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Sample records for adulterated honey samples

  1. Detection of adulteration in honey samples added various sugar syrups with 13C/12C isotope ratio analysis method.

    PubMed

    Tosun, Murat

    2013-06-01

    Honey can be adulterated in various ways. One of the adulteration methods is the addition of different sugar syrups during or after honey production. Starch-based sugar syrups, high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), glucose syrup (GS) and saccharose syrups (SS), which are produced from beet or canes, can be used for adulterating honey. In this study, adulterated honey samples were prepared with the addition of HFCS, GS and SS (beet sugar) at a ratio of 0%, 10%, 20%, 40% and 50% by weight. (13)C/(12)C analysis was conducted on these adulterated honey samples using an isotope ratio mass spectrometer in combination with an elemental analyser (EA-IRMS). As a result, adulteration using C(4) sugar syrups (HFCS and GS) could be detected to a certain extent while adulteration of honey using C(3) sugar syrups (beet sugar) could not be detected. Adulteration by using SS (beet sugar) still has a serious detection problem, especially in countries in which beet is used in manufacturing sugar. For this reason, practice and analysis methods are needed to meet this deficit and to detect the adulterations precisely in the studies that will be conducted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Physico-chemical studies on adulteration of honey in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Lawal, R A; Lawal, A K; Adekalu, J B

    2009-08-01

    The extent of adulteration of honey samples from various geographical locations in Nigeria was evaluated. In order to ascertain the quality and extent of adulteration of the honey samples, the total titrable acidity, brix content, pH, colour, viscosity, moisture content, total solids, ash content, hydroxymethyl furfural and microbiological analysis were carried out. Honey samples from Akwa-Ibom, Ondo and Ogun had a high hydroxymethyl furfural with coliforms and total bacteria counts being absent, while honey samples from Shaki, Yola and Ibadan had a low hydroxymethyl furfural and some total viable counts were present in them. These results indicate that honey samples from Akwa-Ibom, Ondo and Ogun were completely free of adulteration. However, honey samples obtained from Shaki, Yola and Ibadan were discovered to have undergone some form of adulteration.

  3. Classification of adulterated honeys by multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Amiry, Saber; Esmaiili, Mohsen; Alizadeh, Mohammad

    2017-06-01

    In this research, honey samples were adulterated with date syrup (DS) and invert sugar syrup (IS) at three concentrations (7%, 15% and 30%). 102 adulterated samples were prepared in six batches with 17 replications for each batch. For each sample, 32 parameters including color indices, rheological, physical, and chemical parameters were determined. To classify the samples, based on type and concentrations of adulterant, a multivariate analysis was applied using principal component analysis (PCA) followed by a linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Then, 21 principal components (PCs) were selected in five sets. Approximately two-thirds were identified correctly using color indices (62.75%) or rheological properties (67.65%). A power discrimination was obtained using physical properties (97.06%), and the best separations were achieved using two sets of chemical properties (set 1: lactone, diastase activity, sucrose - 100%) (set 2: free acidity, HMF, ash - 95%). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Determination of Quality Criteria that Allow Differentiation Between Honey Adulterated with Sugar and Pure Honey.

    PubMed

    Nisbet, Cevat; Kazak, Filiz; Ardalı, Yuksel

    2018-03-23

    This study used various parameters of honey to develop a potentially more robust approach to the detection of adulterated honey. For this purpose, 25 multifloral, natural honey samples and 20 samples of adulterated honey produced by bees that had been fed supplementary sucrose syrup were analysed. The mean total phenolic content of the natural honeys was considerably higher than in the adulterated honeys at 157 ± 13 and 35.2 ± 7.3 mg GAE/100 g, respectively. Similarly, considerable variation was determined between natural and adulterated honeys in terms of total flavonoids (3.3 ± 0.3 and 2.1 ± 0.4 mg QE/100 g, respectively), antiradical activity (87.9 ± 12 and 163 ± 11 mg/mL, respectively) and proline content (202 ± 26 and 71.1 ± 21.6 mg/kg, respectively.) The potassium, phosphorus, calcium and magnesium contents of natural honeys were also higher than in adulterated honeys (P < 0.01). In conclusion, the determination of the proline level, phenolic content, antioxidant activity and mineral profile may collectively provide a more holistic method approach to the differentiation of natural and adulterated honey, and also for comparing their food values.

  5. A Hybrid Sensing Approach for Pure and Adulterated Honey Classification

    PubMed Central

    Subari, Norazian; Saleh, Junita Mohamad; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md; Zakaria, Ammar

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison between data from single modality and fusion methods to classify Tualang honey as pure or adulterated using Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) statistical classification approaches. Ten different brands of certified pure Tualang honey were obtained throughout peninsular Malaysia and Sumatera, Indonesia. Various concentrations of two types of sugar solution (beet and cane sugar) were used in this investigation to create honey samples of 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% adulteration concentrations. Honey data extracted from an electronic nose (e-nose) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) were gathered, analyzed and compared based on fusion methods. Visual observation of classification plots revealed that the PCA approach able to distinct pure and adulterated honey samples better than the LDA technique. Overall, the validated classification results based on FTIR data (88.0%) gave higher classification accuracy than e-nose data (76.5%) using the LDA technique. Honey classification based on normalized low-level and intermediate-level FTIR and e-nose fusion data scored classification accuracies of 92.2% and 88.7%, respectively using the Stepwise LDA method. The results suggested that pure and adulterated honey samples were better classified using FTIR and e-nose fusion data than single modality data. PMID:23202033

  6. A hybrid sensing approach for pure and adulterated honey classification.

    PubMed

    Subari, Norazian; Mohamad Saleh, Junita; Md Shakaff, Ali Yeon; Zakaria, Ammar

    2012-10-17

    This paper presents a comparison between data from single modality and fusion methods to classify Tualang honey as pure or adulterated using Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) statistical classification approaches. Ten different brands of certified pure Tualang honey were obtained throughout peninsular Malaysia and Sumatera, Indonesia. Various concentrations of two types of sugar solution (beet and cane sugar) were used in this investigation to create honey samples of 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% adulteration concentrations. Honey data extracted from an electronic nose (e-nose) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) were gathered, analyzed and compared based on fusion methods. Visual observation of classification plots revealed that the PCA approach able to distinct pure and adulterated honey samples better than the LDA technique. Overall, the validated classification results based on FTIR data (88.0%) gave higher classification accuracy than e-nose data (76.5%) using the LDA technique. Honey classification based on normalized low-level and intermediate-level FTIR and e-nose fusion data scored classification accuracies of 92.2% and 88.7%, respectively using the Stepwise LDA method. The results suggested that pure and adulterated honey samples were better classified using FTIR and e-nose fusion data than single modality data.

  7. Application of analytical methods in authentication and adulteration of honey.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Amna Jabbar; Musharraf, Syed Ghulam; Choudhary, M Iqbal; Rahman, Atta-Ur-

    2017-02-15

    Honey is synthesized from flower nectar and it is famous for its tremendous therapeutic potential since ancient times. Many factors influence the basic properties of honey including the nectar-providing plant species, bee species, geographic area, and harvesting conditions. Quality and composition of honey is also affected by many other factors, such as overfeeding of bees with sucrose, harvesting prior to maturity, and adulteration with sugar syrups. Due to the complex nature of honey, it is often challenging to authenticate the purity and quality by using common methods such as physicochemical parameters and more specialized procedures need to be developed. This article reviews the literature (between 2000 and 2016) on the use of analytical techniques, mainly NMR spectroscopy, for authentication of honey, its botanical and geographical origin, and adulteration by sugar syrups. NMR is a powerful technique and can be used as a fingerprinting technique to compare various samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Modified sugar adulteration test applied to New Zealand honey.

    PubMed

    Frew, Russell; McComb, Kiri; Croudis, Linda; Clark, Dianne; Van Hale, Robert

    2013-12-15

    The carbon isotope method (AOAC 998.12) compares the bulk honey carbon isotope value with that of the extracted protein; a difference greater than 1‰ suggesting that the protein and the bulk carbohydrate have different origins. New Zealand Manuka honey is a high value product and often fails this test. It has been suggested such failures are due to the pollen in the Manuka honey and an adaptation of the method to remove pollen prior to testing has been proposed. Here we test 64 authentic honey samples collected directly from the hives and find that a large proportion (37%) of Manuka honeys fail the test. Of these 60% still fail the adapted method. These honey samples were collected and processed under stringent conditions and have not been adulterated post-harvest. More work is required to ascertain the cause of these test failures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Discrimination of Rice Syrup Adulterant of Acacia Honey Based Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-nan; Chen, Lan-zhen; Xue, Xiao-feng; Wu, Li-ming; Li, Yi; Yang, Juan

    2015-09-01

    At present, the rice syrup as a low price of the sweeteners was often adulterated into acacia honey and the adulterated honeys were sold in honey markets, while there is no suitable and fast method to identify honey adulterated with rice syrup. In this study, Near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) combined with chemometric methods were used to discriminate authenticity of honey. 20 unprocessed acacia honey samples from the different honey producing areas, mixed? with different proportion of rice syrup, were prepared of seven different concentration gradient? including 121 samples. The near infrared spectrum (NIR) instrument and spectrum processing software have been applied in the? spectrum? scanning and data conversion on adulterant samples, respectively. Then it was analyzed by Principal component analysis (PCA) and canonical discriminant analysis methods in order to discriminating adulterated honey. The results showed that after principal components analysis, the first two principal components accounted for 97.23% of total variation, but the regionalism of the score plot of the first two PCs was not obvious, so the canonical discriminant analysis was used to make the further discrimination, all samples had been discriminated correctly, the first two discriminant functions accounted for 91.6% among the six canonical discriminant functions, Then the different concentration of adulterant samples can be discriminated correctly, it illustrate that canonical discriminant analysis method combined with NIR spectroscopy is not only feasible but also practical for rapid and effective discriminate of the rice syrup adulterant of acacia honey.

  10. Detection of adulterants in honey using a portable Raman Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Kenneth Leigh

    Food adulteration is a growing problem worldwide. In the United States over half of honey consumed is provided with imported products as total domestic production of honey is unable to meet the demand. As pure, natural honey is a labor intensive, relatively expensive product it is a prime target for adulteration with less expensive sweeteners. Previously published work describes the detection of these adulterants in a strict laboratory environment with time consuming techniques and delicate instrumentation. Experiments confirm that adulterants such as high fructose corn syrup and rice malt syrup can be detected in honey using Raman Spectroscopy and portable equipment. When laser light is applied to the products, the result is a Raman signal of inelastically scattered photons representing the fingerprints of the various molecules. When this signal is detected and stored in a laptop computer it can be analyzed for characteristics peculiar to honey and to the adulterants.

  11. FTIR characterization of Mexican honey and its adulteration with sugar syrups by using chemometric methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rios-Corripio, M. A.; Rios-Leal, E.; Rojas-López, M.; Delgado-Macuil, R.

    2011-01-01

    A chemometric analysis of adulteration of Mexican honey by sugar syrups such as corn syrup and cane sugar syrup was realized. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to measure the absorption of a group of bee honey samples from central region of Mexico. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to process FTIR spectra to determine the adulteration of bee honey. In addition to that, the content of individual sugars from honey samples: glucose, fructose, sucrose and monosaccharides was determined by using PLS-FTIR analysis validated by HPLC measurements. This analytical methodology which is based in infrared spectroscopy and chemometry can be an alternative technique to characterize and also to determine the purity and authenticity of nutritional products as bee honey and other natural products.

  12. Qualitative and quantitative detection of honey adulterated with high-fructose corn syrup and maltose syrup by using near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuifang; Zhang, Xin; Shan, Yang; Su, Donglin; Ma, Qiang; Wen, Ruizhi; Li, Jiaojuan

    2017-03-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) was used for qualitative and quantitative detection of honey adulterated with high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) or maltose syrup (MS). Competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) was employed to select key variables. Partial least squares linear discriminant analysis (PLS-LDA) was adopted to classify the adulterated honey samples. The CARS-PLS-LDA models showed an accuracy of 86.3% (honey vs. adulterated honey with HFCS) and 96.1% (honey vs. adulterated honey with MS), respectively. PLS regression (PLSR) was used to predict the extent of adulteration in the honeys. The results showed that NIR combined with PLSR could not be used to quantify adulteration with HFCS, but could be used to quantify adulteration with MS: coefficient (R p 2 ) and root mean square of prediction (RMSEP) were 0.901 and 4.041 for MS-adulterated samples from different floral origins, and 0.981 and 1.786 for MS-adulterated samples from the same floral origin (Brassica spp.), respectively. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Application of Fourier transform midinfrared spectroscopy to the discrimination between Irish artisanal honey and such honey adulterated with various sugar syrups.

    PubMed

    Kelly, J Daniel; Petisco, Cristina; Downey, Gerard

    2006-08-23

    A collection of authentic artisanal Irish honeys (n = 580) and certain of these honeys adulterated by fully inverted beet syrup (n = 280), high-fructose corn syrup (n = 160), partial invert cane syrup (n = 120), dextrose syrup (n = 160), and beet sucrose (n = 120) was assembled. All samples were adjusted to 70 degrees Bx and scanned in the midinfrared region (800-4000 cm(-1)) by attenuated total reflectance sample accessory. By use of soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) and partial least-squares (PLS) classification, authentic honey and honey adulterated by beet sucrose, dextrose syrups, and partial invert corn syrup could be identified with correct classification rates of 96.2%, 97.5%, 95.8%, and 91.7%, respectively. This combination of spectroscopic technique and chemometric methods was not able to unambiguously detect adulteration by high-fructose corn syrup or fully inverted beet syrup.

  14. FT-MIR supported Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy based study of sugar adulterated honeys from different floral origin.

    PubMed

    Das, Chirantan; Chakraborty, Subhadip; Acharya, Krishnendu; Bera, Nirmal Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Dipankar; Karmakar, Anupam; Chattopadhyay, Sanatan

    2017-08-15

    This study sought to detect the presence of sucrose as an adulterant in selected honey varieties from different floral origins by employing Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) technique which has been simultaneously supported by Fourier Transform-Mid Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-MIR) measurements to provide a rapid, robust yet simple platform for honey quality evaluation. Variation of electrical parameters such as impedance, capacitance and conductance for 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60% and 70% (w/w) sucrose syrup (SS) adulterated honey samples are analyzed and their respective current-voltage (I-V) characteristics are studied. Capacitance, conductance and net current flowing through the system are observed to decrease linearly whereas system impedance has been found to increase similarly with the increase in adulterant content. Also, FT-MIR measurements in the spectral region between 1800cm -1 and 650cm -1 reveal the increment of absorbance values due to the addition of SS. Full-Width-at-Half-Maximum (FWHM) is estimated from the spectral peak 1056cm -1 for all pure and adulterated honey samples and is observed to be linearly increasing with increase in adulterant content. Finally, the coefficient of sensitivity has been extracted for all varieties of honey considered in terms of the measured conductance values. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A Biomimetic Sensor for the Classification of Honeys of Different Floral Origin and the Detection of Adulteration

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Ammar; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md; Masnan, Maz Jamilah; Ahmad, Mohd Noor; Adom, Abdul Hamid; Jaafar, Mahmad Nor; Ghani, Supri A.; Abdullah, Abu Hassan; Aziz, Abdul Hallis Abdul; Kamarudin, Latifah Munirah; Subari, Norazian; Fikri, Nazifah Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    The major compounds in honey are carbohydrates such as monosaccharides and disaccharides. The same compounds are found in cane-sugar concentrates. Unfortunately when sugar concentrate is added to honey, laboratory assessments are found to be ineffective in detecting this adulteration. Unlike tracing heavy metals in honey, sugar adulterated honey is much trickier and harder to detect, and traditionally it has been very challenging to come up with a suitable method to prove the presence of adulterants in honey products. This paper proposes a combination of array sensing and multi-modality sensor fusion that can effectively discriminate the samples not only based on the compounds present in the sample but also mimic the way humans perceive flavours and aromas. Conversely, analytical instruments are based on chemical separations which may alter the properties of the volatiles or flavours of a particular honey. The present work is focused on classifying 18 samples of different honeys, sugar syrups and adulterated samples using data fusion of electronic nose (e-nose) and electronic tongue (e-tongue) measurements. Each group of samples was evaluated separately by the e-nose and e-tongue. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) were able to separately discriminate monofloral honey from sugar syrup, and polyfloral honey from sugar and adulterated samples using the e-nose and e-tongue. The e-nose was observed to give better separation compared to e-tongue assessment, particularly when LDA was applied. However, when all samples were combined in one classification analysis, neither PCA nor LDA were able to discriminate between honeys of different floral origins, sugar syrup and adulterated samples. By applying a sensor fusion technique, the classification for the 18 different samples was improved. Significant improvement was observed using PCA, while LDA not only improved the discrimination but also gave better classification. An improvement

  16. A biomimetic sensor for the classification of honeys of different floral origin and the detection of adulteration.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Ammar; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md; Masnan, Maz Jamilah; Ahmad, Mohd Noor; Adom, Abdul Hamid; Jaafar, Mahmad Nor; Ghani, Supri A; Abdullah, Abu Hassan; Aziz, Abdul Hallis Abdul; Kamarudin, Latifah Munirah; Subari, Norazian; Fikri, Nazifah Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    The major compounds in honey are carbohydrates such as monosaccharides and disaccharides. The same compounds are found in cane-sugar concentrates. Unfortunately when sugar concentrate is added to honey, laboratory assessments are found to be ineffective in detecting this adulteration. Unlike tracing heavy metals in honey, sugar adulterated honey is much trickier and harder to detect, and traditionally it has been very challenging to come up with a suitable method to prove the presence of adulterants in honey products. This paper proposes a combination of array sensing and multi-modality sensor fusion that can effectively discriminate the samples not only based on the compounds present in the sample but also mimic the way humans perceive flavours and aromas. Conversely, analytical instruments are based on chemical separations which may alter the properties of the volatiles or flavours of a particular honey. The present work is focused on classifying 18 samples of different honeys, sugar syrups and adulterated samples using data fusion of electronic nose (e-nose) and electronic tongue (e-tongue) measurements. Each group of samples was evaluated separately by the e-nose and e-tongue. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) were able to separately discriminate monofloral honey from sugar syrup, and polyfloral honey from sugar and adulterated samples using the e-nose and e-tongue. The e-nose was observed to give better separation compared to e-tongue assessment, particularly when LDA was applied. However, when all samples were combined in one classification analysis, neither PCA nor LDA were able to discriminate between honeys of different floral origins, sugar syrup and adulterated samples. By applying a sensor fusion technique, the classification for the 18 different samples was improved. Significant improvement was observed using PCA, while LDA not only improved the discrimination but also gave better classification. An improvement

  17. HMF and diastase activity in honeys: A fully validated approach and a chemometric analysis for identification of honey freshness and adulteration.

    PubMed

    Pasias, Ioannis N; Kiriakou, Ioannis K; Proestos, Charalampos

    2017-08-15

    A fully validated approach for the determination of diastase activity and hydroxymethylfurfural content in honeys were presented in accordance with the official methods. Methods were performed in real honey sample analysis and due to the vast number of collected data sets reliable conclusions about the correlation between the composition and the quality criteria were exported. The limits of detection and quantification were calculated. Accuracy, precision and uncertainty were estimated for the first time in the kinetic and spectrometric techniques using the certified reference material and the determined values were in good accordance with the certified values. PCA and cluster analysis were performed in order to examine the correlation among the artificial feeding of honeybees with carbohydrate supplements and the chemical composition and properties of the honey. Diastase activity, sucrose content and hydroxymethylfurfural content were easily differentiated and these parameters were used for indication of the adulteration of the honey. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Detection of honey adulteration with starch syrup by high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaoqing; Guo, Qilei; Wang, Linlin; Lin, Li; Shi, Hailiang; Cao, Hong; Cao, Baosen

    2015-04-01

    According to saccharide profile comparison between starch syrups and pure honeys analysed through high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), a characteristic peak was found at 15.25 min retention time in HPLC chromatogram of syrup, but no peak was observed at the same retention time in chromatogram of pure honeys. This characteristic peak for syrup was identified as an overlapping peak of oligosaccharides with more than 5 degree of polymerisation (DP) based on HPLC chromatogram comparison between starch syrup and a series of standard mono-, di- and oligosaccharides of 3-7 DP. Additionally syrup content correlated linearly with the height of the characteristic peak of syrup under different slope in two ranges 2.5-7.5% and 10-100%, respectively. Therefore, the characteristic peak at 15.25 min retention time can serve as a syrup indicator in HPLC analysis of the adulterated honeys. This new HPLC method for honey adulteration detection was further applied in an authenticity inspection on more than 100 commercial honeys. In addition to the improved accuracy of honey adulteration detection, the proposed HPLC method was simple, low cost and easy practice for honey product quality control by government department considering the popularity of HPLC device and technology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Adulteration Identification of Commercial Honey with the C-4 Sugar Content of Negative Values by an Elemental Analyzer and Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Isotope Ratio Mass Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hao; Luo, Donghui; Xian, Yanping; Luo, Haiying; Guo, Xindong; Li, Chao; Zhao, Mouming

    2016-04-27

    According to the AOAC 998.12 method, honey is considered to contain significant C-4 sugars with a C-4 sugar content of >7%, which are naturally identified as the adulteration. However, the authenticity of honey with a C-4 sugar content of <0% calculated by the above method has been rarely investigated. A new procedure to determine δ(13)C values of honey, corresponding extracted protein and individual sugars (sucrose, glucose, and fructose), δ(2)H and δ(18)O values, sucrose content, and reducing sugar content of honey using an elemental analyzer and liquid chromatography coupled to isotope ratio mass spectroscopy, was first developed to demonstrate the authenticity of honey with a C-4 sugar content of <0%. For this purpose, 800 commercial honey samples were analyzed. A quite similar pattern on the pentagonal radar plot (isotopic compositions) between honey with -7 < C-4 sugar content (%) < 0 and 0 < C-4 sugar content (%) < 7 indicated that honey with -7 < C-4 sugar content (%) < 0 could be identified to be free of C-4 sugars as well. A very strong correlation is also observed between δ(13)C honey values and δ(13)C protein values of both honey groups. For the δ(18)O value, the C-4 sugar content (%) < -7 group has lower (p < 0.05) values (16.30‰) compared to other honey, which could be a useful parameter for adulterated honey with a C-4 sugar content (%) < -7. The use of isotopic compositions and some systematic differences permits the honey with a C-4 sugar content of <0% to be reliably detected. The developed procedure in this study first and successfully provided favorable evidence in authenticity identification of honey with a C-4 sugar content of <0%.

  20. NIR detection of honey adulteration reveals differences in water spectral pattern.

    PubMed

    Bázár, György; Romvári, Róbert; Szabó, András; Somogyi, Tamás; Éles, Viktória; Tsenkova, Roumiana

    2016-03-01

    High fructose corn syrup (HFCS) was mixed with four artisanal Robinia honeys at various ratios (0-40%) and near infrared (NIR) spectra were recorded with a fiber optic immersion probe. Levels of HFCS adulteration could be detected accurately using leave-one-honey-out cross-validation (RMSECV=1.48; R(2)CV=0.987), partial least squares regression and the 1300-1800nm spectral interval containing absorption bands related to both water and carbohydrates. Aquaphotomics-based evaluations showed that unifloral honeys contained more highly organized water than the industrial sugar syrup, supposedly because of the greater variety of molecules dissolved in the multi-component honeys. Adulteration with HFCS caused a gradual reduction of water molecular structures, especially water trimers, which facilitate interaction with other molecules. Quick, non-destructive NIR spectroscopy combined with aquaphotomics could be used to describe water molecular structures in honey and to detect a rather common form of adulteration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Detection of adulterated honey produced by honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies fed with different levels of commercial industrial sugar (C₃ and C₄ plants) syrups by the carbon isotope ratio analysis.

    PubMed

    Guler, Ahmet; Kocaokutgen, Hasan; Garipoglu, Ali V; Onder, Hasan; Ekinci, Deniz; Biyik, Selim

    2014-07-15

    In the present study, one hundred pure and adulterated honey samples obtained from feeding honeybee colonies with different levels (5, 20 and 100 L/colony) of various commercial sugar syrups including High Fructose Corn Syrup 85 (HFCS-85), High Fructose Corn Syrup 55 (HFCS-55), Bee Feeding Syrup (BFS), Glucose Monohydrate Sugar (GMS) and Sucrose Sugar (SS) were evaluated in terms of the δ(13)C value of honey and its protein, difference between the δ(13)C value of protein and honey (Δδ(13)C), and C4% sugar ratio. Sugar type, sugar level and the sugar type*sugar level interaction were found to be significant (P<0.001) regarding the evaluated characteristics. Adulterations could not be detected in the 5L/colony syrup level of all sugar types when the δ(13)C value of honey, Δδ(13)C (protein-honey), and C4% sugar ratio were used as criteria according to the AOAC standards. However, it was possible to detect the adulteration by using the same criteria in the honeys taken from the 20 and 100 L/colony of HFCS-85 and the 100L/colony of HFCS-55. Adulteration at low syrup level (20 L/colony) was more easily detected when the fructose content of HFCS syrup increased. As a result, the official methods (AOAC, 978.17, 1995; AOAC, 991.41, 1995; AOAC 998.12, 2005) and Internal Standard Carbon Isotope Ratio Analysis could not efficiently detect the indirect adulteration of honey obtained by feeding the bee colonies with the syrups produced from C3 plants such as sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) and wheat (Triticium vulgare). For this reason, it is strongly needed to develop novel methods and standards that can detect the presence and the level of indirect adulterations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Application of a newly developed and validated high-performance thin-layer chromatographic method to control honey adulteration.

    PubMed

    Puscas, Anitta; Hosu, Anamaria; Cimpoiu, Claudia

    2013-01-11

    Honey is a saturated solution of sugars, used for a long time as a natural source of sugars and is an important ingredient in traditional medicine due to its antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Therefore, methods for quality control of honey and detection of its adulteration are very important. For this reason, the aim of this study is to develop and validate a new, simple and economical analytical method for detecting the adulteration of some Romanian honeys based on high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) combined with image analysis. The proposed method involved the chromatographic separations of glucose, fructose and sucrose on silica gel HPTLC plates, developed twice with ethyl acetate-pyridine-water-acetic acid, 6:3:1:0.5 (v/v/v/v), followed by dipping in an immersion solution. The documentation of plates was performed using TLC visualization device and the images of plates were processed using a digital processor. The developed HPTLC method was validated for selectivity, linearity and range, LOD and LOQ, precision, robustness and accuracy. The method was then applied for quantitative determination of glucose, fructose and sucrose from different types of Romanian honeys, commercially available. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Determination of rice syrup adulterant concentration in honey using three-dimensional fluorescence spectra and multivariate calibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Quansheng; Qi, Shuai; Li, Huanhuan; Han, Xiaoyan; Ouyang, Qin; Zhao, Jiewen

    2014-10-01

    To rapidly and efficiently detect the presence of adulterants in honey, three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy (3DFS) technique was employed with the help of multivariate calibration. The data of 3D fluorescence spectra were compressed using characteristic extraction and the principal component analysis (PCA). Then, partial least squares (PLS) and back propagation neural network (BP-ANN) algorithms were used for modeling. The model was optimized by cross validation, and its performance was evaluated according to root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and correlation coefficient (R) in prediction set. The results showed that BP-ANN model was superior to PLS models, and the optimum prediction results of the mixed group (sunflower ± longan ± buckwheat ± rape) model were achieved as follow: RMSEP = 0.0235 and R = 0.9787 in the prediction set. The study demonstrated that the 3D fluorescence spectroscopy technique combined with multivariate calibration has high potential in rapid, nondestructive, and accurate quantitative analysis of honey adulteration.

  4. Liquid chromatography coupled to isotope ratio mass spectrometry: a new perspective on honey adulteration detection.

    PubMed

    Cabañero, Ana I; Recio, Jose L; Rupérez, Mercedes

    2006-12-27

    A new procedure to determine individual sugar (sucrose, glucose, and fructose) 13C isotope ratios, using liquid chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (HPLC-IRMS), has been developed to improve isotopic methods devoted to the study of honey authenticity. For this purpose 79 commercial honey samples from various origins were analyzed. Values of delta13Choney ranged from -14.2 to -27.2", and delta13Cprotein ranged from -23.6 to -26.9". A very strong correlation is observed between the individual sugar 13C ratios, which are altered in the event of sugar addition, even at low levels. The use of Deltadelta13C [fruct-glu], Deltadelta13C [fruct-suc], and Deltadelta13C [gluc-suc] systematic differences as an authenticity criterion permits the sugar addition [C3, beet sugar; or C4, cane sugar, cane syrup, isoglucose syrup, and high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS)] to be reliably detected (DL = 1-10%). The new procedure has advantages over existing methods in terms of analysis time and sensitivity. In addition, it is the first isotopic method developed that allows beet sugar addition detection.

  5. Biochemical and nutritional components of selected honey samples.

    PubMed

    Chua, Lee Suan; Adnan, Nur Ardawati

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of biochemical (enzymes) and nutritional components in the selected honey samples from Malaysia. The relationship is important to estimate the quality of honey based on the concentration of these nutritious components. Such a study is limited for honey samples from tropical countries with heavy rainfall throughout the year. A number of six honey samples that commonly consumed by local people were collected for the study. Both the biochemical and nutritional components were analysed by using standard methods from Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). Individual monosaccharides, disaccharides and 17 amino acids in honey were determined by using liquid chromatographic method. The results showed that the peroxide activity was positively correlated with moisture content (r = 0.8264), but negatively correlated with carbohydrate content (r = 0.7755) in honey. The chromatographic sugar and free amino acid profiles showed that the honey samples could be clustered based on the type and maturity of honey. Proline explained for 64.9% of the total variance in principle component analysis (PCA). The correlation between honey components and honey quality has been established for the selected honey samples based on their biochemical and nutritional concentrations. PCA results revealed that the ratio of sucrose to maltose could be used to measure honey maturity, whereas proline was the marker compound used to distinguish honey either as floral or honeydew.

  6. Resolving Identification Issues of Saraca asoca from Its Adulterant and Commercial Samples Using Phytochemical Markers

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Satisha; Hegde, Harsha Vasudev; Jalalpure, Sunil Satyappa; Peram, Malleswara Rao; Pai, Sandeep Ramachandra; Roy, Subarna

    2017-01-01

    Saraca asoca (Roxb.) De Wilde (Ashoka) is a highly valued endangered medicinal tree species from Western Ghats of India. Besides treating cardiac and circulatory problems, S. asoca provides immense relief in gynecological disorders. Higher price and demand, in contrast to the smaller population size of the plant, have motivated adulteration with other plants such as Polyalthia longifolia (Sonnerat) Thwaites. The fundamental concerns in quality control of S. asoca arise due to its part of medicinal value (Bark) and the chemical composition. Phytochemical fingerprinting with proper selection of analytical markers is a promising method in addressing quality control issues. In the present study, high-performance liquid chromatography of phenolic compounds (gallic acid, catechin, and epicatechin) coupled to multivariate analysis was used. Five samples each of S. asoca, P. longifolia from two localities alongside five commercial market samples showed evidence of adulteration. Subsequently, multivariate hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis was established to discriminate the adulterants of S. asoca. The proposed method ascertains identification of S. asoca from its putative adulterant P. longifolia and commercial market samples. The data generated may also serve as baseline data to form a quality standard for pharmacopoeias. SUMMARY Simultaneous quantification of gallic acid, catechin, epicatechin from Saraca asoca by high-performance liquid chromatographyDetection of S. asoca from adulterant and commercial samplesUse of analytical method along with a statistical tool for addressing quality issues. Abbreviations used: HPLC: High Performance Liquid Chromatography; RP-HPLC: Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography; CAT: Catechin; EPI: Epicatechin; GA: Gallic acid; PCA: Principal Component Analysis. PMID:28808391

  7. Robust new NIRS coupled with multivariate methods for the detection and quantification of tallow adulteration in clarified butter samples.

    PubMed

    Mabood, Fazal; Abbas, Ghulam; Jabeen, Farah; Naureen, Zakira; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Hamaed, Ahmad M; Hussain, Javid; Al-Nabhani, Mahmood; Al Shukaili, Maryam S; Khan, Alamgir; Manzoor, Suryyia

    2018-03-01

    Cows' butterfat may be adulterated with animal fat materials like tallow which causes increased serum cholesterol and triglycerides levels upon consumption. There is no reliable technique to detect and quantify tallow adulteration in butter samples in a feasible way. In this study a highly sensitive near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with chemometric methods was developed to detect as well as quantify the level of tallow adulterant in clarified butter samples. For this investigation the pure clarified butter samples were intentionally adulterated with tallow at the following percentage levels: 1%, 3%, 5%, 7%, 9%, 11%, 13%, 15%, 17% and 20% (wt/wt). Altogether 99 clarified butter samples were used including nine pure samples (un-adulterated clarified butter) and 90 clarified butter samples adulterated with tallow. Each sample was analysed by using NIR spectroscopy in the reflection mode in the range 10,000-4000 cm -1 , at 2 cm -1 resolution and using the transflectance sample accessory which provided a total path length of 0.5 mm. Chemometric models including principal components analysis (PCA), partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA), and partial least-squares regressions (PLSR) were applied for statistical treatment of the obtained NIR spectral data. The PLSDA model was employed to differentiate pure butter samples from those adulterated with tallow. The employed model was then externally cross-validated by using a test set which included 30% of the total butter samples. The excellent performance of the model was proved by the low RMSEP value of 1.537% and the high correlation factor of 0.95. This newly developed method is robust, non-destructive, highly sensitive, and economical with very minor sample preparation and good ability to quantify less than 1.5% of tallow adulteration in clarified butter samples.

  8. Polymer platforms for selective detection of cocaine in street samples adulterated with levamisole.

    PubMed

    Florea, Anca; Cowen, Todd; Piletsky, Sergey; De Wael, Karolien

    2018-08-15

    Accurate drug detection is of utmost importance for fighting against drug abuse. With a high number of cutting agents and adulterants being added to cut or mask drugs in street powders the number of false results is increasing. We demonstrate for the first time the usefulness of employing polymers readily synthesized by electrodeposition to selectively detect cocaine in the presence of the commonly used adulterant levamisole. The polymers were selected by computational modelling to exhibit high binding affinity towards cocaine and deposited directly on the surface of graphene-modified electrodes via electropolymerization. The resulting platforms allowed a distinct electrochemical signal for cocaine, which is otherwise suppressed by levamisole. Square wave voltammetry was used to quantify cocaine alone and in the presence of levamisole. The usefulness of the platforms was demonstrated in the screening of real street samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Volatiles from a rare Acer spp. honey sample from Croatia.

    PubMed

    Jerković, Igor; Marijanović, Zvonimir; Malenica-Staver, Mladenka; Lusić, Drazen

    2010-06-24

    A rare sample of maple (Acer spp.) honey from Croatia was analysed. Ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE) using: 1) pentane, 2) diethyl ether, 3) a mixture of pentane and diethyl ether (1:2 v/v) and 4) dichloromethane as solvents was applied. All the extracts were analysed by GC and GC/MS. The most representative extracts were 3) and 4). Syringaldehyde was the most striking compound, being dominant in the extracts 2), 3) and 4) with percentages 34.5%, 33.1% and 35.9%, respectively. In comparison to USE results of other single Croatian tree honey samples (Robinia pseudoacacia L. nectar honey, Salix spp. nectar and honeydew honeys, Quercus frainetto Ten. honeydew as well as Abies alba Mill. and Picea abies L. honeydew) and literature data the presence of syringaldehyde, previously identified in maple sap and syrup, can be pointed out as a distinct characteristic of the Acer spp. honey sample. Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with GC and GC/MS identified benzaldehyde (16.5%), trans-linalool oxide (20.5%) and 2-phenylethanol (14.9%) as the major compounds that are common in different honey headspace compositions.

  10. Wavenumber selection method to determine the concentration of cocaine and adulterants in cocaine samples.

    PubMed

    Kahmann, A; Anzanello, M J; Fogliatto, F S; Marcelo, M C A; Ferrão, M F; Ortiz, R S; Mariotti, K C

    2018-04-15

    Street cocaine is typically altered with several compounds that increase its harmful health-related side effects, most notably depression, convulsions, and severe damages to the cardiovascular system, lungs, and brain. Thus, determining the concentration of cocaine and adulterants in seized drug samples is important from both health and forensic perspectives. Although FTIR has been widely used to identify the fingerprint and concentration of chemical compounds, spectroscopy datasets are usually comprised of thousands of highly correlated wavenumbers which, when used as predictors in regression models, tend to undermine the predictive performance of multivariate techniques. In this paper, we propose an FTIR wavenumber selection method aimed at identifying FTIR spectra intervals that best predict the concentration of cocaine and adulterants (e.g. caffeine, phenacetin, levamisole, and lidocaine) in cocaine samples. For that matter, the Mutual Information measure is integrated into a Quadratic Programming problem with the objective of minimizing the probability of retaining redundant wavenumbers, while maximizing the relationship between retained wavenumbers and compounds' concentrations. Optimization outputs guide the order of inclusion of wavenumbers in a predictive model, using a forward-based wavenumber selection method. After the inclusion of each wavenumber, parameters of three alternative regression models are estimated, and each model's prediction error is assessed through the Mean Average Error (MAE) measure; the recommended subset of retained wavenumbers is the one that minimizes the prediction error with maximum parsimony. Using our propositions in a dataset of 115 cocaine samples we obtained a best prediction model with average MAE of 0.0502 while retaining only 2.29% of the original wavenumbers, increasing the predictive precision by 0.0359 when compared to a model using the complete set of wavenumbers as predictors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All

  11. Molecular Tracing of the Origin of Six Different Plant Species in Bee Honey Using Real-Time PCR.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yajun; Yang, Yange; Liu, Mingchang; Wang, Bin; Li, Meige; Chen, Ying

    2017-05-01

    The quality of honey is significantly influenced by floral origin. Mislabeling floral species occurs frequently in bee honey products. To protect consumers from economic fraud and maintain a fair market environment, methods to identify floral species in honey are necessary. In our study, real-time PCRs were established, targeting six honey types mainly produced in China (canola, Chinese milkvetch, Chinese chaste tree, locust tree, litchi, and longan). Sensitivity testing on DNA from plant tissues exhibited LODs of about 0.5-5 pg/μL. For DNA extracts of pollen sediments from different honey species, LODs ranged from 13.6 to 403.2 pg/μL. In an experiment to determine the practical LODs of honey in which adulterant honey was spiked in the genuine honey, adulterant honey as low as about 0.1-0.5% was detected in 90-100% in 10 parallel tests. Additionally, pollen was spiked in the honey and stored under various conditions to investigate the migration of pollen DNA into the honey supernatant. Finally, the efficiency of our method was investigated by testing honey samples of unknown compositions from different geographic regions. Of the 159 honey samples that were supposed to be monofloral that had been collected in five provinces, a small portion were found to be contaminated with foreign pollen (7%). The methods proved to be specific, sensitive, and reliable in identifying the six plant species in honey, which would be a useful tool during the market supervision and QC of honey products.

  12. Coca-paste seized samples characterization: chemical analysis, stimulating effect in rats and relevance of caffeine as a major adulterant.

    PubMed

    López-Hill, Ximena; Prieto, José Pedro; Meikle, María Noel; Urbanavicius, Jessika; Abin-Carriquiry, Juan Andrés; Prunell, Giselle; Umpiérrez, Eleuterio; Scorza, María Cecilia

    2011-08-01

    Coca-paste (CP) is a drug of abuse that so far has not been extensively characterized. CP is an intermediate product of the cocaine alkaloid extraction process from coca leaves, hence it has a high content of cocaine base mixed with other chemical substances (impurities) and it is probably adulterated when it reaches the consumers. Despite its high prevalence and distribution through South America, little is known about its effects on the central nervous system. In the present study, a chemical analysis of CP samples from different police seizures was performed to determine the cocaine base content and the presence and content of impurities and adulterants. Some CP representative samples were selected to study the effects on the locomotor activity induced after acute systemic administration in rats as a measure of its stimulant action. The behavioral response was compared to equivalent doses of cocaine. As expected, cocaine was the main component in most of the CP samples assayed. Caffeine was the only active adulterant detected. Interestingly, several CP samples elicited a higher stimulant effect compared to that observed after cocaine when administered at equivalent doses of cocaine base. Combined treatment of cocaine and caffeine, as surrogate of different CP samples mimicked their stimulant effect. We demonstrated that cocaine and caffeine are the main components responsible for the CP-induced stimulant action while the contribution of the impurities was imperceptible. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. High 5-hydroxymethylfurfural concentrations are found in Malaysian honey samples stored for more than one year.

    PubMed

    Khalil, M I; Sulaiman, S A; Gan, S H

    2010-01-01

    5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) content is an indicator of the purity of honey. High concentrations of HMF in honey indicate overheating, poor storage conditions and old honey. This study investigated the HMF content of nine Malaysian honey samples, as well as the correlation of HMF formation with physicochemical properties of honey. Based on the recommendation by the International Honey Commission, three methods for the determination of HMF were used: (1) high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), (2) White spectrophotometry and (3) Winkler spectrophotometry methods. HPLC and White spectrophotometric results yielded almost similar values, whereas the Winkler method showed higher readings. The physicochemical properties of honey (pH, free acids, lactones and total acids) showed significant correlation with HMF content and may provide parameters that could be used to make quick assessments of honey quality. The HMF content of fresh Malaysian honey samples stored for 3-6 months (at 2.80-24.87 mg/kg) was within the internationally recommended value (80 mg/kg for tropical honeys), while honey samples stored for longer periods (12-24 months) contained much higher HMF concentrations (128.19-1131.76 mg/kg). Therefore, it is recommended that honey should generally be consumed within one year, regardless of the type. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Levamisole: a Common Adulterant in Cocaine Street Samples Hindering Electrochemical Detection of Cocaine.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Mats; Florea, Anca; Vries, Anne-Mare de; van Nuijs, Alexander L N; Covaci, Adrian; Van Durme, Filip; Martins, José C; Samyn, Nele; De Wael, Karolien

    2018-04-17

    The present work investigates the electrochemical determination of cocaine in the presence of levamisole, one of the most common adulterants found in cocaine street samples. Levamisole misleads cocaine color tests, giving a blue color (positive test) even in the absence of cocaine. Moreover, the electrochemical detection of cocaine is also affected by the presence of levamisole, with a suppression of the oxidation signal of cocaine. When levamisole is present in the sample in ratios higher than 1:1, the cocaine signal is no longer detected, thus leading to false negative results. Mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance were used to investigate if the signal suppression is due to the formation of a complex between cocaine and levamisole in bulk solution. Strategies to eliminate this suppressing effect are further suggested in this manuscript. In a first approach, the increase of the pH of the sample solution from pH 7 to pH 12 allowed the voltammetric determination of cocaine in the presence of levamisole in a concentration range from 10 to 5000 μM at nonmodified graphite disposable electrodes with a detection limit of 5 μM. In a second approach, the graphite electrode was cathodically pretreated, resulting in the presence of oxidation peaks of both cocaine and levamisole, with a detection limit for cocaine of 3 μM over the linear range of concentrations from 10 to 2500 μM. Both these strategies have been successfully applied for the simultaneous detection of cocaine and levamisole in three street samples on unmodified graphite disposable electrodes.

  15. 7 CFR 1434.5 - Eligible honey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eligible honey. 1434.5 Section 1434.5 Agriculture... FOR HONEY § 1434.5 Eligible honey. To be eligible for a loan, the honey must: (a) Have been produced... merchantable quality deemed by CCC to be suitable for loan; that is, the honey: (1) Is not adulterated; (2) Has...

  16. 7 CFR 1434.5 - Eligible honey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eligible honey. 1434.5 Section 1434.5 Agriculture... FOR HONEY § 1434.5 Eligible honey. To be eligible for a loan, the honey must: (a) Have been produced... merchantable quality deemed by CCC to be suitable for loan; that is, the honey: (1) Is not adulterated; (2) Has...

  17. 7 CFR 1434.5 - Eligible honey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligible honey. 1434.5 Section 1434.5 Agriculture... FOR HONEY § 1434.5 Eligible honey. To be eligible for a loan, the honey must: (a) Have been produced... merchantable quality deemed by CCC to be suitable for loan; that is, the honey: (1) Is not adulterated; (2) Has...

  18. 7 CFR 1434.5 - Eligible honey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible honey. 1434.5 Section 1434.5 Agriculture... FOR HONEY § 1434.5 Eligible honey. To be eligible for a loan, the honey must: (a) Have been produced... merchantable quality deemed by CCC to be suitable for loan; that is, the honey: (1) Is not adulterated; (2) Has...

  19. 7 CFR 1434.5 - Eligible honey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eligible honey. 1434.5 Section 1434.5 Agriculture... FOR HONEY § 1434.5 Eligible honey. To be eligible for a loan, the honey must: (a) Have been produced... merchantable quality deemed by CCC to be suitable for loan; that is, the honey: (1) Is not adulterated; (2) Has...

