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Sample records for adult-onset neurodegenerative disorders

  1. Targeting Hsp90/Hsp70-based protein quality control for treatment of adult onset neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Pratt, William B; Gestwicki, Jason E; Osawa, Yoichi; Lieberman, Andrew P

    2015-01-01

    Currently available therapies for adult onset neurodegenerative diseases provide symptomatic relief but do not modify disease progression. Here we explore a new neuroprotective approach based on drugs targeting chaperone-directed protein quality control. Critical target proteins that unfold and aggregate in these diseases, such as the polyglutamine androgen receptor in spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy, huntingtin in Huntington's disease, α-synuclein in Parkinson's disease, and tau in Alzheimer's disease, are client proteins of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), and their turnover is regulated by the protein quality control function of the Hsp90/Hsp70-based chaperone machinery. Hsp90 and Hsp70 have opposing effects on client protein stability in protein quality control; Hsp90 stabilizes the clients and inhibits their ubiquitination, whereas Hsp70 promotes ubiquitination dependent on CHIP (C terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein) and proteasomal degradation. We discuss how drugs that modulate proteostasis by inhibiting Hsp90 function or promoting Hsp70 function enhance the degradation of the critical aggregating proteins and ameliorate toxic symptoms in cell and animal disease models. PMID:25292434

  2. Predictive Medicine: Recombinant DNA Technology and Adult-Onset Genetic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hayden, Michael

    1988-01-01

    Genetic factors are of great importance in common adult-onset disorders such as atherosclerosis, cancer, and neuro-degenerative diseases. Advances in DNA technology now allow identification of persons at high-risk of developing some of these diseases. This advance is leading to predictive medicine. In some genetic disorders, such as those leading to atherosclerosis and cancer, identification of high-risk individuals allows intervention which alters the natural history of the disorder. In other diseases, for which there is no treatment, such as Huntington's disease, the application of this technology provides information that relieves uncertainty and may affect quality of life, but does not alter the course of the illness. General implementation of predictive testing programs awaits the results of pilot projects, which will demonstrate the needs, appropriate levels of support, and guidelines for delivery of such testing. PMID:21253100

  3. Aquatherapy for neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Plecash, Alyson R; Leavitt, Blair R

    2014-01-01

    Aquatherapy is used for rehabilitation and exercise; water provides a challenging, yet safe exercise environment for many special populations. We have reviewed the use of aquatherapy programs in four neurodegenerative disorders: Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Huntington's disease. Results support the use of aquatherapy in Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis, however further evidence is required to make specific recommendations in all of the aforementioned disorders. PMID:25062761

  4. Nanotechnology for neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Re, Francesca; Gregori, Maria; Masserini, Massimo

    2012-09-01

    The efficacy, cellular uptake and specific transport of drugs and/or imaging agents to target organs, tissues and cells are common issues in the diagnosis and treatment of different disorders. In the case of neurodegenerative diseases, they represent complex problems, since brain targeting remains a still unsolved challenge in pharmacology, due to the presence of the blood-brain barrier, a tightly packed layer of endothelial cells that prevents unwanted substances to enter the brain. Engineered nanomaterials, objects with dimensions of 1-100 nm, are providing interesting biomedical tools potentially able to solve these problems, thanks to their physico-chemical features and to the possibility of multi-functionalization, allowing to confer them different features at the same time, including the ability to cross the blood-brain barrier. This review focuses on the state-of-the-art of nanomaterials suitable for therapy and diagnostic imaging of the most common neurodegenerative disorders, as well as for neuroprotection and neuronal tissue regeneration. Finally, their potential neurotoxicity is discussed, and future nanotechnological approaches are described. PMID:22261367

  5. MPV17 Mutations Causing Adult-Onset Multisystemic Disorder With Multiple Mitochondrial DNA Deletions

    PubMed Central

    Garone, Caterina; Rubio, Juan Carlos; Calvo, Sarah E.; Naini, Ali; Tanji, Kurenai; DiMauro, Salvatore; Mootha, Vamsi K.; Hirano, Michio

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify the cause of an adult-onset multisystemic disease with multiple deletions of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Design Case report. Setting University hospitals. Patient A 65-year-old man with axonal sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy, ptosis, ophthalmoparesis, diabetes mellitus, exercise intolerance, steatohepatopathy, depression, parkinsonism, and gastrointestinal dysmotility. Results Skeletal muscle biopsy revealed ragged-red and cytochrome-c oxidase–deficient fibers, and Southern blot analysis showed multiple mtDNA deletions. No deletions were detected in fibroblasts, and the results of quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that the amount of mtDNA was normal in both muscle and fibroblasts. Exome sequencing using a mitochondrial library revealed compound heterozygous MPV17 mutations (p.LysMet88-89MetLeu and p.Leu143*), a novel cause of mtDNA multiple deletions. Conclusions In addition to causing juvenile-onset disorders with mtDNA depletion, MPV17 mutations can cause adult-onset multisystemic disease with multiple mtDNA deletions. PMID:22964873

  6. Genes and Pathways Involved in Adult Onset Disorders Featuring Muscle Mitochondrial DNA Instability

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Naghia; Ronchi, Dario; Comi, Giacomo Pietro

    2015-01-01

    Replication and maintenance of mtDNA entirely relies on a set of proteins encoded by the nuclear genome, which include members of the core replicative machinery, proteins involved in the homeostasis of mitochondrial dNTPs pools or deputed to the control of mitochondrial dynamics and morphology. Mutations in their coding genes have been observed in familial and sporadic forms of pediatric and adult-onset clinical phenotypes featuring mtDNA instability. The list of defects involved in these disorders has recently expanded, including mutations in the exo-/endo-nuclease flap-processing proteins MGME1 and DNA2, supporting the notion that an enzymatic DNA repair system actively takes place in mitochondria. The results obtained in the last few years acknowledge the contribution of next-generation sequencing methods in the identification of new disease loci in small groups of patients and even single probands. Although heterogeneous, these genes can be conveniently classified according to the pathway to which they belong. The definition of the molecular and biochemical features of these pathways might be helpful for fundamental knowledge of these disorders, to accelerate genetic diagnosis of patients and the development of rational therapies. In this review, we discuss the molecular findings disclosed in adult patients with muscle pathology hallmarked by mtDNA instability. PMID:26251896

  7. Molecular diagnostics of neurodegenerative disorders

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Megha; Biswas, Abhijit

    2015-01-01

    Molecular diagnostics provide a powerful method to detect and diagnose various neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. The confirmation of such diagnosis allows early detection and subsequent medical counseling that help specific patients to undergo clinically important drug trials. This provides a medical pathway to have better insight of neurogenesis and eventual cure of the neurodegenerative diseases. In this short review, we present recent advances in molecular diagnostics especially biomarkers and imaging spectroscopy for neurological diseases. We describe advances made in Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Huntington's disease (HD), and finally present a perspective on the future directions to provide a framework for further developments and refinements of molecular diagnostics to combat neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:26442283

  8. Tsallis statistics and neurodegenerative disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iliopoulos, Aggelos C.; Tsolaki, Magdalini; Aifantis, Elias C.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we perform statistical analysis of time series deriving from four neurodegenerative disorders, namely epilepsy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease (HD). The time series are concerned with electroencephalograms (EEGs) of healthy and epileptic states, as well as gait dynamics (in particular stride intervals) of the ALS, PD and HDs. We study data concerning one subject for each neurodegenerative disorder and one healthy control. The analysis is based on Tsallis non-extensive statistical mechanics and in particular on the estimation of Tsallis q-triplet, namely {qstat, qsen, qrel}. The deviation of Tsallis q-triplet from unity indicates non-Gaussian statistics and long-range dependencies for all time series considered. In addition, the results reveal the efficiency of Tsallis statistics in capturing differences in brain dynamics between healthy and epileptic states, as well as differences between ALS, PD, HDs from healthy control subjects. The results indicate that estimations of Tsallis q-indices could be used as possible biomarkers, along with others, for improving classification and prediction of epileptic seizures, as well as for studying the gait complex dynamics of various diseases providing new insights into severity, medications and fall risk, improving therapeutic interventions.

  9. Parkin Regulation and Neurodegenerative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Cheng-Wu; Hang, Liting; Yao, Tso-Pang; Lim, Kah-Leong

    2016-01-01

    Parkin is a unique, multifunctional ubiquitin ligase whose various roles in the cell, particularly in neurons, are widely thought to be protective. The pivotal role that Parkin plays in maintaining neuronal survival is underscored by our current recognition that Parkin dysfunction represents not only a predominant cause of familial parkinsonism but also a formal risk factor for the more common, sporadic form of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Accordingly, keen research on Parkin over the past decade has led to an explosion of knowledge regarding its physiological roles and its relevance to PD. However, our understanding of Parkin is far from being complete. Indeed, surprises emerge from time to time that compel us to constantly update the paradigm of Parkin function. For example, we now know that Parkin’s function is not confined to mere housekeeping protein quality control (QC) roles but also includes mitochondrial homeostasis and stress-related signaling. Furthermore, emerging evidence also suggest a role for Parkin in several other major neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). Yet, it remains truly amazing to note that a single enzyme could serve such multitude of functions and cellular roles. Clearly, its activity has to be tightly regulated. In this review, we shall discuss this and how dysregulated Parkin function may precipitate neuronal demise in various neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:26793099

  10. [Cellular pathology of neurodegenerative disorders].

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    Common cellular and molecular mechanisms including protein aggregation and inclusion body formation are involved in many neurodegenerative diseases. α-Synuclein is a major component of Lewy bodies in Parkinson's disease (PD) as well as in glial cytoplasmic inclusions in multiple system atrophy (MSA). Tau is a principal component of neurofibrillary and glial tangles in tauopathies. Recently, TDP-43 was identified as a component of ubiquitinated inclusions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. PD is traditionally considered a movement disorder with hallmark lesions in the brainstem pigmented nuclei. However, pathological changes occur in widespread regions of the central and peripheral nervous systems in this disease. Furthermore, primary glial involvement ("gliodegeneration") can be observed in PD and MSA as well as in tauopathy. The present article reviews abnormal protein accumulation and inclusion body formation inside and outside the central nervous system. PMID:23965852

  11. Zinc homeostasis and neurodegenerative disorders

    PubMed Central

    Szewczyk, Bernadeta

    2013-01-01

    Zinc is an essential trace element, whose importance to the function of the central nervous system (CNS) is increasingly being appreciated. Alterations in zinc dyshomeostasis has been suggested as a key factor in the development of several neuropsychiatric disorders. In the CNS, zinc occurs in two forms: the first being tightly bound to proteins and, secondly, the free, cytoplasmic, or extracellular form found in presynaptic vesicles. Under normal conditions, zinc released from the synaptic vesicles modulates both ionotropic and metabotropic post-synaptic receptors. While under clinical conditions such as traumatic brain injury, stroke or epilepsy, the excess influx of zinc into neurons has been found to result in neurotoxicity and damage to postsynaptic neurons. On the other hand, a growing body of evidence suggests that a deficiency, rather than an excess, of zinc leads to an increased risk for the development of neurological disorders. Indeed, zinc deficiency has been shown to affect neurogenesis and increase neuronal apoptosis, which can lead to learning and memory deficits. Altered zinc homeostasis is also suggested as a risk factor for depression, Alzheimer's disease (AD), aging, and other neurodegenerative disorders. Under normal CNS physiology, homeostatic controls are put in place to avoid the accumulation of excess zinc or its deficiency. This cellular zinc homeostasis results from the actions of a coordinated regulation effected by different proteins involved in the uptake, excretion and intracellular storage/trafficking of zinc. These proteins include membranous transporters (ZnT and Zip) and metallothioneins (MT) which control intracellular zinc levels. Interestingly, alterations in ZnT and MT have been recently reported in both aging and AD. This paper provides an overview of both clinical and experimental evidence that implicates a dysfunction in zinc homeostasis in the pathophysiology of depression, AD, and aging. PMID:23882214

  12. Childhood dyspraxia predicts adult-onset nonaffective-psychosis-spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Schiffman, Jason; Mittal, Vijay; Kline, Emily; Mortensen, Erik L; Michelsen, Niels; Ekstrøm, Morten; Millman, Zachary B; Mednick, Sarnoff A; Sørensen, Holger J

    2015-11-01

    Several neurological variables have been investigated as premorbid biomarkers of vulnerability for schizophrenia and other related disorders. The current study examined whether childhood dyspraxia predicted later adult nonaffective-psychosis-spectrum disorders. From a standardized neurological examination performed with children (aged 10-13) at genetic high risk of schizophrenia and controls, several measures of dyspraxia were used to create a scale composed of face/head dyspraxia, oral articulation, ideomotor dyspraxia (clumsiness), and dressing dyspraxia (n = 244). Multinomial logistic regression showed higher scores on the dyspraxia scale predict nonaffective-psychosis-spectrum disorders relative to other psychiatric disorders and no mental illness outcomes, even after controlling for genetic risk, χ2 (4, 244) = 18.61, p < .001. Findings that symptoms of dyspraxia in childhood (reflecting abnormalities spanning functionally distinct brain networks) specifically predict adult nonaffective-psychosis-spectrum disorders are consistent with a theory of abnormal connectivity, and they highlight a marked early-stage vulnerability in the pathophysiology of nonaffective-psychosis-spectrum disorders. PMID:26439077

  13. Oxidative Stress and Neurodegenerative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; O, Wuliji; Li, Wei; Jiang, Zhi-Gang; Ghanbari, Hossein A.

    2013-01-01

    Living cells continually generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) through the respiratory chain during energetic metabolism. ROS at low or moderate concentration can play important physiological roles. However, an excessive amount of ROS under oxidative stress would be extremely deleterious. The central nervous system (CNS) is particularly vulnerable to oxidative stress due to its high oxygen consumption, weakly antioxidative systems and the terminal-differentiation characteristic of neurons. Thus, oxidative stress elicits various neurodegenerative diseases. In addition, chemotherapy could result in severe side effects on the CNS and peripheral nervous system (PNS) of cancer patients, and a growing body of evidence demonstrates the involvement of ROS in drug-induced neurotoxicities as well. Therefore, development of antioxidants as neuroprotective drugs is a potentially beneficial strategy for clinical therapy. In this review, we summarize the source, balance maintenance and physiologic functions of ROS, oxidative stress and its toxic mechanisms underlying a number of neurodegenerative diseases, and the possible involvement of ROS in chemotherapy-induced toxicity to the CNS and PNS. We ultimately assess the value for antioxidants as neuroprotective drugs and provide our comments on the unmet needs. PMID:24351827

  14. Genetically modified pig models for neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Holm, Ida E; Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Luo, Yonglun

    2016-01-01

    Increasing incidence of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease has become one of the most challenging health issues in ageing humans. One approach to combat this is to generate genetically modified animal models of neurodegenerative disorders for studying pathogenesis, prognosis, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Owing to the genetic, anatomic, physiologic, pathologic, and neurologic similarities between pigs and humans, genetically modified pig models of neurodegenerative disorders have been attractive large animal models to bridge the gap of preclinical investigations between rodents and humans. In this review, we provide a neuroanatomical overview in pigs and summarize and discuss the generation of genetically modified pig models of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's diseases, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, spinal muscular atrophy, and ataxia-telangiectasia. We also highlight how non-invasive bioimaging technologies such as positron emission tomography (PET), computer tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and behavioural testing have been applied to characterize neurodegenerative pig models. We further propose a multiplex genome editing and preterm recloning (MAP) approach by using the rapid growth of the ground-breaking precision genome editing technology CRISPR/Cas9 and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). With this approach, we hope to shorten the temporal requirement in generating multiple transgenic pigs, increase the survival rate of founder pigs, and generate genetically modified pigs that will more closely resemble the disease-causing mutations and recapitulate pathological features of human conditions. PMID:26446984

  15. Distinct Muscle Biopsy Findings in Genetically Defined Adult-Onset Motor Neuron Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Jokela, Manu; Huovinen, Sanna; Raheem, Olayinka; Lindfors, Mikaela; Palmio, Johanna; Penttilä, Sini; Udd, Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize and compare muscle histopathological findings in 3 different genetic motor neuron disorders. We retrospectively re-assessed muscle biopsy findings in 23 patients with autosomal dominant lower motor neuron disease caused by p.G66V mutation in CHCHD10 (SMAJ), 10 X-linked spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) and 11 autosomal dominant c9orf72-mutated amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (c9ALS) patients. Distinct large fiber type grouping consisting of non-atrophic type IIA muscle fibers were 100% specific for the late-onset spinal muscular atrophies (SMAJ and SBMA) and were never observed in c9ALS. Common, but less specific findings included small groups of highly atrophic rounded type IIA fibers in SMAJ/SBMA, whereas in c9ALS, small group atrophies consisting of small-caliber angular fibers involving both fiber types were more characteristic. We also show that in the 2 slowly progressive motor neuron disorders (SMAJ and SBMA) the initial neurogenic features are often confused with considerable secondary “myopathic” changes at later disease stages, such as rimmed vacuoles, myofibrillar aggregates and numerous fibers reactive for fetal myosin heavy chain (dMyHC) antibodies. Based on our findings, muscle biopsy may be valuable in the diagnostic work-up of suspected motor neuron disorders in order to avoid a false ALS diagnosis in patients without clear findings of upper motor neuron lesions. PMID:26999347

  16. Managing anxiety associated with neurodegenerative disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anand

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety is a common symptom among patients with cognitive impairment. The presence of anxiety is correlated with poorer outcomes; despite this, there is limited research on anxiety related to neurodegenerative disorder. In this article, we discuss the prevalence of anxiety and factors involved in the etiology of anxiety in patients with diagnosed neurodegenerative disorders and related states of cognitive impairment as well as the evidence for currently available methods of evaluating and treating these symptoms. Specific treatments are highlighted in light of current evidence, followed by a discussion of the difficulties inherent in the study and treatment of anxiety in this population. PMID:25705388

  17. Role of metabolism in neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Procaccini, Claudio; Santopaolo, Marianna; Faicchia, Deriggio; Colamatteo, Alessandra; Formisano, Luigi; de Candia, Paola; Galgani, Mario; De Rosa, Veronica; Matarese, Giuseppe

    2016-09-01

    Along with the increase in life expectancy over the last century, the prevalence of age-related disorders, such as neurodegenerative diseases continues to rise. This is the case of Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's diseases and Multiple sclerosis, which are chronic disorders characterized by neuronal loss in motor, sensory or cognitive systems. Accumulating evidence has suggested the presence of a strong correlation between metabolic changes and neurodegeneration. Indeed epidemiologic studies have shown strong associations between obesity, metabolic dysfunction, and neurodegeneration, while animal models have provided insights into the complex relationships between these conditions. In this context, hormones such as leptin, ghrelin, insulin and IGF-1 seem to play a key role in the regulation of neuronal damage, toxic insults and several other neurodegenerative processes. This review aims to presenting the most recent evidence supporting the crosstalk linking energy metabolism and neurodegeneration, and will focus on metabolic manipulation as a possible therapeutic tool in the prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27506744

  18. Neurodegenerative disorders and nanoformulated drug development

    PubMed Central

    Nowacek, Ari; Kosloski, Lisa M; Gendelman, Howard E

    2009-01-01

    Degenerative and inflammatory diseases of the CNS include, but are not limited to, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, stroke, multiple sclerosis and HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders. These are common, debilitating and, unfortunately, hold few therapeutic options. In recent years, the application of nanotechnologies as commonly used or developing medicines has served to improve pharmacokinetics and drug delivery specifically to CNS-diseased areas. In addition, nanomedical advances are leading to therapies that target CNS pathobiology and as such, can interrupt disordered protein aggregation, deliver functional neuroprotective proteins and alter the oxidant state of affected neural tissues. This article focuses on the pathobiology of common neurodegenerative disorders with a view towards how nanomedicine may be used to improve the clinical course of neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:19572820

  19. Cannabidiol: a promising drug for neurodegenerative disorders?

    PubMed

    Iuvone, Teresa; Esposito, Giuseppe; De Filippis, Daniele; Scuderi, Caterina; Steardo, Luca

    2009-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases represent, nowadays, one of the main causes of death in the industrialized country. They are characterized by a loss of neurons in particular regions of the nervous system. It is believed that this nerve cell loss underlies the subsequent decline in cognitive and motor function that patients experience in these diseases. A range of mutant genes and environmental toxins have been implicated in the cause of neurodegenerative disorders but the mechanism remains largely unknown. At present, inflammation, a common denominator among the diverse list of neurodegenerative diseases, has been implicated as a critical mechanism that is responsible for the progressive nature of neurodegeneration. Since, at present, there are few therapies for the wide range of neurodegenerative diseases, scientists are still in search of new therapeutic approaches to the problem. An early contribution of neuroprotective and antiinflammatory strategies for these disorders seems particularly desirable because isolated treatments cannot be effective. In this contest, marijuana derivatives have attracted special interest, although these compounds have always raised several practical and ethical problems for their potential abuse. Nevertheless, among Cannabis compounds, cannabidiol (CBD), which lacks any unwanted psychotropic effect, may represent a very promising agent with the highest prospect for therapeutic use. PMID:19228180

  20. Brain drug delivery systems for neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Garbayo, E; Ansorena, E; Blanco-Prieto, M J

    2012-09-01

    Neurodegenerative disorders (NDs) are rapidly increasing as population ages. However, successful treatments for NDs have so far been limited and drug delivery to the brain remains one of the major challenges to overcome. There has recently been growing interest in the development of drug delivery systems (DDS) for local or systemic brain administration. DDS are able to improve the pharmacological and therapeutic properties of conventional drugs and reduce their side effects. The present review provides a concise overview of the recent advances made in the field of brain drug delivery for treating neurodegenerative disorders. Examples include polymeric micro and nanoparticles, lipidic nanoparticles, pegylated liposomes, microemulsions and nanogels that have been tested in experimental models of Parkinson's, Alzheimer's and Huntington's disease. Overall, the results reviewed here show that DDS have great potential for NDs treatment. PMID:23016644

  1. Autophagy and apoptosis dysfunction in neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Ghavami, Saeid; Shojaei, Shahla; Yeganeh, Behzad; Ande, Sudharsana R; Jangamreddy, Jaganmohan R; Mehrpour, Maryam; Christoffersson, Jonas; Chaabane, Wiem; Moghadam, Adel Rezaei; Kashani, Hessam H; Hashemi, Mohammad; Owji, Ali A; Łos, Marek J

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy and apoptosis are basic physiologic processes contributing to the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. Autophagy encompasses pathways that target long-lived cytosolic proteins and damaged organelles. It involves a sequential set of events including double membrane formation, elongation, vesicle maturation and finally delivery of the targeted materials to the lysosome. Apoptotic cell death is best described through its morphology. It is characterized by cell rounding, membrane blebbing, cytoskeletal collapse, cytoplasmic condensation, and fragmentation, nuclear pyknosis, chromatin condensation/fragmentation, and formation of membrane-enveloped apoptotic bodies, that are rapidly phagocytosed by macrophages or neighboring cells. Neurodegenerative disorders are becoming increasingly prevalent, especially in the Western societies, with larger percentage of members living to an older age. They have to be seen not only as a health problem, but since they are care-intensive, they also carry a significant economic burden. Deregulation of autophagy plays a pivotal role in the etiology and/or progress of many of these diseases. Herein, we briefly review the latest findings that indicate the involvement of autophagy in neurodegenerative diseases. We provide a brief introduction to autophagy and apoptosis pathways focusing on the role of mitochondria and lysosomes. We then briefly highlight pathophysiology of common neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's diseases, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease and Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Then, we describe functions of autophagy and apoptosis in brain homeostasis, especially in the context of the aforementioned disorders. Finally, we discuss different ways that autophagy and apoptosis modulation may be employed for therapeutic intervention during the maintenance of neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:24211851

  2. Active and Passive Immunotherapy for Neurodegenerative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Brody, David L.; Holtzman, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Immunotherapeutic strategies to combat neurodegenerative disorders have galvanized the scientific community since the first dramatic successes in mouse models recreating aspects of Alzheimer disease (AD) were reported. However, initial human trials of active amyloid-beta (Aβ) vaccination were halted early because of a serious safety issue: meningoencephalitis in 6% of subjects. Nonetheless, some encouraging preliminary data were obtained, and rapid progress has been made toward developing alternative, possibly safer active and passive immunotherapeutic approaches for several neurodegenerative conditions. Many of these are currently in human trials for AD. Despite these advances, our understanding of the essential mechanisms underlying the effects seen in preclinical models and human subjects is still incomplete. Antibody-induced phagocytosis of pathological protein deposits, direct antibody-mediated disruption of aggregates, neutralization of toxic soluble proteins, a shift in equilibrium toward efflux of specific proteins from the brain, cell-mediated immune responses, and other mechanisms may all play roles depending on the specific immunotherapeutic scenario. PMID:18352830

  3. Ocular motor abnormalities in neurodegenerative disorders

    PubMed Central

    Antoniades, C A; Kennard, C

    2015-01-01

    Eye movements are a source of valuable information to both clinicians and scientists as abnormalities of them frequently act as clues to the localization of a disease process. Classically, they are divided into two main types: those that hold the gaze, keeping images steady on the retina (vestibulo-ocular and optokinetic reflexes) and those that shift gaze and redirect the line of sight to a new object of interest (saccades, vergence, and smooth pursuit). Here we will review some of the major ocular motor abnormalities present in neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:25412716

  4. HDL and Cognition in Neurodegenerative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hottman, David A.; Chernick, Dustin; Cheng, Shaowu; Wang, Zhe; Li, Ling

    2014-01-01

    High-density lipoproteins (HDL) are a heterogeneous group of lipoproteins composed of various lipids and proteins. HDL is formed both in the systemic circulation and in the brain. In addition to being a crucial player in the reverse cholesterol transport pathway, HDL possesses a wide range of other functions including anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, pro-endothelial function, anti-thrombosis, and modulation of immune function. It has been firmly established that high plasma levels of HDL protect against cardiovascular disease. Accumulating evidence indicates that the beneficial role of HDL extends to many other systems including the central nervous system. Cognition is a complex brain function that includes all aspects of perception, thought, and memory. Cognitive function often declines during aging and this decline manifests as cognitive impairment/dementia in age-related and progressive neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. A growing concern is that no effective therapy is currently available to prevent or treat these devastating diseases. Emerging evidence suggests that HDL may play a pivotal role in preserving cognitive function under normal and pathological conditions. This review attempts to summarize recent genetic, clinical and experimental evidence for the impact of HDL on cognition in aging and in neurodegenerative disorders as well as the potential of HDL-enhancing approaches to improve cognitive function. PMID:25131449

  5. Diffusion-MRI in neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Goveas, Joseph; O'Dwyer, Laurence; Mascalchi, Mario; Cosottini, Mirco; Diciotti, Stefano; De Santis, Silvia; Passamonti, Luca; Tessa, Carlo; Toschi, Nicola; Giannelli, Marco

    2015-09-01

    The ability to image the whole brain through ever more subtle and specific methods/contrasts has come to play a key role in understanding the basis of brain abnormalities in several diseases. In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), "diffusion" (i.e. the random, thermally-induced displacements of water molecules over time) represents an extraordinarily sensitive contrast mechanism, and the exquisite structural detail it affords has proven useful in a vast number of clinical as well as research applications. Since diffusion-MRI is a truly quantitative imaging technique, the indices it provides can serve as potential imaging biomarkers which could allow early detection of pathological alterations as well as tracking and possibly predicting subtle changes in follow-up examinations and clinical trials. Accordingly, diffusion-MRI has proven useful in obtaining information to better understand the microstructural changes and neurophysiological mechanisms underlying various neurodegenerative disorders. In this review article, we summarize and explore the main applications, findings, perspectives as well as challenges and future research of diffusion-MRI in various neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington's disease and degenerative ataxias. PMID:25917917

  6. Antisense Gene Silencing: Therapy for Neurodegenerative Disorders?

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Troels T.; Nielsen, Jørgen E.

    2013-01-01

    Since the first reports that double-stranded RNAs can efficiently silence gene expression in C. elegans, the technology of RNA interference (RNAi) has been intensively exploited as an experimental tool to study gene function. With the subsequent discovery that RNAi could also be applied to mammalian cells, the technology of RNAi expanded from being a valuable experimental tool to being an applicable method for gene-specific therapeutic regulation, and much effort has been put into further refinement of the technique. This review will focus on how RNAi has developed over the years and how the technique is exploited in a pre-clinical and clinical perspective in relation to neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:24705213

  7. Neurodegenerative Models in Drosophila: Polyglutamine Disorders, Parkinson Disease, and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ambegaokar, Surendra S.; Roy, Bidisha; Jackson, George R.

    2010-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases encompass a large group of neurological disorders. Clinical symptoms can include memory loss, cognitive impairment, loss of movement or loss of control of movement, and loss of sensation. Symptoms are typically adult onset (although severe cases can occur in adolescents) and are reflective of neuronal and glial cell loss in the central nervous system. Neurodegenerative diseases also are considered progressive, with increased severity of symptoms over time, also reflective of increased neuronal cell death. However, various neurodegenerative diseases differentially affect certain brain regions or neuronal or glial cell types. As an example, Alzheimer disease (AD) primarily affects the temporal lobe, whereas neuronal loss in Parkinson disease (PD) is largely (although not exclusively) confined to the nigrostriatal system. Neuronal loss is almost invariably accompanied by abnormal insoluble aggregates, either intra- or extracellular. Thus, neurodegenerative diseases are categorized by (a) the composite of clinical symptoms, (b) the brain regions or types of brain cells primarily affected, and (c) the types of protein aggregates found in the brain. Here we review the methods by which Drosophila melanogaster has been used to model aspects of polyglutamine diseases, Parkinson disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and key insights into that have been gained from these models; Alzheimer disease and the tauopathies are covered elsewhere in this special issue. PMID:20561920

  8. Adult onset retinoblastoma.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Sabyasachi; Pan, Utsab; Khetan, Vikas

    2016-07-01

    Retinoblastoma (RB) is the most common primary malignant intraocular tumor of childhood presenting usually before 5 years of age. RB in adults older than 20 years is extremely rare. A literature search using PubMed/PubMed Central, Scopus, Google Scholar, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases revealed only 45 cases till date. Over the past decade, there has been a significant increase in the number of such reports, indicating heightened level of suspicion among ophthalmologists. Compared to its pediatric counterpart, adult onset RB poses unique challenges in diagnosis and treatment. This article summarizes available literature on adult onset RB and its clinical and pathologic profile, genetics, association with retinocytoma, diagnostics, treatment, and outcomes. PMID:27609158

  9. Comparative Incidence of Conformational, Neurodegenerative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    de Pedro-Cuesta, Jesús; Rábano, Alberto; Martínez-Martín, Pablo; Ruiz-Tovar, María; Alcalde-Cabero, Enrique; Almazán-Isla, Javier; Avellanal, Fuencisla; Calero, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to identify incidence and survival patterns in conformational neurodegenerative disorders (CNDDs). Methods We identified 2563 reports on the incidence of eight conditions representing sporadic, acquired and genetic, protein-associated, i.e., conformational, NDD groups and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We selected 245 papers for full-text examination and application of quality criteria. Additionally, data-collection was completed with detailed information from British, Swedish, and Spanish registries on Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) forms, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and sporadic rapidly progressing neurodegenerative dementia (sRPNDd). For each condition, age-specific incidence curves, age-adjusted figures, and reported or calculated median survival were plotted and examined. Findings Based on 51 valid reported and seven new incidence data sets, nine out of eleven conditions shared specific features. Age-adjusted incidence per million person-years increased from ≤1.5 for sRPNDd, different CJD forms and Huntington's disease (HD), to 1589 and 2589 for AMD and Alzheimer's disease (AD) respectively. Age-specific profiles varied from (a) symmetrical, inverted V-shaped curves for low incidences to (b) those increasing with age for late-life sporadic CNDDs and for sRPNDd, with (c) a suggested, intermediate, non-symmetrical inverted V-shape for fronto-temporal dementia and Parkinson's disease. Frequently, peak age-specific incidences from 20–24 to ≥90 years increased with age at onset and survival. Distinct patterns were seen: for HD, with a low incidence, levelling off at middle age, and long median survival, 20 years; and for sRPNDd which displayed the lowest incidence, increasing with age, and a short median disease duration. Interpretation These results call for a unified population view of NDDs, with an age-at-onset-related pattern for acquired and sporadic CNDDs. The pattern linking age at onset to

  10. Adult onset xanthogranuloma presenting as laryngeal mass.

    PubMed

    Li, Shawn; Weidenbecher, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Histiocytic disorders can be classified according to the distribution pattern of the lesions and the organs involved. Non-Langerhans-cell histiocytosis is a rare group of diseases that have varied clinical presentations ranging from isolated masses to diffuse systemic eruptions. We discuss a patient who initially presented with a vocal cord lesion and was ultimately diagnosed with adult onset xanthogranuloma. PMID:26954863

  11. Natural history of adult-onset eIF2B-related disorders: a multi-centric survey of 16 cases.

    PubMed

    Labauge, Pierre; Horzinski, Laetitia; Ayrignac, Xavier; Blanc, Pierre; Vukusic, Sandra; Rodriguez, Diana; Mauguiere, Francois; Peter, Laure; Goizet, Cyril; Bouhour, Francoise; Denier, Christian; Confavreux, Christian; Obadia, Michael; Blanc, Frederic; de Sèze, Jérome; Fogli, Anne; Boespflug-Tanguy, Odile

    2009-08-01

    Mutations in one of the five eukaryotic initiation factor 2B genes (EIF2B1-5) were first described in childhood ataxia with cerebral hypomyelination--vanishing white matter syndrome. The syndrome is characterized by (i) cerebellar and pyramidal signs in children aged 2-5 years; (ii) extensive cavitating leucoencephalopathy; and (iii) episodes of rapid deterioration following stress. Since then a broad clinical spectrum from congenital to adult-onset forms has been reported, leading to the concept of eIF2B-related disorders. Our aim was to describe clinical and brain magnetic resonance imaging characteristics, genetic findings and natural history of patients with adult-onset eIF2B-related disorders (after age 16). The inclusion criteria were based on the presence of eIF2B mutations and a disease onset after the age of 16 years. One patient with an asymptomatic diagnosis (age 16 years) was also included. Clinical and magnetic resonance findings were retrospectively recorded in all patients. All patients were examined to assess clinical evolution, using functional, pyramidal, cerebellar and cognitive scales. This multi-centric study included 16 patients from 14 families. A sex ratio imbalance was noted (male/female = 3/13). The mean age of onset was 31.1 years (range 16-62). Initial symptoms were neurologic (n = 11), psychiatric (n = 2) and ovarian failure (n = 2). Onset of the symptoms was linked to a precipitating factor in 13% of cases that included minor head trauma and delivery. During follow-up (mean: 11.2 years, range 2-22 years) 12.5% of the patients died. Of the 14 survivors, 62% showed a decline in their cognitive functions, and 79% were severely handicapped or bedridden. One case remained asymptomatic. Stress worsened clinical symptoms in 38% of the patients. Magnetic resonance imaging findings consist of constant cerebral atrophy, extensive cystic leucoencephalopathy (81%), corpus callosum (69%) and cerebellar (38%) T2-weighted hyperintensities. All

  12. Mitochondrial Biogenesis: A Therapeutic Target for Neurodevelopmental Disorders and Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Uittenbogaard, Martine; Chiaramello, Anne

    2014-01-01

    In the developing and mature brain, mitochondria act as central hubs for distinct but interwined pathways, necessary for neural development, survival, activity, connectivity and plasticity. In neurons, mitochondria assume diverse functions, such as energy production in the form of ATP, calcium buffering and generation of reactive oxygen species. Mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to a range of neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases, making mitochondria a potential target for pharmacological-based therapies. Pathogenesis associated with these diseases is accompanied by an increase in mitochondrial mass, a quantitative increase to overcome a qualitative deficiency due to mutated mitochondrial proteins that are either nuclear- or mitochondrial-encoded. This compensatory biological response is maladaptive, as it fails to sufficiently augment the bioenergetically functional mitochondrial mass and correct for the ATP deficit. Since regulation of neuronal mitochondrial biogenesis has been scantily investigated, our current understanding on the network of transcriptional regulators, co-activators and signaling regulators mainly derives from other cellular systems. The purpose of this review is to present the current state of our knowledge and understanding of the transcriptional and signaling cascades controlling neuronal mitochondrial biogenesis and the various therapeutic approaches to enhance the functional mitochondrial mass in the context of neurodevelopmental disorders and adult-onset neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24606804

  13. Adult-Onset Hypogonadism.

    PubMed

    Khera, Mohit; Broderick, Gregory A; Carson, Culley C; Dobs, Adrian S; Faraday, Martha M; Goldstein, Irwin; Hakim, Lawrence S; Hellstrom, Wayne J G; Kacker, Ravi; Köhler, Tobias S; Mills, Jesse N; Miner, Martin; Sadeghi-Nejad, Hossein; Seftel, Allen D; Sharlip, Ira D; Winters, Stephen J; Burnett, Arthur L

    2016-07-01

    In August 2015, an expert colloquium commissioned by the Sexual Medicine Society of North America (SMSNA) convened in Washington, DC, to discuss the common clinical scenario of men who present with low testosterone (T) and associated signs and symptoms accompanied by low or normal gonadotropin levels. This syndrome is not classical primary (testicular failure) or secondary (pituitary or hypothalamic failure) hypogonadism because it may have elements of both presentations. The panel designated this syndrome adult-onset hypogonadism (AOH) because it occurs commonly in middle-age and older men. The SMSNA is a not-for-profit society established in 1994 to promote, encourage, and support the highest standards of practice, research, education, and ethics in the study of human sexual function and dysfunction. The panel consisted of 17 experts in men's health, sexual medicine, urology, endocrinology, and methodology. Participants declared potential conflicts of interest and were SMSNA members and nonmembers. The panel deliberated regarding a diagnostic process to document signs and symptoms of AOH, the rationale for T therapy, and a monitoring protocol for T-treated patients. The evaluation and management of hypogonadal syndromes have been addressed in recent publications (ie, the Endocrine Society, the American Urological Association, and the International Society for Sexual Medicine). The primary purpose of this document was to support health care professionals in the development of a deeper understanding of AOH, particularly in how it differs from classical primary and secondary hypogonadism, and to provide a conceptual framework to guide its diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up. PMID:27343020

  14. Age at First Drink and the First Incidence of Adult-Onset DSM-IV Alcohol Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Deborah A.; Goldstein, Risë B.; Chou, S. Patricia; Ruan, W. June; Grant, Bridget F.

    2008-01-01

    Background Existing studies of the association between age at first drink (AFD) and the risk of alcohol use disorders (AUD) suffer from inconsistent levels of control and designs that may inflate associations by failure to control for duration of exposure to risk. Methods This study examined associations between AFD (ages <15 and 15-17 versus 18+ years) and first incidence of DSM-IV alcohol dependence, abuse, and specific AUD criteria over a 3-year follow-up in a longitudinal study of U.S. drinkers 18 years of age and older at baseline (n=22,316), controlling for duration of exposure, family history and a wide range of baseline and childhood risk factors. Results After adjusting for all risk factors, the incidence of dependence was increased for AFD <15 years (OR=1.38) and for women only with AFD at ages 15-17 (OR=1.54). The incidence of abuse was increased at AFD <15 and 15-17 years (OR=1.52 and 1.30, respectively). Most dependence criteria showed significant associations with AFD, but hazardous drinking and continued drinking despite interpersonal problems were the only abuse criteria to do so. All associations were nonsignificant after controlling for volume of consumption, except that AFD at all ages <18 combined was associated with a reduced likelihood of impaired control and AFD at ages 15-17 was associated with lower odds of drinking more/longer than intended among heavy-volume drinkers. In a population of low-risk drinkers that excluded those with positive family histories, personality disorders and childhood risk factors, there were strong associations between early AFD (<18) and the incidence of dependence (OR=3.79) and continued drinking despite physical/psychological problems (OR=2.71), but no association with incidence of abuse. Conclusions There is a robust association between AFD and the risk of AUD that appears to reflect willful rather than uncontrolled heavy drinking, consistent with misuse governed by poor decision-making and/or reward

  15. Global warming and neurodegenerative disorders: speculations on their linkage

    PubMed Central

    Habibi, Laleh; Perry, George; Mahmoudi, Morteza

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is having considerable impact on biological systems. Eras of ice ages and warming shaped the contemporary earth and origin of creatures including humans. Warming forces stress conditions on cells. Therefore, cells evolved elaborate defense mechanisms, such as creation of heat shock proteins, to combat heat stress. Global warming is becoming a crisis and this process would yield an undefined increasing rate of neurodegenerative disorders in future decades. Since heat stress is known to have a degenerative effects on neurons and, conversely, cold conditions have protective effect on these cells, we hypothesize that persistent heat stress forced by global warming might play a crucial role in increasing neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:25671171

  16. Cerebral Toxocariasis: Silent Progression to Neurodegenerative Disorders?

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Celia V.; Loxton, Karen; Barghouth, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Toxocara canis and T. cati are highly prevalent nematode infections of the intestines of dogs and cats. In paratenic hosts, larvae do not mature in the intestine but instead migrate through the somatic tissues and organs of the body. The presence of these migrating larvae can contribute to pathology. Toxocara larvae can invade the brains of humans, and while case descriptions of cerebral toxocariasis are historically rare, improved diagnosis and greater awareness have contributed to increased detection. Despite this, cerebral or neurological toxocariasis (NT) remains a poorly understood phenomenon. Furthermore, our understanding of cognitive deficits due to toxocariasis in human populations remains particularly deficient. Recent data describe an enhanced expression of biomarkers associated with brain injury, such as GFAP, AβPP, transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), NF-L, S100B, tTG, and p-tau, in mice receiving even low doses of Toxocara ova. Finally, this review outlines a hypothesis to explore the relationship between the presence of T. canis larvae in the brain and the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) due to enhanced AD-associated neurodegenerative biomarker expression. PMID:26062575

  17. Melatonin for Sleep Disorders in Patients with Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    PubMed

    Trotti, Lynn Marie; Karroum, Elias G

    2016-07-01

    In patients with neurodegenerative diseases, sleep disorders are common; they impair the quality of life for patients and caregivers and are associated with poorer clinical outcomes. Melatonin has circadian, hypnotic, and free radical-scavenging effects, and preclinical data suggest benefits of melatonin on neurodegeneration. However, randomized, controlled trials of melatonin in patients with neurodegenerative diseases have not shown strong effects. Trials in Alzheimer's patients demonstrate a lack of benefit on sleep quantity. Subjective measures of sleep quality are mixed, with possible symptomatic improvements seen only on some measures or at some time points. Benefits on cognition have not been observed across several studies. In Parkinson's patients, there may be minimal benefit on objective sleep measures, but a suggestion of subjective benefit in few, small studies. Effective treatments for the sleep disorders associated with neurodegenerative diseases are urgently needed, but current data are insufficient to establish melatonin as such a treatment. PMID:27180068

  18. Histone deacetylase inhibitors: possible implications for neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Hahnen, Eric; Hauke, Jan; Tränkle, Christian; Eyüpoglu, Ilker Y; Wirth, Brunhilde; Blümcke, Ingmar

    2008-02-01

    During the past six years numerous studies identified histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors as candidate drugs for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Two major neuroprotective mechanisms of HDAC inhibitors have been identified, namely the transcriptional activation of disease-modifying genes and the correction of perturbations in histone acetylation homeostasis, which have been shown to be intimately involved in the neurodegenerative pathomechanisms of Huntington's, Parkinson's and Kennedy disease, amyotropic lateral sclerosis, Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome as well as stroke. Based on the promising in vitro and in vivo analyses, clinical trials have been initiated to evaluate the safety and efficacy of HDAC inhibitors for the treatment of devastating diseases such as Huntington's disease, amyotropic lateral sclerosis and spinal muscular atrophy. Here, the authors summarize and discuss the findings on the emerging field of epigenetic therapy strategies in neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:18230051

  19. Environmental-induced oxidative stress in neurodegenerative disorders and aging.

    PubMed

    Migliore, Lucia; Coppedè, Fabio

    2009-03-31

    The aetiology of most neurodegenerative disorders is multifactorial and consists of an interaction between environmental factors and genetic predisposition. Free radicals derived primarily from molecular oxygen have been implicated and considered as associated risk factors for a variety of human disorders including neurodegenerative diseases and aging. Damage to tissue biomolecules, including lipids, proteins and DNA, by free radicals is postulated to contribute importantly to the pathophysiology of oxidative stress. The potential of environmental exposure to metals, air pollution and pesticides as well as diet as risk factors via the induction of oxidative stress for neurodegenerative diseases and aging is discussed. The role of genetic background is discussed on the light of the oxidative stress implication, focusing on both complex neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) and monogenic neurological disorders (Huntington's disease, Ataxia telangiectasia, Friedreich Ataxia and others). Emphasis is given to role of the repair mechanisms of oxidative DNA damage in delaying aging and protecting against neurodegeneration. The emerging interplay between environmental-induced oxidative stress and epigenetic modifications of critical genes for neurodegeneration is also discussed. PMID:18952194

  20. miRNAs: Key Players in Neurodegenerative Disorders and Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Karnati, Hanuma Kumar; Panigrahi, Manas Kumar; Gutti, Ravi Kumar; Greig, Nigel H; Tamargo, Ian A

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous, ∼22 nucleotide, non-coding RNA molecules that function as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. miRNA dysregulation has been observed in cancer and in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and the neurological disorder, epilepsy. Neuronal degradation and death are important hallmarks of neurodegenerative disorders. Additionally, abnormalities in metabolism, synapsis and axonal transport have been associated with Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and frontotemporal dementia. A number of recently published studies have demonstrated the importance of miRNAs in the nervous system and have contributed to the growing body of evidence on miRNA dysregulation in neurological disorders. Knowledge of the expressions and activities of such miRNAs may aid in the development of novel therapeutics. In this review, we discuss the significance of miRNA dysregulation in the development of neurodegenerative disorders and the use of miRNAs as targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:26402105

  1. Review: Axon pathology in age-related neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Adalbert, R; Coleman, M P

    2013-02-01

    'Dying back' axon degeneration is a prominent feature of many age-related neurodegenerative disorders and is widespread in normal ageing. Although the mechanisms of disease- and age-related losses may differ, both contribute to symptoms. Here, we review recent advances in understanding axon pathology in age-related neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and glaucoma. In particular, we highlight the importance of axonal transport, autophagy, traumatic brain injury and mitochondrial quality control. We then place these disease mechanisms in the context of changes to axons and dendrites that occur during normal ageing. We discuss what makes ageing such an important risk factor for many neurodegenerative disorders and conclude that the processes of normal ageing and disease combine at the molecular, cellular or systems levels in a range of disorders to produce symptoms. Pathology identical to disease also occurs at the cellular level in most elderly individuals. Thus, normal ageing and age-related disease are inextricably linked and the term 'healthy ageing' downplays the important contributions of cellular pathology. For a full understanding of normal ageing or age-related disease we must study both processes. PMID:23046254

  2. Hyperactive somatostatin interneurons contribute to excitotoxicity in neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Lifeng; Liang, Bo; Schroeder, David; Zhang, Zhong-Wei; Cox, Gregory A; Li, Yun; Lin, Da-Ting

    2016-04-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are overlapping neurodegenerative disorders whose pathogenesis remains largely unknown. Using TDP-43(A315T) mice, an ALS and FTD model with marked cortical pathology, we found that hyperactive somatostatin interneurons disinhibited layer 5 pyramidal neurons (L5-PNs) and contributed to their excitotoxicity. Focal ablation of somatostatin interneurons efficiently restored normal excitability of L5-PNs and alleviated neurodegeneration, suggesting a new therapeutic target for ALS and FTD. PMID:26900927

  3. Amylin at the interface between metabolic and neurodegenerative disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, Thomas A.; Meyer, Urs

    2015-01-01

    The pancreatic peptide amylin is best known for its role as a satiation hormone in the control of food intake and as the major component of islet amyloid deposits in the pancreatic islets of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Epidemiological studies have established a clear association between metabolic and neurodegenerative disorders in general, and between T2DM and Alzheimer's disease (AD) in particular. Here, we discuss that amylin may be an important player acting at the interface between these metabolic and neurodegenerative disorders. Abnormal amylin production is a hallmark peripheral pathology both in the early (pre-diabetic) and late phases of T2DM, where hyperamylinemic (early phase) and hypoamylinemic (late phase) conditions coincide with hyper- and hypo-insulinemia, respectively. Moreover, there are notable biochemical similarities between amylin and β-amyloids (Aβ), which are both prone to amyloid plaque formation and to cytotoxic effects. Amylin's propensity to form amyloid plaques is not restricted to pancreatic islet cells, but readily extends to the CNS, where it has been found to co-localize with Aβ plaques in at least a subset of AD patients. Hence, amylin may constitute a “second amyloid” in neurodegenerative disorders such as AD. We further argue that hyperamylinemic conditions may be more relevant for the early processes of amyloid formation in the CNS, whereas hypoamylinemic conditions may be more strongly associated with late stages of central amyloid pathologies. Advancing our understanding of these temporal relationships may help to establish amylin-based interventions in the treatment of AD and other neurodegenerative disorders with metabolic comorbidities. PMID:26136651

  4. The Essential Tremors: A Family of Neurodegenerative Disorders?

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Elan D.

    2009-01-01

    Essential tremor (ET) is the most common pathological tremor in humans. The traditional view of ET, as a mono-symptomatic condition, is being replaced by an appreciation of the spectrum of clinical features, with both motor and non-motor elements. These features are not distributed homogeneously across patients. In addition, post-mortem studies are now demonstrating distinct structural changes in ET. There is growing evidence that ET may be a family of diseases rather than a single entity. Further, this aging-associated, progressive disorder is associated with neuronal loss and postmortem changes that occur in traditional neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:19822775

  5. POTENTIAL FUTURE NEUROPROTECTIVE THERAPIES FOR NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS AND STROKE

    PubMed Central

    Tarawneh, Rawan; Galvin, James E.

    2009-01-01

    The cellular mechanisms underlying neuronal loss and neurodegeneration have been an area of interest in the last decade. Although neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD) and Huntington’s disease (HD) each have distinct clinical symptoms and pathologies, they all share common mechanisms such as protein aggregation, oxidative injury, inflammation, apoptosis and mitochondrial injury that contribute to neuronal loss. Although cerebrovascular disease is due to etiologies quite different from the neurodegenerative disorders, many of the same common disease mechanisms come into play following a stroke. Novel therapies that target each of these mechanisms may be effective in decreasing the risk of disease, abating symptoms or slowing down their progression. While most of these therapies are experimental, and require further investigation, a few seem to offer promise in the near future. PMID:20176298

  6. Transposable Elements in TDP-43-Mediated Neurodegenerative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hammell, Molly; Dubnau, Josh

    2012-01-01

    Elevated expression of specific transposable elements (TEs) has been observed in several neurodegenerative disorders. TEs also can be active during normal neurogenesis. By mining a series of deep sequencing datasets of protein-RNA interactions and of gene expression profiles, we uncovered extensive binding of TE transcripts to TDP-43, an RNA-binding protein central to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Second, we find that association between TDP-43 and many of its TE targets is reduced in FTLD patients. Third, we discovered that a large fraction of the TEs to which TDP-43 binds become de-repressed in mouse TDP-43 disease models. We propose the hypothesis that TE mis-regulation contributes to TDP-43 related neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:22957047

  7. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy pathology in a neurodegenerative disorders brain bank.

    PubMed

    Bieniek, Kevin F; Ross, Owen A; Cormier, Kerry A; Walton, Ronald L; Soto-Ortolaza, Alexandra; Johnston, Amelia E; DeSaro, Pamela; Boylan, Kevin B; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Wszolek, Zbigniew K; Rademakers, Rosa; Boeve, Bradley F; McKee, Ann C; Dickson, Dennis W

    2015-12-01

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder linked to repetitive traumatic brain injury (TBI) and characterized by deposition of hyperphosphorylated tau at the depths of sulci. We sought to determine the presence of CTE pathology in a brain bank for neurodegenerative disorders for individuals with and without a history of contact sports participation. Available medical records of 1721 men were reviewed for evidence of past history of injury or participation in contact sports. Subsequently, cerebral cortical samples were processed for tau immunohistochemistry in cases with a documented history of sports exposure as well as age- and disease-matched men and women without such exposure. For cases with available frozen tissue, genetic analysis was performed for variants in APOE, MAPT, and TMEM106B. Immunohistochemistry revealed 21 of 66 former athletes had cortical tau pathology consistent with CTE. CTE pathology was not detected in 198 individuals without exposure to contact sports, including 33 individuals with documented single-incident TBI sustained from falls, motor vehicle accidents, domestic violence, or assaults. Among those exposed to contact sports, those with CTE pathology did not differ from those without CTE pathology with respect to noted clinicopathologic features. There were no significant differences in genetic variants for those with CTE pathology, but we observed a slight increase in MAPT H1 haplotype, and there tended to be fewer homozygous carriers of the protective TMEM106B rs3173615 minor allele in those with sports exposure and CTE pathology compared to those without CTE pathology. In conclusion, this study has identified a small, yet significant, subset of individuals with neurodegenerative disorders and concomitant CTE pathology. CTE pathology was only detected in individuals with documented participation in contact sports. Exposure to contact sports was the greatest risk factor for CTE pathology. Future

  8. Neurodegenerative changes in patients with clinical history of bipolar disorders.

    PubMed

    Shioya, Ayako; Saito, Yuko; Arima, Kunimasa; Kakuta, Yukio; Yuzuriha, Takefumi; Tanaka, Noriko; Murayama, Shigeo; Tamaoka, Akira

    2015-06-01

    Neurodegeneration in bipolar disorder (BPD) is poorly understood. Therefore, the current study was designed to assess the immunohistochemical changes in neurodegenerative markers in patients with BPD. Eleven consecutive autopsy cases diagnosed with BPD were analyzed. Sections were obtained from archival paraffin blocks of representative areas and stained using conventional methods, as well as immunostained with several antibodies to screen for neurodegenerative diseases. Age- and non-argyrophilic grains (AGs) degeneration matched controls were selected for each case. Clinical information was retrospectively collected from medical charts. All patients were men, and the average age of death was 70 years. Neuropathological diagnoses included dementia with grains (2), argyrophilic grain disease (2), corticobasal degeneration (CBD, 1), Lewy body disease (1), hypoxic encephalopathy (1) and cerebral infarction (1). All cases showed AGs to various degrees. Three patients died in their 50s; one demonstrated dementia with Lewy bodies, while the other two showed abundant AGs in the thalamus and amygdala. Of the three patients who died in their 60s, one showed AGs preferentially in the thalamus and amygdala, while the others demonstrated limbic predominance. The patients who died in/after their 70s demonstrated AGs similar to controls, except for the patient with CBD. Our data provides potentiality that neurodegenerative diseases may be an underlying pathology in certain cases of BPD. PMID:25819679

  9. Memory Loss and Frontal Cognitive Dysfunction in a Patient with Adult-onset Neuronal Intranuclear Inclusion Disease.

    PubMed

    Araki, Kunihiko; Sone, Jun; Fujioka, Yusuke; Masuda, Michihito; Ohdake, Reiko; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Watanabe, Hirohisa; Sobue, Gen

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease (NIID) is an uncommon progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Adult-onset NIID can result in prominent dementia. We herein describe the case of a 74-year-old man who presented with dementia, cerebellar ataxia, neuropathy, and autonomic dysfunction. Diffusion-weighted imaging showed hyperintensity of the corticomedullary junction. Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images showed frontal-dominant white matter hyperintensity. NIID was diagnosed from the presence of intranuclear inclusions in a skin biopsy sample. Neuropsychological testing revealed memory loss and frontal cognitive dysfunction, especially in relation to language and executive functions. We were therefore able to confirm the association of NIID with cognitive dysfunction. PMID:27523009

  10. Alterations of eye movement control in neurodegenerative movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Gorges, Martin; Pinkhardt, Elmar H; Kassubek, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of the fovea centralis, the most central part of the retina and the area of the highest visual accuracy, requires humans to shift their gaze rapidly (saccades) to bring some object of interest within the visual field onto the fovea. In addition, humans are equipped with the ability to rotate the eye ball continuously in a highly predicting manner (smooth pursuit) to hold a moving target steadily upon the retina. The functional deficits in neurodegenerative movement disorders (e.g., Parkinsonian syndromes) involve the basal ganglia that are critical in all aspects of movement control. Moreover, neocortical structures, the cerebellum, and the midbrain may become affected by the pathological process. A broad spectrum of eye movement alterations may result, comprising smooth pursuit disturbance (e.g., interrupting saccades), saccadic dysfunction (e.g., hypometric saccades), and abnormal attempted fixation (e.g., pathological nystagmus and square wave jerks). On clinical grounds, videooculography is a sensitive noninvasive in vivo technique to classify oculomotion function alterations. Eye movements are a valuable window into the integrity of central nervous system structures and their changes in defined neurodegenerative conditions, that is, the oculomotor nuclei in the brainstem together with their directly activating supranuclear centers and the basal ganglia as well as cortical areas of higher cognitive control of attention. PMID:24955249

  11. Apolipoprotein E: from cardiovascular disease to neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Mahley, Robert W

    2016-07-01

    Apolipoprotein (apo) E was initially described as a lipid transport protein and major ligand for low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors with a role in cholesterol metabolism and cardiovascular disease. It has since emerged as a major risk factor (causative gene) for Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. Detailed understanding of the structural features of the three isoforms (apoE2, apoE3, and apoE4), which differ by only a single amino acid interchange, has elucidated their unique functions. ApoE2 and apoE4 increase the risk for heart disease: apoE2 increases atherogenic lipoprotein levels (it binds poorly to LDL receptors), and apoE4 increases LDL levels (it binds preferentially to triglyceride-rich, very low density lipoproteins, leading to downregulation of LDL receptors). ApoE4 also increases the risk for neurodegenerative diseases, decreases their age of onset, or alters their progression. ApoE4 likely causes neurodegeneration secondary to its abnormal structure, caused by an interaction between its carboxyl- and amino-terminal domains, called domain interaction. When neurons are stressed or injured, they synthesize apoE to redistribute cholesterol for neuronal repair or remodeling. However, because of its altered structure, neuronal apoE4 undergoes neuron-specific proteolysis, generating neurotoxic fragments (12-29 kDa) that escape the secretory pathway and cause mitochondrial dysfunction and cytoskeletal alterations, including tau phosphorylation. ApoE4-associated pathology can be prevented by small-molecule structure correctors that block domain interaction by converting apoE4 to a molecule that resembles apoE3 both structurally and functionally. Structure correctors are a potential therapeutic approach to reduce apoE4 pathology in both cardiovascular and neurological disorders. PMID:27277824

  12. Epigenetic Treatment of Neurodegenerative Disorders: Alzheimer and Parkinson Diseases.

    PubMed

    Irwin, Michael H; Moos, Walter H; Faller, Douglas V; Steliou, Kosta; Pinkert, Carl A

    2016-05-01

    Preclinical Research In this review, we discuss epigenetic-driven methods for treating neurodegenerative disorders associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, focusing on carnitinoid antioxidant-histone deacetylase inhibitors that show an ability to reinvigorate synaptic plasticity and protect against neuromotor decline in vivo. Aging remains a major risk factor in patients who progress to dementia, a clinical syndrome typified by decreased mental capacity, including impairments in memory, language skills, and executive function. Energy metabolism and mitochondrial dysfunction are viewed as determinants in the aging process that may afford therapeutic targets for a host of disease conditions, the brain being primary in such thinking. Mitochondrial dysfunction is a core feature in the pathophysiology of both Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases and rare mitochondrial diseases. The potential of new therapies in this area extends to glaucoma and other ophthalmic disorders, migraine, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, post-traumatic stress disorder, systemic exertion intolerance disease, and chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment. An emerging and hopefully more promising approach to addressing these hard-to-treat diseases leverages their sensitivity to activation of master regulators of antioxidant and cytoprotective genes, antioxidant response elements, and mitophagy. Drug Dev Res 77 : 109-123, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26899010

  13. Nanomedicine in the diagnosis and therapy of neurodegenerative disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kabanov, A.V.; Gendelman, H.E.

    2009-01-01

    Neurodegenerative and infectious disorders including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and stroke are rapidly increasing as population’s age. Alzheimer’s disease alone currently affects 4.5 million Americans, and more than $100 billion is spent per year on medical and institutional care for affected people. Such numbers will double in the ensuing decades. Currently disease diagnosis for all disorders is made, in large measure, on clinical grounds as laboratory and neuroimaging tests confirm what is seen by more routine examination. Achieving early diagnosis would enable improved disease outcomes. Drugs, vaccines or regenerative proteins present “real” possibilities for positively affecting disease outcomes, but are limited in that their entry into the brain is commonly restricted across the blood–brain barrier. This review highlights how these obstacles can be overcome by polymer science and nanotechnology. Such approaches may improve diagnostic and therapeutic outcomes. New developments in polymer science coupled with cell-based delivery strategies support the notion that diseases that now have limited therapeutic options can show improved outcomes by advances in nanomedicine. PMID:20234846

  14. Abnormal accumulation of NACP/alpha-synuclein in neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, A.; Mallory, M.; Sundsmo, M.; Honer, W.; Hansen, L.; Masliah, E.

    1998-01-01

    The precursor of the non-Abeta component of Alzheimer's disease amyloid (NACP) (also known as a-synuclein) is a presynaptic terminal molecule that accumulates in the plaques of Alzheimer's disease. Recent studies have shown that a mutation in NACP is associated with familial Parkinson's disease, and that Lewy bodies are immunoreactive with antibodies against this molecule. To clarify the patterns of accumulation and differences in abnormal compartmentalization, we studied NACP immunoreactivity using double immunolabeling and laser scanning confocal microscopy in the cortex of patients with various neurodegenerative disorders. In Lewy body variant of Alzheimer's disease, diffuse Lewy body disease, and Parkinson's disease, NACP was found to immunolabel cortical Lewy bodies, abnormal neurites, and dystrophic neurites in the plaques. Double-labeling studies showed that all three of these neuropathological structures also contained ubiquitin, synaptophysin, and neurofilament (but not tau) immunoreactivity. In contrast, neurofibrillary tangles, neuropil threads, Pick bodies, ballooned neurons, and glial tangles (most of which were tau positive) were NACP negative. These results support the view that NACP specifically accumulates in diseases related to Lewy bodies such as Lewy body variant of Alzheimer's disease, diffuse Lewy body disease, and Parkinson's disease and suggests a role for this synaptic protein in the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9466562

  15. Alcohol-Induced Developmental Origins of Adult-Onset Diseases.

    PubMed

    Lunde, Emilie R; Washburn, Shannon E; Golding, Michael C; Bake, Shameena; Miranda, Rajesh C; Ramadoss, Jayanth

    2016-07-01

    Fetal alcohol exposure may impair growth, development, and function of multiple organ systems and is encompassed by the term fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Research has so far focused on the mechanisms, prevention, and diagnosis of FASD, while the risk for adult-onset chronic diseases in individuals exposed to alcohol in utero is not well explored. David Barker's hypothesis on Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) suggests that insults to the milieu of the developing fetus program it for adult development of chronic diseases. In the 25 years since the introduction of this hypothesis, epidemiological and animal model studies have made significant advancements in identifying in utero developmental origins of chronic adult-onset diseases affecting cardiovascular, endocrine, musculoskeletal, and psychobehavioral systems. Teratogen exposure is an established programming agent for adult diseases, and recent studies suggest that prenatal alcohol exposure correlates with adult onset of neurobehavioral deficits, cardiovascular disease, endocrine dysfunction, and nutrient homeostasis instability, warranting additional investigation of alcohol-induced DOHaD, as well as patient follow-up well into adulthood for affected individuals. In utero epigenetic alterations during critical periods of methylation are a key potential mechanism for programming and susceptibility of adult-onset chronic diseases, with imprinted genes affecting metabolism being critical targets. Additional studies in epidemiology, phenotypic characterization in response to timing, dose, and duration of exposure, as well as elucidation of mechanisms underlying FASD-DOHaD inter relation, are thus needed to clinically define chronic disease associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. These studies are critical to establish interventional strategies that decrease incidence of these adult-onset diseases and promote healthier aging among individuals affected with FASD. PMID:27254466

  16. Etiopathogenesis and Therapeutic Approach to Adult Onset Acne

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Sarabjit; Verma, Poonam; Sangwan, Ankita; Dayal, Surabhi; Jain, Vijay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is usually considered as a skin disorder that primarily affects adolescents reaching a peak at the age of 14–17 years in females and 16–19 years in males. However, recent epidemiologic studies have shown that a significant number of female patients aged >25 years experience acne. As it is regarded as a disease of teenagers, adults are more apprehensive and experience social anxiety. Hence, adult onset acne has become a matter of concern. PMID:27512185

  17. Etiopathogenesis and Therapeutic Approach to Adult Onset Acne.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Sarabjit; Verma, Poonam; Sangwan, Ankita; Dayal, Surabhi; Jain, Vijay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is usually considered as a skin disorder that primarily affects adolescents reaching a peak at the age of 14-17 years in females and 16-19 years in males. However, recent epidemiologic studies have shown that a significant number of female patients aged >25 years experience acne. As it is regarded as a disease of teenagers, adults are more apprehensive and experience social anxiety. Hence, adult onset acne has become a matter of concern. PMID:27512185

  18. [Adult-onset rare diseases].

    PubMed

    Pfliegler, György; Kovács, Erzsébet; Kovács, György; Urbán, Krisztián; Nagy, Valéria; Brúgós, Boglárka

    2014-03-01

    The present paper is focusing on rare diseases manifesting in late childhood or adulthood. A part of these syndromes are not of genetic origin, such as relatively or absolutely rare infections, autoimmune diseases, tumours, or diseases due to rare environmental toxic agents. In addition, even a large proportion of genetic disorders may develop in adulthood or may have adult forms as well, affecting are almost each medical specialization. Examples are storage disorders (e.g. adult form of Tay-Sachs disease, Gaucher-disease), enzyme deficiencies (e.g. ornithin-transcarbamylase deficiency of the urea cycle disorders), rare thrombophilias (e.g. homozygous factor V. Leiden mutation, antithrombin deficiency), or some rare monogenic disorders such as Huntington-chorea and many others. It is now generally accepted that at least half of the 6-8000 "rare diseases" belong either to the scope of adult-care (e.g. internal medicine, neurology), or to "age-neutral" specialities such as ophtalmology, dermatology etc.). PMID:24566697

  19. Genetics Underlying Atypical Parkinsonism and Related Neurodegenerative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Scholz, Sonja W.; Bras, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Atypical parkinsonism syndromes, such as dementia with Lewy bodies, multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy and corticobasal degeneration, are neurodegenerative diseases with complex clinical and pathological features. Heterogeneity in clinical presentations, possible secondary determinants as well as mimic syndromes pose a major challenge to accurately diagnose patients suffering from these devastating conditions. Over the last two decades, significant advancements in genomic technologies have provided us with increasing insights into the molecular pathogenesis of atypical parkinsonism and their intriguing relationships to related neurodegenerative diseases, fueling new hopes to incorporate molecular knowledge into our diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic approaches towards managing these conditions. In this review article, we summarize the current understanding of genetic mechanisms implicated in atypical parkinsonism syndromes. We further highlight mimic syndromes relevant to differential considerations and possible future directions. PMID:26501269

  20. Genetics Underlying Atypical Parkinsonism and Related Neurodegenerative Disorders.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Sonja W; Bras, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Atypical parkinsonism syndromes, such as dementia with Lewy bodies, multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy and corticobasal degeneration, are neurodegenerative diseases with complex clinical and pathological features. Heterogeneity in clinical presentations, possible secondary determinants as well as mimic syndromes pose a major challenge to accurately diagnose patients suffering from these devastating conditions. Over the last two decades, significant advancements in genomic technologies have provided us with increasing insights into the molecular pathogenesis of atypical parkinsonism and their intriguing relationships to related neurodegenerative diseases, fueling new hopes to incorporate molecular knowledge into our diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic approaches towards managing these conditions. In this review article, we summarize the current understanding of genetic mechanisms implicated in atypical parkinsonism syndromes. We further highlight mimic syndromes relevant to differential considerations and possible future directions. PMID:26501269

  1. [Adult onset Still's disease with the initial symptom of pharyngalgia: a case report].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Enhui; Chen, Xiaoping; Zhang, Jingfei

    2015-09-01

    Adult onset Still's disease is a rare inflammatory disease characterized by spiking fevers, arthritis/ arthralgias, typical salmon-colored bumpy rash, pharyngalgia, myalgia and possible involvement of visceral organs. The diagnosis is exclusively based on clinical symptoms, according to the criteria, after the exclusion of well-known infectious, neoplastic, or other autoimmune/autoinflammatory disorders. This report includes one case of adult onset Still's disease with the initial symptom of pharyngalgia. PMID:26647549

  2. The usefulness of immunotherapy in pediatric neurodegenerative disorders: A systematic review of literature data.

    PubMed

    Vitaliti, Giovanna; Tabatabaie, Omidreza; Matin, Nassim; Ledda, Caterina; Pavone, Piero; Lubrano, Riccardo; Serra, Agostino; Di Mauro, Paola; Cocuzza, Salvatore; Falsaperla, Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    Immunotherapeutic strategies to treat neurodegenerative disorders have inspired the scientific community. The aim of our review is to address the translational aspects of neuroimmunology to describe the efficacy of immunotherapy in the treatment of pediatric neurodegenerative disorders. In the studies we analyzed IVIG were found to be efficient in the treatment of post-streptococcal neurodegenerative disorders, even if in PANDAS, plasma-exchange (PE) showed a higher efficiency. IVIG were also successfully used in ADEM and Guillan-Barré syndrome. In Sydenham Chorea the use of methylprednisolone was found in most cases as efficient as IVIG, while in Tourette's Syndrome, Colecoxib was successfully used in one patient. Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis seems to respond better to immunosuppressant agents (Mitoxantrone, Cyclophosphamide, Natalizumab), as well as Neuromyelitis optica (Rituximab, Mycofenolate). The importance of this review relies in the attempt to draw standardized guidelines for immunotherapy in pediatric neurodegeneratve disorders. PMID:26266339

  3. Prions, prion-like prionoids, and neurodegenerative disorders

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are fatal neurodegenerative diseases characterized by the aggregation and deposition of the misfolded prion protein in the brain. α-synuclein (α-syn)-associated multiple system atrophy has been recently shown to be caused by a bona fide α-syn prion strain. Several other misfolded native proteins such as β-amyloid, tau and TDP-43 share some aspects of prions although none of them is shown to be transmissible in nature or in experimental animals. However, these prion-like “prionoids” are causal to a variety of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The remarkable recent discovery of at least two new α-syn prion strains and their transmissibility in transgenic mice and in vitro cell models raises a distinct question as to whether some specific strain of other prionoids could have the capability of disease transmission in a manner similar to prions. In this overview, we briefly describe human and other mammalian prion diseases and comment on certain similarities between prion and prionoid and the possibility of prion-like transmissibility of some prionoid strains. PMID:27293325

  4. Prions, prion-like prionoids, and neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Verma, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are fatal neurodegenerative diseases characterized by the aggregation and deposition of the misfolded prion protein in the brain. α-synuclein (α-syn)-associated multiple system atrophy has been recently shown to be caused by a bona fide α-syn prion strain. Several other misfolded native proteins such as β-amyloid, tau and TDP-43 share some aspects of prions although none of them is shown to be transmissible in nature or in experimental animals. However, these prion-like "prionoids" are causal to a variety of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The remarkable recent discovery of at least two new α-syn prion strains and their transmissibility in transgenic mice and in vitro cell models raises a distinct question as to whether some specific strain of other prionoids could have the capability of disease transmission in a manner similar to prions. In this overview, we briefly describe human and other mammalian prion diseases and comment on certain similarities between prion and prionoid and the possibility of prion-like transmissibility of some prionoid strains. PMID:27293325

  5. Epigenetic targets of HDAC inhibition in neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Abel, Ted; Zukin, R Suzanne

    2008-02-01

    Epigenetic chromatin remodeling and modifications of DNA represent central mechanisms for regulation of gene expression during brain development and in memory formation. Emerging evidence implicates epigenetic modifications in disorders of synaptic plasticity and cognition. This review focuses on recent findings that HDAC inhibitors can ameliorate deficits in synaptic plasticity, cognition, and stress-related behaviors in a wide range of neurologic and psychiatric disorders including Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, anxiety and mood disorders, Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome, and Rett syndrome. These agents may prove useful in the clinic for the treatment of the cognitive impairments that are central elements of many neurodevelopmental, neurological, and psychiatric disorders. PMID:18206423

  6. Lessons Learned From Nocebo Effects in Clinical Trials for Pain Conditions and Neurodegenerative Disorders.

    PubMed

    Amanzio, Martina; Palermo, Sara; Skyt, Ina; Vase, Lene

    2016-10-01

    It has been demonstrated that patients in the placebo arm of a clinical trial may experience adverse events (AEs), which may lead to nonadherence and dropout. However, so far, it is unknown to which extent this phenomenon is observed consistently across different diseases such as pain and neurodegenerative disorders.The current review shows for the first time that different diseases share a common risk for patients in terms of a negative outcome: a large percentage of placebo-treated patients experience AEs in pain conditions (up to 59%) and neurodegenerative disorders (up to 66%). In addition, the rate of patients who discontinue because of AEs is up to 10% and 11% in pain conditions and neurodegenerative disorders, respectively.We highlight methodological shortcomings with the aim of suggesting how the detection and reporting of AEs can be improved in future trials. The insights from the current review should be taken into consideration when designing clinical trials to tailor individualized treatments. PMID:27580494

  7. Neurodegenerative Disorder Risk in Idiopathic REM Sleep Behavior Disorder: Study in 174 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Iranzo, Alex; Fernández-Arcos, Ana; Tolosa, Eduard; Serradell, Mónica; Molinuevo, José Luis; Valldeoriola, Francesc; Gelpi, Ellen; Vilaseca, Isabel; Sánchez-Valle, Raquel; Lladó, Albert; Gaig, Carles; Santamaría, Joan

    2014-01-01

    Objective To estimate the risk for developing a defined neurodegenerative syndrome in a large cohort of idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (IRBD) patients with long follow-up. Methods Using the Kaplan-Meier method, we estimated the disease-free survival rate from defined neurodegenerative syndromes in all the consecutive IRBD patients diagnosed and followed-up in our tertiary referal sleep center between November 1991 and July 2013. Results The cohort comprises 174 patients with a median age at diagnosis of IRBD of 69 years and a median follow-up of four years. The risk of a defined neurodegenerative syndrome from the time of IRBD diagnosis was 33.1% at five years, 75.7% at ten years, and 90.9% at 14 years. The median conversion time was 7.5 years. Emerging diagnoses (37.4%) were dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) in 29 subjects, Parkinson disease (PD) in 22, multiple system atrophy (MSA) in two, and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in 12. In six cases, in whom postmortem was performed, neuropathological examination disclosed neuronal loss and widespread Lewy-type pathology in the brain in each case. Conclusions In a large IRBD cohort diagnosed in a tertiary referal sleep center, prolonged follow-up indicated that the majority of patients are eventually diagnosed with the synucleinopathies PD, DLB and less frequently MSA. IRBD represented the prodromal period of these conditions. Our findings in IRBD have important implications in clinical practice, in the investigation of the early pathological events occurring in the synucleinopathies, and for the design of interventions with potential disease-modifying agents. PMID:24587002

  8. Recent Updates in the Treatment of Neurodegenerative Disorders Using Natural Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Rasool, Mahmood; Malik, Arif; Qureshi, Muhammad Saeed; Manan, Abdul; Pushparaj, Peter Natesan; Asif, Muhammad; Qazi, Mahmood Husain; Qazi, Aamer Mahmood; Kamal, Mohammad Amjad; Gan, Siew Hua; Sheikh, Ishfaq Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by protein aggregates and inflammation as well as oxidative stress in the central nervous system (CNS). Multiple biological processes are linked to neurodegenerative diseases such as depletion or insufficient synthesis of neurotransmitters, oxidative stress, abnormal ubiquitination. Furthermore, damaging of blood brain barrier (BBB) in the CNS also leads to various CNS-related diseases. Even though synthetic drugs are used for the management of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, autism, and many other chronic illnesses, they are not without side effects. The attentions of researchers have been inclined towards the phytochemicals, many of which have minimal side effects. Phytochemicals are promising therapeutic agents because many phytochemicals have anti-inflammatory, antioxidative as well as anticholinesterase activities. Various drugs of either synthetic or natural origin applied in the treatment of brain disorders need to cross the BBB before they can be used. This paper covers various researches related to phytochemicals used in the management of neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:24864161

  9. The cytoskeleton as a novel therapeutic target for old neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Eira, Jessica; Silva, Catarina Santos; Sousa, Mónica Mendes; Liz, Márcia Almeida

    2016-06-01

    Cytoskeleton defects, including alterations in microtubule stability, in axonal transport as well as in actin dynamics, have been characterized in several unrelated neurodegenerative conditions. These observations suggest that defects of cytoskeleton organization may be a common feature contributing to neurodegeneration. In line with this hypothesis, drugs targeting the cytoskeleton are currently being tested in animal models and in human clinical trials, showing promising effects. Drugs that modulate microtubule stability, inhibitors of posttranslational modifications of cytoskeletal components, specifically compounds affecting the levels of tubulin acetylation, and compounds targeting signaling molecules which regulate cytoskeleton dynamics, constitute the mostly addressed therapeutic interventions aiming at preventing cytoskeleton damage in neurodegenerative disorders. In this review, we will discuss in a critical perspective the current knowledge on cytoskeleton damage pathways as well as therapeutic strategies designed to revert cytoskeleton-related defects mainly focusing on the following neurodegenerative disorders: Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease, Huntington's Disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease. PMID:27095262

  10. Pathophysiological Role of Neuroinflammation in Neurodegenerative Diseases and Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Brain diseases and disorders such as Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, depression, schizophrenia, autism, and addiction lead to reduced quality of daily life through abnormal thoughts, perceptions, emotional states, and behavior. While the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood, human and animal studies have supported a role of neuroinflammation in the etiology of these diseases. In the central nervous system, an increased inflammatory response is capable of activating microglial cells, leading to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α. In turn, the pro-inflammatory cytokines aggravate and propagate neuroinflammation, degenerating healthy neurons and impairing brain functions. Therefore, activated microglia may play a key role in neuroinflammatory processes contributing to the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders and neurodegeneration. PMID:27230456

  11. Pathophysiological Role of Neuroinflammation in Neurodegenerative Diseases and Psychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Hong, Heeok; Kim, Byung Sun; Im, Heh-In

    2016-05-01

    Brain diseases and disorders such as Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, depression, schizophrenia, autism, and addiction lead to reduced quality of daily life through abnormal thoughts, perceptions, emotional states, and behavior. While the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood, human and animal studies have supported a role of neuroinflammation in the etiology of these diseases. In the central nervous system, an increased inflammatory response is capable of activating microglial cells, leading to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α. In turn, the pro-inflammatory cytokines aggravate and propagate neuroinflammation, degenerating healthy neurons and impairing brain functions. Therefore, activated microglia may play a key role in neuroinflammatory processes contributing to the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders and neurodegeneration. PMID:27230456

  12. Prospects for neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorder drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Williams, Michael; Enna, S J

    2011-05-01

    The discovery of CNS-active drugs has, to a major extent, resulted from clinical serendipity. Once targets for such compounds were identified, conventional mechanism-based approaches were used to identify new chemical entities for the treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Most of these have, however, failed to display any greater efficacy than existing psychotherapeutics and may, in fact, be less efficacious because of side effect liabilities. Among the reasons for this lack of success in drug discovery include a lack of fundamental knowledge regarding the causes of CNS disorders, the absence of biomarkers for diagnosing and monitoring these conditions, a paucity of animal models that are congruent with the human disease state and the increasing likelihood that CNS conditions are multifactorial in their etiology. These challenges force the inclusion of a Phase IIa proof of concept trial as a component of the drug discovery program. Unlike other therapeutic areas, serendipity is a major factor in the CNS translational medicine interface requiring a close collaboration between preclinical and clinical scientists trained to appreciate unusual behavioral phenotypes. When combined with conventional target-based drug discovery technologies, this increases the likelihood of identifying truly novel drugs for the treatment of CNS disorders. PMID:22646072

  13. Systems biology and gene networks in neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders

    PubMed Central

    Parikshak, Neelroop N.; Gandal, Michael J.; Geschwind, Daniel H.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic and genomic approaches have implicated hundreds of genetic loci in neurodevelopmental disorders and neurodegeneration, but mechanistic understanding continues to lag behind the pace of gene discovery. Understanding the role of specific genetic variants in the brain involves dissecting a functional hierarchy that encompasses molecular pathways, diverse cell types, neural circuits and, ultimately, cognition and behaviour. With a focus on transcriptomics, this Review discusses how high-throughput molecular, integrative and network approaches inform disease biology by placing human genetics in a molecular systems and neurobiological context. We provide a framework for interpreting network biology studies and leveraging big genomics data sets in neurobiology. PMID:26149713

  14. Functional Genomics Approach for Identification of Molecular Processes Underlying Neurodegenerative Disorders in Prion Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Urmila; Guan, Le Luo; Moore, Stephen S

    2012-01-01

    Prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are infectious neurodegenerative disorders leading to death. These include Cresutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), familial, sporadic and variant CJD and kuru in humans; and animal TSEs include scrapie in sheep, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle, chronic wasting disease (CWD) of mule deer and elk, and transmissible mink encephalopathy. All these TSEs share common pathological features such as accumulation of mis-folded prion proteins in the central nervous system leading to cellular dysfunction and cell death. It is important to characterize the molecular pathways and events leading to prion induced neurodegeneration. Here we discuss the impact of the functional genomics approaches including microarrays, subtractive hybridization and microRNA profiling in elucidating transcriptional cascades at different stages of disease. Many of these transcriptional changes have been observed in multiple neurodegenerative diseases which may aid in identification of biomarkers for disease. A comprehensive characterization of expression profiles implicated in neurodegenerative disorders will undoubtedly advance our understanding on neuropathology and dysfunction during prion disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. We also present an outlook on the future work which may focus on analysis of structural genetic variation, genome and transcriptome sequencing using next generation sequencing with an integrated approach on animal and human TSE related studies. PMID:23372423

  15. Trends in the Molecular Pathogenesis and Clinical Therapeutics of Common Neurodegenerative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Choonara, Yahya E.; Pillay, Viness; du Toit, Lisa C.; Modi, Girish; Naidoo, Dinesh; Ndesendo, Valence M.K.; Sibambo, Sibongile R.

