The village health volunteers who carry out both surveillance and health education seem to be motivated largely by the social status of their role; still more commitment will be required of them in the final stages of eradication. It is to be hoped that the networks of village health workers established for Guinea worm eradication will find a useful role in health promotion after the worms have gone.

  19. Diet of Worms Emended: An Update of Polychaete Feeding Guilds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jumars, Peter A.; Dorgan, Kelly M.; Lindsay, Sara M.

    2015-01-01

    Polychaetes are common in most marine habitats and dominate many infaunal communities. Functional guild classification based on taxonomic identity and morphology has linked community structure to ecological function. The functional guilds now include osmotrophic siboglinids as well as sipunculans, echiurans, and myzostomes, which molecular genetic analyses have placed within Annelida. Advances in understanding of encounter mechanisms explicitly relate motility to feeding mode. New analyses of burrowing mechanics explain the prevalence of bilateral symmetry and blur the boundary between surface and subsurface feeding. The dichotomy between microphagous deposit and suspension feeders and macrophagous carnivores, herbivores, and omnivores is further supported by divergent digestive strategies. Deposit feeding appears to be limited largely to worms longer than 1 cm, with juveniles and small worms in general restricted to ingesting highly digestible organic material and larger, rich food items, blurring the macrophage-microphage dichotomy that applies well to larger worms.

  20. The use of age-clustered pooled faecal samples for monitoring worm control in horses.

    PubMed

    Eysker, M; Bakker, J; van den Berg, M; van Doorn, D C K; Ploeger, H W

    2008-02-14

    A study was performed on two horse farms to evaluate the use of age-clustered pooled faecal samples for monitoring worm control in horses. In total 109 horses, 57 on farm A and 52 on farm B, were monitored at weekly intervals between 6 and 14 weeks after ivermectin treatment. This was performed through pooled faecal samples of pools of up to 10 horses of the groups 'yearlings' (both farms), '2-year-old' (two pools in farm A), '3-year-old' (farm A) and adult horses (four pools on farm A and five pools on farm B), which were compared with the mean individual faecal egg counts of the same pools. A very high correlation between the faecal egg counts in pooled samples and the mean faecal egg counts was seen and also between the faecal egg counts in pooled samples and larval counts from pooled faecal larval cultures. Faecal egg counts increased more rapidly in yearlings and 2-year-old horses than in older horses. This implied that in these groups of young animals faecal egg counts of more than 200 EPG were reached at or just after the egg reappearance period (ERP) of 8 weeks that is usually indicated for ivermectin. This probably means that, certainly under intensive conditions, repeated treatment at this ERP is warranted in these young animals, with or without monitoring through faecal examination. A different situation is seen in adult animals. Based on the mean faecal egg counts on both farms and on the results of pooled samples in farm A, using 100 EPG as threshold, no justification for treatment was seen throughout the experimental period. However, on farm B values of 100 EPG were seen at 9 and 11, 13 and 14 and 14 weeks after ivermectin treatment in pools 10, 12 and 13, respectively. This coincided with the presence of one or two horses with egg counts above 200 EPG. The conclusion is that random pooled faecal samples of 10 adult horses from a larger herd, starting at the ERP and repeating it at, for instance, 4-week intervals, could be used for decisions on worm

  1. Failure of thiabendazole and metronidazole in the treatment and suppression of guinea worm disease.

    PubMed

    Belcher, D W; Wunapa, F K; Ward, W B

    1975-05-01

    Guinea worm disease is endemic in West Africa. In 1973 a field drug trial was conducted to compare effectiveness, cost, and side-effects of thiabendazole and metronidazole in treating active guinea worm disease and preventing latent worms from emerging. A mass chemotherapy campaign was planned to follow the drug trial. Only 15.5% of the treated patients expelled the worm completely, and in 28.4% of the cases worms continued to appear. Both drugs were equally unsatisfactory in their anti-helminthic effect. Consequently, our efforts to control guinea worm have shifted from chemotherapy to chemical control of cyclops and improvement of rural water supplies.

  2. Preparation of Pickering Double Emulsions Using Block Copolymer Worms

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The rational formulation of Pickering double emulsions is described using a judicious combination of hydrophilic and hydrophobic block copolymer worms as highly anisotropic emulsifiers. More specifically, RAFT dispersion polymerization was utilized to prepare poly(lauryl methacrylate)–poly(benzyl methacrylate) worms at 20% w/w solids in n-dodecane and poly(glycerol monomethacrylate)–poly(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate)–poly(benzyl methacrylate) worms at 13% w/w solids in water by polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA). Water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) double emulsions can be readily prepared with mean droplet diameters ranging from 30 to 80 μm using a two-stage approach. First, a w/o precursor emulsion comprising 25 μm aqueous droplets is prepared using the hydrophobic worms, followed by encapsulation within oil droplets stabilized by the hydrophilic worms. The double emulsion droplet diameter and number of encapsulated water droplets can be readily varied by adjusting the stirring rate employed during the second stage. For each stage, the droplet volume fraction is relatively high at 0.50. The double emulsion nature of the final formulation was confirmed by optical and fluorescence microscopy studies. Such double emulsions are highly stable to coalescence, with little or no change in droplet diameter being detected over storage at 20 °C for 10 weeks as judged by laser diffraction. Preliminary experiments indicate that the complementary o/w/o emulsions can also be prepared using the same pair of worms by changing the order of homogenization, although somewhat lower droplet volume fractions were required in this case. Finally, we demonstrate that triple and even quadruple emulsions can be formulated using these new highly anisotropic Pickering emulsifiers. PMID:25834923

  3. Shai-Hulud: The quest for worm sign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaenisch, Holger M.; Handley, James W.; Faucheux, Jeffery P.; Lamkin, Ken

    2005-03-01

    Successful worm detection at real-time OC-48 and OC-192 speed requires hardware to extract web based binary sequences at faster than these speeds, and software to process the incoming sequences to identify worms. Computer hardware advancement in the form of field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) makes real-time extraction of these sequences possible. Lacking are mathematical algorithms for worm detection in the real time data sequence, and the ability to convert these algorithms into lookup tables (LUTs) that can be compiled into FPGAs. Data Modeling provides the theory and algorithms for an effective mathematical framework for real-time worm detection and conversion of algorithms into LUTs. Detection methods currently available such as pattern recognition algorithms are limited both by the amount of time to compare the current data sequence with a historical database of potential candidates, and by the inability to accurately classify information that was unseen in the training process. Data Modeling eliminates these limitations by training only on examples of nominal behavior. This results in a highly tuned and fast running equation model that is compiled in a FPGA as a LUT and used at real-time OC-48 and OC-192 speeds to detect worms and other anomalies. This paper provides an overview of our approach for generating these Data Change Models for detecting worms, and their subsequent conversion into LUTs. A proof of concept is given using binary data from a WEBDAV, SLAMMER packet, and RED PROBE attack, with BASIC source code for the detector and LUT provided.

  4. [Common tropical infections with protozoans, worms and ectoparasites].

    PubMed

    Schliemann, S

    2014-10-01

    Infectious diseases of the skin have become rarer in industrialized nations, but they still affect a considerable part of the population in tropical regions. Skin diseases induced by protozoa, worms and ectoparasites are among the 17 "neglected tropical diseases" defined by the WHO (leishmaniasis, dracunculiasis, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis). Skin symptoms in travellers returning from the tropics may challenge dermatologists in Germany regarding differential diagnostic assessment and therapy. Among the 12 most frequent skin diseases in travellers are cutaneous larva migrans, leishmaniasis and myiasis. In this review, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of some the most relevant tropical dermatoses due to protozoa, worms and ectoparasites are discussed.

  5. Localization of Waves without Bistability: Worms in Nematic Electroconvection

    SciTech Connect

    Riecke, H.; Granzow, G.D.

    1998-07-01

    A general localization mechanism for waves in dissipative systems is identified that does not require the bistability of the basic state and the nonlinear plane-wave state. We conjecture that the mechanism explains the two-dimensional localized wave structures ({open_quotes}worms{close_quotes}) that recently have been observed in experiments on electroconvection in nematic liquid crystals where the transition to extended waves is supercritical. The mechanism accounts for the shape of the worms, their propagation direction, and certain aspects of their interaction. The dynamics of the localized waves can be steady or irregular. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  6. Parallelized quantum Monte Carlo algorithm with nonlocal worm updates.

    PubMed

    Masaki-Kato, Akiko; Suzuki, Takafumi; Harada, Kenji; Todo, Synge; Kawashima, Naoki

    2014-04-11

    Based on the worm algorithm in the path-integral representation, we propose a general quantum Monte Carlo algorithm suitable for parallelizing on a distributed-memory computer by domain decomposition. Of particular importance is its application to large lattice systems of bosons and spins. A large number of worms are introduced and its population is controlled by a fictitious transverse field. For a benchmark, we study the size dependence of the Bose-condensation order parameter of the hard-core Bose-Hubbard model with L×L×βt=10240×10240×16, using 3200 computing cores, which shows good parallelization efficiency.

  7. Immunoaffinity fractionation of Schistosoma mansoni worm antigens using human antibodies and its application for serodiagnosis.

    PubMed Central

    Boctor, F N; Shaheen, H I

    1986-01-01

    A crude Schistosoma mansoni soluble worm antigen preparation (SWAP) was fractionated using an immunoaffinity column consisting of specific human anti-SWAP antibodies obtained from chronic S. mansoni-infected human sera and bound to CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B. The chromatographic separation resulted in three fractions: the unbound material (FW), and the eluted antigens with glycine-HCl (F1) and glycine-HCl-NaCl (F2). Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) showed that the purified antigens F1 and F2 consisted of several bands when stained with Coomassie blue and silver stain, with molecular weights between 20 X 10(3) and 200 X 10(3). The F1 and F2 fractions in addition to FW and SWAP were used in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to measure antibody levels in sera from schistosomiasis patients. Each individual serum assessed with the purified F2 antigen gave 100% positivity and three to four times higher optical density in comparison to SWAP with only 88% positivity. No detectable cross-reactive antibodies against F2 were found when a limited number of sera from filariasis, fascioliasis and trichinellosis patients were screened. Furthermore, F2 was also used and found to be more sensitive generally in detecting anti-adult worm antibodies than SWAP in recently schistosomiasis-infected persons. Thus, F2 appears to be a highly sensitive and specific reagent for the serodiagnosis of schistosomiasis infection. Images Figure 3 Figure 7 PMID:3082749

  8. Potential vector species of Guinea worm (Dracunculus medinensis) in Northern Ghana.

    PubMed

    Bimi, Langbong

    2007-01-01

    Guinea worm disease, also known as dracunculiasis (or dracunculosis), is caused by the large female of the nematode Dracunculus medinensis. It normally lives and grows in various places in the human body, before migrating to subcutaneous tissue and eventually emerging slowly from the skin, usually on the lower limbs. If the affected portion of the body comes into contact with water, first-stage juveniles (L(1)) are expelled in large numbers from the ruptured uterus. For further development, the juveniles need to be ingested by suitable predatory species of copepods. In this study, infectivity studies on the relative importance of various copepod species in the transmission of the Guinea worm disease was carried out. The infection potentials of the vectors were evaluated based on their ability to ingest the first stage juveniles (L(1)), and to remain alive for these juveniles to develop to the infective, third-stage juveniles (L(3)). The adults of the relatively larger species recorded very high mortality rates upon infection with the first stage juveniles (L(1)) of the parasite. The highest copepod mortality rate was recorded by M. kieferi (94%). However, the copepodid stages of these species were able to withstand infection for extremely longer periods. The smaller genera did not record any remarkable mortalities on ingesting parasite juveniles. The most important implicated potential vectors of Dracunculus medinensis evaluated in the area are Mesocyclops kieferi --> M. aspericornis --> Thermocyclops incisus --> T. inopinus --> T. oblongatus.

  9. Water-seeking behavior in worm-infected crickets and reversibility of parasitic manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Ponton, Fleur; Lefèvre, Thierry; Guerin, Patrick M.; Lebarbenchon, Camille; Duneau, David; Biron, David G.; Thomas, Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    One of the most fascinating examples of parasite-induced host manipulation is that of hairworms, first, because they induce a spectacular “suicide” water-seeking behavior in their terrestrial insect hosts and, second, because the emergence of the parasite is not lethal per se for the host that can live several months following parasite release. The mechanisms hairworms use to increase the encounter rate between their host and water remain, however, poorly understood. Considering the selective landscape in which nematomorph manipulation has evolved as well as previously obtained proteomics data, we predicted that crickets harboring mature hairworms would display a modified behavioral response to light. Since following parasite emergence in water, the cricket host and parasitic worm do not interact physiologically anymore, we also predicted that the host would recover from the modified behaviors. We examined the effect of hairworm infection on different behavioral responses of the host when stimulated by light to record responses from uninfected, infected, and ex-infected crickets. We showed that hairworm infection fundamentally modifies cricket behavior by inducing directed responses to light, a condition from which they mostly recover once the parasite is released. This study supports the idea that host manipulation by parasites is subtle, complex, and multidimensional. PMID:22476265

  10. Efficacy of a novel topical combination of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel against adult and larval stages of Toxocara cati in cats.

    PubMed

    Knaus, Martin; Baker, Christine F; Reinemeyer, Craig R; Chester, S Theodore; Rosentel, Joseph; Rehbein, Steffen

    2014-04-28

    The efficacy of a novel topical combination of fipronil 8.3% (w/v), (S)-methoprene 10% (w/v), eprinomectin 0.4% (w/v), and praziquantel 8.3% (w/v) (BROADLINE(®), Merial) was evaluated against adult and larval Toxocara cati in four controlled studies. All studies included experimentally infected, purpose-bred, short-haired cats. In two studies, 22 or 20 cats harbouring patent infections as confirmed by pre-treatment faecal examination, were included. Within each study, cats were allocated to one of two groups: control or treated. In a further two studies, 30 cats were included in each; cats were allocated to one of three groups: control, treated when T. cati were expected to be either migrating third and/or fourth-stage larvae, or treated when T. cati were expected to be fourth-stage larvae. Cats allocated to the treated groups received a single topical application of the combination product at 0.12 mL/kg bodyweight (10mg fipronil+12 mg (S)-methoprene+0.5mg eprinomectin+10mg praziquantel per kg). For parasite recovery and count, cats were euthanized humanely at different intervals after treatment. In the studies targeting adult T. cati, ascarids were recovered from all controls (range 1-150) while only two worms were isolated from one treated cat. Thus, the efficacy of the novel combination was 99.4% and 100% against adult T. cati. For studies targeting larval T. cati, up to 21 worms were recovered from each of seven or eight of the control cats per study. No T. cati were recovered from the treated cats in two studies, corresponding to 100% efficacy against both, migrating third and/or fourth-stage larvae and luminal fourth-stage larvae. All cats accepted the treatment well and no adverse experiences or other health problems were observed throughout the studies.

  11. Enterobiasis: a neglected infection in adults.

    PubMed

    Sato, Megumi; Sanguankiat, Surapol; Pubampen, Somchit; Kusolsuk, Teera

    2008-03-01

    In this study, adult patients were treated with praziquantel to expel intestinal flukes. Unexpectedly, dozens of adult Enterobius vermicularis worms with disfigured morphology, which had not been detected on fecal examination using Kat's modified thick-smear technique, were expelled from 6 of 33 patients.

  12. 11. INTERIOR VIEW OF OPERATING HOUSE NO. 4, SHOWING WORM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. INTERIOR VIEW OF OPERATING HOUSE NO. 4, SHOWING WORM WHEEL GEAR ASSEMBLY, ORIGINAL 20 HP EAST HOIST MOTOR, AND CONTROL GATES 7 AND 8 HAND BRAKES, WITH MOTOR SELECTOR SWITCH, MOTOR STARTING SWITCH, AND OIL CIRCUIT BREAKER IN BACKGROUND - Long Lake Hydroelectric Plant, Spillway Dam, Spanning Spokane River, Ford, Stevens County, WA

  13. The Worm Process for the Ising Model is Rapidly Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collevecchio, Andrea; Garoni, Timothy M.; Hyndman, Timothy; Tokarev, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    We prove rapid mixing of the worm process for the zero-field ferromagnetic Ising model, on all finite connected graphs, and at all temperatures. As a corollary, we obtain a fully-polynomial randomized approximation scheme for the Ising susceptibility, and for a certain restriction of the two-point correlation function.

  14. Opinion Dynamics Driven by Leaders, Media, Viruses and Worms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuncay, Çağlar

    A model on the effects of leader, media, viruses, worms, and other agents on the opinion of individuals is developed and utilized to simulate the formation of consensus in society and price in market via excess between supply and demand. The effects of some time varying drives (harmonic and hyperbolic) are also investigated.

  15. 3-D worm tracker for freely moving C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Namseop; Pyo, Jaeyeon; Lee, Seung-Jae; Je, Jung Ho

    2013-01-01

    The manner in which the nervous system regulates animal behaviors in natural environments is a fundamental issue in biology. To address this question, C. elegans has been widely used as a model animal for the analysis of various animal behaviors. Previous behavioral assays have been limited to two-dimensional (2-D) environments, confining the worm motion to a planar substrate that does not reflect three-dimensional (3-D) natural environments such as rotting fruits or soil. Here, we develop a 3-D worm tracker (3DWT) for freely moving C. elegans in 3-D environments, based on a stereoscopic configuration. The 3DWT provides us with a quantitative trajectory, including the position and movement direction of the worm in 3-D. The 3DWT is also capable of recording and visualizing postures of the moving worm in 3-D, which are more complex than those in 2-D. Our 3DWT affords new opportunities for understanding the nervous system function that regulates animal behaviors in natural 3-D environments.

  16. Metagenomics of the Methane Ice Worm, Hesiocaeca methanicola

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwin, K. D.; Edsall, L.; Xin, W.; Head, S. R.; Gelbart, T.; Wood, A. M.; Gaasterland, T.

    2012-12-01

    The methane ice worm (Hesiocaeca methanicola) is a polychaete found on methane hydrate deposits for which there appears to be no publically available genomic or metagenomic data. Methane ice worms were collected in 2009 by the Johnson-Sea-Link submersible (543m depth; N 27:44.7526 W 91:13.3168). Next-generation sequencing (HiSeq2000) was applied to samples of tissue and gut contents. A subset of the assembled data (40M reads, randomly selected) was run through MG-RAST. Preliminary results for the gut content (1,269,153 sequences, average length 202 bp) indicated that 0.1% of the sequences contained ribosomal RNA genes with the majority (67%) classified as Bacteria, a relatively small per cent (1.4%) as Archae, and 31% as Eukaryota. Campylobacterales was the predominant order (14%), with unclassified (7.5%) and Desulfobacterales (4%) being the next dominant. Preliminary results for the worm tissue (2,716,461 sequences, average length 241 bp) indicated that the majority of sequences were Eukaryota (73%), with 256 sequences classified as phylum Annelida and 58% of those belonging to class Polychaeta. For the bacterial sequences obtained from the tissue samples, the predominant order was Actinomycetales (2.7%). For both the tissue and gut content samples, the majority of proteins were classified as clustering-based subsystems. This preliminary analysis will be compared to an assembly consisting of 40M of the highest quality reads.; methane ice worms on methane hydrate

  17. Tracking Movement Behavior of Multiple Worms on Food

    PubMed Central

    Yemini, Eviatar; Kerr, Rex A.; Schafer, William R.

    2016-01-01

    Neurobiological research in genetically tractable organisms relies heavily on robust assays for behavioral phenotypes. The simple body plan of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans makes it particularly amenable to the use of automated microscopy and image analysis to describe behavioral patterns quantitatively. Forward genetic screens and screens of drug libraries require high-throughput phenotyping, a task traditionally incompatible with manual scoring of quantitatively varying behaviors. High-throughput automated analysis of C. elegans movement behavior is now possible with several different tracking software packages. The Multiworm Tracker (MWT) described here is designed for high-throughput analysis: it can record dozens of worms simultaneously at 30 frames per second for hours or days at a time. This is accomplished by performing all image analysis in real time, saving only the worm centroid, bearing, and outline data to the disk. To simplify image processing, the system focuses only on worms that have moved, and detects and discards worms that are touching rather than trying to isolate them computationally. Because the software is entirely automated, protocols can run unattended once the worms have been placed and the software has been started. The MWT does not save images for later analysis, but behavior can be validated manually with a companion analysis tool that replays recorded body postures. This protocol describes a basic basal movement assay on food using the MWT; similar protocols apply to related assays and to similar multiple animal trackers. The protocol can be extended to a variety of assays ranging from tap response to chemotaxis. PMID:22135669

  18. Healing Hearts: Helping Children and Adults Recover from Divorce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickey, Elizabeth; Dalton, Elizabeth A.

    Divided into three parts, this book was written to foster healing for divorcing parents and to help divorcing couples support their children. Part one deals with interpersonal issues and individual growth. The reader is lead through the personal processes of divorce; actions parents can take to help themselves and their children adjust to the…

  19. The Schistosoma mansoni Cytochrome P450 (CYP3050A1) Is Essential for Worm Survival and Egg Development.

    PubMed

    Ziniel, Peter D; Karumudi, Bhargava; Barnard, Andrew H; Fisher, Ethan M S; Thatcher, Gregory R J; Podust, Larissa M; Williams, David L

    2015-12-01

    Schistosomiasis affects millions of people in developing countries and is responsible for more than 200,000 deaths annually. Because of toxicity and limited spectrum of activity of alternatives, there is effectively only one drug, praziquantel, available for its treatment. Recent data suggest that drug resistance could soon be a problem. There is therefore the need to identify new drug targets and develop drugs for the treatment of schistosomiasis. Analysis of the Schistosoma mansoni genome sequence for proteins involved in detoxification processes found that it encodes a single cytochrome P450 (CYP450) gene. Here we report that the 1452 bp open reading frame has a characteristic heme-binding region in its catalytic domain with a conserved heme ligating cysteine, a hydrophobic leader sequence present as the membrane interacting region, and overall structural conservation. The highest sequence identity to human CYP450s is 22%. Double stranded RNA (dsRNA) silencing of S. mansoni (Sm)CYP450 in schistosomula results in worm death. Treating larval or adult worms with antifungal azole CYP450 inhibitors results in worm death at low micromolar concentrations. In addition, combinations of SmCYP450-specific dsRNA and miconazole show additive schistosomicidal effects supporting the hypothesis that SmCYP450 is the target of miconazole. Treatment of developing S. mansoni eggs with miconazole results in a dose dependent arrest in embryonic development. Our results indicate that SmCYP450 is essential for worm survival and egg development and validates it as a novel drug target. Preliminary structure-activity relationship suggests that the 1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-2-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)ethan-1-ol moiety of miconazole is necessary for activity and that miconazole activity and selectivity could be improved by rational drug design.

  20. The Schistosoma mansoni Cytochrome P450 (CYP3050A1) Is Essential for Worm Survival and Egg Development

    PubMed Central

    Ziniel, Peter D.; Karumudi, Bhargava; Barnard, Andrew H.; Fisher, Ethan M. S.; Thatcher, Gregory R. J.; Podust, Larissa M.; Williams, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis affects millions of people in developing countries and is responsible for more than 200,000 deaths annually. Because of toxicity and limited spectrum of activity of alternatives, there is effectively only one drug, praziquantel, available for its treatment. Recent data suggest that drug resistance could soon be a problem. There is therefore the need to identify new drug targets and develop drugs for the treatment of schistosomiasis. Analysis of the Schistosoma mansoni genome sequence for proteins involved in detoxification processes found that it encodes a single cytochrome P450 (CYP450) gene. Here we report that the 1452 bp open reading frame has a characteristic heme-binding region in its catalytic domain with a conserved heme ligating cysteine, a hydrophobic leader sequence present as the membrane interacting region, and overall structural conservation. The highest sequence identity to human CYP450s is 22%. Double stranded RNA (dsRNA) silencing of S. mansoni (Sm)CYP450 in schistosomula results in worm death. Treating larval or adult worms with antifungal azole CYP450 inhibitors results in worm death at low micromolar concentrations. In addition, combinations of SmCYP450-specific dsRNA and miconazole show additive schistosomicidal effects supporting the hypothesis that SmCYP450 is the target of miconazole. Treatment of developing S. mansoni eggs with miconazole results in a dose dependent arrest in embryonic development. Our results indicate that SmCYP450 is essential for worm survival and egg development and validates it as a novel drug target. Preliminary structure-activity relationship suggests that the 1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-2-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)ethan-1-ol moiety of miconazole is necessary for activity and that miconazole activity and selectivity could be improved by rational drug design. PMID:26713732

  1. Recovering Radioactive Materials with ORSP Team

    ScienceCinema

    LANL

    2016-07-12

    The National Nuclear Security Administration sponsors a program, executed by Los Alamos National Laboratory, to recover radioisotopes used by industry and academia and no longer needed. Called the "Offsite Source Recovery Program (OSRP), it has recovered more than 16,000 orphan sources as of 2008.

  2. Influence of levamisole and Freund's adjuvant on mouse immunisation with antigens of adults of the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica Linnaeus, 1758.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez-Sanchez, Maria de Los Angeles; Luna-Herrera, Julieta; Trejo-Castro, Lauro; Montenegro-Cristino, Natividad; Almanza-Gonzalez, Alfredo; Escobar-Gutierrez, Alejandro; de la Rosa-Arana, Jorge Luis

    2015-08-28

    We have studied the influence of both levamisole (AL) and Freund's adjuvant (AF) on the immunisation of mice with the secretory antigens of adults of the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica Linnaeus, 1758. Total IgG antibodies were detected in all groups where the F. hepatica antigen was administered, been levels of IgG1 increased respect to IgG2a antibodies. During immunisation, IL-4 and IFN-γ were only detected in AL and AF groups, but after infection, IL-4 boosted in all groups. IFN-γ increased two fold in AF and AL groups compared to the saline solution (AS) group. Worm recovering was of 32-35% in groups administered without antigen whereas in AS, AL and AF groups recovering was of 25%, 12% and 8%, respectively. Macroscopical lesions in the liver were scarce in AL and AF groups. Our data suggest that immunisation of mice with antigens of F. hepatica enhances the immune response avoiding both liver damage and worm establishment after challenge infection. The murine model of fasciolosis has appeared to be useful to elucidate the mechanism by which the parasite modulates immune responses toward a Th2 type but also the development of Th1 type-inducing vaccines.

  3. Microfluidic platform integrated with worm-counting setup for assessing manganese toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Beibei; Li, Yinbao; He, Qidi; Qin, Jun; Yu, Yanyan; Li, Xinchun; Zhang, Lin; Yao, Meicun; Liu, Junshan; Chen, Zuanguang

    2014-01-01

    We reported a new microfluidic system integrated with worm responders for evaluating the environmental manganese toxicity. The micro device consists of worm loading units, worm observing chambers, and a radial concentration gradient generator (CGG). Eight T-shape worm loading units of the micro device were used to load the exact number of worms into the corresponding eight chambers with the assistance of worm responders and doorsills. The worm responder, as a key component, was employed for performing automated worm-counting assay through electric impedance sensing. This label-free and non-invasive worm-counting technique was applied to the microsystem for the first time. In addition, the disk-shaped CGG can generate a range of stepwise concentrations of the appointed chemical automatically and simultaneously. Due to the scalable architecture of radial CGG, it has the potential to increase the throughput of the assay. Dopaminergic (DAergic) neurotoxicity of manganese on C. elegans was quantitatively assessed via the observation of green fluorescence protein-tagged DAergic neurons of the strain BZ555 on-chip. In addition, oxidative stress triggered by manganese was evaluated by the quantitative fluorescence intensity of the strain CL2166. By scoring the survival ratio and stroke frequency of worms, we characterized the dose- and time-dependent mobility defects of the manganese-exposed worms. Furthermore, we applied the microsystem to investigate the effect of natural antioxidants to protect manganese-induced toxicity. PMID:25538805

  4. Worms and malaria: blind men feeling the elephant?

    PubMed

    Nacher, M

    2008-06-01

    For thousands of years the deadliest human parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, has been evolving in populations also infected by the most prevalent parasites, worms. This is likely to have shaped the genome of all 3 protagonists--man, worms and malaria. Observational studies in Thailand have shown that although P. falciparum malaria incidence increased two-fold in helminth-infected patients, there was a 64% reduction of cerebral malaria and an 84% reduction of acute renal failure in helminth-infected patients relative to those without helminths. In addition, it was suggested that mixed infections, anaemia and gametocyte carriage were more frequent in helminth-infected patients. On the contrary, fever was lower in helminth-infected patients. The present hypotheses, their implications and the limitations of the results described and of those from studies in Africa are discussed.

  5. Hi shells, supershells, shell-like objects, and ''worms''

    SciTech Connect

    Heiles, C.

    1984-08-01

    We present photographic representations of the combination of two Hi surveys, so as to eliminate the survey boundaries at Vertical BarbVertical Bar = 10/sup 0/. We also present high-contrast photographs for particular velocities to exhibit weak Hi features. All of these photographs were used to prepare a new list of Hi shells, supershells, and shell-like objects. We discuss the structure of three shell-like objects that are associated with high-velocity gas, and with gas at all velocities that is associated with radio continuum loops I, II, and III. We use spatial filtering to find wiggly gas filaments: ''worms'': crawling away from the galactic plane in the inner Galaxy. The ''worms'' are probably parts of shells that are open at the top; such shells should be good sources of hot gas for the galactic halo.

  6. Effects of PAHs on the feeding activity of tubificid worms

    SciTech Connect

    Lotufo, G.R.

    1994-12-31

    Sediment collected from a clean site in LA was sieved through a 125{mu}m screen and contaminated with individual PAHs (pyrene, phenanthrene and dibenzofuran) at increasing concentrations using spiking procedure and with a mixture of the 3 PAHs at a single concentration by shell coating. Feeding activity was estimated by defecation rate. Groups of 15 worms were assigned to defecation chambers in 4 replicates per treatment. Feces were collected daily for 10 days, filtered through a 8{mu}m membrane filter and dry weight measured. Results obtained with phenanthrene and mixture of 3 PAHs indicate that PHA bulk concentration of 100 mg/dry kg and higher significantly reduce tubificid ingestion of sediment. Total recovery to control levels occurred when worms exposed to high concentration of PAH were transferred to clean sediment. Total OC was determined to be 3.2 %.

  7. Genome size and chromosome number in velvet worms (Onychophora).

    PubMed

    Jeffery, Nicholas W; Oliveira, Ivo S; Gregory, T Ryan; Rowell, David M; Mayer, Georg

    2012-12-01

    The Onychophora (velvet worms) represents a small group of invertebrates (~180 valid species), which is commonly united with Tardigrada and Arthropoda in a clade called Panarthropoda. As with the majority of invertebrate taxa, genome size data are very limited for the Onychophora, with only one previously published estimate. Here we use both flow cytometry and Feulgen image analysis densitometry to provide genome size estimates for seven species of velvet worms from both major subgroups, Peripatidae and Peripatopsidae, along with karyotype data for each species. Genome sizes in these species range from roughly 5-19 pg, with densitometric estimates being slightly larger than those obtained by flow cytometry for all species. Chromosome numbers range from 2n = 8 to 2n = 54. No relationship is evident between genome size, chromosome number, or reproductive mode. Various avenues for future genomic research are presented based on these results.

  8. The maturity of Nypa palm worm Namalycastis rhodochorde (Nereididae: Polychaeta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junardi, Anggraeni, Tjandra; Ridwan, Ahmad; Yuwono, Edy

    2014-03-01

    The Nypa Palm Worm Namalycastis rhodochorde has been used as bait for fishing and commercial species in Pontianak. Maturity is one important characteristic to learn the population dynamic and management. The Nypa Palm worm samples were collected from mangrove area in Kapuas Estuary, West Kalimantan. Fresh samples of gametes collected from the coelomic fluid were observed carefully under compound microscope for the initial determination of maturity. The presences of oocyte ≥120μm in diameter and lipid droplet are the indication of female maturity, while free swimming spermatozoon in the body fluid is the indication of male maturity. Morphologically, the maturity of N. rhodochorde was indicated by the change of body color, softer and fragile body, yet no modified chaetae and heteronereid form.

  9. Long-term disability due to guinea worm disease.

    PubMed

    Hours, M; Cairncross, S

    1994-01-01

    The village-based surveillance system for guinea worm disease (dracunculiasis), which has been established in all endemic villages in Ghana, was used to carry out a retrospective study of long-term disability due to the disease. A sample of 195 cases was interviewed and examined, 12-18 months after emergence of the worm. Currently continuing pain when walking or working, attributable by its location and date of onset to the episode of dracunculiasis, was reported by 55 persons (28.2%). Some difficulty in performing at least one of 6 everyday physical activities, attributable after careful interview to the episode, was reported by 66 respondents (34.0%), of whom 10 (5.1%) were unable to carry out one of the activities. In one case, the disease had caused impairment of movement of the joints of the right thumb. The prevalence of serious permanent physical impairment among the cases in the study was thus 0.5%.

  10. Toxical effect of Peganum harmala L. leaves on the cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera littoralis Boisd and its parasitoids Microplitis rufiventris Kok.

    PubMed

    Shonouda, Mourad; Osman, Salah; Salama, Osama; Ayoub, Amal

    2008-02-15

    The leaf extract and its fractions of Peganum harmala L. have shown pronounced mortal effect, decreased percent pupation and adult emergence of the cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera littoralis Boisd. The third instar larvae fed for two days on treated leaves were more susceptible to plant extract and its ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions. The active lowest concentration (5%) of the leaf fractions of P. harmala showed significant effect on the percentage of emerged adult parasitoids, Microplitis rufiventris Kok. GC/MS analysis showed the major constituent in ethyl acetate fraction was (23S) ethylcholest-5-en-3 beta-ol (28.04%) while those of chloroform fraction were hydroxyfuranocoumarin (Bergaptol) (15.68%), piperidinone (12.08%), thymol (11.82%), phosphoric acid, tributyl ester (9.80%) and trimethyl-nonenol (9.66%). The medicinal plant P. harmala could be carefully applied in integrated pest management due to its strong effect on cotton leaf worm pest.

  11. Analysis of Routing Worm Infection Rates on an IPV4

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    effort. The help of Major David M. Kaziska during the final weeks of my thesis writing was a Godsend and I owe him a large debt of gratitude. All...ANALYSIS OF ROUTING WORM INFECTION RATES ON AN IPV4 NETWORK THESIS James E. Gorsuch, First Lieutenant, USAF AFIT/GCS/ENG/07-04...DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED The views expressed in this thesis are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or

  12. WormBase 2016: expanding to enable helminth genomic research

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Kevin L.; Bolt, Bruce J.; Cain, Scott; Chan, Juancarlos; Chen, Wen J.; Davis, Paul; Done, James; Down, Thomas; Gao, Sibyl; Grove, Christian; Harris, Todd W.; Kishore, Ranjana; Lee, Raymond; Lomax, Jane; Li, Yuling; Muller, Hans-Michael; Nakamura, Cecilia; Nuin, Paulo; Paulini, Michael; Raciti, Daniela; Schindelman, Gary; Stanley, Eleanor; Tuli, Mary Ann; Van Auken, Kimberly; Wang, Daniel; Wang, Xiaodong; Williams, Gary; Wright, Adam; Yook, Karen; Berriman, Matthew; Kersey, Paul; Schedl, Tim; Stein, Lincoln; Sternberg, Paul W.