  20. Global information sampling in the honey bee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Brian R.

    2008-06-01

    Central to the question of task allocation in social insects is how workers acquire information. Patrolling is a curious behavior in which bees meander over the face of the comb inspecting cells. Several authors have suggested it allows bees to collect global information, but this has never been formally evaluated. This study explores this hypothesis by answering three questions. First, do bees gather information in a consistent manner as they patrol? Second, do they move far enough to get a sense of task demand in distant areas of the nest? And third, is patrolling a commonly performed task? Focal animal observations were used to address the first two predictions, while a scan sampling study was used to address the third. The results were affirmative for each question. While patrolling, workers collected information by performing periodic clusters of cell inspections. Patrolling bees not only traveled far enough to frequently change work zone; they often visited every part of the nest. Finally, the majority of the bees in the middle-age caste were shown to move throughout the nest over the course of a few hours in a manner suggestive of patrolling. Global information collection is contrary to much current theory, which assumes that workers respond to local information only. This study thus highlights the nonmutually exclusive nature of various information collection regimes in social insects.

  1. Honey

    MedlinePlus

    ... substance produced by bees from the nectar of plants. It is commonly used as a sweetener in ... medicine. Honey can become contaminated with germs from plants, bees, and dust during production, collection, and processing. ...

  2. Enantioselective analysis of chloramphenicol residues in honey samples by chiral LC-MS/MS and results of a honey survey.

    PubMed

    Rimkus, Gerhard G; Hoffmann, Dirk

    2017-06-01

    Chloramphenicol (CAP) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic used widely in both human and veterinary medication. Since 1994, CAP has not been authorised for use in food-producing animals in the European Union due to several adverse effects. A minimum required performance level (MRPL) of 0.3 µg kg - 1 was established in 2003. The CAP molecule contains two asymmetric centres, thus in total four para-CAP stereoisomers exist. Only the RR-CAP enantiomer is bioactive, having significant antimicrobial activity. For the first time a chiral LC-MS/MS method is reported to identify and quantify the four CAP enantiomers at residue levels in honey samples. The method was validated at two concentration levels. The decision limits (CCα) and detection capabilities (CCß) were well below 0.3 µg kg - 1 , with limits of quantification (LOQs) between 0.08 and 0.12 µg kg - 1 for all four enantiomers. The method provides a sensitive and reliable analysis of CAP enantiomers in honey, and proved its robustness during the daily routine analyses of numerous honey samples. In an internal honey survey, in total 40 honey samples from different geographical regions with identified CAP residues at or above the MRPL were reanalysed by chiral LC-MS/MS. In nine honey samples only the bioactive RR-CAP was detected as anticipated. However, in all other 31 honey samples the non-bioactive SS-CAP was also identified and quantified unambiguously. In 10 of these samples, mixtures of RR- and SS-CAP were analysed, and in 21 samples only the SS-CAP enantiomer, with concentrations up to 2.2 µg kg - 1 . Most of these samples are honeys from Ukraine and Eastern Europe. This is the first report of SS-CAP residues in food samples. The potential sources for these findings are discussed and the need of further systematic studies emphasised. It is recommended to examine in more depth the toxicological profile of the individual CAP stereoisomers.

  3. [Determination of exogenous gamma-amylase residue in honey].

    PubMed

    Fei, Xiaoqing; Wu, Bin; Shen, Chongyu; Zhang, Rui; Ding, Tao; Li, Lihua

    2012-08-01

    A novel method for the determination of exogenous gamma-amylase residue in honey using liquid chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (LC-IRMS) was established. After pre-separation by gel column chromatography, the gamma-amylase in honey samples was separated from the sugars. The gamma-amylase was then used to catalyze maltose into glucose. This enzymatic reaction was under the conditions of 55 degrees C and 0.03 mol/L phosphate buffer solution (pH 4.5) for 48 h. The maltose and glucose in the above enzymatic reaction solution were separated using liquid chromatography. By measuring the content of glucose with isotope ratio mass spectrometry, the gamma-amylase in honey can be determined. The linear range of gamma-amylase was 5 - 200 U/kg with the quantification limit of 5 U/kg. The recoveries were between 89.6% and 108.2% with the relative standard deviations from 3.3% to 4.9%. This method was used to analyze 38 honey and rice syrup samples, and the detection rate of gamma-amylase was 76.3%. To further verify the detection capability of this method, an authentic honey was adulterated with 15% (mass fraction) rice syrup. The gamma-amylase content in this sample was 10.2 U/kg. This method can effectively identify honey adulteration with rice syrups from the perspective of enzymology.

  4. Cocaine adulteration.

    PubMed

    Kudlacek, Oliver; Hofmaier, Tina; Luf, Anton; Mayer, Felix P; Stockner, Thomas; Nagy, Constanze; Holy, Marion; Freissmuth, Michael; Schmid, Rainer; Sitte, Harald H

    2017-10-01

    Cocaine is a naturally occurring and illicitly used psychostimulant drug. Cocaine acts at monoaminergic neurotransmitter transporters to block uptake of the monoamines, dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine. The resulting increase of monoamines in the extracellular space underlies the positively reinforcing effects that cocaine users seek. In turn, this increase in monoamines underlies the development of addiction, and can also result in a number of severe side effects. Currently, cocaine is one of the most common illicit drugs available on the European market. However, cocaine is increasingly sold in impure forms. This trend is driven by cocaine dealers seeking to increase their profit margin by mixing ("cutting") cocaine with numerous other compounds ("adulterants"). Importantly, these undeclared compounds put cocaine consumers at risk, because consumers are not aware of the additional potential threats to their health. This review describes adulterants that have been identified in cocaine sold on the street market. Their typical pharmacological profile and possible reasons why these compounds can be used as cutting agents will be discussed. Since a subset of these adulterants has been found to exert effects similar to cocaine itself, we will discuss levamisole, the most frequently used cocaine cutting agent today, and its metabolite aminorex. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Detection of adulteration in mulberry pekmez samples added various sugar syrups with ¹³C/¹²C isotope ratio analysis method.

    PubMed

    Tosun, Murat

    2014-12-15

    Mulberry pekmez can be adulterated in different ways either during the production process or after production is completed. To identify these adulterations, stable carbon isotope ratio analysis (SCIRA) was performed on the model examples prepared by adding saccharose syrup (SS), glucose syrup (GS) and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) into two different pure mulberry pekmez samples in the ratios of 0%, 10%, 30% and 50%. The δ(13)C ratio of the pure mulberry pekmez was determined as -26.60‰ on average, the saccharose syrup as -24.80‰, the glucose syrup as -11.20‰ and the high-fructose corn syrup as -11.40‰. In identifying the adulteration made to pekmez, especially with the high-fructose corn syrup, which is obtained from corn starch, and with the glucose syrup, the δ(13)C ratio comes into prominence. However it remains impossible identify the adulterations made with the saccharose, which is obtained from beet sugar, or invert sugar syrups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Determination of mineral, trace element, and pesticide levels in honey samples originating from different regions of Malaysia compared to manuka honey.

    PubMed

    Moniruzzaman, Mohammed; Chowdhury, Muhammed Alamgir Zaman; Rahman, Mohammad Abdur; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Gan, Siew Hua

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the content of six minerals, five trace elements, and ten pesticide residues in honeys originating from different regions of Malaysia. Calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) were analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), while sodium (Na) and potassium (K) were analyzed by flame emission spectrometry (FAES). Trace elements such as arsenic (As), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and cobalt (Co) were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) following the microwave digestion of honey. High mineral contents were observed in the investigated honeys with K, Na, Ca, and Fe being the most abundant elements (mean concentrations of 1349.34, 236.80, 183.67, and 162.31 mg/kg, resp.). The concentrations of the trace elements were within the recommended limits, indicating that the honeys were of good quality. Principal component analysis reveals good discrimination between the different honey samples. The pesticide analysis for the presence of organophosphorus and carbamates was performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). No pesticide residues were detected in any of the investigated honey samples, indicating that the honeys were pure. Our study reveals that Malaysian honeys are rich sources of minerals with trace elements present within permissible limits and that they are free from pesticide contamination.

  7. Determination of Mineral, Trace Element, and Pesticide Levels in Honey Samples Originating from Different Regions of Malaysia Compared to Manuka Honey

    PubMed Central

    Moniruzzaman, Mohammed; Chowdhury, Muhammed Alamgir Zaman; Rahman, Mohammad Abdur; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Gan, Siew Hua

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the content of six minerals, five trace elements, and ten pesticide residues in honeys originating from different regions of Malaysia. Calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) were analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), while sodium (Na) and potassium (K) were analyzed by flame emission spectrometry (FAES). Trace elements such as arsenic (As), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and cobalt (Co) were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) following the microwave digestion of honey. High mineral contents were observed in the investigated honeys with K, Na, Ca, and Fe being the most abundant elements (mean concentrations of 1349.34, 236.80, 183.67, and 162.31 mg/kg, resp.). The concentrations of the trace elements were within the recommended limits, indicating that the honeys were of good quality. Principal component analysis reveals good discrimination between the different honey samples. The pesticide analysis for the presence of organophosphorus and carbamates was performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). No pesticide residues were detected in any of the investigated honey samples, indicating that the honeys were pure. Our study reveals that Malaysian honeys are rich sources of minerals with trace elements present within permissible limits and that they are free from pesticide contamination. PMID:24982869

  8. Physico-chemical analysis and antimicrobial potential of Apis dorsata, Apis mellifera and Ziziphus jujube honey samples from Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Fahim, Hira; Dasti, Javid Iqbal; Ali, Ihsan; Ahmed, Safia; Nadeem, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate physico-chemical properties and antimicrobial potential of indigenous honey samples against different reference strains including Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Enterobacter aerogenes ATCC 13048, Pseudomonas aeroginosa ATCC 9027, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Salmonella typhi ATCC 14028, Klebsiella pneumonia ATCC 13883, Aspergillus niger ATCC 16404, Rhizopus oligosporus PCSIR1, Candida albicans ATCC 14053 and Candida utilis ATCC 9950. Methods By using standard methods samples were evaluated for their antimicrobial properties including additive effect of starch and non-peroxidase activity, antioxidative properties (phenol contents, flavonoid contents, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity). Prior to this evaluation, complete physico-chemical properties including pH, color, ash contents, protein contents, moisture contents, hydroxymethyl furfural contents, total sugar contents, reducing sugar and non-reducing sugar contents were analyzed. Results Relatively higher ash contents were found in the Siddar honey i.e. (0.590 0±0.033 6)% and small honey showed relatively higher protein contents i.e. (777.598±9.880) mg/kg. The moisture contents of tested honey samples ranged between 13.8%-16.6%, total sugar contents from 61.672%-72.420% and non-reducing sugar contents from 1.95%-3.93%. Presences of phenolic contents indicate higher antioxidant potential of these honey samples. All bacteria showed clear inhibition zones in response to tested honey samples whereas fungi and yeast showed inhibition at higher concentrations of these honey samples. For Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeroginosa and Aspergillus niger, overall the small honey showed the higher activity than other honey samples. Conclusion Physico-chemical analysis of honey samples confirmed good quality of honey according to the standards set by European Union Commission and Codex Alimentarius Commission

  9. A survey of adulterants used to cut cocaine in samples seized in the Espírito Santo State by GC-MS allied to chemometric tools.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Lindamara M; Rodrigues, Rayza R T; Santos, Heloá; Costa, Helber B; Merlo, Bianca B; Filgueiras, Paulo R; Poppi, Ronei J; Vaz, Boniek G; Romão, Wanderson

    2016-03-01

    Cocaine is a stimulant drug of the central nervous system (CNS) extracted from the leaves of Erytroxylum coca. It is defined as a tropane alkaloid containing 1R-(exo,exo)-3-(benzoyloxy)-8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane-2-carboxylic acid methyl esther. However, despite its defined composition, a wide variety of chemical additives are present in cocaine found in the illicit market, such as benzocaine, lidocaine, caffeine, procaine and phenacetin. In this work, 512 cocaine samples seized by the Civil Police of Espirito Santo state (PC-ES, Brazil) were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) allied to principal component analysis (PCA) in order to classify the samples as a function of seizure year (2008, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012) and location (metropolitan, north, south and central). The cocaine content (wt.%) and its adulterants were also estimated. Analyzing the samples seized between 2008 and 2011, three sample sets are clearly grouped according to the degree of adulteration with caffeine and lidocaine: 100-50 wt.% of cocaine; 50-20 wt.% of cocaine; and 20-80 wt.% of lidocaine and 60-80 wt.% of caffeine, simultaneously. The last group is formed by samples seized between 2008 and 2009, which proves the higher degree of adulteration during this period. In 2012, higher cocaine content was observed for the 191 analyzed samples than in samples from previous years. The PCA data also suggests that the metropolitan region samples had a higher degree of adulteration than the state countryside samples. Copyright © 2015 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Physicochemical characteristics and pollen spectra of organic and non-organic honey samples of Apis mellifera L.

    PubMed

    Sereia, Maria Josiane; Alves, Eloi M; Toledo, Vagner A A; Marchini, Luis C; Serine, Elizabete S; Faquinello, Patricia; Almeida, Daniela de; Moreti, Augusta C C C

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this research was to analyze and compare 17 honey samples, 11 organic and six non-organic Apis mellifera honey. The samples were analyzed concerning moisture, hydroxymethylfurfural, diastase index, water activity, color, total sugar, reducing sugar, sucrose, ash, viscosity, electrical conductivity, pH, acidity, and formol index. With the exception of acidity, reducing sugar and diastase index, the averages of other parameters were different between the two groups. All samples of organic honey presented moisture values between 23.50 and 24.40%. Among the nonorganic honey samples, two presented apparent sucrose amount upper the maximum limit established by the Brazilian Legislation. According to the quantitative analysis of pollen sediments in the honey samples and frequency of pollen types in 17 honey samples, 41.20% were classified as unifioral, and the remainder as polifioral.

  11. Levels of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in honey samples from different geographic regions.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Susana; García-Bermejo, Angel; Herrero, Laura; Gómara, Belén; Costabeber, Ijoni Hilda; González, María José

    2014-02-15

    Concentrations of 17 brominated flame retardants (BFRs), including two "novel" BFRs (1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane, BTBPE and decabromodiphenylethane, DBDPE), have been determined to be in 35 commercial honey samples from Brazil, Spain, Portugal, Slovenia and Morocco. The results revealed the presence of low amounts (betweenhoneys (mean of 5.19, range of 0.46-25.2 pg g(-1) f.w.), followed by Moroccan (mean of 4.40, range of 2.49-8.0 pg g(-1) f.w.), Portuguese (mean of 2.24, range of 1.33-3.81 pg g(-1) f.w.), Spanish (mean of 1.77, range of 0.49-2.96 pg g(-1) f.w.), and Slovenian (mean of 0.93, range of 0.75-1.09 pg g(-1) f.w.) honey samples. The most remarkable findings in this study were the large contribution of the low brominated PBDEs, principally BDE-47, found in honey samples from Slovenia, Spain and Portugal. Meanwhile the most abundant BFRs found in Brazilian and Moroccan honeys were the two novel BFRs (BTBPE and DBDPE). The detection of BFRs in honeys from different countries highlights the risk that their presence poses to the health of humans and wildlife since honey is a non-fatty natural product that is highly consumed all over the world. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Antioxidant Activity of Three Honey Samples in relation with Their Biochemical Components

    PubMed Central

    Rahaman, Norul Liza A.; Adnan, Nur Ardawati; Eddie Tan, Ti Tjih

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant activities based on the free radical scavenging, reducing power, and bleaching inhibition were investigated for the three commonly used honeys in Malaysia, namely, tualang, gelam, and acacia honey. The antioxidant capacity of the honey samples was correlated with their biochemical constituents such as total phenol, total flavonoid content, and total water-soluble vitamins (vitamin B1, B2, B3, B9, B12, and vitamin C). The total flavonoid content of honey samples was strongly correlated with the three antioxidative processes (r = 0.9276–0.9910). In contrast, the total water-soluble vitamins was found to be well correlated with the free radical scavenging activity (r = 0.8226). Vitamin B3 was likely to be in the highest concentration, which covered for 69–80% of the total vitamin content. A number of five phenolic acids, three flavonoids, and two organic acids had also been detected from the honey samples using UPLC-MS/MS, without sugar-removal procedure. PMID:24027653

  13. Differences in composition of honey samples and their impact on the antimicrobial activities against drug multiresistant bacteria and pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    AL-Waili, Noori; Al Ghamdi, Ahmad; Ansari, Mohammad Javed; Al-Attal, Yehya; Al-Mubarak, Aarif; Salom, Khelod

    2013-05-01

    Antibiotic multiresistant microbes represent a challenging problem. Because honey has a potent antibacterial property, the antimicrobial effects of different honey samples against multiresistant pathogens and their compositions were investigated. Five honey samples were used: Talah, Dhahian, Sumra-1, Sidr, and Sumra-2. Samples were analyzed to determine chemical composition such as fructose, glucose, sucrose, pH, total flavonoids, total phenolics, hydrogen peroxide concentration, minerals and trace elements. Antimicrobial activities of the samples against 17 (16 were multiresistant) human pathogenic bacteria and three types of fungi were studied. Specimens of the isolates were cultured into 10 mL of 10-100% (volume/volume) honey diluted in broth. Microbial growth was assessed on a solid plate media after 24 h and 72 h incubation. The composition of honey samples varied considerably. Sumra 1 and 2 contained the highest level of flavonoids and phenolics and the lowest level of hydrogen peroxide, whereas Dhahian honey contained the highest level of hydrogen peroxide. Sixteen pathogens were antibiotic multiresistant. A single dose of each honey sample inhibited all the pathogens tested after 24 h and 72 h incubation. The most sensitive pathogens were Aspergillus nidulans, Salmonella typhimurum and Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis). Although there was no statistically significant difference in the effectiveness of honey samples, the most effective honey against bacteria was Talah and against fungi were Dhahian and Sumra-2. Various honey samples collected from different geographical areas and plant origins showed almost similar antimicrobial activities against multiresistant pathogens despite considerable variation in their composition. Honey may represent an alternative candidate to be tested as part of management of drug multiresistant pathogens. Copyright © 2013 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Rapid, sensitive and reproducible method for point-of-collection screening of liquid milk for adulterants using a portable Raman spectrometer with novel optimized sample well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieuwoudt, Michel K.; Holroyd, Steve E.; McGoverin, Cushla M.; Simpson, M. Cather; Williams, David E.

    2017-02-01

    Point-of-care diagnostics are of interest in the medical, security and food industry, the latter particularly for screening food adulterated for economic gain. Milk adulteration continues to be a major problem worldwide and different methods to detect fraudulent additives have been investigated for over a century. Laboratory based methods are limited in their application to point-of-collection diagnosis and also require expensive instrumentation, chemicals and skilled technicians. This has encouraged exploration of spectroscopic methods as more rapid and inexpensive alternatives. Raman spectroscopy has excellent potential for screening of milk because of the rich complexity inherent in its signals. The rapid advances in photonic technologies and fabrication methods are enabling increasingly sensitive portable mini-Raman systems to be placed on the market that are both affordable and feasible for both point-of-care and point-of-collection applications. We have developed a powerful spectroscopic method for rapidly screening liquid milk for sucrose and four nitrogen-rich adulterants (dicyandiamide (DCD), ammonium sulphate, melamine, urea), using a combined system: a small, portable Raman spectrometer with focusing fibre optic probe and optimized reflective focusing wells, simply fabricated in aluminium. The reliable sample presentation of this system enabled high reproducibility of 8% RSD (residual standard deviation) within four minutes. Limit of detection intervals for PLS calibrations ranged between 140 - 520 ppm for the four N-rich compounds and between 0.7 - 3.6 % for sucrose. The portability of the system and reliability and reproducibility of this technique opens opportunities for general, reagentless adulteration screening of biological fluids as well as milk, at point-of-collection.

  15. Detection of adulterated commercial Spanish beeswax.

    PubMed

    Serra Bonvehi, J; Orantes Bermejo, F J

    2012-05-01

    The physical and chemical parameters (melting point and saponification number), and the fraction of hydrocarbons, monoesters, acids and alcohols have been determined in 90 samples of Spanish commercial beeswax from Apis mellifera L. The adulteration with paraffins of different melting point, cow tallow, stearic acid, and carnauba wax were determined by HTGC-FID/MS detection, and the research was focussed mainly on paraffins and microcrystallines waxes. In general, the added adulterant can be identified by the presence of non-naturally beeswax components, and by the differences of values of selected components between pure and adulterated beeswax. The detection limits were determined using pure and adulterated beeswax with different amounts of added waxes (5%, 10%, 20% and 30%). Percentages higher than 1-5% of each adulterant can be detected in the mixtures. Paraffin waxes were confirmed in 33 of the 90 samples analysed at concentrations between 5% and 30%. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Tylosin content in meat and honey samples over a two-year period in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Kolanović, Božica S; Bilandžić, Nina; Varenina, Ivana; Božić, Durđica

    2014-01-01

    A total of 646 meat and 96 honey samples were examined over a 2-year period for the presence of tylosin residues. ELISA method used was validated according to the criteria of Commission Decision 2002/657/EC established for qualitative screening methods. The CCβ values were 32.1 µg kg⁻¹ in muscle and 24.4 µg kg⁻¹ in honey. The recoveries from spiked samples ranged from 66.4-118.6%, with a coefficient of variation between 12.6% and 18.6%. All the investigated samples showed no presence of tylosin. Calculated estimated daily intakes show exposure levels lower than the acceptable daily intakes set by World Health Organization.

  17. Pollen analysis in honey samples from the two main producing regions in the Brazilian northeast.

    PubMed

    Sodré, Geni da S; Marchini, Luís C; Carvalho, Carlos A L de; Moreti, Augusta C de C C

    2007-09-01

    Knowledge about the botanical source of honey is very important for the beekeeper while it indicates adequate and abundant supply sources of nectar and pollen for the bees, thus contributing toward improved yield. The present study means to identify the pollen types occurring in 58 samples of honey produced in two states of the northeastern region of Brazil, Piauí (38 samples) and Ceará (20 samples), and to verify the potential of the honey plants during the months of February to August. The samples were obtained directly from beekeepers in each state and analyzed at the Apiculture Laboratory of the Entomology Section of Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz", USP, Piracicaba, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The pollen analysis was performed using the acetolysis method. The samples were submitted to both a qualitative and a quantitative analysis. The dominant pollen in the State of Ceará is from Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia, M. verrucosa, Borreria verticillata, Serjania sp., and a Fabaceae pollen type, while in the State of Piauí it is from Piptadenia sp., M. caesalpiniaefolia, M. verrucosa, Croton urucurana and Tibouchina sp.

  18. 76 FR 77480 - Honey From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Anticircumvention Inquiry

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ... high fructose corn syrup were known to be mixed with honey, making them ``honey adulterants,'' and that... syrup blends in its discussion of artificial honey, while it did list refined sugar and high-fructose corn syrup, as evidence that honey-rice syrup blends were not contemplated at the time of the Order...

  19. [Levels of mercury in samples of bees and honey from areas with and without industrial contamination].

    PubMed

    Toporcák, J; Legáth, J; Kul'ková, J

    1992-07-01

    Increasing numbers of specialists have been concerned with the problem of friendly environment in relation to man as well as to farm and wild animals. Greater interest in the biological monitoring of environment and ecosystem contamination can be observed. Determination of residues of organic and inorganic substances in bees (Apis mellifera) and in their products is one of effective possibilities of environmental pollution monitoring. Our work was aimed at the study of mercury levels in bees and their products. Mercury levels were determined in the head, abdomen and thorax of bees (Apis mellifera) from 20 bee populations coming from industrially contaminated areas with a dominant load of mercury (10 populations) and from uncontaminated areas. Mercury levels were determined simultaneously in honey coming from both contaminated and uncontaminated areas. The following mercury levels were found in bees from the contaminated area: heads 0.029-0.385 mg/kg, thorax 0.028-0.595 mg/kg and abdomen 0.083-2.255 mg/kg. Mercury levels in samples from uncontaminated areas ranged from 0.004 to 0.024 mg/kg in the heads, from 0.004 to 0.008 mg/kg in the thorax and from 0.008 to 0.020 mg/kg in the abdomen. In honey samples from the contaminated and uncontaminated areas mercury levels ranged from 0.050 to 0.212 mg/kg and from 0.001 to 0.003 mg/kg, respectively. The results of sample analyses for mercury loads in bees and honey from both contaminated and uncontaminated areas are given in Tab. I. Mean mercury levels in the single parts of the body in Apis mellifera and in honey from contaminated and uncontaminated areas are given in Figs. 1, 2, 3.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Development of a fast capillary electrophoresis method for determination of carbohydrates in honey samples.

    PubMed

    Rizelio, Viviane Maria; Tenfen, Laura; da Silveira, Roberta; Gonzaga, Luciano Valdemiro; Costa, Ana Carolina Oliveira; Fett, Roseane

    2012-05-15

    In this study, the determination of fructose, glucose and sucrose by capillary electrophoresis (CE) was investigated. The tendency of the analyte to undergo electromigration dispersion and the buffer capacity were evaluated using the Peakmaster(®) software and considered in the optimization of the background electrolyte, which was composed of 20 mmol L(-1) sorbic acid, 0.2 mmol L(-1) CTAB and 40 mmol L(-1) NaOH at pH 12.2. Under optimal CE conditions, the separation of the substances investigated was achieved in less than 2 min. The detection limits for the three analytes were in the range of 0.022 and 0.029 g L(-1) and precision measurements within 0.62-4.69% were achieved. The proposed methodology was applied in the quantitative analysis by direct injection of in honey samples to determine the main sugars presents. The samples were previously dissolved in deionized water and filtered with no other sample treatment. The mean values for fructose, glucose and sucrose were in the ranges of 33.65-45.46 g 100g(-1), 24.63-35.06 g 100g(-1) and <0.22-1.32 g 100g(-1), respectively. The good analytical performance of the method makes it suitable for implementation in food laboratories for the routine analysis of honey samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Quantification of 4'-geranyloxyferulic acid (GOFA) in honey samples of different origin by validated RP-HPLC-UV method.

    PubMed

    Genovese, Salvatore; Taddeo, Vito Alessandro; Fiorito, Serena; Epifano, Francesco

    2016-01-05

    Natural honey has been employed as a nutraceutical agent with benefits and therapeutic promises for humans for many centuries. It has been largely used as food and medicine by all generations, traditions, and civilizations, both ancient and modern. Several chemicals having beneficial effects for human health have been reported as components of natural honey and these include sugars, organic acids, aminoacids, minerals, and vitamins. Also some important phytochemicals have been described and these comprise tannins, flavonoids, terpenes, saponins, and alkaloids. In this note it is described the successful application of a RP HPLC-UV-vis method for the separation and quantification of 4'-geranyloxyferulic acid (GOFA) in four honey samples of different origin. Concentration values showed a great variation between the four samples tested, being chestnut honey the one richest in GOFA (7.87 mg/g). The findings described herein represent the first example reported in the literature of the characterization of an oxyprenylated phenylpropanoid in honey. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Electroanalysis and laccase-based biosensor on the determination of phenolic content and antioxidant power of honey samples.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Neto, Jerônimo Raimundo; Rezende, Stefani Garcia; Lobón, Gérman Sanz; Garcia, Telma Alves; Macedo, Isaac Yves Lopes; Garcia, Luane Ferreira; Alves, Virgínia Farias; Torres, Ieda Maria Sapateiro; Santiago, Mariângela Fontes; Schmidt, Fernando; de Souza Gil, Eric

    2017-12-15

    Honey is a functional food widely consumed. Thus, the evaluation of honey samples to determine its phenolic content and antioxidant capacity (AOC) is relevant to determine its quality. Usually AOC is performed by spectrophotometric methods, which lacks reproducibility and practicality. In this context, the electroanalytical methods offer higher simplicity and accuracy. Hence, the aim of this work was to use of electroanalytical tools and laccase based biosensor on the evaluation of AOC and total phenol content (TPC) of honey samples from different countries. The antioxidant power established by electrochemical index presented good correlation with the spectrophotometric FRAP (Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma) and DPPH (2,2-Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging assays. Also, TPC results obtained by the biosensor agreed with the Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) assay. In addition to the semi quantitative results, the electroanalysis offered qualitative parameters, which were useful to indicate the nature of major phenolic compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Organochlorine Pesticides in Honey and Pollen Samples from Managed Colonies of the Honey Bee Apis mellifera Linnaeus and the Stingless Bee Scaptotrigona mexicana Guérin from Southern, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Toledo, Jovani; Vandame, Rémy; Castro-Chan, Ricardo Alberto; Penilla-Navarro, Rosa Patricia; Gómez, Jaime; Sánchez, Daniel

    2018-05-10

    In this paper, we show the results of investigating the presence of organochlorine pesticides in honey and pollen samples from managed colonies of the honey bee, Apis mellifera L. and of the stingless bee Scaptotrigona mexicana Guérin. Three colonies of each species were moved into each of two sites. Three samples of pollen and three samples of honey were collected from each colony: the first collection occurred at the beginning of the study and the following ones at every six months during a year. Thus the total number of samples collected was 36 for honey (18 for A. mellifera and 18 for S. mexicana ) and 36 for pollen (18 for A. mellifera and 18 for S. mexicana ). We found that 88.44% and 93.33% of honey samples, and 22.22% and 100% of pollen samples of S. mexicana and A. mellifera , respectively, resulted positive to at least one organochlorine. The most abundant pesticides were Heptaclor (44% of the samples), γ-HCH (36%), DDT (19%), Endrin (18%) and DDE (11%). Despite the short foraging range of S. mexicana , the number of pesticides quantified in the honey samples was similar to that of A. mellifera . Paradoxically we found a small number of organochlorines in pollen samples of S. mexicana in comparison to A. mellifera , perhaps indicating a low abundance of pollen sources within the foraging range of this species.

  4. Ultrasensitive Immunochromatographic Strip for Fast Screening of 27 Sulfonamides in Honey and Pork Liver Samples Based on a Monoclonal Antibody.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yanni; Guo, Lingling; Liu, Liqiang; Song, Shanshan; Kuang, Hua; Xu, Chuanlai

    2017-09-20

    Group-specific monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) with selectivity for 27 sulfonamides were developed based on new combinations of immunogen and coating antigen. The Mab was able to recognize 27 sulfonamides with 50% inhibition concentration (IC 50 ) values ranging from 0.15 to 15.38 μg/L. In particular, the IC 50 values for five sulfonamides (sulfamethazine, sulfaquinoxaline, sulfamonomethoxine, sulfadimethoxine, and sulfamethoxazole) were 0.51, 0.15, 0.56, 0.54, and 2.14 μg/L, respectively. On the basis of the Mab, an immunochromatographic lateral flow strip test was established for rapid screening of sulfonamides in honey samples. The visual limit of detection of the strip test for most sulfonamides in spiked honey samples was below 10 μg/kg, satisfying the requirements of authorities. Positive honey and pork liver samples, which had been confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, were used to validate the reliability of the proposed strip test. The immunochromatographic lateral flow strip test provides a rapid and convenient method for fast screening of sulfonamides in honey samples.

  5. Detection of sugar adulterants in apple juice using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Kelly, J F Daniel; Downey, Gerard

    2005-05-04

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and attenuated total reflection sampling have been used to detect adulteration of single strength apple juice samples. The sample set comprised 224 authentic apple juices and 480 adulterated samples. Adulterants used included partially inverted cane syrup (PICS), beet sucrose (BS), high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), and a synthetic solution of fructose, glucose, and sucrose (FGS). Adulteration was carried out on individual apple juice samples at levels of 10, 20, 30, and 40% w/w. Spectral data were compressed by principal component analysis and analyzed using k-nearest neighbors and partial least squares regression techniques. Prediction results for the best classification models achieved an overall (authentic plus adulterated) correct classification rate of 96.5, 93.9, 92.2, and 82.4% for PICS, BS, HFCS, and FGS adulterants, respectively. This method shows promise as a rapid screening technique for the detection of a broad range of potential adulterants in apple juice.

  6. Toxic compounds in honey.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Nazmul; Khalil, Md Ibrahim; Islam, Md Asiful; Gan, Siew Hua

    2014-07-01

    There is a wealth of information about the nutritional and medicinal properties of honey. However, honey may contain compounds that may lead to toxicity. A compound not naturally present in honey, named 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), may be formed during the heating or preservation processes of honey. HMF has gained much interest, as it is commonly detected in honey samples, especially samples that have been stored for a long time. HMF is a compound that may be mutagenic, carcinogenic and cytotoxic. It has also been reported that honey can be contaminated with heavy metals such as lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium. Honey produced from the nectar of Rhododendron ponticum contains alkaloids that can be poisonous to humans, while honey collected from Andromeda flowers contains grayanotoxins, which can cause paralysis of limbs in humans and eventually leads to death. In addition, Melicope ternata and Coriaria arborea from New Zealand produce toxic honey that can be fatal. There are reports that honey is not safe to be consumed when it is collected from Datura plants (from Mexico and Hungary), belladonna flowers and Hyoscamus niger plants (from Hungary), Serjania lethalis (from Brazil), Gelsemium sempervirens (from the American Southwest), Kalmia latifolia, Tripetalia paniculata and Ledum palustre. Although the symptoms of poisoning due to honey consumption may differ depending on the source of toxins, most common symptoms generally include dizziness, nausea, vomiting, convulsions, headache, palpitations or even death. It has been suggested that honey should not be considered a completely safe food. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Spatial effects, sampling errors, and task specialization in the honey bee.

    PubMed

    Johnson, B R

    2010-05-01

    Task allocation patterns should depend on the spatial distribution of work within the nest, variation in task demand, and the movement patterns of workers, however, relatively little research has focused on these topics. This study uses a spatially explicit agent based model to determine whether such factors alone can generate biases in task performance at the individual level in the honey bees, Apis mellifera. Specialization (bias in task performance) is shown to result from strong sampling error due to localized task demand, relatively slow moving workers relative to nest size, and strong spatial variation in task demand. To date, specialization has been primarily interpreted with the response threshold concept, which is focused on intrinsic (typically genotypic) differences between workers. Response threshold variation and sampling error due to spatial effects are not mutually exclusive, however, and this study suggests that both contribute to patterns of task bias at the individual level. While spatial effects are strong enough to explain some documented cases of specialization; they are relatively short term and not explanatory for long term cases of specialization. In general, this study suggests that the spatial layout of tasks and fluctuations in their demand must be explicitly controlled for in studies focused on identifying genotypic specialists.

  8. Quantification of Saccharides in Honey Samples Through Surface-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry Using HgTe Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chia-Wei; Chen, Wen-Tsen; Chang, Huan-Tsung

    2014-07-01

    Quantification of monosaccharides and disaccharides in five honey samples through surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS) using HgTe nanostructures as the matrix and sucralose as an internal standard has been demonstrated. Under optimal conditions (1× HgTe nanostructure, 0.2 mM ammonium citrate at pH 9.0), the SALDI-MS approach allows detection of fructose and maltose at the concentrations down to 15 and 10 μM, respectively. Without conducting tedious sample pretreatment and separation, the SALDI-MS approach allows determination of the contents of monosaccharides and disaccharides in honey samples within 30 min, with reproducibility (relative standard deviation <15%). Unlike only sodium adducts of standard saccharides detected, sodium adducts and potassium adducts with differential amounts have been found among various samples, showing different amounts of sodium and potassium ions in the honey samples. The SALDI-MS data reveal that the contents of monosaccharides and disaccharides in various honey samples are dependent on their nectar sources. In addition to the abundant amounts of monosaccharides and disaccharides, oligosaccharides in m/z range of 650 - 2700 are only detected in pomelo honey. Having advantages of simplicity, rapidity, and reproducibility, this SALDI-MS holds great potential for the analysis of honey samples.

  9. Quantification of saccharides in honey samples through surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry using HgTe nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chia-Wei; Chen, Wen-Tsen; Chang, Huan-Tsung

    2014-07-01

    Quantification of monosaccharides and disaccharides in five honey samples through surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS) using HgTe nanostructures as the matrix and sucralose as an internal standard has been demonstrated. Under optimal conditions (1× HgTe nanostructure, 0.2 mM ammonium citrate at pH 9.0), the SALDI-MS approach allows detection of fructose and maltose at the concentrations down to 15 and 10 μM, respectively. Without conducting tedious sample pretreatment and separation, the SALDI-MS approach allows determination of the contents of monosaccharides and disaccharides in honey samples within 30 min, with reproducibility (relative standard deviation <15%). Unlike only sodium adducts of standard saccharides detected, sodium adducts and potassium adducts with differential amounts have been found among various samples, showing different amounts of sodium and potassium ions in the honey samples. The SALDI-MS data reveal that the contents of monosaccharides and disaccharides in various honey samples are dependent on their nectar sources. In addition to the abundant amounts of monosaccharides and disaccharides, oligosaccharides in m/z range of 650 - 2700 are only detected in pomelo honey. Having advantages of simplicity, rapidity, and reproducibility, this SALDI-MS holds great potential for the analysis of honey samples.

  10. Pollen analysis of Australian honey.

    PubMed

    Sniderman, J M Kale; Matley, Kia A; Haberle, Simon G; Cantrill, David J

    2018-01-01

    Pollen analysis is widely used to verify the geographic origin of honeys, but has never been employed in Australia. In this study, we analysed the pollen content of 173 unblended honey samples sourced from most of the commercial honey producing regions in southern Australia. Southern Australian vegetation is dominated by Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) forests and, as expected, most Australian honeys are palynologically dominated by Eucalyptus, while other important components include Myrtaceae taxa such as Corymbia/Angophora and the tribe Leptospermeae; plus Brassicaceae, Echium, Macadamia, and Acacia. An important feature of the honeys is the number of Myrtaceae pollen morphotypes per sample, which is generally high (mean = 4.6) compared to honeys produced outside of Australia, including Eucalyptus honeys produced in the Mediterranean region, and honeys produced in South America, which has its own rich indigenous Myrtaceae flora. In the latter regions, the number of Myrtaceae morphotypes is apparently generally ≤2. A high number of Myrtaceae morphotypes may be a feasible criterion for authenticating the origin of Australian honeys, since most Australian honey is produced by honey bees mainly working indigenous floral resources. Myrtaceae morphotype diversity is a convenient melissopalynological measure that could be applied even where detailed knowledge of the pollen morphology of the many component genera and species is absent. Palynological criteria developed in Europe for authenticating Eucalyptus honeys should not be relied upon for Australian honeys, since those criteria are not based on samples of Australian honey.

  11. Quality assessment of the saffron samples using second-order spectrophotometric data assisted by three-way chemometric methods via quantitative analysis of synthetic colorants in adulterated saffron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoum, Saeed; Gholami, Ali; Hemmesi, Marjan; Abbasi, Saleheh

    2015-09-01

    Saffron is a valuable culinary spice that can be used not only for dyes and cooking, but also for many medical purposes. Due to its high price and restriction of its production, various fraud manners in its production have been growing. Addition of synthetic colorants to saffron is the most common way for adulteration. In this work, chemometric methods are proposed to resolve the three-dimensional absorbance spectra-pH data for simultaneous determination of the two colorants Tartrazin and Sunset yellow, in adulterated saffron. The rank deficiency in the concentration mode impaired the system. Therefore, to extirpate the ambiguity, which results from rank deficiency, three-way variation array V was generated by subtracting the first pH spectrum from each spectrum at each pH. This allows the extraction of extent reaction profile and mixture reaction spectral profiles, as well as the relative concentrations of the analytes.

  12. A fast method for the determination of lead in honey samples using stabilizer-free silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittar, Dayana Borges; Catelani, Tiago Augusto; Pezza, Leonardo; Pezza, Helena Redigolo

    2018-01-01

    A sensitive, rapid and robust method based on the use of stabilizer-free silver nanoparticles was developed for lead detection in honey. Silver nanoparticles were synthesized without the presence of any stabilizers using silver nitrate and sodium borohydride as precursors where the latter was applied as reducing agent. The optimization of the experimental variables (AgNO3 and NaBH4) for the formation of the nanoparticles was carried out using varying volumes of these solutions. Spectrophotometric measurements at 393 nm showed a linear working range between 0.0500 and 0.167 mg L- 1 lead (R = 0.994), with limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) of 0.0135 and 0.0451 mg L- 1, respectively. The proposed method proved to be a significantly sensitive mechanism for lead detection in honey samples.

  13. Modern analytical methods for the detection of food fraud and adulteration by food category.

    PubMed

    Hong, Eunyoung; Lee, Sang Yoo; Jeong, Jae Yun; Park, Jung Min; Kim, Byung Hee; Kwon, Kisung; Chun, Hyang Sook

    2017-09-01

    This review provides current information on the analytical methods used to identify food adulteration in the six most adulterated food categories: animal origin and seafood, oils and fats, beverages, spices and sweet foods (e.g. honey), grain-based food, and others (organic food and dietary supplements). The analytical techniques (both conventional and emerging) used to identify adulteration in these six food categories involve sensory, physicochemical, DNA-based, chromatographic and spectroscopic methods, and have been combined with chemometrics, making these techniques more convenient and effective for the analysis of a broad variety of food products. Despite recent advances, the need remains for suitably sensitive and widely applicable methodologies that encompass all the various aspects of food adulteration. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Analyses of Mineral Content and Heavy Metal of Honey Samples from South and East Region of Turkey by Using ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Kılıç Altun, Serap; Dinç, Hikmet; Paksoy, Nilgün; Temamoğulları, Füsun Karaçal; Savrunlu, Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    The substantial of mineral ingredients in honey may symbolize the existence of elements in the plants and soil of the vicinity wherein the honey was taken. The aim of this study was to detect the levels of 13 elements (Potassium (K), Sodium (Na), Calcium (Ca), Iron (Fe), Zinc (Zn), Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), Manganese (Mn), Lead (Pb), Nickel (Ni), Chromium (Cr), Aluminum (Al), and Selenium (Se)) in unifloral and multifloral honey samples from south and east regions of Turkey. Survey of 71 honey samples from seven different herbal origins, picked up from the south and east region of Turkey, was carried out to determine their mineral contents during 2015-2016. The mineral contents were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The most abundant minerals were K, Na, and Ca ranging within 1.18-268 ppm, 0.57-13.1 ppm, and 0.77-4.5 ppm, respectively. Zn and Cu were the most abundant trace element while Pb, Cd, Ni, and Cr were the lowest heavy metals in the honey samples surveyed, with regard to the concentrations of heavy metals such as Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd, Ni, and Cr suggested and influence of the botanical origin of element composition. Geochemical and geographical differences are probably related to the variations of the chemical components of honey samples.

  15. [Textual research on adulteration of Chinese materia medica in ancient China].

    PubMed

    Xie, Jin; Wang, De-Qun

    2013-09-01

    By investigating the mainstream works of herbal classics of successive ages, it is found that adulteration of Chinese materia medica appeared early in ancient China. The main methods of adulteration was producing fraud medicines in the Northern-Southern Dynasties, fake medicines began to appear in the Tang Dynasty, and status of adulteration of Chinese materia medica ran unchecked since the Ming and Qing Dynasty. By statistics, there were 76 kinds of adulteration varieties before the Republican period. The main varieties were precious drugs, animal drugs and artifacts. Commonly methods used in the process included forging and adulterating, dealing with 11 kinds and 68 kinds respectively. Adulteration probably lead to the result of imposing the changes of the used medicinal parts of Herba Pogostemonis; Radix Aconiti Lateralis prepared by adding salt, Radix Angelica Sinensis processed by wine, and Radix Astragalis seu Hedysaris processed with bee honey. However, the root cause of adulteration in Chinese materia medica was the dissociation of professional physician and pharmacist, resulting in the ignorance of medical practitioners became unable to recognize Chinese materia medica; and the immorality of medicinal merchants. Besides, rating the quality of materia medica based on its producing areas without differentiating the false from the genuine may also contribute to this result passively.

  16. Photothermal method using a pyroelectric sensor for thermophysical characterization of agricultural and biological samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frandas, A.; Dadarlat, Dorin; Chirtoc, Mihai; Jalink, Henk; Bicanic, Dane D.; Paris, D.; Antoniow, Jean S.; Egee, Michel; Ungureanu, Costica

    1998-07-01

    The photopyroelectric method in different experimental configurations was used for thermophysical characterization of agricultural and biological samples. The study appears important due to the relation of thermal parameters to the quality of foodstuffs (connected to their preservation, storage and adulteration), migration profiles in biodegradable packages, and the mechanism of desiccation tolerance of seeds. Results are presented on the thermal parameters measurement and their dependence on temperature and water content for samples such as: honey, starch, seeds.

  17. Headspace, volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds diversity and radical scavenging activity of ultrasonic solvent extracts from Amorpha fruticosa honey samples.

