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Sample records for adult-directed speech ads

  1. The Effect of Hearing Loss on the Perception of Infant- and Adult-Directed Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Susie; von Hapsburg, Deborah; Hay, Jessica S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Infant-directed speech (IDS) facilitates language learning in infants with normal hearing, compared to adult-directed speech (ADS). It is well established that infants with normal hearing prefer to listen to IDS over ADS. The purpose of this study was to determine whether infants with hearing impairment (HI), like their NH peers, show a…

  2. Acoustic-Phonetic Differences between Infant- and Adult-Directed Speech: The Role of Stress and Utterance Position

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Seidl, Amanda; Cristia, Alejandrina

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that infant-directed speech (IDS) differs from adult-directed speech (ADS) on a variety of dimensions. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether acoustic differences between IDS and ADS in English are modulated by prosodic structure. We compared vowels across the two registers (IDS, ADS) in both stressed…

  3. Mature neural responses to Infant-Directed Speech but not Adult-Directed Speech in Pre-Verbal Infants

    PubMed Central

    Peter, Varghese; Kalashnikova, Marina; Santos, Aimee; Burnham, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Infant directed speech (IDS), the speech register adults use when talking to infants, has been shown to have positive effects on attracting infants’ attention, language learning, and emotional communication. Here event related potentials (ERPs) are used to investigate the neural coding of IDS and ADS (adult directed speech) as well as their discrimination by both infants and adults. Two instances of the vowel /i/, one extracted from ADS and one from IDS, were presented to 9-month-old infants and adults in two oddball conditions: ADS standard/IDS deviant and IDS standard/ADS deviant. In Experiment 1 with adults, the obligatory ERPs that code acoustic information were different for ADS and IDS; and discrimination, indexed by mismatch negativity (MMN) responses, showed that IDS and ADS deviants were discriminated equally well; although, the P3a response was larger for IDS suggesting it captured adults’ attention more than did ADS. In infants the obligatory responses did not differ for IDS and ADS, but for discrimination, while IDS deviants generated both a slow-positive mismatch response (MMR) as well as an adult-like MMN, the ADS deviants generated only an MMR. The presence of a mature adult-like MMN suggests that the IDS stimulus is easier to discriminate for infants. PMID:27677352

  4. Audio-Visual Perception of Gender by Infants Emerges Earlier for Adult-Directed Speech

    PubMed Central

    Richoz, Anne-Raphaëlle; Quinn, Paul C.; Hillairet de Boisferon, Anne; Berger, Carole; Loevenbruck, Hélène; Lewkowicz, David J.; Lee, Kang; Dole, Marjorie; Caldara, Roberto; Pascalis, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Early multisensory perceptual experiences shape the abilities of infants to perform socially-relevant visual categorization, such as the extraction of gender, age, and emotion from faces. Here, we investigated whether multisensory perception of gender is influenced by infant-directed (IDS) or adult-directed (ADS) speech. Six-, 9-, and 12-month-old infants saw side-by-side silent video-clips of talking faces (a male and a female) and heard either a soundtrack of a female or a male voice telling a story in IDS or ADS. Infants participated in only one condition, either IDS or ADS. Consistent with earlier work, infants displayed advantages in matching female relative to male faces and voices. Moreover, the new finding that emerged in the current study was that extraction of gender from face and voice was stronger at 6 months with ADS than with IDS, whereas at 9 and 12 months, matching did not differ for IDS versus ADS. The results indicate that the ability to perceive gender in audiovisual speech is influenced by speech manner. Our data suggest that infants may extract multisensory gender information developmentally earlier when looking at adults engaged in conversation with other adults (i.e., ADS) than when adults are directly talking to them (i.e., IDS). Overall, our findings imply that the circumstances of social interaction may shape early multisensory abilities to perceive gender. PMID:28060872

  5. Sixteen-Month-Old Infants' Segment Words from Infant- and Adult-Directed Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mani, Nivedita; Pätzold, Wiebke

    2016-01-01

    One of the first challenges facing the young language learner is the task of segmenting words from a natural language speech stream, without prior knowledge of how these words sound. Studies with younger children find that children find it easier to segment words from fluent speech when the words are presented in infant-directed speech, i.e., the…

  6. Phonetic Category Cues in Adult-Directed Speech: Evidence from Three Languages with Distinct Vowel Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pons, Ferran; Biesanz, Jeremy C.; Kajikawa, Sachiyo; Fais, Laurel; Narayan, Chandan R.; Amano, Shigeaki; Werker, Janet F.

    2012-01-01

    Using an artificial language learning manipulation, Maye, Werker, and Gerken (2002) demonstrated that infants' speech sound categories change as a function of the distributional properties of the input. In a recent study, Werker et al. (2007) showed that Infant-directed Speech (IDS) input contains reliable acoustic cues that support distributional…

  7. Phonetic variation in consonants in infant-directed and adult-directed speech: the case of regressive place assimilation in word-final alveolar stops.

    PubMed

    Dilley, Laura C; Millett, Amanda L; McAuley, J Devin; Bergeson, Tonya R

    2014-01-01

    Pronunciation variation is under-studied in infant-directed speech, particularly for consonants. Regressive place assimilation involves a word-final alveolar stop taking the place of articulation of a following word-initial consonant. We investigated pronunciation variation in word-final alveolar stop consonants in storybooks read by forty-eight mothers in adult-directed or infant-directed style to infants aged approximately 0;3, 0;9, 1;1, or 1;8. We focused on phonological environments where regressive place assimilation could occur, i.e., when the stop preceded a word-initial labial or velar consonant. Spectrogram, waveform, and perceptual evidence was used to classify tokens into four pronunciation categories: canonical, assimilated, glottalized, or deleted. Results showed a reliable tendency for canonical variants to occur in infant-directed speech more often than in adult-directed speech. However, the otherwise very similar distributions of variants across addressee and age group suggested that infants largely experience statistical distributions of non-canonical consonantal pronunciation variants that mirror those experienced by adults.

  8. Phonetic Variation in Consonants in Infant-Directed and Adult-Directed Speech: The Case of Regressive Place Assimilation in Word-Final Alveolar Stops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilley, Laura C.; Millett, Amanda L.; McAuley, J. Devin; Bergeson, Tonya R.

    2014-01-01

    Pronunciation variation is under-studied in infant-directed speech, particularly for consonants. Regressive place assimilation involves a word-final alveolar stop taking the place of articulation of a following word-initial consonant. We investigated pronunciation variation in word-final alveolar stop consonants in storybooks read by forty-eight…

  9. Changes in Infant Directed Speech in the First Six Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englund, Kjellrun; Behne, Dawn

    2006-01-01

    The Mother-Infant Phonetic Interaction model (MIPhI) predicts that, compared with adult directed speech (ADS), in infant directed speech (IDS) vowels will be overspecified and consonants underspecified during the infants' first 6 months. In a longitudinal natural study, six mothers' ADS and IDS were recorded on 10 occasions during the first 6…

  10. Frontal Brain Electrical Activity (EEG) and Heart Rate in Response to Affective Infant-Directed (ID) Speech in 9-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santesso, Diane L.; Schmidt, Louis A.; Trainor, Laurel J.

    2007-01-01

    Many studies have shown that infants prefer infant-directed (ID) speech to adult-directed (AD) speech. ID speech functions to aid language learning, obtain and/or maintain an infant's attention, and create emotional communication between the infant and caregiver. We examined psychophysiological responses to ID speech that varied in affective…

  11. Phonetic Modification of Vowel Space in Storybook Speech to Infants up to 2 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnham, Evamarie B.; Wieland, Elizabeth A.; Kondaurova, Maria V.; McAuley, J. Devin; Bergeson, Tonya R.; Dilley, Laura C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: A large body of literature has indicated vowel space area expansion in infant-directed (ID) speech compared with adult-directed (AD) speech, which may promote language acquisition. The current study tested whether this expansion occurs in storybook speech read to infants at various points during their first 2 years of life. Method: In 2…

  12. Adding articulatory features to acoustic features for automatic speech recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Zlokarnik, I.

    1995-05-01

    A hidden-Markov-model (HMM) based speech recognition system was evaluated that makes use of simultaneously recorded acoustic and articulatory data. The articulatory measurements were gathered by means of electromagnetic articulography and describe the movement of small coils fixed to the speakers` tongue and jaw during the production of German V{sub 1}CV{sub 2} sequences [P. Hoole and S. Gfoerer, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. Suppl. 1 {bold 87}, S123 (1990)]. Using the coordinates of the coil positions as an articulatory representation, acoustic and articulatory features were combined to make up an acoustic--articulatory feature vector. The discriminant power of this combined representation was evaluated for two subjects on a speaker-dependent isolated word recognition task. When the articulatory measurements were used both for training and testing the HMMs, the articulatory representation was capable of reducing the error rate of comparable acoustic-based HMMs by a relative percentage of more than 60%. In a separate experiment, the articulatory movements during the testing phase were estimated using a multilayer perceptron that performed an acoustic-to-articulatory mapping. Under these more realistic conditions, when articulatory measurements are only available during the training, the error rate could be reduced by a relative percentage of 18% to 25%.

  13. Adding irrelevant information to the content prime reduces the prime-induced unmasking effect on speech recognition.

    PubMed

    Wu, Meihong; Li, Huahui; Gao, Yayue; Lei, Ming; Teng, Xiangbin; Wu, Xihong; Li, Liang

    2012-01-01

    Presenting the early part of a nonsense sentence in quiet improves recognition of the last keyword of the sentence in a masker, especially a speech masker. This priming effect depends on higher-order processing of the prime information during target-masker segregation. This study investigated whether introducing irrelevant content information into the prime reduces the priming effect. The results showed that presenting the first four syllables (not including the second and third keywords) of the three-keyword target sentence in quiet significantly improved recognition of the second and third keywords in a two-talker-speech masker but not a noise masker, relative to the no-priming condition. Increasing the prime content from four to eight syllables (including the first and second keywords of the target sentence) further improved recognition of the third keyword in either the noise or speech masker. However, if the last four syllables of the eight-syllable prime were replaced by four irrelevant syllables (which did not occur in the target sentence), all the prime-induced speech-recognition improvements disappeared. Thus, knowing the early part of the target sentence mainly reduces informational masking of target speech, possibly by helping listeners attend to the target speech. Increasing the informative content of the prime further improves target-speech recognition probably by reducing the processing load. The reduction of the priming effect by adding irrelevant information to the prime is not due to introducing additional masking of the target speech.

  14. Infants Prefer Motionese to Adult-Directed Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Rebecca J.; Shallcross, Wendy L.

    2008-01-01

    In two studies, we investigated infants' preference for infant-directed (ID) action or "motionese" (Brand, Baldwin & Ashburn, 2002) relative to adult-directed (AD) action. In Study 1, full-featured videos were shown to 32 6- to 8-month-olds, who demonstrated a strong preference for ID action. In Study 2, infants at 6-8 months (n= 28) and 11-13…

  15. Infant-directed speech: Final syllable lengthening and rate of speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Church, Robyn; Bernhardt, Barbara; Shi, Rushen; Pichora-Fuller, Kathleen

    2005-04-01

    Speech rate has been reported to be slower in infant-directed speech (IDS) than in adult-directed speech (ADS). Studies have also found phrase-final lengthening to be more exaggerated in IDS compared with ADS. In our study we asked whether the observed overall slower rate of IDS is due to exaggerated utterance-final syllable lengthening. Two mothers of preverbal English-learning infants each participated in two recording sessions, one with her child, and another with an adult friend. The results showed an overall slower rate in IDS compared to ADS. However, when utterance-final syllables were excluded from the calculation, the speech rate in IDS and ADS did not differ significantly. The duration of utterance-final syllables differed significantly for IDS versus ADS. Thus, the overall slower rate of IDS was due to the extra-long final syllable occurring in relatively short utterances. The comparable pre-final speech rate for IDS and ADS further accentuates the final syllable lengthening in IDS. As utterances in IDS are typically phrases or clauses, the particularly strong final-lengthening cue could potentially facilitate infants' segmentation of these syntactic units. These findings are consistent with the existing evidence that pre-boundary lengthening is important in the processing of major syntactic units in English-learning infants.

  16. Phonetic Modification of Vowel Space in Storybook Speech to Infants up to 2 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Burnham, Evamarie B.; Wieland, Elizabeth A.; Kondaurova, Maria V.; McAuley, J. Devin; Bergeson, Tonya R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose A large body of literature has indicated vowel space area expansion in infant-directed (ID) speech compared with adult-directed (AD) speech, which may promote language acquisition. The current study tested whether this expansion occurs in storybook speech read to infants at various points during their first 2 years of life. Method In 2 studies, mothers read a storybook containing target vowels in ID and AD speech conditions. Study 1 was longitudinal, with 11 mothers recorded when their infants were 3, 6, and 9 months old. Study 2 was cross-sectional, with 48 mothers recorded when their infants were 3, 9, 13, or 20 months old (n = 12 per group). The 1st and 2nd formants of vowels /i/, /ɑ/, and /u/ were measured, and vowel space area and dispersion were calculated. Results Across both studies, 1st and/or 2nd formant frequencies shifted systematically for /i/ and /u/ vowels in ID compared with AD speech. No difference in vowel space area or dispersion was found. Conclusions The results suggest that a variety of communication and situational factors may affect phonetic modifications in ID speech, but that vowel space characteristics in speech to infants stay consistent across the first 2 years of life. PMID:25659121

  17. Content words in Hebrew child-directed speech.

    PubMed

    Adi-Bensaid, L; Ben-David, A; Tubul-Lavy, G

    2015-08-01

    The goal of the study was to examine whether the 'noun-bias' phenomenon, which exists in the lexicon of Hebrew-speaking children, also exists in Hebrew child-directed speech (CDS) as well as in Hebrew adult-directed speech (ADS). In addition, we aimed to describe the use of the different classes of content words in the speech of Hebrew-speaking parents to their children at different ages compared to the speech of parents to adults (ADS). Thirty infants (age range 8:5-33 months) were divided into three stages according to age: pre-lexical, single-word, and early grammar. The ADS corpus included 18 Hebrew-speaking parents of children at the same three stages of language development as in the CDS corpus. The CDS corpus was collected from parent-child dyads during naturalistic activities at home: mealtime, bathing, and play. The ADS corpus was collected from parent-experimenter interactions including the parent watching a video and then being interviewed by the experimenter. 200 utterances of each sample were transcribed, coded for types and tokens and analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. Results show that in CDS, when speaking to infants of all ages, parents' use of types and tokens of verbs and nouns was similar and significantly higher than their use of adjectives or adverbs. In ADS, however, verbs were the main lexical category used by Hebrew-speaking parents in both types and tokens. It seems that both the properties of the input language (e.g. the pro-drop parameter) and the interactional styles of the caregivers are important factors that may influence the high presence of verbs in Hebrew-speaking parents' ADS and CDS. The negative correlation between the widespread use of verbs in the speech of parents to their infants and the 'noun-bias' phenomenon in the Hebrew-child lexicon will be discussed in detail.

  18. Infant-directed speech reduces English-learning infants' preference for trochaic words.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Lee, Christopher S; Houston, Derek M

    2016-12-01

    Over the past couple of decades, research has established that (1) infant-directed speech (IDS) facilitates speech, language, and cognitive development; and (2) infants are sensitive to the rhythmic structures in the ambient language. However, little is known about the role of IDS in infants' processing of rhythmic structures. Building on these two lines of research, whether IDS enhances infants' sensitivity to the predominant stress pattern (trochaic) in English was asked. To address this question, 9-month-old American infants were familiarized and tested with both trochaic (e.g., lazy) and iambic (e.g., cartoon) words presented in either IDS or adult-directed speech (ADS). Infants showed listening preference for the trochaic over iambic words when the speech was presented in ADS, but not in IDS. These results suggest that IDS attenuates infants' preference for trochaic stress pattern. Further acoustical analyses demonstrated that IDS provided less salient spectral cues for the contrasts between stressed and unstressed syllables in trochaic words. These findings encourage further efforts to explore the effects of IDS on language acquisition from a broader perspective.

  19. Decreased right temporal activation and increased interhemispheric connectivity in response to speech in preterm infants at term-equivalent age.

    PubMed

    Naoi, Nozomi; Fuchino, Yutaka; Shibata, Minoru; Niwa, Fusako; Kawai, Masahiko; Konishi, Yukuo; Okanoya, Kazuo; Myowa-Yamakoshi, Masako

    2013-01-01

    Preterm infants are at increased risk of language-related problems later in life; however, few studies have examined the effects of preterm birth on cerebral responses to speech at very early developmental stages. This study examined cerebral activation and functional connectivity in response to infant-directed speech (IDS) and adult-directed speech (ADS) in full-term neonates and preterm infants at term-equivalent age using 94-channel near-infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that compared with ADS, IDS increased activity in larger brain areas such as the bilateral frontotemporal, temporal, and temporoparietal regions, both in full-term and preterm infants. Preterm infants exhibited decreased activity in response to speech stimuli in the right temporal region compared with full-term infants, although the significance was low. Moreover, preterm infants exhibited increased interhemispheric connectivity compared with full-term controls, especially in the temporal and temporoparietal regions. These differences suggest that preterm infants may follow different developmental trajectories from those born at term owing to differences in intrauterine and extrauterine development.

  20. Bootstrapping the Lexicon: A Computational Model of Infant Speech Segmentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batchelder, Eleanor Olds

    2002-01-01

    Details BootLex, a model using distributional cues to build a lexicon and achieving significant segmentation results with English, Japanese, and Spanish; child- and adult-directed speech, and written text; and variations in coding structure. Compares BootLex with three groups of computational models of the infant segmentation process. Discusses…

  1. Infant-directed speech is consistent with teaching.

    PubMed

    Eaves, Baxter S; Feldman, Naomi H; Griffiths, Thomas L; Shafto, Patrick

    2016-11-01

    Infant-directed speech (IDS) has distinctive properties that differ from adult-directed speech (ADS). Why it has these properties-and whether they are intended to facilitate language learning-is a matter of contention. We argue that much of this disagreement stems from lack of a formal, guiding theory of how phonetic categories should best be taught to infantlike learners. In the absence of such a theory, researchers have relied on intuitions about learning to guide the argument. We use a formal theory of teaching, validated through experiments in other domains, as the basis for a detailed analysis of whether IDS is well designed for teaching phonetic categories. Using the theory, we generate ideal data for teaching phonetic categories in English. We qualitatively compare the simulated teaching data with human IDS, finding that the teaching data exhibit many features of IDS, including some that have been taken as evidence IDS is not for teaching. The simulated data reveal potential pitfalls for experimentalists exploring the role of IDS in language learning. Focusing on different formants and phoneme sets leads to different conclusions, and the benefit of the teaching data to learners is not apparent until a sufficient number of examples have been provided. Finally, we investigate transfer of IDS to learning ADS. The teaching data improve classification of ADS data but only for the learner they were generated to teach, not universally across all classes of learners. This research offers a theoretically grounded framework that empowers experimentalists to systematically evaluate whether IDS is for teaching. (PsycINFO Database Record

  2. Speech Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... and the respiratory system . The ability to understand language and produce speech is coordinated by the brain. So a person with brain damage from an accident, stroke, or birth defect may have speech and language problems. Some people with speech problems, particularly articulation ...

  3. Speech vs. singing: infants choose happier sounds

    PubMed Central

    Corbeil, Marieve; Trehub, Sandra E.; Peretz, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Infants prefer speech to non-vocal sounds and to non-human vocalizations, and they prefer happy-sounding speech to neutral speech. They also exhibit an interest in singing, but there is little knowledge of their relative interest in speech and singing. The present study explored infants' attention to unfamiliar audio samples of speech and singing. In Experiment 1, infants 4–13 months of age were exposed to happy-sounding infant-directed speech vs. hummed lullabies by the same woman. They listened significantly longer to the speech, which had considerably greater acoustic variability and expressiveness, than to the lullabies. In Experiment 2, infants of comparable age who heard the lyrics of a Turkish children's song spoken vs. sung in a joyful/happy manner did not exhibit differential listening. Infants in Experiment 3 heard the happily sung lyrics of the Turkish children's song vs. a version that was spoken in an adult-directed or affectively neutral manner. They listened significantly longer to the sung version. Overall, happy voice quality rather than vocal mode (speech or singing) was the principal contributor to infant attention, regardless of age. PMID:23805119

  4. Infant-directed speech drives social preferences in 5-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Schachner, Adena; Hannon, Erin E

    2011-01-01

    Adults across cultures speak to infants in a specific infant-directed manner. We asked whether infants use this manner of speech (infant- or adult-directed) to guide their subsequent visual preferences for social partners. We found that 5-month-old infants encode an individuals' use of infant-directed speech and adult-directed speech, and use this information to guide their subsequent visual preferences for individuals even after the speech behavior has ended. Use of infant-directed speech may act as an effective cue for infants to select appropriate social partners, allowing infants to focus their attention on individuals who will provide optimal care and opportunity for learning. This selectivity may play a crucial role in establishing the foundations of social cognition.

  5. Infants Discriminate between Adult Directed and Infant Directed Talk in Both Males and Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pegg, Judith E.; And Others

    A total of 60 infants of 7 weeks of age were tested in a habituation-dishabituation looking procedure to determine if they could discriminate between infant-directed talk (IDT) and adult-directed talk (ADT) uttered by the same speaker. One group of 12 infants was habituated to a female speaker's ADT and dishabituated to the same speaker's IDT,…

  6. The Company That Words Keep: Comparing the Statistical Structure of Child- versus Adult-Directed Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hills, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Does child-directed language differ from adult-directed language in ways that might facilitate word learning? Associative structure (the probability that a word appears with its free associates), contextual diversity, word repetitions and frequency were compared longitudinally across six language corpora, with four corpora of language directed at…

  7. Speech Aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Designed to assist deaf and hearing impaired-persons in achieving better speech, Resnick Worldwide Inc.'s device provides a visual means of cuing the deaf as a speech-improvement measure. This is done by electronically processing the subjects' sounds and comparing them with optimum values which are displayed for comparison.

  8. Speech Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, William D.

    Presented in this book is a view of speech communication which enables an individual to become fully aware of his or her role as both initiator and recipient of messages. Communication is treated broadly with emphasis on the understanding and skills relating to various types of speech communication across the broad spectrum of human communication.…

  9. Symbolic Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podgor, Ellen S.

    1976-01-01

    The concept of symbolic speech emanates from the 1967 case of United States v. O'Brien. These discussions of flag desecration, grooming and dress codes, nude entertainment, buttons and badges, and musical expression show that the courts place symbolic speech in different strata from verbal communication. (LBH)

  10. Speech coding

    SciTech Connect

    Ravishankar, C., Hughes Network Systems, Germantown, MD

    1998-05-08

    Speech is the predominant means of communication between human beings and since the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876, speech services have remained to be the core service in almost all telecommunication systems. Original analog methods of telephony had the disadvantage of speech signal getting corrupted by noise, cross-talk and distortion Long haul transmissions which use repeaters to compensate for the loss in signal strength on transmission links also increase the associated noise and distortion. On the other hand digital transmission is relatively immune to noise, cross-talk and distortion primarily because of the capability to faithfully regenerate digital signal at each repeater purely based on a binary decision. Hence end-to-end performance of the digital link essentially becomes independent of the length and operating frequency bands of the link Hence from a transmission point of view digital transmission has been the preferred approach due to its higher immunity to noise. The need to carry digital speech became extremely important from a service provision point of view as well. Modem requirements have introduced the need for robust, flexible and secure services that can carry a multitude of signal types (such as voice, data and video) without a fundamental change in infrastructure. Such a requirement could not have been easily met without the advent of digital transmission systems, thereby requiring speech to be coded digitally. The term Speech Coding is often referred to techniques that represent or code speech signals either directly as a waveform or as a set of parameters by analyzing the speech signal. In either case, the codes are transmitted to the distant end where speech is reconstructed or synthesized using the received set of codes. A more generic term that is applicable to these techniques that is often interchangeably used with speech coding is the term voice coding. This term is more generic in the sense that the

  11. Speech Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... thinking, but it becomes disorganized as they're speaking. So, someone who clutters may speak in bursts ... refuse to wait patiently for them to finish speaking. If you have a speech problem, it's fine ...

  12. Free Speech Yearbook: 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tedford, Thomas L., Ed.

    This book is a collection of essays on free speech issues and attitudes, compiled by the Commission on Freedom of Speech of the Speech Communication Association. Four articles focus on freedom of speech in classroom situations as follows: a philosophic view of teaching free speech, effects of a course on free speech on student attitudes,…

  13. Speech Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Several articles addressing topics in speech research are presented. The topics include: exploring the functional significance of physiological tremor: A biospectroscopic approach; differences between experienced and inexperienced listeners to deaf speech; a language-oriented view of reading and its disabilities; Phonetic factors in letter detection; categorical perception; Short-term recall by deaf signers of American sign language; a common basis for auditory sensory storage in perception and immediate memory; phonological awareness and verbal short-term memory; initiation versus execution time during manual and oral counting by stutterers; trading relations in the perception of speech by five-year-old children; the role of the strap muscles in pitch lowering; phonetic validation of distinctive features; consonants and syllable boundaires; and vowel information in postvocalic frictions.

  14. Speech analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lokerson, D. C. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A speech signal is analyzed by applying the signal to formant filters which derive first, second and third signals respectively representing the frequency of the speech waveform in the first, second and third formants. A first pulse train having approximately a pulse rate representing the average frequency of the first formant is derived; second and third pulse trains having pulse rates respectively representing zero crossings of the second and third formants are derived. The first formant pulse train is derived by establishing N signal level bands, where N is an integer at least equal to two. Adjacent ones of the signal bands have common boundaries, each of which is a predetermined percentage of the peak level of a complete cycle of the speech waveform.

  15. Speech and Hearing Science in Ancient India--A Review of Sanskrit Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savithri, S. R.

    1988-01-01

    The study reviewed Sanskrit books written between 1500 BC and 1904 AD concerning diseases, speech pathology, and audiology. Details are provided of the ancient Indian system of disease classification, the classification of speech sounds, causes of speech disorders, and treatment of speech and language disorders. (DB)

  16. Speech Intelligibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brand, Thomas

    Speech intelligibility (SI) is important for different fields of research, engineering and diagnostics in order to quantify very different phenomena like the quality of recordings, communication and playback devices, the reverberation of auditoria, characteristics of hearing impairment, benefit using hearing aids or combinations of these things.

  17. Keynote Speeches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This document contains the six of the seven keynote speeches from an international conference on vocational education and training (VET) for lifelong learning in the information era. "IVETA (International Vocational Education and Training Association) 2000 Conference 6-9 August 2000" (K.Y. Yeung) discusses the objectives and activities…

  18. Speech production knowledge in automatic speech recognition.

    PubMed

    King, Simon; Frankel, Joe; Livescu, Karen; McDermott, Erik; Richmond, Korin; Wester, Mirjam

    2007-02-01

    Although much is known about how speech is produced, and research into speech production has resulted in measured articulatory data, feature systems of different kinds, and numerous models, speech production knowledge is almost totally ignored in current mainstream approaches to automatic speech recognition. Representations of speech production allow simple explanations for many phenomena observed in speech which cannot be easily analyzed from either acoustic signal or phonetic transcription alone. In this article, a survey of a growing body of work in which such representations are used to improve automatic speech recognition is provided.

  19. Speech discrimination after early exposure to pulsed-noise or speech.

    PubMed

    Ranasinghe, Kamalini G; Carraway, Ryan S; Borland, Michael S; Moreno, Nicole A; Hanacik, Elizabeth A; Miller, Robert S; Kilgard, Michael P

    2012-07-01

    Early experience of structured inputs and complex sound features generate lasting changes in tonotopy and receptive field properties of primary auditory cortex (A1). In this study we tested whether these changes are severe enough to alter neural representations and behavioral discrimination of speech. We exposed two groups of rat pups during the critical period of auditory development to pulsed-noise or speech. Both groups of rats were trained to discriminate speech sounds when they were young adults, and anesthetized neural responses were recorded from A1. The representation of speech in A1 and behavioral discrimination of speech remained robust to altered spectral and temporal characteristics of A1 neurons after pulsed-noise exposure. Exposure to passive speech during early development provided no added advantage in speech sound processing. Speech training increased A1 neuronal firing rate for speech stimuli in naïve rats, but did not increase responses in rats that experienced early exposure to pulsed-noise or speech. Our results suggest that speech sound processing is resistant to changes in simple neural response properties caused by manipulating early acoustic environment.

  20. Speech communications in noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The physical characteristics of speech, the methods of speech masking measurement, and the effects of noise on speech communication are investigated. Topics include the speech signal and intelligibility, the effects of noise on intelligibility, the articulation index, and various devices for evaluating speech systems.

  1. Speech communications in noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-07-01

    The physical characteristics of speech, the methods of speech masking measurement, and the effects of noise on speech communication are investigated. Topics include the speech signal and intelligibility, the effects of noise on intelligibility, the articulation index, and various devices for evaluating speech systems.

  2. Preschool speech intelligibility and vocabulary skills predict long-term speech and language outcomes following cochlear implantation in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Castellanos, Irina; Kronenberger, William G; Beer, Jessica; Henning, Shirley C; Colson, Bethany G; Pisoni, David B

    2014-07-01

    Speech and language measures during grade school predict adolescent speech-language outcomes in children who receive cochlear implants (CIs), but no research has examined whether speech and language functioning at even younger ages is predictive of long-term outcomes in this population. The purpose of this study was to examine whether early preschool measures of speech and language performance predict speech-language functioning in long-term users of CIs. Early measures of speech intelligibility and receptive vocabulary (obtained during preschool ages of 3-6 years) in a sample of 35 prelingually deaf, early-implanted children predicted speech perception, language, and verbal working memory skills up to 18 years later. Age of onset of deafness and age at implantation added additional variance to preschool speech intelligibility in predicting some long-term outcome scores, but the relationship between preschool speech-language skills and later speech-language outcomes was not significantly attenuated by the addition of these hearing history variables. These findings suggest that speech and language development during the preschool years is predictive of long-term speech and language functioning in early-implanted, prelingually deaf children. As a result, measures of speech-language functioning at preschool ages can be used to identify and adjust interventions for very young CI users who may be at long-term risk for suboptimal speech and language outcomes.

  3. Speech Research.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-31

    Academic Press, 1973. Kimura, D. The neural basis of language qua gesture. In H. Whitaker & H. A. Whitaker (Eds.), Studies in neurolinguistics (Vol. 3...Lubker, J., & Gay, T. Formant frequencies of some fixed- mandible vowels and a model of speech motor programming . Journal of Phonetics, 1979, 7, 147-162...A. Interarticulator programming in stop production. To appear in Journal of Phonetics, in press. Ldfqvist, A., & Yoshioka, H. Laryngeal activity in

  4. Hairy AdS solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anabalón, Andrés; Astefanesei, Dumitru; Choque, David

    2016-11-01

    We construct exact hairy AdS soliton solutions in Einstein-dilaton gravity theory. We examine their thermodynamic properties and discuss the role of these solutions for the existence of first order phase transitions for hairy black holes. The negative energy density associated to hairy AdS solitons can be interpreted as the Casimir energy that is generated in the dual filed theory when the fermions are antiperiodic on the compact coordinate.

  5. Speech-to-Speech Relay Service

    MedlinePlus

    ... Speech-to-Speech (STS) is one form of Telecommunications Relay Service (TRS). TRS is a service that ... to STS, go to www. fcc. gov/ guides/ telecommunications- relay- service- trs. Filing a Complaint If you ...

  6. Speech research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-06-01

    Phonology is traditionally seen as the discipline that concerns itself with the building blocks of linguistic messages. It is the study of the structure of sound inventories of languages and of the participation of sounds in rules or processes. Phonetics, in contrast, concerns speech sounds as produced and perceived. Two extreme positions on the relationship between phonological messages and phonetic realizations are represented in the literature. One holds that the primary home for linguistic symbols, including phonological ones, is the human mind, itself housed in the human brain. The second holds that their primary home is the human vocal tract.

  7. Added Sugars

    MedlinePlus

    ... need sugar to function properly. Added sugars contribute zero nutrients but many added calories that can lead to extra pounds or even obesity, thereby reducing heart health. If you think of your daily calorie needs as a budget, you want to “spend” ...

  8. Value Added?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UCLA IDEA, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Value added measures (VAM) uses changes in student test scores to determine how much "value" an individual teacher has "added" to student growth during the school year. Some policymakers, school districts, and educational advocates have applauded VAM as a straightforward measure of teacher effectiveness: the better a teacher,…

  9. Prediction and constraint in audiovisual speech perception.

    PubMed

    Peelle, Jonathan E; Sommers, Mitchell S

    2015-07-01

    During face-to-face conversational speech listeners must efficiently process a rapid and complex stream of multisensory information. Visual speech can serve as a critical complement to auditory information because it provides cues to both the timing of the incoming acoustic signal (the amplitude envelope, influencing attention and perceptual sensitivity) and its content (place and manner of articulation, constraining lexical selection). Here we review behavioral and neurophysiological evidence regarding listeners' use of visual speech information. Multisensory integration of audiovisual speech cues improves recognition accuracy, particularly for speech in noise. Even when speech is intelligible based solely on auditory information, adding visual information may reduce the cognitive demands placed on listeners through increasing the precision of prediction. Electrophysiological studies demonstrate that oscillatory cortical entrainment to speech in auditory cortex is enhanced when visual speech is present, increasing sensitivity to important acoustic cues. Neuroimaging studies also suggest increased activity in auditory cortex when congruent visual information is available, but additionally emphasize the involvement of heteromodal regions of posterior superior temporal sulcus as playing a role in integrative processing. We interpret these findings in a framework of temporally-focused lexical competition in which visual speech information affects auditory processing to increase sensitivity to acoustic information through an early integration mechanism, and a late integration stage that incorporates specific information about a speaker's articulators to constrain the number of possible candidates in a spoken utterance. Ultimately it is words compatible with both auditory and visual information that most strongly determine successful speech perception during everyday listening. Thus, audiovisual speech perception is accomplished through multiple stages of integration

  10. 78 FR 49717 - Speech-to-Speech and Internet Protocol (IP) Speech-to-Speech Telecommunications Relay Services...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-15

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 64 Speech-to-Speech and Internet Protocol (IP) Speech-to-Speech Telecommunications Relay Services; Telecommunications Relay Services and Speech-to-Speech Services for Individuals With Hearing and Speech Disabilities AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule....

  11. Speech therapy with obturator.

    PubMed

    Shyammohan, A; Sreenivasulu, D

    2010-12-01

    Rehabilitation of speech is tantamount to closure of defect in cases with velopharyngeal insufficiency. Often the importance of speech therapy is sidelined during the fabrication of obturators. Usually the speech part is taken up only at a later stage and is relegated entirely to a speech therapist without the active involvement of the prosthodontist. The article suggests a protocol for speech therapy in such cases to be done in unison with a prosthodontist.

  12. How Autism Affects Speech Understanding in Multitalker Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0363 TITLE: How Autism Affects Speech...REPORT TYPE Annual Report 3. DATES COVERED 30 Sep 2013 – 29 Sep 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER How Autism Affects Speech...from background noise is a critical skill for understanding spoken language in such environments. Recent studies suggest that adults with Autism

  13. Hidden Markov models in automatic speech recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrzoskowicz, Adam

    1993-11-01

    This article describes a method for constructing an automatic speech recognition system based on hidden Markov models (HMMs). The author discusses the basic concepts of HMM theory and the application of these models to the analysis and recognition of speech signals. The author provides algorithms which make it possible to train the ASR system and recognize signals on the basis of distinct stochastic models of selected speech sound classes. The author describes the specific components of the system and the procedures used to model and recognize speech. The author discusses problems associated with the choice of optimal signal detection and parameterization characteristics and their effect on the performance of the system. The author presents different options for the choice of speech signal segments and their consequences for the ASR process. The author gives special attention to the use of lexical, syntactic, and semantic information for the purpose of improving the quality and efficiency of the system. The author also describes an ASR system developed by the Speech Acoustics Laboratory of the IBPT PAS. The author discusses the results of experiments on the effect of noise on the performance of the ASR system and describes methods of constructing HMM's designed to operate in a noisy environment. The author also describes a language for human-robot communications which was defined as a complex multilevel network from an HMM model of speech sounds geared towards Polish inflections. The author also added mandatory lexical and syntactic rules to the system for its communications vocabulary.

  14. Adding Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsini, Larry L.; Hudack, Lawrence R.; Zekan, Donald L.

    1999-01-01

    The value-added statement (VAS), relatively unknown in the United States, is used in financial reports by many European companies. Saint Bonaventure University (New York) has adapted a VAS to make it appropriate for not-for-profit universities by identifying stakeholder groups (students, faculty, administrators/support personnel, creditors, the…

  15. Speech and Language Impairments

    MedlinePlus

    ... is…Robbie, Pearl, and Mario. Back to top Definition There are many kinds of speech and language ... education available to school-aged children with disabilities. Definition of “Speech or Language Impairment” under IDEA The ...

  16. Speech imagery recalibrates speech-perception boundaries.

    PubMed

    Scott, Mark

    2016-07-01

    The perceptual boundaries between speech sounds are malleable and can shift after repeated exposure to contextual information. This shift is known as recalibration. To date, the known inducers of recalibration are lexical (including phonotactic) information, lip-read information and reading. The experiments reported here are a proof-of-effect demonstration that speech imagery can also induce recalibration.

  17. Free Speech Yearbook 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phifer, Gregg, Ed.

    The 17 articles in this collection deal with theoretical and practical freedom of speech issues. The topics include: freedom of speech in Marquette Park, Illinois; Nazis in Skokie, Illinois; freedom of expression in the Confederate States of America; Robert M. LaFollette's arguments for free speech and the rights of Congress; the United States…

  18. Talking Speech Input.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berliss-Vincent, Jane; Whitford, Gigi

    2002-01-01

    This article presents both the factors involved in successful speech input use and the potential barriers that may suggest that other access technologies could be more appropriate for a given individual. Speech input options that are available are reviewed and strategies for optimizing use of speech recognition technology are discussed. (Contains…

  19. Free Speech Yearbook: 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tedford, Thomas L., Ed.

    This book is a collection of syllabi, attitude surveys, and essays relating to free-speech issues, compiled by the Committee on Freedom of Seech of the Speech Communication Association. The collection begins with a rationale for the inclusion of a course on free speech in the college curriculum. Three syllabi with bibliographies present guides for…

  20. Speech and respiration.

    PubMed

    Conrad, B; Schönle, P

    1979-04-12

    This investigation deals with the temporal aspects of air volume changes during speech. Speech respiration differs fundamentally from resting respiration. In resting respiration the duration and velocity of inspiration (air flow or lung volume change) are in a range similar to that of expiration. In speech respiration the duration of inspiration decreases and its velocity increases; conversely, the duration of expiration increases and the volume of air flow decreases dramatically. The following questions arise: are these two respiration types different entities, or do they represent the end points of a continuum from resting to speech respiration? How does articulation without the generation of speech sound affect breathing? Does (verbalized?) thinking without articulation or speech modify the breathing pattern? The main test battery included four tasks (spontaneous speech, reading, serial speech, arithmetic) performed under three conditions (speaking aloud, articulating subvocally, quiet performance by tryping to exclusively 'think' the tasks). Respiratory movements were measured with a chest pneumograph and evaluated in comparison with a phonogram and the identified spoken text. For quiet performance the resulting respiratory time ratio (relation of duration of inspiration versus expiration) showed a gradual shift in the direction of speech respiration--the least for reading, the most for arithmetic. This change was even more apparent for the subvocal tasks. It is concluded that (a) there is a gradual automatic change from resting to speech respiration and (b) the degree of internal verbalization (activation of motor speech areas) defines the degree of activation of the speech respiratory pattern.

  1. Commercial Speech Protection and Alcoholic Beverage Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Sue

    An examination of the laws governing commercial speech protection and alcoholic beverage advertisements, this document details the legal precedents for and implications of banning such advertising. An introduction looks at the current amount of alcohol consumed in the United States and the recent campaigns to have alcoholic beverage ads banned.…

  2. Speech Recognition: A General Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Sopena, Luis

    Speech recognition is one of five main areas in the field of speech processing. Difficulties in speech recognition include variability in sound within and across speakers, in channel, in background noise, and of speech production. Speech recognition can be used in a variety of situations: to perform query operations and phone call transfers; for…

  3. Bayesian Learning of a Language Model from Continuous Speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neubig, Graham; Mimura, Masato; Mori, Shinsuke; Kawahara, Tatsuya

    We propose a novel scheme to learn a language model (LM) for automatic speech recognition (ASR) directly from continuous speech. In the proposed method, we first generate phoneme lattices using an acoustic model with no linguistic constraints, then perform training over these phoneme lattices, simultaneously learning both lexical units and an LM. As a statistical framework for this learning problem, we use non-parametric Bayesian statistics, which make it possible to balance the learned model's complexity (such as the size of the learned vocabulary) and expressive power, and provide a principled learning algorithm through the use of Gibbs sampling. Implementation is performed using weighted finite state transducers (WFSTs), which allow for the simple handling of lattice input. Experimental results on natural, adult-directed speech demonstrate that LMs built using only continuous speech are able to significantly reduce ASR phoneme error rates. The proposed technique of joint Bayesian learning of lexical units and an LM over lattices is shown to significantly contribute to this improvement.

  4. Variability and Intelligibility of Clarified Speech to Different Listener Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silber, Ronnie F.

    sentences. Function words were equal to, or more intelligible than, content words. Babytalk functioned as a clear speech style in story sentences but not nonsense sentences. One of the two clear speech styles was clearer than normal speech in adult-directed clarification. However, which style was clearer depended on interactions among the variables. The individual patterns seemed to result from interactions among demand characteristics, baseline intelligibility, materials, and differences in articulatory flexibility.