    2009-01-01

    The term neurodegenerative disorders, encompasses a variety of underlying conditions, sporadic and/or familial and are characterized by the persistent loss of neuronal subtypes. These disorders can disrupt molecular pathways, synapses, neuronal subpopulations and local circuits in specific brain regions, as well as higher-order neural networks. Abnormal network activities may result in a vicious cycle, further impairing the integrity and functions of neurons and synapses, for example, through aberrant excitation or inhibition. The most common neurodegenerative disorders are Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Huntington’s disease. The molecular features of these disorders have been extensively researched and various unique neurotherapeutic interventions have been developed. However, there is an enormous coercion to integrate the existing knowledge in order to intensify the reliability with which neurodegenerative disorders can be diagnosed and treated. The objective of this review article is therefore to assimilate these disorders’ in terms of their neuropathology, neurogenetics, etiology, trends in pharmacological treatment, clinical management, and the use of innovative neurotherapeutic interventions. PMID:19582217

  16. Autophagy in the central nervous system: implications for neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Xilouri, Maria; Stefanis, Leonidas

    2010-12-01

    The autophagy-lysosomal pathway is a major proteolytic pathway that in mammalian systems mainly comprises of macroautophagy and chaperone-mediated autophagy. The former is relatively non-selective and involves bulk degradation of proteins and organelles, whereas the latter is selective for certain cytosolic proteins. These autophagy pathways are important in development, differentiation, cellular remodeling and survival during nutrient starvation. Autophagy is crucial for neuronal homeostasis and acts as a local housekeeping process, since neurons are post-mitotic cells and require effective protein degradation to prevent accumulation of toxic aggregates. A growing body of evidence now suggests that dysfunction of autophagy causes accumulation of abnormal proteins and/or damaged organelles. Such accumulation has been linked to synaptic dysfunction, cellular stress and neuronal death. Abnormal autophagy may be involved in the pathology of both chronic nervous system disorders, such as proteinopathies (Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's disease) and acute brain injuries. Although autophagy is generally beneficial, its aberrant activation may also exert a detrimental role in neurological diseases depending on the environment and the insult, leading to autophagic neuronal death. In this review we summarize the current knowledge regarding the role of autophagy-lysosomal pathway in the central nervous system and discuss the implication of autophagy dysregulation in human neurological diseases and animal models. PMID:20942791

  17. Diagnosis of congenital and adult-onset hypothyroidism in cats.

    PubMed

    Greco, Deborah S

    2006-02-01

    Whereas hyperthyroidism is the most common endocrine disorder in the cat, hypothyroidism is the least common feline endocrine disorder. This is a the result of several factors including low index of suspicion, rarity of the naturally occurring hypothyroidism in cats, and a lack of species specific tests for endogenous TSH and antithyroglobulin antibodies. Nonetheless, hypothyroidism does occur in cats, especially in kittens and after radioactive treatment for hyperthyroidism. The clinician should become familiar with the common presentations of congenital and adult-onset hypothyroidism in cats. In addition, some of the tests specific to dogs (such as endogenous canine TSH) may be utilized to diagnose subclinical hypothyroidism in cats. Fortunately, the treatment of feline hypothyroidism with synthetic levothyroxine is both straightforward and effective. PMID:16584030

  18. Adult onset retinoblastoma: A diagnostic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Raj, Amit; Arya, Sudesh Kumar; Punia, Rajpal Singh; Kohli, Piyush

    2016-01-01

    Retinoblastoma is the most common intraocular tumor of childhood. About 95% of retinoblastoma cases are diagnosed before the age of 5 years. Not more than 30 cases of Adult-onset retinoblastoma have been reported in literature. A 32 year old male presented with a painful blind eye. There was sudden loss of vision accompanied by severe pain and redness in right eye about 1 year ago, for which some surgery was done with neither a gain in vision nor any relief from pain. Then he was put on maximum tolerable medical therapy, later cyclocryotherapy was done. Now he presented to us with complains of extreme pain and bleeding from right eye since 2 days. There is no history of any ocular trauma. Right eye had no perception of light & showed anterior staphyloma with perforation. Right eye evisceration was done & material sent for histopathological examination, which revealed an adult-onset retinoblastoma. CECT scan revealed thickening of optic nerve throughout its entire length with contrast enhancement. He was further taken up for enucleation of residual sclera with maximum optic nerve stump removal to reconfirm the diagnosis. Histopathological examination revealed tumor deposits present in orbital soft tissue, resection margins and optic nerve cut end.Retinoblastoma presenting in adult age creates a diagnostic dilemma because of its low frequency and atypical features. We want to highlight the importance of high clinical suspicion and imaging modalities before taking any patient for evisceration with unexplained vision loss. One should send the eviscerated material for histopathological examination. PMID:26709674

  19. Redox Proteomics in Selected Neurodegenerative Disorders: From Its Infancy to Future Applications

    PubMed Central

    Perluigi, Marzia; Reed, Tanea; Muharib, Tasneem; Hughes, Christopher P.; Robinson, Renã A.S.; Sultana, Rukhsana

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Several studies demonstrated that oxidative damage is a characteristic feature of many neurodegenerative diseases. The accumulation of oxidatively modified proteins may disrupt cellular functions by affecting protein expression, protein turnover, cell signaling, and induction of apoptosis and necrosis, suggesting that protein oxidation could have both physiological and pathological significance. For nearly two decades, our laboratory focused particular attention on studying oxidative damage of proteins and how their chemical modifications induced by reactive oxygen species/reactive nitrogen species correlate with pathology, biochemical alterations, and clinical presentations of Alzheimer's disease. This comprehensive article outlines basic knowledge of oxidative modification of proteins and lipids, followed by the principles of redox proteomics analysis, which also involve recent advances of mass spectrometry technology, and its application to selected age-related neurodegenerative diseases. Redox proteomics results obtained in different diseases and animal models thereof may provide new insights into the main mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis and progression of oxidative-stress-related neurodegenerative disorders. Redox proteomics can be considered a multifaceted approach that has the potential to provide insights into the molecular mechanisms of a disease, to find disease markers, as well as to identify potential targets for drug therapy. Considering the importance of a better understanding of the cause/effect of protein dysfunction in the pathogenesis and progression of neurodegenerative disorders, this article provides an overview of the intrinsic power of the redox proteomics approach together with the most significant results obtained by our laboratory and others during almost 10 years of research on neurodegenerative disorders since we initiated the field of redox proteomics. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 17, 1610–1655. PMID:22115501

  20. Biology of Parkinson's disease: pathogenesis and pathophysiology of a multisystem neurodegenerative disorder

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Garrett E.

    2004-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common movement disorder. The characteristic motor impairments - bradykinesia, rigidity, and resting tremor - result from degenerative loss of midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra, and are responsive to symptomatic treatment with dopaminergic medications and functional neurosurgery. PD is also the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. Viewed from this perspective, PD is a disorder of multiple functional systems, not simply the motor system, and of multiple neurotransmitter systems, not merely that of DA. The characteristic pathology - intraneuronal Lewy body inclusions and reduced numbers of surviving neurons - is similar in each of the targeted neuron groups, suggesting a common neurodegenerative process. Pathological and experimental studies indicate that oxidative stress, proteolytic stress, and inflammation figure prominently in the pathogenesis of PD. Yet, whether any of these mechanisms plays a causal role in human PD is unknown, because to date we have no proven neuroprotective therapies that slow or reverse disease progression in patients with PD. We are beginning to understand the pathophysiology of motor dysfunction in PD, but its etiopathogenesis as a neurodegenerative disorder remains poorly understood. PMID:22033559

  1. Hydrogel-Based Nanocomposites and Mesenchymal Stem Cells: A Promising Synergistic Strategy for Neurodegenerative Disorders Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Albani, Diego; Gloria, Antonio; Giordano, Carmen; Rodilossi, Serena; Russo, Teresa; D'Amora, Ugo; Tunesi, Marta; Cigada, Alberto; Ambrosio, Luigi; Forloni, Gianluigi

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogel-based materials are widely employed in the biomedical field. With regard to central nervous system (CNS) neurodegenerative disorders, the design of injectable nanocomposite hydrogels for in situ drug or cell release represents an interesting and minimally invasive solution that might play a key role in the development of successful treatments. In particular, biocompatible and biodegradable hydrogels can be designed as specific injectable tools and loaded with nanoparticles (NPs), to improve and to tailor their viscoelastic properties upon injection and release profile. An intriguing application is hydrogel loading with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that are a very promising therapeutic tool for neurodegenerative or traumatic disorders of the CNS. This multidisciplinary review will focus on the basic concepts to design acellular and cell-loaded materials with specific and tunable rheological and functional properties. The use of hydrogel-based nanocomposites and mesenchymal stem cells as a synergistic strategy for nervous tissue applications will be then discussed. PMID:24459423

  2. Adult-Onset Still's Disease and Cardiac Tamponade: A Rare Association

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Doroteia; de Jesus Silva, Maria; André, Rui; Varela, Manuel Gato; Diogo, António Nunes

    2015-01-01

    Adult-onset Still's disease is a rare disorder with potentially severe clinical features, including cardiac involvement. This systemic inflammatory disease of unknown origin should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pericarditis, with or without pericardial effusion. Cardiac tamponade is a very rare sequela that requires an invasive approach, such as percutaneous or surgical pericardial drainage, in addition to the usual conservative therapy. The authors describe a case of adult-onset Still's disease rendered more difficult by pericarditis and cardiac tamponade, and they briefly review the literature on this entity. PMID:26175648

  3. The Pediatric Cerebellum in Inherited Neurodegenerative Disorders: A Pattern-recognition Approach.

    PubMed

    Blaser, Susan I; Steinlin, Maja; Al-Maawali, Almundher; Yoon, Grace

    2016-08-01

    Evaluation of imaging studies of the cerebellum in inherited neurodegenerative disorders is aided by attention to neuroimaging patterns based on anatomic determinants, including biometric analysis, hyperintense signal of structures, including the cerebellar cortex, white matter, dentate nuclei, brainstem tracts, and nuclei, the presence of cysts, brain iron, or calcifications, change over time, the use of diffusion-weighted/diffusion tensor imaging and T2*-weighted sequences, magnetic resonance spectroscopy; and, in rare occurrences, the administration of contrast material. PMID:27423800

  4. ‘The clocks that time us’—circadian rhythms in neurodegenerative disorders

    PubMed Central

    Videnovic, Aleksandar; Lazar, Alpar S.; Barker, Roger A.; Overeem, Sebastiaan

    2015-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are physiological and behavioural cycles generated by an endogenous biological clock, the suprachiasmatic nucleus. The circadian system influences the majority of physiological processes, including sleep–wake homeostasis. Impaired sleep and alertness are common symptoms of neurodegenerative disorders, and circadian dysfunction might exacerbate the disease process. The pathophysiology of sleep–wake disturbances in these disorders remains largely unknown, and is presumably multifactorial. Circadian rhythm dysfunction is often observed in patients with Alzheimer disease, in whom it has a major impact on quality of life and represents one of the most important factors leading to institutionalization of patients. Similarly, sleep and circadian problems represent common nonmotor features of Parkinson disease and Huntington disease. Clinical studies and experiments in animal models of neurodegenerative disorders have revealed the progressive nature of circadian dysfunction throughout the course of neurodegeneration, and suggest strategies for the restoration of circadian rhythmicity involving behavioural and pharmacological interventions that target the sleep–wake cycle. In this Review, we discuss the role of the circadian system in the regulation of the sleep–wake cycle, and outline the implications of disrupted circadian timekeeping in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25385339

  5. Phylogenetic diversity of the expression of the microtubule-associated protein tau: implications for neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Janke, C; Beck, M; Stahl, T; Holzer, M; Brauer, K; Bigl, V; Arendt, T

    1999-05-01

    The microtubule-associated protein tau regulates the dynamic stability of the neuronal cytoskeleton by interacting with microtubules. It is encoded by a single gene, but expressed in a variety of isoforms due to differential RNA splicing. Six isoforms can be found in the human central nervous system. These isoforms differ in their ability to promote the assembly of microtubules as well as in their capacity to stabilize existing microtubule structures. Furthermore, some of the isoforms of tau are specifically involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. Thus, splicing of tau might critically influence the physiological functions of tau protein as well as the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases with tauopathy. The present study addresses the differential expression of the six isoforms of tau in the central nervous system of 12 mammalian species including Homo sapiens. The occurrence of each of the six tau isoforms was highly variable. However, species that were phylogenetically related expressed a similar pattern of tau isoforms. These results suggest a phylogenetic descent of splicing paradigms, which can be matched with known phylogenetic concepts based on morphological and molecular genetical studies. Especially, the unique expression pattern of tau isoforms in the human central nervous system implicates a possible link to the particular vulnerability of humans to neurodegenerative disorders with tauopathy, namely Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia and Pick's disease. PMID:10320789

  6. Mutation analysis of patients with neurodegenerative disorders using NeuroX array.

    PubMed

    Ghani, Mahdi; Lang, Anthony E; Zinman, Lorne; Nacmias, Benedetta; Sorbi, Sandro; Bessi, Valentina; Tedde, Andrea; Tartaglia, Maria Carmela; Surace, Ezequiel I; Sato, Christine; Moreno, Danielle; Xi, Zhengrui; Hung, Rachel; Nalls, Mike A; Singleton, Andrew; St George-Hyslop, Peter; Rogaeva, Ekaterina

    2015-01-01

    Genetic analyses of patients with neurodegenerative disorders have identified multiple genes that need to be investigated for the presence of damaging variants. However, mutation analysis by Sanger sequencing is costly and time consuming. We tested the utility of a recently designed semi-custom genome-wide array (NeuroX; Illumina, Inc) tailored to study neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., mutation screening). We investigated 192 patients with 4 different neurodegenerative disorders for the presence of rare damaging variations in 77 genes implicated in these diseases. Several causative mutations were identified and confirmed by Sanger sequencing, including PSEN1 p.M233T responsible for Alzheimer's disease in a large Italian family, as well as SOD1 p.A4V and p.I113T in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In total, we identified 78 potentially damaging rare variants (frequency <1%), including ABCA7 p.L400V in a family with Alzheimer's disease and LRRK2 p.R1514Q in 6 of 98 patients with Parkinson's disease (6.1%). In conclusion, NeuroX appears to be helpful for rapid and accurate mutation screening, although further development may be still required to improve some current caveats. PMID:25174650

  7. Mutation analysis of patients with Neurodegenerative disorders using NeuroX array

    PubMed Central

    Ghani, Mahdi; Lang, Anthony E; Zinman, Lorne; Nacmias, Benedetta; Sorbi, Sandro; Tartaglia, Maria Carmela; Surace, Ezequiel I; Sato, Christine; Moreno, Danielle; Xi, Zhengrui; Hung, Rachel; Nalls, Mike A; Singleton, Andrew; George-Hyslop, Peter St; Rogaeva, Ekaterina

    2014-01-01

    Genetic analyses of patients with neurodegenerative disorders have identified multiple genes that need to be investigated for the presence of damaging variants. However, mutation analysis by Sanger sequencing is costly and time consuming. We tested the utility of a recently designed semi-custom genome-wide array (NeuroX; Illumina, Inc) tailored to study neurodegenerative diseases (e.g. mutation screening). We investigated 192 patients with four different neurodegenerative disorders for the presence of rare damaging variations in 77 genes implicated in these diseases. Several causative mutations were identified and confirmed by Sanger sequencing including PSEN1 p.M233T responsible for Alzheimer’s disease in a large Italian family, as well as SOD1 p.A4V and p.I113T in patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. In total, we identified 78 potentially damaging rare variants (frequency <1%), including ABCA7 p.L400V in a family with Alzheimer’s disease and LRRK2 p.R1514Q in 6 out 98 patients with Parkinson’s Disease (6.1%). In conclusion, NeuroX appears to be helpful for rapid and accurate mutation screening, although further development may be still required to improve some current caveats. PMID:25174650

  8. The relation of SMI and the VSEP in a risk sample for neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Katja; Ehlis, Ann-Christine; Haeussinger, Florian B; Beeretz, Stefan; Kromer, Gina V; Heinzel, Sebastian; Maetzler, Walter; Eschweiler, Gerhard W; Berg, Daniela; Fallgatter, Andreas J; Metzger, Florian G

    2015-08-01

    Vagus somatosensory evoked potentials (VSEP) have been shown to have higher latencies with aging, which are even more increased in patients with Alzheimer's disease and subjects with mild cognitive impairment compared to age-matched healthy controls. In this study, the association of VSEP with subjective memory impairment (SMI), a potential risk or prodromal marker for Alzheimer's disease, was examined. The association of VSEP latencies and SMI was studied in a healthy risk cohort, including 358 elderly subjects, who are in a longitudinal study of risk factors for neurodegenerative disorders. The results show increased VSEP latencies for peak P2 at Fz-F4 in subjects who report SMI and are worried about it as compared to subjects who report memory impairment, but are not concerned and subjects without complaints. The results support a potential role of VSEP for the detection of very early neurodegenerative processes which may precede Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25520210

  9. Changes in mitochondrial function are pivotal in neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders: How important is BDNF?

    PubMed Central

    Markham, A; Bains, R; Franklin, P; Spedding, M

    2014-01-01

    The brain is at the very limit of its energy supply and has evolved specific means of adapting function to energy supply, of which mitochondria form a crucial link. Neurotrophic and inflammatory processes may not only have opposite effects on neuroplasticity, but also involve opposite effects on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and glycolytic processes, respectively, modulated by stress and glucocorticoids, which also have marked effects on mood. Neurodegenerative processes show marked disorders in oxidative metabolism in key brain areas, sometimes decades before symptoms appear (Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases). We argue that brain-derived neurotrophic factor couples activity to changes in respiratory efficiency and these effects may be opposed by inflammatory cytokines, a key factor in neurodegenerative processes. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed issue on Mitochondrial Pharmacology: Energy, Injury & Beyond. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-8 PMID:24720259

  10. Phenotypes, Risk Factors, and Mechanisms of Adult-Onset Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Ilmarinen, Pinja; Tuomisto, Leena E.; Kankaanranta, Hannu

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous disease with many phenotypes, and age at disease onset is an important factor in separating the phenotypes. Genetic factors, atopy, and early respiratory tract infections are well-recognized factors predisposing to childhood-onset asthma. Adult-onset asthma is more often associated with obesity, smoking, depression, or other life-style or environmental factors, even though genetic factors and respiratory tract infections may also play a role in adult-onset disease. Adult-onset asthma is characterized by absence of atopy and is often severe requiring treatment with high dose of inhaled and/or oral steroids. Variety of risk factors and nonatopic nature of adult-onset disease suggest that variety of mechanisms is involved in the disease pathogenesis and that these mechanisms differ from the pathobiology of childhood-onset asthma with prevailing Th2 airway inflammation. Recognition of the mechanisms and mediators that drive the adult-onset disease helps to develop novel strategies for the treatment. The aim of this review was to summarize the current knowledge on the pathogenesis of adult-onset asthma and to concentrate on the mechanisms and mediators involved in establishing adult-onset asthma in response to specific risk factors. We also discuss the involvement of these mechanisms in the currently recognized phenotypes of adult-onset asthma. PMID:26538828

  11. Late-adult onset Leigh syndrome.

    PubMed

    McKelvie, Penelope; Infeld, Bernard; Marotta, Rosetta; Chin, Judy; Thorburn, David; Collins, Steven

    2012-02-01

    We report an illustrative case of a 74-year-old man who, in the absence of intercurrent illness, presented with rapid cognitive decline. MRI showed bilateral, symmetrical, high T2-weighted signal in the anterior basal ganglia and medial thalami, extending to the periaqueductal grey matter, basal ganglia and basal frontal lobes. A (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography scan showed widespread reduction of metabolism in the cortex of the frontal, temporal and parietal lobes, posterior cingulate gyrus, precuneus and caudate nuclei, with sparing of the sensorimotor cortex, thalami and lentiform nuclei. A mild vitamin B12 deficiency was found and despite normal thiamine levels, intravenous (IV) thiamine and vitamin B therapy was commenced, with a short course of IV methylprednisolone and tetracycline. Repeat neuropsychological assessment four weeks following treatment revealed increased alertness and interactiveness but significant cognitive decline persisted. Unexpectedly, the patient suffered a transmural anterior myocardial infarction six weeks after presentation and died within 24hours. An a autopsy showed: global reduction in cytochrome oxidase (COX) activity in all skeletal muscles examined; bilateral, symmetrical, hypervascular, focally necrotizing lesions in the substantia nigra, periaqueductal grey matter, superior colliculi, medial thalami anteriorly and posteriorly, as well as in the putamena but the mammillary bodies were not affected. Biochemical analysis of fresh muscle confirmed selective deficiency of complex IV of the oxidative phosphorylation chain. A diagnosis of late-adult onset Leigh syndrome was made. Multiple genetic studies failed to identify the specific underlying mutation. The relevant literature is reviewed. PMID:22273117

  12. Endogenous neuroprotection in chronic neurodegenerative disorders: with particular regard to the kynurenines

    PubMed Central

    Zádori, Dénes; Klivényi, Péter; Plangár, Imola; Toldi, József; Vécsei, László

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Parkinson’s disease (PD) and Huntington’s disease (HD) are progressive chronic neurodegenerative disorders that are accompanied by a considerable impairment of the motor functions. PD may develop for familial or sporadic reasons, whereas HD is based on a definite genetic mutation. Nevertheless, the pathological processes involve oxidative stress and glutamate excitotoxicity in both cases. A number of metabolic routes are affected in these disorders. The decrease in antioxidant capacity and alterations in the kynurenine pathway, the main pathway of the tryptophan metabolism, are features that deserve particular interest, because the changes in levels of neuroactive kynurenine pathway compounds appear to be strongly related to the oxidative stress and glutamate excitotoxicity involved in the disease pathogenesis. Increase of the antioxidant capacity and pharmacological manipulation of the kynurenine pathway are therefore promising therapeutic targets in these devastating disorders. PMID:21155972

  13. The Role of Cathepsin D in the Pathogenesis of Human Neurodegenerative Disorders.

    PubMed

    Vidoni, Chiara; Follo, Carlo; Savino, Miriam; Melone, Mariarosa A B; Isidoro, Ciro

    2016-09-01

    In familial neurodegenerative disorders, protein aggregates form continuously because of genetic mutations that drive the synthesis of truncated or unfolded proteins. The oxidative stress imposed by neurotransmitters and environmental neurotoxins constitutes an additional threat to the folding of the proteins and the integrity of organelle membranes in neurons. Failure in degrading such altered materials compromises the function of neurons and eventually leads to neurodegeneration. The lysosomal proteolytic enzyme Cathepsin D is the only aspartic-type protease ubiquitously expressed in all the cells of the human body, and it is expressed at high level in the brain. In general, cathepsin D mediated proteolysis is essential to neuronal cell homeostasis through the degradation of unfolded or oxidized protein aggregates delivered to lysosomes via autophagy or endocytosis. More specifically, many altered neuronal proteins that hallmark neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., the amyloid precursor, α-synuclein, and huntingtin) are physiologic substrates of cathepsin D and would abnormally accumulate if not efficiently degraded by this enzyme. Furthermore, experimental evidence indicates that cathepsin D activity is linked to the metabolism of cholesterol and of glycosaminoglycans, which accounts for its involvement in neuronal plasticity. This review focuses on the unique role of cathepsin D mediated proteolysis in the pathogenesis of human neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27114232

  14. Short non-coding RNA biology and neurodegenerative disorders: novel disease targets and therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, Marc S.; Wood, Matthew J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Genomic studies in model organisms and in humans have shown that complexity in biological systems arises not from the absolute number of genes, but from the differential use of combinations of genetic programmes and the myriad ways in which these are regulated spatially and temporally during development, senescence and in disease. Nowhere is this lesson in biological complexity likely to be more apparent than in the human nervous system. Increasingly, the role of genomic non-protein coding small regulatory RNAs, in particular the microRNAs (miRNAs), in regulating cellular pathways controlling fundamental functions in the nervous system and in neurodegenerative disease is being appreciated. Not only might dysregulated expression of miRNAs serve as potential disease biomarkers but increasingly such short regulatory RNAs are being implicated directly in the pathogenesis of complex, sporadic neurodegenerative disease. Moreover, the targeting and exploitation of short RNA silencing pathways, commonly known as RNA interference, and the development of related tools, offers novel therapeutic approaches to target upstream disease components with the promise of providing future disease modifying therapies for neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:19297399

  15. Visual Hallucinations in the Psychosis Spectrum and Comparative Information From Neurodegenerative Disorders and Eye Disease

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Flavie; Collerton, Daniel; ffytche, Dominic H.; Jardri, Renaud; Pins, Delphine; Dudley, Robert; Blom, Jan Dirk; Mosimann, Urs Peter; Eperjesi, Frank; Ford, Stephen; Larøi, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Much of the research on visual hallucinations (VHs) has been conducted in the context of eye disease and neurodegenerative conditions, but little is known about these phenomena in psychiatric and nonclinical populations. The purpose of this article is to bring together current knowledge regarding VHs in the psychosis phenotype and contrast this data with the literature drawn from neurodegenerative disorders and eye disease. The evidence challenges the traditional views that VHs are atypical or uncommon in psychosis. The weighted mean for VHs is 27% in schizophrenia, 15% in affective psychosis, and 7.3% in the general community. VHs are linked to a more severe psychopathological profile and less favorable outcome in psychosis and neurodegenerative conditions. VHs typically co-occur with auditory hallucinations, suggesting a common etiological cause. VHs in psychosis are also remarkably complex, negative in content, and are interpreted to have personal relevance. The cognitive mechanisms of VHs in psychosis have rarely been investigated, but existing studies point to source-monitoring deficits and distortions in top-down mechanisms, although evidence for visual processing deficits, which feature strongly in the organic literature, is lacking. Brain imaging studies point to the activation of visual cortex during hallucinations on a background of structural and connectivity changes within wider brain networks. The relationship between VHs in psychosis, eye disease, and neurodegeneration remains unclear, although the pattern of similarities and differences described in this review suggests that comparative studies may have potentially important clinical and theoretical implications. PMID:24936084

  16. [Epigenetic heredity (deoxyribonucleic acid methylation): Clinical context in neurodegenerative disorders and ATXN2 gene].

    PubMed

    Laffita-Mesa, José Miguel; Bauer, Peter

    2014-10-21

    Epigenetics is the group of changes in the phenotype which are related with the process independently of the primary DNA sequence. These changes are intimately related with changes in the gene expression level and its profile across the body. These are mediated by histone tail modifications, DNA methylation, micro-RNAs, with chromatin remodeling remaining as the foundation of epigenetic changes. DNA methylation involves the covalent addition of methyl group to cytosine of the DNA, which is mediated by methyltransferases enzymes. DNA methylation regulates gene expression by repressing transcription, while de-methylation activates gene transcription. Several human diseases are related with the epigenetic process: cancer, Alzheimer disease, stroke, Parkinson disease, and diabetes. We present here the basis of epigenetic inheritance and show the pathogenic mechanisms relating epigenetics in human diseases, specifically with regard to neurodegeneration. We discuss current concepts aimed at understanding the contribution of epigenetics to human neurodegenerative diseases. We also discuss recent findings obtained in our and other centers regarding the ATXN2 gene that causes spinocerebellar ataxia 2 and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Epigenetics play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of human diseases and in several neurodegenerative disorders, and this knowledge will illuminate the pathways in the diagnostic and therapeutic field, which ultimately will be translated into the clinic context of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24485162

  17. Recent prospective of surface engineered Nanoparticles in the management of Neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Singh, Devendra; Kapahi, Himani; Rashid, Muzamil; Prakash, Atish; Majeed, Abu Bakar Abdul; Mishra, Neeraj

    2016-05-01

    Clinically, the therapeutic outcomes in neurodegenerative disorders (NDs) by drug treatment are very limited, and the most insurmountable obstacle in the treatment of NDs is the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which provides the highest level of protection from xenobiotics. A great deal of attention still needs to be paid to overcome these barriers, and surface-engineered polymeric nanoparticles are emerging as innovative tools that are able to interact with the biological system at a molecular level for the desired response. The present review covers the potential importance of surface-structure-engineered nanoparticles to overcome the BBB for good bioavailability, and the evaluation of drug therapy in NDs. PMID:26107112

  18. Lower urinary tract dysfunction in patients with parkinsonism and other neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Winge, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Progressive neurodegenerative disorders are devastating diseases with often fatal outcomes. Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) add to morbidity and increase the risk of becoming dependent on the help of others (e.g., nursing-home referral). In Parkinson's disease (PD), the specific loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and possibly also in the ventral tegmental area induces loss of neurogenic bladder control through dysfunction of a complex network in which selective disinhibition of bladder reflexes is lost. In PD, more than 60% of patients have troublesome bladder symptoms, and 30% experience incontinence, though not daily. In atypical parkinsonism, including multiple system atrophy, LUTS are highly prevalent, and the onset of LUTS in comparison to other autonomic symptoms and motor symptoms may serve as a diagnostic marker. Less is known about the pathophysiology of incontinence in Alzheimer's disease, but higher cognitive function including attention and self-management may play a role. Incontinence is a major risk factor for loss of independence. The complex pathophysiologic mechanisms of neurodegenerative disorders and hence complex symptoms play important roles in LUTS and patient quality of life. Nocturia, incontinence, and urgency as well as poor bladder emptying are the most common symptoms. These symptoms may interact with the core symptoms of the disorders, increasing the risk of incontinence and infection. In rarer neurogenerative disorder LUTS may be present, most commonly in disorders with spinal cord involvement. The systematic and careful tracking of symptoms, evaluation using non-invasive techniques, and conservative management including pharmacologic treatments can often markedly improve the lives of patients and their caregivers. PMID:26003253

  19. RTP801/REDD1: a stress coping regulator that turns into a troublemaker in neurodegenerative disorders

    PubMed Central

    Canal, Mercè; Romaní-Aumedes, Joan; Martín-Flores, Núria; Pérez-Fernández, Víctor; Malagelada, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Mechanistic target of Rapamycin (mTOR) pathway regulates essential processes directed to preserve cellular homeostasis, such as cell growth, proliferation, survival, protein synthesis and autophagy. Importantly, mTOR pathway deregulation has been related to many diseases. Indeed, it has become a hallmark in neurodegenerative disorders, since a fine-tuned regulation of mTOR activities is crucial for neuron function and survival. RTP801/REDD1/Dig2 has become one of the most puzzling regulators of mTOR. Although the mechanism is not completely understood, RTP801 inactivates mTOR and Akt via the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC1/TSC2) in many cellular contexts. Intriguingly, RTP801 protects dividing cells from hypoxia or H2O2-induced apoptosis, while it sensitizes differentiated cells to stress. Based on experimental models of Parkinson’s disease (PD), it has been proposed that at early stages of the disease, stress-induced RTP801 upregulation contributes to mTOR repression, in an attempt to maintain cell function and viability. However, if RTP801 elevation is sustained, it leads to neuron cell death by a sequential inhibition of mTOR and Akt. Here, we will review RTP801 deregulation of mTOR in a context of PD and other neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:25324725

  20. Epidemic spreading model to characterize misfolded proteins propagation in aging and associated neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Iturria-Medina, Yasser; Sotero, Roberto C; Toussaint, Paule J; Evans, Alan C

    2014-11-01

    Misfolded proteins (MP) are a key component in aging and associated neurodegenerative disorders. For example, misfolded Amyloid-ß (Aß) and tau proteins are two neuropathogenic hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease. Mechanisms underlying intra-brain MP propagation/deposition remain essentially uncharacterized. Here, is introduced an epidemic spreading model (ESM) for MP dynamics that considers propagation-like interactions between MP agents and the brain's clearance response across the structural connectome. The ESM reproduces advanced Aß deposition patterns in the human brain (explaining 46∼56% of the variance in regional Aß loads, in 733 subjects from the ADNI database). Furthermore, this model strongly supports a) the leading role of Aß clearance deficiency and early Aß onset age during Alzheimer's disease progression, b) that effective anatomical distance from Aß outbreak region explains regional Aß arrival time and Aß deposition likelihood, c) the multi-factorial impact of APOE e4 genotype, gender and educational level on lifetime intra-brain Aß propagation, and d) the modulatory impact of Aß propagation history on tau proteins concentrations, supporting the hypothesis of an interrelated pathway between Aß pathophysiology and tauopathy. To our knowledge, the ESM is the first computational model highlighting the direct link between structural brain networks, production/clearance of pathogenic proteins and associated intercellular transfer mechanisms, individual genetic/demographic properties and clinical states in health and disease. In sum, the proposed ESM constitutes a promising framework to clarify intra-brain region to region transference mechanisms associated with aging and neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:25412207

  1. Quetiapine for Psychosis in Parkinson Disease and Neurodegenerative Parkinsonian Disorders: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Desmarais, Philippe; Massoud, Fadi; Filion, Josée; Nguyen, Quoc Dinh; Bajsarowicz, Paulina

    2016-07-01

    We performed a systematic review of randomized controlled trials to assess the high-level evidence regarding the role of quetiapine in the treatment of psychosis in patients with neurodegenerative parkinsonian disorders. Studies were included in the qualitative review if they (1) enrolled participants with diagnosis of Parkinson disease, Lewy body dementia, or any other neurodegenerative parkinsonian disorders; (2) assessed the efficacy of quetiapine; and (3) evaluated psychotic and motor outcomes using validated tools. Of the 341 manuscripts identified, 7 studies fulfilled our inclusion criteria. The studies' risk of bias was considered low. A total of 241 participants enrolled in these trials. Heterogeneity was high due to inclusion criteria, user definitions, assessment tools, and study design. Although not causing any motor deterioration, quetiapine failed to significantly reduce psychotic symptoms compared to placebo when objectively assessed on the Brief Psychotic Rating Scale, the most frequently reported scale in these studies. High loss to follow-up and dropout rates as well as significant improvement in psychotic symptoms in the placebo groups may have affected measurements of possible positive medication effects. PMID:27056066

  2. Epidemic Spreading Model to Characterize Misfolded Proteins Propagation in Aging and Associated Neurodegenerative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Iturria-Medina, Yasser; Sotero, Roberto C.; Toussaint, Paule J.; Evans, Alan C.

    2014-01-01

    Misfolded proteins (MP) are a key component in aging and associated neurodegenerative disorders. For example, misfolded Amyloid-ß (Aß) and tau proteins are two neuropathogenic hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease. Mechanisms underlying intra-brain MP propagation/deposition remain essentially uncharacterized. Here, is introduced an epidemic spreading model (ESM) for MP dynamics that considers propagation-like interactions between MP agents and the brain's clearance response across the structural connectome. The ESM reproduces advanced Aß deposition patterns in the human brain (explaining 46∼56% of the variance in regional Aß loads, in 733 subjects from the ADNI database). Furthermore, this model strongly supports a) the leading role of Aß clearance deficiency and early Aß onset age during Alzheimer's disease progression, b) that effective anatomical distance from Aß outbreak region explains regional Aß arrival time and Aß deposition likelihood, c) the multi-factorial impact of APOE e4 genotype, gender and educational level on lifetime intra-brain Aß propagation, and d) the modulatory impact of Aß propagation history on tau proteins concentrations, supporting the hypothesis of an interrelated pathway between Aß pathophysiology and tauopathy. To our knowledge, the ESM is the first computational model highlighting the direct link between structural brain networks, production/clearance of pathogenic proteins and associated intercellular transfer mechanisms, individual genetic/demographic properties and clinical states in health and disease. In sum, the proposed ESM constitutes a promising framework to clarify intra-brain region to region transference mechanisms associated with aging and neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:25412207

  3. Current Neurogenic and Neuroprotective Strategies to Prevent and Treat Neurodegenerative and Neuropsychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, I M; Coelho, P B; Costa, P C; Marques, C S; Oliveira, R S; Ferreira, D C

    2015-12-01

    The adult central nervous system is commonly known to have a very limited regenerative capacity. The presence of functional stem cells in the brain can therefore be seen as a paradox, since in other organs these are known to counterbalance cell loss derived from pathological conditions. This fact has therefore raised the possibility to stimulate neural stem cell differentiation and proliferation or survival by either stem cell replacement therapy or direct administration of neurotrophic factors or other proneurogenic molecules, which in turn has also originated regenerative medicine for the treatment of otherwise incurable neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders that take a huge toll on society. This may be facilitated by the fact that many of these disorders converge on similar pathophysiological pathways: excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, mitochondrial failure, excessive intracellular calcium and apoptosis. This review will therefore focus on the most promising achievements in promoting neuroprotection and neuroregeneration reported to date. PMID:26374113

  4. Structural disorder and the loss of RNA homeostasis in aging and neurodegenerative disease

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Douglas A.; Woulfe, John

    2013-01-01

    Whereas many cases of neurodegenerative disease feature the abnormal accumulation of protein, an abundance of recent literature highlights loss of RNA homeostasis as a ubiquitous and central feature of pathological states. In some diseases expanded repeats have been identified in non-coding regions of disease-associated transcripts, calling into question the relevance of protein in the disease mechanism. We review the literature in support of a hypothesis that intrinsically disordered proteins (proteins that lack a stable three dimensional conformation) are particularly sensitive to an age-related decline in maintenance of protein homeostasis. The potential consequences for structurally disordered RNA-binding proteins are explored, including their aggregation into complexes that could be transmitted through a prion-like mechanism. We propose that the spread of ribonucleoprotein complexes through the nervous system could propagate a neuronal error catastrophe at the level of RNA metabolism. PMID:23967011

  5. Epigenetic mechanisms in neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disease

    PubMed Central

    Jakovcevski, Mira; Akbarian, Schahram

    2013-01-01

    The exploration of brain epigenomes, which consist of various types of DNA methylation and covalent histone modifications, is providing new and unprecedented insights into the mechanisms of normal neural development, neurological disease and aging. Traditionally, chromatin defects in brain were considered static lesions of early development that occurred in the context of rare genetic syndromes but it is now clear that mutations and maladaptations of the epigenetic machinery cover a much wider continuum, including adult-onset neurodegenerative disease. Here, we describe how recent advances in neuroepigenetics have contributed to an improved mechanistic understanding of developmental and degenerative brain disorders, as well as how they could influence the development of future therapies for these conditions. PMID:22869198

  6. Targeting innate immunity for neurodegenerative disorders of the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Andreasson, Katrin I; Bachstetter, Adam D; Colonna, Marco; Ginhoux, Florent; Holmes, Clive; Lamb, Bruce; Landreth, Gary; Lee, Daniel C; Low, Donovan; Lynch, Marina A; Monsonego, Alon; O'Banion, M Kerry; Pekny, Milos; Puschmann, Till; Russek-Blum, Niva; Sandusky, Leslie A; Selenica, Maj-Linda B; Takata, Kazuyuki; Teeling, Jessica; Town, Terrence; Van Eldik, Linda J

    2016-09-01

    Neuroinflammation is critically involved in numerous neurodegenerative diseases, and key signaling steps of innate immune activation hence represent promising therapeutic targets. This mini review series originated from the 4th Venusberg Meeting on Neuroinflammation held in Bonn, Germany, 7-9th May 2015, presenting updates on innate immunity in acute brain injury and chronic neurodegenerative disorders, such as traumatic brain injury and Alzheimer disease, on the role of astrocytes and microglia, as well as technical developments that may help elucidate neuroinflammatory mechanisms and establish clinical relevance. In this meeting report, a brief overview of physiological and pathological microglia morphology is followed by a synopsis on PGE2 receptors, insights into the role of arginine metabolism and further relevant aspects of neuroinflammation in various clinical settings, and concluded by a presentation of technical challenges and solutions when working with microglia and astrocyte cultures. Microglial ontogeny and induced pluripotent stem cell-derived microglia, advances of TREM2 signaling, and the cytokine paradox in Alzheimer's disease are further contributions to this article. Neuroinflammation is critically involved in numerous neurodegenerative diseases, and key signaling steps of innate immune activation hence represent promising therapeutic targets. This mini review series originated from the 4th Venusberg Meeting on Neuroinflammation held in Bonn, Germany, 7-9th May 2015, presenting updates on innate immunity in acute brain injury and chronic neurodegenerative disorders, such as traumatic brain injury and Alzheimer's disease, on the role of astrocytes and microglia, as well as technical developments that may help elucidate neuroinflammatory mechanisms and establish clinical relevance. In this meeting report, a brief overview on physiological and pathological microglia morphology is followed by a synopsis on PGE2 receptors, insights into the role of

  7. Adult-onset Satoyoshi syndrome and response to plasmapheresis

    PubMed Central

    Aghoram, Rajeshwari; Srijithesh, P. R.; Kannoth, Sudheeran

    2016-01-01

    Satoyoshi syndrome is a rare disease characterized by alopecia, recurrent muscle spasms, diarrhea, and skeletal abnormalities Adult-onset disease is reported only in five patients. Most of the reports have not characterized the nature of muscle spasm in the disease. In this paper, we report the first case of adult-onset Satoyoshi syndrome from India and the clinical and electrophysiological response to plasmapheresis. PMID:27011647

  8. Pathological Propagation through Cell-to-Cell Transmission of Non-Prion Protein Aggregates in Neurodegenerative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Jae; Desplats, Paula; Sigurdson, Christina; Tsigelny, Igor; Masliah, Eliezer

    2016-01-01

    Neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease, fronto-temporal dementia, Huntington's Disease and Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) are characterized by progressive accumulation of protein aggregates in selected brain regions. Protein misfolding and templated assembly into aggregates might result from an imbalance between protein synthesis, aggregation and clearance. While protein misfolding and aggregation occur in most neurodegenerative disorders, the concept of spreading and infectivity of aggregates in the CNS has been reserved to prion diseases such as CJD and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Emerging evidence suggests that prion-like spreading may occur in other neurodegenerative disorders, taking place with secreted proteins, such as amyloid-β,) and cytosolic proteins, such as tau, huntingtin and α-synuclein. Underlying molecular mechanisms and therapeutic implications are discussed. PMID:21045796

  9. Epigenetic Research of Neurodegenerative Disorders Using Patient iPSC-Based Models

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms play a role in human disease but their involvement in pathologies from the central nervous system has been hampered by the complexity of the brain together with its unique cellular architecture and diversity. Until recently, disease targeted neural types were only available as postmortem materials after many years of disease evolution. Current in vitro systems of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) generated by cell reprogramming of somatic cells from patients have provided valuable disease models recapitulating key pathological molecular events. Yet whether cell reprogramming on itself implies a truly epigenetic reprogramming, the epigenetic mechanisms governing this process are only partially understood. Moreover, elucidating epigenetic regulation using patient-specific iPSC-derived neural models is expected to have a great impact to unravel the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases and to hopefully expand future therapeutic possibilities. Here we will critically review current knowledge of epigenetic involvement in neurodegenerative disorders focusing on the potential of iPSCs as a promising tool for epigenetic research of these diseases. PMID:26697081

  10. Adult-onset foveomacular vitelliform dystrophy: A fresh perspective.

    PubMed

    Chowers, Itay; Tiosano, Liran; Audo, Isabelle; Grunin, Michelle; Boon, Camiel J F

    2015-07-01

    Adult-onset foveomacular vitelliform dystrophy (AFVD) was first described by Gass four decades ago. AFVD is characterized by subretinal vitelliform macular lesions and is usually diagnosed after the age of 40. The lesions gradually increase and then decrease in size over the years, leaving an area of atrophic outer retina and retinal pigment epithelium. This process is accompanied by a loss of visual acuity. Vitelliform lesions are hyperautofluorescent and initially have a dome-shaped appearance on optical coherence tomography. The electro-oculogram and full-field electroretinogram are typically normal, indicating localized retinal pathology. Phenocopies are also associated with other ocular disorders, such as vitreomacular traction, age-related macular degeneration, pseudodrusen, and central serous chorioretinopathy. A minority of AFVD patients have a mutation in the PRPH2, BEST1, IMPG1, or IMPG2 genes. A single-nucleotide polymorphism in the HTRA1 gene has also been associated with this phenotype. Accordingly, the phenotype can arise from alterations in the photoreceptors, retinal pigment epithelium, and/or interphotoreceptor matrix depending on the underlying gene defect. Excess photoreceptor outer segment production and/or impaired outer segment uptake due to impaired phagocytosis are likely underlying mechanisms. At present, no cure is available for AFVD. Thus, the current challenges in the field include identifying the underlying cause in the majority of AFVD cases and the development of effective therapeutic approaches. PMID:25681578

  11. [Signaling molecules in the brain and epigenetic factors in neurodegenerative and mental disorders].

    PubMed

    Gomazkov, O A

    2015-01-01

    The literature on a role of signaling molecules in the organization of memory and cognitive functions is analyzed basing on mechanisms of memory physiology determined by a complex of biochemical processes initiated by the transmission of the signal to the synapse and completed by the synthesis of functionally significant molecules in the neuronal genetic apparatus. The center of these processes is a coordinated system of signal transduction, transcription, epigenetic and neurotrophic molecules. The dissonance of signal mechanisms is a prime cause of memory impairment and cognitive dysfunction as social maladaptation factors. The results of experimental and clinical studies of a role of the multilevel signaling system in age-related, neurodegenerative (Alzheimer’s disease) and mental (depression) disorders are discussed. At the same time, signaling molecules may be considered as particular targets for new therapeutic approaches. PMID:26649375

  12. Adult bone marrow: which stem cells for cellular therapy protocols in neurodegenerative disorders?

    PubMed

    Wislet-Gendebien, Sabine; Laudet, Emerence; Neirinckx, Virginie; Rogister, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    The generation of neuronal cells from stem cells obtained from adult bone marrow is of significant clinical interest in order to design new cell therapy protocols for several neurological disorders. The recent identification in adult bone marrow of stem cells derived from the neural crests (NCSCs) might explain the neuronal phenotypic plasticity shown by bone marrow cells. However, little information is available about the nature of these cells compared to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In this paper, we will review all information available concerning NCSC from adult tissues and their possible use in regenerative medicine. Moreover, as multiple recent studies showed the beneficial effect of bone marrow stromal cells in neurodegenerative diseases, we will discuss which stem cells isolated from adult bone marrow should be more suitable for cell replacement therapy. PMID:22319243

  13. Adult Bone Marrow: Which Stem Cells for Cellular Therapy Protocols in Neurodegenerative Disorders?

    PubMed Central

    Wislet-Gendebien, Sabine; Laudet, Emerence; Neirinckx, Virginie; Rogister, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    The generation of neuronal cells from stem cells obtained from adult bone marrow is of significant clinical interest in order to design new cell therapy protocols for several neurological disorders. The recent identification in adult bone marrow of stem cells derived from the neural crests (NCSCs) might explain the neuronal phenotypic plasticity shown by bone marrow cells. However, little information is available about the nature of these cells compared to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In this paper, we will review all information available concerning NCSC from adult tissues and their possible use in regenerative medicine. Moreover, as multiple recent studies showed the beneficial effect of bone marrow stromal cells in neurodegenerative diseases, we will discuss which stem cells isolated from adult bone marrow should be more suitable for cell replacement therapy. PMID:22319243

  14. Tool use disorders in neurodegenerative diseases: Roles of semantic memory and technical reasoning.

    PubMed

    Baumard, Josselin; Lesourd, Mathieu; Jarry, Christophe; Merck, Catherine; Etcharry-Bouyx, Frédérique; Chauviré, Valérie; Belliard, Serge; Moreaud, Olivier; Croisile, Bernard; Osiurak, François; Le Gall, Didier

    2016-09-01

    In the field of apraxia, it has been suggested that the ability to use tools and objects in daily life depends not only on semantic knowledge about tool function and context of use but also on technical reasoning about mechanical properties of tools and objects. The aim of the present work was to assess tool use abilities regarding these hypotheses in patients with neurodegenerative diseases and reduced autonomy. Performance of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) (n = 31), semantic dementia (SD) (n = 16) and corticobasal syndrome (CBS) (n = 7) was compared to that of healthy control participants (n = 31) in familiar tool use tasks, functional/contextual associations and mechanical problem solving (MPS). A conversion method was applied to data in order to avoid ceiling effects. Tool use disorders were found in all patient groups but the underlying reasons were different. Patients with SD had difficulties in imagining and selecting familiar tools due to the semantic loss but they performed in normal range in MPS tasks. Interestingly, they performed better with only one tool and its corresponding object, which is interpreted as a partial compensation of semantic loss by spared technical reasoning. Patients with CBS exhibited the reverse pattern, that is, MPS deficits without semantic loss. However, additional qualitative research is needed to disentangle the relative contributions of motor and technical reasoning deficits to this pattern. Both of these profiles were found in patients with AD. For all that, these patients did not commit the same errors as stroke patients with left brain-damage documented in previous works. Several hypotheses are proposed to account for the specificity of tool use disorders in neurodegenerative diseases, and recommendations are provided to caregivers. PMID:27376932

  15. Niemann-Pick C disease gene mutations and age-related neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Zech, Michael; Nübling, Georg; Castrop, Florian; Jochim, Angela; Schulte, Eva C; Mollenhauer, Brit; Lichtner, Peter; Peters, Annette; Gieger, Christian; Marquardt, Thorsten; Vanier, Marie T; Latour, Philippe; Klünemann, Hans; Trenkwalder, Claudia; Diehl-Schmid, Janine; Perneczky, Robert; Meitinger, Thomas; Oexle, Konrad; Haslinger, Bernhard; Lorenzl, Stefan; Winkelmann, Juliane

    2013-01-01

    Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease is a rare autosomal-recessively inherited lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in NPC1 (95%) or NPC2. Given the highly variable phenotype, diagnosis is challenging and particularly late-onset forms with predominantly neuropsychiatric presentations are likely underdiagnosed. Pathophysiologically, genetic alterations compromising the endosomal/lysosomal system are linked with age-related neurodegenerative disorders. We sought to examine a possible association of rare sequence variants in NPC1 and NPC2 with Parkinson's disease (PD), frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and to genetically determine the proportion of potentially misdiagnosed NPC patients in these neurodegenerative conditions. By means of high-resolution melting, we screened the coding regions of NPC1 and NPC2 for rare genetic variation in a homogenous German sample of patients clinically diagnosed with PD (n = 563), FTLD (n = 133) and PSP (n = 94), and 846 population-based controls. The frequencies of rare sequence variants in NPC1/2 did not differ significantly between patients and controls. Disease-associated NPC1/2 mutations were found in six PD patients (1.1%) and seven control subjects (0.8%), but not in FTLD or PSP. All rare variation was detected in the heterozygous state and no compound heterozygotes were observed. Our data do not support the hypothesis that rare NPC1/2 variants confer susceptibility for PD, FTLD, or PSP in the German population. Misdiagnosed NPC patients were not present in our samples. However, further assessment of NPC disease genes in age-related neurodegeneration is warranted. PMID:24386122

  16. Niemann-Pick C Disease Gene Mutations and Age-Related Neurodegenerative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Zech, Michael; Nübling, Georg; Castrop, Florian; Jochim, Angela; Schulte, Eva C.; Mollenhauer, Brit; Lichtner, Peter; Peters, Annette; Gieger, Christian; Marquardt, Thorsten; Vanier, Marie T.; Latour, Philippe; Klünemann, Hans; Trenkwalder, Claudia; Diehl-Schmid, Janine; Perneczky, Robert; Meitinger, Thomas; Oexle, Konrad; Haslinger, Bernhard; Lorenzl, Stefan; Winkelmann, Juliane

    2013-01-01

    Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease is a rare autosomal-recessively inherited lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in NPC1 (95%) or NPC2. Given the highly variable phenotype, diagnosis is challenging and particularly late-onset forms with predominantly neuropsychiatric presentations are likely underdiagnosed. Pathophysiologically, genetic alterations compromising the endosomal/lysosomal system are linked with age-related neurodegenerative disorders. We sought to examine a possible association of rare sequence variants in NPC1 and NPC2 with Parkinson's disease (PD), frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and to genetically determine the proportion of potentially misdiagnosed NPC patients in these neurodegenerative conditions. By means of high-resolution melting, we screened the coding regions of NPC1 and NPC2 for rare genetic variation in a homogenous German sample of patients clinically diagnosed with PD (n = 563), FTLD (n = 133) and PSP (n = 94), and 846 population-based controls. The frequencies of rare sequence variants in NPC1/2 did not differ significantly between patients and controls. Disease-associated NPC1/2 mutations were found in six PD patients (1.1%) and seven control subjects (0.8%), but not in FTLD or PSP. All rare variation was detected in the heterozygous state and no compound heterozygotes were observed. Our data do not support the hypothesis that rare NPC1/2 variants confer susceptibility for PD, FTLD, or PSP in the German population. Misdiagnosed NPC patients were not present in our samples. However, further assessment of NPC disease genes in age-related neurodegeneration is warranted. PMID:24386122

  17. The role of iron in neurodegenerative disorders: insights and opportunities with synchrotron light

    PubMed Central

    Collingwood, Joanna F.; Davidson, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    There is evidence for iron dysregulation in many forms of disease, including a broad spectrum of neurodegenerative disorders. In order to advance our understanding of the pathophysiological role of iron, it is helpful to be able to determine in detail the distribution of iron as it relates to metabolites, proteins, cells, and tissues, the chemical state and local environment of iron, and its relationship with other metal elements. Synchrotron light sources, providing primarily X-ray beams accompanied by access to longer wavelengths such as infra-red, are an outstanding tool for multi-modal non-destructive analysis of iron in these systems. The micro- and nano-focused X-ray beams that are generated at synchrotron facilities enable measurement of iron and other transition metal elements to be performed with outstanding analytic sensitivity and specificity. Recent developments have increased the scope for methods such as X-ray fluorescence mapping to be used quantitatively rather than semi-quantitatively. Burgeoning interest, coupled with technical advances and beamline development at synchrotron facilities, has led to substantial improvements in resources and methodologies in the field over the past decade. In this paper we will consider how the field has evolved with regard to the study of iron in proteins, cells, and brain tissue, and identify challenges in sample preparation and analysis. Selected examples will be used to illustrate the contribution, and future potential, of synchrotron X-ray analysis for the characterization of iron in model systems exhibiting iron dysregulation, and for human cases of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Friedreich’s ataxia, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. PMID:25191270

  18. Pharmacoinformatic and molecular docking studies reveal potential novel antidepressants against neurodegenerative disorders by targeting HSPB8.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Sheikh Arslan; Mannan, Shazia; Ali, Sannia

    2016-01-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is an inherited peripheral neuromuscular disorder characterized by length-dependent and progressive degeneration of peripheral nerves, leading to muscular weakness. Research has shown that mutated HSPB8 may be responsible for depression, neurodegenerative disorders, and improper functioning of peripheral nerves, resulting in neuromuscular disorders like CMT. In the current work, a hybrid approach of virtual screening and molecular docking studies was followed by homology modeling and pharmacophore identification. Detailed screening analyses were carried out by 2-D similarity search against prescribed antidepressant drugs with physicochemical properties. LigandScout was employed to ascertain novel molecules and pharmacophore properties. In this study, we report three novel compounds that showed maximum binding affinity with HSPB8. Docking analysis elucidated that Met37, Ser57, Ser58, Trp60, Thr63, Thr114, Lys115, Asp116, Gly117, Val152, Val154, Leu186, Asp189, Ser190, Gln191, and Glu192 are critical residues for ligand-receptor interactions. Our analyses suggested paroxetine as a potent compound for targeting HSPB8. Selected compounds have more effective energy scores than the selected drug analogs. Additionally, site-directed mutagenesis could be significant for further analysis of the binding pocket. The novel findings based on an in silico approach may be momentous for potent drug design against depression and CMT. PMID:27226709

  19. Pharmacoinformatic and molecular docking studies reveal potential novel antidepressants against neurodegenerative disorders by targeting HSPB8

    PubMed Central

    Sehgal, Sheikh Arslan; Mannan, Shazia; Ali, Sannia

    2016-01-01

    Charcot–Marie–Tooth (CMT) disease is an inherited peripheral neuromuscular disorder characterized by length-dependent and progressive degeneration of peripheral nerves, leading to muscular weakness. Research has shown that mutated HSPB8 may be responsible for depression, neurodegenerative disorders, and improper functioning of peripheral nerves, resulting in neuromuscular disorders like CMT. In the current work, a hybrid approach of virtual screening and molecular docking studies was followed by homology modeling and pharmacophore identification. Detailed screening analyses were carried out by 2-D similarity search against prescribed antidepressant drugs with physicochemical properties. LigandScout was employed to ascertain novel molecules and pharmacophore properties. In this study, we report three novel compounds that showed maximum binding affinity with HSPB8. Docking analysis elucidated that Met37, Ser57, Ser58, Trp60, Thr63, Thr114, Lys115, Asp116, Gly117, Val152, Val154, Leu186, Asp189, Ser190, Gln191, and Glu192 are critical residues for ligand–receptor interactions. Our analyses suggested paroxetine as a potent compound for targeting HSPB8. Selected compounds have more effective energy scores than the selected drug analogs. Additionally, site-directed mutagenesis could be significant for further analysis of the binding pocket. The novel findings based on an in silico approach may be momentous for potent drug design against depression and CMT. PMID:27226709

  20. Adult-onset Still's disease as a mask of Hodgkin lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Pawlak-Buś, Katarzyna; Leszczyński, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Adult-onset Still's disease is a rare disorder, which creates difficulties in making a proper diagnosis. Ambiguous symptoms and results of auxiliary tests, lack of unequivocal diagnostic tests and the need to exclude other causes of the disease are major problems in clinical practice. A case of a 22-year-old woman with dominated recurrent fever, significantly elevated inflammation markers and arthritis is presented. Based on clinical signs after exclusion of infection, hematological and other reasons, the patient was diagnosed with adult-onset Still's disease. Standard treatment, with high doses of glucocorticoids and a disease-modifying drug, was applied, without the anticipated effects. The diagnostic tests were conducted again due to the lack of clinical improvement, increase of inflammatory markers and unusual response to treatment. A new symptom of significance, i.e. mediastinal lymphadenopathy, was found. After the histopathological examination of lymph nodes, Hodgkin's disease was diagnosed and targeted therapy for hematological malignancy was applied.

  1. Arizona Study of Aging and Neurodegenerative Disorders and Brain and Body Donation Program

    PubMed Central

    Beach, Thomas G.; Adler, Charles H.; Sue, Lucia I.; Serrano, Geidy; Shill, Holly A.; Walker, Douglas G.; Lue, LihFen; Roher, Alex E.; Dugger, Brittany N.; Maarouf, Chera; Birdsill, Alex C.; Intorcia, Anthony; Saxon-Labelle, Megan; Pullen, Joel; Scroggins, Alexander; Filon, Jessica; Scott, Sarah; Hoffman, Brittany; Garcia, Angelica; Caviness, John N.; Hentz, Joseph G.; Driver-Dunckley, Erika; Jacobson, Sandra A.; Davis, Kathryn J.; Belden, Christine M.; Long, Kathy E.; Malek-Ahmadi, Michael; Powell, Jessica J.; Gale, Lisa D.; Nicholson, Lisa R.; Caselli, Richard J.; Woodruff, Bryan K.; Rapscak, Steven Z.; Ahern, Geoffrey L.; Shi, Jiong; Burke, Anna D.; Reiman, Eric M.; Sabbagh, Marwan N.

    2015-01-01

    The Brain and Body Donation Program (BBDP) at Banner Sun Health Research Institute (http://www.brainandbodydonationprogram.org) started in 1987 with brain-only donations and currently has banked more than 1600 brains. More than 430 whole-body donations have been received since this service was commenced in 2005. The collective academic output of the BBDP is now described as the Arizona Study of Aging and Neurodegenerative Disorders (AZSAND). Most BBDP subjects are enrolled as cognitively normal volunteers residing in the retirement communities of metropolitan Phoenix, Arizona. Specific recruitment efforts are also directed at subjects with Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and cancer. The median age at death is 82. Subjects receive standardized general medical, neurological, neuropsychological and movement disorders assessments during life and more than 90% receive full pathological examinations by medically licensed pathologists after death. The Program has been funded through a combination of internal, federal and state of Arizona grants as well as user fees and pharmaceutical industry collaborations. Subsets of the Program are utilized by the US National Institute on Aging Arizona Alzheimer’s Disease Core Center and the US National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke National Brain and Tissue Resource for Parkinson’s Disease and Related Disorders. Substantial funding has also been received from the Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson’s Research. The Program has made rapid autopsy a priority, with a 3.0-hour median postmortem interval for the entire collection. The median RNA Integrity Number (RIN) for frozen brain and body tissue is 8.9 and 7.4, respectively. More than 2500 tissue requests have been served and currently about 200 are served annually. These requests have been made by more than 400 investigators located in 32 US states and 15 countries. Tissue from the BBDP has contributed to more than 350 publications and more than

  2. Arizona Study of Aging and Neurodegenerative Disorders and Brain and Body Donation Program.

    PubMed

    Beach, Thomas G; Adler, Charles H; Sue, Lucia I; Serrano, Geidy; Shill, Holly A; Walker, Douglas G; Lue, LihFen; Roher, Alex E; Dugger, Brittany N; Maarouf, Chera; Birdsill, Alex C; Intorcia, Anthony; Saxon-Labelle, Megan; Pullen, Joel; Scroggins, Alexander; Filon, Jessica; Scott, Sarah; Hoffman, Brittany; Garcia, Angelica; Caviness, John N; Hentz, Joseph G; Driver-Dunckley, Erika; Jacobson, Sandra A; Davis, Kathryn J; Belden, Christine M; Long, Kathy E; Malek-Ahmadi, Michael; Powell, Jessica J; Gale, Lisa D; Nicholson, Lisa R; Caselli, Richard J; Woodruff, Bryan K; Rapscak, Steven Z; Ahern, Geoffrey L; Shi, Jiong; Burke, Anna D; Reiman, Eric M; Sabbagh, Marwan N

    2015-08-01

    The Brain and Body Donation Program (BBDP) at Banner Sun Health Research Institute (http://www.brainandbodydonationprogram.org) started in 1987 with brain-only donations and currently has banked more than 1600 brains. More than 430 whole-body donations have been received since this service was commenced in 2005. The collective academic output of the BBDP is now described as the Arizona Study of Aging and Neurodegenerative Disorders (AZSAND). Most BBDP subjects are enrolled as cognitively normal volunteers residing in the retirement communities of metropolitan Phoenix, Arizona. Specific recruitment efforts are also directed at subjects with Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and cancer. The median age at death is 82. Subjects receive standardized general medical, neurological, neuropsychological and movement disorders assessments during life and more than 90% receive full pathological examinations by medically licensed pathologists after death. The Program has been funded through a combination of internal, federal and state of Arizona grants as well as user fees and pharmaceutical industry collaborations. Subsets of the Program are utilized by the US National Institute on Aging Arizona Alzheimer's Disease Core Center and the US National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke National Brain and Tissue Resource for Parkinson's Disease and Related Disorders. Substantial funding has also been received from the Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson's Research. The Program has made rapid autopsy a priority, with a 3.0-hour median post-mortem interval for the entire collection. The median RNA Integrity Number (RIN) for frozen brain and body tissue is 8.9 and 7.4, respectively. More than 2500 tissue requests have been served and currently about 200 are served annually. These requests have been made by more than 400 investigators located in 32 US states and 15 countries. Tissue from the BBDP has contributed to more than 350 publications and more than 200

  3. Posterior spinal instrumented fusion for idiopathic scoliosis in patients with multisystemic neurodegenerative disorder: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Loh, K W; Chan, C Yw; Chiu, C K; Bin Hasan, M S; Kwan, M K

    2016-08-01

    Mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke (MELAS) syndrome is a progressive multisystemic neurodegenerative disorder. MELAS syndrome impairs oxidative phosphorylation and predisposes patients to lactic acidosis, particularly under metabolic stress. We report 2 siblings with MELAS-associated idiopathic scoliosis who underwent posterior spinal instrumented fusion with measures taken to minimise anaesthetic and surgical stress, blood loss, and operating time. PMID:27574278

  4. Mitochondria, metabolic disturbances, oxidative stress and the kynurenine system, with focus on neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Sas, Katalin; Robotka, Hermina; Toldi, József; Vécsei, László

    2007-06-15

    The mitochondria have several important functions in the cell. A mitochondrial dysfunction causes an abatement in ATP production, oxidative damage and the induction of apoptosis, all of which are involved in the pathogenesis of numerous disorders. This review focuses on mitochondrial dysfunctions and discusses their consequences and potential roles in the pathomechanism of neurodegenerative disorders. Other pathogenetic factors are also briefly surveyed. The second part of the review deals with the kynurenine metabolic pathway, its alterations and their potential association with cellular energy impairment in certain neurodegenerative diseases. During energy production, most of the O(2) consumed by the mitochondria is reduced fully to water, but 1-2% of the O(2) is reduced incompletely to give the superoxide anion (O(2)(-)). If the function of one or more respiratory chain complexes is impaired for any reason, the enhanced production of free radicals further worsens the mitochondrial function by causing oxidative damage to macromolecules, and by opening the mitochondrial permeability transition pores thereby inducing apoptosis. These high-conductance pores offer a pathway which can open in response to certain stimuli, leading to the induction of the cells' own suicide program. This program plays an essential role in regulating growth and development, in the differentiation of immune cells, and in the elimination of abnormal cells from the organism. Both failure and exaggeration of apoptosis in a human body can lead to disease. The increasing amount of superoxide anions can react with nitric oxide to yield the highly toxic peroxynitrite anion, which can destroy cellular macromolecules. The roles of oxidative, nitrative and nitrosative damage are discussed. Senescence is accompanied by a higher degree of reactive oxygen species production, and by diminished functions of the endoplasmic reticulum and the proteasome system, which are responsible for maintenance of the

  5. PET imaging of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor: monitoring disease progression and therapy response in neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Doorduin, Janine; de Vries, Erik F J; Dierckx, Rudi A; Klein, Hans C

    2008-01-01

    It is important to gain more insight into neurodegenerative diseases, because these debilitating diseases can not be cured. A common characteristic of many neurological diseases is neuroinflammation, which is accompanied by the presence of activated microglia cells. In activated microglia cells, an increase in the expression of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors (PBR) can be found. The PBR was suggested as a target for monitoring disease progression and therapy efficacy with positron emission tomograpy (PET). The PET tracer [(11)C]PK11195 has been widely used for PBR imaging, but the tracer has a high lipophilicity and high non-specific binding which makes it difficult to quantify uptake. Therefore, efforts are being made to develop more sensitive radioligands for the PBR. Animal studies have yielded several promising new tracers for PBR imaging, such as [(11)C]DAA1106, [(18)F]FEDAA1106, [(11)C]PBR28, [(11)C]DPA713 and [(11)C]CLINME. However, the potential of these new PBR ligands is still under investigation and as a consequence [(11)C]PK11195 is used so far to image activated microglia cells in neurological disorders. With [(11)C]PK11195, distinct neuroinflammation was detected in multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, encephalitis and other neurological diseases. Because neuroinflammation plays a central role in the progression of neurodegenerative diseases, anti-inflammatory drugs have been investigated for therapeutic intervention. Especially minocycline and cyclooxygenase inhibitors have shown in vivo anti-inflammatory, hence neuroprotective properties, that could be detected by PET imaging of the PBR with [(11)C]PK11195. The imaging studies published so far showed that the PBR can be an important target for monitoring disease progression, therapy response and determining the optimal drug dose. PMID:19075709

  6. Effects of omega 3 fatty acids supplementation in behavior and non-neurodegenerative neuropsychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Ortega, R M; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, E; López-Sobaler, A M

    2012-06-01

    This work provides a systematic review of all published randomised, controlled clinical trials (RCT) investigating the effects of n-3 PUFA intake on the prevention and treatment of non-neurodegenerative neuropsychiatric disorders. Five databases (PubMed, EMBASE, LILACS, CINAHL and The Cochrane Database) were searched for RCT in this area published up to April 2011. The selected studies all involved human participants and included a comparison group. Thirty eight studies were identified, which examined the influence of n-3 PUFA supplementation on the prevention/treatment of depression (non-perinatal) (n 23), perinatal depression (n 6) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (n 9). Great heterogeneity was noticed in terms of study design, the doses of n-3 PUFA administered, and study duration. Some benefit was noted with respect to the treatment of hyperactivity and depression in over half the examined studies, although the evidence was not conclusive. For any firm conclusions to be drawn, further studies will be needed that take into account the initial n-3 PUFA status of the subjects. Excessive n-3 PUFA intakes might be associated with a greater risk of peroxidation events and therefore neuropsychiatric deterioration. Indeed, some studies only recorded benefits when lower doses were administered. It is therefore important that the dose required to achieve any potential benefit be determined. PMID:22591900

  7. A nursing challenge: adult-onset Tay-Sachs disease.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, D

    1991-12-01

    Adult-onset GM2 gangliosidosis (AOG), also labelled Adult-Onset Tay-Sachs disease, is a slowly progressing disease caused by a gradual accumulation of the GM2 ganglioside in neurons due to defective hexosaminidase A. Recent research findings and clinical experiences suggest that AOG may be more widespread than previously believed. Moreover, the diagnosis of AOG is often delayed because patients present with psychotic symptoms that mimic dementia, schizophrenia, mania, and depression. Because AOG patients typically respond poorly to psychiatric drug therapy and the symptomatology is so diverse, nurses must design and implement nursing care that ensures safety, structure, and comfort. PMID:1759864

  8. Globus pallidus deep brain stimulation for adult-onset axial dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Aasef G.; Mewes, Klaus; Jinnah, H.A.; DeLong, Mahlon R.; Gross, Robert E.; Triche, Shirley; Freeman, Alan; Factor, Stewart A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Generalized dystonia, both primary and secondary forms, and axial dystonias such as tardive dystonia, and idiopathic cervical dystonia are responsive to globus pallidus interna (GPi) DBS. There is a paucity of investigations probing the impact of DBS on adult-onset axial dystonia. We assessed the efficacy of GPi DBS in four patients with rare adult-onset axial dystonia. Methods Primary outcome measure was improvement in the motor component of the Burke-Fahn-Marsden (BFM) rating scale. Secondary outcome measures were quality of life as determined by the SF-36 questionnaire, time to achieve best possible benefit and DBS parameters that accounted for the best response. In patients with prominent concomitant cervical dystonia we also used the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS). Results GPi DBS improved BFM scores by 87.63 ± 11.46%. Improvement in total severity scale of TWSTRS was 71.5 ± 12.7%. Quality of life also remarkably improved as evidenced by 109.38 ± 82.97 and 7.05 ± 21.48% percent change in psychometrically-based physical component summary (PCS), and a mental component summary (MCS) score respectively. Conclusions GPi DBS is a very effective treatment for adult-onset axial dystonia. Considering its refractoriness to medical therapy and significant impact on quality of life DBS should be considered for this disorder. PMID:25260969

  9. Niemann-Pick type C: focus on the adolescent/adult onset form.

    PubMed

    Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo; Marano, Massimo; Florio, Lucia; De Santis, Stefano

    2016-11-01

    Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C) is an inherited sphingolipidosis characterized by progressive neurological deterioration and early mortality. The symptomatology and disease progression of NP-C are markedly affected by the age at onset of neurological manifestations, and categorization into early-infantile, late-infantile, juvenile, adolescent/adult neurological onset forms can aid evaluation of disease course and responses to therapy. Here, we review current information on the detection, diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of NP-C, with a focus on the adolescent/adult-onset form. A recent analysis indicated that the combined incidence of NP-C related to NPC1 gene mutations (NPC1) and NP-C related to NPC2 gene mutations (NPC2) is approximately 1 case in every 89 000 live births. In particular, late-onset phenotypes might well provide a greater contribution to the overall incidence than has previously been reported. Some neuropathological features in NP-C are held in common with other advanced age-onset diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Visceral symptoms such as splenomegaly are frequently asymptomatic in patients with adolescent/adult-onset NP-C, and are only occasionally detected during routine ultrasound assessments. In contrast, most patients with adolescent/adult-onset exhibit some degree of slowly progressive, non-disease-specific movement disorders (e.g. cerebellar ataxia), and/or more pathognomonic neurological signs such as vertical supranuclear gaze palsy. An increasing number of adolescent/adult-onset cases have been reported following initial recognition of cognitive impairment and/or psychiatric signs. The recent development and implementation of new clinical screening tools (e.g. the NP-C suspicion index) and biomarkers (e.g. plasma oxysterols) should help identify patients who warrant further investigation and possible treatment. PMID:26998855

  10. Pharmacological Alternatives for the Treatment of Neurodegenerative Disorders: Wasp and Bee Venoms and Their Components as New Neuroactive Tools.