    PubMed

    Jerković, Igor; Marijanović, Zvonimir; Kezić, Janja; Gugić, Mirko

    2009-07-27

    Volatile organic compounds of Amorpha fruticosa honey samples were isolated by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE), followed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry analyses (GC, GC-MS), in order to obtain complementary data for overall characterization of the honey aroma. The headspace of the honey was dominated by 2-phenylethanol (38.3-58.4%), while other major compounds were trans- and cis-linalool oxides, benzaldehyde and benzyl alcohol. 2-Phenylethanol (10.5-16.8%) and methyl syringate (5.8-8.2%) were the major compounds of ultrasonic solvent extracts, with an array of small percentages of linalool, benzene and benzoic acid derivatives, aliphatic hydrocarbons and alcohols, furan derivatives and others. The scavenging ability of the series of concentrations of the honey ultrasonic solvent extracts and the corresponding honey samples was tested by a DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) assay. Approximately 25 times lower concentration ranges (up to 2 g/L) of the extracts exhibited significantly higher free radical scavenging potential with respect to the honey samples.

  18. Adulterants in Urine Drug Testing.

    PubMed

    Fu, S

    Urine drug testing plays an important role in monitoring licit and illicit drug use for both medico-legal and clinical purposes. One of the major challenges of urine drug testing is adulteration, a practice involving manipulation of a urine specimen with chemical adulterants to produce a false negative test result. This problem is compounded by the number of easily obtained chemicals that can effectively adulterate a urine specimen. Common adulterants include some household chemicals such as hypochlorite bleach, laundry detergent, table salt, and toilet bowl cleaner and many commercial products such as UrinAid (glutaraldehyde), Stealth® (containing peroxidase and peroxide), Urine Luck (pyridinium chlorochromate, PCC), and Klear® (potassium nitrite) available through the Internet. These adulterants can invalidate a screening test result, a confirmatory test result, or both. To counteract urine adulteration, drug testing laboratories have developed a number of analytical methods to detect adulterants in a urine specimen. While these methods are useful in detecting urine adulteration when such activities are suspected, they do not reveal what types of drugs are being concealed. This is particularly the case when oxidizing urine adulterants are involved as these oxidants are capable of destroying drugs and their metabolites in urine, rendering the drug analytes undetectable by any testing technology. One promising approach to address this current limitation has been the use of unique oxidation products formed from reaction of drug analytes with oxidizing adulterants as markers for monitoring drug misuse and urine adulteration. This novel approach will ultimately improve the effectiveness of the current urine drug testing programs. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Molecular identification of astragali radix and its adulterants by ITS sequences].

    PubMed

    Cui, Zhan-Hu; Li, Yue; Yuan, Qing-Jun; Zhou, Li-She; Li, Min-Hui

    2012-12-01

    To explore a new method for identification Astragali Radix from its adulterants by using ITS sequence. Thirteen samples of the different Astragali Radix materials and 6 samples of the adulterants of the roots of Hedysarum polybotrys, Medicago sativa and Althaea rosea were collected. ITS sequence was amplified by PCR and sequenced unidirectionally. The interspecific K-2-P distances of Astragali Radix and its adulterants were calculated, and NJ tree and UPGMA tree were constructed by MEGA 4. ITS sequences were obtained from 19 samples respectively, there were Astragali Radix 646-650 bp, H. polybotrys 664 bp, Medicago sativa 659 bp, Althaea rosea 728 bp, which were registered in the GenBank. Phylogeny trees reconstruction using NJ and UPGMA analysis based on ITS nucleotide sequences can effectively distinguish Astragali Radix from adulterants. ITS sequence can be used to identify Astragali Radix from its adulterants successfully and is an efficient molecular marker for authentication of Astragali Radix and its adulterants.

  20. [Molecular identification of Hibiscus syriacus and its adulterants using ITS2 barcode].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi-Mei; Jin, Li-Na; Xiong, Yong-Xin; Wu, Lan; Chen, Ke-Li

    2014-03-01

    To identify Hibiscus syriacus and its adulterants using DNA barcoding technique. Nine samples of five species were PCR amplified and sequenced, and twelve samples were downloaded from the GenBank. The intra-specific and interspecific K2P distances were calculated, and neighbor-joining( NJ) tree was constructed by MEGA 5.0. The results showed the intra-specific genetic distances of Hibiscus syriacus were ranged from 0.009 to 0.056, which were far lower than inter-specific genetic distances between Hibiscus syriacus and its adulterants (0.236 - 0.301). Variable sites within Hibiscus syriacus ranged from 2 to 9 which were far less than the adulterants (45 - 52); Different samples of Hibiscus syriacus were gathered together and could be distinguished from its adulterants by NJ tree. ITS2 can discriminate Hibiscus syriacus from its adulterants correctly. The ITS2 region is an efficient barcode for authentication of Hibiscus syriacus and its adulterants.

  1. Fast determination of phosphorus in honey, milk and infant formulas by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry using a slurry sampling procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-García, I.; Viñas, P.; Romero-Romero, R.; Hernández-Córdoba, M.

    2007-01-01

    A procedure for the electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometric determination of phosphorus in honey, milk and infant formulas using slurried samples is described. Suspensions prepared in a medium containing 50% v/v concentrated hydrogen peroxide, 1% v/v concentrated nitric acid, 10% m/v glucose, 5% m/v sucrose and 100 mg l - 1 of potassium were introduced directly into the furnace. For the honey samples, multiple injection of the sample was necessary. The modifier selected was a mixture of 20 μg palladium and 5 μg magnesium nitrate, which was injected after the sample and before proceeding with the drying and calcination steps. Calibration was performed using aqueous standards prepared in the same suspension medium and the graph was linear between 5 and 80 mg l - 1 of phosphorus. The reliability of the procedure was checked by comparing the results obtained by the new developed method with those found when using a reference spectrophotometric method after a mineralization step, and by analyzing several certified reference materials.

  2. Adulteration of Argentinean milk fats with animal fats: Detection by fatty acids analysis and multivariate regression techniques.

    PubMed

    Rebechi, S R; Vélez, M A; Vaira, S; Perotti, M C

    2016-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to test the accuracy of the fatty acid ratios established by the Argentinean Legislation to detect adulterations of milk fat with animal fats and to propose a regression model suitable to evaluate these adulterations. For this purpose, 70 milk fat, 10 tallow and 7 lard fat samples were collected and analyzed by gas chromatography. Data was utilized to simulate arithmetically adulterated milk fat samples at 0%, 2%, 5%, 10% and 15%, for both animal fats. The fatty acids ratios failed to distinguish adulterated milk fats containing less than 15% of tallow or lard. For each adulterant, Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) was applied, and a model was chosen and validated. For that, calibration and validation matrices were constructed employing genuine and adulterated milk fat samples. The models were able to detect adulterations of milk fat at levels greater than 10% for tallow and 5% for lard. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Museum samples reveal rapid evolution by wild honey bees exposed to a novel parasite

    PubMed Central

    Mikheyev, Alexander S.; Tin, Mandy M. Y.; Arora, Jatin; Seeley, Thomas D.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding genetic changes caused by novel pathogens and parasites can reveal mechanisms of adaptation and genetic robustness. Using whole-genome sequencing of museum and modern specimens, we describe the genomic changes in a wild population of honey bees in North America following the introduction of the ectoparasitic mite, Varroa destructor. Even though colony density in the study population is the same today as in the past, a major loss of haplotypic diversity occurred, indicative of a drastic mitochondrial bottleneck, caused by massive colony mortality. In contrast, nuclear genetic diversity did not change, though hundreds of genes show signs of selection. The genetic diversity within each bee colony, particularly as a consequence of polyandry by queens, may enable preservation of genetic diversity even during population bottlenecks. These findings suggest that genetically diverse honey bee populations can recover from introduced diseases by evolving rapid tolerance, while maintaining much of the standing genetic variation. PMID:26246313

  4. Museum samples reveal rapid evolution by wild honey bees exposed to a novel parasite.

    PubMed

    Mikheyev, Alexander S; Tin, Mandy M Y; Arora, Jatin; Seeley, Thomas D

    2015-08-06

    Understanding genetic changes caused by novel pathogens and parasites can reveal mechanisms of adaptation and genetic robustness. Using whole-genome sequencing of museum and modern specimens, we describe the genomic changes in a wild population of honey bees in North America following the introduction of the ectoparasitic mite, Varroa destructor. Even though colony density in the study population is the same today as in the past, a major loss of haplotypic diversity occurred, indicative of a drastic mitochondrial bottleneck, caused by massive colony mortality. In contrast, nuclear genetic diversity did not change, though hundreds of genes show signs of selection. The genetic diversity within each bee colony, particularly as a consequence of polyandry by queens, may enable preservation of genetic diversity even during population bottlenecks. These findings suggest that genetically diverse honey bee populations can recover from introduced diseases by evolving rapid tolerance, while maintaining much of the standing genetic variation.

  5. Taste characteristics based quantitative and qualitative evaluation of ginseng adulteration.

    PubMed

    Cui, Shaoqing; Yang, Liangcheng; Wang, Jun; Wang, Xinlei

    2015-05-01

    Adulteration of American ginseng with Asian ginseng is common and has caused much damage to customers. Panel evaluation is commonly used to determine their differences, but it is subjective. Chemical instruments are used to identify critical compounds but they are time-consuming and expensive. Therefore, a fast, accurate and convenient method is required. A taste sensing system, combining both advantages of the above two technologies, provides a novel potential technology for determining ginseng adulteration. The aim is to build appropriate models to distinguish and predict ginseng adulteration by using taste characteristics. It was found that ginsenoside contents decreased linearly (R(2) = 0.92) with mixed ratios. A bioplot of principal component analysis showed a good performance in classing samples with the first two principal components reaching 89.7%, and it was noted that it was the bitterness, astringency, aftertaste of bitterness and astringency, and saltiness leading the successful determination. After factor screening, bitterness, astringency, aftertaste of bitterness and saltiness were employed to build latent models. Tastes of bitterness, astringency and aftertaste bitterness were demonstrated to be most effective in predicting adulteration ratio, mean while, bitterness and aftertaste bitterness turned out to be most effective in ginsenoside content prediction. Taste characteristics of adulterated ginsengs, considered as taste fingerprint, can provide novel guidance for determining the adulteration of American and Asian ginseng. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Food adulteration analysis without laboratory prepared or determined reference food adulterant values.

    PubMed

    Kalivas, John H; Georgiou, Constantinos A; Moira, Marianna; Tsafaras, Ilias; Petrakis, Eleftherios A; Mousdis, George A

    2014-04-01

    Quantitative analysis of food adulterants is an important health and economic issue that needs to be fast and simple. Spectroscopy has significantly reduced analysis time. However, still needed are preparations of analyte calibration samples matrix matched to prediction samples which can be laborious and costly. Reported in this paper is the application of a newly developed pure component Tikhonov regularization (PCTR) process that does not require laboratory prepared or reference analysis methods, and hence, is a greener calibration method. The PCTR method requires an analyte pure component spectrum and non-analyte spectra. As a food analysis example, synchronous fluorescence spectra of extra virgin olive oil samples adulterated with sunflower oil is used. Results are shown to be better than those obtained using ridge regression with reference calibration samples. The flexibility of PCTR allows including reference samples and is generic for use with other instrumental methods and food products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Toward the development of Raman spectroscopy as a nonperturbative online monitoring tool for gasoline adulteration.

    PubMed

    Tan, Khay M; Barman, Ishan; Dingari, Narahara C; Singh, Gajendra P; Chia, Tet F; Tok, Wee L

    2013-02-05

    There is a critical need for a real-time, nonperturbative probe for monitoring the adulteration of automotive gasoline. Running on adulterated fuel leads to a substantive increase in air pollution, because of increased tailpipe emissions of harmful pollutants, as well as a reduction in engine performance. Consequently, both classification of the gasoline type and quantification of the adulteration content are of great significance for quality control. Gasoline adulteration detection is currently carried out in the laboratory with gas chromatography, which is time-consuming and costly. Here, we propose the application of Raman spectroscopic measurements for on-site rapid detection of gasoline adulteration. In this proof-of-principle report, we demonstrate the effectiveness of Raman spectra, in conjunction with multivariate analysis methods, in classifying the base oil types and simultaneously detecting the adulteration content in a wide range of commercial gasoline mixtures, both in their native states and spiked with different adulterants. In particular, we show that Raman spectra acquired with an inexpensive noncooled detector provides adequate specificity to clearly discriminate between the gasoline samples and simultaneously characterize the specific adulterant content with a limit of detection below 5%. Our promising results in this study illustrate, for the first time, the capability and the potential of Raman spectroscopy, together with multivariate analysis, as a low-cost, powerful tool for on-site rapid detection of gasoline adulteration and opens substantive avenues for applications in related fields of quality control in the oil industry.

  8. Melissopalynological Characterization of North Algerian Honeys

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Samira; Meddah, Boumedienne; Aoues, Abdelkader

    2013-01-01

    A pollen analysis of Algerian honey was conducted on a total of 10 honey samples. The samples were prepared using the methodology described by Louveaux et al., that was then further adapted by Ohe et al. The samples were subsequently observed using light microscopy. A total of 36 pollen taxa were discovered and could be identified in the analyzed honey samples. Seventy percent of the studied samples belonged to the group ofmonofloral honeys represented by Eucalyptus globulus, Thymus vulgaris, Citrus sp. and Lavandula angustifolia. Multifloral honeys comprised 30% of the honey samples, with pollen grains of Lavandula stoechas (28.49%) standing out as the most prevalent. Based on cluster analysis, two different groups of honey were observed according to different pollen types found in the samples. The identified pollen spectrum of honey confirmed their botanical origin. PMID:28239099

  9. Melissopalynological Characterization of North Algerian Honeys.

    PubMed

    Nair, Samira; Meddah, Boumedienne; Aoues, Abdelkader

    2013-03-07

    A pollen analysis of Algerian honey was conducted on a total of 10 honey samples. The samples were prepared using the methodology described by Louveaux et al ., that was then further adapted by Ohe et al . The samples were subsequently observed using light microscopy. A total of 36 pollen taxa were discovered and could be identified in the analyzed honey samples. Seventy percent of the studied samples belonged to the group ofmonofloral honeys represented by Eucalyptus globulus , Thymus vulgaris , Citrus sp. and Lavandula angustifolia . Multifloral honeys comprised 30% of the honey samples, with pollen grains of Lavandula stoechas (28.49%) standing out as the most prevalent. Based on cluster analysis, two different groups of honey were observed according to different pollen types found in the samples. The identified pollen spectrum of honey confirmed their botanical origin.

  10. Relevant principal component analysis applied to the characterisation of Portuguese heather honey.

    PubMed

    Martins, Rui C; Lopes, Victor V; Valentão, Patrícia; Carvalho, João C M F; Isabel, Paulo; Amaral, Maria T; Batista, Maria T; Andrade, Paula B; Silva, Branca M

    2008-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was the characterisation of 'Serra da Lousã' heather honey by using novel statistical methodology, relevant principal component analysis, in order to assess the correlations between production year, locality and composition. Herein, we also report its chemical composition in terms of sugars, glycerol and ethanol, and physicochemical parameters. Sugars profiles from 'Serra da Lousã' heather and 'Terra Quente de Trás-os-Montes' lavender honeys were compared and allowed the discrimination: 'Serra da Lousã' honeys do not contain sucrose, generally exhibit lower contents of turanose, trehalose and maltose and higher contents of fructose and glucose. Different localities from 'Serra da Lousã' provided groups of samples with high and low glycerol contents. Glycerol and ethanol contents were revealed to be independent of the sugars profiles. These data and statistical models can be very useful in the comparison and detection of adulterations during the quality control analysis of 'Serra da Lousã' honey.

  11. Detection of starch adulteration in onion powder by FT-NIR and FT-IR spectroscopy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Adulteration of onion powder with cornstarch was identified by Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The reflectance spectra of 180 pure and adulterated samples (1–35 wt% starch) were collected and preprocessed to generate calibration and predi...

  12. Derivative spectrum chromatographic method for the determination of trimethoprim in honey samples using an on-line solid-phase extraction technique.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Kazuhisa; Kondo, Mari; Yokochi, Rika; Takeuchi, Yuri; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Inoue, Yoshinori

    2011-07-01

    A simple, selective and rapid analytical method for determination of trimethoprim (TMP) in honey samples was developed and validated. This method is based on a SPE technique followed by HPLC with photodiode array detection. After dilution and filtration, aliquots of 500 μL honey samples were directly injected to an on-line SPE HPLC system. TMP was extracted on an RP SPE column, and separated on a hydrophilic interaction chromatography column during HPLC analysis. At the first detection step, the noise level of the photodiode array data was reduced with two-dimensional equalizer filtering, and then the smoothed data were subjected to derivative spectrum chromatography. On the second-derivative chromatogram at 254 nm, the limit of detection and the limit of quantification of TMP in a honey sample were 5 and 10 ng/g, respectively. The proposed method showed high accuracy (60-103%) with adequate sensitivity for TMP monitoring in honey samples. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction of benzoylurea insecticides in honey samples with a β-cyclodextrin-modified attapulgite composite as sorbent.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Panjie; Cui, Xiangqian; Yang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Sanbing; Zhou, Wenfeng; Gao, Haixiang; Lu, Runhua

    2016-01-01

    A β-cyclodextrin-modified attapulgite composite was prepared and used as a dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction sorbent for the determination of benzoylurea insecticides in honey samples. Parameters that may influence the extraction efficiency, such as the type and volume of the eluent, the amount of the sorbent, the extraction time and the ionic strength were investigated and optimized using batch and column procedures. Under optimized conditions, good linearity was obtained for all of the tested compounds, with R(2) values of at least 0.9834. The limits of detection were determined in the range of 0.2-1.0 μg/L. The recoveries of the four benzoylurea insecticides in vitex honey and acacia honey increased from 15.2 to 81.4% and from 14.2 to 82.0%, respectively. Although the β-cyclodextrin-modified attapulgite composite did not show a brilliant adsorption capacity for the selected benzoylurea insecticides, it exhibited a higher adsorption capacity toward relatively hydrophobic compounds, such as chlorfluazuron and hexaflumuron (recoveries in vitex honey samples ranged from 70.0 to 81.4% with a precision of 1.0-3.7%). It seemed that the logPow of the benzoylurea insecticides is related to their recoveries. The results confirmed the possibility of using cyclodextrin-modified palygorskite in the determination of relatively hydrophobic trace pharmaceutical residues. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Polychlorinated biphenyls in honey bees

    SciTech Connect

    Morse, R.A.; Culliney, T.W.; Gutenmann, W.H.

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) may traverse a radius of several miles from their hives and contact innumerable surfaces during their collection of nectar, pollen, propolis and water. In the process, they may become contaminated with surface constituents which are indicative of the type of environmental pollution in their particular foraging area. Honey has also been analyzed as a possible indicator of heavy metal pollution. Insecticides used in the vicinity of bee hives have been found in bees and honey. It has been recently reported that appreciable concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been found in honey bees sampled throughoutmore » Connecticut. In the work reported here, an analytical survey was conducted on PCBs in honey bees, honey, propolis and related samples in several states to learn the extent of contamination and possible sources.« less

  15. Determination of butter adulteration with margarine using Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Uysal, Reyhan Selin; Boyaci, Ismail Hakki; Genis, Hüseyin Efe; Tamer, Ugur

    2013-12-15

    In this study, adulteration of butter with margarine was analysed using Raman spectroscopy combined with chemometric methods (principal component analysis (PCA), principal component regression (PCR), partial least squares (PLS)) and artificial neural networks (ANNs). Different butter and margarine samples were mixed at various concentrations ranging from 0% to 100% w/w. PCA analysis was applied for the classification of butters, margarines and mixtures. PCR, PLS and ANN were used for the detection of adulteration ratios of butter. Models were created using a calibration data set and developed models were evaluated using a validation data set. The coefficient of determination (R(2)) values between actual and predicted values obtained for PCR, PLS and ANN for the validation data set were 0.968, 0.987 and 0.978, respectively. In conclusion, a combination of Raman spectroscopy with chemometrics and ANN methods can be applied for testing butter adulteration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Calibration and testing of a Raman hyperspectral imaging system to reveal powdered food adulteration

    PubMed Central

    Lohumi, Santosh; Lee, Hoonsoo; Kim, Moon S.; Qin, Jianwei; Kandpal, Lalit Mohan; Bae, Hyungjin; Rahman, Anisur

    2018-01-01

    The potential adulteration of foodstuffs has led to increasing concern regarding food safety and security, in particular for powdered food products where cheap ground materials or hazardous chemicals can be added to increase the quantity of powder or to obtain the desired aesthetic quality. Due to the resulting potential health threat to consumers, the development of a fast, label-free, and non-invasive technique for the detection of adulteration over a wide range of food products is necessary. We therefore report the development of a rapid Raman hyperspectral imaging technique for the detection of food adulteration and for authenticity analysis. The Raman hyperspectral imaging system comprises of a custom designed laser illumination system, sensing module, and a software interface. Laser illumination system generates a 785 nm laser line of high power, and the Gaussian like intensity distribution of laser beam is shaped by incorporating an engineered diffuser. The sensing module utilize Rayleigh filters, imaging spectrometer, and detector for collection of the Raman scattering signals along the laser line. A custom-built software to acquire Raman hyperspectral images which also facilitate the real time visualization of Raman chemical images of scanned samples. The developed system was employed for the simultaneous detection of Sudan dye and Congo red dye adulteration in paprika powder, and benzoyl peroxide and alloxan monohydrate adulteration in wheat flour at six different concentrations (w/w) from 0.05 to 1%. The collected Raman imaging data of the adulterated samples were analyzed to visualize and detect the adulterant concentrations by generating a binary image for each individual adulterant material. The results obtained based on the Raman chemical images of adulterants showed a strong correlation (R>0.98) between added and pixel based calculated concentration of adulterant materials. This developed Raman imaging system thus, can be considered as a powerful

  17. Calibration and testing of a Raman hyperspectral imaging system to reveal powdered food adulteration.

    PubMed

    Lohumi, Santosh; Lee, Hoonsoo; Kim, Moon S; Qin, Jianwei; Kandpal, Lalit Mohan; Bae, Hyungjin; Rahman, Anisur; Cho, Byoung-Kwan

    2018-01-01

    The potential adulteration of foodstuffs has led to increasing concern regarding food safety and security, in particular for powdered food products where cheap ground materials or hazardous chemicals can be added to increase the quantity of powder or to obtain the desired aesthetic quality. Due to the resulting potential health threat to consumers, the development of a fast, label-free, and non-invasive technique for the detection of adulteration over a wide range of food products is necessary. We therefore report the development of a rapid Raman hyperspectral imaging technique for the detection of food adulteration and for authenticity analysis. The Raman hyperspectral imaging system comprises of a custom designed laser illumination system, sensing module, and a software interface. Laser illumination system generates a 785 nm laser line of high power, and the Gaussian like intensity distribution of laser beam is shaped by incorporating an engineered diffuser. The sensing module utilize Rayleigh filters, imaging spectrometer, and detector for collection of the Raman scattering signals along the laser line. A custom-built software to acquire Raman hyperspectral images which also facilitate the real time visualization of Raman chemical images of scanned samples. The developed system was employed for the simultaneous detection of Sudan dye and Congo red dye adulteration in paprika powder, and benzoyl peroxide and alloxan monohydrate adulteration in wheat flour at six different concentrations (w/w) from 0.05 to 1%. The collected Raman imaging data of the adulterated samples were analyzed to visualize and detect the adulterant concentrations by generating a binary image for each individual adulterant material. The results obtained based on the Raman chemical images of adulterants showed a strong correlation (R>0.98) between added and pixel based calculated concentration of adulterant materials. This developed Raman imaging system thus, can be considered as a powerful

  18. Antibacterial and antimycotic activities of Slovenian honeys.

    PubMed

    Kuncic, M Kralj; Jaklic, D; Lapanje, A; Gunde-Cimerman, N

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, Slovenian honey samples produced from different floral sources are evaluated for their antibacterial and antifungal properties. The peroxide contribution to antibacterial activity is also determined. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the honeys was assessed against four bacterial species (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus) and against eight fungal species (Aspergillus niger, Aureobasidium pullulans, Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Penicillium chrysogenum and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa). Honey at concentrations between 1% and 50% (v/v) were tested. Although all of the bacterial species were inhibited by the different honey samples, the chestnut and pasture honeys showed the highest antibacterial activities. The antifungal activities were concentration-dependent, with five (Aureobasidium pullulans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa) inhibited only at honey concentrations greater than 50%. The fungi Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans and Penicillium chrysogenum were not inhibited by any of the tested honeys, even at the highest concentrations. The lowest MICs seen were 2.5% (v/v) for the chestnut, fir and forest honeys against Staphylococcus aureus, and 10.0% (v/v) for the chestnut and pasture honeys against Cladosporium cladosporioides. The non-peroxide action of chestnut honey was tested against Escherichia coli. The MIC of the catalase-treated chestnut honey was 50% (v/v). The antibacterial effect of Slovenian honeys is mostly due to peroxide action. These data support the concept that Slovenian honeys are effective antibacterials and antifungals, and can thus be applied for medicinal purposes.

  19. Melliferous flora and pollen characterization of honey samples of Apis mellifera L., 1758 in apiaries in the counties of Ubiratã and Nova Aurora, PR.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Elizabete S; Toledo, Vagner A A; Caxambu, Marcelo G; Chmura, Suzane; Takashiba, Eliza H; Sereia, Maria Josiane; Marchini, Luís C; Moreti, Augusta C C C

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to carry out a survey of the flora with potential for beekeeping in the counties of Ubiratã and Nova Aurora-PR through the collection of plants and pollen analyses in honey samples collected monthly. 208 species of plants were recorded, distributed in 66 families. The families that showed the major richness of pollen types were: Asteraceae, Myrtaceae and Solanaceae. Approximately 80 pollen types were found in honey samples, most of them were characterized as heterofloral. Cultivated plants, such as Glycine max (soybean) and Eucalyptus spp., were representative in some months of the year. Exotic species, such as Ricinus communis and Melia azedarach, were also frequent. However, over than 50% of the pollen types belong to native species of the region, such as Schinus terebinthifolius, Baccharis spp. Alchornea triplinervia, Parapiptadenia rigida, Hexaclamys edulis, Zanthoxylum sp. and Serjania spp., indicating the importance of the native vegetation for the survival of the colonies.

  20. Preconcentration and determination of boron in milk, infant formula, and honey samples by solid phase extraction-electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-García, I.; Viñas, P.; Romero-Romero, R.; Hernández-Córdoba, M.

    2009-02-01

    This work presents alternative procedures for the electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometric determination of boron in milk, infant formulas, and honey samples. Honey samples (10% m/v) were diluted in a medium containing 1% v/v HNO 3 and 50% v/v H 2O 2 and introduced in the atomizer. A mixture of 20 µg Pd and 0.5 µg Mg was used for chemical modification. Calibration was carried out using aqueous solutions prepared in the same medium, in the presence of 10% m/v sucrose. The detection limit was 2 µg g - 1 , equivalent to three times the standard error of the estimate ( sy/ x) of the regression line. For both infant formulas and milk samples, due to their very low boron content, we used a procedure based on preconcentration by solid phase extraction (Amberlite IRA 743), followed by elution with 2 mol L - 1 hydrochloric acid. Detection limits were 0.03 µg g - 1 for 4% m/v honey, 0.04 µg g - 1 for 5% m/v infant formula and 0.08 µg mL - 1 for 15% v/v cow milk. We confirmed the accuracy of the procedure by comparing the obtained results with those found via a comparable independent procedure, as well by the analysis of four certified reference materials.

  1. Detection of sibutramine in adulterated dietary supplements using attenuated total reflectance-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Deconinck, E; Cauwenbergh, T; Bothy, J L; Custers, D; Courselle, P; De Beer, J O

    2014-11-01

    Sibutramine is one of the most occurring adulterants encountered in dietary supplements with slimming as indication. These adulterated dietary supplements often contain a herbal matrix. When customs intercept these kind of supplements it is almost impossible to discriminate between the legal products and the adulterated ones, due to misleading packaging. Therefore in most cases these products are confiscated and send to laboratories for analysis. This results inherently in the confiscation of legal, non-adulterated products. Therefore there is a need for easy to use equipment and techniques to perform an initial screening of samples. Attenuated total reflectance-infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy was evaluated for the detection of sibutramine in adulterated dietary supplements. Data interpretation was performed using different basic chemometric techniques. It was found that the use of ATR-IR combined with the k-Nearest Neighbours (k-NN) was able to detect all adulterated dietary supplements in an external test set and this with a minimum of false positive results. This means that a small amount of legal products will still be confiscated and analyzed in a laboratory to be found negative, but no adulterated samples will pass the initial ATR-IR screening. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Determination of carbon isotope ratios for honey samples by means of a liquid chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry system coupled with a post-column pump.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Hiroto; Suto, Momoka; Suto, Nana

    2018-05-20

    Liquid chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (LC/IRMS) has been used to authenticate and trace products such as honey, wine, and lemon juice, and compounds such as caffeine and pesticides. However, LC/IRMS has several disadvantages, including the high cost of the CO 2 membrane and blocking by solidified sodium persulfate. Here, we developed an improved system for determining carbon isotope ratios by LC/IRMS. The main improvement was the use of a post-column pump. Using the improved system, we determined δ 13 C values for glucose with high accuracy and precision (0.1‰ and 0.1‰, respectively; n = 3). The glucose, fructose, disaccharide, trisaccharide, and organic acid constituents of the honey samples were analyzed by LC/IRMS. The δ 13 C values for glucose, fructose, disaccharides, trisaccharides, and organic acids ranged from -27.0 to -24.2‰, -26.8 to -24.0‰, -28.8 to -24.0‰, -27.8 to -22.8‰, and -30.6 to -27.4‰, respectively. The analysis time was 1/3-1/2 the times required for analysis by previously reported methods. The column flow rate could be arbitrarily adjusted with the post-column pump. We applied the improved method to 26 commercial honey samples. Our results can be expected to be useful for other researchers who use LC/IRMS. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Near Infrared Spectroscopy Detection and Quantification of Herbal Medicines Adulterated with Sibutramine.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Neirivaldo Cavalcante; Honorato, Ricardo Saldanha; Pimentel, Maria Fernanda; Garrigues, Salvador; Cervera, Maria Luisa; de la Guardia, Miguel

    2015-09-01

    There is an increasing demand for herbal medicines in weight loss treatment. Some synthetic chemicals, such as sibutramine (SB), have been detected as adulterants in herbal formulations. In this study, two strategies using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy have been developed to evaluate potential adulteration of herbal medicines with SB: a qualitative screening approach and a quantitative methodology based on multivariate calibration. Samples were composed by products commercialized as herbal medicines, as well as by laboratory adulterated samples. Spectra were obtained in the range of 14,000-4000 per cm. Using PLS-DA, a correct classification of 100% was achieved for the external validation set. In the quantitative approach, the root mean squares error of prediction (RMSEP), for both PLS and MLR models, was 0.2% w/w. The results prove the potential of NIR spectroscopy and multivariate calibration in quantifying sibutramine in adulterated herbal medicines samples. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  4. Screening bioactivity and bioactive constituents of Nordic unifloral honeys.

    PubMed

    Salonen, Anneli; Virjamo, Virpi; Tammela, Päivi; Fauch, Laure; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta

    2017-12-15

    The objective of this study was to screen the antibacterial and antioxidant activity of thirty nine honey samples from Finland, Sweden, Norway and Denmark. Their physicochemical properties were analysed, antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH assay and antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus was assessed by microdilution assay. The honey samples obtained were buckwheat, caraway, clover, dandelion, fireweed, heather, lime tree, lingonberry, rape, raspberry, sweet clover, willow, mire, honeydew and polyfloral. Eleven honey samples showed high antioxidant activity. With 15% honey dilution, three unifloral honeys had over 85% inhibition against growth of P. aeruginosa and ten honey samples against S. aureus. The buckwheat, raspberry and honeydew honeys showed the highest antibacterial and antioxidant activity. An unexpectedly high amount of methylglyoxal was found in mire and forest honeys. Some phenolic compounds are shown to be plant species-specific floral markers due to their appearance in specific unifloral honey samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Application of lag-k autocorrelation coefficient and the TGA signals approach to detecting and quantifying adulterations of extra virgin olive oil with inferior edible oils.

    PubMed

    Torrecilla, José S; García, Julián; García, Silvia; Rodríguez, Francisco

    2011-03-04

    The combination of lag-k autocorrelation coefficients (LCCs) and thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) equipment is defined here as a tool to detect and quantify adulterations of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) with refined olive (ROO), refined olive pomace (ROPO), sunflower (SO) or corn (CO) oils, when the adulterating agents concentration are less than 14%. The LCC is calculated from TGA scans of adulterated EVOO samples. Then, the standardized skewness of this coefficient has been applied to classify pure and adulterated samples of EVOO. In addition, this chaotic parameter has also been used to quantify the concentration of adulterant agents, by using successful linear correlation of LCCs and ROO, ROPO, SO or CO in 462 EVOO adulterated samples. In the case of detection, more than 82% of adulterated samples have been correctly classified. In the case of quantification of adulterant concentration, by an external validation process, the LCC/TGA approach estimates the adulterant agents concentration with a mean correlation coefficient (estimated versus real adulterant agent concentration) greater than 0.90 and a mean square error less than 4.9%. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Rapid spot tests for detecting the presence of adulterants in urine specimens submitted for drug testing.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Amitava; Wahed, Amer; Wells, Alice

    2002-02-01

    Several adulterants are used to mask tests for abused drugs in urine. Adulterants such as "Klear" and "Whizzies" contain potassium nitrite, and "Urine Luck" contains pyridinium chlorochromate (PCC). The presence of these adulterants cannot be detected by routine specimen integrity checks (pH, specific gravity, and temperature). We developed rapid spot tests for detecting these adulterants in urine. Addition of 3% hydrogen peroxide in urine adulterated with PCC caused rapid formation of a dark brown color. In contrast, unadulterated urine turned colorless when hydrogen peroxide was added. When urine contaminated with nitrite and 2 to 3 drops of 2N hydrochloric acid were added to 2% aqueous potassium permanganate solution, the dark pink permanganate solution turned colorless immediately with effervescence. Urine contaminated with nitrite liberated iodine from potassium iodide solution in the presence of 2N hydrochloric acid. Urine adulterated with PCC also liberated iodine from potassium iodide in acid medium but did not turn potassium permanganate solution colorless. Urine specimens from volunteers and random urine samples that tested negative for drugs did not cause false-positive results. These rapid spot tests are useful for detecting adulterated urine to avoid false-negative drug tests.

  7. Targeted and non-targeted detection of lemon juice adulteration by LC-MS and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhengfang; Jablonski, Joseph E

    2016-01-01

    Economically motivated adulteration (EMA) of lemon juice was detected by LC-MS and principal component analysis (PCA). Twenty-two batches of freshly squeezed lemon juice were adulterated by adding an aqueous solution containing 5% citric acid and 6% sucrose to pure lemon juice to obtain 30%, 60% and 100% lemon juice samples. Their total titratable acidities, °Brix and pH values were measured, and then all the lemon juice samples were subject to LC-MS analysis. Concentrations of hesperidin and eriocitrin, major phenolic components of lemon juice, were quantified. The PCA score plots for LC-MS datasets were used to preview the classification of pure and adulterated lemon juice samples. Results showed a large inherent variability in the chemical properties among 22 batches of 100% lemon juice samples. Measurement or quantitation of one or several chemical properties (targeted detection) was not effective in detecting lemon juice adulteration. However, by using the LC-MS datasets, including both chromatographic and mass spectrometric information, 100% lemon juice samples were successfully differentiated from adulterated samples containing 30% lemon juice in the PCA score plot. LC-MS coupled with chemometric analysis can be a complement to existing methods for detecting juice adulteration.

  8. Identification of offal adulteration in beef by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

    PubMed

    Velioglu, Hasan Murat; Sezer, Banu; Bilge, Gonca; Baytur, Süleyman Efe; Boyaci, Ismail Hakki

    2018-04-01

    Minced meat is the major ingredient in sausages, beef burgers, and similar products; and thus it is the main product subjected to adulteration with meat offal. Determination of this kind of meat adulteration is crucial due to religious, economic and ethical concerns. The aim of the present study is to discriminate the beef meat and offal samples by using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). To this end, LIBS and multivariate data analysis were used to discriminate pure beef and offal samples qualitatively and to determine the offal mixture adulteration quantitatively. In this analysis, meat samples were frozen and LIBS analysis were performed. The results indicate that by using principal component analysis (PCA), discrimination of pure offal and offal mixture adulterated beef samples can be achieved successfully. Besides, adulteration ratio can be determined using partial least square analysis method (PLS) with 0.947 coefficient of determination (R 2 ) and 3.8% of limit of detection (LOD) values for offal mixture adulterated beef samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. ¹H and ¹³C NMR-based sugar profiling with chemometric analysis and antioxidant activity of herbhoneys and honeys.

    PubMed

    Jamróz, Marta K; Paradowska, Katarzyna; Zawada, Katarzyna; Makarova, Katerina; Kaźmierski, Sławomir; Wawer, Iwona

    2014-01-30

    Herbhoneys, relatively new bee products, are expected to have interesting medicinal properties. However, there is still a lack of data concerning their composition and antioxidant properties. ¹H and ¹³C NMR spectroscopy coupled with chemometric analysis (PCA and PLS-DA) and antioxidant assays (DPPH-ESR and ORAC-FL) were used to study 25 samples of Polish herbhoneys and honeys. Antioxidant activity varied among the samples. The best properties were exhibited by cocoa and instant coffee herbhoneys. The contents of total polyphenols and total carotenoids in the studied samples were found to be 70-1340 mg GAE kg⁻¹ and 0-28.05 mg kg⁻¹ respectively. No significant differences between herbhoney and honey samples were found in their sugar profiles. The PCA of ¹³C NMR spectra of the samples in DMSO-d6 resulted in sample clustering due to sucrose content. Herbhoneys have similar antioxidant properties to traditional honeys, being therefore of equal nutritional value. There was a noticeable influence of the extract concentration on the observed antioxidant effect. For samples with high antioxidant activity, polyphenols were responsible for the observed effect. Sample clustering due to sucrose content in the NMR-PCA study allowed effortless detection of adulteration. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Ion mobility spectrometry fingerprints: A rapid detection technology for adulteration of sesame oil.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liangxiao; Shuai, Qian; Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Qi; Ma, Fei; Zhang, Wen; Ding, Xiaoxia

    2016-02-01

    A simple and rapid detection technology was proposed based on ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) fingerprints to determine potential adulteration of sesame oil. Oil samples were diluted by n-hexane and analyzed by IMS for 20s. Then, chemometric methods were employed to establish discriminant models for sesame oils and four other edible oils, pure and adulterated sesame oils, and pure and counterfeit sesame oils, respectively. Finally, Random Forests (RF) classification model could correctly classify all five types of edible oils. The detection results indicated that the discriminant models built by recursive support vector machine (R-SVM) method could identify adulterated sesame oil samples (⩾ 10%) with an accuracy value of 94.2%. Therefore, IMS was shown to be an effective method to detect the adulterated sesame oils. Meanwhile, IMS fingerprints work well to detect the counterfeit sesame oils produced by adding sesame oil essence into cheaper edible oils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Updating a synchronous fluorescence spectroscopic virgin olive oil adulteration calibration to a new geographical region.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Matthew Ross; Ottaway, Joshua; Kalivas, John H; Georgiou, Constantinos A; Mousdis, George A

    2011-02-23

    Detecting and quantifying extra virgin olive adulteration is of great importance to the olive oil industry. Many spectroscopic methods in conjunction with multivariate analysis have been used to solve these issues. However, successes to date are limited as calibration models are built to a specific set of geographical regions, growing seasons, cultivars, and oil extraction methods (the composite primary condition). Samples from new geographical regions, growing seasons, etc. (secondary conditions) are not always correctly predicted by the primary model due to different olive oil and/or adulterant compositions stemming from secondary conditions not matching the primary conditions. Three Tikhonov regularization (TR) variants are used in this paper to allow adulterant (sunflower oil) concentration predictions in samples from geographical regions not part of the original primary calibration domain. Of the three TR variants, ridge regression with an additional 2-norm penalty provides the smallest validation sample prediction errors. Although the paper reports on using TR for model updating to predict adulterant oil concentration, the methods should also be applicable to updating models distinguishing adulterated samples from pure extra virgin olive oil. Additionally, the approaches are general and can be used with other spectroscopic methods and adulterants as well as with other agriculture products.

  12. Adulteration of urine by "Urine Luck".

    PubMed

    Wu, A H; Bristol, B; Sexton, K; Cassella-McLane, G; Holtman, V; Hill, D W

    1999-07-01

    In vitro adulterants are used to invalidate assays for urine drugs of abuse. The present study examined the effect of pyridinium chlorochromate (PCC) found in the product "Urine Luck". PCC was prepared and added to positive urine controls at concentrations of 0, 10, 50, and 100 g/L. The controls were assayed for methamphetamine, benzoylecgonine (BE), codeine and morphine, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and phencyclidine (PCP) with the Emit II (Syva) and Abuscreen Online (Roche) immunoassays, and by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Two tests were also developed to detect PCC in urine: a spot test to detect chromate ions using 10 g/L 1,5-diphenylcarbazide as the indicator, and a GC/MS assay for pyridine. We tested 150 samples submitted for routine urinalysis, compliance, and workplace drug testing for PCC, using these assays. Response rates decreased at 100 g/L PCC for all Emit II drug assays and for the Abuscreen morphine and THC assays. In contrast, the Abuscreen amphetamine assay produced apparently higher results, and no effect was seen on the results for BE or PCP. The PCC did not affect the GC/MS recovery of methamphetamine, BE, PCP, or their deuterated internal standards, but decreased GC/MS recovery of the opiates at both intermediate (50 g/L) and high (100 g/L) PCC concentrations and apparent concentrations of THC and THC-d3 at all PCC concentrations. Two of 50 samples submitted for workplace drug testing under chain-of-custody conditions were positive for PCC, whereas none of the remaining 100 specimens submitted for routine urinalysis or compliance drug testing were positive. PCC is an effective adulterant for urine drug testing of THC and opiates. Identification of PCC use can be accomplished with use of a spot test for the oxidant.

  13. Preparation of stir cake sorptive extraction based on polymeric ionic liquid for the enrichment of benzimidazole anthelmintics in water, honey and milk samples.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yulei; Zhang, Jie; Huang, Xiaojia; Yuan, Dongxing

    2014-08-20

    In this work, a new stir cake sorptive extraction (SCSE) using polymeric ionic liquid monolith as sorbent was prepared. The sorbent was obtained by in situ copolymerization of an ionic liquid, 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium bis[(trifluoro methyl)sulfonyl]imide (AMII) and divinylbenzene (DB) in the presence of N,N-dimethylformamide. The influence of the content of ionic liquid and the porogen in the polymerization mixture on extraction performance was studied thoroughly. The physicochemical properties of the polymeric ionic liquid were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy and mercury intrusion porosimetry. The usefulness of SCSE-AMIIDB was demonstrated by the enrichment of trace benzimidazole anthelmintics. Several parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated, and under the optimized conditions, a simple and effective method for the determination of trace benzimidazoles residues in water, milk and honey samples was established by coupling SCSE-AMIIDB with high performance liquid chromatography/diode array detection (SCSE-AMIIDB-HPLC/DAD). Results indicated that the limits of detection (S/N=3) for target compounds were 0.020-0.072 μg L(-1), 0.035-0.10 μg L(-1) and 0.026-0.076 μg L(-1) in water, milk and honey samples, respectively. In addition, an acceptable reproducibility was achieved by evaluating the repeatability and intermediate precision with relative standard deviations (RSD) of less than 9% and 11%, respectively. Finally, the established AMII-SCSE-HPLC/DAD method was successfully applied for the determination of benzimidazoles residues in milk, honey and environmental water samples. Recoveries obtained for the determination of benzimidazole anthelmintics in spiking samples ranged from 70.2% to 117.6%, with RSD below 12% in all cases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Purity and adulterant analysis of crack seizures in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, André R; Carvalho, Virginia M; Carvalho, Débora G; Diaz, Ernesto; Bustillos, Jose Oscar William Vega; Spinosa, Helenice de S; Chasin, Alice A M

    2014-10-01

    Cocaine represents a serious problem to society. Smoked cocaine is very addictive and it is frequently associated with violence and health issues. Knowledge of the purity and adulterants present in seized cocaine, as well as variations in drug characteristics are useful to identify drug source and estimate health impact. No data are available regarding smoked cocaine composition in most countries, and the smoked form is increasing in the Brazilian market. The purpose of the present study is to contribute to the current knowledge on the status of crack cocaine seized samples on the illicit market by the police of São Paulo. Thus, 404 samples obtained from street seizures conducted by the police were examined. The specimens were macroscopically characterized by color, form, odor, purity, and adulterant type, as well as smoke composition. Samples were screened for cocaine using modified Scott test and thin-layer chromatographic (TLC) technique. Analyses of purity and adulterants were performed with gas chromatography equipped with flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Additionally, smoke composition was analyzed by GC-mass spectrometry (MS), after samples burning. Samples showed different colors and forms, the majority of which is yellow (74.0%) or white (20.0%). Samples free of adulterants represented 76.3% of the total. Mean purity of the analyzed drug was 71.3%. Crack cocaine presented no correlations between macroscopic characteristics and purity. Smoke analysis showed compounds found also in the degradation of diesel and gasoline. Therefore, the drug marketed as crack cocaine in São Paulo has similar characteristics to coca paste. High purity can represent a greater risk of dependency and smoke compounds are possibly worsening drug health impact. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Automatic flow-batch system for cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy determination of mercury in honey from Argentina using online sample treatment.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Marina A; Grünhut, Marcos; Pistonesi, Marcelo F; Di Nezio, María S; Centurión, María E

    2012-05-16

    An automatic flow-batch system that includes two borosilicate glass chambers to perform sample digestion and cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy determination of mercury in honey samples was designed. The sample digestion was performed by using a low-cost halogen lamp to obtain the optimum temperature. Optimization of the digestion procedure was done using a Box-Behnken experimental design. A linear response was observed from 2.30 to 11.20 μg Hg L(-1). The relative standard deviation was 3.20% (n = 11, 6.81 μg Hg L(-1)), the sample throughput was 4 sample h(-1), and the detection limit was 0.68 μg Hg L(-1). The obtained results with the flow-batch method are in good agreement with those obtained with the reference method. The flow-batch system is simple, allows the use of both chambers simultaneously, is seen as a promising methodology for achieving green chemistry goals, and is a good proposal to improving the quality control of honey.