  5. Early recognition of speech

    PubMed Central

    Remez, Robert E; Thomas, Emily F

    2013-01-01

    Classic research on the perception of speech sought to identify minimal acoustic correlates of each consonant and vowel. In explaining perception, this view designated momentary components of an acoustic spectrum as cues to the recognition of elementary phonemes. This conceptualization of speech perception is untenable given the findings of phonetic sensitivity to modulation independent of the acoustic and auditory form of the carrier. The empirical key is provided by studies of the perceptual organization of speech, a low-level integrative function that finds and follows the sensory effects of speech amid concurrent events. These projects have shown that the perceptual organization of speech is keyed to modulation; fast; unlearned; nonsymbolic; indifferent to short-term auditory properties; and organization requires attention. The ineluctably multisensory nature of speech perception also imposes conditions that distinguish language among cognitive systems. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:213–223. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1213 PMID:23926454

  6. Speech Alarms Pilot Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, Aniko; Moses, Haifa

    2016-01-01

    Speech alarms have been used extensively in aviation and included in International Building Codes (IBC) and National Fire Protection Association's (NFPA) Life Safety Code. However, they have not been implemented on space vehicles. Previous studies conducted at NASA JSC showed that speech alarms lead to faster identification and higher accuracy. This research evaluated updated speech and tone alerts in a laboratory environment and in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) in a realistic setup.

  7. Speech Sound Disorders: Articulation and Phonological Processes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Speech, Language and Swallowing / Disorders and Diseases Speech Sound Disorders: Articulation and Phonological Processes What are speech ... individuals with speech sound disorders ? What are speech sound disorders? Most children make some mistakes as they ...

  8. Auto Spell Suggestion for High Quality Speech Synthesis in Hindi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabra, Shikha; Agarwal, Ritika

    2014-02-01

    The goal of Text-to-Speech (TTS) synthesis in a particular language is to convert arbitrary input text to intelligible and natural sounding speech. However, for a particular language like Hindi, which is a highly confusing language (due to very close spellings), it is not an easy task to identify errors/mistakes in input text and an incorrect text degrade the quality of output speech hence this paper is a contribution to the development of high quality speech synthesis with the involvement of Spellchecker which generates spell suggestions for misspelled words automatically. Involvement of spellchecker would increase the efficiency of speech synthesis by providing spell suggestions for incorrect input text. Furthermore, we have provided the comparative study for evaluating the resultant effect on to phonetic text by adding spellchecker on to input text.

  9. Chief Seattle's Speech Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krupat, Arnold

    2011-01-01

    Indian orators have been saying good-bye for more than three hundred years. John Eliot's "Dying Speeches of Several Indians" (1685), as David Murray notes, inaugurates a long textual history in which "Indians... are most useful dying," or, as in a number of speeches, bidding the world farewell as they embrace an undesired but…

  10. Improving Alaryngeal Speech Intelligibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, John M.; Dwyer, Patricia E.

    1990-01-01

    Laryngectomized patients using esophageal speech or an electronic artificial larynx have difficulty producing correct voicing contrasts between homorganic consonants. This paper describes a therapy technique that emphasizes "pushing harder" on voiceless consonants to improve alaryngeal speech intelligibility and proposes focusing on the…

  11. Illustrated Speech Anatomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shearer, William M.

    Written for students in the fields of speech correction and audiology, the text deals with the following: structures involved in respiration; the skeleton and the processes of inhalation and exhalation; phonation and pitch, the larynx, and esophageal speech; muscles involved in articulation; muscles involved in resonance; and the anatomy of the…

  12. Private Speech in Ballet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Dale

    2006-01-01

    Authoritarian teaching practices in ballet inhibit the use of private speech. This paper highlights the critical importance of private speech in the cognitive development of young ballet students, within what is largely a non-verbal art form. It draws upon research by Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky and contemporary socioculturalists, to…

  13. Advertising and Free Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyman, Allen, Ed.; Johnson, M. Bruce, Ed.

    The articles collected in this book originated at a conference at which legal and economic scholars discussed the issue of First Amendment protection for commercial speech. The first article, in arguing for freedom for commercial speech, finds inconsistent and untenable the arguments of those who advocate freedom from regulation for political…

  14. Tracking Speech Sound Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Thomas W.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a procedure to aid in the clinical appraisal of child speech. The approach, based on the work by Dinnsen, Chin, Elbert, and Powell (1990; Some constraints on functionally disordered phonologies: Phonetic inventories and phonotactics. "Journal of Speech and Hearing Research", 33, 28-37), uses a railway idiom to track gains in…

  15. Free Speech Yearbook 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Peter E., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    The nine articles in this collection deal with theoretical and practical freedom of speech issues. Topics discussed include the following: (1) freedom of expression in Thailand and India; (2) metaphors and analogues in several landmark free speech cases; (3) Supreme Court Justice William O. Douglas's views of the First Amendment; (4) the San…

  16. Free Speech Yearbook 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbour, Alton, Ed.

    This issue of the "Free Speech Yearbook" contains the following: "Between Rhetoric and Disloyalty: Free Speech Standards for the Sunshire Soldier" by Richard A. Parker; "William A. Rehnquist: Ideologist on the Bench" by Peter E. Kane; "The First Amendment's Weakest Link: Government Regulation of Controversial…

  17. Egocentric Speech Reconsidered.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braunwald, Susan R.

    A range of language use model is proposed as an alternative conceptual framework to a stage model of egocentric speech. The range of language use model is proposed to clarify the meaning of the term egocentric speech, to examine the validity of stage assumptions, and to explain the existence of contextual variation in the form of children's…

  18. Free Speech Yearbook 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phifer, Gregg, Ed.

    The articles collected in this annual address several aspects of First Amendment Law. The following titles are included: "Freedom of Speech As an Academic Discipline" (Franklyn S. Haiman), "Free Speech and Foreign-Policy Decision Making" (Douglas N. Freeman), "The Supreme Court and the First Amendment: 1975-1976"…

  19. SPEECH COMMUNICATION RESEARCH.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    studies of the dynamics of speech production through cineradiographic techniques and through acoustic analysis of formant motions in vowels in various...particular, the activity of the vocal cords and the dynamics of tongue motion. Research on speech perception has included experiments on vowel

  20. Automatic speech recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espy-Wilson, Carol

    2005-04-01

    Great strides have been made in the development of automatic speech recognition (ASR) technology over the past thirty years. Most of this effort has been centered around the extension and improvement of Hidden Markov Model (HMM) approaches to ASR. Current commercially-available and industry systems based on HMMs can perform well for certain situational tasks that restrict variability such as phone dialing or limited voice commands. However, the holy grail of ASR systems is performance comparable to humans-in other words, the ability to automatically transcribe unrestricted conversational speech spoken by an infinite number of speakers under varying acoustic environments. This goal is far from being reached. Key to the success of ASR is effective modeling of variability in the speech signal. This tutorial will review the basics of ASR and the various ways in which our current knowledge of speech production, speech perception and prosody can be exploited to improve robustness at every level of the system.

  1. Speech Perception as a Cognitive Process: The Interactive Activation Model.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    one another in COHORT, the nodes for sell, your, light, and cellulite , wil all bc in active competition with one another. The system will have no way...7 AD-AI28 787 SPEECH PERCEPTION AS A COGNITIVE PROCESS: THE INTERACTIVE ACTIVATION MODE..(U) CALIFORNIA UNIV SAN D IEGO LA dOLLA INST FOR COGNITIVE...TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Speech Perception as a Cognitive Process: Technical Report The Interactive Activation Model S. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT

  2. Orientifolded locally AdS3 geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loran, F.; Sheikh-Jabbari, M. M.

    2011-01-01

    Continuing the analysis of [Loran F and Sheikh-Jabbari M M 2010 Phys. Lett. B 693 184-7], we classify all locally AdS3 stationary axi-symmetric unorientable solutions to AdS3 Einstein gravity and show that they are obtained by applying certain orientifold projection on AdS3, BTZ or AdS3 self-dual orbifold, respectively, O-AdS3, O-BTZ and O-SDO geometries. Depending on the orientifold fixed surface, the O-surface, which is either a space-like 2D plane or a cylinder, or a light-like 2D plane or a cylinder, one can distinguish four distinct cases. For the space-like orientifold plane or cylinder cases, these geometries solve AdS3 Einstein equations and are hence locally AdS3 everywhere except at the O-surface, where there is a delta-function source. For the light-like cases, the geometry is a solution to Einstein equations even at the O-surface. We discuss the causal structure for static, extremal and general rotating O-BTZ and O-SDO cases as well as the geodesic motion on these geometries. We also discuss orientifolding Poincaré patch AdS3 and AdS2 geometries as a way to geodesic completion of these spaces and comment on the 2D CFT dual to the O-geometries.

  3. Towards Artificial Speech Therapy: A Neural System for Impaired Speech Segmentation.

    PubMed

    Iliya, Sunday; Neri, Ferrante

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a neural system-based technique for segmenting short impaired speech utterances into silent, unvoiced, and voiced sections. Moreover, the proposed technique identifies those points of the (voiced) speech where the spectrum becomes steady. The resulting technique thus aims at detecting that limited section of the speech which contains the information about the potential impairment of the speech. This section is of interest to the speech therapist as it corresponds to the possibly incorrect movements of speech organs (lower lip and tongue with respect to the vocal tract). Two segmentation models to detect and identify the various sections of the disordered (impaired) speech signals have been developed and compared. The first makes use of a combination of four artificial neural networks. The second is based on a support vector machine (SVM). The SVM has been trained by means of an ad hoc nested algorithm whose outer layer is a metaheuristic while the inner layer is a convex optimization algorithm. Several metaheuristics have been tested and compared leading to the conclusion that some variants of the compact differential evolution (CDE) algorithm appears to be well-suited to address this problem. Numerical results show that the SVM model with a radial basis function is capable of effective detection of the portion of speech that is of interest to a therapist. The best performance has been achieved when the system is trained by the nested algorithm whose outer layer is hybrid-population-based/CDE. A population-based approach displays the best performance for the isolation of silence/noise sections, and the detection of unvoiced sections. On the other hand, a compact approach appears to be clearly well-suited to detect the beginning of the steady state of the voiced signal. Both the proposed segmentation models display outperformed two modern segmentation techniques based on Gaussian mixture model and deep learning.

  4. Sperry Univac speech communications technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medress, Mark F.

    1977-01-01

    Technology and systems for effective verbal communication with computers were developed. A continuous speech recognition system for verbal input, a word spotting system to locate key words in conversational speech, prosodic tools to aid speech analysis, and a prerecorded voice response system for speech output are described.

  5. Automatic Recognition of Deaf Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdelhamied, Kadry; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a speech perception system for automatic recognition of deaf speech. Using a 2-step segmentation approach for 468 utterances by 2 hearing-impaired men and 2 normal-hearing men, rates as high as 93.01 percent and 81.81 percent recognition were obtained in recognizing from deaf speech isolated words and connected speech,…

  6. Voice and Speech after Laryngectomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stajner-Katusic, Smiljka; Horga, Damir; Musura, Maja; Globlek, Dubravka

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the investigation is to compare voice and speech quality in alaryngeal patients using esophageal speech (ESOP, eight subjects), electroacoustical speech aid (EACA, six subjects) and tracheoesophageal voice prosthesis (TEVP, three subjects). The subjects reading a short story were recorded in the sound-proof booth and the speech samples…

  7. 78 FR 49693 - Speech-to-Speech and Internet Protocol (IP) Speech-to-Speech Telecommunications Relay Services...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-15

    ... Relay Services; Telecommunications Relay Services and Speech-to-Speech Services for Individuals With... this document, the Commission amends telecommunications relay services (TRS) mandatory minimum standards applicable to Speech- to-Speech (STS) relay service. This action is necessary to ensure...

  8. Comparison of a short-time speech-based intelligibility metric to the speech transmission index and intelligibility data.

    PubMed

    Payton, Karen L; Shrestha, Mona

    2013-11-01

    Several algorithms have been shown to generate a metric corresponding to the Speech Transmission Index (STI) using speech as a probe stimulus [e.g., Goldsworthy and Greenberg, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 116, 3679-3689 (2004)]. The time-domain approaches work well on long speech segments and have the added potential to be used for short-time analysis. This study investigates the performance of the Envelope Regression (ER) time-domain STI method as a function of window length, in acoustically degraded environments with multiple talkers and speaking styles. The ER method is compared with a short-time Theoretical STI, derived from octave-band signal-to-noise ratios and reverberation times. For windows as short as 0.3 s, the ER method tracks short-time Theoretical STI changes in stationary speech-shaped noise, fluctuating restaurant babble and stationary noise plus reverberation. The metric is also compared to intelligibility scores on conversational speech and speech articulated clearly but at normal speaking rates (Clear/Norm) in stationary noise. Correlation between the metric and intelligibility scores is high and, consistent with the subject scores, the metrics are higher for Clear/Norm speech than for conversational speech and higher for the first word in a sentence than for the last word.

  9. Comparison of a short-time speech-based intelligibility metric to the speech transmission index and intelligibility dataa

    PubMed Central

    Payton, Karen L.; Shrestha, Mona

    2013-01-01

    Several algorithms have been shown to generate a metric corresponding to the Speech Transmission Index (STI) using speech as a probe stimulus [e.g., Goldsworthy and Greenberg, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 116, 3679–3689 (2004)]. The time-domain approaches work well on long speech segments and have the added potential to be used for short-time analysis. This study investigates the performance of the Envelope Regression (ER) time-domain STI method as a function of window length, in acoustically degraded environments with multiple talkers and speaking styles. The ER method is compared with a short-time Theoretical STI, derived from octave-band signal-to-noise ratios and reverberation times. For windows as short as 0.3 s, the ER method tracks short-time Theoretical STI changes in stationary speech-shaped noise, fluctuating restaurant babble and stationary noise plus reverberation. The metric is also compared to intelligibility scores on conversational speech and speech articulated clearly but at normal speaking rates (Clear/Norm) in stationary noise. Correlation between the metric and intelligibility scores is high and, consistent with the subject scores, the metrics are higher for Clear/Norm speech than for conversational speech and higher for the first word in a sentence than for the last word. PMID:24180791

  10. Realtime Implementation of the APC/SQ and LPC-10 Speech Coding Algorithms.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    KEY WORDS (Continue on reverse side if necessary ad Identify by block number) Speech coding, APC/SQ, LPC-IO, 9.6 kb/s speech transmission, 2.4 kb/s...coding, digital voice terminal, real-time speech coder, \\ array processor 0. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse side If neceeemy end Identify by block... machine , the CSPU. The control strategy for allowing each module as much flexibility as possible results in a structure that executes a module only if

  11. Warped AdS3 black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anninos, Dionysios; Li, Wei; Padi, Megha; Song, Wei; Strominger, Andrew

    2009-03-01

    Three dimensional topologically massive gravity (TMG) with a negative cosmological constant -l-2 and positive Newton constant G admits an AdS3 vacuum solution for any value of the graviton mass μ. These are all known to be perturbatively unstable except at the recently explored chiral point μl = 1. However we show herein that for every value of μl ≠ 3 there are two other (potentially stable) vacuum solutions given by SL(2,Bbb R) × U(1)-invariant warped AdS3 geometries, with a timelike or spacelike U(1) isometry. Critical behavior occurs at μl = 3, where the warping transitions from a stretching to a squashing, and there are a pair of warped solutions with a null U(1) isometry. For μl > 3, there are known warped black hole solutions which are asymptotic to warped AdS3. We show that these black holes are discrete quotients of warped AdS3 just as BTZ black holes are discrete quotients of ordinary AdS3. Moreover new solutions of this type, relevant to any theory with warped AdS3 solutions, are exhibited. Finally we note that the black hole thermodynamics is consistent with the hypothesis that, for μl > 3, the warped AdS3 ground state of TMG is holographically dual to a 2D boundary CFT with central charges c_R-formula and c_L-formula.

  12. Warped AdS3 black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Wei; Anninos, Dionysios; Li, Wei; Padi, Megha; Strominger, Andrew

    2009-03-01

    Three dimensional topologically massive gravity (TMG) with a negative cosmological constant -ell-2 and positive Newton constant G admits an AdS3 vacuum solution for any value of the graviton mass μ. These are all known to be perturbatively unstable except at the recently explored chiral point μell = 1. However we show herein that for every value of μell ≠ 3 there are two other (potentially stable) vacuum solutions given by SL(2,Bbb R) × U(1)-invariant warped AdS3 geometries, with a timelike or spacelike U(1) isometry. Critical behavior occurs at μell = 3, where the warping transitions from a stretching to a squashing, and there are a pair of warped solutions with a null U(1) isometry. For μell > 3, there are known warped black hole solutions which are asymptotic to warped AdS3. We show that these black holes are discrete quotients of warped AdS3 just as BTZ black holes are discrete quotients of ordinary AdS3. Moreover new solutions of this type, relevant to any theory with warped AdS3 solutions, are exhibited. Finally we note that the black hole thermodynamics is consistent with the hypothesis that, for μell > 3, the warped AdS3 ground state of TMG is holographically dual to a 2D boundary CFT with central charges c_R-formula and c_L-formula.

  13. Speech impairment (adult)

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003204.htm Speech impairment (adult) To use the sharing features on ... 2017, A.D.A.M., Inc. Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM ...

  14. Speech disorders - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001430.htm Speech disorders - children To use the sharing features on ... 2017, A.D.A.M., Inc. Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM ...

  15. Speech perception as categorization

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Lori L.; Lotto, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    Speech perception (SP) most commonly refers to the perceptual mapping from the highly variable acoustic speech signal to a linguistic representation, whether it be phonemes, diphones, syllables, or words. This is an example of categorization, in that potentially discriminable speech sounds are assigned to functionally equivalent classes. In this tutorial, we present some of the main challenges to our understanding of the categorization of speech sounds and the conceptualization of SP that has resulted from these challenges. We focus here on issues and experiments that define open research questions relevant to phoneme categorization, arguing that SP is best understood as perceptual categorization, a position that places SP in direct contact with research from other areas of perception and cognition. PMID:20601702

  16. Anxiety and ritualized speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalljee, Mansur; Cook, Mark

    1975-01-01

    The experiment examines the effects on a number of words that seem irrelevant to semantic communication. The Units of Ritualized Speech (URSs) considered are: 'I mean', 'in fact', 'really', 'sort of', 'well' and 'you know'. (Editor)

  17. Speech and Communication Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... or understand speech. Causes include Hearing disorders and deafness Voice problems, such as dysphonia or those caused ... language therapy can help. NIH: National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders

  18. Research in speech communication.

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, J

    1995-01-01

    Advances in digital speech processing are now supporting application and deployment of a variety of speech technologies for human/machine communication. In fact, new businesses are rapidly forming about these technologies. But these capabilities are of little use unless society can afford them. Happily, explosive advances in microelectronics over the past two decades have assured affordable access to this sophistication as well as to the underlying computing technology. The research challenges in speech processing remain in the traditionally identified areas of recognition, synthesis, and coding. These three areas have typically been addressed individually, often with significant isolation among the efforts. But they are all facets of the same fundamental issue--how to represent and quantify the information in the speech signal. This implies deeper understanding of the physics of speech production, the constraints that the conventions of language impose, and the mechanism for information processing in the auditory system. In ongoing research, therefore, we seek more accurate models of speech generation, better computational formulations of language, and realistic perceptual guides for speech processing--along with ways to coalesce the fundamental issues of recognition, synthesis, and coding. Successful solution will yield the long-sought dictation machine, high-quality synthesis from text, and the ultimate in low bit-rate transmission of speech. It will also open the door to language-translating telephony, where the synthetic foreign translation can be in the voice of the originating talker. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 5 Fig. 8 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:7479806

  19. Thai Automatic Speech Recognition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    reported elsewhere. 1. Introduction This research was performed as part of the DARPA-Babylon program aimed at rapidly developing multilingual speech-to...used in an external DARPA evaluation involving medical scenarios between an American Doctor and a naïve monolingual Thai patient. 2. Thai Language...To create more general acoustic models we collected read speech data from native speakers based on the concepts of our multilingual data collection

  20. Musician advantage for speech-on-speech perception.

    PubMed

    Başkent, Deniz; Gaudrain, Etienne

    2016-03-01

    Evidence for transfer of musical training to better perception of speech in noise has been mixed. Unlike speech-in-noise, speech-on-speech perception utilizes many of the skills that musical training improves, such as better pitch perception and stream segregation, as well as use of higher-level auditory cognitive functions, such as attention. Indeed, despite the few non-musicians who performed as well as musicians, on a group level, there was a strong musician benefit for speech perception in a speech masker. This benefit does not seem to result from better voice processing and could instead be related to better stream segregation or enhanced cognitive functions.

  1. Segmented strings in AdS 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callebaut, Nele; Gubser, Steven S.; Samberg, Andreas; Toldo, Chiara

    2015-11-01

    We study segmented strings in flat space and in AdS 3. In flat space, these well known classical motions describe strings which at any instant of time are piecewise linear. In AdS 3, the worldsheet is composed of faces each of which is a region bounded by null geodesics in an AdS 2 subspace of AdS 3. The time evolution can be described by specifying the null geodesic motion of kinks in the string at which two segments are joined. The outcome of collisions of kinks on the worldsheet can be worked out essentially using considerations of causality. We study several examples of closed segmented strings in AdS 3 and find an unexpected quasi-periodic behavior. We also work out a WKB analysis of quantum states of yo-yo strings in AdS 5 and find a logarithmic term reminiscent of the logarithmic twist of string states on the leading Regge trajectory.

  2. Robust Speech Rate Estimation for Spontaneous Speech

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dagen; Narayanan, Shrikanth S.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a direct method for speech rate estimation from acoustic features without requiring any automatic speech transcription. We compare various spectral and temporal signal analysis and smoothing strategies to better characterize the underlying syllable structure to derive speech rate. The proposed algorithm extends the methods of spectral subband correlation by including temporal correlation and the use of prominent spectral subbands for improving the signal correlation essential for syllable detection. Furthermore, to address some of the practical robustness issues in previously proposed methods, we introduce some novel components into the algorithm such as the use of pitch confidence for filtering spurious syllable envelope peaks, magnifying window for tackling neighboring syllable smearing, and relative peak measure thresholds for pseudo peak rejection. We also describe an automated approach for learning algorithm parameters from data, and find the optimal settings through Monte Carlo simulations and parameter sensitivity analysis. Final experimental evaluations are conducted based on a portion of the Switchboard corpus for which manual phonetic segmentation information, and published results for direct comparison are available. The results show a correlation coefficient of 0.745 with respect to the ground truth based on manual segmentation. This result is about a 17% improvement compared to the current best single estimator and a 11% improvement over the multiestimator evaluated on the same Switchboard database. PMID:20428476

  3. Speech processing using maximum likelihood continuity mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Hogden, J.E.

    2000-04-18

    Speech processing is obtained that, given a probabilistic mapping between static speech sounds and pseudo-articulator positions, allows sequences of speech sounds to be mapped to smooth sequences of pseudo-articulator positions. In addition, a method for learning a probabilistic mapping between static speech sounds and pseudo-articulator position is described. The method for learning the mapping between static speech sounds and pseudo-articulator position uses a set of training data composed only of speech sounds. The said speech processing can be applied to various speech analysis tasks, including speech recognition, speaker recognition, speech coding, speech synthesis, and voice mimicry.

  4. Speech processing using maximum likelihood continuity mapping

    DOEpatents

    Hogden, John E.

    2000-01-01

    Speech processing is obtained that, given a probabilistic mapping between static speech sounds and pseudo-articulator positions, allows sequences of speech sounds to be mapped to smooth sequences of pseudo-articulator positions. In addition, a method for learning a probabilistic mapping between static speech sounds and pseudo-articulator position is described. The method for learning the mapping between static speech sounds and pseudo-articulator position uses a set of training data composed only of speech sounds. The said speech processing can be applied to various speech analysis tasks, including speech recognition, speaker recognition, speech coding, speech synthesis, and voice mimicry.

  5. Infant and Early Childhood Exposure to Adult-Directed and Child-Directed Television Programming: Relations with Cognitive Skills at Age Four

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Rachel; Lauricella, Alexis; Zach, Elizabeth; Calvert, Sandra L.

    2010-01-01

    This study described the relations among the amount of child-directed versus adult-directed television exposure at ages 1 and 4 with cognitive outcomes at age 4. Sixty parents completed 24-hour television diaries when their children were 1 and 4 years of age. At age 4, their children also completed a series of cognitive measures and parents…

  6. Hierarchical organization in the temporal structure of infant-direct speech and song.

    PubMed

    Falk, Simone; Kello, Christopher T

    2017-06-01

    Caregivers alter the temporal structure of their utterances when talking and singing to infants compared with adult communication. The present study tested whether temporal variability in infant-directed registers serves to emphasize the hierarchical temporal structure of speech. Fifteen German-speaking mothers sang a play song and told a story to their 6-months-old infants, or to an adult. Recordings were analyzed using a recently developed method that determines the degree of nested clustering of temporal events in speech. Events were defined as peaks in the amplitude envelope, and clusters of various sizes related to periods of acoustic speech energy at varying timescales. Infant-directed speech and song clearly showed greater event clustering compared with adult-directed registers, at multiple timescales of hundreds of milliseconds to tens of seconds. We discuss the relation of this newly discovered acoustic property to temporal variability in linguistic units and its potential implications for parent-infant communication and infants learning the hierarchical structures of speech and language.

  7. Speech Alarms Pilot Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, A.; Moses, H. R.

    2016-01-01

    Currently on the International Space Station (ISS) and other space vehicles Caution & Warning (C&W) alerts are represented with various auditory tones that correspond to the type of event. This system relies on the crew's ability to remember what each tone represents in a high stress, high workload environment when responding to the alert. Furthermore, crew receive a year or more in advance of the mission that makes remembering the semantic meaning of the alerts more difficult. The current system works for missions conducted close to Earth where ground operators can assist as needed. On long duration missions, however, they will need to work off-nominal events autonomously. There is evidence that speech alarms may be easier and faster to recognize, especially during an off-nominal event. The Information Presentation Directed Research Project (FY07-FY09) funded by the Human Research Program included several studies investigating C&W alerts. The studies evaluated tone alerts currently in use with NASA flight deck displays along with candidate speech alerts. A follow-on study used four types of speech alerts to investigate how quickly various types of auditory alerts with and without a speech component - either at the beginning or at the end of the tone - can be identified. Even though crew were familiar with the tone alert from training or direct mission experience, alerts starting with a speech component were identified faster than alerts starting with a tone. The current study replicated the results from the previous study in a more rigorous experimental design to determine if the candidate speech alarms are ready for transition to operations or if more research is needed. Four types of alarms (caution, warning, fire, and depressurization) were presented to participants in both tone and speech formats in laboratory settings and later in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA). In the laboratory study, the alerts were presented by software and participants were

  8. Differential Diagnosis of Severe Speech Disorders Using Speech Gestures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahr, Ruth Huntley

    2005-01-01

    The differentiation of childhood apraxia of speech from severe phonological disorder is a common clinical problem. This article reports on an attempt to describe speech errors in children with childhood apraxia of speech on the basis of gesture use and acoustic analyses of articulatory gestures. The focus was on the movement of articulators and…

  9. Why Go to Speech Therapy?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Teachers Speech-Language Pathologists Physicians Employers Tweet Why Go To Speech Therapy? Parents of Preschoolers Parents of ... types of therapy work best when you can go on an intensive schedule (i.e., every day ...

  10. Hearing or speech impairment - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - hearing or speech impairment ... The following organizations are good resources for information on hearing impairment or speech impairment: Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing -- www.agbell. ...

  11. Development of a speech autocuer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bedles, R. L.; Kizakvich, P. N.; Lawson, D. T.; Mccartney, M. L.

    1980-01-01

    A wearable, visually based prosthesis for the deaf based upon the proven method for removing lipreading ambiguity known as cued speech was fabricated and tested. Both software and hardware developments are described, including a microcomputer, display, and speech preprocessor.

  12. [Visual synthesis of speech].

    PubMed

    Blanco, Y; Villanueva, A; Cabeza, R

    2000-01-01

    The eyes can come to be the sole tool of communication for highly disabled patients. With the appropriate technology it is possible to successfully interpret eye movements, increasing the possibilities of patient communication with the use of speech synthesisers. A system of these characteristics will have to include a speech synthesiser, an interface for the user to construct the text and a method of gaze interpretation. In this way a situation will be achieved in which the user will manage the system solely with his eyes. This review sets out the state of the art of the three modules that make up a system of this type, and finally it introduces the speech synthesis system (Síntesis Visual del Habla [SiVHa]), which is being developed in the Public University of Navarra.

  13. Multilingual Speech and Language Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-01

    FRANCE RTO MEETING PROCEEDINGS 66 Multilingual Speech and Language Processing (Le traitement multilingue de la parole et du langage) Papers presented at... Multilingual Speech and Language Processing (Le traitement multilingue de la parole et du langage) Papers presented at the Information Systems Technology Panel...Reserved ISBN 92-837-1102-5 iii Multilingual Speech and Language Processing (RTO MP-066 / IST-025) Executive Summary Multilingual speech and language

  14. Abortion and compelled physician speech.

    PubMed

    Orentlicher, David

    2015-01-01

    Informed consent mandates for abortion providers may infringe the First Amendment's freedom of speech. On the other hand, they may reinforce the physician's duty to obtain informed consent. Courts can promote both doctrines by ensuring that compelled physician speech pertains to medical facts about abortion rather than abortion ideology and that compelled speech is truthful and not misleading.

  15. "Zero Tolerance" for Free Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hils, Lynda

    2001-01-01

    Argues that school policies of "zero tolerance" of threatening speech may violate a student's First Amendment right to freedom of expression if speech is less than a "true threat." Suggests a two-step analysis to determine if student speech is a "true threat." (PKP)

  16. Speech Cues and Sign Stimuli.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattingly, Ignatius G.

    Parallels between sign stimuli and speech cues suggest some interesting speculations about the origins of language. Speech cues may belong to the class of human sign stimuli which, as in animal behavior, may be the product of an innate releasing mechanism. Prelinguistic speech for man may have functioned as a social-releaser system. Human language…

  17. Signed Soliloquy: Visible Private Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmermann, Kathrin; Brugger, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Talking to oneself can be silent (inner speech) or vocalized for others to hear (private speech, or soliloquy). We investigated these two types of self-communication in 28 deaf signers and 28 hearing adults. With a questionnaire specifically developed for this study, we established the visible analog of vocalized private speech in deaf signers.…

  18. Auditory and cognitive factors underlying individual differences in aided speech-understanding among older adults

    PubMed Central

    Humes, Larry E.; Kidd, Gary R.; Lentz, Jennifer J.

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to address individual differences in aided speech understanding among a relatively large group of older adults. The group of older adults consisted of 98 adults (50 female and 48 male) ranging in age from 60 to 86 (mean = 69.2). Hearing loss was typical for this age group and about 90% had not worn hearing aids. All subjects completed a battery of tests, including cognitive (6 measures), psychophysical (17 measures), and speech-understanding (9 measures), as well as the Speech, Spatial, and Qualities of Hearing (SSQ) self-report scale. Most of the speech-understanding measures made use of competing speech and the non-speech psychophysical measures were designed to tap phenomena thought to be relevant for the perception of speech in competing speech (e.g., stream segregation, modulation-detection interference). All measures of speech understanding were administered with spectral shaping applied to the speech stimuli to fully restore audibility through at least 4000 Hz. The measures used were demonstrated to be reliable in older adults and, when compared to a reference group of 28 young normal-hearing adults, age-group differences were observed on many of the measures. Principal-components factor analysis was applied successfully to reduce the number of independent and dependent (speech understanding) measures for a multiple-regression analysis. Doing so yielded one global cognitive-processing factor and five non-speech psychoacoustic factors (hearing loss, dichotic signal detection, multi-burst masking, stream segregation, and modulation detection) as potential predictors. To this set of six potential predictor variables were added subject age, Environmental Sound Identification (ESI), and performance on the text-recognition-threshold (TRT) task (a visual analog of interrupted speech recognition). These variables were used to successfully predict one global aided speech-understanding factor, accounting for about 60% of the variance. PMID

  19. [Speech therapy intervention in phonological disorders from the psycholinguistic paradigm of speech processing].

    PubMed

    Cervera-Mérida, J F; Ygual-Fernández, A

    2003-02-01

    The aim of this study is to present a survey of speech therapy intervention in phonological disorders (PD). We will examine the concepts of normal phonological development and those involved in PD in order to understand how they have been dealt with, historically, in speech therapy intervention. Lastly, we will describe how evaluation and intervention are carried out from the speech processing paradigm. Phonetic phonological skills allow people to decode the phonic strings they hear so as to be able to gain access to their phonological form and meaning. These abilities also enable them to encode these strings from lexical representations to pronounce words. The greater part of their development takes place during approximately the first four years of life. Speech processing difficulties affect the phonetic phonological skills and occur throughout almost all language pathologies, although the effect they exert is not always the same. This can range from a lack of the capacity to speak to important problems of intelligibility or mild problems with certain phonemes. Their influence on learning to read and write has been shown in recent decades. Speech therapy intervention began from a model based on articulatory phonetics. In the 70s a linguistic model based on the process of speech simplification and phonological analysis was added and this gave rise to a marked improvement in the systems used for evaluation and intervention. At present we have assumed a psycholinguistic model that links the perceptive skills with productive ones and top-down or bottom-up processing (from lexical representations to perception or production of phonemes and vice-versa).

  20. Speech transmission index from running speech: A neural network approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, F. F.; Cox, T. J.

    2003-04-01

    Speech transmission index (STI) is an important objective parameter concerning speech intelligibility for sound transmission channels. It is normally measured with specific test signals to ensure high accuracy and good repeatability. Measurement with running speech was previously proposed, but accuracy is compromised and hence applications limited. A new approach that uses artificial neural networks to accurately extract the STI from received running speech is developed in this paper. Neural networks are trained on a large set of transmitted speech examples with prior knowledge of the transmission channels' STIs. The networks perform complicated nonlinear function mappings and spectral feature memorization to enable accurate objective parameter extraction from transmitted speech. Validations via simulations demonstrate the feasibility of this new method on a one-net-one-speech extract basis. In this case, accuracy is comparable with normal measurement methods. This provides an alternative to standard measurement techniques, and it is intended that the neural network method can facilitate occupied room acoustic measurements.

  1. AdS duals of matrix strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Jose F.; Samtleben, Henning

    2003-06-01

    We review recent work on the holographic duals of type II and heterotic matrix string theories described by warped AdS3 supergravities. In particular, we compute the spectra of Kaluza-Klein primaries for type I, II supergravities on warped AdS3 × S7 and match them with the primary operators in the dual two-dimensional gauge theories. The presence of non-trivial warp factors and dilaton profiles requires a modification of the familiar dictionary between masses and 'scaling' dimensions of fields and operators. We present these modifications for the general case of domain wall/QFT correspondences between supergravities on warped AdSd+1 × Sq geometries and super Yang-Mills theories with 16 supercharges.

  2. Role of Visual Speech in Phonological Processing by Children With Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Jerger, Susan; Tye-Murray, Nancy; Abdi, Hervé

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This research assessed the influence of visual speech on phonological processing by children with hearing loss (HL). Method Children with HL and children with normal hearing (NH) named pictures while attempting to ignore auditory or audiovisual speech distractors whose onsets relative to the pictures were either congruent, conflicting in place of articulation, or conflicting in voicing—for example, the picture “pizza” coupled with the distractors “peach,” “teacher,” or “beast,” respectively. Speed of picture naming was measured. Results The conflicting conditions slowed naming, and phonological processing by children with HL displayed the age-related shift in sensitivity to visual speech seen in children with NH, although with developmental delay. Younger children with HL exhibited a disproportionately large influence of visual speech and a negligible influence of auditory speech, whereas older children with HL showed a robust influence of auditory speech with no benefit to performance from adding visual speech. The congruent conditions did not speed naming in children with HL, nor did the addition of visual speech influence performance. Unexpectedly, the /∧/-vowel congruent distractors slowed naming in children with HL and decreased articulatory proficiency. Conclusions Results for the conflicting conditions are consistent with the hypothesis that speech representations in children with HL (a) are initially disproportionally structured in terms of visual speech and (b) become better specified with age in terms of auditorily encoded information. PMID:19339701

  3. Black History Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noldon, Carl

    2007-01-01

    The author argues in this speech that one cannot expect students in the school system to know and understand the genius of Black history if the curriculum is Eurocentric, which is a residue of racism. He states that his comments are designed for the enlightenment of those who suffer from a school system that "hypocritically manipulates Black…

  4. Forensics and Speech Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBath, James H.

    1975-01-01

    Focuses on the importance of integrating forensics programs into the speech communication curriculum. Maintains that debating and argumentation skills increase the probability of academic success. Published by the Association for Communication Administration Bulletin, Staff Coordinator, ACA 5205 Leesburg Pike, Falls Church, VA 22041, $25.00 annual…

  5. Mandarin Visual Speech Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Trevor H.

    2010-01-01

    While the auditory-only aspects of Mandarin speech are heavily-researched and well-known in the field, this dissertation addresses its lesser-known aspects: The visual and audio-visual perception of Mandarin segmental information and lexical-tone information. Chapter II of this dissertation focuses on the audiovisual perception of Mandarin…

  6. Speech intelligibility in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Ryherd, Erica E; Moeller, Michael; Hsu, Timothy

    2013-07-01

    Effective communication between staff members is key to patient safety in hospitals. A variety of patient care activities including admittance, evaluation, and treatment rely on oral communication. Surprisingly, published information on speech intelligibility in hospitals is extremely limited. In this study, speech intelligibility measurements and occupant evaluations were conducted in 20 units of five different U.S. hospitals. A variety of unit types and locations were studied. Results show that overall, no unit had "good" intelligibility based on the speech intelligibility index (SII > 0.75) and several locations found to have "poor" intelligibility (SII < 0.45). Further, occupied spaces were found to have 10%-15% lower SII than unoccupied spaces on average. Additionally, staff perception of communication problems at nurse stations was significantly correlated with SII ratings. In a targeted second phase, a unit treated with sound absorption had higher SII ratings for a larger percentage of time as compared to an identical untreated unit. Taken as a whole, the study provides an extensive baseline evaluation of speech intelligibility across a variety of hospitals and unit types, offers some evidence of the positive impact of absorption on intelligibility, and identifies areas for future research.

  7. Free Speech Yearbook 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbour, Alton, Ed.

    The first article in this collection examines civil disobedience and the protections offered by the First Amendment. The second article discusses a study on antagonistic expressions in a free society. The third essay deals with attitudes toward free speech and treatment of the United States flag. There are two articles on media; the first examines…

  8. The Commercial Speech Doctrine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luebke, Barbara F.

    In its 1942 ruling in the "Valentine vs. Christensen" case, the Supreme Court established the doctrine that commercial speech is not protected by the First Amendment. In 1975, in the "Bigelow vs. Virginia" case, the Supreme Court took a decisive step toward abrogating that doctrine, by ruling that advertising is not stripped of…

  9. Recognition of speech spectrograms.

    PubMed

    Greene, B G; Pisoni, D B; Carrell, T D

    1984-07-01

    The performance of eight naive observers in learning to identify speech spectrograms was studied over a 2-month period. Single tokens from a 50-word phonetically balanced (PB) list were recorded by several talkers and displayed on a Spectraphonics Speech Spectrographic Display system. Identification testing occurred immediately after daily training sessions. After approximately 20 h of training, naive subjects correctly identified the 50 PB words from a single talker over 95% of the time. Generalization tests with the same words were then carried out with different tokens from the original talker, new tokens from another male talker, a female talker, and finally, a synthetic talker. The generalization results for these talkers showed recognition performance at 91%, 76%, 76%, and 48%, respectively. Finally, generalization tests with a novel set of PB words produced by the original talker were also carried out to examine in detail the perceptual strategies and visual features that subjects abstracted from the training set. Our results demonstrate that even without formal training in phonetics or acoustics naive observers can learn to identify visual displays of speech at very high levels of accuracy. Analysis of subjects' performance in a verbal protocol task demonstrated that they rely on salient visual correlates of many phonetic features in speech.

  10. On Curbing Racial Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Mary Ellen

    1991-01-01

    An alternative interpretation of the First Amendment guarantee of free speech suggests that universities may prohibit and punish direct verbal assaults on specific individuals if the speaker intends to do harm and if a reasonable person would recognize the potential for serious interference with the victim's educational rights. (MSE)

  11. Speech Understanding Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-03-01

    insensitive to random occurrences of noise. 3) It is capable of being extended to handle large vocabularies. 4) It oermits alternate...baseforms, phonological rules, and marking of syllable boundaries and stress levels from the Speech Communications Research Laboratory , We also

  12. Hearing speech in music.

    PubMed

    Ekström, Seth-Reino; Borg, Erik

    2011-01-01

    The masking effect of a piano composition, played at different speeds and in different octaves, on speech-perception thresholds was investigated in 15 normal-hearing and 14 moderately-hearing-impaired subjects. Running speech (just follow conversation, JFC) testing and use of hearing aids increased the everyday validity of the findings. A comparison was made with standard audiometric noises [International Collegium of Rehabilitative Audiology (ICRA) noise and speech spectrum-filtered noise (SPN)]. All masking sounds, music or noise, were presented at the same equivalent sound level (50 dBA). The results showed a significant effect of piano performance speed and octave (P<.01). Low octave and fast tempo had the largest effect; and high octave and slow tempo, the smallest. Music had a lower masking effect than did ICRA noise with two or six speakers at normal vocal effort (P<.01) and SPN (P<.05). Subjects with hearing loss had higher masked thresholds than the normal-hearing subjects (P<.01), but there were smaller differences between masking conditions (P<.01). It is pointed out that music offers an interesting opportunity for studying masking under realistic conditions, where spectral and temporal features can be varied independently. The results have implications for composing music with vocal parts, designing acoustic environments and creating a balance between speech perception and privacy in social settings.

  13. Speech and Hearing Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakata, Reiko; Sakata, Robert

    1978-01-01

    In the public school, the speech and hearing therapist attempts to foster child growth and development through the provision of services basic to awareness of self and others, management of personal and social interactions, and development of strategies for coping with the handicap. (MM)

  14. Perceptual Learning in Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Dennis; McQueen, James M.; Cutler, Anne

    2003-01-01

    This study demonstrates that listeners use lexical knowledge in perceptual learning of speech sounds. Dutch listeners first made lexical decisions on Dutch words and nonwords. The final fricative of 20 critical words had been replaced by an ambiguous sound, between [f] and [s]. One group of listeners heard ambiguous [f]-final words (e.g.,…

  15. Speech to schoolchildren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angell, C. Austen

    2013-02-01

    Prof. C. A. Angell from Arizona State University read the following short and simple speech, saying the sentences in Italics in the best Japanese he could manage (after earnest coaching from a Japanese colleague). The rest was translated on the bus ride, and then spoken, as I spoke, by Ms. Yukako Endo- to whom the author is very grateful.