    2016-01-01

    WormBase (www.wormbase.org) is a central repository for research data on the biology, genetics and genomics of Caenorhabditis elegans and other nematodes. The project has evolved from its original remit to collect and integrate all data for a single species, and now extends to numerous nematodes, ranging from evolutionary comparators of C. elegans to parasitic species that threaten plant, animal and human health. Research activity using C. elegans as a model system is as vibrant as ever, and we have created new tools for community curation in response to the ever-increasing volume and complexity of data. To better allow users to navigate their way through these data, we have made a number of improvements to our main website, including new tools for browsing genomic features and ontology annotations. Finally, we have developed a new portal for parasitic worm genomes. WormBase ParaSite (parasite.wormbase.org) contains all publicly available nematode and platyhelminth annotated genome sequences, and is designed specifically to support helminth genomic research. PMID:26578572

  13. Th9 Cells Drive Host Immunity against Gastrointestinal Worm Infection.

    PubMed

    Licona-Limón, Paula; Henao-Mejia, Jorge; Temann, Angela U; Gagliani, Nicola; Licona-Limón, Ileana; Ishigame, Harumichi; Hao, Liming; Herbert, De'broski R; Flavell, Richard A

    2013-10-17

    Type 2 inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, IL-9, and IL-13, drive the characteristic features of immunity against parasitic worms and allergens. Whether IL-9 serves an essential role in the initiation of host-protective responses is controversial, and the importance of IL-9- versus IL-4-producing CD4⁺ effector T cells in type 2 immunity is incompletely defined. Herein, we generated IL-9-deficient and IL-9-fluorescent reporter mice that demonstrated an essential role for this cytokine in the early type 2 immunity against Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. Whereas T helper 9 (Th9) cells and type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) were major sources of infection-induced IL-9 production, the adoptive transfer of Th9 cells, but not Th2 cells, caused rapid worm expulsion, marked basophilia, and increased mast cell numbers in Rag2-deficient hosts. Taken together, our data show a critical and nonredundant role for Th9 cells and IL-9 in host-protective type 2 immunity against parasitic worm infection.

  14. Myiasis by screw worm Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in a wild maned wolf Chrysocyon brachyurus (Mammalia: Canidae), in Brasília, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cansi, E R; Bonorino, R; Ataíde, H S; Pujol-Luz, J R

    2011-01-01

    In April 2009, a wild maned wolf, Chrysocyon brachyurus, was captured in an area of cerrado in Brasília, DF, Brazil, with screw worm maggots in external wounds. Fifty larvae were bred in the laboratory and eight adults of Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) emerged 10 days after pupation. This is the first report of a myiasis by C. hominivorax in a free-living maned wolf in Brazil.

  15. Topographic quantitative EEG amplitude in recovered alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Pollock, V E; Schneider, L S; Zemansky, M F; Gleason, R P; Pawluczyk, S

    1992-05-01

    Topographic measures of electroencephalographic (EEG) amplitude were used to compare recovered alcoholics (n = 14) with sex- and age-matched control subjects. Delta, alpha, and beta activity did not distinguish the groups, but regional differences in theta distribution did. Recovered alcoholics showed more uniform distributions of theta amplitudes in bilateral anterior and posterior regions compared with controls. Because a minimum of 5 years had elapsed since the recovered alcoholic subjects fulfilled DSM-III-R criteria for alcohol abuse or dependence, it is unlikely these EEG theta differences reflect the effects of withdrawal.

  16. Characterization of antigenic property of Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina adults and larvae through immunodiagnostic electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and western blot technique.

    PubMed

    el-Massry, A A

    1999-08-01

    Differential molecular studies were performed by sodium dodecyle sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis--SDS-PAGE--between somatic antigen of Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina, adults and larvae, recovered from dogs. SDS-PAGE of both adults somatic antigen showed two closely similar bands (90.00, 91.95 KDa and 69.25-70.56 KDa). Each parasite had characteristic bands clustered in different molecular weights. While for their larval antigen, T. canis showed a very different antigenic profile when analysed in comparison to T. leonina antigen except at one band (66.85-66.89 KDa). The Western blot analysis showed four prominent bands represented immunoreaction between the separated somatic antigen of T. canis adults and experimentally immunized rabbit with the corresponding parasite (125.37, 117.73, 90.00 and 69.25 KDa). While separated antigen of T. leonina adults immune reacted with the corresponding hyperimmune rabbit sera at 119.04, 91.95 and 70.56 KDa. The Western blot showed cross reactive immune bands between T. canis and T. leonina adults somatic antigen at two bands (90.00, 91.95 KDa and 69.25-70.56 KDa). The polypeptide bands reacted at 125.37 KDa and 117.73 KDa can be used as specific finger print for T. canis adults while that at 119.04 KDa was specific for T. leonina adult worm.

  17. Automated monitoring of recovered water quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misselhorn, J. E.; Hartung, W. H.; Witz, S. W.

    1974-01-01

    Laboratory prototype water quality monitoring system provides automatic system for online monitoring of chemical, physical, and bacteriological properties of recovered water and for signaling malfunction in water recovery system. Monitor incorporates whenever possible commercially available sensors suitably modified.

  18. The use of FAMACHA in estimation of gastrointestinal nematodes and total worm burden in Damara and Barbados Blackbelly cross sheep.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Konto; Abba, Yusuf; Ramli, Nur Syairah Binti; Marimuthu, Murugaiyah; Omar, Mohammed Ariff; Abdullah, Faez Firdaus Jesse; Sadiq, Muhammad Abubakar; Tijjani, Abdulnasir; Chung, Eric Lim Teik; Lila, Mohammed Azmi Mohammed

    2016-06-01

    The prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes and total worm burden of Damara and Barbados Blackbelly cross sheep was investigated among smallholder farms in Salak Tinggi district of Selangor, Malaysia. A total of 50 sheep raised in smallholder farms comprising of 27 Damara cross and 23 Barbados Blackbelly cross were categorized based on their age into young and adults. Fecal samples were collected and examined for strongyle egg count by using modified McMaster technique. Severity of infection was categorized into mild, moderate, and heavy, based on egg per gram (EPG). Five sheep were randomly selected and slaughtered to examine the presence of adult gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes through total worm count (TWC). Faffa Malan Chart (FAMACHA) score was used for investigation of worm load based on the degree of anemia. The study revealed an overall EPG prevalence of 88 %, of which 84.1 % had mild infection. There was a significant difference (p = 0.002) in EPG among the two breeds. Based on age, significant difference (p = 0. 004) in EPG was observed among Barbados Blackbelly cross, but not for Damara cross (p = 0.941). The correlation between severity of infection and the FAMACHA score was significant (r = 0.289; p = 0.042). Haemonchus spp. were the most predominant nematode found in the gastrointestinal tract, followed by Trichostrongylus and Oesophagostomum spps. EPG and TWC for Haemonchus were positively correlated, but not significant (r = 0.85, p = 0.066). From regression analysis, 73 % of the variability in TWC for Haemonchus could be explained by EPG. Thus, it can be concluded that FAMACHA score correlates well with severity of infection of a nematode and can be used to assess the strongyle nematode burden in the different sheep crosses.

  19. METHOD FOR RECOVERING URANIUM FROM OILS

    DOEpatents

    Gooch, L.H.

    1959-07-14

    A method is presented for recovering uranium from hydrocarbon oils, wherein the uranium is principally present as UF/sub 4/. According to the invention, substantially complete removal of the uranium from the hydrocarbon oil may be effected by intimately mixing one part of acetone to about 2 to 12 parts of the hydrocarbon oil containing uranium and separating the resulting cake of uranium from the resulting mixture. The uranium in the cake may be readily recovered by burning to the oxide.

  20. Routes of uptake of diclofenac, fluoxetine, and triclosan into sediment-dwelling worms.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Maja V; Marshall, Stuart; Gouin, Todd; Boxall, Alistair B A

    2016-04-01

    The present study investigated the route and degree of uptake of 2 ionizable pharmaceuticals (diclofenac and fluoxetine) and 1 ionizable compound used in personal care products (triclosan) into the sediment-dwelling worm Lumbriculus variegatus. Studies were done on complete worms ("feeding") and worms where the head was absent ("nonfeeding") using (14) C-labeled ingredients. Biota sediment accumulation factors (BSAF), based on uptake of (14) C, for feeding worms increased in the order fluoxetine (0.3) < diclofenac (0.5) < triclosan (9), which is correlated with a corresponding increase in log octanol-water partition coefficient. Biota sediment accumulation factor estimates are representative of maximum values because the degree of biotransformation in the worms was not quantified. Although no significant differences were seen between the uptake of diclofenac and that of fluoxetine in feeding and nonfeeding worms, uptake of the more hydrophobic antimicrobial, triclosan, into the feeding worms was significantly greater than that in the nonfeeding worms, with the 48-h BSAF for feeding worms being 36% higher than that for the nonfeeding worms. The results imply that dietary uptake contributes to the uptake of triclosan, which may be a result of the high hydrophobicity of the compound. Models that estimate exposure of ionizable substances may need to consider uptake from both the water column and food, particularly when assessing risks from dynamic exposures to organic contaminants.

  1. Phylogenetic information from three mitochondrial genomes of Terebelliformia (Annelida) worms and duplication of the methionine tRNA.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Min; Struck, Torsten H; Halanych, Kenneth M

    2008-06-15

    Mitochondrial genomes have been useful for inferring animal phylogeny across a wide range of clades, however they are still poorly sampled in some animal taxa, limiting our knowledge of mtDNA evolution. For example, despite being one of the most diverse animal phyla, only 5 complete annelid mitochrondial genomes have been published. To address this paucity of information, we obtained complete mitochondrial genomic sequences from Pista cristata (Terebellidae) and Terebellides stroemi (Trichobranchidae) as well as one nearly complete mitochondrial genome from Eclysippe vanelli (Ampharetidae). These taxa are within Terebelliformia (Annelida), which include spaghetti worms, icecream cone worms and their relatives. In contrast to the 37 genes found in most bilaterian metazoans, we recover 38 genes in the mitochondrial genomes of T. stroemi and P. cristata due to the presence of a second methionine tRNA (trnM). Interestingly, the two trnMs are located next to each other and are possibly a synapomorphy of these two taxa. The E. vanelli partial mitochondrial genome lacks this additional trnM at the same position, but it may be present in the region not sampled. Compared to other annelids, gene orders of these three mitochondrial genomes are generally conserved except for the atp6-mSSU region. Phylogenetic analyses reveal that mtDNA data strongly supports a Trichobranchidae/Terebellidae clade.

  2. A Horsehair Worm, Gordius sp. (Nematomorpha: Gordiida), Passed in a Canine Feces.

    PubMed

    Hong, Eui-Ju; Sim, Cheolho; Chae, Joon-Seok; Kim, Hyeon-Cheol; Park, Jinho; Choi, Kyoung-Seong; Yu, Do-Hyeon; Yoo, Jae-Gyu; Park, Bae-Keun

    2015-12-01

    Nematomorpha, horsehair or Gordian worms, include about 300 freshwater species in 22 genera (Gordiida) and 5 marine species in 1 marine genus (Nectonema). They are parasitic in arthropods during their juvenile stage. In the present study, the used gordian worm was found in the feces of a dog (5-month old, male) in July 2014. Following the worm analysis using light and scanning electron microscopes, the morphological classification was re-evaluated with molecular analysis. The worm was determined to be a male worm having a bi-lobed tail and had male gonads in cross sections. It was identified as Gordius sp. (Nematomorpha: Gordiidae) based on the characteristic morphologies of cross sections and areole on the cuticle. DNA analysis on 18S rRNA partial sequence arrangements was also carried out, and the gordiid worm was assumed to be close to the genus Gordius based on a phylogenic tree analysis.

  3. Grunting for worms: seismic vibrations cause Diplocardia earthworms to emerge from the soil

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, O.; Callaham, M.A.; Smith, M.L.; Yack, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    Harvesting earthworms by a practice called ‘worm grunting’ is a widespread and profitable business in the southeastern USA. Although a variety of techniques are used, most involve rhythmically scraping a wooden stake driven into the ground, with a flat metal object. A common assumption is that vibrations cause the worms to surface, but this phenomenon has not been studied experimentally. We demonstrate that Diplocardia earthworms emerge from the soil within minutes following the onset of grunting. Broadband low frequency (below 500 Hz) pulsed vibrations were present in the soil throughout the area where worms were harvested, and the number of worms emerging decreased as the seismic signal decayed over distance. The findings are discussed in relation to two hypotheses: that worms are escaping vibrations caused by digging foragers and that worms are surfacing in response to vibrations caused by falling rain. PMID:18854292

  4. STUDIES ON THE METABOLISM OF THE FILARIAL WORM, LITOMOSOIDES CARINII

    PubMed Central

    Bueding, Ernest

    1949-01-01

    The filarial worm, Litomosoides carinii, has a high rate of aerobic and anaerobic glucose metabolism. Aerobically 30 to 45 per cent of the glucose utilized was converted to lactic acid, 25 to 35 per cent to acetic acid, and 10 to 20 per cent to a polysaccharide. Anaerobically over 80 per cent of the total carbohydrate removed by the filariae was metabolized to lactic acid, the remainder was accounted for by the production of acetic acid. The high rates of aerobic and anaerobic lactic acid production and of aerobic polysaccharide synthesis, as well as the absence of a postanaerobic increase of the oxygen uptake, differentiate the filarial worm, L. carinii, from the known metabolic characteristics of all other helminths and of most other invertebrates. The rate of aerobic lactate and pyruvate utilization by the filariae appears to be much slower than that of glucose. Anaerobically, dismutation of two moles of pyruvate to one mole of lactate, one mole of acetate, and one mole of CO2, occurred. Aerobically, acetate production from pyruvate exceeded that of lactate. A significant proportion of the pyruvate metabolized aerobically by the filariae was not oxidized to acetate. In the presence of fluoroacetate, aerobic incubation of the filariae in a glucose-containing medium produced a marked decrease in the respiration of the organisms, an accumulation of pyruvate, a decreased formation of acetate, and an increase in aerobic glycolysis. Low concentrations of fluoroacetate (1 x 10–3 M) inhibited the oxidative metabolism of pyruvate which did not result in the conversion of pyruvate to acetate; higher concentrations of this inhibitor produced also a decreased oxidation of pyruvate to acetate. No evidence has been obtained that fluoroacetate inhibits the respiration of the filariae because of a competitive inhibition of acetate oxidation. Respiration and glycolysis of filariae were markedly decreased by low concentrations of p-chloromercuric benzoate. This inhibition could

  5. Applications for carbon fibre recovered from composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickering; Liu, Z.; Turner, TA; Wong, KH

    2016-07-01

    Commercial operations to recover carbon fibre from waste composites are now developing and as more recovered fibre becomes available new applications for recovered fibre are required. Opportunities to use recovered carbon fibre as a structural reinforcement are considered involving the use of wet lay processes to produce nonwoven mats. Mats with random in-plane fibre orientation can readily be produced using existing commercial processes. However, the fibre volume fraction, and hence the mechanical properties that can be achieved, result in composites with limited mechanical properties. Fibre volume fractions of 40% can be achieved with high moulding pressures of over 100 bar, however, moulding at these pressures results in substantial fibre breakage which reduces the mean fibre length and the properties of the composite manufactured. Nonwoven mats made from aligned, short carbon fibres can achieve higher fibre volume fractions with lower fibre breakage even at high moulding pressure. A process for aligning short fibres is described and a composite of over 60% fibre volume fraction has been manufactured at a pressures up to 100 bar with low fibre breakage. Further developments of the alignment process have been undertaken and a composite of 46% fibre volume fraction has been produced moulded at a pressure of 7 bar in an autoclave, exhibiting good mechanical properties that compete with higher grade materials. This demonstrates the potential for high value applications for recovered carbon fibre by fibre alignment.

  6. Experiences in the development of the Mighty Worm. [development of actuator for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bamford, R.; Moore, D.; Mon, G.; Wada, B.

    1993-01-01

    A 'Mighty Worm' actuator with the active member capable of carrying large loads during the launch phase was developed for adaptive structures applications. Two types of Mighty Worm performance are characterized, namely, long-stroke motion and incremental positioning at 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 lb. Long-stroke motion involves successive translations of all Mighty Worm moving elements, and incremental positioning involves only in-place stack expansion.

  7. Towards global Guinea worm eradication in 2015: the experience of South Sudan.

    PubMed

    Awofeso, Niyi

    2013-08-01

    For centuries, the Guinea worm parasite (Dracunculus medinensis) has caused disabling misery, infecting people who drink stagnant water contaminated with the worm's larvae. In 2012, there were 542 cases of Guinea worm reported globally, of which 521 (96.1%) were reported in South Sudan. Protracted civil wars, an inadequate workforce, neglect of potable water provision programs, suboptimal Guinea worm surveillance and case containment, and fragmented health systems account for many of the structural and operational factors encumbering South Sudan's Guinea worm eradication efforts. This article reviews the impacts of six established Guinea worm control strategies in South Sudan: (1) surveillance to determine actual caseload distribution and trends in response to control measures; (2) educating community members from whom worms are emerging to avoid immersing affected parts in sources of drinking water; (3) filtering potentially contaminated drinking water using cloth filters or filtered drinking straws; (4) treating potentially contaminated surface water with the copepod larvicide temephos (Abate); (5) providing safe drinking water from boreholes or hand-dug wells; and (6) containment of transmission through voluntary isolation of each patient to prevent contamination of drinking water sources, provision of first aid, and manual extraction of the worm. Surveillance, community education, potable water provision, and case containment remain weak facets of the program. Abate pesticide is not a viable option for Guinea worm control in South Sudan. In light of current case detection and containment trends, as well as capacity building efforts for Guinea worm eradication, South Sudan is more likely to eradicate Guinea worm by 2020, rather than by 2015. The author highlights areas in which substantial improvements are required in South Sudan's Guinea worm eradication program, and suggests improvement strategies.

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Galactic Worms (Koo+, 1992)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, B.-C.; Heiles, C.; Reach, W. T.

    2016-02-01

    118 structures catalogued as "worm candidates" are found on the basis of the maps in HI-21cm, IRAS 100 and 60μm. The 21cm maps of the Galactic Plane (b < 10°) result from available surveys (Kerr et al. 1986A&AS...66..373K; Weaver & Williams 1973A&AS....8....1W, Cat. VIII/11) and from new observations near the Galactic center during 1989 and 1990 using the Hat Creek 26m telescope. (3 data files).

  9. Pet roundworms and hookworms: A continuing need for global worming

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Ascarids and ancylostomatids are the most important parasites affecting dogs and cats worldwide, in terms of diffusion and risk for animal and human health. Different misconceptions have led the general public and pet owners to minimize the importance of these intestinal worms. A low grade of interest is also registered among veterinary professions, although there is a significant merit in keeping our guard up against these parasites. This article reviews current knowledge of ascarids and ancylostomatids, with a special focus on pathogenicity, epidemiology and control methods in veterinary and human medicine. PMID:22574783

  10. Photonic crystal fiber in the polychaete worm Pherusa sp.

    PubMed

    Trzeciak, Tomasz M; Vukusic, Peter

    2009-12-01

    Setae of the polychaete worm Pherusa exhibit remarkably strong photonic effects, which arise from their two-dimensional-periodic internal structure of hexagonally packed cylindrical channels. The hexagonal order is limited to monocrystalline domains of different orientation, which results in an overall polycrystalline effect. A detailed experimental and theoretical investigation of this structure reveals that the internal photonic structure is carefully tuned with respect to its lattice constant in order to provide an optical response coinciding with the visible wavelength rage. A further optimization is observed for the packing fraction of cylindrical channels in order to maximize the width of photonic band gaps, and hence the reflectance of incident visible light.

  11. Pet roundworms and hookworms: a continuing need for global worming.

    PubMed

    Traversa, Donato

    2012-05-10

    Ascarids and ancylostomatids are the most important parasites affecting dogs and cats worldwide, in terms of diffusion and risk for animal and human health. Different misconceptions have led the general public and pet owners to minimize the importance of these intestinal worms. A low grade of interest is also registered among veterinary professions, although there is a significant merit in keeping our guard up against these parasites. This article reviews current knowledge of ascarids and ancylostomatids, with a special focus on pathogenicity, epidemiology and control methods in veterinary and human medicine.

  12. Children's (In)ability to Recover from Garden Paths in a Verb-Final Language: Evidence for Developing Control in Sentence Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Youngon; Trueswell, John C.

    2010-01-01

    An eye-tracking study explored Korean-speaking adults' and 4- and 5-year-olds' ability to recover from misinterpretations of temporarily ambiguous phrases during spoken language comprehension. Eye movement and action data indicated that children, but not adults, had difficulty in recovering from these misinterpretations despite strong…

  13. Spatial and temporal differences in giant kidney worm, dictophyma renale, prevalence in Minnesota Mink, Mustela vison

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.

    2008-01-01

    Examination of 110 Mink (Mustela vison) carcasses from 1998 through 2007 indicated that the giant kidney worm, Dioctophyma renale, occurred in Pine and Kanabec Counties of eastern Minnesota with annual prevalences of 0-92%. Worm prevalence increased from 20% in 1999 to 92% in 2001 and decreased to 6% in 2005. During 2000 to 2007, no worms were found in Mink from Anoka and Chisago Counties (n = 54), and in 2000, none in 107 Mink from LeSeur, Freeborn, Redwood, Brown and Watonwan Counties. Changes in kidney worm prevalence were positively related to trapping success, considered an index of Mink density.

  14. Surgical extraction of guinea worm: disability reduction and contribution to disease control.

    PubMed

    Rohde, J E; Sharma, B L; Patton, H; Deegan, C; Sherry, J M

    1993-01-01

    Surgical extraction of Guinea worm prior to eruption through the skin has long been performed by traditional healers in India. Using modern aseptic techniques under local anesthesia, unerupted worms can be completely and painlessly removed in several minutes. As a result, the average number of working days lost due to a single worm is reduced from three weeks or more to three days. In the field, the procedure results not only in a dramatic decrease in Guinea worm associated disability, but also in an improvement in detecting cases, and appears to reduce disease transmission.

  15. Ergonomic analysis jobs in recovered factories.

    PubMed

    Cuenca, Gabriela; Zotta, Gastón

    2012-01-01

    With the advent of the deep economic crisis in Argentina on 2001, the recovery of companies through to the creation of the Cooperatives Working Self-Management or Factories Recovered by its workers was constituted as one of the ways in which the salaried disobeyed the increasing unemployment. When the companies turn into recovered factories they tend to leave of side practices that have been seen like imposed by the previous organization and not understanding them as a primary condition for the execution of his tasks. Safety and ergonomics are two disciplines that are no longer considered relevant to the daily work. Therefore this investigation aims to revalue, undergo semantic to give back to a place in every organization analyzed. This research developed a self-diagnostic tool for working conditions, and the environment, present in the recovered factories.

  16. Proportion of recovered waterfowl bands reported

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geis, A.D.; Atwood, E.L.

    1961-01-01

    Data from the annual mail survey of waterfowl hunters in the United States were used to estimate the total numbers of banded waterfowl that were shot. These estimates were compared with Banding Office records to estimate the proportion of recovered bands that was reported. On the average, about two banded birds were recovered for each one reported. The proportion reported was higher for some areas and for some species than for others. The proportion reported was higher when more of the reports came through employees of conservation agencies.

  17. Solid recovered fuels in the steel industry.

    PubMed

    Kepplinger, Werner L; Tappeiner, Tamara

    2012-04-01

    By using waste materials as alternative fuels in metallurgical plants it is possible to minimize the traditionally used reducing agents, such as coke, coal, oil or natural gas. Moreover, by using waste materials in the metallurgical industry it is feasible to recover these materials as far as possible. This also represents another step towards environmental protection because carbon dioxide emissions can be reduced, if the H(2) content of the waste material is greater in comparison with that of the substituted fuel and the effects of global warming can therefore be reduced. In the present article various solid recovered fuels and their applications in the metallurgical industry are detailed.

  18. Bio-inspired microfluidics: The case of the velvet worm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Concha, Andres; Mellado, Paula; Morera-Brenes, Bernal; Sampaio-Costa, Cristiano; Mahadevan, L.; Monge-Najera, Julian

    The rapid squirt of a proteinaceous slime jet endow velvet worms (Onychophora) with a unique mechanism for defense from predators and for capturing prey by entangling them in a disordered web that immobilizes their target. However, to date neither qualitative nor quantitative descriptions have been provided for this unique adaptation. We have investigated the mechanism that allows velvet worms the fast oscillatory motion of their oral papillae and the exiting liquid jet that oscillates with frequencies f ~ 30 - 60 Hz. Using anatomical images and high speed videography, we show that even without fast muscular action of the papilla, a strong contraction of the slime reservoir and the geometry of the reservoir-papilla system suffices to accelerate the slime to speeds up to v ~ 5 m /s in about Δt ~ 60 ms. A theoretical analysis and a physical simulacrum allow us to infer that this fast oscillatory motion is the result of an elastohydrodynamic instability driven by the interplay between the elasticity of oral papillae and the fast unsteady flow during squirting. We propose several applications that can be implemented using this instability, ranging from high-throughput droplet production, printing, and micro-nanofiber production among others. A.C was partially supported by Fondecyt Grant 11130075.

  19. Lessons from bloodless worms: heme homeostasis in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Jason; Hamza, Iqbal

    2015-06-01

    Heme is an essential cofactor for proteins involved in diverse biological processes such as oxygen transport, electron transport, and microRNA processing. Free heme is hydrophobic and cytotoxic, implying that specific trafficking pathways must exist for the delivery of heme to target hemoproteins which reside in various subcellular locales. Although heme biosynthesis and catabolism have been well characterized, the pathways for trafficking heme within and between cells remain poorly understood. Caenorhabditis elegans serves as a unique animal model for uncovering these pathways because, unlike vertebrates, the worm lacks enzymes to synthesize heme and therefore is crucially dependent on dietary heme for sustenance. Using C. elegans as a genetic animal model, several novel heme trafficking molecules have been identified. Importantly, these proteins have corresponding homologs in vertebrates underscoring the power of using C. elegans, a bloodless worm, in elucidating pathways in heme homeostasis and hematology in humans. Since iron deficiency and anemia are often exacerbated by parasites such as helminths and protozoa which also rely on host heme for survival, C. elegans will be an ideal model to identify anti-parasitic drugs that target heme transport pathways unique to the parasite.

  20. Complete mitochondrial genome of yellow meal worm (Tenebrio molitor).

    PubMed

    Liu, Li-Na; Wang, Cheng-Ye

    2014-11-18

    The yellow meal worm (Tenebrio molitor L.) is an important resource insect typically used as animal feed additive. It is also widely used for biological research. The first complete mitochondrial genome of T. molitor was determined for the first time by long PCR and conserved primer walking approaches. The results showed that the entire mitogenome of T. molitor was 15 785 bp long, with 72.35% A+T content [deposited in GenBank with accession number KF418153]. The gene order and orientation were the same as the most common type suggested as ancestral for insects. Two protein-coding genes used atypical start codons (CTA in ND2 and AAT in COX1), and the remaining 11 protein-coding genes started with a typical insect initiation codon ATN. All tRNAs showed standard clover-leaf structure, except for tRNA(Ser) (AGN), which lacked a dihydrouridine (DHU) arm. The newly added T. molitor mitogenome could provide information for future studies on yellow meal worm.

  1. Meandering worms: mechanics of undulatory burrowing in muds

    PubMed Central

    Dorgan, Kelly M.; Law, Chris J.; Rouse, Greg W.

    2013-01-01

    Recent work has shown that muddy sediments are elastic solids through which animals extend burrows by fracture, whereas non-cohesive granular sands fluidize around some burrowers. These different mechanical responses are reflected in the morphologies and behaviours of their respective inhabitants. However, Armandia brevis, a mud-burrowing opheliid polychaete, lacks an expansible anterior consistent with fracturing mud, and instead uses undulatory movements similar to those of sandfish lizards that fluidize desert sands. Here, we show that A. brevis neither fractures nor fluidizes sediments, but instead uses a third mechanism, plastically rearranging sediment grains to create a burrow. The curvature of the undulating body fits meander geometry used to describe rivers, and changes in curvature driven by muscle contraction are similar for swimming and burrowing worms, indicating that the same gait is used in both sediments and water. Large calculated friction forces for undulatory burrowers suggest that sediment mechanics affect undulatory and peristaltic burrowers differently; undulatory burrowing may be more effective for small worms that live in sediments not compacted or cohesive enough to extend burrows by fracture. PMID:23446526

  2. 27 CFR 19.393 - Restoration and redenaturation of recovered denatured spirits and recovered articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Restoration and redenaturation of recovered denatured spirits and recovered articles. 19.393 Section 19.393 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

  3. 27 CFR 19.393 - Restoration and redenaturation of recovered denatured spirits and recovered articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Restoration and redenaturation of recovered denatured spirits and recovered articles. 19.393 Section 19.393 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

  4. Method and apparatus for recovering waste oil

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, A.B.

    1982-09-21

    Oil is recovered from a mixture of oil and water by heating the mixture, adding a de-emulsifier, passing the mixture through a first vibrating screen, adding a surface tension reducer, processing through a hydrocyclone, passing through a second vibrating screen, and separating the oil from water by settling.

  5. Process for recovering filler from polymer

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Maurice L.; Smith, Robert M.

    1978-01-01

    This disclosure relates to a process for recovering filler material from a polymeric matrix by reacting the matrix at an elevated temperature in a gas atmosphere with a controlled oxidizing potential and thereafter separating and cleaning the residue from the reaction mixture.

  6. 27 CFR 17.168 - Recovered spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Recovered spirits. 17.168 Section 17.168 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... separate alcohol is subject to the registration requirements of 26 U.S.C. 5179 and subpart C of part 29...

  7. Stress Levels of Recovering Drug Addicts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaMon, Brent C.; Alonzo, Anthony

    It appears that chronic drug use may develop as a means of coping in which individuals use self-medication to produce a more desirable state of being. Because drugs are often used to cope with stress, this study examined stress among recovering male drug addicts (N=23) from an urban substance abuse program by administering a self-report inventory…

  8. Applications for Energy Recovering Free Electron Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    George Neil

    2007-08-01

    The availability of high-power, high-brilliance sources of tunable photons from energy-recovered Free Electron Lasers is opening up whole new fields of application of accelerators in industry. This talk will review some of the ideas that are already being put into production, and some of the newer ideas that are still under development.

  9. A full scale worm reactor for efficient sludge reduction by predation in a wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Tamis, J; van Schouwenburg, G; Kleerebezem, R; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2011-11-15

    Sludge predation can be an effective solution to reduce sludge production at a wastewater treatment plant. Oligochaete worms are the natural consumers of biomass in benthic layers in ecosystems. In this study the results of secondary sludge degradation by the aquatic Oligochaete worm Aulophorus furcatus in a 125 m(3) reactor and further sludge conversion in an anaerobic tank are presented. The system was operated over a period of 4 years at WWTP Wolvega, the Netherlands and was fed with secondary sludge from a low loaded activated sludge process. It was possible to maintain a stable and active population of the aquatic worm species A. furcatus during the full period. Under optimal conditions a sludge conversion of 150-200 kg TSS/d or 1.2-1.6 kg TSS/m(3)/d was established in the worm reactor. The worms grew as a biofilm on carrier material in the reactor. The surface specific conversion rate reached 140-180 g TSS/m(2)d and the worm biomass specific conversion rate was 0.5-1 g TSS sludge/g dry weight worms per day. The sludge reduction under optimal conditions in the worm reactor was 30-40%. The degradation by worms was an order of magnitude larger than the endogenous conversion rate of the secondary sludge. Effluent sludge from the worm reactor was stored in an anaerobic tank where methanogenic processes became apparent. It appeared that besides reducing the sludge amount, the worms' activity increased anaerobic digestibility, allowing for future optimisation of the total system by maximising sludge reduction and methane formation. In the whole system it was possible to reduce the amount of sludge by at least 65% on TSS basis. This is a much better total conversion than reported for anaerobic biodegradability of secondary sludge of 20-30% efficiency in terms of TSS reduction.

  10. In vitro development of the fish parasite Hysterothylacium aduncum from the third larval stage recovered from a host to the third larval stage hatched from the egg.

    PubMed

    Adroher, F J; Malagón, D; Valero, A; Benítez, R

    2004-01-28

    Anisakids are parasitic nematodes of fish worldwide, producing economic and human health concerns. It is thus important to ascertain their in vitro life cycle in laboratory studies. Here we describe the in vitro development of third-stage larvae (L3) of Hysterothylacium aduncum isolated from blue whiting Micromesistius poutassou, to the hatching of L3 from eggs obtained from H. aduncum worms grown in GLIT medium (a modified mixture of Yaeger's LIT [Liver Infusion Tryptose] and Grace's media) at pH 4.0, 13 degrees C and with 5% CO2 in air. Under these conditions, L3 recovered from fish developed to mature adults (3.4 to 6.2 cm in length), with oviposition starting from Day 26 in culture. Fertilized eggs (mean size 64 x 52 microm) had a thick, rugose eggshell and were larger than unfertilized ones (mean size 49 x 42 microm), whose eggshells were thin and smooth. Eggs laid during the first and second week of oviposition, and maintained in 2.8% NaCl solution at 13 degrees C, developed to L3. Under these maintenance conditions, between 20.6 and 52.5% of the eggs laid during the first week developed into larvae. Motile larvae, enclosed in a sheath, hatched from between 2 and 11% of these eggs. The larvae started to hatch 23 d after deposition. These larvae were 144 to 215 microm in length, enclosed in a 237 to 305 microm-long sheath. This GLIT culture medium may help to study the biology of this and other anisakids.

  11. Epidemiological studies on guinea-worm in some newly discovered villages of Jhabua District (M.P.) and test of carica papaya leaves of guinea worm infection.

    PubMed

    Sanghvi, P K

    1989-05-01

    Epidemiological survey was carried out for prevalence of guinea worm infection in 12 villages having a total population of 10281 persons in Jhabua district of M.P. The prevalence of 2.85 percent. Infection was more common in males. A paste of leaves of carica papya with opium and common salt applied for 3 days was helpful in relief of symptoms and easy extraction of worm from the body.

  12. Worms in the College Classroom: More than Just a Composting Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Rebecca L.

    2010-01-01

    Although worm bins have been used by K-12 and nonformal educators for decades, there is little evidence of their use in postsecondary education. The ease of use, maintenance, affordability, portability, and diversity of scientific concepts that can be demonstrated with a worm bin make it a valuable tool in college science classrooms. The purpose…

  13. Defending against Internet worms using a phase space method from chaos theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jing; Gao, Jianbo; Rao, Nageswara S.

    2007-04-01

    Enterprise networks are facing ever-increasing security threats from Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks, worms, viruses, intrusions, Trojans, port scans, and network misuses, and thus effective monitoring approaches to quickly detect these activities are greatly needed. In this paper, we employ chaos theory and propose an interesting phase space method to detect Internet worms. An Internet worm is a self-propagating program that automatically replicates itself to vulnerable systems and spreads across the Internet. Most deployed worm-detection systems are signature-based. They look for specific byte sequences (called attack signatures) that are known to appear in the attack traffic. Conventionally, the signatures are manually identified by human experts through careful analysis of the byte sequence from captured attack traffic. We propose to embed the traffic sequence to a high-dimensional phase space using chaos theory. We have observed that the signature sequence of a specific worm will occupy specific regions in the phase space, which may be appropriately called the invariant subspace of the worm. The invariant subspace of the worm separates itself widely from the subspace of the normal traffic. This separation allows us to construct three simple metrics, each of which completely separates 100 normal traffic streams from 200 worm traffic streams, without training in the conventional sense. Therefore, the method is at least as accurate as any existing methods. More importantly, our method is much faster than existing methods, such as based on expectation maximization and hidden Markov models.