  16. Determination of Sucrose in Honey with Derivatization/Solid-Phase Microextraction and Gas-Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haijing; Geppert, Helmut; Fischer, Thomas; Wieprecht, Wolfgang; Möller, Detlev

    2015-10-01

    A new method for the determination of sucrose in honey with derivatization solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (D-SPME-GC/MS) was developed. The method incorporates a sample derivatization with acetic anhydride using N-methylimidazole as the catalyst and the subsequent enrichment of the analyte in a Polyacrylate-SPME fiber. Results show that 100 µL N-methylimidazole and 800 µL acetic anhydride were sufficient to complete the acetylation for sucrose in 100 µL aqueous sample at room temperature. For SPME, an enrichment time of 30 min was sufficient. SPME was performed by immersing the fiber into the solution with additional vibration. Then, the analyte was desorbed for 5 min at 280°C in the GC/MS injection port with splitless mode. The present method exhibits good linearity at a concentration range of 0.3-8% of sucrose in honey with excellent regression (R = 0.9993). The method has been successfully applied to the control of sucrose adulteration in honey. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Honey Ants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, John R.

    1984-01-01

    Provides background information on honey ants. These ants are found in dry or desert regions of North America, Africa, and Australia. Also provides a list of activities using local species of ants. (JN)

  18. The Levels of Trace Elements in Honey and Molasses Samples That Were Determined by ICP-OES After Microwave Digestion Method.

    PubMed

    Altundag, Huseyin; Bina, Emel; Altıntıg, Esra

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is determining the amount of Al, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in samples of molasses and honey which were gathered from the Sakarya and Istanbul regions. In this study, trace elements in 8 honey and 20 molasses samples with different botanic features were evaluated. The sample preparation phase was performed via wet decomposition method and microwave digestion system. The accuracy of the method was checked by the standard reference material; tea leaves (INCY-TL-1) and NIST-SRM 1515-apple. The concentrations of essential trace elements (TEs) were observed in the range of 1.61 ± 0.01-287.03 ± 1.07; 0.21 ± 0.01-11.04 ± 0.12; 0.35 ± 0.03-21.71 ± 0.02 and 1.19 ± 0.01-60.90 ± 1.09 μg g(-1) for iron, copper, manganese and zinc ions, respectively, while the toxic element contents were observed in the range of 0.82 ± 0.17-3.06 ± 0.03; 0.04 ± 0.05-1.96 ± 0.03 and 0.62 ± 0.01-120.52 ± 0.10 μg g(-1) for lead, nickel and aluminum ions, respectively. The concentrations of basic TEs iron, copper, manganese and zinc were determined as 3.87 ± 0.04-16.76 ± 0.06; 0.45 ± 0.03-2.15 ± 0.01; 0.13 ± 0.01-15.02 ± 0.14 and 0.80 ± 0.09-12.03 ± 0.19 for honey samples. Also, toxic metal, lead, nickel and aluminum values in the honey samples were determined as 1.21 ± 0.12-2.46 ± 0.21; 0.28 ± 0.14-0.88 ± 0.43 and 2.11 ± 0.02-8.04 ± 0.08. A comparison between gathered data and literature values has performed and it is determined that such findings are suitable with the literature.

  19. Principal component analysis of synthetic adulterants in herbal supplements advertised as weight loss drugs.

    PubMed

    Dastjerdi, Akram Ghasemi; Akhgari, Maryam; Kamali, Artin; Mousavi, Zahra

    2018-05-01

    Obesity is one of the major problems in many countries. Herbal drugs are widely used to treat obesity. Unfortunately the majority of herbal weight loss drugs are adulterated with active pharmaceutical ingredients. The purpose of the present study was to analyse herbal weight loss drugs for the general search for pharmaceuticals. sixty one herbal weight loss drugs that were collected from herb shops and internet in Kermanshah, Iran were analysed qualitatively using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Of the 61 weight loss products sampled, 72% were found to be adulterated with tramadol, caffeine, fluoxetine, rizatriptan, venlafaxine and methadone. Herbal weight loss products were adulterated with controlled and legitimate drugs. Patients should be aware of the danger of using adulterated supplements. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Identification of pyrrosiae folium and its adulterants based on psbA-trnH sequence].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ya-Qin; Shi, Yue; Song, Ming; Lin, Yun-Han; Ma, Xiao-Xi; Sun, Wei; Xiang, Li; Liu, Xi

    2014-06-01

    In this study, the psbA-trnH sequence as DNA barcode was used to evaluate the accuracy and stability for identification pteridophyte medicinal material Pyrrosiae Foliumas from adulterants. Genomic DNA from 106 samples were extracted successfully. The Kimura 2-Parameter (K2P) distances and ML tree were calculated using software MEGA 6.0. The intra-specific genetic distances of 3 original plants were lower than inter-specific genetic distances of adulterants. The ML tree indicated that Pyrrosiae Folium can be distinguished from its adulterants obviously. Therefore, the psbA-trnH sequence as a barcode of the pteridophyte, can accurately and stably distinguish Pyrrosiae Folium from its adulterants.

  1. Probability of identification: adulteration of American Ginseng with Asian Ginseng.

    PubMed

    Harnly, James; Chen, Pei; Harrington, Peter De B

    2013-01-01

    The AOAC INTERNATIONAL guidelines for validation of botanical identification methods were applied to the detection of Asian Ginseng [Panax ginseng (PG)] as an adulterant for American Ginseng [P. quinquefolius (PQ)] using spectral fingerprints obtained by flow injection mass spectrometry (FIMS). Samples of 100% PQ and 100% PG were physically mixed to provide 90, 80, and 50% PQ. The multivariate FIMS fingerprint data were analyzed using soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) based on 100% PQ. The Q statistic, a measure of the degree of non-fit of the test samples with the calibration model, was used as the analytical parameter. FIMS was able to discriminate between 100% PQ and 100% PG, and between 100% PQ and 90, 80, and 50% PQ. The probability of identification (POI) curve was estimated based on the SD of 90% PQ. A digital model of adulteration, obtained by mathematically summing the experimentally acquired spectra of 100% PQ and 100% PG in the desired ratios, agreed well with the physical data and provided an easy and more accurate method for constructing the POI curve. Two chemometric modeling methods, SIMCA and fuzzy optimal associative memories, and two classification methods, partial least squares-discriminant analysis and fuzzy rule-building expert systems, were applied to the data. The modeling methods correctly identified the adulterated samples; the classification methods did not.

  2. Evaluation of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) adulteration with plant adulterants by (1)H NMR metabolite fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Petrakis, Eleftherios A; Cagliani, Laura R; Polissiou, Moschos G; Consonni, Roberto

    2015-04-15

    In the present work, a preliminary study for the detection of adulterated saffron and the identification of the adulterant used by means of (1)H NMR and chemometrics is reported. Authentic Greek saffron and four typical plant-derived materials utilised as bulking agents in saffron, i.e., Crocus sativus stamens, safflower, turmeric, and gardenia were investigated. A two-step approach, relied on the application of both OPLS-DA and O2PLS-DA models to the (1)H NMR data, was adopted to perform authentication and prediction of authentic and adulterated saffron. Taking into account the deficiency of established methodologies to detect saffron adulteration with plant adulterants, the method developed resulted reliable in assessing the type of adulteration and could be viable for dealing with extensive saffron frauds at a minimum level of 20% (w/w). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A new comprehensive index for discriminating adulteration in bovine raw milk.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Ren, Jing; Liu, Zhen-Min; Guo, Ben-Heng

    2015-04-01

    This paper proposes a new comprehensive index, called Q, which can effectively discriminate artificial adulterated milk from unadulterated milk. Both normal and adulterated samples of bovine raw milk were analysed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic instrument to measure the traditional indices of quality, including fat (FAT), protein (PRO), lactose (LAC), total solids (TS), non-fat solid (NFS), freezing point (FP) and somatic cell counts (SCC). From these traditional indices, this paper elaborates a method to build the index Q. First, correlated analysis and principle component analysis were used to select parameter pairs TS-FAT and FP-LAC as predominant variables. Second, linear-regression analysis and residual analysis are applied to determine the index Q and its discriminating ranges. The verification and two-blind trial results suggested that index Q could accurately detect milk adulteration with maltodextrin and water (as low as 1.0% of adulteration proportions), and with other nine kinds of synthetic adulterants (as low as 0.5% of adulteration proportions). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Detecting adulterants in milk with lower cost mid-infrared and Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Changwon; Wang, Wenbo; Wilson, Benjamin K.; Connett, Marie; Keller, Matthew D.

    2018-02-01

    Adulteration of milk for economic gains is a widespread issue throughout the developing world that can have far-reaching health and nutritional impacts. Milk analysis technologies, such as infrared spectroscopy, can screen for adulteration, but the cost of these technologies has prohibited their use in low resource settings. Recent developments in infrared and Raman spectroscopy hardware have led to commercially available low-cost devices. In this work, we evaluated the performance of two such spectrometers in detecting and quantifying the presence of milk adulterants. Five common adulterants - ammonium sulfate, melamine, sodium bicarbonate, sucrose, and urea, were spiked into five different raw cow and goat milk samples at different concentrations. Collected MIR and Raman spectra were analyzed using partial least squares regression. The limit of detection (LOD) for each adulterant was determined to be in the range of 0.04 to 0.28% (400 to 2800 ppm) using MIR spectroscopy. Raman spectroscopy showed similar LOD's for some of the adulterants, notably those with strong amine group signals, and slightly higher LOD's (up to 1.0%) for other molecules. Overall, the LODs were comparable to other spectroscopic milk analyzers on the market, and they were within the economically relevant concentration range of 100 to 4000 ppm. These lower cost spectroscopic devices therefore appear to hold promise for use in low resource settings.

  5. Adulteration detection in milk using infrared spectroscopy combined with two-dimensional correlation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Bin; Liu, Rong; Yang, Renjie; Xu, Kexin

    2010-02-01

    Adulteration of milk and dairy products has brought serious threats to human health as well as enormous economic losses to the food industry. Considering the diversity of adulterants possibly mixed in milk, such as melamine, urea, tetracycline, sugar/salt and so forth, a rapid, widely available, high-throughput, cost-effective method is needed for detecting each of the components in milk at once. In this paper, a method using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) combined with two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy is established for the discriminative analysis of adulteration in milk. Firstly, the characteristic peaks of the raw milk are found in the 4000-400 cm-1 region by its original spectra. Secondly, the adulterant samples are respectively detected with the same method to establish a spectral database for subsequent comparison. Then, 2D correlation spectra of the samples are obtained which have high time resolution and can provide information about concentration-dependent intensity changes not readily accessible from one-dimensional spectra. And the characteristic peaks in the synchronous 2D correlation spectra of the suspected samples are compared with those of raw milk. The differences among their synchronous spectra imply that the suspected milk sample must contain some kinds of adulterants. Melamine, urea, tetracycline and glucose adulterants in milk are identified respectively. This nondestructive method can be used for a correct discrimination on whether the milk and dairy products are adulterated with deleterious substances and it provides a new simple and cost-effective alternative to test the components of milk.

  6. β-CD/ATP composite materials for use in dispersive solid-phase extraction to measure (fluoro)quinolone antibiotics in honey samples.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiangqian; Zhang, Panjie; Yang, Xiaoling; Yang, Miyi; Zhou, Wenfeng; Zhang, Sanbin; Gao, Haixiang; Lu, Runhua

    2015-06-09

    A novel sorbent (β-CD/ATP composite) for dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) prepared by bonding β-cyclodextrin to modified attapulgite via silane coupling was used to determine the concentrations of four (fluoro)quinolones (Qs) in honey samples. The subsequent quantification of the Qs (ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, and gatifloxacin) was accomplished using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet detection after the d-SPE procedure. Parameters that may influence the extraction efficiency, such as type and volume of the eluent, type and amount of the sorbent, times of the vortex and sonication process, and pH of the sample, were investigated using batch and column procedures. The optimal experimental conditions (5 mL sample at pH 3, 4 mg of β-CD/ATP composite as the sorbent, 200 μL of 40% ammonia in methanol as the eluent, with vortex time 60s and sonication time 6 min, and no addition of salt) were obtained from this statistical evaluation. The limits of detection (LODs) were determined to the range from 0.30 to 3.95 μg L(-1). Good recoveries (83.6-88.6%) were obtained under the optimum conditions, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs), which are used to indicate reproducibility, were less than 7.4%. The method was validated with three real honey samples, and the results demonstrated that β-CD/ATP composite possessed a high adsorption capacity for Qs. Although the LODs were slightly higher than expected, this study confirmed the possibility of using cyclodextrin grafted palygorskite in analytical applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Determination of Milk Fat Adulteration with Vegetable Oils and Animal Fats by Gas Chromatographic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Man; Kim, Ha-Jung; Park, Jung-Min

    2015-09-01

    This study assessed the potential application of gas chromatography (GC) in detecting milk fat (MF) adulteration with vegetable oils and animal fats and of characterizing samples by fat source. One hundred percent pure MF was adulterated with different vegetable oils and animal fats at various concentrations (0%, 10%, 30%, 50%, 70%, and 90%). GC was used to obtain the fatty acid (FA) profiles, triacylglycerol (TG) contents, and cholesterol contents. The pure MF and the adulterated MF samples were discriminated based on the total concentrations of saturated FAs and on the 2 major FAs (oleic acid [C18:1n9c] and linoleic acid [C18:2n6c], TGs [C52 and C54], and cholesterol contents using statistical analysis to compared difference. These bio-markers enabled the detection of as low as 10% adulteration of non-MF into 100% pure MF. The study demonstrated the high potential of GC to rapidly detect MF adulteration with vegetable and animal fats, and discriminate among commercial butter and milk products according to the fat source. These data can be potentially useful in detecting foreign fats in these butter products. Furthermore, it is important to consider that several individual samples should be analyzed before coming to a conclusion about MF authenticity. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Fast detection and visualization of minced lamb meat adulteration using NIR hyperspectral imaging and multivariate image analysis.

    PubMed

    Kamruzzaman, Mohammed; Sun, Da-Wen; ElMasry, Gamal; Allen, Paul

    2013-01-15

    Many studies have been carried out in developing non-destructive technologies for predicting meat adulteration, but there is still no endeavor for non-destructive detection and quantification of adulteration in minced lamb meat. The main goal of this study was to develop and optimize a rapid analytical technique based on near-infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging to detect the level of adulteration in minced lamb. Initial investigation was carried out using principal component analysis (PCA) to identify the most potential adulterate in minced lamb. Minced lamb meat samples were then adulterated with minced pork in the range 2-40% (w/w) at approximately 2% increments. Spectral data were used to develop a partial least squares regression (PLSR) model to predict the level of adulteration in minced lamb. Good prediction model was obtained using the whole spectral range (910-1700 nm) with a coefficient of determination (R(2)(cv)) of 0.99 and root-mean-square errors estimated by cross validation (RMSECV) of 1.37%. Four important wavelengths (940, 1067, 1144 and 1217 nm) were selected using weighted regression coefficients (Bw) and a multiple linear regression (MLR) model was then established using these important wavelengths to predict adulteration. The MLR model resulted in a coefficient of determination (R(2)(cv)) of 0.98 and RMSECV of 1.45%. The developed MLR model was then applied to each pixel in the image to obtain prediction maps to visualize the distribution of adulteration of the tested samples. The results demonstrated that the laborious and time-consuming tradition analytical techniques could be replaced by spectral data in order to provide rapid, low cost and non-destructive testing technique for adulterate detection in minced lamb meat. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Honey as a natural preservative of milk.

    PubMed

    Krushna, N S A; Kowsalya, A; Radha, S; Narayanan, R B

    2007-05-01

    The anti-bacterial property and preservative nature of honey has been studied by evaluating the role of hydrogen peroxide in these properties, against bacterial strains isolated and identified from pasteurized milk samples. The antibacterial property of honey examined by agar incorporation assay and turbidometry, indicated a concentration dependent inhibition of bacterial growth in all catalase negative strains in comparison with catalase positive strains, highlighting a probable role of hydrogen peroxide. Samples of commercial milk stored at 40C in presence of honey were shown to inhibit opportunistic bacterial growth better compared to samples stored without honey. Due to the bactericidal property of hydrogen peroxide and its preservative nature, honey which is chiefly a combination of various sugars and hydrogen peroxide, can be used a preservative of milk samples.

  10. Conditions of honey consumption in selected regions of Poland.

    PubMed

    Kowalczuk, Iwona; Jeżewska-Zychowicz, Marzena; Trafiałek, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    The nutritional value of honey is a factor that encourages the increase of its consumption. The aim of the study was to identify consumers' behaviours and preferences towards honey and their determinants. Quantitative (PAPI method) survey was carried out in 2015 on a sample of 690 respondents from Mazowieckie, Podkarpackie and Zachodniopomorskie voivodeships. The data analyzed were: the frequency of and reasons for honey consumption, preferred buying locations, preferred types of honey, factors considered during purchase and different uses of honey. The study showed that Poles consume honey several times per month. The main incentives for honey consumption were: health benefits, a wide range of culinary uses, flavour and habits. It was established that Polish consumers buy honey mainly in apiaries and open-air markets. Primary factors considered during purchase were the type of honey (preferred types being lime, polyfloral and acacia), price and colour. Honey was chiefly used for consumption, most commonly as a sandwich spread and sweetener. Less popular ap- plications included medical and cosmetic purposes. Some socio-demographic characteristics (gender, age, place of residence, income), self-assessment of nutritional knowledge and, to a lesser extent, education sig- nificantly differentiated consumer behaviours in the honey market. The study has shown that Poles consume honey relatively seldom. For the increase of honey consumption nutritional education is needed. Further studies will allow a more detailed diagnosis, which is required for the development of effective information and marketing strategies.

  11. Qualitative analysis of pure and adulterated canola oil via SIMCA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basri, Katrul Nadia; Khir, Mohd Fared Abdul; Rani, Rozina Abdul; Sharif, Zaiton; Rusop, M.; Zoolfakar, Ahmad Sabirin

    2018-05-01

    This paper demonstrates the utilization of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy to classify pure and adulterated sample of canola oil. Soft Independent Modeling Class Analogies (SIMCA) algorithm was implemented to discriminate the samples to its classes. Spectral data obtained was divided using Kennard Stone algorithm into training and validation dataset by a fixed ratio of 7:3. The model accuracy obtained based on the model built is 0.99 whereas the sensitivity and precision are 0.92 and 1.00. The result showed the classification model is robust to perform qualitative analysis of canola oil for future application.

  12. Food Adulteration and Consumer Awareness in Dhaka City, 1995-2011

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Tahmeed

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT We conducted this study to investigate the magnitude of food adulteration during 1995–2011 and consumer awareness in Dhaka city. We reviewed results of food sample testing by Public Health Food Laboratory of Dhaka City Corporation, Bangladesh Standards and Testing Institution, Consumers Association of Bangladesh publications, reports from lay press, including those on mobile magistrate court operations. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 96 residents of Dhaka city, using a structured questionnaire in 2006. The overall proportion of food samples adulterated decreased during 2001-2005, and 40-54% of daily-consumed food was adulterated during 1995-2011. More than 35 food items were commonly adulterated. Consumers considered expiry date and quality or freshness as the best criteria while buying packaged and open food items respectively; only 11 (12%) respondents considered approval of regulatory authority for buying packaged food items. More than half of the food consumed in Dhaka city is adulterated, which warrants actions by the Government, the industry, and the consumers. PMID:25395908

  13. Food adulteration and consumer awareness in Dhaka City, 1995-2011.

    PubMed

    Nasreen, Sharifa; Ahmed, Tahmeed

    2014-09-01

    We conducted this study to investigate the magnitude of food adulteration during 1995-2011 and consumer awareness in Dhaka city. We reviewed results of food sample testing by Public Health Food Laboratory of Dhaka City Corporation, Bangladesh Standards and Testing Institution, Consumers Association of Bangladesh publications, reports from lay press, including those on mobile magistrate court operations. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 96 residents of Dhaka city, using a structured questionnaire in 2006. The overall proportion of food samples adulterated decreased during 2001-2005, and 40-54% of daily-consumed food was adulterated during 1995-2011. More than 35 food items were commonly adulterated. Consumers considered expiry date and quality or freshness as the best criteria while buying packaged and open food items respectively; only 11 (12%) respondents considered approval of regulatory authority for buying packaged food items. More than half of the food consumed in Dhaka city is adulterated, which warrants actions by the Government, the industry, and the consumers.

  14. Antimicrobial activity and rutin identification of honey produced by the stingless bee Melipona compressipes manaosensis and commercial honey.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, Renah Boanerges de Queiroz; da Costa, Cristovão Alves; Albuquerque, Patrícia Melchionna; Junior, Sergio Duvoisin

    2013-07-01

    Honey has been identified as a potential alternative to the widespread use of antibiotics, which are of significant concern considering the emergence of resistant bacteria. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of honey samples produced by a stingless bee species and by Apis sp. against pathogenic bacteria, as well as to identify the presence of phenolic compounds. Honey samples from the stingless bee M. compressipes manaosensis were collected twice, during the dry and rainy seasons. Three commercial honey samples from Apis sp. were also included in this study. Two different assays were performed to evaluate the antibacterial potential of the honey samples: agar-well diffusion and broth macrodilution. Liquid-liquid extraction was used to assess phenolic compounds from honey. HPLC analysis was performed in order to identify rutin and apigenin on honey samples. Chromatograms were recorded at 340 and 290 nm. Two honey samples were identified as having the highest antimicrobial activity using the agar diffusion method. Honey produced by Melipona compressipes manaosensis inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli (0157: H7), Proteus vulgaris, Shigella sonnei and Klebsiella sp. A sample of honey produced by Apis sp. also inhibited the growth of Salmonella paratyphi. The macrodilution technique presented greater sensitivity for the antibacterial testing, since all honey samples showed activity. Flavonoid rutin was identified in the honey sample produced by the stingless bee. Honey samples tested in this work showed antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The results reported herein highlight the potential of using honey to control bacterial growth.

  15. Antimicrobial activity and rutin identification of honey produced by the stingless bee Melipona compressipes manaosensis and commercial honey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Honey has been identified as a potential alternative to the widespread use of antibiotics, which are of significant concern considering the emergence of resistant bacteria. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of honey samples produced by a stingless bee species and by Apis sp. against pathogenic bacteria, as well as to identify the presence of phenolic compounds. Methods Honey samples from the stingless bee M. compressipes manaosensis were collected twice, during the dry and rainy seasons. Three commercial honey samples from Apis sp. were also included in this study. Two different assays were performed to evaluate the antibacterial potential of the honey samples: agar-well diffusion and broth macrodilution. Liquid-liquid extraction was used to assess phenolic compounds from honey. HPLC analysis was performed in order to identify rutin and apigenin on honey samples. Chromatograms were recorded at 340 and 290 nm. Results Two honey samples were identified as having the highest antimicrobial activity using the agar diffusion method. Honey produced by Melipona compressipes manaosensis inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli (0157: H7), Proteus vulgaris, Shigella sonnei and Klebsiella sp. A sample of honey produced by Apis sp. also inhibited the growth of Salmonella paratyphi. The macrodilution technique presented greater sensitivity for the antibacterial testing, since all honey samples showed activity. Flavonoid rutin was identified in the honey sample produced by the stingless bee. Conclusions Honey samples tested in this work showed antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The results reported herein highlight the potential of using honey to control bacterial growth. PMID:23815879

  16. Elucidation of markers for monitoring morphine and its analogs in urine adulterated with pyridinium chlorochromate.

    PubMed

    Luong, Susan; Kuzhiumparambil, Unnikrishnan; Fu, Shanlin

    2015-09-17

    Currently, procedures that identify the drugs 'destroyed' in adulterated urine specimens are very limited. This study aimed to determine the effect of pyridinium chlorochromate (PCC) on routine opiate assays and identify reaction products formed. Results/methodology: Opiate-positive urines adulterated with PCC (20 and 100 mM) were analyzed using CEDIA ® immunoassay and GC-MS. Urine and water samples spiked with 6-monoacetylmorphine, morphine and its glucuronides (10 µg/ml) and PCC (0.02-100 mM) were monitored with LC-MS, and the products characterized. PCC significantly decreased the abundance of morphine, codeine and IS. Adulterated water and urine samples containing 6-monoacetylmorphine, morphine and morphine-3-glucuronide yielded morphinone-3-glucuronide, 7,14-dihydroxy-6-monoacetylmorphine, 7,8-diketo-6-monoacetylmorphine and 7,8-diketo-morphine (tentative assignment). Reaction pathways may be different in the two matrices.

  17. Volatile organic compounds of Thai honeys produced from several floral sources by different honey bee species.

    PubMed

    Pattamayutanon, Praetinee; Angeli, Sergio; Thakeow, Prodpran; Abraham, John; Disayathanoowat, Terd; Chantawannakul, Panuwan

    2017-01-01

    The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of four monofloral and one multifloral of Thai honeys produced by Apis cerana, Apis dorsata and Apis mellifera were analyzed by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) followed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The floral sources were longan, sunflower, coffee, wild flowers (wild) and lychee. Honey originating from longan had more VOCs than all other floral sources. Sunflower honey had the least numbers of VOCs. cis-Linalool oxide, trans-linalool oxide, ho-trienol, and furan-2,5-dicarbaldehyde were present in all the honeys studied, independent of their floral origin. Interestingly, 2-phenylacetaldehyde was detected in all honey sample except longan honey produced by A. cerana. Thirty-two VOCs were identified as possible floral markers. After validating differences in honey volatiles from different floral sources and honeybee species, the results suggest that differences in quality and quantity of honey volatiles are influenced by both floral source and honeybee species. The group of honey volatiles detected from A. cerana was completely different from those of A. mellifera and A. dorsata. VOCs could therefore be applied as chemical markers of honeys and may reflect preferences of shared floral sources amongst different honeybee species.

  18. Detection of Ophiocordyceps sinensis and Its Common Adulterates Using Species-Specific Primers

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Wang, Xiao-yue; Gao, Zi-tong; Han, Jian-ping; Xiang, Li

    2017-01-01

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis is a fungus that infects Hepialidae caterpillars, mummifying the larvae and producing characteristic fruiting bodies (stromata) that are processed into one of the most valued traditional Chinese medicines (TCM). The product commands a very high price due to a high demand but a very limited supply. Adulteration with other fungi is a common problem and there is a need to test preparation for the presence of the correct fungus. In the current study, a PCR-based approach for the identification of O. sinensis based on a segment of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was developed. The segments is 146-bp in size and is likely to be amplified even in materials where processing led to DNA fragmentation. Primer development was based on the alignment of sequence data generated from a total of 89 samples of O. sinensis and potential adulterants as well as sequences date from 41 Ophiocordyceps species and 26 Cordyceps species available in GenBank. Tests with primer pair, DCF4/DCR4, demonstrated generation of an amplicon from DNA extracted from O. sinensis stromata, but not from extracts derived from adulterants. Species-specific primer pairs were also developed and tested for detection of the common adulterants, Cordyceps gunnii, Cordyceps cicadae, Cordyceps militaris, Cordyceps liangshanensis and Ophiocordyceps nutans. The collection of primers developed in the present study will be useful for the authentication of preparation claiming to only contain O. sinensis and for the detection of fungi used as adulterants in these preparations. PMID:28680424

  19. Applying Fourier Transform Mid Infrared Spectroscopy to Detect the Adulteration of Salmo salar with Oncorhynchus mykiss

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Maria João

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy coupled with chemometric methods to detect fish adulteration. Muscles of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) (SS) and Salmon trout (Onconrhynchus mykiss) (OM) muscles were mixed in different percentages and transformed into mini-burgers. These were stored at 3 °C, then examined at 0, 72, 160, and 240 h for deteriorative microorganisms. Mini-burgers was submitted to Soxhlet extraction, following which lipid extracts were analyzed by FTIR. The principal component analysis (PCA) described the studied adulteration using four principal components with an explained variance of 95.60%. PCA showed that the absorbance in the spectral region from 721, 1097, 1370, 1464, 1655, 2805, to 2935, 3009 cm−1 may be attributed to biochemical fingerprints related to differences between SS and OM. The partial least squares regression (PLS-R) predicted the presence/absence of adulteration in fish samples of an external set with high accuracy. The proposed methods have the advantage of allowing quick measurements, despite the storage time of the adulterated fish. FTIR combined with chemometrics showed that a methodology to identify the adulteration of SS with OM can be established, even when stored for different periods of time. PMID:29621135

  20. Identifying and Quantifying Adulterants in Extra Virgin Olive Oil of the Picual Varietal by Absorption Spectroscopy and Nonlinear Modeling.

    PubMed

    Aroca-Santos, Regina; Cancilla, John C; Matute, Gemma; Torrecilla, José S

    2015-06-17

    In this research, the detection and quantification of adulterants in one of the most common varieties of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) have been successfully carried out. Visible absorption information was collected from binary mixtures of Picual EVOO with one of four adulterants: refined olive oil, orujo olive oil, sunflower oil, and corn oil. The data gathered from the absorption spectra were used as input to create an artificial neural network (ANN) model. The designed mathematical tool was able to detect the type of adulterant with an identification rate of 96% and to quantify the volume percentage of EVOO in the samples with a low mean prediction error of 1.2%. These significant results make ANNs coupled with visible spectroscopy a reliable, inexpensive, user-friendly, and real-time method for difficult tasks, given that the matrices of the different adulterated oils are practically alike.

  1. Characterization of an array of honeys of different types and botanical origins through fluorescence emission based on LEDs.

    PubMed

    Lastra-Mejías, Miguel; Torreblanca-Zanca, Albertina; Aroca-Santos, Regina; Cancilla, John C; Izquierdo, Jesús G; Torrecilla, José S

    2018-08-01

    A set of 10 honeys comprising a diverse range of botanical origins have been successfully characterized through fluorescence spectroscopy using inexpensive light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as light sources. It has been proven that each LED-honey combination tested originates a unique emission spectrum, which enables the authentication of every honey, being able to correctly label it with its botanical origin. Furthermore, the analysis was backed up by a mathematical analysis based on partial least square models which led to a correct classification rate of each type of honey of over 95%. Finally, the same approach was followed to analyze rice syrup, which is a common honey adulterant that is challenging to identify when mixed with honey. A LED-dependent and unique fluorescence spectrum was found for the syrup, which presumably qualifies this approach for the design of uncomplicated, fast, and cost-effective quality control and adulteration assessing tools for different types of honey. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors and their analogues as adulterants of herbal and food products: analysis of the Malaysian market, 2014-16.

    PubMed

    Bujang, Nur Baizura; Chee, Chin Fei; Heh, Choon Han; Rahman, Noorsaadah Abd; Buckle, Michael J C

    2017-07-01

    Adulteration of herbal health supplements with phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitors and their analogues is becoming a worldwide problem. The aim of this study was to investigate herbal and food products sold in the Malaysian market for the presence of these adulterants. Sixty-two products that claim to enhance men's sexual health were sampled between April 2014 and April 2016. These products included unregistered products seized by the Pharmacy Enforcement Division of the Ministry of Health (n = 39), products sent to the National Pharmaceutical Regulatory Agency for pre-registration testing (n = 9) and products investigated under the post-registration market surveillance programme (n = 14). The products were tested against an in-house spectral library consisting of 61 PDE-5 inhibitors and analogues using a validated liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry ion-trap-time-of-flight (LC-MS IT-TOF) method. Thirty-two (82%) of the unregistered products and two (14%) of the registered products were found to be adulterated with at least one PDE-5 inhibitor or analogue, while none of the pre-registration products contained adulterants. A total of 16 different adulterants were detected and 36% of the adulterated products contained a mixture of two or more adulterants. This study has demonstrated that the adulteration of unregistered herbal products in the Malaysian market is an alarming issue that needs to be urgently addressed by the relevant authorities.

  3. 7 CFR 58.242 - Product adulteration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Product adulteration. 58.242 Section 58.242... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) GRADING AND INSPECTION, GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR APPROVED PLANTS AND STANDARDS FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General...

  4. The Antibacterial Activity of Honey on Helicobacter Pylori

    PubMed Central

    Nzeako, Basil C; Al-Namaani, Faiza

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This project aimed to assess the antibacterial potential of various brands of honey sold in Muscat area on some isolates of H. pylori and to determine if there is any synergy between honey and amoxycillin or clarithromycin used in the treatment of H. pylori gastritis and duodenal ulcer. Methods: Eight samples of commercial honey were used in the experiment after they were checked for purity by sub-culturing on blood agar and incubating for 48 hours at 37°c. Honey samples showing gross contamination were discarded. Purified culture isolates of H. pylori from our laboratory stock cultures were swabbed on chocolate plate using 1x 104 cfu/ml. One hundred microlitres (100μl) of various honey samples were placed on each plate which was subsequently incubated microaerophilically at 37ºc for 3 days. The presence or absence of growth inhibition zones on each plate was noted and an average zone size of each honey was taken. Honey samples with high zone sizes were further diluted from 1:2–1:8 to find the end-points of their growth inhibition concentrations and the experiment was repeated in triplicates. The synergistic effect between honey, amoxycillin and clarithromycin was done in triplicates by placing honey at various distances between each antibiotic after swabbing chocolate agar with 1x 104 cfu/ml of H. pylori. The plates were incubated as before. Results: All honey samples produced growth inhibition zones with H. pylori no at dilution of honey but had different zone sizes at 1:2–1:8 dilutions. Black Forest honey had the highest antibacterial activity followed by Langnese honey. None of the honeys had a synergistic effect with either clarithromycin or amoxycillin. Conclusion: We conclude that, in vitro, some honey brands possess antibacterial activity against H. pylori and that no synergy or antagonism was observed between honey and clarithromycin or honey and amoxicillin using H. pylori as a test organism. Though no synergy or antagonism was observed

  5. Assessment of physicochemical and antioxidant characteristics of Quercus pyrenaica honeydew honeys.

    PubMed

    Shantal Rodríguez Flores, M; Escuredo, Olga; Carmen Seijo, M

    2015-01-01

    Consumers are exhibiting increasing interest in honeydew honey, principally due to its functional properties. Some plants can be sources of honeydew honey, but in north-western Spain, this honey type only comes from Quercus pyrenaica. In the present study, the melissopalynological and physicochemical characteristics and the antioxidant properties of 32 honeydew honey samples are described. Q. pyrenaica honeydew honey was defined by its colour, high pH, phenols and flavonoids. Multivariate statistical techniques were used to analyse the influence of the production year on the honey's physicochemical parameters and polyphenol content. Differences among the honey samples were found, showing that weather affected the physicochemical composition of the honey samples. Optimal conditions for oak growth favoured the production of honeydew honey. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sequential (step-by-step) detection, identification and quantitation of extra virgin olive oil adulteration by chemometric treatment of chromatographic profiles.

    PubMed

    Capote, F Priego; Jiménez, J Ruiz; de Castro, M D Luque

    2007-08-01

    An analytical method for the sequential detection, identification and quantitation of extra virgin olive oil adulteration with four edible vegetable oils--sunflower, corn, peanut and coconut oils--is proposed. The only data required for this method are the results obtained from an analysis of the lipid fraction by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total number of 566 samples (pure oils and samples of adulterated olive oil) were used to develop the chemometric models, which were designed to accomplish, step-by-step, the three aims of the method: to detect whether an olive oil sample is adulterated, to identify the type of adulterant used in the fraud, and to determine how much aldulterant is in the sample. Qualitative analysis was carried out via two chemometric approaches--soft independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA) and K nearest neighbours (KNN)--both approaches exhibited prediction abilities that were always higher than 91% for adulterant detection and 88% for type of adulterant identification. Quantitative analysis was based on partial least squares regression (PLSR), which yielded R2 values of >0.90 for calibration and validation sets and thus made it possible to determine adulteration with excellent precision according to the Shenk criteria.

  7. From flower to honey bouquet: possible markers for the botanical origin of Robinia honey.

    PubMed

    Aronne, Giovanna; Giovanetti, Manuela; Sacchi, Raffaele; De Micco, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    Flowers are complex structures devoted to pollinator attraction, through visual as well as chemical signals. As bees collect nectar on flowers to produce honey, some aspects of floral chemistry are transferred to honey, making chemical markers an important technique to identify the botanical and geographical origins of honey. We applied a new approach that considers the simultaneous analysis of different floral parts (petals, stamens + pistils, calyxes + nectarines, and nectar) and the corresponding unifloral honey. We collected fresh flowers of Robinia pseudoacacia L. (black locust), selected five samples of Robinia honey from different geographical origins, applied SPME-GC/MS for volatile analyses, and defined the chemical contribution added by different floral parts to the honey final bouquet. Our results show that honey blends products from nectar as well as other flower parts. Comparing honey and flower profiles, we detected compounds coming directly from flower parts but not present in the nectar, such as hotrienol and β-pinene. These may turn out to be of special interest when selecting floral markers for the botanical origin of honey.

  8. Potential of Visible and Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Pattern Recognition for Rapid Quantification of Notoginseng Powder with Adulterants

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Pengcheng; Wu, Di; Sun, Da-Wen; Cao, Fang; Bao, Yidan; He, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Notoginseng is a classical traditional Chinese medical herb, which is of high economic and medical value. Notoginseng powder (NP) could be easily adulterated with Sophora flavescens powder (SFP) or corn flour (CF), because of their similar tastes and appearances and much lower cost for these adulterants. The objective of this study is to quantify the NP content in adulterated NP by using a rapid and non-destructive visible and near infrared (Vis-NIR) spectroscopy method. Three wavelength ranges of visible spectra, short-wave near infrared spectra (SNIR) and long-wave near infrared spectra (LNIR) were separately used to establish the model based on two calibration methods of partial least square regression (PLSR) and least-squares support vector machines (LS-SVM), respectively. Competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) was conducted to identify the most important wavelengths/variables that had the greatest influence on the adulterant quantification throughout the whole wavelength range. The CARS-PLSR models based on LNIR were determined as the best models for the quantification of NP adulterated with SFP, CF, and their mixtures, in which the rP values were 0.940, 0.939, and 0.867 for the three models respectively. The research demonstrated the potential of the Vis-NIR spectroscopy technique for the rapid and non-destructive quantification of NP containing adulterants. PMID:24129019

  9. Quantitative evaluation of multiple adulterants in roasted coffee by Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Reis, Nádia; Franca, Adriana S; Oliveira, Leandro S

    2013-10-15

    The current study presents an application of Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy for detection and quantification of fraudulent addition of commonly employed adulterants (spent coffee grounds, coffee husks, roasted corn and roasted barley) to roasted and ground coffee. Roasted coffee samples were intentionally blended with the adulterants (pure and mixed), with total adulteration levels ranging from 1% to 66% w/w. Partial Least Squares Regression (PLS) was used to relate the processed spectra to the mass fraction of adulterants and the model obtained provided reliable predictions of adulterations at levels as low as 1% w/w. A robust methodology was implemented that included the detection of outliers. High correlation coefficients (0.99 for calibration; 0.98 for validation) coupled with low degrees of error (1.23% for calibration; 2.67% for validation) confirmed that DRIFTS can be a valuable analytical tool for detection and quantification of adulteration in ground, roasted coffee. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. What Are the Proteolytic Enzymes of Honey and What They Do Tell Us? A Fingerprint Analysis by 2-D Zymography of Unifloral Honeys

    PubMed Central

    Rossano, Rocco; Larocca, Marilena; Polito, Teresa; Perna, Anna Maria; Padula, Maria Carmela; Martelli, Giuseppe; Riccio, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Honey is a sweet and healthy food produced by honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) from flower nectars. Using bidimensional zymography, we have detected the, until now unrevealed, proteolytic activities present in row honey samples. The resulting zymograms were specific for each type of the four unifloral honey under study, and enzymes were identified as serine proteases by the use of specific inhibitors. Further, using bidimensional electrophoresis, we have shown that honey proteases are able to degrade the major Royal Jelly proteins and in particular MRPJ-1, the protein that promotes queen differentiation in honeybees. Our findings open new perspectives for the better understanding of honeybee development, social behaviour and role in honey production. The now discovered honey proteases may influence honey properties and quality, and bidimensional zymograms might be useful to distinguish between different honey types, establish their age and floral origin, and allow honey certification. PMID:23145107

  11. An effective identification and quantification method for Ginkgo biloba flavonol glycosides with targeted evaluation of adulterated products.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuan-Chun; Mani, Ana; Cai, Yaling; Thomson, Jaclyn; Ma, Jie; Peudru, Flavie; Chen, Sarah; Luo, Mai; Zhang, Junzeng; Chapman, Robert G; Shi, Zhen-Tuo

    2016-04-15

    Ginkgo biloba L. (Ginkgoaceae) leaf extract is one of the most popular herbal products on the market, as it contains flavone glycosides (≥ 24%) and terpene lactones (≥ 6%), which are proposed to have significant physiological effects. Unfortunately, the challenging financial climate has resulted in a natural health product market containing adulterated ginkgo products. 42 ginkgo samples were analyzed to establish an HPLC profile for authentic ginkgo and common ginkgo adulterants, and to develop a method capable of easily detecting adulteration in ginkgo commercial products. In this study an efficient and targeted HPLC analysis method was established that is capable of distinguishing flavonol glycosides and aglycones simultaneously for the evaluation of ginkgo powdered extracts (PEs) and finished products in a single, 13 min run. Thirteen ginkgo leaf samples, fifteen standardized powdered extracts, and fourteen commercially available ginkgo products have been analyzed using this new HPLC method. Chromatograms were compared to six standard reference materials: one flavonol glycoside (rutin), three aglycones (quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin), and two isoflavones (genestin and genistein). The quantitative chromatographic data was interpreted by principal component analysis (PCA), which assisted in the detection of unexpected chromatographic features in various adulterated botanical products. Only three of the commercially available ginkgo finished products tested in this study were determined to be authentic, with flavonol glycoside rutin, and aglycones quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin found to be common adulterants in the ginkgo powdered extract and finished product samples. Despite evidence of adulteration in most of the samples, each of the samples discussed herein met most of the current pharmacopeial standards. It is therefore critical that a preliminary evaluation be utilized to detect adulteration in commercial ginkgo products, prior to the

  12. Spectroscopic and Spectrometric Methods Used for the Screening of Certain Herbal Food Supplements Suspected of Adulteration

    PubMed Central

    Mateescu, Cristina; Popescu, Anca Mihaela; Radu, Gabriel Lucian; Onisei, Tatiana; Raducanu, Adina Elena

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study was carried out in order to find a reliable method for the fast detection of adulterated herbal food supplements with sexual enhancement claims. As some herbal products are advertised as "all natural", their "efficiency" is often increased by addition of active pharmaceutical ingredients such as PDE-5 inhibitors, which can be a real health threat for the consumer. Methodes: Adulterants, potentially present in 50 herbal food supplements with sexual improvement claims, were detected using 2 spectroscopic methods - Raman and Fourier Transform Infrared - known for reliability, reproductibility, and an easy sample preparation. GC-MS technique was used to confirm the potential adulterants spectra. Results: About 22% (11 out of 50 samples) of herbal food supplements with sexual enhancement claims analyzed by spectroscopic and spectrometric methods proved to be "enriched" with active pharmaceutical compounds such as: sildenafil and two of its analogues, tadalafil and phenolphthalein. The occurence of phenolphthalein could be the reason for the non-relevant results obtained by FTIR method in some samples. 91% of the adulterated herbal food supplements were originating from China. Conclusion: The results of this screening highlighted the necessity for an accurate analysis of all alleged herbal aphrodisiacs on the Romanian market. This is a first such a screening analysis carried out on herbal food supplements with sexual enhancement claims. PMID:28761827

  13. Spectroscopic and Spectrometric Methods Used for the Screening of Certain Herbal Food Supplements Suspected of Adulteration.