  16. Expectations and speech intelligibility.

    PubMed

    Babel, Molly; Russell, Jamie

    2015-05-01

    Socio-indexical cues and paralinguistic information are often beneficial to speech processing as this information assists listeners in parsing the speech stream. Associations that particular populations speak in a certain speech style can, however, make it such that socio-indexical cues have a cost. In this study, native speakers of Canadian English who identify as Chinese Canadian and White Canadian read sentences that were presented to listeners in noise. Half of the sentences were presented with a visual-prime in the form of a photo of the speaker and half were presented in control trials with fixation crosses. Sentences produced by Chinese Canadians showed an intelligibility cost in the face-prime condition, whereas sentences produced by White Canadians did not. In an accentedness rating task, listeners rated White Canadians as less accented in the face-prime trials, but Chinese Canadians showed no such change in perceived accentedness. These results suggest a misalignment between an expected and an observed speech signal for the face-prime trials, which indicates that social information about a speaker can trigger linguistic associations that come with processing benefits and costs.

  17. Media Criticism Group Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, E. Michele

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To integrate speaking practice with rhetorical theory. Type of speech: Persuasive. Point value: 100 points (i.e., 30 points based on peer evaluations, 30 points based on individual performance, 40 points based on the group presentation), which is 25% of course grade. Requirements: (a) References: 7-10; (b) Length: 20-30 minutes; (c)…

  18. Free Speech Yearbook, 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbour, Alton, Ed.

    A collection of essays on free speech and communication is contained in this book. The essays include "From Fairness to Access and Back Again: Some Dimensions of Free Expression in Broadcasting"; "Local Option on the First Amendment?"; "A Look at the Fire Symbol Before and After May 4, 1970"; "Freedom to Teach,…

  19. Free Speech Yearbook 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Peter E., Ed.

    The seven articles in this collection deal with theoretical and practical freedom of speech issues. Topics covered are: the United States Supreme Court, motion picture censorship, and the color line; judicial decision making; the established scientific community's suppression of the ideas of Immanuel Velikovsky; the problems of avant-garde jazz,…

  20. System and method for characterizing voiced excitations of speech and acoustic signals, removing acoustic noise from speech, and synthesizing speech

    DOEpatents

    Burnett, Greg C.; Holzrichter, John F.; Ng, Lawrence C.

    2002-01-01

    Low power EM waves are used to detect motions of vocal tract tissues of the human speech system before, during, and after voiced speech. A voiced excitation function is derived. The excitation function provides speech production information to enhance speech characterization and to enable noise removal from human speech.

  1. Speech Motor Control in Fluent and Dysfluent Speech Production of an Individual with Apraxia of Speech and Broca's Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Lieshout, Pascal H. H. M.; Bose, Arpita; Square, Paula A.; Steele, Catriona M.

    2007-01-01

    Apraxia of speech (AOS) is typically described as a motor-speech disorder with clinically well-defined symptoms, but without a clear understanding of the underlying problems in motor control. A number of studies have compared the speech of subjects with AOS to the fluent speech of controls, but only a few have included speech movement data and if…

  2. Aero-tactile integration in speech perception

    PubMed Central

    Gick, Bryan; Derrick, Donald

    2013-01-01

    Visual information from a speaker’s face can enhance1 or interfere with2 accurate auditory perception. This integration of information across auditory and visual streams has been observed in functional imaging studies3,4, and has typically been attributed to the frequency and robustness with which perceivers jointly encounter event-specific information from these two modalities5. Adding the tactile modality has long been considered a crucial next step in understanding multisensory integration. However, previous studies have found an influence of tactile input on speech perception only under limited circumstances, either where perceivers were aware of the task6,7 or where they had received training to establish a cross-modal mapping8–10. Here we show that perceivers integrate naturalistic tactile information during auditory speech perception without previous training. Drawing on the observation that some speech sounds produce tiny bursts of aspiration (such as English ‘p’)11, we applied slight, inaudible air puffs on participants’ skin at one of two locations: the right hand or the neck. Syllables heard simultaneously with cutaneous air puffs were more likely to be heard as aspirated (for example, causing participants to mishear ‘b’ as ‘p’). These results demonstrate that perceivers integrate event-relevant tactile information in auditory perception in much the same way as they do visual information. PMID:19940925

  3. Influence of mothers' slower speech on their children's speech rate.

    PubMed

    Guitar, B; Marchinkoski, L

    2001-08-01

    This study investigated the effects on children's speech rate when their mothers talked more slowly. Six mothers and their normally speaking 3-year-olds (3 girls and 3 boys) were studied using single-subject A-B-A-B designs. Conversational speech rates of mothers were reduced by approximately half in the experimental (B) conditions. Five of the six children appeared to reduce their speech rates when their mothers spoke more slowly. This was confirmed by paired t tests (p < .05) that showed significant decreases in the 5 children's speech rate over the two B conditions. These findings suggest that when mothers substantially decrease their speech rates in a controlled situation, their children also decrease their speech rates. Clinical implications are discussed.

  4. TEACHER'S GUIDE TO HIGH SCHOOL SPEECH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JENKINSON, EDWARD B., ED.

    THIS GUIDE TO HIGH SCHOOL SPEECH FOCUSES ON SPEECH AS ORAL COMPOSITION, STRESSING THE IMPORTANCE OF CLEAR THINKING AND COMMUNICATION. THE PROPOSED 1-SEMESTER BASIC COURSE IN SPEECH ATTEMPTS TO IMPROVE THE STUDENT'S ABILITY TO COMPOSE AND DELIVER SPEECHES, TO THINK AND LISTEN CRITICALLY, AND TO UNDERSTAND THE SOCIAL FUNCTION OF SPEECH. IN ADDITION…

  5. Multilevel Analysis in Analyzing Speech Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guddattu, Vasudeva; Krishna, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The speech produced by human vocal tract is a complex acoustic signal, with diverse applications in phonetics, speech synthesis, automatic speech recognition, speaker identification, communication aids, speech pathology, speech perception, machine translation, hearing research, rehabilitation and assessment of communication disorders and many…

  6. Headphone localization of speech

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R.; Wenzel, Elizabeth M.

    1993-01-01

    Three-dimensional acoustic display systems have recently been developed that synthesize virtual sound sources over headphones based on filtering by head-related transfer functions (HRTFs), the direction-dependent spectral changes caused primarily by the pinnae. In this study, 11 inexperienced subjects judged the apparent spatial location of headphone-presented speech stimuli filtered with nonindividualized HRTFs. About half of the subjects 'pulled' their judgments toward either the median or the lateral-vertical planes, and estimates were almost always elevated. Individual differences were pronounced for the distance judgments; 15 to 46 percent of stimuli were heard inside the head, with the shortest estimates near the median plane. The results suggest that most listeners can obtain useful azimuth information from speech stimuli filtered by nonindividualized HRTFs. Measurements of localization error and reversal rates are comparable with a previous study that used broadband noise stimuli.

  7. Musical intervals in speech.

    PubMed

    Ross, Deborah; Choi, Jonathan; Purves, Dale

    2007-06-05

    Throughout history and across cultures, humans have created music using pitch intervals that divide octaves into the 12 tones of the chromatic scale. Why these specific intervals in music are preferred, however, is not known. In the present study, we analyzed a database of individually spoken English vowel phones to examine the hypothesis that musical intervals arise from the relationships of the formants in speech spectra that determine the perceptions of distinct vowels. Expressed as ratios, the frequency relationships of the first two formants in vowel phones represent all 12 intervals of the chromatic scale. Were the formants to fall outside the ranges found in the human voice, their relationships would generate either a less complete or a more dilute representation of these specific intervals. These results imply that human preference for the intervals of the chromatic scale arises from experience with the way speech formants modulate laryngeal harmonics to create different phonemes.

  8. Headphone localization of speech.

    PubMed

    Begault, D R; Wenzel, E M

    1993-06-01

    Three-dimensional acoustic display systems have recently been developed that synthesize virtual sound sources over headphones based on filtering by head-related transfer functions (HRTFs), the direction-dependent spectral changes caused primarily by the pinnae. In this study 11 inexperienced subjects judged the apparent spatial location of headphone-presented speech stimuli filtered with non-individualized HRTFs. About half of the subjects "pulled" their judgments toward either the median or the lateral-vertical planes, and estimates were almost always elevated. Individual differences were pronounced for the distance judgments; 15% to 46% of stimuli were heard inside the head, with the shortest estimates near the median plane. The results suggest that most listeners can obtain useful azimuth information from speech stimuli filtered by nonindividualized HRTFs. Measurements of localization error and reversal rates are comparable with a previous study that used broadband noise stimuli.

  9. Neurophysiology of Speech Differences in Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    PubMed Central

    Preston, Jonathan L.; Molfese, Peter J.; Gumkowski, Nina; Sorcinelli, Andrea; Harwood, Vanessa; Irwin, Julia; Landi, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during a picture naming task of simple and complex words in children with typical speech and with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Results reveal reduced amplitude prior to speaking complex (multisyllabic) words relative to simple (monosyllabic) words for the CAS group over the right hemisphere during a time window thought to reflect phonological encoding of word forms. Group differences were also observed prior to production of spoken tokens regardless of word complexity during a time window just prior to speech onset (thought to reflect motor planning/programming). Results suggest differences in pre-speech neurolinguistic processes. PMID:25090016

  10. Neurophysiology of speech differences in childhood apraxia of speech.

    PubMed

    Preston, Jonathan L; Molfese, Peter J; Gumkowski, Nina; Sorcinelli, Andrea; Harwood, Vanessa; Irwin, Julia R; Landi, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during a picture naming task of simple and complex words in children with typical speech and with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Results reveal reduced amplitude prior to speaking complex (multisyllabic) words relative to simple (monosyllabic) words for the CAS group over the right hemisphere during a time window thought to reflect phonological encoding of word forms. Group differences were also observed prior to production of spoken tokens regardless of word complexity during a time window just prior to speech onset (thought to reflect motor planning/programming). Results suggest differences in pre-speech neurolinguistic processes.

  11. Speech Understanding Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-10-01

    ELEMENT PARITY XII-10 C. THE ENVIRONMENT TREE XII-14 D. THE EXECUTIVE FOR THE DEDUCTIVE COMPONENT .... XII-18 E. GENERATING CANDIDATE BINDINGS FOR A...SELECTED QVISTA ELEMENT XII-22 F. RAMIFICATIONS OF A PROPOSED BINDING XII-23 G. THE BINDER XII-26 H. DERIVING ELEMENT-OF AND SUBSET RELATIONS...developed to resolve simple anaphoric reference and to correlate information from a primitive world model. Using programs for speech analysis and

  12. Speech Quality Measurement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-06-10

    noise test , t=2 for t1-v low p’ass f lit er te st ,and t 3 * or theit ADP(NI cod ing tevst ’*s is the sub lec nube 0l e tet Bostz- Av L b U0...a 1ý...it aepa rate, speech clu.1 t laboratory and controlled by the NOVA 830 computoer . Bach of tho stations has a CRT, .15 response buttons, a "rad button

  13. Speech Database Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-21

    cluded basic phonetic coverage and varying phonetic environments. Examining pairs of phonemes we augmented these sentences, attempting to have at...and the sampling rate. Speech data was collected and recorded utilizing the Vocabulary Master Library file (VML). 630 VML files were created and run on...these descriptions is attached with this report as Appendix B.) Basically , phonetic alignment is accomplished in three steps. First, each 5 ms frame

  14. Trainable Videorealistic Speech Animation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    1993] [ LeGoff and Benoit 1996]. In physics-based methods, the animator relies on the laws of physics to determine the mouth movement, given some initial...work in the memory of Christian Benoit [ LeGoff and Benoit 1996] who was a pioneer in audiovisual speech research. The authors would like to thank...Polymorph: An algorithm for morphing among multiple images. IEEE Computer Graphics Applications 18, 58–71. LEGOFF , B., AND BENOIT, C. 1996. A text-to

  15. Hiding Information under Speech

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-12

    as it arrives in real time, and it disappears as fast as it arrives. Furthermore, our cognitive process for translating audio sounds to the meaning... steganography , whose goal is to make the embedded data completely undetectable. In addi- tion, we must dismiss the idea of hiding data by using any...therefore, an image has more room to hide data; and (2) speech steganography has not led to many money-making commercial businesses. For these two

  16. Speech Compression and Synthesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    from Block 19: speech recognition, pnoneme recogmtion. initial design for a phonetic recognition program. We also recorded ana partially labeled a...track for two halves of a long vowel phoneme reconstructed from two diphone templates. The dotted line indicates where the templates meet...more accurately by compensating for the spectral errors in the LPC spectrum at the pitch harmonics. d) Designed and implemented a phonetic

  17. Supreme Court Update: The Free Speech Rights of Students in the United States Post "Morse v. Frederick"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Charles J.

    2007-01-01

    Enshrined in the First Amendment as part of the Bill of Rights that was added to the then 4 year old US Constitution in 1791, it should be no surprise that freedom of speech may be perhaps the most cherished right of Americans. If anything, freedom of speech, which is properly treated as a fundamental human right for children, certainly stands out…

  18. First Language Attrition in the Speech of Dutch-English Bilinguals: The Case of Monozygotic Twin Sisters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayr, Robert; Price, Sacha; Mennen, Ineke

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have seen a proliferation of research on attrition in L1 speech (de Leeuw, Mennen & Scobbie, in press; de Leeuw, Schmid & Mennen, 2010; Dmitrieva, Jongman & Sereno, 2010; Mennen, 2004). Adding to this line of inquiry, the present study investigates the speech of a 62-year-old bilingual monozygotic twin who emigrated to an L2-speaking…

  19. An AdS Crunch in Supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertog, Thomas

    2004-12-01

    We review some properties of N=8 gauged supergravity in four dimensions with modified, but AdS invariant boundary conditions on the m2 = -2 scalars. There is a one-parameter class of asymptotic conditions on these fields and the metric components, for which the full AdS symmetry group is preserved. The generators of the asymptotic symmetries are finite, but acquire a contribution from the scalar fields. For a large class of such boundary conditions, we find there exist black holes with scalar hair that are specified by a single conserved charge. Since Schwarschild-AdS is a solution too for all boundary conditions, this provides an example of black hole non-uniqueness. We also show there exist solutions where smooth initial data evolve to a big crunch singularity. This opens up the possibility of using the dual conformal field theory to obtain a fully quantum description of the cosmological singularity, and we report on a preliminary study of this.

  20. Applications for Subvocal Speech

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, Charles; Betts, Bradley

    2007-01-01

    A research and development effort now underway is directed toward the use of subvocal speech for communication in settings in which (1) acoustic noise could interfere excessively with ordinary vocal communication and/or (2) acoustic silence or secrecy of communication is required. By "subvocal speech" is meant sub-audible electromyographic (EMG) signals, associated with speech, that are acquired from the surface of the larynx and lingual areas of the throat. Topics addressed in this effort include recognition of the sub-vocal EMG signals that represent specific original words or phrases; transformation (including encoding and/or enciphering) of the signals into forms that are less vulnerable to distortion, degradation, and/or interception; and reconstruction of the original words or phrases at the receiving end of a communication link. Potential applications include ordinary verbal communications among hazardous- material-cleanup workers in protective suits, workers in noisy environments, divers, and firefighters, and secret communications among law-enforcement officers and military personnel in combat and other confrontational situations.

  1. Speech rhythm: a metaphor?

    PubMed

    Nolan, Francis; Jeon, Hae-Sung

    2014-12-19

    Is speech rhythmic? In the absence of evidence for a traditional view that languages strive to coordinate either syllables or stress-feet with regular time intervals, we consider the alternative that languages exhibit contrastive rhythm subsisting merely in the alternation of stronger and weaker elements. This is initially plausible, particularly for languages with a steep 'prominence gradient', i.e. a large disparity between stronger and weaker elements; but we point out that alternation is poorly achieved even by a 'stress-timed' language such as English, and, historically, languages have conspicuously failed to adopt simple phonological remedies that would ensure alternation. Languages seem more concerned to allow 'syntagmatic contrast' between successive units and to use durational effects to support linguistic functions than to facilitate rhythm. Furthermore, some languages (e.g. Tamil, Korean) lack the lexical prominence which would most straightforwardly underpin prominence of alternation. We conclude that speech is not incontestibly rhythmic, and may even be antirhythmic. However, its linguistic structure and patterning allow the metaphorical extension of rhythm in varying degrees and in different ways depending on the language, and it is this analogical process which allows speech to be matched to external rhythms.

  2. Speech rhythm: a metaphor?

    PubMed Central

    Nolan, Francis; Jeon, Hae-Sung

    2014-01-01

    Is speech rhythmic? In the absence of evidence for a traditional view that languages strive to coordinate either syllables or stress-feet with regular time intervals, we consider the alternative that languages exhibit contrastive rhythm subsisting merely in the alternation of stronger and weaker elements. This is initially plausible, particularly for languages with a steep ‘prominence gradient’, i.e. a large disparity between stronger and weaker elements; but we point out that alternation is poorly achieved even by a ‘stress-timed’ language such as English, and, historically, languages have conspicuously failed to adopt simple phonological remedies that would ensure alternation. Languages seem more concerned to allow ‘syntagmatic contrast’ between successive units and to use durational effects to support linguistic functions than to facilitate rhythm. Furthermore, some languages (e.g. Tamil, Korean) lack the lexical prominence which would most straightforwardly underpin prominence of alternation. We conclude that speech is not incontestibly rhythmic, and may even be antirhythmic. However, its linguistic structure and patterning allow the metaphorical extension of rhythm in varying degrees and in different ways depending on the language, and it is this analogical process which allows speech to be matched to external rhythms. PMID:25385774

  3. Speech endpoint detection with non-language speech sounds for generic speech processing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClain, Matthew; Romanowski, Brian

    2009-05-01

    Non-language speech sounds (NLSS) are sounds produced by humans that do not carry linguistic information. Examples of these sounds are coughs, clicks, breaths, and filled pauses such as "uh" and "um" in English. NLSS are prominent in conversational speech, but can be a significant source of errors in speech processing applications. Traditionally, these sounds are ignored by speech endpoint detection algorithms, where speech regions are identified in the audio signal prior to processing. The ability to filter NLSS as a pre-processing step can significantly enhance the performance of many speech processing applications, such as speaker identification, language identification, and automatic speech recognition. In order to be used in all such applications, NLSS detection must be performed without the use of language models that provide knowledge of the phonology and lexical structure of speech. This is especially relevant to situations where the languages used in the audio are not known apriori. We present the results of preliminary experiments using data from American and British English speakers, in which segments of audio are classified as language speech sounds (LSS) or NLSS using a set of acoustic features designed for language-agnostic NLSS detection and a hidden-Markov model (HMM) to model speech generation. The results of these experiments indicate that the features and model used are capable of detection certain types of NLSS, such as breaths and clicks, while detection of other types of NLSS such as filled pauses will require future research.

  4. Learning curve of speech recognition.

    PubMed

    Kauppinen, Tomi A; Kaipio, Johanna; Koivikko, Mika P

    2013-12-01

    Speech recognition (SR) speeds patient care processes by reducing report turnaround times. However, concerns have emerged about prolonged training and an added secretarial burden for radiologists. We assessed how much proofing radiologists who have years of experience with SR and radiologists new to SR must perform, and estimated how quickly the new users become as skilled as the experienced users. We studied SR log entries for 0.25 million reports from 154 radiologists and after careful exclusions, defined a group of 11 experienced radiologists and 71 radiologists new to SR (24,833 and 122,093 reports, respectively). Data were analyzed for sound file and report lengths, character-based error rates, and words unknown to the SR's dictionary. Experienced radiologists corrected 6 characters for each report and for new users, 11. Some users presented a very unfavorable learning curve, with error rates not declining as expected. New users' reports were longer, and data for the experienced users indicates that their reports, initially equally lengthy, shortened over a period of several years. For most radiologists, only minor corrections of dictated reports were necessary. While new users adopted SR quickly, with a subset outperforming experienced users from the start, identification of users struggling with SR will help facilitate troubleshooting and support.

  5. The Perception of Telephone-Processed Speech by Combined Electric and Acoustic Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Tahmina, Qudsia; Runge, Christina; Friedland, David R.

    2013-01-01

    This study assesses the effects of adding low- or high-frequency information to the band-limited telephone-processed speech on bimodal listeners’ telephone speech perception in quiet environments. In the proposed experiments, bimodal users were presented under quiet listening conditions with wideband speech (WB), bandpass-filtered telephone speech (300–3,400 Hz, BP), high-pass filtered speech (f > 300 Hz, HP, i.e., distorted frequency components above 3,400 Hz in telephone speech were restored), and low-pass filtered speech (f < 3,400 Hz, LP, i.e., distorted frequency components below 300 Hz in telephone speech were restored). Results indicated that in quiet environments, for all four types of stimuli, listening with both hearing aid (HA) and cochlear implant (CI) was significantly better than listening with CI alone. For both bimodal and CI-alone modes, there were no statistically significant differences between the LP and BP scores and between the WB and HP scores. However, the HP scores were significantly better than the BP scores. In quiet conditions, both CI alone and bimodal listening achieved the largest benefits when telephone speech was augmented with high rather than low-frequency information. These findings provide support for the design of algorithms that would extend higher frequency information, at least in quiet environments. PMID:24265213

  6. Evaluation of NASA speech encoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Techniques developed by NASA for spaceflight instrumentation were used in the design of a quantizer for speech-decoding. Computer simulation of the actions of the quantizer was tested with synthesized and real speech signals. Results were evaluated by a phometician. Topics discussed include the relationship between the number of quantizer levels and the required sampling rate; reconstruction of signals; digital filtering; speech recording, sampling, and storage, and processing results.

  7. Speech and Language Problems in Children

    MedlinePlus

    Children vary in their development of speech and language skills. Health care professionals have lists of milestones ... it may be due to a speech or language disorder. Children who have speech disorders may have ...

  8. Speech systems research at Texas Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doddington, George R.

    1977-01-01

    An assessment of automatic speech processing technology is presented. Fundamental problems in the development and the deployment of automatic speech processing systems are defined and a technology forecast for speech systems is presented.

  9. An overview of the SPHINX speech recognition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kai-Fu; Hon, Hsiao-Wuen; Reddy, Raj

    1990-01-01

    A description is given of SPHINX, a system that demonstrates the feasibility of accurate, large-vocabulary, speaker-independent, continuous speech recognition. SPHINX is based on discrete hidden Markov models (HMMs) with linear-predictive-coding derived parameters. To provide speaker independence, knowledge was added to these HMMs in several ways: multiple codebooks of fixed-width parameters, and an enhanced recognizer with carefully designed models and word-duration modeling. To deal with coarticulation in continuous speech, yet still adequately represent a large vocabulary, two new subword speech units are introduced: function-word-dependent phone models and generalized triphone models. With grammars of perplexity 997, 60, and 20, SPHINX attained word accuracies of 71, 94, and 96 percent, respectively, on a 997-word task.

  10. Enhancing Peer Feedback and Speech Preparation: The Speech Video Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opt, Susan

    2012-01-01

    In the typical public speaking course, instructors or assistants videotape or digitally record at least one of the term's speeches in class or lab to offer students additional presentation feedback. Students often watch and self-critique their speeches on their own. Peers often give only written feedback on classroom presentations or completed…

  11. Recognizing articulatory gestures from speech for robust speech recognition.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Vikramjit; Nam, Hosung; Espy-Wilson, Carol; Saltzman, Elliot; Goldstein, Louis

    2012-03-01

    Studies have shown that supplementary articulatory information can help to improve the recognition rate of automatic speech recognition systems. Unfortunately, articulatory information is not directly observable, necessitating its estimation from the speech signal. This study describes a system that recognizes articulatory gestures from speech, and uses the recognized gestures in a speech recognition system. Recognizing gestures for a given utterance involves recovering the set of underlying gestural activations and their associated dynamic parameters. This paper proposes a neural network architecture for recognizing articulatory gestures from speech and presents ways to incorporate articulatory gestures for a digit recognition task. The lack of natural speech database containing gestural information prompted us to use three stages of evaluation. First, the proposed gestural annotation architecture was tested on a synthetic speech dataset, which showed that the use of estimated tract-variable-time-functions improved gesture recognition performance. In the second stage, gesture-recognition models were applied to natural speech waveforms and word recognition experiments revealed that the recognized gestures can improve the noise-robustness of a word recognition system. In the final stage, a gesture-based Dynamic Bayesian Network was trained and the results indicate that incorporating gestural information can improve word recognition performance compared to acoustic-only systems.

  12. Alternative Speech Communication System for Persons with Severe Speech Disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selouani, Sid-Ahmed; Sidi Yakoub, Mohammed; O'Shaughnessy, Douglas

    2009-12-01

    Assistive speech-enabled systems are proposed to help both French and English speaking persons with various speech disorders. The proposed assistive systems use automatic speech recognition (ASR) and speech synthesis in order to enhance the quality of communication. These systems aim at improving the intelligibility of pathologic speech making it as natural as possible and close to the original voice of the speaker. The resynthesized utterances use new basic units, a new concatenating algorithm and a grafting technique to correct the poorly pronounced phonemes. The ASR responses are uttered by the new speech synthesis system in order to convey an intelligible message to listeners. Experiments involving four American speakers with severe dysarthria and two Acadian French speakers with sound substitution disorders (SSDs) are carried out to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed methods. An improvement of the Perceptual Evaluation of the Speech Quality (PESQ) value of 5% and more than 20% is achieved by the speech synthesis systems that deal with SSD and dysarthria, respectively.

  13. IBM MASTOR SYSTEM: Multilingual Automatic Speech-to-speech Translator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    IBM MASTOR SYSTEM: Multilingual Automatic Speech-to-speech Translator * Yuqing Gao, Liang Gu, Bowen Zhou, Ruhi Sarikaya, Mohamed Afify , Hong-Kwang...for Improved Discriminative Training,” In Proc. ICASSP, Orlando, 2002. [14] M. Afify et.al, “On the Use of Morphological Analysis for Dialectal

  14. Statistical assessment of speech system performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moshier, Stephen L.

    1977-01-01

    Methods for the normalization of performance tests results of speech recognition systems are presented. Technological accomplishments in speech recognition systems, as well as planned research activities are described.

  15. The contribution of dynamic visual cues to audiovisual speech perception.

    PubMed

    Jaekl, Philip; Pesquita, Ana; Alsius, Agnes; Munhall, Kevin; Soto-Faraco, Salvador

    2015-08-01

    Seeing a speaker's facial gestures can significantly improve speech comprehension, especially in noisy environments. However, the nature of the visual information from the speaker's facial movements that is relevant for this enhancement is still unclear. Like auditory speech signals, visual speech signals unfold over time and contain both dynamic configural information and luminance-defined local motion cues; two information sources that are thought to engage anatomically and functionally separate visual systems. Whereas, some past studies have highlighted the importance of local, luminance-defined motion cues in audiovisual speech perception, the contribution of dynamic configural information signalling changes in form over time has not yet been assessed. We therefore attempted to single out the contribution of dynamic configural information to audiovisual speech processing. To this aim, we measured word identification performance in noise using unimodal auditory stimuli, and with audiovisual stimuli. In the audiovisual condition, speaking faces were presented as point light displays achieved via motion capture of the original talker. Point light displays could be isoluminant, to minimise the contribution of effective luminance-defined local motion information, or with added luminance contrast, allowing the combined effect of dynamic configural cues and local motion cues. Audiovisual enhancement was found in both the isoluminant and contrast-based luminance conditions compared to an auditory-only condition, demonstrating, for the first time the specific contribution of dynamic configural cues to audiovisual speech improvement. These findings imply that globally processed changes in a speaker's facial shape contribute significantly towards the perception of articulatory gestures and the analysis of audiovisual speech.

  16. A speaker's gesture style can affect language comprehension: ERP evidence from gesture-speech integration.

    PubMed

    Obermeier, Christian; Kelly, Spencer D; Gunter, Thomas C

    2015-09-01

    In face-to-face communication, speech is typically enriched by gestures. Clearly, not all people gesture in the same way, and the present study explores whether such individual differences in gesture style are taken into account during the perception of gestures that accompany speech. Participants were presented with one speaker that gestured in a straightforward way and another that also produced self-touch movements. Adding trials with such grooming movements makes the gesture information a much weaker cue compared with the gestures of the non-grooming speaker. The Electroencephalogram was recorded as participants watched videos of the individual speakers. Event-related potentials elicited by the speech signal revealed that adding grooming movements attenuated the impact of gesture for this particular speaker. Thus, these data suggest that there is sensitivity to the personal communication style of a speaker and that affects the extent to which gesture and speech are integrated during language comprehension.

  17. The Soft Palate Friendly Speech Bulb for Velopharyngeal Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Kahlon, Monaliza; Gupta, Shilpa; Dhingra, Parvinder Singh

    2016-01-01

    Velopharyngeal insufficiency is an anatomic defect of the soft palate making palatopharyngeal sphincter incomplete. It is an important concern to address in patients with bilateral cleft lip and palate. Speech aid prosthesis or speech bulbs are best choice in cases where surgically repaired soft palate is too short to contact pharyngeal walls during function but these prosthesis have been associated with inadequate marginal closure, ulcerations and patient discomfort. Here is a case report of untreated bilateral cleft lip and palate associated with palatal insufficiency treated by means of palate friendly innovative speech bulb. This modified speech bulb is a combination of hard acrylic and soft lining material. The hard self-curing acrylic resin covers only the hard palate area and a permanent soft silicone lining material covering the soft palate area. A claw-shaped wire component was extended backwards from acrylic and was embedded in soft silicone to aid in retention and approximation of two materials. The advantage of adding the soft lining material in posterior area helped in covering the adequate superior extension and margins for maximal pharyngeal activity. This also improved the hypernasality, speech, comfort and overall patient acceptance. PMID:27790589

  18. Automatic Speech Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potamianos, Gerasimos; Lamel, Lori; Wölfel, Matthias; Huang, Jing; Marcheret, Etienne; Barras, Claude; Zhu, Xuan; McDonough, John; Hernando, Javier; Macho, Dusan; Nadeu, Climent

    Automatic speech recognition (ASR) is a critical component for CHIL services. For example, it provides the input to higher-level technologies, such as summarization and question answering, as discussed in Chapter 8. In the spirit of ubiquitous computing, the goal of ASR in CHIL is to achieve a high performance using far-field sensors (networks of microphone arrays and distributed far-field microphones). However, close-talking microphones are also of interest, as they are used to benchmark ASR system development by providing a best-case acoustic channel scenario to compare against.

  19. Flat-spectrum speech.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, M R; Strube, H W

    1986-05-01

    Flat-spectrum stimuli, consisting of many equal-amplitude harmonics, produce timbre sensations that can depend strongly on the phase angles of the individual harmonics. For fundamental frequencies in the human pitch range, many realizable timbres have vowel-like perceptual qualities. This observation suggests the possibility of constructing intelligible voiced speech signals that have flat-amplitude spectra. This paper describes a successful experiment of creating several different diphthongs by judicious choice of the phase angles of a flat-spectrum waveform. A possible explanation of the observed vowel timbres lies in the dependence of the short-time amplitude spectra on phase changes.

  20. AdS3: the NHEK generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bena, Iosif; Heurtier, Lucien; Puhm, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    It was argued in [1] that the five-dimensional near-horizon extremal Kerr (NHEK) geometry can be embedded in String Theory as the infrared region of an infinite family of non-supersymmetric geometries that have D1, D5, momentum and KK monopole charges. We show that there exists a method to embed these geometries into asymptotically- {AdS}_3× {S}^3/{{Z}}_N solutions, and hence to obtain infinite families of flows whose infrared is NHEK. This indicates that the CFT dual to the NHEK geometry is the IR fixed point of a Renormalization Group flow from a known local UV CFT and opens the door to its explicit construction.

  1. Interpersonal Orientation and Speech Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Street, Richard L., Jr.; Murphy, Thomas L.

    1987-01-01

    Indicates that (1) males with low interpersonal orientation (IO) were least vocally active and expressive and least consistent in their speech performances, and (2) high IO males and low IO females tended to demonstrate greater speech convergence than either low IO males or high IO females. (JD)

  2. Speech Communication: A Radical Doctrine?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haiman, Franklyn S.

    1983-01-01

    Reviews connections between speech communication as a discipline and active commitments to First Amendment principles. Reflects on the influence of Professor James O'Neil, principal founder of the Speech Communication Association and offers his example as a role model. (PD)

  3. SPEECH--MAN'S NATURAL COMMUNICATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DUDLEY, HOMER; AND OTHERS

    SESSION 63 OF THE 1967 INSTITUTE OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC ENGINEERS INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION BROUGHT TOGETHER SEVEN DISTINGUISHED MEN WORKING IN FIELDS RELEVANT TO LANGUAGE. THEIR TOPICS INCLUDED ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION OF SPEECH AND LANGUAGE, LANGUAGE AND CULTURE, MAN'S PHYSIOLOGICAL MECHANISMS FOR SPEECH, LINGUISTICS, AND TECHNOLOGY AND…

  4. Speech Prosody in Cerebellar Ataxia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casper, Maureen A.; Raphael, Lawrence J.; Harris, Katherine S.; Geibel, Jennifer M.

    2007-01-01

    Persons with cerebellar ataxia exhibit changes in physical coordination and speech and voice production. Previously, these alterations of speech and voice production were described primarily via perceptual coordinates. In this study, the spatial-temporal properties of syllable production were examined in 12 speakers, six of whom were healthy…

  5. Audiovisual Speech Recalibration in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Linden, Sabine; Vroomen, Jean

    2008-01-01

    In order to examine whether children adjust their phonetic speech categories, children of two age groups, five-year-olds and eight-year-olds, were exposed to a video of a face saying /aba/ or /ada/ accompanied by an auditory ambiguous speech sound halfway between /b/ and /d/. The effect of exposure to these audiovisual stimuli was measured on…

  6. Speech Analysis Systems: An Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Charles; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Performance characteristics are reviewed for seven computerized systems marketed for acoustic speech analysis: CSpeech, CSRE, ILS-PC, Kay Elemetrics model 550 Sona-Graph, MacSpeech Lab II, MSL, and Signalyze. Characteristics reviewed include system components, basic capabilities, documentation, user interface, data formats and journaling, and…

  7. Speech acoustics: How much science?

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Manjul

    2012-01-01

    Human vocalizations are sounds made exclusively by a human vocal tract. Among other vocalizations, for example, laughs or screams, speech is the most important. Speech is the primary medium of that supremely human symbolic communication system called language. One of the functions of a voice, perhaps the main one, is to realize language, by conveying some of the speaker's thoughts in linguistic form. Speech is language made audible. Moreover, when phoneticians compare and describe voices, they usually do so with respect to linguistic units, especially speech sounds, like vowels or consonants. It is therefore necessary to understand the structure as well as nature of speech sounds and how they are described. In order to understand and evaluate the speech, it is important to have at least a basic understanding of science of speech acoustics: how the acoustics of speech are produced, how they are described, and how differences, both between speakers and within speakers, arise in an acoustic output. One of the aims of this article is try to facilitate this understanding.

  8. AdS2 holographic dictionary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetič, Mirjam; Papadimitriou, Ioannis

    2016-12-01

    We construct the holographic dictionary for both running and constant dilaton solutions of the two dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton theory that is obtained by a circle reduction from Einstein-Hilbert gravity with negative cosmological constant in three dimensions. This specific model ensures that the dual theory has a well defined ultraviolet completion in terms of a two dimensional conformal field theory, but our results apply qualitatively to a wider class of two dimensional dilaton gravity theories. For each type of solutions we perform holographic renormalization, compute the exact renormalized one-point functions in the presence of arbitrary sources, and derive the asymptotic symmetries and the corresponding conserved charges. In both cases we find that the scalar operator dual to the dilaton plays a crucial role in the description of the dynamics. Its source gives rise to a matter conformal anomaly for the running dilaton solutions, while its expectation value is the only non trivial observable for constant dilaton solutions. The role of this operator has been largely overlooked in the literature. We further show that the only non trivial conserved charges for running dilaton solutions are the mass and the electric charge, while for constant dilaton solutions only the electric charge is non zero. However, by uplifting the solutions to three dimensions we show that constant dilaton solutions can support non trivial extended symmetry algebras, including the one found by Compère, Song and Strominger [1], in agreement with the results of Castro and Song [2]. Finally, we demonstrate that any solution of this specific dilaton gravity model can be uplifted to a family of asymptotically AdS2 × S 2 or conformally AdS2 × S 2 solutions of the STU model in four dimensions, including non extremal black holes. The four dimensional solutions obtained by uplifting the running dilaton solutions coincide with the so called `subtracted geometries', while those obtained

  9. Atypical delayed auditory feedback effect and Lombard effect on speech production in high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Lin, I-Fan; Mochida, Takemi; Asada, Kosuke; Ayaya, Satsuki; Kumagaya, Shin-Ichiro; Kato, Masaharu

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show impaired social interaction and communication, which may be related to their difficulties in speech production. To investigate the mechanisms of atypical speech production in this population, we examined feedback control by delaying the auditory feedback of their own speech, which degraded speech fluency. We also examined feedforward control by adding loud pink noise to the auditory feedback, which led to increased vocal effort in producing speech. The results of Japanese speakers show that, compared with neurotypical (NT) individuals, high-functioning adults with ASD (including Asperger's disorder, autistic disorder, and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified) were more affected by delayed auditory feedback but less affected by external noise. These findings indicate that, in contrast to NT individuals, those with ASD relied more on feedback control than on feedforward control in speech production, which is consistent with the hypothesis that this population exhibits attenuated Bayesian priors.

  10. Monaural speech segregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Deliang; Hu, Guoning

    2003-04-01

    Speech segregation from a monaural recording is a primary task of auditory scene analysis, and has proven to be very challenging. We present a multistage model for the task. The model starts with simulated auditory periphery. A subsequent stage computes midlevel auditory representations, including correlograms and cross-channel correlations. The core of the system performs segmentation and grouping in a two-dimensional time-frequency representation that encodes proximity in frequency and time, periodicity, and amplitude modulation (AM). Motivated by psychoacoustic observations, our system employs different mechanisms for handling resolved and unresolved harmonics. For resolved harmonics, our system generates segments-basic components of an auditory scene-based on temporal continuity and cross-channel correlation, and groups them according to periodicity. For unresolved harmonics, the system generates segments based on AM in addition to temporal continuity and groups them according to AM repetition rates. We derive AM repetition rates using sinusoidal modeling and gradient descent. Underlying the segregation process is a pitch contour that is first estimated from speech segregated according to global pitch and then adjusted according to psychoacoustic constraints. The model has been systematically evaluated, and it yields substantially better performance than previous systems.

  11. Dichotic speech tests.

    PubMed

    Hällgren, M; Johansson, M; Larsby, B; Arlinger, S

    1998-01-01

    When central auditory dysfunction is present, ability to understand speech in difficult listening situations can be affected. To study this phenomenon, dichotic speech tests were performed with test material in the Swedish language. Digits, spondees, sentences and consonant-vowel syllables were used as stimuli and the reporting was free or directed. The test material was recorded on CD. The study includes a normal group of 30 people in three different age categories; 11 years, 23-27 years and 67-70 years. It also includes two different groups of subjects with suspected central auditory lesions; 11 children with reading and writing difficulties and 4 adults earlier exposed to organic solvents. The results from the normal group do not show any differences in performance due to age. The children with reading and writing difficulties show a significant deviation for one test with digits and one test with syllables. Three of the four adults exposed to solvents show a significant deviation from the normal group.

  12. Interactions between distal speech rate, linguistic knowledge, and speech environment.

    PubMed

    Morrill, Tuuli; Baese-Berk, Melissa; Heffner, Christopher; Dilley, Laura

    2015-10-01

    During lexical access, listeners use both signal-based and knowledge-based cues, and information from the linguistic context can affect the perception of acoustic speech information. Recent findings suggest that the various cues used in lexical access are implemented with flexibility and may be affected by information from the larger speech context. We conducted 2 experiments to examine effects of a signal-based cue (distal speech rate) and a knowledge-based cue (linguistic structure) on lexical perception. In Experiment 1, we manipulated distal speech rate in utterances where an acoustically ambiguous critical word was either obligatory for the utterance to be syntactically well formed (e.g., Conner knew that bread and butter (are) both in the pantry) or optional (e.g., Don must see the harbor (or) boats). In Experiment 2, we examined identical target utterances as in Experiment 1 but changed the distribution of linguistic structures in the fillers. The results of the 2 experiments demonstrate that speech rate and linguistic knowledge about critical word obligatoriness can both influence speech perception. In addition, it is possible to alter the strength of a signal-based cue by changing information in the speech environment. These results provide support for models of word segmentation that include flexible weighting of signal-based and knowledge-based cues.

  13. Suppressing aliasing noise in the speech feature domain for automatic speech recognition.

    PubMed

    Deng, Huiqun; O'Shaughnessy, Douglas

    2008-07-01

    This letter points out that, although in the audio signal domain low-pass filtering has been used to prevent aliasing noise from entering the baseband of speech signals, an antialias process in the speech feature domain is still needed to prevent high modulation frequency components from entering the baseband of speech features. The existence of aliasing noise in speech features is revealed via spectral analysis of speech feature streams. A method for suppressing such aliasing noise is proposed. Experiments on large vocabulary speech recognition show that antialias processing of speech features can improve speech recognition, especially for noisy speech.