  14. Functional mapping of protein kinase A reveals its importance in adult Schistosoma mansoni motor activity.

    PubMed

    de Saram, Paulu S R; Ressurreição, Margarida; Davies, Angela J; Rollinson, David; Emery, Aidan M; Walker, Anthony J

    2013-01-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase/protein kinase A (PKA) is the major transducer of cAMP signalling in eukaryotic cells. Here, using laser scanning confocal microscopy and 'smart' anti-phospho PKA antibodies that exclusively detect activated PKA, we provide a detailed in situ analysis of PKA signalling in intact adult Schistosoma mansoni, a causative agent of debilitating human intestinal schistosomiasis. In both adult male and female worms, activated PKA was consistently found associated with the tegument, oral and ventral suckers, oesophagus and somatic musculature. In addition, the seminal vesicle and gynaecophoric canal muscles of the male displayed activated PKA whereas in female worms activated PKA localized to the ootype wall, the ovary, and the uterus particularly around eggs during expulsion. Exposure of live worms to the PKA activator forskolin (50 µM) resulted in striking PKA activation in the central and peripheral nervous system including at nerve endings at/near the tegument surface. Such neuronal PKA activation was also observed without forskolin treatment, but only in a single batch of worms. In addition, PKA activation within the central and peripheral nervous systems visibly increased within 15 min of worm-pair separation when compared to that observed in closely coupled worm pairs. Finally, exposure of adult worms to forskolin induced hyperkinesias in a time and dose dependent manner with 100 µM forskolin significantly increasing the frequency of gross worm movements to 5.3 times that of control worms (P≤0.001). Collectively these data are consistent with PKA playing a central part in motor activity and neuronal communication, and possibly interplay between these two systems in S. mansoni. This study, the first to localize a protein kinase when exclusively in an activated state in adult S. mansoni, provides valuable insight into the intricacies of functional protein kinase signalling in the context of whole schistosome physiology.

  15. Alterations in white matter microstructure in women recovered from anorexia nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Yau, Wai-Ying Wendy; Bischoff-Grethe, Amanda; Theilmann, Rebecca J.; Torres, Laura; Wagner, Angela; Kaye, Walter H.; Fennema-Notestine, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Objective A recent study of ill individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) reported microstructural alterations in white matter integrity including lower fractional anisotropy and higher mean diffusivity. The present study was designed to determine whether such alterations exist in longterm recovered AN individuals and to examine potential associations with underlying AN traits. Method Twelve adult women recovered from restricting-type AN and 10 control women were studied using diffusion tensor imaging. Results Overall, there was no significant fractional anisotropy alteration in recovered AN, in contrast to a prior study reporting lower fractional anisotropy in ill AN. Further, recovered AN showed lower mean diffusivity in frontal, parietal and cingulum white matter relative to control women, contrary to elevated mean diffusivity previously reported in ill AN. Lower longitudinal diffusivity in recovered AN was associated with higher harm avoidance. However, more severe illness history was associated with worse white matter integrity after recovery in the same direction as reported in prior work. Discussion Our findings suggest that fractional anisotropy in recovered AN is not different from controls, however, a novel pattern of lower mean diffusivity was evidenced in recovered AN, and this alteration was associated with harm avoidance. Notably, severity of illness history may have long-term consequences, emphasizing the importance of aggressive treatment. PMID:23818167

  16. Ethnophysiology and herbal treatments of intestinal worms in Dominica, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Quinlan, Marsha B; Quinlan, Robert J; Nolan, Justin M

    2002-04-01

    In rural Dominican ethnophysiology worms reside in a human organ called the 'worm bag'. Unchecked, worms can cause illness by growing in size and number, spreading out of the worm bag and into other organs. In this study of 'bush medicine', we use a measure of cognitive salience in free-listing tasks, which reveals five plants commonly used to treat intestinal worms. These were Ambrosia hispida (Asteraceae), Aristolochia trilobata (Aristlochiaceae), Chenopodium ambrosioides (Chenopodiaceae), Portulaca oleracea (Portulacaceae), and Artemisia absinthium (Asteraceae). Bioactive compounds appear to be present in all of these plants. The cognitive salience of these plant remedies coupled with evidence of biochemical properties suggest that they provide efficacious treatments for controlling intestinal parasite loads.

  17. High incidence of the gullet worm, Gongylonema pulchrum, in a squirrel monkey colony in a zoological garden in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hiroshi; Une, Yumi; Takada, Mariko

    2005-01-20

    Histological examination revealed the gullet worm (Gongylonema pulchrum) embedded in the lingual mucosa of two of four dead Bolivian squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis) from a zoological garden in Kyushu, Japan. The zoo had kept the monkeys as a colony of approximately 80-100 individuals in a moated, open ground since 1981. To assess the incidence of G. pulchrum infection in this colony, lingual scraping with disposable plastic sticks was conducted in February during 2 consecutive years (2003 and 2004). The oval, thick-shelled egg containing a larva was found in 15 of 27 arbitrarily-chosen adult monkeys (55.5%) in 2003, and 27 of 106 monkeys (25.5%) in 2004. Infection of other zoo-kept mammals with G. pulchrum was not assessed. Since the gullet worm infects a variety of mammals including primates as natural definitive hosts, and dung beetles and cockroaches as intermediate hosts, the zoological garden may provide an ideal environment for the parasite. Zoo veterinarians should be aware of this disease in kept mammals, and should consider in the case of primates, monthly or bimonthly prophylactic anthelmintic treatment.

  18. Worms, wisdom, and wealth: why deworming can make economic sense.

    PubMed

    Bundy, Donald A P; Walson, Judd L; Watkins, Kristie L

    2013-03-01

    For those of us who have had worms, getting rid of them seems a good idea, and multiple studies demonstrate the simplicity and benefit of deworming children. In the past decade or so, there has been a dramatic increase in efforts to provide inexpensive deworming medications, but at the same time there have been calls to re-evaluate the impact of deworming programs. In this review, we examine the history of deworming and explore the evidence for effects of deworming on health, on child development, and on economic returns. Important policy conclusions include that a paucity of randomized trial data suggesting benefit does not equate to a lack of benefit and that a greater emphasis on documenting such benefit should be pursued.

  19. Helminthic therapy: using worms to treat immune-mediated disease.

    PubMed

    Elliott, David E; Weinstock, Joel V

    2009-01-01

    There is an epidemic of immune-mediated disease in highly-developed industrialized countries. Such diseases, like inflammatory bowel disease, multiple sclerosis and asthma increase in prevalence as populations adopt modern hygienic practices. These practices prevent exposure to parasitic worms (helminths). Epidemiologic studies suggest that people who carry helminths have less immune-mediated disease. Mice colonized with helminths are protected from disease in models of colitis, encephalitis, Type 1 diabetes and asthma. Clinical trials show that exposure to helminths reduce disease activity in patients with ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease. This chapter reviews some of the work showing that colonization with helminths alters immune responses, against dysregulated inflammation. These helminth-host immune interactions have potentially important implications for the treatment of immune-mediated diseases.

  20. Laboratory Experiments on the Control of Cyclops Transmitting Guinea Worm

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Ralph

    1970-01-01

    Infection with the guinea worm (Dracunculus medinensis) affects millions of people living in rural areas in certain parts of the world. Usually, the standard of living is low and elaborate control measures would not be feasible. In this study, various insecticidal and molluscicidal compounds were tested in the laboratory for their toxicity to the intermediate hosts, namely, various species of cyclops, which often live in sources of potable water, such as step-wells, cisterns and ponds. Cheapness, low toxicity to mammals and ease of application, in conjunction with effectiveness against cyclops, are primary requisites for any compound accepted for widespread use. Abate, an insecticide, has been shown to be particularly promising in these respects. The timing and mode of application of compounds toxic to cyclops in various endemic regions are discussed. PMID:4247122

  1. Giant kidney worms in a patient with renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kuehn, Jemima; Lombardo, Lindsay; Janda, William M; Hollowell, Courtney M P

    2016-03-07

    Dioctophyma renale (D. renale), or giant kidney worms, are the largest nematodes that infect mammals. Approximately 20 cases of human infection have been reported. We present a case of a 71-year-old man with a recent history of unintentional weight loss and painless haematuria, passing elongated erythematous tissue via his urethra. CT revealed a left renal mass with pulmonary nodules and hepatic lesions. On microscopy, the erythematous tissue passed was identified as D. renale. On subsequent renal biopsy, pathology was consistent with renal cell carcinoma. This is the first reported case of concomitant D. renale infection and renal cell carcinoma, and the second reported case of D. renale infection of the left kidney alone.

  2. Graphical method for profiling hob mill that generate cycloid worms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodor, V.; Berbinschi, S.; Baroiu, N.; Oancea, N.

    2015-11-01

    The hob mill for generating ordered curls of cycloid surface with non involute profiles may be profiled based on the fundamental theorems of surface enveloping - Olivier - as surface reciprocally enveloping with point like contact. In this paper, is proposed a methodology based on a complementary theorem of the surface enveloping in a graphical expression developed in a graphical design environment - CATIA. The graphical method presented in this paper is developed in two stages: determining of the rack gear model based on the solid model of the surface to be generated, using an original algorithm, following this, based on 3D modelling is determined the solid model of the primary peripheral surface of the hob mill. An application for a cycloid worm is presented - a central screw of helical pumps. In order to prove the quality of method, the analytical and graphical solutions are comparatively presented.

  3. Structure-Property Relationships for Branched Worm-Like Micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaucage, Gregory; Rai, Durgesh

    2013-03-01

    Micellar solutions can display a wide range of phase structure as a function of counter ion content, surfactant concentration, and the presence of ternary components. Under some conditions, common to consumer products, extended cylindrical structures that display persistence and other chain features of polymers are produced. These worm-like micelles (WLMs) can form branched structures that dynamically change under shear and even in quiescent conditions. The rheology of these branched WLMs is strongly dependent on migration of the branch points, and the dynamics of branch formation and removal. Persistence and other polymer-based descriptions are also of importance. We have recently developed a scattering model for branched polyolefins and other topologically complex materials that can quantify the branching density, branch length, branch functionality and the hyperbranch (branch-on-branch) content of polymers. This work is being extended to study branching in WLMs in work coupled with Ron Larson at UMich to predict rheological properties.

  4. Marriage shrines and worms impacting our understanding of mammalian fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Krauchunas, Amber R.; Singson, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Genetic approaches in C. elegans are complementing the biochemical and antibody based strategies traditionally used to study the molecular underpinnings of fertilization in other organisms. A pair of worm studies, one based on forward genetics and one based on reverse genetics, converge on the sperm immunoglobulin superfamily molecule SPE-45. Loss of spe-45 function leads to the production of sperm that cannot fertilize wild-type eggs. This is a strikingly similar phenotype as those seen in mice lacking the immunoglobulin superfamily protein Izumo1. This work sets the stage for leveraging the power of the C. elegans model system to learn more about Izumo-like molecular function but also for the discovery of additional deeply conserved components of fertility pathways. PMID:27695649

  5. Wombs, Worms and Wolves: Constructing Cancer in Early Modern England

    PubMed Central

    Skuse, Alanna

    2014-01-01

    This essay examines medical and popular attitudes to cancer in the early modern period, c.1580–1720. Cancer, it is argued, was understood as a cruel and usually incurable disease, diagnosable by a well-defined set of symptoms understood to correspond to its etymological root, karkinos (the crab). It was primarily understood as produced by an imbalance of the humours, with women being particularly vulnerable. However, such explanations proved inadequate to make sense of the condition's malignancy, and medical writers frequently constructed cancer as quasi-sentient, zoomorphising the disease as an eating worm or wolf. In turn, these constructions materially influenced medical practice, in which practitioners swung between anxiety over ‘aggravating’ the disease and an adversarial approach which fostered the use of radical and dangerous ‘cures’ including caustics and surgery. PMID:25352720

  6. Microplastic ingestion decreases energy reserves in marine worms.

    PubMed

    Wright, Stephanie L; Rowe, Darren; Thompson, Richard C; Galloway, Tamara S

    2013-12-02

    The indiscriminate disposal of plastic to the environment is of concern. Microscopic plastic litter (<5 mm diameter; 'microplastic') is increasing in abundance in the marine environment, originating from the fragmentation of plastic items and from industry and personal-care products [1]. On highly impacted beaches, microplastic concentrations (<1mm) can reach 3% by weight, presenting a global conservation issue [2]. Microplastics are a novel substrate for the adherence of hydrophobic contaminants [1], deposition of eggs [3], and colonization by unique bacterial assemblages [4]. Ingestion by indiscriminate deposit-feeders has been reported, yet physical impacts remain understudied [1]. Here, we show that deposit-feeding marine worms maintained in sediments spiked with microscopic unplasticised polyvinylchloride (UPVC) at concentrations overlapping those in the environment had significantly depleted energy reserves by up to 50% (Figure 1). Our results suggest that depleted energy reserves arise from a combination of reduced feeding activity, longer gut residence times of ingested material and inflammation.

  7. Hybrid Epidemics—A Case Study on Computer Worm Conficker

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Changwang; Zhou, Shi; Chain, Benjamin M.

    2015-01-01

    Conficker is a computer worm that erupted on the Internet in 2008. It is unique in combining three different spreading strategies: local probing, neighbourhood probing, and global probing. We propose a mathematical model that combines three modes of spreading: local, neighbourhood, and global, to capture the worm’s spreading behaviour. The parameters of the model are inferred directly from network data obtained during the first day of the Conficker epidemic. The model is then used to explore the tradeoff between spreading modes in determining the worm’s effectiveness. Our results show that the Conficker epidemic is an example of a critically hybrid epidemic, in which the different modes of spreading in isolation do not lead to successful epidemics. Such hybrid spreading strategies may be used beneficially to provide the most effective strategies for promulgating information across a large population. When used maliciously, however, they can present a dangerous challenge to current internet security protocols. PMID:25978309

  8. Apparatus for separating and recovering hydrogen isotopes

    DOEpatents

    Heung, Leung K.

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus for recovering hydrogen and separating its isotopes. The apparatus includes a housing bearing at least a fluid inlet and a fluid outlet. A baffle is disposed within the housing, attached thereto by a bracket. A hollow conduit is coiled about the baffle, in spaced relation to the baffle and the housing. The coiled conduit is at least partially filled with a hydride. The hydride can be heated to a high temperature and cooled to a low temperature quickly by circulating a heat transfer fluid in the housing. The spacing between the baffle and the housing maximizes the heat exchange rate between the fluid in the housing and the hydride in the conduit. The apparatus can be used to recover hydrogen isotopes (protium, deuterium and tritium) from gaseous mixtures, or to separate hydrogen isotopes from each other.

  9. Emergency destruction system for recovered chemical munitions

    SciTech Connect

    Shepodd, T.J.; Stofleth, J.H.; Haroldsen, B.L.

    1998-04-01

    At the request of the US Army Project Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel, Sandia National Laboratories is developing a transportable system for destroying recovered, explosively configured, chemical warfare munitions. The system uses shaped charges to access the agent and burster followed by chemical neutralization to destroy them. The entire process takes place inside a sealed pressure vessel. In this paper, they review the design, operation, and testing of a prototype system capable of containing up to one pound of explosive.

  10. Method of recovering oil-based fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkley, H.E.

    1993-07-13

    A method is described of recovering oil-based fluid, said method comprising the steps of: applying an oil-based fluid absorbent cloth of man-made fiber to an oil-based fluid, the cloth having at least a portion thereof that is napped so as to raise ends and loops of the man-made fibers and define voids; and absorbing the oil-based fluid into the napped portion of the cloth.

  11. Recovering intrinsic fluorescence by Monte Carlo modeling.

    PubMed

    Müller, Manfred; Hendriks, Benno H W

    2013-02-01

    We present a novel way to recover intrinsic fluorescence in turbid media based on Monte Carlo generated look-up tables and making use of a diffuse reflectance measurement taken at the same location. The method has been validated on various phantoms with known intrinsic fluorescence and is benchmarked against photon-migration methods. This new method combines more flexibility in the probe design with fast reconstruction and showed similar reconstruction accuracy as found in other reconstruction methods.

  12. Recovering selenium from copper refinery slimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyvärinen, Olli; Lindroos, Leo; Yllö, Erkki

    1989-07-01

    The selenium contained within copper refinery slimes may be recovered advantageously by roasting at about 600°C. While roasting in air is inefficient, roasting in a sulfating atmosphere enables practically complete selenium recovery. Based on laboratory tests, a new selenium recovery process was adopted at Outokumpu Copper Refinery. In this process, sulfation is achieved by feeding sulfur dioxide and oxygen into the roasting furnace.

  13. Community perception and role in prevention of Guinea worm disease.

    PubMed

    Omar, M A; Sufi, Q M; Gamba-Osiga, A

    1993-01-01

    In Kitgum district of northern Uganda in 1992, natural group and focus group discussions and key informant interviews were conducted to examine the knowledge, attitudes, practices, and beliefs of the people concerning Guinea Worm disease (GW disease) and its transmission, prevention, and treatment. Most people could describe the cause and treatment of Coo (local name of GW disease). More than 58% thought dirty or bad water was the main cause of Coo. 63.2% believed that drinking contaminated water was the cause. 13.1% did not know the cause of GW disease. Few people clearly understood how GW is transmitted. People received treatment from the nearest health unit (42%), traditional healers (34%), self-medication (16%), and drug shops (8%). 55.3% of key informants believed that Coo cases had increased. The perceived reasons for the increase were drinking dirty water (42.8%), migration (38.1%), no medicine (9.5%), and increased population (4.8%). Suggestions for community action to halt transmission of GW included provision of safe water, educating each other, boiling water, and filtering water. The community perceived that the government and nongovernmental organizations could drill new boreholes, bring in medications, repair broken boreholes, protect water sources, and provide education to stop the spread of GW disease. Water sources were shallow wells, streams, rivers, valley dams, and boreholes. 77.3% of boreholes did not work. Most other water sources were inadequately protected from GW infestation. Some community members perceived boiling water as tedious and difficult. Most people thought that there was nothing or little they could do to prevent contamination of water sources. Few had heard health education messages about Guinea Worm disease. Many people wanted the use of plays, drama, and videos in villages to communicate GW prevention messages.

  14. Method for recovering metals from waste

    DOEpatents

    Wicks, George G.; Clark, David E.; Schulz, Rebecca L.

    1998-01-01

    A method for recovering metals from metals-containing wastes, and vitrifying the remainder of the wastes for disposal. Metals-containing wastes such as circuit boards, cathode ray tubes, vacuum tubes, transistors and so forth, are broken up and placed in a suitable container. The container is heated by microwaves to a first temperature in the range of approximately 300.degree.-800.degree. C. to combust organic materials in the waste, then heated further to a second temperature in the range of approximately 1,000.degree.-1,550.degree. C. at which temperature glass formers present in the waste will cause it to melt and vitrify. Low-melting-point metals such as tin and aluminum can be recovered after organics combustion is substantially complete. Metals with higher melting points, such as gold, silver and copper, can be recovered from the solidified product or separated from the waste at their respective melting points. Network former-containing materials can be added at the start of the process to assist vitrification.

  15. Method for recovering metals from waste

    DOEpatents

    Wicks, George G.; Clark, David E.; Schulz, Rebecca L.

    2000-01-01

    A method for recovering metals from metals-containing wastes, and vitrifying the remainder of the wastes for disposal. Metals-containing wastes such as circuit boards, cathode ray tubes, vacuum tubes, transistors and so forth, are broken up and placed in a suitable container. The container is heated by microwaves to a first temperature in the range of approximately 300-800.degree. C. to combust organic materials in the waste, then heated further to a second temperature in the range of approximately 1,000-1,550.degree. C. at which temperature glass formers present in the waste will cause it to melt and vitrify. Low-melting-point metals such as tin and aluminum can be recovered after organics combustion is substantially complete. Metals with higher melting points, such as gold, silver and copper, can be recovered from the solidified product or separated from the waste at their respective melting points. Network former-containing materials can be added at the start of the process to assist vitrification.

  16. Method for recovering materials from waste

    DOEpatents

    Wicks, G.G.; Clark, D.E.; Schulz, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    A method for recovering metals from metals-containing wastes, a vitrifying the remainder of the wastes for disposal. Metals-containing wastes such as circuit boards, cathode ray tubes, vacuum tubes, transistors and so forth, are broken up and placed in a suitable container. The container is heated by microwaves to a first temperature in the range of approximately 300--800{degrees}C to combust organic materials in the waste, then heated further to a second temperature in the range of approximately 1000--1550{degrees}C at which temperature glass formers present in the waste will cause it to melt and vitrify. Low-melting-point metals such as tin and aluminum can be recovered after organics combustion is substantially complete. Metals with higher melting points, such as gold, silver and copper, can be recovered from the solidified product or separated from the waste at their respective melting points. Network former-containing materials can be added at the start of the process to assist vitrification.

  17. Method for recovering metals from waste

    DOEpatents

    Wicks, G.G.; Clark, D.E.; Schulz, R.L.

    1998-12-01

    A method is described for recovering metals from metals-containing wastes, and vitrifying the remainder of the wastes for disposal. Metals-containing wastes such as circuit boards, cathode ray tubes, vacuum tubes, transistors and so forth, are broken up and placed in a suitable container. The container is heated by microwaves to a first temperature in the range of approximately 300--800 C to combust organic materials in the waste, then heated further to a second temperature in the range of approximately 1,000--1,550 C at which temperature glass formers present in the waste will cause it to melt and vitrify. Low-melting-point metals such as tin and aluminum can be recovered after organics combustion is substantially complete. Metals with higher melting points, such as gold, silver and copper, can be recovered from the solidified product or separated from the waste at their respective melting points. Network former-containing materials can be added at the start of the process to assist vitrification. 2 figs.

  18. Influence of the radius of the leading edge of worm vanes on the critical cavitation allowance of a pump

    SciTech Connect

    Shcherbatenko, I.V.; Khankin, V.P.

    1982-11-01

    This paper theoretically and experimentally investigates the influence of the cylindrical (curved) leading edge of the worm vanes on the cavitation characteristics of the pump. Considers the disruptive flow around the worm wheel with a constant screw spacing (pitch) of an ideal liquid flow. The proposed equations, verified on pumps with worms of different types and sizes with a wide range of attack angles, can be used for the calculation of the sucking capacity of high-speed worm centrifugal pumps.

  19. Detailed Morphology of All Life Stages of the Agave Red Worm, Comadia redtenbacheri (Hammerschmidt) (Lepidoptera: Cossidae).

    PubMed

    Castro-Torres, R; Llanderal-Cázares, C

    2016-12-01

    The agave red worm, Comadia redtenbacheri (Hammerschmidt), is an important source of food and income in Mexico. Despite its importance, several aspects of its biology, morphology, and behavior remain poorly studied. In this work, we describe and illustrate the morphology of all the life stages that may aid in understanding certain aspects of its biology. To obtain all life stages, last instar larvae were collected from agave plants and allowed to pupate; after the adults emerged, they were allowed to mate and oviposit. The frenulum is longer in males; epiphysis I is longer in females than in males; the abdomen bears two types of tubercles of unknown function. Eggs present a reticulate chorion; primary rosette cells are highly variable in shape; the micropylar formula is (10-14): (12-13). First instar larvae are white, becoming red as they develop; L3 in the prothorax is subprimary; the SV setal group in A1 is comprised of only SV1 on first instar larvae; last instars have several secondary setae. Pupae are adecticous and obtect; there are rows of spines on the dorsum of the abdomen. The biological significance of some of the findings is discussed.

  20. Potential effects of warmer worms and vectors on onchocerciasis transmission in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Cheke, Robert A.; Basáñez, Maria-Gloria; Perry, Malorie; White, Michael T.; Garms, Rolf; Obuobie, Emmanuel; Lamberton, Poppy H. L.; Young, Stephen; Osei-Atweneboana, Mike Y.; Intsiful, Joseph; Shen, Mingwang; Boakye, Daniel A.; Wilson, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Development times of eggs, larvae and pupae of vectors of onchocerciasis (Simulium spp.) and of Onchocerca volvulus larvae within the adult females of the vectors decrease with increasing temperature. At and above 25°C, the parasite could reach its infective stage in less than 7 days when vectors could transmit after only two gonotrophic cycles. After incorporating exponential functions for vector development into a novel blackfly population model, it was predicted that fly numbers in Liberia and Ghana would peak at air temperatures of 29°C and 34°C, about 3°C and 7°C above current monthly averages, respectively; parous rates of forest flies (Liberia) would peak at 29°C and of savannah flies (Ghana) at 30°C. Small temperature increases (less than 2°C) might lead to changes in geographical distributions of different vector taxa. When the new model was linked to an existing framework for the population dynamics of onchocerciasis in humans and vectors, transmission rates and worm loads were projected to increase with temperature to at least 33°C. By contrast, analyses of field data on forest flies in Liberia and savannah flies in Ghana, in relation to regional climate change predictions, suggested, on the basis of simple regressions, that 13–41% decreases in fly numbers would be expected between the present and before 2040. Further research is needed to reconcile these conflicting conclusions. PMID:25688018

  1. Assessment of indirect pesticide effects on worm-eating warbler populations in a managed forest ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Awkerman, Jill A; Marshall, Matthew R; Williams, Alan B; Gale, George A; Cooper, Robert J; Raimondo, Sandy

    2011-08-01

    Ecological risk assessments rarely evaluate indirect pesticide effects. Pesticides causing no direct mortality in wildlife can still reduce prey availability, resulting in a lower reproductive rate or poor juvenile condition. Few studies have examined these consequences at the population level. We use a four-year data set from a forest ecosystem in which Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki (Btk) was applied to control gypsy moths (Lymantria dispar L.). Lower worm-eating warbler (Helmitheros vermivorus) productivity on Btk plots contributed to an intrinsic growth rate <1. Altered provisioning behavior by adults led to lower nestling mass in Btk-treated plots, and simulations of reduced juvenile survival expected as a result further reduced population growth rate. The present study explored different spatial representations of treated areas, using a two-patch matrix model incorporating dispersal. Minimal migration from areas with increasing subpopulations could compensate for detrimental reductions in reproductive success and juvenile survival within treated subpopulations. We also simulated population dynamics with different proportions of treated areas to inform management strategies in similar systems. Nontoxic insecticides are capable of impacting nontarget populations with consistent, long-term use and should be evaluated based on the spatial connectivity representative of habitat availability and the time period appropriate for risk assessment of pesticide effects in wildlife populations.

  2. Potential effects of warmer worms and vectors on onchocerciasis transmission in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Cheke, Robert A; Basáñez, Maria-Gloria; Perry, Malorie; White, Michael T; Garms, Rolf; Obuobie, Emmanuel; Lamberton, Poppy H L; Young, Stephen; Osei-Atweneboana, Mike Y; Intsiful, Joseph; Shen, Mingwang; Boakye, Daniel A; Wilson, Michael D

    2015-04-05

    Development times of eggs, larvae and pupae of vectors of onchocerciasis (Simulium spp.) and of Onchocerca volvulus larvae within the adult females of the vectors decrease with increasing temperature. At and above 25°C, the parasite could reach its infective stage in less than 7 days when vectors could transmit after only two gonotrophic cycles. After incorporating exponential functions for vector development into a novel blackfly population model, it was predicted that fly numbers in Liberia and Ghana would peak at air temperatures of 29°C and 34°C, about 3°C and 7°C above current monthly averages, respectively; parous rates of forest flies (Liberia) would peak at 29°C and of savannah flies (Ghana) at 30°C. Small temperature increases (less than 2°C) might lead to changes in geographical distributions of different vector taxa. When the new model was linked to an existing framework for the population dynamics of onchocerciasis in humans and vectors, transmission rates and worm loads were projected to increase with temperature to at least 33°C. By contrast, analyses of field data on forest flies in Liberia and savannah flies in Ghana, in relation to regional climate change predictions, suggested, on the basis of simple regressions, that 13-41% decreases in fly numbers would be expected between the present and before 2040. Further research is needed to reconcile these conflicting conclusions.

  3. Adult Toxocara cati infections in U.S. children: report of four cases.

    PubMed

    Eberhard, M L; Alfano, E

    1998-09-01

    We report four cases of passage of subadult or adult Toxocara cati worms by young children ages 20 months to seven years. Worms were expelled rectally in two cases and in two cases they were vomited. A single worm was passed in two cases, three worms in one case, and 15 worms in the fourth case. All worms that were available for study were identified as T. cati by morphologic criteria, including the arrow-shaped cervical alae and the digitiform shape of the male tail. None of the four children exhibited clinical signs of ocular or visceral larva migrans, and in two cases where serum samples were available, neither child had a titer to Toxocara. These results further the argument that these children acquired the worms through the ingestion of immature worms passed by infected cats, not through the ingestion of infective eggs. Although the children were generally not ill as a result of these unusual infections, it does serve to reinforce the public health issue that potential serious consequences can occur where children have exposure to an environment that has been contaminated with cat feces, or, more specifically, infective eggs, and could become infected with larval forms of Toxocara.

  4. An anatomical description of a miniaturized acorn worm (hemichordata, enteropneusta) with asexual reproduction by paratomy.

    PubMed

    Worsaae, Katrine; Sterrer, Wolfgang; Kaul-Strehlow, Sabrina; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Giribet, Gonzalo

    2012-01-01

    The interstitial environment of marine sandy bottoms is a nutrient-rich, sheltered habitat whilst at the same time also often a turbulent, space-limited, and ecologically challenging environment dominated by meiofauna. The interstitial fauna is one of the most diverse on earth and accommodates miniaturized representatives from many macrofaunal groups as well as several exclusively meiofaunal phyla. The colonization process of this environment, with the restrictions imposed by limited space and low Reynolds numbers, has selected for great morphological and behavioral changes as well as new life history strategies.Here we describe a new enteropneust species inhabiting the interstices among sand grains in shallow tropical waters of the West Atlantic. With a maximum body length of 0.6 mm, it is the first microscopic adult enteropneust known, a group otherwise ranging from 2 cm to 250 cm in adult size. Asexual reproduction by paratomy has been observed in this new species, a reproductive mode not previously reported among enteropneusts. Morphologically, Meioglossus psammophilus gen. et sp. nov. shows closest resemblance to an early juvenile stage of the acorn worm family Harrimaniidae, a result congruent with its phylogenetic placement based on molecular data. Its position, clearly nested within the larger macrofaunal hemichordates, suggests that this represents an extreme case of miniaturization. The evolutionary pathway to this simple or juvenile appearance, as chiefly demonstrated by its small size, dense ciliation, and single pair of gill pores, may be explained by progenesis. The finding of M. psammophilus gen. et sp. nov. underscores the notion that meiofauna may constitute a rich source of undiscovered metazoan diversity, possibly disguised as juveniles of other species.

  5. An Anatomical Description of a Miniaturized Acorn Worm (Hemichordata, Enteropneusta) with Asexual Reproduction by Paratomy

    PubMed Central

    Worsaae, Katrine; Sterrer, Wolfgang; Kaul-Strehlow, Sabrina; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Giribet, Gonzalo

    2012-01-01

    The interstitial environment of marine sandy bottoms is a nutrient-rich, sheltered habitat whilst at the same time also often a turbulent, space-limited, and ecologically challenging environment dominated by meiofauna. The interstitial fauna is one of the most diverse on earth and accommodates miniaturized representatives from many macrofaunal groups as well as several exclusively meiofaunal phyla. The colonization process of this environment, with the restrictions imposed by limited space and low Reynolds numbers, has selected for great morphological and behavioral changes as well as new life history strategies. Here we describe a new enteropneust species inhabiting the interstices among sand grains in shallow tropical waters of the West Atlantic. With a maximum body length of 0.6 mm, it is the first microscopic adult enteropneust known, a group otherwise ranging from 2 cm to 250 cm in adult size. Asexual reproduction by paratomy has been observed in this new species, a reproductive mode not previously reported among enteropneusts. Morphologically, Meioglossus psammophilus gen. et sp. nov. shows closest resemblance to an early juvenile stage of the acorn worm family Harrimaniidae, a result congruent with its phylogenetic placement based on molecular data. Its position, clearly nested within the larger macrofaunal hemichordates, suggests that this represents an extreme case of miniaturization. The evolutionary pathway to this simple or juvenile appearance, as chiefly demonstrated by its small size, dense ciliation, and single pair of gill pores, may be explained by progenesis. The finding of M. psammophilus gen. et sp. nov. underscores the notion that meiofauna may constitute a rich source of undiscovered metazoan diversity, possibly disguised as juveniles of other species. PMID:23144898

  6. Biouptake of chlorinated hydrocarbons from laboratory-spiked and field sediments by oligochaete worms

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, B.G.

    1987-08-01

    The uptake and depuration of 37 chemicals from spiked Lake Ontario sediments by oligochaete worms has been studied at 8 and 20/sup 0/C in laboratory aquaria. The worms were found to rapidly accumulate the chemicals and reach peak concentrations within 2 weeks. The concentration of chemical in the sediment pore water appeared to be the major factor controlling the bioconcentration of chemicals by worms. The worm bioconcentration factors increased with increasing octanol-water partition coefficient of the chemicals. The worm-mediated fluxes of the chemicals from the sediments have also been estimated. Depuration studies showed in the half-lives of the chemicals in the worms ranged from less than 5 days to several months. Field worms and associated sediments from Lake Ontario near the Niagara River were analyzed. The agreement between the field and laboratory results was good for the more persistent chemicals because of time differences for sorting the two samples types. 30 references, 3 figures, 5 tables.

  7. The provision of potable water in eradication of Guinea worm infection in Ezza North, Southeastern, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ede, Alison Okorie; Nwaokoro, Joakin Chidozie; Iwuala, C C; Amadi, A N; Akpelu, Ugochinyere Alvana

    2014-10-01

    Guinea worm is a parasite found in unprotected drinking water sources, causes considerable morbidity and loss of agricultural production among rural people. The study was to determine the current status of Guinea worm infection in Ezza North and to evaluate the impact of control measures on guinea worm infection. A total of 200 individuals in Ezza North Southeastern, Nigeria were examined for guinea worm infection. A standardized questionnaire was used to determine the effect of potable water on guinea worm eradication/control, the source of drinking water, information on the knowledge, attitude, symptom management practices, availability of health facilities and boreholes installation status. The instrument for data collection was well constructed, validated and reliable tested questionnaire by an expert. Data obtained was analyzed using Epi-Info model 3.4 versions. Results of a study indicated majority of the respondents 195 (97.5 %) have access to safe drinking water supply which indicated no case of Guinea worm infection. The active use of potable water supply was found among the age group of 20-30 years 71 (35.5 %) and higher in male (57.5 %) than females (42.5 %). The drastic reduction of Guinea worm infection to zero (0) level in Ezza North were due to multiple factors as health education, availability of functional boreholes, presence of health centers for immediate treatment if any case discovered.