    PubMed

    Mateescu, Cristina; Popescu, Anca Mihaela; Radu, Gabriel Lucian; Onisei, Tatiana; Raducanu, Adina Elena

    2017-06-01

    Purpose: This study was carried out in order to find a reliable method for the fast detection of adulterated herbal food supplements with sexual enhancement claims. As some herbal products are advertised as "all natural", their "efficiency" is often increased by addition of active pharmaceutical ingredients such as PDE-5 inhibitors, which can be a real health threat for the consumer. Methodes: Adulterants, potentially present in 50 herbal food supplements with sexual improvement claims, were detected using 2 spectroscopic methods - Raman and Fourier Transform Infrared - known for reliability, reproductibility, and an easy sample preparation. GC-MS technique was used to confirm the potential adulterants spectra. Results: About 22% (11 out of 50 samples) of herbal food supplements with sexual enhancement claims analyzed by spectroscopic and spectrometric methods proved to be "enriched" with active pharmaceutical compounds such as: sildenafil and two of its analogues, tadalafil and phenolphthalein. The occurence of phenolphthalein could be the reason for the non-relevant results obtained by FTIR method in some samples. 91% of the adulterated herbal food supplements were originating from China. Conclusion: The results of this screening highlighted the necessity for an accurate analysis of all alleged herbal aphrodisiacs on the Romanian market. This is a first such a screening analysis carried out on herbal food supplements with sexual enhancement claims.

  14. Viper's bugloss (Echium spp.) honey typing and establishing the pollen threshold for monofloral honey.

    PubMed

    Martín Arroyo, Tomás; González-Porto, Amelia V; Bartolomé Esteban, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    Honey samples (n = 126) from Castilla-La Mancha (Central Spain) were characterized based on their physicochemical properties and a melissopalynological analysis. The latter showed that Echium pollen type was the dominant palynomorph in most samples, representing at least 30% of the pollen in each sample. As anticipated, a relationship was observed between the proportion of this pollen and the properties of the honey. One goal of this study was to set a threshold that defines the percentage of pollen necessary for Viper's bugloss honey to be considered monofloral or multifloral. This is a mandatory requirement in light of the publication of the European Directive 2014/63/EU establishing the regulations governing the labelling and control of honey to eradicate fraud (BOE n° 147, June 2015). By analyzing how the proportions of Echium pollen type affected the physicochemical and sensory parameters of the honey, the honeys analyzed could be segregated into multifloral and monofloral honeys. The data indicates that the proportion of pollen necessary to discriminate monofloral Viper's bugloss honey lies at 70%.

  15. Viper’s bugloss (Echium spp.) honey typing and establishing the pollen threshold for monofloral honey

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Honey samples (n = 126) from Castilla-La Mancha (Central Spain) were characterized based on their physicochemical properties and a melissopalynological analysis. The latter showed that Echium pollen type was the dominant palynomorph in most samples, representing at least 30% of the pollen in each sample. As anticipated, a relationship was observed between the proportion of this pollen and the properties of the honey. One goal of this study was to set a threshold that defines the percentage of pollen necessary for Viper’s bugloss honey to be considered monofloral or multifloral. This is a mandatory requirement in light of the publication of the European Directive 2014/63/EU establishing the regulations governing the labelling and control of honey to eradicate fraud (BOE n° 147, June 2015). By analyzing how the proportions of Echium pollen type affected the physicochemical and sensory parameters of the honey, the honeys analyzed could be segregated into multifloral and monofloral honeys. The data indicates that the proportion of pollen necessary to discriminate monofloral Viper’s bugloss honey lies at 70%. PMID:28976990

  16. Multispecies Adulteration Detection of Camellia Oil by Chemical Markers.

    PubMed

    Dou, Xinjing; Mao, Jin; Zhang, Liangxiao; Xie, Huali; Chen, Lin; Yu, Li; Ma, Fei; Wang, Xiupin; Zhang, Qi; Li, Peiwu

    2018-01-25

    Adulteration of edible oils has attracted attention from more researchers and consumers in recent years. Complex multispecies adulteration is a commonly used strategy to mask the traditional adulteration detection methods. Most of the researchers were only concerned about single targeted adulterants, however, it was difficult to identify complex multispecies adulteration or untargeted adulterants. To detect adulteration of edible oil, identification of characteristic markers of adulterants was proposed to be an effective method, which could provide a solution for multispecies adulteration detection. In this study, a simple method of multispecies adulteration detection for camellia oil (adulterated with soybean oil, peanut oil, rapeseed oil) was developed by quantifying chemical markers including four isoflavones, trans-resveratrol and sinapic acid, which used liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) combined with solid phase extraction (SPE). In commercial camellia oil, only two of them were detected of daidzin with the average content of 0.06 ng/g while other markers were absent. The developed method was highly sensitive as the limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 0.02 ng/mL to 0.16 ng/mL and the mean recoveries ranged from 79.7% to 113.5%, indicating that this method was reliable to detect potential characteristic markers in edible oils. Six target compounds for pure camellia oils, soybean oils, peanut oils and rapeseed oils had been analyzed to get the results. The validation results indicated that this simple and rapid method was successfully employed to determine multispecies adulteration of camellia oil adulterated with soybean, peanut and rapeseed oils.

  17. A novel method of recognizing liquefied honey.

    PubMed

    Płowaś-Korus, Iwona; Masewicz, Łukasz; Szwengiel, Artur; Rachocki, Adam; Baranowska, Hanna Maria; Medycki, Wojciech

    2018-04-15

    The content of glucose, fructose, sucrose, maltose and water were determined for multiflorous honey of Great Poland. The measurements were carried out for different fractions of honey and also for the liquefied honey at 40 °C. Water activity and pH were both determined for all samples. A new method of recognizing liquefied honey is proposed based on the water influence on pH and the monosaccharides and disaccharides contents. The simple function of quadratic polynomial enabled to reveal the different character of the liquefied honey. The electrical conductivity behavior of different dry matter samples of honey are presented in the wide range of temperature. The proton spin-lattice relaxation measurements were recorded for the crystalline fraction in the magnetic field range covering the proton Larmor frequencies from 0.01 to 25 MHz and in the wide range of temperature. Heating the honey at 30 °C results in the irreversible molecular structure changes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Determination of whey adulteration in milk powder by using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bilge, Gonca; Sezer, Banu; Eseller, Kemal Efe; Berberoglu, Halil; Topcu, Ali; Boyaci, Ismail Hakki

    2016-12-01

    A rapid and in situ method has been developed to detect and quantify adulterated milk powder through adding whey powder by using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The methodology is based on elemental composition differences between milk and whey products. Milk powder, sweet and acid whey powders were produced as standard samples, and milk powder was adulterated with whey powders. Based on LIBS spectra of standard samples and commercial products, species was identified using principle component analysis (PCA) method, and discrimination rate of milk and whey powders was found as 80.5%. Calibration curves were obtained with partial least squares regression (PLS). Correlation coefficient (R(2)) and limit of detection (LOD) values were 0.981 and 1.55% for adulteration with sweet whey powder, and 0.985 and 0.55% for adulteration with acid whey powder, respectively. The results were found to be consistent with the data from inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) method. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Amino acid composition and antioxidant capacity of Spanish honeys.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Rosa Ana; Iglesias, María Teresa; Pueyo, Encarnación; Gonzalez, Montserrat; de Lorenzo, Cristina

    2007-01-24

    The amino acid composition of 53 honey samples from Spain, consisting of 39 floral, 5 honeydew, and 9 blend honeys, has been determined. Physicochemical characteristics, polyphenolic content, amino acid composition, and estimation of the radical scavenging capacity against the stable free radical DPPH of the honey samples were analyzed. The resulting data have been statistically evaluated. The results showed that pH, acidity, net absorbance, electrical conductivity, and total polyphenolic contents of the honeys showed a strong correlation with the radical scavenging capacity. The correlation between the radical scavenging capacity of honey and amino acid contents was high with 18 of the 20 amino acids detected, with correlation values higher than those obtained for polyphenolic content. These results suggest that the amino acid composition of honey is an indicator of the sample's scavenging capacity.

  20. Economically motivated adulteration (EMA) of food: common characteristics of EMA incidents.

    PubMed

    Everstine, Karen; Spink, John; Kennedy, Shaun

    2013-04-01

    Economically motivated adulteration (EMA) of food, also known as food fraud, is the intentional adulteration of food for financial advantage. A common form of EMA, undeclared substitution with alternative ingredients, is usually a health concern because of allergen labeling requirements. As demonstrated by the nearly 300,000 illnesses in China from melamine adulteration of infant formula, EMA also has the potential to result in serious public health consequences. Furthermore, EMA incidents reveal gaps in quality assurance testing methodologies that could be exploited for intentional harm. In contrast to foodborne disease outbreaks, EMA incidents present a particular challenge to the food industry and regulators because they are deliberate acts that are intended to evade detection. Large-scale EMA incidents have been described in the scientific literature, but smaller incidents have been documented only in media sources. We reviewed journal articles and media reports of EMA since 1980. We identified 137 unique incidents in 11 food categories: fish and seafood (24 incidents), dairy products (15), fruit juices (12), oils and fats (12), grain products (11), honey and other natural sweeteners (10), spices and extracts (8), wine and other alcoholic beverages (7), infant formula (5), plant-based proteins (5), and other food products (28). We identified common characteristics among the incidents that may help us better evaluate and reduce the risk of EMA. These characteristics reflect the ways in which existing regulatory systems or testing methodologies were inadequate for detecting EMA and how novel detection methods and other deterrence strategies can be deployed. Prevention and detection of EMA cannot depend on traditional food safety strategies. Comprehensive food protection, as outlined by the Food Safety Modernization Act, will require innovative methods for detecting EMA and for targeting crucial resources toward the riskiest food products.

  1. How honey is processed

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This month's column follows the "How Is It Processed?" theme. Honey has been called "the nectar of the gods" because of its rich histor and contribution to foods. This column will explore the properties of honey as well as how honey is processed - from flower to food....

  2. The Antibacterial Activity of Honey Derived from Australian Flora

    PubMed Central

    Irish, Julie; Blair, Shona; Carter, Dee A.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic wound infections and antibiotic resistance are driving interest in antimicrobial treatments that have generally been considered complementary, including antimicrobially active honey. Australia has unique native flora and produces honey with a wide range of different physicochemical properties. In this study we surveyed 477 honey samples, derived from native and exotic plants from various regions of Australia, for their antibacterial activity using an established screening protocol. A level of activity considered potentially therapeutically useful was found in 274 (57%) of the honey samples, with exceptional activity seen in samples derived from marri (Corymbia calophylla), jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) and jellybush (Leptospermum polygalifolium). In most cases the antibacterial activity was attributable to hydrogen peroxide produced by the bee-derived enzyme glucose oxidase. Non-hydrogen peroxide activity was detected in 80 (16.8%) samples, and was most consistently seen in honey produced from Leptospermum spp. Testing over time found the hydrogen peroxide-dependent activity in honey decreased, in some cases by 100%, and this activity was more stable at 4°C than at 25°C. In contrast, the non-hydrogen peroxide activity of Leptospermum honey samples increased, and this was greatest in samples stored at 25°C. The stability of non-peroxide activity from other honeys was more variable, suggesting this activity may have a different cause. We conclude that many Australian honeys have clinical potential, and that further studies into the composition and stability of their active constituents are warranted. PMID:21464891

  3. A rapid and simple pretreatment method for benzoylurea insecticides in honey samples using in-syringe dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on the direct solidification of ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huazi; Hu, Lu; Li, Wanzhen; Lu, Runhua; Zhang, Sanbing; Zhou, Wenfeng; Gao, Haixiang

    2016-11-04

    A pretreatment method using in-syringe dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on the direct solidification of ionic liquids before high performance liquid chromatography analysis was developed for the determination of benzoylurea insecticides (BUs) in honey samples. The hydrophobic ionic liquid [N 4444 ][PF 6 ], formed in situ by the hydrophilic ionic liquid [N 4444 ]Cl and the ion exchange reagent KPF 6 , was used to extract the target analytes. The entire extraction procedure was performed in a syringe. The extractant was solidified at room temperature and collected using a nylon membrane filter. This technique did not require a dispersive solvent, vortex mixer, ultrasound bath, or centrifugation. The parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated through an experimental design. Under the optimal conditions, the limits of detection for the four BUs varied from 0.21 to 0.42μgL -1 in solution (2.1-4.2μgkg -1 in honey). Good linearities were obtained in the range of 2-300μgL -1 , with coefficients of determination greater than 0.999. The recoveries of the four BUs ranged from 80.94% to 84.59%. The intra-day (n=3) and inter-day (n=3) relative standard deviations were less than 5.08%. Finally, the proposed method was applied to the determination of BUs in commercial honey samples with satisfactory results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Usefulness of amino acid composition to discriminate between honeydew and floral honeys. Application to honeys from a small geographic area.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, María Teresa; De Lorenzo, Cristina; Del Carmen Polo, María; Martín-Alvarez, Pedro Jésus; Pueyo, Encarnacíon

    2004-01-14

    With the aim of finding methods that could constitute a solid alternative to melissopalynological and physicochemical analyses to determine the botanical origin (floral or honeydew) of honeys, the free amino acid content of 46 honey samples has been determined. The honeys were collected in a small geographic area of approximately 2000 km(2) in central Spain. Twenty-seven honey samples were classified as floral and 19 as honeydew according to their palynological and physicochemical analyses. The resulting data have been subjected to different multivariant analysis techniques. One hundred percent of honey samples have been correctly classified into either the floral or the honeydew groups, according to their content in glutamic acid and tryptophan. It is concluded that free amino acids are good indicators of the botanical origin of honeys, saving time compared with more tedious analyses.

  5. The Protective Effect of Whole Honey and Phenolic Extract on Oxidative DNA Damage in Mice Lymphocytes Using Comet Assay.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ni; Wang, Yuan; Cao, Wei

    2017-12-01

    In this study, the antioxidant activity and the protective effect against hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage were assessed for five honeys of different botanical origin. Seven phenolic acids were detected in the honey samples. Ferulic acid was the most abundant phenolic acid detected in longan honey, jujube honey and buckwheat honey. Ellagic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid and protocatechuic acid were the main phenolic acids detected in vitex honey. Of all honey samples tested, the highest total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were found in buckwheat honey, whereas the lowest total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were found in locust honey. Treatment with hydrogen peroxide induced a 62% increase in tail DNA in mice lymphocytes, and all studied honeys significantly inhibited this effect (P < 0.05). The buckwheat honey with higher antioxidant capability also exhibited super protective effect than others. Phenolic extracts of honey displayed greater protective effects than whole honey in comet assay. The hydrogen peroxide-generated increase in 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was effectively inhibited by the honeys studied (P < 0.05). Moreover, a dose-effect relationship between honey concentration and its protective effect was clearly observed in this study. It can be deduced that phenolic acids of honey can penetrate into lymphocytes and protect DNA from oxidative damage by scavenging hydrogen peroxide and/or chelating ferrous ions.

  6. Identification of different forms of cocaine and substances used in adulteration using near-infrared Raman spectroscopy and infrared absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Penido, Ciro A F O; Pacheco, Marcos Tadeu T; Zângaro, Renato A; Silveira, Landulfo

    2015-01-01

    Identification of cocaine and subsequent quantification immediately after seizure are problems for the police in developing countries such as Brazil. This work proposes a comparison between the Raman and FT-IR techniques as methods to identify cocaine, the adulterants used to increase volume, and possible degradation products in samples seized by the police. Near-infrared Raman spectra (785 nm excitation, 10 sec exposure time) and FT-IR-ATR spectra were obtained from different samples of street cocaine and some substances commonly used as adulterants. Freebase powder, hydrochloride powder, and crack rock can be distinguished by both Raman and FT-IR spectroscopies, revealing differences in their chemical structure. Most of the samples showed characteristic peaks of degradation products such as benzoylecgonine and benzoic acid, and some presented evidence of adulteration with aluminum sulfate and sodium carbonate. Raman spectroscopy is better than FT-IR for identifying benzoic acid and inorganic adulterants in cocaine. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  7. Barcode DNA length polymorphisms vs fatty acid profiling for adulteration detection in olive oil.

    PubMed

    Uncu, Ali Tevfik; Uncu, Ayse Ozgur; Frary, Anne; Doganlar, Sami

    2017-04-15

    The aim of this study was to compare the performance of a DNA-barcode assay with fatty acid profile analysis to authenticate the botanical origin of olive oil. To achieve this aim, we performed a PCR-capillary electrophoresis (PCR-CE) approach on olive oil: seed oil blends using the plastid trnL (UAA) intron barcode. In parallel to genomic analysis, we subjected the samples to gas chromatography analysis of fatty acid composition. While the PCR-CE assay proved equally efficient as gas chromatography analysis in detecting adulteration with soybean, palm, rapeseed, sunflower, sesame, cottonseed and peanut oils, it was superior to the widely utilized analytical chemistry approach in revealing the adulterant species and detecting small quantities of corn and safflower oils in olive oil. Moreover, the DNA-based test correctly identified all tested olive oil: hazelnut oil blends whereas it was not feasible to detect hazelnut oil adulteration through fatty acid profile analysis. Thus, the present research has shown the feasibility of a PCR-CE barcode assay to detect adulteration in olive oil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Chemical profiling and adulteration screening of Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Lei; Chen, Jian-bo; Zhang, Gui-Jun; Sun, Su-qin; Zheng, Jing

    2017-03-01

    As a kind of expensive perfume and valuable herb, Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum (ALR) is often adulterated for economic motivations. In this research, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is employed to establish a simple and quick method for the adulteration screening of ALR. First, the principal chemical constituents of ALR are characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy at room temperature and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy with thermal perturbation. Besides the common cellulose and lignin compounds, a certain amount of resin is the characteristic constituent of ALR. Synchronous and asynchronous 2D-IR spectra indicate that the resin (an unstable secondary metabolite) is more sensitive than cellulose and lignin (stable structural constituents) to the thermal perturbation. Using a certified ALR sample as the reference, the infrared spectral correlation threshold is determined by 30 authentic samples and 6 adulterated samples. The spectral correlation coefficient of an authentic ALR sample to the standard reference should be not less than 0.9886 (p = 0.01). Three commercial adulterated ALR samples are identified by the correlation threshold. Further interpretation of the infrared spectra of the adulterated samples indicates the common adulterating methods - counterfeiting with other kind of wood, adding ingredient such as sand to increase the weight, and adding the cheap resin such as rosin to increase the content of resin compounds. Results of this research prove that FT-IR spectroscopy can be used as a simple and accurate quality control method of ALR.

  9. Rapid detection of economic adulterants in fresh milk by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Abernethy, Grant; Higgs, Kerianne

    2013-05-03

    A method to aid in the detection of the economically driven adulteration of fresh milk with a range of small, nitrogen containing compounds, including melamine, ammeline, ammelide, cyanuric acid, allantoin, thiourea, urea, biuret, triuret, semicarbazide, aminotriazine, 3- and 4-aminotriazole, cyanamide, dicyandiamide, guanidine, choline, hydroxyproline, nitrate, and a range of amino acids, has been developed. (15)N2-Urea is used as an internal standard. The adulteration of milk with exogenous urea has previously been difficult to detect because of the variation in the naturally occurring levels of urea in milk. However, by monitoring the contaminants biuret and triuret, which comprise up to 1% of synthetic urea, the adulteration of milk with urea-based fertilizer can be detected. We estimate that to be economically viable, adulteration of the order of 90-4000ppm of the above adulterants would need to be added to fresh milk. For most of the compounds, an arbitrary detection threshold of 2ppm is therefore more than sufficient. For biuret, a lower detection threshold, better than 0.5ppm, is desirable and the sensitivity for biuret and triuret can be improved by the post-column addition of lithium to create lithium adducts under electrospray ionisation. Sample handling involves a two-step solvent precipitation method that is deployed in a 96-well plate format, and the hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography uses a rapid gradient (1.2min). Three separate injections, to detect the positively charged compounds, the negatively charged compounds and amino acids and finally the lithium adducts, are used. This rapid and qualitative survey method may be deployed as a second tier screening method to quickly reduce sample numbers indicated as irregular by an FTIR based screening system, and to direct analysis to appropriate quantification methods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Major royal jelly proteins as markers of authenticity and quality of honey.

    PubMed

    Bilikova, Katarina; Kristof Krakova, Tatiana; Yamaguchi, Kikuji; Yamaguchi, Yoshihisa

    2015-12-01

    Until now, the properties of honey have been defined based exclusively on the content of plant components in the nectar of given plant. We showed that apalbumin1, the major royal jelly (RJ) protein, is an authentic and regular component of honey. Apalbumin1 and other RJ proteins and peptides are responsible for the immunostimulatory properties and antibiotic activity of honey. For the quantification of apalbumin1, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed using polyclonal anti-apalbumin1 antibody. The method is suitable for honey authenticity determination; moreover it is useful for detection of the honey, honeybee pollen and RJ in products of medicine, pharmacy, cosmetics, and food industry, where presences of these honeybee products are declared. Results from the analysis for presence and amount of apalbumin1 in honeys will be used for high-throughput screening of honey samples over the world. On the basis of our experiments which show that royal jelly proteins are regular and physiologically active components of honey we propose to change the definition of honey (according to the EU Honey Directive 2001/110/EC) as follows: Honey is a natural sweet substance produced by honey bees from nectar of plants or from secretions of plants, or excretions of plant sucking insects, which honey bees collect, transform by combining with major royal jelly proteins and other specific substances of their own, deposit, dehydrate, store and leave in the honey comb to ripen and mature.

  11. Assessment of the floral origin of honey by SDS-page immunoblot techniques.

    PubMed

    Baroni, María V; Chiabrando, Gustavo A; Costa, Cristina; Wunderlin, Daniel A

    2002-03-13

    We report on the development of a novel alternative method for the assessment of floral origin in honey samples based on the study of honey proteins using immunoblot assays. The main goal of our work was to evaluate the use of honey proteins as chemical markers of the floral origin of honey. Considering that honeybee proteins should be common to all types of honey, we decided to verify the usefulness of pollen proteins as floral origin markers in honey. We used polyclonal anti-pollen antibodies raised in rabbits by repeated immunization of Sunflower (Elianthus annuus) and Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus sp.) pollen extracts. The IgG fraction was purified by immunoaffinity. These antibodies were verified with nitrocellulose blotted pollen and unifloral honey protein extracts. The antibodies anti-Sunflower pollen, bound to the 36 and 33 kDa proteins of Sunflower unifloral honey and to honey containing Sunflower pollen; and the antibodies anti-Eucalyptus sp. pollen bound to the 38 kDa proteins of Eucalyptus sp. unifloral honey in immunoblot assays. Satisfactory results were obtained in differentiating between the types of pollen analyzed and between Sunflower honey and Eucalyptus honey with less cross reactivity with other types of honey from different origin and also with good sensitivity in the detection. This immunoblot method opens an interesting field for the development of new antibodies from different plants, which could serve as an alternative or complementary method to the usual melissopalynological analysis to assess honey floral origin.

  12. Metatranscriptomic analyses of honey bee colonies

    PubMed Central

    Tozkar, Cansu Ö.; Kence, Meral; Kence, Aykut; Huang, Qiang; Evans, Jay D.

    2015-01-01

    Honey bees face numerous biotic threats from viruses to bacteria, fungi, protists, and mites. Here we describe a thorough analysis of microbes harbored by worker honey bees collected from field colonies in geographically distinct regions of Turkey. Turkey is one of the World's most important centers of apiculture, harboring five subspecies of Apis mellifera L., approximately 20% of the honey bee subspecies in the world. We use deep ILLUMINA-based RNA sequencing to capture RNA species for the honey bee and a sampling of all non-endogenous species carried by bees. After trimming and mapping these reads to the honey bee genome, approximately 10% of the sequences (9–10 million reads per library) remained. These were then mapped to a curated set of public sequences containing ca. Sixty megabase-pairs of sequence representing known microbial species associated with honey bees. Levels of key honey bee pathogens were confirmed using quantitative PCR screens. We contrast microbial matches across different sites in Turkey, showing new country recordings of Lake Sinai virus, two Spiroplasma bacterium species, symbionts Candidatus Schmidhempelia bombi, Frischella perrara, Snodgrassella alvi, Gilliamella apicola, Lactobacillus spp.), neogregarines, and a trypanosome species. By using metagenomic analysis, this study also reveals deep molecular evidence for the presence of bacterial pathogens (Melissococcus plutonius, Paenibacillus larvae), Varroa destructor-1 virus, Sacbrood virus, and fungi. Despite this effort we did not detect KBV, SBPV, Tobacco ringspot virus, VdMLV (Varroa Macula like virus), Acarapis spp., Tropilaeleps spp. and Apocephalus (phorid fly). We discuss possible impacts of management practices and honey bee subspecies on microbial retinues. The described workflow and curated microbial database will be generally useful for microbial surveys of healthy and declining honey bees. PMID:25852743

  13. Metatranscriptomic analyses of honey bee colonies.

    PubMed

    Tozkar, Cansu Ö; Kence, Meral; Kence, Aykut; Huang, Qiang; Evans, Jay D

    2015-01-01

    Honey bees face numerous biotic threats from viruses to bacteria, fungi, protists, and mites. Here we describe a thorough analysis of microbes harbored by worker honey bees collected from field colonies in geographically distinct regions of Turkey. Turkey is one of the World's most important centers of apiculture, harboring five subspecies of Apis mellifera L., approximately 20% of the honey bee subspecies in the world. We use deep ILLUMINA-based RNA sequencing to capture RNA species for the honey bee and a sampling of all non-endogenous species carried by bees. After trimming and mapping these reads to the honey bee genome, approximately 10% of the sequences (9-10 million reads per library) remained. These were then mapped to a curated set of public sequences containing ca. Sixty megabase-pairs of sequence representing known microbial species associated with honey bees. Levels of key honey bee pathogens were confirmed using quantitative PCR screens. We contrast microbial matches across different sites in Turkey, showing new country recordings of Lake Sinai virus, two Spiroplasma bacterium species, symbionts Candidatus Schmidhempelia bombi, Frischella perrara, Snodgrassella alvi, Gilliamella apicola, Lactobacillus spp.), neogregarines, and a trypanosome species. By using metagenomic analysis, this study also reveals deep molecular evidence for the presence of bacterial pathogens (Melissococcus plutonius, Paenibacillus larvae), Varroa destructor-1 virus, Sacbrood virus, and fungi. Despite this effort we did not detect KBV, SBPV, Tobacco ringspot virus, VdMLV (Varroa Macula like virus), Acarapis spp., Tropilaeleps spp. and Apocephalus (phorid fly). We discuss possible impacts of management practices and honey bee subspecies on microbial retinues. The described workflow and curated microbial database will be generally useful for microbial surveys of healthy and declining honey bees.

  14. 'Jago Grahak Jago': A cross-sectional study to assess awareness about food adulteration in an urban slum.

    PubMed

    Ishwar, Shailesh; Dudeja, Puja; Shankar, Pooja; Swain, Santosh; Mukherji, Sandip

    2018-01-01

    Food adulteration includes various forms of practices, including mixing, substituting, concealing the quality of food, etc. One of the main causes for rampant adulteration is ignorance of consumer regarding their right and responsibilities resulting in faulty buying practices. Hence, the present study was done to assess the knowledge about adulteration among consumers in an urban slum. A community-based cross-sectional study was done among residents of an urban slum over a period of 2 months. Adults responsible for purchasing groceries for the household were included. A sample size of 100 was taken and pilot-tested questionnaire was administered. All of them were made aware about adulteration. The mean age of the study subjects was 40.2 ± 11.7 years. Only 7% of the study subjects were illiterate. Good practices like checking of Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) logo (90%), Agmark logo (76%) and nutrition label (65%) are lacking among the majority. The most prominent source of knowledge about adulteration is mass media especially television (65%). Almost 40% of the study subjects are unaware about the consumer empowering initiative ' Jago Grahak Jago '. Factors which had a strong positive relationship with good practices like checking of nutrition label, FSSAI logo, Agmark logo, seal and expiry date are age, education status and socio-economic status ( p value ≤ 0.05). Majority of study subjects are unaware about adulteration. ' Jago Grahak Jago ' initiative which empowers the consumers has to be instilled in the minds of consumers. Awareness and motivation will lead to empowerment and end the menace of food adulteration.

  15. Detection and identification of multiple adulterants in plant food supplements using attenuated total reflectance-Infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Deconinck, E; Aouadi, C; Bothy, J L; Courselle, P

    2018-04-15

    Due to the rising popularity of dietary supplements, especially plant food supplements, and alternative herbal medicines, a whole market developed and these products became freely available through internet. Though several searches revealed that at least a part of these products, especially the ones obtained from websites disclosing their physical identity, are aldulterated with pharmaceutical compounds. This causes a threat for public health, since these compounds are not declared and therefore adverse effects will not immediately be related to the product. The more the adulterants can interfere with other medicinal treatments. Since the present active pharmaceutical ingredients are not declared on the package and the products are sold as 100% natural or herbal in nature, it is very difficult for custom personnel to discriminate between products to be confiscated or not. Therefore easy to apply analytical approaches to discriminate between adulterated and non-adulterated products are necessary. This paper presents an approach based on infrared spectroscopy combined with attenuated total reflectance (ATR) and partial least squares- discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) to easily differentiate between adulterated and non- adulterated plant food supplements and to get a first idea of the nature of the adulterant present. The performance of PLS-DA models based on Mid-IR and NIR data were compared as well as models based on the combined data. Further three preprocessing strategies were compared. The best performance was obtained for a PLS-DA model using Mid-IR data with the second derivative as preprocessing method. This model showed a correct classification rate of 98.3% for an external test set. Also eight real samples were screened using the model and for seven of these samples a correct classification was obtained. Generally it could be concluded that the obtained model and the presented approach could be used at customs to discriminate between adulterated and non-adulterated

  16. Performance evaluation of three on-site adulterant detection devices for urine specimens.

    PubMed

    Peace, Michelle R; Tarnai, Lisa D

    2002-10-01

    The performance of three on-site adulterant detection devices that assess the integrity of urine specimens collected for drug-of-abuse testing was evaluated: the Intect 7, MASK Ultra Screen, and Adultacheck 4. Intect 7 simultaneously tests creatinine, nitrite, glutaraldehyde, pH, specific gravity, and the presence of bleach and pyridinium chlorochromate (PCC). Mask Ultra Screen tests creatinine, nitrite, pH, specific gravity, and oxidants, and Adultacheck 4 tests creatinine, nitrite, glutaraldehyde, and pH. Urine specimens were prepared with the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration regulated analytes at 50% above the cut-off concentrations. Stealth, Urine Luck, Instant Clean ADD-IT-ive, and KLEAR were added individually to the drug-added urine specimens so that their concentrations reflected the "optimum" usage reported in their package inserts and 25% above and below that optimum. Stealth is reported to be peroxidase; Urine Luck is believed to be PCC; Instant Clean ADD-it-ive reportedly contains glutaraldehyde, and Klear is a nitrite. The following diluents/adulterants were added at 25%, 33%, and 50% of the volume of drug-added urine: distilled water, bleach, ammonia, and vinegar. Of the devices tested, Intect 7 proved to be the most sensitive, and it correctly indicated the presence of adulterant or diluent in all samples tested. In order to do so, all indication pads had to be assessed in concert. Adultacheck 4 specifically assesses four characteristics of urine integrity and is therefore very limited in detecting the use of several popular adulterants that are commercially available. Although it correctly assessed the four characteristics, it did not detect the use of Stealth, Urine Luck, or Instant Clean ADD-it-ive. Mask Ultra Screen can potentially detect a broader range of adulterants than Adultacheck 4. However, in practice, it only detected them at levels well above their optimum usage, making it less efficacious than Intect 7. Clearly, the

  17. Identification of maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.) and its adulterants by a DNA-barcoding approach based on the ITS sequence.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jin-Jin; Zhao, Qing-Sheng; Liu, Yi-Lan; Zha, Sheng-Hua; Zhao, Bing

    2015-09-01

    Maca (Lepidium meyenii) is an herbaceous plant that grows in high plateaus and has been used as both food and folk medicine for centuries because of its benefits to human health. In the present study, ITS (internal transcribed spacer) sequences of forty-three maca samples, collected from different regions or vendors, were amplified and analyzed. The ITS sequences of nineteen potential adulterants of maca were also collected and analyzed. The results indicated that the ITS sequence of maca was consistent in all samples and unique when compared with its adulterants. Therefore, this DNA-barcoding approach based on the ITS sequence can be used for the molecular identification of maca and its adulterants. Copyright © 2015 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Detection of Adulterated Vegetable Oils Containing Waste Cooking Oils Based on the Contents and Ratios of Cholesterol, β-Sitosterol, and Campesterol by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Haixiang; Wang, Yongli; Xu, Xiuli; Ren, Heling; Li, Li; Xiang, Li; Zhong, Weike

    2015-01-01

    A simple and accurate authentication method for the detection of adulterated vegetable oils that contain waste cooking oil (WCO) was developed. This method is based on the determination of cholesterol, β-sitosterol, and campesterol in vegetable oils and WCO by GC/MS without any derivatization. A total of 148 samples involving 12 types of vegetable oil and WCO were analyzed. According to the results, the contents and ratios of cholesterol, β-sitosterol, and campesterol were found to be criteria for detecting vegetable oils adulterated with WCO. This method could accurately detect adulterated vegetable oils containing 5% refined WCO. The developed method has been successfully applied to multilaboratory analysis of 81 oil samples. Seventy-five samples were analyzed correctly, and only six adulterated samples could not be detected. This method could not yet be used for detection of vegetable oils adulterated with WCO that are used for frying non-animal foods. It provides a quick method for detecting adulterated edible vegetable oils containing WCO.

  19. The effect of thermal treatment on the enhancement of detection of adulteration in extra virgin olive oils by synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy and chemometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Mabood, F; Boqué, R; Folcarelli, R; Busto, O; Jabeen, F; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Hussain, J

    2016-05-15

    In this study the effect of thermal treatment on the enhancement of synchronous fluorescence spectroscopic method for discrimination and quantification of pure extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) samples from EVOO samples adulterated with refined oil was investigated. Two groups of samples were used. One group was analyzed at room temperature (25 °C) and the other group was thermally treated in a thermostatic water bath at 75 °C for 8h, in contact with air and with light exposure, to favor oxidation. All the samples were then measured with synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy. Synchronous fluorescence spectra were acquired by varying the wavelength in the region from 250 to 720 nm at 20 nm wavelength differential interval of excitation and emission. Pure and adulterated olive oils were discriminated by using partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). It was found that the best PLS-DA models were those built with the difference spectra (75 °C-25 °C), which were able to discriminate pure from adulterated oils at a 2% level of adulteration of refined olive oils. Furthermore, PLS regression models were also built to quantify the level of adulteration. Again, the best model was the one built with the difference spectra, with a prediction error of 3.18% of adulteration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The effect of thermal treatment on the enhancement of detection of adulteration in extra virgin olive oils by synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy and chemometric analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabood, F.; Boqué, R.; Folcarelli, R.; Busto, O.; Jabeen, F.; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Hussain, J.

    2016-05-01

    In this study the effect of thermal treatment on the enhancement of synchronous fluorescence spectroscopic method for discrimination and quantification of pure extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) samples from EVOO samples adulterated with refined oil was investigated. Two groups of samples were used. One group was analyzed at room temperature (25 °C) and the other group was thermally treated in a thermostatic water bath at 75 °C for 8 h, in contact with air and with light exposure, to favor oxidation. All the samples were then measured with synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy. Synchronous fluorescence spectra were acquired by varying the wavelength in the region from 250 to 720 nm at 20 nm wavelength differential interval of excitation and emission. Pure and adulterated olive oils were discriminated by using partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). It was found that the best PLS-DA models were those built with the difference spectra (75 °C-25 °C), which were able to discriminate pure from adulterated oils at a 2% level of adulteration of refined olive oils. Furthermore, PLS regression models were also built to quantify the level of adulteration. Again, the best model was the one built with the difference spectra, with a prediction error of 3.18% of adulteration.

  1. Identification of authentic and adulterated Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Lei; Chen, Jian-bo; Zhou, Qun; Zhang, Gui-jun; Sun, Su-qin; Guo, Yi-zhen

    2016-11-01

    As a kind of expensive perfume and valuable herb, the commercial Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum (ALR) is often adulterated for economic motivations. In this research, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and two-dimensional (2D) correlation analysis are employed to establish a simple and quick identification method for the authentic and adulterated ALR. In the conventional infrared spectra, the standard ALR has a strong peak at 1658 cm-1 referring to the conjugated carbonyl of resin, while this peak is absent in the adulterated samples. The position, intensity, and shape of the auto-peaks and cross-peaks of the authentic and adulterated ALR are much different in the synchronous 2D correlation spectra with thermal perturbation. In the range of 1700-1500 cm-1, the standard ALR has four obvious auto-peaks, while the strongest one is at 1659 cm-1. The adulterated sample w-1 has three obvious auto-peaks and the strongest one is at 1647 cm-1. The adulterated sample w-2 has three obvious auto-peaks and the strongest one is at 1519 cm-1. The adulterated sample w-3 has four obvious auto-peaks and the strongest one is at 1690 cm-1. The above auto-peaks confirm that the standard ALR contains a certain content of resin compounds, while the three counterfeits contain little or different resins. The results show the potential of FT-IR spectroscopy and 2D correlation analysis in the simple and quick identification of authentic and adulterated ALR.

  2. Quality parameters and antioxidant and antibacterial properties of some Mexican honeys.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Beatriz A; Mendoza, Sandra; Iturriga, Montserrat H; Castaño-Tostado, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    A total of 14 Mexican honeys were screened for quality parameters including color, moisture, proline, and acidity. Antioxidant properties of complete honey and its methanolic extracts were evaluated by the DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays. In addition, the antimicrobial activity of complete honeys against Bacillus cereus ATCC 10876, Listeria monocytogenes Scott A, Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028, and Sthapylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 was determined. Most of honeys analyzed showed values within quality parameters established by the Codex Alimentarius Commission in 2001. Eucalyptus flower honey and orange blossom honey showed the highest phenolic contents and antioxidant capacity. Bell flower, orange blossom, and eucalyptus flower honeys inhibited the growth of the 4 evaluated microorganisms. The remaining honeys affected at least 1 of the estimated growth parameters (increased lag phase, decreased growth rate, and/or maximum population density). Microorganism sensitivity to the antimicrobial activity of honeys followed the order B. cereus > L. monocytogenes > Salmonella Typhimurium > S. aureus. The monofloral honey samples from orange blossoms, and eucalyptus flowers demonstrated to be good sources of antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds. All the Mexican honey samples examined proved to be good sources of antioxidants and antimicrobial agents that might serve to maintain health and protect against several diseases. The results of the study showed that Mexican honeys display good quality parameters and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Mexican honey can be used as an additive in the food industry to increase the nutraceutical value of products. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Detection of plant-based adulterants in turmeric powder using DNA barcoding.

    PubMed

    Parvathy, V A; Swetha, V P; Sheeja, T E; Sasikumar, B

    2015-01-01

    In its powdered form, turmeric [Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae)], a spice of medical importance, is often adulterated lowering its quality. The study sought to detect plant-based adulterants in traded turmeric powder using DNA barcoding. Accessions of Curcuma longa L., Curcuma zedoaria Rosc. (Zingiberaceae), and cassava starch served as reference samples. Three barcoding loci, namely ITS, rbcL, and matK, were used for PCR amplification of the reference samples and commercial samples representing 10 different companies. PCR success rate, sequencing efficiency, occurrence of SNPs, and BLAST analysis were used to assess the potential of the barcoding loci in authenticating the traded samples of turmeric. The PCR and sequencing success of the loci rbcL and ITS were found to be 100%, whereas matK showed no amplification. ITS proved to be the ideal locus because it showed greater variability than rbcL in discriminating the Curcuma species. The presence of C. zedoaria could be detected in one of the samples whereas cassava starch, wheat, barley, and rye in other two samples although the label claimed nothing other than turmeric powder in the samples. Unlabeled materials in turmeric powder are considered as adulterants or fillers, added to increase the bulk weight and starch content of the commodity for economic gains. These adulterants pose potential health hazards to consumers who are allergic to these plants, lowering the product's medicinal value and belying the claim that the product is gluten free. The study proved DNA barcoding as an efficient tool for testing the integrity and the authenticity of commercial products of turmeric.

  4. Evaluation of physicochemical and antioxidant properties of sourwood and other Malaysian honeys: a comparison with manuka honey.

    PubMed

    Moniruzzaman, Mohammed; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Khalil, Md Ibrahim; Gan, Siew Hua

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the physical, biochemical and antioxidant properties of four Malaysian monofloral types of honey (gelam, longan, rubber tree and sourwood honeys) compared to manuka honey. Several physical parameters of honey, such as pH, moisture content, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), color intensity, total sugar and sucrose content, were measured. A number of biochemical and antioxidant tests were performed to determine the antioxidant properties of the honey samples. Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) levels were determined using high performance liquid chromatography. The mean pH, moisture content, EC and TDS of Malaysian honey were 3.90 ± 0.12, 17.01 ± 3.07%, 0.59 ± 0.17 mS/cm and 294.87 ± 81.96 ppm, respectively. The mean color and HMF level was 102.07 ± 41.77 mm Pfund and 49.51 ± 0.12 mg/kg, respectively. Sourwood honey contained the highest contents of phenolics (580.03 ± 0.38 mggalic acid/kg) and flavonoids (156.82 ± 0.47 mgcatechin/kg) with high DPPH radical scavenging activity (59.26 ± 3.77%) as well as ferric reducing power [648.25 ± 0.90 μM Fe (II)/100 g]. Sourwood honey also exhibited the highest color intensity. Several strong positive correlations were observed amongst the different antioxidant parameters and the various antioxidant tests. This is the first time that the antioxidant potential of both sourwood and rubber tree honeys have been reported. Our results indicated that Malaysian honey (specifically sourwood honey and longan honey) is a good source of antioxidants compared to Manuka honey.

  5. Transgenic soybean pollen (Glycine max L.) in honey from the Yucatán peninsula, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Villanueva-Gutiérrez, R; Echazarreta-González, C; Roubik, D W; Moguel-Ordóñez, Y B

    2014-02-07

    Using precise pollen species determination by conventional microscopic methods, accompanied by molecular genetic markers, we found bees collect GMO (genetically modified) soybean pollen and incorporate it in Yucatan honey. Honey comb samples from Las Flores, Campeche, Mexico, often contained soybean pollen. Pollen in honey was analyzed in nine samples; six contained substantial soy pollen and two tested positive for soybean GMO. Our analyses confirm field observations that honey bees, Apis mellifera, gather soybean pollen and nectar. The resultant risk for honey production in the Yucatán Peninsula and Mexico is evident in wholesale price reduction of 12% when GMO products are detected and honey consignments are rejected. Although this affects only 1% of current export honey (2011-2013) GMO soybean is an unacknowledged threat to apiculture and its economics in one of the world's foremost honey producing areas.

  6. Transgenic soybean pollen (Glycine max L.) in honey from the Yucatán peninsula, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Villanueva-Gutiérrez, R.; Echazarreta-González, C.; Roubik, D. W.; Moguel-Ordóñez, Y. B.