  14. The frontal aslant tract underlies speech fluency in persistent developmental stuttering.

    PubMed

    Kronfeld-Duenias, Vered; Amir, Ofer; Ezrati-Vinacour, Ruth; Civier, Oren; Ben-Shachar, Michal

    2016-01-01

    The frontal aslant tract (FAT) is a pathway that connects the inferior frontal gyrus with the supplementary motor area (SMA) and pre-SMA. The FAT was recently identified and introduced as part of a "motor stream" that plays an important role in speech production. In this study, we use diffusion imaging to examine the hypothesis that the FAT underlies speech fluency, by studying its properties in individuals with persistent developmental stuttering, a speech disorder that disrupts the production of fluent speech. We use tractography to quantify the volume and diffusion properties of the FAT in a group of adults who stutter (AWS) and fluent controls. Additionally, we use tractography to extract these measures from the corticospinal tract (CST), a well-known component of the motor system. We compute diffusion measures in multiple points along the tracts, and examine the correlation between these diffusion measures and behavioral measures of speech fluency. Our data show increased mean diffusivity in bilateral FAT of AWS compared with controls. In addition, the results show regions within the left FAT and the left CST where diffusivity values are increased in AWS compared with controls. Last, we report that in AWS, diffusivity values measured within sub-regions of the left FAT negatively correlate with speech fluency. Our findings are the first to relate the FAT with fluent speech production in stuttering, thus adding to the current knowledge of the functional role that this tract plays in speech production and to the literature of the etiology of persistent developmental stuttering.

  15. Speech Anxiety: The Importance of Identification in the Basic Speech Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandeville, Mary Y.

    A study investigated speech anxiety in the basic speech course by means of pre and post essays. Subjects, 73 students in 3 classes in the basic speech course at a southwestern multiuniversity, wrote a two-page essay on their perceptions of their speech anxiety before the first speaking project. Students discussed speech anxiety in class and were…

  16. Freedom of Speech Newsletter, February 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Winfred G., Jr., Ed.

    The "Freedom of Speech Newsletter" is the communication medium, published four times each academic year, of the Freedom of Speech Interest Group, Western Speech Communication Association. Articles included in this issue are "What Is Academic Freedom For?" by Ralph Ross, "A Sociology of Free Speech" by Ray Heidt,…

  17. Preschool Children's Awareness of Private Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manfra, Louis; Winsler, Adam

    2006-01-01

    The present study explored: (a) preschool children's awareness of their own talking and private speech (speech directed to the self); (b) differences in age, speech use, language ability, and mentalizing abilities between children with awareness and those without; and (c) children's beliefs and attitudes about private speech. Fifty-one children…

  18. Infant Perception of Atypical Speech Signals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vouloumanos, Athena; Gelfand, Hanna M.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to decode atypical and degraded speech signals as intelligible is a hallmark of speech perception. Human adults can perceive sounds as speech even when they are generated by a variety of nonhuman sources including computers and parrots. We examined how infants perceive the speech-like vocalizations of a parrot. Further, we examined how…

  19. Emerging Technologies Speech Tools and Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godwin-Jones, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Using computers to recognize and analyze human speech goes back at least to the 1970's. Developed initially to help the hearing or speech impaired, speech recognition was also used early on experimentally in language learning. Since the 1990's, advances in the scientific understanding of speech as well as significant enhancements in software and…

  20. ON THE NATURE OF SPEECH SCIENCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PETERSON, GORDON E.

    IN THIS ARTICLE THE NATURE OF THE DISCIPLINE OF SPEECH SCIENCE IS CONSIDERED AND THE VARIOUS BASIC AND APPLIED AREAS OF THE DISCIPLINE ARE DISCUSSED. THE BASIC AREAS ENCOMPASS THE VARIOUS PROCESSES OF THE PHYSIOLOGY OF SPEECH PRODUCTION, THE ACOUSTICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SPEECH, INCLUDING THE SPEECH WAVE TYPES AND THE INFORMATION-BEARING ACOUSTIC…

  1. Automated Speech Rate Measurement in Dysarthria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Heidi; Dekens, Tomas; Van Nuffelen, Gwen; Latacz, Lukas; Verhelst, Werner; De Bodt, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, a new algorithm for automated determination of speech rate (SR) in dysarthric speech is evaluated. We investigated how reliably the algorithm calculates the SR of dysarthric speech samples when compared with calculation performed by speech-language pathologists. Method: The new algorithm was trained and tested using Dutch…

  2. Analysis of False Starts in Spontaneous Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Shaughnessy, Douglas

    A primary difference between spontaneous speech and read speech concerns the use of false starts, where a speaker interrupts the flow of speech to restart his or her utterance. A study examined the acoustic aspects of such restarts in a widely-used speech database, examining approximately 1000 utterances, about 10% of which contained a restart.…

  3. The "Checkers" Speech and Televised Political Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaningam, Carl

    Richard Nixon's 1952 "Checkers" speech was an innovative use of television for political communication. Like television news itself, the campaign fund crisis behind the speech can be thought of in the same terms as other television melodrama, with the speech serving as its climactic episode. The speech adapted well to television because…

  4. Brain-inspired speech segmentation for automatic speech recognition using the speech envelope as a temporal reference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Byeongwook; Cho, Kwang-Hyun

    2016-11-01

    Speech segmentation is a crucial step in automatic speech recognition because additional speech analyses are performed for each framed speech segment. Conventional segmentation techniques primarily segment speech using a fixed frame size for computational simplicity. However, this approach is insufficient for capturing the quasi-regular structure of speech, which causes substantial recognition failure in noisy environments. How does the brain handle quasi-regular structured speech and maintain high recognition performance under any circumstance? Recent neurophysiological studies have suggested that the phase of neuronal oscillations in the auditory cortex contributes to accurate speech recognition by guiding speech segmentation into smaller units at different timescales. A phase-locked relationship between neuronal oscillation and the speech envelope has recently been obtained, which suggests that the speech envelope provides a foundation for multi-timescale speech segmental information. In this study, we quantitatively investigated the role of the speech envelope as a potential temporal reference to segment speech using its instantaneous phase information. We evaluated the proposed approach by the achieved information gain and recognition performance in various noisy environments. The results indicate that the proposed segmentation scheme not only extracts more information from speech but also provides greater robustness in a recognition test.

  5. Brain-inspired speech segmentation for automatic speech recognition using the speech envelope as a temporal reference.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byeongwook; Cho, Kwang-Hyun

    2016-11-23

    Speech segmentation is a crucial step in automatic speech recognition because additional speech analyses are performed for each framed speech segment. Conventional segmentation techniques primarily segment speech using a fixed frame size for computational simplicity. However, this approach is insufficient for capturing the quasi-regular structure of speech, which causes substantial recognition failure in noisy environments. How does the brain handle quasi-regular structured speech and maintain high recognition performance under any circumstance? Recent neurophysiological studies have suggested that the phase of neuronal oscillations in the auditory cortex contributes to accurate speech recognition by guiding speech segmentation into smaller units at different timescales. A phase-locked relationship between neuronal oscillation and the speech envelope has recently been obtained, which suggests that the speech envelope provides a foundation for multi-timescale speech segmental information. In this study, we quantitatively investigated the role of the speech envelope as a potential temporal reference to segment speech using its instantaneous phase information. We evaluated the proposed approach by the achieved information gain and recognition performance in various noisy environments. The results indicate that the proposed segmentation scheme not only extracts more information from speech but also provides greater robustness in a recognition test.

  6. Brain-inspired speech segmentation for automatic speech recognition using the speech envelope as a temporal reference

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byeongwook; Cho, Kwang-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Speech segmentation is a crucial step in automatic speech recognition because additional speech analyses are performed for each framed speech segment. Conventional segmentation techniques primarily segment speech using a fixed frame size for computational simplicity. However, this approach is insufficient for capturing the quasi-regular structure of speech, which causes substantial recognition failure in noisy environments. How does the brain handle quasi-regular structured speech and maintain high recognition performance under any circumstance? Recent neurophysiological studies have suggested that the phase of neuronal oscillations in the auditory cortex contributes to accurate speech recognition by guiding speech segmentation into smaller units at different timescales. A phase-locked relationship between neuronal oscillation and the speech envelope has recently been obtained, which suggests that the speech envelope provides a foundation for multi-timescale speech segmental information. In this study, we quantitatively investigated the role of the speech envelope as a potential temporal reference to segment speech using its instantaneous phase information. We evaluated the proposed approach by the achieved information gain and recognition performance in various noisy environments. The results indicate that the proposed segmentation scheme not only extracts more information from speech but also provides greater robustness in a recognition test. PMID:27876875

  7. Mapping acoustics to kinematics in speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bali, Rohan

    An accurate mapping from speech acoustics to speech articulator movements has many practical applications, as well as theoretical implications of speech planning and perception science. This work can be divided into two parts. In the first part, we show that a simple codebook can be used to map acoustics to speech articulator movements in natural, conversational speech. In the second part, we incorporate cost optimization principles that have been shown to be relevant in motor control tasks into the codebook approach. These cost optimizations are defined as minimization of integral of magnitude velocity, acceleration and jerk of the speech articulators, and are implemented using a dynamic programming technique. Results show that incorporating cost minimization of speech articulator movements can significantly improve mapping acoustics to speech articulator movements. This suggests underlying physiological or neural planning principles used by speech articulators during speech production.

  8. Pronunciation models for conversational speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Keith

    2005-09-01

    Using a pronunciation dictionary of clear speech citation forms a segment deletion rate of nearly 12% is found in a corpus of conversational speech. The number of apparent segment deletions can be reduced by constructing a pronunciation dictionary that records one or more of the actual pronunciations found in conversational speech; however, the resulting empirical pronunciation dictionary often fails to include the citation pronunciation form. Issues involved in selecting pronunciations for a dictionary for linguistic, psycholinguistic, and ASR research will be discussed. One conclusion is that Ladefoged may have been the wiser for avoiding the business of producing pronunciation dictionaries. [Supported by NIDCD Grant No. R01 DC04330-03.

  9. Computational neuroanatomy of speech production.

    PubMed

    Hickok, Gregory

    2012-01-05

    Speech production has been studied predominantly from within two traditions, psycholinguistics and motor control. These traditions have rarely interacted, and the resulting chasm between these approaches seems to reflect a level of analysis difference: whereas motor control is concerned with lower-level articulatory control, psycholinguistics focuses on higher-level linguistic processing. However, closer examination of both approaches reveals a substantial convergence of ideas. The goal of this article is to integrate psycholinguistic and motor control approaches to speech production. The result of this synthesis is a neuroanatomically grounded, hierarchical state feedback control model of speech production.

  10. Computational neuroanatomy of speech production

    PubMed Central

    Hickok, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    Speech production has been studied predominantly from within two traditions, psycholinguistics and motor control. These traditions have rarely interacted and the resulting chasm between these approaches seems to reflect a level of analysis difference: while motor control is concerned with lower-level articulatory control, psycholinguistics focuses on higher-level linguistic processing. However, closer examination of both approaches reveals a substantial convergence of ideas. The goal of this article is to integrate psycholinguistic and motor control approaches to speech production. The result of this synthesis is a neuroanatomically grounded hierarchical state feedback control model of speech production. PMID:22218206

  11. Steganalysis of recorded speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Micah K.; Lyu, Siwei; Farid, Hany

    2005-03-01

    Digital audio provides a suitable cover for high-throughput steganography. At 16 bits per sample and sampled at a rate of 44,100 Hz, digital audio has the bit-rate to support large messages. In addition, audio is often transient and unpredictable, facilitating the hiding of messages. Using an approach similar to our universal image steganalysis, we show that hidden messages alter the underlying statistics of audio signals. Our statistical model begins by building a linear basis that captures certain statistical properties of audio signals. A low-dimensional statistical feature vector is extracted from this basis representation and used by a non-linear support vector machine for classification. We show the efficacy of this approach on LSB embedding and Hide4PGP. While no explicit assumptions about the content of the audio are made, our technique has been developed and tested on high-quality recorded speech.

  12. Speech recovery device

    SciTech Connect

    Frankle, Christen M.

    2004-04-20

    There is provided an apparatus and method for assisting speech recovery in people with inability to speak due to aphasia, apraxia or another condition with similar effect. A hollow, rigid, thin-walled tube with semi-circular or semi-elliptical cut out shapes at each open end is positioned such that one end mates with the throat/voice box area of the neck of the assistor and the other end mates with the throat/voice box area of the assisted. The speaking person (assistor) makes sounds that produce standing wave vibrations at the same frequency in the vocal cords of the assisted person. Driving the assisted person's vocal cords with the assisted person being able to hear the correct tone enables the assisted person to speak by simply amplifying the vibration of membranes in their throat.

  13. Speech recovery device

    SciTech Connect

    Frankle, Christen M.

    2000-10-19

    There is provided an apparatus and method for assisting speech recovery in people with inability to speak due to aphasia, apraxia or another condition with similar effect. A hollow, rigid, thin-walled tube with semi-circular or semi-elliptical cut out shapes at each open end is positioned such that one end mates with the throat/voice box area of the neck of the assistor and the other end mates with the throat/voice box area of the assisted. The speaking person (assistor) makes sounds that produce standing wave vibrations at the same frequency in the vocal cords of the assisted person. Driving the assisted person's vocal cords with the assisted person being able to hear the correct tone enables the assisted person to speak by simply amplifying the vibration of membranes in their throat.

  14. Anxiety and ritualized speech.

    PubMed

    Lalljee, M; Cook, M

    1975-08-01

    The experiment examines the effects on a number of words that seem irrevelant to semantic communication. The Units of Ritualized Speech (URSs) considered are: 'I mean', 'in fact', 'really', 'sort of', 'well', and 'you know'. Two hypotheses are tested: (i) that URS rate will increase with anxiety; and (ii) that the speaker's preferred URS will increase with anxiety. Subjects were interviewed on topics they had previously rated as anxiety-provoking and non-anxiety-provoking. Hypothesis (i) was supported, but hypothesis (ii) was not. More specifically, the use of 'I mean' and 'well' increases when the speaker is anxious. Explanation for this is sought in the grammatical location of these two units. Sex differences in the use of URSs, correlations between URSs and their relationship to other forms of disfluency are also considered.

  15. Deep Ensemble Learning for Monaural Speech Separation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    Ensemble Learning for Monaural Speech Separation Xiao-Lei Zhang Department of Computer Science and Engineering The Ohio State University, Columbus...State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA dwang@cse.ohio-state.edu Abstract – Monaural speech separation is a fundamental problem in robust speech...processing. Recently, deep neural network (DNN) based speech separation methods, which predict either clean speech or an ideal time-frequency mask, have

  16. AD(H)D.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Christopher; Charles, Janice; Britt, Helena

    2008-06-01

    The BEACH program (Bettering the Evaluation and Care of Health) shows that management of attention deficit (hyperactivity) disorder (AD(H)D) was rare in general practice, occurring only six times per 1,000 encounters with children aged 5-17 years, between April 2000 and December 2007. This suggests that general practitioners manage AD(H)D about 46,000 times for this age group nationally each year.

  17. ADS pilot program Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clauson, J.; Heuser, J.

    1981-01-01

    The Applications Data Service (ADS) is a system based on an electronic data communications network which will permit scientists to share the data stored in data bases at universities and at government and private installations. It is designed to allow users to readily locate and access high quality, timely data from multiple sources. The ADS Pilot program objectives and the current plans for accomplishing those objectives are described.

  18. Mistaking minds and machines: How speech affects dehumanization and anthropomorphism.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Juliana; Epley, Nicholas

    2016-11-01

    Treating a human mind like a machine is an essential component of dehumanization, whereas attributing a humanlike mind to a machine is an essential component of anthropomorphism. Here we tested how a cue closely connected to a person's actual mental experience-a humanlike voice-affects the likelihood of mistaking a person for a machine, or a machine for a person. We predicted that paralinguistic cues in speech are particularly likely to convey the presence of a humanlike mind, such that removing voice from communication (leaving only text) would increase the likelihood of mistaking the text's creator for a machine. Conversely, adding voice to a computer-generated script (resulting in speech) would increase the likelihood of mistaking the text's creator for a human. Four experiments confirmed these hypotheses, demonstrating that people are more likely to infer a human (vs. computer) creator when they hear a voice expressing thoughts than when they read the same thoughts in text. Adding human visual cues to text (i.e., seeing a person perform a script in a subtitled video clip), did not increase the likelihood of inferring a human creator compared with only reading text, suggesting that defining features of personhood may be conveyed more clearly in speech (Experiments 1 and 2). Removing the naturalistic paralinguistic cues that convey humanlike capacity for thinking and feeling, such as varied pace and intonation, eliminates the humanizing effect of speech (Experiment 4). We discuss implications for dehumanizing others through text-based media, and for anthropomorphizing machines through speech-based media. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. Writing, Inner Speech, and Meditation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffett, James

    1982-01-01

    Examines the interrelationships among meditation, inner speech (stream of consciousness), and writing. Considers the possibilities and implications of using the techniques of meditation in educational settings, especially in the writing classroom. (RL)

  20. Delayed Speech or Language Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development (Birth to 3 Years) Feeding Your 1- to ... Possible Problem If you're concerned about your child's speech and language development, there are some things to watch for. An ...

  1. Acute stress reduces speech fluency.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Tony W; Laures-Gore, Jacqueline S; Duff, Melissa C

    2014-03-01

    People often report word-finding difficulties and other language disturbances when put in a stressful situation. There is, however, scant empirical evidence to support the claim that stress affects speech productivity. To address this issue, we measured speech and language variables during a stressful Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) as well as during a less stressful "placebo" TSST (Het et al., 2009). Compared to the non-stressful speech, participants showed higher word productivity during the TSST. By contrast, participants paused more during the stressful TSST, an effect that was especially pronounced in participants who produced a larger cortisol and heart rate response to the stressor. Findings support anecdotal evidence of stress-impaired speech production abilities.

  2. Speech measures indicating workload demand.

    PubMed

    Brenner, M; Doherty, E T; Shipp, T

    1994-01-01

    Heart rate and six speech measures were evaluated using a manual tracking task under different workload demands. Following training, 17 male subjects performed three task trials: a difficult trial, with a $50 incentive for successful performance at a very demanding level; an easy trial, with a $2 incentive for successful performance at a simple level; and a baseline trial, in which there was physiological monitoring but no tracking performance. Subjects counted aloud during the trials. It was found that heart rate, speaking fundamental frequency (pitch), and vocal intensity (loudness) increased significantly with workload demands. Speaking rate showed a marginal increase, while vocal jitter and vocal shimmer did not show reliable changes. A derived speech measure, which statistically combined information from all other speech measures except shimmer, was also evaluated. It increased significantly with workload demands and was surprisingly robust in showing differences for individual subjects. It appears that speech analysis can provide practical workload information.

  3. Delayed Speech or Language Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... often around 9 months), they begin to string sounds together, incorporate the different tones of speech, and ... of age, babies also should be attentive to sound and begin to recognize names of common objects ( ...

  4. Influences of noise-interruption and information-bearing acoustic changes on understanding simulated electric-acoustic speech.

    PubMed

    Stilp, Christian; Donaldson, Gail; Oh, Soohee; Kong, Ying-Yee

    2016-11-01

    In simulations of electrical-acoustic stimulation (EAS), vocoded speech intelligibility is aided by preservation of low-frequency acoustic cues. However, the speech signal is often interrupted in everyday listening conditions, and effects of interruption on hybrid speech intelligibility are poorly understood. Additionally, listeners rely on information-bearing acoustic changes to understand full-spectrum speech (as measured by cochlea-scaled entropy [CSE]) and vocoded speech (CSECI), but how listeners utilize these informational changes to understand EAS speech is unclear. Here, normal-hearing participants heard noise-vocoded sentences with three to six spectral channels in two conditions: vocoder-only (80-8000 Hz) and simulated hybrid EAS (vocoded above 500 Hz; original acoustic signal below 500 Hz). In each sentence, four 80-ms intervals containing high-CSECI or low-CSECI acoustic changes were replaced with speech-shaped noise. As expected, performance improved with the preservation of low-frequency fine-structure cues (EAS). This improvement decreased for continuous EAS sentences as more spectral channels were added, but increased as more channels were added to noise-interrupted EAS sentences. Performance was impaired more when high-CSECI intervals were replaced by noise than when low-CSECI intervals were replaced, but this pattern did not differ across listening modes. Utilizing information-bearing acoustic changes to understand speech is predicted to generalize to cochlear implant users who receive EAS inputs.

  5. The interlanguage speech intelligibility benefit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bent, Tessa; Bradlow, Ann R.

    2003-09-01

    This study investigated how native language background influences the intelligibility of speech by non-native talkers for non-native listeners from either the same or a different native language background as the talker. Native talkers of Chinese (n=2), Korean (n=2), and English (n=1) were recorded reading simple English sentences. Native listeners of English (n=21), Chinese (n=21), Korean (n=10), and a mixed group from various native language backgrounds (n=12) then performed a sentence recognition task with the recordings from the five talkers. Results showed that for native English listeners, the native English talker was most intelligible. However, for non-native listeners, speech from a relatively high proficiency non-native talker from the same native language background was as intelligible as speech from a native talker, giving rise to the ``matched interlanguage speech intelligibility benefit.'' Furthermore, this interlanguage intelligibility benefit extended to the situation where the non-native talker and listeners came from different language backgrounds, giving rise to the ``mismatched interlanguage speech intelligibility benefit.'' These findings shed light on the nature of the talker-listener interaction during speech communication.

  6. Automatic testing of speech recognition.

    PubMed

    Francart, Tom; Moonen, Marc; Wouters, Jan

    2009-02-01

    Speech reception tests are commonly administered by manually scoring the oral response of the subject. This requires a test supervisor to be continuously present. To avoid this, a subject can type the response, after which it can be scored automatically. However, spelling errors may then be counted as recognition errors, influencing the test results. We demonstrate an autocorrection approach based on two scoring algorithms to cope with spelling errors. The first algorithm deals with sentences and is based on word scores. The second algorithm deals with single words and is based on phoneme scores. Both algorithms were evaluated with a corpus of typed answers based on three different Dutch speech materials. The percentage of differences between automatic and manual scoring was determined, in addition to the mean difference in speech recognition threshold. The sentence correction algorithm performed at a higher accuracy than commonly obtained with these speech materials. The word correction algorithm performed better than the human operator. Both algorithms can be used in practice and allow speech reception tests with open set speech materials over the internet.

  7. Elderly perception of speech from a computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Alan; Eskenazi, Maxine; Simmons, Reid

    2002-05-01

    An aging population still needs to access information, such as bus schedules. It is evident that they will be doing so using computers and especially interfaces using speech input and output. This is a preliminary study to the use of synthetic speech for the elderly. In it twenty persons between the ages of 60 and 80 were asked to listen to speech emitted by a robot (CMU's VIKIA) and to write down what they heard. All of the speech was natural prerecorded speech (not synthetic) read by one female speaker. There were four listening conditions: (a) only speech emitted, (b) robot moves before emitting speech, (c) face has lip movement during speech, (d) both (b) and (c). There were very few errors for conditions (b), (c), and (d), but errors existed for condition (a). The presentation will discuss experimental conditions, show actual figures and try to draw conclusions for speech communication between computers and the elderly.

  8. Divided attention disrupts perceptual encoding during speech recognition.

    PubMed

    Mattys, Sven L; Palmer, Shekeila D

    2015-03-01

    Performing a secondary task while listening to speech has a detrimental effect on speech processing, but the locus of the disruption within the speech system is poorly understood. Recent research has shown that cognitive load imposed by a concurrent visual task increases dependency on lexical knowledge during speech processing, but it does not affect lexical activation per se. This suggests that "lexical drift" under cognitive load occurs either as a post-lexical bias at the decisional level or as a secondary consequence of reduced perceptual sensitivity. This study aimed to adjudicate between these alternatives using a forced-choice task that required listeners to identify noise-degraded spoken words with or without the addition of a concurrent visual task. Adding cognitive load increased the likelihood that listeners would select a word acoustically similar to the target even though its frequency was lower than that of the target. Thus, there was no evidence that cognitive load led to a high-frequency response bias. Rather, cognitive load seems to disrupt sublexical encoding, possibly by impairing perceptual acuity at the auditory periphery.

  9. Speech enhancement with multichannel Wiener filter techniques in multimicrophone binaural hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Van den Bogaert, Tim; Doclo, Simon; Wouters, Jan; Moonen, Marc

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates speech enhancement in binaural multimicrophone hearing aids by noise reduction algorithms based on the multichannel Wiener filter (MWF) and the MWF with partial noise estimate (MWF-N). Both algorithms are specifically developed to combine noise reduction with the preservation of binaural cues. Objective and perceptual evaluations were performed with different speech-in-multitalker-babble configurations in two different acoustic environments. The main conclusions are as follows: (a) A bilateral MWF with perfect voice activity detection equals or outperforms a bilateral adaptive directional microphone in terms of speech enhancement while preserving the binaural cues of the speech component. (b) A significant gain in speech enhancement is found when transmitting one contralateral microphone signal to the MWF active at the ipsilateral hearing aid. Adding a second contralateral microphone showed a significant improvement during the objective evaluations but not in the subset of scenarios tested during the perceptual evaluations. (c) Adding the partial noise estimate to the MWF, done to improve the spatial awareness of the hearing aid user, reduces the amount of speech enhancement in a limited way. In some conditions the MWF-N even outperformed the MWF possibly due to an improved spatial release from masking.

  10. Neural pathways for visual speech perception

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Lynne E.; Liebenthal, Einat

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the questions, what levels of speech can be perceived visually, and how is visual speech represented by the brain? Review of the literature leads to the conclusions that every level of psycholinguistic speech structure (i.e., phonetic features, phonemes, syllables, words, and prosody) can be perceived visually, although individuals differ in their abilities to do so; and that there are visual modality-specific representations of speech qua speech in higher-level vision brain areas. That is, the visual system represents the modal patterns of visual speech. The suggestion that the auditory speech pathway receives and represents visual speech is examined in light of neuroimaging evidence on the auditory speech pathways. We outline the generally agreed-upon organization of the visual ventral and dorsal pathways and examine several types of visual processing that might be related to speech through those pathways, specifically, face and body, orthography, and sign language processing. In this context, we examine the visual speech processing literature, which reveals widespread diverse patterns of activity in posterior temporal cortices in response to visual speech stimuli. We outline a model of the visual and auditory speech pathways and make several suggestions: (1) The visual perception of speech relies on visual pathway representations of speech qua speech. (2) A proposed site of these representations, the temporal visual speech area (TVSA) has been demonstrated in posterior temporal cortex, ventral and posterior to multisensory posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS). (3) Given that visual speech has dynamic and configural features, its representations in feedforward visual pathways are expected to integrate these features, possibly in TVSA. PMID:25520611

  11. Child directed speech, speech in noise and hyperarticulated speech in the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Richard; Carmichael, Lesley; Beckford Wassink, Alicia; Galvin, Lisa

    2004-05-01

    Three types of exaggerated speech are thought to be systematic responses to accommodate the needs of the listener: child-directed speech (CDS), hyperspeech, and the Lombard response. CDS (e.g., Kuhl et al., 1997) occurs in interactions with young children and infants. Hyperspeech (Johnson et al., 1993) is a modification in response to listeners difficulties in recovering the intended message. The Lombard response (e.g., Lane et al., 1970) is a compensation for increased noise in the signal. While all three result from adaptations to accommodate the needs of the listener, and therefore should share some features, the triggering conditions are quite different, and therefore should exhibit differences in their phonetic outcomes. While CDS has been the subject of a variety of acoustic studies, it has never been studied in the broader context of the other ``exaggerated'' speech styles. A large crosslinguistic study was undertaken that compares speech produced under four conditions: spontaneous conversations, CDS aimed at 6-9-month-old infants, hyperarticulated speech, and speech in noise. This talk will present some findings for North American English as spoken in the Pacific Northwest. The measures include f0, vowel duration, F1 and F2 at vowel midpoint, and intensity.

  12. Experimental comparison between speech transmission index, rapid speech transmission index, and speech intelligibility index.

    PubMed

    Larm, Petra; Hongisto, Valtteri

    2006-02-01

    During the acoustical design of, e.g., auditoria or open-plan offices, it is important to know how speech can be perceived in various parts of the room. Different objective methods have been developed to measure and predict speech intelligibility, and these have been extensively used in various spaces. In this study, two such methods were compared, the speech transmission index (STI) and the speech intelligibility index (SII). Also the simplification of the STI, the room acoustics speech transmission index (RASTI), was considered. These quantities are all based on determining an apparent speech-to-noise ratio on selected frequency bands and summing them using a specific weighting. For comparison, some data were needed on the possible differences of these methods resulting from the calculation scheme and also measuring equipment. Their prediction accuracy was also of interest. Measurements were made in a laboratory having adjustable noise level and absorption, and in a real auditorium. It was found that the measurement equipment, especially the selection of the loudspeaker, can greatly affect the accuracy of the results. The prediction accuracy of the RASTI was found acceptable, if the input values for the prediction are accurately known, even though the studied space was not ideally diffuse.

  13. Recognition of temporally interrupted and spectrally degraded sentences with additional unprocessed low-frequency speech

    PubMed Central

    Başkent, Deniz; Chatterjee, Monita

    2010-01-01

    Recognition of periodically interrupted sentences (with an interruption rate of 1.5 Hz, 50% duty cycle) was investigated under conditions of spectral degradation, implemented with a noiseband vocoder, with and without additional unprocessed low-pass filtered speech (cutoff frequency 500 Hz). Intelligibility of interrupted speech decreased with increasing spectral degradation. For all spectral-degradation conditions, however, adding the unprocessed low-pass filtered speech enhanced the intelligibility. The improvement at 4 and 8 channels was higher than the improvement at 16 and 32 channels: 19% and 8%, on average, respectively. The Articulation Index predicted an improvement of 0.09, in a scale from 0 to 1. Thus, the improvement at poorest spectral-degradation conditions was larger than what would be expected from additional speech information. Therefore, the results implied that the fine temporal cues from the unprocessed low-frequency speech, such as the additional voice pitch cues, helped perceptual integration of temporally interrupted and spectrally degraded speech, especially when the spectral degradations were severe. Considering the vocoder processing as a cochlear-implant simulation, where implant users’ performance is closest to 4 and 8-channel vocoder performance, the results support additional benefit of low-frequency acoustic input in combined electric-acoustic stimulation for perception of temporally degraded speech. PMID:20817081

  14. Massively parallel network architectures for automatic recognition of visual speech signals. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Sejnowski, T.J.; Goldstein, M.

    1990-01-01

    This research sought to produce a massively-parallel network architecture that could interpret speech signals from video recordings of human talkers. This report summarizes the project's results: (1) A corpus of video recordings from two human speakers was analyzed with image processing techniques and used as the data for this study; (2) We demonstrated that a feed forward network could be trained to categorize vowels from these talkers. The performance was comparable to that of the nearest neighbors techniques and to trained humans on the same data; (3) We developed a novel approach to sensory fusion by training a network to transform from facial images to short-time spectral amplitude envelopes. This information can be used to increase the signal-to-noise ratio and hence the performance of acoustic speech recognition systems in noisy environments; (4) We explored the use of recurrent networks to perform the same mapping for continuous speech. Results of this project demonstrate the feasibility of adding a visual speech recognition component to enhance existing speech recognition systems. Such a combined system could be used in noisy environments, such as cockpits, where improved communication is needed. This demonstration of presymbolic fusion of visual and acoustic speech signals is consistent with our current understanding of human speech perception.

  15. A detailed study on the effects of noise on speech intelligibility.

    PubMed

    Dubbelboer, Finn; Houtgast, Tammo

    2007-11-01

    A wavelet representation of speech was used to display the instantaneous amplitude and phase within 14 octave frequency bands, representing the envelope and the carrier within each band. Adding stationary noise alters the wavelet pattern, which can be understood as a combination of three simultaneously occurring subeffects: two effects on the wavelet levels (one systematic and one stochastic) and one effect on the wavelet phases. Specific types of signal processing were applied to speech, which allowed each effect to be either included or excluded. The impact of each effect (and of combinations) on speech intelligibility was measured with CVC's. It appeared that the systematic level effect (i.e., the increase of each speech wavelet intensity with the mean noise intensity) has the most degrading effect on speech intelligibility, which is in accordance with measures such as the modulation transfer function and the speech transmission index. However, also the introduction of stochastic level fluctuations and disturbance of the carrier phase seriously contribute to reduced intelligibility in noise. It is argued that these stochastic effects are responsible for the limited success of spectral subtraction as a means to improve speech intelligibility. Results can provide clues for effective noise suppression with respect to intelligibility.

  16. Speech prosody in cerebellar ataxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casper, Maureen

    The present study sought an acoustic signature for the speech disturbance recognized in cerebellar degeneration. Magnetic resonance imaging was used for a radiological rating of cerebellar involvement in six cerebellar ataxic dysarthric speakers. Acoustic measures of the [pap] syllables in contrastive prosodic conditions and of normal vs. brain-damaged patients were used to further our understanding both of the speech degeneration that accompanies cerebellar pathology and of speech motor control and movement in general. Pair-wise comparisons of the prosodic conditions within the normal group showed statistically significant differences for four prosodic contrasts. For three of the four contrasts analyzed, the normal speakers showed both longer durations and higher formant and fundamental frequency values in the more prominent first condition of the contrast. The acoustic measures of the normal prosodic contrast values were then used as a model to measure the degree of speech deterioration for individual cerebellar subjects. This estimate of speech deterioration as determined by individual differences between cerebellar and normal subjects' acoustic values of the four prosodic contrasts was used in correlation analyses with MRI ratings. Moderate correlations between speech deterioration and cerebellar atrophy were found in the measures of syllable duration and f0. A strong negative correlation was found for F1. Moreover, the normal model presented by these acoustic data allows for a description of the flexibility of task- oriented behavior in normal speech motor control. These data challenge spatio-temporal theory which explains movement as an artifact of time wherein longer durations predict more extreme movements and give further evidence for gestural internal dynamics of movement in which time emerges from articulatory events rather than dictating those events. This model provides a sensitive index of cerebellar pathology with quantitative acoustic

  17. Adding and Deleting Images

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Images are added via the Drupal WebCMS Editor. Once an image is uploaded onto a page, it is available via the Library and your files. You can edit the metadata, delete the image permanently, and/or replace images on the Files tab.

  18. What Value "Value Added"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Two quantitative measures of school performance are currently used, the average points score (APS) at Key Stage 2 and value-added (VA), which measures the rate of academic improvement between Key Stage 1 and 2. These figures are used by parents and the Office for Standards in Education to make judgements and comparisons. However, simple…

  19. ADS in a Nutshell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demleitner, M.; Eichhorn, G.; Grant, C. S.; Accomazzi, A.; Murray, S. S.; Kurtz, M. J.

    1999-05-01

    The bibliographic databases maintained by the NASA Astrophysics Data System are updated approximately biweekly with records gathered from over 125 sources all over the world. Data are either sent to us electronically, retrieved by our staff via semi-automated procedures, or entered in our databases through supervised OCR procedures. PERL scripts are run on the data to convert them from their incoming format to our standard format so that they can be added to the master database at SAO. Once new data has been added, separate index files are created for authors, objects, title words, and text word, allowing these fields to be searched for individually or in combination with each other. During the indexing procedure, discipline-specific knowledge is taken into account through the use of rule-based procedures performing string normalization, context-sensitive word translation, and synonym and stop word replacement. Once the master text and index files have been updated at SAO, an automated procedure mirrors the changes in the database to the ADS mirror site via a secure network connection. The use of a public domain software tool called rsync allows incremental updating of the database files, with significant savings in the amount of data being transferred. In the past year, the ADS Abstract Service databases have grown by approximately 30%, including 50% growth in Physics, 25% growth in Astronomy and 10% growth in the Instrumentation datasets. The ADS Abstract Service now contains over 1.4 million abstracts (475K in Astronomy, 430K in Physics, 510K in Instrumentation, and 3K in Preprints), 175,000 journal abstracts, and 115,000 full text articles. In addition, we provide links to over 40,000 electronic HTML articles at other sites, 20,000 PDF articles, and 10,000 postscript articles, as well as many links to other external data sources.

  20. System and method for characterizing voiced excitations of speech and acoustic signals, removing acoustic noise from speech, and synthesizing speech

    DOEpatents

    Burnett, Greg C.; Holzrichter, John F.; Ng, Lawrence C.

    2006-02-14

    The present invention is a system and method for characterizing human (or animate) speech voiced excitation functions and acoustic signals, for removing unwanted acoustic noise which often occurs when a speaker uses a microphone in common environments, and for synthesizing personalized or modified human (or other animate) speech upon command from a controller. A low power EM sensor is used to detect the motions of windpipe tissues in the glottal region of the human speech system before, during, and after voiced speech is produced by a user. From these tissue motion measurements, a voiced excitation function can be derived. Further, the excitation function provides speech production information to enhance noise removal from human speech and it enables accurate transfer functions of speech to be obtained. Previously stored excitation and transfer functions can be used for synthesizing personalized or modified human speech. Configurations of EM sensor and acoustic microphone systems are described to enhance noise cancellation and to enable multiple articulator measurements.

  1. System and method for characterizing voiced excitations of speech and acoustic signals, removing acoustic noise from speech, and synthesizing speech

    DOEpatents

    Burnett, Greg C.; Holzrichter, John F.; Ng, Lawrence C.

    2004-03-23

    The present invention is a system and method for characterizing human (or animate) speech voiced excitation functions and acoustic signals, for removing unwanted acoustic noise which often occurs when a speaker uses a microphone in common environments, and for synthesizing personalized or modified human (or other animate) speech upon command from a controller. A low power EM sensor is used to detect the motions of windpipe tissues in the glottal region of the human speech system before, during, and after voiced speech is produced by a user. From these tissue motion measurements, a voiced excitation function can be derived. Further, the excitation function provides speech production information to enhance noise removal from human speech and it enables accurate transfer functions of speech to be obtained. Previously stored excitation and transfer functions can be used for synthesizing personalized or modified human speech. Configurations of EM sensor and acoustic microphone systems are described to enhance noise cancellation and to enable multiple articulator measurements.

  2. System and method for characterizing voiced excitations of speech and acoustic signals, removing acoustic noise from speech, and synthesizing speech

    DOEpatents

    Burnett, Greg C.; Holzrichter, John F.; Ng, Lawrence C.

    2006-08-08

    The present invention is a system and method for characterizing human (or animate) speech voiced excitation functions and acoustic signals, for removing unwanted acoustic noise which often occurs when a speaker uses a microphone in common environments, and for synthesizing personalized or modified human (or other animate) speech upon command from a controller. A low power EM sensor is used to detect the motions of windpipe tissues in the glottal region of the human speech system before, during, and after voiced speech is produced by a user. From these tissue motion measurements, a voiced excitation function can be derived. Further, the excitation function provides speech production information to enhance noise removal from human speech and it enables accurate transfer functions of speech to be obtained. Previously stored excitation and transfer functions can be used for synthesizing personalized or modified human speech. Configurations of EM sensor and acoustic microphone systems are described to enhance noise cancellation and to enable multiple articulator measurements.

  3. Production and perception of clear speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradlow, Ann R.

    2003-04-01

    When a talker believes that the listener is likely to have speech perception difficulties due to a hearing loss, background noise, or a different native language, she or he will typically adopt a clear speaking style. Previous research has established that, with a simple set of instructions to the talker, ``clear speech'' can be produced by most talkers under laboratory recording conditions. Furthermore, there is reliable evidence that adult listeners with either impaired or normal hearing typically find clear speech more intelligible than conversational speech. Since clear speech production involves listener-oriented articulatory adjustments, a careful examination of the acoustic-phonetic and perceptual consequences of the conversational-to-clear speech transformation can serve as an effective window into talker- and listener-related forces in speech communication. Furthermore, clear speech research has considerable potential for the development of speech enhancement techniques. After reviewing previous and current work on the acoustic properties of clear versus conversational speech, this talk will present recent data from a cross-linguistic study of vowel production in clear speech and a cross-population study of clear speech perception. Findings from these studies contribute to an evolving view of clear speech production and perception as reflecting both universal, auditory and language-specific, phonological contrast enhancement features.

  4. Performance Pressure Enhances Speech Learning

    PubMed Central

    Maddox, W. Todd; Koslov, Seth; Yi, Han-Gyol; Chandrasekaran, Bharath

    2015-01-01

    Real-world speech learning often occurs in high pressure situations such as trying to communicate in a foreign country. However, the impact of pressure on speech learning success is largely unexplored. In this study, adult, native speakers of English learned non-native speech categories under pressure or no-pressure conditions. In the pressure conditions, participants were informed that they were paired with a (fictitious) partner, and that each had to independently exceed a performance criterion for both to receive a monetary bonus. They were then informed that their partner had exceeded the bonus and the fate of both bonuses depended upon the participant’s performance. Our results demonstrate that pressure significantly enhanced speech learning success. In addition, neurobiologically-inspired computational modeling revealed that the performance advantage was due to faster and more frequent use of procedural learning strategies. These results integrate two well-studied research domains and suggest a facilitatory role of motivational factors in speech learning performance that may not be captured in traditional training paradigms. PMID:28077883

  5. The Effect of Speech Rate on Stuttering Frequency, Phonated Intervals, Speech Effort, and Speech Naturalness during Chorus Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidow, Jason H.; Ingham, Roger J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effect of speech rate on phonated intervals (PIs), in order to test whether a reduction in the frequency of short PIs is an important part of the fluency-inducing mechanism of chorus reading. The influence of speech rate on stuttering frequency, speaker-judged speech effort, and listener-judged naturalness was also…

  6. Visual Context Enhanced: The Joint Contribution of Iconic Gestures and Visible Speech to Degraded Speech Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drijvers, Linda; Ozyurek, Asli

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated whether and to what extent iconic co-speech gestures contribute to information from visible speech to enhance degraded speech comprehension at different levels of noise-vocoding. Previous studies of the contributions of these 2 visual articulators to speech comprehension have only been performed separately. Method:…

  7. The Role of Visual Speech Information in Supporting Perceptual Learning of Degraded Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wayne, Rachel V.; Johnsrude, Ingrid S.