  8. Guinea worm disease--a chance for successful eradication in the Volta Region, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Diamenu, S K; Nyaku, A A

    1998-08-01

    A guinea worm eradication program in two farming communities in the Akatsi District in the Volta region of Ghana was initially threatened by failure to apply simple preventive practices. Persistent monitoring and education on the use of locally supplied, inexpensive materials for water filtration has turned the program around. In March 1996, the Volta rural water supply and sanitation (VRWSS) project commissioned a guinea worm prevalence and knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) study to collect baseline prevalence data. This study revealed some of the factors that contributed to the persistent high prevalence of guinea worm in the two communities. The community's only source of potable drinking water was irrigation dams which also served as the source of guinea worm infection. The Last quarterly report stated that guinea worm cases had been reduced from 62 to 5 in the two communities. Lessons learnt from Avega and Avevi will be extended to other guinea worm endemic communities that have registered with the project in the region. The prospect of total eradication of guinea worm in the region now exists.

  9. Worm infestations and development of autoimmunity in children – The ABIS study

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Michael P.; Faresjö, Åshild

    2017-01-01

    Worm infestations influence the immune system and may therefore decrease the risk for autoimmune diseases. The aim of the study was to determine whether children who have developed autoimmune disease were less likely to have had worm infestations in childhood. The ABIS-study is a prospective population-based cohort study of children born in southeast Sweden 1997/99. 17.055 children participated. As of June 2014 116 individuals had developed Type 1 diabetes, 181 celiac disease, and 53 Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis. The parents answered questions on worm infestations when the children were 1, 5 and 8 years of age. The ABIS registry was connected to the National Registry of Drug Prescriptions, and national registries for diagnosis of the studied diseases. We found no differences in incidence of worm infestations at 1, 5 or 8 years of age between children who developed autoimmune disease(s) or healthy controls. At 8 years in total 20.0% of the general child population had experienced a worm infestation; children who developed Type 1 diabetes, 21,3%, celiac disease 19,5% and JRA 18,8%. There was no difference in prescriptions of drugs for treatment of worm infestations between those who had and who had not developed Type 1 diabetes, celiac disease, Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis. We found no associations indicating that worm infestations in childhood does not play a role in the development of autoimmune diseases in Sweden. PMID:28333965

  10. Electro-worming: The behaviors of Caenorhabditis (C.) elegans in DC and AC electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Han-Sheng; Raizen, David M.; Dabbish, Nooreen; Bau, Haim H.

    2011-09-01

    The video showcases how C. elegans worms respond to DC and AC electrical stimulations. Gabel et al (2007) demonstrated that in the presence of DC and low frequency AC fields, worms of stage L2 and larger propel themselves towards the cathode. Rezai et al (2010) have demonstrated that this phenomenon, dubbed electrotaxis, can be used to control the motion of worms. In the video, we reproduce Rezai's experimental results. Furthermore, we show, for the first time, that worms can be trapped with high frequency, nonuniform electric fields. We studied the effect of the electric field on the nematode as a function of field intensity and frequency and identified a range of electric field intensities and frequencies that trap worms without apparent adverse effect on their viability. Worms tethered by dielectrophoresis (DEP) avoid blue light, indicating that at least some of the nervous system functions remain unimpaired in the presence of the electric field. DEP is useful to dynamically confine nematodes for observations, sort them according to size, and separate dead worms from live ones.

  11. Chemistry and the worm: Caenorhabditis elegans as a platform for integrating chemical and biological research.

    PubMed

    Hulme, S Elizabeth; Whitesides, George M

    2011-05-16

    This Review discusses the potential usefulness of the worm Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism for chemists interested in studying living systems. C. elegans, a 1 mm long roundworm, is a popular model organism in almost all areas of modern biology. The worm has several features that make it attractive for biology: it is small (<1000 cells), transparent, and genetically tractable. Despite its simplicity, the worm exhibits complex phenotypes associated with multicellularity: the worm has differentiated cells and organs, it ages and has a well-defined lifespan, and it is capable of learning and remembering. This Review argues that the balance between simplicity and complexity in the worm will make it a useful tool in determining the relationship between molecular-scale phenomena and organism-level phenomena, such as aging, behavior, cognition, and disease. Following an introduction to worm biology, the Review provides examples of current research with C. elegans that is chemically relevant. It also describes tools-biological, chemical, and physical-that are available to researchers studying the worm.

  12. Recovering hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing vapors

    DOEpatents

    Mirza, Zia I.; Knell, Everett W.; Winter, Bruce L.

    1980-09-30

    Values are recovered from a hydrocarbon-containing vapor by contacting the vapor with quench liquid consisting essentially of hydrocarbons to form a condensate and a vapor residue, the condensate and quench fluid forming a combined liquid stream. The combined liquid stream is mixed with a viscosity-lowering liquid to form a mixed liquid having a viscosity lower than the viscosity of the combined liquid stream to permit easy handling of the combined liquid stream. The quench liquid is a cooled portion of the mixed liquid. Viscosity-lowering liquid is separated from a portion of the mixed liquid and cycled to form additional mixed liquid.

  13. Recovering the fine structures in solar images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karovska, Margarita; Habbal, S. R.; Golub, L.; Deluca, E.; Hudson, Hugh S.

    1994-01-01

    Several examples of the capability of the blind iterative deconvolution (BID) technique to recover the real point spread function, when limited a priori information is available about its characteristics. To demonstrate the potential of image post-processing for probing the fine scale and temporal variability of the solar atmosphere, the BID technique is applied to different samples of solar observations from space. The BID technique was originally proposed for correction of the effects of atmospheric turbulence on optical images. The processed images provide a detailed view of the spatial structure of the solar atmosphere at different heights in regions with different large-scale magnetic field structures.

  14. Recovering valuable metals from recycled photovoltaic modules.

    PubMed

    Yi, Youn Kyu; Kim, Hyun Soo; Tran, Tam; Hong, Sung Kil; Kim, Myong Jun

    2014-07-01

    Recovering valuable metals such as Si, Ag, Cu, and Al has become a pressing issue as end-of-life photovoltaic modules need to be recycled in the near future to meet legislative requirements in most countries. Of major interest is the recovery and recycling of high-purity silicon (> 99.9%) for the production of wafers and semiconductors. The value of Si in crystalline-type photovoltaic modules is estimated to be -$95/kW at the 2012 metal price. At the current installed capacity of 30 GW/yr, the metal value in the PV modules represents valuable resources that should be recovered in the future. The recycling of end-of-life photovoltaic modules would supply > 88,000 and 207,000 tpa Si by 2040 and 2050, respectively. This represents more than 50% of the required Si for module fabrication. Experimental testwork on crystalline Si modules could recover a > 99.98%-grade Si product by HNO3/NaOH leaching to remove Al, Ag, and Ti and other metal ions from the doped Si. A further pyrometallurgical smelting at 1520 degrees C using CaO-CaF2-SiO2 slag mixture to scavenge the residual metals after acid leaching could finally produce > 99.998%-grade Si. A process based on HNO3/NaOH leaching and subsequent smelting is proposed for recycling Si from rejected or recycled photovoltaic modules. Implications: The photovoltaic industry is considering options of recycling PV modules to recover metals such as Si, Ag, Cu, Al, and others used in the manufacturing of the PV cells. This is to retain its "green" image and to comply with current legislations in several countries. An evaluation of potential resources made available from PV wastes and the technologies used for processing these materials is therefore of significant importance to the industry. Of interest are the costs of processing and the potential revenues gained from recycling, which should determine the viability of economic recycling of PV modules in the future.

  15. Used float shoe recovered and tested

    SciTech Connect

    Colvard, R.L.

    1986-02-01

    A cement float valve has been recovered after it was circulated through and cemented downhole. It was retrieved by coring as part of an investigation into a cementing failure. The float equipment was then analyzed for downhole performance. This is believed to be the first instance of intact recovery of full-scale cementing hardware after it has been cemented in place. In this instance, the valve performed as designed. Flash set proved to be the probable cause of job failure. This article documents the job and includes photographs of the used float shoe and its components.

  16. How algae influence sessile marine organisms: The tube worms case of study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casoli, Edoardo; Bonifazi, Andrea; Ardizzone, Giandomenico; Gravina, Maria Flavia

    2016-09-01

    Tube worms and phytobenthic assemblages in three infralittoral and shallow circalittoral Mediterranean benthic communities developed between 5 and 35 m depth at Punta del Lazzaretto (Giglio Island, Central Thyrrenian sea) were investigated. Despite being three algae-dominated habitats, these displayed different covering both in terms of algal layers and algal morphologies, reflecting different structural organizations. Twenty-eight serpulid taxa have been reported, increasing both diversity and density values from most photophilic to most sciaphilous habitats. Multivariate analyses showed how algal thalli and tube worm assemblages were strongly correlated; substrata are influenced both physically and biologically, providing different conditions for tube worm settlement.

  17. Species richness and macronutrient content of wawo worms (Polychaeta, Annelida) from Ambonese waters, Maluku, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Pamungkas, Joko

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this research were to: (1) investigate the species richness of wawo worms, and to (2) analyze macronutrient content of the worms. Wawo worms were sampled using a fishing net on March 18(th)-19(th), 2014, from Ambonese waters, Maluku. As many as 26 wawo species belonging to 5 families were identified. Palola sp. was identified as the most abundant species of wawo, followed by Lysidiceoele, Horst 1905, Eunice spp. and nereidids. Results of the proximate analysis reveal that female epitokes of Palola sp. contain 10.78 % ash, 10.71 % moisture, 11.67 % crude fat, 54.72 % crude protein and 12.12 % carbohydrate.

  18. Thermo-responsive Diblock Copolymer Worm Gels in Non-polar Solvents

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Benzyl methacrylate (BzMA) is polymerized using a poly(lauryl methacrylate) macromolecular chain transfer agent (PLMA macro-CTA) using reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization at 70 °C in n-dodecane. This choice of solvent leads to an efficient dispersion polymerization, with polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA) occurring via the growing PBzMA block to produce a range of PLMA–PBzMA diblock copolymer nano-objects, including spheres, worms, and vesicles. In the present study, particular attention is paid to the worm phase, which forms soft free-standing gels at 20 °C due to multiple inter-worm contacts. Such worm gels exhibit thermo-responsive behavior: heating above 50 °C causes degelation due to the onset of a worm-to-sphere transition. Degelation occurs because isotropic spheres interact with each other much less efficiently than the highly anisotropic worms. This worm-to-sphere thermal transition is essentially irreversible on heating a dilute solution (0.10% w/w) but is more or less reversible on heating a more concentrated dispersion (20% w/w). The relatively low volatility of n-dodecane facilitates variable-temperature rheological studies, which are consistent with eventual reconstitution of the worm phase on cooling to 20 °C. Variable-temperature 1H NMR studies conducted in d26-dodecane confirm partial solvation of the PBzMA block at elevated temperature: surface plasticization of the worm cores is invoked to account for the observed change in morphology, because this is sufficient to increase the copolymer curvature and hence induce a worm-to-sphere transition. Small-angle X-ray scattering and TEM are used to investigate the structural changes that occur during the worm-to-sphere-to-worm thermal cycle; experiments conducted at 1.0 and 5.0% w/w demonstrate the concentration-dependent (ir)reversibility of these morphological transitions. PMID:24678949

  19. PROCESS OF RECOVERING URANIUM FROM ITS ORES

    DOEpatents

    Galvanek, P. Jr.

    1959-02-24

    A process is presented for recovering uranium from its ores. The crushed ore is mixed with 5 to 10% of sulfuric acid and added water to about 5 to 30% of the weight of the ore. This pugged material is cured for 2 to 3 hours at 100 to 110 deg C and then cooled. The cooled mass is nitrate-conditioned by mixing with a solution equivalent to 35 pounds of ammunium nitrate and 300 pounds of water per ton of ore. The resulting pulp containing 70% or more solids is treated by upflow percolation with a 5% solution of tributyl phosphate in kerosene at a rate equivalent to a residence time of about one hour to extract the solubilized uranium. The uranium is recovered from the pregnant organic liquid by counter-current washing with water. The organic extractant may be recycled. The uranium is removed from the water solution by treating with ammonia to precipitate ammonium diuranate. The filtrate from the last step may be recycled for the nitrate-conditioning treatment.

  20. Process for recovering organic vapors from air

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Richard W.

    1985-01-01

    A process for recovering and concentrating organic vapor from a feed stream of air having an organic vapor content of no more than 20,000 ppm by volume. A thin semipermeable membrane is provided which has a feed side and a permeate side, a selectivity for organic vapor over air of at least 50, as measured by the ratio of organic vapor permeability to nitrogen permeability, and a permeability of organic vapor of at least 3.times.10.sup.-7 cm.sup.3 (STP) cm/cm.sup.2 sec.cm Hg. The feed stream is passed across the feed side of the thin semipermeable membrane while providing a pressure on the permeate side which is lower than the feed side by creating a partial vacuum on the permeate side so that organic vapor passes preferentially through the membrane to form an organic vapor depleted air stream on the feed side and an organic vapor enriched stream on the permeate side. The organic vapor which has passed through the membrane is compressed and condensed to recover the vapor as a liquid.

  1. When will the Antarctic Ozone Hole Recover?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Paul A.; Nash, Eric R.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Montzka, Steve

    2006-01-01

    The Antarctic ozone hole develops each year and culminates by early Spring. Antarctic ozone values have been monitored since 1979 using satellite observations from the .TOMS instrument. The severity of the hole has been assessed from TOMS using the minimum total ozone value from the October monthly mean (depth of the hole) and by calculating the average size during the September-October period. Ozone is mainly destroyed by halogen catalytic cycles, and these losses are modulated by temperature variations in the collar of the polar lower stratospheric vortex. In this presentation, we show the relationships of halogens and temperature to, both the size and depth of the hole. Because atmospheric halogen levels are responding to international agreements that limit or phase out production, the amount of halogens in the stratosphere should decrease over the next few decades. Using projections of halogen levels combined with age-of-air estimates, we find that the ozone hole is recovering at an extremely slow rate and that large ozone holes will regularly recur over the next 2 decades. The ozone hole will begin to show first signs of recovery in about 2023, and the hole will fully recover to pre-1980 levels in approximately 2070. This 2070 recovery is 20 years later than recent projections.

  2. When Will the Antarctic Ozone Hole Recover?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Paul A.; Nash, Eric R.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Montzka, Steve

    2005-01-01

    The Antarctic ozone hole develops each year and culminates by early Spring. Antarctic ozone values have been monitored since 1979 using satellite observations from the TOMS instrument. The severity of the hole has been assessed from TOMS using the minimum total ozone value from the October monthly mean (depth of the hole) and by calculating the average size during the September-October period. Ozone is mainly destroyed by halogen catalytic cycles, and these losses are modulated by temperature variations in the collar of the polar lower stratospheric vortex. In this presentation, we show the relationships of halogens and temperature to both the size and depth of the hole. Because atmospheric halogen levels are responding to international agreements that limit or phase out production, the amount of halogens in the stratosphere should decrease over the next few decades. Using projections of halogen levels combined with age-of-air estimates, we find that the ozone hole is recovering at an extremely slow rate and that large ozone holes will regularly recur over the next 2 decades. We will show estimates of both when the ozone hole will begin to show first signs of recovery, and when the hole will fully recover to pre-1980 levels.

  3. Examining differences between recovered and declining endangered species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abbitt, R.J.F.; Michael, Scott J.

    2001-01-01

    Between 1973 and 1999, 43 species in the United States were reclassified from endangered to threatened or removed entirely from the Endangered Species List. Of these, 23 were identified as recovered. In 1999 the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) published a list of 33 additional species for possible reclassification and/or delisting. We initiated this study to examine why some endangered species recover but others continue to decline and to identify differences in management activities between these two groups. We defined recovered/recovering species as previously recovered species and the additional recovered/recovering species listed by the USFWS. We defined declining species as those identified as declining in the most recent USFWS Report to Congress. Information on recovered/recovering and declining species was gathered from relevant literature, recovery plans, U.S. Federal Register documents, and individuals responsible for the recovery management of each species. We used this information to examine (1) the percentage of current and historic range covered by management activities; (2) threats affecting the species; (3) population sizes at the time of listing; (4) current versus historic range size; and (5) percentage of recovery management objectives completed. Although few statistical analyses provided significant results, those that did suggest the following differences between recovered/recovering and declining species: (1) recovered/recovering species face threats that are easier to address; (2) recovered/recovering species occupy a greater percentage of their historic range; and (3) recovered/recovering species have a greater percentage of their recovery management objectives completed. Those species with threats easier to address and that occupy a greater percentage of their historic range are recovered/recovering. In contrast, declining species face threats more difficult to address and occupy significantly less of their historic range. If this

  4. Nematode burdens and immunological responses following natural challenge in Romney lambs selectively bred for low or high faecal worm egg count.

    PubMed

    Bisset, S A; Vlassoff, A; Douch, P G; Jonas, W E; West, C J; Green, R S

    1996-02-01

    Breeding lines of Romney sheep, selected as lambs for consistently low or high faecal nematode egg count (FEC) following periods of natural challenge, have been maintained at Wallaceville for some years. In order to determine the extent to which FECs in low and high genotypes reflected their ability to resist the establishment of gastro-intestinal nematode burdens, we investigated the infection status and immune responses in 8- to 9-month-old progeny of selected rams from low and high FEC breeding lines following a period of grazing without anthelmintic treatment in autumn/early winter. In each of the 2 years of the study, outcross male progeny of the two lowest FEC (LFEC) (i.e. most 'resistant') and two highest FEC (HFEC) (i.e. most 'susceptible') rams from the divergent lines were slaughtered shortly after autumn/early winter FECs had been analysed. Post-mortem worm counts and examination of intestinal histology were then undertaken. Blood samples collected before slaughter in the second year of the study were assayed to measure serum levels of Trichostrongylus colubriformis-specific antibody and immunoglobulins (IgG1 and IgM), and numbers of circulating eosinophils. Overall, correlations between pre-slaughter FEC and total trichostrongyle burdens in the lambs proved to be very high (0.91 and 0.85, respectively, for the 2 years studied). In the first year, LFEC lambs, which were shedding only 28.6% as many strongyle eggs as their HFEC counterparts at slaughter, were found to harbour 37.6% as many adult trichostrongyle worms, while in the second year, LFEC lambs, which were shedding 16.1% as many strongyle eggs as their HFEC counterparts at slaughter, were found to harbour 33.5% as many adult trichostrongyle worms. Results, particularly in the second year, confirmed that significantly fewer worms of most of the important abomasal and small intestinal nematode species which infest lambs in New Zealand (i.e. Haemonchus contortus, Ostertagia circumcincta, Cooperia

  5. Evolutionarily Conserved, Multitasking TRP Channels: Lessons from Worms and Flies

    PubMed Central

    Venkatachalam, Kartik; Luo, Junjie; Montell, Craig

    2015-01-01

    The Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channel family is comprised of a large group of cation-permeable channels, which display an extraordinary diversity of roles in sensory signaling. TRPs allow animals to detect chemicals, mechanical force, light, and changes in temperature. Consequently, these channels control a plethora of animal behaviors. Moreover, their functions are not limited to the classical senses, as they are cellular sensors, which are critical for ionic homeostasis and metabolism. Two genetically tractable invertebrate model organisms, Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster, have led the way in revealing a wide array of sensory roles and behaviors that depend on TRP channels. Two overriding themes have emerged from these studies. First, TRPs are multitasking proteins, and second, many functions and modes of activation of these channels are evolutionarily conserved, including some that were formerly thought to be unique to invertebrates, such as phototransduction. Thus, worms and flies offer the potential to decipher roles for mammalian TRPs, which would otherwise not be suspected. PMID:24961975

  6. Multiphase adhesive coacervates inspired by the Sandcastle worm.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Sarbjit; Weerasekare, G Mahika; Stewart, Russell J

    2011-04-01

    Water-borne, underwater adhesives were created by complex coacervation of synthetic copolyelectrolytes that mimic the proteins of the natural underwater adhesive of the sandcastle worm. To increase bond strengths, we created a second polymer network within cross-linked coacervate network by entrapping polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEG-dA) monomers in the coacervate phase. Simultaneous polymerization of PEG-dA and cross-linking of the coacervate network resulted in maximum shear bond strengths of ∼1.2 MPa. Approximately 40% of the entrapped PEG-dA polymerized based on attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The monomer-filled coacervate had complex flow behavior, thickening at low shear rates and then thinning suddenly with a 16-fold drop in viscosity at shear rates near 6 s(-1). The microscale structure of the complex coacervates resembled a three-dimensional porous network of interconnected tubules. The sharp shear thinning behavior is conceptualized as a structural reorganization between the interspersed phases of the complex coacervate. The bond strength and complex fluid behavior of the monomer-filled coacervates have important implications for medical applications of the adhesives.

  7. Monosaccharide transport into hemocytes of a sipunculan worm Themiste dyscrita

    SciTech Connect

    Ingermann, R.L.; Hall, R.E.; Bissonnette, J.M.; Terwilliger, R.C.

    1985-07-01

    The hemerythrin-containing blood cells, or hemocytes, of the sipunculan worm Themiste dyscrita were found to have a stereospecific and nonconcentrative monosaccharide transport system. The transport system transferred both D-glucose and 3-O-methyl-D-glucose (3-OMG), and transport into cells by this system was rapid, reaching 50% equilibrium in approximately 20 s at 10 degrees C with an initial concentration gradient of 0.1 mM; the contribution to total uptake by simple diffusion was very small. 3-OMG uptake showed saturation kinetics with a low half-saturation constant (Km less than or equal to 0.1 mM). The uptake of labeled 3-OMG by the hemocytes was strongly inhibited by unlabeled 3-OMG, 2-deoxy-D-glucose, alpha- and beta-D-glucose, D-galactose, and D-mannose. It was moderately inhibited by D-xylose, only slightly by alpha-methyl-D-glucoside and D-fructose, and uninhibited by sucrose, L-glucose, or D-sorbitol. Phloretin was more potent than phloridzin in blocking entry of 3-OMG. Cytochalasin B did not bind tightly to the T. dyscrita transporter and was not a potent inhibitor of transport; it half-maximally inhibited 3-OMG transport at 0.1 mM. Therefore, despite some differences the data suggest functional similarities in the mechanism of monosaccharide transport into blood cells of mammals and this invertebrate.

  8. Dracunculiasis (Guinea Worm Disease) and the Eradication Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Cairncross, Sandy; Muller, Ralph; Zagaria, Nevio

    2002-01-01

    Dracunculiasis, also known as guinea worm disease, is caused by the large female of the nematode Dracunculus medinensis, which emerges painfully and slowly from the skin, usually on the lower limbs. The disease can infect animals, and sustainable animal cycles occur in North America and Central Asia but do not act as reservoirs of human infection. The disease is endemic across the Sahel belt of Africa from Mauritania to Ethiopia, having been eliminated from Asia and some African countries. It has a significant socioeconomic impact because of the temporary disability that it causes. Dracunculiasis is exclusively caught from drinking water, usually from ponds. A campaign to eradicate the disease was launched in the 1980s and has made significant progress. The strategy of the campaign is discussed, including water supply, health education, case management, and vector control. Current issues including the integration of the campaign into primary health care and the mapping of cases by using geographic information systems are also considered. Finally, some lessons for other disease control and eradication programs are outlined. PMID:11932231

  9. Silk worm Bm1 SINE RNA increases following cellular insults.

    PubMed

    Kimura, R H; Choudary, P V; Schmid, C W

    1999-08-15

    The effect of cell stresses upon the expression of the Bm1 short interspersed element (SINE) family in cultured silk worm cells is examined. Primer extension analysis shows that Bm1 repeats are transcribed by RNA polymerase III (Pol III) into cytoplasmic RNAs. Five consecutive T residues, which would normally terminate Pol III transcription, occur within the Bm1 consensus and are included within cDNA sequences representing these transcripts. In analogy to mammalian SINEs, the level of the Bm1 transcripts increases in response to either heat shock, inhibiting protein synthesis by cycloheximide or viral infection. The lifetime of Bm1 RNA increases following cell insults so that post-transcriptional events partially account for stress induced increases in its abundance. In the case of heat shock, the increase in Bm1 RNA follows the transient increase in hsp70 mRNA indicating that this response is temporally regulated to occur later in heat shock recovery. These results support the proposal that SINE RNAs serve a role in the cell stress response that predates the divergence of insects and mammals implying that SINEs are essentially a class of cell stress genes.

  10. Methane ice worms: Hesiocaeca methanicola colonizing fossil fuel reserves.

    PubMed

    Fisher, C R; MacDonald, I R; Sassen, R; Young, C M; Macko, S A; Hourdez, S; Carney, R S; Joye, S; McMullin, E

    2000-04-01

    During a research cruise in July 1997 in the Gulf of Mexico we discovered a gas hydrate approximately 1 m thick and over 2 m in diameter which had recently breached the sea floor at a depth of 540 m. The hydrate surface visible from the submarine was considerably greater than that of any other reported hydrate. Two distinct color bands of hydrate were present in the same mound, and the entire exposed surface of the hydrate was infested (2500 individuals/m2) with 2 to 4 cm-long worms, since described as a new species, Hesiocaeca methanicola, in the polychaete family Hesionidae (Desbruyères and Toulmond 1998). H. methanicola tissue stable isotope values are consistent with a chemo-autotrophic food source. No evidence of chemo-autotrophic symbionts was detected, but geochemical data support the presence of abundant free living bacteria on the hydrate. The activities of the polychaetes, grazing on the hydrate bacteria and supplying oxygen to their habitats, appears to contribute to the dissolution of hydrates in surface sediments.

  11. Sex pheromone of the cranberry blossom worm, Epiglaea apiata.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Aijun; Polavarapu, Sridhar

    2003-09-01

    The cranberry blossom worm, Epiglaea apiata (Grote) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a major pest of cranberries in New Jersey. The female sex pheromone of this moth was identified as a blend of (Z)-9-hexadecenyl acetate (Z9-16:Ac), (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z9-14:Ac), and tetradecyl acetate (14:Ac) by gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The ratio of the components in extracts of the female pheromone gland was determined to be 65:2:33 of the Z9-16:Ac, Z9-14:Ac, and 14:Ac, respectively. The double bond positions of the pheromone components were confirmed by dimethyl disulfide derivatization. In addition to the above three components, a mixture of C4-C10 aliphatic acids was present in both gland extracts and effluvia collections, and the acids elicited significant EAD responses from male moth antennae. However, addition of the C4-C10 aliphatic acids to the pheromone blend did not significantly increase trap captures. Three-hundred- and 1000-microg doses of a synthetic blend containing Z9-16:Ac, Z9-14:Ac, and 14:Ac (65:2:33), on a rubber septum were more attractive to males than lower doses.

  12. Bioaccumulation and biological effects of cigarette litter in marine worms

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Stephanie L.; Rowe, Darren; Reid, Malcolm J.; Thomas, Kevin V.; Galloway, Tamara S.

    2015-01-01

    Marine debris is a global environmental issue. Smoked cigarette filters are the predominant coastal litter item; 4.5 trillion are littered annually, presenting a source of bioplastic microfibres (cellulose acetate) and harmful toxicants to marine environments. Despite the human health risks associated with smoking, little is known of the hazards cigarette filters present to marine life. Here we studied the impacts of smoked cigarette filter toxicants and microfibres on the polychaete worm Hediste diversicolor (ragworm), a widespread inhabitant of coastal sediments. Ragworms exposed to smoked cigarette filter toxicants in seawater at concentrations 60 fold lower than those reported for urban run-off exhibited significantly longer burrowing times, >30% weight loss, and >2-fold increase in DNA damage compared to ragworms maintained in control conditions. In contrast, ragworms exposed to smoked cigarette filter microfibres in marine sediment showed no significant effects. Bioconcentration factors for nicotine were 500 fold higher from seawater than from sediment. Our results illustrate the vulnerability of organisms in the water column to smoking debris and associated toxicants, and highlight the risks posed by smoked cigarette filter debris to aquatic life. PMID:26369692

  13. Dracunculiasis (Guinea worm disease) and the eradication initiative.

    PubMed

    Cairncross, Sandy; Muller, Ralph; Zagaria, Nevio

    2002-04-01

    Dracunculiasis, also known as guinea worm disease, is caused by the large female of the nematode Dracunculus medinensis, which emerges painfully and slowly from the skin, usually on the lower limbs. The disease can infect animals, and sustainable animal cycles occur in North America and Central Asia but do not act as reservoirs of human infection. The disease is endemic across the Sahel belt of Africa from Mauritania to Ethiopia, having been eliminated from Asia and some African countries. It has a significant socioeconomic impact because of the temporary disability that it causes. Dracunculiasis is exclusively caught from drinking water, usually from ponds. A campaign to eradicate the disease was launched in the 1980s and has made significant progress. The strategy of the campaign is discussed, including water supply, health education, case management, and vector control. Current issues including the integration of the campaign into primary health care and the mapping of cases by using geographic information systems are also considered. Finally, some lessons for other disease control and eradication programs are outlined.

  14. Swimming behavior of the spoon worm Urechis unicinctus (Annelida, Echiura).

    PubMed

    Abe, Hirokazu; Sato-Okoshi, Waka; Tanaka, Masaatsu; Okoshi, Kenji; Teramoto, Wataru; Kondoh, Tomohiko; Nishitani, Goh; Endo, Yoshinari

    2014-06-01

    Large numbers of swimming and stranding Urechis unicinctus were observed at night during low tide in Sasuhama, Miyagi Prefecture, northeastern Japan, during the periods from January to February in 2012 and 2013. Worms did not drift passively but swam actively, therefore hinting at a certain purpose for such behavior. As trochophore larvae of U. unicinctus were observed to occur simultaneously in the plankton, we infer the possibility that this is an event of reproductive swarming. Anatomical observations of both swimming and stranding U. unicinctus showed that none of the specimens had gametes, which may suggest that these were completely spent after spawning. Urechis unicinctus seemed to begin swimming after dusk and the observed swimming behavior occurred during the evening ebb tide throughout the night low tide during winter time. Stranding U. unicinctus have long been known in Japan and have been attributed to sea storms. The present study shows for the first time the possibility that U. unicinctus swims in order to reproduce at night and that this swimming behavior is closely linked to the stranding of U. unicinctus individuals.

  15. Face Gear Drive with Spur Involute Pinion: Geometry, Generation by a Worm, Stress Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvin, Faydor L.; Fuentes, Alfonso; Zanzi, Claudio; Pontiggia, Matteo; Handschuh, Robert F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A face gear drive with a spur involute pinion is considered. The generation of the face gear is based on application of a grinding or cutting worm whereas the conventional method of generation is based on application of an involute shaper. An analytical approach is proposed for the determination of: (1) the worm thread surface; (2) avoidance of singularities of the worm thread surface, (air) dressing of the worm; and (3) determination of stresses of the face-gear drive. A computer program for simulation of meshing and contact of the pinion and face-gear has been developed. Correction of machine-tool settings is proposed for reduction of the shift of the bearing contact caused by misalignment. An automatic development of the model of five contacting teeth has been proposed for stress analysis. Numerical examples for illustration of the developed theory are provided.

  16. Toxicity of metals to a freshwater tubificid worm Tubifex tubifex (Muller)

    SciTech Connect

    Khangarot, B.S. )

    1991-06-01

    Salts of various metals are being released in ever increasing amounts into the aquatic environment from mining operations, metal processing facilities, chemical industries and other similar sources. Although there has been considerable study of the acute and chronic toxicities of metals to freshwater fishes, crustaceans and snails, little information is available on the effects of metals to tubificid worms which are widely distributed in the aquatic environment. Tubificid worms are useful indicators of varying degrees of aquatic pollution. It is suggested that tubificid worms are an important element in the aquatic environment and therefore their use as a bioassay organism is logical one. The present study was undertaken to determine the acute toxicities of various metals to a fresh-water tubificid worm, Tubifex tubifex (Muller), which form an important link in aquatic food chain(s).

  17. Angiotensin III as well as angiotensin II regulates water flow through aquaporins in a clam worm.

    PubMed

    Satou, Ryousuke; Nakagawa, Tsutomu; Ido, Hiroki; Tomomatsu, Masayuki; Suzuki, Fumiaki; Nakamura, Yukio

    2005-07-01

    Angiotensin III has been reported to exist in various animals and tissues. The physiological role, however, is still unclear except that brain angiotensin III is a central regulator of vasopressin release. In this study, angiotensin III as well as angiotensin II enhanced an increase in body weight of clam worms of Perinereis sp. under a hypo-osmotic condition and suppressed a decrease in body weight under a hyper-osmotic condition. When clam worms were treated with tetrachloroaurate (III) after angiotensin-treatment, these enhancing and suppressive effects of the angiotensins under hypo- and hyper-osmotic conditions were inhibited. In contrast, when clam worms were pretreated with tetrachloroaurate (III) before angiotensin-treatment, these effects of angiotensins were not inhibited. Since tetrachloroaurate (III) is a representative blocker of aquaporins, these results indicate that angiotensin III as well as angiotensin II regulates water flow through aquaporins in clam worms.

  18. CHRONIC EFFECTS OF THE HERBICIDE DIURON ON FRESHWATER CLADOCERANS,AMPHIPODS,MIDGES,MINNOWS,WORMS, AND SNAILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chronic effects of the herbicide diuron on survival and reproduction of Daphnia pulex, and survival and growth of the amphipod Hyalella azteca, the midge Chironomus tentans, juvenile and embro/larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, annelid worms, Lumbriculus variegatus,...

  19. Dual geometric worm algorithm for two-dimensional discrete classical lattice models.

    PubMed

    Hitchcock, Peter; Sørensen, Erik S; Alet, Fabien

    2004-01-01

    We present a dual geometrical worm algorithm for two-dimensional Ising models. The existence of such dual algorithms was first pointed out by Prokof'ev and Svistunov [Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 160601 (2001)

  20. PROCESSES OF RECOVERING URANIUM FROM A CALUTRON

    DOEpatents

    Baird, D.O.; Zumwalt, L.R.

    1958-07-15

    An improved process is described for recovering the residue of a uranium compound which has been subjected to treatment in a calutron, from the parts of the calutron disposed in the source region upon which the residue is deposited. The process may be utilized when the uranium compound adheres to a surface containing metals of the group consisting of copper, iron, chromium, and nickel. The steps comprise washing the surface with an aqueous acidic oxidizing solvent for the uranium whereby there is obtained an acidic aqueous Solution containing uranium as uranyl ions and metals of said group as impurities, treating the acidic solution with sodium acetate in the presenee of added sodium nitrate to precipitate the uranium as sodium uranyl acetate away from the impurities in the solution, and separating the sodium uranyl acetate from the solution.

  1. BACKUP -- Recovering from incremental tape backups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, P. M.

    The importance of making regular backups of your disks in well known, but it can be very frustrating to have a head crash and then discover that you cannot recover from your backups because the manuals do not tell you what to do. The DEC documentation covers most possibilities, but not the case where a removable pack is copied to a new pack, the new pack is then used as the current pack, and incremental backups to tape are then made. This situation is a fairly common one when you have two or more removable disk drives. This note covers backup and recovery in general terms, and details exactly what to do in the above mentioned case.

  2. Apparatus to recover tritium from tritiated molecules

    DOEpatents

    Swansiger, William A.

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for recovering tritium from tritiated compounds is provided, including a preheater for heating tritiated water and other co-injected tritiated compounds to temperatures of about 600.degree. C. and a reactor charged with a mixture of uranium and uranium dioxide for receiving the preheated mixture. The reactor vessel is preferably stainless steel of sufficient mass so as to function as a heat sink preventing the reactor side walls from approaching high temperatures. A disposable copper liner extends between the reaction chamber and stainless steel outer vessel to prevent alloying of the uranium with the outer vessel. The uranium dioxide functions as an insulating material and heat sink preventing the reactor side walls from attaining reaction temperatures to thereby minimize tritium permeation rates. The uranium dioxide also functions as a diluent to allow for volumetric expansion of the uranium as it is converted to uranium dioxide.