    2014-01-01

    Using precise pollen species determination by conventional microscopic methods, accompanied by molecular genetic markers, we found bees collect GMO (genetically modified) soybean pollen and incorporate it in Yucatan honey. Honey comb samples from Las Flores, Campeche, Mexico, often contained soybean pollen. Pollen in honey was analyzed in nine samples; six contained substantial soy pollen and two tested positive for soybean GMO. Our analyses confirm field observations that honey bees, Apis mellifera, gather soybean pollen and nectar. The resultant risk for honey production in the Yucatán Peninsula and Mexico is evident in wholesale price reduction of 12% when GMO products are detected and honey consignments are rejected. Although this affects only 1% of current export honey (2011–2013) GMO soybean is an unacknowledged threat to apiculture and its economics in one of the world's foremost honey producing areas. PMID:24503936

  7. Synchronous front-face fluorescence spectroscopy for authentication of the adulteration of edible vegetable oil with refined used frying oil.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jin; Li, Rong; Jiang, Zi-Tao; Tang, Shu-Hua; Wang, Ying; Shi, Meng; Xiao, Yi-Qian; Jia, Bin; Lu, Tian-Xiang; Wang, Hao

    2017-02-15

    Synchronous front-face fluorescence spectroscopy has been developed for the discrimination of used frying oil (UFO) from edible vegetable oil (EVO), the estimation of the using time of UFO, and the determination of the adulteration of EVO with UFO. Both the heating time of laboratory prepared UFO and the adulteration of EVO with UFO could be determined by partial least squares regression (PLSR). To simulate the EVO adulteration with UFO, for each kind of oil, fifty adulterated samples at the adulterant amounts range of 1-50% were prepared. PLSR was then adopted to build the model and both full (leave-one-out) cross-validation and external validation were performed to evaluate the predictive ability. Under the optimum condition, the plots of observed versus predicted values exhibited high linearity (R(2)>0.96). The root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) were both lower than 3%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Persistence of echimidine, a hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloid, from honey into mead

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Honey produced by bees foraging on Echium plantagineum is known to contain dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids characteristic of the plant. Following a prolific growth of E. plantagineum in the wake of Australian bushfires, two samples of mead, a fermented drink made from honey, and the honey used to pre...

  9. Evaluation of commercial essential oil samples on the growth of postharvest pathogen Monilinia fructicola (G. Winter) Honey.

    PubMed

    Lazar-Baker, E E; Hetherington, S D; Ku, V V; Newman, S M

    2011-03-01

    To assess the effect of several commercial essential oils samples Australian lemon myrtle (Backhousia citriodora), cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), oregano (Origanum vulgare), thyme oil (Thymus vulgaris), clove bud (Eugenia caryophyllata), valerian (Valeriana officinalis) and Australian tea tree oil (Melaleuca alternifolia) on mycelium growth and spore germination of Monilinia fructicola. The effectiveness of lemon myrtle essential oil as a fumigant for the control of brown rot in nectarines was evaluated. Monilinia fructicola exhibited a different level of sensitivity to each tested essential oil with results suggesting that the essential oils provide excellent control of the pathogen with respect to mycelium growth and spore germination at very low concentrations, whereas for others higher concentrations are needed to reduce significant fungal growth. In vivo application of lemon myrtle essential oil effectively reduced the incidence of M. fructicola on noninoculated fruit. Fumigation of nectarines following inoculation did not reduce the incidence of brown rot in comparison with the inoculated control treatment. No evidence of phytotoxicity on the fruit was recorded. Lemon myrtle essential oil exhibited the strongest antifungal activity against M. fructicola, in vitro and to a lesser extent, under in vivo conditions. The results demonstrate that lemon myrtle essential oil, in particular, has potential as an antifungal agent to control M. fructicola. © 2011 NSW Industry & Investment, Australia. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Botanical origin, colour, granulation, and sensory properties of the Harenna forest honey, Bale, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Belay, Abera; Solomon, W K; Bultossa, Geremew; Adgaba, Nuru; Melaku, Samuel

    2015-01-15

    In this study, the Harenna forest honey samples were investigated with respect to their botanical origin, granulation, colour and sensory properties. Sixteen honey samples were collected from two representative sites (Chiri, C, and Wabero, W) using random sampling techniques. Botanical origin was investigated using qualitative pollen analysis by counting 500 pollen grains using harmonised methods of melissopalynology. Granulation, colour, and sensory properties of honey were determined by visual observation, using Pfund grader, acceptability and preference tests, respectively. Honey samples were also tested for tetracycline. Honey obtained from Wabero is originated dominantly from Syzygium guineense while Chiri was multifloral. The colour of honey ranged from 34 to 85 with light amber and extra light amber colours. The honey samples were free from tetracycline residue and form coarse granules slowly. Significant variation (p>0.05) in sensory preference and acceptability tests not observed due to hive types and locations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Validation of an off line solid phase extraction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of systemic insecticide residues in honey and pollen samples collected in apiaries from NW Spain.

    PubMed

    García-Chao, María; Agruña, María Jesús; Flores Calvete, Gonzalo; Sakkas, Vasilis; Llompart, María; Dagnac, Thierry

    2010-07-05

    The use of pesticides to protect crops against plagues and insects is one of the most important ways to assure agricultural quality and productivity. However, bad application practices may cause the contamination of different environmental compartments and animal species, as a consequence of migration or accumulation of those compounds. Fipronil, imidacloprid and thiametoxam are systemic or systemic-like insecticides widely used in maize crops. Their heavy action in the nervous system of target insects also means a high toxicity to non-target pollinator insects such as honey bees which can get in touch with them through pollen and nectar during foraging activities. These insecticides have even been suspected to cause a significant decrease of honeybee colonies that has been observed in many countries since the past decade. Since September 1st 2008, the European Commission set new MRLs in food and feed of plant and animal origin. The pesticides included in this study have MRLs in honey and pollen between 10 and 50 ng g(-1). In the present work, an analytical method was developed with the aim of determining residues of fipronil and some of its metabolites (fipronil sulfone, fipronil sulfide, fipronil desulfinyl and fipronil carboxamide), thiamethoxam and imidacloprid in honey and pollen samples. The extraction optimization was performed using a Doehlert experimental design by studying two factors, the mixture and the ratio of solvents used. Prior to the extraction procedure, raw hive samples containing honey, pollen and wax were centrifuged at 4000 rpm. The upper solid material was removed, and 1 g of the lower phase was mixed with 3 mL of the optimized mixture of methanol/water (10/90). The extract was passed through a florisil cartridge and the target compounds were eluted with methanol and analysed by LC-MS/MS in selective reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. The method was validated according to the guidelines included in the SANCO/10684/2009 document and the ISO

  12. Levels of Selected Persistent Organic Pollutants (PCB, PBDE) and Pesticides in Honey Bee Pollen Sampled in Poland.

    PubMed

    Roszko, Marek Łukasz; Kamińska, Marta; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Jędrzejczak, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Chemical plant protection is a commonly discussed factor potentially responsible for decline in pollinators and other beneficial insect populations. Various groups of chemicals including persistent organic pollutants could impact a bee colony's welfare and are reported to be present in bee tissue and apiary products. The aim of this work was to evaluate the presence of selected persistent organic pollutant and pesticide residues in bee pollen originating from different geographical regions of Poland. Pesticide residues were identified in 60% of tested bee pollen samples. The compounds identified were mainly active ingredients of fungicide preparations. Insecticide active ingredients were up to 30% of the identified residues. The triazole fungicide tebuconazole and the neonicotinoid insecticide thiacloprid were the most frequently found pesticides in pollen. The highest pesticide concentration was determined for prothioconazole (356 μg kg-1). Mean concentrations of chlorinated biphenyls-EC6 and EC12 were 194 pg g-1 and 74 pg g-1, respectively. CB # 28 has the greatest share in the EC6 profile (mean 61 pg g-1, 31% contribution). Relatively high contributions were also observed for CBs # 101 (35 pg g-1, 18%), # 138 (36 pg g-1, 19%) and # 153 (33 pg g-1, 17%). CB # 114 and 118 have the highest share in the dioxin-like biphenyls fraction with mean concentrations of 17.6 and 37.6 pg g-1 (respectively 23 and 50%). Mean calculated concentrations of 39 polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners (Σ39 BDE) were 20 ± 27.7 pg g-1. High variability was observed between maximal and minimal determined concentration values. Individual BDEs were found at different frequencies and varying concentration levels. BDEs # 47, 75 and 99 dominated the profile with average concentrations of 3 pg g-1, 3.1 pg g-1, and 2.9 pg g-1, respectively.

  13. Levels of Selected Persistent Organic Pollutants (PCB, PBDE) and Pesticides in Honey Bee Pollen Sampled in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Roszko, Marek Łukasz; Kamińska, Marta; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Jędrzejczak, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Chemical plant protection is a commonly discussed factor potentially responsible for decline in pollinators and other beneficial insect populations. Various groups of chemicals including persistent organic pollutants could impact a bee colony’s welfare and are reported to be present in bee tissue and apiary products. The aim of this work was to evaluate the presence of selected persistent organic pollutant and pesticide residues in bee pollen originating from different geographical regions of Poland. Pesticide residues were identified in 60% of tested bee pollen samples. The compounds identified were mainly active ingredients of fungicide preparations. Insecticide active ingredients were up to 30% of the identified residues. The triazole fungicide tebuconazole and the neonicotinoid insecticide thiacloprid were the most frequently found pesticides in pollen. The highest pesticide concentration was determined for prothioconazole (356 μg kg-1). Mean concentrations of chlorinated biphenyls–EC6 and EC12 were 194 pg g-1 and 74 pg g-1, respectively. CB # 28 has the greatest share in the EC6 profile (mean 61 pg g−1, 31% contribution). Relatively high contributions were also observed for CBs # 101 (35 pg g−1, 18%), # 138 (36 pg g−1, 19%) and # 153 (33 pg g−1, 17%). CB # 114 and 118 have the highest share in the dioxin-like biphenyls fraction with mean concentrations of 17.6 and 37.6 pg g−1 (respectively 23 and 50%). Mean calculated concentrations of 39 polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners (Σ39 BDE) were 20 ± 27.7 pg g−1. High variability was observed between maximal and minimal determined concentration values. Individual BDEs were found at different frequencies and varying concentration levels. BDEs # 47, 75 and 99 dominated the profile with average concentrations of 3 pg g−1, 3.1 pg g−1, and 2.9 pg g−1, respectively. PMID:27907097

  14. Antimicrobial properties of honey.

    PubMed

    Israili, Zafar H

    2014-01-01

    Honey has been widely accepted as food and medicine by all generations, traditions, and civilizations, both ancient and modern. For at least 2700 years, honey has been used by humans to treat a variety of ailments through topical application, but only recently have the antiseptic and antimicrobial properties of honey been discovered. Honey has been reported to be effective in a number of human pathologies. Clinical studies have demonstrated that application of honey to severely infected cutaneous wounds rapidly clears infection from the wound and improves tissue healing. A large number of in vitro and limited clinical studies have confirmed the broad-spectrum antimicrobial (antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and antimycobacterial) properties of honey, which may be attributed to the acidity (low pH), osmotic effect, high sugar concentration, presence of bacteriostatic and bactericidal factors (hydrogen peroxide, antioxidants, lysozyme, polyphenols, phenolic acids, flavonoids, methylglyoxal, and bee peptides), and increase in cytokine release, and to immune modulating and anti-inflammatory properties of honey; the antimicrobial action involves several mechanisms. Despite a large amount of data confirming the antimicrobial activity of honey, there are no studies that support the systemic use of honey as an antibacterial agent.

  15. Fast and global authenticity screening of honey using ¹H-NMR profiling.

    PubMed

    Spiteri, Marc; Jamin, Eric; Thomas, Freddy; Rebours, Agathe; Lees, Michèle; Rogers, Karyne M; Rutledge, Douglas N

    2015-12-15

    An innovative analytical approach was developed to tackle the most common adulterations and quality deviations in honey. Using proton-NMR profiling coupled to suitable quantification procedures and statistical models, analytical criteria were defined to check the authenticity of both mono- and multi-floral honey. The reference data set used was a worldwide collection of more than 800 honeys, covering most of the economically significant botanical and geographical origins. Typical plant nectar markers can be used to check monofloral honey labeling. Spectral patterns and natural variability were established for multifloral honeys, and marker signals for sugar syrups were identified by statistical comparison with a commercial dataset of ca. 200 honeys. Although the results are qualitative, spiking experiments have confirmed the ability of the method to detect sugar addition down to 10% levels in favorable cases. Within the same NMR experiments, quantification of glucose, fructose, sucrose and 5-HMF (regulated parameters) was performed. Finally markers showing the onset of fermentation are described. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A novel method to quantify the adulteration of extra virgin olive oil with low-grade olive oils by UV-vis.

    PubMed

    Torrecilla, José S; Rojo, Ester; Domínguez, Juan C; Rodríguez, Francisco

    2010-02-10

    A simple and novel method to quantify adulterations of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) with refined olive oil (ROO) and refined olive-pomace oil (ROPO) is described here. This method consists of calculating chaotic parameters (Lyapunov exponent, autocorrelation coefficients, and two fractal dimensions, CPs) from UV-vis scans of adulterated EVOO samples. These parameters have been successfully linearly correlated with the ROO or ROPO concentrations in 396 EVOO adulterated samples. By an external validation process, when the adulterating agent concentration is less than 10%, the integrated CPs/UV-vis model estimates the adulterant agent concentration with a mean correlation coefficient (estimated versus real concentration of low grade olive oil) greater than 0.97 and a mean square error of less than 1%. In light of these results, this detector is suitable not only to detect adulterations but also to measure impurities when, for instance, a higher grade olive oil is transferred to another storage tank in which lower grade olive oil was stored that had not been adequately cleaned.

  17. Validation of Fluorescence Spectroscopy to Detect Adulteration of Edible Oil in Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) by Applying Chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Ali, Hina; Saleem, Muhammad; Anser, Muhammad Ramzan; Khan, Saranjam; Ullah, Rahat; Bilal, Muhammad

    2018-01-01

    Due to high price and nutritional values of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), it is vulnerable to adulteration internationally. Refined oil or other vegetable oils are commonly blended with EVOO and to unmask such fraud, quick, and reliable technique needs to be standardized and developed. Therefore, in this study, adulteration of edible oil (sunflower oil) is made with pure EVOO and analyzed using fluorescence spectroscopy (excitation wavelength at 350 nm) in conjunction with principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) regression. Fluorescent spectra contain fingerprints of chlorophyll and carotenoids that are characteristics of EVOO and differentiated it from sunflower oil. A broad intense hump corresponding to conjugated hydroperoxides is seen in sunflower oil in the range of 441-489 nm with the maximum at 469 nm whereas pure EVOO has low intensity doublet peaks in this region at 441 nm and 469 nm. Visible changes in spectra are observed in adulterated EVOO by increasing the concentration of sunflower oil, with an increase in doublet peak and correspondingly decrease in chlorophyll peak intensity. Principal component analysis showed a distinct clustering of adulterated samples of different concentrations. Subsequently, the PLS regression model was best fitted over the complete data set on the basis of coefficient of determination (R 2 ), standard error of calibration (SEC), and standard error of prediction (SEP) of values 0.99, 0.617, and 0.623 respectively. In addition to adulterant, test samples and imported commercial brands of EVOO were also used for prediction and validation of the models. Fluorescence spectroscopy combined with chemometrics showed its robustness to identify and quantify the specified adulterant in pure EVOO.

  18. Adulteration of apple with pear juice: emphasis on major carbohydrates, proline, and arbutin.

    PubMed

    Thavarajah, Pushparajah; Low, Nicholas H

    2006-06-28

    Detection of juice-to-juice adulteration based on chemical composition studies is a common method used by government regulatory agencies and food companies. This study investigated the use of major carbohydrate (fructose, glucose and sucrose), polyol (sorbitol), proline, and phenolic profiles as indicators of pear adulteration of apple juice (PAAJ). For this work, a total of 105 authentic apple juice samples from 13 countries and 27 authentic pear juice samples from 5 countries were analyzed. Because the major carbohydrate ranges for these juices showed significant overlap their use as markers for PAAJ detection would be very limited. It was found that sorbitol and proline means for apple and pear were significantly different; however, their broad natural ranges would afford PAAJ at levels up to 30% without detection. In addition, careful selection of the pear juice used as the adulterant would further limit the usefulness of these markers for PAAJ detection. Arbutin was conclusively identified as a marker for pear juice on the basis of its presence in all 27 authentic pear samples and its absence (<0.5 microg/mL) in all 105 apple juice samples analyzed in this study. The application of the developed HPLC-PDA method for arbutin analysis to detect PAAJ at levels as low as 2% (v/v) was demonstrated. A confirmation method for the presence of arbutin in pure pear juice and apple adulterated with pear juice was introduced on the basis of the hydrolysis of arbutin to hydroquinone employing beta-glucosidase, with reactant and product monitoring by HPLC-PDA.

  19. Multiyear survey targeting disease incidence in US honey bees

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The US National Honey Bee Disease Survey sampled colony pests and diseases from 2009 to 2014. We verified the absence of Tropilaelaps spp., the Asian honey bee (Apis cerana), and slow bee paralysis virus. Endemic health threats were quantified, including Varroa destructor, Nosema spp., and eight hon...

  20. Physicochemical, melissopalynological and antioxidant properties of artisanal honeys from Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Jaafar, Katherine; Haidar, Janay; Kuraydiyyah, Sawsan; Ghaddar, Tarek; Knio, Khouzama; Ismail, Baraem; Toufeili, Imad

    2017-07-01

    Sixteen honeydew and 15 floral honeys from Lebanon were analyzed for pollen spectra and physicochemical parameters. A total of 37 families and 67 taxa were recorded with the honeybees producing honeydew honey exhibiting a more diverse foraging behavior than those making floral honeys. The honeydew and floral honeys exhibited differences in moisture content, pH, electrical conductivity, color, protein and Maillard reaction products. The honeydew honeys contained more total phenols, had higher antioxidant contents, and displayed higher antioxidant capacities than the floral samples in the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, inhibition of superoxide dismutase activity and protection of red blood cells against hemolysis assays. The honey samples exhibited higher antioxidant capacities, in the aforementioned assays, than their corresponding methanol-extractable phenol fractions although the differences did not reach statistical significance in the floral samples. The relative antioxidant capacity indices which integrate measures of antioxidant capacity from the different assays of the honey samples and their corresponding extracts exhibited similar patterns ( r  = 0.9774, 0.9937) thereby indicating that the antioxidative behavior of the entire honeys is mirrored by their methanol-extractable phenolic fractions.

  1. Non-pollen particulates in honey and sugar.

    PubMed

    Liebezeit, Gerd; Liebezeit, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    A total of 19 honey samples, mostly from Germany but also from France, Italy, Spain and Mexico, were analysed for non-pollen particulates. Only coloured fibres and fragments were quantified. Transparent fibres, considered to be cellulosic because they could be stained with fuchsin, were not quantified. Coloured material was found in all the samples investigated. Fibre counts ranged from 40/kg to 660/kg of honey, with a mean value of 166 ± 147/kg of honey, whereas fragments were considerably less abundant (0-38/kg of honey; mean 9 ± 9/kg of honey). Sources are tentatively identified as environmental, that is particles having been transported by the bees into the hive, or having been introduced during honey processing or both. In addition, five commercial sugars were analysed. In all the refined samples, transparent and coloured fibres (mean 217 ± 123/kg of sugar) and fragments (32 ± 7/kg of sugar) were found. Unrefined cane sugar had 560 fibres and 540 fragments per kilogram of honey. In addition, in both honey and sugar samples, granular non-pollen material was observed.

  2. Authenticity determination of honeys with non-extractable proteins by means of elemental analyzer (EA) and liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to isotope ratio mass spectroscopy (IRMS).

    PubMed

    Dong, Hao; Xiao, Kaijun; Xian, Yanping; Wu, Yuluan

    2018-02-01

    The present work aims to systematically demonstrate the authenticity of honeys with non-extractable proteins for the first time, by means of EA-IRMS and LC-IRMS. Fifty-three pure honeys of various botanical and geographical origins were studied and a criterion on the basis of the stable carbon isotope ratio characterization of total honey and the main sugars was established for pure honeys. Parameters such as δ 13 C values of total honey and the main sugars were well utilized to identify honeys with non-extractable proteins. Thirty-five honeys from which protein could not be extracted were all identified as adulterated with C-4 sugars or C-3 sugars. The use of isotopic compositions and some systematic differences permit the honeys with non-extractable proteins to be reliably identified. The findings obtained in this work could supplement the AOAC 998.12 C-4 sugar method, with regard to honeys from which protein cannot be extracted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Hydrogen peroxide-dependent antibacterial action of Melilotus albus honey.

    PubMed

    Sowa, P; Grabek-Lejko, D; Wesołowska, M; Swacha, S; Dżugan, M

    2017-07-01

    Honey originating from different floral sources exhibits the broad spectrum of antibacterial activity as a result of the presence of hydrogen peroxide as well as nonperoxide bioactive compounds. The mechanisms of antibacterial activity of Polish melilot honey were investigated for the first time. Polish melilot honey samples (Melilotus albus biennial = 3 and annual = 5, Melilotus officinalis = 1) were collected directly from beekeepers and analysed for pollen profile, basic physicochemical parameters, antioxidant capacity, radical scavenging activity, total phenolic contents as well as antibacterial properties against pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella spp. The physicochemical properties of melilot honey were specific for light-coloured unifloral honey samples and were not dependent on its botanical and geographical origin (P > 0·05). All tested honey samples exhibited inhibitory activity (above 90%) against Gram-positive bacteria at the concentration of 12·5-25%. Above 30-50% of antibacterial activity of melilot honey was connected with glucose oxidase enzyme action and was destroyed in the presence of catalase. Hydrogen peroxide-dependent antibacterial activity of honey was inversely correlated with its radical scavenging activity (r = -0·67) and phenolic compounds (r = -0·61). Antibacterial action of melilot honey depends not only on hydrogen peroxide produced by glucose oxidase, but also on other nonperoxide bioactive components of honey. Melilot honey is used in traditional medicine as an anticoagulant agent due to the possibility of the presence of the coumarin compounds which are specific for Melilotus plant. Melilotus albus is rarely used to produce honey, and antibacterial properties of this variety of honey had not been studied yet. Nine samples of melilot honey produced in different regions of Poland were analysed according to their antibacterial activity which was correlated

  4. Hand-Held Refractometer-Based Measurement and Excess Permittivity Analysis Method for Detection of Diesel Oils Adulterated by Kerosene in Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Peiponen, Kai-Erik

    2018-01-01

    Adulteration of fuels is a major problem, especially in developing and third world countries. One such case is the adulteration of diesel oil by kerosene. This problem contributes to air pollution, which leads to other far-reaching adverse effects, such as climate change. The objective of this study was to develop a relatively easy measurement method based on an inexpensive, handheld Abbe refractometer for the detection of adulteration and estimation of the ascending order of the amount of kerosene present in adulterated samples in field conditions. We achieved this by increasing the volume of pure diesel sample in the adulterated diesel oil, and measuring the trend of refractive index change, and next, exploiting the true and ideal permittivities of the binary mixture. The permittivity can be obtained with the aid of the measured refractive index of a liquid. Due to the molecular interactions, the true and ideal permittivities of diesel–kerosene binary liquid mixture have a mismatch which can be used to screen for adulterated diesel oils. The difference between the true and the ideal permittivity is the so-called excess permittivity. We first investigated a training set of diesel oils in laboratory in Finland, using the accurate table model Abbe refractometer and depicting the behavior of the excess permittivity of the mixture of diesel oil and kerosene. Then, we measured same samples in the laboratory using a handheld refractometer. Finally, preliminary field measurements using the handheld device were performed in Tanzania to assess the accuracy and possibility of applying the suggested method in field conditions. We herein show that it is not only possible to detect even relatively low adulteration levels of diesel in kerosene—namely, 5%, 10%, and 15%—but also it is possible to monitor the ascending order of adulteration for different adulterated diesel samples. We propose that the method of increasing the volume of an unknown (suspected) diesel oil

  5. Hand-Held Refractometer-Based Measurement and Excess Permittivity Analysis Method for Detection of Diesel Oils Adulterated by Kerosene in Field Conditions.

    PubMed

    Kanyathare, Boniphace; Peiponen, Kai-Erik

    2018-05-14

    Adulteration of fuels is a major problem, especially in developing and third world countries. One such case is the adulteration of diesel oil by kerosene. This problem contributes to air pollution, which leads to other far-reaching adverse effects, such as climate change. The objective of this study was to develop a relatively easy measurement method based on an inexpensive, handheld Abbe refractometer for the detection of adulteration and estimation of the ascending order of the amount of kerosene present in adulterated samples in field conditions. We achieved this by increasing the volume of pure diesel sample in the adulterated diesel oil, and measuring the trend of refractive index change, and next, exploiting the true and ideal permittivities of the binary mixture. The permittivity can be obtained with the aid of the measured refractive index of a liquid. Due to the molecular interactions, the true and ideal permittivities of diesel⁻kerosene binary liquid mixture have a mismatch which can be used to screen for adulterated diesel oils. The difference between the true and the ideal permittivity is the so-called excess permittivity. We first investigated a training set of diesel oils in laboratory in Finland, using the accurate table model Abbe refractometer and depicting the behavior of the excess permittivity of the mixture of diesel oil and kerosene. Then, we measured same samples in the laboratory using a handheld refractometer. Finally, preliminary field measurements using the handheld device were performed in Tanzania to assess the accuracy and possibility of applying the suggested method in field conditions. We herein show that it is not only possible to detect even relatively low adulteration levels of diesel in kerosene-namely, 5%, 10%, and 15%-but also it is possible to monitor the ascending order of adulteration for different adulterated diesel samples. We propose that the method of increasing the volume of an unknown (suspected) diesel oil sample by

  6. Chromatography methods and chemometrics for determination of milk fat adulterants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trbović, D.; Petronijević, R.; Đorđević, V.

    2017-09-01

    Milk and milk-based products are among the leading food categories according to reported cases of food adulteration. Although many authentication problems exist in all areas of the food industry, adequate control methods are required to evaluate the authenticity of milk and milk products in the dairy industry. Moreover, gas chromatography (GC) analysis of triacylglycerols (TAGs) or fatty acid (FA) profiles of milk fat (MF) in combination with multivariate statistical data processing have been used to detect adulterations of milk and dairy products with foreign fats. The adulteration of milk and butter is a major issue for the dairy industry. The major adulterants of MF are vegetable oils (soybean, sunflower, groundnut, coconut, palm and peanut oil) and animal fat (cow tallow and pork lard). Multivariate analysis enables adulterated MF to be distinguished from authentic MF, while taking into account many analytical factors. Various multivariate analysis methods have been proposed to quantitatively detect levels of adulterant non-MFs, with multiple linear regression (MLR) seemingly the most suitable. There is a need for increased use of chemometric data analyses to detect adulterated MF in foods and for their expanded use in routine quality assurance testing.

  7. Rapid identification of illegal synthetic adulterants in herbal anti-diabetic medicines using near infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yanchun; Lei, Deqing; Hu, Changqin

    We created a rapid detection procedure for identifying herbal medicines illegally adulterated with synthetic drugs using near infrared spectroscopy. This procedure includes a reverse correlation coefficient method (RCCM) and comparison of characteristic peaks. Moreover, we made improvements to the RCCM based on new strategies for threshold settings. Any tested herbal medicine must meet two criteria to be identified with our procedure as adulterated. First, the correlation coefficient between the tested sample and the reference must be greater than the RCCM threshold. Next, the NIR spectrum of the tested sample must contain the same characteristic peaks as the reference. In this study, four pure synthetic anti-diabetic drugs (i.e., metformin, gliclazide, glibenclamide and glimepiride), 174 batches of laboratory samples and 127 batches of herbal anti-diabetic medicines were used to construct and validate the procedure. The accuracy of this procedure was greater than 80%. Our data suggest that this protocol is a rapid screening tool to identify synthetic drug adulterants in herbal medicines on the market.

  8. Effect of Temperature on Ultrasonic Signal Propagation for Extra Virgin Olive Oil Adulteration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alias, N. A.; Hamid, S. B. Abdul; Sophian, A.

    2017-11-01

    Fraud cases involving adulteration of extra virgin olive oil has become significant nowadays due to increasing in cost of supply and highlight given the benefit of extra virgin olive oil for human consumption. This paper presents the effects of temperature variation on spectral formed utilising pulse-echo technique of ultrasound signal. Several methods had been introduced to characterize the adulteration of extra virgin olive oil with other fluid sample such as mass chromatography, standard method by ASTM (density test, distillation test and evaporation test) and mass spectrometer. Pulse-echo method of ultrasound being a non-destructive method to be used to analyse the sound wave signal captured by oscilloscope. In this paper, a non-destructive technique utilizing ultrasound to characterize extra virgin olive oil adulteration level will be presented. It can be observed that frequency spectrum of sample with different ratio and variation temperature shows significant percentages different from 30% up to 70% according to temperature variation thus possible to be used for sample characterization.

  9. Physicochemical properties of honey from Marche, Central Italy: classification of unifloral and multifloral honeys by multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Truzzi, Cristina; Illuminati, Silvia; Annibaldia, Anna; Finale, Carolina; Rossetti, Monica; Scarponi, Giuseppe

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was the physicochemical characterization and classification of Italian honey from Marche Region with a chemometric approach. A total of 135 honeys of different botanical origins [acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia L.), chestnut (Castanea sativa), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), lime (Tilia spp.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), Metcalfa honeydew and multifloral honey] were considered. The average results of electrical conductivity (0.14-1.45 mS cm(-1)), pH (3.89-5.42), free acidity (10.9-39.0 meq(NaOH) kg(-1)), lactones (2.4-4.5 meq(NaOH) kg(-1)), total acidity (14.5-40.9 meq(NaOH) kg(-1)), proline (229-665 mg kg(-1)) and 5-(hydroxy-methyl)-2-furaldehyde (0.6-3.9 mg kg(-1)) content show wide variability among the analysed honey types, with statistically significant differences between the different honey types. Pattern recognition methods such as principal component analysis and discriminant analysis were performed in order to find a relationship between variables and types of honey and to classify honey on the basis of its physicochemical properties. The variables of electrical conductivity, acidity (free, lactones), pH and proline content exhibited higher discriminant power and provided enough information for the classification and distinction of unifloral honey types, but not for the classification of multifloral honey (100% and 85% of samples correctly classified, respectively).

  10. Physicochemical properties of honey from Serbia in the period 2014-2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vranić, D.; Petronijević, R.; Đinović Stojanović, J.; Korićanac, V.; Babić Milijašević, J.; Milijašević, M.

    2017-09-01

    Honey is a viscous, aromatic, sweet food that is consumed and enjoyed by people around the world due to its unique nutritional and medicinal properties. The physicochemical parameters of natural honeys, such as moisture, reducing sugars, sucrose, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), free acidity, diastase activity, water-insoluble content and electrical conductivity are strictly defined and constitute the quality indicators which characterize individual honey varieties. The present study shows results of honey quality investigation from various regions of Serbia, which were evaluated according to the Serbian Regulation. A total of 372 honey samples (132 acacia honey, 221 blossom honey and 19 honeydew honey) were obtained from the Serbian market. All applied methods were performed according to the Harmonized Methods of the International Honey Commission. Summarizing the results presented, the most important parameters for detecting honey that was non-compliant with the regulation were HMF content along with diastase activity and sugar content. Results show that in 2014 and 2015, a great number of honey samples were of insufficient quality to satisfy regulatory requirements. In 2016, the situation on the Serbian honey market improved and became more under control.

  11. Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of Malaysian honeys produced by Apis cerana, Apis dorsata and Apis mellifera.

    PubMed

    Moniruzzaman, Mohammed; Khalil, Md Ibrahim; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Gan, Siew Hua

    2013-02-23

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of Malaysian monofloral honey samples-acacia, pineapple and borneo honey-and compare them with tualang honey. Acacia and pineapple honey are produced by Apis mellifera bees while borneo and tualang honey are produced by Apis cerana and Apis dorsata bees, respectively. The physical parameters of honey, such as pH, moisture content, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), color intensity, total sugar and apparent sucrose content, were measured. Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) was measured using high performance liquid chromatography, and a number of biochemical and antioxidant tests were performed to determine the antioxidant properties of the honey samples. Acacia honey was the most acidic (pH 3.53), whereas pineapple honey had the lowest moisture content (14.86%), indicating that both types of honey can resist microbial spoilage more effectively when compared to tualang honey (pH 3.80 and 17.53% moisture content). Acacia honey contained the highest EC (0.76 mS/cm), whereas borneo honey had the highest (377 ppm) TDS. The mean HMF content in Malaysian honey was 35.98 mg/kg. Tualang honey, which is amber color, had the highest color intensity (544.33 mAU). Acacia honey is the sweetest, and contained the highest concentration of total sugar, reducing sugar and apparent sucrose. Tualang honey had the highest concentration of phenolic compounds (352.73 ± 0.81 mg galic acid/kg), flavonoids (65.65 ± 0.74 mg catechin/kg), DPPH (59.89%), FRAP values (576.91 ± 0.64 μM Fe (II)/100 g) and protein content (4.83 ± 0.02 g/kg) as well as the lowest AEAC values (244.10 ± 5.24 mg/kg), indicating its strong antioxidant properties. Proline, an important amino acid that is present in honey was also measured in the present study and it was found at the highest concentration in pineapple honey. Several strong correlations were found among the biochemical and antioxidant

  12. Evaluation of the antibacterial activity of selected Pakistani honeys against multi-drug resistant Salmonella typhi.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Muhammad Barkaat; Hannan, Abdul; Akhtar, Naeem; Fayyaz, Ghulam Qadir; Imran, Muhammad; Saleem, Sidrah; Qureshi, Imtiaz Ahmed

    2015-02-26

    The development of resistance to conventional anti-typhoid drugs and the recent emergence of fluoroquinolone resistance have made it very difficult and expensive to treat typhoid fever. As the therapeutic strategies become even more limited, it is imperative to investigate non-conventional modalities. In this context, honey is a potential candidate for combating antimicrobial resistance because it contains a broad repertoire of antibacterial compounds which act synergistically at multiple sites, thus making it less likely that the bacteria will become resistant. The in vitro antibacterial activity of 100 unifloral honey samples against a blood culture isolate of multi-drug resistant (MDR) Salmonella typhi were investigated. All honey samples were evaluated for both total (acidity, osmolarity, hydrogen peroxide and non-peroxide activity) and plant derived non-peroxide antibacterial activity by agar well diffusion assay at 50% and 25% dilution in sterile distilled water and 25% in catalase solution. Manuka (Unique Manuka Factor-21) honey was used for comparison. The phenol equivalence of each honey sample from 2% to 7% (w/v) phenol was obtained from regression analysis. The antibacterial potential of each honey sample was expressed as its equivalent phenol concentration. The honey samples which showed antibacterial activity equivalent to or greater than manuka honey were considered therapeutically active honeys. Nineteen honey samples (19%) displayed higher hydrogen peroxide related antibacterial activity (16-20% phenol), which is more than that of manuka honey (21-UMF). A total of 30% of the honey samples demonstrated antibacterial activity between 11 and 15% phenol similar to that of manuka honey while 51% of the honey samples did not exhibit any zone of inhibition against MDR-S. typhi at 50% (w/v) dilution. None of the indigenous honey samples displayed non-peroxide antibacterial activity. Only manuka honey showed non-peroxide antibacterial activity at 25

  13. Chemical investigation of commercial grape seed derived products to assess quality and detect adulteration.

    PubMed

    Villani, Tom S; Reichert, William; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Pasinetti, Giulio M; Simon, James E; Wu, Qingli

    2015-03-01

    Fundamental concerns in quality control arise due to increasing use of grape seed extract (GSE) and the complex chemical composition of GSE. Proanthocyanidin monomers and oligomers are the major bioactive compounds in GSE. Given no standardized criteria for quality, large variation exists in the composition of commercial GSE supplements. Using HPLC/UV/MS, 21 commercial GSE containing products were purchased and chemically profiled, major compounds quantitated, and compared against authenticated grape seed extract, peanut skin extract, and pine bark extract. The antioxidant capacity and total polyphenol content for each sample was also determined and compared using standard techniques. Nine products were adulterated, found to contain peanut skin extract. A wide degree of variability in chemical composition was detected in commercial products, demonstrating the need for development of quality control standards for GSE. A TLC method was developed to allow for rapid and inexpensive detection of adulteration in GSE by peanut skin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Screening and determination of sibutramine in adulterated herbal slimming supplements by HPTLC-UV densitometry.

    PubMed

    Mathon, Caroline; Ankli, Anita; Reich, Eike; Bieri, Stefan; Christen, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The adulteration of herbal supplements is of growing importance, especially when they contain undeclared compounds like sibutramine that are unsafe drugs. Sibutramine was withdrawn from US and European markets in 2010. In this study, an HPTLC-UV densitometric method was developed for the quantification of sibutramine in herbal diet foods. Sample extracts were directly applied onto HPTLC silica gel plates and separated with a mobile phase made of a toluene-methanol mixture. Sibutramine was quantified at 225 nm and its unequivocal identification was confirmed by MS using a TLC-MS interface. During two surveys, 52 weight loss supplements obtained via the Internet were screened. Half of those were adulterated with sibutramine at amounts reaching up to 35 mg per capsule. The results of this validated HPTLC method were compared with those obtained by HPLC-UV and HPLC-MS/MS. The results were not significantly different with the three methods.

  15. Raman detection of extra virgin olive oil adulterated with cheaper oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farley, Carlton; Kassu, Aschalew; Mills, Jonathan; Kenney, Brianna; Ruffin, Paul; Sharma, Anup

    2016-09-01

    Pure extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is mixed with cheaper edible oils and samples are kept inside clear glass containers, while a 785nm Raman system is used to take measurements as Raman probe is placed against glass container. Several types of oils at various concentrations of adulteration are used. Ratios of peak intensities are used to analyze raw data, which allows for quick, easy, and accurate analysis. While conventional Raman measurements of EVOO may take as long as 2 minutes, all measurements reported here are for integration times of 15s. It is found that adulteration of EVOO with cheaper oils is detectable at concentrations as low as 5% for all oils used in this study.

  16. Determination of chlorophenols in honey samples using in-situ ionic liquid-dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction as a pretreatment method followed by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Fan, Chen; Li, Nai; Cao, Xueli

    2015-05-01

    In-situ ionic liquid-dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (IL-DLLME) method was developed as a pretreatment method for the detection of six chlorophenols (CPs) in honey samples. The hydrophobic ionic liquid [C4MIM][NTf2], formed in-situ by the hydrophilic ionic liquid [C4MIM][BF4] and the ion exchange reagent LiNTf2 was used as the microextractant solvent of CPs from honey sample. Then the enriched analytes were back-extracted into 40 μL of 0.14 M NaOH solution and finally subjected to analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography. The method showed low limit of detection of CPs, 0.8-3.2 μg/L and high enrichment factor, 34-65 with the recoveries range from 91.60% to 114.33%. The method is simple, rapid, environmentally friendly and with high extraction efficiency. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Enhancing the chemiluminescence intensity of a KMnO4 formaldehyde system for estimating the total phenolic content in honey samples using a novel nanodroplet mixing approach in a microfluidics platform.

    PubMed

    Al Lawati, Haider A J; Al Mughairy, Baqia; Al Lawati, Iman; Suliman, FakhrEldin O

    2018-04-30

    A novel mixing approach was utilized with a highly sensitive chemiluminescence (CL) method to determine the total phenolic content (TPC) in honey samples using an acidic potassium permanganate-formaldehyde system. The mixing approach was based on exploiting the mixing efficiency of nanodroplets generated in a microfluidic platform. Careful optimization of the instrument setup and various experimental conditions were employed to obtain excellent sensitivity. The mixing efficiency of the droplets was compared with the CL signal intensity obtained using the common serpentine chip design, with both approaches using at a total flow rate of 15 μl min -1 ; the results showed that the nanodroplets provided 600% higher CL signal intensity at this low flow rate. Using the optimum conditions, calibration equations, limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) for gallic acid (GA), caffeic acid (CA), kaempferol (KAM), quercetin (QRC) and catechin (CAT) were obtained. The LOD ranged from 6.2 ppb for CA to 11.0 ppb for QRC. Finally, the method was applied for the determination of TPC in several local and commercial honey samples. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Evaluation of physicochemical and antioxidant properties of two stingless bee honeys: a comparison with Apis mellifera honey from Nsukka, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nweze, Justus Amuche; Okafor, J I; Nweze, Emeka I; Nweze, Julius Eyiuche

    2017-11-06

    Several physical, biochemical and antioxidant properties of two Nigerian stingless bee honey varieties (Melipona sp. and Hypotrigona sp.) were compared with Apis mellifera honey using standard analytical procedures. The mean pH of Apis mellifera, Hypotrigona sp. and Melipona sp. honeys were 4.24 ± 0.28, 3.75 ± 0.11 and 4.21 ± 0.37 respectively. The mean moisture contents of the honeys were 11.74 ± 0.47, 17.50 ± 0.80, and 13.86 ± 1.06%. Honey samples from Hypotrigona sp. when compared with other honey samples had the highest mean total dissolved solids (370.01 ± 22.51 ppm), hydroxymethylfurfural (16.58 ± 0.37 mg/kg), total acidity (35.57 ± 0.42 meq/kg), protein content (16.58 ± 0.37 g/kg), phenol content (527.41 ± 3.60 mg/kg), and ascorbic acid (161.69 ± 6.70 mg/kg), antioxidant equivalent-ascorbic acid assay value (342.33 ± 0.78 mg/kg) as well as ferric reducing power (666.88 ± 1.73 μM Fe(II)/100 g) (p < 0.05). Several strong correlations were observed among some of the parameters of the honeys. This is the first study to compare the properties of Nigerian honey bees. Our results suggested that these honeys (specifically Hypotrigona sp. honey) is a good source of antioxidants comparable to A. mellifera honey.

  19. Honey physicochemical properties of three species of the Brazilian Melipona.

    PubMed

    Lage, Lorena G A; Coelho, Lívia L; Resende, Helder C; Tavares, Mara G; Campos, Lucio A O; Fernandes-Salomão, Tânia M

    2012-09-01

    Physicochemical analyses were carried out to evaluate 27 samples of honeys from three species of the Brazilian genus Melipona (M. capixaba, M. rufiventris and M. mondury) from Espírito Santo and Minas Gerais States. The parameters water activity (Aw), percentage of soluble solids (Brix %), pH, acidity (meq/Kg) and moisture (%) were evaluated. The honey characteristics obtained from these samples were very similar to the ones from other Melipona species. However, regarding the honey from Apis (honey bee), only the pH values were similar. The low pH value and the high acidity detected in Melipona honey are potential factors for increasing the honey shelf life because they do not provide favorable conditions for the microbial development. On the other hand, the high level of water activity favors the growth of microorganisms, especially yeast, which demands a more careful handled and storage. The observed differences between Melipona and Apis honey reinforce the need for specific quality settings for stingless bee honey.

  20. Honey Bee Infecting Lake Sinai Viruses.

    PubMed

    Daughenbaugh, Katie F; Martin, Madison; Brutscher, Laura M; Cavigli, Ian; Garcia, Emma; Lavin, Matt; Flenniken, Michelle L

    2015-06-23

    Honey bees are critical pollinators of important agricultural crops. Recently, high annual losses of honey bee colonies have prompted further investigation of honey bee infecting viruses. To better characterize the recently discovered and very prevalent Lake Sinai virus (LSV) group, we sequenced currently circulating LSVs, performed phylogenetic analysis, and obtained images of LSV2. Sequence analysis resulted in extension of the LSV1 and LSV2 genomes, the first detection of LSV4 in the US, and the discovery of LSV6 and LSV7. We detected LSV1 and LSV2 in the Varroa destructor mite, and determined that a large proportion of LSV2 is found in the honey bee gut, suggesting that vector-mediated, food-associated, and/or fecal-oral routes may be important for LSV dissemination. Pathogen-specific quantitative PCR data, obtained from samples collected during a small-scale monitoring project, revealed that LSV2, LSV1, Black queen cell virus (BQCV), and Nosema ceranae were more abundant in weak colonies than strong colonies within this sample cohort. Together, these results enhance our current understanding of LSVs and illustrate the importance of future studies aimed at investigating the role of LSVs and other pathogens on honey bee health at both the individual and colony levels.