    2012-01-01

    Following cochlear implantation, hearing-impaired listeners must adapt to speech as heard through their prosthesis. Visual speech information (VSI; the lip and facial movements of speech) is typically available in everyday conversation. Here, we investigate whether learning to understand a popular auditory simulation of speech as transduced by a…

  8. Predicting Speech Intelligibility with a Multiple Speech Subsystems Approach in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jimin; Hustad, Katherine C.; Weismer, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Speech acoustic characteristics of children with cerebral palsy (CP) were examined with a multiple speech subsystems approach; speech intelligibility was evaluated using a prediction model in which acoustic measures were selected to represent three speech subsystems. Method: Nine acoustic variables reflecting different subsystems, and…

  9. The Fragile Nature of the Speech-Perception Deficit in Dyslexia: Natural vs. Synthetic Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blomert, Leo; Mitterer, Holger

    2004-01-01

    A number of studies reported that developmental dyslexics are impaired in speech perception, especially for speech signals consisting of rapid auditory transitions. These studies mostly made use of a categorical-perception task with synthetic-speech samples. In this study, we show that deficits in the perception of synthetic speech do not…

  10. Perceived Liveliness and Speech Comprehensibility in Aphasia: The Effects of Direct Speech in Auditory Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groenewold, Rimke; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Nickels, Lyndsey; Huiskes, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have shown that in semi-spontaneous speech, individuals with Broca's and anomic aphasia produce relatively many direct speech constructions. It has been claimed that in "healthy" communication direct speech constructions contribute to the liveliness, and indirectly to the comprehensibility, of speech.…

  11. What Is Language? What Is Speech?

    MedlinePlus

    ... request did not produce results) Speech is the verbal means of communicating. Speech consists of the following: ... questions and requests for information from members and non-members. Available 8:30 a.m.–5:00 ...

  12. President Kennedy's Speech at Rice University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This video tape presents unedited film footage of President John F. Kennedy's speech at Rice University, Houston, Texas, September 12, 1962. The speech expresses the commitment of the United States to landing an astronaut on the Moon.

  13. Speech coding, reconstruction and recognition using acoustics and electromagnetic waves

    DOEpatents

    Holzrichter, John F.; Ng, Lawrence C.

    1998-01-01

    The use of EM radiation in conjunction with simultaneously recorded acoustic speech information enables a complete mathematical coding of acoustic speech. The methods include the forming of a feature vector for each pitch period of voiced speech and the forming of feature vectors for each time frame of unvoiced, as well as for combined voiced and unvoiced speech. The methods include how to deconvolve the speech excitation function from the acoustic speech output to describe the transfer function each time frame. The formation of feature vectors defining all acoustic speech units over well defined time frames can be used for purposes of speech coding, speech compression, speaker identification, language-of-speech identification, speech recognition, speech synthesis, speech translation, speech telephony, and speech teaching.

  14. Speech coding, reconstruction and recognition using acoustics and electromagnetic waves

    DOEpatents

    Holzrichter, J.F.; Ng, L.C.

    1998-03-17

    The use of EM radiation in conjunction with simultaneously recorded acoustic speech information enables a complete mathematical coding of acoustic speech. The methods include the forming of a feature vector for each pitch period of voiced speech and the forming of feature vectors for each time frame of unvoiced, as well as for combined voiced and unvoiced speech. The methods include how to deconvolve the speech excitation function from the acoustic speech output to describe the transfer function each time frame. The formation of feature vectors defining all acoustic speech units over well defined time frames can be used for purposes of speech coding, speech compression, speaker identification, language-of-speech identification, speech recognition, speech synthesis, speech translation, speech telephony, and speech teaching. 35 figs.

  15. Nonlinear Statistical Modeling of Speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, S.; Ma, T.; May, D.; Lazarou, G.; Picone, J.

    2009-12-01

    Contemporary approaches to speech and speaker recognition decompose the problem into four components: feature extraction, acoustic modeling, language modeling and search. Statistical signal processing is an integral part of each of these components, and Bayes Rule is used to merge these components into a single optimal choice. Acoustic models typically use hidden Markov models based on Gaussian mixture models for state output probabilities. This popular approach suffers from an inherent assumption of linearity in speech signal dynamics. Language models often employ a variety of maximum entropy techniques, but can employ many of the same statistical techniques used for acoustic models. In this paper, we focus on introducing nonlinear statistical models to the feature extraction and acoustic modeling problems as a first step towards speech and speaker recognition systems based on notions of chaos and strange attractors. Our goal in this work is to improve the generalization and robustness properties of a speech recognition system. Three nonlinear invariants are proposed for feature extraction: Lyapunov exponents, correlation fractal dimension, and correlation entropy. We demonstrate an 11% relative improvement on speech recorded under noise-free conditions, but show a comparable degradation occurs for mismatched training conditions on noisy speech. We conjecture that the degradation is due to difficulties in estimating invariants reliably from noisy data. To circumvent these problems, we introduce two dynamic models to the acoustic modeling problem: (1) a linear dynamic model (LDM) that uses a state space-like formulation to explicitly model the evolution of hidden states using an autoregressive process, and (2) a data-dependent mixture of autoregressive (MixAR) models. Results show that LDM and MixAR models can achieve comparable performance with HMM systems while using significantly fewer parameters. Currently we are developing Bayesian parameter estimation and

  16. Speech and Hearing Science, Anatomy and Physiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemlin, Willard R.

    Written for those interested in speech pathology and audiology, the text presents the anatomical, physiological, and neurological bases for speech and hearing. Anatomical nomenclature used in the speech and hearing sciences is introduced and the breathing mechanism is defined and discussed in terms of the respiratory passage, the framework and…

  17. DEVELOPMENT AND DISORDERS OF SPEECH IN CHILDHOOD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KARLIN, ISAAC W.; AND OTHERS

    THE GROWTH, DEVELOPMENT, AND ABNORMALITIES OF SPEECH IN CHILDHOOD ARE DESCRIBED IN THIS TEXT DESIGNED FOR PEDIATRICIANS, PSYCHOLOGISTS, EDUCATORS, MEDICAL STUDENTS, THERAPISTS, PATHOLOGISTS, AND PARENTS. THE NORMAL DEVELOPMENT OF SPEECH AND LANGUAGE IS DISCUSSED, INCLUDING THEORIES ON THE ORIGIN OF SPEECH IN MAN AND FACTORS INFLUENCING THE NORMAL…

  18. Audiovisual Asynchrony Detection in Human Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Joost X.; Di Luca, Massimiliano; Noppeney, Uta

    2011-01-01

    Combining information from the visual and auditory senses can greatly enhance intelligibility of natural speech. Integration of audiovisual speech signals is robust even when temporal offsets are present between the component signals. In the present study, we characterized the temporal integration window for speech and nonspeech stimuli with…

  19. Liberalism, Speech Codes, and Related Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunstein, Cass R.

    1993-01-01

    It is argued that universities are pervasively and necessarily engaged in regulation of speech, which complicates many existing claims about hate speech codes on campus. The ultimate test is whether the restriction on speech is a legitimate part of the institution's mission, commitment to liberal education. (MSE)

  20. Interventions for Speech Sound Disorders in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, A. Lynn, Ed.; McLeod, Sharynne, Ed.; McCauley, Rebecca J., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    With detailed discussion and invaluable video footage of 23 treatment interventions for speech sound disorders (SSDs) in children, this textbook and DVD set should be part of every speech-language pathologist's professional preparation. Focusing on children with functional or motor-based speech disorders from early childhood through the early…

  1. Theoretical Value in Teaching Freedom of Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, John J., Jr.

    The exercise of freedom of speech within our nation has deteriorated. A practical value in teaching free speech is the possibility of restoring a commitment to its principles by educators. What must be taught is why freedom of speech is important, why it has been compromised, and the extent to which it has been compromised. Every technological…

  2. Improving Speech Production with Adolescents and Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Brenda H.; Barefoot, Sidney M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper deals with the specific problems of the adolescent and adult hearing-impaired individual who wishes to improve and develop his or her expressive speech ability. Considered are issues critical to the learning process, intervention strategies for improving speech production, and speech production as one part of communication competency.…

  3. Speech and Debate as Civic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, J. Michael; Kurr, Jeffrey A.; Johnson, Jeremy D.; Bergmaier, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    In light of the U.S. Senate's designation of March 15, 2016 as "National Speech and Debate Education Day" (S. Res. 398, 2016), it only seems fitting that "Communication Education" devote a special section to the role of speech and debate in civic education. Speech and debate have been at the heart of the communication…

  4. Hate Speech and the First Amendment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rainey, Susan J.; Kinsler, Waren S.; Kannarr, Tina L.; Reaves, Asa E.

    This document is comprised of California state statutes, federal legislation, and court litigation pertaining to hate speech and the First Amendment. The document provides an overview of California education code sections relating to the regulation of speech; basic principles of the First Amendment; government efforts to regulate hate speech,…

  5. Communicating by Language: The Speech Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, Arthur S., Ed.

    This document reports on a conference focused on speech problems. The main objective of these discussions was to facilitate a deeper understanding of human communication through interaction of conference participants with colleagues in other disciplines. Topics discussed included speech production, feedback, speech perception, and development of…

  6. Towards Multilingual Interoperability in Automatic Speech Recognition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-08-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP010388 TITLE: Towards Multilingual Interoperability in Automatic Speech...component part numbers comprise the compilation report: ADPO10378 thru ADPO10397 UNCLASSIFIED 69 TOWARDS MULTILINGUAL INTEROPERABILITY IN AUTOMATIC SPEECH...communication, we address multilingual interoperability (DARPA) [39, 5, 12, 40, 14, 43]. aspects in speech recognition. After giving a tentative

  7. Freedom of Speech as an Academic Discipline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haiman, Franklyn S.

    Since its formation, the Speech Communication Association's Committee on Freedom of Speech has played a critical leadership role in course offerings, research efforts, and regional activities in freedom of speech. Areas in which research has been done and in which further research should be carried out include: historical-critical research, in…

  8. The Varieties of Speech to Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huttenlocher, Janellen; Vasilyeva, Marina; Waterfall, Heidi R.; Vevea, Jack L.; Hedges, Larry V.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines caregiver speech to young children. The authors obtained several measures of the speech used to children during early language development (14-30 months). For all measures, they found substantial variation across individuals and subgroups. Speech patterns vary with caregiver education, and the differences are maintained over…

  9. Recovering Asynchronous Watermark Tones from Speech

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    Audio steganography for covert data transmission by impercep- tible tone insertion,” Proceedings Communications Sys- tems and Applications, IEEE, vol. 4, pp. 1647–1653, 2004. 1408 ...by a comfortable margin. Index Terms— Speech Watermarking, Hidden Tones, Speech Steganography , Speech Data Hiding 1. BACKGROUND Imperceptibly

  10. Acoustics of Clear Speech: Effect of Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Jennifer; Tjaden, Kris; Wilding, Greg

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated how different instructions for eliciting clear speech affected selected acoustic measures of speech. Method: Twelve speakers were audio-recorded reading 18 different sentences from the Assessment of Intelligibility of Dysarthric Speech (Yorkston & Beukelman, 1984). Sentences were produced in habitual, clear,…

  11. Speech Perception in Individuals with Auditory Neuropathy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeng, Fan-Gang; Liu, Sheng

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Speech perception in participants with auditory neuropathy (AN) was systematically studied to answer the following 2 questions: Does noise present a particular problem for people with AN: Can clear speech and cochlear implants alleviate this problem? Method: The researchers evaluated the advantage in intelligibility of clear speech over…

  12. The Dynamic Nature of Speech Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQueen, James M.; Norris, Dennis; Cutler, Anne

    2006-01-01

    The speech perception system must be flexible in responding to the variability in speech sounds caused by differences among speakers and by language change over the lifespan of the listener. Indeed, listeners use lexical knowledge to retune perception of novel speech (Norris, McQueen, & Cutler, 2003). In that study, Dutch listeners made…

  13. Nebraska Speech, Debate, and Drama Manuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska School Activities Association, Lincoln.

    Prepared and designed to provide general information in the administration of speech activities in the Nebraska schools, this manual offers rules and regulations for speech events, high school debate, and one act plays. The section on speech events includes information about general regulations, the scope of competition, district contests, the…

  14. Cognitive Functions in Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nijland, Lian; Terband, Hayo; Maassen, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is diagnosed on the basis of specific speech characteristics, in the absence of problems in hearing, intelligence, and language comprehension. This does not preclude the possibility that children with this speech disorder might demonstrate additional problems. Method: Cognitive functions were investigated…

  15. Speech, the Alphabet, and Teaching to Read.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liberman, Isabelle Y.; Shankweiler, Donald

    The dependence of reading on speech is based on three assumptions: speech is the primary language system, acquired naturally without direct instruction; alphabetic writing systems are more or less phonetic representations of oral language; and speech appears to be an essential foundation for the acquisition of reading ability. By presupposing…

  16. Campus Speech Codes Said to Violate Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipka, Sara

    2007-01-01

    Most college and university speech codes would not survive a legal challenge, according to a report released in December by the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education, a watchdog group for free speech on campuses. The report labeled many speech codes as overly broad or vague, and cited examples such as Furman University's prohibition of…

  17. Audiovisual Speech Integration and Lipreading in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Elizabeth G.; Bennetto, Loisa

    2007-01-01

    Background: During speech perception, the ability to integrate auditory and visual information causes speech to sound louder and be more intelligible, and leads to quicker processing. This integration is important in early language development, and also continues to affect speech comprehension throughout the lifespan. Previous research shows that…

  18. Auditory models for speech analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maybury, Mark T.

    This paper reviews the psychophysical basis for auditory models and discusses their application to automatic speech recognition. First an overview of the human auditory system is presented, followed by a review of current knowledge gleaned from neurological and psychoacoustic experimentation. Next, a general framework describes established peripheral auditory models which are based on well-understood properties of the peripheral auditory system. This is followed by a discussion of current enhancements to that models to include nonlinearities and synchrony information as well as other higher auditory functions. Finally, the initial performance of auditory models in the task of speech recognition is examined and additional applications are mentioned.

  19. Processing Time and Question Type in the Comprehension of Compressed Speech with Adjunct Pictures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tantiblarphol, Subhreawpun; Hughes, Lawson H.

    The effect of adding time for processing compressed speech and the effects of questions that gave adjunct pictures either a redundant or contextual function were investigated. Subjects were 144 fourth- and fifth-grade students randomly assigned to 24 groups. They listened individually to a 20-sentence story at either 225 or 300 words-per-minute…

  20. Perception of Speech Reflects Optimal Use of Probabilistic Speech Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayards, Meghan; Tanenhaus, Michael K.; Aslin, Richard N.; Jacobs, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Listeners are exquisitely sensitive to fine-grained acoustic detail within phonetic categories for sounds and words. Here we show that this sensitivity is optimal given the probabilistic nature of speech cues. We manipulated the probability distribution of one probabilistic cue, voice onset time (VOT), which differentiates word initial labial…

  1. Relationship between Speech Intelligibility and Speech Comprehension in Babble Noise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontan, Lionel; Tardieu, Julien; Gaillard, Pascal; Woisard, Virginie; Ruiz, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The authors investigated the relationship between the intelligibility and comprehension of speech presented in babble noise. Method: Forty participants listened to French imperative sentences (commands for moving objects) in a multitalker babble background for which intensity was experimentally controlled. Participants were instructed to…

  2. Speech entrainment enables patients with Broca's aphasia to produce fluent speech.

    PubMed

    Fridriksson, Julius; Hubbard, H Isabel; Hudspeth, Sarah Grace; Holland, Audrey L; Bonilha, Leonardo; Fromm, Davida; Rorden, Chris

    2012-12-01

    A distinguishing feature of Broca's aphasia is non-fluent halting speech typically involving one to three words per utterance. Yet, despite such profound impairments, some patients can mimic audio-visual speech stimuli enabling them to produce fluent speech in real time. We call this effect 'speech entrainment' and reveal its neural mechanism as well as explore its usefulness as a treatment for speech production in Broca's aphasia. In Experiment 1, 13 patients with Broca's aphasia were tested in three conditions: (i) speech entrainment with audio-visual feedback where they attempted to mimic a speaker whose mouth was seen on an iPod screen; (ii) speech entrainment with audio-only feedback where patients mimicked heard speech; and (iii) spontaneous speech where patients spoke freely about assigned topics. The patients produced a greater variety of words using audio-visual feedback compared with audio-only feedback and spontaneous speech. No difference was found between audio-only feedback and spontaneous speech. In Experiment 2, 10 of the 13 patients included in Experiment 1 and 20 control subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging to determine the neural mechanism that supports speech entrainment. Group results with patients and controls revealed greater bilateral cortical activation for speech produced during speech entrainment compared with spontaneous speech at the junction of the anterior insula and Brodmann area 47, in Brodmann area 37, and unilaterally in the left middle temporal gyrus and the dorsal portion of Broca's area. Probabilistic white matter tracts constructed for these regions in the normal subjects revealed a structural network connected via the corpus callosum and ventral fibres through the extreme capsule. Unilateral areas were connected via the arcuate fasciculus. In Experiment 3, all patients included in Experiment 1 participated in a 6-week treatment phase using speech entrainment to improve speech production. Behavioural and

  3. Pulse Vector-Excitation Speech Encoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Grant; Gersho, Allen

    1989-01-01

    Proposed pulse vector-excitation speech encoder (PVXC) encodes analog speech signals into digital representation for transmission or storage at rates below 5 kilobits per second. Produces high quality of reconstructed speech, but with less computation than required by comparable speech-encoding systems. Has some characteristics of multipulse linear predictive coding (MPLPC) and of code-excited linear prediction (CELP). System uses mathematical model of vocal tract in conjunction with set of excitation vectors and perceptually-based error criterion to synthesize natural-sounding speech.

  4. Identifying Deceptive Speech Across Cultures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-25

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0267 IDENTIFYING DECEPTIVE SPEECH ACROSS CULTURES Julia Hirschberg THE TRUSTEES OF COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY IN THE CITY OF NEW YORK...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) TRUSTEES OF COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY IN THE CITY OF NEW YORK SPONSORED PROJECTS ADMINISTRATION 8

  5. Sociolinguistic Factors in Speech Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuy, Roger W.; And Others

    The first of two experiments conducted in Detroit investigated the relationship between class and ethnic membership and identification of class and ethnicity; the role age and sex of respondent play in accuracy of speaker identification; and attitudes toward various socioethnic speech patterns. The second study was concerned with the attitudes of…

  6. Speech and Language Developmental Milestones

    MedlinePlus

    ... What are the milestones for speech and language development? The first signs of communication occur when an infant learns that a cry will bring food, comfort, and companionship. Newborns also begin to recognize important sounds in their environment, such as the voice of their mother or ...

  7. "Free Speech" and "Political Correctness"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Peter

    2016-01-01

    "Free speech" and "political correctness" are best seen not as opposing principles, but as part of a spectrum. Rather than attempting to establish some absolute principles, this essay identifies four trends that impact on this debate: (1) there are, and always have been, legitimate debates about the--absolute--beneficence of…

  8. Embedding speech into virtual realities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohn, Christian-Arved; Krueger, Wolfgang

    1993-01-01

    In this work a speaker-independent speech recognition system is presented, which is suitable for implementation in Virtual Reality applications. The use of an artificial neural network in connection with a special compression of the acoustic input leads to a system, which is robust, fast, easy to use and needs no additional hardware, beside a common VR-equipment.

  9. Neural Networks for Speech Application.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    This is a general introduction to the reemerging technology called neural networks , and how these networks may provide an important alternative to...traditional forms of computing in speech applications. Neural networks , sometimes called Artificial Neural Systems (ANS), have shown promise for solving

  10. Aerosol Emission during Human Speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadi, Sima; Ristenpart, William

    2016-11-01

    The traditional emphasis for airborne disease transmission has been on coughing and sneezing, which are dramatic expiratory events that yield easily visible droplets. Recent research suggests that normal speech can release even larger quantities of aerosols that are too small to see with the naked eye, but are nonetheless large enough to carry a variety of pathogens (e.g., influenza A). This observation raises an important question: what types of speech emit the most aerosols? Here we show that the concentration of aerosols emitted during healthy human speech is positively correlated with both the amplitude (loudness) and fundamental frequency (pitch) of the vocalization. Experimental measurements with an aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) indicate that speaking in a loud voice (95 decibels) yields up to fifty times more aerosols than in a quiet voice (75 decibels), and that sounds associated with certain phonemes (e.g., [a] or [o]) release more aerosols than others. We interpret these results in terms of the egressive airflow rate associated with each phoneme and the corresponding fundamental frequency, which is known to vary significantly with gender and age. The results suggest that individual speech patterns could affect the probability of airborne disease transmission.

  11. Speech Registers in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, Thelma E.

    This study of child language acquisition concerns various structural and paralinguistic features of language and examines their role in the total language acquisition process. The informants were three children (two boys and one girl) aged five years, two months; three years, four months; and one year, nine months. Their speech was recorded over a…

  12. Speech Research. Interim Scientific Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Franklin S.

    The status and progress of several studies dealing with the nature of speech, instrumentation for its investigation, and instrumentation for practical applications is reported on. The period of January 1 through June 30, 1969 is covered. Extended reports and manuscripts cover the following topics: programing for the Glace-Holmes synthesizer,…

  13. Acoustic Analysis of PD Speech

    PubMed Central

    Chenausky, Karen; MacAuslan, Joel; Goldhor, Richard

    2011-01-01

    According to the U.S. National Institutes of Health, approximately 500,000 Americans have Parkinson's disease (PD), with roughly another 50,000 receiving new diagnoses each year. 70%–90% of these people also have the hypokinetic dysarthria associated with PD. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) substantially relieves motor symptoms in advanced-stage patients for whom medication produces disabling dyskinesias. This study investigated speech changes as a result of DBS settings chosen to maximize motor performance. The speech of 10 PD patients and 12 normal controls was analyzed for syllable rate and variability, syllable length patterning, vowel fraction, voice-onset time variability, and spirantization. These were normalized by the controls' standard deviation to represent distance from normal and combined into a composite measure. Results show that DBS settings relieving motor symptoms can improve speech, making it up to three standard deviations closer to normal. However, the clinically motivated settings evaluated here show greater capacity to impair, rather than improve, speech. A feedback device developed from these findings could be useful to clinicians adjusting DBS parameters, as a means for ensuring they do not unwittingly choose DBS settings which impair patients' communication. PMID:21977333

  14. Free Speech Advocates at Berkeley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, William A.; Whittaker, David

    1966-01-01

    This study compares highly committed members of the Free Speech Movement (FSM) at Berkeley with the student population at large on 3 sociopsychological foci: general biographical data, religious orientation, and rigidity-flexibility. Questionnaires were administered to 172 FSM members selected by chance from the 10 to 1200 who entered and…

  15. Neuronal basis of speech comprehension.

    PubMed

    Specht, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    Verbal communication does not rely only on the simple perception of auditory signals. It is rather a parallel and integrative processing of linguistic and non-linguistic information, involving temporal and frontal areas in particular. This review describes the inherent complexity of auditory speech comprehension from a functional-neuroanatomical perspective. The review is divided into two parts. In the first part, structural and functional asymmetry of language relevant structures will be discus. The second part of the review will discuss recent neuroimaging studies, which coherently demonstrate that speech comprehension processes rely on a hierarchical network involving the temporal, parietal, and frontal lobes. Further, the results support the dual-stream model for speech comprehension, with a dorsal stream for auditory-motor integration, and a ventral stream for extracting meaning but also the processing of sentences and narratives. Specific patterns of functional asymmetry between the left and right hemisphere can also be demonstrated. The review article concludes with a discussion on interactions between the dorsal and ventral streams, particularly the involvement of motor related areas in speech perception processes, and outlines some remaining unresolved issues. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Human Auditory Neuroimaging.

  16. Inner Speech Impairments in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.; Maybery, Murray T.; Durkin, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    Background: Three experiments investigated the role of inner speech deficit in cognitive performances of children with autism. Methods: Experiment 1 compared children with autism with ability-matched controls on a verbal recall task presenting pictures and words. Experiment 2 used pictures for which the typical names were either single syllable or…

  17. The Segmentation of Impromptu Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svartvik, Jan

    A computer program for classifying elements of a language corpus for large-scale analysis is discussed. The approach is based on the assumption that there is a natural unit in speech processing and production, called a tone unit. The program "tags" the five grammatical phrase types (verb, adverb, adjective, noun, and prepositional) to…

  18. Affecting Critical Thinking through Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Keefe, Virginia P.

    Intended for teachers, this booklet shows how spoken language can affect student thinking and presents strategies for teaching critical thinking skills. The first section discusses the theoretical and research bases for promoting critical thinking through speech, defines critical thinking, explores critical thinking as abstract thinking, and tells…

  19. Speech Errors across the Lifespan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vousden, Janet I.; Maylor, Elizabeth A.

    2006-01-01

    Dell, Burger, and Svec (1997) proposed that the proportion of speech errors classified as anticipations (e.g., "moot and mouth") can be predicted solely from the overall error rate, such that the greater the error rate, the lower the anticipatory proportion (AP) of errors. We report a study examining whether this effect applies to changes in error…

  20. Prosodic Contrasts in Ironic Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Gregory A.

    2010-01-01

    Prosodic features in spontaneous speech help disambiguate implied meaning not explicit in linguistic surface structure, but little research has examined how these signals manifest themselves in real conversations. Spontaneously produced verbal irony utterances generated between familiar speakers in conversational dyads were acoustically analyzed…

  1. Rule-based frequency domain speech coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Vance M.

    1990-12-01

    A speech processing system is designed to simulate the transmission of speech signals using a speech coding scheme. The transmitter portion of the simulation extracts a minimized set of frequencies in Fourier space which represents the essence of each of the speech timeslices. These parameters are then adaptively quantized and transmitted to a receiver portion of the coding scheme. The receiver then generates an estimate of the original timeslice from the transmitted parameters using a sinusoidal speech model. After initial design, how each of the design parameters affect the human perceived quality of speech is studied. This is done with listening tests. The listening tests consist of having volunteers listen to a series of speech reconstructions. Each reconstruction is the result of the coding scheme acting on the same speech input file with the design parameters varied. The design parameters which are varied are: number of frequencies used in the sinusoidal speech model for reconstruction, number of bits to encode amplitude information, and number of bits used to code phase information. The final design parameters for the coding scheme were selected based on the results of the listening tests. Post design listening tests showed that the system was capable of 4800 bps speech transmission with a quality rating of five on a scale from zero (not understandable) to ten (sounds just like original speech).

  2. Speech recognition with amplitude and frequency modulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Fan-Gang; Nie, Kaibao; Stickney, Ginger S.; Kong, Ying-Yee; Vongphoe, Michael; Bhargave, Ashish; Wei, Chaogang; Cao, Keli

    2005-02-01

    Amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM) are commonly used in communication, but their relative contributions to speech recognition have not been fully explored. To bridge this gap, we derived slowly varying AM and FM from speech sounds and conducted listening tests using stimuli with different modulations in normal-hearing and cochlear-implant subjects. We found that although AM from a limited number of spectral bands may be sufficient for speech recognition in quiet, FM significantly enhances speech recognition in noise, as well as speaker and tone recognition. Additional speech reception threshold measures revealed that FM is particularly critical for speech recognition with a competing voice and is independent of spectral resolution and similarity. These results suggest that AM and FM provide independent yet complementary contributions to support robust speech recognition under realistic listening situations. Encoding FM may improve auditory scene analysis, cochlear-implant, and audiocoding performance. auditory analysis | cochlear implant | neural code | phase | scene analysis

  3. Speech motor learning in profoundly deaf adults.

    PubMed

    Nasir, Sazzad M; Ostry, David J

    2008-10-01

    Speech production, like other sensorimotor behaviors, relies on multiple sensory inputs--audition, proprioceptive inputs from muscle spindles and cutaneous inputs from mechanoreceptors in the skin and soft tissues of the vocal tract. However, the capacity for intelligible speech by deaf speakers suggests that somatosensory input alone may contribute to speech motor control and perhaps even to speech learning. We assessed speech motor learning in cochlear implant recipients who were tested with their implants turned off. A robotic device was used to alter somatosensory feedback by displacing the jaw during speech. We found that implant subjects progressively adapted to the mechanical perturbation with training. Moreover, the corrections that we observed were for movement deviations that were exceedingly small, on the order of millimeters, indicating that speakers have precise somatosensory expectations. Speech motor learning is substantially dependent on somatosensory input.

  4. Speech disorders in right-hemisphere stroke.

    PubMed

    Dyukova, G M; Glozman, Z M; Titova, E Y; Kriushev, E S; Gamaleya, A A

    2010-07-01

    Clinical practice shows that right-hemisphere cerebral strokes are often accompanied by one speech disorder or another. The aim of the present work was to analyze published data addressing speech disorders in right-sided strokes. Questions of the lateralization of speech functions are discussed, with particular reference to the role of the right hemisphere in speech activity and the structure of speech pathology in right-hemisphere foci. Clinical variants of speech disorders, such as aphasia, dysprosody, dysarthria, mutism, and stutter are discussed in detail. Types of speech disorders are also discussed, along with the possible mechanisms of their formation depending on the locations of lesions in the axis of the brain (cortex, subcortical structures, stem, cerebellum) and focus size.

  5. Perception of speech sounds in school-age children with speech sound disorders

    PubMed Central

    Preston, Jonathan L.; Irwin, Julia R.; Turcios, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Children with speech sound disorders may perceive speech differently than children with typical speech development. The nature of these speech differences is reviewed with an emphasis on assessing phoneme-specific perception for speech sounds that are produced in error. Category goodness judgment, or the ability to judge accurate and inaccurate tokens of speech sounds, plays an important role in phonological development. The software Speech Assessment and Interactive Learning System (Rvachew, 1994), which has been effectively used to assess preschoolers’ ability to perform goodness judgments, is explored for school-age children with residual speech errors (RSE). However, data suggest that this particular task may not be sensitive to perceptual differences in school-age children. The need for the development of clinical tools for assessment of speech perception in school-age children with RSE is highlighted, and clinical suggestions are provided. PMID:26458198

  6. Perception of Speech Sounds in School-Aged Children with Speech Sound Disorders.

    PubMed

    Preston, Jonathan L; Irwin, Julia R; Turcios, Jacqueline

    2015-11-01

    Children with speech sound disorders may perceive speech differently than children with typical speech development. The nature of these speech differences is reviewed with an emphasis on assessing phoneme-specific perception for speech sounds that are produced in error. Category goodness judgment, or the ability to judge accurate and inaccurate tokens of speech sounds, plays an important role in phonological development. The software Speech Assessment and Interactive Learning System, which has been effectively used to assess preschoolers' ability to perform goodness judgments, is explored for school-aged children with residual speech errors (RSEs). However, data suggest that this particular task may not be sensitive to perceptual differences in school-aged children. The need for the development of clinical tools for assessment of speech perception in school-aged children with RSE is highlighted, and clinical suggestions are provided.

  7. Intelligibility of laryngectomees' substitute speech: automatic speech recognition and subjective rating.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Maria; Haderlein, Tino; Nöth, Elmar; Lohscheller, Jörg; Eysholdt, Ulrich; Rosanowski, Frank

    2006-02-01

    Substitute speech after laryngectomy is characterized by restricted aero-acoustic properties in comparison with laryngeal speech and has therefore lower intelligibility. Until now, an objective means to determine and quantify the intelligibility has not existed, although the intelligibility can serve as a global outcome parameter of voice restoration after laryngectomy. An automatic speech recognition system was applied on recordings of a standard text read by 18 German male laryngectomees with tracheoesophageal substitute speech. The system was trained with normal laryngeal speakers and not adapted to severely disturbed voices. Substitute speech was compared to laryngeal speech of a control group. Subjective evaluation of intelligibility was performed by a panel of five experts and compared to automatic speech evaluation. Substitute speech showed lower syllables/s and lower word accuracy than laryngeal speech. Automatic speech recognition for substitute speech yielded word accuracy between 10.0 and 50% (28.7+/-12.1%) with sufficient discrimination. It complied with experts' subjective evaluations of intelligibility. The multi-rater kappa of the experts alone did not differ from the multi-rater kappa of experts and the recognizer. Automatic speech recognition serves as a good means to objectify and quantify global speech outcome of laryngectomees. For clinical use, the speech recognition system will be adapted to disturbed voices and can also be applied in other languages.

  8. School cafeteria noise-The impact of room acoustics and speech intelligibility on children's voice levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridger, Joseph F.

    2002-05-01

    The impact of room acoustics and speech intelligibility conditions of different school cafeterias on the voice levels of children is examined. Methods of evaluating cafeteria designs and predicting noise levels are discussed. Children are shown to modify their voice levels with changes in speech intelligibility like adults. Reverberation and signal to noise ratio are the important acoustical factors affecting speech intelligibility. Children have much more difficulty than adults in conditions where noise and reverberation are present. To evaluate the relationship of voice level and speech intelligibility, a database of real sound levels and room acoustics data was generated from measurements and data recorded during visits to a variety of existing cafeterias under different occupancy conditions. The effects of speech intelligibility and room acoustics on childrens voice levels are demonstrated. A new method is presented for predicting speech intelligibility conditions and resulting noise levels for the design of new cafeterias and renovation of existing facilities. Measurements are provided for an existing school cafeteria before and after new room acoustics treatments were added. This will be helpful for acousticians, architects, school systems, regulatory agencies, and Parent Teacher Associations to create less noisy cafeteria environments.

  9. Speech Entrainment Compensates for Broca's Area Damage

    PubMed Central

    Fridriksson, Julius; Basilakos, Alexandra; Hickok, Gregory; Bonilha, Leonardo; Rorden, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Speech entrainment (SE), the online mimicking of an audiovisual speech model, has been shown to increase speech fluency in patients with Broca's aphasia. However, not all individuals with aphasia benefit from SE. The purpose of this study was to identify patterns of cortical damage that predict a positive response SE's fluency-inducing effects. Forty-four chronic patients with left hemisphere stroke (15 female) were included in this study. Participants completed two tasks: 1) spontaneous speech production, and 2) audiovisual SE. Number of different words per minute was calculated as a speech output measure for each task, with the difference between SE and spontaneous speech conditions yielding a measure of fluency improvement. Voxel-wise lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) was used to relate the number of different words per minute for spontaneous speech, SE, and SE-related improvement to patterns of brain damage in order to predict lesion locations associated with the fluency-inducing response to speech entrainment. Individuals with Broca's aphasia demonstrated a significant increase in different words per minute during speech entrainment versus spontaneous speech. A similar pattern of improvement was not seen in patients with other types of aphasia. VLSM analysis revealed damage to the inferior frontal gyrus predicted this response. Results suggest that SE exerts its fluency-inducing effects by providing a surrogate target for speech production via internal monitoring processes. Clinically, these results add further support for the use of speech entrainment to improve speech production and may help select patients for speech entrainment treatment. PMID:25989443

  10. How Foreign are ’Foreign’ Speech Sounds? Implications for Speech Recognition and Speech Synthesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-08-01

    Language Speech Sounds. In James, A. & J. Leather (eds.). Sound Patterns in Second Language Acquisition , Foris Publications. ... language acquisition (SLA) research. The This paper reports results from a production study which phonological processes involved when approaching a...se *Telia Research AB, Room B324, S-12386 Farsta, Sweden ABSTRACT field of phonological acquisition, and more specifically, into the field of second

  11. Smartphone-based real-time speech enhancement for improving hearing aids speech perception.

    PubMed

    Yu Rao; Yiya Hao; Panahi, Issa M S; Kehtarnavaz, Nasser

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, the development of a speech processing pipeline on smartphones for hearing aid devices (HADs) is presented. This pipeline is used for noise suppression and speech enhancement (SE) to improve speech quality and intelligibility. The proposed method is implemented to run in real-time on Android smartphones. The results of the testing conducted indicate that the proposed method suppresses the noise and improves the perceptual quality of speech in terms of three objective measures of perceptual evaluation of speech quality (PESQ), noise attenuation level (NAL), and the coherent speech intelligibility index (CSD).

  12. Supersymmetry of AdS and flat IIB backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, S.; Gutowski, J.; Papadopoulos, G.

    2015-02-01

    We present a systematic description of all warped AdS n × w M 10- n and IIB backgrounds and identify the a priori number of supersymmetries N preserved by these solutions. In particular, we find that the AdS n backgrounds preserve for n ≤ 4 and for 4 < n ≤ 6 supersymmetries and for suitably restricted. In addition under some assumptions required for the applicability of the maximum principle, we demonstrate that the Killing spinors of AdS n backgrounds can be identified with the zero modes of Dirac-like operators on M 10- n establishing a new class of Lichnerowicz type theorems. Furthermore, we adapt some of these results to backgrounds with fluxes by taking the AdS radius to infinity. We find that these backgrounds preserve for 2 < n ≤ 4 and for 4 < n ≤ 7 supersymmetries. We also demonstrate that the Killing spinors of AdS n × w M 10- n do not factorize into Killing spinors on AdS n and Killing spinors on M 10- n .

  13. [Value-Added--Adding Economic Value in the Food Industry].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This booklet focuses on the economic concept of "value added" to goods and services. A student activity worksheet illustrates how the steps involved in processing food are examples of the concept of value added. The booklet further links food processing to the idea of value added to the Gross National Product (GNP). Discussion questions,…

  14. Levels of Processing of Speech and Non-Speech

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-10

    Timbre : A better musical analogv to speech? Presented to the Acoustical Society of America. Anaheim. A. Samuel. (Fall 1987) Central and peripheal...Thle studies of listener based factors include studies of perceptual. restoration of deleted sounds (phonemes or musical notes), and studies of the... music . The attentional investi- ctnsdemons;trate, rjAher fine-tuned ittentional control under high-predictability condi- Lios. ic~ifcart oogrssh&A; been

  15. Segregation of Whispered Speech Interleaved with Noise or Speech Maskers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    presented diotically via Beyerdyanamic DT990 Pro headphone . Listeners were seated in front of a computer monitor in a sound-treated room and responded to...a target speech signal from a same talker masker [13]. Performance was best when the target speaker was different from the masker and decreased as...Tartter, V. C. 1991. “Identifiability of vowels and speakers from whispered syllables,” Percept. Psychophys. 49, 365–372. [4] Tartter, V. C. 1989

  16. Contribution of frequency modulation to speech recognition in noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stickney, Ginger S.; Nie, Kaibao; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2005-10-01

    Cochlear implants allow most patients with profound deafness to successfully communicate under optimal listening conditions. However, the amplitude modulation (AM) information provided by most implants is not sufficient for speech recognition in realistic settings where noise is typically present. This study added slowly varying frequency modulation (FM) to the existing algorithm of an implant simulation and used competing sentences to evaluate FM contributions to speech recognition in noise. Potential FM advantage was evaluated as a function of the number of spectral bands, FM depth, FM rate, and FM band distribution. Barring floor and ceiling effects, significant improvement was observed for all bands from 1 to 32 with the additional FM cue both in quiet and noise. Performance also improved with greater FM depth and rate, which might reflect resolved sidebands under the FM condition. Having FM present in low-frequency bands was more beneficial than in high-frequency bands, and only half of the bands required the presence of FM, regardless of position, to achieve performance similar to when all bands had the FM cue. These results provide insight into the relative contributions of AM and FM to speech communication and the potential advantage of incorporating FM for cochlear implant signal processing.

  17. Individual differneces in degraded speech perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbonell, Kathy M.

    One of the lasting concerns in audiology is the unexplained individual differences in speech perception performance even for individuals with similar audiograms. One proposal is that there are cognitive/perceptual individual differences underlying this vulnerability and that these differences are present in normal hearing (NH) individuals but do not reveal themselves in studies that use clear speech produced in quiet (because of a ceiling effect). However, previous studies have failed to uncover cognitive/perceptual variables that explain much of the variance in NH performance on more challenging degraded speech tasks. This lack of strong correlations may be due to either examining the wrong measures (e.g., working memory capacity) or to there being no reliable differences in degraded speech performance in NH listeners (i.e., variability in performance is due to measurement noise). The proposed project has 3 aims; the first, is to establish whether there are reliable individual differences in degraded speech performance for NH listeners that are sustained both across degradation types (speech in noise, compressed speech, noise-vocoded speech) and across multiple testing sessions. The second aim is to establish whether there are reliable differences in NH listeners' ability to adapt their phonetic categories based on short-term statistics both across tasks and across sessions; and finally, to determine whether performance on degraded speech perception tasks are correlated with performance on phonetic adaptability tasks, thus establishing a possible explanatory variable for individual differences in speech perception for NH and hearing impaired listeners.

  18. Sensorimotor influences on speech perception in infancy.

    PubMed

    Bruderer, Alison G; Danielson, D Kyle; Kandhadai, Padmapriya; Werker, Janet F

    2015-11-03

    The influence of speech production on speech perception is well established in adults. However, because adults have a long history of both perceiving and producing speech, the extent to which the perception-production linkage is due to experience is unknown. We addressed this issue by asking whether articulatory configurations can influence infants' speech perception performance. To eliminate influences from specific linguistic experience, we studied preverbal, 6-mo-old infants and tested the discrimination of a nonnative, and hence never-before-experienced, speech sound distinction. In three experimental studies, we used teething toys to control the position and movement of the tongue tip while the infants listened to the speech sounds. Using ultrasound imaging technology, we verified that the teething toys consistently and effectively constrained the movement and positioning of infants' tongues. With a looking-time procedure, we found that temporarily restraining infants' articulators impeded their discrimination of a nonnative consonant contrast but only when the relevant articulator was selectively restrained to prevent the movements associated with producing those sounds. Our results provide striking evidence that even before infants speak their first words and without specific listening experience, sensorimotor information from the articulators influences speech perception. These results transform theories of speech perception by suggesting that even at the initial stages of development, oral-motor movements influence speech sound discrimination. Moreover, an experimentally induced "impairment" in articulator movement can compromise speech perception performance, raising the question of whether long-term oral-motor impairments may impact perceptual development.