    PubMed

    Silva, Juliana; Monge-Fuentes, Victoria; Gomes, Flávia; Lopes, Kamila; dos Anjos, Lilian; Campos, Gabriel; Arenas, Claudia; Biolchi, Andréia; Gonçalves, Jacqueline; Galante, Priscilla; Campos, Leandro; Mortari, Márcia

    2015-08-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are relentlessly progressive, severely impacting affected patients, families and society as a whole. Increased life expectancy has made these diseases more common worldwide. Unfortunately, available drugs have insufficient therapeutic effects on many subtypes of these intractable diseases, and adverse effects hamper continued treatment. Wasp and bee venoms and their components are potential means of managing or reducing these effects and provide new alternatives for the control of neurodegenerative diseases. These venoms and their components are well-known and irrefutable sources of neuroprotectors or neuromodulators. In this respect, the present study reviews our current understanding of the mechanisms of action and future prospects regarding the use of new drugs derived from wasp and bee venom in the treatment of major neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease, Epilepsy, Multiple Sclerosis and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. PMID:26295258

  11. Pharmacological Alternatives for the Treatment of Neurodegenerative Disorders: Wasp and Bee Venoms and Their Components as New Neuroactive Tools

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Juliana; Monge-Fuentes, Victoria; Gomes, Flávia; Lopes, Kamila; dos Anjos, Lilian; Campos, Gabriel; Arenas, Claudia; Biolchi, Andréia; Gonçalves, Jacqueline; Galante, Priscilla; Campos, Leandro; Mortari, Márcia

    2015-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are relentlessly progressive, severely impacting affected patients, families and society as a whole. Increased life expectancy has made these diseases more common worldwide. Unfortunately, available drugs have insufficient therapeutic effects on many subtypes of these intractable diseases, and adverse effects hamper continued treatment. Wasp and bee venoms and their components are potential means of managing or reducing these effects and provide new alternatives for the control of neurodegenerative diseases. These venoms and their components are well-known and irrefutable sources of neuroprotectors or neuromodulators. In this respect, the present study reviews our current understanding of the mechanisms of action and future prospects regarding the use of new drugs derived from wasp and bee venom in the treatment of major neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s Disease, Parkinson’s Disease, Epilepsy, Multiple Sclerosis and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. PMID:26295258

  12. Neuroprotective and neurotrophic actions of glucagon-like peptide-1: an emerging opportunity to treat neurodegenerative and cerebrovascular disorders

    PubMed Central

    Salcedo, Isidro; Tweedie, David; Li, Yazhou; Greig, Nigel H

    2012-01-01

    Like type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), neurodegenerative disorders and stroke are an ever increasing, health, social and economic burden for developed Westernized countries. Age is an important risk factor in all of these; due to the rapidly increasing rise in the elderly population T2DM and neurodegenerative disorders, both represent a looming threat to healthcare systems. Whereas several efficacious drugs are currently available to ameliorate T2DM, effective treatments to counteract pathogenic processes of neurodegenerative disorders are lacking and represent a major scientific and pharmaceutical challenge. Epidemiological data indicate an association between T2DM and most major neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Likewise, there is an association between T2DM and stroke incidence. Studies have revealed that common pathophysiological features, including oxidative stress, insulin resistance, abnormal protein processing and cognitive decline, occur across these. Based on the presence of shared mechanisms and signalling pathways in these seemingly distinct diseases, one could hypothesize that an effective treatment for one disorder could prove beneficial in the others. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-based anti-diabetic drugs have drawn particular attention as an effective new strategy to not only regulate blood glucose but also to reduce apoptotic cell death of pancreatic beta cells in T2DM. Evidence supports a neurotrophic and neuroprotective role of GLP-1 receptor (R) stimulation in an increasing array of cellular and animal neurodegeneration models as well as in neurogenesis. Herein, we review the physiological role of GLP-1 in the nervous system, focused towards the potential benefit of GLP-1R stimulation as an immediately translatable treatment strategy for acute and chronic neurological disorders. PMID:22519295

  13. Old Things New View: Ascorbic Acid Protects the Brain in Neurodegenerative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Covarrubias-Pinto, Adriana; Acuña, Aníbal Ignacio; Beltrán, Felipe Andrés; Torres-Díaz, Leandro; Castro, Maite Aintzane

    2015-01-01

    Ascorbic acid is a key antioxidant of the Central Nervous System (CNS). Under brain activity, ascorbic acid is released from glial reservoirs to the synaptic cleft, where it is taken up by neurons. In neurons, ascorbic acid scavenges reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated during synaptic activity and neuronal metabolism where it is then oxidized to dehydroascorbic acid and released into the extracellular space, where it can be recycled by astrocytes. Other intrinsic properties of ascorbic acid, beyond acting as an antioxidant, are important in its role as a key molecule of the CNS. Ascorbic acid can switch neuronal metabolism from glucose consumption to uptake and use of lactate as a metabolic substrate to sustain synaptic activity. Multiple evidence links oxidative stress with neurodegeneration, positioning redox imbalance and ROS as a cause of neurodegeneration. In this review, we focus on ascorbic acid homeostasis, its functions, how it is used by neurons and recycled to ensure antioxidant supply during synaptic activity and how this antioxidant is dysregulated in neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:26633354

  14. Old Things New View: Ascorbic Acid Protects the Brain in Neurodegenerative Disorders.

    PubMed

    Covarrubias-Pinto, Adriana; Acuña, Aníbal Ignacio; Beltrán, Felipe Andrés; Torres-Díaz, Leandro; Castro, Maite Aintzane

    2015-01-01

    Ascorbic acid is a key antioxidant of the Central Nervous System (CNS). Under brain activity, ascorbic acid is released from glial reservoirs to the synaptic cleft, where it is taken up by neurons. In neurons, ascorbic acid scavenges reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated during synaptic activity and neuronal metabolism where it is then oxidized to dehydroascorbic acid and released into the extracellular space, where it can be recycled by astrocytes. Other intrinsic properties of ascorbic acid, beyond acting as an antioxidant, are important in its role as a key molecule of the CNS. Ascorbic acid can switch neuronal metabolism from glucose consumption to uptake and use of lactate as a metabolic substrate to sustain synaptic activity. Multiple evidence links oxidative stress with neurodegeneration, positioning redox imbalance and ROS as a cause of neurodegeneration. In this review, we focus on ascorbic acid homeostasis, its functions, how it is used by neurons and recycled to ensure antioxidant supply during synaptic activity and how this antioxidant is dysregulated in neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:26633354

  15. Sex differences in neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders: Focus on microglial function and neuroinflammation during development.

    PubMed

    Hanamsagar, Richa; Bilbo, Staci D

    2016-06-01

    Several neurological conditions are associated with sex differences in prevalence or outcome. For example, autism predominantly affects boys, depression is more common in women, Parkinson's disease more common in men, and multiple sclerosis in women. In the case of stroke, women have a less favorable outcome and suffer from a more precipitous drop in health status compared to men. As a result, treatment of such diseases is difficult and yields variable results. Despite this, sex is rarely considered when making treatment decisions. The mechanisms underlying sex differences in disease progression are not well understood, however a strong link exists between different inflammation states of men and women and their propensity to develop certain diseases. As neuroinflammation is an important component of pathophysiology in many neurological conditions, it can be speculated that any changes in the state of inflammation in the brain during normal development can potentially lead to an increase in susceptibility to neurological and neurodegenerative diseases. Microglia play a crucial role in onset and modulation of inflammation and thus sex differences in microglial function could explain, at least in part, differences observed in susceptibilities and outcomes of neurological disorders in men and women. Understanding the mechanisms behind sex differences could help develop more targeted therapy with higher success rate, especially in diseases where sex differences are most prominent. PMID:26435451

  16. Recent Updates on the Dynamic Association Between Oxidative Stress and Neurodegenerative Disorders.

    PubMed

    Khan, Taqi A; Hassan, Iftekhar; Ahmad, Ausaf; Perveen, Asma; Aman, Shazia; Quddusi, Saima; Alhazza, Ibrahim M; Ashraf, Ghulam M; Aliev, Gjumrakch

    2016-01-01

    Free radicals are generated as byproduct of our body metabolism, and their adverse effect on normal functioning of our body is prevented by body's own antioxidant machinery. Any perturbation in the defense mechanism of antioxidants inside body, its abnormal production or its induction from environment to our body lead to serious threats and is responsible for the development of various neurodegenerative disorders (NDDs). Perturbed antioxidants result in sensory and functional impairments in neuronal cells, which in turn cause NDDs. Free radical attack on neuronal cells plays a catastrophic role in NDDs. Impaired metabolism and generation of excessive reactive oxygen species also lead to a range of NDDs. Free radical induced toxicity is responsible for DNA injury, protein degradation, damage to tissue inflammation and cell death. Besides various genetic and environmental factors, free radical induced oxidative stress is also a major cause of NDDs. Application of upstream and downstream antioxidant therapy to counter oxidative stress can be an effective option in alteration of any neuronal impairment besides free radical scavenging. In the present manuscript, we have presented a comprehensive update on the symptoms, causes and cures of NDDs in relation with their dynamic association with oxidative stress. PMID:26831262

  17. Cannabinoids in Neurodegenerative Disorders and Stroke/Brain Trauma: From Preclinical Models to Clinical Applications.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Ruiz, Javier; Moro, María A; Martínez-Orgado, José

    2015-10-01

    Cannabinoids form a singular family of plant-derived compounds (phytocannabinoids), endogenous signaling lipids (endocannabinoids), and synthetic derivatives with multiple biological effects and therapeutic applications in the central and peripheral nervous systems. One of these properties is the regulation of neuronal homeostasis and survival, which is the result of the combination of a myriad of effects addressed to preserve, rescue, repair, and/or replace neurons, and also glial cells against multiple insults that may potentially damage these cells. These effects are facilitated by the location of specific targets for the action of these compounds (e.g., cannabinoid type 1 and 2 receptors, endocannabinoid inactivating enzymes, and nonendocannabinoid targets) in key cellular substrates (e.g., neurons, glial cells, and neural progenitor cells). This potential is promising for acute and chronic neurodegenerative pathological conditions. In this review, we will collect all experimental evidence, mainly obtained at the preclinical level, supporting that different cannabinoid compounds may be neuroprotective in adult and neonatal ischemia, brain trauma, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's chorea, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. This increasing experimental evidence demands a prompt clinical validation of cannabinoid-based medicines for the treatment of all these disorders, which, at present, lack efficacious treatments for delaying/arresting disease progression, despite the fact that the few clinical trials conducted so far with these medicines have failed to demonstrate beneficial effects. PMID:26260390

  18. Quantitative Analysis of Climbing Defects in a Drosophila Model of Neurodegenerative Disorders.

    PubMed

    Madabattula, Surya T; Strautman, Joel C; Bysice, Andrew M; O'Sullivan, Julia A; Androschuk, Alaura; Rosenfelt, Cory; Doucet, Kacy; Rouleau, Guy; Bolduc, Francois

    2015-01-01

    Locomotive defects resulting from neurodegenerative disorders can be a late onset symptom of disease, following years of subclinical degeneration, and thus current therapeutic treatment strategies are not curative. Through the use of whole exome sequencing, an increasing number of genes have been identified to play a role in human locomotion. Despite identifying these genes, it is not known how these genes are crucial to normal locomotive functioning. Therefore, a reliable assay, which utilizes model organisms to elucidate the role of these genes in order to identify novel targets of therapeutic interest, is needed more than ever. We have designed a sensitized version of the negative geotaxis assay that allows for the detection of milder defects earlier and has the ability to evaluate these defects over time. The assay is performed in a glass graduated cylinder, which is sealed with a wax barrier film. By increasing the threshold distance to be climbed to 17.5 cm and increasing the experiment duration to 2 min we have observed a greater sensitivity in detecting mild mobility dysfunctions. The assay is cost effective and does not require extensive training to obtain highly reproducible results. This makes it an excellent technique for screening candidate drugs in Drosophila mutants with locomotion defects. PMID:26132637

  19. 'Language of the past' - Exploring past tense disruption during autobiographical narration in neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Irish, Muireann; Kamminga, Jody; Addis, Donna Rose; Crain, Stephen; Thornton, Rosalind; Hodges, John R; Piguet, Olivier

    2016-09-01

    Compromised retrieval of autobiographical memory (ABM) is well established in neurodegenerative disorders. The recounting of autobiographical events is inextricably linked to linguistic knowledge, yet no study to date has investigated whether tense use during autobiographical narration is disrupted in dementia syndromes. This study investigated the incidence of correct past tense use during ABM narration in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD, n = 10) and semantic dementia (SD, n = 10) in comparison with healthy older Controls (n = 10). Autobiographical narratives were analysed for episodic content (internal/external) and classified according to tense use (past/present). Across both patient groups, use of the past tense was significantly compromised relative to Controls, with increased levels of off-target present tense verbs observed. Voxel-based morphometry analyses based on structural MRI revealed differential associations between past tense use and regions of grey matter intensity in the brain. Bilateral temporal cortices were implicated in the SD group, whereas frontal, lateral, and medial temporal regions including the right hippocampus emerged in AD. This preliminary study provides the first demonstration of the disruption of specific linguistic constructs during autobiographical narration in AD and SD. Future studies are warranted to clarify at what point in the disease trajectory such deficits in tense use emerge, and whether these deficits are a product or contributing factor in memory disruption in these syndromes. PMID:26014271

  20. Reverse engineering human neurodegenerative disease using pluripotent stem cell technology.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Deng, Wenbin

    2016-05-01

    With the technology of reprogramming somatic cells by introducing defined transcription factors that enables the generation of "induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)" with pluripotency comparable to that of embryonic stem cells (ESCs), it has become possible to use this technology to produce various cells and tissues that have been difficult to obtain from living bodies. This advancement is bringing forth rapid progress in iPSC-based disease modeling, drug screening, and regenerative medicine. More and more studies have demonstrated that phenotypes of adult-onset neurodegenerative disorders could be rather faithfully recapitulated in iPSC-derived neural cell cultures. Moreover, despite the adult-onset nature of the diseases, pathogenic phenotypes and cellular abnormalities often exist in early developmental stages, providing new "windows of opportunity" for understanding mechanisms underlying neurodegenerative disorders and for discovering new medicines. The cell reprogramming technology enables a reverse engineering approach for modeling the cellular degenerative phenotypes of a wide range of human disorders. An excellent example is the study of the human neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using iPSCs. ALS is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of upper and lower motor neurons (MNs), culminating in muscle wasting and death from respiratory failure. The iPSC approach provides innovative cell culture platforms to serve as ALS patient-derived model systems. Researchers have converted iPSCs derived from ALS patients into MNs and various types of glial cells, all of which are involved in ALS, to study the disease. The iPSC technology could be used to determine the role of specific genetic factors to track down what׳s wrong in the neurodegenerative disease process in the "disease-in-a-dish" model. Meanwhile, parallel experiments of targeting the same specific genes in human ESCs could also be performed to

  1. Adult-onset laryngomalacia: case reports and review of management.

    PubMed

    Hey, Shi Ying; Oozeer, Nashreen Banon; Robertson, Stuart; MacKenzie, Kenneth

    2014-12-01

    Laryngomalacia is a dynamic airway condition characterised by inward collapse of flaccid supraglottic structures during inspiration. Although the most common cause of stridor in the paediatric population, adult-onset laryngomalacia remains a rare entity and its management, challenging. Two cases of adult-onset laryngomalacia are reported. A review of the English literature is performed and additional publications identified by hand-searching relevant papers; 13 case reports/series comprising 28 cases of adult-onset laryngomalacia were identified, divided into two main groups: idiopathic (6/28) and acquired (22/28). The aetiology of the acquired form includes neurological, traumatic and iatrogenic. Reported therapeutic measures used are laser supraglottoplasty, epiglottopexy, partial epiglottidectomy, defunctioning tracheostomy and intubation whilst correcting the underlying cause. The majority of patients only required one therapeutic procedure (follow-up of 2-24 months). A strong index of suspicion is required to diagnose adult-onset laryngomalacia aided by in-office laryngoscopy. The rarity of this condition prevents management-based randomised controlled trials. PMID:24615649

  2. Cannabidiol for neurodegenerative disorders: important new clinical applications for this phytocannabinoid?

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Ruiz, Javier; Sagredo, Onintza; Pazos, M Ruth; García, Concepción; Pertwee, Roger; Mechoulam, Raphael; Martínez-Orgado, José

    2013-01-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD) is a phytocannabinoid with therapeutic properties for numerous disorders exerted through molecular mechanisms that are yet to be completely identified. CBD acts in some experimental models as an anti-inflammatory, anticonvulsant, anti-oxidant, anti-emetic, anxiolytic and antipsychotic agent, and is therefore a potential medicine for the treatment of neuroinflammation, epilepsy, oxidative injury, vomiting and nausea, anxiety and schizophrenia, respectively. The neuroprotective potential of CBD, based on the combination of its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties, is of particular interest and is presently under intense preclinical research in numerous neurodegenerative disorders. In fact, CBD combined with Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol is already under clinical evaluation in patients with Huntington's disease to determine its potential as a disease-modifying therapy. The neuroprotective properties of CBD do not appear to be exerted by the activation of key targets within the endocannabinoid system for plant-derived cannabinoids like Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, i.e. CB1 and CB2 receptors, as CBD has negligible activity at these cannabinoid receptors, although certain activity at the CB2 receptor has been documented in specific pathological conditions (i.e. damage of immature brain). Within the endocannabinoid system, CBD has been shown to have an inhibitory effect on the inactivation of endocannabinoids (i.e. inhibition of FAAH enzyme), thereby enhancing the action of these endogenous molecules on cannabinoid receptors, which is also noted in certain pathological conditions. CBD acts not only through the endocannabinoid system, but also causes direct or indirect activation of metabotropic receptors for serotonin or adenosine, and can target nuclear receptors of the PPAR family and also ion channels. PMID:22625422

  3. Cannabidiol for neurodegenerative disorders: important new clinical applications for this phytocannabinoid?

    PubMed

    Fernández-Ruiz, Javier; Sagredo, Onintza; Pazos, M Ruth; García, Concepción; Pertwee, Roger; Mechoulam, Raphael; Martínez-Orgado, José

    2013-02-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD) is a phytocannabinoid with therapeutic properties for numerous disorders exerted through molecular mechanisms that are yet to be completely identified. CBD acts in some experimental models as an anti-inflammatory, anticonvulsant, anti-oxidant, anti-emetic, anxiolytic and antipsychotic agent, and is therefore a potential medicine for the treatment of neuroinflammation, epilepsy, oxidative injury, vomiting and nausea, anxiety and schizophrenia, respectively. The neuroprotective potential of CBD, based on the combination of its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties, is of particular interest and is presently under intense preclinical research in numerous neurodegenerative disorders. In fact, CBD combined with Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol is already under clinical evaluation in patients with Huntington's disease to determine its potential as a disease-modifying therapy. The neuroprotective properties of CBD do not appear to be exerted by the activation of key targets within the endocannabinoid system for plant-derived cannabinoids like Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, i.e. CB(1) and CB(2) receptors, as CBD has negligible activity at these cannabinoid receptors, although certain activity at the CB(2) receptor has been documented in specific pathological conditions (i.e. damage of immature brain). Within the endocannabinoid system, CBD has been shown to have an inhibitory effect on the inactivation of endocannabinoids (i.e. inhibition of FAAH enzyme), thereby enhancing the action of these endogenous molecules on cannabinoid receptors, which is also noted in certain pathological conditions. CBD acts not only through the endocannabinoid system, but also causes direct or indirect activation of metabotropic receptors for serotonin or adenosine, and can target nuclear receptors of the PPAR family and also ion channels. PMID:22625422

  4. Homozygous mutation of STXBP5L explains an autosomal recessive infantile-onset neurodegenerative disorder.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Raman; Corbett, Mark A; Smith, Nicholas J C; Jolly, Lachlan A; Tan, Chuan; Keating, Damien J; Duffield, Michael D; Utsumi, Toshihiko; Moriya, Koko; Smith, Katherine R; Hoischen, Alexander; Abbott, Kim; Harbord, Michael G; Compton, Alison G; Woenig, Joshua A; Arts, Peer; Kwint, Michael; Wieskamp, Nienke; Gijsen, Sabine; Veltman, Joris A; Bahlo, Melanie; Gleeson, Joseph G; Haan, Eric; Gecz, Jozef

    2015-04-01

    We report siblings of consanguineous parents with an infantile-onset neurodegenerative disorder manifesting a predominant sensorimotor axonal neuropathy, optic atrophy and cognitive deficit. We used homozygosity mapping to identify an ∼12-Mbp interval identical by descent (IBD) between the affected individuals on chromosome 3q13.13-21.1 with an LOD score of 2.31. We combined family-based whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing of parents and affected siblings and, after filtering of likely non-pathogenic variants, identified a unique missense variant in syntaxin-binding protein 5-like (STXBP5L c.3127G>A, p.Val1043Ile [CCDS43137.1]) in the IBD interval. Considering other modes of inheritance, we also found compound heterozygous variants in FMNL3 (c.114G>C, p.Phe38Leu and c.1372T>G, p.Ile458Leu [CCDS44874.1]) located on chromosome 12. STXBP5L (or Tomosyn-2) is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous system and is known to inhibit neurotransmitter release through inhibition of the formation of the SNARE complexes between synaptic vesicles and the plasma membrane. FMNL3 is expressed more widely and is a formin family protein that is involved in the regulation of cell morphology and cytoskeletal organization. The STXBP5L p.Val1043Ile variant enhanced inhibition of exocytosis in comparison with wild-type (WT) STXBP5L. Furthermore, WT STXBP5L, but not variant STXBP5L, promoted axonal outgrowth in manipulated mouse primary hippocampal neurons. However, the FMNL3 p.Phe38Leu and p.Ile458Leu variants showed minimal effects in these cells. Collectively, our clinical, genetic and molecular data suggest that the IBD variant in STXBP5L is the likely cause of the disorder. PMID:25504045

  5. X-ray fluorescence imaging reveals subcellular biometal disturbances in a childhood neurodegenerative disorder

    PubMed Central

    Grubman, A.; James, S.A; James, J.; Duncan, C.; Volitakis, I.; Hickey, J.L.; Crouch, P.J.; Donnelly, P.S.; Kanninen, K.M.; Liddell, J.R.; Cotman, S.L.; de Jonge; White, A.R.

    2014-01-01

    Biometals such as zinc, iron, copper and calcium play key roles in diverse physiological processes in the brain, but can be toxic in excess. A hallmark of neurodegeneration is a failure of homeostatic mechanisms controlling the concentration and distribution of these elements, resulting in overload, deficiency or mislocalization. A major roadblock to understanding the impact of altered biometal homeostasis in neurodegenerative disease is the lack of rapid, specific and sensitive techniques capable of providing quantitative subcellular information on biometal homeostasis in situ. Recent advances in X-ray fluorescence detectors have provided an opportunity to rapidly measure biometal content at subcellular resolution in cell populations using X-ray Fluorescence Microscopy (XFM). We applied this approach to investigate subcellular biometal homeostasis in a cerebellar cell line isolated from a natural mouse model of a childhood neurodegenerative disorder, the CLN6 form of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, commonly known as Batten disease. Despite no global changes to whole cell concentrations of zinc or calcium, XFM revealed significant subcellular mislocalization of these important biological second messengers in cerebellar Cln6nclf (CbCln6nclf) cells. XFM revealed that nuclear-to-cytoplasmic trafficking of zinc was severely perturbed in diseased cells and the subcellular distribution of calcium was drastically altered in CbCln6nclf cells. Subtle differences in the zinc K-edge X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) spectra of control and CbCln6nclf cells suggested that impaired zinc homeostasis may be associated with an altered ligand set in CbCln6nclf cells. Importantly, a zinc-complex, ZnII(atsm), restored the nuclear-to-cytoplasmic zinc ratios in CbCln6nclf cells via nuclear zinc delivery, and restored the relationship between subcellular zinc and calcium levels to that observed in healthy control cells. ZnII(atsm) treatment also resulted in a reduction in the

  6. Imaging of neurodegenerative cognitive and behavioral disorders: practical considerations for dementia clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Atri, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    This chapter reviews clinical applications and imaging findings useful in medical practice relating to neurodegenerative cognitive/dementing disorders. The preponderance of evidence and consensus guidelines support an essential role of multitiered neuroimaging in the evaluation and management of neurodegenerative cognitive/dementia syndrome that range in severity from mild impairments to frank dementia. Additionally, imaging features are incorporated in updated clinical and research diagnostic criteria for most dementias, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), Frontotemporal Lobar Degenerations/Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD), and Vascular Cognitive Impairment (VCI). Best clinical practices dictate that structural imaging, preferably with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) when possible and computed tomography when not, be obtained as a first-tier approach during the course of a thorough clinical evaluation to improve diagnostic confidence and assess for nonneurodegenerative treatable conditions that may cause or substantially contribute to cognitive/behavioral symptoms or which may dictate a substantial change in management. These conditions include less common structural (e.g., mass lesions such as tumors and hematomas; normal-pressure hydrocephalus), inflammatory, autoimmune and infectious conditions, and more common comorbid contributing conditions (e.g., vascular cerebral injury causing leukoaraiosis, infarcts, or microhemorrhages) that can produce a mixed dementia syndrome. When, after appropriate clinical, cognitive/neuropsychologic, and structural neuroimaging assessment, a dementia specialist remains in doubt regarding etiology and appropriate management, second-tier imaging with molecular methods, preferably with fluorodexoyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) (or single-photon emission computed tomography if PET is unavailable) can provide more diagnostic specificity (e.g., help differentiate between atypical AD and FTD as

  7. X-ray fluorescence imaging reveals subcellular biometal disturbances in a childhood neurodegenerative disorder.

    PubMed

    Grubman, A; James, S A; James, J; Duncan, C; Volitakis, I; Hickey, J L; Crouch, P J; Donnelly, P S; Kanninen, K M; Liddell, J R; Cotman, S L; de Jonge; White, A R

    2014-06-01

    Biometals such as zinc, iron, copper and calcium play key roles in diverse physiological processes in the brain, but can be toxic in excess. A hallmark of neurodegeneration is a failure of homeostatic mechanisms controlling the concentration and distribution of these elements, resulting in overload, deficiency or mislocalization. A major roadblock to understanding the impact of altered biometal homeostasis in neurodegenerative disease is the lack of rapid, specific and sensitive techniques capable of providing quantitative subcellular information on biometal homeostasis in situ. Recent advances in X-ray fluorescence detectors have provided an opportunity to rapidly measure biometal content at subcellular resolution in cell populations using X-ray Fluorescence Microscopy (XFM). We applied this approach to investigate subcellular biometal homeostasis in a cerebellar cell line isolated from a natural mouse model of a childhood neurodegenerative disorder, the CLN6 form of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, commonly known as Batten disease. Despite no global changes to whole cell concentrations of zinc or calcium, XFM revealed significant subcellular mislocalization of these important biological second messengers in cerebellar Cln6(nclf) (CbCln6(nclf) ) cells. XFM revealed that nuclear-to-cytoplasmic trafficking of zinc was severely perturbed in diseased cells and the subcellular distribution of calcium was drastically altered in CbCln6(nclf) cells. Subtle differences in the zinc K-edge X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) spectra of control and CbCln6(nclf) cells suggested that impaired zinc homeostasis may be associated with an altered ligand set in CbCln6(nclf) cells. Importantly, a zinc-complex, Zn(II)(atsm), restored the nuclear-to-cytoplasmic zinc ratios in CbCln6(nclf) cells via nuclear zinc delivery, and restored the relationship between subcellular zinc and calcium levels to that observed in healthy control cells. Zn(II)(atsm) treatment also resulted in a

  8. Drivers: A Biologically Contextualized, Cross-Inferential View of the Epidemiology of Neurodegenerative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    de Pedro-Cuesta, Jesús; Martínez-Martín, Pablo; Rábano, Alberto; Alcalde-Cabero, Enrique; José García López, Fernando; Almazán-Isla, Javier; Ruiz-Tovar, María; Medrano, Maria-José; Avellanal, Fuencisla; Calero, Olga; Calero, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sutherland et al. (2011) suggested that, instead of risk factors for single neurodegenerative disorders (NDDs), there was a need to identify specific “drivers”, i.e., risk factors with impact on specific deposits, such as amyloid-β, tau, or α-synuclein, acting across entities. Objectives and Methods: Redefining drivers as “neither protein/gene- nor entity-specific features identifiable in the clinical and general epidemiology of conformational NDDs (CNDDs) as potential footprints of templating/spread/transfer mechanisms”, we conducted an analysis of the epidemiology of ten CNDDs, searching for patterns. Results: We identified seven potential drivers, each of which was shared by at least two CNDDs: 1) an age-at-exposure-related susceptibility to Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) and several late-life CNDDs; 2) a relationship between age at onset, survival, and incidence; 3) shared genetic risk factors for CJD and late-life CNNDs; 4) partly shared personal (diagnostic, educational, behavioral, and social risk factors) predating clinical onset of late-life CNDDs; 5) two environmental risk factors, namely, surgery for sporadic CJD and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Bordetella pertussis infection for Parkinson’s disease; 6) reticulo-endothelial system stressors or general drivers (andropause or premenopausal estrogen deficiency, APOEɛ4, and vascular risk factors) for late-life CNDDs such as dementia/Alzheimer’s disease, type-2 diabetes mellitus, and some sporadic cardiac and vascular degenerative diseases; and 7) a high, invariant incidence ratio of sporadic to genetic forms of mid- and late-life CNDDs, and type-2 diabetes mellitus. Conclusion: There might be a systematic epidemiologic pattern induced by specific proteins (PrP, TDP-43, SOD1, α-synuclein, amyloid-β, tau, Langerhans islet peptide, and transthyretin) or established combinations of these. PMID:26923014

  9. Cord Blood Transplantation Following Reduced-intensity Conditioning for Adult-onset Inherited Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis.

    PubMed

    Kuriyama, Takuro; Kato, Koji; Sakamoto, Keiji; Hayashi, Masayasu; Takashima, Shuichiro; Mori, Yasuo; Takenaka, Katsuto; Iwasaki, Hiromi; Teshima, Takanori; Harada, Naoki; Nagafuji, Koji; Miyamoto, Toshihiro; Akashi, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Inherited hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a genetic anomaly disorder in which abnormally activated cytotoxic T lymphocytes cannot induce the apoptosis of target cells and antigen-presenting cells, leading to hemophagocytosis, pancytopenia, and a variety of symptoms such as a high fever. The present patient with adult-onset HLH developed refractory disease despite receiving immunosuppressive treatments. He underwent a reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimen that comprised antithymocyte globulin (ATG) followed by cord blood transplantation (RIC-CBT). He achieved and maintained a complete donor type. The incorporation of ATG into RIC-CBT may prevent graft failure and control hemophagocytosis, however, further efforts are necessary to reduce infectious complications. PMID:26984088

  10. Supplemental Substances Derived from Foods as Adjunctive Therapeutic Agents for Treatment of Neurodegenerative Diseases and Disorders12

    PubMed Central

    Bigford, Gregory E.; Del Rossi, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    Neurodegenerative disorders and diseases (NDDs) that are either chronically acquired or triggered by a singular detrimental event are a rapidly growing cause of disability and/or death. In recent times, there have been major advancements in our understanding of various neurodegenerative disease states that have revealed common pathologic features or mechanisms. The many mechanistic parallels discovered between various neurodegenerative diseases suggest that a single therapeutic approach may be used to treat multiple disease conditions. Of late, natural compounds and supplemental substances have become an increasingly attractive option to treat NDDs because there is growing evidence that these nutritional constituents have potential adjunctive therapeutic effects (be it protective or restorative) on various neurodegenerative diseases. Here we review relevant experimental and clinical data on supplemental substances (i.e., curcuminoids, rosmarinic acid, resveratrol, acetyl-l-carnitine, and ω-3 (n–3) polyunsaturated fatty acids) that have demonstrated encouraging therapeutic effects on chronic diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease and neurodegeneration resulting from acute adverse events, such as traumatic brain injury. PMID:25022989

  11. A Unique Case of Pica of Adult Onset with Interesting Psychosexual Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Suddhendu; Sanyal, D.; Bhattacharyya, R.

    2011-01-01

    Pica has been considered as the ingestion of inedible substances or atypical food combinations. Pica has been reported widely in pediatric age group and often found to be co existing with obsessive compulsive or major depressive disorder. Reports of pica in elderly age group are relatively uncommon and rarely does it have an adult onset. In this article we present a case of adult onset pica. A young lady with unusual sensation in her abdomen was found to consume iron nails over years and there was history of dyspareunia since her marriage three months back. On query it was known that the lady is having same sex relationship over years. There unique conglomeration of cultural, psychodynamic and physiological determinants which together is responsible for this unusual habit of this lady. Moreover the onset of the disease at a late age and different psychodynamic issues make the case all the more interesting. Whether the pica is an eating disorder or obsessive compulsive disorder is still controversial. Pica has been mentioned in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV TR. The present case report warrants the need to look into this entity more closely with regards to its occurrence and etiology. PMID:22021963

  12. Adult-Onset Presentations of Genetic Immunodeficiencies: Genes Can Throw Slow Curves

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Katharine S.; Lewis, David B.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of Review The molecular and genetic mechanisms behind adult presentations of primary immunodeficiency diseases are examined, with particular emphasis on cases where this was heralded by severe, recurrent or opportunistic infection. Recent Findings A detailed analysis over the last two decades of the relationship between genotype and clinical phenotype for a number of genetic immunodeficiencies has revealed multiple mechanisms that can account for the delayed presentation of genetic disorders that typically present in childhood, including hypomorphic gene mutations and X-linked gene mutations with age-related skewing in random X-chromosome inactivation. Adult-onset presentations of chronic granulomatous disease, X-linked agammaglobulinemia, interleukin-12/T helper 1/interferon-gamma and interleukin-23/T helper 17/interleukin-17 pathway defects, and X-linked lymphoproliferative disorder are used to illustrate these mechanisms. Finally, certain genetic types of common variable immunodeficiency are used to illustrate that inherited null mutations can take decades to manifest immunologically. Summary Both genetic mechanisms and environmental factors can account for adult-onset infectious and non-infectious complications as manifestations of disorders that typically present in childhood. This emphasizes the potential complexity in the relationship between genotype and phenotype with natural human mutations. PMID:20581672

  13. Office Work Exposures and Adult-Onset Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Jaakkola, Maritta S.; Jaakkola, Jouni J.K.

    2007-01-01

    Background Office exposures have been linked to symptoms of sick building syndrome, but their relation to the development of asthma has not been studied previously. These exposures have increasing importance because an increasing proportion of the workforce is working in office environments. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the relations of exposure to carbonless copy paper (CCP), paper dust, and fumes from photocopiers and printers to adult-onset asthma. Methods We conducted a population-based incident case–control study of adults 21–63 years of age living in the Pirkanmaa District in South Finland. All new clinically diagnosed cases (n = 521) of asthma were recruited during a 3-year study period. A random sample of the source population formed the controls (n = 1,016). This part focused on 133 cases and 316 controls who were office workers according to their current occupation classified by the 1988 International Standard Classification of Occupations. All participants answered a questionnaire on health, smoking, occupation, and exposures at work and home. Subjects with previous asthma were excluded. Results Exposures to paper dust [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.97; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25–3.10] and CCP (OR = 1.66; 95% CI, 1.03–2.66) were related to significantly increased risk of adult-onset asthma. An exposure–response relation was observed between exposure to paper dust and risk of asthma. Conclusions This study provides new evidence that exposures to paper dust and CCP in office work are related to increased risk of adult-onset asthma. Reduction of these exposures could prevent asthma in office workers. Clinicians seeing asthma patients should be aware of this link to office exposures. PMID:17637914

  14. Season of Birth and Risk for Adult Onset Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Efird, Jimmy T.

    2010-01-01

    Adult onset glioma is a rare cancer which occurs more frequently in Caucasians than African Americans, and in men than women. The etiology of this disease is largely unknown. Exposure to ionizing radiation is the only well established environmental risk factor, and this factor explains only a small percentage of cases. Several recent studies have reported an association between season of birth and glioma risk. This paper reviews the plausibility of evidence focusing on the seasonal interrelation of farming, allergies, viruses, vitamin D, diet, birth weight, and handedness. To date, a convincing explanation for the occurrence of adult gliomas decades after a seasonal exposure at birth remains elusive. PMID:20623001

  15. AMPD2 Regulates GTP Synthesis and is Mutated in a Potentially-Treatable Neurodegenerative Brainstem Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Akizu, Naiara; Cantagrel, Vincent; Schroth, Jana; Cai, Na; Vaux, Keith; McCloskey, Douglas; Naviaux, Robert K.; Vleet, Jeremy Van; Fenstermaker, Ali G.; Silhavy, Jennifer L.; Scheliga, Judith S.; Toyama, Keiko; Morisaki, Hiroko; Sonmez, Fatma Mujgan; Celep, Figen; Oraby, Azza; Zaki, Maha S.; Al-Baradie, Raidah; Faqeih, Eissa; Saleh, Mohammad; Spencer, Emily; Rosti, Rasim Ozgur; Scott, Eric; Nickerson, Elizabeth; Gabriel, Stacey; Morisaki, Takayuki; Holmes, Edward W.; Gleeson, Joseph G.

    2013-01-01

    Purine biosynthesis and metabolism, conserved in all living organisms, is essential for cellular energy homeostasis and nucleic acids synthesis. The de novo synthesis of purine precursors is under tight negative feedback regulation mediated by adenosine and guanine nucleotides. We describe a new distinct early-onset neurodegenerative condition resulting from mutations in the adenosine monophosphate deaminase 2 gene (AMPD2). Patients have characteristic brain imaging features of pontocerebellar hypoplasia (PCH), due to loss of brainstem and cerebellar parenchyma. We found that AMPD2 plays an evolutionary conserved role in the maintenance of cellular guanine nucleotide pools by regulating the feedback inhibition of adenosine derivatives on de novo purine synthesis. AMPD2 deficiency results in defective GTP-dependent initiation of protein translation, which can be rescued by administration of purine precursors. These data suggest AMPD2-related PCH as a new, potentially treatable early-onset neurodegenerative disease. PMID:23911318

  16. Are human neurodegenerative disorders linked to environmental chemicals with excitotoxic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, P.S.; Ludolph, A.C.; Kisby, G.E. )

    1992-05-11

    At the present time, it seems unlikely that progressive neurodegenerative diseases, such as ALS, Parkinson's disease, and dementia of the Alzheimer type, are triggered by environmental agents with excitotoxic potential. These include excitotoxic agents that behave as glutamate agonists or disrupt energy metabolism: both types elicit permanent but self-limiting neuronal diseases with patterns of neuronal deficit that reflect selective chemical exposure (MPP+ and parkinsonism), differential susceptibility to energy dysmetabolism (NPA and dystonia), or the distribution of glutamate-receptors (domoic acid and memory loss). If environmental agents play an etiologic role in progressive neurodegenerative diseases, they are likely to target a critical, irreplaceable neuronal molecule that is required to maintain long-term neuronal integrity.41 references.

  17. Bioinformatics Mining and Modeling Methods for the Identification of Disease Mechanisms in Neurodegenerative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann-Apitius, Martin; Ball, Gordon; Gebel, Stephan; Bagewadi, Shweta; de Bono, Bernard; Schneider, Reinhard; Page, Matt; Kodamullil, Alpha Tom; Younesi, Erfan; Ebeling, Christian; Tegnér, Jesper; Canard, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Since the decoding of the Human Genome, techniques from bioinformatics, statistics, and machine learning have been instrumental in uncovering patterns in increasing amounts and types of different data produced by technical profiling technologies applied to clinical samples, animal models, and cellular systems. Yet, progress on unravelling biological mechanisms, causally driving diseases, has been limited, in part due to the inherent complexity of biological systems. Whereas we have witnessed progress in the areas of cancer, cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, the area of neurodegenerative diseases has proved to be very challenging. This is in part because the aetiology of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer´s disease or Parkinson´s disease is unknown, rendering it very difficult to discern early causal events. Here we describe a panel of bioinformatics and modeling approaches that have recently been developed to identify candidate mechanisms of neurodegenerative diseases based on publicly available data and knowledge. We identify two complementary strategies—data mining techniques using genetic data as a starting point to be further enriched using other data-types, or alternatively to encode prior knowledge about disease mechanisms in a model based framework supporting reasoning and enrichment analysis. Our review illustrates the challenges entailed in integrating heterogeneous, multiscale and multimodal information in the area of neurology in general and neurodegeneration in particular. We conclude, that progress would be accelerated by increasing efforts on performing systematic collection of multiple data-types over time from each individual suffering from neurodegenerative disease. The work presented here has been driven by project AETIONOMY; a project funded in the course of the Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI); which is a public-private partnership of the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industry Associations (EFPIA) and the European

  18. Bioinformatics Mining and Modeling Methods for the Identification of Disease Mechanisms in Neurodegenerative Disorders.

    PubMed

    Hofmann-Apitius, Martin; Ball, Gordon; Gebel, Stephan; Bagewadi, Shweta; de Bono, Bernard; Schneider, Reinhard; Page, Matt; Kodamullil, Alpha Tom; Younesi, Erfan; Ebeling, Christian; Tegnér, Jesper; Canard, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Since the decoding of the Human Genome, techniques from bioinformatics, statistics, and machine learning have been instrumental in uncovering patterns in increasing amounts and types of different data produced by technical profiling technologies applied to clinical samples, animal models, and cellular systems. Yet, progress on unravelling biological mechanisms, causally driving diseases, has been limited, in part due to the inherent complexity of biological systems. Whereas we have witnessed progress in the areas of cancer, cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, the area of neurodegenerative diseases has proved to be very challenging. This is in part because the aetiology of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer´s disease or Parkinson´s disease is unknown, rendering it very difficult to discern early causal events. Here we describe a panel of bioinformatics and modeling approaches that have recently been developed to identify candidate mechanisms of neurodegenerative diseases based on publicly available data and knowledge. We identify two complementary strategies-data mining techniques using genetic data as a starting point to be further enriched using other data-types, or alternatively to encode prior knowledge about disease mechanisms in a model based framework supporting reasoning and enrichment analysis. Our review illustrates the challenges entailed in integrating heterogeneous, multiscale and multimodal information in the area of neurology in general and neurodegeneration in particular. We conclude, that progress would be accelerated by increasing efforts on performing systematic collection of multiple data-types over time from each individual suffering from neurodegenerative disease. The work presented here has been driven by project AETIONOMY; a project funded in the course of the Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI); which is a public-private partnership of the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industry Associations (EFPIA) and the European

  19. Comparative quantitative study of 'signature' pathological lesions in the hippocampus and adjacent gyri of 12 neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Richard A; Cairns, Nigel J

    2015-10-01

    The hippocampus (HC) and adjacent gyri are implicated in dementia in several neurodegenerative disorders. To compare HC pathology among disorders, densities of 'signature' pathological lesions were measured at a standard location in eight brain regions of 12 disorders. Principal components analysis of the data suggested that the disorders could be divided into three groups: (1) Alzheimer's disease (AD), Down's syndrome (DS), sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in which either β-amyloid (Aβ) or prion protein deposits were distributed in all sectors of the HC and adjacent gyri, with high densities being recorded in the parahippocampal gyrus and subiculum; (2) Pick's disease, sporadic frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 immunoreactive inclusions, and neuronal intermediate filament inclusion disease in which relatively high densities of neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions were present in the dentate gyrus (DG) granule cells; and (3) Parkinson's disease dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, and multiple system atrophy in which densities of signature lesions were relatively low. Variation in density of signature lesions in DG granule cells and CA1 were the most important sources of neuropathological variation among disorders. Hence, HC and adjacent gyri are differentially affected in dementia reflecting either variation in vulnerability of hippocampal neurons to specific molecular pathologies or in the spread of pathological proteins to the HC. Information regarding the distribution of pathology could ultimately help to explain variations in different cognitive domains, such as memory, observed in various disorders. PMID:25929331

  20. Driving and neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Uc, Ergun Y; Rizzo, Matthew

    2008-09-01

    The proportion of elderly people in the general population is rising, resulting in greater numbers of drivers with neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. These neurodegenerative disorders impair cognition, visual perception, and motor function, leading to reduced driver fitness and greater crash risk. Yet neither medical diagnosis nor age alone is reliable enough to predict driver safety or crashes or to revoke the driving privileges of these individuals. Driving research utilizes tools such as questionnaires about driving habits and history, driving simulators, standardized road tests utilizing instrumented vehicles, and state driving records. Research challenges include outlining the evolution of driving safety, understanding the mechanisms of driving impairment, and developing a reliable and efficient standardized test battery for prediction of driver safety in neurodegenerative disorders. This information will enable healthcare providers to advise their patients with neurodegenerative disorders with more certainty, affect policy, and help develop rehabilitative measures for driving. PMID:18713573

  1. High-speed video gait analysis reveals early and characteristic locomotor phenotypes in mouse models of neurodegenerative movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Preisig, Daniel F; Kulic, Luka; Krüger, Maik; Wirth, Fabian; McAfoose, Jordan; Späni, Claudia; Gantenbein, Pascal; Derungs, Rebecca; Nitsch, Roger M; Welt, Tobias

    2016-09-15

    Neurodegenerative diseases of the central nervous system frequently affect the locomotor system resulting in impaired movement and gait. In this study we performed a whole-body high-speed video gait analysis in three different mouse lines of neurodegenerative movement disorders to investigate the motor phenotype. Based on precise computerized motion tracking of all relevant joints and the tail, a custom-developed algorithm generated individual and comprehensive locomotor profiles consisting of 164 spatial and temporal parameters. Gait changes observed in the three models corresponded closely to the classical clinical symptoms described in these disorders: Muscle atrophy due to motor neuron loss in SOD1 G93A transgenic mice led to gait characterized by changes in hind-limb movement and positioning. In contrast, locomotion in huntingtin N171-82Q mice modeling Huntington's disease with basal ganglia damage was defined by hyperkinetic limb movements and rigidity of the trunk. Harlequin mutant mice modeling cerebellar degeneration showed gait instability and extensive changes in limb positioning. Moreover, model specific gait parameters were identified and were shown to be more sensitive than conventional motor tests. Altogether, this technique provides new opportunities to decipher underlying disease mechanisms and test novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:27233823

  2. The Molecular Chaperone GRP78/BiP as a Therapeutic Target for Neurodegenerative Disorders: A Mini Review.

    PubMed

    Gorbatyuk, Marina S; Gorbatyuk, Oleg S

    2013-03-11

    The glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78), also known as BiP, is the endoplasmatic reticulum (ER) homologue of HSP70, which plays a dual role in the ER by controlling protein folding, in order to prevent aggregation, and by regulating the signaling of the unfolded protein response (UPR). Most neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's, Alzheimer's diseases and progressive retinal degeneration are characterized by activation of the UPR and modified expression of GRP78. The expression levels and activity of GRP78 are altered with age raising the question of whether the lack of GRP78 could be a predisposing factor for many neurodegenerative disorders associated with age including PD, Alzheimer and Age-related macular degeneration. Attempts to induce or upregulate GRP78 in animal models of neurodegeneration have recently been made with the help of pharmacological BiP protein Inducer X (BIX) and GRP78 cDNA delivery via adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors. The results of these studies validate GRP78 as a new therapeutic target for treatments of forebrain ischemia, Parkinson disease and retinal degeneration. These data, together with the results from age-related studies, highlight the importance for developing drugs to induce elevation of endogenous GRP78 in order to increase cellular survival and extend functional longevity. PMID:23750325

  3. Environmental pollutants as risk factors for neurodegenerative disorders: Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases

    PubMed Central

    Chin-Chan, Miguel; Navarro-Yepes, Juliana; Quintanilla-Vega, Betzabet

    2015-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer (AD) and Parkinson (PD) have attracted attention in last decades due to their high incidence worldwide. The etiology of these diseases is still unclear; however the role of the environment as a putative risk factor has gained importance. More worryingly is the evidence that pre- and post-natal exposures to environmental factors predispose to the onset of neurodegenerative diseases in later life. Neurotoxic metals such as lead, mercury, aluminum, cadmium and arsenic, as well as some pesticides and metal-based nanoparticles have been involved in AD due to their ability to increase beta-amyloid (Aβ) peptide and the phosphorylation of Tau protein (P-Tau), causing senile/amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) characteristic of AD. The exposure to lead, manganese, solvents and some pesticides has been related to hallmarks of PD such as mitochondrial dysfunction, alterations in metal homeostasis and aggregation of proteins such as α-synuclein (α-syn), which is a key constituent of Lewy bodies (LB), a crucial factor in PD pathogenesis. Common mechanisms of environmental pollutants to increase Aβ, P-Tau, α-syn and neuronal death have been reported, including the oxidative stress mainly involved in the increase of Aβ and α-syn, and the reduced activity/protein levels of Aβ degrading enzyme (IDE)s such as neprilysin or insulin IDE. In addition, epigenetic mechanisms by maternal nutrient supplementation and exposure to heavy metals and pesticides have been proposed to lead phenotypic diversity and susceptibility to neurodegenerative diseases. This review discusses data from epidemiological and experimental studies about the role of environmental factors in the development of idiopathic AD and PD, and their mechanisms of action. PMID:25914621

  4. Environmental pollutants as risk factors for neurodegenerative disorders: Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases.

    PubMed

    Chin-Chan, Miguel; Navarro-Yepes, Juliana; Quintanilla-Vega, Betzabet

    2015-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer (AD) and Parkinson (PD) have attracted attention in last decades due to their high incidence worldwide. The etiology of these diseases is still unclear; however the role of the environment as a putative risk factor has gained importance. More worryingly is the evidence that pre- and post-natal exposures to environmental factors predispose to the onset of neurodegenerative diseases in later life. Neurotoxic metals such as lead, mercury, aluminum, cadmium and arsenic, as well as some pesticides and metal-based nanoparticles have been involved in AD due to their ability to increase beta-amyloid (Aβ) peptide and the phosphorylation of Tau protein (P-Tau), causing senile/amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) characteristic of AD. The exposure to lead, manganese, solvents and some pesticides has been related to hallmarks of PD such as mitochondrial dysfunction, alterations in metal homeostasis and aggregation of proteins such as α-synuclein (α-syn), which is a key constituent of Lewy bodies (LB), a crucial factor in PD pathogenesis. Common mechanisms of environmental pollutants to increase Aβ, P-Tau, α-syn and neuronal death have been reported, including the oxidative stress mainly involved in the increase of Aβ and α-syn, and the reduced activity/protein levels of Aβ degrading enzyme (IDE)s such as neprilysin or insulin IDE. In addition, epigenetic mechanisms by maternal nutrient supplementation and exposure to heavy metals and pesticides have been proposed to lead phenotypic diversity and susceptibility to neurodegenerative diseases. This review discusses data from epidemiological and experimental studies about the role of environmental factors in the development of idiopathic AD and PD, and their mechanisms of action. PMID:25914621

  5. What is schizophrenia: A neurodevelopmental or neurodegenerative disorder or a combination of both? A critical analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Swapnil; Kulhara, Parmanand

    2010-01-01

    The etiology of schizophrenia has been the focus of intensive research for a long time. Perspectives have changed drastically with the development of new investigative techniques. Clinical observations made by Kraepelin, Clouston, Bender, and Watt are now being complemented by neuroimaging and genetic studies to prove the neurodevelopmental hypothesis. At the same time, neuropathological and longitudinal studies of schizophrenia often support a neurodegenerative hypothesis. To provide a theoretical basis to the available evidence, another hypothesis called the progressive neurodevelopmental model has also emerged. This review presents some key evidence supporting each of these theories followed by a critical analysis of each. PMID:20174514

  6. Cellular Stress Responses, The Hormesis Paradigm, and Vitagenes: Novel Targets for Therapeutic Intervention in Neurodegenerative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cornelius, Carolin; Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T.; Calabrese, Edward J.; Mattson, Mark P.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Despite the capacity of chaperones and other homeostatic components to restore folding equilibrium, cells appear poorly adapted for chronic oxidative stress that increases in cancer and in metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases. Modulation of endogenous cellular defense mechanisms represents an innovative approach to therapeutic intervention in diseases causing chronic tissue damage, such as in neurodegeneration. This article introduces the concept of hormesis and its applications to the field of neuroprotection. It is argued that the hormetic dose response provides the central underpinning of neuroprotective responses, providing a framework for explaining the common quantitative features of their dose–response relationships, their mechanistic foundations, and their relationship to the concept of biological plasticity, as well as providing a key insight for improving the accuracy of the therapeutic dose of pharmaceutical agents within the highly heterogeneous human population. This article describes in mechanistic detail how hormetic dose responses are mediated for endogenous cellular defense pathways, including sirtuin and Nrf2 and related pathways that integrate adaptive stress responses in the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases. Particular attention is given to the emerging role of nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen sulfide gases in hormetic-based neuroprotection and their relationship to membrane radical dynamics and mitochondrial redox signaling. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 13, 1763–1811. PMID:20446769

  7. Mitochondrial Hsp60 Chaperonopathy Causes an Autosomal-Recessive Neurodegenerative Disorder Linked to Brain Hypomyelination and Leukodystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Magen, Daniella; Georgopoulos, Costa; Bross, Peter; Ang, Debbie; Segev, Yardena; Goldsher, Dorit; Nemirovski, Alexandra; Shahar, Eli; Ravid, Sarit; Luder, Anthony; Heno, Bayan; Gershoni-Baruch, Ruth; Skorecki, Karl; Mandel, Hanna

    2008-01-01

    Hypomyelinating leukodystrophies (HMLs) are disorders involving aberrant myelin formation. The prototype of primary HMLs is the X-linked Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD) caused by mutations in PLP1. Recently, homozygous mutations in GJA12 encoding connexin 47 were found in patients with autosomal-recessive Pelizaeus-Merzbacher-like disease (PMLD). However, many patients of both genders with PMLD carry neither PLP1 nor GJA12 mutations. We report a consanguineous Israeli Bedouin kindred with clinical and radiological findings compatible with PMLD, in which linkage to PLP1 and GJA12 was excluded. Using homozygosity mapping and mutation analysis, we have identified a homozygous missense mutation (D29G) not previously described in HSPD1, encoding the mitochondrial heat-shock protein 60 (Hsp60) in all affected individuals. The D29G mutation completely segregates with the disease-associated phenotype. The pathogenic effect of D29G on Hsp60-chaperonin activity was verified by an in vivo E. coli complementation assay, which demonstrated compromised ability of the D29G-Hsp60 mutant protein to support E. coli survival, especially at high temperatures. The disorder, which we have termed MitCHAP-60 disease, can be distinguished from spastic paraplegia 13 (SPG13), another Hsp60-associated autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disorder, by its autosomal-recessive inheritance pattern, as well as by its early-onset, profound cerebral involvement and lethality. Our findings suggest that Hsp60 defects can cause neurodegenerative pathologies of varying severity, not previously suspected on the basis of the SPG13 phenotype. These findings should help to clarify the important role of Hsp60 in myelinogenesis and neurodegeneration. PMID:18571143

  8. Sleep in Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    PubMed

    Iranzo, Alex

    2016-03-01

    Disorders of sleep are an integral part of neurodegenerative diseases and include insomnia, sleep-wake cycle disruption, excessive daytime sleepiness that may be manifested as persistent somnolence or sudden onset of sleep episodes, obstructive and central sleep apnea, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, and restless legs syndrome. The origin of these sleep disorders is multifactorial including degeneration of the brain areas that modulate sleep, the symptoms of the disease, and the effect of medications. Treatment of sleep disorders in patients with neurodegenerative diseases should be individualized and includes behavioral therapy, sleep hygiene, bright light therapy, melatonin, hypnotics, waking-promoting agents, and continuous positive airway pressure. PMID:26972029

  9. [Macrophage activation syndrome associated with adult-onset Still's disease].

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Masahiro

    2007-12-01

    Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is a rare and potentially lethal disease, resulting from uncontrolled activation and proliferation of T lymphocytes and macrophages. Adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) is an inflammatory disease. AOSD resemble reactive MAS in its symptoms and laboratory data. Moreover, AOSD per se induces MAS. It is, therefore, quite difficult to differentiate these syndrome and disease. The immunodeficiency state induced by treatment in AOSD could reactivate latent viruses such as Epstein-Barr virus, which could potentially lead to MAS. The therapeutic agents for AOSD, such as sulfasalazine, also could provoke reactive MAS. Because multiple factors are involved in inducing MAS to a different degree, the main cause should be searched for and targeted for the therapy. PMID:18174671

  10. Refractory Genital HPV Infection and Adult-Onset Still Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xin; Zheng, Heyi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Adult-onset Still disease (AOSD) is a systemic autoimmune disease (AIID) that can develop after exposure to infectious agents. Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been reported to induce or exacerbate AIIDs, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). No guidelines are available for the management of genital warts in AOSD. Case report and literature review. We report a patient who was diagnosed AOSD in the setting of refractory and recurrent genital HPV infection, demonstrating a possible link between HPV infection and AOSD. In addition, we also discuss the management of genital warts in patients with AOSD. To the best of our knowledge, no previous cases of AOSD with genital HPV infection have been reported in literature. We then conclude that the patient AOSD may be triggered by primary HPV infection. Larger number of patient samples is needed to confirm whether HPV could trigger AOSD. PMID:27082556

  11. Rapamycin activates autophagy in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome: implications for normal aging and age-dependent neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Graziotto, John J; Cao, Kan; Collins, Francis S; Krainc, Dimitri

    2012-01-01

    While rapamycin has been in use for years in transplant patients as an antirejection drug, more recently it has shown promise in treating diseases of aging, such as neurodegenerative disorders and atherosclerosis. We recently reported that rapamycin reverses the cellular phenotype of fibroblasts from children with the premature aging disease Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS). We found that the causative aberrant protein, progerin, was cleared through autophagic mechanisms when the cells were treated with rapamycin, suggesting a new potential treatment for HGPS. Recent evidence shows that progerin is also present in aged tissues of healthy individuals, suggesting that progerin may contribute to physiological aging. While it is intriguing to speculate that rapamycin may affect normal aging in humans, as it does in lower organisms, it will be important to identify safer analogues of rapamycin for chronic treatments in humans in order to minimize toxicity. In addition to its role in HGPS and normal aging, we discuss the potential of rapamycin for the treatment of age-dependent neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:22170152

  12. S-Nitrosylation and uncompetitive/fast off-rate (UFO) drug therapy in neurodegenerative disorders of protein misfolding.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, T; Lipton, S A

    2007-07-01

    Although activation of glutamate receptors is essential for normal brain function, excessive activity leads to a form of neurotoxicity known as excitotoxicity. Key mediators of excitotoxic damage include overactivation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, resulting in excessive Ca(2+) influx with production of free radicals and other injurious pathways. Overproduction of free radical nitric oxide (NO) contributes to acute and chronic neurodegenerative disorders. NO can react with cysteine thiol groups to form S-nitrosothiols and thus change protein function. S-nitrosylation can result in neuroprotective or neurodestructive consequences depending on the protein involved. Many neurodegenerative diseases manifest conformational changes in proteins that result in misfolding and aggregation. Our recent studies have linked nitrosative stress to protein misfolding and neuronal cell death. Molecular chaperones - such as protein-disulfide isomerase, glucose-regulated protein 78, and heat-shock proteins - can provide neuroprotection by facilitating proper protein folding. Here, we review the effect of S-nitrosylation on protein function under excitotoxic conditions, and present evidence that NO contributes to degenerative conditions by S-nitrosylating-specific chaperones that would otherwise prevent accumulation of misfolded proteins and neuronal cell death. In contrast, we also review therapeutics that can abrogate excitotoxic damage by preventing excessive NMDA receptor activity, in part via S-nitrosylation of this receptor to curtail excessive activity. PMID:17431424

  13. Adult onset Still's disease accompanied by acute respiratory distress syndrome: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Xiao-Tu; Wang, Mao-Jie; Huang, Run-Yue; Ding, Bang-Han

    2016-01-01

    Adult onset Still's disease (AOSD) is a systemic inflammatory disorder characterized by rash, leukocytosis, fever and arthralgia/arthritis. The most common pulmonary manifestations associated with AOSD are pulmonary infiltrates and pleural effusion. The present study describes a 40-year-old male with AOSD who developed fever, sore throat and shortness of breath. Difficulty breathing promptly developed, and the patient was diagnosed with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The patient did not respond to antibiotics, including imipenem, vancomycin, fluconazole, moxifloxacin, penicillin, doxycycline and meropenem, but was sensitive to glucocorticoid treatment, including methylprednisolone sodium succinate. ARDS accompanied by AOSD has been rarely reported in the literature. In conclusion, in a patient with ARDS who does not respond to antibiotic treatment, the involvement of AOSD should be considered. PMID:27588099

  14. Caenorhabditis elegans dnj-14, the orthologue of the DNAJC5 gene mutated in adult onset neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, provides a new platform for neuroprotective drug screening and identifies a SIR-2.1-independent action of resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, Sudhanva S; Johnson, James R; McCue, Hannah V; Chen, Xi; Edmonds, Matthew J; Ayala, Mimieveshiofuo; Graham, Margaret E; Jenn, Robert C; Barclay, Jeff W; Burgoyne, Robert D; Morgan, Alan

    2014-11-15

    Adult onset neuronal lipofuscinosis (ANCL) is a human neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive neuronal dysfunction and premature death. Recently, the mutations that cause ANCL were mapped to the DNAJC5 gene, which encodes cysteine string protein alpha. We show here that mutating dnj-14, the Caenorhabditis elegans orthologue of DNAJC5, results in shortened lifespan and a small impairment of locomotion and neurotransmission. Mutant dnj-14 worms also exhibited age-dependent neurodegeneration of sensory neurons, which was preceded by severe progressive chemosensory defects. A focussed chemical screen revealed that resveratrol could ameliorate dnj-14 mutant phenotypes, an effect mimicked by the cAMP phosphodiesterase inhibitor, rolipram. In contrast to other worm neurodegeneration models, activation of the Sirtuin, SIR-2.1, was not required, as sir-2.1; dnj-14 double mutants showed full lifespan rescue by resveratrol. The Sirtuin-independent neuroprotective action of resveratrol revealed here suggests potential therapeutic applications for ANCL and possibly other human neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24947438

  15. Therapeutic actions of translocator protein (18 kDa) ligands in experimental models of psychiatric disorders and neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Arbo, B D; Benetti, F; Garcia-Segura, L M; Ribeiro, M F

    2015-11-01

    Translocator protein (TSPO) is an 18kDa protein located at contact sites between the outer and the inner mitochondrial membrane. Numerous studies have associated TSPO with the translocation of cholesterol across the aqueous mitochondrial intermembrane space and the regulation of steroidogenesis, as well as with the control of some other mitochondrial functions, such as mitochondrial respiration, mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening, apoptosis and cell proliferation. In the brain, changes in TSPO expression occur in several neuropathological conditions including neurodegenerative diseases and psychiatric disorders. Furthermore, TSPO ligands have been shown to promote neuroprotection in animal models of brain pathology. At least in some cases, the mechanisms of neuroprotection are associated with modifications in brain steroidogenesis. In addition, regulation of neuroinflammation seems to be a common mechanism in the neuroprotective actions of TSPO ligands in different animal models of brain pathology. PMID:26200949

  16. Low-dose, continuous enzyme replacement therapy ameliorates brain pathology in the neurodegenerative lysosomal disorder mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIA.

    PubMed

    King, Barbara; Hassiotis, Sofia; Rozaklis, Tina; Beard, Helen; Trim, Paul J; Snel, Marten F; Hopwood, John J; Hemsley, Kim M

    2016-05-01

    Repeated replacement of sulphamidase via cerebrospinal fluid injection is an effective treatment for pathological changes in the brain in mice and dogs with the lysosomal storage disorder, mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIA (MPS IIIA). Investigational trials of this approach are underway in children with this condition, however, infusions require attendance at a specialist medical facility. We sought to comprehensively evaluate the effectiveness of sustained-release (osmotic pump-delivered) enzyme replacement therapy in murine MPS IIIA as this method, if applied to humans, would require only subcutaneous administration of enzyme once the pump was installed. Six-week-old MPS IIIA and unaffected mice were implanted with subcutaneous mini-osmotic pumps connected to an infusion cannula directed at the right lateral ventricle. Either recombinant human sulphamidase or vehicle were infused over the course of 7 weeks, with pumps replaced part-way through the experimental period. We observed near-normalisation of primarily stored substrate (heparan sulphate) in both hemispheres of the MPS IIIA brain and cervical spinal cord, as determined using tandem mass spectrometry. Immunohistochemistry indicated a reduction in secondarily stored GM 3 ganglioside and neuroinflammatory markers. A bias towards the infusion side was seen in some, but not all outcomes. The recombinant enzyme appears stable under pump-like conditions for at least 1 month. Given that infusion pumps are in clinical use in other nervous system disorders, e.g. for treatment of spasticity or brain tumours, this treatment method warrants consideration for testing in large animal models of MPS IIIA and other lysosomal storage disorders that affect the brain. Clinical trials of repeated injection of replacement enzyme into CSF are underway in patients with the inherited neurodegenerative disorder mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIA. In this pre-clinical study, we examined an alternative approach - slow, continual infusion

  17. Cellular stress responses, mitostress and carnitine insufficiencies as critical determinants in aging and neurodegenerative disorders: role of hormesis and vitagenes.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Vittorio; Cornelius, Carolin; Stella, Anna Maria Giuffrida; Calabrese, Edward J

    2010-12-01

    The widely accepted oxidative stress theory of aging postulates that aging results from accumulation of oxidative damage. A prediction of this theory is that, among species, differential rates of aging may be apparent on the basis of intrinsic differences in oxidative damage accrual. Although widely accepted, there is a growing number of exceptions to this theory, most contingently related to genetic model organism investigations. Proteins are one of the prime targets for oxidative damage and cysteine residues are particularly sensitive to reversible and irreversible oxidation. The adaptation and survival of cells and organisms requires the ability to sense proteotoxic insults and to coordinate protective cellular stress response pathways and chaperone networks related to protein quality control and stability. The toxic effects that stem from the misassembly or aggregation of proteins or peptides, in any cell type, are collectively termed proteotoxicity. Despite the abundance and apparent capacity of chaperones and other components of homeostasis to restore folding equilibrium, the cell appears poorly adapted for chronic proteotoxic stress which increases in cancer, metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases. Pharmacological modulation of cellular stress response pathways has emerging implications for the treatment of human diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. A critical key to successful medical intervention is getting the dose right. Achieving this goal can be extremely challenging due to human inter-individual variation as affected by age, gender, diet, exercise, genetic factors and health status. The nature of the dose response in and adjacent to the therapeutic zones, over the past decade has received considerable advances. The hormetic dose-response, challenging long-standing beliefs about the nature of the dose-response in a lowdose zone, has the potential to affect significantly the design of pre

  18. Changes in the mitochondrial antioxidant systems in neurodegenerative diseases and acute brain disorders.

    PubMed

    Ruszkiewicz, Joanna; Albrecht, Jan

    2015-09-01

    Oxidative and nitrosative stress (ONS) contributes to the pathogenesis of most brain maladies, and the magnitude of ONS is related to the ability of cellular antioxidants to neutralize the accumulating reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS). While the major ROS/RNS scavengers and regenerators of bio-oxidized molecules, superoxide dysmutases (SODs), glutathione (GSH), thioredoxin (Trx) and peroxiredoxin (Prx), are distributed in all cellular compartments. This review specifically focuses on the role of the systems operating in mitochondria. There is a growing consensus that the mitochondrial SOD isoform - SOD2 and GSH are critical for the cellular antioxidant defense. Variable changes of the expression or activities of one or more of the mitochondrial antioxidant systems have been documented in the brains derived from human patients and/or in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease), cerebral ischemia, toxic brain cell damage associated with overexposure to mercury or excitotoxins, or hepatic encephalopathy. In many cases, ambiguity of the responses of the different antioxidant systems in one and the same disease needs to be more conclusively evaluated before the balance of the changes is viewed as beneficial or detrimental. Modulation of the mitochondrial antioxidant systems may in the future become a target of antioxidant therapy. PMID:25576182

  19. The glial response to intracerebrally delivered therapies for neurodegenerative disorders: is this a critical issue?

    PubMed Central

    Cicchetti, Francesca; Barker, Roger A.

    2014-01-01

    The role of glial cells in the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative conditions of the central nervous system (CNS) is now well established (as is discussed in other reviews in this special issue of Frontiers in Neuropharmacology). What is less clear is whether there are changes in these same cells in terms of their behavior and function in response to invasive experimental therapeutic interventions for these diseases. This has, and will continue to become more of an issue as we enter a new era of novel treatments which require the agent to be directly placed/infused into the CNS such as deep brain stimulation (DBS), cell transplants, gene therapies and growth factor infusions. To date, all of these treatments have produced variable outcomes and the reasons for this have been widely debated but the host astrocytic and/or microglial response induced by such invasively delivered agents has not been discussed in any detail. In this review, we have attempted to summarize the limited published data on this, in particular we discuss the small number of human post-mortem studies reported in this field. By so doing, we hope to provide a better description and understanding of the extent and nature of both the astrocytic and microglial response, which in turn could lead to modifications in the way these therapeutic interventions are delivered. PMID:25071571

  20. Anti-Viral Agents in Neurodegenerative Disorders: New Paradigm for Targeting Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Faldu, Khushboo G; Shah, Jigna S; Patel, Snehal S

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease affecting geriatric populations for which several causes have been proposed. These include a relationship with known pathogens although the exact nature of such a relationship remains uncertain. Herpes simplex virus-1 has been proposed as potential cause of AD because of its ability to form ß amyloid(Aß) and neurofibrillary tangles due to tau hyperphosphorylation and action of beta & gamma secretase on amyloid precursor protein(APP) together with genetic association with apolipoprotein-E4(ApoE-Ɛ4), which points out to latent Herpes Simplex virus-1 as an agent causing AD. There are numerous studies that linked HSV-1 with AD like anti-HSV-1 IgM antibodies, nectin-2, heme oxygenase-1, phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor-2A, caspase-8 and nucleus-specific alteration of raphe neurons. Various possible mechanisms by which HSV-1 might lead to development of AD such as ApoE, ß-amyloid, tau phosphorylation, inflammation and oxidative stress are also discussed. Thus, this review discusses patent information and a strong relationship between latent HSV-1 and AD and also proposes antiviral therapy for AD. PMID:25963683

  1. Cellular and biochemical actions of melatonin which protect against free radicals: role in neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Genaro G; Benítez-King, Gloria A; Rosales-Corral, Sergio A; Pacheco-Moisés, Fermín P; Velázquez-Brizuela, Irma E

    2008-09-01

    Molecular oxygen is toxic for anaerobic organisms but it is also obvious that oxygen is poisonous to aerobic organisms as well, since oxygen plays an essential role for inducing molecular damage. Molecular oxygen is a triplet radical in its ground-stage (.O-O.) and has two unpaired electrons that can undergoes consecutive reductions of one electron and generates other more reactive forms of oxygen known as free radicals and reactive oxygen species. These reactants (including superoxide radicals, hydroxyl radicals) possess variable degrees of toxicity. Nitric oxide (NO*) contains one unpaired electron and is, therefore, a radical. NO* is generated in biological tissues by specific nitric oxide synthases and acts as an important biological signal. Excessive nitric oxide production, under pathological conditions, leads to detrimental effects of this molecule on tissues, which can be attributed to its diffusion-limited reaction with superoxide to form the powerful and toxic oxidant, peroxynitrite.Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species are molecular "renegades"; these highly unstable products tend to react rapidly with adjacent molecules, donating, abstracting, or even sharing their outer orbital electron(s). This reaction not only changes the target molecule, but often passes the unpaired electron along to the target, generating a second free radical, which can then go on to react with a new target amplifying their effects.This review describes the mechanisms of oxidative damage and its relationship with the most highly studied neurodegenerative diseases and the roles of melatonin as free radical scavenger and neurocytoskeletal protector. PMID:19506721

  2. In search of innovative therapeutics for neuropsychiatric disorders: the case of neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Féger, J; Hirsch, E C

    2015-01-01

    The recent medical literature highlights the lack of new drugs able to prevent or treat neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer disease or Parkinson disease. Yet, the prevalence of these diseases is growing, related to increasing life expectancy, and is leading to a rise in their economic and social cost. At the same time, pharmaceutical companies are reducing or halting their investment in neuropharmacological research. Why have advances in basic neuroscience and our understanding of these diseases not allowed innovative discoveries in drug research? This review will try to explain this failure and suggest possible solutions: develop basic and clinical research but with the emphasis on translational and truly collaborative research; improve preclinical studies by developing more appropriate animal models, using new biomarkers and methodologies such as imaging suitable for clinical trials, providing worthwhile information on the ability of the drug to reach its intended target and induce significant pharmacological changes; build a new system of research management, based on stronger interdisciplinary relations between preclinical and clinical research and including the introduction of international precompetitive research between academic teams, start-up companies and pharmaceutical laboratories; hold early discussions with the regulatory authorities during preclinical studies and at the beginning of clinical trials in order to validate the methodological approaches; involve patients' associations in this new organization of research. These changes should help to ensure the discovery of effective treatments for these pathologies. PMID:25577012

  3. Optogenetics for neurodegenerative diseases

    PubMed Central

    Vann, Kiara T; Xiong, Zhi-Gang

    2016-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are devastating conditions that lead to progressive degeneration of neurons. Neurodegeneration may result in ataxia, dementia, and muscle atrophies, etc. Despite enormous research efforts that have been made, there is lack of effective therapeutic interventions for most of these diseases. Optogenetics is a recently developed novel technique that combines optics and genetics to modulate the activity of specific neurons. Optogenetics has been implemented in various studies including neuropsychiatric disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. This review focuses on the recent advance in using this technique for the studies of common neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27186317

  4. Comparing illness presentation, treatment and functioning between patients with adolescent- and adult-onset psychosis.