  1. Honey Bee Infecting Lake Sinai Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Daughenbaugh, Katie F.; Martin, Madison; Brutscher, Laura M.; Cavigli, Ian; Garcia, Emma; Lavin, Matt; Flenniken, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    Honey bees are critical pollinators of important agricultural crops. Recently, high annual losses of honey bee colonies have prompted further investigation of honey bee infecting viruses. To better characterize the recently discovered and very prevalent Lake Sinai virus (LSV) group, we sequenced currently circulating LSVs, performed phylogenetic analysis, and obtained images of LSV2. Sequence analysis resulted in extension of the LSV1 and LSV2 genomes, the first detection of LSV4 in the US, and the discovery of LSV6 and LSV7. We detected LSV1 and LSV2 in the Varroa destructor mite, and determined that a large proportion of LSV2 is found in the honey bee gut, suggesting that vector-mediated, food-associated, and/or fecal-oral routes may be important for LSV dissemination. Pathogen-specific quantitative PCR data, obtained from samples collected during a small-scale monitoring project, revealed that LSV2, LSV1, Black queen cell virus (BQCV), and Nosema ceranae were more abundant in weak colonies than strong colonies within this sample cohort. Together, these results enhance our current understanding of LSVs and illustrate the importance of future studies aimed at investigating the role of LSVs and other pathogens on honey bee health at both the individual and colony levels. PMID:26110586

  2. Plausible authentication of manuka honey and related products by measuring leptosperin with methyl syringate.

    PubMed

    Kato, Yoji; Fujinaka, Rie; Ishisaka, Akari; Nitta, Yoko; Kitamoto, Noritoshi; Takimoto, Yosuke

    2014-07-09

    Manuka honey, obtained from Leptospermum scoparium flowers in New Zealand, has strong antibacterial properties. In this study, plausible authentication of the manuka honey was inspected by measuring leptosperin, methyl syringate 4-O-β-D-gentiobiose, along with methyl syringate. Despite a gradual decrease in methyl syringate content over 30 days at 50 °C, even at moderate 37 °C, leptosperin remained stable. A considerable correlation between nonperoxide antibacterial activity and leptosperin content was observed in 20 certified manuka honey samples. Leptosperin and methyl syringate in manuka honey and related products were analyzed using HPLC connected with mass spectrometry. One noncertified brand displayed significant variations in the leptosperin and methyl syringate contents between two samples obtained from different regions. Therefore, certification is clearly required to protect consumers from disguised and/or low-quality honey. Because leptosperin is stable during storage and specific to manuka honey, its measurement may be applicable for manuka honey authentication.

  3. Microwave processing of honey negatively affects honey antibacterial activity by inactivation of bee-derived glucose oxidase and defensin-1.

    PubMed

    Bucekova, Marcela; Juricova, Valeria; Monton, Enrique; Martinotti, Simona; Ranzato, Elia; Majtan, Juraj

    2018-02-01

    Microwave (MW) thermal heating has been proposed as an efficient method for honey liquefaction, while maintaining honey quality criteria. However, little is known about the effects of MW thermal heating on honey antibacterial activity. In this study, we aimed to determine the effects of MW heating on the antibacterial activity of raw rapeseed honeys against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, with a particular focus on two major bee-derived antibacterial components, defensin-1 and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). Our results demonstrated that MW thermal heating completely abolished honey antibacterial activity whereas conventional thermal treatment at 45 and 55°C did not affect the antibacterial activity of honey samples. A significant decrease in both glucose oxidase activity and H 2 O 2 production as well as defensin-1 amount was observed in MW-treated samples. Given that defensin-1 and H 2 O 2 are regular antibacterial components of all honeys, MW heating may have similar negative effects on every type of crystallized/liquid honey. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Authentication of monofloral Yemeni Sidr honey using ultraviolet spectroscopy and chemometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Roshan, Abdul-Rahman A; Gad, Haidy A; El-Ahmady, Sherweit H; Khanbash, Mohamed S; Abou-Shoer, Mohamed I; Al-Azizi, Mohamed M

    2013-08-14

    This work describes a simple model developed for the authentication of monofloral Yemeni Sidr honey using UV spectroscopy together with chemometric techniques of hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), principal component analysis (PCA), and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA). The model was constructed using 13 genuine Sidr honey samples and challenged with 25 honey samples of different botanical origins. HCA and PCA were successfully able to present a preliminary clustering pattern to segregate the genuine Sidr samples from the lower priced local polyfloral and non-Sidr samples. The SIMCA model presented a clear demarcation of the samples and was used to identify genuine Sidr honey samples as well as detect admixture with lower priced polyfloral honey by detection limits >10%. The constructed model presents a simple and efficient method of analysis and may serve as a basis for the authentication of other honey types worldwide.

  5. Pomegranate juice adulteration by addition of grape or peach juices.

    PubMed

    Nuncio-Jáuregui, Nallely; Calín-Sánchez, Ángel; Hernández, Francisca; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A

    2014-03-15

    Pomegranate juice has gained a high reputation for its health properties and consequently is now a highly demanded product. However, owing to the limited production and high price of fresh pomegranates, adulteration of pomegranate juice seems to be happening. Hence it is imperative to establish criteria for detecting adulteration. Addition of grape juice significantly increased the contents of Ca, Mg and Fe and especially tartaric acid and proline and simultaneously decreased the content of K. Addition of peach juice up to 10% (v/v) only resulted in a significant increase in sucrose content. Regarding the volatile composition, adulteration of pomegranate juice with grape juice resulted in significant increases in acetic acid, isoamyl butyrate and especially 1-hexanol and linalool, while adulteration with peach juice resulted in significant increases in butyl acetate, isobutyl butyrate, benzyl acetate and especially isoamyl butyrate. The control protocols used in this study can serve as a basis for identification of pomegranate juice adulteration. It is important to highlight that it is necessary to simultaneously analyze and have results from several parameters to conclude that a particular pomegranate juice has been adulterated by mixing with another fruit juice. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Identification of Pork Adulteration in Processed Meat Products Using the Developed Mitochondrial DNA-Based Primers

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Jimyeong; Kim, Sejeong; Lee, Jeeyeon; Lee, Soomin; Lee, Heeyoung; Choi, Yukyung; Oh, Hyemin; Yoon, Yohan

    2017-01-01

    The identification of pork in commercially processed meats is one of the most crucial issues in the food industry because of religious food ethics, medical purposes, and intentional adulteration to decrease production cost. This study therefore aimed to develop a method for the detection of pork adulteration in meat products using primers specific for pig mitochondrial DNA. Mitochondrial DNA sequences for pig, cattle, chicken, and sheep were obtained from GenBank and aligned. The 294-bp mitochondrial DNA D-loop region was selected as the pig target DNA sequence and appropriate primers were designed using the MUSCLE program. To evaluate primer sensitivity, pork-beef-chicken mixtures were prepared as follows: i) 0% pork-50% beef-50% chicken, ii) 1% pork-49.5% beef-49.5% chicken, iii) 2% pork-49% beef-49% chicken, iv) 5% pork-47.5% beef-47.5% chicken, v) 10% pork-45% beef-45% chicken, and vi) 100% pork-0% beef-0% chicken. In addition, a total of 35 commercially packaged products, including patties, nuggets, meatballs, and sausages containing processed chicken, beef, or a mixture of various meats, were purchased from commercial markets. The primers developed in our study were able to detect as little as 1% pork in the heat treated pork-beef-chicken mixtures. Of the 35 processed products, three samples were pork positive despite being labeled as beef or chicken only or as a beef-chicken mix. These results indicate that the developed primers could be used to detect pork adulteration in various processed meat products for application in safeguarding religious food ethics, detecting allergens, and preventing food adulteration. PMID:28747833

  7. Rapid and reliable determination of illegal adulterant in herbal medicines and dietary supplements by LC/MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Liang, Qionglin; Qu, Jun; Luo, Guoan; Wang, Yiming

    2006-02-13

    In recent years, dietary supplements and herbal medicines are increasing in popularity all over the world. However, it is problematic that some manufacturers illegally included synthetic drugs in their products. Due to the extremely complex matrices of those products, most existing methods for screening illegal adulterations are time-consuming and liable to false positive. In this paper, a robust LC/MS/MS method for the high-throughput, sensitive and reliable determination of illegal adulterations from herbal medicines and dietary supplements was established. Minimal LC separation was employed and MRM was used to simultaneously monitor the three transitions under their respective optimal collision energy for each compound. Positive results were determined only if well-defined peaks appeared at all of the three transitions and the ratios among the peak areas were within given threshold. In this study, the method had been applied for the screening of nine most commonly adulterated therapeutic substances, such as sildenafil (Viagra) and famotidine, and the lower limits of detection of these compounds ranged from 0.05 to 1.5 ng/ml. Little sample preparation was needed for this method and the analysis time was less than 5 min/sample. The reliability has been demonstrated by the test with blank matrix. Over 200 products that were under suspicion by SDA of China had been assayed and till now no false negative or positive result was found. This method is rapid, simple, reliable and capable of screening multiple adulterants in one run.

  8. Authentication of edible vegetable oils adulterated with used frying oil by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Liu, Cheng; Sun, Zhijian; Hu, Xiaosong; Shen, Qun; Wu, Jihong

    2012-06-01

    The application of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy to authenticate edible vegetable oils (corn, peanut, rapeseed and soybean oil) adulterated with used frying oil was introduced in this paper. The FTIR spectrum of oil was divided into 22 regions which corresponded to the constituents and molecular structures of vegetable oils. Samples of calibration set were classified into four categories for corn and peanut oils and five categories for rapeseed and soybean oils by cluster analysis. Qualitative analysis of validation set was obtained by discriminant analysis. Area ratio between absorption band 19 and 20 and wavenumber shift of band 19 were treated by linear regression for quantitative analysis. For four adulteration types, LODs of area ratio were 6.6%, 7.2%, 5.5%, 3.6% and wavenumber shift were 8.1%, 9.0%, 6.9%, 5.6%, respectively. The proposed methodology is a useful tool to authenticate the edible vegetable oils adulterated with used frying oil. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. New psychoactive substances as adulterants of controlled drugs. A worrying phenomenon?

    PubMed

    Giné, Claudio Vidal; Espinosa, Iván Fornís; Vilamala, Mireia Ventura

    2014-01-01

    The use of new psychoactive substances (NPS) as adulterants has received little attention in the literature. In this paper, results from Energy Control's drug checking service documenting the use of NPS as adulterants of controlled drugs are presented, and some reflections about possible explanations for this new phenomenon, potential risks for users, and challenges that it poses are discussed. From 2009 to 2012, 24 NPS belonging to several chemical classes such as phenethylamines, substituted cathinones, tryptamines, and methoxetamine were identified in 173 samples believed to be MDMA, amphetamine, ketamine, cocaine, mescaline, or methamphetamine. The NPS adulterant most frequently observed was 2-(4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)ethanamine (2C-B) followed by 1-(4-fluorophenyl)propan-2-amine (4-FA). Sixty-nine different combinations of substances were detected: 20 involving a controlled drug combined with an NPS, and 49 involving one or more NPS that substituted the controlled drug. As these combinations could pose substantial risks to users, the need to improve knowledge about toxicity associated with these combinations, and the danger of these substances being incorporated into the products of illegal markets, are highlighted. Drug checking services and the European Union's early-warning system operated by the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) and Europol can play an important role in reducing the harm associated with this phenomenon. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Development and application of a database of food ingredient fraud and economically motivated adulteration from 1980 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Moore, Jeffrey C; Spink, John; Lipp, Markus

    2012-04-01

    Food ingredient fraud and economically motivated adulteration are emerging risks, but a comprehensive compilation of information about known problematic ingredients and detection methods does not currently exist. The objectives of this research were to collect such information from publicly available articles in scholarly journals and general media, organize into a database, and review and analyze the data to identify trends. The results summarized are a database that will be published in the US Pharmacopeial Convention's Food Chemicals Codex, 8th edition, and includes 1305 records, including 1000 records with analytical methods collected from 677 references. Olive oil, milk, honey, and saffron were the most common targets for adulteration reported in scholarly journals, and potentially harmful issues identified include spices diluted with lead chromate and lead tetraoxide, substitution of Chinese star anise with toxic Japanese star anise, and melamine adulteration of high protein content foods. High-performance liquid chromatography and infrared spectroscopy were the most common analytical detection procedures, and chemometrics data analysis was used in a large number of reports. Future expansion of this database will include additional publically available articles published before 1980 and in other languages, as well as data outside the public domain. The authors recommend in-depth analyses of individual incidents. This report describes the development and application of a database of food ingredient fraud issues from publicly available references. The database provides baseline information and data useful to governments, agencies, and individual companies assessing the risks of specific products produced in specific regions as well as products distributed and sold in other regions. In addition, the report describes current analytical technologies for detecting food fraud and identifies trends and developments. © 2012 US Pharmacupia Journal of Food Science

  11. Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of Malaysian honeys produced by Apis cerana, Apis dorsata and Apis mellifera

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of Malaysian monofloral honey samples—acacia, pineapple and borneo honey—and compare them with tualang honey. Acacia and pineapple honey are produced by Apis mellifera bees while borneo and tualang honey are produced by Apis cerana and Apis dorsata bees, respectively. Methods The physical parameters of honey, such as pH, moisture content, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), color intensity, total sugar and apparent sucrose content, were measured. Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) was measured using high performance liquid chromatography, and a number of biochemical and antioxidant tests were performed to determine the antioxidant properties of the honey samples. Results Acacia honey was the most acidic (pH 3.53), whereas pineapple honey had the lowest moisture content (14.86%), indicating that both types of honey can resist microbial spoilage more effectively when compared to tualang honey (pH 3.80 and 17.53% moisture content). Acacia honey contained the highest EC (0.76 mS/cm), whereas borneo honey had the highest (377 ppm) TDS. The mean HMF content in Malaysian honey was 35.98 mg/kg. Tualang honey, which is amber color, had the highest color intensity (544.33 mAU). Acacia honey is the sweetest, and contained the highest concentration of total sugar, reducing sugar and apparent sucrose. Tualang honey had the highest concentration of phenolic compounds (352.73 ± 0.81 mg galic acid/kg), flavonoids (65.65 ± 0.74 mg catechin/kg), DPPH (59.89%), FRAP values (576.91 ± 0.64 μM Fe (II)/100 g) and protein content (4.83 ± 0.02 g/kg) as well as the lowest AEAC values (244.10 ± 5.24 mg/kg), indicating its strong antioxidant properties. Proline, an important amino acid that is present in honey was also measured in the present study and it was found at the highest concentration in pineapple honey. Several strong correlations were found among the

  12. One-step green synthesis of β-cyclodextrin/iron oxide-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite with high supramolecular recognition capability: Application for vortex-assisted magnetic solid phase extraction of organochlorine pesticides residue from honey samples.

    PubMed

    Mahpishanian, Shokouh; Sereshti, Hassan

    2017-02-17

    In this research, β-cyclodextrin/iron oxide reduced graphene oxide hybrid nanostructure (β-CD/MRGO) with high water dispersability, excellent magnetic responsivity and molecular selectivity was prepared via a facile one step green strategy. The obtained nanomaterial was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), which confirmed the modification of GO with β-CD and magnetic nanoparticles. The formation mechanism of β-CD/MRGO was also discussed. The prepared magnetic nanocomposite was then applied as adsorbent in the vortex-assisted magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) of 16 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) from honey samples prior to gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD) analysis. Optimum extraction conditions have been assessed with respect to vortex time, sample pH, adsorbent amount, and salt concentration as well as desorption conditions (type and volume of desorption solvent and desorption time). A good level of linearity (2-10,000ngkg -1 ) with satisfactory determination coefficients (R 2 >0.9966) and suitable precision (%RSDs less than 7.8) was obtained for OCPs under the optimal conditions. The limits of detection and quantification of the method were obtained in the sub-parts per trillion (ppt) to parts per trillion range (LOD: 0.52-3.21ngkg -1 ; LOQ: 1.73-10.72ngkg -1 ) based on 3 and 10 signal to noise ratios, respectively. The MSPE method was successfully applied to analysis of OCPs in honey samples with recoveries in the range of 78.8% to 116.2% and RSDs (n=3) below 8.1%. The results demonstrated that β-CD/MRGO could exhibit good supramolecular recognition, enrichment capability and high extraction recoveries toward OCPs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The distribution of Paenibacillus larvae spores in adult bees and honey and larval mortality, following the addition of American foulbrood diseased brood or spore-contaminated honey in honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Anders; Korpela, Seppo; Fries, Ingemar

    2008-09-01

    Within colony transmission of Paenibacillus larvae spores was studied by giving spore-contaminated honey comb or comb containing 100 larvae killed by American foulbrood to five experimental colonies respectively. We registered the impact of the two treatments on P. larvae spore loads in adult bees and honey and on larval mortality by culturing for spores in samples of adult bees and honey, respectively, and by measuring larval survival. The results demonstrate a direct effect of treatment on spore levels in adult bees and honey as well as on larval mortality. Colonies treated with dead larvae showed immediate high spore levels in adult bee samples, while the colonies treated with contaminated honey showed a comparable spore load but the effect was delayed until the bees started to utilize the honey at the end of the flight season. During the winter there was a build up of spores in the adult bees, which may increase the risk for infection in spring. The results confirm that contaminated honey can act as an environmental reservoir of P. larvae spores and suggest that less spores may be needed in honey, compared to in diseased brood, to produce clinically diseased colonies. The spore load in adult bee samples was significantly related to larval mortality but the spore load of honey samples was not.

  14. Novel strategy for the determination of illegal adulterants in health foods and herbal medicines using high-performance liquid chromatography with high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhe; Wu, Caisheng; Wang, Gangli; Zhang, Qingsheng; Zhang, Jinlan

    2015-03-01

    The detection, confirmation, and quantification of multiple illegal adulterants in health foods and herbal medicines by using a single analytical method are a challenge. This paper reports on a new strategy to meet this challenge by employing high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry and a mass spectral tree similarity filter technique. This analytical method can rapidly collect high-resolution, high-accuracy, optionally multistage mass data for compounds in samples. After a preliminary screening by retention time and high-resolution mass spectral data, known illegal adulterants can be detected. The mass spectral tree similarity filter technique has been applied to rapidly confirm these adulterants and simultaneously discover unknown ones. By using full-scan mass spectra as stem and data-dependent subsequent stage mass spectra to form branches, mass spectrometry data from detected compounds are converted into mass spectral trees. The known or unknown illegal adulterants in the samples are confirmed or discovered based on the similarity between their mass spectral trees and those of the references in a library, and they are finally quantified against standard curves. This new strategy has been tested by using 50 samples, and the illegal adulterants were rapidly and effectively detected, confirmed and quantified. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Discrimination of geographical origin and detection of adulteration of kudzu root by fluorescence spectroscopy coupled with multi-way pattern recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Leqian; Ma, Shuai; Yin, Chunling

    2018-03-01

    In this work, fluorescence spectroscopy combined with multi-way pattern recognition techniques were developed for determining the geographical origin of kudzu root and detection and quantification of adulterants in kudzu root. Excitation-emission (EEM) spectra were obtained for 150 pure kudzu root samples of different geographical origins and 150 fake kudzu roots with different adulteration proportions by recording emission from 330 to 570 nm with excitation in the range of 320-480 nm, respectively. Multi-way principal components analysis (M-PCA) and multilinear partial least squares discriminant analysis (N-PLS-DA) methods were used to decompose the excitation-emission matrices datasets. 150 pure kudzu root samples could be differentiated exactly from each other according to their geographical origins by M-PCA and N-PLS-DA models. For the adulteration kudzu root samples, N-PLS-DA got better and more reliable classification result comparing with the M-PCA model. The results obtained in this study indicated that EEM spectroscopy coupling with multi-way pattern recognition could be used as an easy, rapid and novel tool to distinguish the geographical origin of kudzu root and detect adulterated kudzu root. Besides, this method was also suitable for determining the geographic origin and detection the adulteration of the other foodstuffs which can produce fluorescence.

  16. Genetic stock identification of Russian honey bees.

    PubMed

    Bourgeois, Lelania; Sheppard, Walter S; Sylvester, H Allen; Rinderer, Thomas E

    2010-06-01

    A genetic stock certification assay was developed to distinguish Russian honey bees from other European (Apis mellifera L.) stocks that are commercially produced in the United States. In total, 11 microsatellite and five single-nucleotide polymorphism loci were used. Loci were selected for relatively high levels of homogeneity within each group and for differences in allele frequencies between groups. A baseline sample consisted of the 18 lines of Russian honey bees released to the Russian Bee Breeders Association and bees from 34 queen breeders representing commercially produced European honey bee stocks. Suitability tests of the baseline sample pool showed high levels of accuracy. The probability of correct assignment was 94.2% for non-Russian bees and 93.3% for Russian bees. A neighbor-joining phenogram representing genetic distance data showed clear distinction of Russian and non-Russian honey bee stocks. Furthermore, a test of appropriate sample size showed a sample of eight bees per colony maximizes accuracy and consistency of the results. An additional 34 samples were tested as blind samples (origin unknown to those collecting data) to determine accuracy of individual assignment tests. Only one of these samples was incorrectly assigned. The 18 current breeding lines were represented among the 2009 blind sampling, demonstrating temporal stability of the genetic stock identification assay. The certification assay will be used through services provided by a service laboratory, by the Russian Bee Breeders Association to genetically certify their stock. The genetic certification will be used in conjunction with continued selection for favorable traits, such as honey production and varroa and tracheal mite resistance.

  17. Detection and quantification of adulteration of sesame oils with vegetable oils using gas chromatography and multivariate data analysis.

    PubMed

    Peng, Dan; Bi, Yanlan; Ren, Xiaona; Yang, Guolong; Sun, Shangde; Wang, Xuede

    2015-12-01

    This study was performed to develop a hierarchical approach for detection and quantification of adulteration of sesame oil with vegetable oils using gas chromatography (GC). At first, a model was constructed to discriminate the difference between authentic sesame oils and adulterated sesame oils using support vector machine (SVM) algorithm. Then, another SVM-based model is developed to identify the type of adulterant in the mixed oil. At last, prediction models for sesame oil were built for each kind of oil using partial least square method. To validate this approach, 746 samples were prepared by mixing authentic sesame oils with five types of vegetable oil. The prediction results show that the detection limit for authentication is as low as 5% in mixing ratio and the root-mean-square errors for prediction range from 1.19% to 4.29%, meaning that this approach is a valuable tool to detect and quantify the adulteration of sesame oil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Determination of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in tea, herbal drugs and honey.

    PubMed

    Bodi, Dorina; Ronczka, Stefan; Gottschalk, Christoph; Behr, Nastassja; Skibba, Anne; Wagner, Matthias; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika; Preiss-Weigert, Angelika; These, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Honey was previously considered to be one of the main food sources of human pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) exposure in Europe. However, comprehensive analyses of honey and tea sampled in the Berlin retail market revealed unexpected high PA amounts in teas. This study comprised the analysis of 87 honey as well as 274 tea samples including black, green, rooibos, melissa, peppermint, chamomile, fennel, nettle, and mixed herbal tea or fruit tea. Total PA concentrations in tea ranged from < LOD to 5647 µg kg(-1), while a mean value of about 10 µg kg(-1) was found in honey samples. Additionally, herbal drugs were investigated to identify the source of PA in teas. Results suggest that PA in tea samples are most likely a contamination caused by co-harvesting of PA-producing plants. In some cases such as fennel, anise or caraway, it cannot be excluded that these plants are able to produce PA themselves.

  19. Evaluation of baker's yeast in honey using a real-time PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Kast, Christina; Roetschi, Alexandra

    2017-04-01

    Occasionally, melissopalynological analysis reveals the presence of baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in honey sediments. A field experiment reproducing a common spring bee feeding practice, using sugar paste containing baker's yeast, was performed to understand how S. cerevisiae are introduced into honey. Apart from classical microscopy, a real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) system specific for S. cerevisiae was established for quantification of S. cerevisiae in honeys. Results showed that S. cerevisiae cells are stored in the honey of the brood combs and are also transferred into honey in the supers. The concentrations of S. cerevisiae were highest in honey of the brood frames immediately after the feeding and decreased over time to low concentrations at the end of the year. A high content of S. cerevisiae cells were also found in the honey from supers of the spring harvest. Observed S. cerevisiae cells were not able to multiply in a high-sugar environment, such as honey, and their viability decreased rapidly after addition to the honey. The screening of 200 Swiss honeys revealed the presence of S. cerevisiae in 4.5% of the samples, as determined by microscopy and qPCR. Finally, the method described here may indicate an unwanted sucrose addition to honey through bee-feeding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Physicochemical Parameters and Antioxidant Activity of Bee Honey Enriched With Herbs.

    PubMed

    Dżugan, Małgorzata; Sowa, Patrycja; Kwaśniewska, Monika; Wesołowska, Monika; Czernicka, Maria

    2017-03-01

    Three groups of products enriched with herbs were studied: (1) commercial herb honeys (n = 5) produced by bees fed a syrup with an herbal extract, (2) natural herbal honey (n = 3) produced by bees from the nectar of herbs, and (3) creamed multifloral honey with added dried herbs (n = 5). As a control, multifloral honey (n = 5) was used. The physicochemical parameters (i.e., sugar extract, water content, specific rotation, conductivity, hydroxymethylfurfural content, pH and acidity), sugar profiles (HPLC analysis), antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds content of the studied samples were compared. Although great diversity in the basic properties of the studied products was observed, they were comparable to multifloral honey and complied with honey regulations. Significant differences in sugar composition were observed, and adversely positive rotation (excluding nettle herb honey) was detected in group 1, likely resulting from the change in bee feeding. The best antioxidant activity for creamed honeys with dried herbs (group 2) was investigated, whereas herb honeys (group 1) exhibited similar antioxidant properties as multifloral honey. The use of controlled feeding of bees appears to be an effective method of enriching honey with desirable plant bioactive components to create innovative bee products.

  1. Pesticide Residues in Honey from the Major Honey Producing Forest Belts in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Darko, Godfred; Addai Tabi, Jonah; Adjaloo, Michael Kodwo; Borquaye, Lawrence Sheringham

    2017-01-01

    Concentrations of pesticides residues in honey sampled from the major honey producing forest belts in Ghana were determined. Samples were purposively collected and extracted using the QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe) method and analysed for synthetic pyrethroids, organochlorine, and organophosphate pesticide residues. Aldrin, γ -HCH, β -HCH, ∑endosulfan, cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, permethrin methoxychlor, ∑DDT, chlorpyrifos, fenvalerate, malathion, dimethoate, and diazinon were all detected at the concentration of 0.01 mg/kg, while cyfluthrin and permethrin were detected at mean concentrations of 0.02 and 0.04 mg/kg, respectively. All the pesticide residues detected were very low and below their respective maximum residue limits set by the European Union. Hence, pesticide residues in honey samples analyzed do not pose any health risk to consumers.

  2. Chemical profiling and adulteration screening of Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Qu, Lei; Chen, Jian-Bo; Zhang, Gui-Jun; Sun, Su-Qin; Zheng, Jing

    2017-03-05

    As a kind of expensive perfume and valuable herb, Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum (ALR) is often adulterated for economic motivations. In this research, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is employed to establish a simple and quick method for the adulteration screening of ALR. First, the principal chemical constituents of ALR are characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy at room temperature and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy with thermal perturbation. Besides the common cellulose and lignin compounds, a certain amount of resin is the characteristic constituent of ALR. Synchronous and asynchronous 2D-IR spectra indicate that the resin (an unstable secondary metabolite) is more sensitive than cellulose and lignin (stable structural constituents) to the thermal perturbation. Using a certified ALR sample as the reference, the infrared spectral correlation threshold is determined by 30 authentic samples and 6 adulterated samples. The spectral correlation coefficient of an authentic ALR sample to the standard reference should be not less than 0.9886 (p=0.01). Three commercial adulterated ALR samples are identified by the correlation threshold. Further interpretation of the infrared spectra of the adulterated samples indicates the common adulterating methods - counterfeiting with other kind of wood, adding ingredient such as sand to increase the weight, and adding the cheap resin such as rosin to increase the content of resin compounds. Results of this research prove that FT-IR spectroscopy can be used as a simple and accurate quality control method of ALR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The influence of additional water content towards the spectroscopy and physicochemical properties of genus Apis and stingless bee honey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omar, Ahmad Fairuz; Mardziah Yahaya, Ommi Kalsom; Tan, Kok Chooi; Mail, Mohd Hafiz; Seeni, Azman

    2016-04-01

    The major issues concerning to food products are related to its authenticity. Honey is one of the common food products that suffer from adulteration, mainly due to its constant high market demand and price. Several studies on the authenticity detection have been done mainly on honey from genus Apis (GA), but less research has been conducted on Stingless Bee Honey (SBH) even the market demand for this food product is increasing, particularly in Malaysia due to its possible health benefits. Thus, identification of unadulterated and authenticity of honey is a very key issue for products processors, retailers, consumers and regulatory authorities. There is an increasing demand for appropriate instruments and methods to shield consumers against fraud and to guarantee a fair competition between honey producers. The study presented in this paper shows the effect of diluting pure honey from both genus Apis and Stingless Bee towards its physicochemical attributes (i.e. soluble solids content and pH) and VIS-NIR spectral absorbance features.

  4. Highly sensitive on-site detection of drugs adulterated in botanical dietary supplements using thin layer chromatography combined with dynamic surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fang, Fang; Qi, Yunpeng; Lu, Feng; Yang, Liangbao

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of botanical dietary supplements (BDS) doped with illegal adulterants has become a serious problem all over the world, which could cause great threat to human's health. Therefore, it is of great value to identify BDS. Herein, we put forward a highly sensitive method for on-site detection of antitussive and antiasthmatic drugs adulterated in BDS using thin layer chromatography (TLC) combined with dynamic surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (DSERS). Adulterants in BDS were separated on a TLC plate and located under UV illumination. Then DSERS detection was performed using a portable Raman spectrometer with 50% glycerol silver colloid serving as DSERS active substrate. Here, the effects of different solvents on detection efficacy were evaluated using phenformin hydrochloride (PHE) as a probe. It was shown that 50% glycerol resulted in higher SERS enhancement and relatively higher stability. Moreover, practical application of this novel TLC-DSERS method was demonstrated with rapid analysis of real BDS samples and one sample adulterated with benproperine phosphate (BEN) was found. Furthermore, the obtained result was verified by ultra performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS). The sensitivity of the TLC-DSERS technique is 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than that of TLC-SERS technique. The results turned out that this combined method would have good prospects for on-site and sensitive detection of adulterated BDS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Honey: An Effective Cough Remedy?

    MedlinePlus

    ... cough remedy? Is it true that honey calms coughs better than cough medicine does? Answers from James M. Steckelberg, M. ... throat. But honey alone may be an effective cough suppressant, too. In one study, children age 2 ...

  6. Biogenic amine content, histamine-forming bacteria, and adulteration of pork in tuna sausage products.

    PubMed

    Kung, Hsien-Feng; Tsai, Yung-Hsiang; Chang, Shih-Chih; Hong, Tang-Yao

    2012-10-01

    Twenty-five tuna sausage products were purchased from retail markets in Taiwan. The rates of occurrence of biogenic amines, histamine-forming bacteria, and adulteration by pork and poultry were determined. The average content of various biogenic amines in all tested samples was less than 2.0 mg/100 g (<0.05 to 1.85 mg/100 g). Thirteen histamine-producing bacterial strains isolated from tested samples produced 12.1 to 1,261 ppm of histamine in Trypticase soy broth supplemented with 1.0% L-histidine. Among them, Raoultella ornithinolytica (one strain), Enterobacter aerogenes (one strain), and Staphylococcus pasteuri (two strains) were identified as prolific histamine formers. PCR assay revealed that the adulteration rates were 80% (20 of 25) and 4% (1 of 25) for pork and poultry, respectively, in tuna sausage. The fish species in the tuna sausage samples were identified as Thunnus albacares for 22 samples (88%), Thunnus alalunga for 1 sample (4%), and Thunnus thynnus for 1 sample (4%), whereas the remaining sample was identified as Makaira nigricans (blue marlin).

  7. Phenolic acid composition and antioxidant properties of Malaysian honeys.

    PubMed

    Khalil, M I; Alam, N; Moniruzzaman, M; Sulaiman, S A; Gan, S H

    2011-08-01

    The phenolic acid and flavonoid contents of Malaysian Tualang, Gelam, and Borneo tropical honeys were compared to those of Manuka honey. Ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay (FRAP) and the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activities were also quantified. All honey extracts exhibited high phenolic contents (15.21 ± 0.51- 42.23 ± 0.64 mg/kg), flavonoid contents (11.52 ± 0.27- 25.31 ± 0.37 mg/kg), FRAP values (892.15 ± 4.97- 363.38 ± 10.57 μM Fe[II]/kg), and high IC₅₀ of DPPH radical-scavenging activities (5.24 ± 0.40- 17.51 ± 0.51 mg/mL). Total of 6 phenolic acids (gallic, syringic, benzoic, trans-cinnamic, p-coumaric, and caffeic acids) and 5 flavonoids (catechin, kaempferol, naringenin, luteolin, and apigenin) were identified. Among the Malaysian honey samples, Tualang honey had the highest contents of phenolics, and flavonoids, and DPPH radical-scavenging activities. We conclude that among Malaysian honey samples, Tualang honey is the richest in phenolic acids, and flavonoid compounds, which have strong free radical-scavenging activities. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Methyl syringate: a chemical marker of asphodel (Asphodelus microcarpus Salzm. et Viv.) monofloral honey.

    PubMed

    Tuberoso, Carlo I G; Bifulco, Ersilia; Jerković, Igor; Caboni, Pierluigi; Cabras, Paolo; Floris, Ignazio

    2009-05-13

    During the liquid chromatographic study of the phenolic fraction of monofloral honeys was detected in the asphodel honey ( Asphodelus microcarpus Salzm. et Viv.) chromatogram a distinctive peak not detected in other monofloral honeys such as Arbutus unedo L., Hedysarum coronarium , Eucalyptus spp., and Galactites tomentosa . After thin layer chromatography (TLC) purification and characterization by NMR and LC-MS/MS, the compound was identified as methyl syringate (MSYR) and confirmed against an original standard. Levels of MSYR were measured in honeys of 2005, 2006, and 2007 by HPLC-DAD analysis. Level determination of MSYR was repeated in 2008 for 2006 and 2007 honeys to evaluate chemical stability of this phenolic compound. Levels of MSYR measured 1 year after the sampling did not show significant statistical differences (p < 0.05). The stability of MSYR was also confirmed by 12 asphodel honey samples collected in 2005 that showed amounts of methyl syringate comparable with those found in fresh honey. For the evaluation of MSYR origin, samples of nectars were collected from flowers and the content of MSYR was measured. Levels of MSYR in honeys are originated from the nectar with an average contribution of the nectar to the honey of 80%. Melissopalinological analysis did not allow the attribution of the honey monofloral origin because levels of asphodel pollen were <6% for all analyzed samples. Previously reported levels of MSYR for robinia, rape, chestnut, clover, linden blossom, dandelion, sunflower, thyme, manuka, and fir honeys were <5 mg/kg. For this reason, a minimum level of 122.6 mg/kg for MSYR in asphodel honeys can be considered as a chemical marker and, unlike the melissopalynological analysis, can be used for the origin attribution and to evaluate the percent of asphodel nectar in the honey.

  9. Species Adulteration in the Herbal Trade: Causes, Consequences and Mitigation.

    PubMed

    Srirama, Ramanujam; Santhosh Kumar, J U; Seethapathy, G S; Newmaster, Steven G; Ragupathy, S; Ganeshaiah, K N; Uma Shaanker, R; Ravikanth, Gudasalamani

    2017-08-01

    The global economy of the international trade of herbal products has been increasing by 15% annually, with the raw material for most herbal products being sourced from South and Southeast Asian countries. In India, of the 8000 species of medicinal plants harvested from the wild, approximately 960 are in the active trade. With increasing international trade in herbal medicinal products, there is also increasing concern about the widespread adulteration and species admixtures in the raw herbal trade. The adverse consequences of such species adulteration on the health and safety of consumers have only recently begun to be recognised and documented. We provide a comprehensive review of the nature and magnitude of species adulteration in the raw herbal trade, and identify the underlying drivers that might lead to such adulteration. We also discuss the possible biological and chemical equivalence of species that are used as adulterants and substitutes, and the consequences thereof to consumer health and safety, and propose a framework for the development of a herbal trade authentication service that can help regulate the herbal trade market.

  10. Crystals and tablets in the Spanish ecstasy market 2000-2014: Are they the same or different in terms of purity and adulteration?

    PubMed

    Vidal Giné, Claudio; Ventura Vilamala, Mireia; Fornís Espinosa, Iván; Gil Lladanosa, Cristina; Calzada Álvarez, Nú; Fitó Fruitós, Ariadna; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Joan; Domíngo Salvany, Antonia; de la Torre Fornell, Rafael

    2016-06-01

    Although 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) has a long history in recreational settings, research on its composition (purity and adulteration) has focused only on tablets even though crystal format is readily available for users. Drug specimens collected between January 2000 and December 2014 were analyzed at Energy Control's facilities. All samples were voluntarily provided by drug users. Sample identification was made with thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, and quantification with ultraviolet spectrophotometry (only in unadulterated samples). Between January 2000 and December 2014, 6200 samples purchased as ecstasy by their users were analyzed. Crystals were the most frequent format (60.6%) followed by tablets (38.8%). During the study period, the proportion of samples containing only MDMA was higher in crystals than in tablets. Compared with tablets, adulterated crystal samples contained the same number of adulterants but more combinations of different substances. Although caffeine was commonly detected as adulterant both in crystals and tablets, other substances such as phenacetin, lidocaine, dextrometorphan or methamphetamine were detected almost exclusively in crystal samples. The amount of MDMA in crystal samples remained stable unlike tablets for which a huge increase in MDMA dose was observed since 2010. Crystal samples of ecstasy showed clear differences compared to ecstasy tablets and this must be taken into account both in research and harm reduction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Chemical Composition of Honey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, David W.

    2007-01-01

    Honey is a supersaturated sugar solution, created by bees, and used by human beings as a sweetener. However, honey is more than just a supersaturated sugar solution; it also contains acids, minerals, vitamins, and amino acids in varying quantities. In this article, we will briefly explore the chemical composition of honey. (Contains 2 figures and…

  12. Widespread occurrence of honey bee pathogens in solitary bees.

    PubMed

    Ravoet, Jorgen; De Smet, Lina; Meeus, Ivan; Smagghe, Guy; Wenseleers, Tom; de Graaf, Dirk C

    2014-10-01

    Solitary bees and honey bees from a neighbouring apiary were screened for a broad set of putative pathogens including protists, fungi, spiroplasmas and viruses. Most sampled bees appeared to be infected with multiple parasites. Interestingly, viruses exclusively known from honey bees such as Apis mellifera Filamentous Virus and Varroa destructor Macula-like Virus were also discovered in solitary bees. A microsporidium found in Andrena vaga showed most resemblance to Nosema thomsoni. Our results suggest that bee hives represent a putative source of pathogens for other pollinators. Similarly, solitary bees may act as a reservoir of honey bee pathogens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Concentration of Minerals in Nectar Honeys from Direct Sale and Retail in Poland.

    PubMed

    Kędzierska-Matysek, Monika; Florek, Mariusz; Wolanciuk, Anna; Barłowska, Joanna; Litwińczuk, Zygmunt

    2018-04-04

    The aim of the study was to compare the content of selected minerals in different nectar honeys (acacia, buckwheat, raspberry, linden, rapeseed, and multifloral) available on the Polish market. The degree to which the demand for eight minerals (K, Na, Mg, Ca, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu) by adults is met by a portion of 100 g of honey was estimated as well. The material consisted of 34 artisanal honeys from direct sale and 34 samples purchased from retail stores. The artisanal honeys contained significantly more K, Mg, and Mn, but significantly less Na and Fe than the honeys purchased from the retail stores. The raspberry honey contained significantly the most K and Ca (1104.7 and 68.8 mg kg -1 ), the multifloral honey contained the most Ca and Mg (68.5 and 48.0 mg kg -1 ), and the buckwheat honey contained the most Zn and Mn (3.97 and 4.96 mg kg -1 ). The highest content of Na was shown in buckwheat and linden honeys (79.1 and 80.0 mg kg -1 ). Consumption of 100 g of honey from direct sale satisfied from 2.5 to 4.5% of the recommended intakes for K and from 10.4 to 17.3% for Mn, while the same portion of honey from retail satisfied from 1.6 to 4.8% for Fe, and from 2.3 to 6.1% for Zn and Cu. The buckwheat honey met to the greatest degree the recommended dietary intakes for Mn (16.5-27.6%), followed by raspberry honey (10.0-16.7%) and multifloral honey (6.9-11.6%).

  14. Differentiation of Saraca Asoca Crude Drug From Its Adulterant

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Samuel; Mathew, Gracy; Joy, P.P.; Skari, Baby P.; Joseph, T.S.

    2005-01-01

    Saraca asoca commonly known as asoka, which is considered as a sacred tree by Hindus and Buddhists possesses various medicinal uses. The stem bark of the tree is the principal constituent of several ayurvedic preparations which are widely prescribed in leucorrhoea, haematuria, menorrhagia and other diseases of the female genitourinary system. Because of destructive extraction and the absence of an organized cultivation programme, the avilbility of the crude drug is diminishing and this has resulted in the sale of adulterants. The commonly used adulterant is the bark of Polyalthia longifolia which shows some similarity with that of asoka. Studies were conducted at Aromatic and Medicinal Plants Research station, Odakkali (Kerala Agricultural University) during 2001-2002 to evolve methods for differentiating the original drug from the adulterant species by anatomical biochemical and chromatographic techniques. PMID:22557174

  15. Differentiation of saraca asoca crude drug from its adulterant.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Samuel; Mathew, Gracy; Joy, P P; Skari, Baby P; Joseph, T S

    2005-04-01

    Saraca asoca commonly known as asoka, which is considered as a sacred tree by Hindus and Buddhists possesses various medicinal uses. The stem bark of the tree is the principal constituent of several ayurvedic preparations which are widely prescribed in leucorrhoea, haematuria, menorrhagia and other diseases of the female genitourinary system. Because of destructive extraction and the absence of an organized cultivation programme, the avilbility of the crude drug is diminishing and this has resulted in the sale of adulterants. The commonly used adulterant is the bark of Polyalthia longifolia which shows some similarity with that of asoka. Studies were conducted at Aromatic and Medicinal Plants Research station, Odakkali (Kerala Agricultural University) during 2001-2002 to evolve methods for differentiating the original drug from the adulterant species by anatomical biochemical and chromatographic techniques.

  16. The hidden web and the fentanyl problem: Detection of ocfentanil as an adulterant in heroin.

    PubMed

    Quintana, Pol; Ventura, Mireia; Grifell, Marc; Palma, Alvaro; Galindo, Liliana; Fornís, Iván; Gil, Cristina; Carbón, Xoán; Caudevilla, Fernando; Farré, Magí; Torrens, Marta

    2017-02-01

    The popularization of anonymous markets such as Silk Road is challenging current drug policy and may provide a new context for old issues, such as adulteration of heroin with fentanyl derivatives. The aims of this paper are to report the presence of ocfentanil, a novel, potent, non-controlled fentanyl analog, in samples sold as heroin in the hidden web, and to summarize the effects reported by users. In 2015, four samples allegedly bought as heroin in cryptomarkets of the hidden web were sent to Energy Control for analysis. Energy Control is a Spanish harm reduction NGO that offers anonymous drug checking with the purpose of adapting counselling to the specific substances present in the drug and monitor the drug market. Identification was performed by GC/MS and LC/MS/MS. We contacted the submitters of the samples and performed an Internet search to retrieve additional information. One sample contained ocfentanil, caffeine and heroin. Three samples contained the aforementioned substances plus paracetamol. Two out of the four contacted users reported distinct short acting, opioid-like effects. No fora discussion could be found about the effects of ocfentanil, neither web pages nor individuals advertising the substance. We report the presence of a new substance detected in the hidden web as an adulterant of heroin, ocfentanil. It has short acting opioid-like effects, roughly the same potency as fentanyl, and can be injected, snorted or smoked. Severe side effects have been associated with its use, including one death. No discussion about this substance could be found in the Internet, which suggests this substance has not been sold as such. Available data about purities of drugs purchased in cryptomarkets suggest that adulteration is not a severe problem and this agrees with users' perceptions. However, this study suggests that adulteration is a real threat not only at the street level, but also for users that buy substances in cryptomarkets, and suggest the need for

  17. Use of differential scanning calorimetry to detect canola oil (Brassica napus L.) adulterated with lard stearin.

    PubMed

    Marikkar, Jalaldeen Mohammed Nazrim; Rana, Sohel

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to detect and quantify lard stearin (LS) content in canola oil (CaO) using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Authentic samples of CaO were obtained from a reliable supplier and the adulterant LS were obtained through a fractional crystallization procedure as reported previously. Pure CaO samples spiked with LS in levels ranging from 5 to 15% (w/w) were analyzed using DSC to obtain their cooling and heating profiles. The results showed that samples contaminated with LS at 5% (w/w) level can be detected using characteristic contaminant peaks appearing in the higher temperature regions (0 to 70°C) of the cooling and heating curves. Pearson correlation analysis of LS content against individual DSC parameters of the adulterant peak namely peak temperature, peak area, peak onset temperature indicated that there were strong correlations between these with the LS content of the CaO admixtures. When these three parameters were engaged as variables in the execution of the stepwise regression procedure, predictive models for determination of LS content in CaO were obtained. The predictive models obtained with single DSC parameter had relatively lower coefficient of determination (R(2) value) and higher standard error than the models obtained using two DSC parameters in combination. This study concluded that the predictive models obtained with peak area and peak onset temperature of the adulteration peak would be more accurate for prediction of LS content in CaO based on the highest coefficient of determination (R(2) value) and smallest standard error.