  19. Loss tolerant speech decoder for telecommunications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prieto, Jr., Jaime L. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A method and device for extrapolating past signal-history data for insertion into missing data segments in order to conceal digital speech frame errors. The extrapolation method uses past-signal history that is stored in a buffer. The method is implemented with a device that utilizes a finite-impulse response (FIR) multi-layer feed-forward artificial neural network that is trained by back-propagation for one-step extrapolation of speech compression algorithm (SCA) parameters. Once a speech connection has been established, the speech compression algorithm device begins sending encoded speech frames. As the speech frames are received, they are decoded and converted back into speech signal voltages. During the normal decoding process, pre-processing of the required SCA parameters will occur and the results stored in the past-history buffer. If a speech frame is detected to be lost or in error, then extrapolation modules are executed and replacement SCA parameters are generated and sent as the parameters required by the SCA. In this way, the information transfer to the SCA is transparent, and the SCA processing continues as usual. The listener will not normally notice that a speech frame has been lost because of the smooth transition between the last-received, lost, and next-received speech frames.

  20. Some articulatory details of emotional speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sungbok; Yildirim, Serdar; Bulut, Murtaza; Kazemzadeh, Abe; Narayanan, Shrikanth

    2005-09-01

    Differences in speech articulation among four emotion types, neutral, anger, sadness, and happiness are investigated by analyzing tongue tip, jaw, and lip movement data collected from one male and one female speaker of American English. The data were collected using an electromagnetic articulography (EMA) system while subjects produce simulated emotional speech. Pitch, root-mean-square (rms) energy and the first three formants were estimated for vowel segments. For both speakers, angry speech exhibited the largest rms energy and largest articulatory activity in terms of displacement range and movement speed. Happy speech is characterized by largest pitch variability. It has higher rms energy than neutral speech but articulatory activity is rather comparable to, or less than, neutral speech. That is, happy speech is more prominent in voicing activity than in articulation. Sad speech exhibits longest sentence duration and lower rms energy. However, its articulatory activity is no less than neutral speech. Interestingly, for the male speaker, articulation for vowels in sad speech is consistently more peripheral (i.e., more forwarded displacements) when compared to other emotions. However, this does not hold for female subject. These and other results will be discussed in detail with associated acoustics and perceived emotional qualities. [Work supported by NIH.

  1. On the Selection of Non-Invasive Methods Based on Speech Analysis Oriented to Automatic Alzheimer Disease Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    López-de-Ipiña, Karmele; Alonso, Jesus-Bernardino; Travieso, Carlos Manuel; Solé-Casals, Jordi; Egiraun, Harkaitz; Faundez-Zanuy, Marcos; Ezeiza, Aitzol; Barroso, Nora; Ecay-Torres, Miriam; Martinez-Lage, Pablo; de Lizardui, Unai Martinez

    2013-01-01

    The work presented here is part of a larger study to identify novel technologies and biomarkers for early Alzheimer disease (AD) detection and it focuses on evaluating the suitability of a new approach for early AD diagnosis by non-invasive methods. The purpose is to examine in a pilot study the potential of applying intelligent algorithms to speech features obtained from suspected patients in order to contribute to the improvement of diagnosis of AD and its degree of severity. In this sense, Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) have been used for the automatic classification of the two classes (AD and control subjects). Two human issues have been analyzed for feature selection: Spontaneous Speech and Emotional Response. Not only linear features but also non-linear ones, such as Fractal Dimension, have been explored. The approach is non invasive, low cost and without any side effects. Obtained experimental results were very satisfactory and promising for early diagnosis and classification of AD patients. PMID:23698268

  2. A causal test of the motor theory of speech perception: a case of impaired speech production and spared speech perception.

    PubMed

    Stasenko, Alena; Bonn, Cory; Teghipco, Alex; Garcea, Frank E; Sweet, Catherine; Dombovy, Mary; McDonough, Joyce; Mahon, Bradford Z

    2015-01-01

    The debate about the causal role of the motor system in speech perception has been reignited by demonstrations that motor processes are engaged during the processing of speech sounds. Here, we evaluate which aspects of auditory speech processing are affected, and which are not, in a stroke patient with dysfunction of the speech motor system. We found that the patient showed a normal phonemic categorical boundary when discriminating two non-words that differ by a minimal pair (e.g., ADA-AGA). However, using the same stimuli, the patient was unable to identify or label the non-word stimuli (using a button-press response). A control task showed that he could identify speech sounds by speaker gender, ruling out a general labelling impairment. These data suggest that while the motor system is not causally involved in perception of the speech signal, it may be used when other cues (e.g., meaning, context) are not available.

  3. AdS3 Solutions of IIB Supergravity

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Nakwoo

    2005-12-02

    We consider pure D3-brane configurations of IIB string theory which lead to supergravity solutions containing an AdS3 factor. They can provide new examples of AdS3/CFT2 examples on D3-branes whose worldvolume is partially compactified. When the internal 7 dimensional space is non-compact, they are related to fluctuations of higher dimensional AdS/CFT duality examples, thus dual to the BPS operators of D = 4 superconformal field theories. We find that supersymmetry requires the 7 dimensional space is warped Hopf-fibration of (real) 6 dimensional Kahler manifolds.

  4. Segmenting Words from Natural Speech: Subsegmental Variation in Segmental Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rytting, C. Anton; Brew, Chris; Fosler-Lussier, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Most computational models of word segmentation are trained and tested on transcripts of speech, rather than the speech itself, and assume that speech is converted into a sequence of symbols prior to word segmentation. We present a way of representing speech corpora that avoids this assumption, and preserves acoustic variation present in speech. We…

  5. Extensions to the Speech Disorders Classification System (SDCS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Fourakis, Marios; Hall, Sheryl D.; Karlsson, Heather B.; Lohmeier, Heather L.; McSweeny, Jane L.; Potter, Nancy L.; Scheer-Cohen, Alison R.; Strand, Edythe A.; Tilkens, Christie M.; Wilson, David L.

    2010-01-01

    This report describes three extensions to a classification system for paediatric speech sound disorders termed the Speech Disorders Classification System (SDCS). Part I describes a classification extension to the SDCS to differentiate motor speech disorders from speech delay and to differentiate among three sub-types of motor speech disorders.…

  6. THE COMPREHENSION OF RAPID SPEECH BY THE BLIND, PART III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FOULKE, EMERSON

    A REVIEW OF THE RESEARCH ON THE COMPREHENSION OF RAPID SPEECH BY THE BLIND IDENTIFIES FIVE METHODS OF SPEECH COMPRESSION--SPEECH CHANGING, ELECTROMECHANICAL SAMPLING, COMPUTER SAMPLING, SPEECH SYNTHESIS, AND FREQUENCY DIVIDING WITH THE HARMONIC COMPRESSOR. THE SPEECH CHANGING AND ELECTROMECHANICAL SAMPLING METHODS AND THE NECESSARY APPARATUS HAVE…

  7. Action growth for AdS black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Rong-Gen; Ruan, Shan-Ming; Wang, Shao-Jiang; Yang, Run-Qiu; Peng, Rong-Hui

    2016-09-01

    Recently a Complexity-Action (CA) duality conjecture has been proposed, which relates the quantum complexity of a holographic boundary state to the action of a Wheeler-DeWitt (WDW) patch in the anti-de Sitter (AdS) bulk. In this paper we further investigate the duality conjecture for stationary AdS black holes and derive some exact results for the growth rate of action within the Wheeler-DeWitt (WDW) patch at late time approximation, which is supposed to be dual to the growth rate of quantum complexity of holographic state. Based on the results from the general D-dimensional Reissner-Nordström (RN)-AdS black hole, rotating/charged Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole, Kerr-AdS black hole and charged Gauss-Bonnet-AdS black hole, we present a universal formula for the action growth expressed in terms of some thermodynamical quantities associated with the outer and inner horizons of the AdS black holes. And we leave the conjecture unchanged that the stationary AdS black hole in Einstein gravity is the fastest computer in nature.

  8. Modeling Interactions between Speech Production and Perception: Speech Error Detection at Semantic and Phonological Levels and the Inner Speech Loop

    PubMed Central

    Kröger, Bernd J.; Crawford, Eric; Bekolay, Trevor; Eliasmith, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Production and comprehension of speech are closely interwoven. For example, the ability to detect an error in one's own speech, halt speech production, and finally correct the error can be explained by assuming an inner speech loop which continuously compares the word representations induced by production to those induced by perception at various cognitive levels (e.g., conceptual, word, or phonological levels). Because spontaneous speech errors are relatively rare, a picture naming and halt paradigm can be used to evoke them. In this paradigm, picture presentation (target word initiation) is followed by an auditory stop signal (distractor word) for halting speech production. The current study seeks to understand the neural mechanisms governing self-detection of speech errors by developing a biologically inspired neural model of the inner speech loop. The neural model is based on the Neural Engineering Framework (NEF) and consists of a network of about 500,000 spiking neurons. In the first experiment we induce simulated speech errors semantically and phonologically. In the second experiment, we simulate a picture naming and halt task. Target-distractor word pairs were balanced with respect to variation of phonological and semantic similarity. The results of the first experiment show that speech errors are successfully detected by a monitoring component in the inner speech loop. The results of the second experiment show that the model correctly reproduces human behavioral data on the picture naming and halt task. In particular, the halting rate in the production of target words was lower for phonologically similar words than for semantically similar or fully dissimilar distractor words. We thus conclude that the neural architecture proposed here to model the inner speech loop reflects important interactions in production and perception at phonological and semantic levels. PMID:27303287

  9. Headphone localization of speech stimuli

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R.; Wenzel, Elizabeth M.

    1991-01-01

    Recently, three dimensional acoustic display systems have been developed that synthesize virtual sound sources over headphones based on filtering by Head-Related Transfer Functions (HRTFs), the direction-dependent spectral changes caused primarily by the outer ears. Here, 11 inexperienced subjects judged the apparent spatial location of headphone-presented speech stimuli filtered with non-individualized HRTFs. About half of the subjects 'pulled' their judgements toward either the median or the lateral-vertical planes, and estimates were almost always elevated. Individual differences were pronounced for the distance judgements; 15 to 46 percent of stimuli were heard inside the head with the shortest estimates near the median plane. The results infer that most listeners can obtain useful azimuth information from speech stimuli filtered by nonindividualized RTFs. Measurements of localization error and reversal rates are comparable with a previous study that used broadband noise stimuli.

  10. Language processing for speech understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, W. A.

    1983-07-01

    This report considers language understanding techniques and control strategies that can be applied to provide higher-level support to aid in the understanding of spoken utterances. The discussion is illustrated with concepts and examples from the BBN speech understanding system, HWIM (Hear What I Mean). The HWIM system was conceived as an assistant to a travel budget manager, a system that would store information about planned and taken trips, travel budgets and their planning. The system was able to respond to commands and answer questions spoken into a microphone, and was able to synthesize spoken responses as output. HWIM was a prototype system used to drive speech understanding research. It used a phonetic-based approach, with no speaker training, a large vocabulary, and a relatively unconstraining English grammar. Discussed here is the control structure of the HWIM and the parsing algorithm used to parse sentences from the middle-out, using an ATN grammar.

  11. Value Added in English Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Andrew; McCormack, Tanya; Evans, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Value-added indicators are now a central part of school accountability in England, and value-added information is routinely used in school improvement at both the national and the local levels. This article describes the value-added models that are being used in the academic year 2007-8 by schools, parents, school inspectors, and other…

  12. Constructing the AdS dual of a Fermi liquid: AdS black holes with Dirac hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čubrović, Mihailo; Zaanen, Jan; Schalm, Koenraad

    2011-10-01

    We provide evidence that the holographic dual to a strongly coupled charged Fermi liquid has a non-zero fermion density in the bulk. We show that the pole-strength of the stable quasiparticle characterizing the Fermi surface is encoded in the AdS probability density of a single normalizable fermion wavefunction in AdS. Recalling Migdal's theorem which relates the pole strength to the Fermi-Dirac characteristic discontinuity in the number density at ω F , we conclude that the AdS dual of a Fermi liquid is described by occupied on-shell fermionic modes in AdS. Encoding the occupied levels in the total spatially averaged probability density of the fermion field directly, we show that an AdS Reissner-Nordström black holein a theory with charged fermions has a critical temperature, at which the system undergoes a first-order transition to a black hole with a non-vanishing profile for the bulk fermion field. Thermodynamics and spectral analysis support that the solution with non-zero AdS fermion-profile is the preferred ground state at low temperatures.

  13. Prediction and imitation in speech.

    PubMed

    Gambi, Chiara; Pickering, Martin J

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that intra- and inter-speaker variability in speech are correlated. Interlocutors have been shown to converge on various phonetic dimensions. In addition, speakers imitate the phonetic properties of voices they are exposed to in shadowing, repetition, and even passive listening tasks. We review three theoretical accounts of speech imitation and convergence phenomena: (i) the Episodic Theory (ET) of speech perception and production (Goldinger, 1998); (ii) the Motor Theory (MT) of speech perception (Liberman and Whalen, 2000; Galantucci et al., 2006); (iii) Communication Accommodation Theory (CAT; Giles and Coupland, 1991; Giles et al., 1991). We argue that no account is able to explain all the available evidence. In particular, there is a need to integrate low-level, mechanistic accounts (like ET and MT), and higher-level accounts (like CAT). We propose that this is possible within the framework of an integrated theory of production and comprehension (Pickering and Garrod, 2013). Similarly to both ET and MT, this theory assumes parity between production and perception. Uniquely, however, it posits that listeners simulate speakers' utterances by computing forward-model predictions at many different levels, which are then compared to the incoming phonetic input. In our account phonetic imitation can be achieved via the same mechanism that is responsible for sensorimotor adaptation; i.e., the correction of prediction errors. In addition, the model assumes that the degree to which sensory prediction errors lead to motor adjustments is context-dependent. The notion of context subsumes both the preceding linguistic input and non-linguistic attributes of the situation (e.g., the speaker's and listener's social identities, their conversational roles, the listener's intention to imitate).

  14. Status Report on Speech Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-01

    specialization for language, adopting what Fodor specialization for language at the precognitive (1983) would characterize as a vertical view in level? Is there...incorporate a precognitive specializa- production and perception of speech; indeed, it assumes an organic relation between the two. It happens, however...netic primitives. Perception of phonetic structure 1977; Crowder & Morton, 1969; Fujisaki & is therefore precognitive , which is to say immedi

  15. Network Speech Systems Technology Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-30

    utilized for the digital speech. As discussed in Ref . 8, the required control overhead for packet transmission can be reduced to a level comparable...multiplexer with fixed-channel capacity are discussed in Ref . 17. For the multi-node system considered here, the effects of both fixed- and variable...Phase IV and described in Ref . 2. We then ran a comparison among centrally controlled simplex broadcast and speaker/interrupter systems together with the

  16. Prediction and imitation in speech

    PubMed Central

    Gambi, Chiara; Pickering, Martin J.

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that intra- and inter-speaker variability in speech are correlated. Interlocutors have been shown to converge on various phonetic dimensions. In addition, speakers imitate the phonetic properties of voices they are exposed to in shadowing, repetition, and even passive listening tasks. We review three theoretical accounts of speech imitation and convergence phenomena: (i) the Episodic Theory (ET) of speech perception and production (Goldinger, 1998); (ii) the Motor Theory (MT) of speech perception (Liberman and Whalen, 2000; Galantucci et al., 2006); (iii) Communication Accommodation Theory (CAT; Giles and Coupland, 1991; Giles et al., 1991). We argue that no account is able to explain all the available evidence. In particular, there is a need to integrate low-level, mechanistic accounts (like ET and MT), and higher-level accounts (like CAT). We propose that this is possible within the framework of an integrated theory of production and comprehension (Pickering and Garrod, 2013). Similarly to both ET and MT, this theory assumes parity between production and perception. Uniquely, however, it posits that listeners simulate speakers' utterances by computing forward-model predictions at many different levels, which are then compared to the incoming phonetic input. In our account phonetic imitation can be achieved via the same mechanism that is responsible for sensorimotor adaptation; i.e., the correction of prediction errors. In addition, the model assumes that the degree to which sensory prediction errors lead to motor adjustments is context-dependent. The notion of context subsumes both the preceding linguistic input and non-linguistic attributes of the situation (e.g., the speaker's and listener's social identities, their conversational roles, the listener's intention to imitate). PMID:23801971

  17. Speech Recognition of Foreign Accent

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-01

    ENGLISH PHONETIC ALPHABETS.. 10 TABLE 3. AVERAGE MALE FORMANT FREQUENCIES .................. 11 TABLE 4. FOURTEEN-WORD LIST WITH VOWEL FORMANTS AND PH O N...note (as in the constants sounds in ",ai"). The classes of vowels get their names from how they are articulated, or how the tongue is used to produce a...called formant frequencies, or formants . These frequencies would be considered normal speech, or in this case theoretical or ideal frequencies. The

  18. Effects of gaze and speech rate on receivers' evaluations of persuasive speech.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Hitomi; Daibo, Ikuo

    2012-04-01

    This study examined how gaze and speech rate affect perceptions of a speaker. Participants viewed a video recording of one of four persuasive messages delivered by a female speaker. Analysis of speech rate, gaze, and listener's sex revealed that when combined with a small amount of gaze, slow speech rate decreased trustworthiness as compared to a fast speech rate. For women, slow speech rate was thought to be indicative of less expertise as compared to a fast speech rate, again when combined with low gaze. There were no significant interactions, but there were main effects of gaze and speech rate on persuasiveness. High levels of gaze and slow speech rate each enhanced perceptions of the speaker's persuasiveness.

  19. Self-Evaluation and Pre-Speech Planning: A Strategy for Sharing Responsibility for Progress in the Speech Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desjardins, Linda A.

    Speech class teachers can implement a pre- and post-speech strategy, using pre-speech and self-evaluation forms, to help students become active in directing their own progress, and acknowledge their own accomplishments. Every speech is tape-recorded in class. Students listen to their speeches later and fill in the self-evaluation form, which asks…

  20. The Neural Bases of Difficult Speech Comprehension and Speech Production: Two Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) Meta-Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adank, Patti

    2012-01-01

    The role of speech production mechanisms in difficult speech comprehension is the subject of on-going debate in speech science. Two Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) analyses were conducted on neuroimaging studies investigating difficult speech comprehension or speech production. Meta-analysis 1 included 10 studies contrasting comprehension…

  1. AdS-Carroll branes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, T. E.; ter Veldhuis, T.

    2016-11-01

    Coset methods are used to determine the action of a co-dimension one brane (domain wall) embedded in (d + 1)-dimensional AdS space in the Carroll limit in which the speed of light goes to zero. The action is invariant under the non-linearly realized symmetries of the AdS-Carroll spacetime. The Nambu-Goldstone field exhibits a static spatial distribution for the brane with a time varying momentum density related to the brane's spatial shape as well as the AdS-C geometry. The AdS-C vector field dual theory is obtained.

  2. ADS Based on Linear Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Weimin; Dai, Jianping

    An accelerator-driven system (ADS), which combines a particle accelerator with a subcritical core, is commonly regarded as a promising device for the transmutation of nuclear waste, as well as a potential scheme for thorium-based energy production. So far the predominant choice of the accelerator for ADS is a superconducting linear accelerator (linac). This article gives a brief overview of ADS based on linacs, including the motivation, principle, challenges and research activities around the world. The status and future plan of the Chinease ADS (C-ADS) project will be highlighted and discussed in depth as an example.

  3. Giving speech a hand: gesture modulates activity in auditory cortex during speech perception.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Amy L; Wilson, Stephen M; Callan, Daniel E; Dapretto, Mirella

    2009-03-01

    Viewing hand gestures during face-to-face communication affects speech perception and comprehension. Despite the visible role played by gesture in social interactions, relatively little is known about how the brain integrates hand gestures with co-occurring speech. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and an ecologically valid paradigm to investigate how beat gesture-a fundamental type of hand gesture that marks speech prosody-might impact speech perception at the neural level. Subjects underwent fMRI while listening to spontaneously-produced speech accompanied by beat gesture, nonsense hand movement, or a still body; as additional control conditions, subjects also viewed beat gesture, nonsense hand movement, or a still body all presented without speech. Validating behavioral evidence that gesture affects speech perception, bilateral nonprimary auditory cortex showed greater activity when speech was accompanied by beat gesture than when speech was presented alone. Further, the left superior temporal gyrus/sulcus showed stronger activity when speech was accompanied by beat gesture than when speech was accompanied by nonsense hand movement. Finally, the right planum temporale was identified as a putative multisensory integration site for beat gesture and speech (i.e., here activity in response to speech accompanied by beat gesture was greater than the summed responses to speech alone and beat gesture alone), indicating that this area may be pivotally involved in synthesizing the rhythmic aspects of both speech and gesture. Taken together, these findings suggest a common neural substrate for processing speech and gesture, likely reflecting their joint communicative role in social interactions.

  4. AdS spacetimes from wrapped D3-branes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauntlett, Jerome P.; MacConamhna, Oisín A. P.

    2007-12-01

    We derive a geometrical characterization of a large class of AdS3 and AdS2 supersymmetric spacetimes in type IIB supergravity with non-vanishing five-form flux using G-structures. These are obtained as special cases of a class of supersymmetric spacetimes with an {{\\bb R}}^{1,1} or {{\\bb R}} (time) factor that are associated with D3 branes wrapping calibrated two or three cycles, respectively, in manifolds with SU(2), SU(3), SU(4) and G2 holonomy. We show how two explicit AdS solutions, previously constructed in gauged supergravity, satisfy our more general G-structure conditions. For each explicit solution, we also derive a special holonomy metric which, although singular, has an appropriate calibrated cycle. After analytic continuation, some of the classes of AdS spacetimes give rise to known classes of BPS bubble solutions with {{\\bb R}}\\times {\\it SO}(4)\\times {\\it SO}(4), {{\\bb R}}\\times {\\it SO}(4)\\times U(1) and {{\\bb R}}\\times {\\it SO}(4) symmetry. These have 1/2, 1/4 and 1/8 supersymmetry, respectively. We present a new class of 1/8 BPS geometries with {{\\bb R}}\\times {\\it SU}(2) symmetry, obtained by analytic continuation of the class of AdS spacetimes associated with D3-brane wrapped on associative three cycles.

  5. Interactive Activation Model of Speech Perception.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-01

    contract. 0 Elar, .l... & .McC’lelland .1.1. Speech perception a, a cognitive proces,: The interactive act ia- %e., tion model of speech perception. In...attempts to provide a machine solution to the problem of speech perception. A second kind of model, growing out of Cognitive Psychology, attempts to...architectures to cognitive and perceptual problems. We also owe a debt to what we might call the computational connectionists -- those who have applied highly

  6. Integrated speech enhancement for functional MRI environment.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Nishank; Milani, Ali A; Panahi, Issa; Briggs, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated speech enhancement (SE) method for the noisy MRI environment. We show that the performance of SE system improves considerably when the speech signal dominated by MRI acoustic noise at very low SNR is enhanced in two successive stages using two-channel SE methods followed by a single-channel post processing SE algorithm. Actual MRI noisy speech data are used in our experiments showing the improved performance of the proposed SE method.

  7. Modelling speech intelligibility in adverse conditions.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Søren; Dau, Torsten

    2013-01-01

    Jørgensen and Dau (J Acoust Soc Am 130:1475-1487, 2011) proposed the speech-based envelope power spectrum model (sEPSM) in an attempt to overcome the limitations of the classical speech transmission index (STI) and speech intelligibility index (SII) in conditions with nonlinearly processed speech. Instead of considering the reduction of the temporal modulation energy as the intelligibility metric, as assumed in the STI, the sEPSM applies the signal-to-noise ratio in the envelope domain (SNRenv). This metric was shown to be the key for predicting the intelligibility of reverberant speech as well as noisy speech processed by spectral subtraction. The key role of the SNRenv metric is further supported here by the ability of a short-term version of the sEPSM to predict speech masking release for different speech materials and modulated interferers. However, the sEPSM cannot account for speech subjected to phase jitter, a condition in which the spectral structure of the intelligibility of speech signal is strongly affected, while the broadband temporal envelope is kept largely intact. In contrast, the effects of this distortion can be predicted -successfully by the spectro-temporal modulation index (STMI) (Elhilali et al., Speech Commun 41:331-348, 2003), which assumes an explicit analysis of the spectral "ripple" structure of the speech signal. However, since the STMI applies the same decision metric as the STI, it fails to account for spectral subtraction. The results from this study suggest that the SNRenv might reflect a powerful decision metric, while some explicit across-frequency analysis seems crucial in some conditions. How such across-frequency analysis is "realized" in the auditory system remains unresolved.

  8. Speech enhancement using local spectral regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandoval-Ibarra, Yuma; Diaz-Ramirez, Victor H.; Kober, Vitaly; Diaz, Arnoldo

    2016-09-01

    A locally-adaptive algorithm for speech enhancement based on local spectral regularization is presented. The algorithm is able to retrieve a clean speech signal from a noisy signal using locally-adaptive signal processing. The proposed algorithm is able to increase the quality of a noisy signal in terms of objective metrics. Computer simulation results obtained with the proposed algorithm are presented and discussed in processing speech signals corrupted with additive noise.

  9. Computer Recognition of Phonets in Speech.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    Felkey. (2) We could apply the already available Eclipse AP /130 Array Processor to the task of transforming the speech time series to the spectral domain...file of observations generated from speech. (3) To apply the Eclipse AP /130 Array Processor to tasks one and two for speed. I (4) To build a sufficient...One objective of this project was to implement a machine like Seelandt’s (Ref 1) Speech Sound Analysis Machine (SSAM) on the Eclipse AP /130 Array

  10. Continuous speech recognition for clinicians.

    PubMed

    Zafar, A; Overhage, J M; McDonald, C J

    1999-01-01

    The current generation of continuous speech recognition systems claims to offer high accuracy (greater than 95 percent) speech recognition at natural speech rates (150 words per minute) on low-cost (under $2000) platforms. This paper presents a state-of-the-technology summary, along with insights the authors have gained through testing one such product extensively and other products superficially. The authors have identified a number of issues that are important in managing accuracy and usability. First, for efficient recognition users must start with a dictionary containing the phonetic spellings of all words they anticipate using. The authors dictated 50 discharge summaries using one inexpensive internal medicine dictionary ($30) and found that they needed to add an additional 400 terms to get recognition rates of 98 percent. However, if they used either of two more expensive and extensive commercial medical vocabularies ($349 and $695), they did not need to add terms to get a 98 percent recognition rate. Second, users must speak clearly and continuously, distinctly pronouncing all syllables. Users must also correct errors as they occur, because accuracy improves with error correction by at least 5 percent over two weeks. Users may find it difficult to train the system to recognize certain terms, regardless of the amount of training, and appropriate substitutions must be created. For example, the authors had to substitute "twice a day" for "bid" when using the less expensive dictionary, but not when using the other two dictionaries. From trials they conducted in settings ranging from an emergency room to hospital wards and clinicians' offices, they learned that ambient noise has minimal effect. Finally, they found that a minimal "usable" hardware configuration (which keeps up with dictation) comprises a 300-MHz Pentium processor with 128 MB of RAM and a "speech quality" sound card (e.g., SoundBlaster, $99). Anything less powerful will result in the system lagging

  11. Continuous Speech Recognition for Clinicians

    PubMed Central

    Zafar, Atif; Overhage, J. Marc; McDonald, Clement J.

    1999-01-01

    The current generation of continuous speech recognition systems claims to offer high accuracy (greater than 95 percent) speech recognition at natural speech rates (150 words per minute) on low-cost (under $2000) platforms. This paper presents a state-of-the-technology summary, along with insights the authors have gained through testing one such product extensively and other products superficially. The authors have identified a number of issues that are important in managing accuracy and usability. First, for efficient recognition users must start with a dictionary containing the phonetic spellings of all words they anticipate using. The authors dictated 50 discharge summaries using one inexpensive internal medicine dictionary ($30) and found that they needed to add an additional 400 terms to get recognition rates of 98 percent. However, if they used either of two more expensive and extensive commercial medical vocabularies ($349 and $695), they did not need to add terms to get a 98 percent recognition rate. Second, users must speak clearly and continuously, distinctly pronouncing all syllables. Users must also correct errors as they occur, because accuracy improves with error correction by at least 5 percent over two weeks. Users may find it difficult to train the system to recognize certain terms, regardless of the amount of training, and appropriate substitutions must be created. For example, the authors had to substitute “twice a day” for “bid” when using the less expensive dictionary, but not when using the other two dictionaries. From trials they conducted in settings ranging from an emergency room to hospital wards and clinicians' offices, they learned that ambient noise has minimal effect. Finally, they found that a minimal “usable” hardware configuration (which keeps up with dictation) comprises a 300-MHz Pentium processor with 128 MB of RAM and a “speech quality” sound card (e.g., SoundBlaster, $99). Anything less powerful will result in

  12. Spotlight on Speech Codes 2012: The State of Free Speech on Our Nation's Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foundation for Individual Rights in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Supreme Court has called America's colleges and universities "vital centers for the Nation's intellectual life," but the reality today is that many of these institutions severely restrict free speech and open debate. Speech codes--policies prohibiting student and faculty speech that would, outside the bounds of campus, be…

  13. Speech rate effects on the processing of conversational speech across the adult life span.

    PubMed

    Koch, Xaver; Janse, Esther

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the effect of speech rate on spoken word recognition across the adult life span. Contrary to previous studies, conversational materials with a natural variation in speech rate were used rather than lab-recorded stimuli that are subsequently artificially time-compressed. It was investigated whether older adults' speech recognition is more adversely affected by increased speech rate compared to younger and middle-aged adults, and which individual listener characteristics (e.g., hearing, fluid cognitive processing ability) predict the size of the speech rate effect on recognition performance. In an eye-tracking experiment, participants indicated with a mouse-click which visually presented words they recognized in a conversational fragment. Click response times, gaze, and pupil size data were analyzed. As expected, click response times and gaze behavior were affected by speech rate, indicating that word recognition is more difficult if speech rate is faster. Contrary to earlier findings, increased speech rate affected the age groups to the same extent. Fluid cognitive processing ability predicted general recognition performance, but did not modulate the speech rate effect. These findings emphasize that earlier results of age by speech rate interactions mainly obtained with artificially speeded materials may not generalize to speech rate variation as encountered in conversational speech.

  14. Speech and Language Skills of Parents of Children with Speech Sound Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Barbara A.; Freebairn, Lisa A.; Hansen, Amy J.; Miscimarra, Lara; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Taylor, H. Gerry

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study compared parents with histories of speech sound disorders (SSD) to parents without known histories on measures of speech sound production, phonological processing, language, reading, and spelling. Familial aggregation for speech and language disorders was also examined. Method: The participants were 147 parents of children with…

  15. Vocoders and Speech Perception: Uses of Computer-Based Speech Analysis-Synthesis in Stimulus Generation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, Joseph; Mack, Molly

    1987-01-01

    Stimuli used in research on the perception of the speech signal have often been obtained from simple filtering and distortion of the speech waveform, sometimes accompanied by noise. However, for more complex stimulus generation, the parameters of speech can be manipulated, after analysis and before synthesis, using various types of algorithms to…

  16. The Practical Philosophy of Communication Ethics and Free Speech as the Foundation for Speech Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnett, Ronald C.

    1990-01-01

    Argues that communication ethics and free speech are the foundation for understanding the field of speech communication and its proper positioning in the larger array of academic disciplines. Argues that speech communication as a discipline can be traced back to a "practical philosophical" foundation detailed by Aristotle. (KEH)

  17. A MANUAL ON SPEECH THERAPY FOR PARENTS' USE WITH CHILDREN WHO HAVE MINOR SPEECH PROBLEMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OGG, HELEN LOREE

    A MANUAL, TO PROVIDE PARENTS WITH AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE WORK OF THE SPEECH TEACHER AND WITH METHODS TO CORRECT THE POOR SPEECH HABITS OF THEIR CHILDREN IS PRESENTED. AREAS INCLUDE THE ORGANS OF SPEECH, WHERE THEY SHOULD BE PLACED TO MAKE EACH SOUND, AND HOW THEY SHOULD OR SHOULD NOT MOVE. EASY DIRECTIONS ARE GIVEN FOR PRODUCING THE MOST…

  18. Spotlight on Speech Codes 2007: The State of Free Speech on Our Nation's Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foundation for Individual Rights in Education (NJ1), 2007

    2007-01-01

    Last year, the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education (FIRE) conducted its first-ever comprehensive study of restrictions on speech at America's colleges and universities, "Spotlight on Speech Codes 2006: The State of Free Speech on our Nation's Campuses." In light of the essentiality of free expression to a truly liberal…

  19. Construction of a Rated Speech Corpus of L2 Learners' Spontaneous Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Su-Youn; Pierce, Lisa; Huensch, Amanda; Juul, Eric; Perkins, Samantha; Sproat, Richard; Hasegawa-Johnson, Mark

    2009-01-01

    This work reports on the construction of a rated database of spontaneous speech produced by second language (L2) learners of English. Spontaneous speech was collected from 28 L2 speakers representing six language backgrounds and five different proficiency levels. Speech was elicited using formats similar to that of the TOEFL iBT and the Speaking…

  20. Exploring the Role of Brain Oscillations in Speech Perception in Noise: Intelligibility of Isochronously Retimed Speech

    PubMed Central

    Aubanel, Vincent; Davis, Chris; Kim, Jeesun

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of evidence shows that brain oscillations track speech. This mechanism is thought to maximize processing efficiency by allocating resources to important speech information, effectively parsing speech into units of appropriate granularity for further decoding. However, some aspects of this mechanism remain unclear. First, while periodicity is an intrinsic property of this physiological mechanism, speech is only quasi-periodic, so it is not clear whether periodicity would present an advantage in processing. Second, it is still a matter of debate which aspect of speech triggers or maintains cortical entrainment, from bottom-up cues such as fluctuations of the amplitude envelope of speech to higher level linguistic cues such as syntactic structure. We present data from a behavioral experiment assessing the effect of isochronous retiming of speech on speech perception in noise. Two types of anchor points were defined for retiming speech, namely syllable onsets and amplitude envelope peaks. For each anchor point type, retiming was implemented at two hierarchical levels, a slow time scale around 2.5 Hz and a fast time scale around 4 Hz. Results show that while any temporal distortion resulted in reduced speech intelligibility, isochronous speech anchored to P-centers (approximated by stressed syllable vowel onsets) was significantly more intelligible than a matched anisochronous retiming, suggesting a facilitative role of periodicity defined on linguistically motivated units in processing speech in noise. PMID:27630552

  1. Cleft Audit Protocol for Speech (CAPS-A): A Comprehensive Training Package for Speech Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sell, D.; John, A.; Harding-Bell, A.; Sweeney, T.; Hegarty, F.; Freeman, J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The previous literature has largely focused on speech analysis systems and ignored process issues, such as the nature of adequate speech samples, data acquisition, recording and playback. Although there has been recognition of the need for training on tools used in speech analysis associated with cleft palate, little attention has been…

  2. Speech enhancement using a structured codebook.

    PubMed

    Naidu, D Hanumantha Rao; Srinivasan, Sriram; Rao, G V Prabhakara

    2012-10-01

    Codebook-based speech enhancement methods that use trained codebooks of speech and noise spectra provide good performance even under non-stationary noise conditions. A drawback, however, is their high computational cost. For every pair of speech and noise codebook vectors, a likelihood score indicating how well that pair matches the observation is computed. In this paper, a method that identifies and performs only relevant likelihood computations by imposing a hierarchical structure on the speech codebook is proposed. The performance of the proposed method is shown to be close to that of the original scheme but at a significantly lower computational cost.

  3. Speech disorders of Parkinsonism: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Critchley, E M

    1981-01-01

    Study of the speech disorders of Parkinsonism provides a paradigm of the integration of phonation, articulation and language in the production of speech. The initial defect in the untreated patient is a failure to control respiration for the purpose of speech and there follows a forward progression of articulatory symptoms involving larynx, pharynx, tongue and finally lips. There is evidence that the integration of speech production is organised asymmetrically at thalamic level. Experimental or therapeutic lesions in the region of the inferior medial portion of ventro-lateral thalamus may influence the initiation, respiratory control, rate and prosody of speech. Higher language functions may also be involved in thalamic integration: different forms of anomia are reported with pulvinar and ventrolateral thalamic lesions and transient aphasia may follow stereotaxis. The results of treatment with levodopa indicates that neurotransmitter substances enhance the clarity, volume and persistence of phonation and the latency and smoothness of articulation. The improvement of speech performance is not necessarily in phase with locomotor changes. The dose-related dyskinetic effects of levodopa, which appear to have a physiological basis in observations previously made in post-encephalitic Parkinsonism, not only influence the prosody of speech with near-mutism, hesitancy and dysfluency but may affect work-finding ability and in instances of excitement (erethism) even involve the association of long-term memory with speech. In future, neurologists will need to examine more closely the role of neurotransmitters in speech production and formulation. PMID:7031185

  4. Normal and Time-Compressed Speech

    PubMed Central

    Lemke, Ulrike; Kollmeier, Birger; Holube, Inga

    2016-01-01

    Short-term and long-term learning effects were investigated for the German Oldenburg sentence test (OLSA) using original and time-compressed fast speech in noise. Normal-hearing and hearing-impaired participants completed six lists of the OLSA in five sessions. Two groups of normal-hearing listeners (24 and 12 listeners) and two groups of hearing-impaired listeners (9 listeners each) performed the test with original or time-compressed speech. In general, original speech resulted in better speech recognition thresholds than time-compressed speech. Thresholds decreased with repetition for both speech materials. Confirming earlier results, the largest improvements were observed within the first measurements of the first session, indicating a rapid initial adaptation phase. The improvements were larger for time-compressed than for original speech. The novel results on long-term learning effects when using the OLSA indicate a longer phase of ongoing learning, especially for time-compressed speech, which seems to be limited by a floor effect. In addition, for normal-hearing participants, no complete transfer of learning benefits from time-compressed to original speech was observed. These effects should be borne in mind when inviting listeners repeatedly, for example, in research settings.

  5. Speech evaluation for patients with cleft palate.

    PubMed

    Kummer, Ann W

    2014-04-01

    Children with cleft palate are at risk for speech problems, particularly those caused by velopharyngeal insufficiency. There may be an additional risk of speech problems caused by malocclusion. This article describes the speech evaluation for children with cleft palate and how the results of the evaluation are used to make treatment decisions. Instrumental procedures that provide objective data regarding the function of the velopharyngeal valve, and the 2 most common methods of velopharyngeal imaging, are also described. Because many readers are not familiar with phonetic symbols for speech phonemes, Standard English letters are used for clarity.

  6. Neologistic speech automatisms during complex partial seizures.

    PubMed

    Bell, W L; Horner, J; Logue, P; Radtke, R A

    1990-01-01

    There are no documented cases of seizures causing reiterative neologistic speech automatisms. We report an 18-year-old right-handed woman with stereotypic ictal speech automatisms characterized by phonemic jargon and reiterative neologisms. Video-EEG during the reiterative neologisms demonstrated rhythmic delta activity, which was most prominent in the left posterior temporal region. At surgery, there was an arteriovenous malformation impinging on the left supramarginal gyrus and the posterior portion of the superior temporal gyrus. Though intelligible speech automatisms can result from seizure foci in either hemisphere, neologistic speech automatisms may implicate a focus in the language-dominant hemisphere.

  7. Revisiting the thermodynamic relations in AdS /CMT models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun, Seungjoon; Park, Sang-A.; Yi, Sang-Heon

    2017-03-01

    Motivated by the recent unified approach to the Smarr-like relation of anti-de Sitter (AdS) planar black holes in conjunction with the quasilocal formalism on conserved charges, we revisit the quantum statistical and thermodynamic relations of hairy AdS planar black holes. By extending the previous results, we identify the hairy contribution in the bulk and show that the holographic computation can be improved so that it is consistent with the bulk computation. We argue that the first law can be retained in its universal form and that the relation between the on-shell renormalized Euclidean action and its free energy interpretation in gravity may also be undeformed even with the hairy contribution in hairy AdS black holes.

  8. Entanglement entropy for free scalar fields in AdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugishita, Sotaro

    2016-09-01

    We compute entanglement entropy for free massive scalar fields in anti-de Sitter (AdS) space. The entangling surface is a minimal surface whose boundary is a sphere at the boundary of AdS. The entropy can be evaluated from the thermal free energy of the fields on a topological black hole by using the replica method. In odd-dimensional AdS, exact expressions of the Rényi entropy S n are obtained for arbitrary n. We also evaluate 1-loop corrections coming from the scalar fields to holographic entanglement entropy. Applying the results, we compute the leading difference of entanglement entropy between two holographic CFTs related by a renormalization group flow triggered by a double trace deformation. The difference is proportional to the shift of a central charge under the flow.

  9. Solutions of free higher spins in AdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, H.; Shao, Kai-Nan

    2011-11-01

    We consider free massive and massless higher integer spins in AdS backgrounds in general D dimensions. We obtain the solutions corresponding to the highest-weight state of the spin-ℓ representations of the SO (2 , D - 1) isometry groups. The solution for the spin-ℓ field is expressed recursively in terms of that for the spin- (ℓ - 1). Thus starting from the explicit spin-0, all the higher-spin solutions can be obtained. These solutions allow us to derive the generalized Breitenlohner-Freedman bound, and analyze the asymptotic falloffs. In particular, solutions with negative mass square in general have falloffs slower than those of the Schwarzschild AdS black holes in the AdS boundaries.

  10. Diffusion and chaos from near AdS2 horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Mike; Donos, Aristomenis

    2017-02-01

    We calculate the thermal diffusivity D = κ/c ρ and butterfly velocity v B in holographic models that flow to AdS2 × R d fixed points in the infra-red. We show that both these quantities are governed by the same irrelevant deformation of AdS2 and hence establish a simple relationship between them. When this deformation corresponds to a universal dilaton mode of dimension Δ = 2 then this relationship is always given by D = v B 2 /(2 πT).

  11. 75 FR 26701 - Telecommunications Relay Services and Speech-to-Speech Services for Individuals With Hearing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ...; DA 10-761] Telecommunications Relay Services and Speech-to-Speech Services for Individuals With Hearing and Speech Disabilities AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY.... The Bureau seeks comment on NECA's proposed compensation rates for Interstate TRS,...