  3. Recovering Velocity Distributions Via Penalized Likelihood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merritt, David

    1997-07-01

    Line-of-sight velocity distributions are crucial for unravelling the dynamics of hot stellar systems. We present a new formalism based on penalized likelihood for deriving such distributions from kinematical data, and evaluate the performance of two algorithms that extract N(V) from absorption-line spectra and from sets of individual velocities. Both algorithms are superior to existing ones in that the solutions are nearly unbiased even when the data are so poor that a great deal of smoothing is required. In addition, the discrete-velocity algorithm is able to remove a known distribution of measurement errors from the estimate of N(V). The formalism is used to recover the velocity distribution of stars in five fields near the center of the globular cluster omega Centauri.

  4. Infestation of the clam Chione fluctifraga by the burrowing worm Polydora sp. nov. in laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Tinoco-Orta, Gissel Dalila; Cáceres-Martínez, Jorge

    2003-07-01

    Burrowing worms that belong to Polydora spp. infest marine mollusks cultured worldwide, causing problems for production and marketing. The clam Chione fluctifraga is semi-cultured in Bahía Falsa, Baja California, NW Mexico, and some clams harbor burrowing worms. The present study was carried out to determine the identity of the worm species infesting the clam, the infesting process by cohabitation of infested and non-infested clams in aquaria with a variety of substrates (fine sand, gross sand, plastic bag used for clam culture, and aquarium without substrate) and turbulence conditions, and the occurrence of architomy phenomena in connection with infestation of the clam. The burrowing worm was considered as a nova species due to its singular limbate neurosetae and notosetae in the setiger 5, hooks in the setiger 6, eyes not present, and general pigmentation, among other characteristics. Infestation was similar in all substrates and turbulence conditions, but it was more abundant on clams previously infested than on those free of worms, showing a preferential settlement of worm infesting stages on pre-infested clams. Regeneration was observed in all segments of the worm: anterior (metastomium), medium, and posterior (prostomium); the complete regeneration time occurred in 40 days. This is the first record of architomy in a species of Polydora and this phenomenon could account for the increase of infestation intensity in pre-infested clams at the end of the study period. Infestation of clams by settling polichaete in the conditions studied, and the architomy process in this worm species, shows its great infesting capacity.

  5. Microtopography of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (Nematoda: Heligmosomatidae): parasitic larval stages and adults.

    PubMed

    Nembo, B; Goudey-Perriere, F; Gayral, P; Perriere, C; Brousse-Gaury, P

    1993-09-01

    Specimens of the rat hookworm, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (Nematoda) were recovered from lungs (third- and fourth-stage larvae) and intestine (fourth-stage larvae and adults). The following features were studied in the different stages by scanning electron microscopy: cephalic structures, especially sense organs, synlophe, cervical region, and caudal part. The main differences between the third and fourth stages concerned the lip-like structures around the oral aperture, the appearance of the cephalic space with the presence of a cephalic cap in fourth-stage larvae, the pattern of longitudinal ridges, and sexual differentiation. Pore-like papillae, not seen in third-stage larvae, developed in later stages. Deirids were observed only in adults, and phasmids were poorly discerned. Some of these morphological features, such as the cephalic sense organ apertures and cuticle pores and micropores, can be observed only by scanning electron microscopy. The possible functions of these different structures and their relationship with the behavior of the worms during their life cycle are discussed.

  6. Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense: wide egg size variation in 32 molecularly confirmed adult specimens from Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seoyun; Cho, Jaeeun; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Kim, Deok-Gyu; Jeon, Sarah Jiyoun; Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Eom, Keeseon S; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2015-06-01

    The eggs of Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense were reported to be smaller than those of the classical Diphyllobothrium latum in general. However, verification using a large number of adult tapeworms is required. We assessed the egg size variation in 32 adult specimens of D. nihonkaiense recovered from Korean patients in 1975-2014. The diagnosis of individual specimens was based on analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 gene sequence. Uterine eggs (n = 10) were obtained from each specimen, and their length and width were measured by micrometry. The results indicated that the egg size of D. nihonkaiense (total number of eggs measured, 320) was widely variable according to individual specimens, 54-76 μm long (mean 64) and 35-58 μm wide (mean 45), with a length-width ratio of 1.32-1.70 (mean 1.46). The worm showing the smallest egg size had a length range of 54-62 μm, whereas the one showing the largest egg size had a length range of 68-76 μm. The two ranges did not overlap, and a similar pattern was observed for the egg width. Mapping of each egg size (n = 320) showed a wide variation in length and width. The widely variable egg size of D. nihonkaiense cannot be used for specific diagnosis of diphyllobothriid tapeworm infections in human patients.

  7. Heightened Olfactory Sensitivity in Young Females with Recent-Onset Anorexia Nervosa and Recovered Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Bentz, Mette; Guldberg, Johanne; Vangkilde, Signe; Pedersen, Tine; Plessen, Kerstin Jessica; Jepsen, Jens Richardt Moellegaard

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Olfaction may be related to food restriction and weight loss. However, reports regarding olfactory function in individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) have been inconclusive. Objective Characterize olfactory sensitivity and identification in female adolescents and young adults with first-episode AN and young females recovered from AN. Methods We used the Sniffin’ Sticks Odor Threshold Test and Odor Identification Test to assess 43 participants with first-episode AN, 27 recovered participants, and 39 control participants. Participants completed the Importance of Olfaction questionnaire, the Beck Youth Inventory and the Eating Disorder Inventory. We also conducted a psychiatric diagnostic interview and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule with participants. Results Both clinical groups showed heightened olfactory sensitivity. After excluding participants with depression, participants with first-episode AN identified more odors than recovered participants. Conclusion Heightened olfactory sensitivity in AN may be independent of clinical status, whereas only individuals with current AN and without depression show more accurate odor identification. PMID:28060877

  8. Census of bacterial microbiota associated with the glacier ice worm Mesenchytraeus solifugus.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Takumi; Segawa, Takahiro; Bodington, Dylan; Dial, Roman; Takeuchi, Nozomu; Kohshima, Shiro; Hongoh, Yuichi

    2015-03-01

    The glacier ice worm, Mesenchytraeus solifugus, is a unique annelid, inhabiting only snow and ice in North American glaciers. Here, we analyzed the taxonomic composition of bacteria associated with M. solifugus based on the 16S rRNA gene. We analyzed four fixed-on-site and 10 starved ice worm individuals, along with glacier surface samples. In total, 1341 clones of 16S rRNA genes were analyzed for the ice worm samples, from which 65 bacterial phylotypes (99.0% cut-off) were identified. Of these, 35 phylotypes were closely related to sequences obtained from their habitat glacier and/or other components of cryosphere; whereas three dominant phylotypes were affiliated with animal-associated lineages of the class Mollicutes. Among the three, phylotype Ms-13 shared less than 89% similarity with database sequences and was closest to a gut symbiont of a terrestrial earthworm. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization, Ms-13 was located on the gut wall surface of the ice worms. We propose a novel genus and species, 'Candidatus Vermiplasma glacialis', for this bacterium. Our results raise the possibility that the ice worm has exploited indigenous glacier bacteria, while several symbiotic bacterial lineages have maintained their association with the ice worm during the course of adaptive evolution to the permanently cold environment.

  9. Influence of ecological factors on prevalence of meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis infection in South Dakota, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacques, Christopher N.; Jenks, Jonathan A.; Grovenburg, Troy W.; Klaver, Robert W.; Dubay, Shelli A.

    2015-01-01

    The meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) is a nematode parasite that commonly infects white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus; WTD) throughout the deciduous forest biome and deciduous-coniferous ecotone of eastern and central North America; the species is not known to occur west of the grassland biome of central North America. We used county-specific prevalence data to evaluate potential effects of landscape and climatologic factors on the spatial distribution of meningeal worm infection in South Dakota, US. Probability of infection increased 4-fold between eastern and western South Dakota and 1.3-fold for each 1-cm increase in summer precipitation. Sixty-three percent of WTD had only a single worm in the cranium. Expansion of meningeal worm infection across western South Dakota may be inherently low due to the combined effects of arid climate and potential attributes of the Missouri River that limit regional movements by infected WTD. Use of landscape genetic analyses to identify potential relationships between landscape features and population genetic structure of infected deer and parasites may contribute to a greater understanding of regional heterogeneity in meningeal worm infection rates across South Dakota, particularly in counties adjacent to the Missouri River. Future research evaluating heterogeneity in prevalence and intensity of infection between fawn and yearling deer, and the potential role of yearling male deer as dispersal agents of meningeal worms across the Missouri River, also is warranted.

  10. Functional characterization in Caenorhabditis elegans of transmembrane worm-human orthologs

    PubMed Central

    Henricson, Anna; Sonnhammer, Erik LL; Baillie, David L; Gomes, Ana Vaz

    2004-01-01

    Background The complete genome sequences for human and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans offer an opportunity to learn more about human gene function through functional characterization of orthologs in the worm. Based on a previous genome-wide analysis of worm-human orthologous transmembrane proteins, we selected seventeen genes to explore experimentally in C. elegans. These genes were selected on the basis that they all have high confidence candidate human orthologs and that their function is unknown. We first analyzed their phylogeny, membrane topology and domain organization. Then gene functions were studied experimentally in the worm by using RNA interference and transcriptional gfp reporter gene fusions. Results The experiments gave functional insights for twelve of the genes studied. For example, C36B1.12, the worm ortholog of three presenilin-like genes, was almost exclusively expressed in head neurons, suggesting an ancient conserved role important to neuronal function. We propose a new transmembrane topology for the presenilin-like protein family. sft-4, the worm ortholog of surfeit locus gene Surf-4, proved to be an essential gene required for development during the larval stages of the worm. R155.1, whose human ortholog is entirely uncharacterized, was implicated in body size control and other developmental processes. Conclusions By combining bioinformatics and C. elegans experiments on orthologs, we provide functional insights on twelve previously uncharacterized human genes. PMID:15533247

  11. An inconvenient truth: global worming and anthelmintic resistance.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Ray M; Vidyashankar, Anand N

    2012-05-04

    Over the past 10-15 years, we have witnessed a rapid increase in both the prevalence and magnitude of anthelmintic resistance, and this increase appears to be a worldwide phenomenon. Reports of anthelmintic resistance to multiple drugs in individual parasite species, and in multiple parasite species across virtually all livestock hosts, are increasingly common. In addition, since the introduction of ivermectin in 1981, no novel anthelmintic classes were developed and introduced for use in livestock until recently with the launch of monepantel in New Zealand. Thus, livestock producers are often left with few options for effective treatment against many important parasite species. While new anthelmintic classes with novel mechanisms of action could potentially solve this problem, new drugs are extremely expensive to develop, and can be expected to be more expensive than older drugs. Thus, it seems clear that the "Global Worming" approach that has taken hold over the past 40-50 years must change, and livestock producers must develop a new vision for parasite control and sustainability of production. Furthermore, parasitologists must improve methods for study design and data analysis that are used for diagnosing anthelmintic resistance, especially for the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT). Currently, standards for diagnosis of anthelmintic resistance using FECRT exist only for sheep. Lack of standards in horses and cattle and arbitrarily defined cutoffs for defining resistance, combined with inadequate analysis of the data, mean that errors in assigning resistance status are common. Similarly, the lack of standards makes it difficult to compare data among different studies. This problem needs to be addressed, because as new drugs are introduced now and in the future, the lack of alternative treatments will make early and accurate diagnosis of anthelmintic resistance increasingly important.

  12. 32 CFR 245.26 - Aircraft being recovered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aircraft being recovered. 245.26 Section 245.26... Traffic Under ESCAT § 245.26 Aircraft being recovered. Aircraft being recovered will be expedited to home or an alternate base. Search and Rescue aircraft may be expedited on their missions. Such...

  13. 32 CFR 245.26 - Aircraft being recovered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft being recovered. 245.26 Section 245.26... Traffic Under ESCAT § 245.26 Aircraft being recovered. Aircraft being recovered will be expedited to home or an alternate base. Search and Rescue aircraft may be expedited on their missions. Such...

  14. 32 CFR 245.26 - Aircraft being recovered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aircraft being recovered. 245.26 Section 245.26... Traffic Under ESCAT § 245.26 Aircraft being recovered. Aircraft being recovered will be expedited to home or an alternate base. Search and Rescue aircraft may be expedited on their missions. Such...

  15. 32 CFR 245.26 - Aircraft being recovered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aircraft being recovered. 245.26 Section 245.26... Traffic Under ESCAT § 245.26 Aircraft being recovered. Aircraft being recovered will be expedited to home or an alternate base. Search and Rescue aircraft may be expedited on their missions. Such...

  16. 32 CFR 245.26 - Aircraft being recovered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aircraft being recovered. 245.26 Section 245.26... Traffic Under ESCAT § 245.26 Aircraft being recovered. Aircraft being recovered will be expedited to home or an alternate base. Search and Rescue aircraft may be expedited on their missions. Such...

  17. 40 CFR 721.4600 - Recovered metal hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Recovered metal hydroxide. 721.4600... Substances § 721.4600 Recovered metal hydroxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a recovered metal hydroxide (PMN...

  18. 40 CFR 721.4600 - Recovered metal hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Recovered metal hydroxide. 721.4600... Substances § 721.4600 Recovered metal hydroxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a recovered metal hydroxide (PMN...

  19. 40 CFR 721.4600 - Recovered metal hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recovered metal hydroxide. 721.4600... Substances § 721.4600 Recovered metal hydroxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a recovered metal hydroxide (PMN...

  20. 40 CFR 721.4600 - Recovered metal hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Recovered metal hydroxide. 721.4600... Substances § 721.4600 Recovered metal hydroxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a recovered metal hydroxide (PMN...

  1. 40 CFR 721.4600 - Recovered metal hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Recovered metal hydroxide. 721.4600... Substances § 721.4600 Recovered metal hydroxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a recovered metal hydroxide (PMN...

  2. Method for recovering metal from waste stream

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, B.

    1991-09-10

    This patent describes a method for recovering metal from a waste stream to render the waste stream suitable for discharge. It comprises passing a waste stream comprised of heavy metal salts in dilute solution into a cathode chamber of an anion exchange membrane delineated electrolytic cell, wherein the metals are selected from the group having a standard reduction potential more negative than that of hydrogen in the electromotive force series and the heavy metal ion concentration of the solution is less than about 10,000 parts per million of dissolved material; subjecting the waste stream to high current density electrolysis at up to about 25 volts to enhance the controlled regular formation of a noncompressible metal hydrous oxide crystalline precipitate in the cathode chamber; separating the precipitate from the waste stream; and splitting the clarified liquid waste stream so that a portion of the clarified liquid waste stream is discharged and a portion is returned downstream for commingling with the metal ion-containing waste stream for further treatment.

  3. Condoms "contain worms" and "cause HIV" in Tanzania: Negative Condom Beliefs Scale development and implications for HIV prevention.

    PubMed

    Siegler, Aaron J; Mbwambo, Jessie K; McCarty, Frances A; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2012-11-01

    Condom promotion remains a key component of HIV prevention programs, complimenting recent successes in biomedical HIV prevention. Although condom use has increased in much of East Africa, it remains substantially below optimal levels. Negative rumors about condoms have been documented in East Africa, yet the prevalence and effects of belief in the negative rumors have not been explored. This study evaluated levels of belief in negative rumors about condoms, developed a Negative Condom Beliefs Scale, and assessed its accuracy in predicting willingness to use condoms. A cross-sectional, cluster survey (n = 370) was conducted representing adults in two rural districts in Northern Tanzania in 2008. Item agreement ranged from 35 to 53% for the following rumors regarding condoms: causing cancer, having holes, containing HIV, having worms, and the worms causing HIV. Items loaded on a single latent factor and had high internal consistency and convergent validity. In a multivariate model, negative condom score (AOR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.6, 0.8) was the strongest single predictor of willingness to use condoms, followed by greater perceived anonymity in acquiring condoms (AOR = 4.36, 95% CI = 2.2, 8.6) and higher condom self-efficacy (AOR = 4.24, 95% CI = 2.0, 8.9). Our findings indicate high levels of subscription to negative beliefs about condoms, with two out of three respondents affirming belief in at least one negative condom rumor. This study highlights the relation between condom rumor beliefs and willingness to use condoms, and indicates avenues for future research and means for improving the design of HIV prevention programs.

  4. A Deep Sequencing Approach to Comparatively Analyze the Transcriptome of Lifecycle Stages of the Filarial Worm, Brugia malayi

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Young-Jun; Ghedin, Elodie; Berriman, Matthew; McQuillan, Jacqueline; Holroyd, Nancy; Mayhew, George F.; Christensen, Bruce M.; Michalski, Michelle L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Developing intervention strategies for the control of parasitic nematodes continues to be a significant challenge. Genomic and post-genomic approaches play an increasingly important role for providing fundamental molecular information about these parasites, thus enhancing basic as well as translational research. Here we report a comprehensive genome-wide survey of the developmental transcriptome of the human filarial parasite Brugia malayi. Methodology/Principal Findings Using deep sequencing, we profiled the transcriptome of eggs and embryos, immature (≤3 days of age) and mature microfilariae (MF), third- and fourth-stage larvae (L3 and L4), and adult male and female worms. Comparative analysis across these stages provided a detailed overview of the molecular repertoires that define and differentiate distinct lifecycle stages of the parasite. Genome-wide assessment of the overall transcriptional variability indicated that the cuticle collagen family and those implicated in molting exhibit noticeably dynamic stage-dependent patterns. Of particular interest was the identification of genes displaying sex-biased or germline-enriched profiles due to their potential involvement in reproductive processes. The study also revealed discrete transcriptional changes during larval development, namely those accompanying the maturation of MF and the L3 to L4 transition that are vital in establishing successful infection in mosquito vectors and vertebrate hosts, respectively. Conclusions/Significance Characterization of the transcriptional program of the parasite's lifecycle is an important step toward understanding the developmental processes required for the infectious cycle. We find that the transcriptional program has a number of stage-specific pathways activated during worm development. In addition to advancing our understanding of transcriptome dynamics, these data will aid in the study of genome structure and organization by facilitating the identification of

  5. Evaluating the Utility of Single-Locus DNA Barcoding for the Identification of Ribbon Worms (Phylum Nemertea).

    PubMed

    Sundberg, Per; Kvist, Sebastian; Strand, Malin

    2016-01-01

    Whereas many nemerteans (ribbon worms; phylum Nemertea) can be identified from external characters if observed alive, many are still problematic. When it comes to preserved specimens (as in e.g. marine inventories), there is a particular need for specimen identifier alternatives. Here, we evaluate the utility of COI (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) as a single-locus barcoding gene. We sequenced, data mined, and compared gene fragments of COI for 915 individuals representing 161 unique taxonomic labels for 71 genera, and subjected different constellations of these to both distance-based and character-based DNA barcoding approaches, as well as species delimitation analyses. We searched for the presence or absence of a barcoding gap at different taxonomic levels (phylum, subclass, family and genus) in an attempt to understand at what level a putative barcoding gap presents itself. This was performed both using the taxonomic labels as species predictors and using objectively inferred species boundaries recovered from our species delimitation analyses. Our data suggest that COI works as a species identifier for most groups within the phylum, but also that COI data are obscured by misidentifications in sequence databases. Further, our results suggest that the number of predicted species within the dataset is (in some cases substantially) higher than the number of unique taxonomic labels-this highlights the presence of several cryptic lineages within well-established taxa and underscores the urgency of an updated taxonomic backbone for the phylum.

  6. Evaluating the Utility of Single-Locus DNA Barcoding for the Identification of Ribbon Worms (Phylum Nemertea)

    PubMed Central

    Sundberg, Per; Strand, Malin

    2016-01-01

    Whereas many nemerteans (ribbon worms; phylum Nemertea) can be identified from external characters if observed alive, many are still problematic. When it comes to preserved specimens (as in e.g. marine inventories), there is a particular need for specimen identifier alternatives. Here, we evaluate the utility of COI (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) as a single-locus barcoding gene. We sequenced, data mined, and compared gene fragments of COI for 915 individuals representing 161 unique taxonomic labels for 71 genera, and subjected different constellations of these to both distance-based and character-based DNA barcoding approaches, as well as species delimitation analyses. We searched for the presence or absence of a barcoding gap at different taxonomic levels (phylum, subclass, family and genus) in an attempt to understand at what level a putative barcoding gap presents itself. This was performed both using the taxonomic labels as species predictors and using objectively inferred species boundaries recovered from our species delimitation analyses. Our data suggest that COI works as a species identifier for most groups within the phylum, but also that COI data are obscured by misidentifications in sequence databases. Further, our results suggest that the number of predicted species within the dataset is (in some cases substantially) higher than the number of unique taxonomic labels—this highlights the presence of several cryptic lineages within well-established taxa and underscores the urgency of an updated taxonomic backbone for the phylum. PMID:27171471

  7. Midgut Barrier Imparts Selective Resistance to Filarial Worm Infection in Culex pipiens pipiens

    PubMed Central

    Michalski, Michelle L.; Erickson, Sara M.; Bartholomay, Lyric C.; Christensen, Bruce M.

    2010-01-01

    Mosquitoes in the Culex pipiens complex thrive in temperate and tropical regions worldwide, and serve as efficient vectors of Bancroftian lymphatic filariasis (LF) caused by Wuchereria bancrofti in Asia, Africa, the West Indies, South America, and Micronesia. However, members of this mosquito complex do not act as natural vectors for Brugian LF caused by Brugia malayi, or for the cat parasite B. pahangi, despite their presence in South Asia where these parasites are endemic. Previous work with the Iowa strain of Culex pipiens pipiens demonstrates that it is equally susceptible to W. bancrofti as is the natural Cx. p. pipiens vector in the Nile Delta, however it is refractory to infection with Brugia spp. Here we report that the infectivity barrier for Brugia spp. in Cx. p. pipiens is the mosquito midgut, which inflicts internal and lethal damage to ingested microfilariae. Following per os Brugia exposures, the prevalence of infection is significantly lower in Cx. p. pipiens compared to susceptible mosquito controls, and differs between parasite species with <50% and <5% of Cx. p. pipiens becoming infected with B. pahangi and B. malayi, respectively. When Brugia spp. mf were inoculated intrathoracically to bypass the midgut, larvae developed equally well as in controls, indicating that, beyond the midgut, Cx. p. pipiens is physiologically compatible with Brugia spp. Mf isolated from Cx. p. pipiens midguts exhibited compromised motility, and unlike mf derived from blood or isolated from the midguts of Ae. aegypti, failed to develop when inoculated intrathoracically into susceptible mosquitoes. Together these data strongly support the role of the midgut as the primary infection barrier for Brugia spp. in Cx. p. pipiens. Examination of parasites recovered from the Cx. p. pipiens midgut by vital staining, and those exsheathed with papain, suggest that the damage inflicted by the midgut is subcuticular and disrupts internal tissues. Microscopic studies of these worms

  8. Two human cases infected by the horsehair worm, Parachordodes sp. (Nematomorpha: Chordodidae), in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Minoru; Tegoshi, Tatsuya; Abe, Niichiro; Urabe, Misako

    2012-09-01

    The present study was performed to describe 2 human cases infected by the horsehair worm, Parachordodes sp., in Japan. Two gordiid worms were collected in the vomit and excreta of an 80-year-old woman in November 2009 in Kyoto city, and in the mouth of 1-year-old boy in December 2009 in Nara city, Japan, respectively. Both worms were males having bifurcated posterior ends and male gonads in cross sectional specimens. They were identified as Parachordodes sp. (Nematomorpha: Chordodidae) based on the characteristic morphologies of cross sections and areoles in the cuticle. DNA analysis on 18S rRNA partial sequence arrangements was also carried out and both worms were assumed to be close to the genus Paragordionus based on tree analysis, and far from Gordius sp. which has already been reported in humans in Japan. DNA sequencing of the Parachordodes worm does not appear on the database; therefore, more information on the gene sequences of the genus Parachordodes from humans, animals, or intermediates is required.

  9. Target-based and whole-worm screening approaches to anthelmintic discovery.

    PubMed

    Kotze, A C

    2012-05-04

    Experimental approaches for identifying new anthelmintics include target-based and whole-worm screening methods. The former involves basic research into characterising and validating new targets, mostly proteins, followed by identification of inhibitors or agonists through the use of target-based screening assays and/or in silico drug design. The latter experimental approach uses whole-worm assays to identify anthelmintic agents with unknown modes of action, or where the primary interest lies in whether analogues are able to kill (or disable) worms rather than in measuring their direct impact on their likely target. This paper focuses initially on the intestine and external layers of nematodes as potential drug targets. Specific anthelmintic agents targeting either tissue are discussed to illustrate the impact of disruption to these structures. In both cases, the activity of these agents against insects was known, and activity against nematodes was identified using whole worm screening assays. Recent literature identifying ecdysone signalling pathway receptors in nematodes is then used to provide an example of basic research into a specific target that may lead to the development of high-throughput target-based drug screening assays. Finally, the role of whole-worm screening approaches versus target-based screening is discussed briefly.

  10. Worm Grunting, Fiddling, and Charming—Humans Unknowingly Mimic a Predator to Harvest Bait

    PubMed Central

    Catania, Kenneth C.

    2008-01-01

    Background For generations many families in and around Florida's Apalachicola National Forest have supported themselves by collecting the large endemic earthworms (Diplocardia mississippiensis). This is accomplished by vibrating a wooden stake driven into the soil, a practice called “worm grunting”. In response to the vibrations, worms emerge to the surface where thousands can be gathered in a few hours. Why do these earthworms suddenly exit their burrows in response to vibrations, exposing themselves to predation? Principal Findings Here it is shown that a population of eastern American moles (Scalopus aquaticus) inhabits the area where worms are collected and that earthworms have a pronounced escape response from moles consisting of rapidly exiting their burrows to flee across the soil surface. Recordings of vibrations generated by bait collectors and moles suggest that “worm grunters” unknowingly mimic digging moles. An alternative possibility, that worms interpret vibrations as rain and surface to avoid drowning is not supported. Conclusions Previous investigations have revealed that both wood turtles and herring gulls vibrate the ground to elicit earthworm escapes, indicating that a range of predators may exploit the predator-prey relationship between earthworms and moles. In addition to revealing a novel escape response that may be widespread among soil fauna, the results show that humans have played the role of “rare predators” in exploiting the consequences of a sensory arms race. PMID:18852902

  11. WormQTL—public archive and analysis web portal for natural variation data in Caenorhabditis spp

    PubMed Central

    Snoek, L. Basten; Van der Velde, K. Joeri; Arends, Danny; Li, Yang; Beyer, Antje; Elvin, Mark; Fisher, Jasmin; Hajnal, Alex; Hengartner, Michael O.; Poulin, Gino B.; Rodriguez, Miriam; Schmid, Tobias; Schrimpf, Sabine; Xue, Feng; Jansen, Ritsert C.; Kammenga, Jan E.; Swertz, Morris A.

    2013-01-01

    Here, we present WormQTL (http://www.wormqtl.org), an easily accessible database enabling search, comparative analysis and meta-analysis of all data on variation in Caenorhabditis spp. Over the past decade, Caenorhabditis elegans has become instrumental for molecular quantitative genetics and the systems biology of natural variation. These efforts have resulted in a valuable amount of phenotypic, high-throughput molecular and genotypic data across different developmental worm stages and environments in hundreds of C. elegans strains. WormQTL provides a workbench of analysis tools for genotype–phenotype linkage and association mapping based on but not limited to R/qtl (http://www.rqtl.org). All data can be uploaded and downloaded using simple delimited text or Excel formats and are accessible via a public web user interface for biologists and R statistic and web service interfaces for bioinformaticians, based on open source MOLGENIS and xQTL workbench software. WormQTL welcomes data submissions from other worm researchers. PMID:23180786

  12. WormQTL--public archive and analysis web portal for natural variation data in Caenorhabditis spp.

    PubMed

    Snoek, L Basten; Van der Velde, K Joeri; Arends, Danny; Li, Yang; Beyer, Antje; Elvin, Mark; Fisher, Jasmin; Hajnal, Alex; Hengartner, Michael O; Poulin, Gino B; Rodriguez, Miriam; Schmid, Tobias; Schrimpf, Sabine; Xue, Feng; Jansen, Ritsert C; Kammenga, Jan E; Swertz, Morris A

    2013-01-01

    Here, we present WormQTL (http://www.wormqtl.org), an easily accessible database enabling search, comparative analysis and meta-analysis of all data on variation in Caenorhabditis spp. Over the past decade, Caenorhabditis elegans has become instrumental for molecular quantitative genetics and the systems biology of natural variation. These efforts have resulted in a valuable amount of phenotypic, high-throughput molecular and genotypic data across different developmental worm stages and environments in hundreds of C. elegans strains. WormQTL provides a workbench of analysis tools for genotype-phenotype linkage and association mapping based on but not limited to R/qtl (http://www.rqtl.org). All data can be uploaded and downloaded using simple delimited text or Excel formats and are accessible via a public web user interface for biologists and R statistic and web service interfaces for bioinformaticians, based on open source MOLGENIS and xQTL workbench software. WormQTL welcomes data submissions from other worm researchers.

  13. Associations among habitat characteristics and meningeal worm prevalence in eastern South Dakota, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacques, Christopher N.; Jenks, Jonathan A.; Klaver, Robert W.; Dubay, Shelli A.

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated how wetland and forest characteristics influence the prevalence of meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) infection of deer throughout the grassland biome of central North America. We used previously collected, county-level prevalence data to evaluate associations between habitat characteristics and probability of meningeal worm infection in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) across eastern South Dakota, US. The highest-ranked binomial regression model for detecting probability of meningeal worm infection was spring temperature + summer precipitation + percent wetland; weight of evidence (wi=0.71) favored this model over alternative models, though predictive capability was low (Receiver operating characteristic=0.62). Probability of meningeal worm infection increased by 1.3- and 1.6-fold for each 1-cm and 1-C increase in summer precipitation and spring temperature, respectively. Similarly, probability of infection increased 1.2-fold for each 1% increase in wetland habitat. Our findings highlight the importance of wetland habitat in predicting meningeal worm infection across eastern South Dakota. Future research is warranted to evaluate the relationships between climatic conditions (e.g., drought, wet cycles) and deer habitat selection in maintaining P. tenuis along the western boundary of the parasite.

  14. Pyrosequencing of prey DNA in reptile faeces: analysis of earthworm consumption by slow worms.

    PubMed

    Brown, David S; Jarman, Simon N; Symondson, William O C

    2012-03-01

    Little quantitative ecological information exists on the diets of most invertebrate feeding reptiles, particularly nocturnal or elusive species that are difficult to observe. In the UK and elsewhere, reptiles are legally required to be relocated before land development can proceed, but without knowledge of their dietary requirements, the suitability of receptor sites cannot be known. Here, we tested the ability of non-invasive DNA-based molecular diagnostics (454 pyrosequencing) to analyse reptile diets, with the specific aims of determining which earthworm species are exploited by slow worms (the legless lizard Anguis fragilis) and whether they feed on the deeper-living earthworm species that only come to the surface at night. Slow worm faecal samples from four different habitats were analysed using earthworm-specific PCR primers. We found that 86% of slow worms (N=80) had eaten earthworms. In lowland heath and marshy/acid grassland, Lumbricus rubellus, a surface-dwelling epigeic species, dominated slow worm diet. In two other habitats, riverside pasture and calciferous coarse grassland, diet was dominated by deeper-living anecic and endogeic species. We conclude that all species of earthworm are exploited by these reptiles and lack of specialization allows slow worms to thrive in a wide variety of habitats. Pyrosequencing of prey DNA in faeces showed promise as a practical, rapid and relatively inexpensive means of obtaining detailed and valuable ecological information on the diets of reptiles.

  15. Viability of adult Onchocerca volvulus after six 2-weekly doses of ivermectin.

    PubMed Central

    Duke, B. O.; Pacqué, M. C.; Muñoz, B.; Greene, B. M.; Taylor, H. R.

    1991-01-01

    Ivermectin is a safe, effective microfilaricide and microfilarial suppressant for Onchocerca volvulus; but in single doses of 100-200 micrograms/kg body weight it has no macrofilaricidal action. The present trial aimed to determine whether 6 doses of 100 micrograms/kg ivermectin, given at 2-week intervals, would kill the adult worms. Eighty-two nodules from 28 otherwise healthy adult male Liberian patients treated with this ivermectin schedule, and 102 nodules from a similar group of 25 control patients, were removed four months after the last dose of ivermectin. They were coded and assessed in a masked fashion either by routine histology or by examination of whole worms extracted from the nodules after collagenase digestion. The drug had no visible effect on adult male worms. More adult female worms were assessed as moribund or dead in the ivermectin-treated group than in the control group (for the collagenase digests P = 0.09; for the histological assessment P = 0.47). The data suggest that repeated dosage with ivermectin may lead to a slow attrition of some female worms and this possibility should be investigated in patients receiving regular doses every 3, 6 or 12 months as part of onchocerciasis control programmes. PMID:1860146

  16. Alienation, recovered animism and altered states of consciousness.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2007-01-01

    Alienation is the feeling that life is 'meaningless', that we do not belong in the world. But alienation is not an inevitable part of the human condition: some people do feel at one with the world as a consequence of the animistic way of thinking which is shared by children and hunter-gatherers. Animism considers all significant entities to have 'minds', to be 'alive', to be sentient agents. The animistic thinker inhabits a world populated by personal powers including not just other human beings, but also important animals and plants, and significant aspects of physical landscape. Humans belong in this world because it is a web of social relationships. Animism is therefore spontaneous, the 'natural' way of thinking for humans: all humans began as animistic children and for most of human evolutionary history would have grown into animistic adults. It requires sustained, prolonged and pervasive formal education to 'overwrite' animistic thinking with the rationalistic objectivity typical of the modern world. It is this learned abstraction that creates alienation--humans are no longer embedded in a world of social relations but become estranged, adrift in a world of indifferent things. Methods used to cure alienation and recover animistic modes of thinking involve detachment from the social systems that tend to maintain objectivity and rationality: for example, solitude, leisure, unstructured time and direct contact with nature. Many people also achieve similar results by deliberately inducing altered states of consciousness. Animistic thinking may emerge in meditation or contemplation, lucid dreaming, from self-hypnosis, when drowsy, in 'trance states' induced by repetitious rhythm or light, or when delirious due to illness, brain injury, psychoses, or intoxication with 'entheogenic' drugs--which is probably one reason for the perennial popularity of inducing intoxicated states. However, intoxication will typically damage memory processes making it harder to learn

  17. An In Vitro/In Vivo Model to Analyze the Effects of Flubendazole Exposure on Adult Female Brugia malayi

    PubMed Central

    O’Neill, Maeghan; Mansour, Abdelmoneim; DiCosty, Utami; Geary, James; Dzimianski, Michael; McCall, Scott D.; McCall, John W.; Mackenzie, Charles D.; Geary, Timothy G.