    PubMed

    Hui, Christy Lai-Ming; Li, Adrienne Wing-Yee; Leung, Chung-Ming; Chang, Wing-Chung; Chan, Sherry Kit-Wa; Lee, Edwin Ho-Ming; Chen, Eric Yu-Hai

    2014-12-30

    Studies have shown that early- and adult-onset schizophrenia patients differ in pre-morbid traits, illness presentation, psychopathology, and prognosis. We aimed to compare adult-onset patients (age range 26-55 years) with an adolescent-onset cohort (15-25 years) in demographics, illness presentation and functioning at baseline. Participants were from two territory-wide early intervention services for adolescent-onset (n=671) and adult-onset psychosis patients (n=360) in Hong Kong. The adolescent-onset cohort had their initial psychotic episode from 2001-2003; retrospective data collection was done through systematic case note review. The adult-onset cohort was recruited for a larger interventional study from 2009-2011; information was collected via face-to-face interviews. Adult-onset psychosis was significantly associated with more females, more smokers, more non-local birth, more full-time employment, better functioning, poorer medication adherence, more psychiatric hospitalization and fewer with schizophrenia than adolescent-onset psychosis (mean age: 20.4). The effect sizes were small, except for medication adherence where a robust effect was found. No group difference in DUP was found. The finding that adult-onset patients had better functioning challenges the view that adolescent- and adult-onset psychoses share a similar prognostic trajectory. Implications for adapting intervention processes for adolescent- and adult-onset psychosis are discussed. PMID:25238985

  5. Warming up Improves Speech Production in Patients with Adult Onset Myotonic Dystrophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Swart, B.J.M.; van Engelen, B.G.M.; Maassen, B.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    This investigation was conducted to study whether warming up decreases myotonia (muscle stiffness) during speech production or causes adverse effects due to fatigue or exhaustion caused by intensive speech activity in patients with adult onset myotonic dystrophy. Thirty patients with adult onset myotonic dystrophy (MD) and ten healthy controls…

  6. Cross-functional E3 ligases Parkin and C-terminus Hsp70-interacting protein in neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pravir; Pradhan, Kaveri; Karunya, R; Ambasta, Rashmi K; Querfurth, Henry W

    2012-02-01

    The study of neurodegenerative disorders has had a major impact on our understanding of more fundamental mechanisms underlying neurobiology. Breakthroughs in the genetics of Alzheimer's (AD) and Parkinson's diseases (PD) has resulted in new knowledge in the areas of axonal transport, energy metabolism, protein trafficking/clearance and synaptic physiology. The major neurodegenerative diseases have in common a regional or network pathology associated with abnormal protein accumulation(s) and various degrees of motor or cognitive decline. In AD, β-amyloids are deposited in extracellular diffuse and compacted plaques as well as intracellularly. There is a major contribution to the disease by the co-existence of an intraneuronal tauopathy. Additionally, PD-like Lewy Bodies (LBs) bearing aggregated α-synuclein is present in 40-60% of all AD cases, especially involving amygdala. Amyloid deposits can be degraded or cleared by several mechanisms, including immune-mediated and transcytosis across the blood-brain barrier. Another avenue for disposal involves the lysosome pathway via autophagy. Enzymatic pathways include insulin degradative enzyme and neprilysin. Finally, the co-operative actions of C-terminus Hsp70 interacting protein (CHIP) and Parkin, components of a multiprotein E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, may be a portal to proteasome-mediated degradation. Mutations in the Parkin gene are the most common genetic link to autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease. Parkin catalyzes the post-translational modification of proteins with polyubiquitin, targeting them to the 26S proteasome. Parkin reduces intracellular Aβ(1-42) peptide levels, counteracts its effects on cell death, and reverses its effect to inhibit the proteasome. Additionally, Parkin has intrinsic cytoprotective activity to promote proteasome function and defend against oxidative stress to mitochondria. Parkin and CHIP are also active in amyloid clearance and cytoprotection in vivo. Parkin has cross

  7. Mesenchymal stem cells-based therapy as a potential treatment in neurodegenerative disorders: is the escape from senescence an answer?

    PubMed Central

    Castorina, Alessandro; Szychlinska, Marta Anna; Marzagalli, Rubina; Musumeci, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Aging is the most prominent risk factor contributing to the development of neurodegenerative disorders. In the United States, over 35 million of elderly people suffer from age-related diseases. Aging impairs the self-repair ability of neuronal cells, which undergo progressive deterioration. Once initiated, this process hampers the already limited regenerative power of the central nervous system, making the search for new therapeutic strategies particularly difficult in elderly affected patients. So far, mesenchymal stem cells have proven to be a viable option to ameliorate certain aspects of neurodegeneration, as they possess high proliferative rate and differentiate in vitro into multiple lineages. However, accumulating data have demonstrated that during long-term culture, mesenchymal stem cells undergo spontaneous transformation. Transformed mesenchymal stem cells show typical features of senescence, including the progressive shortening of telomers, which results in cell loss and, as a consequence, hampered regenerative potential. These evidences, in line with those observed in mesenchymal stem cells isolated from old donors, suggest that senescence may represent a limit to mesenchymal stem cells exploitation in therapy, prompting scholars to either find alternative sources of pluripotent cells or to arrest the age-related transformation. In the present review, we summarize findings from recent literature, and critically discuss some of the major hurdles encountered in the search of appropriate sources of mesenchymal stem cells, as well as benefits arising from their use in neurodegenerative diseases. Finally, we provide some insights that may aid in the development of strategies to arrest or, at least, delay the aging of mesenchymal stem cells to improve their therapeutic potential. PMID:26199588

  8. Does PGC1α/FNDC5/BDNF Elicit the Beneficial Effects of Exercise on Neurodegenerative Disorders?

    PubMed

    Jodeiri Farshbaf, Mohammad; Ghaedi, Kamran; Megraw, Timothy L; Curtiss, Jennifer; Shirani Faradonbeh, Mahsa; Vaziri, Pooneh; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-03-01

    Neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases have high prevalence among the elderly. Many strategies have been established to alleviate the symptoms experienced by affected individuals. Recent studies have shown that exercise helps patients with neurological disorders to regain lost physical abilities. PGC1α/FNDC5/BDNF has emerged recently as a critical pathway for neuroprotection. PGC1α is a highly conserved co-activator of transcription factors that preserves and protects neurons against destruction. PGC1α regulates FNDC5 and its processed and secreted peptide Irisin, which has been proposed to play a critical role in energy expenditure and to promote neural differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells. FNDC5 may also increase the expression of the neurotrophic factor BDNF, a neuroprotective agent, in the hippocampus. BDNF is secreted from hippocampus, amygdala, cerebral cortex and hypothalamus neurons and initiates intracellular signaling pathways through TrkB receptors. These pathways have positive feedback on CREB activities and lead to enhancement in PGC1α expression in neurons. Therefore, FNDC5 could behave as a key regulator in neuronal survival and development. This review presents recent findings on the PGC1α/FNDC5/BDNF pathway and its role in neuroprotection, and discusses the controversial promise of irisin as a mediator of the positive benefits of exercise. PMID:26611102

  9. Proteomic Analysis of Lymphoblastoid Cells from Nasu-Hakola Patients: A Step Forward in Our Understanding of This Neurodegenerative Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Giuliano, Serena; Agresta, Anna Maria; De Palma, Antonella; Viglio, Simona; Mauri, Pierluigi; Fumagalli, Marco; Iadarola, Paolo; Montalbetti, Lorenza

    2014-01-01

    Nasu-Hakola disease (NHD) is a recessively inherited rare disorder characterized by a combination of neuropsychiatric and bone symptoms which, while being unique to this disease, do not provide a rationale for the unambiguous identification of patients. These individuals, in fact, are likely to go unrecognized either because they are considered to be affected by other kinds of dementia or by fibrous dysplasia of bone. Given that dementia in NHD has much in common with Alzheimer’s disease and other neurodegenerative disorders, it cannot be expected to achieve the differential diagnosis of this disease without performing a genetic analysis. Under this scenario, the availability of protein biomarkers would indeed provide a novel context to facilitate interpretation of symptoms and to make the precise identification of this disease possible. The work here reported was designed to generate, for the first time, protein profiles of lymphoblastoid cells from NHD patients. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and nano liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (nLC-MS/MS) have been applied to all components of an Italian family (seven subjects) and to five healthy subjects included as controls. Comparative analyses revealed differences in the expression profile of 21 proteins involved in glucose metabolism and information pathways as well as in stress responses. PMID:25470616

  10. Increased Understanding of Stem Cell Behavior in Neurodegenerative and Neuromuscular Disorders by Use of Noninvasive Cell Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Holvoet, Bryan; De Waele, Liesbeth; Quattrocelli, Mattia; Gheysens, Olivier; Sampaolesi, Maurillio; Verfaillie, Catherine M.; Deroose, Christophe M.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous neurodegenerative and neuromuscular disorders are associated with cell-specific depletion in the human body. This imbalance in tissue homeostasis is in healthy individuals repaired by the presence of endogenous stem cells that can replace the lost cell type. However, in most disorders, a genetic origin or limited presence or exhaustion of stem cells impairs correct cell replacement. During the last 30 years, methods to readily isolate and expand stem cells have been developed and this resulted in a major change in the regenerative medicine field as it generates sufficient amount of cells for human transplantation applications. Furthermore, stem cells have been shown to release cytokines with beneficial effects for several diseases. At present however, clinical stem cell transplantations studies are struggling to demonstrate clinical efficacy despite promising preclinical results. Therefore, to allow stem cell therapy to achieve its full potential, more insight in their in vivo behavior has to be achieved. Different methods to noninvasively monitor these cells have been developed and are discussed. In some cases, stem cell monitoring even reached the clinical setting. We anticipate that by further exploring these imaging possibilities and unraveling their in vivo behavior further improvement in stem cell transplantations will be achieved. PMID:26997958

  11. Beyond the Cherry-Red Spot: Ocular Manifestations of Sphingolipid-mediated Neurodegenerative and Inflammatory Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Donald U.; Mandal, Nawajes A.

    2013-01-01

    Sphingolipids are a ubiquitous membrane lipid present in every cell and found most abundantly in neural tissues. Disorders such as Tay Sachs or Niemann Pick disease are the most familiar examples of dysfunction in sphingolipid metabolism and are typically associated with neurodegeneration and ocular findings such as blindness. More recently, the role of bioactive sphingolipids has been established in a multitude of cellular events, including cell survival, growth, senescence and apoptosis, inflammation, and neovascularization. We discuss our current knowledge and understanding of sphingolipid metabolism and signaling in the pathogenesis of ocular diseases. PMID:24011710

  12. Beyond the cherry-red spot: Ocular manifestations of sphingolipid-mediated neurodegenerative and inflammatory disorders.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Chan, Annie Y; Stone, Donald U; Mandal, Nawajes A

    2014-01-01

    Sphingolipids are a ubiquitous membrane lipid present in every cell and found most abundantly in neural tissues. Disorders such as Tay-Sachs or Niemann-Pick disease are the most familiar examples of dysfunction in sphingolipid metabolism and are typically associated with neurodegeneration and ocular findings such as blindness. More recently, the role of bioactive sphingolipids has been established in a multitude of cellular events, including cell survival, growth, senescence and apoptosis, inflammation, and neovascularization. We discuss our current knowledge and understanding of sphingolipid metabolism and signaling in the pathogenesis of ocular diseases. PMID:24011710

  13. Targeting autophagy in neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Vidal, René L; Matus, Soledad; Bargsted, Leslie; Hetz, Claudio

    2014-11-01

    The most prevalent neurodegenerative disorders involve protein misfolding and the aggregation of specific proteins. Autophagy is becoming an attractive target to treat neurodegenerative disorders through the selective degradation of abnormally folded proteins by the lysosomal pathway. However, accumulating evidence indicates that autophagy impairment at different regulatory steps may contribute to the neurodegenerative process. Thus, a complex scenario is emerging where autophagy may play a dual role in neurodegenerative diseases by causing the downstream effect of promoting the degradation of misfolded proteins and an upstream effect where its deregulation perturbs global proteostasis, contributing to disease progression. Challenges in the future development of therapeutic strategies to target the autophagy pathway are discussed. PMID:25270767

  14. Efficacy of Anakinra in Refractory Adult-Onset Still's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Sanjuán, Francisco; Blanco, Ricardo; Riancho-Zarrabeitia, Leyre; Castañeda, Santos; Olivé, Alejandro; Riveros, Anne; Velloso-Feijoo, María.L.; Narváez, Javier; Jiménez-Moleón, Inmaculada; Maiz-Alonso, Olga; Ordóñez, Carmen; Bernal, José A.; Hernández, María V.; Sifuentes-Giraldo, Walter A.; Gómez-Arango, Catalina; Galíndez-Agirregoikoa, Eva; Blanco-Madrigal, Juan; Ortiz-Santamaria, Vera; del Blanco-Barnusell, Jordi; De Dios, Juan R.; Moreno, Mireia; Fiter, Jordi; Riscos, Marina de los; Carreira, Patricia; Rodriguez-Valls, María J.; González-Vela, M. Carmen; Calvo-Río, Vanesa; Loricera, Javier; Palmou-Fontana, Natalia; Pina, Trinitario; Llorca, Javier; González-Gay, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) is often refractory to standard therapy. Anakinra (ANK), an interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, has demonstrated efficacy in single cases and small series of AOSD. We assessed the efficacy of ANK in a series of AOSD patients. Multicenter retrospective open-label study. ANK was used due to lack of efficacy to standard synthetic immunosuppressive drugs and in some cases also to at least 1 biologic agent. Forty-one patients (26 women/15 men) were recruited. They had a mean age of 34.4 ± 14 years and a median [interquartile range (IQR)] AOSD duration of 3.5 [2–6] years before ANK onset. At that time the most common clinical features were joint manifestations 87.8%, fever 78%, and cutaneous rash 58.5%. ANK yielded rapid and maintained clinical and laboratory improvement. After 1 year of therapy, the frequency of joint and cutaneous manifestations had decreased to 41.5% and to 7.3% respectively, fever from 78% to 14.6%, anemia from 56.1% to 9.8%, and lymphadenopathy from 26.8% to 4.9%. A dramatic improvement of laboratory parameters was also achieved. The median [IQR] prednisone dose was also reduced from 20 [11.3–47.5] mg/day at ANK onset to 5 [0–10] at 12 months. After a median [IQR] follow-up of 16 [5–50] months, the most important side effects were cutaneous manifestations (n = 8), mild leukopenia (n = 3), myopathy (n = 1), and infections (n = 5). ANK is associated with rapid and maintained clinical and laboratory improvement, even in nonresponders to other biologic agents. However, joint manifestations are more refractory than the systemic manifestations. PMID:26426623

  15. RAN translation and frameshifting as translational challenges at simple repeats of human neurodegenerative disorders

    PubMed Central

    Wojciechowska, Marzena; Olejniczak, Marta; Galka-Marciniak, Paulina; Jazurek, Magdalena; Krzyzosiak, Wlodzimierz J.

    2014-01-01

    Repeat-associated disorders caused by expansions of short sequences have been classified as coding and noncoding and are thought to be caused by protein gain-of-function and RNA gain-of-function mechanisms, respectively. The boundary between such classifications has recently been blurred by the discovery of repeat-associated non-AUG (RAN) translation reported in spinocerebellar ataxia type 8, myotonic dystrophy type 1, fragile X tremor/ataxia syndrome and C9ORF72 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia. This noncanonical translation requires no AUG start codon and can initiate in multiple frames of CAG, CGG and GGGGCC repeats of the sense and antisense strands of disease-relevant transcripts. RNA structures formed by the repeats have been suggested as possible triggers; however, the precise mechanism of the translation initiation remains elusive. Templates containing expansions of microsatellites have also been shown to challenge translation elongation, as frameshifting has been recognized across CAG repeats in spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 and Huntington's disease. Determining the critical requirements for RAN translation and frameshifting is essential to decipher the mechanisms that govern these processes. The contribution of unusual translation products to pathogenesis needs to be better understood. In this review, we present current knowledge regarding RAN translation and frameshifting and discuss the proposed mechanisms of translational challenges imposed by simple repeat expansions. PMID:25217582

  16. Potential role of organochlorine pesticides in the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental, neurodegenerative, and neurobehavioral disorders: A review.

    PubMed

    Saeedi Saravi, Seyed Soheil; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2016-01-15

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are persistent and bioaccumulative environmental contaminants with potential neurotoxic effects. The growing body of evidence has demonstrated that prenatal exposure to organochlorines (OCs) is associated with impairment of neuropsychological development. The hypothesis is consistent with recent studies emphasizing the correlation of environmental as well as genetic factors to the pathophysiology of neurodevelopmental and neurobehavioral defects. It has been suggested that maternal exposure to OCPs results in impaired motor and cognitive development in newborns and infants. Moreover, in utero exposure to these compounds contributes to the etiology of autism. Although impaired neurodevelopment occurs through prenatal exposure to OCs, breastfeeding causes postnatal toxicity in the infants. Parkinson's disease (PD) is another neurological disorder, which has been associated with exposure to OCs, leading to α-synuclein accumulation and depletion of dopaminergic neurons. The study aimed to review the potential association between pre- and post-natal exposure to OCs and impaired neurodevelopmental processes during pregnancy and neuropsychological diseases such as PD, behavioral alterations, seizures and autism. PMID:26549647

  17. TrkB Receptor Signalling: Implications in Neurodegenerative, Psychiatric and Proliferative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Vivek K.; You, Yuyi; Gupta, Veer Bala; Klistorner, Alexander; Graham, Stuart L.

    2013-01-01

    The Trk family of receptors play a wide variety of roles in physiological and disease processes in both neuronal and non-neuronal tissues. Amongst these the TrkB receptor in particular has attracted major attention due to its critical role in signalling for brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT3) and neurotrophin-4 (NT4). TrkB signalling is indispensable for the survival, development and synaptic plasticity of several subtypes of neurons in the nervous system. Substantial evidence has emerged over the last decade about the involvement of aberrant TrkB signalling and its compromise in various neuropsychiatric and degenerative conditions. Unusual changes in TrkB signalling pathway have also been observed and implicated in a range of cancers. Variations in TrkB pathway have been observed in obesity and hyperphagia related disorders as well. Both BDNF and TrkB have been shown to play critical roles in the survival of retinal ganglion cells in the retina. The ability to specifically modulate TrkB signalling can be critical in various pathological scenarios associated with this pathway. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms underlying TrkB signalling, disease implications and explore plausible ameliorative or preventive approaches. PMID:23670594

  18. Relevance of the chronobiological and non-chronobiological actions of melatonin for enhancing therapeutic efficacy in neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Cecon, Erika; Markus, Regina P

    2011-05-01

    Melatonin is an indolamine with a large spectrum of functions that can be divided into chronobiotic and nonchronobiotic. Chronobiotic effects are mediated by the daily rhythm of melatonin in the plasma due to nocturnal pineal synthesis, whereas the melatonin produced by other cells, such as gastrointestinal and immune competent cells, is independent of the light/dark cycle and exert non-chronobiotic effects. The concentrations achieved by the two sources are significantly different, varying in the pM-nM range in the plasma, and may achieve concentrations in the mM range when released locally by activated immune-competent cells. Consequently, the effects of the melatonin produced in these two situations are distinct. Much has been reported about the beneficial response to exogenous melatonin administration in several pathological conditions. However, the relationship between the establishment of a disease and the state of the physiological activity of the pineal gland is still poorly understood. Here, we review the state of art in the modulation of pineal melatonin synthesis, relevant patents, and discuss its relationship with neurodegenerative disorders that involve a central inflammatory response, such as Alzheimer's disease, to suggest the putative relevance of new therapeutic protocols that replace this pineal hormone. PMID:22074584

  19. Up-regulation of neurotrophic factors by cinnamon and its metabolite sodium benzoate: therapeutic implications for neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Jana, Arundhati; Modi, Khushbu K; Roy, Avik; Anderson, John A; van Breemen, Richard B; Pahan, Kalipada

    2013-06-01

    This study underlines the importance of cinnamon, a widely-used food spice and flavoring material, and its metabolite sodium benzoate (NaB), a widely-used food preservative and a FDA-approved drug against urea cycle disorders in humans, in increasing the levels of neurotrophic factors [e.g., brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3)] in the CNS. NaB, but not sodium formate (NaFO), dose-dependently induced the expression of BDNF and NT-3 in primary human neurons and astrocytes. Interestingly, oral administration of ground cinnamon increased the level of NaB in serum and brain and upregulated the levels of these neurotrophic factors in vivo in mouse CNS. Accordingly, oral feeding of NaB, but not NaFO, also increased the level of these neurotrophic factors in vivo in the CNS of mice. NaB induced the activation of protein kinase A (PKA), but not protein kinase C (PKC), and H-89, an inhibitor of PKA, abrogated NaB-induced increase in neurotrophic factors. Furthermore, activation of cAMP response element binding (CREB) protein, but not NF-κB, by NaB, abrogation of NaB-induced expression of neurotrophic factors by siRNA knockdown of CREB and the recruitment of CREB and CREB-binding protein to the BDNF promoter by NaB suggest that NaB exerts its neurotrophic effect through the activation of CREB. Accordingly, cinnamon feeding also increased the activity of PKA and the level of phospho-CREB in vivo in the CNS. These results highlight a novel neutrophic property of cinnamon and its metabolite NaB via PKA - CREB pathway, which may be of benefit for various neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:23475543

  20. Up-regulation of neurotrophic factors by cinnamon and its metabolite sodium benzoate: Therapeutic implications for neurodegenerative disorders

    PubMed Central

    Jana, Arundhati; Modi, Khushbu K.; Roy, Avik; Anderson, John A.; van Breemen, Richard B.; Pahan, Kalipada

    2013-01-01

    This study underlines the importance of cinnamon, a widely-used food spice and flavoring material, and its metabolite sodium benzoate (NaB), a widely-used food preservative and a FDA-approved drug against urea cycle disorders in humans, in increasing the levels of neurotrophic factors [e.g., brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3)] in the CNS. NaB, but not sodium formate (NaFO), dose-dependently induced the expression of BDNF and NT-3 in primary human neurons and astrocytes. Interestingly, oral administration of ground cinnamon increased the level of NaB in serum and brain and upregulated the levels of these neurotrophic factors in vivo in mouse CNS. Accordingly, oral feeding of NaB, but not NaFO, also increased the level of these neurotrophic factors in vivo in the CNS of mice. NaB induced the activation of protein kinase A (PKA), but not protein kinase C (PKC), and H-89, an inhibitor of PKA, abrogated NaB-induced increase in neurotrophic factors. Furthermore, activation of cAMP response element binding (CREB) protein, but not NF-κB, by NaB, abrogation of NaB-induced expression of neurotrophic factors by siRNA knockdown of CREB and the recruitment of CREB and CREB-binding protein to the BDNF promoter by NaB suggest that NaB exerts its neurotrophic effect through the activation of CREB. Accordingly, cinnamon feeding also increased the activity of PKA and the level of phospho-CREB in vivo in the CNS. These results highlight a novel neutrophic property of cinnamon and its metabolite NaB via PKA – CREB pathway, which may be of benefit for various neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:23475543

  1. Adult-Onset Hypothyroidism Enhances Fear Memory and Upregulates Mineralocorticoid and Glucocorticoid Receptors in the Amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Montero-Pedrazuela, Ana; Fernández-Lamo, Iván; Alieva, María; Pereda-Pérez, Inmaculada; Venero, César; Guadaño-Ferraz, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Hypothyroidism is the most common hormonal disease in adults, which is frequently accompanied by learning and memory impairments and emotional disorders. However, the deleterious effects of thyroid hormones deficiency on emotional memory are poorly understood and often underestimated. To evaluate the consequences of hypothyroidism on emotional learning and memory, we have performed a classical Pavlovian fear conditioning paradigm in euthyroid and adult-thyroidectomized Wistar rats. In this experimental model, learning acquisition was not impaired, fear memory was enhanced, memory extinction was delayed and spontaneous recovery of fear memory was exacerbated in hypothyroid rats. The potentiation of emotional memory under hypothyroidism was associated with an increase of corticosterone release after fear conditioning and with higher expression of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors in the lateral and basolateral nuclei of the amygdala, nuclei that are critically involved in the circuitry of fear memory. Our results demonstrate for the first time that adult-onset hypothyroidism potentiates fear memory and also increases vulnerability to develop emotional memories. Furthermore, our findings suggest that enhanced corticosterone signaling in the amygdala is involved in the pathophysiological mechanisms of fear memory potentiation. Therefore, we recommend evaluating whether inappropriate regulation of fear in patients with post-traumatic stress and other mental disorders is associated with abnormal levels of thyroid hormones, especially those patients refractory to treatment. PMID:22039511

  2. Genetics Home Reference: adult-onset leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids and pigmented glia

    MedlinePlus

    ... it causes a severe decline in thinking and reasoning abilities (dementia). Over time, motor skills are affected, ... Schmahmann JD. Adult onset leukodystrophy with neuroaxonal spheroids: clinical, neuroimaging and neuropathologic observations. Brain Pathol. 2009 Jan; ...

  3. Genomic Characteristics of Genetic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Patients with V180I Mutation and Associations with Other Neurodegenerative Disorders.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sol Moe; Chung, Myungguen; Hyeon, Jae Wook; Jeong, Seok Won; Ju, Young Ran; Kim, Heebal; Lee, Jeongmin; Kim, SangYun; An, Seong Soo A; Cho, Sung Beom; Lee, Yeong Seon; Kim, Su Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Inherited prion diseases (IPDs), including genetic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (gCJD), account for 10-15% of cases of prion diseases and are associated with several pathogenic mutations, including P102L, V180I, and E200K, in the prion protein gene (PRNP). The valine to isoleucine substitution at codon 180 (V180I) of PRNP is the most common pathogenic mutation causing gCJD in East Asian patients. In this study, we conducted follow-up analyses to identify candidate factors and their associations with disease onset. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data of five gCJD patients with V180I mutation and 145 healthy individuals were used to identify genomic differences. A total of 18,648,850 candidate variants were observed in only the patient group, 29 of them were validated as variants. Four of these validated variants were nonsense mutations, six were observed in genes directly or indirectly related to neurodegenerative disorders (NDs), such as LPA, LRRK2, and FGF20. More than half of validated variants were categorized in Gene Ontology (GO) terms of binding and/or catalytic activity. Moreover, we found differential genome variants in gCJD patients with V180I mutation, including one uniquely surviving 10 years after diagnosis of the disease. Elucidation of the relationships between gCJD and Alzheimer's disease or Parkinson's disease at the genomic level will facilitate further advances in our understanding of the specific mechanisms mediating the pathogenesis of NDs and gold standard therapies for NDs. PMID:27341347

  4. Genomic Characteristics of Genetic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Patients with V180I Mutation and Associations with Other Neurodegenerative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sol Moe; Chung, Myungguen; Hyeon, Jae Wook; Jeong, Seok Won; Ju, Young Ran; Kim, Heebal; Lee, Jeongmin; Kim, SangYun; An, Seong Soo A.; Cho, Sung Beom; Lee, Yeong Seon; Kim, Su Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Inherited prion diseases (IPDs), including genetic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (gCJD), account for 10–15% of cases of prion diseases and are associated with several pathogenic mutations, including P102L, V180I, and E200K, in the prion protein gene (PRNP). The valine to isoleucine substitution at codon 180 (V180I) of PRNP is the most common pathogenic mutation causing gCJD in East Asian patients. In this study, we conducted follow-up analyses to identify candidate factors and their associations with disease onset. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data of five gCJD patients with V180I mutation and 145 healthy individuals were used to identify genomic differences. A total of 18,648,850 candidate variants were observed in only the patient group, 29 of them were validated as variants. Four of these validated variants were nonsense mutations, six were observed in genes directly or indirectly related to neurodegenerative disorders (NDs), such as LPA, LRRK2, and FGF20. More than half of validated variants were categorized in Gene Ontology (GO) terms of binding and/or catalytic activity. Moreover, we found differential genome variants in gCJD patients with V180I mutation, including one uniquely surviving 10 years after diagnosis of the disease. Elucidation of the relationships between gCJD and Alzheimer’s disease or Parkinson’s disease at the genomic level will facilitate further advances in our understanding of the specific mechanisms mediating the pathogenesis of NDs and gold standard therapies for NDs. PMID:27341347

  5. Polysialic acid as an antigen for monoclonal antibody HIgM12 to treat multiple sclerosis and other neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Watzlawik, Jens O; Kahoud, Robert J; Ng, Shermayne; Painter, Meghan M; Papke, Louisa M; Zoecklein, Laurie; Wootla, Bharath; Warrington, Arthur E; Carey, William A; Rodriguez, Moses

    2015-09-01

    CNS regeneration is a desirable goal for diseases of brain and spinal cord. Current therapeutic strategies for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) aim to eliminate detrimental effects of the immune system, so far without reversing disability or affecting long-term prognosis in patients. Approachable molecular targets that stimulate CNS repair are not part of the clinical praxis or have not been identified yet. The purpose of this study was to identify the molecular target of the human monoclonal antibody HIgM12. HIgM12 reverses motor deficits in chronically demyelinated mice, a model of MS. Here, we identified polysialic acid (PSA) attached to the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) as the antigen for HIgM12 by using different NCAM knockout strains and through PSA removal from the NCAM protein core. Antibody binding to CNS tissue and primary cells, antibody-mediated cell adhesion, and neurite outgrowth on HIgM12-coated nitrocellulose was detected only in the presence of PSA as assessed by western blotting, immunoprecipitation, immunocytochemistry, and histochemistry. We conclude that HIgM12 mediates its in vivo and in vitro effects through binding to PSA and has the potential to be an effective therapy for MS and neurodegenerative diseases. The human antibody HIgM12 stimulates neurite outgrowth in vitro and promotes function in chronically demyelinated mice, a model of multiple sclerosis. The cellular antigen for HIgM12 was undetermined. Here, we identified polysialic acid attached to NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) as the cellular target for HIgM12. This includes glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive mouse astrocytes (GFAP, red; HIgM12, green; DAPI, blue) among other cell types of the central nervous system. These findings indicate a new strategy for the treatment of neuro-motor disorders including multiple sclerosis. PMID:25866077

  6. Inflammatory mediators leading to protein misfolding and uncompetitive/fast off-rate drug therapy for neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Lipton, Stuart A; Gu, Zezong; Nakamura, Tomohiro

    2007-01-01

    Inflammatory mediators, including free radicals such as nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), can contribute to neurodegenerative diseases in part by triggering protein misfolding. In this chapter, we will discuss a newly discovered pathway for this phenomenon and possible novel treatments. Excitotoxicity, defined as overstimulation of glutamate receptors, has been implicated in a final common pathway contributing to neuronal injury and death in a wide range of acute and chronic neurological disorders, ranging from Parkinson's disease (PD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), multiple sclerosis, and Alzheimer's disease (AD) to stroke and trauma. Excitotoxic cell death is due, at least in part, to excessive activation of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptors, leading to excessive Ca(2+) influx through the receptor's associated ion channel and subsequent free radical production, including NO and ROS. These free radicals can trigger a variety of injurious pathways, but newly discovered evidence suggests that some proteins are S-nitrosylated (transfer of NO to a critical thiol group), and this reaction can mimic the effect of rare genetic mutations. This posttranslational modification can contribute to protein misfolding, triggering neurodegenerative diseases. One such molecule affected is protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), an enzyme responsible for normal protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We found that when PDI is S-nitrosylation (forming SNO-PDI), the function of the enzyme is compromised, leading to misfolded proteins and contributing to neuronal cell injury and loss. Moreover, SNO-PDI occurs at pathological levels in several human diseases, including AD and PD. This discovery thus links protein misfolding to excitotoxicity and free radical formation in a number of neurodegenerative disorders. Another molecule whose S-nitrosylation can lead to abnormal protein accumulation is the E3 ubiquitin ligase, parkin, which

  7. Invited Review: Decoding the pathophysiological mechanisms that underlie RNA dysregulation in neurodegenerative disorders: a review of the current state of the art

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, M J; Cooper-Knock, J; Dodd, J E; Stopford, M J; Mihaylov, S R; Kirby, J; Shaw, P J; Hautbergue, G M

    2015-01-01

    Altered RNA metabolism is a key pathophysiological component causing several neurodegenerative diseases. Genetic mutations causing neurodegeneration occur in coding and noncoding regions of seemingly unrelated genes whose products do not always contribute to the gene expression process. Several pathogenic mechanisms may coexist within a single neuronal cell, including RNA/protein toxic gain-of-function and/or protein loss-of-function. Genetic mutations that cause neurodegenerative disorders disrupt healthy gene expression at diverse levels, from chromatin remodelling, transcription, splicing, through to axonal transport and repeat-associated non-ATG (RAN) translation. We address neurodegeneration in repeat expansion disorders [Huntington's disease, spinocerebellar ataxias, C9ORF72-related amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)] and in diseases caused by deletions or point mutations (spinal muscular atrophy, most subtypes of familial ALS). Some neurodegenerative disorders exhibit broad dysregulation of gene expression with the synthesis of hundreds to thousands of abnormal messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules. However, the number and identity of aberrant mRNAs that are translated into proteins – and how these lead to neurodegeneration – remain unknown. The field of RNA biology research faces the challenge of identifying pathophysiological events of dysregulated gene expression. In conclusion, we discuss current research limitations and future directions to improve our characterization of pathological mechanisms that trigger disease onset and progression. PMID:25319671

  8. Cathepsin F mutations cause Type B Kufs disease, an adult-onset neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Katherine R.; Dahl, Hans-Henrik M.; Canafoglia, Laura; Andermann, Eva; Damiano, John; Morbin, Michela; Bruni, Amalia C.; Giaccone, Giorgio; Cossette, Patrick; Saftig, Paul; Grötzinger, Joachim; Schwake, Michael; Andermann, Frederick; Staropoli, John F.; Sims, Katherine B.; Mole, Sara E.; Franceschetti, Silvana; Alexander, Noreen A.; Cooper, Jonathan D.; Chapman, Harold A.; Carpenter, Stirling; Berkovic, Samuel F.; Bahlo, Melanie

    2013-01-01

    Kufs disease, an adult-onset neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, is challenging to diagnose and genetically heterogeneous. Mutations in CLN6 were recently identified in recessive Kufs disease presenting as progressive myoclonus epilepsy (Type A), whereas the molecular basis of cases presenting with dementia and motor features (Type B) is unknown. We performed genome-wide linkage mapping of two families with recessive Type B Kufs disease and identified a single region on chromosome 11 to which both families showed linkage. Exome sequencing of five samples from the two families identified homozygous and compound heterozygous missense mutations in CTSF within this linkage region. We subsequently sequenced CTSF in 22 unrelated individuals with suspected recessive Kufs disease, and identified an additional patient with compound heterozygous mutations. CTSF encodes cathepsin F, a lysosomal cysteine protease, dysfunction of which is a highly plausible candidate mechanism for a storage disorder like ceroid lipofuscinosis. In silico modeling suggested the missense mutations would alter protein structure and function. Moreover, re-examination of a previously published mouse knockout of Ctsf shows that it recapitulates the light and electron-microscopic pathological features of Kufs disease. Although CTSF mutations account for a minority of cases of type B Kufs, CTSF screening should be considered in cases with early-onset dementia and may avoid the need for invasive biopsies. PMID:23297359

  9. Pathologic staging of white matter lesions in adult-onset leukoencephalopathy/leukodystrophy with axonal spheroids.

    PubMed

    Alturkustani, Murad; Keith, Julia; Hazrati, Lili-Naz; Rademakers, Rosa; Ang, Lee-Cyn

    2015-03-01

    The pathologic features of adult-onset leukoencephalopathy/leukodystrophy with axonal spheroids (ALAS) are variable, and this has led to different hypotheses as to whether primarily demyelination or axonopathy may underlie this disorder. Typical ALAS pathology is rarely accompanied by focal multiple sclerosis (MS)-like plaques. In ALAS pathology accompanied by focal multiple sclerosis (MS)-like plaques cases, the pathologic features cannot be distinguished from those of progressive MS with diffusely abnormal white matter. To clarify these issues, we examined neuropathologic features in 159 representative samples from 5 ALAS cases (3 men and 2 women aged 39-61 years) and in 95 representative samples from 3 chronic MS cases (1 man and 2 women aged 50-73 years). The white matter abnormalities in ALAS cases were characterized by 3 evolving stages: 1) white matter with numerous spheroids in a background of well-myelinated fibers; 2) moderate loss of myelinated fibers with sparse to moderate number of spheroids; and 3) leukodystrophy-like pattern of confluent axonal and myelin loss. The application of this staging system suggests that myelin loss in ALAS is preceded by axonopathy. In progressive MS cases, the diffusely abnormal white matter pathology could be attributed to both primary demyelination and axonopathy. Some cases with predominant axonopathy are difficult to distinguish from cases with ALAS. PMID:25668567

  10. Health-related quality of life in sporadic adult-onset ataxia.

    PubMed

    Abele, Michael; Klockgether, Thomas

    2007-02-15

    Despite progressive disability in sporadic adult-onset ataxia (SAOA), little is known about patients' assessment of their ataxic disorder and its impact on health-related quality of life (Hr-QoL). This study investigated Hr-QoL by means of the following self-administered scales: Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Medical Outcome Study Short Form (SF-36). Twenty-two unselected ataxia patients were included. Sleep-related complaints were found in 9 (41%) of 22 and symptoms of depression in 6 (38%) of 16 patients. Compared to a large german control group, SAOA patients had lower scores in all SF-36 dimensions except for bodily pain. The greatest impairment was found in the domain physical functioning, followed by the domains social functioning and role limitations (emotional problems). There was a significant negative correlation of all nonmotor SF-36 dimensions with the BDI score. Walking aid dependency was significantly correlated with poorer health status perception in several motor and nonmotor domains. In addition, impaired sleep quality was correlated with an impaired general health perception and with bodily pain. The study demonstrates a great impact of SAOA on Hr-QoL. Adequate treatment of depression, motor disability, and impaired sleep quality is essential to improve Hr-QoL in ataxic patients. PMID:17149704

  11. Steatogenesis in adult-onset type II citrullinemia is associated with down-regulation of PPARα.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Michiharu; Kimura, Takefumi; Yazaki, Masahide; Tanaka, Naoki; Yang, Yang; Nakajima, Takero; Horiuchi, Akira; Fang, Zhong-Ze; Joshita, Satoru; Matsumoto, Akihiro; Umemura, Takeji; Tanaka, Eiji; Gonzalez, Frank J; Ikeda, Shu-Ichi; Aoyama, Toshifumi

    2015-03-01

    SLC25A13 (citrin or aspartate-glutamate carrier 2) is located in the mitochondrial membrane in the liver and its genetic deficiency causes adult-onset type II citrullinemia (CTLN2). CTLN2 is one of the urea cycle disorders characterized by sudden-onset hyperammonemia due to reduced argininosuccinate synthase activity. This disorder is frequently accompanied with hepatosteatosis in the absence of obesity and ethanol consumption. However, the precise mechanism of steatogenesis remains unclear. The expression of genes associated with fatty acid (FA) and triglyceride (TG) metabolism was examined using liver samples obtained from 16 CTLN2 patients and compared with 7 healthy individuals. Although expression of hepatic genes associated with lipogenesis and TG hydrolysis was not changed, the mRNAs encoding enzymes/proteins involved in FA oxidation (carnitine palmitoyl-CoA transferase 1α, medium- and very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenases, and acyl-CoA oxidase 1), very-low-density lipoprotein secretion (microsomal TG transfer protein), and FA transport (CD36 and FA-binding protein 1), were markedly suppressed in CTLN2 patients. Serum concentrations of ketone bodies were also decreased in these patients, suggesting reduced mitochondrial β-oxidation activity. Consistent with these findings, the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), a master regulator of hepatic lipid metabolism, was significantly down-regulated. Hepatic PPARα expression was inversely correlated with severity of steatosis and circulating ammonia and citrulline levels. Additionally, phosphorylation of c-Jun-N-terminal kinase was enhanced in CTLN2 livers, which was likely associated with lower hepatic PPARα. Collectively, down-regulation of PPARα is associated with steatogenesis in CTLN2 patients. These findings provide a novel link between urea cycle disorder, lipid metabolism, and PPARα. PMID:25533124

  12. Glutamate and Neurodegenerative Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeffer, Eric; Duplantier, Allen

    As the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system, glutamate is critically involved in most aspects of CNS function. Given this critical role, it is not surprising that glutamatergic dysfunction is associated with many CNS disorders. In this chapter, we review the literature that links aberrant glutamate neurotransmission with CNS pathology, with a focus on neurodegenerative diseases. The biology and pharmacology of the various glutamate receptor families are discussed, along with data which links these receptors with neurodegenerative conditions. In addition, we review progress that has been made in developing small molecule modulators of glutamate receptors and transporters, and describe how these compounds have helped us understand the complex pharmacology of glutamate in normal CNS function, as well as their potential for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

  13. Cellular stress response: a novel target for chemoprevention and nutritional neuroprotection in aging, neurodegenerative disorders and longevity.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Vittorio; Cornelius, Carolin; Mancuso, Cesare; Pennisi, Giovanni; Calafato, Stella; Bellia, Francesco; Bates, Timothy E; Giuffrida Stella, Anna Maria; Schapira, Tony; Dinkova Kostova, Albena T; Rizzarelli, Enrico

    2008-12-01

    curcumin, acetyl-L-carnitine and carnosine have been demonstrated through the activation of these redox-sensitive intracellular pathways. Although the notion that stress proteins are neuroprotective is broadly accepted, still much work needs to be done in order to associate neuroprotection with specific pattern of stress responses. In this review the importance of vitagenes in the cellular stress response and the potential use of dietary antioxidants in the prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative disorders is discussed. PMID:18629638

  14. Neurodegenerative disease phenotypes in carriers of MAPT p.A152T, a risk factor for frontotemporal dementia spectrum disorders and Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Suzee E; Tartaglia, Maria C; Yener, Görsev; Genç, Sermin; Seeley, William W; Sanchez-Juan, Pascual; Moreno, Fermin; Mendez, Mario F; Klein, Eric; Rademakers, Rosa; López de Munain, Adolfo; Combarros, Onofre; Kramer, Joel H; Kenet, Robert O; Boxer, Adam L; Geschwind, Michael D; Gorno-Tempini, Maria-Luisa; Karydas, Anna M; Rabinovici, Gil D; Coppola, Giovanni; Geschwind, Daniel H; Miller, Bruce L

    2013-01-01

    Recently, Coppola and colleagues demonstrated that a rare microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) sequence variant, c.454G>A (p.A152T) significantly increases the risk of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) spectrum disorders and Alzheimer disease (AD) in a screen of 15,369 subjects. We describe clinical features of 9 patients with neurodegenerative disease (4 women) harboring p.A152T, aged 51 to 79 years at symptom onset. Seven developed FTD spectrum clinical syndromes, including progressive supranuclear palsy syndrome (n=2), behavioral variant FTD (bvFTD, n=1), nonfluent variant primary progressive aphasia (nfvPPA, n=2), and corticobasal syndrome (n=2); 2 patients were diagnosed with clinical AD. Thus, MAPT p.A152T is associated with a variety of FTD spectrum clinical presentations, although patients with clinical AD are also identified. These data warrant larger studies with clinicopathologic correlation to elucidate the influence of this genetic variant on neurodegenerative disease. PMID:23518664

  15. Generation of a novel mouse model that recapitulates early and adult onset glycogenosis type IV.

    PubMed

    Akman, H Orhan; Sheiko, Tatiana; Tay, Stacey K H; Finegold, Milton J; Dimauro, Salvatore; Craigen, William J

    2011-11-15

    Glycogen storage disease type IV (GSD IV) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficiency of the glycogen branching enzyme (GBE). The diagnostic feature of the disease is the accumulation of a poorly branched form of glycogen known as polyglucosan (PG). The disease is clinically heterogeneous, with variable tissue involvement and age of disease onset. Absence of enzyme activity is lethal in utero or in infancy affecting primarily muscle and liver. However, residual enzyme activity (5-20%) leads to juvenile or adult onset of a disorder that primarily affects muscle as well as central and peripheral nervous system. Here, we describe two mouse models of GSD IV that reflect this spectrum of disease. Homologous recombination was used to insert flippase recognition target recombination sites around exon 7 of the Gbe1 gene and a phosphoglycerate kinase-Neomycin cassette within intron 7, leading to a reduced synthesis of GBE. Mice bearing this mutation (Gbe1(neo/neo)) exhibit a phenotype similar to juvenile onset GSD IV, with wide spread accumulation of PG. Meanwhile, FLPe-mediated homozygous deletion of exon 7 completely eliminated GBE activity (Gbe1(-/-)), leading to a phenotype of lethal early onset GSD IV, with significant in utero accumulation of PG. Adult mice with residual GBE exhibit progressive neuromuscular dysfunction and die prematurely. Differently from muscle, PG in liver is a degradable source of glucose and readily depleted by fasting, emphasizing that there are structural and regulatory differences in glycogen metabolism among tissues. Both mouse models recapitulate typical histological and physiological features of two human variants of branching enzyme deficiency. PMID:21856731

  16. Scientific basis for the use of Indian ayurvedic medicinal plants in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders: ashwagandha.

    PubMed

    Ven Murthy, M R; Ranjekar, Prabhakar K; Ramassamy, Charles; Deshpande, Manasi

    2010-09-01

    nontoxic medication that normalizes physiological functions, disturbed by chronic stress, through correction of imbalances in the neuroendocrine and immune systems [9, 10]. The scientific research that has been carried out on Ashwagandha and other ayurvedic herbal medicines may be classified into three major categories, taking into consideration the endogenous or exogenous phenomena that are known to cause physiological disequilibrium leading to the pathological state; (A) pharmacological and therapeutic effects of extracts, purified compounds or multi-herbal mixtures on specific non-neurological diseases; (B) pharmacological and therapeutic effects of extracts, purified compounds or multi-herbal mixtures on neurodegenerative disorders; and (C) biochemical, physiological and genetic studies on the herbal plants themselves, in order to distinguish between those originating from different habitats, or to improve the known medicinal quality of the indigenous plant. Some of the major points on its use in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders are described below. PMID:20528765

  17. Sandhoff disease mimicking adult-onset bulbospinal neuronopathy.

    PubMed

    Thomas, P K; Young, E; King, R H

    1989-09-01

    A 32 year old male is described with an onset of upper limb postural tremor in adolescence followed by muscle cramps. Progressive proximal amyotrophy and weakness in the limbs developed late in the third decade. Examination disclosed, in addition, bilateral facial weakness and mild dysarthria. Enzyme studies revealed hexosaminidase A and B deficiency, indicating a diagnosis of Sandhoff disease. Intra-axonal membranocytoplasmic bodies were present in a rectal biopsy. The presentation, which resembled that of X-linked bulbospinal neuronopathy, widens the clinical spectrum for disorders related to G(M2) gangliosidosis. PMID:2795083

  18. Adult-onset phenylketonuria with rapidly progressive dementia and parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Tufekcioglu, Zeynep; Cakar, Arman; Bilgic, Basar; Hanagasi, Hasmet; Gurvit, Hakan; Emre, Murat

    2016-06-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder due to mutations in the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene, which converts phenylalanine (PHE) to tyrosine. Although it is principally a childhood disorder, in rare cases, the first signs of PKU may develop in late adulthood resembling common neurological diseases. Here we report a 59-year-old, previously normal functioning man who was admitted with blurred vision, cognitive problems, and gait difficulty that began 8 months before. He had brisk reflexes and left side dominant parkinsonism. His Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score was 25/30, and neuropsychological evaluation revealed a dysexecutive syndrome with simultanagnosia and constructional apraxia. His Clinical Dementia Rating score (CDR) was 1. Cranial MRI revealed bilateral diffuse hyperintense lesions in parietal and occipital white matter in T2, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, and diffusion weighted images. Diagnostic workup for rapidly progressive dementias was all normal except PHE level which was found to be highly elevated (1075 μmol/L, normal 39-240 μmol/L) with normal tyrosine level (61.20 μmol/L, normal 35-100 μmol/L). Three months after PHE-restricted diet, his cognitive impairment and signs of parkinsonism significantly improved, with MRI scan unchanged. This case demonstrates that late-onset PKU is a rare, treatable cause of rapidly progressive dementia and parkinsonism with certain constellations such as consanguinity and white matter abnormalities (WMAs) in imaging. PMID:26962957

  19. No Geographic Correlation between Lyme Disease and Death Due to 4 Neurodegenerative Disorders, United States, 2001–2010

    PubMed Central

    Kugeler, Kiersten J.; Perea, Anna E.; Pastula, Daniel M.; Mead, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    Associations between Lyme disease and certain neurodegenerative diseases have been proposed, but supportive evidence for an association is lacking. Similar geographic distributions would be expected if 2 conditions were etiologically linked. Thus, we compared the distribution of Lyme disease cases in the United States with the distributions of deaths due to Alzheimer disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), multiple sclerosis (MS), and Parkinson disease; no geographic correlations were identified. Lyme disease incidence per US state was not correlated with rates of death due to ALS, MS, or Parkinson disease; however, an inverse correlation was detected between Lyme disease and Alzheimer disease. The absence of a positive correlation between the geographic distribution of Lyme disease and the distribution of deaths due to Alzheimer disease, ALS, MS, and Parkinson disease provides further evidence that Lyme disease is not associated with the development of these neurodegenerative conditions. PMID:26488307

  20. Mutations in DNAJC5, Encoding Cysteine-String Protein Alpha, Cause Autosomal-Dominant Adult-Onset Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis

    PubMed Central

    Nosková, Lenka; Stránecký, Viktor; Hartmannová, Hana; Přistoupilová, Anna; Barešová, Veronika; Ivánek, Robert; Hůlková, Helena; Jahnová, Helena; van der Zee, Julie; Staropoli, John F.; Sims, Katherine B.; Tyynelä, Jaana; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; Nijssen, Peter C.G.; Mole, Sara E.; Elleder, Milan; Kmoch, Stanislav

    2011-01-01

    Autosomal-dominant adult-onset neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (ANCL) is characterized by accumulation of autofluorescent storage material in neural tissues and neurodegeneration and has an age of onset in the third decade of life or later. The genetic and molecular basis of the disease has remained unknown for many years. We carried out linkage mapping, gene-expression analysis, exome sequencing, and candidate-gene sequencing in affected individuals from 20 families and/or individuals with simplex cases; we identified in five individuals one of two disease-causing mutations, c.346_348delCTC and c.344T>G, in DNAJC5 encoding cysteine-string protein alpha (CSPα). These mutations—causing a deletion, p.Leu116del, and an amino acid exchange, p.Leu115Arg, respectively—are located within the cysteine-string domain of the protein and affect both palmitoylation-dependent sorting and the amount of CSPα in neuronal cells. The resulting depletion of functional CSPα might cause in parallel the presynaptic dysfunction and the progressive neurodegeneration observed in affected individuals and lysosomal accumulation of misfolded and proteolysis-resistant proteins in the form of characteristic ceroid deposits in neurons. Our work represents an important step in the genetic dissection of a genetically heterogeneous group of ANCLs. It also confirms a neuroprotective role for CSPα in humans and demonstrates the need for detailed investigation of CSPα in the neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses and other neurodegenerative diseases presenting with neuronal protein aggregation. PMID:21820099

  1. Late adult onset of Langerhans cell histiocytosis mimicking glioblastoma multiforme.

    PubMed

    Perren, F; Fankhauser, L; Thiévent, B; Pache, J-C; Delavelle, J; Rochat, T; Landis, T; Chizzolini, C

    2011-02-15

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) with multiple organ involvement is a rare disorder in adults. Extrapituitary involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) is uncommon. We report the unusual case of a 55-year-old woman presenting with a left-sided hemiataxia-hemiparesis, left hemisensory loss and short-lasting episodes of an alien left hand due to lesions of the internal capsule and the right thalamus, extending into the mesencephalon associated with extensive surrounding edema, without pituitary involvement. The neuroradiological image suggested glioblastoma multiforme. Brain biopsy revealed inflammatory tissue and "pseudotumoral" multiple sclerosis was suspected. Biopsy of concomitant lung and bone lesions disclosed Langerhans cell histiocytosis. The treatment with pulsed steroids in association with mycophenolate mofetil led to a sustained, clinical neurological remission. PMID:21131007

  2. DNA damage in neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Coppedè, Fabio; Migliore, Lucia

    2015-06-01

    Following the observation of increased oxidative DNA damage in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA extracted from post-mortem brain regions of patients affected by neurodegenerative diseases, the last years of the previous century and the first decade of the present one have been largely dedicated to the search of markers of DNA damage in neuronal samples and peripheral tissues of patients in early, intermediate or late stages of neurodegeneration. Those studies allowed to demonstrate that oxidative DNA damage is one of the earliest detectable events in neurodegeneration, but also revealed cytogenetic damage in neurodegenerative conditions, such as for example a tendency towards chromosome 21 malsegregation in Alzheimer's disease. As it happens for many neurodegenerative risk factors the question of whether DNA damage is cause or consequence of the neurodegenerative process is still open, and probably both is true. The research interest in markers of oxidative stress was shifted, in recent years, towards the search of epigenetic biomarkers of neurodegenerative disorders, following the accumulating evidence of a substantial contribution of epigenetic mechanisms to learning, memory processes, behavioural disorders and neurodegeneration. Increasing evidence is however linking DNA damage and repair with epigenetic phenomena, thereby opening the way to a very attractive and timely research topic in neurodegenerative diseases. We will address those issues in the context of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, which represent three of the most common neurodegenerative pathologies in humans. PMID:26255941

  3. Inflammation in neurodegenerative diseases

    PubMed Central

    Amor, Sandra; Puentes, Fabiola; Baker, David; van der Valk, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Neurodegeneration, the slow and progressive dysfunction and loss of neurons and axons in the central nervous system, is the primary pathological feature of acute and chronic neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease, neurotropic viral infections, stroke, paraneoplastic disorders, traumatic brain injury and multiple sclerosis. Despite different triggering events, a common feature is chronic immune activation, in particular of microglia, the resident macrophages of the central nervous system. Apart from the pathogenic role of immune responses, emerging evidence indicates that immune responses are also critical for neuroregeneration. Here, we review the impact of innate and adaptive immune responses on the central nervous system in autoimmune, viral and other neurodegenerative disorders, and discuss their contribution to either damage or repair. We also discuss potential therapies aimed at the immune responses within the central nervous system. A better understanding of the interaction between the immune and nervous systems will be crucial to either target pathogenic responses, or augment the beneficial effects of immune responses as a strategy to intervene in chronic neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:20561356

  4. Glycoproteomics in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Hyejin; Zhang, Jianpeng; Chung, Kathryn A.; Leverenz, James B.; Zabetian, Cyrus P.; Peskind, Elaine R.; Jankovic, Joseph; Su, Zhen; Hancock, Aneeka M.; Pan, Catherine; Montine, Thomas J.; Pan, Sheng; Nutt, John; Albin, Roger; Gearing, Marla; Beyer, Richard P.; Shi, Min; Zhang, Jing

    2009-01-01

    Protein glycosylation regulates protein function and cellular distribution. Additionally, aberrant protein glycosylations have been recognized to play major roles in human disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases. Glycoproteomics, a branch of proteomics that catalogs and quantifies glycoproteins, provides a powerful means to systematically profile the glycopeptides or glycoproteins of a complex mixture that are highly enriched in body fluids, and therefore, carry great potential to be diagnostic and/or prognostic markers. Application of this mass spectrometry-based technology to the study of neurodegenerative disorders (e.g., Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease) is relatively new, and is expected to provide insight into the biochemical pathogenesis of neurodegeneration, as well as biomarker discovery. In this review, we have summarized the current understanding of glycoproteins in biology and neurodegenerative disease, and have discussed existing proteomic technologies that are utilized to characterize glycoproteins. Some of the ongoing studies, where glycoproteins isolated from cerebrospinal fluid and human brain are being characterized in Parkinson's disease at different stages versus controls, are presented, along with future applications of targeted validation of brain specific glycoproteins in body fluids. PMID:19358229

  5. Is Adolescent-Onset First-Episode Psychosis Different from Adult Onset?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballageer, Trevor; Malla, Ashok; Manchanda, Rahul; Takhar, Jatinder; Haricharan, Raj

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether first-episode psychosis patients with onset during adolescence (ages 15-18) differ significantly from those with young-adult onset (ages 19-30). Method: Consecutive patients presenting with first-episode psychosis (N = 242) were assessed for demographic and illness characteristics such as duration of untreated…

  6. Adult-Onset Antisocial Behavior Trajectories: Associations with Adolescent Family Processes and Emerging Adulthood Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mata, Andrea D.; van Dulmen, Manfred H. M.

    2012-01-01

    Guided by conceptual and empirical work on emerging adulthood, this study investigated the role of closeness to mother and father and behavioral autonomy during adolescence on the development of adult-onset antisocial behavior. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), we identified four aggressive…

  7. Genetic dissection of a cell-autonomous neurodegenerative disorder: lessons learned from mouse models of Niemann-Pick disease type C

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Manuel E.; Scott, Matthew P.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding neurodegenerative disease progression and its treatment requires the systematic characterization and manipulation of relevant cell types and molecular pathways. The neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is highly amenable to genetic approaches that allow exploration of the disease biology at the organismal, cellular and molecular level. Although NPC is a rare disease, genetic analysis of the associated neuropathology promises to provide insight into the logic of disease neural circuitry, selective neuron vulnerability and neural-glial interactions. The ability to control the disorder cell-autonomously and in naturally occurring spontaneous animal models that recapitulate many aspects of the human disease allows for an unparalleled dissection of the disease neurobiology in vivo. Here, we review progress in mouse-model-based studies of NPC disease, specifically focusing on the subtype that is caused by a deficiency in NPC1, a sterol-binding late endosomal membrane protein involved in lipid trafficking. We also discuss recent findings and future directions in NPC disease research that are pertinent to understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration in general. PMID:23907005

  8. Childhood adversities and adult-onset asthma: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Korkeila, Jyrki; Lietzen, Raija; Sillanmäki, Lauri H; Rautava, Päivi; Korkeila, Katariina; Kivimäki, Mika; Koskenvuo, Markku; Vahtera, Jussi

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Childhood adversities may be important determinants of later illnesses and poor health behaviour. However, large-scale prospective studies on the associations between childhood adversities and the onset of asthma in adulthood are lacking. Design Prospective cohort study with 7-year follow-up. Setting Nationally representative study. Data were collected from the Health and Social Support (HeSSup) survey and national registers. Participants The participants represent the Finnish population from the following age groups: 20–24, 30–34, 40–44, and 50–54 years at baseline in 1998 (24 057 survey participants formed the final cohort of this study). The occurrence of childhood adversities was assessed at baseline with a six-item survey scale. The analyses were adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, behavioural health risks and common mental disorders. Primary and secondary outcomes The survey data were linked to data from national health registers on incident asthma during a 7-year follow-up to define new-onset asthma cases with verified diagnoses. Results A total of 12 126 (59%) participants reported that they encountered a childhood adversity. Of them 3677 (18% of all) endured three to six adversities. During a follow-up of 7 years, 593 (2.9%) participants were diagnosed with incident asthma. Those who reported three or more childhood adversities had a 1.6-fold (95% CI 1.31 to 2.01) greater risk of asthma compared to those without childhood adversities. This hazard attenuated but remained statistically significant after adjustment for conventional risk factors (HR 1.33; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.67). Conclusions Adults who report having encountered adversities in childhood may have an increased risk of developing asthma. PMID:23069774

  9. Oxidative Stress and Protein Quality Control Systems in the Aged Canine Brain as a Model for Human Neurodegenerative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Aged dogs are considered the most suitable spontaneous animal model for studying normal aging and neurodegenerative diseases. Elderly canines naturally develop cognitive dysfunction and neuropathological hallmarks similar to those seen in humans, especially Alzheimer's disease-like pathology. Pet dogs also share similar living conditions and diets to humans. Oxidative damage accumulates in the canine brain during aging, making dogs a valid model for translational antioxidant treatment/prevention studies. Evidence suggests the presence of detective protein quality control systems, involving ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs), in the aged canine brain. Further studies on the canine model are needed to clarify the role of age-related changes in UPS activity and HSP expression in neurodegeneration in order to design novel treatment strategies, such as HSP-based therapies, aimed at improving chaperone defences against proteotoxic stress affecting brain during aging. PMID:26078824

  10. Functional hyperspectral imaging captures subtle details of cell metabolism in olfactory neurosphere cells, disease-specific models of neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Gosnell, Martin E; Anwer, Ayad G; Cassano, Juan C; Sue, Carolyn M; Goldys, Ewa M

    2016-01-01

    Hyperspectral imaging uses spectral and spatial image information for target detection and classification. In this work hyperspectral autofluorescence imaging was applied to patient olfactory neurosphere-derived cells, a cell model of a human metabolic disease MELAS (mitochondrial myopathy, encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, stroke-like syndrome). By using an endogenous source of contrast subtle metabolic variations have been detected between living cells in their full morphological context which made it possible to distinguish healthy from diseased cells before and after therapy. Cellular maps of native fluorophores, flavins, bound and free NADH and retinoids unveiled subtle metabolic signatures and helped uncover significant cell subpopulations, in particular a subpopulation with compromised mitochondrial function. Taken together, our results demonstrate that multispectral spectral imaging provides a new non-invasive method to investigate neurodegenerative and other disease models, and it paves the way for novel cellular characterisation in health, disease and during treatment, with proper account of intrinsic cellular heterogeneity. PMID:26431992

  11. The Role of Uric Acid and Methyl Derivatives in the Prevention of Age-Related Neurodegenerative Disorders.

    PubMed

    Cutler, Roy G; Camandola, Simonetta; Malott, Kelli F; Edelhauser, Maria A; Mattson, Mark P

    2015-01-01

    High uric acid (UA levels have been correlated with a reduced risk of many neurodegenerative diseases through mechanisms involving chelating Fenton reaction transitional metals, antioxidant quenching of superoxide and hydroxyl free radicals, and as an electron donor that increases antioxidant enzyme activity (e.g. SOD. However, the clinical usefulness of UA is limited by its' low water solubility and propensity to form inflammatory crystals at hyperuricemic levels. This review focuses on the role of UA in neuroprotection, as well as potential strategies aimed at increasing UA levels in the soluble range, and the potential therapeutic use of more water-soluble methyl-UA derivatives from the natural catabolic end-products of dietary caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine. PMID:26059354

  12. Oxidative Stress in Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    PubMed

    Niedzielska, Ewa; Smaga, Irena; Gawlik, Maciej; Moniczewski, Andrzej; Stankowicz, Piotr; Pera, Joanna; Filip, Małgorzata

    2016-08-01

    The pathophysiologies of neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Parkinson's disease (PD), and Alzheimer's disease (AD), are far from being fully explained. Oxidative stress (OS) has been proposed as one factor that plays a potential role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. Clinical and preclinical studies indicate that neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by higher levels of OS biomarkers and by lower levels of antioxidant defense biomarkers in the brain and peripheral tissues. In this article, we review the current knowledge regarding the involvement of OS in neurodegenerative diseases, based on clinical trials and animal studies. In addition, we analyze the effects of the drug-induced modulation of oxidative balance, and we explore pharmacotherapeutic strategies for OS reduction. PMID:26198567

  13. When uncommon and common coalesce: adult onset Still's disease associated with breast augmentation as part of autoimmune syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA).

    PubMed

    Dagan, A; Kogan, M; Shoenfeld, Y; Segal, G

    2016-06-01

    Adult onset Still's disease (AOSD) is an uncommon, multisystemic, auto-inflammatory disorder, while breast augmentation is a very common cosmetic procedure. We describe a case in which these two coalesce, AOSD, manifested with pleuritis and pericarditis, developed after breast mammoplasty. The pathogenetic, missing link, behind the development of AOSD following mammoplasty, is thought to be the autoimmune (auto-inflammatory) syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA). We reviewed other cases of AOSD associated with breast mammoplasty published to date and the literature regarding AOSD and ASIA syndrome. The review is followed by a short debate of whether silicone implants should be explanted in similar, future cases. PMID:25604318

  14. Etiologic Framework for the Study of Neurodegenerative Disorders as Well as Vascular and Metabolic Comorbidities on the Grounds of Shared Epidemiologic and Biologic Features

    PubMed Central

    de Pedro-Cuesta, Jesús; Martínez-Martín, Pablo; Rábano, Alberto; Ruiz-Tovar, María; Alcalde-Cabero, Enrique; Calero, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Background: During the last two decades, protein aggregation at all organismal levels, from viruses to humans, has emerged from a neglected area of protein science to become a central issue in biology and biomedicine. This article constitutes a risk-based review aimed at supporting an etiologic scenario of selected, sporadic, protein-associated, i.e., conformational, neurodegenerative disorders (NDDs), and their vascular- and metabolic-associated ailments. Methods: A rationale is adopted, to incorporate selected clinical data and results from animal-model research, complementing epidemiologic evidences reported in two prior articles. Findings: Theory is formulated assuming an underlying conformational transmission mechanism, mediated either by horizontal transfer of mammalian genes coding for specific aggregation-prone proteins, or by xeno-templating between bacterial and host proteins. We build a few population-based and experimentally-testable hypotheses focusing on: (1) non-disposable surgical instruments for sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) and other rapid progressive neurodegenerative dementia (sRPNDd), multiple system atrophy (MSA), and motor neuron disease (MND); and (2) specific bacterial infections such as B. pertussis and E. coli for all forms, but particularly for late-life sporadic conformational, NDDs, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and atherosclerosis where natural protein fibrils present in such organisms as a result of adaptation to the human host induce prion-like mechanisms. Conclusion: Implications for cohort alignment and experimental animal research are discussed and research lines proposed. PMID:27378910

  15. REM Sleep Behavior Disorder: Updated Review of the Core Features, the RBD-Neurodegenerative Disease Association, Evolving Concepts, Controversies, and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Boeve, Bradley F.

    2010-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia manifested by vivid, often frightening dreams associated with simple or complex motor behavior during REM sleep. Patients appear to “act out their dreams,” in which the exhibited behaviors mirror the content of the dreams, and the dream content often involves a chasing or attacking theme. The polysomnographic features of RBD include increased electromyographic tone +/- dream enactment behavior during REM sleep. Management with counseling and pharmacologic measures is usually straight-forward and effective. In this review, the terminology, clinical and polysomnographic features, demographic and epidemiologic features, diagnostic criteria, differential diagnosis, and management strategies are discussed. Recent data on the suspected pathophysiologic mechanisms of RBD are also reviewed. The literature and our institutional experience on RBD are next discussed, with an emphasis on the RBD-neurodegenerative disease association and particularly the RBD-synucleinopathy association. Several issues relating to evolving concepts, controversies, and future directions are then reviewed, with an emphasis on idiopathic RBD representing an early feature of a neurodegenerative disease and particularly an evolving synucleinopathy. Planning for future therapies that impact patients with idiopathic RBD is reviewed in detail. PMID:20146689

  16. The juvenile-onset, adolescent-onset and adult-onset obese.

    PubMed

    Garn, S M; Sullivan, T V; Hawthorne, V M

    1991-02-01

    As shown in more than 8000 proband-parent pairs derived from a total-community sample and followed in longitudinal fashion, the 5-year incidence of obesity (new cases per 5-year period) approximates 8 percent for the juvenile-onset, adolescent-onset and adult-onset obese alike. Parents of juvenile-onset (ages 5-9), adolescent-onset (10-19) and adult-onset obese (20-39) tend to be of above-average fatness level, +0.25Z scores, overall, regardless of the age at onset of obesity in their progeny. Except for the parents of the juvenile-onset obese, educational level of the parents tends to be below average for the sample as a whole. These new data acquired in longitudinal context and explored in retrospective-prospective fashion do not substantiate the notion that different onset ages of obesity indicate separate etiologies and different family constellations. PMID:2040547

  17. Mapping a gene for adult-onset primary open-angle glaucoma to chromosome 3q

    SciTech Connect

    Wirtz, M.K.; Samples, J.R.; Kramer, P.L.

    1997-02-01

    Glaucoma is the third-leading cause of blindness in the world, affecting >13.5 million people. Adult-on-set primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is the most common form of glaucoma in the United States. We present a family in which adult-onset POAG is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. Twelve affected family members were identified from 44 at-risk individuals. The disease-causing gene was mapped to chromosome 3q21-24, with analysis of recombinant haplotypes suggesting a total inclusion region of 11.1 cM between markers D3S3637 and D3S1744. This is the first report of mapping of an adult-onset POAG gene to chromosome 3q, gene symbol GLC1C. 57 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Urticaria and dermographism in patients with adult-onset Still's disease.

    PubMed

    Criado, Paulo Ricardo; de Carvalho, Jozélio Freire; Ayabe, Liliane Akemi; Brandt, Hebert Roberto Clivati; Romiti, Ricardo; Maruta, Celina W

    2012-08-01

    Adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) patients typically present with arthralgia, fever, lymphadenopathy and a transient salmon maculopapular rash. Only approximately 25 cases of AOSD with urticaria were described in the literature. In this article, the authors report three additional cases of AOSD with urticarial and dermographic lesions who had a good clinical response to glucocorticoid and antihistamines. A review of the literature concerning this issue is also herein written. PMID:21785958

  19. Epidemiology of adult-onset hydrocephalus: institutional experience with 2001 patients.

    PubMed

    Bir, Shyamal C; Patra, Devi Prasad; Maiti, Tanmoy K; Sun, Hai; Guthikonda, Bharat; Notarianni, Christina; Nanda, Anil

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE Adult-onset hydrocephalus is not commonly discussed in the literature, especially regarding its demographic distribution. In contrast to pediatric hydrocephalus, which is related to a primary CSF pathway defect, its development in adults is often secondary to other pathologies. In this study, the authors investigated the epidemiology of adult-onset hydrocephalus as it pertains to different etiologies and in reference to age, sex, and race distributions. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed the clinical notes of 2001 patients with adult-onset hydrocephalus who presented to Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center within a 25-year span. Significant differences between the groups were analyzed by a chi-square test; p < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS The overall mean (± SEM) incidence of adult hydrocephalus in this population was 77 ± 30 per year, with a significant increase in incidence in the past decade (55 ± 3 [1990-2003] vs 102 ± 6 [2004-2015]; p < 0.0001). Hydrocephalus in a majority of the patients had a vascular etiology (45.5%) or was a result of a tumor (30.2%). The incidence of hydrocephalus in different age groups varied according to various pathologies. The incidence was significantly higher in males with normal-pressure hydrocephalus (p = 0.03) or head injury (p = 0.01) and higher in females with pseudotumor cerebri (p < 0.0001). In addition, the overall incidence of hydrocephalus was significantly higher in Caucasian patients (p = 0.0002) than in those of any other race. CONCLUSIONS Knowledge of the demographic variations in adult-onset hydrocephalus is helpful in achieving better risk stratification and better managing the disease in patients. For general applicability, these results should be validated in a large-scale meta-analysis based on a national population database. PMID:27581317

  20. Adult onset unilateral systematized porokeratotic eccrine ostial and dermal duct nevus: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bandoyopadhyay, Debabrata; Saha, Abanti

    2014-06-01

    Porokeratotic eccrine ostial and dermal duct nevus (PEODDN) is an uncommon, benign dermatosis that is characterized by asymptomatic grouped keratotic papules and plaques with a linear pattern on the extremities with distinct porokeratotic histopathological features. The lesions usually appear at birth or in childhood, although rare cases of late-onset adult PEODDN have been described. Herein we report a case of adult onset PEODDN with unilateral and segmental involvement. PMID:24945650

  1. Intra-arterial Chemotherapy for Adult Onset Retinoblastoma in a 32-Year-Old Man.

    PubMed

    Magan, Tejal; Khoo, Chloe T L; Jabbour, Pascal M; Fuller, Dwain G; Shields, Carol L

    2016-01-01

    A 32-year-old man with active unilateral group D retinoblastoma that was recurrent following external beam radiotherapy was treated with intra-arterial chemotherapy, leading to tumor regression. Additional plaque radiotherapy and intravitreal chemotherapy were required for complete control. Final visual acuity was 20/40. In selected cases, adult-onset retinoblastoma can be managed with intra-arterial chemotherapy. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2016;53:e43-e46.]. PMID:27486894

  2. Adult-onset Still's disease revealed by perimyocarditis and a concomitant reactivation of an EBV infection

    PubMed Central

    Meckenstock, Roderich; Therby, Audrey; Gibault-Genty, Geraldine; Khau, David; Monnier, Sebastien; Greder-Belan, Alix

    2012-01-01

    We describe a 17-year-old patient presenting perimyocarditis as the initial manifestation of the adult-onset Still's disease. Corticotherapy was rapidly successful but induced major acute hepatitis in relation with Epstein-Barr virus reactivation. After 1 year, even if the global outcome is favourable, a slightly lowered ejection fraction still persists. Former case reports and differential diagnosis with reactive haemophagocytic syndrome would be discussed. PMID:23166163

  3. Clinical Characteristics of Pediatric-Onset and Adult-Onset Multiple Sclerosis in Hispanic Americans.

    PubMed

    Langille, Megan M; Islam, Talat; Burnett, Margaret; Amezcua, Lilyana

    2016-07-01

    Multiple sclerosis can affect pediatric patients. Our aim was to compare characteristics between pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis and adult-onset multiple sclerosis in Hispanic Americans. This was a cross-sectional analysis of 363 Hispanic American multiple scleroses cases; demographic and clinical characteristics were analyzed. A total of 110 Hispanic patients presented with multiple sclerosis before age 18 and 253 as adult multiple sclerosis. The most common presenting symptoms for both was optic neuritis. Polyfocal symptoms, seizures, and cognitive symptoms at presentation were more prevalent in pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (P ≤ .001). Transverse myelitis was more frequent in adult-onset multiple sclerosis (P ≤ .001). Using multivariable analysis, pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (adjusted odds ratio, 0.3OR 95% confidence interval 0.16-0.71, P = .004) and being US born (adjusted odds ratio, 0.553, 95% confidence interval 0.3-1.03, P = .006) were less likely to have severe ambulatory disability. Results suggest that pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis and adult-onset multiple sclerosis in Hispanics have differences that could be important for treatment and prognosis. PMID:27021143

  4. Dioxin (TCDD) Induces Epigenetic Transgenerational Inheritance of Adult Onset Disease and Sperm Epimutations

    PubMed Central

    Manikkam, Mohan; Tracey, Rebecca; Guerrero-Bosagna, Carlos; Skinner, Michael K.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental compounds can promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset disease in subsequent generations following ancestral exposure during fetal gonadal sex determination. The current study examined the ability of dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo[p]dioxin, TCDD) to promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease and DNA methylation epimutations in sperm. Gestating F0 generation females were exposed to dioxin during fetal day 8 to 14 and adult-onset disease was evaluated in F1 and F3 generation rats. The incidences of total disease and multiple disease increased in F1 and F3 generations. Prostate disease, ovarian primordial follicle loss and polycystic ovary disease were increased in F1 generation dioxin lineage. Kidney disease in males, pubertal abnormalities in females, ovarian primordial follicle loss and polycystic ovary disease were increased in F3 generation dioxin lineage animals. Analysis of the F3 generation sperm epigenome identified 50 differentially DNA methylated regions (DMR) in gene promoters. These DMR provide potential epigenetic biomarkers for transgenerational disease and ancestral environmental exposures. Observations demonstrate dioxin exposure of a gestating female promotes epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease and sperm epimutations. PMID:23049995

  5. Synthesis of ROS scavenging microspheres from a dopamine containing poly(β-amino ester) for applications for neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Newland, Ben; Wolff, Paul; Zhou, Dezhong; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Hong; Rosser, Anne; Wang, Wenxin; Werner, Carsten

    2016-02-23

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease characterized by a substantial decrease of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. The neurological deterioration during PD can be, in part, attributed to elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Radical scavengers have previously been shown to protect dopaminergic cells from toxic effects in vitro. Hence, new approaches need to be investigated to improve the administration of antioxidants in order to provide neuroprotection. Polymers exhibiting catechol structures offer one such approach due to their interesting physicochemical properties. In the present study a photocrosslinkable dopamine-containing poly(β-amino ester) (DPAE) was synthesized from poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) and dopamine hydrochloride using Michael type addition. A water-in-oil emulsion technique was used to photo-crosslink the polymer into spherical microparticles. DPAE microspheres featured excellent scavenging properties towards 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radicals in a dose dependent manner and could even reduce the dissolved oxygen content of physiological solution. Furthermore, the concentrations required for radical scavenging were shown to be non-toxic towards dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells as well as primary astrocytes and primary embryonic rat ventral midbrain cultures. PMID:26756041

  6. Neurobiological effects of the green tea constituent theanine and its potential role in the treatment of psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Lardner, Anne L

    2014-07-01

    Theanine (n-ethylglutamic acid), a non-proteinaceous amino acid component of green and black teas, has received growing attention in recent years due to its reported effects on the central nervous system. It readily crosses the blood-brain barrier where it exerts a variety of neurophysiological and pharmacological effects. Its most well-documented effect has been its apparent anxiolytic and calming effect due to its up-regulation of inhibitory neurotransmitters and possible modulation of serotonin and dopamine in selected areas. It has also recently been shown to increase levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. An increasing number of studies demonstrate a neuroprotective effects following cerebral infarct and injury, although the exact molecular mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. Theanine also elicits improvements in cognitive function including learning and memory, in human and animal studies, possibly via a decrease in NMDA-dependent CA1 long-term potentiation (LTP) and increase in NMDA-independent CA1-LTP. Furthermore, theanine administration elicits selective changes in alpha brain wave activity with concomitant increases in selective attention during the execution of mental tasks. Emerging studies also demonstrate a promising role for theanine in augmentation therapy for schizophrenia, while animal models of depression report positive improvements following theanine administration. A handful of studies are beginning to examine a putative role in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and theoretical extrapolations to a therapeutic role for theanine in other psychiatric disorders such as anxiety disorders, panic disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and bipolar disorder are discussed. PMID:23883567

  7. Neuroimaging Biomarkers of Neurodegenerative Diseases and Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Risacher, Shannon L.; Saykin, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Neurodegenerative disorders leading to dementia are common diseases that affect many older and some young adults. Neuroimaging methods are important tools for assessing and monitoring pathological brain changes associated with progressive neurodegenerative conditions. In this review, the authors describe key findings from neuroimaging studies (magnetic resonance imaging and radionucleotide imaging) in neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and prodromal stages, familial and atypical AD syndromes, frontotemporal dementia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with and without dementia, Parkinson’s disease with and without dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies, Huntington’s disease, multiple sclerosis, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder, and prion protein associated diseases (i.e., Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease). The authors focus on neuroimaging findings of in vivo pathology in these disorders, as well as the potential for neuroimaging to provide useful information for differential diagnosis of neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:24234359

  8. Targeting intrinsically disordered proteins in neurodegenerative and protein dysfunction diseases: another illustration of the D2 concept

    PubMed Central

    Uversky, Vladimir N

    2010-01-01

    Many biologically active proteins, which are usually called intrinsically disordered or natively unfolded proteins, lack stable tertiary and/or secondary structure under physiological conditions in vitro. Their functions complement the functional repertoire of ordered proteins, with intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) often being involved in regulation, signaling and control. Their amino acid sequences and compositions are very different from those of ordered proteins, making reliable identification of IDPs possible at the proteome level. IDPs are highly abundant in various human diseases, including neurodegeneration and other protein dysfunction maladies and, therefore, represent attractive novel drug targets. Some of the aspects of IDPs, as well as their roles in neurodegeneration and protein dysfunction diseases, are discussed in this article, together with the peculiarities of IDPs as potential drug targets. PMID:20653509

  9. The Vitamin D, Ionised Calcium and Parathyroid Hormone Axis of Cerebral Capillary Function: Therapeutic Considerations for Vascular-Based Neurodegenerative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Virginie; Takechi, Ryusuke; Pallabage-Gamarallage, Menuka; Giles, Corey; Mamo, John C. L.