  12. Speech Planning Happens before Speech Execution: Online Reaction Time Methods in the Study of Apraxia of Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maas, Edwin; Mailend, Marja-Liisa

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to present an argument for the use of online reaction time (RT) methods to the study of apraxia of speech (AOS) and to review the existing small literature in this area and the contributions it has made to our fundamental understanding of speech planning (deficits) in AOS. Method: Following a brief…

  13. Perceptual centres in speech - an acoustic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Sophie Kerttu

    Perceptual centres, or P-centres, represent the perceptual moments of occurrence of acoustic signals - the 'beat' of a sound. P-centres underlie the perception and production of rhythm in perceptually regular speech sequences. P-centres have been modelled both in speech and non speech (music) domains. The three aims of this thesis were toatest out current P-centre models to determine which best accounted for the experimental data bto identify a candidate parameter to map P-centres onto (a local approach) as opposed to the previous global models which rely upon the whole signal to determine the P-centre the final aim was to develop a model of P-centre location which could be applied to speech and non speech signals. The first aim was investigated by a series of experiments in which a) speech from different speakers was investigated to determine whether different models could account for variation between speakers b) whether rendering the amplitude time plot of a speech signal affects the P-centre of the signal c) whether increasing the amplitude at the offset of a speech signal alters P-centres in the production and perception of speech. The second aim was carried out by a) manipulating the rise time of different speech signals to determine whether the P-centre was affected, and whether the type of speech sound ramped affected the P-centre shift b) manipulating the rise time and decay time of a synthetic vowel to determine whether the onset alteration was had more affect on P-centre than the offset manipulation c) and whether the duration of a vowel affected the P-centre, if other attributes (amplitude, spectral contents) were held constant. The third aim - modelling P-centres - was based on these results. The Frequency dependent Amplitude Increase Model of P-centre location (FAIM) was developed using a modelling protocol, the APU GammaTone Filterbank and the speech from different speakers. The P-centres of the stimuli corpus were highly predicted by attributes of

  14. Speech perception as an active cognitive process.

    PubMed

    Heald, Shannon L M; Nusbaum, Howard C

    2014-01-01

    One view of speech perception is that acoustic signals are transformed into representations for pattern matching to determine linguistic structure. This process can be taken as a statistical pattern-matching problem, assuming realtively stable linguistic categories are characterized by neural representations related to auditory properties of speech that can be compared to speech input. This kind of pattern matching can be termed a passive process which implies rigidity of processing with few demands on cognitive processing. An alternative view is that speech recognition, even in early stages, is an active process in which speech analysis is attentionally guided. Note that this does not mean consciously guided but that information-contingent changes in early auditory encoding can occur as a function of context and experience. Active processing assumes that attention, plasticity, and listening goals are important in considering how listeners cope with adverse circumstances that impair hearing by masking noise in the environment or hearing loss. Although theories of speech perception have begun to incorporate some active processing, they seldom treat early speech encoding as plastic and attentionally guided. Recent research has suggested that speech perception is the product of both feedforward and feedback interactions between a number of brain regions that include descending projections perhaps as far downstream as the cochlea. It is important to understand how the ambiguity of the speech signal and constraints of context dynamically determine cognitive resources recruited during perception including focused attention, learning, and working memory. Theories of speech perception need to go beyond the current corticocentric approach in order to account for the intrinsic dynamics of the auditory encoding of speech. In doing so, this may provide new insights into ways in which hearing disorders and loss may be treated either through augementation or therapy.

  15. The fragile nature of the speech-perception deficit in dyslexia: natural vs synthetic speech.

    PubMed

    Blomert, Leo; Mitterer, Holger

    2004-04-01

    A number of studies reported that developmental dyslexics are impaired in speech perception, especially for speech signals consisting of rapid auditory transitions. These studies mostly made use of a categorical-perception task with synthetic-speech samples. In this study, we show that deficits in the perception of synthetic speech do not generalise to the perception of more naturally sounding speech, even if the same experimental paradigm is used. This contrasts with the assumption that dyslexics are impaired in the perception of rapid auditory transitions.

  16. Mystery cloud of AD 536

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, R. B.

    1984-01-01

    The possible cause of the densest and most persistent dry fog on record, which was observed in Europe and the Middle East during AD 536 and 537, is discussed. The fog's long duration toward the south and the high sulfuric acid signal detected in Greenland in ice cores dated around AD 540 support the theory that the fog was due to the explosion of the Rabaul volcano, the occurrence of which has been dated at about AD 540 by the radiocarbon method.

  17. Reasons why current speech-enhancement algorithms do not improve speech intelligibility and suggested solutions.

    PubMed

    Loizou, Philipos C; Kim, Gibak

    2011-01-01

    Existing speech enhancement algorithms can improve speech quality but not speech intelligibility, and the reasons for that are unclear. In the present paper, we present a theoretical framework that can be used to analyze potential factors that can influence the intelligibility of processed speech. More specifically, this framework focuses on the fine-grain analysis of the distortions introduced by speech enhancement algorithms. It is hypothesized that if these distortions are properly controlled, then large gains in intelligibility can be achieved. To test this hypothesis, intelligibility tests are conducted with human listeners in which we present processed speech with controlled speech distortions. The aim of these tests is to assess the perceptual effect of the various distortions that can be introduced by speech enhancement algorithms on speech intelligibility. Results with three different enhancement algorithms indicated that certain distortions are more detrimental to speech intelligibility degradation than others. When these distortions were properly controlled, however, large gains in intelligibility were obtained by human listeners, even by spectral-subtractive algorithms which are known to degrade speech quality and intelligibility.

  18. Monaural speech intelligibility and detection in maskers with varying amounts of spectro-temporal speech features.

    PubMed

    Schubotz, Wiebke; Brand, Thomas; Kollmeier, Birger; Ewert, Stephan D

    2016-07-01

    Speech intelligibility is strongly affected by the presence of maskers. Depending on the spectro-temporal structure of the masker and its similarity to the target speech, different masking aspects can occur which are typically referred to as energetic, amplitude modulation, and informational masking. In this study speech intelligibility and speech detection was measured in maskers that vary systematically in the time-frequency domain from steady-state noise to a single interfering talker. Male and female target speech was used in combination with maskers based on speech for the same or different gender. Observed data were compared to predictions of the speech intelligibility index, extended speech intelligibility index, multi-resolution speech-based envelope-power-spectrum model, and the short-time objective intelligibility measure. The different models served as analysis tool to help distinguish between the different masking aspects. Comparison shows that overall masking can to a large extent be explained by short-term energetic masking. However, the other masking aspects (amplitude modulation an informational masking) influence speech intelligibility as well. Additionally, it was obvious that all models showed considerable deviations from the data. Therefore, the current study provides a benchmark for further evaluation of speech prediction models.

  19. The inhibition of stuttering via the presentation of natural speech and sinusoidal speech analogs.

    PubMed

    Saltuklaroglu, Tim; Kalinowski, Joseph

    2006-08-14

    Sensory signals containing speech or gestural (articulatory) information (e.g., choral speech) have repeatedly been found to be highly effective inhibitors of stuttering. Sine wave analogs of speech consist of a trio of changing pure tones representative of formant frequencies. They are otherwise devoid of traditional speech cues, yet have proven to evoke consistent linguistic percepts in listeners. Thus, we investigated the potency of sinusoidal speech for inhibiting stuttering. Ten adults who stutter read while listening to (a) forward-flowing natural speech; (b) forward-flowing sinusoid analogs of natural speech; (c) reversed natural speech; (d) reversed sinusoid analogs of natural speech; and (e) a continuous 1000 Hz pure tone. The levels of stuttering inhibition achieved using the sinusoidal stimuli were potent and not significantly different from those achieved using natural speech (approximately 50% in forward conditions and approximately 25% in the reversed conditions), suggesting that the patterns of undulating pure tones are sufficient to endow sinusoidal sentences with 'quasi-gestural' qualities. These data highlight the sensitivity of a specialized 'phonetic module' for extracting gestural information from sensory stimuli. Stuttering inhibition is thought to occur when perceived gestural information facilitates fluent productions via the engagement of mirror neurons (e.g., in Broca's area), which appear to play a crucial role in our ability to perceive and produce speech.

  20. The effects of speech output technology in the learning of graphic symbols.

    PubMed Central

    Schlosser, R W; Belfiore, P J; Nigam, R; Blischak, D; Hetzroni, O

    1995-01-01

    The effects of auditory stimuli in the form of synthetic speech output on the learning of graphic symbols were evaluated. Three adults with severe to profound mental retardation and communication impairments were taught to point to lexigrams when presented with words under two conditions. In the first condition, participants used a voice output communication aid to receive synthetic speech as antecedent and consequent stimuli. In the second condition, with a nonelectronic communications board, participants did not receive synthetic speech. A parallel treatments design was used to evaluate the effects of the synthetic speech output as an added component of the augmentative and alternative communication system. The 3 participants reached criterion when not provided with the auditory stimuli. Although 2 participants also reached criterion when not provided with the auditory stimuli, the addition of auditory stimuli resulted in more efficient learning and a decreased error rate. Maintenance results, however, indicated no differences between conditions. Finding suggest that auditory stimuli in the form of synthetic speech contribute to the efficient acquisition of graphic communication symbols. PMID:14743828

  1. The effects of speech output technology in the learning of graphic symbols.

    PubMed

    Schlosser, R W; Belfiore, P J; Nigam, R; Blischak, D; Hetzroni, O

    1995-01-01

    The effects of auditory stimuli in the form of synthetic speech output on the learning of graphic symbols were evaluated. Three adults with severe to profound mental retardation and communication impairments were taught to point to lexigrams when presented with words under two conditions. In the first condition, participants used a voice output communication aid to receive synthetic speech as antecedent and consequent stimuli. In the second condition, with a nonelectronic communications board, participants did not receive synthetic speech. A parallel treatments design was used to evaluate the effects of the synthetic speech output as an added component of the augmentative and alternative communication system. The 3 participants reached criterion when not provided with the auditory stimuli. Although 2 participants also reached criterion when not provided with the auditory stimuli, the addition of auditory stimuli resulted in more efficient learning and a decreased error rate. Maintenance results, however, indicated no differences between conditions. Finding suggest that auditory stimuli in the form of synthetic speech contribute to the efficient acquisition of graphic communication symbols.

  2. Speech detection in spatial and nonspatial speech maskers.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Uma; Freyman, Richard L

    2008-05-01

    The effect of perceived spatial differences on masking release was examined using a 4AFC speech detection paradigm. Targets were 20 words produced by a female talker. Maskers were recordings of continuous streams of nonsense sentences spoken by two female talkers and mixed into each of two channels (two talker, and the same masker time reversed). Two masker spatial conditions were employed: "RF" with a 4 ms time lead to the loudspeaker 60 degrees horizontally to the right, and "FR" with the time lead to the front (0 degrees ) loudspeaker. The reference nonspatial "F" masker was presented from the front loudspeaker only. Target presentation was always from the front loudspeaker. In Experiment 1, target detection threshold for both natural and time-reversed spatial maskers was 17-20 dB lower than that for the nonspatial masker, suggesting that significant release from informational masking occurs with spatial speech maskers regardless of masker understandability. In Experiment 2, the effectiveness of the FR and RF maskers was evaluated as the right loudspeaker output was attenuated until the two-source maskers were indistinguishable from the F masker, as measured independently in a discrimination task. Results indicated that spatial release from masking can be observed with barely noticeable target-masker spatial differences.

  3. The Speech Spectrum and its Relationship to Intelligibility of Speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Englert, Sue Ellen

    The present experiment was designed to investigate and understand the causes of failures of the Articulation Index as a predictive tool. An electroacoustic system was used in which: (1) The frequency response was optimally flattened at the listener's ear. (2) An ear-insert earphone was designed to give close electroacoustic control. (3) An infinite-impulse-response digital filter was used to filter the speech signal from a pre-recorded nonsense syllable test. (4) Four formant regions were filtered in fourteen different ways. It was found that the results agreed with past experiments in that: (1) The Articulation Index fails as a predictive tool when using band-pass filters. (2) Low frequencies seem to mask higher frequencies causing a decrease in intelligibility. It was concluded that: (1) It is inappropriate to relate the total fraction of the speech spectrum to a specific intelligibility score since the fraction remaining after filtering may be in the low-, mid-, or high-frequency range. (2) The relationship between intelligibility and the total area under the spectral curve is not monotonic. (3) The fourth formant region (2925Hz to 4200Hz) enhanced intelligibility when included with other formant regions. Methods for relating spectral regions and intelligibility were discussed.

  4. Open Microphone Speech Understanding: Correct Discrimination Of In Domain Speech

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hieronymus, James; Aist, Greg; Dowding, John

    2006-01-01

    An ideal spoken dialogue system listens continually and determines which utterances were spoken to it, understands them and responds appropriately while ignoring the rest This paper outlines a simple method for achieving this goal which involves trading a slightly higher false rejection rate of in domain utterances for a higher correct rejection rate of Out of Domain (OOD) utterances. The system recognizes semantic entities specified by a unification grammar which is specialized by Explanation Based Learning (EBL). so that it only uses rules which are seen in the training data. The resulting grammar has probabilities assigned to each construct so that overgeneralizations are not a problem. The resulting system only recognizes utterances which reduce to a valid logical form which has meaning for the system and rejects the rest. A class N-gram grammar has been trained on the same training data. This system gives good recognition performance and offers good Out of Domain discrimination when combined with the semantic analysis. The resulting systems were tested on a Space Station Robot Dialogue Speech Database and a subset of the OGI conversational speech database. Both systems run in real time on a PC laptop and the present performance allows continuous listening with an acceptably low false acceptance rate. This type of open microphone system has been used in the Clarissa procedure reading and navigation spoken dialogue system which is being tested on the International Space Station.

  5. Earlier speech exposure does not accelerate speech acquisition.

    PubMed

    Peña, Marcela; Werker, Janet F; Dehaene-Lambertz, Ghislaine

    2012-08-15

    Critical periods in language acquisition have been discussed primarily with reference to studies of people who are deaf or bilingual. Here, we provide evidence on the opening of sensitivity to the linguistic environment by studying the response to a change of phoneme at a native and nonnative phonetic boundary in full-term and preterm human infants using event-related potentials. Full-term infants show a decline in their discrimination of nonnative phonetic contrasts between 9 and 12 months of age. Because the womb is a high-frequency filter, many phonemes are strongly degraded in utero. Preterm infants thus benefit from earlier and richer exposure to broadcast speech. We find that preterms do not take advantage of this enriched linguistic environment: the decrease in amplitude of the mismatch response to a nonnative change of phoneme at the end of the first year of life was dependent on maturational age and not on the duration of exposure to broadcast speech. The shaping of phonological representations by the environment is thus strongly constrained by brain maturation factors.

  6. Method and apparatus for obtaining complete speech signals for speech recognition applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrash, Victor (Inventor); Cesari, Federico (Inventor); Franco, Horacio (Inventor); George, Christopher (Inventor); Zheng, Jing (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for obtaining complete speech signals for speech recognition applications. In one embodiment, the method continuously records an audio stream comprising a sequence of frames to a circular buffer. When a user command to commence or terminate speech recognition is received, the method obtains a number of frames of the audio stream occurring before or after the user command in order to identify an augmented audio signal for speech recognition processing. In further embodiments, the method analyzes the augmented audio signal in order to locate starting and ending speech endpoints that bound at least a portion of speech to be processed for recognition. At least one of the speech endpoints is located using a Hidden Markov Model.

  7. Speech recognition technology: a critique.

    PubMed Central

    Levinson, S E

    1995-01-01

    This paper introduces the session on advanced speech recognition technology. The two papers comprising this session argue that current technology yields a performance that is only an order of magnitude in error rate away from human performance and that incremental improvements will bring us to that desired level. I argue that, to the contrary, present performance is far removed from human performance and a revolution in our thinking is required to achieve the goal. It is further asserted that to bring about the revolution more effort should be expended on basic research and less on trying to prematurely commercialize a deficient technology. PMID:7479808

  8. Speech Generation from Semantic Nets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-09-01

    Speech Generation from Semantic Nets Page 2 (inPUt and output) is monitored bY a "discourse module" ( Deutsch , 1975) to maintain an accurate...in the Phrase, HEURISTIC RULES Hornby describes three basic positions for adverbs in the c1ause1 "front" position, "mid" position, and "end...34 position, Front position adverbs occur before the subject: •YesterdaY he went home, from there he took a taxi," The interrogative adverbs (e,g, how, when

  9. Coset construction of AdS particle dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinze, Martin; Jorjadze, George; Megrelidze, Luka

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the dynamics of the AdSN+1 particle realized on the coset SO(2, N)/SO (1,N). Hamiltonian reduction provides the physical phase space in terms of the coadjoint orbit obtained by boosting a timelike element of 𝔰𝔬(2, N). We show equivalence of this approach to geometric quantization and to the SO(N) covariant oscillator description, for which the boost generators entail a complicated operator ordering. As an alternative scheme, we introduce dual oscillator variables and derive their algebra at the classical and the quantum levels. This simplifies the calculations of the commutators for the boost generators and leads to unitary irreducible representations of 𝔰𝔬(2, N) for all admissible values of the mass parameter. We furthermore discuss an SO(N) covariant supersymmetric extension of the oscillator quantization, with its realization for superparticles in AdS2 and AdS3 given by recent works.

  10. Entanglement temperature and perturbed AdS3 geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, G. C.; Caravan, B.

    2016-06-01

    Generalizing the first law of thermodynamics, the increase in entropy density δ S (x ) of a conformal field theory (CFT) is proportional to the increase in energy density, δ E (x ) , of a subsystem divided by a spatially dependent entanglement temperature, TE(x ) , a fixed parameter determined by the geometry of the subsystem, crossing over to thermodynamic temperature at high temperatures. In this paper we derive a generalization of the thermodynamic Clausius relation, showing that deformations of the CFT by marginal operators are associated with spatial temperature variations, δ TE(x ) , and spatial energy correlations play the role of specific heat. Using AdS/CFT duality we develop a relationship between a perturbation in the local entanglement temperature of the CFT and the perturbation of the bulk AdS metric. In two dimensions, we demonstrate a method through which direct diagonalizations of the boundary quantum theory may be used to construct geometric perturbations of AdS3 .

  11. AdS5 backgrounds with 24 supersymmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, S.; Gutowski, J.; Papadopoulos, G.

    2016-06-01

    We prove a non-existence theorem for smooth AdS 5 solutions with connected, compact without boundary internal space that preserve strictly 24 supersymmetries. In particular, we show that D = 11 supergravity does not admit such solutions, and that all such solutions of IIB supergravity are locally isometric to the AdS 5 × S 5 maximally supersymmetric background. Furthermore, we prove that (massive) IIA supergravity also does not admit such solutions, provided that the homogeneity conjecture for massive IIA supergravity is valid. In the context of AdS/CFT these results imply that if gravitational duals for strictly mathcal{N}=3 superconformal theories in 4-dimensions exist, they are either singular or their internal spaces are not compact.

  12. The effects of selective attention and speech acoustics on neural speech-tracking in a multi-talker scene.

    PubMed

    Rimmele, Johanna M; Zion Golumbic, Elana; Schröger, Erich; Poeppel, David

    2015-07-01

    Attending to one speaker in multi-speaker situations is challenging. One neural mechanism proposed to underlie the ability to attend to a particular speaker is phase-locking of low-frequency activity in auditory cortex to speech's temporal envelope ("speech-tracking"), which is more precise for attended speech. However, it is not known what brings about this attentional effect, and specifically if it reflects enhanced processing of the fine structure of attended speech. To investigate this question we compared attentional effects on speech-tracking of natural versus vocoded speech which preserves the temporal envelope but removes the fine structure of speech. Pairs of natural and vocoded speech stimuli were presented concurrently and participants attended to one stimulus and performed a detection task while ignoring the other stimulus. We recorded magnetoencephalography (MEG) and compared attentional effects on the speech-tracking response in auditory cortex. Speech-tracking of natural, but not vocoded, speech was enhanced by attention, whereas neural tracking of ignored speech was similar for natural and vocoded speech. These findings suggest that the more precise speech-tracking of attended natural speech is related to processing its fine structure, possibly reflecting the application of higher-order linguistic processes. In contrast, when speech is unattended its fine structure is not processed to the same degree and thus elicits less precise speech-tracking more similar to vocoded speech.

  13. Communicative Competence, Speech Acts and Discourse Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Terry; And Others

    Three papers intended as preliminary studies to bilingual professional curriculum development are included. "Speech Acts and Discourse Analysis," by Terry McCoy, represents an introduction to discourse analysis as a tool for the language teacher. The notion of a typology of speech acts is set forth, and models of discourse analysis by…

  14. The Preparation of Syllables in Speech Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cholin, Joana; Schiller, Niels O.; Levelt, Willem J. M.

    2004-01-01

    Models of speech production assume that syllables play a functional role in the process of word-form encoding in speech production. In this study, we investigate this claim and specifically provide evidence about the level at which syllables come into play. We report two studies using an "odd-man-out" variant of the "implicit priming paradigm" to…

  15. Preschoolers Benefit from Visually Salient Speech Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalonde, Kaylah; Holt, Rachael Frush

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored visual speech influence in preschoolers using 3 developmentally appropriate tasks that vary in perceptual difficulty and task demands. They also examined developmental differences in the ability to use visually salient speech cues and visual phonological knowledge. Method: Twelve adults and 27 typically developing 3-…

  16. Speech as Process: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Robert D.; Scheidel, Thomas M.

    1968-01-01

    In order to test the internal evaluative processes and not merely the final reactions of an audience to a speaker, 97 Caucasian college students expressed their attitudes toward Malcolm X while listening to a 25-minute tape-recorded speech by him. Eight 30-second silent intervals at natural pauses in the speech gave the students time to respond…

  17. Quick Statistics about Voice, Speech, and Language

    MedlinePlus

    ... Statistics and Epidemiology Quick Statistics About Voice, Speech, Language Voice, Speech, Language, and Swallowing Nearly 1 in 12 (7.7 ... condition known as persistent developmental stuttering. 8 , 9 Language 3.3 percent of U.S. children ages 3- ...

  18. Hypnosis and the Reduction of Speech Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Larry L.; And Others

    The purposes of this paper are (1) to review the background and nature of hypnosis, (2) to synthesize research on hypnosis related to speech communication, and (3) to delineate and compare two potential techniques for reducing speech anxiety--hypnosis and systematic desensitization. Hypnosis has been defined as a mental state characterised by…

  19. The Lombard Effect on Alaryngeal Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeine, Lina; Brandt, John F.

    1988-01-01

    The study investigated the Lombard effect (evoking increased speech intensity by applying masking noise to ears of talker) on the speech of esophageal talkers, artificial larynx users, and normal speakers. The noise condition produced the highest intensity increase in the esophageal speakers. (Author/DB)

  20. Treatment Intensity and Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Namasivayam, Aravind K.; Pukonen, Margit; Goshulak, Debra; Hard, Jennifer; Rudzicz, Frank; Rietveld, Toni; Maassen, Ben; Kroll, Robert; van Lieshout, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intensive treatment has been repeatedly recommended for the treatment of speech deficits in childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). However, differences in treatment outcomes as a function of treatment intensity have not been systematically studied in this population. Aim: To investigate the effects of treatment intensity on outcome…

  1. Issues in Collecting and Transcribing Speech Samples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louko, Linda J.; Edwards, Mary Louise

    2001-01-01

    This article identifies issues in phonetic transcription of speech samples for speech language pathologists. Important terms and concepts from articulatory/clinical phonetics are reviewed and guidelines are provided for streamlining the process of whole-word live transcriptions and for refining transcriptions by incorporating features from…

  2. Speech after Mao: Literature and Belonging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Victoria Linda

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation aims to understand the apparent failure of speech in post-Mao literature to fulfill its conventional functions of representation and communication. In order to understand this pattern, I begin by looking back on the utility of speech for nation-building in modern China. In addition to literary analysis of key authors and works,…

  3. CLEFT PALATE. FOUNDATIONS OF SPEECH PATHOLOGY SERIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RUTHERFORD, DAVID; WESTLAKE, HAROLD

    DESIGNED TO PROVIDE AN ESSENTIAL CORE OF INFORMATION, THIS BOOK TREATS NORMAL AND ABNORMAL DEVELOPMENT, STRUCTURE, AND FUNCTION OF THE LIPS AND PALATE AND THEIR RELATIONSHIPS TO CLEFT LIP AND CLEFT PALATE SPEECH. PROBLEMS OF PERSONAL AND SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT, HEARING, AND SPEECH IN CLEFT LIP OR CLEFT PALATE INDIVIDUALS ARE DISCUSSED. NASAL RESONANCE…

  4. Localization of Sublexical Speech Perception Components

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkeltaub, Peter E.; Coslett, H. Branch

    2010-01-01

    Models of speech perception are in general agreement with respect to the major cortical regions involved, but lack precision with regard to localization and lateralization of processing units. To refine these models we conducted two Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) meta-analyses of the neuroimaging literature on sublexical speech perception.…

  5. Reliability of Speech Diadochokinetic Test Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadesmann, Miriam; Miller, Nick

    2008-01-01

    Background: Measures of articulatory diadochokinesis (DDK) are widely used in the assessment of motor speech disorders and they play a role in detecting abnormality, monitoring speech performance changes and classifying syndromes. Although in clinical practice DDK is generally measured perceptually, without support from instrumental methods that…

  6. Language and Legal Speech Acts: Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kevelson, Roberta

    The first part of this essay argues specifically that legal speech acts are not statements but question/answer constructions. The focus in this section is on the underlying interrogative structure of the legal decision. The second part of the paper touches on significant topics related to the concept of legal speech acts, including the philosophic…

  7. Why Impromptu Speech Is Easy To Understand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Feal, K. Dejean

    Impromptu speech is characterized by the simultaneous processes of ideation (the elaboration and structuring of reasoning by the speaker as he improvises) and expression in the speaker. Other elements accompany this characteristic: division of speech flow into short segments, acoustic relief in the form of word stress following a pause, and both…

  8. Recent Trends in Free Speech Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haiman, Franklyn S.

    This syllabus of a convention workshop course on free speech theory consists of descriptions of several United States Supreme Court decisions related to free speech. Some specific areas in which decisions are discussed are: obscene and indecent communication, the definition of a public figure for purposes of libel action, the press versus official…

  9. Tampa Bay International Business Summit Keynote Speech

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clary, Christina

    2011-01-01

    A keynote speech outlining the importance of collaboration and diversity in the workplace. The 20-minute speech describes NASA's challenges and accomplishments over the years and what lies ahead. Topics include: diversity and inclusion principles, international cooperation, Kennedy Space Center planning and development, opportunities for cooperation, and NASA's vision for exploration.

  10. Children's Production of Commissive Speech Acts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astington, Janet W.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the age at which and the form in which children produce speech acts which commit them to a future action. Results revealed that all of the four- to 11-year-olds produced directive speech acts, but only the older children used the explicit performative verb "promise" to reassure the hearer of their commitment. (Author/CB)

  11. Isolated Speech Recognition Using Artificial Neural Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    In this project Artificial Neural Networks are used as research tool to accomplish Automated Speech Recognition of normal speech. A small size...the first stage of this work are satisfactory and thus the application of artificial neural networks in conjunction with cepstral analysis in isolated word recognition holds promise.

  12. The Two-Fold Way for Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, David

    On the basis of experimental data, the author makes the following observations: (1) the basic encoding processes in speech, the schemas of order, first produce elementary underlying sentences; (2) underlying sentence structure is the controlling step in the organization of speech; (3) underlying sentence structure plays a central role in…

  13. Analog Acoustic Expression in Speech Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shintel, Hadas; Nusbaum, Howard C.; Okrent, Arika

    2006-01-01

    We present the first experimental evidence of a phenomenon in speech communication we call "analog acoustic expression." Speech is generally thought of as conveying information in two distinct ways: discrete linguistic-symbolic units such as words and sentences represent linguistic meaning, and continuous prosodic forms convey information about…

  14. Visual speech gestures modulate efferent auditory system.

    PubMed

    Namasivayam, Aravind Kumar; Wong, Wing Yiu Stephanie; Sharma, Dinaay; van Lieshout, Pascal

    2015-03-01

    Visual and auditory systems interact at both cortical and subcortical levels. Studies suggest a highly context-specific cross-modal modulation of the auditory system by the visual system. The present study builds on this work by sampling data from 17 young healthy adults to test whether visual speech stimuli evoke different responses in the auditory efferent system compared to visual non-speech stimuli. The descending cortical influences on medial olivocochlear (MOC) activity were indirectly assessed by examining the effects of contralateral suppression of transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) at 1, 2, 3 and 4 kHz under three conditions: (a) in the absence of any contralateral noise (Baseline), (b) contralateral noise + observing facial speech gestures related to productions of vowels /a/ and /u/ and (c) contralateral noise + observing facial non-speech gestures related to smiling and frowning. The results are based on 7 individuals whose data met strict recording criteria and indicated a significant difference in TEOAE suppression between observing speech gestures relative to the non-speech gestures, but only at the 1 kHz frequency. These results suggest that observing a speech gesture compared to a non-speech gesture may trigger a difference in MOC activity, possibly to enhance peripheral neural encoding. If such findings can be reproduced in future research, sensory perception models and theories positing the downstream convergence of unisensory streams of information in the cortex may need to be revised.

  15. Semi-Direct Speech: Manambu and beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aikhenvald, Alexandra Y.

    2008-01-01

    Every language has some way of reporting what someone else has said. To express what Jakobson [Jakobson, R., 1990. "Shifters, categories, and the Russian verb. Selected writings". "Word and Language". Mouton, The Hague, Paris, pp. 130-153] called "speech within speech", the speaker can use their own words, recasting…

  16. Repeated Speech Errors: Evidence for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Karin R.; Menzies, Heather; Lake, Johanna K.

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments elicited phonological speech errors using the SLIP procedure to investigate whether there is a tendency for speech errors on specific words to reoccur, and whether this effect can be attributed to implicit learning of an incorrect mapping from lemma to phonology for that word. In Experiment 1, when speakers made a phonological…

  17. Pronunciation Modeling for Large Vocabulary Speech Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantor, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    The large pronunciation variability of words in conversational speech is one of the major causes of low accuracy in automatic speech recognition (ASR). Many pronunciation modeling approaches have been developed to address this problem. Some explicitly manipulate the pronunciation dictionary as well as the set of the units used to define the…

  18. Speech Fluency in Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Borsel, John; Dor, Orianne; Rondal, Jean

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated the dysfluencies in the speech of nine French speaking individuals with fragile X syndrome. Type, number, and loci of dysfluencies were analysed. The study confirms that dysfluencies are a common feature of the speech of individuals with fragile X syndrome but also indicates that the dysfluency pattern displayed is…

  19. STUDIES ON THE SPEECH OF THE DEAF.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MARTONY, J.

    A COMPARISON OF SEGMENT FEATURES IN THE SPEECH CHAIN OF THREE DEAF-BORN BOYS WITH THOSE OF THREE NORMAL-HEARING BOYS REVEALS THAT THE DEAF-BORN HAVE SPEECH PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH A LACK OF SYNCHRONY BETWEEN ARTICULATION AND PHONATION. IN ORDER TO DETERMINE THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE TWO GROUPS (BOTH REPEATING THE SAME SWEDISH SENTENCES), A…

  20. The Need for a Speech Corpus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Dermot F.; McDonnell, Ciaran; Meinardi, Marti; Richardson, Bunny

    2007-01-01

    This paper outlines the ongoing construction of a speech corpus for use by applied linguists and advanced EFL/ESL students. In the first part, sections 1-4, the need for improvements in the teaching of listening skills and pronunciation practice for EFL/ESL students is noted. It is argued that the use of authentic native-to-native speech is…

  1. Performing speech recognition research with hypercard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, Chip

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a HyperCard-based system for performing speech recognition research and to instruct Human Factors professionals on how to use the system to obtain detailed data about the user interface of a prototype speech recognition application.

  2. Speech-Language Pathology: Preparing Early Interventionists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prelock, Patricia A.; Deppe, Janet

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explain the role of speech-language pathology in early intervention. The expected credentials of professionals in the field are described, and the current numbers of practitioners serving young children are identified. Several resource documents available from the American Speech-­Language Hearing Association are…

  3. Speech recognition: how good is good enough?

    PubMed

    Krohn, Richard

    2002-03-01

    Since its infancy in the early 1990s, the technology of speech recognition has undergone a rapid evolution. Not only has the reliability of the programming improved dramatically, the return on investment has become increasingly compelling. The author describes some of the latest health care applications of speech-recognition technology, and how the next advances will be made in this area.

  4. Learning the Hidden Structure of Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elman, Jeffery Locke; Zipser, David

    The back-propagation neural network learning procedure was applied to the analysis and recognition of speech. Because this learning procedure requires only examples of input-output pairs, it is not necessary to provide it with any initial description of speech features. Rather, the network develops on its own set of representational features…

  5. Anatomy and Physiology of the Speech Mechanism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheets, Boyd V.

    This monograph on the anatomical and physiological aspects of the speech mechanism stresses the importance of a general understanding of the process of verbal communication. Contents include "Positions of the Body,""Basic Concepts Linked with the Speech Mechanism,""The Nervous System,""The Respiratory System--Sound-Power Source,""The…

  6. Walking the Talk on Campus Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neil, Robert M.

    2004-01-01

    A public university faced with intolerant student speech now risks being damned if it acts, but equally damned if it fails to act. To a greater degree than at any time in recent memory, the actions and policies of higher education institutions concerning student speech not only are being scrutinized, but they also are becoming the subject of legal…

  7. Prospects for Automatic Recognition of Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houde, Robert

    1979-01-01

    Originally part of a symposium on educational media for the deaf, the paper discusses problems with the development of technology permitting simultaneous automatic captioning of speech. It is concluded that success with a machine which will provide automatic recognition of speech is still many years in the future. (PHR)

  8. How Should a Speech Recognizer Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharenborg, Odette; Norris, Dennis; ten Bosch, Louis; McQueen, James M.

    2005-01-01

    Although researchers studying human speech recognition (HSR) and automatic speech recognition (ASR) share a common interest in how information processing systems (human or machine) recognize spoken language, there is little communication between the two disciplines. We suggest that this lack of communication follows largely from the fact that…

  9. Building Searchable Collections of Enterprise Speech Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, James W.; Viswanathan, Mahesh; Byron, Donna; Chan, Margaret

    The study has applied speech recognition and text-mining technologies to a set of recorded outbound marketing calls and analyzed the results. Since speaker-independent speech recognition technology results in a significantly lower recognition rate than that found when the recognizer is trained for a particular speaker, a number of post-processing…

  10. School Principal Speech about Fiscal Mismanagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassenpflug, Ann

    2015-01-01

    A review of two recent federal court cases concerning school principals who experienced adverse job actions after they engaged in speech about fiscal misconduct by other employees indicates that the courts found that the principal's speech was made as part of his or her job duties and was not protected by the First Amendment.

  11. Speech masking and cancelling and voice obscuration

    DOEpatents

    Holzrichter, John F.

    2013-09-10

    A non-acoustic sensor is used to measure a user's speech and then broadcasts an obscuring acoustic signal diminishing the user's vocal acoustic output intensity and/or distorting the voice sounds making them unintelligible to persons nearby. The non-acoustic sensor is positioned proximate or contacting a user's neck or head skin tissue for sensing speech production information.

  12. Perception of Silent Pauses in Continuous Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duez, Danielle

    1985-01-01

    Investigates the silent pauses in continuous speech in three genres: political speeches, political interviews, and casual interviews in order to see how the semantic-syntactic information of the message, the duration of silent pauses, and the acoustic environment of these pauses interact to produce the listener's perception of pauses. (Author/SED)

  13. Methodological Choices in Rating Speech Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Mary Grantham

    2016-01-01

    Much pronunciation research critically relies upon listeners' judgments of speech samples, but researchers have rarely examined the impact of methodological choices. In the current study, 30 German native listeners and 42 German L2 learners (L1 English) rated speech samples produced by English-German L2 learners along three continua: accentedness,…

  14. The Learning of Complex Speech Act Behaviour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olshtain, Elite; Cohen, Andrew

    1990-01-01

    Pre- and posttraining measurement of adult English-as-a-Second-Language learners' (N=18) apology speech act behavior found no clear-cut quantitative improvement after training, although there was an obvious qualitative approximation of native-like speech act behavior in terms of types of intensification and downgrading, choice of strategy, and…

  15. Speech Intelligibility in Severe Adductor Spasmodic Dysphonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Brenda K.; Cannito, Michael P.; Murry, Thomas; Woodson, Gayle E.

    2004-01-01

    This study compared speech intelligibility in nondisabled speakers and speakers with adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD) before and after botulinum toxin (Botox) injection. Standard speech samples were obtained from 10 speakers diagnosed with severe ADSD prior to and 1 month following Botox injection, as well as from 10 age- and gender-matched…

  16. The Neural Substrates of Infant Speech Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homae, Fumitaka; Watanabe, Hama; Taga, Gentaro

    2014-01-01

    Infants often pay special attention to speech sounds, and they appear to detect key features of these sounds. To investigate the neural foundation of speech perception in infants, we measured cortical activation using near-infrared spectroscopy. We presented the following three types of auditory stimuli while 3-month-old infants watched a silent…

  17. General-Purpose Monitoring during Speech Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ries, Stephanie; Janssen, Niels; Dufau, Stephane; Alario, F.-Xavier; Burle, Boris

    2011-01-01

    The concept of "monitoring" refers to our ability to control our actions on-line. Monitoring involved in speech production is often described in psycholinguistic models as an inherent part of the language system. We probed the specificity of speech monitoring in two psycholinguistic experiments where electroencephalographic activities were…

  18. Comparative Experiments on Large Vocabulary Speech Recognition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    training. But in this experiment, we also com- puted separate speaker-dependent models for the speakers with 50 -100 utterances, and each speaker...of Speech (R.ASTA-PLP), Proc. of the Second European Conf. on Speech Comm. and Tech. September, 1991. [12] Liu, F-H., Stern, R., Huang, X., Acero , A

  19. Production of Syntactic Stress in Alaryngeal Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandour, Jack; Weinberg, Bernd

    1985-01-01

    Reports on an acoustical investigation of syntactic stress in alaryngeal speech. Measurements were made of fundamental frequency, relative intensity, vowel duration, and intersyllable duration. Findings suggest that stress contrasts in alaryngeal speech are based on a complex of acoustic cues which are influenced by linguistic structure.…

  20. Voice Modulations in German Ironic Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharrer, Lisa; Christmann, Ursula; Knoll, Monja

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has shown that in different languages ironic speech is acoustically modulated compared to literal speech, and these modulations are assumed to aid the listener in the comprehension process by acting as cues that mark utterances as ironic. The present study was conducted to identify paraverbal features of German "ironic…

  1. Speech neglect: A strange educational blind spot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Katherine Safford

    2005-09-01

    Speaking is universally acknowledged as an important human talent, yet as a topic of educated common knowledge, it is peculiarly neglected. Partly, this is a consequence of the relatively recent growth of research on speech perception, production, and development, but also a function of the way that information is sliced up by undergraduate colleges. Although the basic acoustic mechanism of vowel production was known to Helmholtz, the ability to view speech production as a physiological event is evolving even now with such techniques as fMRI. Intensive research on speech perception emerged only in the early 1930s as Fletcher and the engineers at Bell Telephone Laboratories developed the transmission of speech over telephone lines. The study of speech development was revolutionized by the papers of Eimas and his colleagues on speech perception in infants in the 1970s. Dissemination of knowledge in these fields is the responsibility of no single academic discipline. It forms a center for two departments, Linguistics, and Speech and Hearing, but in the former, there is a heavy emphasis on other aspects of language than speech and, in the latter, a focus on clinical practice. For psychologists, it is a rather minor component of a very diverse assembly of topics. I will focus on these three fields in proposing possible remedies.

  2. The Effects of Stimulus Variability on the Perceptual Learning of Speech and Non-Speech Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Banai, Karen; Amitay, Sygal

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies suggest fundamental differences between the perceptual learning of speech and non-speech stimuli. One major difference is in the way variability in the training set affects learning and its generalization to untrained stimuli: training-set variability appears to facilitate speech learning, while slowing or altogether extinguishing non-speech auditory learning. We asked whether the reason for this apparent difference is a consequence of the very different methodologies used in speech and non-speech studies. We hypothesized that speech and non-speech training would result in a similar pattern of learning if they were trained using the same training regimen. We used a 2 (random vs. blocked pre- and post-testing) × 2 (random vs. blocked training) × 2 (speech vs. non-speech discrimination task) study design, yielding 8 training groups. A further 2 groups acted as untrained controls, tested with either random or blocked stimuli. The speech task required syllable discrimination along 4 minimal-pair continua (e.g., bee-dee), and the non-speech stimuli required duration discrimination around 4 base durations (e.g., 50 ms). Training and testing required listeners to pick the odd-one-out of three stimuli, two of which were the base duration or phoneme continuum endpoint and the third varied adaptively. Training was administered in 9 sessions of 640 trials each, spread over 4–8 weeks. Significant learning was only observed following speech training, with similar learning rates and full generalization regardless of whether training used random or blocked schedules. No learning was observed for duration discrimination with either training regimen. We therefore conclude that the two stimulus classes respond differently to the same training regimen. A reasonable interpretation of the findings is that speech is perceived categorically, enabling learning in either paradigm, while the different base durations are not well-enough differentiated to allow for

  3. Strategies for distant speech recognitionin reverberant environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delcroix, Marc; Yoshioka, Takuya; Ogawa, Atsunori; Kubo, Yotaro; Fujimoto, Masakiyo; Ito, Nobutaka; Kinoshita, Keisuke; Espi, Miquel; Araki, Shoko; Hori, Takaaki; Nakatani, Tomohiro

    2015-12-01

    Reverberation and noise are known to severely affect the automatic speech recognition (ASR) performance of speech recorded by distant microphones. Therefore, we must deal with reverberation if we are to realize high-performance hands-free speech recognition. In this paper, we review a recognition system that we developed at our laboratory to deal with reverberant speech. The system consists of a speech enhancement (SE) front-end that employs long-term linear prediction-based dereverberation followed by noise reduction. We combine our SE front-end with an ASR back-end that uses neural networks for acoustic and language modeling. The proposed system achieved top scores on the ASR task of the REVERB challenge. This paper describes the different technologies used in our system and presents detailed experimental results that justify our implementation choices and may provide hints for designing distant ASR systems.

  4. [Improving the speech with a prosthetic construction].