    2016-01-01

    Current control strategies for onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis (LF) rely on prolonged yearly or twice-yearly mass administration of microfilaricidal drugs. Prospects for near-term elimination or eradication of these diseases would be improved by availability of a macrofilaricide that is highly effective in a short regimen. Flubendazole (FLBZ), a benzimidazole anthelmintic registered for control of human gastrointestinal nematode infections, is a potential candidate for this role. FLBZ has profound and potent macrofilaricidal effects in many experimental animal models of filariases and in one human trial for onchocerciasis after parental administration. Unfortunately, the marketed formulation of FLBZ provides very limited oral bioavailability and parenteral administration is required for macrofilaricidal efficacy. A new formulation that provided sufficient oral bioavailability could advance FLBZ as an effective treatment for onchocerciasis and LF. Short-term in vitro culture experiments in adult filariae have shown that FLBZ damages tissues required for reproduction and survival at pharmacologically relevant concentrations. The current study characterized the long-term effects of FLBZ on adult Brugia malayi by maintaining parasites in jirds for up to eight weeks following brief drug exposure (6–24 hr) to pharmacologically relevant concentrations (100 nM—10 μM) in culture. Morphological damage following exposure to FLBZ was observed prominently in developing embryos and was accompanied by a decrease in microfilarial output at 4 weeks post-exposure. Although FLBZ exposure clearly damaged the parasites, exposed worms recovered and were viable 8 weeks after treatment. PMID:27145083

  18. Expression pattern of the Brachyury gene in the arrow worm paraspadella gotoi (chaetognatha).

    PubMed

    Takada, Norio; Goto, Taichiro; Satoh, Nori

    2002-03-01

    Arrow worms (the phylum Chaetognatha), which are among the major marine planktonic animals, are direct developers and exhibit features characteristic of both deuterostomes and protostomes. In particular, the embryonic development of arrow worms appears to be of the deuterostome type. Brachyury functions critically in the formation of the notochord in chordates, whereas the gene is expressed in both the blastopore and stomodeum invagination regions in embryos of hemichordates and echinoderms. Here we analyzed the expression of Brachyury (Pg-Bra) in the arrow worm Paraspadella gotoi and showed that Pg-Bra is expressed in the blastopore region and the stomodeum region in the embryo and then around the mouth opening region at the time of hatching. The expression of Pg-Bra in the embryo resembles that of Brachyury in embryos of hemichordates and echinoderms, whereas that in the mouth opening region in the hatchling appears to be novel.

  19. Morphological characterization of the asexual reproduction in the acorn worm Balanoglossus simodensis.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Norio; Saito, Yasunori

    2010-09-01

    The acorn worm Balanoglossus simodensis reproduces asexually by fragmentation and subsequent regeneration from the body fragments. We examined the morphogenesis of its asexual reproduction. At first, we collected asexually reproducing specimens and observed their morphogenesis. Then, we succeeded in inducing the asexual reproduction artificially by cutting the worm at the end of the genital region. The process of morphogenesis is completely the same between naturally collected and artificially induced specimens. The stages during morphogenesis were established on the basis of the external features of the asexually reproducing fragments. The internal features of the fragments were also examined at each stage. In a separate phase of the study, the capacity for regeneration of some body parts was also examined by dividing intact worms into about 10 fragments. Although the capacity for regeneration varied among the different body parts, some fragments regenerated into complete individuals in 1 month. The process of regeneration was the same as that in the asexually produced fragments.

  20. [Current status of the global campaign to eradicate dracunculiasis (guinea worm disease)].

    PubMed

    Ranque, P; Hopkins, D

    1991-01-01

    Dracunculiasis is eradicable because it is easy to diagnose, it is only transmitted by drinking water, there is no animal reservoir, and there are three ways to prevent the infection. Global 2000 is assisting guinea worm eradication Programmes in Pakistan, Ghana and Nigeria. The draft criteria for certification of dracunculiasis elimination and the resolutions adopted during the 3rd African Regional Conference on dracunculiasis were described. The progress of Pakistan's guinea worm eradication Programme, which has nearly achieved its goal and the accomplishments of the eradication Programme in Nigeria, which is thought to have the most case of guinea worm in the world were described. Evidence of socio-economic impact of dracunculiasis, vector control, local treatment and case containment were presented during the question and answer period.

  1. OpenWorm: an open-science approach to modeling Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Szigeti, Balázs; Gleeson, Padraig; Vella, Michael; Khayrulin, Sergey; Palyanov, Andrey; Hokanson, Jim; Currie, Michael; Cantarelli, Matteo; Idili, Giovanni; Larson, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    OpenWorm is an international collaboration with the aim of understanding how the behavior of Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) emerges from its underlying physiological processes. The project has developed a modular simulation engine to create computational models of the worm. The modularity of the engine makes it possible to easily modify the model, incorporate new experimental data and test hypotheses. The modeling framework incorporates both biophysical neuronal simulations and a novel fluid-dynamics-based soft-tissue simulation for physical environment-body interactions. The project's open-science approach is aimed at overcoming the difficulties of integrative modeling within a traditional academic environment. In this article the rationale is presented for creating the OpenWorm collaboration, the tools and resources developed thus far are outlined and the unique challenges associated with the project are discussed. PMID:25404913

  2. Mortality of rocky mountain elk in Michigan due to meningeal worm

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bender, L.C.; Schmitt, S.M.; Carlson, E.; Haufler, J.B.; Beyer, D.E.

    2005-01-01

    Mortality from cerebrospinal parelaphostrongylosis caused by the meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) has been hypothesized to limit elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) populations in areas where elk are conspecific with white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Elk were reintroduced into Michigan (USA) in the early 1900s and subsequently greatly increased population size and distribution despite sympatric high-density (???12/km2) white-tailed deer populations. We monitored 100 radio-collared elk of all age and sex classes from 1981-94, during which time we documented 76 mortalities. Meningeal worm was a minor mortality factor for elk in Michigan and accounted for only 3% of mortalities, fewer than legal harvest (58%), illegal kills (22%), other diseases (7%), and malnutrition (4%). Across years, annual cause-specific mortality rates due to cerebrospinal parelaphostrongylosis were 0.033 (SE=0.006), 0.029 (SE=0.005), 0.000 (SE=0.001), and 0.000 (SE=0.000) for calves, 1-yr-old, 2-yr-old, and ???3-yr-old, respectively. The overall population-level mortality rate due to cerebrospinal parelaphostrongylosis was 0.009 (SE=0.001). Thus, meningeal worm had little impact on elk in Michigan during our study despite greater than normal precipitation (favoring gastropods) and record (???14 km2) deer densities. Further, elk in Michigan have shown sustained population rates-of-increase of ???18%/yr and among the highest levels of juvenile production and survival recorded for elk in North America, indicating that elk can persist in areas with meningeal worm at high levels of population productivity. it is likely that local ecologic characteristics among elk, white-tailed deer, and gastropods, and degree of exposure, age of elk, individual and population experience with meningeal worm, overall population vigor, and moisture determine the effects of meningeal worm on elk populations. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2005.

  3. Highly toxic ribbon worm Cephalothrix simula containing tetrodotoxin in Hiroshima Bay, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Asakawa, Manabu; Ito, Katsutoshi; Kajihara, Hiroshi

    2013-02-20

    In 1998, during a toxicological surveillance of various marine fouling organisms in Hiroshima Bay, Japan, specimens of the ribbon worm, Cephalothrix simula (Nemertea: Palaeonemertea) were found. These ribbon worms contained toxins with extremely strong paralytic activity. The maximum toxicity in terms of tetrodotoxin (TTX) was 25,590 mouse units (MU) per gram for the whole worm throughout the monitoring period. The main toxic component was isolated and recrystallized from an acidified methanolic solution. The crystalline with a specific toxicity of 3520 MU/mg was obtained and identified as TTX by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-fluorescent detection (FLD) (HPLC-FLD), electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), infrared (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The highest toxicity of C. simula exceeded the human lethal dose per a single worm. A toxicological surveillance of C. simula from 1998 to 2005 indicated approximately 80% of the individuals were ranked as "strongly toxic" (≥1000 MU/g). Forty-eight percent of the specimens possessed toxicity scores of more than 2000 MU/g. Seasonal variations were observed in the lethal potency of C. simula. Specimens collected on January 13, 2000 to December 26, 2000 showed mean toxicities of 665-5300 MU/g (n = 10). These data prompted a toxicological surveillance of ribbon worms from other localities with different habitats in Japan, including Akkeshi Bay (Hokkaido) under stones on rocky intertidal beaches, as well as Otsuchi (Iwate) among calcareous tubes of serpulid polychaetes on rocky shores. Within twelve species of ribbon worms examined, only C. simula possessed extremely high toxicity. Therefore, C. simula appears to show generally high toxicity irrespective of their locality and habitat.

  4. Highly Toxic Ribbon Worm Cephalothrix simula Containing Tetrodotoxin in Hiroshima Bay, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Asakawa, Manabu; Ito, Katsutoshi; Kajihara, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    In 1998, during a toxicological surveillance of various marine fouling organisms in Hiroshima Bay, Japan, specimens of the ribbon worm, Cephalothrix simula (Nemertea: Palaeonemertea) were found. These ribbon worms contained toxins with extremely strong paralytic activity. The maximum toxicity in terms of tetrodotoxin (TTX) was 25,590 mouse units (MU) per gram for the whole worm throughout the monitoring period. The main toxic component was isolated and recrystallized from an acidified methanolic solution. The crystalline with a specific toxicity of 3520 MU/mg was obtained and identified as TTX by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-fluorescent detection (FLD) (HPLC-FLD), electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), infrared (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The highest toxicity of C. simula exceeded the human lethal dose per a single worm. A toxicological surveillance of C. simula from 1998 to 2005 indicated approximately 80% of the individuals were ranked as “strongly toxic” (≥1000 MU/g). Forty-eight percent of the specimens possessed toxicity scores of more than 2000 MU/g. Seasonal variations were observed in the lethal potency of C. simula. Specimens collected on January 13, 2000 to December 26, 2000 showed mean toxicities of 665–5300 MU/g (n = 10). These data prompted a toxicological surveillance of ribbon worms from other localities with different habitats in Japan, including Akkeshi Bay (Hokkaido) under stones on rocky intertidal beaches, as well as Otsuchi (Iwate) among calcareous tubes of serpulid polychaetes on rocky shores. Within twelve species of ribbon worms examined, only C. simula possessed extremely high toxicity. Therefore, C. simula appears to show generally high toxicity irrespective of their locality and habitat. PMID:23430577

  5. Eradicating guinea worm without wells: unrealized hopes of the Water Decade.

    PubMed

    Brieger, W R; Otusanya, S; Adeniyi, J D; Tijani, J; Banjoko, M

    1997-12-01

    At the start of the United Nations International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade in the 1980s, guinea worm disease was targeted as the major indicator of the success of the Decade's efforts to promote safe water. By the late 1980s, most of the guinea worm endemic countries in Africa and South Asia had established guinea worm eradication programmes that included water supply as one of their main technical strategies. By surveying the water supply situation in Ifeloju Local Government Area (LGA) in Oyo State, Nigeria, in June 1996, as a case study, it was possible to determine the role that water supply has played in the eradication effort. Although two major agencies, the former Directorate for Food, Roads and Rural Infrastructure and UNICEF, provided hand dug and bore-hole wells respectively in many parts of the LGA, coverage of the smaller farm hamlets has been minor compared to efforts in the larger towns. This is ironic because the farm hamlets served as a reservoir for the disease in the 1980s, such that when the piped water system in the towns broke down, guinea worm was easily reintroduced into the towns. The survey of 188 ever-endemic hamlets with an estimated population of 23,556 found that 74.3% of the people still drink only pond water. Another 11.3% have wells that have become dysfunctional. Only 14.4% of this rural population has access' to functioning wells. Guinea worm was eliminated from 107 of the hamlets mainly by the use of cloth filters and chemical treatment of ponds. While this proves that it is possible to eradicate guinea worm, it fails to leave behind the legacy of reliable, safe water supplies that was the hope of the Water Decade.

  6. Learning from local knowledge to improve disease surveillance: perceptions of the guinea worm illness experience.

    PubMed

    Brieger, W R; Kendall, C

    1992-12-01

    Surveillance is an essential tool in any campaign to eradicate disease; guinea worm (dracunculiasis), which is targeted for eradication before the year 2000, is no exception. One criterion of an eradicable disease is that it be easy to recognize as the program advances. Few experts doubt that the experience of a meter-long subcutaneous worm protruding through a painful ulcer can be missed or confused with another disease, thus ensuring that guinea worm meets this criterion. Field experiences of anthropologists and health educators have shown that one should never assume that community perceptions of illness experience coincide fully with medical case definitions of disease. This paper describes efforts to learn how the Yoruba people of southwestern Nigeria perceive sobia, the local name for guinea worm. Qualitative methods including informal interview, village discussion and participant observation were used to discern a pattern of illness presentation and progression. Interestingly, local perceptions were found to include a variety of illness manifestations beyond the common clinical case definition of an emergent worm, thus creating the potential for a high level of false positive reports. Local knowledge was then used to design a pilot project that trained volunteers to become part of the surveillance network for the national eradication program. The volunteers, who were largely illiterate, were able to distinguish between cultural and clinical definitions, and submit quite accurate reports on the guinea worm status of their villages. Among the 164 volunteers, only two submitted false reports due to incorrect disease definition. In contrast local government health workers who were conducting village searches during the same period were significantly more likely to register false positive reports. The culturally sensitive training based on local knowledge received by the village volunteers is thought to have contributed to their superior performance.

  7. Evaluation of existing EPRI and INEL test data to determine the worm to worm gear coefficient of friction in Limitorque actuators

    SciTech Connect

    Garza, I.A.

    1996-12-01

    About the last sizing parameter for motor operated valves which has not been determined by utility or NRC sponsored testing is actuator efficiency. A by-product of EPRI testing for valve factors is the measurement of the actuator efficiencies. Motor sizing in this testing provides efficiency testing for motors running near synchronous speed. INEL testing, sponsored by the NRC, for stem factors and rate of loading provides complimentary data for motors loaded down to zero speed. This paper analyzes the data from these two test programs to determine the coefficient of friction for the worm to worm gear interface. This allowed the development of an algorithm for determining the efficiency of actuators which have not been tested. This paper compares the results of this algorithm to the test data to provide a measure of the accuracy of this method for calculating actuator efficiency.

  8. Worms from the Arctic are better adapted to freezing and high salinity than worms from temperate regions: oxidative stress responses in Enchytraeus albidus.

    PubMed

    Silva, A L Patrício; Holmstrup, M; Amorim, M J B

    2013-12-01

    Enchytraeus albidus is a freeze-tolerant enchytraeid found in diverse habitats, from supra-littoral to terrestrial, and spanning temperate to arctic regions. Thus, this worm is often exposed to sub-zero temperatures and fluctuating salinity regimes that can lead to physiological stress. We therefore studied the oxidative stress by measuring lipid peroxidation, anti-oxidant defenses and neurotransmission activity in E. albidus from arctic (Greenland) and temperate (Germany) regions during a short-term exposure to saline conditions (0, 15, 35 and 50‰ NaCl) and low temperatures (+2, -2 and -5 °C). Various enzymatic and non-enzymatic oxidative stress markers were analyzed. Results have shown that both salt and freezing caused oxidative stress in E. albidus, particularly from Germany, as confirmed by catalase, glutathione-S-transferase and superoxide dismutase activities and lipid peroxidation levels. Neurotransmission (as judged from acetylcholinesterase activity) was reduced by saline conditions at +2 °C, but stimulated at -2 and -5 °C. Worms from Greenland had relatively higher and more stable levels of antioxidants than worms from Germany, reflecting their higher tolerance of freezing and saline conditions.

  9. Social anhedonia and work and social functioning in the acute and recovered phases of eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Amy; Mountford, Victoria A; Tchanturia, Kate

    2014-08-15

    Interpersonal difficulties are proposed to maintain eating disorders (EDs). This study explored whether social anhedonia (SA) was an additional social emotional maintenance factor which might also explain work/social problems in EDs. Additionally, the study explored SA and work and social adjustment in recovered participants. Women with anorexia nervosa (AN; n=105), bulimia nervosa (BN; n=46), recovered from AN (RAN; n=30) and non-ED controls (n=136) completed the Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS) and the Revised Social Anhedonia Scale. ED participants reported greater SA and WSAS scores than non-ED controls; the RAN group reported an intermediate profile. AN participants had poorer work/social adjustment than BN participants. SA was associated with longer illness duration. SA, current severity (BMI) and lifetime severity (lowest adult BMI) significantly predicted work/social difficulties. Recovered participants scoring in the clinical range for SA experienced significantly greater work/social difficulties than recovered participants scoring outside the clinical range for SA. EDs are associated with clinical levels of SA and poor work/social functioning which reduce in recovery. SA may maintain the interpersonal functioning difficulties.

  10. A Concept Space Approach to Addressing the Vocabulary Problem in Scientific Information Retrieval: An Experiment on the Worm Community System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsinchun; Ng, Tobun D.; Martinez, Joanne; Schatz, Bruce R.

    1997-01-01

    Presents an algorithmic approach to addressing the vocabulary problem in scientific information retrieval and information sharing, using the molecular biology domain as an example. A cognitive study and a follow-up document retrieval study were conducted using first a conjoined fly-worm thesaurus and then an actual worm database and the conjoined…

  11. Musculature in sipunculan worms: ontogeny and ancestral states.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Anja; Rice, Mary E

    2009-01-01

    Molecular phylogenetics suggests that the Sipuncula fall into the Annelida, although they are morphologically very distinct and lack segmentation. To understand the evolutionary transformations from the annelid to the sipunculan body plan, it is important to reconstruct the ancestral states within the respective clades at all life history stages. Here we reconstruct the ancestral states for the head/introvert retractor muscles and the body wall musculature in the Sipuncula using Bayesian statistics. In addition, we describe the ontogenetic transformations of the two muscle systems in four sipunculan species with different developmental modes, using F-actin staining with fluorescent-labeled phalloidin in conjunction with confocal laser scanning microscopy. All four species, which have smooth body wall musculature and less than the full set of four introvert retractor muscles as adults, go through developmental stages with four retractor muscles that are eventually reduced to a lower number in the adult. The circular and sometimes the longitudinal body wall musculature are split into bands that later transform into a smooth sheath. Our ancestral state reconstructions suggest with nearly 100% probability that the ancestral sipunculan had four introvert retractor muscles, longitudinal body wall musculature in bands and circular body wall musculature arranged as a smooth sheath. Species with crawling larvae have more strongly developed body wall musculature than those with swimming larvae. To interpret our findings in the context of annelid evolution, a more solid phylogenetic framework is needed for the entire group and more data on ontogenetic transformations of annelid musculature are desirable.

  12. 26 CFR 1.1336-1 - Basis of recovered property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....1336-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES War Loss Recoveries § 1.1336-1 Basis of recovered property. (a) General rule. (1... considered the fair market value of such recovered property upon the date of its recovery with the...

  13. 26 CFR 1.1336-1 - Basis of recovered property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....1336-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) War Loss Recoveries § 1.1336-1 Basis of recovered property. (a) General... property is considered the fair market value of such recovered property upon the date of its recovery...

  14. 26 CFR 1.1336-1 - Basis of recovered property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ....1336-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) War Loss Recoveries § 1.1336-1 Basis of recovered property. (a) General... property is considered the fair market value of such recovered property upon the date of its recovery...

  15. 26 CFR 1.1336-1 - Basis of recovered property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ....1336-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) War Loss Recoveries § 1.1336-1 Basis of recovered property. (a) General... property is considered the fair market value of such recovered property upon the date of its recovery...

  16. 26 CFR 1.1336-1 - Basis of recovered property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....1336-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) War Loss Recoveries § 1.1336-1 Basis of recovered property. (a) General... property is considered the fair market value of such recovered property upon the date of its recovery...

  17. Phosphorus distribution in a soil fertilized with recovered manure phosphates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) can be recovered in a concentrated form from livestock manure and poultry litter. A greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate the short-term leaching potential and plant availability of P from recovered P materials from liquid pig manure (SRP) and broiler litter (LRP) in a characteri...

  18. The 14 Worst Myths about Recovered Mental Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    Fourteen myths about recovered mental patients are discussed in this pamphlet. The myths are introduced in a true/false checklist. Famous recovered victims of mental illness are cited, most notably Abraham Lincoln. Three vignettes concerning non-famous people and the rebuffs they faced as they attempted to become self-sufficient are presented.…

  19. Fertilizing cotton with P recovered from swine wastewater

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new treatment technology has been developed to recover soluble P from waste on swine (Sus scrofa domesticus) farms. Our objective was to compare this recovered P to triple superphosphate and broiler litter for soil availability, leaching, and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) plant P concentration. A...

  20. 48 CFR 245.607-2 - Recovering precious metals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recovering precious metals... Disposal of Contractor Inventory 245.607-2 Recovering precious metals. (b) Precious metals are silver, gold... office with disposition instructions for certain categories of precious metals-bearing...

  1. 48 CFR 945.607-2 - Recovering precious metals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recovering precious metals... Recovering precious metals. (b) Contractors generating contractor inventory containing precious metals shall... the DOE precious metals pool. This includes all precious metals in any form, including shapes,...

  2. 48 CFR 945.607-2 - Recovering precious metals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Recovering precious metals... Recovering precious metals. (b) Contractors generating contractor inventory containing precious metals shall... the DOE precious metals pool. This includes all precious metals in any form, including shapes,...

  3. 48 CFR 945.607-2 - Recovering precious metals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Recovering precious metals... Recovering precious metals. (b) Contractors generating contractor inventory containing precious metals shall... the DOE precious metals pool. This includes all precious metals in any form, including shapes,...

  4. Simvastatin and artesunate impact the structural organization of adult Schistosoma mansoni in hypercholesterolemic mice.

    PubMed

    Alencar, Alba Cristina Miranda de Barros; Santos, Thais da Silva; Neves, Renata Heisler; Lopes Torres, Eduardo José; Nogueira-Neto, José Firmino; Machado-Silva, José Roberto

    2016-08-01

    Experimental data have shown that simvastatin and artesunate possess activity against Schistosoma mansoni worms in mice fed standard chow. However, little is known regarding the roles of these drugs in mice fed high-fat chow. We have extended past studies by measuring the effects of these drugs on the structural organization of adult schistosomes in hypercholesterolemic mice. For this purpose, mice were gavaged with either simvastatin or artesunate at nine weeks post-infection and were euthanized by cervical dislocation at two weeks post-treatment. Adult worms were then collected and examined by conventional light microscopy, morphometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Plasma total cholesterol and worm reduction rates were significantly increased in mice fed high-fat chow compared with their respective control groups. Simvastatin and artesunate caused changes in the tegument, tubercles, and reproductive system (testicular lobes, vitelline glands and ovarian cells), particularly when administered to mice fed high-fat chow. In particular, the tegument and tubercles were significantly thinner in artesunate-treated worms in mice fed high-fat chow compared with mice fed standard chow. This study thus demonstrated that simvastatin and artesunate have several novel effects on the structural organization of adult worms. Together, these results show, for the first time, that simvastatin and artesunate display antischistosomal activity in hypercholesterolemic mice.

  5. Energy Engineering Analysis Program (EEAP), Worms Military Community, West Germany, revised executive summary. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    1986-08-01

    This document is the Executive Summary of the Phase II Energy Report for the Energy Engineering Analysis Program (EEAP) for the Worms, West Germany Military Community. The purpose of this document is to present analysis of potential energy conservation projects at each of the sites.

  6. "Kill the Army Worms! Let Them Live!:" Facing an Ecological Dilemma in a Democratic Classroom Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wister, Pam; Beaton, Kathy; Nason, Pam

    2000-01-01

    Describes how a primary teacher handled an argument among her students over what to do about army worms defoliating an apple tree, thereby illustrating how she cultivates a classroom community that nurtures democracy. Such stories of morally coherent practices counter the bureaucratic insistence on a narrowly construed outcomes-based education.…

  7. Cold-adapted tubulins in the glacier ice worm, Mesenchytraeus solifugus.

    PubMed

    Tartaglia, Lawrence J; Shain, Daniel H

    2008-11-01

    Glacier ice worms, Mesenchytraeus solifugus and related species, are the only known annelids that survive obligately in glacier ice and snow. One fundamental component of cold temperature adaptation is the ability to polymerize tubulin, which typically depolymerizes at low physiological temperatures (e.g., <10 degrees C) in most temperate species. In this study, we isolated two alpha-tubulin (Msalpha1, Msalpha2) and two beta-tubulin (Msbeta1, Msbeta2) subunits from an ice worm cDNA library, and compared their predicted amino acid sequences with homologues from other cold-adapted organisms (e.g., Antarctic fish, ciliate) in an effort to identify species-specific amino acid substitutions that contribute to cold temperature-dependent tubulin polymerization. Our comparisons and predicted protein structures suggest that ice worm-specific amino acid substitutions stabilize lateral contact associations, particularly between beta-tubulin protofilaments, but these substitutions occur at different positions in comparison with other cold-adapted tubulins. The ice worm tubulin gene family appears relatively small, comprising one primary alpha- and one primary beta-tubulin monomers, though minor isoforms and pseudogenes were identified. Our analyses suggest that variation occurs in the strategies (i.e., species-specific amino acid substitutions, gene number) by which cold-adapted taxa have evolved the ability to polymerize tubulin at low physiological temperatures.

  8. A case of Fasciola hepatica infection mimicking cholangiocarcinoma and ITS-1 sequencing of the worm.

    PubMed

    Kang, Bong Kyun; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Lee, Yoon Suk; Hwang, In Kyeom; Lim, Hyemi; Cho, Jaeeun; Hwang, Jin-Hyeok; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2014-04-01

    Fascioliasis is a zoonotic infection caused by Fasciola hepatica or Fasciola gigantica. We report an 87-year-old Korean male patient with postprandial abdominal pain and discomfort due to F. hepatica infection who was diagnosed and managed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with extraction of 2 worms. At his first visit to the hospital, a gallbladder stone was suspected. CT and magnetic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) showed an intraductal mass in the common bile duct (CBD) without proximal duct dilatation. Based on radiological findings, the presumed diagnosis was intraductal cholangiocarcinoma. However, in ERCP which was performed for biliary decompression and tissue diagnosis, movable materials were detected in the CBD. Using a basket, 2 living leaf-like parasites were removed. The worms were morphologically compatible with F. hepatica. To rule out the possibility of the worms to be another morphologically close species, in particular F. gigantica, 1 specimen was processed for genetic analysis of its ITS-1 region. The results showed that the present worms were genetically identical (100%) with F. hepatica but different from F. gigantica.

  9. Performance of a worm algorithm in ϕ4 theory at finite quartic coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korzec, Tomasz; Vierhaus, Ingmar; Wolff, Ulli

    2011-07-01

    Worm algorithms have been very successful with the simulation of sigma models with fixed length spins which result from scalar field theories in the limit of infinite quartic coupling λ. Here we investigate closer their algorithmic efficiency at finite and even vanishing λ for the one component model in dimensions D = 2 , 3 , 4.

  10. Anisakiasis ('herring worm disease') as a cause of acute abdominal crisis.

    PubMed

    Kark, A E; McAlpine, J C

    1994-01-01

    A hazard associated with eating raw fish is presented. The larval nematode Anisakis marina ('herring worm') is a recognised public health problem in Japan, and cases have been reported in the UK. The intestinal burrowing of the larval form causes acute abdominal symptoms clinically resembling acute appendicitis. Operation is required; no antiparasitic agent is available.

  11. Intestinal epithelial cell secretion of RELM-beta protects against gastrointestinal worm infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    IL-4 and IL-13 protect against parasitic helminths, but little is known about the mechanism of host protection. We show that IL-4/IL-13 confer immunity against worms by inducing intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) to differentiate into goblet cells that secrete resistin-like molecule beta (RELMB). R...

  12. Analog modeling of Worm-Like Chain molecules using macroscopic beads-on-a-string.

    PubMed

    Tricard, Simon; Feinstein, Efraim; Shepherd, Robert F; Reches, Meital; Snyder, Phillip W; Bandarage, Dileni C; Prentiss, Mara; Whitesides, George M

    2012-07-07

    This paper describes an empirical model of polymer dynamics, based on the agitation of millimeter-sized polymeric beads. Although the interactions between the particles in the macroscopic model and those between the monomers of molecular-scale polymers are fundamentally different, both systems follow the Worm-Like Chain theory.

  13. Bore holes and the vanishing of guinea worm disease in Ghana's upper region.

    PubMed

    Hunter, J M

    1997-07-01

    Ghana's Upper Region provides an excellent example of the beneficial effects of improved water security provided by hand-pump tube wells. Following a Ghana-Canada bilateral development project that installed some 2500 pumps, protection rates against guinea worm disease may be estimated as 88% in the west, and 96% in the east. Survey comparisons between ca 1960 and 1990 show that dracunculiasis declined in 32 of a total of 38 areas. The shadow of guinea worm has been lifted from the land and, in many areas, a true "vanishing" has occurred. The few areas of disease increase are characterized by the lowest population densities, pioneer settlement for cotton farming, and an absence of bore holes. Vagaries of development have inadvertently produced disease transformations or "metamorphoses" from dracunculiasis to elephantiasis (lymphatic filariasis) in one area, and to red water disease (schistosomiasis hematobium) in other areas. Correlative associations between pump densities and guinea worm disease are weakened by the large size of areas for which disease is reported in 1990. One preliminary finding is that geographical distance to the pump is a stronger influence than demographic pressure on pumps, regarding dracunculiasis. Diminishing returns on higher pump densities in many areas support the idea of making fuller, safer use of supplementary non-pump water. Despite crises of fee payment and pump maintenance, the rural bore hole project has struck a mortal blow against guinea worm, and permanently raised the quality of life in the Upper Region.

  14. Integrated CD-ROM and WORM Optical Disk Systems on the Navy's Paperless Ship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiel, Thomas J.

    1992-01-01

    The integration of optical disk systems employing WORM (Write Once Read Many) technology with CD-ROM systems can enhance information management. Two integrated system applications are the Paperless Ship Project of the U.S. Navy and the FEDLOG (Federal Logistics Data on CD-ROM) of the Defense Logistics Agency. These initiatives are described and…

  15. Molecular phylogeny of echiuran worms (Phylum: Annelida) reveals evolutionary pattern of feeding mode and sexual dimorphism.

    PubMed

    Goto, Ryutaro; Okamoto, Tomoko; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Hamamura, Yoichi; Kato, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    The Echiura, or spoon worms, are a group of marine worms, most of which live in burrows in soft sediments. This annelid-like animal group was once considered as a separate phylum because of the absence of segmentation, although recent molecular analyses have placed it within the annelids. In this study, we elucidate the interfamily relationships of echiuran worms and their evolutionary pattern of feeding mode and sexual dimorphism, by performing molecular phylogenetic analyses using four genes (18S, 28S, H3, and COI) of representatives of all extant echiuran families. Our results suggest that Echiura is monophyletic and comprises two unexpected groups: [Echiuridae+Urechidae+Thalassematidae] and [Bonelliidae+Ikedidae]. This grouping agrees with the presence/absence of marked sexual dimorphism involving dwarf males and the paired/non-paired configuration of the gonoducts (genital sacs). Furthermore, the data supports the sister group relationship of Echiuridae and Urechidae. These two families share the character of having anal chaetae rings around the posterior trunk as a synapomorphy. The analyses also suggest that deposit feeding is a basal feeding mode in echiurans and that filter feeding originated once in the common ancestor of Urechidae. Overall, our results contradict the currently accepted order-level classification, especially in that Echiuroinea is polyphyletic, and provide novel insights into the evolution of echiuran worms.

  16. Diversity of Polychaeta (Annelida) and other worm taxa in mangrove habitats of Darwin Harbour, northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalfe, K. N.; Glasby, C. J.

    2008-02-01

    In this paper data on the diversity, distribution and abundance of polychaetes and other worm taxa in the mangroves of Darwin Harbour, northern Australia, are presented and compared with those of other tropical mangrove areas. Aspects of the feeding guild ecology and the effects of disturbance on mangrove worms are also examined. Data were collected over a period of four years, across four mangrove assemblages. Samples were obtained using three sampling techniques: 1 m × 1 m quadrat searches, epifauna searches and a new infaunal sampling technique, the anoxic mat. A total of 76 species (68 polychaetes, 1 oligochaete, 1 echiuran, 3 sipunculans, 2 nemerteans, 1 turbellarian) were recorded from the four main mangrove assemblages. Of these, 30 species are widespread, occurring in mangrove and non-mangrove habitats throughout the Indo-west Pacific. Only seven species (all polychaetes) appear to be restricted to the mangroves of Darwin Harbour and northern Australia. Polychaetes are predominant, comprising 80-96% of all worms sampled, with three families—Nereididae, Capitellidae and Spionidae—accounting for 46% of all species. The highest diversity and abundance was recorded in the soft, unconsolidated substrates of the seaward assemblage, with diversity and abundance decreasing progressively in the landward assemblages. Most of the worm fauna was infaunal (70%), but the intensive sampling regime revealed a hitherto unknown significant percentage of epifaunal species (18%) and species occurring as both infauna and epifauna (12%). Univariate analyses showed annual and seasonal differences in worm species richness and abundance—presumably associated with the intensity of the monsoon and recruitment success. The worm fauna differed between mangrove assemblages but the proportion of species in each feeding guild was relatively consistent across the four assemblages studied. Herbivores were the most species-rich and abundant, followed by carnivores and sub

  17. Low-level parasitic worm burdens may reduce body condition in free-ranging red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    PubMed

    Irvine, R J; Corbishley, H; Pilkington, J G; Albon, S D

    2006-10-01

    Regulation of ungulate populations by parasites relies on establishing a density-dependent relationship between infection and vital demographic rates which may act through the effect of parasites on body condition. We examine evidence for parasite impacts in 285 red deer (Cervus elaphus) harvested during 1991 and 1992 on the Isle of Rum. In the abomasa, prevalence of nematodes was 100% and the most abundant genus observed were Ostertagia species, however, mean intensity of infection was low (less than 1000) relative to other studies. Additional species, also present in low numbers, included Nematodirus spp., Capillaria spp., Cooperia spp., Monieza expanza, Oesophagostomum venulosum and Trichuris ovis. Lungworm (Dictyocaulus spp.) and tissue worm (Elaphostronygylus cervi) larvae were also observed in faecal samples. There was no evidence for acquired immunity to abomasal nematodes. Despite low levels of infection, both adult male and female deer showed significant negative correlation between indices of condition (kidney fat index, dressed carcass weight and larder weight) and intensity of Ostertagia spp. infection. However, there was no evidence that pregnancy rate in females was related to intensity of infection. For calves, there was no relationship between body condition and intensity of infection. The apparent subclinical effects of low-level parasite infection on red deer performance could alternatively be due to animals in poorer nutritional state being more susceptible to infection. Either way the results suggest that further studies of wild populations are justified, in particular where high local host densities exist or alternative ungulate hosts are present, and, where experimental treatments are tractable.

  18. Instruction in behavior modification can significantly alter soil-transmitted helminth (STH) re-infection following therapeutic de-worming.

    PubMed

    Albright, Julia W; Basaric-Keys, Jasna

    2006-01-01

    Five elementary ("prototypic") schools located in five districts in central Java were selected and the children examined for helminth infections (Ascaris, Trichuris, hookworm). They were de-wormed with a course of mebendazole and provided with 6-7 months of "behavioral remediation instruction" (BRI). In other ("control") schools, children were treated with mebendazole but were not provided BRI. The objective was to determine the effectiveness of BRI in minimizing infection/re-infection following deworming. After the 6-7 month course of BRI in the prototypic schools, all the children (in both the prototypic and control schools) were re-examined for geohelminth infection. The schools in two of the five districts were omitted from further analysis because the overall prevalence of infection was low (<10%) and the infections were dominated by hookworm which are only moderately susceptible to mebendazole. Comparisons of prototypic and control schools in the other three districts provided compelling evidence that BRI was quite effective in reducing both the frequency and intensity of infection with Ascaris and Trichuris. We suggest that instructing children and adults corrects personal habits which are conducive to infection and can be an effective and safe substitute for repeated deworming, reducing the opportunity for the emergence of drug-resistant helminthes, which should prolong the time benzimidazoles may be used for treatment of geohelminth infection.