    2015-01-01

    Blood-brain barrier dysfunction characterised by brain parenchymal extravasation of plasma proteins may contribute to risk of neurodegenerative disorders, however the mechanisms for increased capillary permeability are not understood. Increasing evidence suggests vitamin D confers central nervous system benefits and there is increasing demand for vitamin D supplementation. Vitamin D may influence the CNS via modulation of capillary function, however such effects may be indirect as it has a central role in maintaining calcium homeostasis, in concert with calcium regulatory hormones. This study utilised an integrated approach and investigated the effects of vitamin D supplementation, parathyroid tissue ablation (PTX), or exogenous infusion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) on cerebral capillary integrity. Parenchymal extravasation of immunoglobulin G (IgG) was used as a marker of cerebral capillary permeability. In C57BL/6J mice and Sprague Dawley rats, dietary vitamin D was associated with exaggerated abundance of IgG within cerebral cortex (CTX) and hippocampal formation (HPF). Vitamin D was also associated with increased plasma ionised calcium (iCa) and decreased PTH. A response to dose was suggested and parenchymal effects persisted for up to 24 weeks. Ablation of parathyroid glands increased CTX- and HPF-IgG abundance concomitant with a reduction in plasma iCa. With the provision of PTH, iCa levels increased, however the PTH treated animals did not show increased cerebral permeability. Vitamin D supplemented groups and rats with PTH-tissue ablation showed modestly increased parenchymal abundance of glial-fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a marker of astroglial activation. PTH infusion attenuated GFAP abundance. The findings suggest that vitamin D can compromise capillary integrity via a mechanism that is independent of calcium homeostasis. The effects of exogenous vitamin D supplementation on capillary function and in the context of prevention of vascular

  10. Neuroprotective effects of the anti‐cancer drug sunitinib in models of HIV neurotoxicity suggests potential for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders

    PubMed Central

    Wrasidlo, Wolf; Crews, Leslie A; Tsigelny, Igor F; Stocking, Emily; Kouznetsova, Valentina L; Price, Diana; Paulino, Amy; Gonzales, Tania; Overk, Cassia R; Patrick, Christina; Rockenstein, Edward; Masliah, Eliezer

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Anti-retrovirals have improved and extended the life expectancy of patients with HIV. However, as this population ages, the prevalence of cognitive changes is increasing. Aberrant activation of kinases, such as receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5), play a role in the mechanisms of HIV neurotoxicity. Inhibitors of CDK5, such as roscovitine, have neuroprotective effects; however, CNS penetration is low. Interestingly, tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) display some CDK inhibitory activity and ability to cross the blood–brain barrier. Experimental Approach We screened a small group of known TKIs for a candidate with additional CDK5 inhibitory activity and tested the efficacy of the candidate in in vitro and in vivo models of HIV-gp120 neurotoxicity. Key Results Among 12 different compounds, sunitinib inhibited CDK5 with an IC50 of 4.2 μM. In silico analysis revealed that, similarly to roscovitine, sunitinib fitted 6 of 10 features of the CDK5 pharmacophore. In a cell-based model, sunitinib reduced CDK5 phosphorylation (pCDK5), calpain-dependent p35/p25 conversion and protected neuronal cells from the toxic effects of gp120. In glial fibrillary acidic protein-gp120 transgenic (tg) mice, sunitinib reduced levels of pCDK5, p35/p25 and phosphorylated tau protein, along with amelioration of the neurodegenerative pathology. Conclusions and Implications Compounds such as sunitinib with dual kinase inhibitory activity could ameliorate the cognitive impairment associated with chronic HIV infection of the CNS. Moreover, repositioning existing low MW compounds holds promise for the treatment of patients with neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:25117211

  11. Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Johri, Ashu

    2012-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are a large group of disabling disorders of the nervous system, characterized by the relative selective death of neuronal subtypes. In most cases, there is overwhelming evidence of impaired mitochondrial function as a causative factor in these diseases. More recently, evidence has emerged for impaired mitochondrial dynamics (shape, size, fission-fusion, distribution, movement etc.) in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Alzheimer's disease. Here, we provide a concise overview of the major findings in recent years highlighting the importance of healthy mitochondria for a healthy neuron. PMID:22700435

  12. Inferior olivary nucleus involvement in pediatric neurodegenerative disorders: does it play a role in neuroimaging pattern-recognition approach?

    PubMed

    Mirabelli-Badenier, Marisol; Morana, Giovanni; Bruno, Claudio; Di Rocco, Maja; Striano, Pasaquale; De Grandis, Eusa; Veneselli, Edvige; Rossi, Andrea; Biancheri, Roberta

    2015-04-01

    The diagnostic work up of neurometabolic/degenerative disorders is complex. In such context, identification of neuroradiological features suggestive of specific diagnoses is useful to prompt further diagnostic tests. Involvement of the inferior olivary nucleus (ION) has been reported in several pathologic conditions, either as a primary manifestation of disease or secondary to hypertrophic olivary degeneration (HOD). In this study, we analyzed a cohort of 95 children with different neurometabolic/degenerative diseases involving the brainstem and cerebellum, with the aim to evaluate whether ION involvement plays a role in a neuroimaging-based pattern-recognition approach. A total of 13 patients (13.7%) showed bilateral high-signal intensity and enlargement of the ION on T2-weighted images, while 16 (16.8%) had ION T2-hyperintensity without olivary nucleus enlargement. Our study demonstrates that ION involvement is not rare in children with neurometabolic/degenerative disorders. Two main neuroradiological patterns, that is, "T2-hyperintense signal" and "T2-hyperintense signal with enlargement" are found. These patterns can be related to different etiologies, and do not suggest specific diagnoses. Primary ION lesion can be characterized by olivary swelling, and the differentiation from typical secondary HOD may be difficult. PMID:25686202

  13. Folate Receptor Alpha Defect Causes Cerebral Folate Transport Deficiency: A Treatable Neurodegenerative Disorder Associated with Disturbed Myelin Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Steinfeld, Robert; Grapp, Marcel; Kraetzner, Ralph; Dreha-Kulaczewski, Steffi; Helms, Gunther; Dechent, Peter; Wevers, Ron; Grosso, Salvatore; Gärtner, Jutta

    2009-01-01

    Sufficient folate supplementation is essential for a multitude of biological processes and diverse organ systems. At least five distinct inherited disorders of folate transport and metabolism are presently known, all of which cause systemic folate deficiency. We identified an inherited brain-specific folate transport defect that is caused by mutations in the folate receptor 1 (FOLR1) gene coding for folate receptor alpha (FRα). Three patients carrying FOLR1 mutations developed progressive movement disturbance, psychomotor decline, and epilepsy and showed severely reduced folate concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated profound hypomyelination, and MR-based in vivo metabolite analysis indicated a combined depletion of white-matter choline and inositol. Retroviral transfection of patient cells with either FRα or FRβ could rescue folate binding. Furthermore, CSF folate concentrations, as well as glial choline and inositol depletion, were restored by folinic acid therapy and preceded clinical improvements. Our studies not only characterize a previously unknown and treatable disorder of early childhood, but also provide new insights into the folate metabolic pathways involved in postnatal myelination and brain development. PMID:19732866

  14. Pesticide Methoxychlor Promotes the Epigenetic Transgenerational Inheritance of Adult-Onset Disease through the Female Germline

    PubMed Central

    Manikkam, Mohan; Haque, M. Muksitul; Guerrero-Bosagna, Carlos; Nilsson, Eric E.; Skinner, Michael K.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental compounds including fungicides, plastics, pesticides, dioxin and hydrocarbons can promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset disease in future generation progeny following ancestral exposure during the critical period of fetal gonadal sex determination. This study examined the actions of the pesticide methoxychlor to promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset disease and associated differential DNA methylation regions (i.e. epimutations) in sperm. Gestating F0 generation female rats were transiently exposed to methoxychlor during fetal gonadal development (gestation days 8 to 14) and then adult-onset disease was evaluated in adult F1 and F3 (great-grand offspring) generation progeny for control (vehicle exposed) and methoxychlor lineage offspring. There were increases in the incidence of kidney disease, ovary disease, and obesity in the methoxychlor lineage animals. In females and males the incidence of disease increased in both the F1 and the F3 generations and the incidence of multiple disease increased in the F3 generation. There was increased disease incidence in F4 generation reverse outcross (female) offspring indicating disease transmission was primarily transmitted through the female germline. Analysis of the F3 generation sperm epigenome of the methoxychlor lineage males identified differentially DNA methylated regions (DMR) termed epimutations in a genome-wide gene promoters analysis. These epimutations were found to be methoxychlor exposure specific in comparison with other exposure specific sperm epimutation signatures. Observations indicate that the pesticide methoxychlor has the potential to promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease and the sperm epimutations appear to provide exposure specific epigenetic biomarkers for transgenerational disease and ancestral environmental exposures. PMID:25057798

  15. The Incidence and Clinical Characteristics of Adult-Onset Convergence Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Ghadban, Rafif; Martinez, Jennifer M.; Diehl, Nancy N.; Mohney, Brian G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics and natural history of convergence insufficiency (CI) in a population-based cohort of adults. Design Retrospectively reviewed population-based cohort. Participants Adult (≥19 years of age) residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota. Methods The medical records of all adults diagnosed with CI over a 20-year period were retrospectively reviewed. Main outcome measures Clinical characteristics and outcomes for adult-onset convergence insufficiency. Results A total of 118 adults (annual incidence of 8.44 per 100 000 patients older than 19 years) were diagnosed with CI during the 20-year period, comprising 15.7% of all forms of adult-onset strabismus observed in this population. The median age at diagnosis was 68.5 years (range 21.7 to 97.1 years) and 68 (57.6%) were female. The mean initial exodeviation at near was 14.1 PD (range 1 to 30 PD) and 1.7 PD (range 0 to 10 PD) at distance. The Kaplan-Meier rate of exotropia increasing by 7 prism diopters or more at near over time was 4.2% at 5 years, 13.5% at 10 years, and 24.4% at 20 years. Approximately 88% were managed with prisms while less than 5% underwent surgical correction. Conclusions Adult-onset convergence insufficiency comprised approximately 1 in 6 adults who were newly diagnosed with strabismus in this 20-year cohort. There was a significant increase in incidence with increasing age. Nearly one-fourth had an increase of their near exodeviation of at least 7 PD by 20 years after their diagnosis and most patients were managed conservatively. PMID:25626756

  16. Pathways of acetylcholine synthesis, transport and release as targets for treatment of adult-onset cognitive dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Amenta, F; Tayebati, S K

    2008-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) is a neurotransmitter widely diffused in central, peripheral, autonomic and enteric nervous system. This paper has reviewed the main mechanisms of ACh synthesis, storage, and release. Presynaptic choline transport supports ACh production and release, and cholinergic terminals express a unique transporter critical for neurotransmitter release. Neurons cannot synthesize choline, which is ultimately derived from the diet and is delivered through the blood stream. ACh released from cholinergic synapses is hydrolyzed by acetylcholinesterase into choline and acetyl coenzyme A and almost 50% of choline derived from ACh hydrolysis is recovered by a high-affinity choline transporter. Parallel with the development of cholinergic hypothesis of geriatric memory dysfunction, cholinergic precursor loading strategy was tried for treating cognitive impairment occurring in Alzheimer's disease. Controlled clinical studies denied clinical usefulness of choline and lecithin (phosphatidylcholine), whereas for other phospholipids involved in choline biosynthetic pathways such as cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine (CDP-choline) or alpha-glyceryl-phosphorylcholine (choline alphoscerate) a modest improvement of cognitive dysfunction in adult-onset dementia disorders is documented. These inconsistencies have probably a metabolic explanation. Free choline administration increases brain choline availability but it does not increase ACh synthesis/or release. Cholinergic precursors to serve for ACh biosynthesis should be incorporate and stored into phospholipids in brain. It is probable that appropriate ACh precursors and other correlated molecules (natural or synthesized) could represent a tool for developing therapeutic strategies by revisiting and updating treatments/supplementations coming out from this therapeutic stalemate. PMID:18289004

  17. Bartonella henselae infection presenting with a picture of adult-onset Still's disease.

    PubMed

    Durey, Areum; Kwon, Hea Yoon; Im, Jae-Hyoung; Lee, Sun Myoung; Baek, JiHyeon; Han, Seung Baik; Kang, Jae-Seung; Lee, Jin-Soo

    2016-05-01

    We report a patient with a clinical picture of suggestive for adult-onset Still's Disease (ASOD) due to Bartonella infection. A 42-year-old immunocompetent man was admitted with fever, rash, arthralgia and sore throat. As his clinical picture suggested ASOD except unusual skin manifestation, we treated him on steroid and ibuprofen. His fever and constitutional symptoms responded immediately within 24hrs of commencing therapy, yet rash and leukocytosis remained. Meanwhile, Bartonella infection was proved by culture of bone marrow. Minocyclin treatment started combined with hydroxychloroquine sulfate and the patient discharged with overall improvement. PMID:27000538

  18. Adult Onset Still's Disease: A Review on Diagnostic Workup and Treatment Options

    PubMed Central

    Gopalarathinam, Rajesh; Orlowsky, Eric; Kesavalu, Ramesh; Yelaminchili, Sreeteja

    2016-01-01

    Adult onset Still's disease (AOSD) is a rare systemic inflammatory disease of unknown etiology and pathogenesis that presents in 5 to 10% of patients as fever of unknown origin (FUO) accompanied by systemic manifestations. We report an interesting case of a 33-year-old African-American male who presented with one-month duration of FUO along with skin rash, sore throat, and arthralgia. After extensive workup, potential differential diagnoses were ruled out and the patient was diagnosed with AOSD based on the Yamaguchi criteria. The case history, incidence, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, differential diagnoses, diagnostic workup, treatment modalities, and prognosis of AOSD are discussed in this case report. PMID:27042373

  19. Herpes Zoster Meningitis Complicating Combined Tocilizumab and Cyclosporine Therapy for Adult-Onset Still's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tsurukawa, Shinichiro; Iwanaga, Nozomi; Izumi, Yasumori; Shirakawa, Atsunori; Kawahara, Chieko; Shukuwa, Tetsuo; Inamoto, Miwako; Kawakami, Atsushi; Migita, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    A 56-year-old female with refractory adult-onset Still's disease presented with ocular herpes zoster infection during TCZ treatment. After three days of acyclovir treatment (5 mg/kg), she developed a severe headache and high fever. Viral DNA isolation and cerebral spinal fluid abnormalities led to a herpes zoster meningitis diagnosis. Her meningitis was cured by high doses of intravenous acyclovir (10 mg/kg for 14 days). To our knowledge, this is the first report of meningeal herpes zoster infection in rheumatic diseases under TCZ treatment. PMID:27092286

  20. Herpes Zoster Meningitis Complicating Combined Tocilizumab and Cyclosporine Therapy for Adult-Onset Still's Disease.

    PubMed

    Tsurukawa, Shinichiro; Iwanaga, Nozomi; Izumi, Yasumori; Shirakawa, Atsunori; Kawahara, Chieko; Shukuwa, Tetsuo; Inamoto, Miwako; Kawakami, Atsushi; Migita, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    A 56-year-old female with refractory adult-onset Still's disease presented with ocular herpes zoster infection during TCZ treatment. After three days of acyclovir treatment (5 mg/kg), she developed a severe headache and high fever. Viral DNA isolation and cerebral spinal fluid abnormalities led to a herpes zoster meningitis diagnosis. Her meningitis was cured by high doses of intravenous acyclovir (10 mg/kg for 14 days). To our knowledge, this is the first report of meningeal herpes zoster infection in rheumatic diseases under TCZ treatment. PMID:27092286

  1. Depressive symptoms in neurodegenerative diseases

    PubMed Central

    Baquero, Miquel; Martín, Nuria

    2015-01-01

    Depressive symptoms are very common in chronic conditions. This is true so for neurodegenerative diseases. A number of patients with cognitive decline and dementia due to Alzheimer’s disease and related conditions like Parkinson’s disease, Lewy body disease, vascular dementia, frontotemporal degeneration amongst other entities, experience depressive symptoms in greater or lesser grade at some point during the course of the illness. Depressive symptoms have a particular significance in neurological disorders, specially in neurodegenerative diseases, because brain, mind, behavior and mood relationship. A number of patients may develop depressive symptoms in early stages of the neurologic disease, occurring without clear presence of cognitive decline with only mild cognitive deterioration. Classically, depression constitutes a reliable diagnostic challenge in this setting. However, actually we can recognize and evaluate depressive, cognitive or motor symptoms of neurodegenerative disease in order to establish their clinical significance and to plan some therapeutic strategies. Depressive symptoms can appear also lately, when the neurodegenerative disease is fully developed. The presence of depression and other neuropsychiatric symptoms have a negative impact on the quality-of-life of patients and caregivers. Besides, patients with depressive symptoms also tend to further decrease function and reduce cognitive abilities and also uses to present more affected clinical status, compared with patients without depression. Depressive symptoms are treatable. Early detection of depressive symptoms is very important in patients with neurodegenerative disorders, in order to initiate the most adequate treatment. We review in this paper the main neurodegenerative diseases, focusing in depressive symptoms of each other entities and current recommendations of management and treatment. PMID:26301229

  2. Depressive symptoms in neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Baquero, Miquel; Martín, Nuria

    2015-08-16

    Depressive symptoms are very common in chronic conditions. This is true so for neurodegenerative diseases. A number of patients with cognitive decline and dementia due to Alzheimer's disease and related conditions like Parkinson's disease, Lewy body disease, vascular dementia, frontotemporal degeneration amongst other entities, experience depressive symptoms in greater or lesser grade at some point during the course of the illness. Depressive symptoms have a particular significance in neurological disorders, specially in neurodegenerative diseases, because brain, mind, behavior and mood relationship. A number of patients may develop depressive symptoms in early stages of the neurologic disease, occurring without clear presence of cognitive decline with only mild cognitive deterioration. Classically, depression constitutes a reliable diagnostic challenge in this setting. However, actually we can recognize and evaluate depressive, cognitive or motor symptoms of neurodegenerative disease in order to establish their clinical significance and to plan some therapeutic strategies. Depressive symptoms can appear also lately, when the neurodegenerative disease is fully developed. The presence of depression and other neuropsychiatric symptoms have a negative impact on the quality-of-life of patients and caregivers. Besides, patients with depressive symptoms also tend to further decrease function and reduce cognitive abilities and also uses to present more affected clinical status, compared with patients without depression. Depressive symptoms are treatable. Early detection of depressive symptoms is very important in patients with neurodegenerative disorders, in order to initiate the most adequate treatment. We review in this paper the main neurodegenerative diseases, focusing in depressive symptoms of each other entities and current recommendations of management and treatment. PMID:26301229

  3. Longitudinal changes in cerebellar and subcortical volumes in adult-onset Niemann-Pick disease type C patients treated with miglustat.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Elizabeth A; Walterfang, Mark; Abel, Larry; Desmond, Patricia; Fahey, Michael; Velakoulis, Dennis

    2015-09-01

    Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is a rare neurovisceral disorder resulting in impaired intracellular lipid trafficking. The only disease-modifying treatment available to date is miglustat, an iminosugar inhibiting the accumulation of lipid by-products in neurons. This study explored how changes in cerebellar grey and white matter volumes, and in subcortical volumes, related to patient treatment status and disability and ataxia ratings. Nine adult-onset NPC patients and 17 matched controls underwent T1-weighted MRI. One patient was not receiving miglustat, and pre-treatment data were available for a further patient. Semi-automated cerebellar and subcortical segmentation was undertaken, and the rates of change in putamen, hippocampal, thalamic and caudal volumes, and grey and white matter cerebellar volumes, were compared to rates of change in Iturriaga disability score, Brief Ataxia Rating Scale (BARS), and horizontal saccadic gain. Untreated NPC patients appeared to lose cerebellar grey and white matter, bilateral thalamic volume, and right caudate volume faster than treated patients. Cerebellar grey matter volume loss and volume loss in the left thalamus were significantly correlated with Iturriaga disability scale changes. Change in both cerebellar grey and white matter was correlated with decrease in horizontal saccadic gain, but not with change in BARS. This is the first study to examine longitudinal treatment effects of miglustat on cerebellar and subcortical volumes in patients with adult-onset NPC, and is evidence that miglustat may have a protective effect on cerebellar and subcortical structure and function. PMID:26092521

  4. Electrophysiological characterization of adult-onset Niemann-Pick type C disease.

    PubMed

    Iodice, Rosa; Dubbioso, Raffaele; Topa, Antonietta; Ruggiero, Lucia; Pisciotta, Chiara; Esposito, Marcello; Tozza, Stefano; Santoro, Lucio; Manganelli, Fiore

    2015-01-15

    In infantile and juvenile Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease electrophysiological studies have shown central (CNS) and peripheral (PNS) nervous system abnormalities. However, an extensive electrophysiological evaluation of CNS and PNS in adult form of NPC is still lacking. The aim of the study is to assess in adult-onset NPC disease the involvement of CNS and PNS by a multimodal electrophysiological approach. Three patients affected by adult form of NPC disease underwent electrophysiological evaluation including nerve conduction study (NCS), magnetic motor (MEPs), visual (VEPs), somatosensory (SSEPs) and brainstem auditory (BAEPs) evoked potentials. NCS, MEPs, VEPs and upper limb SSEPs were normal. Lower limb SSEPs were abnormal in all patients and abnormalities were consistent with a length-dependent process affecting the central somatosensory pathway. BAEPs were abnormal in all patients with both peripheral and central impairment of auditory pathway. Our electrophysiological findings suggest that auditory and lower limb somatosensory pathways are constantly affected in adult-onset form of NPC disease. The involvement of PNS, pyramidal, visual and upper limb somatosensory pathways might occur later during the course of disease. PMID:25537619

  5. Compound heterozygote mutations in SPG7 in a family with adult-onset primary lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yi; Lynch, David R.; Lukas, Thomas; Ahmeti, Kreshnik; Sleiman, Patrick M.A.; Ryan, Eanna; Schadt, Kimberly A.; Newman, Jordan H.; Deng, Han-Xiang; Siddique, Nailah

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To identify the genetic defect for adult-onset primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) in a family with 5 patients. Methods: Whole-exome sequencing was performed to identify the shared genetic variants in 3 affected members in a PLS family with 5 affected individuals. Sanger sequencing was used for validation of the variants and for cosegregation analysis. Mitochondrial activity for both patients and unaffected siblings was measured using a SeaHorse metabolic analyzer. Results: Whole-exome sequencing and subsequent cosegregation analysis demonstrated that compound heterozygous missense variants L695P and I743T in SPG7 were the only mutations cosegregating with the disease in an autosomal recessive fashion in this family. The parents and siblings are genetically heterozygous and clinically unaffected. Functional studies suggested that the PLS-associated SPG7 mutants affect mitochondrial function when glucose is reduced. Conclusions: Compound heterozygote mutations in SPG7 are associated with adult-onset PLS, extending the spectrum of SPG7-linked neurologic diseases. Patients with the PLS phenotype should have genetic testing for paraplegin, especially when the condition is familial. PMID:27123479

  6. Prevalence of adult-onset multifactorial disease among offspring of atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, S; Suyama, A; Cologne, J B; Akahoshi, M; Yamada, M; Suzuki, G; Koyama, K; Takahashi, N; Kasagi, E; Grant, E J; Lagarde, E; Hsu, W L; Furukawa, K; Ohishi, W; Tatsukawa, Y; Neriishi, K; Takahashi, I; Ashizawa, K; Hida, A; Imaizumi, M; Nagano, J; Cullings, H M; Katayama, H; Ross, N P; Kodama, K; Shore, R E

    2008-10-01

    The first study to examine whether parental radiation exposure leads to increased heritable risk of common adult-onset multifactorial diseases (i.e., hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, ischemic heart disease, and stroke) was conducted among 11,951 participants in the clinical examination program out of a potential of 24,673 mail survey subjects who were offspring of survivors born from May 1946 through December 1984. Logistic regression analyses demonstrated no evidence of an association between the prevalence of multifactorial diseases in the offspring and parental radiation exposure, after adjusting for age, city, gender and various risk factors. The odds ratio (OR) for a paternal dose of 1 Gy was 0.91 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.81-1.01, P = 0.08], and that for a maternal dose of 1 Gy was 0.98 (95% CI 0.86-1.10, P = 0.71). There was no apparent effect of parental age at exposure or of elapsed time between parental exposure and birth, but male offspring had a low odds ratio (OR = 0.76 at 1 Gy) for paternal exposure, but cautious interpretation is needed for this finding. The clinical assessment of nearly 12,000 offspring of A-bomb survivors who have reached a median age of about 50 years provided no evidence for an increased prevalence of adult-onset multifactorial diseases in relation to parental radiation exposure. PMID:19024652

  7. Chinese new immigrant mothers' perception about adult-onset non-communicable diseases prevention during childhood.

    PubMed

    Wang, Linda Dong Ling; Lam, Wendy Wing Tak; Wu, Joseph Tsz Kei; Fielding, Richard

    2015-12-01

    Many non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are largely preventable via behaviour change and healthy lifestyle, which may be best established during childhood. This study sought insights into Chinese new immigrant mothers' perceptions about adult-onset NCDs prevention during childhood. Twenty-three semi-structured interviews were carried out with new immigrant mothers from mainland China who had at least one child aged 14 years or younger living in Hong Kong. Interviews were audio taped, transcribed and analysed using a Grounded Theory approach. The present study identified three major themes: perceived causes of adult NCDs, beliefs about NCDs prevention and everyday health information practices. Unhealthy lifestyle, contaminated food and environment pollution were perceived as the primary causes of adult NCDs. Less than half of the participants recognized that parents had responsibility for helping children establish healthy behaviours from an early age to prevent diseases in later life. Most participants expressed helplessness about chronic diseases prevention due to lack of knowledge of prevention, being perceived as beyond individual control. Many participants experienced barriers to seeking health information, the most common sources of health information being interpersonal conversation and television. Participants' everyday information practice was passive and generally lacked awareness regarding early prevention of adult-onset NCDs. Updated understanding of this issue has notable implications for future health promotion interventions. PMID:24842077

  8. Enhanced brain delivery of deferasirox-lactoferrin conjugates for iron chelation therapy in neurodegenerative disorders: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Kamalinia, Golnaz; Khodagholi, Fariba; Atyabi, Fatemeh; Amini, Mohsen; Shaerzadeh, Fatemeh; Sharifzadeh, Mohammad; Dinarvand, Rassoul

    2013-12-01

    Oxidative stress associated cell damage is one of the key factors in neurodegeneration development and is highly related to the presence of transition metal ions including iron. Herein, deferasirox, a high affinity iron chelator, was conjugated to lactoferrin molecules by carbodiimide mediated coupling reaction to create a novel drug delivery system with higher brain permeability through receptor mediated transcytosis. Each lactoferrin molecule was averagely attached to 4 to 6 deferasirox molecules resulting in water-soluble conjugated nanostructures which were purified and characterized. Neuroprotective effects of lactoferrin conjugated nanostructures and their cellular uptake were evaluated in differentiated PC12 cell line, and the molecular mechanisms involved in such neuroprotection were elucidated. Lactoferrin conjugates were able to interfere in apoptotic caspase cascade by affecting the expression level of caspase-3, PARP, Bax and Bcl-2. Furthermore, an elevation in the expression level of autophagy markers including Atg7, Atg12-Atg5 and LC3-II/LC3-I ratio was observed. Intraperitoneal injection of lactoferrin conjugates was able to significantly attenuate learning deficits induced by beta amyloid injection in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease, which further confirms a potential neuroprotective effect for lactoferrin conjugated deferasirox in neurodegenerative disorder management through metal chelation therapy. PMID:24063264

  9. Discovery of A-971432, An Orally Bioavailable Selective Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Receptor 5 (S1P5) Agonist for the Potential Treatment of Neurodegenerative Disorders.

    PubMed

    Hobson, Adrian D; Harris, Christopher M; van der Kam, Elizabeth L; Turner, Sean C; Abibi, Ayome; Aguirre, Ana L; Bousquet, Peter; Kebede, Tegest; Konopacki, Donald B; Gintant, Gary; Kim, Youngjae; Larson, Kelly; Maull, John W; Moore, Nigel S; Shi, Dan; Shrestha, Anurupa; Tang, Xiubo; Zhang, Peng; Sarris, Kathy K

    2015-12-10

    S1P5 is one of 5 receptors for sphingosine-1-phosphate and is highly expressed on endothelial cells within the blood-brain barrier, where it maintains barrier integrity in in vitro models (J. Neuroinflamm. 2012, 9, 133). Little more is known about the effects of S1P5 modulation due to the absence of tool molecules with suitable selectivity and drug-like properties. We recently reported that molecule A-971432 (Harris, 2010) (29 in this paper) is highly efficacious in reversing lipid accumulation and age-related cognitive decline in rats (Van der Kam , , AAIC 2014). Herein we describe the development of a series of selective S1P5 agonists that led to the identification of compound 29, which is highly selective for S1P5 and has excellent plasma and CNS exposure after oral dosing in preclinical species. To further support its suitability for in vivo studies of S1P5 biology, we extensively characterized 29, including confirmation of its selectivity in pharmacodynamic assays of S1P1 and S1P3 function in rats. In addition, we found that 29 improves blood-brain barrier integrity in an in vitro model and reverses age-related cognitive decline in mice. These results suggest that S1P5 agonism is an innovative approach with potential benefit in neurodegenerative disorders involving lipid imbalance and/or compromised blood-brain barrier such as Alzheimer's disease or multiple sclerosis. PMID:26509640

  10. Activation of MyD88-dependent TLR1/2 signaling by misfolded α-synuclein, a protein linked to neurodegenerative disorders

    PubMed Central

    Daniele, Stefano G.; Béraud, Dawn; Davenport, Connor; Cheng, Kui; Yin, Hang; Maguire-Zeiss, Kathleen A.

    2015-01-01

    Synucleinopathies, such as Parkinson’s disease and diffuse Lewy body disease, are progressive neurodegenerative disorders characterized by selective neuronal death, abnormal accumulation of misfolded α-synuclein, and sustained microglial activation. In addition to inducing neuronal toxicity, higher-ordered oligomeric α-synuclein causes proinflammatory responses in the brain parenchyma by triggering microglial activation, which may exacerbate pathogenic processes by establishing a chronic neuroinflammatory milieu. Here, we found that higher-ordered oligomeric α-synuclein induced a proinflammatory microglial phenotype by directly engaging the heterodimer TLR1/2 (Toll-like receptor 1 and 2) at the cell membrane, leading to the nuclear translocation of NF-κB (nuclear factor κB) and the increased production of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β in a MyD88-dependent manner. Blocking signaling by the TLR1/2 heterodimer with the small molecule inhibitor, CU-CPT22, reduced the expression and secretion of these inflammatory cytokines from cultured primary mouse microglia. Candesartan cilexetil, a drug approved for treating hypertension and that inhibits the expression of TLR2, reversed the activated proinflammatory phenotype of primary microglia exposed to oligomeric α-synuclein, supporting the possibility of repurposing this drug for synucleinopathies. PMID:25969543

  11. A review of the potential role of nano-enabled drug delivery technologies in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: lessons learned from other neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Mazibuko, Zamanzima; Choonara, Yahya E; Kumar, Pradeep; Du Toit, Lisa C; Modi, Girish; Naidoo, Dinesh; Pillay, Viness

    2015-04-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has a multitude of factors implicated in its etiology. The complex neuro-etiology and the restrictive nature of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) have significantly hindered the drug therapy of ALS. Riluzole, a moderately performing drug, is the only agent approved for treating ALS. However, several promising nanocarrier approaches are surfacing that can provide more efficient drug delivery. In addition, biologicals such as stem cells are able to carry neurotrophic factors to their target site, providing motor neurons with the benefits of both, stem cells and neurotrophic factors. This review examines the current drug delivery strategies investigated for optimally treating ALS and related neurodegenerative disorders. Examples include cerium oxide nanoparticles in Alzheimer's disease, odorranalectin, and lactoferrin-coupled PEG-PLGA nanoparticles for urocortin transportation in Parkinson's disease that can also be employed in ALS to bypass the BBB and increase drug bioavailability. A concise incursion into the progress (and lack thereof) made in ALS clinical trials is also discussed. Nanocarriers can potentially eliminate the challenges of poor drug bioavailability in ALS as they have been proven to cross the BBB and reach target sites while minimizing systemic side-effects. Nanocarrier-based delivery of ALS drugs is an area that requires much needed investigation. PMID:25559087

  12. Roles of the Lipid Peroxidation Product 4-Hydroxynonenal in Obesity, the Metabolic Syndrome, and Associated Vascular and Neurodegenerative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Mattson, Mark P.

    2009-01-01

    A rising tide of obesity and type 2 diabetes has resulted from the development of technologies that have made inexpensive high calorie foods readily available and exercise unnecessary for many people. Obesity and the metabolic syndrome (insulin resistance, visceral adiposity and dyslipidemia) wreak havoc on cells throughout the body thereby promoting cardiovascular and kidney disease, and degenerative diseases of the brain and body. Obesity and insulin resistance promote disease by increasing oxidative damage to proteins, lipids and DNA as the result of a combination of increased free radical production and an impaired ability of cells to detoxify the radicals and repair damaged molecules. By covalently modifying membrane-associated proteins, the membrane lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) may play particularly sinister roles in the metabolic syndrome and associated disease processes. HNE can damage pancreatic β cells and can impair the ability of muscle and liver cells to respond to insulin. HNE may promote atherosclerosis by modifying lipoproteins and can cause cardiac cell damage by impairing metabolic enzymes. An adverse role for HNE in the brain in obesity and the metabolic syndrome is suggested by studies showing that HNE levels are increased in brain cells with aging and Alzheimer’s disease. HNE can cause the dysfunction and degeneration of neurons by modifying membrane-associated glucose and glutamate transporters, ion-motive ATPases, enzymes involved in amyloid metabolism, and cytoskeletal proteins. Exercise and dietary energy restriction reduce HNE production and may also increase cellular systems for HNE detoxification including glutathione and oxidoreductases. The recent development of low molecular weight molecules that scavenge HNE suggests that HNE can be targeted in the design of drugs for the treatment of obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and associated disorders. PMID:19622391

  13. Essential Tremor: A Neurodegenerative Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Benito-León, Julián

    2014-01-01

    Background Essential tremor (ET) is one of the most common neurological disorders among adults, and is the most common of the many tremor disorders. It has classically been viewed as a benign monosymptomatic condition, yet over the past decade, a growing body of evidence indicates that ET is a progressive condition that is clinically heterogeneous, as it may be associated with a spectrum of clinical features, with both motor and non-motor elements. In this review, I will describe the most significant emerging milestones in research which, when taken together, suggest that ET is a neurodegenerative condition. Methods A PubMed search conducted in June 2014 crossing the terms “essential tremor” (ET) and “neurodegenerative” yielded 122 entries, 20 of which included the term “neurodegenerative” in the article title. This was supplemented by articles in the author's files that pertained to this topic. Results/Discussion There is an open and active dialogue in the medical community as to whether ET is a neurodegenerative disease, with considerable evidence in favor of this. Specifically, ET is a progressive disorder of aging associated with neuronal loss (reduction in Purkinje cells) as well as other post-mortem changes that occur in traditional neurodegenerative disorders. Along with this, advanced neuroimaging techniques are now demonstrating distinct structural changes, several of which are consistent with neuronal loss, in patients with ET. However, further longitudinal clinical and neuroimaging longitudinal studies to assess progression are required. PMID:25120943

  14. The role of natural products in the discovery of new drug candidates for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders II: Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    da Rocha, Miguel Divino; Viegas, Flávia Pereira Dias; Campos, Helineide Cristina; Nicastro, Patrícia Carolina; Fossaluzza, Poliana Calve; Fraga, Carlos Alberto Manssour; Barreiro, Eliezer J; Viegas, Claudio

    2011-03-01

    The present review is part II in a series (part I focuses on Parkinson's Disease) that addresses the value of natural product chemistry in the discovery of medicines for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Data reviewed document that a host of products from plant species and derivatives have neuroprotectant effects in vitro and in vivo. In addition, besides neuroprotection, natural products also demonstrate biological effects that target biochemical pathways underlying associated symptoms of neurdegnerative disorders that include cognitive impairments, energy/fatigue, mood, and anxiety. This part of the review series focuses specifically upon Alzheimer's Disease (AD). AD is postulated to result from extracellular formation of amyloid plaques and intracellular deposits of neurofibrilary tangles in the hippocampus, cerebral cortex and other areas of the brain essential for cognitive function. Plaques are formed mostly from the deposition β-amyloid (Aβ), a peptide derived from the amyloid precursor protein (APP). Filamentous tangles are formed from paired helical filaments composed of neurofilament and hyperphosphorilated tau protein, a microtubule-associated protein. In addition, environmental factors can engender the production of cytokines that are closely related to the installation of an inflammatory process that contributes to neuronal death and the development and the progression of AD. In this review we focus on the recent main contribuitions of natural products chemistry to the discovery of new chemical entities usefull to the control and prevention of AD installation and progression. More than sixteen plant species, including Ginseng, Celastrus paniculatus, Centella asiatica, Curcuma longa, Ginkgo biloba, Huperzia serrata, Lycoris radiate, Galanthus nivalis, Magnolia officinalis, Polygala tenuifolia, Salvia lavandulaefolia, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Coptis chinensis, Crocus sativus, Evodia rutaecarpa, Sanguisorba officinalis, Veratrum grandiflorum and

  15. Biology of Mitochondria in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Lee J.

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are the most common human adult-onset neurodegenerative diseases. They are characterized by prominent age-related neurodegeneration in selectively vulnerable neural systems. Some forms of AD, PD, and ALS are inherited, and genes causing these diseases have been identified. Nevertheless, the mechanisms of the neuronal degeneration in these familial diseases, and in the more common idiopathic (sporadic) diseases, are unresolved. Genetic, biochemical, and morphological analyses of human AD, PD, and ALS, as well as their cell and animal models, reveal that mitochondria could have roles in this neurodegeneration. The varied functions and properties of mitochondria might render subsets of selectively vulnerable neurons intrinsically susceptible to cellular aging and stress and the overlying genetic variations. In AD, alterations in enzymes involved in oxidative phosphorylation, oxidative damage, and mitochondrial binding of Aβ and amyloid precursor protein have been reported. In PD, mutations in mitochondrial proteins have been identified and mitochondrial DNA mutations have been found in neurons in the substantia nigra. In ALS, changes occur in mitochondrial respiratory chain enzymes and mitochondrial programmed cell death proteins. Transgenic mouse models of human neurodegenerative disease are beginning to reveal possible principles governing the biology of selective neuronal vulnerability that implicate mitochondria and the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. This chapter reviews several aspects of mitochondrial biology and how mitochondrial pathobiology might contribute to the mechanisms of neurodegeneration in AD, PD, and ALS. PMID:22482456

  16. Adult onset Still's disease (AOSD) in the era of biologic therapies: dichotomous view for cytokine and clinical expressions.

    PubMed

    Maria, Alexandre Thibault Jacques; Le Quellec, Alain; Jorgensen, Christian; Touitou, Isabelle; Rivière, Sophie; Guilpain, Philippe

    2014-11-01

    Adult onset Still's disease (AOSD) is a rare inflammatory disorder characterized by hectic spiking fever, evanescent rash and joint involvement. Prognosis is highly variable upon disease course and specific involvements, ranging from benign and limited outcome to chronic destructive polyarthritis and/or life-threatening events in case of visceral complications or reactive hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (RHL). AOSD remains a debatable entity at the frontiers of autoimmune diseases and autoinflammatory disorders. The pivotal role of macrophage cell activation leading to a typical Th1 cytokine storm is now well established in AOSD, and confirmed by the benefits using treatments targeting TNF-α, IL-1β or IL-6 in refractory patients. However, it remains difficult to determine predictive factors of outcome and to draw guidelines for patient management. Herein, reviewing literature and relying on our experience in a series of 8 refractory AOSD patients, we question nosology and postulate that different cytokine patterns could underlie contrasting clinical expressions, as well as responses to targeted therapies. We therefore propose to dichotomize AOSD according to its clinical presentation. On the one hand, 'systemic AOSD' patients, exhibiting the highest inflammation process driven by excessive IL-18, IL-1β and IL-6 production, would be at risk of life-threatening complications (such as multivisceral involvements and RHL), and would preferentially respond to IL-1β and IL-6 antagonists. On the other hand, 'rheumatic AOSD' patients, exhibiting pre-eminence of joint involvement driven by IL-8 and IFN-γ production, would be at risk of articular destructions, and would preferentially respond to TNF-α blockers. PMID:25183244

  17. Distinguishing adult-onset asthma from COPD: a review and a new approach

    PubMed Central

    Abramson, Michael J; Perret, Jennifer L; Dharmage, Shyamali C; McDonald, Vanessa M; McDonald, Christine F

    2014-01-01

    Adult-onset asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are major public health burdens. This review presents a comprehensive synopsis of their epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical presentations; describes how they can be distinguished; and considers both established and proposed new approaches to their management. Both adult-onset asthma and COPD are complex diseases arising from gene–environment interactions. Early life exposures such as childhood infections, smoke, obesity, and allergy influence adult-onset asthma. While the established environmental risk factors for COPD are adult tobacco and biomass smoke, there is emerging evidence that some childhood exposures such as maternal smoking and infections may cause COPD. Asthma has been characterized predominantly by Type 2 helper T cell (Th2) cytokine-mediated eosinophilic airway inflammation associated with airway hyperresponsiveness. In established COPD, the inflammatory cell infiltrate in small airways comprises predominantly neutrophils and cytotoxic T cells (CD8 positive lymphocytes). Parenchymal destruction (emphysema) in COPD is associated with loss of lung tissue elasticity, and small airways collapse during exhalation. The precise definition of chronic airflow limitation is affected by age; a fixed cut-off of forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity leads to overdiagnosis of COPD in the elderly. Traditional approaches to distinguishing between asthma and COPD have highlighted age of onset, variability of symptoms, reversibility of airflow limitation, and atopy. Each of these is associated with error due to overlap and convergence of clinical characteristics. The management of chronic stable asthma and COPD is similarly convergent. New approaches to the management of obstructive airway diseases in adults have been proposed based on inflammometry and also multidimensional assessment, which focuses on the four domains of the airways, comorbidity, self-management, and

  18. Case report: An adult-onset type II citrin deficiency patient in the emergency department

    PubMed Central

    TANG, LUJIA; CHEN, LIANG; WANG, HAIRONG; DAI, LIHUA; PAN, SHUMING

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the solute carrier family 25 (SLC25A13) gene may result in neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency and/or adult-onset type II citrullinemia. These conditions are inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. The current case report describes a 43-year-old man who presented with sudden delirium and upper limb weakness. Upon admission, the patient was fully conscious and alert but later lost consciousness subsequent to a sudden convulsive seizure. Hyperammonemia was detected and analysis of the SLC25A13 gene identified an 851del4 mutation. Thus, the possibility of genetic disease should be considered as a potential cause of the symptoms of patients with altered states of consciousness, such as delirium and loss of consciousness, in cases where the cause of the disturbance is unknown. PMID:27347070

  19. Hidden in plain sight: macrophage activation syndrome complicating Adult Onset Still's Disease.

    PubMed

    Benitez, Lourdes; Vila, Salvador; Mellado, Robert Hunter

    2010-01-01

    Hemophagocytic Lymphystiocytosis is a rare and fatal complication of rheumatic diseases, particularly Adult Onset Still's Disease (AOSD). It may be precipitated with immunosuppressive drugs and with viral and bacterial infections. A diagnosis depends on a high index of suspicion associated to certain clinical manifestations (fever, rash, Splemomegaly, any cytology blood dyscrasia, hipertrigliceridemia, hiperfibrinogenemia, and others), as well as pathologic evidence of hemophagocitosis from bone marrow biopsy or tissue samples of affected organs. Therapy consists of high dose corticosteroids and immunosuppressive drugs. We present a 42 year old woman with AOSD in remission who developed HLH in spite of receiving therapy with high dose steroids and immunosuppressive drugs. She had 2 negative bone marrow aspirates. Evidence of Hemophagocytosis was detected in both bone marrow biopsies. Timely evaluation and recognition of the signs and symptoms of HLH is crucial for the prompt management and a decrease in the mortality associated with this disease. PMID:23875527

  20. A mouse model of adult-onset anaemia due to erythropoietin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Shun; Souma, Tomokazu; Hirano, Ikuo; Pan, Xiaoqing; Minegishi, Naoko; Suzuki, Norio; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    Erythropoietin regulates erythropoiesis in a hypoxia-inducible manner. Here we generate inherited super-anaemic mice (ISAM) as a mouse model of adult-onset anaemia caused by erythropoietin deficiency. ISAM express erythropoietin in the liver but lack erythropoietin production in the kidney. Around weaning age, when the major erythropoietin-producing organ switches from the liver to the kidney, ISAM develop anaemia due to erythropoietin deficiency, which is curable by administration of recombinant erythropoietin. In ISAM severe chronic anaemia enhances transgenic green fluorescent protein and Cre expression driven by the complete erythropoietin-gene regulatory regions, which facilitates efficient labelling of renal erythropoietin-producing cells. We show that the majority of cortical and outer medullary fibroblasts have the innate potential to produce erythropoietin, and also reveal a new set of erythropoietin target genes. ISAM are a useful tool for the evaluation of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents and to trace the dynamics of erythropoietin-producing cells. PMID:23727690

  1. Blepharospasm-oromandibular dystonia syndrome (Brueghel's syndrome). A variant of adult-onset torsion dystonia?

    PubMed Central

    Marsden, C D

    1976-01-01

    Thirty-nine patients with the idiopathic blepharospasm-oromandibular dystonia syndrome are described. All presented in adult life, usually in the sixth decade; women were more commonly affected than men. Thirteen had blepharospasm alone, nine had oromandibular dystonia alone, and 17 had both. Torticollis or dystonic writer's camp preceded the syndrome in two patients. Eight other patients developed toritocollis, dystonic posturing of the arms, or involvement of respiratory muscles. No cause or hereditary basis for the illness were discovered. The evidence to indicate that this syndrome is due to an abnormality of extrapyramidal function, and that it is another example of adult-onset focal dystonia akin to spasmodic torticollis and dystonic writer's cramp, is discussed. Images PMID:1011031

  2. Assignment of the gene coding for the human high-affinity glutamate transporter EAAC1 to 9p24: Potential role in dicarboxylic aminoaciduria and neurodegenerative disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.P.; Kanai, Y.; Stelzner, M.; Hediger, M.A.; Weremowicz, S.; Morton, C.C. )

    1994-03-15

    Functional defects of high-affinity glutamate transporters have been implicated in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In small intestine and kidney, in which the high-affinity glutamate transporter mediates net absorption of glutamate and aspartate across epithelial cells, an inborn error of glutamate transport is thought to cause dicarboxylic aminoaciduria. This disorder is characterized by increased urinary excretion of glutamate and aspartate and is, in general, associated with neurologic and developmental abnormalities. Recently, the authors isolated a cDNA encoding a high-affinity glutamate transporter (EAAC1) that also transports aspartate but not other amino acids. EAAC1 is ubiquitously expressed throughout the body, particularly in brain (neurons), intestine, and kidney. Here, the authors present mapping of the chromosome location of EAAC1 using Southern analysis of a panel of human/rodent somatic cell hybrids and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Southern analysis of EcoRI-digested DNA gave bands at 6.5, 5.6, 5.1, and 1.2 kb for human genomic DNA; 7.5 kb for mouse genomic DNA; and 7.3, 3.2, and 1 kb for hamster genomic DNA. All four human EAAC1-specific bands were observed in the lane corresponding to the human/Chinese hamster hybrid containing chromosome 9 but not in lanes corresponding to any other hybrid. Because the human/Chinese hamster hybrid is the only one retaining chromosome 9, this result unambiguously assigns human EAAC1 to chromosome 9. For precise chromosome assignment of the human EAAC1 gene, they employed FISH. Map position of the EAAC1 probe was assigned by visual inspection of the fluorescent signal on the DAPI-stained metaphase chromosomes. The human EAAC1 gene was assigned to 9p24.

  3. Fractality of sensations and the brain health: the theory linking neurodegenerative disorder with distortion of spatial and temporal scale-invariance and fractal complexity of the visible world.

    PubMed

    Zueva, Marina V

    2015-01-01

    The theory that ties normal functioning and pathology of the brain and visual system with the spatial-temporal structure of the visual and other sensory stimuli is described for the first time in the present study. The deficit of fractal complexity of environmental influences can lead to the distortion of fractal complexity in the visual pathways of the brain and abnormalities of development or aging. The use of fractal light stimuli and fractal stimuli of other modalities can help to restore the functions of the brain, particularly in the elderly and in patients with neurodegenerative disorders or amblyopia. Non-linear dynamics of these physiological processes have a strong base of evidence, which is seen in the impaired fractal regulation of rhythmic activity in aged and diseased brains. From birth to old age, we live in a non-linear world, in which objects and processes with the properties of fractality and non-linearity surround us. Against this background, the evolution of man took place and all periods of life unfolded. Works of art created by man may also have fractal properties. The positive influence of music on cognitive functions is well-known. Insufficiency of sensory experience is believed to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of amblyopia and age-dependent diseases. The brain is very plastic in its early development, and the plasticity decreases throughout life. However, several studies showed the possibility to reactivate the adult's neuroplasticity in a variety of ways. We propose that a non-linear structure of sensory information on many spatial and temporal scales is crucial to the brain health and fractal regulation of physiological rhythms. Theoretical substantiation of the author's theory is presented. Possible applications and the future research that can experimentally confirm or refute the theoretical concept are considered. PMID:26236232

  4. Fractality of sensations and the brain health: the theory linking neurodegenerative disorder with distortion of spatial and temporal scale-invariance and fractal complexity of the visible world

    PubMed Central

    Zueva, Marina V.

    2015-01-01

    The theory that ties normal functioning and pathology of the brain and visual system with the spatial–temporal structure of the visual and other sensory stimuli is described for the first time in the present study. The deficit of fractal complexity of environmental influences can lead to the distortion of fractal complexity in the visual pathways of the brain and abnormalities of development or aging. The use of fractal light stimuli and fractal stimuli of other modalities can help to restore the functions of the brain, particularly in the elderly and in patients with neurodegenerative disorders or amblyopia. Non-linear dynamics of these physiological processes have a strong base of evidence, which is seen in the impaired fractal regulation of rhythmic activity in aged and diseased brains. From birth to old age, we live in a non-linear world, in which objects and processes with the properties of fractality and non-linearity surround us. Against this background, the evolution of man took place and all periods of life unfolded. Works of art created by man may also have fractal properties. The positive influence of music on cognitive functions is well-known. Insufficiency of sensory experience is believed to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of amblyopia and age-dependent diseases. The brain is very plastic in its early development, and the plasticity decreases throughout life. However, several studies showed the possibility to reactivate the adult’s neuroplasticity in a variety of ways. We propose that a non-linear structure of sensory information on many spatial and temporal scales is crucial to the brain health and fractal regulation of physiological rhythms. Theoretical substantiation of the author’s theory is presented. Possible applications and the future research that can experimentally confirm or refute the theoretical concept are considered. PMID:26236232

  5. Hyperhomocysteinemia: Impact on Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Meenakshi; Tiwari, Manisha; Tiwari, Rakesh Kumar

    2015-11-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are the diseases of the central nervous system with various aetiology and symptoms. Dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD) and autism are some examples of neurodegenerative diseases. Hyperhomocysteinemia (Hhcy) is considered to be an independent risk factor for numerous pathological conditions under neurodegenerative diseases. Along with genetic factors that are the prime cause of homocysteine (Hcy) imbalance, the nutritional and hormonal factors are also contributing to high Hcy levels in the body. Numerous clinical and epidemiological data confirm the direct correlation of Hcy levels in the body and generation of different types of central nervous system disorders, cardiovascular diseases, cancer and others. Till now, it is difficult to say whether homocysteine is the cause of the disease or whether it is one of the impacts of the diseases. However, Hhcy is a surrogate marker of vitamin B deficiency and is a neurotoxic agent. This Mini Review will give an overview of how far research has gone into understanding the homocysteine imbalance with prognostic, causative and preventive measures in treating neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26036286

  6. Omental transplantation for neurodegenerative diseases

    PubMed Central

    Rafael, Hernando

    2014-01-01

    Up to date, almost all researchers consider that there is still no effective therapy for neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs) and therefore, these diseases are incurable. However, since May 1998, we know that a progressive ischemia in the medial temporal lobes and subcommissural regions can cause Alzheimer’s disease; because, in contrast to this, its revascularization by means of omental tissue can cure or improve this disease. Likewise we observed that the aging process, Huntington’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; all of them are of ischemic origin caused by cerebral atherosclerosis, associated with vascular anomalies and/or environmental chemicals. On the contrary, an omental transplantation on the affected zone can stop and improve these diseases. For these reasons, I believe that NDDs, are wrongly classified as neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:25232510

  7. Banisteriopsis caapi, a unique combination of MAO inhibitory and antioxidative constituents for the activities relevant to neurodegenerative disorders and Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Samoylenko, Volodymyr; Rahman, Md. Mostafizur; Tekwani, Babu L.; Tripathi, Lalit M.; Wang, Yan-Hong; Khan, Shabana I.; Khan, Ikhlas A.; Miller, Loren S.; Joshi, Vaishali C.; Muhammad, Ilias

    2009-01-01

    (MAO) -A and -B enzymes (IC50 2.5 and 2.0 nM, and 25 and 20 µM, respectively), and (−)-epicatechin (8) and (−)-procyanidin B2 (9) showed potent antioxidant and moderate MAO-B inhibitory activities (IC50 <0.13 and 0.57 µg/mL, and 65 and 35 µM). HPLC analysis revealed that most of the dominant chemical and bioactive markers (1, 2, 5, 7–9) were present in high concentrations in dried bark of large branch. Analysis of regular/commercial B. caapi dried stems showed a similar qualitative HPLC pattern, but relatively low content of dominant markers 1, 2, 7, and 9, which led to decreased MAO inhibitory and antioxidant potency. Conclusion Collectively, these results give additional basis to the existing claim of B. caapi stem extract for the treatment of Parkinsonism, including other neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:19879939

  8. Humoral Activity of Cord Blood-Derived Stem/Progenitor Cells: Implications for Stem Cell-Based Adjuvant Therapy of Neurodegenerative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Paczkowska, Edyta; Kaczyńska, Katarzyna; Pius-Sadowska, Ewa; Rogińska, Dorota; Kawa, Miłosz; Ustianowski, Przemysław; Safranow, Krzysztof; Celewicz, Zbigniew; Machaliński, Bogusław

    2013-01-01

    favorable influence neural cell proliferation and survival. Understanding the mechanisms governing the characterization and humoral activity of subsets of SPCs may yield new therapeutic strategies that might be more effective in treating neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:24391835

  9. The distinction between juvenile and adult-onset primary open-angle glaucoma

    SciTech Connect

    Wiggs, J.L.; Haines, J.L.; Damji, K.F.

    1996-01-01

    Because of the significant differences between the juvenile and adult forms of open-angle glaucoma, especially with regard to inheritance, prevalence, severity, and age of onset, we read with interest the recent publication by Morissette et al., describing a pedigree with a phenotype that overlaps the distinctive features of juvenile-onset open-angle glaucoma (JOAG) and adult-onset primary open-angle glaucoma (usually abbreviated as POAG or COAG). These authors conclude that a gene mapped to human chromosome 1q21-q31 (GLC1A) can be responsible for both juvenile and adult forms of open-angle glaucoma. The implications of such a result could be extremely important, in light of the high prevalence of the adult form of the disease. However, while the data presented in this report suggest that variable expressivity of the GLC1A gene may lead to a broader range of onset for this form of juvenile glaucoma, these data do not identify the GLC1A gene as an important cause of POAG. To prevent misleading interpretations of this and similar studies, we wish to clarify the distinction between the juvenile and adult forms of open-angle glaucoma. 8 refs.

  10. Adult onset sinonasal rhabdomyosarcoma - a rare case report with cytohistological features.

    PubMed

    Sood, N; Sehrawat, N

    2016-08-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a fast growing, malignant tumour arising from immature mesenchymal cells, committed to skeletal muscle differentiation. It is more often seen in the paediatric population and constitutes less than 1% of all malignancies and less than 3% of all soft tissue tumours. RMS of the paranasal sinuses constitutes 10-15% of adult head and neck RMS, ethmoidal and maxillary sinuses being the most common. We report a 56-year-oldman presenting with left nasal obstruction, epistaxis on and off and left cheek swelling. Nasal endoscopy revealed a reddish friable mass, bleeding on touch, in the left nasal cavity. CECT scan showed a heterogeneous growth in the left maxillary sinus eroding the medial orbital wall and lateral nasal wall. FNAC of the left cheek swelling yielded highly cellular smears showing predominantly singly scattered round to ovoid neoplastic cells with scanty cytoplasm and indistinct nucleoli. Few of the cells had eccentric nuclei with moderate amount of eosinophilic cytoplasm. Attempted pseudorossette formation was seen. An impression of round cell tumour was given. A diagnosis of an adult onset sinonasal rhabdomyosarcoma was made on histopathological examination of the nasal biopsy, supported by immunohistochemistry (IHC) showing strong myogenin positivity, focal positivity for PAX8 and negativity for CK, LCA, S-100 and CD99. Parameningeal RMS is rare in adults especially the elderly. However, it needs to be considered whenever a poorly-differentiated neoplasm is seen in this age and IHC is a useful aid. PMID:27568676

  11. Effects of Aging and Adult-Onset Hearing Loss on Cortical Auditory Regions

    PubMed Central

    Cardin, Velia

    2016-01-01

    Hearing loss is a common feature in human aging. It has been argued that dysfunctions in central processing are important contributing factors to hearing loss during older age. Aging also has well documented consequences for neural structure and function, but it is not clear how these effects interact with those that arise as a consequence of hearing loss. This paper reviews the effects of aging and adult-onset hearing loss in the structure and function of cortical auditory regions. The evidence reviewed suggests that aging and hearing loss result in atrophy of cortical auditory regions and stronger engagement of networks involved in the detection of salient events, adaptive control and re-allocation of attention. These cortical mechanisms are engaged during listening in effortful conditions in normal hearing individuals. Therefore, as a consequence of aging and hearing loss, all listening becomes effortful and cognitive load is constantly high, reducing the amount of available cognitive resources. This constant effortful listening and reduced cognitive spare capacity could be what accelerates cognitive decline in older adults with hearing loss. PMID:27242405

  12. A nonsense mutation of human XRCC4 is associated with adult-onset progressive encephalocardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Bee, Leonardo; Nasca, Alessia; Zanolini, Alice; Cendron, Filippo; d'Adamo, Pio; Costa, Rodolfo; Lamperti, Costanza; Celotti, Lucia; Ghezzi, Daniele; Zeviani, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    We studied two monozygotic twins, born to first cousins, affected by a multisystem disease. At birth, they both presented with bilateral cryptorchidism and malformations. Since early adulthood, they developed a slowly progressive neurological syndrome, with cerebellar and pyramidal signs, cognitive impairment, and depression. Dilating cardiomyopathy is also present in both. By whole-exome sequencing, we found a homozygous nucleotide change in XRCC4 (c.673C>T), predicted to introduce a premature stop codon (p.R225*). XRCC4 transcript levels were profoundly reduced, and the protein was undetectable in patients' skin fibroblasts. XRCC4 plays an important role in non-homologous end joining of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB), a system that is involved in repairing DNA damage from, for example, ionizing radiations. Gamma-irradiated mutant cells demonstrated reduction, but not abolition, of DSB repair. In contrast with embryonic lethality of the Xrcc4 KO mouse, nonsense mutations in human XRCC4 have recently been associated with primordial dwarfism and, in our cases, with adult-onset neurological impairment, suggesting an important role for DNA repair in the brain. Surprisingly, neither immunodeficiency nor predisposition to malignancy was reported in these patients. PMID:25872942

  13. Multimodal Image Analysis in Acquired Vitelliform Lesions and Adult-Onset Foveomacular Vitelliform Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Rocha Bastos, Ricardo; Ferreira, Carla Sofia; Brandão, Elisete; Falcão-Reis, Fernando; Carneiro, Ângela M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To characterize vitelliform lesions (VLs) in adult-onset foveomacular vitelliform dystrophy (AOFVD) and acquired vitelliform (AVL) patients using multimodal image analysis. Methods. Retrospective study of twenty-eight eyes from nineteen patients diagnosed with AVL or AOFVD. They were evaluated by color fundus photographs, fundus autofluorescence (FAF), fluorescein angiography (FA), and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Results. Bilateral VLs were associated with AOFVD (p = 0.013). Regular and centered VLs were associated with AOFVD (p = 0.004 and p = 0.016), whereas irregular and noncentered lesions were more frequent in AVL patients. Visual acuity, greatest linear dimension (GLD), lesion height (LH), and pseudohypopyon were similar between groups. Whereas median LH and GLD in AVL group diminished significantly during follow-up (p = 0.009 and p = 0.001), AOFVD lesions tended to become larger and thicker. Conclusions. When consulting a patient presenting a VL with unknown age of onset, familial history, or previous retinal diseases, some aspects of multimodal imaging assessment may lead the ophthalmologist to a correct diagnosis. PMID:27190637

  14. A search for the primary abnormality in adult-onset type II citrullinemia

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Keiko; Shaheen, Nazma; Saheki, Takeyori ); Kumashiro, Ryukichi; Tanikawa, Kyuichi ); O'Brien, W.E.; Beaudet, A.L. )

    1993-11-01

    Deficiency of argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) causes citrullinemia in human beings. Type II citrullinemia is found in most patients with adult-onset citrullinemia in Japan, and ASS deficiency is found specifically in the liver. Previous studies have shown that the decrease of hepatic ASS activity is caused by a decrease in enzyme protein with normal kinetic properties and that there were no apparent abnormalities in the amount, translational activity, and gross structure of hepatic ASS mRNA. In the present work, the authors show by sequencing analysis that there was no mutation in the ASS mRNA from two patients with type II citrullinemia. The authors also report RFLP analysis of a consanguineous family with type II citrullinemia, by using three DNA polymorphisms located within the ASS gene locus. In spite of having consanguineous parents, the patient was not a homozygous haplotype for the ASS gene. The RFLP analysis of 16 affected patients from consanguineous parents showed that 5 of 16 patients had the heterozygous pattern for one of the three DNA probes and that the frequency of the heterozygous haplotype was not different from the control frequency. These results suggest that the primary defect of type II citrullinemia is not within the ASS gene locus. 29 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  15. Multimodal Image Analysis in Acquired Vitelliform Lesions and Adult-Onset Foveomacular Vitelliform Dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Rocha Bastos, Ricardo; Ferreira, Carla Sofia; Brandão, Elisete; Falcão-Reis, Fernando; Carneiro, Ângela M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To characterize vitelliform lesions (VLs) in adult-onset foveomacular vitelliform dystrophy (AOFVD) and acquired vitelliform (AVL) patients using multimodal image analysis. Methods. Retrospective study of twenty-eight eyes from nineteen patients diagnosed with AVL or AOFVD. They were evaluated by color fundus photographs, fundus autofluorescence (FAF), fluorescein angiography (FA), and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Results. Bilateral VLs were associated with AOFVD (p = 0.013). Regular and centered VLs were associated with AOFVD (p = 0.004 and p = 0.016), whereas irregular and noncentered lesions were more frequent in AVL patients. Visual acuity, greatest linear dimension (GLD), lesion height (LH), and pseudohypopyon were similar between groups. Whereas median LH and GLD in AVL group diminished significantly during follow-up (p = 0.009 and p = 0.001), AOFVD lesions tended to become larger and thicker. Conclusions. When consulting a patient presenting a VL with unknown age of onset, familial history, or previous retinal diseases, some aspects of multimodal imaging assessment may lead the ophthalmologist to a correct diagnosis. PMID:27190637

  16. Intermittent rhabdomyolysis with adult onset associated with a mutation in the ACADVL gene.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Ana Patrícia; Nogueira, Célia; Rocha, Hugo; Vilarinho, Laura; Evangelista, Teresinha

    2013-12-01

    Deficiency of very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) is an autosomal recessive disease. Most common phenotypes occur in the neonatal period or in childhood with cardiomyopathy, hepatomegaly, and hypoketogenic hypoglycemia. Juvenile/adult-onset is characterized by exercise intolerance and recurrent rhabdomyolysis triggered by prolonged exercise or fasting. This article reports a patient with the homozygous mutation c.1097G>A (p.R366H) in the ACADVL gene. In Portugal, VLCAD deficiency became part of the neonatal screening plan in 2004, and as of 2012, 8 early-onset cases have been diagnosed, giving an incidence rate of 1:97.238 per 737.902 newborns. This patient was diagnosed outside of the neonatal screening plan. Beta-oxidation defects pose a diagnostic challenge because of their transient clinical and laboratorial manifestations and the absence of morphological changes in muscle biopsy further complicate matters, especially in the late-onset forms of the disease. The adult phenotype of VLCAD deficiency is highlighted, emphasizing the need for a high suspicion index and the value of tandem mass spectrometry for the diagnosis. PMID:24263034

  17. A search for the primary abnormality in adult-onset type II citrullinemia.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, K; Shaheen, N; Kumashiro, R; Tanikawa, K; O'Brien, W E; Beaudet, A L; Saheki, T

    1993-11-01

    Deficiency of argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) causes citrullinemia in human beings. Type II citrullinemia is found in most patients with adult-onset citrullinemia in Japan, and ASS deficiency is found specifically in the liver. Previous studies have shown that the decrease of hepatic ASS activity is caused by a decrease in enzyme protein with normal kinetic properties and that there were no apparent abnormalities in the amount, translational activity, and gross structure of hepatic ASS mRNA. In the present work, we show by sequencing analysis that there was no mutation in the ASS mRNA from two patients with type II citrullinemia. We also report RFLP analysis of a consanguineous family with type II citrullinemia, by using three DNA polymorphisms located within the ASS gene locus. In spite of having consanguineous parents, the patient was not a homozygous haplotype for the ASS gene. The RFLP analysis of 16 affected patients from consanguineous parents showed that 5 of 16 patients had the heterozygous pattern for one of the three DNA probes and that the frequency of the heterozygous haplotype was not different from the control frequency. These results suggest that the primary defect of type II citrullinemia is not within the ASS gene locus. PMID:8105687

  18. [A case of adult-onset type II citrullinemia (CTLN2) triggered by an overseas travel].

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Masayoshi; Shimada, Takuya; Hamaoka, Shima; Shibata, Masunari; Naito, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    A 43-year-old male presented with abnormal behavior and consciousness disturbance on the day after traveling abroad and was admitted to our hospital. Laboratory tests showed hyperammonemia and hypercitrullinemia. The electro-encephalogram showed frontal dominant bilateral slow δ burst. He had a peculiar taste for nuts. But he didn't take nuts during the overseas travel for 3 days. The family history revealed that his younger brother died of a status epilepticus of unknown cause at the age of 29. These findings were compatible with hepatic encephalopathy due to adult-onset type II citrullinemia (CTLN2). Gene analysis provided a definite diagnosis of CTLN2. Diet and drug therapy have improved his condition. He is due to have liver transplantation which is the only established radical treatment for CTLN2 if his condition becomes worse. The present case shows that cessation of the habitual intake of nuts only for 3 days could lead to onset of CTLN2. PMID:25283831

  19. Multiple sclerosis and risk of young-adult-onset Hodgkin lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Hajiebrahimi, Mohammadhossein; Burkill, Sarah; Hillert, Jan; Olsson, Tomas; Bahmanyar, Shahram

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether there is an association between multiple sclerosis (MS) and young-adult-onset Hodgkin lymphoma (YAHL) as this will signal etiologic similarities relevant both to inherited characteristics and environmental exposures in childhood. Methods: Swedish general population registers identified a cohort of 29,617 with an MS diagnosis between 1968 and 2012, matched with a cohort of 296,164 without MS. Cox regression was used to assess the association of MS with subsequent YAHL (defined as onset between ages 15 and 39 years; n = 20), with adjustment, for age/period, sex, county of residence, and level of education. Results: The adjusted hazard ratio (and 95% confidence interval) for the association of MS with YAHL is 3.30 (1.01–10.73), resulting from 4 and 16 events in the MS and non-MS cohorts, respectively. All 4 of the YAHL diagnoses in MS occurred in women, and the association of MS with YAHL has a hazard ratio of 4.04 (1.17–13.94) among women. There was no notable association of MS with older-onset Hodgkin lymphoma. Conclusion: There may be common risks for YAHL and MS, consistent with an etiologic role in MS for early-life exposures, such as to infectious agents. PMID:27144218

  20. Transglutaminase activation in neurodegenerative diseases

    PubMed Central

    Jeitner, Thomas M; Muma, Nancy A; Battaile, Kevin P; Cooper, Arthur JL

    2009-01-01

    The following review examines the role of calcium in promoting the in vitro and in vivo activation of transglutaminases in neurodegenerative disorders. Diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease exhibit increased transglutaminase activity and rises in intracellular calcium concentrations, which may be related. The aberrant activation of transglutaminase by calcium is thought to give rise to a variety of pathological moieties in these diseases, and the inhibition has been shown to have therapeutic benefit in animal and cellular models of neurodegeneration. Given the potential clinical relevance of transglutaminase inhibitors, we have also reviewed the recent development of such compounds. PMID:20161049

  1. Prevalence of reticular pseudodrusen in newly presenting adult onset foveomacular vitelliform dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Wilde, C; Lakshmanan, A; Patel, M; Morales, M U; Dhar-Munshi, S; Amoaku, W M K

    2016-06-01

    PurposeTo report the association and prevalence of reticular pseudodrusen (RPD) in eyes with newly presenting adult onset foveomacular vitelliform dystrophy (AFVD). To compare the strength of association with other pathologies resulting from dysfunction of the choroid-Bruch's membrane-retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) complex, including eyes with geographic atrophy (GA) and angioid streaks.MethodsRetrospective single-centre review of all consecutive newly presenting AFVD. Multimodal imaging with spectral domain optical coherence tomography, fundus photographs, red-free/blue light images, and fundus fluorescein angiograms were graded for the presence of RPD. For comparison, all consecutive newly presenting cases of GA and eyes with angioid streaks were studied.ResultsFifteen (15) patients were identified with AFVD (mean age of 77.3 years; 73.3% female). Mean age of patients with AFVD and RPD was 80.5 years (SD 3.7), whereas that of patients with AFVD without RPD was 75.1 years (SD 7.0). This age difference did not reach statistical significance, P=0.1. Six (40%) had identifiable RPD; being a bilateral finding in 100% of patients. No males with AFVD and RPD were identified. A total of 92 eyes presented with GA. Twenty-three (23) of these (25.0%) had RPD. Twelve (12) patients presented with identifiable angioid streaks, with 4 (36.4%) having RPD.ConclusionRPD are a frequent finding in eyes with newly presenting AFVD; not being restricted to AMD, but a finding common among diseases where pathophysiological mechanisms involve damage to Bruch's membrane and the RPE, whether genetic or degenerative. Our study supports the concept that they occur with high but variable frequencies in eyes with various pathologies. PMID:27034200

  2. [Adult-onset Hartnup disease presenting with neuropsychiatric symptoms but without skin lesions].

    PubMed

    Mori, E; Yamadori, A; Tsutsumi, A; Kyotani, Y

    1989-06-01

    Hartnup disease is an inborn abnormality of renal and intestinal transport involving the neutral amino acids. Intermittent pellagra-like rash, attacks of cerebellar ataxia and psychiatric disturbance are characteristic symptoms of this disease. We described here a patient with adult-onset Hartnup disease who presented unique neuropsychiatric symptoms but no dermatologic symptoms, and reported features of amino acids transport in this patient and his family. The patient, a man aged 37 years, was referred to us because of lasting daytime bruxism. He is the second child of healthy parents who are first cousin; his elder brother who has been mentally retarded became bed-ridden and died at 32 years of age. His younger brother is completely healthy. Although the patient's development in infancy has been slightly retarded, he completed compulsory 9-year education. At 29 years of age, he experienced episodes of diplopia, ataxic gait and insomnia, and at 33 years of age, of transient stupor. There had been no history of photosensitivity or dermatitis. On neurological examination, there were trunkal ataxia, increased muscular tone and decreased mental activity besides bruxism. These symptoms remained unchanged despite of several medications including trihexyphenidyl, diazepam, halloperidol, tiapride and sulpiride. Two months later, the patient became stuporous; bruxism and hypertonicity became exaggerated. Myerson's sign, sucking reflex and grasp reflex in both hand appeared. There was no dermal lesion. A cranial computed tomography revealed a small calcification in the right frontal subcortical region and a single photon emission tomography indicated possible bifrontal hypoperfusion. Electroencephalograms demonstrated non-specific slowing. Somatosensory evoked potentials and nerve conduction velocities were normal. There were constant indicanuria and amino-aciduria.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2582682

  3. Astrocyte Leptin Receptor (ObR) and Leptin Transport in Adult-Onset Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Weihong; Hsuchou, Hung; He, Yi; Sakharkar, Amul; Cain, Courtney; Yu, Chuanhui; Kastin, Abba J.