    PubMed

    Stalpers, M J; Engelen, M; van der Stappen, J A A M; Weijs, W L J; Takes, R P; van Heumen, C C M

    2016-03-01

    A 12-year-old boy had problems with his speech due to a defect in the soft palate. This defect was caused by the surgical removal of a synovial sarcoma. Testing with a nasometer revealed hypernasality above normal values. Given the size and severity of the defect in the soft palate, the possibility of improving the speech with speech therapy was limited. At a centre for special dentistry an attempt was made with a prosthetic construction to improve the performance of the palate and, in that way, the speech. This construction consisted of a denture with an obturator attached to it. With it, an effective closure of the palate could be achieved. New measurements with acoustic nasometry showed scores within the normal values. The nasality in the speech largely disappeared. The obturator is an effective and relatively easy solution for palatal insufficiency resulting from surgical resection. Intrusive reconstructive surgery can be avoided in this way.

  5. Speech enhancement on smartphone voice recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tris Atmaja, Bagus; Nur Farid, Mifta; Arifianto, Dhany

    2016-11-01

    Speech enhancement is challenging task in audio signal processing to enhance the quality of targeted speech signal while suppress other noises. In the beginning, the speech enhancement algorithm growth rapidly from spectral subtraction, Wiener filtering, spectral amplitude MMSE estimator to Non-negative Matrix Factorization (NMF). Smartphone as revolutionary device now is being used in all aspect of life including journalism; personally and professionally. Although many smartphones have two microphones (main and rear) the only main microphone is widely used for voice recording. This is why the NMF algorithm widely used for this purpose of speech enhancement. This paper evaluate speech enhancement on smartphone voice recording by using some algorithms mentioned previously. We also extend the NMF algorithm to Kulback-Leibler NMF with supervised separation. The last algorithm shows improved result compared to others by spectrogram and PESQ score evaluation.

  6. The varieties of speech to young children.

    PubMed

    Huttenlocher, Janellen; Vasilyeva, Marina; Waterfall, Heidi R; Vevea, Jack L; Hedges, Larry V

    2007-09-01

    This article examines caregiver speech to young children. The authors obtained several measures of the speech used to children during early language development (14-30 months). For all measures, they found substantial variation across individuals and subgroups. Speech patterns vary with caregiver education, and the differences are maintained over time. While there are distinct levels of complexity for different caregivers, there is a common pattern of increase across age within the range that characterizes each educational group. Thus, caregiver speech exhibits both long-standing patterns of linguistic behavior and adjustment for the interlocutor. This information about the variability of speech by individual caregivers provides a framework for systematic study of the role of input in language acquisition.

  7. Voice Quality Modelling for Expressive Speech Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Socoró, Joan Claudi

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the perceptual experiments that were carried out in order to validate the methodology of transforming expressive speech styles using voice quality (VoQ) parameters modelling, along with the well-known prosody (F0, duration, and energy), from a neutral style into a number of expressive ones. The main goal was to validate the usefulness of VoQ in the enhancement of expressive synthetic speech in terms of speech quality and style identification. A harmonic plus noise model (HNM) was used to modify VoQ and prosodic parameters that were extracted from an expressive speech corpus. Perception test results indicated the improvement of obtained expressive speech styles using VoQ modelling along with prosodic characteristics. PMID:24587738

  8. Clustered functional MRI of overt speech production.

    PubMed

    Sörös, Peter; Sokoloff, Lisa Guttman; Bose, Arpita; McIntosh, Anthony R; Graham, Simon J; Stuss, Donald T

    2006-08-01

    To investigate the neural network of overt speech production, event-related fMRI was performed in 9 young healthy adult volunteers. A clustered image acquisition technique was chosen to minimize speech-related movement artifacts. Functional images were acquired during the production of oral movements and of speech of increasing complexity (isolated vowel as well as monosyllabic and trisyllabic utterances). This imaging technique and behavioral task enabled depiction of the articulo-phonologic network of speech production from the supplementary motor area at the cranial end to the red nucleus at the caudal end. Speaking a single vowel and performing simple oral movements involved very similar activation of the cortical and subcortical motor systems. More complex, polysyllabic utterances were associated with additional activation in the bilateral cerebellum, reflecting increased demand on speech motor control, and additional activation in the bilateral temporal cortex, reflecting the stronger involvement of phonologic processing.

  9. Monkey vocal tracts are speech-ready

    PubMed Central

    Fitch, W. Tecumseh; de Boer, Bart; Mathur, Neil; Ghazanfar, Asif A.

    2016-01-01

    For four decades, the inability of nonhuman primates to produce human speech sounds has been claimed to stem from limitations in their vocal tract anatomy, a conclusion based on plaster casts made from the vocal tract of a monkey cadaver. We used x-ray videos to quantify vocal tract dynamics in living macaques during vocalization, facial displays, and feeding. We demonstrate that the macaque vocal tract could easily produce an adequate range of speech sounds to support spoken language, showing that previous techniques based on postmortem samples drastically underestimated primate vocal capabilities. Our findings imply that the evolution of human speech capabilities required neural changes rather than modifications of vocal anatomy. Macaques have a speech-ready vocal tract but lack a speech-ready brain to control it. PMID:27957536

  10. Evolution of speech and evolution of language.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Bart

    2017-02-01

    Speech is the physical signal used to convey spoken language. Because of its physical nature, speech is both easier to compare with other species' behaviors and easier to study in the fossil record than other aspects of language. Here I argue that convergent fossil evidence indicates adaptations for complex vocalizations at least as early as the common ancestor of Neanderthals and modern humans. Furthermore, I argue that it is unlikely that language evolved separately from speech, but rather that gesture, speech, and song coevolved to provide both a multimodal communication system and a musical system. Moreover, coevolution must also have played a role by allowing both cognitive and anatomical adaptations to language and speech to evolve in parallel. Although such a coevolutionary scenario is complex, it is entirely plausible from a biological point of view.

  11. Predicting the intelligibility of vocoded speech

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fei; Loizou, Philipos C.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of a number of speech intelligibility indices in terms of predicting the intelligibility of vocoded speech. Design Noise-corrupted sentences were vocoded in a total of 80 conditions, involving three different SNR levels (-5, 0 and 5 dB) and two types of maskers (steady-state noise and two-talker). Tone-vocoder simulations were used as well as simulations of combined electric-acoustic stimulation (EAS). The vocoded sentences were presented to normal-hearing listeners for identification, and the resulting intelligibility scores were used to assess the correlation of various speech intelligibility measures. These included measures designed to assess speech intelligibility, including the speech-transmission index (STI) and articulation index (AI) based measures, as well as distortions in hearing aids (e.g., coherence-based measures). These measures employed primarily either the temporal-envelope or the spectral-envelope information in the prediction model. The underlying hypothesis in the present study is that measures that assess temporal envelope distortions, such as those based on the speech-transmission index, should correlate highly with the intelligibility of vocoded speech. This is based on the fact that vocoder simulations preserve primarily envelope information, similar to the processing implemented in current cochlear implant speech processors. Similarly, it is hypothesized that measures such as the coherence-based index that assess the distortions present in the spectral envelope could also be used to model the intelligibility of vocoded speech. Results Of all the intelligibility measures considered, the coherence-based and the STI-based measures performed the best. High correlations (r=0.9-0.96) were maintained with the coherence-based measures in all noisy conditions. The highest correlation obtained with the STI-based measure was 0.92, and that was obtained when high modulation rates (100

  12. The Neurobiology of Speech Perception and Production-Can Functional Imaging Tell Us Anything We Did Not Already Know?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Sophie K.

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of the neurobiological basis for human speech production and perception has benefited from insights from psychology, neuropsychology and neurology. In this overview, I outline some of the ways that functional imaging has added to this knowledge and argue that, as a neuroanatomical tool, functional imaging has led to some…

  13. Influences of Electromagnetic Articulography Sensors on Speech Produced by Healthy Adults and Individuals with Aphasia and Apraxia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, William F.; Bharadwaj, Sneha V.; Stettler, Monica P.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined whether the intraoral transducers used in electromagnetic articulography (EMA) interfere with speech and whether there is an added risk of interference when EMA systems are used to study individuals with aphasia and apraxia. Method: Ten adult talkers (5 individuals with aphasia/apraxia, 5 controls) produced 12 American…

  14. The Functional Connectome of Speech Control

    PubMed Central

    Fuertinger, Stefan; Horwitz, Barry; Simonyan, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    In the past few years, several studies have been directed to understanding the complexity of functional interactions between different brain regions during various human behaviors. Among these, neuroimaging research installed the notion that speech and language require an orchestration of brain regions for comprehension, planning, and integration of a heard sound with a spoken word. However, these studies have been largely limited to mapping the neural correlates of separate speech elements and examining distinct cortical or subcortical circuits involved in different aspects of speech control. As a result, the complexity of the brain network machinery controlling speech and language remained largely unknown. Using graph theoretical analysis of functional MRI (fMRI) data in healthy subjects, we quantified the large-scale speech network topology by constructing functional brain networks of increasing hierarchy from the resting state to motor output of meaningless syllables to complex production of real-life speech as well as compared to non-speech-related sequential finger tapping and pure tone discrimination networks. We identified a segregated network of highly connected local neural communities (hubs) in the primary sensorimotor and parietal regions, which formed a commonly shared core hub network across the examined conditions, with the left area 4p playing an important role in speech network organization. These sensorimotor core hubs exhibited features of flexible hubs based on their participation in several functional domains across different networks and ability to adaptively switch long-range functional connectivity depending on task content, resulting in a distinct community structure of each examined network. Specifically, compared to other tasks, speech production was characterized by the formation of six distinct neural communities with specialized recruitment of the prefrontal cortex, insula, putamen, and thalamus, which collectively forged the formation

  15. Sensorimotor influences on speech perception in infancy

    PubMed Central

    Bruderer, Alison G.; Danielson, D. Kyle; Kandhadai, Padmapriya; Werker, Janet F.

    2015-01-01

    The influence of speech production on speech perception is well established in adults. However, because adults have a long history of both perceiving and producing speech, the extent to which the perception–production linkage is due to experience is unknown. We addressed this issue by asking whether articulatory configurations can influence infants’ speech perception performance. To eliminate influences from specific linguistic experience, we studied preverbal, 6-mo-old infants and tested the discrimination of a nonnative, and hence never-before-experienced, speech sound distinction. In three experimental studies, we used teething toys to control the position and movement of the tongue tip while the infants listened to the speech sounds. Using ultrasound imaging technology, we verified that the teething toys consistently and effectively constrained the movement and positioning of infants’ tongues. With a looking-time procedure, we found that temporarily restraining infants’ articulators impeded their discrimination of a nonnative consonant contrast but only when the relevant articulator was selectively restrained to prevent the movements associated with producing those sounds. Our results provide striking evidence that even before infants speak their first words and without specific listening experience, sensorimotor information from the articulators influences speech perception. These results transform theories of speech perception by suggesting that even at the initial stages of development, oral–motor movements influence speech sound discrimination. Moreover, an experimentally induced “impairment” in articulator movement can compromise speech perception performance, raising the question of whether long-term oral–motor impairments may impact perceptual development. PMID:26460030

  16. Lorentzian AdS geometries, wormholes, and holography

    SciTech Connect

    Arias, Raul E.; Silva, Guillermo A.; Botta Cantcheff, Marcelo

    2011-03-15

    We investigate the structure of two-point functions for the quantum field theory dual to an asymptotically Lorentzian Anti de Sitter (AdS) wormhole. The bulk geometry is a solution of five-dimensional second-order Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity and causally connects two asymptotically AdS spacetimes. We revisit the Gubser-Klebanov-Polyakov-Witten prescription for computing two-point correlation functions for dual quantum field theories operators O in Lorentzian signature and we propose to express the bulk fields in terms of the independent boundary values {phi}{sub 0}{sup {+-}} at each of the two asymptotic AdS regions; along the way we exhibit how the ambiguity of normalizable modes in the bulk, related to initial and final states, show up in the computations. The independent boundary values are interpreted as sources for dual operators O{sup {+-}} and we argue that, apart from the possibility of entanglement, there exists a coupling between the degrees of freedom living at each boundary. The AdS{sub 1+1} geometry is also discussed in view of its similar boundary structure. Based on the analysis, we propose a very simple geometric criterion to distinguish coupling from entanglement effects among two sets of degrees of freedom associated with each of the disconnected parts of the boundary.

  17. Allocation of speech in conversation.

    PubMed

    Simon, Carsta; Baum, William M

    2017-03-01

    In a replication and extension of Conger and Killeen's (1974) widely cited demonstration of matching in conversations, we evaluated nine participants' allocation of speech and gaze to two conversational partners. German speakers participated in two 90-min sessions in which confederates uttered approval on independent variable-interval schedules. In one of the sessions, confederates uttered approval contingent upon and contiguous with eye contact whereas in the other session approval was uttered independent of the participant's gaze. Several measures of participants' verbal behavior were taken, including relative duration and rate of speech and gaze. These were compared to confederates' relative rate of approval and relative duration and rate of talk. The generalized matching equation was fitted to the various relations between participants' behavior and confederates' behavior. Conger and Killeen's results were not replicated; participants' response allocation did not show a systematic relation to the confederates' relative rate of approval. The strongest relations were to overall talk, rather than approval. In both conditions, the participant talked more to the confederate who talked less-inverse or antimatching. Participants' gaze showed the same inverse relation to the confederates' talk. Requiring gaze to be directed toward a confederate for delivery of approval made no difference in the results. The absence of a difference combined with prior research suggests that matching or antimatching in conversations is more likely due to induction than to reinforcement.

  18. Inconsistency of speech in children with childhood apraxia of speech, phonological disorders, and typical speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iuzzini, Jenya

    There is a lack of agreement on the features used to differentiate Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS) from Phonological Disorders (PD). One criterion which has gained consensus is lexical inconsistency of speech (ASHA, 2007); however, no accepted measure of this feature has been defined. Although lexical assessment provides information about consistency of an item across repeated trials, it may not capture the magnitude of inconsistency within an item. In contrast, segmental analysis provides more extensive information about consistency of phoneme usage across multiple contexts and word-positions. The current research compared segmental and lexical inconsistency metrics in preschool-aged children with PD, CAS, and typical development (TD) to determine how inconsistency varies with age in typical and disordered speakers, and whether CAS and PD were differentiated equally well by both assessment levels. Whereas lexical and segmental analyses may be influenced by listener characteristics or speaker intelligibility, the acoustic signal is less vulnerable to these factors. In addition, the acoustic signal may reveal information which is not evident in the perceptual signal. A second focus of the current research was motivated by Blumstein et al.'s (1980) classic study on voice onset time (VOT) in adults with acquired apraxia of speech (AOS) which demonstrated a motor impairment underlying AOS. In the current study, VOT analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between age and group with the voicing distribution for bilabial and alveolar plosives. Findings revealed that 3-year-olds evidenced significantly higher inconsistency than 5-year-olds; segmental inconsistency approached 0% in 5-year-olds with TD, whereas it persisted in children with PD and CAS suggesting that for child in this age-range, inconsistency is a feature of speech disorder rather than typical development (Holm et al., 2007). Likewise, whereas segmental and lexical inconsistency were

  19. Input and Output Mechanisms and Devices. Phase I: Adding Voice Output to a Speaker-Independent Recognition System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott Instruments Corp., Denton, TX.

    This project was designed to develop techniques for adding low-cost speech synthesis to educational software. Four tasks were identified for the study: (1) select a microcomputer with a built-in analog-to-digital converter that is currently being used in educational environments; (2) determine the feasibility of implementing expansion and playback…

  20. The effects of selective attention and speech acoustics on neural speech-tracking in a multi-talker scene

    PubMed Central

    Rimmele, Johanna M.; Golumbic, Elana Zion; Schröger, Erich; Poeppel, David

    2015-01-01

    Attending to one speaker in multi-speaker situations is challenging. One neural mechanism proposed to underlie the ability to attend to a particular speaker is phase-locking of low-frequency activity in auditory cortex to speech’s temporal envelope (“speech-tracking”), which is more precise for attended speech. However, it is not known what brings about this attentional effect, and specifically if it reflects enhanced processing of the fine structure of attended speech. To investigate this question we compared attentional effects on speech-tracking of natural vs. vocoded speech which preserves the temporal envelope but removes the fine-structure of speech. Pairs of natural and vocoded speech stimuli were presented concurrently and participants attended to one stimulus and performed a detection task while ignoring the other stimulus. We recorded magnetoencephalography (MEG) and compared attentional effects on the speech-tracking response in auditory cortex. Speech-tracking of natural, but not vocoded, speech was enhanced by attention, whereas neural tracking of ignored speech was similar for natural and vocoded speech. These findings suggest that the more precise speech tracking of attended natural speech is related to processing its fine structure, possibly reflecting the application of higher-order linguistic processes. In contrast, when speech is unattended its fine structure is not processed to the same degree and thus elicits less precise speech tracking more similar to vocoded speech. PMID:25650107

  1. Gender difference in speech intelligibility using speech intelligibility tests and acoustic analyses

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to compare men with women in terms of speech intelligibility, to investigate the validity of objective acoustic parameters related with speech intelligibility, and to try to set up the standard data for the future study in various field in prosthodontics. MATERIALS AND METHODS Twenty men and women were served as subjects in the present study. After recording of sample sounds, speech intelligibility tests by three speech pathologists and acoustic analyses were performed. Comparison of the speech intelligibility test scores and acoustic parameters such as fundamental frequency, fundamental frequency range, formant frequency, formant ranges, vowel working space area, and vowel dispersion were done between men and women. In addition, the correlations between the speech intelligibility values and acoustic variables were analyzed. RESULTS Women showed significantly higher speech intelligibility scores than men and there were significant difference between men and women in most of acoustic parameters used in the present study. However, the correlations between the speech intelligibility scores and acoustic parameters were low. CONCLUSION Speech intelligibility test and acoustic parameters used in the present study were effective in differentiating male voice from female voice and their values might be used in the future studies related patients involved with maxillofacial prosthodontics. However, further studies are needed on the correlation between speech intelligibility tests and objective acoustic parameters. PMID:21165272

  2. E-learning-based speech therapy: a web application for speech training.

    PubMed

    Beijer, Lilian J; Rietveld, Toni C M; van Beers, Marijn M A; Slangen, Robert M L; van den Heuvel, Henk; de Swart, Bert J M; Geurts, Alexander C H

    2010-03-01

    Abstract In The Netherlands, a web application for speech training, E-learning-based speech therapy (EST), has been developed for patients with dysarthria, a speech disorder resulting from acquired neurological impairments such as stroke or Parkinson's disease. In this report, the EST infrastructure and its potentials for both therapists and patients are elucidated. EST provides patients with dysarthria the opportunity to engage in intensive speech training in their own environment, in addition to undergoing the traditional face-to-face therapy. Moreover, patients with chronic dysarthria can use EST to independently maintain the quality of their speech once the face-to-face sessions with their speech therapist have been completed. This telerehabilitation application allows therapists to remotely compose speech training programs tailored to suit each individual patient. Moreover, therapists can remotely monitor and evaluate changes in the patient's speech. In addition to its value as a device for composing, monitoring, and carrying out web-based speech training, the EST system compiles a database of dysarthric speech. This database is vital for further scientific research in this area.

  3. An articulatorily constrained, maximum entropy approach to speech recognition and speech coding

    SciTech Connect

    Hogden, J.

    1996-12-31

    Hidden Markov models (HMM`s) are among the most popular tools for performing computer speech recognition. One of the primary reasons that HMM`s typically outperform other speech recognition techniques is that the parameters used for recognition are determined by the data, not by preconceived notions of what the parameters should be. This makes HMM`s better able to deal with intra- and inter-speaker variability despite the limited knowledge of how speech signals vary and despite the often limited ability to correctly formulate rules describing variability and invariance in speech. In fact, it is often the case that when HMM parameter values are constrained using the limited knowledge of speech, recognition performance decreases. However, the structure of an HMM has little in common with the mechanisms underlying speech production. Here, the author argues that by using probabilistic models that more accurately embody the process of speech production, he can create models that have all the advantages of HMM`s, but that should more accurately capture the statistical properties of real speech samples--presumably leading to more accurate speech recognition. The model he will discuss uses the fact that speech articulators move smoothly and continuously. Before discussing how to use articulatory constraints, he will give a brief description of HMM`s. This will allow him to highlight the similarities and differences between HMM`s and the proposed technique.

  4. Modulation of Auditory Responses to Speech vs. Nonspeech Stimuli during Speech Movement Planning

    PubMed Central

    Daliri, Ayoub; Max, Ludo

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we showed that the N100 amplitude in long latency auditory evoked potentials (LLAEPs) elicited by pure tone probe stimuli is modulated when the stimuli are delivered during speech movement planning as compared with no-speaking control conditions. Given that we probed the auditory system only with pure tones, it remained unknown whether the nature and magnitude of this pre-speech auditory modulation depends on the type of auditory stimulus. Thus, here, we asked whether the effect of speech movement planning on auditory processing varies depending on the type of auditory stimulus. In an experiment with nine adult subjects, we recorded LLAEPs that were elicited by either pure tones or speech syllables when these stimuli were presented prior to speech onset in a delayed-response speaking condition vs. a silent reading control condition. Results showed no statistically significant difference in pre-speech modulation of the N100 amplitude (early stages of auditory processing) for the speech stimuli as compared with the nonspeech stimuli. However, the amplitude of the P200 component (later stages of auditory processing) showed a statistically significant pre-speech modulation that was specific to the speech stimuli only. Hence, the overall results from this study indicate that, immediately prior to speech onset, modulation of the auditory system has a general effect on early processing stages but a speech-specific effect on later processing stages. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that pre-speech auditory modulation may play a role in priming the auditory system for its role in monitoring auditory feedback during speech production. PMID:27242494

  5. A deformation of AdS5 × S5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauntlett, Jerome P.; Gutowski, Jan B.; Suryanarayana, Nemani V.

    2004-11-01

    We analyse a one-parameter family of supersymmetric solutions of type IIB supergravity that includes AdS5 × S5. For small values of the parameter the solutions are causally well behaved, but beyond a critical value closed timelike curves (CTCs) appear. The solutions are holographically dual to {\\cal N}=4 supersymmetric Yang Mills theory on a non-conformally flat background with non-vanishing R-currents. We compute the holographic energy momentum tensor for the spacetime and show that it remains finite even when the CTCs appear. The solutions, as well as the uplift of some recently discovered AdS5 black-hole solutions, are shown to preserve precisely two supersymmetries.

  6. Supersymmetric AdS_6 solutions of type IIB supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyojoong; Kim, Nakwoo; Suh, Minwoo

    2015-10-01

    We study the general requirement for supersymmetric AdS_6 solutions in type IIB supergravity. We employ the Killing spinor technique and study the differential and algebraic relations among various Killing spinor bilinears to find the canonical form of the solutions. Our result agrees precisely with the work of Apruzzi et al. (JHEP 1411:099, 2014), which used the pure spinor technique. Hoping to identify the geometry of the problem, we also computed four-dimensional theory through the dimensional reduction of type IIB supergravity on AdS_6. This effective action is essentially a non-linear sigma model with five scalar fields parametrizing {SL}(3,{R})/{SO}(2,1), modified by a scalar potential and coupled to Einstein gravity in Euclidean signature. We argue that the scalar potential can be explained by a subgroup CSO(1,1,1) subset {SL}(3,{R}) in a way analogous to gauged supergravity.

  7. Universal isolation in the AdS landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielsson, U. H.; Dibitetto, G.; Vargas, S. C.

    2016-12-01

    We study the universal conditions for quantum nonperturbative stability against bubble nucleation for pertubatively stable AdS vacua based on positive energy theorems. We also compare our analysis with the preexisting ones in the literature carried out within the thin-wall approximation. The aforementioned criterion is then tested in two explicit examples describing massive type IIA string theory compactified on S3 and S3×S3, respectively. The AdS landscape of both classes of compactifications is known to consist of a set of isolated points. The main result is that all critical points respecting the Breitenlohner-Freedman (BF) bound also turn out be stable at a nonperturbative level. Finally, we speculate on the possible universal features that may be extracted from the above specific examples.

  8. Tachyon inflation in an AdS braneworld with backreaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilić, Neven; Dimitrijevic, Dragoljub D.; Djordjevic, Goran S.; Milosevic, Milan

    2017-02-01

    We analyze the inflationary scenario based on the tachyon field coupled with the radion of the second Randall-Sundrum model (RSII). The tachyon Lagrangian is derived from the dynamics of a 3-brane moving in the five-dimensional bulk. The AdS5 geometry of the bulk is extended to include the radion. Using the Hamiltonian formalism we find four nonlinear field equations supplemented by the modified Friedmann equations of the RSII braneworld cosmology. After a suitable rescaling we reduce the parameters of our model to only one free parameter related to the brane tension and the AdS5 curvature. We solve the equations numerically assuming a reasonably wide range of initial conditions determined by physical considerations. Varying the free parameter and initial conditions we confront our results with the Planck 2015 data.

  9. Ambitwistors, oscillators and massless fields on AdS5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uvarov, D. V.

    2016-11-01

    Positive energy unitary irreducible representations of SU (2 , 2) can be constructed with the aid of bosonic oscillators in (anti)fundamental representation of SU(2)L × SU(2)R that are closely related to Penrose twistors. Starting with the correspondence between the doubleton representations, homogeneous functions on projective twistor space and on-shell generalized Weyl curvature SL (2 , C) spinors and their low-spin counterparts, we study in the similar way the correspondence between the massless representations, homogeneous functions on ambitwistor space and, via the Penrose transform, with the gauge fields on Minkowski boundary of AdS5. The possibilities of reconstructing massless fields on AdS5 and some applications are also discussed.

  10. Natural Communication with Computers. Volume 1. Speech Understanding Research at BBN

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-12-01

    ACOUSTIC/PHONETIC RECOGNITION PROGRAM 42 (Schwartz, Makhoul) A. Introduction 42 B. Problems With Old Methods , 42 C. Research 45 D...distinct phoneme and also indicate its possible non-existence. During the second phase of these experiments, the researchers were able to employ...AD/A-003 315 NATURAL COMMUNICATION WITH COMPUTERS. VOLUME I. SPEECH UNDERSTANDING RESEARCH AT BBN William A. Woods, et al Bolt

  11. Generalised structures for N=1 AdS backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coimbra, André; Strickland-Constable, Charles

    2016-11-01

    We expand upon a claim made in a recent paper [arXiv:1411.5721] that generic minimally supersymmetric AdS backgrounds of warped flux compactifications of Type II and M theory can be understood as satisfying a straightforward weak integrability condition in the language of {E}_{d(d)}× {R}+ generalised geometry. Namely, they are spaces admitting a generalised G-structure set by the Killing spinor and with constant singlet generalised intrinsic torsion.

  12. Audiovisual Cues and Perceptual Learning of Spectrally Distorted Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilling, Michael; Thomas, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments investigate the effectiveness of audiovisual (AV) speech cues (cues derived from both seeing and hearing a talker speak) in facilitating perceptual learning of spectrally distorted speech. Speech was distorted through an eight channel noise-vocoder which shifted the spectral envelope of the speech signal to simulate the properties…

  13. Visual and Auditory Input in Second-Language Speech Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardison, Debra M.

    2010-01-01

    The majority of studies in second-language (L2) speech processing have involved unimodal (i.e., auditory) input; however, in many instances, speech communication involves both visual and auditory sources of information. Some researchers have argued that multimodal speech is the primary mode of speech perception (e.g., Rosenblum 2005). Research on…

  14. Freedom of Speech Newsletter, Volume 3, Number 2, February 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Michael P., Ed.

    Discussions collected in this newsletter include the following speeches all of which were presented at the 1976 convention of the Western States Speech Communication Association: "Where the First Amendment is Silent," a sketch of current speech rights and a prediction for the future; "Freedom of Speech in University Theatre; or,…

  15. Language Specific Speech Perception and the Onset of Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnham, Denis

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the degree to which native speech perception is superior to non-native speech perception. Shows that language specific speech perception is a linguistic rather than an acoustic phenomenon. Discusses results in terms of early speech perception abilities, experience with oral communication, cognitive ability, alphabetic versus…

  16. Speech Characteristics Associated with Three Genotypes of Ataxia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidtis, John J.; Ahn, Ji Sook; Gomez, Christopher; Sidtis, Diana

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Advances in neurobiology are providing new opportunities to investigate the neurological systems underlying motor speech control. This study explores the perceptual characteristics of the speech of three genotypes of spino-cerebellar ataxia (SCA) as manifest in four different speech tasks. Methods: Speech samples from 26 speakers with SCA…

  17. Increasing Parental Involvement in Speech-Sound Remediation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Micah Renee Ferguson

    2014-01-01

    Speech therapy homework is a key component of a successful speech therapy program, increasing carryover of learned speech sounds. Poor return rate of homework assigned, with a lack of parental involvement, is a problem. The purpose of this project study was to examine what may increase parental participation in speech therapy homework. Guided by…

  18. Phonemic Characteristics of Apraxia of Speech Resulting from Subcortical Hemorrhage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peach, Richard K.; Tonkovich, John D.

    2004-01-01

    Reports describing subcortical apraxia of speech (AOS) have received little consideration in the development of recent speech processing models because the speech characteristics of patients with this diagnosis have not been described precisely. We describe a case of AOS with aphasia secondary to basal ganglia hemorrhage. Speech-language symptoms…

  19. Tracking Change in Children with Severe and Persisting Speech Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newbold, Elisabeth Joy; Stackhouse, Joy; Wells, Bill

    2013-01-01

    Standardised tests of whole-word accuracy are popular in the speech pathology and developmental psychology literature as measures of children's speech performance. However, they may not be sensitive enough to measure changes in speech output in children with severe and persisting speech difficulties (SPSD). To identify the best ways of doing this,…

  20. A Note On Deletion Rules in Fast Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewlett, Nigel

    In fast speech, certain segments pronounced in careful speech may be deleted. Rules of a generative phonology have been used to account for fast speech forms. An alternative approach is suggested which views fast speech deletions as merely limiting cases of segment reduction, under conditions of increased tempo and/or casualness. To complement…

  1. The Effectiveness of Clear Speech as a Masker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calandruccio, Lauren; Van Engen, Kristin; Dhar, Sumitrajit; Bradlow, Ann R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: It is established that speaking clearly is an effective means of enhancing intelligibility. Because any signal-processing scheme modeled after known acoustic-phonetic features of clear speech will likely affect both target and competing speech, it is important to understand how speech recognition is affected when a competing speech signal…

  2. Monkey Lipsmacking Develops Like the Human Speech Rhythm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrill, Ryan J.; Paukner, Annika; Ferrari, Pier F.; Ghazanfar, Asif A.

    2012-01-01

    Across all languages studied to date, audiovisual speech exhibits a consistent rhythmic structure. This rhythm is critical to speech perception. Some have suggested that the speech rhythm evolved "de novo" in humans. An alternative account--the one we explored here--is that the rhythm of speech evolved through the modification of rhythmic facial…

  3. Neural Correlates of Bimodal Speech and Gesture Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Spencer D.; Kravitz, Corinne; Hopkins, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The present study examined the neural correlates of speech and hand gesture comprehension in a naturalistic context. Fifteen participants watched audiovisual segments of speech and gesture while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded to the speech. Gesture influenced the ERPs to the speech. Specifically, there was a right-lateralized N400…

  4. The Interpersonal Metafunction Analysis of Barack Obama's Victory Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ye, Ruijuan

    2010-01-01

    This paper carries on a tentative interpersonal metafunction analysis of Barack Obama's victory speech from the interpersonal metafunction, which aims to help readers understand and evaluate the speech regarding its suitability, thus to provide some guidance for readers to make better speeches. This study has promising implications for speeches as…

  5. Computational Differences between Whispered and Non-Whispered Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Boon Pang

    2011-01-01

    Whispering is a common type of speech which is not often studied in speech technology. Perceptual and physiological studies show us that whispered speech is subtly different from phonated speech, and is surprisingly able to carry a tremendous amount of information. In this dissertation we consider the question: What makes whispering a good form of…

  6. Compressed Speech Technology: Implications for Learning and Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, LeRoy L.

    This paper first traces the historical development of speech compression technology, which has made it possible to alter the spoken rate of a pre-recorded message without excessive distortion. Terms used to describe techniques employed as the technology evolved are discussed, including rapid speech, rate altered speech, cut-and-spliced speech, and…

  7. Ahab's Speeches: Bombs or Bombastics? A Rhetorical Criticism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fadely, Dean

    In an attempt to define rhetorical discourse, the paper examines the speeches of Ahab, the main character from Herman Melville's book, "Moby-Dick." The paper first determines if Ahab's speeches actually fall into the category of rhetorical discourse by examining his major speeches, and then ascertains whether his speeches are bombs…

  8. Freedom of Speech and Press: Exceptions to the First Amendment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-26

    some types of speech. For example, the Court has decided that the First Amendment provides no protection to obscenity, child pornography, or speech...1 Obscenity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Child ...some types of speech.2 For example, the Court has decided that the First Amendment provides no protection to obscenity, child pornography, or speech

  9. Speech Sound Disorders in a Community Study of Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Sharynne; Harrison, Linda J.; McAllister, Lindy; McCormack, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To undertake a community (nonclinical) study to describe the speech of preschool children who had been identified by parents/teachers as having difficulties "talking and making speech sounds" and compare the speech characteristics of those who had and had not accessed the services of a speech-language pathologist (SLP). Method:…

  10. Advanced Persuasive Speaking, English, Speech: 5114.112.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Developed as a high school quinmester unit on persuasive speaking, this guide provides the teacher with teaching strategies for a course which analyzes speeches from "Vital Speeches of the Day," political speeches, TV commercials, and other types of speeches. Practical use of persuasive methods for school, community, county, state, and…

  11. Experiment in Learning to Discriminate Frequency Transposed Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahlstrom, K.G.; And Others

    In order to improve speech perception by transposing the speech signals to lower frequencies, to determine which aspects of the information in the acoustic speech signals were influenced by transposition, and to compare two different methods of training speech perception, 44 subjects were trained to discriminate between transposed words or…

  12. Implementation of a Speech Improvement Program at the Kindergarten Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Robert A.

    Evaluated was a speech improvement program for kindergarten students in which speech improvement lessons were summarized for teachers, and the services of itinerant speech therapists were shared by classroom teachers. Teacher and therapist agreed upon specific speech lessons which were conducted on a weekly basis. Program development involved…

  13. On information loss in AdS3/CFT2

    DOE PAGES

    Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Kaplan, Jared; Li, Daliang; ...

    2016-05-18

    We discuss information loss from black hole physics in AdS3, focusing on two sharp signatures infecting CFT2 correlators at large central charge c: ‘forbidden singularities’ arising from Euclidean-time periodicity due to the effective Hawking temperature, and late-time exponential decay in the Lorentzian region. We study an infinite class of examples where forbidden singularities can be resolved by non-perturbative effects at finite c, and we show that the resolution has certain universal features that also apply in the general case. Analytically continuing to the Lorentzian regime, we find that the non-perturbative effects that resolve forbidden singularities qualitatively change the behavior ofmore » correlators at times t ~SBH, the black hole entropy. This may resolve the exponential decay of correlators at late times in black hole backgrounds. By Borel resumming the 1/c expansion of exact examples, we explicitly identify ‘information-restoring’ effects from heavy states that should correspond to classical solutions in AdS3. Lastly, our results suggest a line of inquiry towards a more precise formulation of the gravitational path integral in AdS3.« less

  14. Shock Wave Collisions and Thermalization in AdS_5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovchegov, Y. V.

    We study heavy ion collisions at strong 't Hooft coupling usingAdS/CFT correspondence. According to the AdS/CFT dictionary heavy ion collisions correspond to gravitational shock wave collisions in AdS_5. We construct the metric in the forward light cone after the collision perturbatively through expansion of Einstein equations in graviton exchanges. We obtain an analytic expression for the metric including all-order graviton exchanges with one shock wave, while keeping the exchanges with another shock wave at the lowest order. We read off the corresponding energy-momentum tensor of the produced medium. Unfortunately this energy-momentum tensor does not correspond to ideal hydrodynamics, indicating that higher order graviton exchanges are needed to construct the full solution of the problem. We also show that shock waves must completely stop almost immediately after the collision in AdS_5, which, on the field theory side, corresponds to complete nuclear stopping due to strong coupling effects, likely leading to Landau hydrodynamics. Finally, we perform trapped surface analysis of the shock wave collisions demonstrating that a bulk black hole, corresponding to ideal hydrodynamics on the boundary, has to be created in such collisions, thus constructing a proof of thermalization in heavy ion collisions at strong coupling.

  15. Emotion recognition from speech: tools and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Talabani, Abdulbasit; Sellahewa, Harin; Jassim, Sabah A.

    2015-05-01

    Human emotion recognition from speech is studied frequently for its importance in many applications, e.g. human-computer interaction. There is a wide diversity and non-agreement about the basic emotion or emotion-related states on one hand and about where the emotion related information lies in the speech signal on the other side. These diversities motivate our investigations into extracting Meta-features using the PCA approach, or using a non-adaptive random projection RP, which significantly reduce the large dimensional speech feature vectors that may contain a wide range of emotion related information. Subsets of Meta-features are fused to increase the performance of the recognition model that adopts the score-based LDC classifier. We shall demonstrate that our scheme outperform the state of the art results when tested on non-prompted databases or acted databases (i.e. when subjects act specific emotions while uttering a sentence). However, the huge gap between accuracy rates achieved on the different types of datasets of speech raises questions about the way emotions modulate the speech. In particular we shall argue that emotion recognition from speech should not be dealt with as a classification problem. We shall demonstrate the presence of a spectrum of different emotions in the same speech portion especially in the non-prompted data sets, which tends to be more "natural" than the acted datasets where the subjects attempt to suppress all but one emotion.

  16. Temporal modulations in speech and music.

    PubMed

    Ding, Nai; Patel, Aniruddh D; Chen, Lin; Butler, Henry; Luo, Cheng; Poeppel, David

    2017-02-14

    Speech and music have structured rhythms. Here we discuss a major acoustic correlate of spoken and musical rhythms, the slow (0.25-32Hz) temporal modulations in sound intensity and compare the modulation properties of speech and music. We analyze these modulations using over 25h of speech and over 39h of recordings of Western music. We show that the speech modulation spectrum is highly consistent across 9 languages (including languages with typologically different rhythmic characteristics). A different, but similarly consistent modulation spectrum is observed for music, including classical music played by single instruments of different types, symphonic, jazz, and rock. The temporal modulations of speech and music show broad but well-separated peaks around 5 and 2Hz, respectively. These acoustically dominant time scales may be intrinsic features of speech and music, a possibility which should be investigated using more culturally diverse samples in each domain. Distinct modulation timescales for speech and music could facilitate their perceptual analysis and its neural processing.

  17. Hearing impaired speech in noisy classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahin, Kimary; McKellin, William H.; Jamieson, Janet; Hodgson, Murray; Pichora-Fuller, M. Kathleen

    2005-04-01

    Noisy classrooms have been shown to induce among students patterns of interaction similar to those used by hearing impaired people [W. H. McKellin et al., GURT (2003)]. In this research, the speech of children in a noisy classroom setting was investigated to determine if noisy classrooms have an effect on students' speech. Audio recordings were made of the speech of students during group work in their regular classrooms (grades 1-7), and of the speech of the same students in a sound booth. Noise level readings in the classrooms were also recorded. Each student's noisy and quiet environment speech samples were acoustically analyzed for prosodic and segmental properties (f0, pitch range, pitch variation, phoneme duration, vowel formants), and compared. The analysis showed that the students' speech in the noisy classrooms had characteristics of the speech of hearing-impaired persons [e.g., R. O'Halpin, Clin. Ling. and Phon. 15, 529-550 (2001)]. Some educational implications of our findings were identified. [Work supported by the Peter Wall Institute for Advanced Studies, University of British Columbia.

  18. Auditory free classification of nonnative speech

    PubMed Central

    Atagi, Eriko; Bent, Tessa

    2013-01-01

    Through experience with speech variability, listeners build categories of indexical speech characteristics including categories for talker, gender, and dialect. The auditory free classification task—a task in which listeners freely group talkers based on audio samples—has been a useful tool for examining listeners’ representations of some of these characteristics including regional dialects and different languages. The free classification task was employed in the current study to examine the perceptual representation of nonnative speech. The category structure and salient perceptual dimensions of nonnative speech were investigated from two perspectives: general similarity and perceived native language background. Talker intelligibility and whether native talkers were included were manipulated to test stimulus set effects. Results showed that degree of accent was a highly salient feature of nonnative speech for classification based on general similarity and on perceived native language background. This salience, however, was attenuated when listeners were listening to highly intelligible stimuli and attending to the talkers’ native language backgrounds. These results suggest that the context in which nonnative speech stimuli are presented—such as the listeners’ attention to the talkers’ native language and the variability of stimulus intelligibility—can influence listeners’ perceptual organization of nonnative speech. PMID:24363470

  19. Adding a Zero-Crossing Count to Spectral Information in Template-Based Speech Recognition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    incorporation of zero-crossing information into the spectral representation used in a template-matching system ( cIcADA ). An analysis of zero-crossing data for an...procedure to be used. The work described in this paper was done using the CICADA system developed at Carnegie-Mellon University [Alleva 81, Waibel 801... CICADA uses a representation based on a compression of the short-term spectrum according to a 16 coefficient mel scale. Let us consider the CICADA

  20. Optimal subband Kalman filter for normal and oesophageal speech enhancement.

    PubMed

    Ishaq, Rizwan; García Zapirain, Begoña

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the single channel speech enhancement system using subband Kalman filtering by estimating optimal Autoregressive (AR) coefficients and variance for speech and noise, using Weighted Linear Prediction (WLP) and Noise Weighting Function (NWF). The system is applied for normal and Oesophageal speech signals. The method is evaluated by Perceptual Evaluation of Speech Quality (PESQ) score and Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) improvement for normal speech and Harmonic to Noise Ratio (HNR) for Oesophageal Speech (OES). Compared with previous systems, the normal speech indicates 30% increase in PESQ score, 4 dB SNR improvement and OES shows 3 dB HNR improvement.