  19. The further application of MTT-formazan colorimetry to studies on filarial worm viability.

    PubMed

    Comley, J C; Townson, S; Rees, M J; Dobinson, A

    1989-09-01

    Experiments have confirmed that MTT-formazan colorimetry in its simplest form (incubation of intact worms with MTT and direct visualisation of any formazan formed) can be readily applied to several species of filariae including Onchocerca volvulus. Data is presented which will assist the development of quantitative MTT reduction viability tests for a selection of the smaller filarial species. Assays of pieces of Onchocerca gutturosa and O. volvulus females have led us to tentatively conclude that the tips of filariae, particularly the anterior ends, may well be metabolically the most active part of the worm. Selective sampling of these regions for Onchocerca might therefore be a useful indicator for the viability of the parasite. An example of how MTT-formazan colorimetry has been applied to yield additional data to support motility observations on the in vitro survival of male O. gutturosa is also given. The in vitro timecourse of worm death caused by 10 microM CGP 20376 on Acanthocheilonema viteae females has been examined by MTT reduction and compared with 6 other non-subjective parameters. The results suggests that the parameters examined could be divided into two groups according to the time taken for CGP 20376 to cause 50% inhibition (t50) of the parameter. Fast response parameters had t50's between 1 and 6 h (motility indices, 14CO2 evolution, adenine uptake and leucine uptake), they are more sensitive measures of viability and indicate possible worm damage which may or may not be reversible. Slow response parameters had t50's between 34 and 48.5 h (lactate output, MTT reduction and adenine leakage), and are probably linked with severe degenerative changes and are indicative of worm death.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Understanding Human-Plasmodium falciparum Immune Interactions Uncovers the Immunological Role of Worms

    PubMed Central

    Roussilhon, Christian; Brasseur, Philippe; Agnamey, Patrice; Pérignon, Jean-Louis; Druilhe, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Background Former studies have pointed to a monocyte-dependant effect of antibodies in protection against malaria and thereby to cytophilic antibodies IgG1 and IgG3, which trigger monocyte receptors. Field investigations have further documented that a switch from non-cytophilic to cytophilic classes of antimalarial antibodies was associated with protection. The hypothesis that the non-cytophilic isotype imbalance could be related to concomittant helminthic infections was supported by several interventions and case-control studies. Methods and Findings We investigated here the hypothesis that the delayed acquisition of immunity to malaria could be related to a worm-induced Th2 drive on antimalarial immune responses. IgG1 to IgG4 responses against 6 different parasite-derived antigens were analyzed in sera from 203 Senegalese children, half carrying intestinal worms, presenting 421 clinical malaria attacks over 51 months. Results show a significant correlation between the occurrence of malaria attacks, worm carriage (particularly that of hookworms) and a decrease in cytophilic IgG1 and IgG3 responses and an increase in non-cytophilic IgG4 response to the merozoite stage protein 3 (MSP3) vaccine candidate. Conclusion The results confirm the association with protection of anti-MSP3 cytophilic responses, confirm in one additional setting that worms increase malaria morbidity and show a Th2 worm-driven pattern of anti-malarial immune responses. They document why large anthelminthic mass treatments may be worth being assessed as malaria control policies. PMID:20174576

  1. Are block copolymer worms more effective Pickering emulsifiers than block copolymer spheres?

    PubMed

    Thompson, K L; Mable, C J; Cockram, A; Warren, N J; Cunningham, V J; Jones, E R; Verber, R; Armes, S P

    2014-11-21

    RAFT-mediated polymerisation-induced self-assembly (PISA) is used to prepare six types of amphiphilic block copolymer nanoparticles which were subsequently evaluated as putative Pickering emulsifiers for the stabilisation of n-dodecane-in-water emulsions. It was found that linear poly(glycerol monomethacrylate)-poly(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate) (PGMA-PHPMA) diblock copolymer spheres and worms do not survive the high shear homogenisation conditions used for emulsification. Stable emulsions are obtained, but the copolymer acts as a polymeric surfactant; individual chains rather than particles are adsorbed at the oil-water interface. Particle dissociation during emulsification is attributed to the weakly hydrophobic character of the PHPMA block. Covalent stabilisation of these copolymer spheres or worms can be readily achieved by addition of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) during the PISA synthesis. TEM studies confirm that the resulting cross-linked spherical or worm-like nanoparticles survive emulsification and produce genuine Pickering emulsions. Alternatively, stabilisation can be achieved by either replacing or supplementing the PHPMA block with the more hydrophobic poly(benzyl methacrylate) (PBzMA). The resulting linear spheres or worms also survive emulsification and produce stable n-dodecane-in-water Pickering emulsions. The intrinsic advantages of anisotropic worms over isotropic spheres for the preparation of Pickering emulsions are highlighted. The former particles are more strongly adsorbed at similar efficiencies compared to spheres and also enable smaller oil droplets to be produced for a given copolymer concentration. The scalable nature of PISA formulations augurs well for potential applications of anisotropic block copolymer nanoparticles as Pickering emulsifiers.

  2. Guinea worm disease in Ayod, Upper Nile Province, southern Sudan: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Guthmann, J P; Mercer, A J; Gandubert, C; Morin, F

    1996-02-01

    Upper Nile Province is one of the four main endemic areas for Guinea worm disease in the Sudan. In December 1994, a survey was conducted in the village of Ayod where the disease is endemic, to investigate morbidity and local knowledge of transmission and prevention. Interviews were conducted in households selected by standard cluster sampling procedures and of the 759 people examined, 156 (20.6%) had Guinea worm lesions. Adjusted odds ratios were used to estimate the relative risk for people with different personal or household characteristics in a multivariate analysis. After controlling for the possible confounding effects of other study variables, having a filter in the household, gender, and lack of knowledge about transmission and about prevention, were not associated with lesions. Only two variables were significantly associated with Guinea worm disease: getting water from a source other than a well increased the risk by a factor of 2.3, and being aged 5 years or more increased the risk by a factor of 31.1. This study demonstrates the clear association between the source of water for drinking and Guinea worm disease found elsewhere. We suggest the provision of reliable sources of pure drinking water and health education are the most suitable long-term preventive measures. The Sudan now represents the greatest challenge to the goal of global eradication of Guinea worm disease, following the reduction in cases in Nigeria. The continuing civil war and insecurity in southern Sudan hinder the implementation of an effective water programme and other control measures, but the potential benefits through reduced incapacity and improved agricultural productivity are considerable.

  3. Here, There and Everywhere: The Radiolar Eyes of Fan Worms (Annelida, Sabellidae).

    PubMed

    Bok, Michael J; Capa, María; Nilsson, Dan-Eric

    2016-11-01

    Fan worms (Annelida: Sabellidae) possess some of the strangest eyes in nature. Their eponymous fans are composed of two sets of radiolar tentacles that project from the head up out of the worm's protective tube into the water column. Primarily used for respiration and feeding, these radioles are also often involved in photoreception. They display a surprising diversity of eyes of varying levels of sophistication, ranging from scattered single ocelli to compound eyes with up to hundreds of facets. These photoreceptors could represent a relatively recent evolutionary development to cope with a sessile, tube-dwelling lifestyle, and the primary cerebral eyes (haplessly positioned within the tube most of the time) amount to little more than minute pigment cups with scant visual potential. The radiolar eyes on the other hand, appear to function as visual burglar alarms for detecting looming predators and eliciting a startle response for the worm to rapidly retreat within its fortified tube. Despite sometimes resembling arthropod compound eyes, the radiolar photoreceptors have many canonically vertebrate-like physiological characteristics. Considering the unusual and apparently recently evolved nature of the fan worm radiolar photoreceptors, these animals are an excellent case for examining the emergence of novel visual systems, the development of rudimentary visually guided behaviors, and the function of distributed sensory systems. Here, we review over 100 years of investigations into the anatomical diversity of sabellid radiolar photoreceptors and eyes in an evolutionary and functional context. We provide new information on radiolar eye structure in several species of fan worms, and we attempt to organize the various eye types and ocellar structures into meaningful hierarchies. We discuss the developmental, evolutionary, and functional significance of the radiolar eyes and highlight areas of future interest in deciphering their unique nature.

  4. Formation of Worm-Like Micelles in Mixed N-Hexadecyl-N-Methylpyrrolidinium Bromide-Based Cationic Surfactant and Anionic Surfactant Systems

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Caili; Yan, Zhihu; You, Qing; Du, Mingyong; Zhao, Mingwei

    2014-01-01

    Through the descriptive and rheological characterization of worm-like micelles formed by N-hexadecyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bromide and sodium laurate, the formation and properties of the worm-like micelles were affected by the concentrations of sodium laurate and temperature. Additionally, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy images further validated the formation of worm-like micelles. PMID:25019152

  5. Recovering Bi and Sb from electrolyte in copper electrorefining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, K.; Tsuchida, N.

    1997-12-01

    The separation of antimony and bismuth in copper electrorefining is somewhat difficult and costly. An ion-exchange technique for the removal of the metals from the electrolyte has been practiced recently, although the metals recovered require further processing. Sumitomo Metal Mining has developed a process to recover antimony and bismuth directly from the eluant by an electrowinning process using a mixture of sulfuric acid and sodium chloride as an eluant for the desorption from the resin. The content of bismuth in the antimony metal recovered by this process was less than 0.2%, while the content of antimony in the bismuth metal was less than 0.4%.

  6. Proportion of recovered goose and brant bands that are reported

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martinson, R.K.; McCann, J.A.

    1966-01-01

    A few more than one-third of the goose and brant bands recovered by hunters were reported to the Bird Banding Laboratory (a rate of 0.361) during the 1962-64 hunting seasons. We calculated this band-reporting rate by comparing the estimated number of goose and brant bands recovered by hunters, based on a mail questionnaire survey, with the number of bands actually reported to the Bird Banding Laboratory. This band-reporting rate is probably representative only of the 1962-65 period. It is likely that, in earlier years, a greater proportion (perhaps about 0.60) of recovered goose and brant bands were reported.

  7. Pin Worms Presenting as Suspected Crohn’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Al-Saffar, Farah; Najjar, Nimeh; Ibrahim, Saif; Clark, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Female, 24 Final Diagnosis: Pinworms infection Symptoms: Abdominal pain • bloating Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Colonoscopy and biopsy Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Rare disease Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is well recognized in developed countries and is generally among the differential diagnoses of young patients presenting with refractory diarrhea once other more common etiologies have been excluded. Pinworm infections, on the other hand, are not as common among adults in the United States. Case Report: Based on computed tomography features, a 24-year-old female patient with a history of multiple autoimmune disorders presented with abdominal pain and was diagnosed recently with Crohn’s disease. Colonoscopy was significant for pinworms seen throughout the colon. Colonic biopsy was negative for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-related changes. Conclusions: The diagnosis of IBD is a serious label that requires biopsy confirmation before committing to possibly lifelong treatment and possible adverse effects. Even in the most typical patient and when the presentation and imaging are classical, uncommon conditions (like Enterobius infection in this case) may preclude appropriate diagnosis and management. PMID:26471462

  8. Gravity worms in the prospecting of epigenetic gold deposits: Example from the Northern Fennoscandian Shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahti, Ilkka; Nykänen, Vesa; Niiranen, Tero

    2010-05-01

    Mapping of mineralized geologic structures using geophysical potential field datasets has become an essential part of present-day exploration projects. Various geophysical processing and semiautomatic interpretation techniques have provided new tools into the field of conventional exploration process. Such is the multiscale edge detection or "worming-technique" introduced by Hornby et al., (1999). Worms are representations of the maxima of potential field horizontal gradients. They are calculated at different upward continuation levels providing an alternative view into potential field anomalies and geometry of the anomaly sources. In this work we use the worming-technique on the regional gravity dataset collected by the Geological Survey of Finland during the last four decades in the northern Finland. The dataset consists of more than 19 000 ground gravity observations covering an area of about 15000 km2 with an average site separation of 0.5 - 1 km. The study area covers the central part of the 2.4-2.0 Ga Central Lapland Greenstone belt (CLGB) which is one of the largest Proterozoic greenstone terrains in the world. The CLGB hosts numerous gold occurrences of varying type and size. The majority of the gold occurrences fall into the orogenic gold category but also Iron Oxide-Copper-Gold (IOCG) and paleoplacer types are known within the region (e.g. Eilu et al., 2007). Currently the largest known deposit in the area is the Suurikuusikko orogenic gold deposit with current resources exceeding 5 million ounces Au. The largest known gold resources in IOCG type deposit is in the Hannukainen deposit with ca. 200 000 ounces of gold. All the known orogenic gold and IOCG deposits in the CLGB show intimate spatial correlation to shear zones of varying scale. Processed gravity worms display striking spatial correlation with the known orogenic gold and IOCG deposits. In some cases the gold hosting shear zones are outlined by gravity worms either completely (Sirkka shear zone

  9. A Robust Cross-Linking Strategy for Block Copolymer Worms Prepared via Polymerization-Induced Self-Assembly

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A poly(glycerol monomethacrylate) (PGMA) chain transfer agent is chain-extended by reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) statistical copolymerization of 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate (HPMA) with glycidyl methacrylate (GlyMA) in concentrated aqueous solution via polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA). A series of five free-standing worm gels is prepared by fixing the overall degree of polymerization of the core-forming block at 144 while varying its GlyMA content from 0 to 20 mol %. 1H NMR kinetics indicated that GlyMA is consumed much faster than HPMA, producing a GlyMA-rich sequence close to the PGMA stabilizer block. Temperature-dependent oscillatory rheological studies indicate that increasing the GlyMA content leads to progressively less thermoresponsive worm gels, with no degelation on cooling being observed for worms containing 20 mol % GlyMA. The epoxy groups in the GlyMA residues can be ring-opened using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) in order to prepare core cross-linked worms via hydrolysis-condensation with the siloxane groups and/or hydroxyl groups on the HPMA residues. Perhaps surprisingly, 1H NMR analysis indicates that the epoxy–amine reaction and the intermolecular cross-linking occur on similar time scales. Cross-linking leads to stiffer worm gels that do not undergo degelation upon cooling. Dynamic light scattering studies and TEM analyses conducted on linear worms exposed to either methanol (a good solvent for both blocks) or anionic surfactant result in immediate worm dissociation. In contrast, cross-linked worms remain intact under such conditions, provided that the worm cores comprise at least 10 mol % GlyMA. PMID:27134311

  10. Early Brain Stimulation May Help Stroke Survivors Recover Language Function

    MedlinePlus

    ... Making News on Heart.org Learn More Early brain stimulation may help stroke survivors recover language function ... org and strokeassociation.org Related Images Infographic - Thiel-Brain Stimulation copyright American Heart Association Download (311.8 ...

  11. 48 CFR 52.223-4 - Recovered Material Certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 1976 (42 U.S.C. 6962(c)(3)(A)(i)), the offeror certifies, by signing this offer, that the percentage of....223-4 Recovered Material Certification. As prescribed in 23.406(c), insert the following...

  12. 48 CFR 52.223-4 - Recovered Material Certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 1976 (42 U.S.C. 6962(c)(3)(A)(i)), the offeror certifies, by signing this offer, that the percentage of....223-4 Recovered Material Certification. As prescribed in 23.406(c), insert the following...

  13. Improving CO2 Efficiency for Recovering Oil in Heterogeneous Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Grigg, Reid B.; Svec, Robert K.

    2003-03-10

    The work strived to improve industry understanding of CO2 flooding mechanisms with the ultimate goal of economically recovering more of the U.S. oil reserves. The principle interests are in the related fields of mobility control and injectivity.

  14. Why Some Kids Take Longer to Recover from Brain Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... Why Some Kids Take Longer to Recover From Brain Injury Scans reveal white-matter decline after some ... 15, 2017 WEDNESDAY, March 15, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Brain scans may reveal which children will take longer ...

  15. Analysis of ``soft`` recovered shaped charge jet particles

    SciTech Connect

    Lassila, D.H.; Nikkel, D.J. Jr.; Kershaw, R.P.; Walters, W.P.

    1996-04-01

    A shaped charge with an 81 mm diameter, 42{degree} apex angle oxygen-free high-conductivity (OFHC) copper conical liner was fired into a ``soft`` recovery bunker to allow metallurgical examination of recovered jet particles and the slug. The initial weight of the copper liner was 245 g, of which 184 g was recovered. The number of jet particles recovered was 37 (approximately 63% of the particles formed by the charge). Extensive metallurgical analyses were performed on the recovered slug and jet particles. The microstructural features associated with voids, e.g., dendritic grain growth, clearly indicate that the regions in the vicinity of the centerline of the slug and jet particles were melted. In this work the authors present calculations of jet temperature as a function of constitutive behavior. In order to predict melt in the center region of the jet they find it necessary to scale flow stress with a pressure dependent shear modulus.

  16. Recovering from childhood sexual abuse: a theoretical framework for practice and research.

    PubMed

    Chouliara, Z; Karatzias, T; Gullone, A

    2014-02-01

    Research on survivors' experiences of recovering from childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been limited and focused on those with severe mental health difficulties. This study elicited experiences of recovery from CSA in male and female survivors who have/have not utilized mental health services. The tangible end-point was to propose a theoretical model of personally meaningful recovery. This is a qualitative study, which utilized semi-structured individual interviews following the critical incident technique. Transcripts were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis to identify recurrent themes. A total 22 adult survivors of CSA. Main themes identified were: The Affected Self, Factors Hindering Recovery, Factors Enhancing Recovery, The Hurdles of Recovery and the Recovering Self. The affected self included: lack of boundary awareness and self-blame, over self-reliance, over-vigilance and guilt, shame, aloneness and social stigma. The recovering self was characterized by increasing confidence, assertiveness, ability to self-care and self-acceptance, and by embracing vulnerability. These findings have potentially major implications for clinical practice, service provision, policy development and professional training in this field. The importance of disclosure in the healing process seemed paramount and can have major implications for current service protocols.

  17. From the worm to the pill, the parasitic worm product ES-62 raises new horizons in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Pineda, M A; Eason, R J; Harnett, M M; Harnett, W

    2015-04-01

    Evidence from human studies suggests that parasitic worm infection can protect humans against rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and this idea is strengthened by data generated in model systems. Although therapeutic use of parasitic worms is currently being explored, there are obvious benefits in pursuing drug development through identification and isolation of the 'active ingredients'. ES-62 is a secreted glycoprotein of the filarial nematode Acanthocheilonema viteae, which we have found to protect against the development of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice. ES-62 activity is dependent on the inflammatory phenotype of the local environment and protection arises via inhibition of Th17- and γδT cell-dependent IL-17 production. At the same time, NK and NK T cell IL-17 production is left intact, and such selectivity suggests that ES-62 might make a particularly attractive therapeutic for RA. However, as a potentially immunogenic protein, ES-62 is unsuitable for development as a drug. Nevertheless, ES-62 activity is dependent on covalently attached phosphorylcholine (PC) residues and we have therefore produced a library of PC-based drug-like ES-62 small-molecule analogues (SMAs) as an alternative therapeutic strategy. Screening this library, we have found an ES-62 SMA that mirrors ES-62 in protecting against CIA and by the same IL-17-dependent mechanism of action.

  18. Extracorporeal worm extraction of Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense with amidotrizoic acid in a child.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hye Kyung; Roh, Joo-Hyung; Oh, Jae-Won; Ryu, Jae-Sook; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Chung, Dong-Il; Kim, Yong Joo

    2014-12-01

    Infection cases of diphyllobothriid tapeworms are not much in the below teen-age group. We report a case of Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense infection in a 13-year-old boy. He presented with severe fatigue, occasional abdominal pain at night time. He also had several episodes of tapeworm segment discharge in his stools. By his past history, he had frequently eaten raw fish including salmon and trout with his families. Numerous eggs of diphyllobothriid tapeworm were detected in the fecal examination. We introduced amidotrizoic acid as a cathartic agent through nasogastroduodenal tube and let nearly whole length (4.75 m) of D. nihonkaiense be excreted through his anus. After a single dose of praziquantel, the child's stool showed no further eggs, and his symptoms disappeared. The evacuated worm was identified as D. nihonkaiense by mitochondrial cox1 gene analysis. Here we report a successful extracorporeal worm extraction from an infection case of D. nihonkaiense by the injection of amidotrizoic acid.

  19. Extracorporeal Worm Extraction of Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense with Amidotrizoic Acid in a Child

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hye Kyung; Roh, Joo-Hyung; Oh, Jae-Won; Ryu, Jae-Sook; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Chung, Dong-Il

    2014-01-01

    Infection cases of diphyllobothriid tapeworms are not much in the below teen-age group. We report a case of Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense infection in a 13-year-old boy. He presented with severe fatigue, occasional abdominal pain at night time. He also had several episodes of tapeworm segment discharge in his stools. By his past history, he had frequently eaten raw fish including salmon and trout with his families. Numerous eggs of diphyllobothriid tapeworm were detected in the fecal examination. We introduced amidotrizoic acid as a cathartic agent through nasogastroduodenal tube and let nearly whole length (4.75 m) of D. nihonkaiense be excreted through his anus. After a single dose of praziquantel, the child's stool showed no further eggs, and his symptoms disappeared. The evacuated worm was identified as D. nihonkaiense by mitochondrial cox1 gene analysis. Here we report a successful extracorporeal worm extraction from an infection case of D. nihonkaiense by the injection of amidotrizoic acid. PMID:25548421

  20. Hooking some stem-group "worms": fossil lophotrochozoans in the Burgess Shale.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, Nicholas J

    2006-12-01

    The fossil record plays a key role in reconstructing deep evolutionary relationships through its documentation of the early diverging stem groups leading to extant phyla. In the middle Cambrian Burgess Shale, two famously problematic worms, Odontogriphus and Wiwaxia, have recently been reinterpreted as stem-group molluscs based on their shared expression of a putative radula and putative ctenidia in Odontogriphus. More detailed analysis of these fossil structures, however, reveals pronounced anatomical and histological discrepancies with molluscan analogues, such that they are more reliably interpreted as primitive features of the superphylum Lophotrochozoa. In the absence of any obviously derived characters, Odontogriphus could be placed in the stem group of the Lophotrochozoa or on the stem of any of its constituent phyla, whereas the dorsal covering of chaetae in Wiwaxia identifies it as a stem-group polychaete. Despite their close relationship, these two jawed, segmented worms could conceivably represent the early stages of two separate phyla.

  1. Ephemeral bio-engineers or reef-building polychaetes: how stable are aggregations of the tube worm Lanice conchilega (Pallas, 1766)?

    PubMed

    Callaway, Ruth; Desroy, Nicolas; Dubois, Stanislas F; Fournier, Jérôme; Frost, Matthew; Godet, Laurent; Hendrick, Vicki J; Rabaut, Marijn

    2010-08-01

    Dense aggregations of tube-worms can stabilize sediments and generate oases for benthic communities that are different and often more diverse and abundant than those of the surroundings. If these features are to qualify as biogenic reefs under nature-conservation legislation such as the EC Habitats Directive, a level of stability and longevity is desirable aside from physical and biological attributes. Lanice conchilega (Pallas, 1766) is widely distributed around the European coast and aggregations of this tube-dwelling polychaete are known to have a positive effect on the biodiversity of associated species in inter- and sub-tidal areas. This increases the value of L. conchilega-rich habitats for higher trophic levels such as birds and fish. However, L. conchilega is currently not recognized as a reef builder primarily due to uncertainty about the stability of their aggregations. We carried out three studies on different spatial and temporal scales to explore a number of properties relating to stability: (1) Individual aggregations of L. conchilega of ∼1 m(2) were monitored for up to 1 year, (2) records of L. conchilega from a 258-ha area over a 35-year period were analyzed, (3) the recovery of a population of L. conchilega subjected to disturbances by cultivation of Manila clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) was followed over 3 years. The studies provided evidence about the longevity of L. conchilega aggregations, their resistance to disturbance, their resilience in recovering from negative impact and their large-scale persistence. The results showed that populations of L. conchilega were prone to considerable fluctuation and the stability of aggregations depended on environmental factors and on recruitment. The tube-worms proved to be susceptible to disturbance by cultivation of Manila clams but demonstrated the potential to recover from that impact. The long-term monitoring of a large L. conchilega population in the Bay of Mont Saint Michel (France) indicated that

  2. Heterophyid trematodes recovered from people residing along the Boseong River, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Chai, Jong-Yil; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Kim, Deok-Gyu; Kim, Jae-Lip; Lim, Hyemi; Shin, Eun-Hee; Lee, Keon Hoon; Kim, Mok Ryeon; Han, Sun Jin; Yeom, Jae Hyun; Park, Sun Mi; Hwang, Jae-Sun

    2015-08-01

    We conducted an epidemiological survey to determine the status of heterophyid fluke infections among people residing along the Boseong River, Gokseong-gun, South Korea (= Korea) from October 2011 to February 2012. Fecal specimens were collected from 115 (male 51, female 64) people and examined for intestinal helminth eggs using the Kato-Katz thick smear technique. The eggs of Metagonimus yokogawai together with other Metagonimus spp. were detected in 28 (24.3%) cases. Eleven egg positive people were treated with 10mg/kg praziquantel followed by MgSO4 purging in order to recover the adult flukes. Whole consecutive diarrheic stools were collected individually 4-5 times. Adult flukes recovered were 66,499 specimens (6045.4/positive case) of M. yokogawai, 343 (38.1) of Metagonimus miyatai, 3293 (299.4) of Metagonimus takahashii, 81 (20.3) of Heterophyes nocens, 6 (3.0) of Heterophyopsis continua, and 1 (1.0) of Stictodora fuscata. The results indicated that the surveyed area is a highly endemic area of metagonimiasis (three Metagonimus species) with low-grade mixed infections of 3 other heterophyid flukes. The infected people experienced variable degrees of gastrointestinal discomfort and indigestion. They consumed raw freshwater and brackish water fish, including sweetfish and mullets. It is strongly recommended that people residing in the survey area avoid eating raw fish to prevent M. yokogawai and other heterophyid infections.

  3. Defense role of the cocoon in the silk worm Bombyx mori L.

    PubMed

    Pandiarajan, Jeyaraj; Cathrin, Britto P; Pratheep, Thangaraj; Krishnan, Muthukalingan

    2011-11-15

    Silk from the domesticated silk worm Bombyx mori procures foreign body response naturally, so it has been utilized as a biomaterial for decades. In India the prime focus of the sericulture industry is to improve silk production with high quality silk. Naturally, the silk worm builds its cocoon not only with silk proteins, but also with antimicrobial proteins to avoid infection since the cocoon is non-motile and non-feeding. The aim of the present study is to elucidate the antimicrobial proteins that persist in the cocoon of the silk worm Bombyx mori. At the pupal stage, the silk worm cocoon shell extract was prepared from the day of pupation (P0) to the day of natural rupture of the cocoon for the eclosion of moth (NR). Using the cocoon shell extract a microbial susceptibility test was performed by the disc diffusion method against the microbes Escherchia coli, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The development of a zone of inhibition against the microbes confirmed the presence of antimicrobial/immunogenic activity of the cocoon shell extract. For further analysis, the cocoon shell extract was subjected to 7-15% sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The protein profile of the cocoon extract revealed the coomassie blue stained bands resolved from the 150-15 kDa molecular range. Interestingly, a polypeptide localized at around 29 kDa showed remarkable expressional changes during the development of pupa. To characterize the 29 kDa protein, it was eluted from the gel, digested with trypsin and analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). The trypsin-digested peptide peaks were analyzed through MASCOT and peptides were matched with the NCBI nr database. The peptides were very well matched with the 18 wheeler protein, which is reported to be responsible for innate immunity, belonging to the Toll family in insects and responsible for cellular

  4. The Vicious Worm: a computer-based Taenia solium education tool.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Maria Vang; Trevisan, Chiara; Braae, Uffe Christian; Magnussen, Pascal; Ertel, Rebekka Lund; Mejer, Helena; Saarnak, Christopher F L

    2014-08-01

    Ignorance is a major obstacle for the effective control of diseases. To provide evidence-based knowledge about prevention and control of Taenia solium cysticercosis, we have developed a computer-based education tool: 'The Vicious Worm'. The tool targets policy makers, professionals, and laypeople, and comprises educational materials including illustrated short stories, videos, and scientific texts designed for the different target groups. We suggest that evidence-based health education is included as a specific control measure in any control programme.

  5. ABC Triblock Copolymer Worms: Synthesis, Characterization, and Evaluation as Pickering Emulsifiers for Millimeter-Sized Droplets

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA) is used to prepare linear poly(glycerol monomethacrylate)–poly(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate)–poly(benzyl methacrylate) [PGMA–PHPMA–PBzMA] triblock copolymer nano-objects in the form of a concentrated aqueous dispersion via a three-step synthesis based on reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. First, GMA is polymerized via RAFT solution polymerization in ethanol, then HPMA is polymerized via RAFT aqueous solution polymerization, and finally BzMA is polymerized via “seeded” RAFT aqueous emulsion polymerization. For certain block compositions, highly anisotropic worm-like particles are obtained, which are characterized by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The design rules for accessing higher order morphologies (i.e., worms or vesicles) are briefly explored. Surprisingly, vesicular morphologies cannot be accessed by targeting longer PBzMA blocks—instead, only spherical nanoparticles are formed. SAXS is used to rationalize these counterintuitive observations, which are best explained by considering subtle changes in the relative enthalpic incompatibilities between the three blocks during the growth of the PBzMA block. Finally, the PGMA–PHPMA–PBzMA worms are evaluated as Pickering emulsifiers for the stabilization of oil-in-water emulsions. Millimeter-sized oil droplets can be obtained using low-shear homogenization (hand-shaking) in the presence of 20 vol % n-dodecane. In contrast, control experiments performed using PGMA–PHPMA diblock copolymer worms indicate that these more delicate nanostructures do not survive even these mild conditions. PMID:27795581

  6. Burial tolerances of reef-building Sabellariid worms from the east coast of Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sloan, N. J. B.; Irlandi, E. A.

    2008-04-01

    Sabellariid worms, such as Phragmatopoma lapidosa, are sessile suspension feeders that attach to exposed hard bottom and serve as foundation species for worm reefs which are complex, multifaceted habitats. While worm reefs are adapted to dynamic sedimentary environments, burial of these habitats by beach nourishment projects is a concern. This study determined duration and depth of burial that can be tolerated by P. lapidosa without death. Worm rock samples were buried in sand at 1-10 cm (1-cm intervals), and at 15, 25 and 40 cm for the duration of 72, 144, and 216 h and then surveyed for initial mortality after burial and one week after removal of sediment (latent effects). Initial mortality was similar across all burial depths for the 72-h duration with values ranging from 8.3% (±0.8 SE) for 1 cm to 24.0% (±8.0 SE) for 10 cm of sediment. As burial duration increased to 144 h, mortality generally increased as burial depth increased with an average mortality for 2 cm of sediment of 23.5% (±5.3 SE) increasing to 96.0% (±14.3 SE) with 40 cm of sediment. The mean percent mortality for burial samples in the 216 h treatment varied from a low of 71.2% (±3.3 SE) for 1 cm depth to a high of 100% (±0 SE) for 10, 15, 25, and 40 cm depths. Mortality for most treatments also increased over time after removal of sediment indicating latent effects of burial stress.

  7. Proteome adaptation to high temperatures in the ectothermic hydrothermal vent Pompeii worm.

    PubMed

    Jollivet, Didier; Mary, Jean; Gagnière, Nicolas; Tanguy, Arnaud; Fontanillas, Eric; Boutet, Isabelle; Hourdez, Stéphane; Segurens, Béatrice; Weissenbach, Jean; Poch, Olivier; Lecompte, Odile

    2012-01-01

    Taking advantage of the massive genome sequencing effort made on thermophilic prokaryotes, thermal adaptation has been extensively studied by analysing amino acid replacements and codon usage in these unicellular organisms. In most cases, adaptation to thermophily is associated with greater residue hydrophobicity and more charged residues. Both of these characteristics are positively correlated with the optimal growth temperature of prokaryotes. In contrast, little information has been collected on the molecular 'adaptive' strategy of thermophilic eukaryotes. The Pompeii worm A. pompejana, whose transcriptome has recently been sequenced, is currently considered as the most thermotolerant eukaryote on Earth, withstanding the greatest thermal and chemical ranges known. We investigated the amino-acid composition bias of ribosomal proteins in the Pompeii worm when compared to other lophotrochozoans and checked for putative adaptive changes during the course of evolution using codon-based Maximum likelihood analyses. We then provided a comparative analysis of codon usage and amino-acid replacements from a greater set of orthologous genes between the Pompeii worm and Paralvinella grasslei, one of its closest relatives living in a much cooler habitat. Analyses reveal that both species display the same high GC-biased codon usage and amino-acid patterns favoring both positively-charged residues and protein hydrophobicity. These patterns may be indicative of an ancestral adaptation to the deep sea and/or thermophily. In addition, the Pompeii worm displays a set of amino-acid change patterns that may explain its greater thermotolerance, with a significant increase in Tyr, Lys and Ala against Val, Met and Gly. Present results indicate that, together with a high content in charged residues, greater proportion of smaller aliphatic residues, and especially alanine, may be a different path for metazoans to face relatively 'high' temperatures and thus a novelty in thermophilic

  8. Proteome Adaptation to High Temperatures in the Ectothermic Hydrothermal Vent Pompeii Worm

    PubMed Central

    Jollivet, Didier; Mary, Jean; Gagnière, Nicolas; Tanguy, Arnaud; Fontanillas, Eric; Boutet, Isabelle; Hourdez, Stéphane; Segurens, Béatrice; Weissenbach, Jean; Poch, Olivier; Lecompte, Odile

    2012-01-01

    Taking advantage of the massive genome sequencing effort made on thermophilic prokaryotes, thermal adaptation has been extensively studied by analysing amino acid replacements and codon usage in these unicellular organisms. In most cases, adaptation to thermophily is associated with greater residue hydrophobicity and more charged residues. Both of these characteristics are positively correlated with the optimal growth temperature of prokaryotes. In contrast, little information has been collected on the molecular ‘adaptive’ strategy of thermophilic eukaryotes. The Pompeii worm A. pompejana, whose transcriptome has recently been sequenced, is currently considered as the most thermotolerant eukaryote on Earth, withstanding the greatest thermal and chemical ranges known. We investigated the amino-acid composition bias of ribosomal proteins in the Pompeii worm when compared to other lophotrochozoans and checked for putative adaptive changes during the course of evolution using codon-based Maximum likelihood analyses. We then provided a comparative analysis of codon usage and amino-acid replacements from a greater set of orthologous genes between the Pompeii worm and Paralvinella grasslei, one of its closest relatives living in a much cooler habitat. Analyses reveal that both species display the same high GC-biased codon usage and amino-acid patterns favoring both positively-charged residues and protein hydrophobicity. These patterns may be indicative of an ancestral adaptation to the deep sea and/or thermophily. In addition, the Pompeii worm displays a set of amino-acid change patterns that may explain its greater thermotolerance, with a significant increase in Tyr, Lys and Ala against Val, Met and Gly. Present results indicate that, together with a high content in charged residues, greater proportion of smaller aliphatic residues, and especially alanine, may be a different path for metazoans to face relatively ‘high’ temperatures and thus a novelty in

  9. The barber's pole worm CAP protein superfamily--A basis for fundamental discovery and biotechnology advances.

    PubMed

    Mohandas, Namitha; Young, Neil D; Jabbar, Abdul; Korhonen, Pasi K; Koehler, Anson V; Amani, Parisa; Hall, Ross S; Sternberg, Paul W; Jex, Aaron R; Hofmann, Andreas; Gasser, Robin B

    2015-12-01

    Parasitic worm proteins that belong to the cysteine-rich secretory proteins, antigen 5 and pathogenesis-related 1 (CAP) superfamily are proposed to play key roles in the infection process and the modulation of immune responses in host animals. However, there is limited information on these proteins for most socio-economically important worms. Here, we review the CAP protein superfamily of Haemonchus contortus (barber's pole worm), a highly significant parasitic roundworm (order Strongylida) of small ruminants. To do this, we mined genome and transcriptomic datasets, predicted and curated full-length amino acid sequences (n=45), undertook systematic phylogenetic analyses of these data and investigated transcription throughout the life cycle of H. contortus. We inferred functions for selected Caenorhabditis elegans orthologs (including vap-1, vap-2, scl-5 and lon-1) based on genetic networking and by integrating data and published information, and were able to infer that a subset of orthologs and their interaction partners play pivotal roles in growth and development via the insulin-like and/or the TGF-beta signalling pathways. The identification of the important and conserved growth regulator LON-1 led us to appraise the three-dimensional structure of this CAP protein by comparative modelling. This model revealed the presence of different topological moieties on the canonical fold of the CAP domain, which coincide with an overall charge separation as indicated by the electrostatic surface potential map. These observations suggest the existence of separate sites for effector binding and receptor interactions, and thus support the proposal that these worm molecules act in similar ways as venoms act as ligands for chemokine receptors or G protein-coupled receptor effectors. In conclusion, this review should guide future molecular studies of these molecules, and could support the development of novel interventions against haemonchosis.