    2008-01-01

    The agouti viable yellow (Avy) spontaneous mutation generates an unusual mouse phenotype of agouti-colored coat and adult-onset obesity with metabolic syndrome. Persistent production of agouti signaling protein in Avy mice antagonizes melanocortin receptors in the hypothalamus. To determine how this disruption of neuroendocrine circuits affects leptin transport across the blood-brain barrier (BBB), we measured leptin influx in Avy and B6 control mice after the development of obesity, hyperleptinemia, and increased adiposity. After iv bolus injection, 125I-leptin crossed the BBB significantly faster in young (2 month old) B6 mice than in young Avy mice or in older (8 month old) mice of either strain. This difference was not observed by in situ brain perfusion studies, indicating the cause being circulating factors, such as elevated leptin levels or soluble receptors. Thus, Avy mice showed peripheral leptin resistance. ObRa, the main transporting receptor for leptin at the BBB, showed no change in mRNA expression in the cerebral microvessels between the age-matched (2 month old) Avy and B6 mice. Higher ObRb mRNA was seen in the Avy microvasculature with unknown significance. Immunofluorescent staining unexpectedly revealed that many of the ObR(+) cells were astrocytes and that the Avy mice showed significantly more ObR(+) astrocytes in the hypothalamus than the B6 mice. Although leptin permeation from the circulation was slower in the Avy mice, the increased ObR expression in astrocytes and increased ObRb mRNA in microvessels suggest the possibility of heightened central nervous system sensitivity to circulating leptin. PMID:18292187

  4. Chorea and related disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bhidayasiri, R; Truong, D

    2004-01-01

    Chorea refers to irregular, flowing, non-stereotyped, random, involuntary movements that often possess a writhing quality referred to as choreoathetosis. When mild, chorea can be difficult to differentiate from restlessness. When chorea is proximal and of large amplitude, it is called ballism. Chorea is usually worsened by anxiety and stress and subsides during sleep. Most patients attempt to disguise chorea by incorporating it into a purposeful activity. Whereas ballism is most often encountered as hemiballism due to contralateral structural lesions of the subthalamic nucleus and/or its afferent or efferent projections, chorea may be the expression of a wide range of disorders, including metabolic, infectious, inflammatory, vascular, and neurodegenerative, as well as drug induced syndromes. In clinical practice, Sydenham's chorea is the most common form of childhood chorea, whereas Huntington's disease and drug induced chorea account for the majority of adult onset cases. The aim of this review is to provide an up to date discussion of this disorder, as well as a practical approach to its management. PMID:15356354

  5. Hereditary leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids: a spectrum of phenotypes from CNS vasculitis to parkinsonism in an adult onset leukodystrophy series

    PubMed Central

    Jaunmuktane, Zane; Sheerin, Una-Marie; Phadke, Rahul; Brandner, Sebastian; Milonas, Ionnis; Dean, Andrew; Bajaj, Nin; McNicholas, Nuala; Costello, Daniel; Cronin, Simon; McGuigan, Chris; Rossor, Martin; Fox, Nick; Murphy, Elaine; Chataway, Jeremy; Houlden, Henry

    2016-01-01

    Background Hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with neuroaxonal spheroids (HDLS) is a hereditary, adult onset leukodystrophy which is characterised by the presence of axonal loss, axonal spheroids and variably present pigmented macrophages on pathological examination. It most frequently presents in adulthood with dementia and personality change. HDLS has recently been found to be caused by mutations in the colony stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF1R) gene. Methods In this study, we sequenced the CSF1R gene in a cohort of 48 patients from the UK, Greece and Ireland with adult onset leukodystrophy of unknown cause. Results Five pathogenic mutations were found, including three novel mutations. The presentations ranged from suspected central nervous system (CNS) vasculitis to extrapyramidal to cognitive phenotypes. The case histories and imaging are presented here, in addition to neuropathological findings from two cases with novel mutations. Conclusion We estimate that CSF1R mutations account for 10% of idiopathic adult onset leukodystrophies and that genetic testing for CSF1R mutations is essential in adult patients presenting with undefined CNS vasculitis or a leukodystrophy with prominent neuropsychiatric signs or dementia. PMID:25935893

  6. Exclusion of one pedigree affected by adult onset primary open angle glaucoma from linkage to the juvenile glaucoma locus on chromosome 1q21-q31.

    PubMed Central

    Avramopoulos, D; Kitsos, G; Economou-Petersen, E; Grigoriadou, M; Vassilopoulos, D; Papageorgiou, C; Psilas, K; Petersen, M B

    1996-01-01

    A locus for autosomal dominant juvenile onset primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) was recently assigned to chromosome region 1q21-q31. In the present study, a large Greek family with autosomal dominant adult onset POAG was investigated using microsatellite markers. Exclusion of linkage of the adult onset POAG gene to the region D1S194-D1S191 was obtained in this pedigree. Therefore, the data provide evidence that juvenile and adult onset POAG are genetically distinct disease entities. PMID:9004141

  7. Human DNA methylomes of neurodegenerative diseases show common epigenomic patterns.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Mut, J V; Heyn, H; Vidal, E; Moran, S; Sayols, S; Delgado-Morales, R; Schultz, M D; Ansoleaga, B; Garcia-Esparcia, P; Pons-Espinal, M; de Lagran, M M; Dopazo, J; Rabano, A; Avila, J; Dierssen, M; Lott, I; Ferrer, I; Ecker, J R; Esteller, M

    2016-01-01

    Different neurodegenerative disorders often show similar lesions, such as the presence of amyloid plaques, TAU-neurotangles and synuclein inclusions. The genetically inherited forms are rare, so we wondered whether shared epigenetic aberrations, such as those affecting DNA methylation, might also exist. The studied samples were gray matter samples from the prefrontal cortex of control and neurodegenerative disease-associated cases. We performed the DNA methylation analyses of Alzheimer's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer-like neurodegenerative profile associated with Down's syndrome samples. The DNA methylation landscapes obtained show that neurodegenerative diseases share similar aberrant CpG methylation shifts targeting a defined gene set. Our findings suggest that neurodegenerative disorders might have similar pathogenetic mechanisms that subsequently evolve into different clinical entities. The identified aberrant DNA methylation changes can be used as biomarkers of the disorders and as potential new targets for the development of new therapies. PMID:26784972

  8. Stroke prevention by direct revascularization for patients with adult-onset moyamoya disease presenting with ischemia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tackeun; Oh, Chang Wan; Kwon, O-Ki; Hwang, Gyojun; Kim, Jeong Eun; Kang, Hyun-Seung; Cho, Won-Sang; Bang, Jae Seung

    2016-06-01

    . CONCLUSIONS Direct or combined revascularization for patients with adult-onset moyamoya disease presenting with ischemia can prevent further stroke. PMID:26636391

  9. An increased incidence of Hodgkin's lymphoma in patients with adult-onset sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sarcomas are rare, often fatal malignancies of connective tissues that can occur in genetic predisposition syndromes or result from carcinogen exposure. Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) is not known to contribute to any recognised familial cancer syndrome comprising sarcomas, but is known to be associated with a variety of second cancers, including sarcomas. This study describes the prevalence of HL in families affected by sarcoma. Methods The International Sarcoma Kindred Study (ISKS) is a prospective cohort of 561 families ascertained via a proband with adult-onset sarcoma. Cancer-specific standardised incidence ratios (SIR) for multiple primary malignancies in probands were estimated. Clinical characteristics of individuals reporting both sarcoma and HL were described. Standardised incidence ratios for the occurrence of cancer in ISKS families were also estimated. Results Multiple primary cancers were reported in 16% of probands, significantly higher than in the general population. The risk of HL in probands was increased 15.8-fold (95%CI 7.9-31.6) and increased risks were also seen for breast cancer (SIR 2.9, 95%CI 1.9-4.4) and thyroid cancer (SIR 8.4, 95%CI 4.2-16.8). In 8 probands with both HL and sarcoma, the diagnosis of HL preceded that of sarcoma in 7 cases, and occurred synchronously in one case. Only 3 cases of sarcoma occurred in or close to prior radiotherapy fields. The overall incidence of HL in the ISKS cohort was not significantly increased by comparison with age- and gender-specific population estimates (SIR 1.63, 95%CI 1.05-2.43), suggesting that the association between HL and sarcomas did not extend to other family members. The age of onset of non-sarcoma, non-HL cancers in families affected by both HL and sarcoma was younger than the general population (56.2 y vs 65.6 y, P < 0.0001). Conclusions The basis for the association between HL and sarcomas may include the carcinogenic effects of therapy combined with excellent survival rates for HL

  10. Molecular basis of adult-onset and chronic G sub M2 gangliosidoses in patients of Ashkenazi Jewish origin: Substitution of serine for glycine at position 269 of the. alpha. -subunit of. beta. -hexosaminidase

    SciTech Connect

    Paw, B.H.; Kaback, M.M.; Neufeld, E.F. )

    1989-04-01

    Chronic and adult-onset G{sub M2} gangliosidoses are neurological disorders caused by marked deficiency of the A isoenzyme of {beta}-hexosaminidase; they occur in the Ashkenazi Jewish population, though less frequently than classic (infantile) Tay-Sachs disease. Earlier biosynthetic studies had identified a defective {alpha}-subunit that failed to associate with the {beta}-subunit. The authors have now found a guanosine to adenosine transition at the 3{prime} end of exon 7, which causes substitution of serine for glycine at position 269 of the {alpha}-subunit. An RNase protection assay was used to localize the mutation to a segment of mRNA from fibroblasts of a patient with the adult-onset disorder. That segment of mRNA (after reverse transcription) and a corresponding segment of genomic DNA were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and sequenced by the dideoxy method. The sequence analysis, together with an assay based on the loss of a ScrFI restriction site, showed that the patient was a compound heterozygote who had inherited the 269 (Gly {yields} Ser) mutation from his father and an allelic null mutation from his mother. The 269 (Gly {yields} Ser) mutation, in compound heterozygosity with a presumed null allele, was also found in fetal fibroblasts with an association-defective phenotype and in cells from five patients with chronic G{sub M2} gangliosidosis.

  11. Obesity-related abnormalities couple environmental triggers with genetic susceptibility in adult-onset T1D.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, K Hoa; Ande, Sudharsana R; Mishra, Suresh

    2016-01-29

    The incidence of adult-onset T1D in low-risk non-HLA type has increased several folds, whereas the contemporaneous incidence in high-risk HLA-type remains stable. Various factors behind this selective increase in T1D in young adults remain unclear. Obesity and its associated abnormalities appear to be an important determinant; however, the underlying mechanism involved is not understood. Recently, we have developed two novel transgenic obese mice models, Mito-Ob and m-Mito-Ob, by expressing a pleiotropic protein prohibitin (PHB) and a phospho mutant form of PHB (Y114F-PHB or m-PHB) from the aP2 gene promoter, respectively. Both mice models develop obesity in a sex-neutral manner, independent of diet; but obesity associated chronic low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance in a male sex-specific manner. Interestingly, on a high fat diet (HFD) only male m-Mito-Ob mice displayed marked mononuclear cell infiltration in pancreas and developed insulitis that mimic adult-onset T1D. Male Mito-Ob mice that share the metabolic phenotype of male m-Mito-Ob mice, and female m-Mito-Ob that harbor m-PHB similar to male m-Mito-Ob mice, did not develop insulitis. Thus, insulitis development in male m-Mito-Ob in response to HFD requires both, obesity-related abnormalities and m-PHB. Collectively, this data provides a proof-of-concept that obesity-associated abnormalities couple environmental triggers with genetic susceptibility in adult-onset T1D and reveals PHB as a potential susceptibility gene for T1D. PMID:26766792

  12. A large genomic deletion leads to enhancer adoption by the lamin B1 gene: a second path to autosomal dominant adult-onset demyelinating leukodystrophy (ADLD)

    SciTech Connect

    Giorgio, E.; Robyr, D.; Spielmann, M.; Ferrero, E.; Di Gregorio, E.; Imperiale, D.; Vaula, G.; Stamoulis, G.; Santoni, F.; Atzori, C.; Gasparini, L.; Ferrera, D.; Canale, C.; Guipponi, M.; Pennacchio, L. A.; Antonarakis, S. E.; Brussino, A.; Brusco, A.

    2015-02-20

    Chromosomal rearrangements with duplication of the lamin B1 (LMNB1) gene underlie autosomal dominant adult-onset demyelinating leukodystrophy (ADLD), a rare neurological disorder in which overexpression of LMNB1 causes progressive central nervous system demyelination. However, we previously reported an ADLD family (ADLD-1-TO) without evidence of duplication or other mutation in LMNB1 despite linkage to the LMNB1 locus and lamin B1 overexpression. By custom array-CGH, we further investigated this family and report here that patients carry a large (~660 kb) heterozygous deletion that begins 66 kb upstream of the LMNB1 promoter. Lamin B1 overexpression was confirmed in further ADLD-1-TO tissues and in a postmortem brain sample, where lamin B1 was increased in the frontal lobe. Through parallel studies, we investigated both loss of genetic material and chromosomal rearrangement as possible causes of LMNB1 overexpression, and found that ADLD-1-TO plausibly results from an enhancer adoption mechanism. The deletion eliminates a genome topological domain boundary, allowing normally forbidden interactions between at least three forebrain-directed enhancers and the LMNB1 promoter, in line with the observed mainly cerebral localization of lamin B1 overexpression and myelin degeneration. Finally, this second route to LMNB1 overexpression and ADLD is a new example of the relevance of regulatory landscape modifications in determining Mendelian phenotypes.

  13. A large genomic deletion leads to enhancer adoption by the lamin B1 gene: a second path to autosomal dominant adult-onset demyelinating leukodystrophy (ADLD)

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Giorgio, E.; Robyr, D.; Spielmann, M.; Ferrero, E.; Di Gregorio, E.; Imperiale, D.; Vaula, G.; Stamoulis, G.; Santoni, F.; Atzori, C.; et al

    2015-02-20

    Chromosomal rearrangements with duplication of the lamin B1 (LMNB1) gene underlie autosomal dominant adult-onset demyelinating leukodystrophy (ADLD), a rare neurological disorder in which overexpression of LMNB1 causes progressive central nervous system demyelination. However, we previously reported an ADLD family (ADLD-1-TO) without evidence of duplication or other mutation in LMNB1 despite linkage to the LMNB1 locus and lamin B1 overexpression. By custom array-CGH, we further investigated this family and report here that patients carry a large (~660 kb) heterozygous deletion that begins 66 kb upstream of the LMNB1 promoter. Lamin B1 overexpression was confirmed in further ADLD-1-TO tissues and in amore » postmortem brain sample, where lamin B1 was increased in the frontal lobe. Through parallel studies, we investigated both loss of genetic material and chromosomal rearrangement as possible causes of LMNB1 overexpression, and found that ADLD-1-TO plausibly results from an enhancer adoption mechanism. The deletion eliminates a genome topological domain boundary, allowing normally forbidden interactions between at least three forebrain-directed enhancers and the LMNB1 promoter, in line with the observed mainly cerebral localization of lamin B1 overexpression and myelin degeneration. Finally, this second route to LMNB1 overexpression and ADLD is a new example of the relevance of regulatory landscape modifications in determining Mendelian phenotypes.« less

  14. An autopsied case of adult-onset bulbospinalform Alexander disease with a novel S393R mutation in the GFAP gene.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Yasushi; Saito, Yufuko; Mori, Keiko; Ito, Masumi; Mimuro, Maya; Aiba, Ikuko; Saito, Kozo; Mizuta, Ikuko; Yoshida, Tomokatsu; Nakagawa, Masanori; Yoshida, Mari

    2015-01-01

    A 50-year-old Japanese man with no apparent family history noticed diplopia. He gradually showed gait disturbance and dysuria. Abducens disorder of eye movement with nystagmus, tongue atrophy with fasciculation, spastic tetraparesis, and sensory disturbance were also observed. MRI showed severe atrophy of the medulla oblongata to the cervical cord ("tadpole appearance"). Tracheotomy and gastrostomy were performed 7 years after onset due to the development of bulbar palsy. Death occurred following respiratory failure after 11 years total disease duration. The brain weighed 1,380 g. The cerebrum, cerebellum, midbrain, and upper pons were preserved from atrophy, but the medulla oblongata to the cervical cord showed severe atrophy. A few Rosenthal fibers were observed in the cerebral white matter, basal ganglia, and cerebellum, whereas numerous Rosenthal fibers were observed in the medulla oblongata to the cervical cord. Myelin loss with relatively preserved axons was extensively observed from the middle of the pons to the spinal cord. The clinicopathological diagnosis was adult-onset bulbospinal-form Alexander disease. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) gene analysis revealed a novel mutation of S393R. Expression patterns of S393R mutant GFAP using adrenal carcinoma-derived cells (SW13 cells) showed a decreased number of filamentous structures and abnormal aggregates. PMID:25828773

  15. Emotional dysfunctions in neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Löffler, Leonie A K; Radke, Sina; Morawetz, Carmen; Derntl, Birgit

    2016-06-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized primarily by motor signs but are also accompanied by emotional disturbances. Because of the limited knowledge about these dysfunctions, this Review provides an overview of emotional competencies in Huntington's disease (HD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and multiple sclerosis (MS), with a focus on emotion recognition, emotion regulation, and depression. Most studies indicate facial emotion recognition deficits in HD and PD, whereas data for MS are inconsistent. On a neural level, dysfunctions of amygdala and striatum, among others, have been linked to these impairments. These dysfunctions also tap brain regions that are part of the emotion regulation network, suggesting problems in this competency, too. Research points to dysfunctional emotion regulation in MS, whereas findings for PD and HD are missing. The high prevalence of depression in all three disorders emphasizes the need for effective therapies. Research on emotional disturbances might improve treatment, thereby increasing patients' and caregivers' well-being. PMID:26011035

  16. Piriform sinus carcinoma with a paraneoplastic syndrome misdiagnosed as adult onset Still’s disease: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Liu; Li, Wen; Du, Jintao

    2015-01-01

    Paraneoplastic syndromes (PS) occur less commonly in association with otolaryngologic neoplasms than other carcinomas such as those of lung or breast. Piriform sinus carcinoma with PS is extremely rare. We here report a case of piriform sinus carcinoma accompanied by PS that was initially misdiagnosed as adult onset Still’s disease and describe our diagnosis and treatment. One lesson we have drawn from the experience of this misdiagnosis is that PS symptoms may manifest before the primary tumor is evident and complicate the diagnostic process. PMID:26770614

  17. The kynurenine pathway and neurodegenerative disease.

    PubMed

    Maddison, Daniel C; Giorgini, Flaviano

    2015-04-01

    Neuroactive metabolites of the kynurenine pathway (KP) of tryptophan degradation have been closely linked to the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases. Tryptophan is an essential amino acid required for protein synthesis, and in higher eukaryotes is also converted into the key neurotransmitters serotonin and tryptamine. However, in mammals >95% of tryptophan is metabolized through the KP, ultimately leading to the production of nicotinamide adenosine dinucleotide (NAD(+)). A number of the pathway metabolites are neuroactive; e.g. can modulate activity of several glutamate receptors and generate/scavenge free radicals. Imbalances in absolute and relative levels of KP metabolites have been strongly associated with neurodegenerative disorders including Huntington's, Alzheimer's, and Parkinson's diseases. The KP has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of other brain disorders (e.g. schizophrenia, bipolar disorder), as well as several cancers and autoimmune disorders such as HIV. Pharmacological and genetic manipulation of the KP has been shown to ameliorate neurodegenerative phenotypes in a number of model organisms, suggesting that it could prove to be a viable target for the treatment of such diseases. Here, we provide an overview of the KP, its role in neurodegeneration and the current strategies for therapeutic targeting of the pathway. PMID:25773161

  18. Mitochondrial and Cell Death Mechanisms in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Lee J.

    2010-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are the most common human adult-onset neurodegenerative diseases. They are characterized by prominent age-related neurodegeneration in selectively vulnerable neural systems. Some forms of AD, PD, and ALS are inherited, and genes causing these diseases have been identified. Nevertheless, the mechanisms of the neuronal cell death are unresolved. Morphological, biochemical, genetic, as well as cell and animal model studies reveal that mitochondria could have roles in this neurodegeneration. The functions and properties of mitochondria might render subsets of selectively vulnerable neurons intrinsically susceptible to cellular aging and stress and overlying genetic variations, triggering neurodegeneration according to a cell death matrix theory. In AD, alterations in enzymes involved in oxidative phosphorylation, oxidative damage, and mitochondrial binding of Aβ and amyloid precursor protein have been reported. In PD, mutations in putative mitochondrial proteins have been identified and mitochondrial DNA mutations have been found in neurons in the substantia nigra. In ALS, changes occur in mitochondrial respiratory chain enzymes and mitochondrial cell death proteins. Transgenic mouse models of human neurodegenerative disease are beginning to reveal possible principles governing the biology of selective neuronal vulnerability that implicate mitochondria and the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. This review summarizes how mitochondrial pathobiology might contribute to neuronal death in AD, PD, and ALS and could serve as a target for drug therapy. PMID:21258649

  19. Genetic testing of children for adult-onset conditions: opinions of the British adult population and implications for clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Shkedi-Rafid, Shiri; Fenwick, Angela; Dheensa, Sandi; Lucassen, Anneke M

    2015-10-01

    This study set out to explore the attitudes of a representative sample of the British public towards genetic testing in children to predict disease in the future. We sought opinions about genetic testing for adult-onset conditions for which no prevention/treatment is available during childhood, and about genetic 'carrier' status to assess future reproductive risks. The study also examined participants' level of agreement with the reasons professional organisations give in favour of deferring such testing. Participants (n=2998) completed a specially designed questionnaire, distributed by email. Nearly half of the sample (47%) agreed that parents should be able to test their child for adult-onset conditions, even if there is no treatment or prevention at time of testing. This runs contrary to professional guidance about genetic testing in children. Testing for carrier status was supported by a larger proportion (60%). A child's future ability to decide for her/himself if and when to be tested was the least supported argument in favour of deferring testing. PMID:25370041

  20. Reactive macrophage activation syndrome possibly triggered by canakinumab in a patient with adult-onset Still's disease.

    PubMed

    Banse, Christopher; Vittecoq, Olivier; Benhamou, Ygal; Gauthier-Prieur, Maud; Lequerré, Thierry; Lévesque, Hervé

    2013-12-01

    Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is a rare and serious complication of adult-onset Still's disease. We describe a case in a 49-year-old woman with Still's disease refractory to glucocorticoids, methotrexate, and infliximab. Anakinra provided satisfactory disease control for 1 year, after which escape phenomenon occurred. After four tocilizumab injections, cutaneous melanoma developed. The persistent systemic manifestations prompted treatment with two canakinumab injections. Ten days later, she had a spiking fever, dyspnea, low back pain, abdominal pain, odynophagia, and hepatomegaly. Laboratory tests showed liver cytolysis (180 IU/L; N: 10-35), acute renal failure (creatinine, 407 μmol/L; N:50-100), thrombocytopenia (60 G/L; N: 150-400), leukocytosis (12,200/mm(3); N: 4000-10,000), hypertriglyceridemia (5070 mmol/L; N: 0.4-1.6), lactate dehydrogenase elevation (4824 IU/L; N: 135-250), and hyperferritinemia (97 761 μg/L; N:15-150). Examination of a bone marrow biopsy showed phagocytosis. Tests were negative for viruses and other infectious agents. Glucocorticoid therapy (1.5 mg/Kg/d) and intravenous polyvalent immunoglobulins (0.5 g/Kg/d) were given. Her condition improved despite the many factors of adverse prognostic significance (thrombocytopenia, absence of lymphadenopathy, and glucocorticoid therapy at diagnosis). This is the first reported case of MAS after canakinumab therapy in a patient with adult-onset Still's disease. PMID:23751410

  1. Uteroplacental insufficiency alters nephrogenesis and downregulates cyclooxygenase-2 expression in a model of IUGR with adult-onset hypertension.

    PubMed

    Baserga, Mariana; Hale, Merica A; Wang, Zheng Ming; Yu, Xing; Callaway, Christopher W; McKnight, Robert A; Lane, Robert H

    2007-05-01

    Clinical and animal studies indicate that intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) following uteroplacental insufficiency (UPI) reduces nephron number and predisposes toward renal insufficiency early in life and increased risk of adult-onset hypertension. In this study, we hypothesized that the inducible enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), a pivotal protein in nephrogenesis, constitutes a mechanism through which UPI and subsequent glucocorticoid overexposure can decrease nephron number. We further hypothesized that UPI downregulates the key enzyme 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11beta-HSD2), which converts corticosterone to inert 11-dehydrocorticosterone, thereby protecting both the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) from the actions of corticosterone. Following bilateral uterine ligation on the pregnant rat, UPI significantly decreased renal COX-2, 11beta-HSD2, and GR mRNA and protein levels, but upregulated expression of MR at birth. At day 21 of life, 11beta-HSD2, GR, and also MR mRNA and protein levels were downregulated. UPI did not affect blood pressures (BP) at day 21 of life but significantly increased systolic BP in both genders at day 140. We conclude that in our animal model, UPI decreases fetal COX-2 expression during a period of active nephrogenesis in the IUGR rat, which is also characterized by decreased nephron number and adult-onset hypertension. PMID:17272666

  2. Effect of adult onset hypothyroidism on behavioral parameters and acetylcholinesterase isoforms activity in specific brain regions of male mice.

    PubMed

    Vasilopoulou, Catherine G; Constantinou, Caterina; Giannakopoulou, Dimitra; Giompres, Panagiotis; Margarity, Marigoula

    2016-10-01

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are essential for normal development and function of mammalian central nervous system (CNS); TH dysregulation has been implicated in several cognitive and behavioral deficits related to dysfunctions of neurotransmitter systems. In the present study, we investigated the effects of adult onset hypothyroidism on the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and on related behavioral parameters. For this purpose we used adult male Balb/cJ mice that were divided randomly into euthyroid and hypothyroid animal groups. Animals were rendered hypothyroid through administration of 1% w/v KClO4 in their drinking water for 8weeks. At the end of the treatment, learning/memory procedures were examined through step-through passive avoidance task while fear/anxiety was assessed using elevated plus-maze (EPM) and open-field (OF) tests. AChE activity was determined colorimetrically in two different fractions, salt-soluble fraction (SS) (containing mainly the G1 isoform) and detergent-soluble fraction (DS) (containing mainly the G4 isoform) in cerebral cortex, cerebellum, midbrain, hippocampus and striatum. Our results indicate that adult onset hypothyroidism caused significant memory impairment and increased fear/anxiety. Moreover, the activity of both isoforms of AChE was reduced in all brain regions examined in a brain region- and isoform-specific manner. PMID:27317840

  3. Endocytic membrane trafficking and neurodegenerative disease.

    PubMed

    Schreij, Andrea M A; Fon, Edward A; McPherson, Peter S

    2016-04-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are amongst the most devastating of human disorders. New technologies have led to a rapid increase in the identification of disease-related genes with an enhanced appreciation of the key roles played by genetics in the etiology of these disorders. Importantly, pinpointing the normal function of disease gene proteins leads to new understanding of the cellular machineries and pathways that are altered in the disease process. One such emerging pathway is membrane trafficking in the endosomal system. This key cellular process controls the localization and levels of a myriad of proteins and is thus critical for normal cell function. In this review we will focus on three neurodegenerative diseases; Parkinson disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and hereditary spastic paraplegias, for which a large number of newly discovered disease genes encode proteins that function in endosomal membrane trafficking. We will describe how alterations in these proteins affect endosomal function and speculate on the contributions of these disruptions to disease pathophysiology. PMID:26721251

  4. Synthetic prions and other human neurodegenerative proteinopathies.

    PubMed

    Le, Nhat Tran Thanh; Narkiewicz, Joanna; Aulić, Suzana; Salzano, Giulia; Tran, Hoa Thanh; Scaini, Denis; Moda, Fabio; Giachin, Gabriele; Legname, Giuseppe

    2015-09-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) are a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders. The common feature of these diseases is the pathological conversion of the normal cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) into a β-structure-rich conformer-termed PrP(Sc). The latter can induce a self-perpetuating process leading to amplification and spreading of pathological protein assemblies. Much evidence suggests that PrP(Sc) itself is able to recruit and misfold PrP(C) into the pathological conformation. Recent data have shown that recombinant PrP(C) can be misfolded in vitro and the resulting synthetic conformers are able to induce the conversion of PrP(C) into PrP(Sc)in vivo. In this review we describe the state-of-the-art of the body of literature in this field. In addition, we describe a cell-based assay to test synthetic prions in cells, providing further evidence that synthetic amyloids are able to template conversion of PrP into prion inclusions. Studying prions might help to understand the pathological mechanisms governing other neurodegenerative diseases. Aggregation and deposition of misfolded proteins is a common feature of several neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and other disorders. Although the proteins implicated in each of these diseases differ, they share a common prion mechanism. Recombinant proteins are able to aggregate in vitro into β-rich amyloid fibrils, sharing some features of the aggregates found in the brain. Several studies have reported that intracerebral inoculation of synthetic aggregates lead to unique pathology, which spread progressively to distal brain regions and reduced survival time in animals. Here, we review the prion-like features of different proteins involved in neurodegenerative disorders, such as α-synuclein, superoxide dismutase-1, amyloid-β and tau. PMID:25449570

  5. Walking the tightrope: proteostasis and neurodegenerative disease.

    PubMed

    Yerbury, Justin J; Ooi, Lezanne; Dillin, Andrew; Saunders, Darren N; Hatters, Danny M; Beart, Philip M; Cashman, Neil R; Wilson, Mark R; Ecroyd, Heath

    2016-05-01

    A characteristic of many neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease (HD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), is the aggregation of specific proteins into protein inclusions and/or plaques in degenerating brains. While much of the aggregated protein consists of disease specific proteins, such as amyloid-β, α-synuclein, or superoxide dismutase1 (SOD1), many other proteins are known to aggregate in these disorders. Although the role of protein aggregates in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases remains unknown, the ubiquitous association of misfolded and aggregated proteins indicates that significant dysfunction in protein homeostasis (proteostasis) occurs in these diseases. Proteostasis is the concept that the integrity of the proteome is in fine balance and requires proteins in a specific conformation, concentration, and location to be functional. In this review, we discuss the role of specific mechanisms, both inside and outside cells, which maintain proteostasis, including molecular chaperones, protein degradation pathways, and the active formation of inclusions, in neurodegenerative diseases associated with protein aggregation. A characteristic of many neurodegenerative diseases is the aggregation of specific proteins, which alone provides strong evidence that protein homeostasis is disrupted in these disease states. Proteostasis is the maintenance of the proteome in the correct conformation, concentration, and location by functional pathways such as molecular chaperones and protein degradation machinery. Here, we discuss the potential roles of quality control pathways, both inside and outside cells, in the loss of proteostasis during aging and disease. PMID:26872075

  6. Possible macrophage activation syndrome following initiation of adalimumab in a patient with adult-onset Still's disease.

    PubMed

    Souabni, Leila; Dridi, Leila; Ben Abdelghani, Kawther; Kassab, Selma; Chekili, Selma; Laater, Ahmed; Zakraoui, Leith

    2014-01-01

    Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) has been rarely reported in the course of adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) and in the majority of cases, it was triggered by an infection. Here, we report, to our knowledge, the first case of MAS occurring after adalimumab treatment initiation and not triggered by an infection. A 26-yearold woman with classical features of AOSD developed persistent fever, severe bicytopenia associated with extreme hyperferritinemia, hyponatremia and abnormal liver function tow months after the initiation of adalimumab treatment. The diagnosis of MAS was made without histological proof. The patient was treated with methylprednisolone pulse therapy and her condition improved. During the disease course, extensive studies could not identify any viral infection or other known underlying etiology for the reactive MAS. The adalimumab was incriminated in this complication. Currently, the patient is in remission on tocilizumab and low-dose prednisolone. PMID:25018831

  7. Wiki-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Adult Onset Sarcoma: A New Paradigm in Sarcoma Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Neuhaus, S. J.; Thomas, D.; Desai, J.; Vuletich, C.; von Dincklage, J.; Olver, I.

    2015-01-01

    In 2013 Australia introduced Wiki-based Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Adult Onset Sarcoma. These guidelines utilized a customized MediaWiki software application for guideline development and are the first evidence-based guidelines for clinical management of sarcoma. This paper presents our experience with developing and implementing web-based interactive guidelines and reviews some of the challenges and lessons from adopting an evidence-based (rather than consensus-based) approach to clinical sarcoma guidelines. Digital guidelines can be easily updated with new evidence, continuously reviewed and widely disseminated. They provide an accessible method of enabling clinicians and consumers to access evidence-based clinical practice recommendations and, as evidenced by over 2000 views in the first four months after release, with 49% of those visits being from countries outside of Australia. The lessons learned have relevance to other rare cancers in addition to the international sarcoma community. PMID:25784832

  8. HPV Type 6 and 18 Coinfection in a Case of Adult-Onset Laryngeal Papillomatosis: Immunization with Gardasil.

    PubMed

    Fancello, Virginia; Melis, Andrea; Piana, Andrea Fausto; Castiglia, Paolo; Cossu, Andrea; Sotgiu, Giovanni; Bozzo, Corrado; King, Emma Victoria; Meloni, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Laryngeal papillomatosis (LP) is a rare human papillomavirus (HPV) related disease that often requires multiple surgical interventions and residual impairment of voice is almost inevitable. We report the case of a patient with adult onset recurrent LP, showing moderate dysplasia and coinfection with HPV types 6 and 18. The tetravalent HPV vaccine Gardasil was prescribed off label, with the aim of triggering an immunogenic response and consequently reducing the probability of further recurrences. The patient was followed for 9 months with no sign of relapse of his LP. The postexposure use of the anti-HPV vaccine could represent a promising therapeutic agent in established LP. Unfortunately, the potential efficacy of this new therapeutic option in this situation has been suggested only by isolated case reports. Further controlled studies, with a longer follow-up and a larger sample size, are needed to assess efficacy of Gardasil in LP. PMID:26783482

  9. HPV Type 6 and 18 Coinfection in a Case of Adult-Onset Laryngeal Papillomatosis: Immunization with Gardasil

    PubMed Central

    Fancello, Virginia; Melis, Andrea; Piana, Andrea Fausto; Castiglia, Paolo; Cossu, Andrea; Sotgiu, Giovanni; Bozzo, Corrado; King, Emma Victoria; Meloni, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Laryngeal papillomatosis (LP) is a rare human papillomavirus (HPV) related disease that often requires multiple surgical interventions and residual impairment of voice is almost inevitable. We report the case of a patient with adult onset recurrent LP, showing moderate dysplasia and coinfection with HPV types 6 and 18. The tetravalent HPV vaccine Gardasil was prescribed off label, with the aim of triggering an immunogenic response and consequently reducing the probability of further recurrences. The patient was followed for 9 months with no sign of relapse of his LP. The postexposure use of the anti-HPV vaccine could represent a promising therapeutic agent in established LP. Unfortunately, the potential efficacy of this new therapeutic option in this situation has been suggested only by isolated case reports. Further controlled studies, with a longer follow-up and a larger sample size, are needed to assess efficacy of Gardasil in LP. PMID:26783482

  10. Adult Onset of BRAFV600E-Mutated Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis with Cutaneous Involvement Successfully Diagnosed by Immunohistochemical Staining

    PubMed Central

    Tono, Hisayuki; Fujimura, Taku; Kakizaki, Aya; Furudate, Sadanori; Ishibashi, Masaya; Aiba, Setsuya

    2015-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is characterized by the clonal proliferation of Langerhans cells; it is categorized as a single-system disease with single or multifocal lesions, and as a multi-system disease with or without the risk of organ involvement. Although the skin is not categorized as a risk organ, the precise diagnosis of skin lesions is necessary to determine the protocol for the treatment of LCH. In this report, we describe a 28-year-old Japanese man with adult onset of BRAFV600E-mutated LCH with cutaneous involvement successfully diagnosed by immunohistochemical staining. Our report suggests that immunohistochemical staining for the BRAFV600E gene could be a diagnostic tool to determine the clinical type of LCH. PMID:26500535

  11. Adult-onset focal expression of mutated human tau in the hippocampus impairs spatial working memory of rats

    PubMed Central

    Mustroph, M.L.; King, M.A.; Klein, R.L.; Ramirez, J.J.

    2012-01-01

    Tauopathy in the hippocampus is one of the earliest cardinal features of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), a condition characterized by progressive memory impairments. In fact, density of tau neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in the hippocampus strongly correlates with severity of cognitive impairments in AD. In the present study, we employed a somatic cell gene transfer technique to create a rodent model of tauopathy by injecting a recombinant adeno-associated viral vector with a mutated human tau gene (P301L) into the hippocampus of adult rats. The P301L mutation is causal for frontotemporal dementia with parkinsonism-17 (FTDP-17), but it has been used for studying memory effects characteristic of AD in transgenic mice. To ascertain if P301L-induced mnemonic deficits are persistent, animals were tested for 6 months. It was hypothesized that adult-onset, spatially restricted tau expression in the hippocampus would produce progressive spatial working memory deficits on a learned alternation task. Rats injected with the tau vector exhibited persistent impairments on the hippocampal-dependent task beginning at about 6 weeks post-transduction compared to rats injected with a green fluorescent protein vector. Histological analysis of brains for expression of human tau revealed hyperphosphorylated human tau and NFTs in the hippocampus in experimental animals only. Thus, adult-onset, vector-induced tauopathy spatially restricted to the hippocampus progressively impaired spatial working memory in rats. We conclude that the model faithfully reproduces histological and behavioral findings characteristic of dementing tauopathies. The rapid onset of sustained memory impairment establishes a preclinical model particularly suited to the development of potential tauopathy therapeutics. PMID:22561128

  12. An autopsied case of sporadic adult-onset amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with FUS-positive basophilic inclusions.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, Takeshi; Fujii, Naoki; Kondo, Akira; Iwaki, Akiko; Hokonohara, Toshihiro; Honda, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Kensuke; Suzuki, Satoshi O; Iwaki, Toru

    2011-02-01

    Basophilic inclusions (BIs), which are characterized by their staining properties of being weakly argyrophilic, reactive with Nissl staining, and immunohistochemically negative for tau and transactive response (TAR) DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43), have been identified in patients with juvenile-onset amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and adult-onset atypical ALS with ophthalmoplegia, autonomic dysfunction, cerebellar ataxia, or a frontal lobe syndrome. Mutations in the fused in sarcoma gene (FUS) have been reported in cases of familial and sporadic ALS, and FUS immunoreactivity has been demonstrated in basophilic inclusion body disease (BIBD), neuronal intermediate filament inclusion disease (NIFID), and atypical frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive and tau-negative inclusions (aFTLD-U). In the present study, we immunohistochemically and ultrastructurally studied an autopsy case of sporadic adult-onset ALS with numerous BIs. The patient presented with the classical clinical course of ALS since 75 years of age and died at age 79. Postmortem examination revealed that both Betz cells in the motor cortex and motor neurons in the spinal cord were affected. The substantia nigra was spared. Notably, BIs were frequently observed in the motor neurons of the anterior horns, the inferior olivary nuclei, and the basal nuclei of Meynert. BIs were immunopositive for p62, LC3, and FUS, but immunonegative for tau, TDP-43, and neurofilament. Ultrastructurally, BIs consisted of filamentous or granular structures associated with degenerated organelles with no limiting membrane. There were no Bunina bodies, skein-like inclusions, or Lewy-like inclusions. All exons and exon/intron boundaries of the FUS gene were sequenced but no mutations were identified. PMID:20573033

  13. Localization of a locus (GLC1B) for adult-onset primary open angle glaucoma to the 2cen-q13 region

    SciTech Connect

    Stoilova, D.; Trifan, O.C.; Sarfarazi, M.

    1996-08-15

    Primary open angle glaucoma (GLC1) is a common ocular disorder with a characteristic degeneration of the optic nerve and visual field defects that is often associated with an elevated intraocular pressure. The severe but rare juvenile-onset type has previously been mapped to 1q21-q31, and its genetic heterogeneity has been established. Herein, we present a new locus (GLC1B) for one form of GLC1 on chromosome 2cen-q13 with a clinical presentation of low to moderate intraocular pressure, onset in late 40s, and a good response to medical treatment. Two-point and haplotype analyses of affected and unaffected meioses in six families provided maximum linkage information with D2S417, GATA112EO3, D2S113, D2S373, and D2S274 (lod scores ranging from 3.11 to 6.48) within a region of 8.5 cM that is flanked by D2S2161 and D2S2264. Analysis of affected meioses alone revealed no recombination with an additional two markers (D2S2264 and D2S135) in a region of 11.2 cM that is flanked by D2S2161 and D2S176. Analysis of unaffected meioses identified only one healthy 86-year-old male who has inherited the entire affected haplotype and, hence, is a gene carrier for this condition. Eight additional families with similar and/or different clinical presentation did not show any linkage to this region and, therefore, provided evidence for genetic heterogeneity of adult-onset primary open angle glaucoma. 63 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Elevated high-mobility group B1 levels in active adult-onset Still's disease associated with systemic score and skin rash.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ju-Yang; Suh, Chang-Hee; Sohn, Seonghyang; Nam, Jin-Young; Kim, Hyoun-Ah

    2016-08-01

    High-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) is a nuclear protein, and such prototypical damage-associated molecular patterns mediate the immune response in the noninfectious inflammatory response. Adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) is a systemic inflammatory disorder involved in the dysregulation of innate immunity. We investigated the serum HMGB1 level in patients with AOSD and evaluated its clinical significance. Blood samples were collected from 40 patients with active AOSD and 40 healthy controls (HC). Of the patients with AOSD, follow-up samples were collected from 16 patients after a resolution of AOSD disease activity. Serum HMGB1 levels in patients with AOSD were higher than those of the HC (10.0 ± 5.85 vs. 5.15 ± 1.79 ng/mL, p < 0.001). Serum HMGB1 levels were found to be correlated with C-reactive protein (CRP) and the systemic score. The AOSD patient who had a sore throat showed a higher serum HMGB1 level than those patients who did not, and the patient with a skin rash had higher levels than the patients without. In addition, the serum HMGB1 levels were decreased after the resolution of disease activity in the AOSD patients who were followed up. The serum HMGB1 levels were elevated in AOSD patients compared to the HC and were correlated with both CRP and the systemic score. The HMGB1 levels were associated with skin rash and a sore throat in AOSD patients. After the resolution of disease activity, serum HMGB1 levels were found to have decreased. PMID:27225247

  15. Glial cell inclusions and the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases

    PubMed Central

    Miller, David W.; Cookson, Mark R.; Dickson, Dennis W.

    2006-01-01

    In this review, we discuss examples that show how glial-cell pathology is increasingly recognized in several neurodegenerative diseases. We also discuss the more provocative idea that some of the disorders that are currently considered to be neurodegenerative diseases might, in fact, be due to primary abnormalities in glia. Although the mechanism of glial pathology (i.e. modulating glutamate excitotoxicity) might be better established for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a role for neuronal–glial interactions in the pathogenesis of most neurodegenerative diseases is plausible. This burgeoning area of neuroscience will receive much attention in the future and it is expected that further understanding of basic neuronal–glial interactions will have a significant impact on the understanding of the fundamental nature of human neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:16614753

  16. An adult onset case of alpha-methyl-acyl-CoA racemase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Smith, Emily Helen; Gavrilov, Dimitar K; Oglesbee, Devin; Freeman, William D; Vavra, Michael W; Matern, Dietrich; Tortorelli, Silvia

    2010-12-01

    α-Methyl-acyl-CoA-racemase (AMACR) deficiency (OMIM 604489) is a rare peroxisomal disorder with a variable age of onset from infancy to late adulthood. We describe a 45-year-old male with a history of seizures who presented with relapsing encephalopathy. Laboratory studies revealed an elevated serum pristanic acid concentration, an elevated pristanic/phytanic acid ratio, as well as the previously described homozygous mutation in the AMACR gene, c.154T>C, consistent with AMACR deficiency. This homozygous mutation is associated with a variable phenotype ranging from neonatal cholestasis to late-onset sensorimotor neuropathy. Dietary pristanic acid restriction was attempted to improve clinical status and the patient has remained in remission for more than 16 months. PMID:20821052

  17. Adult-Onset Fatal Neurohepatopathy in a Woman Caused by MPV17 Mutation.

    PubMed

    Mendelsohn, Bryce A; Mehta, Neil; Hameed, Bilal; Pekmezci, Melike; Packman, Seymour; Ralph, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocerebral mitochondrial DNA depletion syndromes are classically considered diseases of early childhood, typically affecting the liver, peripheral, and central nervous systems with a rapidly progressive course. Evidence is emerging that initial symptom onset can extend into adulthood, though few such cases have been reported. We describe a 25-year-old woman who presented initially with secondary amenorrhea, followed by a megaloblastic anemia, lactic acidosis, leukoencephalopathy, progressive peripheral neuropathy, and liver cirrhosis. An apparently homozygous P98L mutation was identified in MPV17, a gene associated with a lethal infantile neurohepatopathy. Homozygosity for the same allele was recently reported in a man with a similar hepatic and neurologic phenotype. This is the first clinical report of an adult female with this disorder, and the first to describe amenorrhea and megaloblastic anemia as likely associated symptoms. PMID:24190800

  18. Delineation of Early and Later Adult Onset Depression by Diffusion Tensor Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hongjun; Nie, Binbin; Li, Na; Luo, Chunrong; Li, Haijun; Liu, Fang; Bai, Yan; Shan, Baoci; Xu, Lin; Xu, Xiufeng

    2014-01-01

    Background Due to a lack of evidence, there is no consistent age of onset to define early onset (EO) versus later onset (LO) major depressive disorder (MDD). Fractional anisotropy (FA), derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), has been widely used to study neuropsychiatric disorders by providing information about the brain circuitry, abnormalities of which might facilitate the delineation of EO versus LO MDD. Method In this study, 61 pairs of untreated, non-elderly, first-episode MDD patients and healthy controls (HCs) aged 18–45 years old received DTI scans. The voxel-based analysis method (VBM), classification analysis, using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), and regression analyses were used to determine abnormal FA clusters and their correlations with age of onset and clinical symptoms. Results Classification analysis suggested in the best model that there were two subgroups of MDD patients, delineated by an age of onset of 30 years old, by which MDD patients could be divided into EO (18–29 years old) and LO (30–45 years old) groups. LO MDD was characterized by decreased FA, especially in the white matter (WM) of the fronto-occipital fasciculus and posterior limb of internal capsule, with a negative correlation with the severity of depressive symptoms; in marked contrast, EO MDD showed increased FA, especially in the WM of the corpus callosum, corticospinal midbrain and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, while FA of the WM near the midbrain had a positive correlation with the severity of depressive symptoms. Conclusion Specific abnormalities of the brain circuitry in EO vs. LO MDD were delineated by an age of onset of 30 years old, as demonstrated by distinct abnormal FA clusters with opposite correlations with clinical symptoms. This DTI study supported the evidence of an exact age for the delineation of MDD, which could have broad multidisciplinary importance. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00703742 PMID:25393297

  19. Mechanisms of protein seeding in neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Walker, Lary C; Diamond, Marc I; Duff, Karen E; Hyman, Bradley T

    2013-03-01

    Most age-associated neurodegenerative diseases involve the aggregation of specific proteins within the nervous system. In Alzheimer disease, the insidious pathogenic process begins many years before the symptoms emerge, and the lesions that characterize the disease—senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles—ramify systematically through the brain. We review evidence that the -amyloid and tau proteins, which aggregate to form senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, respectively, are induced to misfold and self-assemble by a process of templated conformational change that amplifies a toxic species. Recent data also indicate that the spread of these lesions from one site to another is mediated by the cellular uptake, transport, and release of endogenous seeds formed by the cognate proteins. This simple pathogenic principle suggests that the formation, trafficking, and metabolism of pathogenic protein seeds are promising therapeutic targets for Alzheimer disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:23599928

  20. Resveratrol: A Focus on Several Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    PubMed

    Tellone, Ester; Galtieri, Antonio; Russo, Annamaria; Giardina, Bruno; Ficarra, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    Molecules of the plant world are proving their effectiveness in countering, slowing down, and regressing many diseases. The resveratrol for its intrinsic properties related to its stilbene structure has been proven to be a universal panacea, especially for a wide range of neurodegenerative diseases. This paper evaluates (in vivo and in vitro) the various molecular targets of this peculiar polyphenol and its ability to effectively counter several neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, and Huntington's diseases and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. What emerges is that, in the deep heterogeneity of the pathologies evaluated, resveratrol through a convergence on the protein targets is able to give therapeutic responses in neuronal cells deeply diversified not only in morphological structure but especially in their function performed in the anatomical district to which they belong. PMID:26180587

  1. Resveratrol: A Focus on Several Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Tellone, Ester; Galtieri, Antonio; Russo, Annamaria; Giardina, Bruno; Ficarra, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    Molecules of the plant world are proving their effectiveness in countering, slowing down, and regressing many diseases. The resveratrol for its intrinsic properties related to its stilbene structure has been proven to be a universal panacea, especially for a wide range of neurodegenerative diseases. This paper evaluates (in vivo and in vitro) the various molecular targets of this peculiar polyphenol and its ability to effectively counter several neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, and Huntington's diseases and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. What emerges is that, in the deep heterogeneity of the pathologies evaluated, resveratrol through a convergence on the protein targets is able to give therapeutic responses in neuronal cells deeply diversified not only in morphological structure but especially in their function performed in the anatomical district to which they belong. PMID:26180587

  2. Dendritic Spine Pathology in Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    PubMed

    Herms, Jochen; Dorostkar, Mario M

    2016-05-23

    Substantial progress has been made toward understanding the neuropathology, genetic origins, and epidemiology of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease; tauopathies, such as frontotemporal dementia; α-synucleinopathies, such as Parkinson's disease or dementia with Lewy bodies; Huntington's disease; and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with dementia, as well as prion diseases. Recent evidence has implicated dendritic spine dysfunction as an important substrate of the pathogenesis of dementia in these disorders. Dendritic spines are specialized structures, extending from the neuronal processes, on which excitatory synaptic contacts are formed, and the loss of dendritic spines correlates with the loss of synaptic function. We review the literature that has implicated direct or indirect structural alterations at dendritic spines in the pathogenesis of major neurodegenerative diseases, focusing on those that lead to dementias such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases, as well as frontotemporal dementia and prion diseases. We stress the importance of in vivo studies in animal models. PMID:26907528

  3. Epigenetic regulation in neurodevelopment and neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Gapp, K; Woldemichael, B T; Bohacek, J; Mansuy, I M

    2014-04-01

    From fertilization throughout development and until death, cellular programs in individual cells are dynamically regulated to fulfill multiple functions ranging from cell lineage specification to adaptation to internal and external stimuli. Such regulation is of major importance in brain cells, because the brain continues to develop long after birth and incorporates information from the environment across life. When compromised, these regulatory mechanisms can have detrimental consequences on neurodevelopment and lead to severe brain pathologies and neurodegenerative diseases in the adult individual. Elucidating these processes is essential to better understand their implication in disease etiology. Because they are strongly influenced by environmental factors, they have been postulated to depend on epigenetic mechanisms. This review describes recent studies that have identified epigenetic dysfunctions in the pathophysiology of several neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases. It discusses currently known pathways and molecular targets implicated in pathologies including imprinting disorders, Rett syndrome, and Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Hungtinton's disease, and their relevance to these diseases. PMID:23256926

  4. Immunotherapy for neurodegenerative diseases: focus on α-synucleinopathies

    PubMed Central

    Valera, Elvira; Masliah, Eliezer

    2013-01-01

    Immunotherapy is currently being intensively explored as much-needed disease-modifying treatment for neurodegenerative diseases. While Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has been the focus of numerous immunotherapeutic studies, less attention has been paid to Parkinson’s disease (PD) and other neurodegenerative disorders. The reason for this difference is that the amyloid beta (Aβ) protein in AD is a secreted molecule that circulates in blood and is readably recognized by antibodies. In contrast, α-synuclein (α-syn), tau, huntingtin and other proteins involved in neurodegenerative diseases have been considered to be exclusively of intracellular nature. However, the recent discovery that toxic oligomeric versions of α-syn and tau accumulate in the membrane and can be excreted to the extracellular environment has provided a rationale for the development of immunotherapeutic approaches for PD, dementia with Lewy bodies, frontotemporal dementia, and other neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the abnormal accumulation of these proteins. Active immunization, passive immunization, and T cell-mediated cellular immunotherapeutic approaches have been developed targeting Aβ, α-syn and tau. Most advanced studies, including results from phase III clinical trials for passive immunization in AD, have been recently reported. Results suggest that immunotherapy might be a promising therapeutic approach for neurodegenerative diseases that progress with the accumulation and propagation of toxic protein aggregates. In this manuscript we provide an overview on immunotherapeutic advances for neurodegenerative disorders, with special emphasis on α-synucleinopathies. PMID:23384597

  5. Adult-onset cerebello-brainstem dominant form of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy presenting as multiple system atrophy: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Ogaki, Kotaro; Koga, Shunsuke; Aoki, Naoya; Lin, Wenlang; Suzuki, Kinuko; Ross, Owen A; Dickson, Dennis W

    2016-02-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is the most common peroxisomal disorder and is caused by ABCD1 mutations. A cerebello-brainstem dominant form that mainly involves the cerebellum and brainstem is summarized in a review of the literature, with autopsy-confirmed cases exceedingly rare. We report a 69-year-old White man who was diagnosed with this rare disorder and describe neuropathologic, ultrastructural and genetic analyses. He did not have adrenal insufficiency or a family history of X-ALD or Addison's disease. His initial symptom was temporary loss of eyesight at age 34 years. His major symptoms were chronic and progressive gait disorder, weakness in his lower extremities and spasticity, as well as autonomic failure and cerebellar ataxia suggesting possible multiple system atrophy (MSA). He also had seizures, hearing loss and sensory disturbances. His brain MRI showed no obvious atrophy or significant white matter pathology in cerebrum, brainstem or cerebellum. He died at age 69 years with a diagnosis of MSA. Microscopic analysis showed mild, patchy myelin rarefaction with perivascular clusters of PAS-positive, CD68-positive macrophages in the white matter most prominent in the cerebellum and occipital lobe, but also affecting the optic tract and internal capsule. Electron microscopy of cerebellar white matter showed cleft-like trilamellar cytoplasmic inclusions in macrophages typical of X-ALD, which prompted genetic analysis that revealed a novel ABCD1 mutation, p.R163G. Given the relatively mild pathological findings and long disease duration, it is likely that the observed pathology was the result of a slow and indolent disease process. We described a patient who had sporadic cerebello-brainstem dominant form of X-ALD with long clinical course, mild pathological findings, and an ABCD1 p.R163G substitution. We also review a total of 34 cases of adult-onset cerebello-brainstem dominant form of X-ALD. Although rare, X-ALD should be considered in the

  6. Dominant-Negative Effects of Adult-Onset Huntingtin Mutations Alter the Division of Human Embryonic Stem Cells-Derived Neural Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Carla; Aubert, Sophie; Bourgois-Rocha, Fany; Barnat, Monia; Rego, Ana Cristina; Déglon, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Mutations of the huntingtin protein (HTT) gene underlie both adult-onset and juvenile forms of Huntington’s disease (HD). HTT modulates mitotic spindle orientation and cell fate in mouse cortical progenitors from the ventricular zone. Using human embryonic stem cells (hESC) characterized as carrying mutations associated with adult-onset disease during pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, we investigated the influence of human HTT and of an adult-onset HD mutation on mitotic spindle orientation in human neural stem cells (NSCs) derived from hESCs. The RNAi-mediated silencing of both HTT alleles in neural stem cells derived from hESCs disrupted spindle orientation and led to the mislocalization of dynein, the p150Glued subunit of dynactin and the large nuclear mitotic apparatus (NuMA) protein. We also investigated the effect of the adult-onset HD mutation on the role of HTT during spindle orientation in NSCs derived from HD-hESCs. By combining SNP-targeting allele-specific silencing and gain-of-function approaches, we showed that a 46-glutamine expansion in human HTT was sufficient for a dominant-negative effect on spindle orientation and changes in the distribution within the spindle pole and the cell cortex of dynein, p150Glued and NuMA in neural cells. Thus, neural derivatives of disease-specific human pluripotent stem cells constitute a relevant biological resource for exploring the impact of adult-onset HD mutations of the HTT gene on the division of neural progenitors, with potential applications in HD drug discovery targeting HTT-dynein-p150Glued complex interactions. PMID:26863614

  7. Composition, Standardization and Chemical Profiling of Banisteriopsis caapi, a Plant for the Treatment of Neurodegenerative Disorders Relevant to Parkinson’s Disease†

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan-Hong; Samoylenko, Volodymyr; Tekwani, Babu L.; Khan, Ikhlas A.; Miller, Loren S.; Chaurasiya, Narayan D.; Rahman, Md. Mostafizur; Tripathi, Lalit M.; Khan, Shabana I.; Joshi, Vaishali C.; Wigger, Frank T.; Muhammad, Ilias

    2010-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Banisteriopsis caapi, a woody vine from the Amazonian basin, is popularly known as an ingredient of a sacred drink ayahuasca, widely used throughout the Amazon as a medicinal tea for healing and spiritual exploration. The usefulness of B. caapi has been established for alleviating symptoms of neurological disorders including Parkinson’s disease. Aim of the study Primary objective of this study was to develop the process for preparing standardized extracts of B. caapi to achieve high potency for inhibition of human monoamine oxidases (MAO) and antioxidant properties. The aqueous extracts prepared from different parts of the plant collected from different geographical locations and seasons were analyzed by HPLC for principal bioactive markers. The extracts were simultaneously tested in vitro for inhibition of human MAOs and antioxidant activity for analysis of correlation between phytochemical composition of the extracts and bioactivities. Materials and methods Reversed-phase HPLC with photodiode array detection was employed to profile the alkaloidal and non-alkaloidal components of the aqueous extract of B. caapi. The B. caapi extracts and standardized compositions were tested in vitro for inhibition of recombinant preparations of human MAO-A and MAO-B. In vitro cell-based assays were employed for evaluation of antioxidant property and mammalian cell cytotoxicity of these preparations. Results Among the different aerial parts, leaves, stems/large branches and stem bark of B. caapi, HPLC analysis revealed that most of the dominant chemical and bioactive markers (1, 2, 5, 7-9) were present in high concentrations in dried bark of large branch. A library of HPLC chromatograms has also been generated as a tool for fingerprinting and authentication of the studied B. caapi species. The correlation between potency of MAO inhibition and antioxidant activity with the content of the main active constituents of the aqueous B. caapi extracts and

  8. Polyphenols: Multipotent Therapeutic Agents in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bhullar, Khushwant S.; Rupasinghe, H. P. Vasantha

    2013-01-01

    Aging leads to numerous transitions in brain physiology including synaptic dysfunction and disturbances in cognition and memory. With a few clinically relevant drugs, a substantial portion of aging population at risk for age-related neurodegenerative disorders require nutritional intervention. Dietary intake of polyphenols is known to attenuate oxidative stress and reduce the risk for related neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), stroke, multiple sclerosis (MS), Parkinson's disease (PD), and Huntington's disease (HD). Polyphenols exhibit strong potential to address the etiology of neurological disorders as they attenuate their complex physiology by modulating several therapeutic targets at once. Firstly, we review the advances in the therapeutic role of polyphenols in cell and animal models of AD, PD, MS, and HD and activation of drug targets for controlling pathological manifestations. Secondly, we present principle pathways in which polyphenol intake translates into therapeutic outcomes. In particular, signaling pathways like PPAR, Nrf2, STAT, HIF, and MAPK along with modulation of immune response by polyphenols are discussed. Although current polyphenol researches have limited impact on clinical practice, they have strong evidence and testable hypothesis to contribute clinical advances and drug discovery towards age-related neurological disorders. PMID:23840922

  9. Relationship between neuropsychological impairment and grey and white matter changes in adult-onset myotonic dystrophy type 1.

    PubMed

    Baldanzi, Sigrid; Cecchi, Paolo; Fabbri, Serena; Pesaresi, Ilaria; Simoncini, Costanza; Angelini, Corrado; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo; Cosottini, Mirco; Siciliano, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) has a wide phenotypic spectrum and potentially may affect central nervous system with mild to severe involvement. Our aim was to investigate grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) structural alterations in a sample of adult-onset DM1 patients and to evaluate relationship with clinical and cognitive variables. Thirty DM1 patients underwent neuropsychological investigation and 3T-MRI protocol. GM and WM changes were evaluated calculating brain parenchymal fraction (BPF), voxel-based morphometry (VBM), white matter lesion load (LL% and Fazekas scale) and tract based spatial statistical (TBSS). Patients showed main impairment in tests exploring executive and mnesic domains with visuo-spatial involvement, significantly related to BPF. VBM revealed clusters of widespread GM reduction and TBSS revealed areas of decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) and increased radial diffusivity (RD), mean diffusivity (MD) and axial diffusivity (AD) in patients compared to a group of matched healthy controls. Multiple regression analyses showed areas of significant negative relationship between left temporal atrophy and verbal memory, between RD and mnesic and visuo-spatial cognitive domains, and between AD and verbal memory. TBSS results indicate that the involvement of normal appearance WM, beyond the signal changes detected with conventional MR imaging (Fazekas scale and LL%), was associated with neuropsychological deficit. These data suggest that disrupted complex neuronal networks can underlie cognitive-behavioural dysfunctions in DM1. PMID:27437180

  10. Adult-onset Kawasaki disease (mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome) and concurrent Coxsackievirus A4 infection: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Yuki; Kenzaka, Tsuneaki; Noda, Ayako; Yamamoto, Yu; Matsumura, Masami

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Kawasaki disease (KD) most commonly develops in infants, although its specific cause is still unclear. We report here a rare case of adult-onset KD which revealed to be concurrently infected by Coxsackievirus A4. Case presentation The patient was a 37-year-old Japanese man who presented with fever, exanthema, changes in the peripheral extremities, bilateral non-exudative conjunctival injection, and changes in the oropharynx, signs that meet the diagnostic criteria for KD defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. In this case, the patient had a significantly high antibody titer for Coxsackievirus A4, which led us to presume that the occurrence of KD was concurrent Coxsackievirus A4 infection. Conclusion We reported a very rare case of KD which suggests that the disease can be concurrent Coxsackievirus A4 infection. Although KD is an acute childhood disease, with fever as one of the principal features, KD should also be considered in the differential diagnosis when adult patients present with a fever of unknown cause associated with a rash. PMID:26491373

  11. Response to immunotherapy in a patient with adult onset Leigh syndrome and T9176C mtDNA mutation.

    PubMed

    Chuquilin, Miguel; Govindarajan, Raghav; Peck, Dawn; Font-Montgomery, Esperanza

    2016-09-01

    Leigh syndrome is a mitochondrial disease caused by mutations in different genes, including ATP6A for which no known therapy is available. We report a case of adult-onset Leigh syndrome with response to immunotherapy. A twenty year-old woman with baseline learning difficulties was admitted with progressive behavioral changes, diplopia, headaches, bladder incontinence, and incoordination. Brain MRI and PET scan showed T2 hyperintensity and increased uptake in bilateral basal ganglia, respectively. Autoimmune encephalitis was suspected and she received plasmapheresis with clinical improvement. She was readmitted 4 weeks later with dysphagia and aspiration pneumonia. Plasmapheresis was repeated with resolution of her symptoms. Given the multisystem involvement and suggestive MRI changes, genetic testing was done, revealing a homoplasmic T9176C ATPase 6 gene mtDNA mutation. Monthly IVIG provided clinical improvement with worsening when infusions were delayed. Leigh syndrome secondary to mtDNA T9176C mutations could have an autoimmune mechanism that responds to immunotherapy. PMID:27408822

  12. Adult-onset multiple acyl CoA dehydrogenation deficiency associated with an abnormal isoenzyme pattern of serum lactate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Sugai, Fuminobu; Baba, Kousuke; Toyooka, Keiko; Liang, Wen-Chen; Nishino, Ichizo; Yamadera, Misaki; Sumi, Hisae; Fujimura, Harutoshi; Nishikawa, Yoshiro

    2012-02-01

    We report a case of a 37 year-old male with multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenation deficiency (MADD). The patient had suffered from exercise intolerance in his hip and thigh muscles for one year. Then, restriction of carbohydrates for a diet made his symptoms rapidly deteriorate. Blood test revealed compound heterozygosity for two novel missense mutations in the electron transfer flavoprotein dehydrogenase gene (ETFDH), and an abnormal LDH isoenzyme pattern: LDH-1 (60.0%) and LDH-2 (26.0%) predominated with abnormally elevated LDH-1/LDH-2 ratio (2.3), compared with muscle-derived LDH-5 (4.0%). Oral riboflavin treatment significantly improved his exercise intolerance and the LDH profile: LDH-1 (34.4%), LDH-2 (34.9%), LDH-5 (6.9%) and LDH-1/LDH-2 ratio (1.0). The abnormal LDH isoenzyme pattern may be one feature of adult-onset MADD selectively affecting type I muscle fibers with relatively high LDH-1 content. PMID:21907580

  13. Adult-onset Still's disease: an Italian multicentre retrospective observational study of manifestations and treatments in 245 patients.

    PubMed

    Sfriso, Paolo; Priori, Roberta; Valesini, Guido; Rossi, Silvia; Montecucco, Carlo Maurizio; D'Ascanio, Anna; Carli, Linda; Bombardieri, Stefano; LaSelva, Gaetana; Iannone, Florenzo; Lapadula, Giovanni; Alivernini, Stefano; Ferraccioli, Gianfranco; Colaci, Michele; Ferri, Clodoveo; Iacono, Daniela; Valentini, Gabriele; Costa, Luisa; Scarpa, Raffaele; LoMonaco, Andrea; Bagnari, Valentina; Govoni, Marcello; Piazza, Ilaria; Adami, Silvano; Ciccia, Francesco; Triolo, Giovanni; Alessandri, Elisa; Cutolo, Maurizio; Cantarini, Luca; Galeazzi, Mauro; Ruscitti, Piero; Giacomelli, Roberto; Caso, Francesco; Galozzi, Paola; Punzi, Leonardo

    2016-07-01

    Adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) is a systemic inflammatory condition of unknown aetiology characterized by typical episodes of spiking fever, evanescent rash, arthralgia, leukocytosis and hyperferritinemia. Given the lack of data in Italian series, we promote a multicentric data collection to characterize the clinical phenotype of Italian patients with AOSD. Data from 245 subjects diagnosed with AOSD were collected by 15 centres between March and May 2013. The diagnosis was made following Yamaguchi's criteria. Data regarding clinical manifestations, laboratory features, disease course and treatments were reported and compared with those presented in other published series of different ethnicity. The most frequent features were the following: arthritis (93 %), pyrexia (92.6 %), leukocytosis (89 %), negative ANA (90.4 %) and neutrophilia (82 %). As compared to other North American, North European, Middle Eastern and Far Eastern cohorts, Italian data show differences in clinical and laboratory findings. Regarding the treatments, in 21.9 % of cases, corticosteroids and traditional DMARDs have not been able to control the disease while biologics have been shown to be effective in 48 to 58 patients. This retrospective work summarizes the largest Italian multicentre series of AOSD patients and presents clinical and laboratory features that appear to be influenced by the ethnicity of the affected subjects. PMID:27207567

  14. Adult-onset type 1 diabetes patients display decreased IGRP-specific Tr1 cells in blood.

    PubMed

    Chujo, Daisuke; Nguyen, Thien-Son; Foucat, Emile; Blankenship, Derek; Banchereau, Jacques; Nepom, Gerald T; Chaussabel, Damien; Ueno, Hideki

    2015-12-01

    The breakdown of immune tolerance against islet antigens causes type 1 diabetes (T1D). The antigens associated with adult-onset T1D (AT1D) remain largely undefined. It is possible that AT1D patients display a unique type of CD4(+) T cells specific for a certain islet antigen. Here we analyzed the cytokine production profiles of CD4(+) helper T (Th) cells that are specific for three islet antigens; GAD65, preproinsulin, and IGRP in patients with AT1D, juvenile-onset T1D (JT1D), and age-, gender- and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched control adults. While IGRP-specific Th cells in AT1D patients were dominantly Th1 cells, IGRP-specific Th cells in control adults and JT1D patients were dominantly Th2 and T regulatory type 1 (Tr1) cells. Notably, the frequency of IGRP-specific Tr1 cells was significantly lower in AT1D patients than in control adults and JT1D patients. In conclusion, our study suggests that IGRP-specific Th cells play a unique pathogenic role in AT1D. PMID:26341315

  15. Why neurodegenerative diseases are progressive: uncontrolled inflammation drives disease progression

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hui-Ming; Hong, Jau-Shyong

    2016-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are a group of chronic, progressive disorders characterized by the gradual loss of neurons in discrete areas of the central nervous system (CNS). The mechanism(s) underlying their progressive nature remains unknown but a timely and well-controlled inflammatory reaction is essential for the integrity and proper function of the CNS. Substantial evidence has documented a common inflammatory mechanism in various neurodegenerative diseases. We hypothesize that in the diseased CNS, interactions between damaged neurons and dysregulated, overactivated microglia create a vicious self-propagating cycle causing uncontrolled, prolonged inflammation that drives the chronic progression of neurodegenerative diseases. We further propose that dynamic modulation of this inflammatory reaction by interrupting the vicious cycle might become a disease-modifying therapeutic strategy for neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:18599350

  16. Chronic sleep disturbance and neural injury: links to neurodegenerative disease

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Sabra M; Videnovic, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Sleep–wake disruption is frequently observed and often one of the earliest reported symptoms of many neurodegenerative disorders. This provides insight into the underlying pathophysiology of these disorders, as sleep–wake abnormalities are often accompanied by neurodegenerative or neurotransmitter changes. However, in addition to being a symptom of the underlying neurodegenerative condition, there is also emerging evidence that sleep disturbance itself may contribute to the development and facilitate the progression of several of these disorders. Due to its impact both as an early symptom and as a potential factor contributing to ongoing neurodegeneration, the sleep–wake cycle is an ideal target for further study for potential interventions not only to lessen the burden of these diseases but also to slow their progression. In this review, we will highlight the sleep phenotypes associated with some of the major neurodegenerative disorders, focusing on the circadian disruption associated with Alzheimer’s disease, the rapid eye movement behavior disorder and sleep fragmentation associated with Parkinson’s disease, and the insomnia and circadian dysregulation associated with Huntington’s disease. PMID:26869817

  17. Oligodendroglia and Myelin in Neurodegenerative Diseases: More Than Just Bystanders?

    PubMed

    Ettle, Benjamin; Schlachetzki, Johannes C M; Winkler, Jürgen

    2016-07-01

    Oligodendrocytes, the myelinating cells of the central nervous system, mediate rapid action potential conduction and provide trophic support for axonal as well as neuronal maintenance. Their progenitor cell population is widely distributed in the adult brain and represents a permanent cellular reservoir for oligodendrocyte replacement and myelin plasticity. The recognition of oligodendrocytes, their progeny, and myelin as contributing factors for the pathogenesis and the progression of neurodegenerative disease has recently evolved shaping our understanding of these disorders. In the present review, we aim to highlight studies on oligodendrocytes and their progenitors in neurodegenerative diseases. We dissect oligodendroglial biology and illustrate evolutionary aspects in regard to their importance for neuronal functionality and maintenance of neuronal circuitries. After covering recent studies on oligodendroglia in different neurodegenerative diseases mainly in view of their function as myelinating cells, we focus on the alpha-synucleinopathy multiple system atrophy, a prototypical disorder with a well-defined oligodendroglial pathology. PMID:25966971

  18. A common gene for juvenile and adult-onset primary open-angle glaucomas confined on chromosome 1q

    SciTech Connect

    Morissette, J.; Plante, M.; Raymond, V.

    1995-06-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), which causes progressive loss of the visual fields, was subdivided into two groups according to age at onset: (1) chronic open-angle glaucoma (COAG) diagnosed after 40 years and (2) juvenile open-angle glaucoma (JOAG) diagnosed between 3 years of age and early adulthood. A JOAG gene (GLC1A) was recently mapped to chromosome 1q. We studied 142 members of a huge multigenerational French Canadian family affected with autosomal dominant POAG. Either JOAG or COAG was diagnosed with ocular hypertension (OHT), which may lead to POAG. To localize a common disease gene that might be responsible for both glaucoma subsets, we performed linkage analysis considering JOAG and COAG under the same phenotypic category. JOAG/COAG was tightly linked to seven microsatellite markers on chromosome 1q23-q25; a maximum lod score of 6.62 was obtained with AF-M278ye5. To refine the disease locus, we exploited a recombination mapping strategy based on a unique founder effect. The same characteristic haplotype, composed of 14 markers spanning 12 cM between loci D1S196 and D1S212, was recognized in all persons affected by JOAG, COAG, or OHT, but it did not occur in unaffected spouses and in normal family members >35 years of age, except for three obligatory carriers. Key combination events confined the disease region within a 9-cM interval between loci D1S445 and D1S416/D1S480. These observations demonstrate that the GLC1A gene is responsible for both adult-onset and juvenile glaucomas and suggest that the JOAG and COAG categories within this family may be part of a clinical continuum artificially divided at age 40 years. 49 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Experiences of Racism and the Incidence of Adult-Onset Asthma in the Black Women’s Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jeffrey; O’Connor, George T.; Brown, Timothy A.; Cozier, Yvette C.; Palmer, Julie R.; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chronic stress resulting from experiences of racism may increase the incidence of adult-onset asthma through effects on the immune system and the airways. We conducted prospective analyses of the relation of experiences of racism with asthma incidence in the Black Women’s Health Study, a prospective cohort of black women in the United States followed since 1995 with mailed biennial questionnaires. Methods: Among 38,142 participants followed from 1997 to 2011, 1,068 reported incident asthma. An everyday racism score was created based on five questions asked in 1997 and 2009 about the frequency in daily life of experiences of racism (eg, poor service in stores), and a lifetime racism score was based on questions about racism on the job, in housing, and by police. We used Cox regression models to derive multivariable incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% CIs for categories of each racism score in relation to incident asthma. Results: The IRRs were 1.45 (95% CI, 1.19-1.78) for the highest compared with the lowest quartile of the 1997 everyday racism score (P for trend <.0001) and 1.44 (95% CI, 1.18-1.75) for the highest compared with the lowest category of 1997 lifetime racism. Among women who reported the same levels of racism in 1997 and 2009, the IRRs for the highest categories of everyday and lifetime racism were 2.12 (95% CI, 1.55-2.91) and 1.66 (95% CI, 1.20-2.30), respectively. Conclusions: Given the high prevalence of experiences of racism and asthma in black women in the United States, a positive association between racism and asthma is of public health importance. PMID:23887828

  20. Parenchymal lung involvement in adult-onset Still disease: A STROBE-compliant case series and literature review.

    PubMed

    Gerfaud-Valentin, Mathieu; Cottin, Vincent; Jamilloux, Yvan; Hot, Arnaud; Gaillard-Coadon, Agathe; Durieu, Isabelle; Broussolle, Christiane; Iwaz, Jean; Sève, Pascal

    2016-07-01

    Parenchymal lung involvement (PLI) in adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) has seldom, if ever, been studied. We examine here retrospective cohort AOSD cases and present a review of the literature (1971-2014) on AOSD-related PLI cases.Patients with PLI were identified in 57 AOSD cases. For inclusion, the patients had to fulfill Yamaguchi or Fautrel classification criteria, show respiratory symptoms, and have imaging evidence of pulmonary involvement, and data allowing exclusion of infectious, cardiogenic, toxic, or iatrogenic cause of PLI should be available. This AOSD + PLI group was compared with a control group (non-PLI-complicated AOSD cases from the same cohort).AOSD + PLI was found in 3 out of the 57 patients with AOSD (5.3%) and the literature mentioned 27 patients. Among these 30 AOSD + PLI cases, 12 presented an acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and the remaining 18 another PLI. In the latter, a nonspecific interstitial pneumonia computed tomography pattern prevailed in the lower lobes, pulmonary function tests showed a restrictive lung function, the alveolar differential cell count was neutrophilic in half of the cases, and the histological findings were consistent with bronchiolitis and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia. Corticosteroids were fully efficient in all but 3 patients. Ten out of 12 ARDS cases occurred during the first year of the disease course. All ARDS-complicated AOSD cases received corticosteroids with favorable outcomes in 10 (2 deceased). Most PLIs occurred during the systemic onset of AOSD.PLI may occur in 5% of AOSDs, of which ARDS is the most severe. Very often, corticosteroids are efficient in controlling this complication. PMID:27472698

  1. Comparison of Glomerular Transcriptome Profiles of Adult-Onset Steroid Sensitive Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis and Minimal Change Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Hong; Liu, Jian; Zhang, Weijia; Wei, Chengguo; Xu, Jing; Zhang, Wen; Li, Xiao; Wang, Weiming; Lv, Danfeng; He, John Cijiang; Chen, Nan

    2015-01-01

    Objective To search for biomarkers to differentiate primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and minimal change disease (MCD). Methods We isolated glomeruli from kidney biopsies of 6 patients with adult-onset steroid sensitiveFSGS and 5 patients with MCD, and compared the profiles of glomerular transcriptomes between the two groups of patients using microarray analysis. Results Analysis of differential expressed genes (DEGs) revealed that up-regulated DEGs in FSGS patients compared with MCD patients were primarily involved in spermatogenesis, gamete generation, regulation of muscle contraction, response to unfolded protein, cell proliferation and skeletal system development. The down-regulated DEGs were primarily related to metabolic process, intracellular transport, oxidation/reduction andestablishment of intracellular localization. We validated the expression of the top 6 up-regulated and top 6 down-regulated DEGs using real-time PCR. Membrane metallo-endopeptidase (MME) is a down-regulated gene that was previously identified as a key gene for kidney development. Immunostaining confirmed that the protein expression of MME decreased significantly in FSGS kidneys compared with MCD kidneys. Conclusions This report was the first study to examine transcriptomes in Chinese patients with various glomerular diseases. Expressions of MME both in RNA and protein level decreased significantly in glomeruli of FSGS kidneys compared with MCD kidneys. Our data suggested that MME might play a role in the normal physiological function of podocytes and a decrease in MME expression might be related to podocyte injury. We also identified genes and pathways specific for FSGS versus MCD, and our data could help identify potential new biomarkers for the differential diagnosis between these two diseases. PMID:26536600

  2. Diagnosis of Neurodegenerative Diseases: The Clinical Approach.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Río, Manuel; Caballero, Manuel Moreno; Górriz Sáez, Juan Manuel; Mínguez-Castellanos, Adolfo

    2016-01-01

    There are a number of clinical questions for which there are no easy answers, even for well-trained doctors. The diagnostic tool commonly used to assess cognitive impairment in neurodegenerative diseases is based on established clinical criteria. However, the differential diagnosis between disorders can be difficult, especially in early phases or atypical variants. This takes on particular importance when it is still possible to use an appropriate treatment. To solve this problem, physicians need to have access to an arsenal of diagnostic tests, such as neurofunctional imaging, that allow higher specificity in clinical assessment. However, the reliability of diagnostic tests may vary from one to the next, so the diagnostic validity of a given investigation must be estimated by comparing the results obtained from "true" criteria to the "gold standard" or reference test. While pathological analysis is considered to be the gold standard in a wide spectrum of diseases, it cannot be applied to neurological processes. Other approaches could provide solutions, including clinical patient follow-up, creation of a data bank or use of computer-aided diagnostic algorithms. In this article, we discuss the development of different methodological procedures related to analysis of diagnostic validity and present an example from our own experience based on the use of I-123-ioflupane-SPECT in the study of patients with movement disorders. The aim of this chapter is to approach the problem of diagnosis from the point of view of the clinician, taking into account specific aspects of neurodegenerative disease. PMID:26567736

  3. PATHOLOGIES OF AXONAL TRANSPORT IN NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin-An; Rizzo, Valerio; Puthanveettil, Sathyanarayanan V.

    2013-01-01

    Gene products such as organelles, proteins and RNAs are actively transported to synaptic terminals for the remodeling of pre-existing neuronal connections and formation of new ones. Proteins described as molecular motors mediate this transport and utilize specialized cytoskeletal proteins that function as molecular tracks for the motor based transport of cargos. Molecular motors such as kinesins and dynein's move along microtubule tracks formed by tubulins whereas myosin motors utilize tracks formed by actin. Deficits in active transport of gene products have been implicated in a number of neurological disorders. We describe such disorders collectively as “transportopathies”. Here we review current knowledge of critical components of active transport and their relevance to neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23750323

  4. Developmental neuroplasticity and the origin of neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Schaefers, Andrea T U; Teuchert-Noodt, Gertraud

    2013-05-24

    Objectives. Neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Disease, marked by characteristic protein aggregations, are more and more accepted to be synaptic disorders and to arise from a combination of genetic and environmental factors. In this review we propose our concept that neuroplasticity might constitute a link between early life challenges and neurodegeneration. Methods. After introducing the general principles of neuroplasticity, we show how adverse environmental stimuli during development impact adult neuroplasticity and might lead to neurodegenerative processes. Results. There are significant overlaps between neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative processes. Proteins that represent hallmarks of neurodegeneration are involved in plastic processes under physiological conditions. Brain regions - particularly the hippocampus - that retain life-long plastic capacities are the key targets of neurodegeneration. Neuroplasticity is highest in young age making the brain more susceptible to external influences than later in life. Impacts during critical periods have life-long consequences on neuroplasticity and structural self-organization and are known to be common risk factors for neurodegenerative diseases. Conclusions. Several lines of evidence support a link between developmental neuroplasticity and neurodegenerative processes later in life. A deeper insight into these processes is necessary to design strategies to mitigate or even prevent neurodegenerative pathologies. PMID:23705632

  5. Morphea in Adults and Children Cohort VI: A cross-sectional comparison of outcomes between adults with pediatric-onset and adult-onset morphea

    PubMed Central

    Condie, Daniel; Grabell, Daniel; Jacobe, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    Objective Few studies have looked at outcomes of adults with pediatric-onset morphea. The objective of the present study was to compare clinical outcomes and health-related quality of life in adults with pediatric-onset morphea to those of patients with adult-onset morphea. Methods Participants in the study were drawn from the Morphea in Adults and Children Cohort and included 68 adults with pediatric-onset morphea and 234 patients with adult-onset morphea. Outcome measures included the Localized Scleroderma Cutaneous Assessment Tool (LoSCAT), physical exam findings, and quality of life questionnaires. Results Adults with pediatric-onset morphea were younger, had longer disease duration, and were more likely to have the linear subtype of morphea. Patients with pediatric-onset disease were less likely to have active disease. Among patients with active disease, those with pediatric-onset morphea had less disease activity as measured by the LoSCAT. Patients with pediatric-onset disease had higher disease damage as measured by the Physician Global Assessment of Damage, but similar disease damage as measured by the Localized Scleroderma Skin Damage Index. Patients with pediatric-onset disease had more favorable quality of life scores for all measures that reached statistical significance. Conclusion Adults with pediatric-onset morphea differ from patients with adult-onset disease with respect to subtype, disease activity, disease damage, and health-related quality of life. PMID:25156342

  6. Apraxias in Neurodegenerative Dementias

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Sadanandavalli Retnaswami; Issac, Thomas Gregor; Abbas, Mirza Masoom

    2015-01-01

    Background: Apraxia is a state of inability to carry out a learned motor act in the absence of motor, sensory or cerebellar defect on command processed through the Praxis circuit. Breakdown in default networking is one of the early dysfunction in cortical dementias and result in perplexity, awkwardness, omission, substitution errors, toying behavior and unrecognizable gestures in response to command with voluntary reflex dissociation where, when unobserved patient will carry out reflex movements normally. Awareness into the organicity of these phenomenas will help in early diagnosis, which will help in initiating appropriate treatment and slowing down the progression of the disease. Aims and Objectives: The aim was to look for the various kinds of apraxias in patients with dementia using appropriate simple tests. Patients and Methods: Three hundred patients satisfying Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for dementia were evaluated in detail with mandatory investigations for dementia followed by testing for ideational, ideomotor, limb-kinetic, buccopharyngeal, dressing apraxia, constructional apraxia and gait apraxias in addition to recording of rare apraxias when present. Results: Alzheimer's disease showed maximum association with apraxias in all the phases of the disease ideational, ideomotor, dressing and constructional apraxias early and buccopharyngeal and gait apraxia late. Frontotemporal lobe dementia showed buccopharyngeal and gait apraxias late into the disease. Cortical basal ganglionic degeneration showed limb apraxias and diffuse Lewy body disease showed more agnosias and less apraxias common apraxias seen was Ideational and Ideomotor. Conclusion: Recognition of the apraxias help in establishing organicity, categorization, caregiver education, early strategies for treatment, avoiding anti-psychotics and introducing disease modifying pharmacotherapeutic agents and also prognosticating. PMID:25722511

  7. Interleukin 1 inhibition with anakinra in adult-onset Still disease: a meta-analysis of its efficacy and safety

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Dongsheng; Yang, Zhihai; Han, Shuyin; Liang, Xingguang; Ma, Kuifen; Zhang, Xingguo

    2014-01-01

    Background Anakinra is the first interleukin-1 inhibitor to be used in clinical practice, and recent evidence showed that interleukin-1 plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of adult-onset Still disease (AoSD). However, data concerning efficacy with anakinra use in different clinical trials has not been evaluated, and the overall remission of AoSD with anakinra treatment has not been well defined. Methods We conducted a search on Embase, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library for relevant trials. Statistical analyses were conducted to calculate the overall remission rates, odds ratios (OR), and 95% confidence intervals (CI), by using either random effects or fixed effect models according to the heterogeneity. Results Of the 273 articles that were identified, 265 were excluded. Eight studies were eligible for inclusion. The overall remission rate and complete remission rate of anakinra in AoSD patients were 81.66% (95% CI: 69.51%–89.69%) and 66.75% (95% CI: 59.94%–75.3%), respectively. Compared with the controls, the use of anakinra was associated with a significant remission in AoSD, with an OR of 0.16 (95% CI: 0.06–0.44, P=0.0005). There were also significant reductions of the dosage of corticosteroid (mean difference =21.19) (95% CI: 13.2–29.18, P<0.0001) from anakinra onset to the latest follow up time. Clinical and laboratory parameters were all improved, and anakinra was well tolerated in patients with AoSD. No evidence of publication bias was observed. Conclusion Our study has shown that anakinra is effective in remitting the manifestations of AoSD, with reduction of the dose of corticosteroid in patients with AoSD. Further, anakinra therapy was not associated with increased risk of adverse events, and it was well tolerated in patients with AoSD. Further research is still recommended to investigate these findings. PMID:25473268

  8. Annual Research Review: Current limitations and future directions in MRI studies of child- and adult-onset developmental psychopathologies

    PubMed Central

    Horga, Guillermo; Kaur, Tejal; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2014-01-01

    The widespread use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the study of child- and adult-onset developmental psychopathologies has generated many investigations that have measured brain structure and function in vivo throughout development, often generating great excitement over our ability to visualize the living, developing brain using the attractive, even seductive images that these studies produce. Often lost in this excitement is the recognition that brain imaging generally, and MRI in particular, is simply a technology, one that does not fundamentally differ from any other technology, be it a blood test, a genotyping assay, a biochemical assay, or behavioral test. No technology alone can generate valid scientific findings. Rather, it is only technology coupled with a strong experimental design that can generate valid and reproducible findings that lead to new insights into the mechanisms of disease and therapeutic response. In this review we discuss selected studies to illustrate the most common and important limitations of MRI study designs as most commonly implemented thus far, as well as the misunderstanding that the interpretations of findings from those studies can create for our theories of developmental psychopathologies. Those limitations are in large part responsible thus far for the generally poor reproducibility of findings across studies, poor generalizability to the larger population, failure to identify developmental trajectories, inability to distinguish causes from effects of illness, and poor ability to infer causal mechanisms in most MRI studies of developmental psychopathologies. For each of these limitations in study design and the difficulties they entail for the interpretation of findings, we discuss various approaches that numerous laboratories are now taking to address those difficulties, which have in common the yoking of brain imaging technologies to studies with inherently stronger designs that permit more valid and more powerful

  9. Rearranged Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) Gene in Adult-Onset Papillary Thyroid Cancer Amongst Atomic Bomb Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Mukai, Mayumi; Takahashi, Keiko; Hayashi, Yuzo; Nakachi, Kei; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

    2012-01-01

    rearrangements, being observed in 6 of 10 PTC cases with ALK rearrangements versus 2 of 15 cases with no ALK rearrangements. The six radiation-exposed cases of PTC harboring both ALK rearrangements and solid/trabecular-like architecture were associated with higher radiation doses and younger ages at the time of the A-bombing and at diagnosis compared to the other 19 PTC with no detectable gene alterations. Conclusion Our findings suggest that ALK rearrangements are involved in the development of radiation-induced adult-onset PTC. PMID:23050789

  10. Systemic Redox Biomarkers in Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    PubMed

    Pastore, Anna; Petrillo, Sara; Piermarini, Emanuela; Piemonte, Fiorella

    2015-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by a gradual and selective loss of neurons. ROS overload has been proved to occur early in this heterogeneous group of disorders, indicating oxidative stress as a primer factor underlying their pathogenesis. Given the importance of a better knowledge of the cause/effect of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis and evolution of neurodegeneration, recent efforts have been focused on the identification and determination of stable markers that may reflect systemic oxidative stress. This review provides an overview of these systemic redox biomarkers and their responsiveness to antioxidant therapies. Redox biomarkers can be classified as molecules that are modified by interactions with ROS in the microenvironment and antioxidant molecules that change in response to increased oxidative stress. DNA, lipids (including phospholipids), proteins and carbohydrates are examples of molecules that can be modified by excessive ROS in vivo. Some modifications have direct effects on molecule functions (e.g. to inhibit enzyme function), but others merely reflect the degree of oxidative stress in the local environment. Testing of redox biomarkers in neurodegenerative diseases has 3 important goals: 1) to confirm the presence or absence of systemic oxidative stress; 2) to identify possible underlying (and potentially reversible) causes of neurodegeneration; and 3) to estimate the severity of the disease and the risk of progression. Reflecting pathological processes occurring in the whole body, redox biomarkers may pinpoint novel therapeutic targets and lead to diagnose diseases before they are clinically evident. PMID:26152129

  11. Engineering enhanced protein disaggregases for neurodegenerative disease.

    PubMed

    Jackrel, Meredith E; Shorter, James

    2015-01-01

    Protein misfolding and aggregation underpin several fatal neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). There are no treatments that directly antagonize the protein-misfolding events that cause these disorders. Agents that reverse protein misfolding and restore proteins to native form and function could simultaneously eliminate any deleterious loss-of-function or toxic gain-of-function caused by misfolded conformers. Moreover, a disruptive technology of this nature would eliminate self-templating conformers that spread pathology and catalyze formation of toxic, soluble oligomers. Here, we highlight our efforts to engineer Hsp104, a protein disaggregase from yeast, to more effectively disaggregate misfolded proteins connected with PD, ALS, and FTD. Remarkably subtle modifications of Hsp104 primary sequence yielded large gains in protective activity against deleterious α-synuclein, TDP-43, FUS, and TAF15 misfolding. Unusually, in many cases loss of amino acid identity at select positions in Hsp104 rather than specific mutation conferred a robust therapeutic gain-of-function. Nevertheless, the misfolding and toxicity of EWSR1, an RNA-binding protein with a prion-like domain linked to ALS and FTD, could not be buffered by potentiated Hsp104 variants, indicating that further amelioration of disaggregase activity or sharpening of substrate specificity is warranted. We suggest that neuroprotection is achievable for diverse neurodegenerative conditions via surprisingly subtle structural modifications of existing chaperones. PMID:25738979

  12. Engineering enhanced protein disaggregases for neurodegenerative disease

    PubMed Central

    Jackrel, Meredith E; Shorter, James

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Protein misfolding and aggregation underpin several fatal neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). There are no treatments that directly antagonize the protein-misfolding events that cause these disorders. Agents that reverse protein misfolding and restore proteins to native form and function could simultaneously eliminate any deleterious loss-of-function or toxic gain-of-function caused by misfolded conformers. Moreover, a disruptive technology of this nature would eliminate self-templating conformers that spread pathology and catalyze formation of toxic, soluble oligomers. Here, we highlight our efforts to engineer Hsp104, a protein disaggregase from yeast, to more effectively disaggregate misfolded proteins connected with PD, ALS, and FTD. Remarkably subtle modifications of Hsp104 primary sequence yielded large gains in protective activity against deleterious α-synuclein, TDP-43, FUS, and TAF15 misfolding. Unusually, in many cases loss of amino acid identity at select positions in Hsp104 rather than specific mutation conferred a robust therapeutic gain-of-function. Nevertheless, the misfolding and toxicity of EWSR1, an RNA-binding protein with a prion-like domain linked to ALS and FTD, could not be buffered by potentiated Hsp104 variants, indicating that further amelioration of disaggregase activity or sharpening of substrate specificity is warranted. We suggest that neuroprotection is achievable for diverse neurodegenerative conditions via surprisingly subtle structural modifications of existing chaperones. PMID:25738979

  13. Redox Imbalance and Viral Infections in Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    PubMed

    Limongi, Dolores; Baldelli, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are essential molecules for many physiological functions and act as second messengers in a large variety of tissues. An imbalance in the production and elimination of ROS is associated with human diseases including neurodegenerative disorders. In the last years the notion that neurodegenerative diseases are accompanied by chronic viral infections, which may result in an increase of neurodegenerative diseases progression, emerged. It is known in literature that enhanced viral infection risk, observed during neurodegeneration, is partly due to the increase of ROS accumulation in brain cells. However, the molecular mechanisms of viral infection, occurring during the progression of neurodegeneration, remain unclear. In this review, we discuss the recent knowledge regarding the role of influenza, herpes simplex virus type-1, and retroviruses infection in ROS/RNS-mediated Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). PMID:27110325

  14. Clinico-Pathological Correlations of the Most Common Neurodegenerative Dementias

    PubMed Central

    Taipa, Ricardo; Pinho, João; Melo-Pires, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Neurodegenerative dementias are a group of neurological disorders characterized by deterioration in several cognitive domains in which there is selective and progressive loss of specific populations of neurons. The precise neurobiological basis for the different neurodegenerative dementias remains unknown. It is expected that different pathologies reflect different mechanisms, at least early in the neurodegeneration process. The next decades promise treatments directed to causes and mechanisms, bringing an outstanding challenge to clinicians due to heterogeneous clinical presentations with the same molecular pathology. The purpose of this brief review is to describe the key neuropathological features of the most common neurodegenerative dementias (Alzheimer disease, dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson’s disease dementia, and frontotemporal lobar degeneration) and the relationship with the clinical syndromes described in clinico-pathological studies. We expect this overview contributes for the understanding of this broad topic integrating the two ends of the spectrum: clinical and pathological. PMID:22557993

  15. Redox Imbalance and Viral Infections in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Limongi, Dolores

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are essential molecules for many physiological functions and act as second messengers in a large variety of tissues. An imbalance in the production and elimination of ROS is associated with human diseases including neurodegenerative disorders. In the last years the notion that neurodegenerative diseases are accompanied by chronic viral infections, which may result in an increase of neurodegenerative diseases progression, emerged. It is known in literature that enhanced viral infection risk, observed during neurodegeneration, is partly due to the increase of ROS accumulation in brain cells. However, the molecular mechanisms of viral infection, occurring during the progression of neurodegeneration, remain unclear. In this review, we discuss the recent knowledge regarding the role of influenza, herpes simplex virus type-1, and retroviruses infection in ROS/RNS-mediated Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). PMID:27110325

  16. Traumatic brain injury: a risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rajaneesh; Sen, Nilkantha

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI), a major global health and socioeconomic problem, is now established as a chronic disease process with a broad spectrum of pathophysiological symptoms followed by long-term disabilities. It triggers multiple and multidirectional biochemical events that lead to neurodegeneration and cognitive impairment. Recent studies have presented strong evidence that patients with TBI history have a tendency to develop proteinopathy, which is the pathophysiological feature of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer disease (AD), chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). This review mainly focuses on mechanisms related to AD, CTE, and ALS that are induced after TBI and their relevance to the advancement of these neurodegenerative diseases. This review encompasses acute effects and chronic neurodegenerative consequences after TBI for a better understanding of TBI-induced neuronal death and to design therapies that will effectively treat patients in the primary or secondary progressive stages. PMID:26352199

  17. The Nrf2-ARE pathway: a valuable therapeutic target for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Gururaj; Johnson, Jeffrey A.

    2013-01-01

    Modulation of NF-E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) has been shown in several neurodegenerative disorders. The overexpression of Nrf2 has become a potential therapeutic avenue for various neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Alzheimer’s disease. The expression of phase II detoxification enzymes is governed by the cis-acting regulatory element known as antioxidant response element (ARE). The transcription factor Nrf2 binds to ARE thereby transcribing multitude of antioxidant genes. Keap1, a culin 3-based E3 ligase that targets Nrf2 for degradation, sequesters Nrf2 in cytoplasm. Disruption of Keap1-Nrf2 interaction or genetic overexpression of Nrf2 can increase the endogenous antioxidant capacity of the brain thereby rendering protection against oxidative stress in neurodegenerative disorders. This review primarily focuses on targeted Nrf2 overexpression as a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:22742419

  18. Quantitative interaction proteomics of neurodegenerative disease proteins.

    PubMed

    Hosp, Fabian; Vossfeldt, Hannes; Heinig, Matthias; Vasiljevic, Djordje; Arumughan, Anup; Wyler, Emanuel; Landthaler, Markus; Hubner, Norbert; Wanker, Erich E; Lannfelt, Lars; Ingelsson, Martin; Lalowski, Maciej; Voigt, Aaron; Selbach, Matthias

    2015-05-19

    Several proteins have been linked to neurodegenerative disorders (NDDs), but their molecular function is not completely understood. Here, we used quantitative interaction proteomics to identify binding partners of Amyloid beta precursor protein (APP) and Presenilin-1 (PSEN1) for Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntingtin (HTT) for Huntington's disease, Parkin (PARK2) for Parkinson's disease, and Ataxin-1 (ATXN1) for spinocerebellar ataxia type 1. Our network reveals common signatures of protein degradation and misfolding and recapitulates known biology. Toxicity modifier screens and comparison to genome-wide association studies show that interaction partners are significantly linked to disease phenotypes in vivo. Direct comparison of wild-type proteins and disease-associated variants identified binders involved in pathogenesis, highlighting the value of differential interactome mapping. Finally, we show that the mitochondrial protein LRPPRC interacts preferentially with an early-onset AD variant of APP. This interaction appears to induce mitochondrial dysfunction, which is an early phenotype of AD. PMID:25959826

  19. Metal imaging in neurodegenerative diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bourassa, Megan W.

    2014-01-01

    Metal ions are known to play an important role in many neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and prion diseases. In these diseases, aberrant metal binding or improper regulation of redox active metal ions can induce oxidative stress by producing cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS). Altered metal homeostasis is also frequently seen in the diseased state. As a result, the imaging of metals in intact biological cells and tissues has been very important for understanding the role of metals in neurodegenerative diseases. A wide range of imaging techniques have been utilized, including X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM), particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), all of which allow for the imaging of metals in biological specimens with high spatial resolution and detection sensitivity. These techniques represent unique tools for advancing the understanding of the disease mechanisms and for identifying possible targets for developing treatments. In this review, we will highlight the advances in neurodegenerative disease research facilitated by metal imaging techniques. PMID:22797194

  20. Adult-Onset Deficiency in Growth Hormone and Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I Alters Oligodendrocyte Turnover in the Corpus Callosum

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Kun; Forbes, M. Elizabeth; Lichtenwalner, Robin J.; Sonntag, William E.; Riddle, David R.

    2009-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) provide trophic support during development and also appear to influence cell structure, function and replacement in the adult brain. Recent studies demonstrated effects of the GH/IGF-I axis on adult neurogenesis, but it is unclear whether the GH/IGF-I axis influences glial turnover in the normal adult brain. In the current study we used a selective model of adult-onset GH and IGF-I deficiency to evaluate the role of GH and IGF-I in regulating glial proliferation and survival in the adult corpus callosum. GH/IGF-I-deficient dwarf rats of the Lewis strain were made GH/IGF-I replete via twice daily injections of GH starting at postnatal day 28 (P28), approximately the age at which GH pulse amplitude increases in developing rodents. GH/IGF-I deficiency was initiated in adulthood by removing animals from GH treatment. Quantitative analyses revealed that adult-onset GH/IGF-I deficiency decreased cell proliferation in the white matter and decreased the survival of newborn oligodendrocytes. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that aging-related changes in the GH/IGF-I axis produce deficits in ongoing turnover of oligodendrocytes, which may contribute to aging-related cognitive changes and deficits in remyelination after injury. PMID:19115393

  1. Congenital encephalomyopathy and adult-onset myopathy and diabetes mellitus: different phenotypic associations of a new heteroplasmic mtDNA tRNA glutamic acid mutation.

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, M G; Nelson, I; Sweeney, M G; Cooper, J M; Watkins, P J; Morgan-Hughes, J A; Harding, A E

    1995-01-01

    We report the clinical, biochemical, and molecular genetic findings in a family with an unusual mitochondrial disease phenotype harboring a novel mtDNA tRNA glutamic acid mutation at position 14709. The proband and his sister presented with congenital myopathy and mental retardation and subsequently developed cerebellar ataxia. Other family members had either adult-onset diabetes mellitus with muscle weakness or adult-onset diabetes mellitus alone. Ragged-red and cytochrome c oxidase (COX)-negative fibers were present in muscle biopsies. Biochemical studies of muscle mitochondria showed reduced complex I and IV activities. The mtDNA mutation was heteroplasmic in blood and muscle in all matrilineal relatives analyzed. Primary myoblast, but not fibroblast, cultures containing high proportions of mutant mtDNA exhibited impaired mitochondrial translation. These observations indicate that mtDNA tRNA point mutations should be considered in the differential diagnosis of congenital myopathy. In addition they illustrate the diversity of phenotypes associated with this mutation in the same family and further highlight the association between mtDNA mutations and diabetes mellitus. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7726155

  2. Adult-onset hypothyroidism and the cerebral metabolism of (1,2-13C2) acetate as detected by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Chapa, F; Künnecke, B; Calvo, R; Escobar del Rey, F; Morreale de Escobar, G; Cerdán, S

    1995-01-01

    The effects of adult-onset hypothyroidism on the metabolic compartmentation of the cerebral tricarboxylic acid cycle and the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) shunt have been investigated by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Rats thyroidectomized as adults and age-matched controls were infused in the right jugular vein with unlabeled or (1,2-13C2) acetate solutions for 60 min. At the end of the infusion, the brains were frozen in situ and perchloric acid extracts were prepared and analyzed by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance and reverse-phase HPLC. Thyroidectomized animals showed a decrease in the incorporation of 13C from (1,2-13C2) acetate in cerebral metabolites and an increase in the concentrations of unlabeled glutamate and GABA. Computer-assisted interpretation of the 13C multiplets observed for the carbons of glutamate, glutamine, and GABA indicated that adult-onset hypothyroidism produced 1) a decrease in the contribution of infused (1,2-13C2) acetate to the glial tricarboxylic acid cycle; 2) an increase in the contribution of unlabeled acetyl-CoA to the neuronal tricarboxylic acid cycle; and 3) impairments in the exchange of glutamate, glutamine, and GABA between the neuronal and glial compartments. Despite the fact that the adult brain has often been considered metabolically unresponsive to thyroid hormone status, present results show metabolic alterations in the neuronal and glial compartments that are reversible with substitution therapy. PMID:7828544

  3. Congenital encephalomyopathy and adult-onset myopathy and diabetes mellitus: Different phenotypic associations of a new heteroplasmic mtDNA tRNA glutamic acid mutation

    SciTech Connect

    Hanna, M.G.; Nelson, I.; Sweeney, M.G.; Cooper, J.M.; Watkins, P.J.; Morgan-Hughes, J.A.; Harding, A.E.

    1995-05-01

    We report the clinical, biochemical, and molecular genetic findings in a family with an unusual mitochondrial disease phenotype harboring a novel mtDNA tRNA glutamic acid mutation at position 14709. The proband and his sister presented with congenital myopathy and mental retardation and subsequently developed cerebellar ataxia. Other family members had either adult-onset diabetes mellitus with muscle weakness or adult-onset diabetes mellitus alone. Ragged-red and cytochrome c oxidase (COX)-negative fibers were present in muscle biopsies. Biochemical studies of muscle mitochondria showed reduced complex I and IV activities. The mtDNA mutation was heteroplasmic in blood and muscle in all matrilineal relatives analyzed. Primary myoblast, but not fibroblast, cultures containing high proportions of mutant mtDNA exhibited impaired mitochondrial translation. These observations indicate that mtDNA tRNA point mutations should be considered in the differential diagnosis of congenital myopathy. In addition they illustrate the diversity of phenotypes associated with this mutation in the same family and further highlight the association between mtDNA mutations and diabetes mellitus. 43 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Ubiquitin pathways in neurodegenerative disease

    PubMed Central

    Atkin, Graham; Paulson, Henry

    2014-01-01

    Control of proper protein synthesis, function, and turnover is essential for the health of all cells. In neurons these demands take on the additional importance of supporting and regulating the highly dynamic connections between neurons that are necessary for cognitive function, learning, and memory. Regulating multiple unique synaptic protein environments within a single neuron while maintaining cell health requires the highly regulated processes of ubiquitination and degradation of ubiquitinated proteins through the proteasome. In this review, we examine the effects of dysregulated ubiquitination and protein clearance on the handling of disease-associated proteins and neuronal health in the most common neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25071440

  5. Protective effects of isolecanoric acid on neurodegenerative in vitro models.

    PubMed

    de Pedro, Nuria; Cantizani, Juan; Ortiz-López, Francisco Javier; González-Menéndez, Victor; Cautain, Bastien; Rodríguez, Lorena; Bills, Gerald F; Reyes, Fernando; Genilloud, Olga; Vicente, Francisca

    2016-02-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) and Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), are neurodegenerative disorders characterized by loss of dopaminergic or motor neurons, respectively. Although understanding of the PD and ALS pathogenesis remains incomplete, increasing evidence from human and animal studies has suggested that aberrant GSK3β, oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage are involved in their pathogenesis. Using two different molecular models, treatment with L-BMAA for ALS and rotenone for PD the effect of isolecanoric acid, a natural product isolated from a fungal culture, was evaluated. Pre-treatment with this molecule caused inhibition of GSK3β and CK1, and a decrease in oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage, apoptosis and cell death. Taken together, these results indicated that isolecanoric acid might have a protective effect against the development of these neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:26455662

  6. Tau imaging in neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Dani, M; Brooks, D J; Edison, P

    2016-06-01

    Aggregated tau protein is a major neuropathological substrate central to the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), frontotemporal dementia, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration and chronic traumatic encephalopathy. In AD, it has been shown that the density of hyperphosphorylated tau tangles correlates closely with neuronal dysfunction and cell death, unlike β-amyloid. Until now, diagnostic and pathologic information about tau deposition has only been available from invasive techniques such as brain biopsy or autopsy. The recent development of selective in-vivo tau PET imaging ligands including [(18)F]THK523, [(18)F]THK5117, [(18)F]THK5105 and [(18)F]THK5351, [(18)F]AV1451(T807) and [(11)C]PBB3 has provided information about the role of tau in the early phases of neurodegenerative diseases, and provided support for diagnosis, prognosis, and imaging biomarkers to track disease progression. Moreover, the spatial and longitudinal relationship of tau distribution compared with β - amyloid and other pathologies in these diseases can be mapped. In this review, we discuss the role of aggregated tau in tauopathies, the challenges posed in developing selective tau ligands as biomarkers, the state of development in tau tracers, and the new clinical information that has been uncovered, as well as the opportunities for improving diagnosis and designing clinical trials in the future. PMID:26572762

  7. Cerebral correlates of psychotic syndromes in neurodegenerative diseases

    PubMed Central

    Jellinger, Kurt A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Psychosis has been recognized as a common feature in neurodegenerative diseases and a core feature of dementia that worsens most clinical courses. It includes hallucinations, delusions including paranoia, aggressive behaviour, apathy and other psychotic phenomena that occur in a wide range of degenerative disorders including Alzheimer’s disease, synucleinopathies (Parkinson’s disease, dementia with Lewy bodies), Huntington’s disease, frontotemporal degenerations, motoneuron and prion diseases. Many of these psychiatric manifestations may be early expressions of cognitive impairment, but often there is a dissociation between psychotic/behavioural symptoms and the rather linear decline in cognitive function, suggesting independent pathophysiological mechanisms. Strictly neuropathological explanations are likely to be insufficient to explain them, and a large group of heterogeneous factors (environmental, neurochemical changes, genetic factors, etc.) may influence their pathogenesis. Clinico-pathological evaluation of behavioural and psychotic symptoms (PS) in the setting of neurodegenerative and dementing disorders presents a significant challenge for modern neurosciences. Recognition and understanding of these manifestations may lead to the development of more effective preventive and therapeutic options that can serve to delay long-term progression of these devastating disorders and improve the patients’ quality of life. A better understanding of the pathophysiology and distinctive pathological features underlying the development of PS in neurodegenerative diseases may provide important insights into psychotic processes in general. PMID:21418522

  8. Pain in Neurodegenerative Disease: Current Knowledge and Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    de Tommaso, Marina; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Defrin, Ruth; Kunz, Miriam; Pickering, Gisele; Valeriani, Massimiliano

    2016-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are going to increase as the life expectancy is getting longer. The management of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other dementias, Parkinson's disease (PD) and PD related disorders, motor neuron diseases (MND), Huntington's disease (HD), spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA), and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), is mainly addressed to motor and cognitive impairment, with special care to vital functions as breathing and feeding. Many of these patients complain of painful symptoms though their origin is variable, and their presence is frequently not considered in the treatment guidelines, leaving their management to the decision of the clinicians alone. However, studies focusing on pain frequency in such disorders suggest a high prevalence of pain in selected populations from 38 to 75% in AD, 40% to 86% in PD, and 19 to 85% in MND. The methods of pain assessment vary between studies so the type of pain has been rarely reported. However, a prevalent nonneuropathic origin of pain emerged for MND and PD. In AD, no data on pain features are available. No controlled therapeutic trials and guidelines are currently available. Given the relevance of pain in neurodegenerative disorders, the comprehensive understanding of mechanisms and predisposing factors, the application and validation of specific scales, and new specific therapeutic trials are needed. PMID:27313396

  9. Brief Report: No Association between Premorbid Adjustment in Adult-Onset Schizophrenia and Genetic Variation in Dysbindin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schirmbeck, Frederike; Georgi, Alexander; Strohmaier, Jana; Schmael, Christine; Boesshenz, Katja V.; Muhleisen, Thomas W.; Herms, Stefan; Hoffmann, Per; Jamra, Rami Abou; Schumacher, Johannes; Maier, Wolfgang; Propping, Peter; Nothen, Markus M.; Cichon, Sven; Rietschel, Marcella; Schulze, Thomas G.

    2008-01-01

    Whereas "Dysbindin" is considered a schizophrenia vulnerability gene, there is no consistency of findings. Phenotype refinement approaches may help to increase the genetic homogeneity and thus reconcile conflicting results. Premorbid adjustment (PMA) has been suggested to aid the phenotypic dissection. Gornick et al. ("J Autism Dev Disord"…

  10. Quantitative analysis on electrooculography (EOG) for neurodegenerative disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chang-Chia; Chaovalitwongse, W. Art; Pardalos, Panos M.; Seref, Onur; Xanthopoulos, Petros; Sackellares, J. C.; Skidmore, Frank M.

    2007-11-01

    Many studies have documented abnormal horizontal and vertical eye movements in human neurodegenerative disease as well as during altered states of consciousness (including drowsiness and intoxication) in healthy adults. Eye movement measurement may play an important role measuring the progress of neurodegenerative diseases and state of alertness in healthy individuals. There are several techniques for measuring eye movement, Infrared detection technique (IR). Video-oculography (VOG), Scleral eye coil and EOG. Among those available recording techniques, EOG is a major source for monitoring the abnormal eye movement. In this real-time quantitative analysis study, the methods which can capture the characteristic of the eye movement were proposed to accurately categorize the state of neurodegenerative subjects. The EOG recordings were taken while 5 tested subjects were watching a short (>120 s) animation clip. In response to the animated clip the participants executed a number of eye movements, including vertical smooth pursued (SVP), horizontal smooth pursued (HVP) and random saccades (RS). Detection of abnormalities in ocular movement may improve our diagnosis and understanding a neurodegenerative disease and altered states of consciousness. A standard real-time quantitative analysis will improve detection and provide a better understanding of pathology in these disorders.

  11. Differences in B7 and CD28 family gene expression in the peripheral blood between newly diagnosed young-onset and adult-onset type 1 diabetes patients.

    PubMed

    Pruul, K; Kisand, K; Alnek, K; Metsküla, K; Reimand, K; Heilman, K; Peet, A; Varik, K; Peetsalu, M; Einberg, Ü; Tillmann, V; Uibo, R

    2015-09-01

    Type-1 diabetes (T1D) is a heterogeneous autoimmune disease, and there are pathogenetic differences between young- and adult-onset T1D patients. We hypothesized that the expressions of genes involved in costimulatory immune system pathways in peripheral blood are differently regulated in young- and adult-onset T1D. Study group I consisted of 80 children, adolescents, and young adults (age range 1.4-21.4 y; 31 controls and 49 T1D patients). Study group II consisted of 48 adults (age range 22.0-78.4 y; 30 controls and 18 T1D patients). The mRNA expression levels of CD86, CD28, CD25, CD226, CD40, BTLA, GITR, PDCD1, FoxP3, TGF-β, ICOS, sCTLA4, flCTLA4, and CD80 were measured in peripheral blood. Genetic polymorphisms (HLA haplotypes; rs231806, rs231775, and rs3087243 in CTLA4; rs763361 in CD226; and rs706778 in CD25) and T1D-associated autoantibodies were analyzed. In group I, there was significantly lower expression of CD226 in T1D patients than in the controls. In group II, there were significantly higher expression levels of CD86 and TGF-β in T1D patients than in the controls. In the T1D patients in group I, the upregulated CD80 expression correlated with the expression of both CTLA4 splice variants (sCTLA4 and flCTLA4). In contrast, in group II, upregulated CD86 correlated with TGF-β and CD25. In group I, the inhibitory CD80-CTLA4 pathway was activated, whereas, in group II, the activation CD86-CD28 pathway and TGF-β production were activated. These results emphasize the differences between young-onset and adult-onset T1D in the regulation of costimulatory pathways. These differences should be considered when developing novel treatments for T1D. PMID:25980680

  12. Aging, Neurodegenerative Disease, and Traumatic Brain Injury: The Role of Neuroimaging

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a highly prevalent condition with significant effects on cognition and behavior. While the acute and sub-acute effects of TBI recover over time, relatively little is known about the long-term effects of TBI in relation to neurodegenerative disease. This issue has recently garnered a great deal of attention due to publicity surrounding chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in professional athletes, although CTE is but one of several neurodegenerative disorders associated with a history of TBI. Here, we review the literative on neurodegenerative disorders linked to remote TBI. We also review the evidence for neuroimaging changes associated with unhealthy brain aging in the context of remote TBI. We conclude that neuroimaging biomarkers have significant potential to increase understanding of the mechanisms of unhealthy brain aging and neurodegeneration following TBI, with potential for identifying those at risk for unhealthy brain aging prior to the clinical manifestation of neurodegenerative disease. PMID:25192426

  13. Incidence of Adult-onset Asthma After Hypothetical Interventions on Body Mass Index and Physical Activity: An Application of the Parametric G-Formula

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Varraso, Raphaëlle; Danaei, Goodarz; Camargo,, Carlos A.; Hernán, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    High body mass index (BMI) (calculated as weight (kg)/height (m)2) is associated with increased asthma risk, but uncertainty persists about the role of physical activity. We estimated the independent and joint associations of hypothetical interventions on BMI and physical activity with the risk of adult-onset asthma in 76,470 asthma-free women from the Nurses’ Health Study who were followed between 1988 and 1998. Information about asthma, BMI, physical activity, and other factors was updated every 2 years. We used the parametric g-formula to estimate the 10-year asthma risk in the following 4 scenarios: no intervention, 5% BMI reduction in a 2-year period for those who were overweight or obese, at least 2.5 hours/week of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, and both of the previous 2 interventions. At baseline, women had a mean age of 55 (standard deviation, 7) years and a mean BMI of 25.4 (standard deviation, 4.8). Median time spent in physical activity was 0.7 hours/week. During follow-up, 1,146 women developed asthma. The 10-year asthma risk under no intervention was 1.5%. Compared with no intervention, the population risk ratios were 0.96 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.93, 0.99) under the BMI intervention, 0.96 (95% CI: 0.81, 1.10) under the physical activity intervention, and 0.92 (95% CI: 0.78, 1.06) under the joint intervention. Interventions on BMI and physical activity may have a modest impact on the risk of adult-onset asthma in this population of US women. PMID:24107616

  14. Neurodegenerative Diseases: Neurotoxins as Sufficient Etiologic Agents?

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Christopher A.; Höglinger, Günter U.

    2008-01-01

    A dominant paradigm in neurological disease research is that the primary etiological factors for diseases such as Alzheimer’s (AD), Parkinson’s (PD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are genetic. Opposed to this perspective are the clear observations from epidemiology that purely genetic casual factors account for a relatively small fraction of all cases. Many who support a genetic etiology for neurological disease take the view that while the percentages may be relatively small, these numbers will rise in the future with the inevitable discoveries of additional genetic mutations. The follow up argument is that even if the last is not true, the events triggered by the aberrant genes identified so far will be shown to impact the same neuronal cell death pathways as those activated by environmental factors that trigger most sporadic disease cases. In this article we present a countervailing view that environmental neurotoxins may be the sole sufficient factor in at least three neurological disease clusters. For each, neurotoxins have been isolated and characterized that, at least in animal models, faithfully reproduce each disorder without the need for genetic co-factors. Based on these data, we will propose a set of principles that would enable any potential toxin to be evaluated as an etiological factor in a given neurodegenerative disease. Finally, we will attempt to put environmental toxins into the context of possible genetically-determined susceptibility. PMID:17985252

  15. Neurodegenerative diseases and widespread aggregation are associated with supersaturated proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ciryam, Prajwal; Tartaglia, Gian Gaetano; Morimoto, Richard I.; Dobson, Christopher M.; Vendruscolo, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Summary The maintenance of protein solubility is a fundamental aspect of protein homeostasis, as aggregation is associated with cytotoxicity and a variety of human diseases. Numerous proteins unrelated in sequence and structure, however, can misfold and aggregate, and widespread aggregation can occur in living systems under stress or ageing. A crucial question in this context is why only certain proteins aggregate in vivo while others do not. We identify here the proteins most vulnerable to aggregation as those whose cellular concentrations are high relative to their solubilities. These supersaturated proteins represent a metastable sub-proteome involved in pathological aggregation during stress and ageing, and are overrepresented in biochemical processes associated with neurodegenerative disorders. Consequently, such cellular processes become dysfunctional when the ability to keep intrinsically supersaturated proteins soluble is compromised. Thus, the simultaneous analysis of abundance and solubility can rationalize the diverse cellular pathologies linked to neurodegenerative diseases and aging. PMID:24183671

  16. Brain CHIP: removing the culprits in neurodegenerative disease.

    PubMed

    Dickey, Chad A; Patterson, Cam; Dickson, Dennis; Petrucelli, Leonard

    2007-01-01

    A factor that is common to the most-frequent neurodegenerative diseases is the accumulation of abnormal proteins that are associated with cellular dysfunction. Contrary to years of speculation, recent evidence suggests that soluble intermediates--not the visible pathological aggregates associated with disease--are the cause of neurotoxicity. These findings suggest that aggregate formation might be an adaptive stress response that is facilitated by neuronal protein triage molecules. In particular, the molecular co-chaperone CHIP (C terminus of HSC70-interacting protein) has been linked to several of these disorders, serving as a crucial catalyst for the ubiquitination of several heat shock protein (HSP)70 client proteins that are involved in neurodegenerative disease. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms that are involved in CHIP-mediated protein trafficking might provide invaluable clues to neuronal function, both in normal and diseased conditions. PMID:17127096

  17. Nutraceuticals and amyloid neurodegenerative diseases: a focus on natural phenols.

    PubMed

    Rigacci, Stefania; Stefani, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    A common molecular feature of amyloid neurodegenerative diseases is the unfolding/misfolding of specific proteins/peptides which consequently become prone to aggregate into toxic assemblies and deposits that are the key histopathological trait of these pathologies. Apart from the rare early-onset familiar forms, these neurodegenerative diseases are age-associated disorders whose symptoms appear in aged people after long incubation periods. This makes the therapeutic approach particularly compelling and boosts the search for both early diagnostic tools and preventive approaches. In this last respect, natural compounds commonly present in foods and beverages are considered promising molecules, at least on the bench side. The so-called 'nutraceutical approach' suggests life-long healthy diets, particularly focusing on food molecules that are candidates to enter clinical trials as such or following a targeted molecular engineering. Natural phenols abundant in 'healthy' foods such as extra virgin olive oil, red wine, green tea, red berries and spices, appear particularly promising. PMID:25418871

  18. Peptide aggregation in neurodegenerative disease.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Regina M

    2002-01-01

    In the not-so-distant past, insoluble aggregated protein was considered as uninteresting and bothersome as yesterday's trash. More recently, protein aggregates have enjoyed considerable scientific interest, as it has become clear that these aggregates play key roles in many diseases. In this review, we focus attention on three polypeptides: beta-amyloid, prion, and huntingtin, which are linked to three feared neurodegenerative diseases: Alzheimer's, "mad cow," and Huntington's disease, respectively. These proteins lack any significant primary sequence homology, yet their aggregates possess very similar features, specifically, high beta-sheet content, fibrillar morphology, relative insolubility, and protease resistance. Because the aggregates are noncrystalline, secrets of their structure at nanometer resolution are only slowly yielding to X-ray diffraction, solid-state NMR, and other techniques. Besides structure, the aggregates may possess similar pathways of assembly. Two alternative assembly pathways have been proposed: the nucleation-elongation and the template-assisted mode. These two modes may be complementary, not mutually exclusive. Strategies for interfering with aggregation, which may provide novel therapeutic approaches, are under development. The structural similarities between protein aggregates of dissimilar origin suggest that therapeutic strategies successful against one disease may have broad utility in others. PMID:12117755

  19. Amyloidosis in Retinal Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    PubMed

    Masuzzo, Ambra; Dinet, Virginie; Cavanagh, Chelsea; Mascarelli, Frederic; Krantic, Slavica

    2016-01-01

    As a part of the central nervous system, the retina may reflect both physiological processes and abnormalities related to pathologies that affect the brain. Amyloidosis due to the accumulation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) was initially regarded as a specific and exclusive characteristic of neurodegenerative alterations seen in the brain of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. More recently, it was discovered that amyloidosis-related alterations, similar to those seen in the brain of Alzheimer's patients, also occur in the retina. Remarkably, these alterations were identified not only in primary retinal pathologies, such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and glaucoma, but also in the retinas of Alzheimer's patients. In this review, we first briefly discuss the biogenesis of Aβ, a peptide involved in amyloidosis. We then discuss some pathological aspects (synaptic dysfunction, mitochondrial failure, glial activation, and vascular abnormalities) related to the neurotoxic effects of Aβ. We finally highlight common features shared by AD, AMD, and glaucoma in the context of Aβ amyloidosis and further discuss why the retina, due to the transparency of the eye, can be considered as a "window" to the brain. PMID:27551275

  20. Amyloidosis in Retinal Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Masuzzo, Ambra; Dinet, Virginie; Cavanagh, Chelsea; Mascarelli, Frederic; Krantic, Slavica

    2016-01-01

    As a part of the central nervous system, the retina may reflect both physiological processes and abnormalities related to pathologies that affect the brain. Amyloidosis due to the accumulation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) was initially regarded as a specific and exclusive characteristic of neurodegenerative alterations seen in the brain of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients. More recently, it was discovered that amyloidosis-related alterations, similar to those seen in the brain of Alzheimer’s patients, also occur in the retina. Remarkably, these alterations were identified not only in primary retinal pathologies, such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and glaucoma, but also in the retinas of Alzheimer’s patients. In this review, we first briefly discuss the biogenesis of Aβ, a peptide involved in amyloidosis. We then discuss some pathological aspects (synaptic dysfunction, mitochondrial failure, glial activation, and vascular abnormalities) related to the neurotoxic effects of Aβ. We finally highlight common features shared by AD, AMD, and glaucoma in the context of Aβ amyloidosis and further discuss why the retina, due to the transparency of the eye, can be considered as a “window” to the brain. PMID:27551275

  1. Inflammation in neurodegenerative diseases – an update

    PubMed Central

    Amor, Sandra; Peferoen, Laura A N; Vogel, Daphne Y S; Breur, Marjolein; Valk, Paul; Baker, David; Noort, Johannes M

    2014-01-01

    Neurodegeneration, the progressive dysfunction and loss of neurons in the central nervous system (CNS), is the major cause of cognitive and motor dysfunction. While neuronal degeneration is well-known in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, it is also observed in neurotrophic infections, traumatic brain and spinal cord injury, stroke, neoplastic disorders, prion diseases, multiple sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, as well as neuropsychiatric disorders and genetic disorders. A common link between these diseases is chronic activation of innate immune responses including those mediated by microglia, the resident CNS macrophages. Such activation can trigger neurotoxic pathways leading to progressive degeneration. Yet, microglia are also crucial for controlling inflammatory processes, and repair and regeneration. The adaptive immune response is implicated in neurodegenerative diseases contributing to tissue damage, but also plays important roles in resolving inflammation and mediating neuroprotection and repair. The growing awareness that the immune system is inextricably involved in mediating damage as well as regeneration and repair in neurodegenerative disorders, has prompted novel approaches to modulate the immune system, although it remains whether these approaches can be used in humans. Additional factors in humans include ageing and exposure to environmental factors such as systemic infections that provide additional clues that may be human specific and therefore difficult to translate from animal models. Nevertheless, a better understanding of how immune responses are involved in neuronal damage and regeneration, as reviewed here, will be essential to develop effective therapies to improve quality of life, and mitigate the personal, economic and social impact of these diseases. PMID:24329535

  2. Annual Research Review: The Promise of Stem Cell Research for Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaccarino, Flora M.; Urban, Alexander Eckehart; Stevens, Hanna E.; Szekely, Anna; Abyzov, Alexej; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Gerstein, Mark; Weissman, Sherman

    2011-01-01

    The study of the developing brain has begun to shed light on the underpinnings of both early and adult onset neuropsychiatric disorders. Neuroimaging of the human brain across developmental time points and the use of model animal systems have combined to reveal brain systems and gene products that may play a role in autism spectrum disorders,…

  3. Mutations in UBQLN2 cause dominant X-linked juvenile and adult-onset ALS and ALS/dementia.

    PubMed

    Deng, Han-Xiang; Chen, Wenjie; Hong, Seong-Tshool; Boycott, Kym M; Gorrie, George H; Siddique, Nailah; Yang, Yi; Fecto, Faisal; Shi, Yong; Zhai, Hong; Jiang, Hujun; Hirano, Makito; Rampersaud, Evadnie; Jansen, Gerard H; Donkervoort, Sandra; Bigio, Eileen H; Brooks, Benjamin R; Ajroud, Kaouther; Sufit, Robert L; Haines, Jonathan L; Mugnaini, Enrico; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Siddique, Teepu

    2011-09-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a paralytic and usually fatal disorder caused by motor-neuron degeneration in the brain and spinal cord. Most cases of ALS are sporadic but about 5-10% are familial. Mutations in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), TAR DNA-binding protein (TARDBP, also known as TDP43) and fused in sarcoma (FUS, also known as translocated in liposarcoma (TLS)) account for approximately 30% of classic familial ALS. Mutations in several other genes have also been reported as rare causes of ALS or ALS-like syndromes. The causes of the remaining cases of familial ALS and of the vast majority of sporadic ALS are unknown. Despite extensive studies of previously identified ALS-causing genes, the pathogenic mechanism underlying motor-neuron degeneration in ALS remains largely obscure. Dementia, usually of the frontotemporal lobar type, may occur in some ALS cases. It is unclear whether ALS and dementia share common aetiology and pathogenesis in ALS/dementia. Here we show that mutations in UBQLN2, which encodes the ubiquitin-like protein ubiquilin 2, cause dominantly inherited, chromosome-X-linked ALS and ALS/dementia. We describe novel ubiquilin 2 pathology in the spinal cords of ALS cases and in the brains of ALS/dementia cases with or without UBQLN2 mutations. Ubiquilin 2 is a member of the ubiquilin family, which regulates the degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. Functional analysis showed that mutations in UBQLN2 lead to an impairment of protein degradation. Therefore, our findings link abnormalities in ubiquilin 2 to defects in the protein degradation pathway, abnormal protein aggregation and neurodegeneration, indicating a common pathogenic mechanism that can be exploited for therapeutic intervention. PMID:21857683

  4. [A case in which the subject was affected by Listeia meningoencephalitis during administration of infliximab for steroid-dependent adult onset Still's disease].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Motohisa; Takahashi, Hiroki; Miyamoto, Chie; Ohara, Mikiko; Suzuki, Chisako; Naishiro, Yasuyoshi; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Shinomura, Yasuhisa; Nonaka, Michio; Imai, Kohzoh

    2006-06-01

    The subject was a 22-year-old woman who developed high fever and arthralgias and eruptions in the extremities around June 2005. She sought medical advice at a nearby dermatology clinic, where hepatic dysfunction was noted on blood testing. The patient was thus hospitalized the next day. Although CRP levels were significantly high, no sign of infection was observed and bone marrow cell differentiation was normal. Adult onset Still's disease was diagnosed based on the observation of persistent high fever >39 degrees C, eruptions, increased leukocytes, pharyngeal pain, splenomegaly, hepatic dysfunction, negative autoantibody results from blood testing, and high serum ferritin levels. Administration of prednisolone 30 mg/day was initiated, but proved ineffective. Steroid pulse therapy was conducted, and the subject was transferred to our medical facility for continued treatment. Attempts were made to control the disease using combined steroid and cyclosporine administration; but exacerbation of high serum ferritin levels and hepatic dysfunctions were observed, so a second course of steroid pulse therapy was conducted. Symptoms improved temporarily, but steroid levels were difficult to reduce. Cyclosporine was therefore replaced by methotrexate, and administration of infliximab was initiated. In the course of treatment, administration of a sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim combination was initiated, but was discontinued due to suspicion of drug-induced hepatic injury. A second administration of infliximab was conducted in late August, and rapid improvements in clinical symptoms and abnormal test values was observed. However, high fever and headache developed suddenly in early September. Based on the results of spinal fluid testing, blood and spinal fluid cultures and MRI of the head, Listeria meningoencephalitis was diagnosed. Diplopia and impaired consciousness occurred during the disease course, and formation of a brain abscess was observed on imaging. However, symptoms

  5. Regular inhaled corticosteroids in adult-onset asthma and the risk for future cancer: a population-based cohort study with proper person-time analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kok, Victor C; Horng, Jorng-Tzong; Huang, Hsu-Kai; Chao, Tsung-Ming; Hong, Ya-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent studies have shown that inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) can exert anti-inflammatory effects for chronic airway diseases, and several observational studies suggest that they play a role as cancer chemopreventive agents, particularly against lung cancer. We aimed to examine whether regular ICS use was associated with a reduced risk for future malignancy in patients with newly diagnosed adult-onset asthma. Methods We used a population-based cohort study between 2001 and 2008 with appropriate person-time analysis. Participants were followed up until the first incident of cancer, death, or to the end of 2008. The Cox model was used to derive an adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) for cancer development. Kaplan–Meier cancer-free survival curves of two groups were compared. Results The exposed group of 2,117 regular ICS users and the nonexposed group of 17,732 non-ICS users were assembled. After 7,365 (mean, 3.5 years; standard deviation 2.1) and 73,789 (mean, 4.1 years; standard deviation 2.4) person-years of follow-up for the ICS users and the comparator group of non-ICS users, respectively, the aHR for overall cancer was nonsignificantly elevated at 1.33 with 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.00–1.76, P=0.0501. The Kaplan–Meier curves for overall cancer-free proportions of both groups were not significant (log-rank, P=0.065). Synergistic interaction of concurrent presence of regular ICS use was conducted using “ICS-negative and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)-negative” as the reference. The aHR for the group of “ICS-positive, COPD-negative” did not reach statistically significant levels with aHR at 1.38 (95% CI, 0.53–3.56). There was a statistically significant synergistic interaction of concurrent presence of regular ICS use and COPD with aHR at 3.78 (95% CI, 2.10–6.81). Conclusion The protective effect of regular ICS use in the studied East Asian patients with adult-onset asthma was not detectable, contrary to reports of previous

  6. TRPM7 and its role in neurodegenerative diseases

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yuyang; Sukumaran, Pramod; Schaar, Anne; Singh, Brij B

    2015-01-01

    Calcium (Ca2+) and magnesium (Mg2+) ions have been shown to play an important role in regulating various neuronal functions. In the present review we focus on the emerging role of transient potential melastatin-7 (TRPM7) channel in not only regulating Ca2+ and Mg2+ homeostasis necessary for biological functions, but also how alterations in TRPM7 function/expression could induce neurodegeneration. Although eight TRPM channels have been identified, the channel properties, mode of activation, and physiological responses of various TRPM channels are quite distinct. Among the known 8 TRPM channels only TRPM6 and TRPM7 channels are highly permeable to both Ca2+ and Mg2+; however here we will only focus on TRPM7 as unlike TRPM6, TRPM7 channels are abundantly expressed in neuronal cells. Importantly, the discrepancy in TRPM7 channel function and expression leads to various neuronal diseases such as Alzheimer disease (AD) and Parkinson disease (PD). Further, it is emerging as a key factor in anoxic neuronal death and in other neurodegenerative disorders. Thus, by understanding the precise involvement of the TRPM7 channels in different neurodegenerative diseases and by understanding the factors that regulate TRPM7 channels, we could uncover new strategies in the future that could evolve as new drug therapeutic targets for effective treatment of these neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26218331

  7. Role of Redox Signaling in Neuroinflammation and Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Hsi-Lung; Yang, Chuen-Mao

    2013-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS), a redox signal, are produced by various enzymatic reactions and chemical processes, which are essential for many physiological functions and act as second messengers. However, accumulating evidence has implicated the pathogenesis of several human diseases including neurodegenerative disorders related to increased oxidative stress. Under pathological conditions, increasing ROS production can regulate the expression of diverse inflammatory mediators during brain injury. Elevated levels of several proinflammatory factors including cytokines, peptides, pathogenic structures, and peroxidants in the central nervous system (CNS) have been detected in patients with neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). These proinflammatory factors act as potent stimuli in brain inflammation through upregulation of diverse inflammatory genes, including matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and adhesion molecules. To date, the intracellular signaling mechanisms underlying the expression of target proteins regulated by these factors are elusive. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms underlying the intracellular signaling pathways, especially ROS, involved in the expression of several inflammatory proteins induced by proinflammatory factors in brain resident cells. Understanding redox signaling transduction mechanisms involved in the expression of target proteins and genes may provide useful therapeutic strategies for brain injury, inflammation, and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24455696

  8. Dysfunctional Mitochondrial Dynamics in the Pathophysiology of Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Haun, Florian; Nakamura, Tomohiro; Lipton, Stuart A

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction occurs in neurodegenerative diseases, however molecular mechanisms underlying this process remain elusive. Emerging evidence suggests that nitrosative stress, mediated by reactive nitrogen species (RNS), may play a role in mitochondrial pathology. Here, we review findings that highlight the abnormal mitochondrial morphology observed in many neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and Huntington’s diseases. One mechanism whereby RNS can affect mitochondrial function and thus neuronal survival occurs via protein S-nitrosylation, representing chemical reaction of a nitric oxide (NO) group with a critical cysteine thiol. In this review, we focus on the signaling pathway whereby S-nitrosylation of the mitochondrial fission protein Drp1 (dynamin-related protein 1; forming S-nitrosothiol (SNO)-Drp1) precipitates excessive mitochondrial fission or fragmentation and consequent bioenergetic compromise. Subsequently, the formation of SNO-Drp1 leads to synaptic damage and neuronal death. Thus, intervention in the SNO-Drp1 pathway may provide therapeutic benefit in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24587691

  9. Implications of glial nitric oxide in neurodegenerative diseases

    PubMed Central

    Yuste, Jose Enrique; Tarragon, Ernesto; Campuzano, Carmen María; Ros-Bernal, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a pleiotropic janus-faced molecule synthesized by nitric oxide synthases (NOS) which plays a critical role in a number of physiological and pathological processes in humans. The physiological roles of NO depend on its local concentrations, as well as its availability and the nature of downstream target molecules. Its double-edged sword action has been linked to neurodegenerative disorders. Excessive NO production, as the evoked by inflammatory signals, has been identified as one of the major causative reasons for the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases. Moreover, excessive NO synthesis under neuroinflammation leads to the formation of reactive nitrogen species and neuronal cell death. There is an intimate relation between microglial activation, NO and neuroinflammation in the human brain. The role of NO in neuroinflammation has been defined in animal models where this neurotransmitter can modulate the inflammatory process acting on key regulatory pathways, such as those associated with excitotoxicity processes induced by glutamate accumulation and microglial activation. Activated glia express inducible NOS and produce NO that triggers calcium mobilization from the endoplasmic reticulum, activating the release of vesicular glutamate from astroglial cells resulting in neuronal death. This change in microglia potentially contributes to the increased age-associated susceptibility and neurodegeneration. In the current review, information is provided about the role of NO, glial activation and age-related processes in the central nervous system (CNS) that may be helpful in the isolation of new therapeutic targets for aging and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26347610

  10. Potential application of lithium in Parkinson's and other neurodegenerative diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lazzara, Carol A.; Kim, Yong-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Lithium, the long-standing hallmark treatment for bipolar disorder, has recently been identified as a potential neuroprotective agent in neurodegeneration. Here we focus on introducing numerous in vitro and in vivo studies that have shown lithium treatment to be efficacious in reducing oxidative stress and inflammation, increasing autophagy, inhibiting apoptosis, and decreasing the accumulation of α-synulcein, with an emphasis on Parkinson's disease. A number of biological pathways have been shown to be involved in causing these neuroprotective effects. The inhibition of GSK-3β has been the mechanism most studied; however, other modes of action include the regulation of apoptotic proteins and glutamate excitotoxicity as well as down-regulation of calpain. This review provides a framework of the neuroprotective effects of lithium in neurodegenerative diseases and the putative mechanisms by which lithium provides the protection. Lithium-only treatment may not be a suitable therapeutic option for neurodegenerative diseases due to inconsistent efficacy and potential side-effects, however, the use of low dose lithium in combination with other potential or existing therapeutic compounds may be a promising approach to reduce symptoms and disease progression in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26578864

  11. Exercise-induced neuroprotective effects on neurodegenerative diseases: the key role of trophic factors.

    PubMed

    Campos, Carlos; Rocha, Nuno Barbosa F; Lattari, Eduardo; Paes, Flávia; Nardi, António E; Machado, Sérgio

    2016-06-01

    Age-related neurodegenerative disorders, like Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease, are becoming a major issue to public health care. Currently, there is no effective pharmacological treatment to address cognitive impairment in these patients. Here, we aim to explore the role of exercise-induced trophic factor enhancement in the prevention or delay of cognitive decline in patients with neurodegenerative diseases. There is a significant amount of evidence from animal and human studies that links neurodegenerative related cognitive deficits with changes on brain and peripheral trophic factor levels. Several trials with elderly individuals and patients with neurodegenerative diseases report exercise induced cognitive improvements and changes on trophic factor levels including BDNF, IGF-I, among others. Further studies with healthy aging and clinical populations are needed to understand how diverse exercise interventions produce different variations in trophic factor signaling. Genetic profiles and potential confounders regarding trophic factors should also be addressed in future trials. PMID:27086703

  12. [Microglial Phagocytosis in the Neurodegenerative Diseases].

    PubMed

    Cao, Sheng-nan; Bao, Xiu-qi; Sun, Hua; Zhang, Dan

    2016-04-01

    Microglia are the resident innate immune cells in the brain. Under endogenous or exogenous stimulates, they become activated and play an important role in the neurodegenerative diseases. Microglial phagocytosis is a process of receptor-mediated engulfment and degradation of apoptotic cells. In addition, microglia can phagocyte brain-specific cargo, such as myelin debris and abnormal protein aggregation. However, recent studies have shown that microglia can also phagocyte stressed-but-viable neurons, causing loss of neurons in the brain. Thus, whether microglial phagocytosis is beneficial or not in neurodegenerative disease remains controversial. This article reviews microglial phagocytosis related mechanisms and its potential roles in neurodegenerative diseases, with an attempt to provide new insights in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27181903

  13. Oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage and neurodegenerative diseases

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Chunyan; Sun, Li; Chen, Xueping; Zhang, Danshen

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Oxidative stress is characterized by the overproduction of reactive oxygen species, which can induce mitochondrial DNA mutations, damage the mitochondrial respiratory chain, alter membrane permeability, and influence Ca2+ homeostasis and mitochondrial defense systems. All these changes are implicated in the development of these neurodegenerative diseases, mediating or amplifying neuronal dysfunction and triggering neurodegeneration. This paper summarizes the contribution of oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage to the onset of neurodegenerative eases and discusses strategies to modify mitochondrial dysfunction that may be attractive therapeutic interventions for the treatment of various neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25206509

  14. Corruption and Spread of Pathogenic Proteins in Neurodegenerative Diseases*

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Lary C.; LeVine, Harry

    2012-01-01

    With advancing age, the brain becomes increasingly susceptible to neurodegenerative diseases, most of which are characterized by the misfolding and errant aggregation of certain proteins. The induction of aggregation involves a crystallization-like seeding mechanism by which a specific protein is structurally corrupted by its misfolded conformer. The latest research indicates that, once formed, proteopathic seeds can spread from one locale to another via cellular uptake, transport, and release. Impeding this process could represent a unified therapeutic strategy for slowing the progression of a wide range of currently intractable disorders. PMID:22879600

  15. ALS-linked TDP-43 mutations produce aberrant RNA splicing and adult-onset motor neuron disease without aggregation or loss of nuclear TDP-43.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Eveline S; Ling, Shuo-Chien; Huelga, Stephanie C; Lagier-Tourenne, Clotilde; Polymenidou, Magdalini; Ditsworth, Dara; Kordasiewicz, Holly B; McAlonis-Downes, Melissa; Platoshyn, Oleksandr; Parone, Philippe A; Da Cruz, Sandrine; Clutario, Kevin M; Swing, Debbie; Tessarollo, Lino; Marsala, Martin; Shaw, Christopher E; Yeo, Gene W; Cleveland, Don W

    2013-02-19

    Transactivating response region DNA binding protein (TDP-43) is the major protein component of ubiquitinated inclusions found in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) with ubiquitinated inclusions. Two ALS-causing mutants (TDP-43(Q331K) and TDP-43(M337V)), but not wild-type human TDP-43, are shown here to provoke age-dependent, mutant-dependent, progressive motor axon degeneration and motor neuron death when expressed in mice at levels and in a cell type-selective pattern similar to endogenous TDP-43. Mutant TDP-43-dependent degeneration of lower motor neurons occurs without: (i) loss of TDP-43 from the corresponding nuclei, (ii) accumulation of TDP-43 aggregates, and (iii) accumulation of insoluble TDP-43. Computational analysis using splicing-sensitive microarrays demonstrates alterations of endogenous TDP-43-dependent alternative splicing events conferred by both human wild-type and mutant TDP-43(Q331K), but with high levels of mutant TDP-43 preferentially enhancing exon exclusion of some target pre-mRNAs affecting genes involved in neurological transmission and function. Comparison with splicing alterations following TDP-43 depletion demonstrates that TDP-43(Q331K) enhances normal TDP-43 splicing function for some RNA targets but loss-of-function for others. Thus, adult-onset motor neuron disease does not require aggregation or loss of nuclear TDP-43, with ALS-linked mutants producing loss and gain of splicing function of selected RNA targets at an early disease stage. PMID:23382207

  16. Vitagenes, dietary antioxidants and neuroprotection in neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Vittorio; Cornelius, Carolin; Mancuso, Cesare; Barone, Eugenio; Calafato, Stella; Bates, Timothy; Rizzarelli, Enrico; Kostova, Albena T Dinkova

    2009-01-01

    The ability of a cell to counteract stressful conditions, known as cellular stress response, requires the activation of pro-survival pathways and the production of molecules with anti-oxidant, anti-apoptotic or pro-apoptotic activities. Among the cellular pathways conferring protection against oxidative stress, a key role is played by vitagenes, which include heat shock proteins (Hsps) heme oxygenase-1 and Hsp70, as well as the thioredoxin/thioredoxin reductase system. Heat shock response contributes to establish a cytoprotective state in a wide variety of human diseases, including inflammation, cancer, aging and neurodegenerative disorders. Given the broad cytoprotective properties of the heat shock response there is now strong interest in discovering and developing pharmacological agents capable of inducing stress responses. Dietary antioxidants, such as curcumin, L-carnitine/acetyl-L-carnitine and carnosine have recently been demonstrated in vitro to be neuroprotective through the activation of hormetic pathways, including vitagenes. In the present review we discuss the importance of vitagenes in the cellular stress response and analyse, from a pharmacological point of view, the potential use of dietary antioxidants in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders in humans. PMID:19273073

  17. Targeting New Candidate Genes by Small Molecules Approaching Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Hueng-Chuen; Chi, Ching-Shiang; Cheng, Shin-Nan; Lee, Hsiu-Fen; Tsai, Jeng-Dau; Lin, Shinn-Zong; Harn, Horng-Jyh

    2015-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) are among the most feared of the disorders that afflict humankind for the lack of specific diagnostic tests and effective treatments. Understanding the molecular, cellular, biochemical changes of NDs may hold therapeutic promise against debilitating central nerve system (CNS) disorders. In the present review, we summarized the clinical presentations and biology backgrounds of NDs, including Parkinson’s disease (PD), Huntington’s disease (HD), and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and explored the role of molecular mechanisms, including dys-regulation of epigenetic control mechanisms, Ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated protein kinase (ATM), and neuroinflammation in the pathogenesis of NDs. Targeting these mechanisms may hold therapeutic promise against these devastating diseases. PMID:26712747

  18. Functional and Structural Analyses of CYP1B1 Variants Linked to Congenital and Adult-Onset Glaucoma to Investigate the Molecular Basis of These Diseases.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Antara; Chakraborty, Subhadip; Chakraborty, Abhijit; Chakrabarti, Saikat; Ray, Kunal

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma, the leading cause of irreversible blindness, appears in various forms. Mutations in CYP1B1 result in primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) by an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance while it acts as a modifier locus for primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). We investigated the molecular basis of the variable phenotypes resulting from the defects in CYP1B1 by using subclones of 23 CYP1B1 mutants reported in glaucoma patients, in a cell based system by measuring the dual activity of the enzyme to metabolize both retinol and 17β-estradiol. Most variants linked to POAG showed low steroid metabolism while null or very high retinol metabolism was observed in variants identified in PCG. We examined the translational turnover rates of mutant proteins after the addition of cycloheximide and observed that the levels of enzyme activity mostly corroborated the translational turnover rate. We performed extensive normal mode analysis and molecular-dynamics-simulations-based structural analyses and observed significant variation of fluctuation in certain segmental parts of the mutant proteins, especially at the B-C and F-G loops, which were previously shown to affect the dynamic behavior and ligand entry/exit properties of the cytochrome P450 family of proteins. Our molecular study corroborates the structural analysis, and suggests that the pathologic state of the carrier of CYP1B1 mutations is determined by the allelic state of the gene. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to dissect biological activities of CYP1B1 for correlation with congenital and adult onset glaucomas. PMID:27243976

  19. Echocardiographic assessment of subclinical left ventricular eccentric hypertrophy in adult-onset GHD patients by geometric remodeling: an observational case-control study

    PubMed Central

    de Gregorio, Cesare; Curtò, Lorenzo; Recupero, Antonino; Grimaldi, Patrizia; Almoto, Barbara; Venturino, Marilena; Cento, Domenico; Narbone, Maria Carola; Trimarchi, Francesco; Coglitore, Sebastiano; Cannavò, Salvatore

    2006-01-01

    Background Most patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) show high body mass index. Overweight subjects, but GHD patients, were demonstrated to have high left ventricular mass index (LVMi) and abnormal LV geometric remodeling. We sought to study these characteristics in a group of GHD patients, in an attempt to establish the BMI-independent role of GHD. Methods Fifty-four patients, 28 F and 26 M, aged 45.9 ± 13.1, with adult-onset GHD (pituitary adenomas 48.2%, empty sella 27.8%, pituitary inflammation 5.5%, cranio-pharyngioma 3.7%, not identified pathogenesis 14.8%) were enrolled. To minimize any possible interferences of BMI on the aim of this study, the control group included 20 age- and weight-matched healthy subjects. The LV geometry was identified by the relationship between LVMi (cut-off 125 g/m2) and relative wall thickness (cut-off 0.45) at echocardiography. Results There was no significant between-group difference in resting cardiac morphology and function, nor when considering age-related discrepancy. The majority of patients had normal-low LVM/LVMi, but about one fourth of them showed higher values. These findings correlated to relatively high circulating IGF-1 and systolic blood pressure at rest. The main LV geometric pattern was eccentric hypertrophy in 22% of GHD population (26% of with severe GHD) and in 15% of controls (p = NS). Conclusion Though the lack of significant differences in resting LV morphology and function, about 25% of GHD patients showed high LVMi (consisting of eccentric hypertrophy), not dissimilarly to overweight controls. This finding, which prognostic role is well known in obese and hypertensive patients, is worthy to be investigated in GHD patients through wider controlled trials. PMID:16507109

  20. Identification of two novel mutations in the SLC25A13 gene and detection of seven mutations in 102 patients with adult-onset type II citrullinemia.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, T; Yamaguchi, N; Kobayashi, K; Nishi, I; Horinouchi, H; Jalil, M A; Li, M X; Ushikai, M; Iijima, M; Kondo, I; Saheki, T

    2000-12-01

    Adult-onset type II citrullinemia (CTLN2) is characterized by a liver-specific deficiency of argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) protein. We have recently identified the gene responsible for CTLN2, viz., SLC25A13, which encodes a calcium-binding mitochondrial carrier protein, designated citrin, and found five mutations of the SLC25A13 gene in CTLN2 patients. In the present study, we have identified two novel mutations, 1800ins1 and R605X, in SLC25A13 mRNA and the SLC25A13 gene. Diagnostic analysis for the seven mutations in 103 CTLN2 patients diagnosed by biochemical and enzymatic studies has revealed that 102 patients had one or two of the seven mutations and 93 patients were homozygotes or compound heterozygotes. These results indicate that CTLN2 is caused by an abnormality in the SLC25A13 gene, and that our criteria for CTLN2 before DNA diagnosis are correct. Five of 22 patients from consanguineous unions have been shown to be compound heterozygotes, suggesting a high frequency of the mutated genes. The frequency of homozygotes is calculated to be more than 1 in 20,000 from carrier detection (6 in 400 individuals tested) in the Japanese population. We have detected no cross-reactive immune materials in the liver of CTLN2 patients with any of the seven mutations by Western blot analysis with anti-human citrin antibody. From these findings, we hypothesize that CTLN2 is caused by a complete deletion of citrin, although the mechanism of ASS deficiency is still unknown. PMID:11153906

  1. TLR4 Endogenous Ligand S100A8/A9 Levels in Adult-Onset Still’s Disease and Their Association with Disease Activity and Clinical Manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyoun-Ah; Han, Jae Ho; Kim, Woo-Jung; Noh, Hyun Jin; An, Jeong-Mi; Yim, Hyunee; Jung, Ju-Yang; Kim, You-Sun; Suh, Chang-Hee

    2016-01-01

    S100A8/A9 has been suggested as a marker of disease activity in patients with adult-onset Still’s disease (AOSD). We evaluated the clinical significance of S100A8/A9 as a biomarker and its pathogenic role in AOSD. Blood samples were collected prospectively from 20 AOSD patients and 20 healthy controls (HCs). Furthermore, skin and lymph node biopsy specimens of AOSD patients were investigated for S100A8/A9 expression levels via immunohistochemistry. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of active AOSD patients and HCs were investigated for S100A8/A9 cell signals. S100A8/A9, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels in active AOSD patients were higher than those of HCs. S100A8/A9 levels correlated positively with IL-1β, TNF-α and C-reactive protein. The inflammatory cells expressing S100A8/A9 were graded from one to three in skin and lymph node biopsies of AOSD patients. The grading for S100A8/A9 was more intense in the skin lesions with karyorrhexis, mucin deposition, and neutrophil infiltration. Like lipopolysaccharide (LPS), S100A8/A9 induced phosphorylation of p38 and c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) in PBMCs, suggesting that S100A8/A9 activates Toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathways. These findings suggest that S100A8/A9 may be involved in the inflammatory response with induction of proinflammatory cytokines and may serve as a clinicopathological marker for disease activity in AOSD. PMID:27537874

  2. Adult-Onset Deletion of β-Catenin in (10kb)Dmp1-Expressing Cells Prevents Intermittent PTH-Induced Bone Gain.

    PubMed

    Kedlaya, Rajendra; Kang, Kyung Shin; Hong, Jung Min; Bettagere, Vidya; Lim, Kyung-Eun; Horan, Daniel; Divieti-Pajevic, Paola; Robling, Alexander G

    2016-08-01

    β-Catenin (βcat) is a major downstream signaling node in canonical Wingless-related integration site (Wnt) signaling pathway, and its activity is crucial for canonical Wnt signal transduction. Wnt signaling has recently been implicated in the osteo-anabolic response to PTH, a potent calcium-regulating factor. We investigated whether βcat is essential for the anabolic action of intermittent PTH by generating male mice with adult-onset deletion of βcat in a subpopulation of bone cells (osteocytes and late-stage osteoblasts), treating them with an anabolic regimen of PTH, and measuring the skeletal responses. Male (10kb)Dmp1-CreERt2 transgenic mice that also harbored floxed loss-of-function βcat alleles (βcat(f/f)) were induced for Cre activity using tamoxifen, then injected daily with human PTH 1-34 (30 μg/kg) or vehicle for 5 weeks. Mice in which βcat was deleted showed either total lack of bone mineral density (BMD) gain, or BMD loss, and did not respond to PTH treatment. However, bone mass measurements in the trabecular compartment of the femur and spine revealed PTH-induced bone gain whether βcat was deleted or not. PTH-stimulated increases in periosteal and cancellous bone formation rates were not impaired by βcat deletion, but resorption markers and cortical porosity were significantly increased in induced mice, particularly induced mice treated with PTH. These results suggest that βcat is required for net-positive BMD effects of PTH therapy but that the anabolic effects per se of PTH treatment might not require osteocytic/osteoblastic βcat. PMID:27253995

  3. Functional and Structural Analyses of CYP1B1 Variants Linked to Congenital and Adult-Onset Glaucoma to Investigate the Molecular Basis of These Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, Saikat; Ray, Kunal

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma, the leading cause of irreversible blindness, appears in various forms. Mutations in CYP1B1 result in primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) by an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance while it acts as a modifier locus for primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). We investigated the molecular basis of the variable phenotypes resulting from the defects in CYP1B1 by using subclones of 23 CYP1B1 mutants reported in glaucoma patients, in a cell based system by measuring the dual activity of the enzyme to metabolize both retinol and 17β-estradiol. Most variants linked to POAG showed low steroid metabolism while null or very high retinol metabolism was observed in variants identified in PCG. We examined the translational turnover rates of mutant proteins after the addition of cycloheximide and observed that the levels of enzyme activity mostly corroborated the translational turnover rate. We performed extensive normal mode analysis and molecular-dynamics-simulations-based structural analyses and observed significant variation of fluctuation in certain segmental parts of the mutant proteins, especially at the B-C and F-G loops, which were previously shown to affect the dynamic behavior and ligand entry/exit properties of the cytochrome P450 family of proteins. Our molecular study corroborates the structural analysis, and suggests that the pathologic state of the carrier of CYP1B1 mutations is determined by the allelic state of the gene. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to dissect biological activities of CYP1B1 for correlation with congenital and adult onset glaucomas. PMID:27243976

  4. Emotional and behavioral symptoms in neurodegenerative disease: A model for studying the neural bases of psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Levenson, Robert W.; Sturm, Virginia E.; Haase, Claudia M.