  10. Host resistance and tolerance of parasitic gut worms depend on resource availability.

    PubMed

    Knutie, Sarah A; Wilkinson, Christina L; Wu, Qiu Chang; Ortega, C Nicole; Rohr, Jason R

    2017-04-01

    Resource availability can significantly alter host-parasite dynamics. Abundant food can provide more resources for hosts to resist infections, but also increase host tolerance of infections by reducing competition between hosts and parasites for food. Whether abundant food favors host resistance or tolerance (or both) might depend on the type of resource that the parasite exploits (e.g., host tissue vs. food), which can vary based on the stage of infection. In our study, we evaluated how low and high resource diets affect Cuban tree frog (Osteopilus septentrionalis) resistance and tolerance of a skin-penetrating, gut nematode Aplectana sp. at each stage of the infection. Compared to a low resource diet, a high resource diet enhanced frog resistance to worm penetration and tolerance while worms traveled to the gut. In contrast, a low resource diet increased resistance to establishment of the infection. After the infection established and worms could access food resources in the gut, a high resource diet enhanced host tolerance of parasites. On a high resource diet, parasitized frogs consumed significantly more food than non-parasitized frogs; when food was then restricted, mass of non-parasitized frogs did not change, whereas mass of parasitized frogs decreased significantly. Thus, a high resource diet increased frog tolerance of established worms because frogs could fully compensate for energy lost to the parasites. Our study shows that host-parasite dynamics are influenced by the effect of resource availability on host resistance and tolerance, which depends on when parasites have access to food and the stage of infection.

  11. Contaminant sensitivity in Neanthes arenaceodentata: The influence of worm age and food ration

    SciTech Connect

    Bridges, T.S.; Farrar, J.D.

    1995-12-31

    To evaluate the sensitivity of N. arenaceodentata to contaminated sediment the authors examined the survival and growth of newly emerged juveniles (EJ) and 3-week old (3WO) worms exposed to Black Rock Harbor sediment (BRH) diluted with uncontaminated control sediment (25, 50, 75, and 100% BRH). Worms were exposed for either 4 (EJs and 3WOs) or 7 (EJs) weeks to each concentration of BRH. Survival was significantly reduced in EJs exposed for 7 weeks to 25% BRH and for EJs and 3WOs exposed for 4 weeks to 100% BRH. Body weight, length, width, and projected area, were significantly reduced at 25% BRH. Setiger number was not reduced at 25% BRH. Calculation of the Minimum Detectable Difference (MDD) for each measure of growth indicated that body weight and projected area provided the most sensitive measure of effects. The MDD also indicated that statistical power and growth effects were of sufficient magnitude to distinguish much lower concentrations of BRH sediment (6--10% BRH). Both worm age and food ration influenced the nature of contaminant effects in Neanthes. EJs exposed to BRH showed greater effects of exposure than 3WOs. Previous work with Neanthes and BRH sediment, as well as subsequent experiments, indicate that high food ration can lessen contaminant effects. The results of this study emphasize that test animal age, food ration, and how growth measured can all influence the nature of contaminant effects and bioassay sensitivity.

  12. Effects of chitosan on oxidative stress and metallothioneins in aquatic worm Tubifex tubifex (Oligochaeta, Tubificidae).

    PubMed

    Mosleh, Yahia Y; Paris-Palacios, Séverine; Ahmed, Mohamed T; Mahmoud, F M; Osman, M A; Biagianti-Risbourg, Sylvie

    2007-02-01

    Chitosan is a natural polymer which has the property to elicit the natural defenses mechanism in plant and which can be an interesting biopesticides. It is then necessary to investigate the potential toxicity of chitosan for aquatic animal health. Metallothioneins (MTs) are low molecular weight proteins, mainly implicated in metal ion detoxification. Increase in MTs contents had been considered as a specific biomarker of metal exposure. However recently it has been demonstrated that MTs participate in several cellular functions such as regulation of growth and anti-oxidative defenses. Therefore, the induction of MTs has been investigated in the aquatic worms Tubifex tubifex exposed to chitosan. MTs levels in exposed worm increased significantly (p > 0.05) after 2, 4, and 7 days of exposure to different concentrations of chitosan (maximum + 158.19 +/- 10.2% after 2 days of exposure to 125 mgl(-1) of chitosan). Several antioxidant parameters including glutathione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), and catalase (CAT) were quantified in T. tubifex after 2, 4, and 7 days of exposure to chitosan. Exposure to chitosan had a negative effect on T. tubifex growth (maximum effect -6.11 +/- 1.6% after 7 days with 125 mgl(-1)) demonstrating the toxic effect of the pesticide. This growth rate decrease was accompanied by a reduction in protein contents. The activity of catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and glutathione reductase (GR) increased in response to the chitosan demonstrating an oxidative stress in the worms.

  13. Worms under Pressure: Bulk Mechanical Properties of C. elegans Are Independent of the Cuticle

    PubMed Central

    Gilpin, William; Uppaluri, Sravanti; Brangwynne, Clifford P.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical properties of cells and tissues play a well-known role in physiology and disease. The model organism Caenorhabditis elegans exhibits mechanical properties that are still poorly understood, but are thought to be dominated by its collagen-rich outer cuticle. To our knowledge, we use a novel microfluidic technique to reveal that the worm responds linearly to low applied hydrostatic stress, exhibiting a volumetric compression with a bulk modulus, κ = 140 ± 20 kPa; applying negative pressures leads to volumetric expansion of the worm, with a similar bulk modulus. Surprisingly, however, we find that a variety of collagen mutants and pharmacological perturbations targeting the cuticle do not impact the bulk modulus. Moreover, the worm exhibits dramatic stiffening at higher stresses—behavior that is also independent of the cuticle. The stress-strain curves for all conditions can be scaled onto a master equation, suggesting that C. elegans exhibits a universal elastic response dominated by the mechanics of pressurized internal organs. PMID:25902429

  14. Worms under Pressure: Bulk Mechanical Properties of C. elegans Are Independent of the Cuticle.

    PubMed

    Gilpin, William; Uppaluri, Sravanti; Brangwynne, Clifford P

    2015-04-21

    The mechanical properties of cells and tissues play a well-known role in physiology and disease. The model organism Caenorhabditis elegans exhibits mechanical properties that are still poorly understood, but are thought to be dominated by its collagen-rich outer cuticle. To our knowledge, we use a novel microfluidic technique to reveal that the worm responds linearly to low applied hydrostatic stress, exhibiting a volumetric compression with a bulk modulus, κ = 140 ± 20 kPa; applying negative pressures leads to volumetric expansion of the worm, with a similar bulk modulus. Surprisingly, however, we find that a variety of collagen mutants and pharmacological perturbations targeting the cuticle do not impact the bulk modulus. Moreover, the worm exhibits dramatic stiffening at higher stresses-behavior that is also independent of the cuticle. The stress-strain curves for all conditions can be scaled onto a master equation, suggesting that C. elegans exhibits a universal elastic response dominated by the mechanics of pressurized internal organs.

  15. Disinfectants/antiseptics in the management of guinea worm ulcers in the rural areas.

    PubMed

    Ogunniyi, T A; Oni, P O; Juba, A; Asaolu, S O; Kolawole, D O

    2000-01-05

    The effectiveness of trichlorophenol (TCP), chlorhexidine gluconate plus cetrimide (Savlon) and Izal in inhibiting the growth of bacterial isolates from guinea worm ulcers was investigated. Using an adaptation of the method of Russell and Furr (Russell, A.D., Furr, J.R., 1977. The antibacterial activity of a new chloroxylenol preparation containing ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 43, 253-260) the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of the three anti-microbial agents for each of the isolated bacteria was determined. Water drawn from the rural guinea worm endemic sites was autoclaved and used for the various dilutions of the anti-microbial agents. At the manufactures' recommended use-dilutions in cases of wounds/cuts/sores, Savlon showed greater effectiveness than Izal and TCP in this order. Probable organic and inorganic inhibitors in water that is usually employed in diluting anti-microbial agents in the rural areas for the dressing of guinea worm ulcers very likely had greatest effect(s) on TCP and least effect(s) on Savlon.

  16. Guinea worm: an in-depth study of what happens to mothers, families and communities.

    PubMed

    Watts, S J; Brieger, W R; Yacoob, M

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on the impact of maternal morbidity due to guinea worm, dracunculiasis, on the care and health of children under 24 months old, and the way in which the mothers and the family coped with the often extended periods of disability. This qualitative study is based on observation and in-depth interviewing, supplemented by focus group discussions. Of 42 mothers with guinea worm in two hyperendemic areas of Oyo and Kwara States, 28 were either bedridden or only able to hobble short distances with the help of a stick; the average period of incapacity was almost 9 weeks. Of the four maternal roles identified (child care, self care, domestic tasks, income generation), the women gave priority to child care; 34 of the 42 mothers needed help in child care. Coping networks operated principally within the extended family, but also included women in other households, and women from beyond the community. Thus the impact of a mother's illness extended beyond her children and family to the wider community. This qualitative study thus reveals the multifaceted impact of a disease on individuals and on the community. The study stresses the need for, and availability of, effective methods for controlling guinea worm by utilizing community cooperation to provide protected water sources and other preventive measures against the disease.

  17. WormBase ParaSite - a comprehensive resource for helminth genomics.

    PubMed

    Howe, Kevin L; Bolt, Bruce J; Shafie, Myriam; Kersey, Paul; Berriman, Matthew

    2016-11-27

    The number of publicly available parasitic worm genome sequences has increased dramatically in the past three years, and research interest in helminth functional genomics is now quickly gathering pace in response to the foundation that has been laid by these collective efforts. A systematic approach to the organisation, curation, analysis and presentation of these data is clearly vital for maximising the utility of these data to researchers. We have developed a portal called WormBase ParaSite (http://parasite.wormbase.org) for interrogating helminth genomes on a large scale. Data from over 100 nematode and platyhelminth species are integrated, adding value by way of systematic and consistent functional annotation (e.g. protein domains and Gene Ontology terms), gene expression analysis (e.g. alignment of life-stage specific transcriptome data sets), and comparative analysis (e.g. orthologues and paralogues). We provide several ways of exploring the data, including genome browsers, genome and gene summary pages, text search, sequence search, a query wizard, bulk downloads, and programmatic interfaces. In this review, we provide an overview of the back-end infrastructure and analysis behind WormBase ParaSite, and the displays and tools available to users for interrogating helminth genomic data.

  18. Dual geometric worm algorithm for two-dimensional discrete classical lattice models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hitchcock, Peter; Sørensen, Erik S.; Alet, Fabien

    2004-07-01

    We present a dual geometrical worm algorithm for two-dimensional Ising models. The existence of such dual algorithms was first pointed out by Prokof’ev and Svistunov [

    N. Prokof’ev and B. Svistunov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 160601 (2001)
    ]. The algorithm is defined on the dual lattice and is formulated in terms of bond variables and can therefore be generalized to other two-dimensional models that can be formulated in terms of bond variables. We also discuss two related algorithms formulated on the direct lattice, applicable in any dimension. These latter algorithms turn out to be less efficient but of considerable intrinsic interest. We show how such algorithms quite generally can be “directed” by minimizing the probability for the worms to erase themselves. Explicit proofs of detailed balance are given for all the algorithms. In terms of computational efficiency the dual geometrical worm algorithm is comparable to well known cluster algorithms such as the Swendsen-Wang and Wolff algorithms, however, it is quite different in structure and allows for a very simple and efficient implementation. The dual algorithm also allows for a very elegant way of calculating the domain wall free energy.

  19. Anisakis simplex: from obscure infectious worm to inducer of immune hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Audicana, M Teresa; Kennedy, Malcolm W

    2008-04-01

    Infection of humans with the nematode worm parasite Anisakis simplex was first described in the 1960s in association with the consumption of raw or undercooked fish. During the 1990s it was realized that even the ingestion of dead worms in food fish can cause severe hypersensitivity reactions, that these may be more prevalent than infection itself, and that this outcome could be associated with food preparations previously considered safe. Not only may allergic symptoms arise from infection by the parasites ("gastroallergic anisakiasis"), but true anaphylactic reactions can also occur following exposure to allergens from dead worms by food-borne, airborne, or skin contact routes. This review discusses A. simplex pathogenesis in humans, covering immune hypersensitivity reactions both in the context of a living infection and in terms of exposure to its allergens by other routes. Over the last 20 years, several studies have concentrated on A. simplex antigen characterization and innate as well as adaptive immune response to this parasite. Molecular characterization of Anisakis allergens and isolation of their encoding cDNAs is now an active field of research that should provide improved diagnostic tools in addition to tools with which to enhance our understanding of pathogenesis and controversial aspects of A. simplex allergy. We also discuss the potential relevance of parasite products such as allergens, proteinases, and proteinase inhibitors and the activation of basophils, eosinophils, and mast cells in the induction of A. simplex-related immune hypersensitivity states induced by exposure to the parasite, dead or alive.

  20. Influence of stability and fragmentation of a worm-reef on benthic macrofauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godet, Laurent; Fournier, Jérôme; Jaffré, Mikaël; Desroy, Nicolas

    2011-05-01

    In coastal areas, reef-builder worms often are bio-engineers by structuring their physical and biological environment. Many studies showed that this engineering role is determined by the densities of the engineer species itself, the highest densities approximately corresponding to the most stable areas from a sedimentological point of view, and hosting the richest and the most diverse benthic fauna. Here, we tested the potential influence of the spatio-temporal dynamics and the spatial fragmentation of one of the largest European intertidal reefs generated by the marine worm Lanice conchilega (Pallas, 1766) (Annelida, Polychaeta) on the associated benthic macrofauna. We demonstrated that the worm densities do have a significant positive role on the abundance, biomass, species richness and species diversity of the benthic macrofauna and that the reef stability also significantly influences the biomass and species diversity. Moreover, the reef fragmentation has significant negative effects on the abundance, biomass and species richness. In addition to L. conchilega densities, the stability and the spatial fragmentation of the reef also significantly structure the associated benthic assemblages. This study demonstrates the interest of "benthoscape ecology" in understanding the role played by marine engineer species from a spatial point of view.

  1. The Costs and Cost-Effectiveness of Mass Treatment for Intestinal Nematode Worm Infections Using Different Treatment Thresholds

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Andrew; Horton, Sue; de Silva, Nilanthi

    2009-01-01

    Background It is estimated that almost a half of all of people living in developing countries today are infected with roundworms, hookworms, or whipworms or combinations of these types of intestinal nematode worms. They can all be treated using safe, effective, and inexpensive single-dose generic drugs costing as little as USD 0.03 per person treated when bought in bulk. The disease caused by intestinal nematodes is strongly related to the number of worms in the gut, and it is typical to find that worms tend to be aggregated or clumped in their distribution so that <20% of people may harbour >80% of all worms. This clumping of worms is greatest when the prevalence is low. When the prevalence rises above 50%, the mean worm burden increases exponentially, worms are less clumped, and more people are likely to have moderate to heavy infections and may be diseased. Children are most at risk. For these reasons, the World Health Organization (WHO) currently recommends mass treatment of children ≥1 year old without prior diagnosis when the prevalence is ≥20% and treatment twice a year when the prevalence is ≥50%. Methods and Findings The risk of moderate to heavy infections with intestinal nematodes was estimated by applying the negative binomial probability distribution, then the drug cost of treating diseased individuals was calculated based on different threshold numbers of worms. Based on this cost analysis, a new three-tier treatment regime is proposed: if the combined prevalence is >40%, treat all children once a year; >60% treat twice a year; and >80% treat three times a year. Using average data on drug and delivery costs of USD 0.15 to treat a school-age child and USD 0.25 to treat a pre-school child (with provisos) the cost of treating children aged 2–14 years was calculated for 105 low- and low-middle-income countries and for constituent regions of India and China based on estimates of the combined prevalence of intestinal nematode worms therein. The

  2. Executive dysfunction and autobiographical memory retrieval in recovered depressed women☆

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, Anneke D.M.; Harmer, Catherine J.; Williams, J. Mark G.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Depressed individuals have difficulty remembering specific autobiographical events. These deficits often persist after recovery of mood symptoms, but the mechanisms underlying impaired memory specificity in recovered depressed individuals remain unclear. Here, we sought to examine whether performance on two cognitive measures might be related to deficits in autobiographical memory retrieval in individuals with a history of depression. Methods Twenty-four recovered depressed women (12 with more than one previous episode) and 24 never depressed women completed two cognitive measures (Digit Span and a Number Generation Task) and tests of autobiographical memory recall. Results Overall, the recovered depressed women did not show deficits in autobiographical retrieval. However, those with more than one previous episode had impaired retrieval of categorical autobiographical memories. Moreover, depression history moderated the relationship between Digit Span and retrieval of categoric autobiographical memories such that within the whole recovered depressed group (but not the never depressed group), those with lower Digit Span also had poorer retrieval of categorical autobiographical memories. Limitations Our sample size was small and included only women. Moreover, order effects may have been a significant factor. Conclusions These findings support the notion that working memory is an important factor in impairing autobiographical memory in those who have recovered from depression, but suggest a complex relationship with autobiographical recall. PMID:24374578

  3. Investigations of peritoneal and intestinal infections of adult hookworms (Uncinaria spp.) in northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) pups on San Miguel Island, California (2003).

    PubMed

    Lyons, Eugene T; Delong, R L; Nadler, S A; Laake, J L; Orr, A J; Delong, B L; Pagan, C

    2011-09-01

    The peritoneal cavity (PNC) and intestine of northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) pups and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) pups that died in late July and early August, 2003, on San Miguel Island, California, were examined for hookworms. Prevalence and morphometric studies were done with the hookworms in addition to molecular characterization. Based on this and previous molecular studies, hookworms from fur seals are designated as Uncinaria lucasi and the species from sea lions as Uncinaria species A. Adult hookworms were found in the PNC of 35 of 57 (61.4%) fur seal pups and of 13 of 104 (12.5%) sea lion pups. The number of hookworms located in the PNC ranged from 1 to 33 (median = 3) for the infected fur seal pups and 1 to 16 (median = 2) for the infected sea lion pups. In addition to the PNC, intestines of 43 fur seal and 32 sea lion pups were examined. All of these pups were positive for adult hookworms. The worms were counted from all but one of the sea lion pups. Numbers of these parasites in the intestine varied from 3 to 2,344 (median = 931) for the fur seal pups and 39 to 2,766 (median = 643) for the sea lion pups. Sea lion pups with peritoneal infections had higher intensity infections in the intestines than did pups without peritoneal infections, lending some support for the hypothesis that peritoneal infections result from high-intensity infections of adult worms. There was no difference in intestinal infection intensities between fur seal pups with and without peritoneal infections. Female adult hookworms in the intestines of both host species were significantly larger than males, and sea lion hookworms were larger than those in fur seals. Worms in the intestine also were larger than worms found in the PNC. Gene sequencing and (RFLP) analysis of (PCR) amplified (ITS) ribosomal DNA were used to diagnose the species of 172 hookworms recovered from the PNC and intestine of 18 C. ursinus and seven Z. californianus hosts

  4. Guinea worm (Dracunculus medinensis) eradication: a pilot study conducted at the Ohaukwu Local Government Areas, Ebonyi State, Nigeria, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Ogamdi, S O; Onwe, F

    2001-01-01

    The incidence and the prevalence of Guinea worm disease, a major cause of disability and a frequent cause of serious permanent deformity, were both drastically reduced in Ohaukwu Local Government Communities, with the provision (through bore holes) of a safer form of drinking water. Since 1986, the Carter Center program has been working to eradicate Guinea worm. The bore holes were dug through the Wasatan Project, a Japanese-funded grant awarded to the Enugu State Ministry of Health to help provide safer drinking water in the local communities. Bore holes were dug in several communities in Ohaukwu Local Government Areas between January 1991 and June 1991. The number of Guinea worm cases in the selected communities was ascertained and recorded by health workers. There was more than a 90% reduction in the number of Guinea worm (Dracunculus medinensis) cases after one year. Data collection began in June 1991, shortly after the completion of bore holes in the selected communities. By December 1998, when one of the villages was spot checked for Guinea worm infection, no active case was found. There is a need for post evaluation of all the villages studied to determine the current prevalence of Guinea worm disease.

  5. 21 CFR 520.1242a - Levamisole powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... infections: Stomach worms (Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, Ostertagia); intestinal worms (Trichostrongylus... the following adult nematode infections: Stomach worms (Haemonchus placei, Ostertagia ostertagi... infections: Stomach worms (Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, Ostertagia); intestinal worms...

  6. 21 CFR 520.1242a - Levamisole powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... infections: Stomach worms (Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, Ostertagia); intestinal worms (Trichostrongylus... the following adult nematode infections: Stomach worms (Haemonchus placei, Ostertagia ostertagi... infections: Stomach worms (Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, Ostertagia); intestinal worms...

  7. Recovering pointwise values of discontinuous data within spectral accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gottlieb, D.; Tadmor, E.

    1985-01-01

    The pointwise values of a function, f(x), can be accurately recovered either from its spectral or pseudospectral approximations, so that the accuracy solely depends on the local smoothness of f in the neighborhood of the point x. Most notably, given the equidistant function grid values, its intermediate point values are recovered within spectral accuracy, despite the possible presence of discontinuities scattered in the domain. (Recall that the usual spectral convergence rate decelerates otherwise to first order, throughout). To this end, a highly oscillatory smoothing kernel is employed in contrast to the more standard positive unit-mass mollifiers. In particular, post-processing of a stable Fourier method applied to hyperbolic equations with discontinuous data, recovers the exact solution modulo a spectrally small error. Numerical examples are presented.

  8. Presentation video retrieval using automatically recovered slide and spoken text

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Matthew

    2013-03-01

    Video is becoming a prevalent medium for e-learning. Lecture videos contain text information in both the presentation slides and lecturer's speech. This paper examines the relative utility of automatically recovered text from these sources for lecture video retrieval. To extract the visual information, we automatically detect slides within the videos and apply optical character recognition to obtain their text. Automatic speech recognition is used similarly to extract spoken text from the recorded audio. We perform controlled experiments with manually created ground truth for both the slide and spoken text from more than 60 hours of lecture video. We compare the automatically extracted slide and spoken text in terms of accuracy relative to ground truth, overlap with one another, and utility for video retrieval. Results reveal that automatically recovered slide text and spoken text contain different content with varying error profiles. Experiments demonstrate that automatically extracted slide text enables higher precision video retrieval than automatically recovered spoken text.

  9. Method of recovering oil-based fluid and apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkley, H.E.

    1993-07-20

    A method is described for recovering oil-based fluid from a surface having oil-based fluid thereon comprising the steps of: applying to the oil-based fluid on the surface an oil-based fluid absorbent cloth of man-made fibers, the cloth having at least one napped surface that defines voids therein, the nap being formed of raised ends or loops of the fibers; absorbing, with the cloth, oil-based fluid; feeding the cloth having absorbed oil-based fluid to a means for applying a force to the cloth to recover oil-based fluid; and applying force to the cloth to recover oil-based fluid therefrom using the force applying means.

  10. Mechanisms of Recovering Low Cycle Fatigue Damage in Incoloy 901.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    Quality at Less Cost," Metals Prog. 106/2, 80-82 (July 1974). 20. D. Raynor and J. M. Silcock, "Strengthening Mechanisms in Gamma -Prime Precipitating...Z AO-A107 255 AIR FORCE INST OF TLCH WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH F/A Il/A MECHANISMS OF RECOVERING LOW CYCLE FATIGUE OAMAGE IN INCOLOY 90-ETC(U) 1979 R E... MECHANISMS OF RECOVERING LOW CYCLE FATIGUE DAMAGE IN INCOLOY 901 Robert E. Schafrik, Capt. USAF (Ph.D.) The Ohio State University, 1979 Professor James A

  11. Susceptible-infected-recovered model with recurrent infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruziska, Flávia M.; Tomé, Tânia; de Oliveira, Mário J.

    2017-02-01

    We analyze a stochastic lattice model describing the spreading of a disease among a community composed by susceptible, infected and removed individuals. A susceptible individual becomes infected catalytically. An infected individual may, spontaneously, either become recovered, that is, acquire a permanent immunization, or become again susceptible. The critical properties including the phase diagram is obtained by means of mean-field theories as well as numerical simulations. The model is found to belong to the universality class of dynamic percolation except when the recovering rate vanishes in which case the model belongs to the directed percolation universality class.

  12. ParaCalc®--a novel tool to evaluate the economic importance of worm infections on the dairy farm.

    PubMed

    Charlier, Johannes; Van der Voort, Mariska; Hogeveen, Henk; Vercruysse, Jozef

    2012-03-23

    Subclinical infections with gastrointestinal nematodes and liver fluke are important causes of production losses in grazing cattle. Although there is an extensive compilation of literature describing the effect of these infections on animal performance, only a few attempts have been made to convert these production losses to an economic cost. Here, we propose a novel tool (ParaCalc(®)), available as a web-application, to provide herd-specific estimates of the costs of these infections on dairy farms. ParaCalc(®) is a deterministic spread-sheet model where results from diagnostic methods to monitor the helminth infection status on a herd and anthelmintic usage are used as input parameters. Default values are provided to describe the effects of the infections on production and the cost of these production losses, but the latter can be adapted to improve the herd-specificity of the cost estimate. After development, ParaCalc(®) was applied on input parameters that were available for 93 Belgian dairy herds. In addition, the tool was provided to 6 veterinarians and their user experiences were evaluated. The estimated median [25th-75th percentile] cost per year per cow was € 46 [29-58] and € 6 [0-19] for gastrointestinal nematode and liver fluke infection, respectively. For both infections, the major components in the total costs were those associated with milk production losses in the adult cows. The veterinarians evaluated ParaCalc(®) as a useful tool to raise the farmers' awareness on the costs of worm infections, providing added value for their services. However, the score given for user-friendliness was diverse among users. Although the model behind ParaCalc(®) is a strong simplification of the real herd processes inducing economic losses, the tool may be used in the future to support economic decisions on helminth control.

  13. Intestinal Helminths Recovered from Humans in Xieng Khouang Province, Lao PDR with a Particular Note on Haplorchis pumilio Infection.

    PubMed

    Chai, Jong-Yil; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Yong, Tai-Soon; Eom, Keeseon S; Min, Duk-Young; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Insisiengmay, Sithat; Phommasack, Bounlay; Rim, Han-Jong

    2015-08-01

    A survey of intestinal helminths was undertaken in riparian people in Xieng Khouang Province, Lao PDR. Fecal specimens were collected from 643 people (289 males and 354 females) residing in 4 districts (Nonghet, Kham, Phoukout, and Pek) and were examined by the Kato-Katz technique. The overall helminth egg positive rate was 41.2%, and hookworms revealed the highest prevalence (32.7%) followed by Trichuris trichiura (7.3%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (5.6%). The positive rate for small trematode eggs (STE), which may include Opisthorchis viverrini, heterophyids, and lecithodendriids, was 4.4%. For recovery of adult helminths, 12 STE or nematode/cestode egg-positive people were treated with 40 mg/kg praziquantel and 15 mg/kg pyrantel pamoate, and then purged. Mixed infections with 2 Haplorchis species (H. pumilio and H. taichui), Centrocestus formosanus, Opisthorchis viverrini, a species of cestode (Taenia saginata), and several species of nematodes including hookworms and Enterobius vermicularis were detected. The worm load for trematodes was the highest for H. pumilio with an average of 283.5 specimens per infected person followed by C. formosanus, H. taichui, and O. viverrini. The worm load for nematodes was the highest for hookworms (21.5/infected case) followed by E. vermicularis (3.2/infected case). The results revealed that the surveyed areas of Xieng Khouang Province, Lao PDR are endemic areas of various species of intestinal helminths. The STE found in the surveyed population were verified to be those of heterophyids, particularly H. pumilio.

  14. Intestinal Helminths Recovered from Humans in Xieng Khouang Province, Lao PDR with a Particular Note on Haplorchis pumilio Infection

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Jong-Yil; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Yong, Tai-Soon; Eom, Keeseon S.; Min, Duk-Young; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Insisiengmay, Sithat; Phommasack, Bounlay; Rim, Han-Jong

    2015-01-01

    A survey of intestinal helminths was undertaken in riparian people in Xieng Khouang Province, Lao PDR. Fecal specimens were collected from 643 people (289 males and 354 females) residing in 4 districts (Nonghet, Kham, Phoukout, and Pek) and were examined by the Kato-Katz technique. The overall helminth egg positive rate was 41.2%, and hookworms revealed the highest prevalence (32.7%) followed by Trichuris trichiura (7.3%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (5.6%). The positive rate for small trematode eggs (STE), which may include Opisthorchis viverrini, heterophyids, and lecithodendriids, was 4.4%. For recovery of adult helminths, 12 STE or nematode/cestode egg-positive people were treated with 40 mg/kg praziquantel and 15 mg/kg pyrantel pamoate, and then purged. Mixed infections with 2 Haplorchis species (H. pumilio and H. taichui), Centrocestus formosanus, Opisthorchis viverrini, a species of cestode (Taenia saginata), and several species of nematodes including hookworms and Enterobius vermicularis were detected. The worm load for trematodes was the highest for H. pumilio with an average of 283.5 specimens per infected person followed by C. formosanus, H. taichui, and O. viverrini. The worm load for nematodes was the highest for hookworms (21.5/infected case) followed by E. vermicularis (3.2/infected case). The results revealed that the surveyed areas of Xieng Khouang Province, Lao PDR are endemic areas of various species of intestinal helminths. The STE found in the surveyed population were verified to be those of heterophyids, particularly H. pumilio. PMID:26323842

  15. Identification and characterisation of microRNAs in young adults of Angiostrongylus cantonensis via a deep-sequencing approach

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Shih-Hsin; Tang, Petrus; Lai, Cheng-Hung; Kuo, Ming-Ling; Wang, Lian-Chen

    2013-01-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is an important causative agent of eosinophilic meningitis and eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in humans. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that participate in a wide range of biological processes. This study employed a deep-sequencing approach to study miRNAs from young adults of A. cantonensis. Based on 16,880,456 high-quality reads, 252 conserved mature miRNAs including 10 antisense miRNAs that belonging to 90 families, together with 10 antisense miRNAs were identified and characterised. Among these sequences, 53 miRNAs from 25 families displayed 50 or more reads. The conserved miRNA families were divided into four groups according to their phylogenetic distribution and a total of nine families without any members showing homology to other nematodes or adult worms were identified. Stem-loop real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of aca-miR-1-1 and aca-miR-71-1 demonstrated that their level of expression increased dramatically from infective larvae to young adults and then decreased in adult worms, with the male worms exhibiting significantly higher levels of expression than female worms. These findings provide information related to the regulation of gene expression during the growth, development and pathogenesis of young adults of A. cantonensis. PMID:24037191

  16. Can the soil fauna of boreal forests recover from lead-derived stress in a shooting range area?

    PubMed

    Selonen, Salla; Liiri, Mira; Setälä, Heikki

    2014-04-01

    The responses of soil faunal communities to lead (Pb) contamination in a shooting range area and the recovery of these fauna after range abandonment were studied by comparing the communities at an active shotgun shooting range, an abandoned shooting range, and a control site, locating in the same forest. Despite the similar overall Pb pellet load at the shooting ranges, reaching up to 4 kg m(-2), Pb concentrations in the top soil of the abandoned range has decreased due to the accumulation of detritus on the soil surface. As a consequence, soil animal communities were shown to recover from Pb-related disturbances by utilizing the less contaminated soil layer. Microarthropods showed the clearest signs of recovery, their numbers and community composition being close to those detected at the control site. However, in the deepest organic soil layer, the negative effects of Pb were more pronounced at the abandoned than at the active shooting range, which was detected as altered microarthropod and nematode community structures, reduced abundances of several microarthropod taxa, and the total absence of enchytraeid worms. Thus, although the accumulation of fresh litter on soil surface can promote the recovery of decomposer communities in the top soil, the gradual release of Pb from corroding pellets may pose a long-lasting risk for decomposer taxa deeper in the soil.

  17. Metabolic changes in Avena sativa crowns recovering from freezing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extensive research has been conducted on cold acclimation and freezing tolerance of fall-sown cereal plants due to their economic importance; however, little has been reported on the biochemical changes occurring over time after the freezing conditions are replaced by conditions favorable for recove...

  18. Silver-palladium braze alloy recovered from masking materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cierniak, R.; Colman, G.; De Carlo, F.

    1966-01-01

    Method for recovering powdered silver-palladium braze alloy from an acrylic spray binder and rubber masking adhesive used in spray brazing is devised. The process involves agitation and dissolution of masking materials and recovery of suspended precious metal particles on a filter.

  19. Process for recovering niobium from uranium-niobium alloys

    DOEpatents

    Wallace, Steven A.; Creech, Edward T.; Northcutt, Walter G.

    1983-01-01

    Niobium is recovered from scrap uranium-niobium alloy by melting the scrap with tin, solidifying the billet thus formed, heating the billet to combine niobium with tin therein, placing the billet in hydrochloric acid to dissolve the uranium and leave an insoluble residue of niobium stannide, then separating the niobium stannide from the acid.

  20. Process for recovering niobium from uranium-niobium alloys

    DOEpatents

    Wallace, S.A.; Creech, E.T.; Northcutt, W.G.

    1982-09-27

    Niobium is recovered from scrap uranium-niobium alloy by melting the scrap with tin, solidifying the billet thus formed, heating the billet to combine niobium with tin therein, placing the billet in hydrochloric acid to dissolve the uranium and form a precipitate of niobium stannide, then separating the precipitate from the acid.