    2014-01-01

    Disruptions in emotional, cognitive, and social behavior are common in neurodegenerative disease and many forms of psychopathology. Because neurodegenerative diseases have much clearer patterns of brain atrophy, they may provide a window into the neural bases of these common symptoms. We discuss five common symptoms that occur in both neurodegenerative disease and psychopathology (i.e., anxiety, dysphoric mood, apathy, disinhibition, and euphoric mood) and their associated neural circuitry. We focus on two neurodegenerative diseases (i.e., Alzheimer’s disease and frontotemporal dementia) that are common and well-characterized in terms of emotion, cognition, and social behavior and in patterns of associated neuropathology. Neurodegenerative diseases provide a powerful model system for studying the neural correlates of psychopathological symptoms; this is supported by evidence indicating convergence with psychiatric syndromes (e.g., symptoms of disinhibition associated with dysfunction in orbitofrontal cortex and inferior frontal gyrus in both frontotemporal dementia and bipolar disorder). We conclude that neurodegenerative diseases can play an important role in future approaches to the assessment, prevention, and treatment of mental illness. PMID:24437433

  5. Visual Spatial Cognition in Neurodegenerative Disease

    PubMed Central

    Possin, Katherine L.

    2011-01-01

    Visual spatial impairment is often an early symptom of neurodegenerative disease; however, this multi-faceted domain of cognition is not well-assessed by most typical dementia evaluations. Neurodegenerative diseases cause circumscribed atrophy in distinct neural networks, and accordingly, they impact visual spatial cognition in different and characteristic ways. Anatomically-focused visual spatial assessment can assist the clinician in making an early and accurate diagnosis. This article will review the literature on visual spatial cognition in neurodegenerative disease clinical syndromes, and where research is available, by neuropathologic diagnoses. Visual spatial cognition will be organized primarily according to the following schemes: bottom-up / top-down processing, dorsal / ventral stream processing, and egocentric / allocentric frames of reference. PMID:20526954

  6. Role of iron in neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Li, Kai; Reichmann, Heinz

    2016-04-01

    Currently, we still lack effective measures to modify disease progression in neurodegenerative diseases. Iron-containing proteins play an essential role in many fundamental biological processes in the central nervous system. In addition, iron is a redox-active ion and can induce oxidative stress in the cell. Although the causes and pathology hallmarks of different neurodegenerative diseases vary, iron dyshomeostasis, oxidative stress and mitochondrial injury constitute a common pathway to cell death in several neurodegenerative diseases. MRI is capable of depicting iron content in the brain, and serves as a potential biomarker for early and differential diagnosis, tracking disease progression and evaluating the effectiveness of neuroprotective therapy. Iron chelators have shown their efficacy against neurodegeneration in a series of animal models, and been applied in several clinical trials. In this review, we summarize recent developments on iron dyshomeostasis in Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Friedreich ataxia, and Huntington's disease. PMID:26794939

  7. Movement and Other Neurodegenerative Syndromes in Patients with Systemic Rheumatic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Menezes, Rikitha; Pantelyat, Alexander; Izbudak, Izlem; Birnbaum, Julius

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Patients with rheumatic diseases can present with movement and other neurodegenerative disorders. It may be underappreciated that movement and other neurodegenerative disorders can encompass a wide variety of disease entities. Such disorders are strikingly heterogeneous and lead to a wider spectrum of clinical injury than seen in Parkinson's disease. Therefore, we sought to stringently phenotype movement and other neurodegenerative disorders presenting in a case series of rheumatic disease patients. We integrated our findings with a review of the literature to understand mechanisms which may account for such a ubiquitous pattern of clinical injury. Seven rheumatic disease patients (5 Sjögren's syndrome patients, 2 undifferentiated connective tissue disease patients) were referred and could be misdiagnosed as having Parkinson's disease. However, all of these patients were ultimately diagnosed as having other movement or neurodegenerative disorders. Findings inconsistent with and more expansive than Parkinson's disease included cerebellar degeneration, dystonia with an alien-limb phenomenon, and nonfluent aphasias. A notable finding was that individual patients could be affected by cooccurring movement and other neurodegenerative disorders, each of which could be exceptionally rare (ie, prevalence of ∼1:1000), and therefore with the collective probability that such disorders were merely coincidental and causally unrelated being as low as ∼1-per-billion. Whereas our review of the literature revealed that ubiquitous patterns of clinical injury were frequently associated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings suggestive of a widespread vasculopathy, our patients did not have such neuroimaging findings. Instead, our patients could have syndromes which phenotypically resembled paraneoplastic and other inflammatory disorders which are known to be associated with antineuronal antibodies. We similarly identified immune-mediated and inflammatory markers

  8. Abnormal Mitochondrial Dynamics and Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Su, Bo; Wang, Xinglong; Zheng, Ling; Perry, George; Smith, Mark A.; Zhu, Xiongwei

    2009-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is a prominent feature of various neurodegenerative diseases. A deeper understanding of the remarkably dynamic nature of mitochondria, characterized by a delicate balance of fission and fusion, has helped to fertilize a recent wave of new studies demonstrating abnormal mitochondrial dynamics in neurodegenerative diseases. This review highlights mitochondrial dysfunction and abnormal mitochondrial dynamics in Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Huntington disease and discusses how these abnormal mitochondrial dynamics may contribute to mitochondrial and neuronal dysfunction. We propose that abnormal mitochondrial dynamics represents a key common pathway that mediates or amplifies mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal dysfunction during the course of neurodegeneration. PMID:19799998

  9. Neurodegenerative disease: a different view of diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Hardy, J; Gwinn-Hardy, K

    1999-12-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases have traditionally been defined as clinicopathological entities. Although this has been a productive paradigm in terms of the development of treatment strategies, molecular genetic approaches have revealed that there is overlap between different entities in pathogenic mechanisms. In this article, it is argued that neurodegenerative disease should also be thought of as the consequences of sequential biochemical processes, and that some parts of these processes appear to operate in more than one disease entity. Defining these pathways and, in particular, developing an appreciation of the commonalities between different diseases, should aid in the development of therapies that are effective in several diseases. PMID:10562716

  10. Oligonucleotide-based therapy for neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Magen, Iddo; Hornstein, Eran

    2014-10-10

    Molecular genetics insight into the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer׳s disease, Parkinson׳s disease, Huntington׳s disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, encourages direct interference with the activity of neurotoxic genes or the molecular activation of neuroprotective pathways. Oligonucleotide-based therapies are recently emerging as an efficient strategy for drug development and these can be employed as new treatments of neurodegenerative states. Here we review advances in this field in recent years which suggest an encouraging assessment that oligonucleotide technologies for targeting of RNAs will enable the development of new therapies and will contribute to preservation of brain integrity. PMID:24727531

  11. Dysregulation of Glutathione Homeostasis in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, William M.; Wilson-Delfosse, Amy L.; Mieyal, John. J.

    2012-01-01

    Dysregulation of glutathione homeostasis and alterations in glutathione-dependent enzyme activities are increasingly implicated in the induction and progression of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and Huntington’s diseases, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Friedreich’s ataxia. In this review background is provided on the steady-state synthesis, regulation, and transport of glutathione, with primary focus on the brain. A brief overview is presented on the distinct but vital roles of glutathione in cellular maintenance and survival, and on the functions of key glutathione-dependent enzymes. Major contributors to initiation and progression of neurodegenerative diseases are considered, including oxidative stress, protein misfolding, and protein aggregation. In each case examples of key regulatory mechanisms are identified that are sensitive to changes in glutathione redox status and/or in the activities of glutathione-dependent enzymes. Mechanisms of dysregulation of glutathione and/or glutathione-dependent enzymes are discussed that are implicated in pathogenesis of each neurodegenerative disease. Limitations in information or interpretation are identified, and possible avenues for further research are described with an aim to elucidating novel targets for therapeutic interventions. The pros and cons of administration of N-acetylcysteine or glutathione as therapeutic agents for neurodegenerative diseases, as well as the potential utility of serum glutathione as a biomarker, are critically evaluated. PMID:23201762

  12. Role of neuroinflammation in neurodegenerative diseases (Review).

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Wei; Zhang, Xia; Huang, Wen-Juan

    2016-04-01

    Neurodegeneration is a phenomenon that occurs in the central nervous system through the hallmarks associating the loss of neuronal structure and function. Neurodegeneration is observed after viral insult and mostly in various so-called 'neurodegenerative diseases', generally observed in the elderly, such as Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis that negatively affect mental and physical functioning. Causative agents of neurodegeneration have yet to be identified. However, recent data have identified the inflammatory process as being closely linked with multiple neurodegenerative pathways, which are associated with depression, a consequence of neurodegenerative disease. Accordingly, pro‑inflammatory cytokines are important in the pathophysiology of depression and dementia. These data suggest that the role of neuroinflammation in neurodegeneration must be fully elucidated, since pro‑inflammatory agents, which are the causative effects of neuroinflammation, occur widely, particularly in the elderly in whom inflammatory mechanisms are linked to the pathogenesis of functional and mental impairments. In this review, we investigated the role played by the inflammatory process in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26935478

  13. Role of neuroinflammation in neurodegenerative diseases (Review)

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, WEI-WEI; ZHANG, XIA; HUANG, WEN-JUAN

    2016-01-01

    Neurodegeneration is a phenomenon that occurs in the central nervous system through the hallmarks associating the loss of neuronal structure and function. Neurodegeneration is observed after viral insult and mostly in various so-called 'neurodegenerative diseases', generally observed in the elderly, such as Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis that negatively affect mental and physical functioning. Causative agents of neurodegeneration have yet to be identified. However, recent data have identified the inflammatory process as being closely linked with multiple neurodegenerative pathways, which are associated with depression, a consequence of neurodegenerative disease. Accordingly, pro-inflammatory cytokines are important in the pathophysiology of depression and dementia. These data suggest that the role of neuroinflammation in neurodegeneration must be fully elucidated, since pro-inflammatory agents, which are the causative effects of neuroinflammation, occur widely, particularly in the elderly in whom inflammatory mechanisms are linked to the pathogenesis of functional and mental impairments. In this review, we investigated the role played by the inflammatory process in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26935478

  14. DNA methylation, a hand behind neurodegenerative diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Haoyang; Liu, Xinzhou; Deng, Yulin; Qing, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Epigenetic alterations represent a sort of functional modifications related to the genome that are not responsible for changes in the nucleotide sequence. DNA methylation is one of such epigenetic modifications that have been studied intensively for the past several decades. The transfer of a methyl group to the 5 position of a cytosine is the key feature of DNA methylation. A simple change as such can be caused by a variety of factors, which can be the cause of many serious diseases including several neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we have reviewed and summarized recent progress regarding DNA methylation in four major neurodegenerative diseases: Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease (HD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The studies of these four major neurodegenerative diseases conclude the strong suggestion of the important role DNA methylation plays in these diseases. However, each of these diseases has not yet been understood completely as details in some areas remain unclear, and will be investigated in future studies. We hope this review can provide new insights into the understanding of neurodegenerative diseases from the epigenetic perspective. PMID:24367332

  15. The Role of the Craniocervical Junction in Craniospinal Hydrodynamics and Neurodegenerative Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    The craniocervical junction (CCJ) is a potential choke point for craniospinal hydrodynamics and may play a causative or contributory role in the pathogenesis and progression of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, MS, and ALS, as well as many other neurological conditions including hydrocephalus, idiopathic intracranial hypertension, migraines, seizures, silent-strokes, affective disorders, schizophrenia, and psychosis. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the critical role of the CCJ in craniospinal hydrodynamics and to stimulate further research that may lead to new approaches for the prevention and treatment of the above neurodegenerative and neurological conditions. PMID:26770824

  16. Phenotypic characterization of a Csf1r haploinsufficient mouse model of adult-onset leukodystrophy with axonal spheroids and pigmented glia (ALSP).

    PubMed

    Chitu, Violeta; Gokhan, Solen; Gulinello, Maria; Branch, Craig A; Patil, Madhuvati; Basu, Ranu; Stoddart, Corrina; Mehler, Mark F; Stanley, E Richard

    2015-02-01

    Mutations in the colony stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF1R) that abrogate the expression of the affected allele or lead to the expression of mutant receptor chains devoid of kinase activity have been identified in both familial and sporadic cases of ALSP. To determine the validity of the Csf1r heterozygous mouse as a model of adult-onset leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids and pigmented glia (ALSP) we performed behavioral, radiologic, histopathologic, ultrastructural and cytokine expression studies of young and old Csf1r+/- and control Csf1r+/+ mice. Six to 8-month old Csf1r+/- mice exhibit cognitive deficits, and by 9-11 months develop sensorimotor deficits and in male mice, depression and anxiety-like behavior. MRIs of one year-old Csf1r+/- mice reveal lateral ventricle enlargement and thinning of the corpus callosum. Ultrastructural analysis of the corpus callosum uncovers dysmyelinated axons as well as neurodegeneration, evidenced by the presence of axonal spheroids. Histopathological examination of 11-week-old mice reveals increased axonal and myelin staining in the cortex, increase of neuronal cell density in layer V and increase of microglial cell densities throughout the brain, suggesting that early developmental changes contribute to disease. By 10-months of age, the neuronal cell density normalizes, oligodendrocyte precursor cells increase in layers II-III and V and microglial densities remain elevated without an increase in astrocytes. Also, the age-dependent increase in CSF-1R+ neurons in cortical layer V is reduced. Moreover, the expression of Csf2, Csf3, Il27 and Il6 family cytokines is increased, consistent with microglia-mediated inflammation. These results demonstrate that the inactivation of one Csf1r allele is sufficient to cause an ALSP-like disease in mice. The Csf1r+/- mouse is a model of ALSP that will allow the critical events for disease development to be determined and permit rapid evaluation of therapeutic approaches. Furthermore

  17. Phenotypic characterization of a Csf1r haploinsufficient mouse model of adult-onset leukodystrophy with axonal spheroids and pigmented glia (ALSP)

    PubMed Central

    Chitu, Violeta; Gokhan, Solen; Gulinello, Maria; Branch, Craig A.; Patil, Madhuvati; Basu, Ranu; Stoddart, Corrina; Mehler, Mark F.; Stanley, E. Richard

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the colony stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF1R) that abrogate the expression of the affected allele or lead to the expression of mutant receptor chains devoid of kinase activity have been identified in both familial and sporadic cases of ALSP. To determine the validity of the Csf1r heterozygous mouse as a model of adult-onset leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids and pigmented glia (ALSP) we performed behavioral, radiologic, histopathologic, ultrastructural and cytokine expression studies of young and old Csf1r+/− and control Csf1r+/+ mice. Six to 8-month old Csf1r+/− mice exhibit cognitive deficits, and by 9-11 months develop sensorimotor deficits and in male mice, depression and anxiety-like behavior. MRIs of one year-old Csf1r+/− mice reveal lateral ventricle enlargement and thinning of the corpus callosum. Ultrastructural analysis of the corpus callosum uncovers dysmyelinated axons as well as neurodegeneration, evidenced by the presence of axonal spheroids. Histopathological examination of 11-week-old mice reveals increased axonal and myelin staining in the cortex, increase of neuronal cell density in layer V and increase of microglial cell densities throughout the brain, suggesting that early developmental changes contribute to disease. By 10-months of age, the neuronal cell density normalizes, oligodendrocyte precursor cells increase in layers II-III and V and microglial densities remain elevated without an increase in astrocytes. Also, the age-dependent increase in CSF-1R+ neurons in cortical layer V is reduced. Moreover, the expression of Csf2, Csf3, Il27 and Il6 family cytokines is increased, consistent with microglia-mediated inflammation. These results demonstrate that the inactivation of one Csf1r allele is sufficient to cause an ALSP-like disease in mice. The Csf1r+/− mouse is a model of ALSP that will allow the critical events for disease development to be determined and permit rapid evaluation of therapeutic approaches

  18. FXTAS is rare among Portuguese patients with movement disorders: FMR1 premutations may be associated with a wider spectrum of phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is a late-onset neurodegenerative disorder caused by expansions of 55-200 CGG repeats in the 5'UTR of the FMR1 gene. These FMR1 premutation expansions have relatively high frequency in the general population. To estimate the frequency of FMR1 premutations among Portuguese males with non-familial, late-onset movement disorders of unknown etiology, we assessed CGG repeat size in males with disease onset after the age of 50 and negative or unknown family history for late-onset movement disorders, who were sent for SCA, HD, or PD genetic testing at a reference laboratory. The selected patients had a primary clinical diagnosis based on one of the following cardinal features of FXTAS: ataxia, tremor, or cognitive decline. A total of 86 subjects were genotyped for the CGG repeat in the FMR1 gene. We detected one patient with an expansion in the premutation range. The frequency of FMR1 premutations was 1.9% (1/54) in our group of patients with ataxia as the primary clinical feature, and 1.2% (1/86) in the larger movement disorders group. In the family of the FXTAS case, premutation-transmitting females presented a history of psychiatric symptoms, suggesting that, given the wide phenotypical expression of the premutation in females, neuropsychiatric surveillance is necessary. In conclusion, genetic testing for FXTAS should be made available to patients with adult-onset movement disorders to enable adequate genetic counseling to family members. PMID:21639881

  19. Corpora Amylacea in Neurodegenerative Diseases: Cause or Effect?

    PubMed Central

    Rohn, Troy T.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of corpora amylacea (CA) in the CNS is associated with both normal aging and neurodegenerative conditions including Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD). CA are spherical bodies ranging in diameter (10–50 μm) and whose origin has been documented to be derived from both neural and glial sources. CA are reported to be primarily composed of glucose polymers, but approximately 4% of the total weight of CA is consistently composed of protein. CA are typically localized in the subpial, periventricular and perivascular regions within the CNS. The presence of CA in VaD has recently been documented and of interest was the localization of CA within the hippocampus proper. Despite numerous efforts, the precise role of CA in normal aging or disease is not known. The purpose of this mini review is to highlight the potential function of CA in various neurodegenerative disorders with an emphasis on the potential role if any these structures may play in the etiology of these diseases. PMID:26550607

  20. Endogenously Nitrated Proteins in Mouse Brain: Links To Neurodegenerative Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Sacksteder, Colette A.; Qian, Weijun; Knyushko, Tanya V.; Wang, Haixing H.; Chin, Mark H.; Lacan, Goran; Melega, William P.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Smith, Desmond J.; Squier, Thomas C.; Bigelow, Diana J.

    2006-07-04

    Increased nitrotyrosine modification of proteins has been documented in multiple pathologies in a variety of tissue types; emerging evidence suggests its additional role in redox regulation of normal metabolism. In order to identify proteins sensitive to nitrating conditions in vivo, a comprehensive proteomic dataset identifying 7,792 proteins from whole mouse brain, generated by LC/LC-MS/MS analyses, was used to identify nitrated proteins. This analysis resulted in identification of 31 unique nitrotyrosine sites within 29 different proteins. Over half of the nitrated proteins identified have been reported to be involved in Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, or other neurodegenerative disorders. Similarly, nitrotyrosine immunoblots of whole brain homogenates show that treatment of mice with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), an experimental model of Parkinson's disease, induces increased nitration of the same protein bands observed to be nitrated in brains of untreated animals. Comparing sequences and available high resolution structures around nitrated tyrosines with those of unmodified sites indicates a preference of nitration in vivo for surface accessible tyrosines in loops, characteristics consistent with peroxynitrite-induced tyrosine modification. More striking is the five-fold greater nitration of tyrosines having nearby basic sidechains, suggesting electrostatic attraction of basic groups with the negative charge of peroxynitrite. Together, these results suggest that elevated peroxynitrite generation plays a role in neurodegenerative changes in the brain and provides a predictive tool of functionally important sites of nitration.

  1. Advances in Epigenetics and Epigenomics for Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Irfan A.

    2015-01-01

    In the post-genomic era, epigenetic factors—literally those that are “over” or “above” genetic ones and responsible for controlling the expression and function of genes—have emerged as important mediators of development and aging; gene-gene and gene-environmental interactions; and the pathophysiology of complex disease states. Here, we provide a brief overview of the major epigenetic mechanisms (ie, DNA methylation, histone modifications and chromatin remodeling, and non-coding RNA regulation). We highlight the nearly ubiquitous profiles of epigenetic dysregulation that have been found in Alzheimer’s and other neurodegenerative diseases. We also review innovative methods and technologies that enable the characterization of individual epigenetic modifications and more widespread epigenomic states at high resolution. We conclude that, together with complementary genetic, genomic, and related approaches, interrogating epigenetic and epigenomic profiles in neurodegenerative diseases represent important and increasingly practical strategies for advancing our understanding of and the diagnosis and treatment of these disorders. PMID:21671162

  2. Clinicopathologic assessment and imaging of tauopathies in neurodegenerative dementias

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Microtubule-associated protein tau encoded by the MAPT gene binds to microtubules and is important for maintaining neuronal morphology and function. Alternative splicing of MAPT pre-mRNA generates six major tau isoforms in the adult central nervous system resulting in tau proteins with three or four microtubule-binding repeat domains. In a group of neurodegenerative disorders called tauopathies, tau becomes aberrantly hyperphosphorylated and dissociates from microtubules, resulting in a progressive accumulation of intracellular tau aggregates. The spectrum of sporadic frontotemporal lobar degeneration associated with tau pathology includes progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, and Pick’s disease. Alzheimer’s disease is considered the most prevalent tauopathy. This review is divided into two broad sections. In the first section we discuss the molecular classification of sporadic tauopathies, with a focus on describing clinicopathologic relationships. In the second section we discuss the neuroimaging methodologies that are available for measuring tau pathology (directly using tau positron emission tomography ligands) and tau-mediated neuronal injury (magnetic resonance imaging and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography). Both sections have detailed descriptions of the following neurodegenerative dementias – Alzheimer’s disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration and Pick’s disease. PMID:24382028

  3. Role of the Retromer Complex in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chaosi; Shah, Syed Zahid Ali; Zhao, Deming; Yang, Lifeng

    2016-01-01

    The retromer complex is a protein complex that plays a central role in endosomal trafficking. Retromer dysfunction has been linked to a growing number of neurological disorders. The process of intracellular trafficking and recycling is crucial for maintaining normal intracellular homeostasis, which is partly achieved through the activity of the retromer complex. The retromer complex plays a primary role in sorting endosomal cargo back to the cell surface for reuse, to the trans-Golgi network (TGN), or alternatively to specialized endomembrane compartments, in which the cargo is not subjected to lysosomal-mediated degradation. In most cases, the retromer acts as a core that interacts with associated proteins, including sorting nexin family member 27 (SNX27), members of the vacuolar protein sorting 10 (VPS10) receptor family, the major endosomal actin polymerization-promoting complex known as Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein and scar homolog (WASH), and other proteins. Some of the molecules carried by the retromer complex are risk factors for neurodegenerative diseases. Defects such as haplo-insufficiency or mutations in one or several units of the retromer complex lead to various pathologies. Here, we summarize the molecular architecture of the retromer complex and the roles of this system in intracellular trafficking related the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26973516

  4. Nanoparticles and Colloids as Contributing Factors in Neurodegenerative Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bondy, Stephen C.

    2011-01-01

    This review explores the processes underlying the deleterious effects of the presence of insoluble or colloidal depositions within the central nervous system. These materials are chemically unreactive and can have a prolonged residence in the brain. They can be composed of mineral or proteinaceous materials of intrinsic or exogenous origin. Such nanoparticulates and colloids are associated with a range of slow-progressing neurodegenerative states. The potential common basis of toxicity of these materials is discussed. A shared feature of these disorders involves the appearance of deleterious inflammatory changes in the CNS. This may be due to extended and ineffective immune responses. Another aspect is the presence of excess levels of reactive oxygen species within the brain. In addition with their induction by inflammatory events, these may be further heightened by the presence of redox active transition metals to the large surface area afforded by nanoparticles and amphipathic micelles. PMID:21776226

  5. Modelling early responses to neurodegenerative mutations in mice.

    PubMed

    Gilley, Jonathan; Adalbert, Robert; Coleman, Michael P

    2011-08-01

    Considering the many differences between mice and humans, it is perhaps surprising how well mice model late-onset human neurodegenerative disease. Models of Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease show some striking similarities to the corresponding human pathologies in terms of axonal transport disruption, protein aggregation, synapse loss and some behavioural phenotypes. However, there are also major differences. To extrapolate from mouse models to human disease, we need to understand how these differences relate to intrinsic limitations of the mouse system and to the effects of transgene overexpression. In the present paper, we use examples from an amyloid-overexpression model and a mutant-tau-knockin model to illustrate what we learn from each type of approach and what the limitations are. Finally, we discuss the further contributions that knockin and similar approaches can make to understanding pathogenesis and how best to model disorders of aging in a short-lived mammal. PMID:21787326

  6. Nitric Oxide Homeostasis in Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    PubMed

    Hannibal, Luciana

    2016-01-01

    The role of nitric oxide in the pathogenesis and progression of neurodegenerative illnesses such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases has become prominent over the years. Increased activity of the enzymes that produce reactive oxygen species, decreased activity of antioxidant enzymes and imbalances in glutathione pools mediate and mark the neurodegenerative process. Much of the oxidative damage of proteins is brought about by the overproduction of nitric oxide by nitric oxide synthases (NOS) and its subsequent reactivity with reactive oxygen species. Proteomic methods have advanced the field tremendously, by facilitating the quantitative assessment of differential expression patterns and oxidative modifications of proteins and alongside, mapping their non-canonical functions. As a signaling molecule involved in multiple biochemical pathways, the level of nitric oxide is subject to tight regulation. All three NOS isoforms display aberrant patterns of expression in Alzheimer's disease, altering intracellular signaling and routing oxidative stress in directions that are uncompounded. This review discusses the prime factors that control nitric oxide biosynthesis, reactivity footprints and ensuing effects in the development of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26391043

  7. Neurodegenerative disorder masquerading as psychosis in a forensic psychiatry setting

    PubMed Central

    Sommerlad, Andrew; Lee, James; Warren, Jason; Price, Gary

    2014-01-01

    A man presenting in his 50s, following conviction for a non-violent crime, to forensic psychiatric services, and then to a neuropsychiatry service with an unusual presentation of psychosis: second person auditory hallucinations, grandiose delusions and somatic delusions. Detailed collateral and family history revealed a background of progressive cognitive deficit and a family history of motor neuron disease. MRI of the brain revealed asymmetrical parieto-occipital volume loss and genetic testing demonstrated a pathogenic expansion of the chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (C9ORF72) gene consistent with familial frontotemporal dementia caused by a hexanucleotide repeat expansion at C9ORF72, a recently discovered cause of familial frontotemporal dementia/motor neuron disease. This form of frontotemporal dementia should be considered as an important potential differential diagnosis for patients presenting with psychotic symptoms in later life, in whom a detailed family history and thorough cognitive assessment is essential. PMID:24928930

  8. Clinical drug research in chronic central neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Müller, Thomas; Foley, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Several compounds developed the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease have been clinically unsuccessful. Suggested reasons for these failures have included heterogeneous symptom expression, inappropriate assessment of effects, safety and tolerability hurdles, short duration of disease-modifying trials, recruiting pressure on study centers, administrative and bureaucratic overload, and pooling results from trial centers in different health care systems with differing quality and therapeutic concepts. The solution to these problems will include reducing the costs of drug development, with a concomitant reduction of approval hurdles. Trial designs are influenced by ethics committees, health care officials, political administrations, and research scientists. None have direct contact with the treated patients. Approval of novel therapeutic agents lies in the remit of health care officials, whereby price plays a more dominant role than therapeutic efficacy. Patients and prescribing physicians, however, are better placed to act as arbiters of the efficacy, risks, and overall value of a new drug in practice. PMID:26950806

  9. Three-dimensional rodent motion analysis and neurodegenerative disorders

    PubMed Central

    Karakostas, Tasos; Hsiang, Simon; Boger, Heather; Middaugh, Lawrence; Granholm, Ann-Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Background Three-dimensional (3D) motion analysis is established in investigating, human pathological motion. In the field of gait, its use results in the objective identification of primary, and secondary causes of deviations, many current interventions are the result of pre- and post-testing, and it was shown recently that it can result in decreased number of surgeries and overall cost of care. Consequently, recent attempts have implemented 3D motion analysis using rat models to study, parkinsonism. However, to-date, a 3D user friendly analytical approach using rodent models to, identify etiologies of age-related motor impairment and accompanying pathologies has not been, implemented. New method We have developed and presented all aspects of a 3D, three body-segment rodent model, to analyze motions of the lower, upper and head segments between rodents of parkinsonism-type and, normal aging during free walking. Our model does not require transformation matrices to describe the, position of each body-segment. Because body-segment positions are not considered to consist of three, rotations about the laboratory axes, the rotations are not sequence dependent. Results Each body-segment demonstrated distinct 3D movement patterns. The parkinsonism-type, genotype walked slower with less range of motion, similarly to patients with parkinsonism. Comparison with existing methods This is the first model considering the rodent’s body as three, distinct segments. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first model to ever consider and report the 3D, head motion patterns. Conclusions This novel approach will allow unbiased analysis of spontaneous locomotion in mouse, models of parkinsonism or normal aging. PMID:24129039

  10. Tocopherol (vitamin E) in Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Berman, Karen; Brodaty, Henry

    2004-01-01

    In this article, we review the evidence that tocopherol (vitamin E) may have a role to play in the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease and other neurological diseases. The theoretical rationale for the effectiveness of tocopherol as treatment and/or prevention of Alzheimer's disease is based on its antioxidant properties. Results from animal and in vitro studies provide evidence to support use of tocopherol for prevention and treatment of degenerative neurological diseases. Furthermore, several, but not all, epidemiological, cross-sectional, prospective studies indicate that tocopherol may have protective effects in Alzheimer's disease, although dietary and supplemental forms of the vitamin may differ in their efficacy. Mixed results have been obtained from clinical trials. Evidence of the use of tocopherol as a protective measure or as therapy in neurological diseases other than Alzheimer's disease is less compelling. To date, there are no clear-cut answers as to whether tocopherol is worth prescribing, but current clinical practice favours its use in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:15377170

  11. Viral Vector-Based Modeling of Neurodegenerative Disorders: Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Fischer, D Luke; Gombash, Sara E; Kemp, Christopher J; Manfredsson, Fredric P; Polinski, Nicole K; Duffy, Megan F; Sortwell, Caryl E

    2016-01-01

    Gene therapy methods are increasingly used to model Parkinson's disease (PD) in animals in an effort to test experimental therapeutics within a more relevant context to disease pathophysiology and neuropathology. We have detailed several criteria that are critical or advantageous to accurately modeling PD in a murine model or in a nonhuman primate. Using these criteria, we then evaluate approaches made to model PD using viral vectors to date, including both adeno-associated viruses and lentiviruses. Lastly, we comment on the consideration of aging as a critical factor for modeling PD. PMID:26611600

  12. Progressive neurodegenerative syndrome in a patient with X-linked agammaglobulinemia receiving intravenous immunoglobulin therapy.

    PubMed

    Sag, Aslihan Taskiran; Saka, Esen; Ozgur, Tuba Turul; Sanal, Ozden; Ayvaz, Deniz Cagdas; Elibol, Bulent; Kurne, Asli Tuncer

    2014-09-01

    A progressive encephalopathy of unknown etiology has been described in patients with primary immunodeficiency disorders. In this report, we characterize the clinical features of this progressive neurodegenerative dementing disorder in a young man with Bruton agammaglobulinemia, through neuropsychological tests and a video sequence. The clinical course of the encephalopathy seems rather uniform: Cognition, especially frontal lobe function, is affected in the early stages, and some patients develop movement disorders. The syndrome causes severe cognitive and physical disability, and can eventually be fatal. The autoimmunity results from dysregulated immune responses, but the underlying mechanism has not yet been fully explained. PMID:25237746

  13. Can neurodegenerative disease be defined by four 'primary determinants': anatomy, cells, molecules, and morphology?

    PubMed

    Armstrong, R A

    2016-01-01

    Traditional methods of describing and classifying neurodegenerative disease are based on the clinico-pathological concept supported by molecular pathological studies and defined by 'consensus criteria'. Disease heterogeneity, overlap between disorders, and the presence of multiple co-pathologies, however, have questioned the validity and status of many traditional disorders. If cases of neurodegenerative disease are not easily classifiable into distinct entities, but more continuously distributed, then a new descriptive framework may be required. This review proposes that there are four key neuropathological features of neurodegenerative disease (the 'primary determinants') that could be used to provide such a framework, viz., the anatomical pathways affected by the disease ('anatomy'), the cell populations affected ('cells'), the molecular pathology of 'signature' pathological lesions ('molecules'), and the morphological types of neurodegeneration ('morphology'). This review first discusses the limitations of existing classificatory systems and second provides evidence that the four primary determinants could be used as axes to define all cases of neurodegenerative disease. To illustrate the methodology, the primary determinants were applied to the study of a group of closely related tauopathy cases and to heterogeneity within frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 proteinopathy (FTLD-TDP). PMID:27543767

  14. Applications of Surface Plasmon Resonance for Characterization of Molecules Important in the Pathogenesis and Treatment of Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wittenberg, Nathan J.; Wootla, Bharath; Jordan, Luke R.; Denic, Aleksandar; Warrington, Arthur E.; Oh, Sang-Hyun; Rodriguez, Moses

    2014-01-01

    Characterization of binding kinetics and affinity between a potential new drug and its receptor are key steps in the development of new drugs. Among the techniques available to determine binding affinities, surface plasmon resonance has emerged as the gold standard because it can measure binding and dissociation rates in real-time in a label-free fashion. Surface plasmon resonance is now finding applications in the characterization of molecules for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, characterization of molecules associated with pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases and detection of neurodegenerative disease biomarkers. In addition it has been used in the characterization of a new class of natural autoantibodies that have therapeutic potential in a number of neurologic diseases. In this review we will introduce surface plasmon resonance and describe some applications of the technique that pertain to neurodegenerative disorders and their treatment. PMID:24625008

  15. Applications of SPR for the characterization of molecules important in the pathogenesis and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Wittenberg, Nathan J; Wootla, Bharath; Jordan, Luke R; Denic, Aleksandar; Warrington, Arthur E; Oh, Sang-Hyun; Rodriguez, Moses

    2014-04-01

    Characterization of binding kinetics and affinity between a potential drug and its receptor are key steps in the development of new drugs. Among the techniques available to determine binding affinities, surface plasmon resonance has emerged as the gold standard because it can measure binding and dissociation rates in real-time in a label-free fashion. Surface plasmon resonance is now finding applications in the characterization of molecules for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, characterization of molecules associated with pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases and detection of neurodegenerative disease biomarkers. In addition it has been used in the characterization of a new class of natural autoantibodies that have therapeutic potential in a number of neurologic diseases. In this review we will introduce surface plasmon resonance and describe some applications of the technique that pertain to neurodegenerative disorders and their treatment. PMID:24625008

  16. Anthropogenic pollutants may increase the incidence of neurodegenerative disease in an aging population.

    PubMed

    Bondy, Stephen C

    2016-02-01

    The current world population contains an ever-increasing increased proportion of the elderly. This is due to global improvements in medical care and access to such care. Thus, a growing incidence of age-related neurodegenerative disorders is to be expected. Increased longevity also allows more time for interaction with adverse environmental factors that have the potential exert a gradual pressure, facilitating the onset of organismic aging. Nearly all neurodegenerative disorders have a relatively minor genetic element and a larger idiopathic component. It is likely that some of the unknown factors promoting neurological disease involve the appearance of some deleterious aspects of senescence, elicited prematurely by low but pervasive levels of toxic materials present in the environment. This review considers the nature of such possible toxicants and how they may hasten neurosenescence. An enhanced rate of emergence of normal age-related changes in the brain can lead to increased incidence of those specific neurological disorders where aging is an essential requirement. In addition, some xenobiotic agents appear to have the capability of engendering specific neurodegenerative disorders and some of these are also considered. PMID:26812399

  17. Multi-Channel neurodegenerative pattern analysis and its application in Alzheimer's disease characterization

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Sidong; Cai, Weidong; Wen, Lingfeng; Feng, David Dagan; Pujol, Sonia; Kikinis, Ron; Fulham, Michael J.; Eberl, Stefan; ADNI

    2014-01-01

    Neuroimaging has played an important role in non-invasive diagnosis and differentiation of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment. Various features have been extracted from the neuroimaging data to characterize the disorders, and these features can be roughly divided into global and local features. Recent studies show a tendency of using local features in disease characterization, since they are capable of identifying the subtle disease-specific patterns associated with the effects of the disease on human brain. However, problems arise if the neuroimaging database involved multiple disorders or progressive disorders, as disorders of different types or at different progressive stages might exhibit different degenerative patterns. It is difficult for the researchers to reach consensus on what brain regions could effectively distinguish multiple disorders or multiple progression stages. In this study we proposed a Multi-Channel pattern analysis approach to identify the most discriminative local brain metabolism features for neurodegenerative disorder characterization. We compared our method to global methods and other pattern analysis methods based on clinical expertise or statistics tests. The preliminary results suggested that the proposed Multi-Channel pattern analysis method outperformed other approaches in Alzheimer's disease characterization, and meanwhile provided important insights into the underlying pathology of Alzheimer's disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment. PMID:24933011

  18. Overcoming obstacles to repurposing for neurodegenerative disease

    PubMed Central

    Shineman, Diana W; Alam, John; Anderson, Margaret; Black, Sandra E; Carman, Aaron J; Cummings, Jeffrey L; Dacks, Penny A; Dudley, Joel T; Frail, Donald E; Green, Allan; Lane, Rachel F; Lappin, Debra; Simuni, Tanya; Stefanacci, Richard G; Sherer, Todd; Fillit, Howard M

    2014-01-01

    Repurposing Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs for a new indication may offer an accelerated pathway for new treatments to patients but is also fraught with significant commercial, regulatory, and reimbursement challenges. The Alzheimer’s Drug Discovery Foundation (ADDF) and the Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson’s Research (MJFF) convened an advisory panel in October 2013 to understand stakeholder perspectives related to repurposing FDA-approved drugs for neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we present opportunities on how philanthropy, industry, and government can begin to address these challenges, promote policy changes, and develop targeted funding strategies to accelerate the potential of FDA-approved repurposed drugs. PMID:25356422

  19. Overcoming obstacles to repurposing for neurodegenerative disease.

    PubMed

    Shineman, Diana W; Alam, John; Anderson, Margaret; Black, Sandra E; Carman, Aaron J; Cummings, Jeffrey L; Dacks, Penny A; Dudley, Joel T; Frail, Donald E; Green, Allan; Lane, Rachel F; Lappin, Debra; Simuni, Tanya; Stefanacci, Richard G; Sherer, Todd; Fillit, Howard M

    2014-07-01

    Repurposing Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs for a new indication may offer an accelerated pathway for new treatments to patients but is also fraught with significant commercial, regulatory, and reimbursement challenges. The Alzheimer's Drug Discovery Foundation (ADDF) and the Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson's Research (MJFF) convened an advisory panel in October 2013 to understand stakeholder perspectives related to repurposing FDA-approved drugs for neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we present opportunities on how philanthropy, industry, and government can begin to address these challenges, promote policy changes, and develop targeted funding strategies to accelerate the potential of FDA-approved repurposed drugs. PMID:25356422

  20. Structure based molecular inhibition of Caspase-8 for treatment of multi-neurodegenerative diseases using known natural compounds

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Khurshid; Khan, Saif; Adil, Mohd; Saeed, Mohd; Srivastava, Ashwini Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Neurodegenerative disorders are often associated with excessive neuronal apoptosis. It is well known that apoptosis is regulated by some intracellular proteases, such as, Caspases (cysteine-dependent, aspartate-specific proteases). In fact, Caspase-8 which is an initiator caspase, has been identified as a key mediator of neuronal apoptosis. In addition, Caspase-8 is found to be coupled with the regulation of various neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer׳s disease (AD), Parkinson׳s disease (PD), Huntington׳s Diseases (HD) and Dentatorubral Pallidoluysian Atrophy (DRPLA). Caspase-8 inhibition may provide an effective means of treatment for multiple neurodegenerative disorders. Therefore, the present study describes the molecular interaction of some selected natural compounds with known anti neurodegenerative properties with Caspase-8. Docking between Caspase-8 and each of these compounds (separately) was performed using ‘Autodock4.2’. Out of all the selected compounds, rosmarinic acid and curcumin proved to be the most potent inhibitors of Caspase-8 with binding energy (ΔG) of -7.10 Kcal/mol and -7.08 Kcal/mol, respectively. However, further in vitro and in vivo studies are needed to validate the anti-neurodegenerative potential of these compounds. PMID:24966519

  1. Spreading of pathology in neurodegenerative diseases: a focus on human studies

    PubMed Central

    Brettschneider, Johannes; Del Tredici, Kelly; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.; Trojanowski, John Q.

    2015-01-01

    The progression of many neurodegenerative diseases is thought to be driven by the template-directed misfolding, seeded aggregation and cell–cell transmission of characteristic disease-related proteins, leading to the sequential dissemination of pathological protein aggregates. Recent evidence strongly suggests that the anatomical connections made by neurons — in addition to the intrinsic characteristics of neurons, such as morphology and gene expression profile — determine whether they are vulnerable to degeneration in these disorders. Notably, this common pathogenic principle opens up opportunities for pursuing novel targets for therapeutic interventions for these neurodegenerative disorders. We review recent evidence that supports the notion of neuron–neuron protein propagation, with a focus on neuropathological and positron emission tomography imaging studies in humans. PMID:25588378

  2. Potential of cystamine and cysteamine in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Gibrat, C; Cicchetti, F

    2011-03-30

    Neurodegenerative disorders are a subset of disabling pathologies characterized, in part, by a progressive and specific loss of certain brain cell populations. Current therapeutic approaches for the treatment of these disorders are mainly designed towards symptom management and do not manifestly block their typified neuronal loss. However, research conducted over the past decade has reflected the increasing interest and need to find disease-modifying molecules. Among the several neuroprotective agents emerging from experimental animal work, cystamine, as well as its reduced form cysteamine, have been identified as potential candidate drugs. Given the significant benefits observed in a Huntington's disease (HD) model, cysteamine has recently leaped to clinical trial. Here, we review the beneficial properties of these compounds as reported in animal studies, their mechanistic underpinnings, and their potential implications for the future treatment of patients suffering from neurodegenerative diseases, and more specifically for HD and Parkinson's disease (PD). PMID:21111020

  3. Association between environmental exposure to pesticides and neurodegenerative diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Parron, Tesifon; Requena, Mar; Hernandez, Antonio F.; Alarcon, Raquel

    2011-11-15

    Preliminary studies have shown associations between chronic pesticide exposure in occupational settings and neurological disorders. However, data on the effects of long-term non-occupational exposures are too sparse to allow any conclusions. This study examines the influence of environmental pesticide exposure on a number of neuropsychiatric conditions and discusses their underlying pathologic mechanisms. An ecological study was conducted using averaged prevalence rates of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, cerebral degeneration, polyneuropathies, affective psychosis and suicide attempts in selected Andalusian health districts categorized into areas of high and low environmental pesticide exposure based on the number of hectares devoted to intensive agriculture and pesticide sales per capita. A total of 17,429 cases were collected from computerized hospital records (minimum dataset) between 1998 and 2005. Prevalence rates and the risk of having Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis and suicide were significantly higher in districts with greater pesticide use as compared to those with lower pesticide use. The multivariate analyses showed that the population living in areas with high pesticide use had an increased risk for Alzheimer's disease and suicide attempts and that males living in these areas had increased risks for polyneuropathies, affective disorders and suicide attempts. In conclusion, this study supports and extends previous findings and provides an indication that environmental exposure to pesticides may affect the human health by increasing the incidence of certain neurological disorders at the level of the general population. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmental exposure to pesticides and neurodegenerative-psychiatric disorders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increased risk for Alzheimer's disease and suicide attempts in high exposure areas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Males from

  4. Sleep-disordered breathing in a patient with congenital myopathy.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Y; Shimizu, T; Takahashi, K; Saito, Y; Ogawa, Y; Kanbayashi, T; Hishikawa, Y

    1998-04-01

    A case of adult onset myopathy who showed a peculiar sleep-related respiratory disorder (SRRD) is reported. She recovered from respiratory failure after tracheostomy and/or with the aid of the respirator used only during the night. Sleep study without the use of respirator revealed that her sleep was highly fragmented by frequent arousal responses due to inspiratory effort but not by apnea or hypopnea. To our knowledge this type of SRRD has not been described. PMID:9628169

  5. Genetic susceptibility testing for neurodegenerative diseases: Ethical and practice issues

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, J. Scott; Uhlmann, Wendy R.

    2013-01-01

    As the genetics of neurodegenerative disease become better understood, opportunities for genetic susceptibility testing for at-risk individuals will increase. Such testing raises important ethical and practice issues related to test access, informed consent, risk estimation and communication, return of results, and policies to prevent genetic discrimination. The advent of direct-to-consumer genetic susceptibility testing for various neurodegenerative disorders (including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and certain prion diseases) means that ethical and practical challenges must be faced not only in traditional research and clinical settings, but also in broader society. This review addresses several topics relevant to the development and implementation of genetic susceptibility tests across research, clinical, and consumer settings; these include appropriate indications for testing, the implications of different methods for disclosing test results, clinical versus personal utility of risk information, psychological and behavioral responses to test results, testing of minors, genetic discrimination, and ethical dilemmas posed by whole-genome sequencing. We also identify future areas of likely growth in the field, including pharmacogenomics and genetic screening for individuals considering or engaged in activities that pose elevated risk of brain injury (e.g., football players, military personnel). APOE gene testing for risk of Alzheimer’s disease is used throughout as an instructive case example, drawing upon the authors’ experience as investigators in a series of multisite randomized clinical trials that have examined the impact of disclosing APOE genotype status to interested individuals (e.g., first-degree relatives, persons with mild cognitive impairment). PMID:23583530

  6. An Effective Method to Identify Shared Pathways and Common Factors among Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ping; Nie, Yaling; Yu, Jingkai

    2015-01-01

    Groups of distinct but related diseases often share common symptoms, which suggest likely overlaps in underlying pathogenic mechanisms. Identifying the shared pathways and common factors among those disorders can be expected to deepen our understanding for them and help designing new treatment strategies effected on those diseases. Neurodegeneration diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD), were taken as a case study in this research. Reported susceptibility genes for AD, PD and HD were collected and human protein-protein interaction network (hPPIN) was used to identify biological pathways related to neurodegeneration. 81 KEGG pathways were found to be correlated with neurodegenerative disorders. 36 out of the 81 are human disease pathways, and the remaining ones are involved in miscellaneous human functional pathways. Cancers and infectious diseases are two major subclasses within the disease group. Apoptosis is one of the most significant functional pathways. Most of those pathways found here are actually consistent with prior knowledge of neurodegenerative diseases except two cell communication pathways: adherens and tight junctions. Gene expression analysis showed a high probability that the two pathways were related to neurodegenerative diseases. A combination of common susceptibility genes and hPPIN is an effective method to study shared pathways involved in a group of closely related disorders. Common modules, which might play a bridging role in linking neurodegenerative disorders and the enriched pathways, were identified by clustering analysis. The identified shared pathways and common modules can be expected to yield clues for effective target discovery efforts on neurodegeneration. PMID:26575483

  7. Mitochondrial genome changes and neurodegenerative diseases☆

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Milena; Moraes, Carlos T.

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria are essential organelles within the cell where most of the energy production occurs by the oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS). Critical components of the OXPHOS are encoded by the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and therefore, mutations involving this genome can be deleterious to the cell. Post-mitotic tissues, such as muscle and brain, are most sensitive to mtDNA changes, due to their high energy requirements and non-proliferative status. It has been proposed that mtDNA biological features and location make it vulnerable to mutations, which accumulate over time. However, although the role of mtDNA damage has been conclusively connected to neuronal impairment in mitochondrial diseases, its role in age-related neurodegenerative diseases remains speculative. Here we review the pathophysiology of mtDNA mutations leading to neurodegeneration and discuss the insights obtained by studying mouse models of mtDNA dysfunction. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Misfolded Proteins, Mitochondrial Dysfunction, and Neurodegenerative Diseases. PMID:24252612

  8. [The role of thiamine in neurodegenerative diseases].

    PubMed

    Bubko, Irena; Gruber, Beata M; Anuszewska, Elżbieta L

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin B1 (thiamine) plays an important role in metabolism. It is indispensable for normal growth and development of the organism. Thiamine has a favourable impact on a number of systems, including the digestive, cardiovascular and nervous systems. It also stimulates the brain and improves the psycho-emotional state. Hence it is often called the vitamin of "reassurance of the spirit". Thiamine is a water-soluble vitamin. It can be present in the free form as thiamine or as its phosphate esters: mono-, di- or triphosphate. The main source of thiamine as an exogenous vitamin is certain foodstuffs, but trace amounts can be synthesised by microorganisms of the large intestine. The recommended daily intake of thiamine is about 2.0 mg. Since vitamin B1 has no ability to accumulate in the organism, manifestations of its deficiency begin to appear very quickly. The chronic state of thiamine deficiency, to a large extent, because of its function, contributes to the development of neurodegenerative diseases. It was proved that supporting vitamin B1 therapy not only constitutes neuroprotection but can also have a favourable impact on advanced neurodegenerative diseases. This article presents the current state of knowledge as regards the effects of thiamine exerted through this vitamin in a number of diseases such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Wernicke's encephalopathy or Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome and Huntington's disease. PMID:26400895

  9. Therapeutic potential of berberine against neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Jiang, WenXiao; Li, ShiHua; Li, XiaoJiang

    2015-06-01

    Berberine (BBR) is an organic small molecule isolated from various plants that have been used in traditional Chinese medicine. Isolation of this compound was its induction into modern medicine, and its usefulness became quickly apparent as seen in its ability to combat bacterial diarrhea, type 2 diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, inflammation, heart diseases, and more. However, BBR's effects on neurodegenerative diseases remained relatively unexplored until its ability to stunt Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression was characterized. In this review, we will delve into the multi-faceted defensive capabilities and bio-molecular pathways of BBR against AD, Parkinson's disease (PD), and trauma-induced neurodegeneration. The multiple effects of BBR, some of which enhance neuro-protective factors/pathways and others counteract targets that induce neurodegeneration, suggest that there are many more branches to the diverse capabilities of BBR that have yet to be uncovered. The promising results seen provide a convincing and substantial basis to support further scientific exploration and development of the therapeutic potential of BBR against neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25749423

  10. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy and other neurodegenerative proteinopathies.

    PubMed

    Tartaglia, Maria Carmela; Hazrati, Lili-Naz; Davis, Karen D; Green, Robin E A; Wennberg, Richard; Mikulis, David; Ezerins, Leo J; Keightley, Michelle; Tator, Charles

    2014-01-01

    "Chronic traumatic encephalopathy" (CTE) is described as a slowly progressive neurodegenerative disease believed to result from multiple concussions. Traditionally, concussions were considered benign events and although most people recover fully, about 10% develop a post-concussive syndrome with persisting neurological, cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms. CTE was once thought to be unique to boxers, but it has now been observed in many different athletes having suffered multiple concussions as well as in military personal after repeated blast injuries. Much remains unknown about the development of CTE but its pathological substrate is usually tau, similar to that seen in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). The aim of this "perspective" is to compare and contrast clinical and pathological CTE with the other neurodegenerative proteinopathies and highlight that there is an urgent need for understanding the relationship between concussion and the development of CTE as it may provide a window into the development of a proteinopathy and thus new avenues for treatment. PMID:24550810

  11. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy and other neurodegenerative proteinopathies

    PubMed Central

    Tartaglia, Maria Carmela; Hazrati, Lili-Naz; Davis, Karen D.; Green, Robin E. A.; Wennberg, Richard; Mikulis, David; Ezerins, Leo J.; Keightley, Michelle; Tator, Charles

    2014-01-01

    “Chronic traumatic encephalopathy” (CTE) is described as a slowly progressive neurodegenerative disease believed to result from multiple concussions. Traditionally, concussions were considered benign events and although most people recover fully, about 10% develop a post-concussive syndrome with persisting neurological, cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms. CTE was once thought to be unique to boxers, but it has now been observed in many different athletes having suffered multiple concussions as well as in military personal after repeated blast injuries. Much remains unknown about the development of CTE but its pathological substrate is usually tau, similar to that seen in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). The aim of this “perspective” is to compare and contrast clinical and pathological CTE with the other neurodegenerative proteinopathies and highlight that there is an urgent need for understanding the relationship between concussion and the development of CTE as it may provide a window into the development of a proteinopathy and thus new avenues for treatment. PMID:24550810

  12. Systems-Level G Protein-Coupled Receptor Therapy Across a Neurodegenerative Continuum by the GLP-1 Receptor System

    PubMed Central

    Janssens, Jonathan; Etienne, Harmonie; Idriss, Sherif; Azmi, Abdelkrim; Martin, Bronwen; Maudsley, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    With our increasing appreciation of the true complexity of diseases and pathophysiologies, it is clear that this knowledge needs to inform the future development of pharmacotherapeutics. For many disorders, the disease mechanism itself is a complex process spanning multiple signaling networks, tissues, and organ systems. Identifying the precise nature and locations of the pathophysiology is crucial for the creation of systemically effective drugs. Diseases once considered constrained to a limited range of organ systems, e.g., central neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), and Huntington’ disease (HD), the role of multiple central and peripheral organ systems in the etiology of such diseases is now widely accepted. With this knowledge, it is increasingly clear that these seemingly distinct neurodegenerative disorders (AD, PD, and HD) possess multiple pathophysiological similarities thereby demonstrating an inter-related continuum of disease-related molecular alterations. With this systems-level appreciation of neurodegenerative diseases, it is now imperative to consider that pharmacotherapeutics should be developed specifically to address the systemic imbalances that create the disorders. Identification of potential systems-level signaling axes may facilitate the generation of therapeutic agents with synergistic remedial activity across multiple tissues, organ systems, and even diseases. Here, we discuss the potentially therapeutic systems-level interaction of the glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) ligand–receptor axis with multiple aspects of the AD, PD, and HD neurodegenerative continuum. PMID:25225492

  13. A Potential Alternative against Neurodegenerative Diseases: Phytodrugs.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Hernández, Jesús; Zaldívar-Machorro, Víctor Javier; Villanueva-Porras, David; Vega-Ávila, Elisa; Chavarría, Anahí

    2016-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases (ND) primarily affect the neurons in the human brain secondary to oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. ND are more common and have a disproportionate impact on countries with longer life expectancies and represent the fourth highest source of overall disease burden in the high-income countries. A large majority of the medicinal plant compounds, such as polyphenols, alkaloids, and terpenes, have therapeutic properties. Polyphenols are the most common active compounds in herbs and vegetables consumed by man. The biological bioactivity of polyphenols against neurodegeneration is mainly due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiamyloidogenic effects. Multiple scientific studies support the use of herbal medicine in the treatment of ND; however, relevant aspects are still pending to explore such as metabolic analysis, pharmacokinetics, and brain bioavailability. PMID:26881043

  14. CSF biomarkers in neurodegenerative and vascular dementias.

    PubMed

    Llorens, Franc; Schmitz, Matthias; Ferrer, Isidro; Zerr, Inga

    2016-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases with abnormal protein aggregates such as Alzheimer's disease, tauopathies, synucleinopathies, and prionopathies, together with vascular encephalopathies, are cause of cognitive impairment and dementia. Identification of reliable biomarkers in biological fluids, particularly in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), is of extreme importance in optimizing the precise early clinical diagnosis of distinct entities and predicting the outcome in particular settings. In addition, the study of CSF biomarkers is useful to identify and monitor the underlying pathological processes developing in the central nervous system of affected individuals. Evidence suggests that levels of key CSF molecules correlate, in some circumstances, with prediction, disease progression, and severity of cognitive decline. Correlation of CSF markers and underlying pathological molecular substrates in brain is an exciting field for further study. However, while some dementias such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease have accurate CSF biomarkers, other disease types such as dementia with Lewy bodies, vascular dementia, and frontotemporal dementia lack reliable biomarkers for their specific clinical diagnosis. PMID:27016008

  15. A Potential Alternative against Neurodegenerative Diseases: Phytodrugs

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Hernández, Jesús; Zaldívar-Machorro, Víctor Javier; Villanueva-Porras, David; Vega-Ávila, Elisa; Chavarría, Anahí

    2016-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases (ND) primarily affect the neurons in the human brain secondary to oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. ND are more common and have a disproportionate impact on countries with longer life expectancies and represent the fourth highest source of overall disease burden in the high-income countries. A large majority of the medicinal plant compounds, such as polyphenols, alkaloids, and terpenes, have therapeutic properties. Polyphenols are the most common active compounds in herbs and vegetables consumed by man. The biological bioactivity of polyphenols against neurodegeneration is mainly due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiamyloidogenic effects. Multiple scientific studies support the use of herbal medicine in the treatment of ND; however, relevant aspects are still pending to explore such as metabolic analysis, pharmacokinetics, and brain bioavailability. PMID:26881043

  16. Characterizing a neurodegenerative syndrome: primary progressive apraxia of speech

    PubMed Central

    Duffy, Joseph R.; Strand, Edythe A.; Machulda, Mary M.; Senjem, Matthew L.; Master, Ankit V.; Lowe, Val J.; Jack, Clifford R.; Whitwell, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Apraxia of speech is a disorder of speech motor planning and/or programming that is distinguishable from aphasia and dysarthria. It most commonly results from vascular insults but can occur in degenerative diseases where it has typically been subsumed under aphasia, or it occurs in the context of more widespread neurodegeneration. The aim of this study was to determine whether apraxia of speech can present as an isolated sign of neurodegenerative disease. Between July 2010 and July 2011, 37 subjects with a neurodegenerative speech and language disorder were prospectively recruited and underwent detailed speech and language, neurological, neuropsychological and neuroimaging testing. The neuroimaging battery included 3.0 tesla volumetric head magnetic resonance imaging, [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose and [11C] Pittsburg compound B positron emission tomography scanning. Twelve subjects were identified as having apraxia of speech without any signs of aphasia based on a comprehensive battery of language tests; hence, none met criteria for primary progressive aphasia. These subjects with primary progressive apraxia of speech included eight females and four males, with a mean age of onset of 73 years (range: 49–82). There were no specific additional shared patterns of neurological or neuropsychological impairment in the subjects with primary progressive apraxia of speech, but there was individual variability. Some subjects, for example, had mild features of behavioural change, executive dysfunction, limb apraxia or Parkinsonism. Voxel-based morphometry of grey matter revealed focal atrophy of superior lateral premotor cortex and supplementary motor area. Voxel-based morphometry of white matter showed volume loss in these same regions but with extension of loss involving the inferior premotor cortex and body of the corpus callosum. These same areas of white matter loss were observed with diffusion tensor imaging analysis, which also demonstrated reduced fractional anisotropy

  17. How many biomarkers to discriminate neurodegenerative dementia?

    PubMed

    Sancesario, Giulia M; Bernardini, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    A number of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers are currently used for the diagnosis of dementia. Opposite changes in the level of amyloid-β(1-42) versus total tau and phosphorylated-tau181 in the CSF reflect the specific pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in the brain. This panel of biomarkers has proven to be effective to differentiate AD from controls and from the major types of neurodegenerative dementia, and to evaluate the progression from mild cognitive impairment to AD. In the absence of specific biomarkers reflecting the pathologies of the other most common forms of dementia, such as Lewy Body disease, Frontotemporal lobar degeneration, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, etc., the evaluation of biomarkers of AD pathology is used, attempting to exclude rather than to confirm AD. Other biomarkers included in the common clinical practice do not clearly relate to the underlying pathology: progranulin (PGRN) is a selective marker of frontotemporal dementia with mutations in the PGRN gene; the 14-3-3 protein is a highly sensitive and specific marker for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, but has to be used carefully in differentiating rapid progressive dementia; and α-synuclein is an emerging candidate biomarker of the different forms of synucleinopathy. This review summarizes several biomarkers of neurodegenerative dementia validated based on the neuropathological processes occurring in brain tissue. Notwithstanding the paucity of pathologically validated biomarkers and their high analytical variability, the combinations of these biomarkers may well represent a key and more precise analytical and diagnostic tool in the complex plethora of degenerative dementia. PMID:26292074

  18. An atypical presentation of adult-onset Still’s disease complicated by pulmonary hypertension and macrophage activation syndrome treated with immunosuppression: a case-based review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Manson, Daniel K.; Horn, Evelyn M.; Haythe, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a known complication of rheumatologic diseases, but it is only rarely associated with adult-onset Still’s disease (AOSD). We describe the case of a 30-year-old woman who presented in a pulmonary hypertension crisis and was found to have underlying AOSD with PAH and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) with a course complicated by macrophage activation syndrome (MAS). She dramatically improved with steroids, cyclosporine A, and anakinra, with total resolution of the MAS and significant improvement of her pulmonary arterial pressures. While there are only select case reports of AOSD associated with PAH, this is the first reported case of (1) AOSD complicated by both PAH and MAS and (2) AOSD complicated by biopsy-proven NSIP. Clinically, this case highlights the efficacy of immunosuppressive agents in the treatment of PAH and MAS from underlying AOSD and supports their use in this setting. PMID:27162622

  19. Histochemical approaches to assess cell-to-cell transmission of misfolded proteins in neurodegenerative diseases

    PubMed Central

    Natale, G.; Pompili, E.; Biagioni, F.; Paparelli, S.; Lenzi, P.; Fornai, F.

    2013-01-01

    Formation, aggregation and transmission of abnormal proteins are common features in neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Huntington's disease. The mechanisms underlying protein alterations in neurodegenerative diseases remain controversial. Novel findings highlighted altered protein clearing systems as common biochemical pathways which generate protein misfolding, which in turn causes protein aggregation and protein spreading. In fact, proteinaceous aggregates are prone to cell-tocell propagation. This is reminiscent of what happens in prion disorders, where the prion protein misfolds thus forming aggregates which spread to neighbouring cells. For this reason, the term prionoids is currently used to emphasize how several misfolded proteins are transmitted in neurodegenerative diseases following this prion-like pattern. Histochemical techniques including the use of specific antibodies covering both light and electron microscopy offer a powerful tool to describe these phenomena and investigate specific molecular steps. These include: prion like protein alterations; glycation of prion-like altered proteins to form advanced glycation end-products (AGEs); mechanisms of extracellular secretion; interaction of AGEs with specific receptors placed on neighbouring cells (RAGEs). The present manuscript comments on these phenomena aimed to provide a consistent scenario of the available histochemical approaches to dissect each specific step. PMID:23549464

  20. Applications of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells in Studying the Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Wenbin; Cao, Lan; Kalionis, Bill; Xia, Shijin; Tai, Xiantao

    2015-01-01

    Neurodegeneration is the umbrella term for the progressive loss of structure or function of neurons. Incurable neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) show dramatic rising trends particularly in the advanced age groups. However, the underlying mechanisms are not yet fully elucidated, and to date there are no biomarkers for early detection or effective treatments for the underlying causes of these diseases. Furthermore, due to species variation and differences between animal models (e.g., mouse transgenic and knockout models) of neurodegenerative diseases, substantial debate focuses on whether animal and cell culture disease models can correctly model the condition in human patients. In 2006, Yamanaka of Kyoto University first demonstrated a novel approach for the preparation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which displayed similar pluripotency potential to embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Currently, iPSCs studies are permeating many sectors of disease research. Patient sample-derived iPSCs can be used to construct patient-specific disease models to elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms of disease development and to test new therapeutic strategies. Accordingly, the present review will focus on recent progress in iPSC research in the modeling of neurodegenerative disorders and in the development of novel therapeutic options. PMID:26240571

  1. Potentiated Hsp104 variants suppress toxicity of diverse neurodegenerative disease-linked proteins.

    PubMed

    Jackrel, Meredith E; Shorter, James

    2014-10-01

    Protein misfolding is implicated in numerous lethal neurodegenerative disorders, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Parkinson disease (PD). There are no therapies that reverse these protein-misfolding events. We aim to apply Hsp104, a hexameric AAA+ protein from yeast, to target misfolded conformers for reactivation. Hsp104 solubilizes disordered aggregates and amyloid, but has limited activity against human neurodegenerative disease proteins. Thus, we have previously engineered potentiated Hsp104 variants that suppress aggregation, proteotoxicity and restore proper protein localization of ALS and PD proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and mitigate neurodegeneration in an animal PD model. Here, we establish that potentiated Hsp104 variants possess broad substrate specificity and, in yeast, suppress toxicity and aggregation induced by wild-type TDP-43, FUS and α-synuclein, as well as missense mutant versions of these proteins that cause neurodegenerative disease. Potentiated Hsp104 variants also rescue toxicity and aggregation of TAF15 but not EWSR1, two RNA-binding proteins with a prion-like domain that are connected with the development of ALS and frontotemporal dementia. Thus, potentiated Hsp104 variants are not entirely non-specific. Indeed, they do not unfold just any natively folded protein. Rather, potentiated Hsp104 variants are finely tuned to unfold proteins bearing short unstructured tracts that are not recognized by wild-type Hsp104. Our studies establish the broad utility of potentiated Hsp104 variants. PMID:25062688

  2. Applications of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells in Studying the Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    PubMed

    Wan, Wenbin; Cao, Lan; Kalionis, Bill; Xia, Shijin; Tai, Xiantao

    2015-01-01

    Neurodegeneration is the umbrella term for the progressive loss of structure or function of neurons. Incurable neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) show dramatic rising trends particularly in the advanced age groups. However, the underlying mechanisms are not yet fully elucidated, and to date there are no biomarkers for early detection or effective treatments for the underlying causes of these diseases. Furthermore, due to species variation and differences between animal models (e.g., mouse transgenic and knockout models) of neurodegenerative diseases, substantial debate focuses on whether animal and cell culture disease models can correctly model the condition in human patients. In 2006, Yamanaka of Kyoto University first demonstrated a novel approach for the preparation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which displayed similar pluripotency potential to embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Currently, iPSCs studies are permeating many sectors of disease research. Patient sample-derived iPSCs can be used to construct patient-specific disease models to elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms of disease development and to test new therapeutic strategies. Accordingly, the present review will focus on recent progress in iPSC research in the modeling of neurodegenerative disorders and in the development of novel therapeutic options. PMID:26240571

  3. Building An Integrated Neurodegenerative Disease Database At An Academic Health Center

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Sharon X.; Baek, Young; Grossman, Murray; Arnold, Steven E.; Karlawish, Jason; Siderowf, Andrew; Hurtig, Howard; Elman, Lauren; McCluskey, Leo; Van Deerlin, Vivianna; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.; Trojanowski, John Q.

    2010-01-01

    Background It is becoming increasingly important to study common and distinct etiologies, clinical and pathological features, and mechanisms related to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). These comparative studies rely on powerful database tools to quickly generate data sets which match diverse and complementary criteria set by the studies. Methods In this paper, we present a novel Integrated NeuroDegenerative Disease (INDD) database developed at the University of Pennsylvania (Penn) through a consortium of Penn investigators. Since these investigators work on AD, PD, ALS and FTLD, this allowed us to achieve the goal of developing an INDD database for these major neurodegenerative disorders. We used Microsoft SQL Server as the platform with built-in “backwards” functionality to provide Access as a front-end client to interface with the database. We used PHP hypertext Preprocessor to create the “front end” web interface and then integrated individual neurodegenerative disease databases using a master lookup table. We also present methods of data entry, database security, database backups, and database audit trails for this INDD database. Results We compare the results of a biomarker study using the INDD database to those using an alternative approach by querying individual database separately. Conclusions We have demonstrated that the Penn INDD database has the ability to query multiple database tables from a single console with high accuracy and reliability. The INDD database provides a powerful tool for generating data sets in comparative studies across several neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:21784346

  4. The Role of Copper in Neurodegenerative Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, Francis M.

    My research concerns the fundamental atomistic mechanisms of neurodegenerative diseases and the methodologies by which they may be discerned. This thesis consists of three primary parts. The introductory material is the raison d'etre for this work and a critical overview of the specific physics, mathematics and algorithms used in this research. The methods are presented along with specific details in order to facilitate future replication and enhancement. With the groundwork of mechanisms and methods out of the way, we then explore a nouveau atomistic mechanism describing the onset of Parkinson's disease, a disease that has been closely linked to misfolded metalloproteins. Further exploration of neurodegeneration takes place in the following chapter, where a remedial approach to Alzheimer's disease via a simulated chelation of a metalloprotein is undertaken. Altogether, the methods and techniques applied here allow for simulated exploration of both the atomistic mechanisms of neurodegeneration and their potential remediation strategies. The beginning portion of the research efforts explore protein misfolding dynamics in the presence a copper ion. Misfolding of the human alpha-synuclein (aS) protein has been implicated as a central constituent in neurodegenerative disease. In Parkinson's disease (PD) in particular, aS is thought to be the causative participant when found concentrated into neuritic plaques. Here we propose a scenario involving the metal ion Cu2+ as the protein misfolding initiator of fibrillized aS, the chief component of neuritic plaques. From experimental results we know these misfolded proteins have a rich beta--sheet signature, a marker that we reproduce with our simulated model. This model identifies a process of structural modifications to a natively unfolded alpha-synuclein resulting in a partially folded intermediate with a well defined nucleation site. It serves as a precursor to the fully misfolded protein. Understanding the nucleation

  5. TAR DNA-binding protein 43 in neurodegenerative disease

    PubMed Central

    Chen-Plotkin, Alice S.; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.; Trojanowski, John Q.

    2010-01-01

    In 2006, TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43), a highly conserved nuclear protein, was identified as the major disease protein in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and in the most common variant of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), FTLD-U, which is characterized by cytoplasmic inclusions that stain positive for ubiquitin but negative for tau and α-synuclein. Since then, rapid advances have been made in our understanding of the physiological function of TDP-43 and the role of this protein in neurodegeneration. These advances link ALS and FTLD-U (now designated FTLD-TDP) to a shared mechanism of disease. In this Review, we summarize the current evidence regarding the normal function of TDP-43 and the TDP-43 pathology observed in FTLD-TDP, ALS, and other neurodegenerative diseases wherein TDP-43 pathology co-occurs with other disease-specific lesions (for example, with amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer disease). Moreover, we discuss the accumulating data that support our view that FTLD-TDP and ALS represent two ends of a spectrum of primary TDP-43 proteinopathies. Finally, we comment on the importance of recent advances in TDP-43-related research to neurological practice, including the new opportunities to develop better diagnostics and disease-modifying therapies for ALS, FTLD-TDP, and related disorders exhibiting TDP-43 pathology. PMID:20234357

  6. Neurodegenerative dementias: From MR Physics lab to assessment room

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, S. D.; Cercignani, M.; Wheeler-Kingshott, C. A. M.

    2012-11-01

    Theimpact of neuroimaging on the study and understanding of dementing illnesses has been enormous. Here we review the main MR structural technical developments applied to Alzheimer's disease and fronto-temporal dementia, two forms of neurodegenerative disorders that have a number of similarities but also several differences. The possibility of detecting increasingly subtle brain changes, together with the need of handling larger and larger data sets, keeping up with the ever expanding aging population, are perhaps the main driving forces behind recent MR technique developments in the field of dementia. The measurement of atrophy is now integrated by more advanced approaches, investigating the alterations of the architecture of brain tissues beyond pure volumetric loss. Brain connectivity is now studied in vivo with techniques such as diffusion tensor imaging and tractography. Also, automated methods of subject classification open up new possibilities of rapid and cost-effective diagnosis. The inter-disciplinary efforts are changing the clinical scenario of dementia care from one of helpless defeat to one of promising innovation.

  7. Granulovacuolar degeneration: a neurodegenerative change that accompanies tau pathology.

    PubMed

    Köhler, Christoph

    2016-09-01

    Granule-containing vacuoles in the cytoplasm of hippocampal neurons are a neuropathological feature of Alzheimer's disease. Granulovacuolar degeneration (GVD) is not disease-specific and can be observed in other neurodegenerative disorders and even in the brains of non-demented elderly people. However, several studies have reported much higher numbers of neurons undergoing GVD in the hippocampus of Alzheimer's disease cases. Recently, a neuropathological staging system for GVD has facilitated neuropathological assessment. Data obtained by electron microscopy and immunolabeling suggest that GVD inclusions are a special form of autophagic vacuole. GVD frequently occurs together with pathological changes of the microtubule-associated protein tau, but to date, the relationship between the two lesions remains elusive. Originally identified in hematoxylin- and silver-stained sections, immunolabeling has shown that the granules are composed of a variety of proteins, including those related to tau pathology, autophagy, diverse signal transduction pathways, cell stress and apoptosis. Several of these proteins serve as markers of GVD. Most researchers and authors have interpreted the sequestration of proteins into GVD inclusions as either a cellular defense mechanism or one that leads to the impairment of important cellular functions. This review provides a detailed overview of the various aspects of GVD and focuses on the relationship between tau pathology and GVD. PMID:27062260

  8. PENN neurodegenerative disease research - in the spirit of Benjamin Franklin.

    PubMed

    Trojanowski, John Q

    2008-01-01

    Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) was entrepreneur, statesman, supporter of the public good as well as inventor, and his most significant invention was the University of Pennsylvania (PENN). Franklin outlined his plans for a college providing practical and classical instruction to prepare youth for real-world pursuits in his 'Proposals Relating to the Education of Youth in Pensilvania' (1749), and Franklin's spirit of learning to serve society guides PENN to the present day. This is evidenced by the series