  18. Evaluation of physicochemical and antioxidant properties of sourwood and other Malaysian honeys: a comparison with manuka honey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate the physical, biochemical and antioxidant properties of four Malaysian monofloral types of honey (gelam, longan, rubber tree and sourwood honeys) compared to manuka honey. Several physical parameters of honey, such as pH, moisture content, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), color intensity, total sugar and sucrose content, were measured. A number of biochemical and antioxidant tests were performed to determine the antioxidant properties of the honey samples. Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) levels were determined using high performance liquid chromatography. Results The mean pH, moisture content, EC and TDS of Malaysian honey were 3.90 ± 0.12, 17.01 ± 3.07%, 0.59 ± 0.17 mS/cm and 294.87 ± 81.96 ppm, respectively. The mean color and HMF level was 102.07 ± 41.77 mm Pfund and 49.51 ± 0.12 mg/kg, respectively. Sourwood honey contained the highest contents of phenolics (580.03 ± 0.38 mggalic acid/kg) and flavonoids (156.82 ± 0.47 mgcatechin/kg) with high DPPH radical scavenging activity (59.26 ± 3.77%) as well as ferric reducing power [648.25 ± 0.90 μM Fe (II)/100 g]. Sourwood honey also exhibited the highest color intensity. Several strong positive correlations were observed amongst the different antioxidant parameters and the various antioxidant tests. Conclusion This is the first time that the antioxidant potential of both sourwood and rubber tree honeys have been reported. Our results indicated that Malaysian honey (specifically sourwood honey and longan honey) is a good source of antioxidants compared to Manuka honey. PMID:23938192

  19. Phytochemical fingerprints of lime honey collected in serbia.

    PubMed

    Gašić, Uroš; Šikoparija, Branko; Tosti, Tomislav; Trifković, Jelena; Milojković-Opsenica, Dušanka; Natić, Maja; Tešić, Živoslav

    2014-01-01

    Composition of phenolic compounds and the sugar content were determined as the basis for characterization of lime honey from Serbia. Particular attention was given to differences in phytochemical profiles of ripe and unripe lime honey and lime tree nectar. Melissopalynological analysis confirmed domination of Tilia nectar in all analyzed samples. Phenolic acids, abscisic acid, flavonoids, and flavonoid glycosides were determined by means of ultra-HPLC coupled with a hybrid mass spectrometer (UHPLC-OrbiTrap). Sugar content was determined using high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with amperometric detection. Similar phenolic compounds characterized unripe and ripe honeys, while the lime tree nectar profile showed notable differences. Compared to lime tree nectar, a high amount of chrysin, pinocembrin, and galangin were detected in both ripe and unripe lime honey. Fructose and glucose were the major constituents of all investigated samples, and amounts were within the limits established by European Union legislation. Sucrose content in the nectar sample was up to two-fold higher when compared to all honey samples. Isomaltose and gentiobiose with turanose content were different in analyzed production stages of lime honey.

  20. Characterization of Lavandula spp. Honey Using Multivariate Techniques.

    PubMed

    Estevinho, Leticia M; Chambó, Emerson Dechechi; Pereira, Ana Paula Rodrigues; Carvalho, Carlos Alfredo Lopes de; Toledo, Vagner de Alencar Arnaut de

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, melissopalynological and physicochemical analyses have been the most used to determine the botanical origin of honey. However, when performed individually, these analyses may provide less unambiguous results, making it difficult to discriminate between mono and multifloral honeys. In this context, with the aim of better characterizing this beehive product, a selection of 112 Lavandula spp. monofloral honey samples from several regions were evaluated by association of multivariate statistical techniques with physicochemical, melissopalynological and phenolic compounds analysis. All honey samples fulfilled the quality standards recommended by international legislation, except regarding sucrose content and diastase activity. The content of sucrose and the percentage of Lavandula spp. pollen have a strong positive association. In fact, it was found that higher amounts of sucrose in honey are related with highest percentage of pollen of Lavandula spp.. The samples were very similar for most of the physicochemical parameters, except for proline, flavonoids and phenols (bioactive factors). Concerning the pollen spectrum, the variation of Lavandula spp. pollen percentage in honey had little contribution to the formation of samples groups. The formation of two groups regarding the physicochemical parameters suggests that the presence of other pollen types in small percentages influences the factor termed as "bioactive", which has been linked to diverse beneficial health effects.

  1. Characterization of Lavandula spp. Honey Using Multivariate Techniques

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, melissopalynological and physicochemical analyses have been the most used to determine the botanical origin of honey. However, when performed individually, these analyses may provide less unambiguous results, making it difficult to discriminate between mono and multifloral honeys. In this context, with the aim of better characterizing this beehive product, a selection of 112 Lavandula spp. monofloral honey samples from several regions were evaluated by association of multivariate statistical techniques with physicochemical, melissopalynological and phenolic compounds analysis. All honey samples fulfilled the quality standards recommended by international legislation, except regarding sucrose content and diastase activity. The content of sucrose and the percentage of Lavandula spp. pollen have a strong positive association. In fact, it was found that higher amounts of sucrose in honey are related with highest percentage of pollen of Lavandula spp.. The samples were very similar for most of the physicochemical parameters, except for proline, flavonoids and phenols (bioactive factors). Concerning the pollen spectrum, the variation of Lavandula spp. pollen percentage in honey had little contribution to the formation of samples groups. The formation of two groups regarding the physicochemical parameters suggests that the presence of other pollen types in small percentages influences the factor termed as “bioactive”, which has been linked to diverse beneficial health effects. PMID:27588420

  2. Activity of Polish unifloral honeys against pathogenic bacteria and its correlation with colour, phenolic content, antioxidant capacity and other parameters.

    PubMed

    Kuś, P M; Szweda, P; Jerković, I; Tuberoso, C I G

    2016-03-01

    The use of honey as an antimicrobial agent gains importance due to often ineffectiveness of conventional treatment. However, activity of honey depends mainly on its botanical and geographical origin. To date, antimicrobial potential of Polish honeys has not yet been entirely investigated. In this study, 37 unifloral samples of 14 honey types (including rare varieties) from Poland were analysed and compared with manuka honey. The most active were cornflower, thyme and buckwheat honeys. Their MICs ranged from 3·12 to 25·00%, (depending on tested micro-organism) and often were lower than for manuka honey. Additionally, colour, antioxidant activity, total phenols, pH and conductivity were assessed and significant correlations (P < 0·05) of MICs with several parameters were found. The most active were darker honeys, with strong yellow colour component, rich in phenolics, with high conductivity and water content. The honey antibacterial properties depended mainly on peroxide mechanism and were vulnerable to excessive heating, but quite stable during storage in cold. A number of honey samples showed potential as effective antimicrobial agents. The observed correlations of MICs and physical-chemical parameters help to understand better the factors impacting the antibacterial activity. Honey is a promising agent in the treatment of non-healing infected wounds. Thirty-seven unifloral samples of 14 honey varieties from Poland were analysed for their antimicrobial activity and compared with manuka honey. Several honey types exert even higher antimicrobial potential and could be introduced to wound therapy. Additionally, positive correlations of the antimicrobial activity were found, especially with yellow colour and could be important in the search and screening of the honey active against Escherichia coli. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. A rapid reversed-phase thin layer chromatographic protocol for detection of adulteration in ghee (clarified milk fat) with vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Rani, Anupama; Sharma, Vivek; Arora, Sumit; Lal, Darshan; Kumar, Anil

    2015-04-01

    Detection of milk fat adulteration with foreign fats/oils continues to be a challenge for the dairy industry as well as food testing laboratories, especially in the present scenario of rampant adulteration using the scientific knowledge by unscrupulous persons involved in the trade. In the present investigation a rapid reversed-phase thin layer chromatographic (RP-TLC) protocol was standardized to ascertain the purity of milk fat. RP-TLC protocol did not show any false positive results in the genuine ghee (clarified butter fat) samples of known origin. Adulteration of ghee with coconut oil up to 7. 5 %, soybean oil, sunflower oil and groundnut oil up to 1 %, while, designer oil up to 2 % level could be detected using the standardized RP-TLC protocol. The protocol standardized is rapid and convenient to use.

  4. Modeling Honey Bee Populations.

    PubMed

    Torres, David J; Ricoy, Ulises M; Roybal, Shanae

    2015-01-01

    Eusocial honey bee populations (Apis mellifera) employ an age stratification organization of egg, larvae, pupae, hive bees and foraging bees. Understanding the recent decline in honey bee colonies hinges on understanding the factors that impact each of these different age castes. We first perform an analysis of steady state bee populations given mortality rates within each bee caste and find that the honey bee colony is highly susceptible to hive and pupae mortality rates. Subsequently, we study transient bee population dynamics by building upon the modeling foundation established by Schmickl and Crailsheim and Khoury et al. Our transient model based on differential equations accounts for the effects of pheromones in slowing the maturation of hive bees to foraging bees, the increased mortality of larvae in the absence of sufficient hive bees, and the effects of food scarcity. We also conduct sensitivity studies and show the effects of parameter variations on the colony population.

  5. Modeling Honey Bee Populations

    PubMed Central

    Torres, David J.; Ricoy, Ulises M.; Roybal, Shanae

    2015-01-01

    Eusocial honey bee populations (Apis mellifera) employ an age stratification organization of egg, larvae, pupae, hive bees and foraging bees. Understanding the recent decline in honey bee colonies hinges on understanding the factors that impact each of these different age castes. We first perform an analysis of steady state bee populations given mortality rates within each bee caste and find that the honey bee colony is highly susceptible to hive and pupae mortality rates. Subsequently, we study transient bee population dynamics by building upon the modeling foundation established by Schmickl and Crailsheim and Khoury et al. Our transient model based on differential equations accounts for the effects of pheromones in slowing the maturation of hive bees to foraging bees, the increased mortality of larvae in the absence of sufficient hive bees, and the effects of food scarcity. We also conduct sensitivity studies and show the effects of parameter variations on the colony population. PMID:26148010

  6. Volatile profile in the accurate labelling of monofloral honey. The case of lavender and thyme honey.

    PubMed

    Escriche, Isabel; Sobrino-Gregorio, Lara; Conchado, Andrea; Juan-Borrás, Marisol

    2017-07-01

    The proliferation of hybrid plant varieties without pollen, such as lavender, has complicated the classification of specific types of honey. This study evaluated the correlation between the proclaimed type of monofloral honey (lavender or thyme) as appears on the label with the actual percentage of pollen. In addition, physicochemical parameters, colour, olfacto-gustatory profile, and volatile compounds were tested. All of the samples labelled as lavender were wrongly classified according to the usual commercial criteria (minimum 10% of pollen Lavandula spp.). In the case of lavender honey, there was significant agreement between commercial labelling and classification through organoleptic perception (81.8%), and above all between the commercial labelling and the volatile compounds (90.9%). For thyme honey, agreement for both parameters was 90.0%. These results offer compelling evidence that the volatile compounds are useful for the classification of lavender honey with low levels of pollen since this technique agrees well with the organoleptic analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Detection of argan oil adulteration with vegetable oils by high-performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detection.

    PubMed

    Salghi, Rachid; Armbruster, Wolfgang; Schwack, Wolfgang

    2014-06-15

    Triacylglycerol profiles were selected as indicator of adulteration of argan oils to carry out a rapid screening of samples for the evaluation of authenticity. Triacylglycerols were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detection. Different peak area ratios were defined to sensitively detect adulteration of argan oil with vegetable oils such as sunflower, soy bean, and olive oil up to the level of 5%. Based on four reference argan oils, mean limits of detection and quantitation were calculated to approximately 0.4% and 1.3%, respectively. Additionally, 19 more argan oil reference samples were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography-refractive index detection, resulting in highly comparative results. The overall strategy demonstrated a good applicability in practise, and hence a high potential to be transferred to routine laboratories. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The application of Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS) to detect melamine adulteration of soya bean meal.

    PubMed

    Haughey, Simon A; Graham, Stewart F; Cancouët, Emmanuelle; Elliott, Christopher T

    2013-02-15

    Soya bean products are used widely in the animal feed industry as a protein based feed ingredient and have been found to be adulterated with melamine. This was highlighted in the Chinese scandal of 2008. Dehulled soya (GM and non-GM), soya hulls and toasted soya were contaminated with melamine and spectra were generated using Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS). By applying chemometrics to the spectral data, excellent calibration models and prediction statistics were obtained. The coefficients of determination (R(2)) were found to be 0.89-0.99 depending on the mathematical algorithm used, the data pre-processing applied and the sample type used. The corresponding values for the root mean square error of calibration and prediction were found to be 0.081-0.276% and 0.134-0.368%, respectively, again depending on the chemometric treatment applied to the data and sample type. In addition, adopting a qualitative approach with the spectral data and applying PCA, it was possible to discriminate between the four samples types and also, by generation of Cooman's plots, possible to distinguish between adulterated and non-adulterated samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Concentrations of neonicotinoid insecticides in honey, pollen and honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) in central Saskatchewan, Canada.

    PubMed

    Codling, Garry; Al Naggar, Yahya; Giesy, John P; Robertson, Albert J

    2016-02-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides (NIs) and their transformation products were detected in honey, pollen and honey bees, (Apis mellifera) from hives located within 30 km of the City of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. Clothianidin and thiamethoxam were the most frequently detected NIs, found in 68 and 75% of honey samples at mean concentrations of 8.2 and 17.2 ng g(-1) wet mass, (wm), respectively. Clothianidin was also found in >50% of samples of bees and pollen. Concentrations of clothianidin in bees exceed the LD50 in 2 of 28 samples, while for other NIs concentrations were typically 10-100-fold less than the oral LD50. Imidaclorpid was detected in ∼30% of samples of honey, but only 5% of pollen and concentrations were honey and pollen by bees over winter, during which worker bees live longer than in summer, suggested that, in some hives, consumption of honey and pollen during over-wintering might have adverse effects on bees. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Physicochemical parameters and microbiological status of honey produced in an urban environment in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Matović, Kazimir; Ćirić, Jelena; Kaljević, Vesna; Nedić, Nebojša; Jevtić, Goran; Vasković, Nikola; Baltić, Milan Ž

    2018-05-01

    Honey is a natural substance produced by honey bees (the genus Apis) enjoyed by people due to its unique nutritional and medicinal properties. The aim of this study was to determine the physicochemical parameters (moisture, ash, water-insoluble content, reducing sugars, sucrose, free acidity, diastase activity, hydroxymethylfurfural, and electrical conductivity) and microbiological status (total number of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, total number of sulfite-reducing clostridia, the presence of Salmonella spp., total numbers of fungi and yeasts and the presence of Clostridium botulinum) in honey (honeydew, blossom, sunflower, acacia, and linden) produced in an urban environment in Serbia. We analyzed 19 apiary samples of honey, collected during the 2011 harvesting season, by using recommendation methods. Physicochemical parameters of the examined honey produced in the urban environment indicated the honeys were of acceptable quality. Bacillus spp. were detected in four honeys, yeasts were detected in three honeys, and Clostridium botulinum type E was detected in one honey using PCR. The current study also showed the presence of diverse honey varieties in Serbia.

  11. Characterization of Botanical and Geographical Origin of Corsican "Spring" Honeys by Melissopalynological and Volatile Analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yin; Battesti, Marie-José; Costa, Jean; Paolini, Julien

    2014-01-27

    Pollen spectrum, physicochemical parameters and volatile fraction of Corsican "spring" honeys were investigated with the aim of developing a multidisciplinary method for the qualification of honeys in which nectar resources are under-represented in the pollen spectrum. Forty-one Corsican "spring" honeys were certified by melissopalynological analysis using directory and biogeographical origin of 50 representative taxa. Two groups of honeys were distinguished according to the botanical origin of samples: "clementine" honeys characterized by the association of cultivated species from oriental plain and other "spring" honeys dominated by wild herbaceous taxa from the ruderal and/or maquis area. The main compounds of the "spring" honey volatile fraction were phenylacetaldehyde, benzaldehyde and methyl-benzene. The volatile composition of "clementine" honeys was also characterized by three lilac aldehyde isomers. Statistical analysis of melissopalynological, physicochemical and volatile data showed that the presence of Citrus pollen in "clementine" honeys was positively correlated with the amount of linalool derivatives and methyl anthranilate. Otherwise, the other "spring" honeys were characterized by complex nectariferous species associations and the content of phenylacetaldehyde and methyl syringate.

  12. Nigerian Honey Ameliorates Hyperglycemia and Dyslipidemia in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Erejuwa, Omotayo O.; Nwobodo, Ndubuisi N.; Akpan, Joseph L.; Okorie, Ugochi A.; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum T.; Ezeokpo, Basil C.; Nwadike, Kenneth I.; Erhiano, Erhirhie; Abdul Wahab, Mohd S.; Sulaiman, Siti A.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic dyslipidemia contributes to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Hence, its treatment is necessary to reduce cardiovascular events. Honey reduces hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia. The reproducibility of these beneficial effects and their generalization to honey samples of other geographical parts of the world remain controversial. Currently, data are limited and findings are inconclusive especially with evidence showing honey increased glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetic patients. It was hypothesized that this deteriorating effect might be due to administered high doses. This study investigated if Nigerian honey could ameliorate hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. It also evaluated if high doses of honey could worsen glucose and lipid abnormalities. Honey (1.0, 2.0 or 3.0 g/kg) was administered to diabetic rats for three weeks. Honey (1.0 or 2.0 g/kg) significantly (p < 0.05) increased high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol while it significantly (p < 0.05) reduced hyperglycemia, triglycerides (TGs), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, coronary risk index (CRI) and cardiovascular risk index (CVRI). In contrast, honey (3.0 g/kg) significantly (p < 0.05) reduced TGs and VLDL cholesterol. This study confirms the reproducibility of glucose lowering and hypolipidemic effects of honey using Nigerian honey. However, none of the doses deteriorated hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia. PMID:26927161

  13. [A new herbs traceability method based on DNA barcoding-origin-morphology analysis--an example from an adulterant of 'Heiguogouqi'].

    PubMed

    Gu, Xuan; Zhang, Xiao-qin; Song, Xiao-na; Zang, Yi-mei; Li Yan-peng; Ma, Chang-hua; Zhao, Bai-xiao; Liu, Chun-sheng

    2014-12-01

    The fruit of Lycium ruthenicum is a common folk medicine in China. Now it is popular for its antioxidative effect and other medical functions. The adulterants of the herb confuse consumers. In order to identify a new adulterant of L. ruthenicum, a research was performed based on NCBI Nucleotide Database ITS Sequence, combined analysis of the origin and morphology of the adulterant to traceable varieties. Total genomic DNA was isolated from the materials, and nuclear DNA ITS sequences were amplified and sequenced; DNA fragments were collated and matched by using ContingExpress. Similarity identification of BLAST analysis was performed. Besides, the distribution of plant origin and morphology were considered to further identification and verification. Families and genera were identified by molecular identification method. The adulterant was identified as plant belonging to Berberis. Origin analysis narrowed the range of sample identification. Seven different kinds of plants in Berberis were potential sources of the sample. Adulterants variety was traced by morphological analysis. The united molecular identification-origin-morphology research proves to be a preceding way to medical herbs traceability with time-saving and economic advantages and the results showed the new adulterant of L. ruthenicum was B. kaschgarica. The main differences between B. kaschgarica and L. ruthenicum are as follows: in terms of the traits, the surface of B. kaschgarica is smooth and crispy, and that of L. ruthenicum is shrinkage, solid and hard. In microscopic characteristics, epicarp cells of B. aschgarica thickening like a string of beads, stone cells as the rectangle, and the stone cell walls of L. ruthenicum is wavy, obvious grain layer. In molecular sequences, the length of ITS sequence of B. kaschgarica is 606 bp, L. ruthenicum is 654 bp, the similarity of the two sequences is 53.32%.

  14. Honey Antibacterial Effect Boosting Using Origanum vulgare L. Essential Oil

    PubMed Central

    Imtara, Hamada; Elamine, Youssef

    2018-01-01

    The appearance of new bacterial strains which cause pathogenic diseases and which are resistant to the most used antibiotics requires probing new antibacterial agents sources. Therefore, the main aim of the present work was to follow the antibacterial activity of honey samples from Palestine and Morocco, after the combination with Origanum vulgare L. essential oil, and figure out whether the honey physicochemical parameters and geographic origin influence the final activity. The results of this study showed good geographical discrimination between the Palestinians and Moroccan honey samples. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities showed a significant correlation with honey color, melanoidins, and phenolic and flavonoids contents. Furthermore, the possible effect of honey physicochemical parameters on the gained antimicrobial activities was assessed using the principal component analysis (PCA). Some parameters showed a promising effect and seem to be important in the process of honey samples selection. Namely, melanoidins content, phenolic content, electrical conductivity, and mineral content were shown to be positively influencing the gained antibacterial activity after the combination with essential oil against the tested strains, although a significant negative correlation was seen with the FIC only in the case of Escherichia coli (ATB: 57). PMID:29736180

  15. Honey Antibacterial Effect Boosting Using Origanum vulgare L. Essential Oil.

    PubMed

    Imtara, Hamada; Elamine, Youssef; Lyoussi, Badiâa

    2018-01-01

    The appearance of new bacterial strains which cause pathogenic diseases and which are resistant to the most used antibiotics requires probing new antibacterial agents sources. Therefore, the main aim of the present work was to follow the antibacterial activity of honey samples from Palestine and Morocco, after the combination with Origanum vulgare L. essential oil, and figure out whether the honey physicochemical parameters and geographic origin influence the final activity. The results of this study showed good geographical discrimination between the Palestinians and Moroccan honey samples. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities showed a significant correlation with honey color, melanoidins, and phenolic and flavonoids contents. Furthermore, the possible effect of honey physicochemical parameters on the gained antimicrobial activities was assessed using the principal component analysis (PCA). Some parameters showed a promising effect and seem to be important in the process of honey samples selection. Namely, melanoidins content, phenolic content, electrical conductivity, and mineral content were shown to be positively influencing the gained antibacterial activity after the combination with essential oil against the tested strains, although a significant negative correlation was seen with the FIC only in the case of Escherichia coli (ATB: 57).

  16. Transfer of nitroimidazoles from contaminated beeswax to honey.

    PubMed

    Mitrowska, Kamila; Antczak, Maja

    2017-04-01

    Nitroimidazoles are not authorised for the treatment of honey bees in the European Union. However, they can be found in honey largely because they are illegally used in apiculture for the treatment of Nosema. The aim of the study was to examine the possible transfer of nitroimidazoles (metronidazole, ronidazole, dimetridazole and ipronidazole) from contaminated beeswax to honey. The wax foundations fortified with a mixture of four nitroimidazoles at three concentration levels (1000, 10,000 and 100,000 μg kg - 1 ) were placed in beehives to let the honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) draw out the contaminated wax foundations to honeycombs. At 1 month from the start, the frames filled with capped honey were removed from the hives for a first sampling of honey. Next, the honeycombs were further incubated for 5 months in the laboratory at 35°C and sampled monthly. In the sampled honey, the concentrations of nitroimidazoles and their main metabolites (hydroxymetronidazole, 2-hydroxymethyl-1-methyl-5-nitroimidazole, hydroxyipronidazole) were determined by LC-MS/MS and compared with those determined in the nitroimidazole-containing wax foundations. Each of the tested nitroimidazoles could migrate from beeswax to honey kept in the contaminated combs at each tested concentration level. Higher maximum concentrations of residues in honey sampled from contaminated combs at 1000, 10,000 and 100,000 μg kg - 1 were observed for metronidazole (28.9, 368.5 and 2589.4 μg kg - 1 respectively) and ronidazole (27.4, 232.9 and 2351.2 μg kg - 1 respectively), while lower maximum concentrations were measured for dimetridazole (0.98, 8.4 and 67.7 μg kg - 1 ) and ipronidazole (0.9, 7.9 and 35.7 μg kg - 1 respectively). When we took into account that a frame completely filled with honey on both sides of the comb contained 110 g of beeswax and 2488 g of honey, and that this ratio was constant, then maximum amounts of initial metronidazole, ronidazole, dimetridazole and

  17. The Microbial Community Dynamics during the Vitex Honey Ripening Process in the Honeycomb

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Yaqin; Wang, Lin; Jin, Yue; Zhang, Jinzhen; Su, Lei; Zhang, Xiaoling; Zhou, Jinhui; Li, Yi

    2017-01-01

    The bacterial and fungal communities of vitex honey were surveyed by sequencing the 16S rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA. Vitex honey samples were analyzed at different stage of ripening; the vitex flower was also analyzed, and the effect of the chemical composition in the experimental setup was assessed. The results confirmed the presence of dominant Bacillus spp. as the dominant bacterial in honey, and yeast related genera was the main fungal in the honey, respectively. Lactococcus and Enterococcus were detected for the first time in honey. The proportion of most of the fungal community decreased during the honey ripening process. Multivariate analyses also showed that the fungal community of 5, 10, and 15 days honey samples tended to cluster together and were completely separated from the 1 day honey sample. The change in the fungal community showed a correlation with the variation in the chemical components, such as moisture and phenolic compounds. Together, these results suggest that ripening of honey could change its microbial composition, and decrease the potential risk of microbiology. PMID:28912763

  18. A survey of the antibacterial activity of some New Zealand honeys.

    PubMed

    Allen, K L; Molan, P C; Reid, G M

    1991-12-01

    To assess the variation in antibacterial activity of honey a survey was carried out on 345 samples of unpasteurized honey obtained from commercial apiarists throughout New Zealand. Most of the honeys were considered to be monofloral, from 26 different floral sources. The honeys were tested against Staphylococcus aureus in an agar well diffusion assay, with reference to phenol as a standard. Antibacterial activity was found to range from the equivalent of less than 2% (w/v) phenol to 58% (w/v) phenol, with a median of 13.6 and a standard deviation of 12.5. Neither the age of the honey samples nor whether they had been processed by the apiarist was associated with lower activity. However, the difference between floral sources in the antibacterial activity was very highly significant. Kanuka (Kunzea ericoides (A. Rich.) J. Thompson. Family: Myrtaceae), manuka (Leptospermum scoparium J. R. et G. Forst. Family: Myrtaceae), ling heather (Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull. Family: Ericaceae) and kamahi (Weinmannia racemosa Linn. f. Family: Cunoniaceae) were shown to be sources likely to give honey with high antibacterial activity. When antibacterial activity was assayed with catalase added to remove hydrogen peroxide, most of the honeys showed no detectable antibacterial activity. Only manuka and vipers bugloss (Echium vulgare L. Family: Boraginaceae) honeys showed this type of activity in a significant proportion of the samples. The high antibacterial activity of manuka honey was in many cases due entirely to this non-peroxide component.

  19. Characterization of monofloral honeys with multivariate analysis of their chemical profile and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Sant'Ana, Luiza D'O; Sousa, Juliana P L M; Salgueiro, Fernanda B; Lorenzon, Maria Cristina Affonso; Castro, Rosane N

    2012-01-01

    Various bioactive chemical constituents were quantified for 21 honey samples obtained at Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais, Brazil. To evaluate their antioxidant activity, 3 different methods were used: the ferric reducing antioxidant power, the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity, and the 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazolin)-6-sulfonate (ABTS) assays. Correlations between the parameters were statistically significant (-0.6684 ≤ r ≤-0.8410, P < 0.05). Principal component analysis showed that honey samples from the same floral origins had more similar profiles, which made it possible to group the eucalyptus, morrão de candeia, and cambara honey samples in 3 distinct areas, while cluster analysis could separate the artificial honey from the floral honeys. This research might aid in the discrimination of honey floral origin, by using simple analytical methods in association with multivariate analysis, which could also show a great difference among floral honeys and artificial honey, indicating a possible way to help with the identification of artificial honeys. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Application of SCAR (sequence characterized amplified region) analysis to authenticate Lycium barbarum (wolfberry) and its adulterants.

    PubMed

    Sze, Stephen Cho-Wing; Song, Ju-Xian; Wong, Ricky Ngok-Shun; Feng, Yi-Bin; Ng, Tzi-Bun; Tong, Yao; Zhang, Kalin Yan-Bo

    2008-09-01

    Fructus Lycii (Gouqizi) is well known in Chinese herbal medicine for its restorative function of benefiting the liver and kidney, replenishing vital essence and improving eyesight. However, ten species and varieties of Lycium have benn found to be substitutes or adulterants of Lycium barbarum (wolfberry) in commercial markets in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and in China generally. L. barbarum cv. 'Tianjinense' and Lycium chinense var. potaninii are the most common examples. It is difficult to differentiate among the Lycium species by traditional morphological and histological analyses. An easy and reliable approach based on SCAR (sequence characterized amplified region) analysis was developed in the present study to differentiate L. barbarum from other Lycium species. Two characteristic bands of approx. 700 and 650 bp were detected on the RAPD (random amplification of polymorphic DNA) profiles generated from samples of L. barbarum and L. chinense var. potaninii using the primer OPC-7. They were isolated and sequenced. Two primer sets, based on the sequences, could amplify a single specific band in samples of L. barbarum respectively, whereas no bands were detected in samples of L. chinense var. potaninii. The results confirmed that the SCAR technique can be employed for authenticating L. barbarum and its adulterants.

  1. Identification of 3-MCPD esters to verify the adulteration of extra virgin olive oil.

    PubMed

    Hung, Wei-Ching; Peng, Guan-Jhih; Tsai, Wen-Ju; Chang, Mei-Hua; Liao, Chia-Ding; Tseng, Su-Hsiang; Kao, Ya-Min; Wang, Der-Yuan; Cheng, Hwei-Fang

    2017-09-01

    The adulteration of olive oil is an important issue around the world. This paper reports an indirect method by which to identify 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) esters in olive oils. Following sample preparation, the samples were spiked with 1,2-bis-palmitoyl-3-chloropropanediol standard for analysis using gas chromatograph-tandem mass spectrometry. The total recovery ranged from 102.8% to 105.5%, the coefficient of variation ranged from 1.1% to 10.1%, and the limit of quantification was 0.125 mg/kg. The content of 3-MCPD esters in samples of refined olive oil (0.97-20.53 mg/kg) exceeded those of extra virgin olive oil (non-detected to 0.24 mg/kg). These results indicate that the oil refining process increased the content of 3-MCPD esters, which means that they could be used as a target compound for the differentiation of extra virgin olive oil from refined olive oil in order to prevent adulteration.

  2. Detecting multiple adulterants in dry milk using Raman chemical imaging

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A Raman chemical imaging method was developed for detecting the presence of multiple chemical adulterants in dry milk powder. Four chemicals (ammonium sulfate, dicyandiamide, melamine, and urea) were added in equal concentrations, between 0.1% and 5.0%, to nonfat dry milk. An area of 25×25 mm2 for e...

  3. Advances in the identification of adulterated cereals and cereal products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This book chapter addresses the most common occurrences of adulteration in the cereal grains, the regulations in place by countries (such as the United States, United Kingdom, Italy, India, and the European Union), and the methodologies by which detection and quantification of the contaminant are ma...

  4. Combination of mass spectrometry-based targeted lipidomics and supervised machine learning algorithms in detecting adulterated admixtures of white rice.

    PubMed

    Lim, Dong Kyu; Long, Nguyen Phuoc; Mo, Changyeun; Dong, Ziyuan; Cui, Lingmei; Kim, Giyoung; Kwon, Sung Won

    2017-10-01

    The mixing of extraneous ingredients with original products is a common adulteration practice in food and herbal medicines. In particular, authenticity of white rice and its corresponding blended products has become a key issue in food industry. Accordingly, our current study aimed to develop and evaluate a novel discrimination method by combining targeted lipidomics with powerful supervised learning methods, and eventually introduce a platform to verify the authenticity of white rice. A total of 30 cultivars were collected, and 330 representative samples of white rice from Korea and China as well as seven mixing ratios were examined. Random forests (RF), support vector machines (SVM) with a radial basis function kernel, C5.0, model averaged neural network, and k-nearest neighbor classifiers were used for the classification. We achieved desired results, and the classifiers effectively differentiated white rice from Korea to blended samples with high prediction accuracy for the contamination ratio as low as five percent. In addition, RF and SVM classifiers were generally superior to and more robust than the other techniques. Our approach demonstrated that the relative differences in lysoGPLs can be successfully utilized to detect the adulterated mixing of white rice originating from different countries. In conclusion, the present study introduces a novel and high-throughput platform that can be applied to authenticate adulterated admixtures from original white rice samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Determination of neonicotinoid insecticides and their metabolites in honey bee and honey by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gbylik-Sikorska, Malgorzata; Sniegocki, Tomasz; Posyniak, Andrzej

    2015-05-15

    The original analytical method for the simultaneous determination and confirmation of neonicotinoids insecticides (imidacloprid, clothianidin, acetamiprid, thiametoxam, thiacloprid, nitenpyram, dinotefuran) and some of their metabolites (imidacloprid guanidine, imidacloprid olefin, imidacloprid urea, desnitro-imidacloprid hydrochloride, thiacloprid-amid and acetamiprid-N-desmethyl) in honey bee and honey was developed. Preparation of honey bee samples involves the extraction with mixture of acetonitrile and ethyl acetate followed by cleaned up using the Sep-Pak Alumina N Plus Long cartridges. Honey samples were dissolved in 1% mixture of acetonitrile and ethyl acetate with addition of TEA, then extracts were cleaned up with Strata X-CW cartridges. The identity of analytes was confirmed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. All compounds were separated on a Luna C18 column with gradient elution. The whole procedure was validated according to the requirements of SANCO 12571/2013. The average recoveries of the analytes ranged from 85.3% to 112.0%, repeatabilities were in the range of 2.8-11.2%, within-laboratory reproducibility was in the range of 3.3-14.6%, the limits of quantitation were in the range of 0.1-0.5μgkg(-1), depending of analyte and matrices. The validated method was successfully applied for the determination of clothianidin, imidacloprid and imidacloprid urea in real incurred honey bee samples and clothianidin in honey. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Carbon and nitrogen isotopic signatures and nitrogen profile to identify adulteration in organic fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Verenitch, Sergei; Mazumder, Asit

    2012-08-29

    Recently it has been shown that stable isotopes of nitrogen can be used to discriminate between organic and synthetic fertilizers, but the robustness of the approach is questionable. This work developed a comprehensive method that is far more robust in identifying an adulteration of organic nitrogen fertilizers. Organic fertilizers of various types (manures, composts, blood meal, bone meal, fish meal, products of poultry and plant productions, molasses and seaweed based, and others) available on the North American market were analyzed to reveal the most sensitive criteria as well as their quantitative ranges, which can be used in their authentication. Organic nitrogen fertilizers of known origins with a wide δ(15)N range between -0.55 and 28.85‰ (n = 1258) were characterized for C and N content, δ(13)C, δ(15)N, viscosity, pH, and nitrogen profile (urea, ammonia, organic N, water insoluble N, and NO3). A statistically significant data set of characterized unique organic nitrogen fertilizers (n = 335) of various known origins has been assembled. Deliberately adulterated samples of different types of organic fertilizers mixed with synthetic fertilizers at a wide range of proportions have been used to develop the quantitative critical characteristics of organic fertilizers as the key indicators of their adulteration. Statistical analysis based on the discriminant functions of the quantitative critical characteristics of organic nitrogen fertilizers from 14 different source materials revealed a very high average rate of correct classification. The developed methodology has been successfully used as a source identification tool for numerous commercial nitrogen fertilizers available on the North American market.

  7. Honey: A Biologic Wound Dressing.

    PubMed

    Molan, Peter; Rhodes, Tanya

    2015-06-01

    Honey has been used as a wound dressing for thousands of years, but only in more recent times has a scientific explanation become available for its effectiveness. It is now realized that honey is a biologic wound dressing with multiple bioactivities that work in concert to expedite the healing process. The physical properties of honey also expedite the healing process: its acidity increases the release of oxygen from hemoglobin thereby making the wound environment less favorable for the activity of destructive proteases, and the high osmolarity of honey draws fluid out of the wound bed to create an outflow of lymph as occurs with negative pressure wound therapy. Honey has a broad-spectrum antibacterial activity, but there is much variation in potency between different honeys. There are 2 types of antibacterial activity. In most honeys the activity is due to hydrogen peroxide, but much of this is inactivated by the enzyme catalase that is present in blood, serum, and wound tissues. In manuka honey, the activity is due to methylglyoxal which is not inactivated. The manuka honey used in wound-care products can withstand dilution with substantial amounts of wound exudate and still maintain enough activity to inhibit the growth of bacteria. There is good evidence for honey also having bioactivities that stimulate the immune response (thus promoting the growth of tissues for wound repair), suppress inflammation, and bring about rapid autolytic debridement. There is clinical evidence for these actions, and research is providing scientific explanations for them.

  8. Authentication of the botanical origin of honey by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ruoff, Kaspar; Luginbühl, Werner; Bogdanov, Stefan; Bosset, Jacques Olivier; Estermann, Barbara; Ziolko, Thomas; Amado, Renato

    2006-09-06

    Fourier transform near-infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIR) was evaluated for the authentication of eight unifloral and polyfloral honey types (n = 364 samples) previously classified using traditional methods such as chemical, pollen, and sensory analysis. Chemometric evaluation of the spectra was carried out by applying principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis. The corresponding error rates were calculated according to Bayes' theorem. NIR spectroscopy enabled a reliable discrimination of acacia, chestnut, and fir honeydew honey from the other unifloral and polyfloral honey types studied. The error rates ranged from <0.1 to 6.3% depending on the honey type. NIR proved also to be useful for the classification of blossom and honeydew honeys. The results demonstrate that near-infrared spectrometry is a valuable, rapid, and nondestructive tool for the authentication of the above-mentioned honeys, but not for all varieties studied.

  9. Melissopalynological and volatile analysis of honeys from Corsican Arbutus unedo habitat.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yin; Battesti, Marie-José; Costa, Jean; Paolini, Julien

    2014-10-01

    Thirty Corsican "autumn maquis" honeys were characterized by the typical combination of autumnal taxa: Arbutus unedo, Hedera helix, Smilax aspera, Rosmarinus officinalis, and two Asteraceae pollen forms. Corsican origin was characterized by the diversity of the taxa's biogeographical origins and significant presence of Castanea sativa and Quercus sp. Volatile fractions of "autumn maquis" honeys were dominated by isophorone and 3,4,5-trimethylphenol. The latter is reported in A. unedo honey for the first time. Otherwise, both A. unedo flower and "autumn maquis" honeys exhibited high contents of isophorone derivatives. H. helix honey exhibited phenylacetaldehyde, benzyl nitrile, 3-hydroxy-4-phenylbutan-2-one and nonanal as major compounds, which were scarcely represented in the studied "autumn maquis" honey samples.

  10. Honey Lake Project

    SciTech Connect

    Boren, K.L.; Johnson, K.R.

    1978-11-01

    Thirty units of a planned 205 geothermally heated hydroponic greenhouses are producing European cucumbers and tropic tomatoes near Wendel, California. The planned utilization of the geothermal resource in this project, hydroponics, in general, and the Honey Lake system is described. (MHR)

  11. Antibacterial activity of different honeys against pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Voidarou, C; Alexopoulos, A; Plessas, S; Karapanou, A; Mantzourani, I; Stavropoulou, E; Fotou, K; Tzora, A; Skoufos, I; Bezirtzoglou, E

    2011-12-01

    To study the antimicrobial activity of honey, 60 samples of various botanical origin were evaluated for their antimicrobial activities against 16 clinical pathogens and their respective reference strains. The microbiological quality of honeys and the antibiotic susceptibility of the various isolates were also examined. The bioassay applied for determining the antimicrobial effect employs the well-agar diffusion method and the estimation of minimum active dilution which produces a 1mm diameter inhibition zone. All honey samples, despite their origin (coniferous, citrus, thyme or polyfloral), showed antibacterial activity against the pathogenic and their respective reference strains at variable levels. Coniferous and thyme honeys showed the highest activity with an average minimum dilution of 17.4 and 19.2% (w/v) followed by citrus and polyfloral honeys with 20.8 and 23.8% respectively. Clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica subsp. Enterica, Streptococcus pyogenes, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis were proven to be up to 60% more resistant than their equal reference strains thus emphasizing the variability in the antibacterial effect of honey and the need for further research. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Rapid on-site detection of ephedrine and its analogues used as adulterants in slimming dietary supplements by TLC-SERS.

    PubMed

    Lv, Diya; Cao, Yan; Lou, Ziyang; Li, Shujin; Chen, Xiaofei; Chai, Yifeng; Lu, Feng

    2015-02-01

    Ephedrine and its analogues are in the list of prohibited substance in adulteration to botanical dietary supplements (BDS) for their uncontrollable stimulating side effects. However, they were always adulterated illegally in BDS to promote losing weight. In order to avoid detection, various kinds of ephedrine analogues were added rather than ephedrine itself. This has brought about great difficulties in authentication of BDS. In this study, we put forward for the first time a method which combined thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) to directly identify trace adulterant. Ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, methylephedrine, and norephedrine were mixed and used in this method to develop an analytical model. As a result, the four analogues were separated efficiently in TLC analysis, and trace-components and low-background SERS detection was realized. The limit of detection (LOD) of the four analogues was 0.01 mg/mL. Eight common Raman peaks (△υ = 620, 1003, 1030, 1159, 1181, 1205, 1454, 1603 cm(-1)) were extracted experimentally and statistically to characterize the common feature of ephedrine analogues. A TLC-SERS method coupled with common-peak model was adopted to examine nine practical samples, two of which were found to be adulterated with ephedrine analogues. Identification results were then confirmed by UPLC-QTOF/MS analysis. The proposed method was simple, rapid, and accurate and can also be employed to trace adulterant identification even when there are no available reference derivatives on-site or unknown types of ephedrine analogues are adulterated.

  13. Parasite pressures on feral honey bees (Apis mellifera sp.).

    PubMed

    Thompson, Catherine E; Biesmeijer, Jacobus C; Allnutt, Theodore R; Pietravalle, Stéphane; Budge, Giles E

    2014-01-01

    Feral honey bee populations have been reported to be in decline due to the spread of Varroa destructor, an ectoparasitic mite that when left uncontrolled leads to virus build-up and colony death. While pests and diseases are known causes of large-scale managed honey bee colony losses, no studies to date have considered the wider pathogen burden in feral colonies, primarily due to the difficulty in locating and sampling colonies, which often nest in inaccessible locations such as church spires and tree tops. In addition, little is known about the provenance of feral colonies and whether they represent a reservoir of Varroa tolerant material that could be used in apiculture. Samples of forager bees were collected from paired feral and managed honey bee colonies and screened for the presence of ten honey bee pathogens and pests using qPCR. Prevalence and quantity was similar between the two groups for the majority of pathogens, however feral honey bees contained a significantly higher level of deformed wing virus than managed honey bee colonies. An assessment of the honey bee race was completed for each colony using three measures of wing venation. There were no apparent differences in wing morphometry between feral and managed colonies, suggesting feral colonies could simply be escapees from the managed population. Interestingly, managed honey bee colonies not treated for Varroa showed similar, potentially lethal levels of deformed wing virus to that of feral colonies. The potential for such findings to explain the large fall in the feral population and the wider context of the importance of feral colonies as potential pathogen reservoirs is discussed.

  14. 'Honey ointment': a natural remedy of skin wound infections.

    PubMed

    Tasleem, Samiyah; Naqvi, Syed Baqir Shyum; Khan, Saadat Ali; Hashimi, Khursheed

    2011-01-01

    Honey is a gift of nature, principally identified and valued to possess antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity and has been used as a natural remedy of wounds since ancient times. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of honey against micro-organisms, to formulate a honey ointment and to evaluate the efficacy of such ointment by conducting clinical trials on skin wound infection. This experimental study was conducted at Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Karachi and Out-patient Department of Dermatology, Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi from November 2009 to October 2010. The antimicrobial activity of Pakistani floral sources (Trachysperm copticum, Acacia nilotica species indica, Zizyphus) honey samples was investigated by disc diffusion method against freshly isolated wound infecting bacteria (Staphylococci aureus, Staphylococci epidermidis, Streptococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris and Candida albicans), and Staphylococci aureus ATCC 6538, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9022, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Candida albican ATCC 15146. An ointment containing 20% active antimicrobial honey was formulated. The efficacy of such ointment was evaluated by passing thought clinical trials. A total number of 27 patients (23 skin wound infection, and 4 diabetic foot ulcer) were involved in the study. Thin layer of newly formulated honey ointment on gauze were applied two to three times per day till complete healing. In microbiological assay the honey samples were found to exhibit a very promising antimicrobial activity against all the micro-organisms tested. In clinical trial very significant results (99.15%) healing was observed in skin wound infections cases with mean healing time of 5.86 (2-20) days, and 95% diabetic foot ulcers healed with the mean healing time of 20 (8-40) days. Newly formulated ointment containing 20% active

  15. Parasite Pressures on Feral Honey Bees (Apis mellifera sp.)

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Catherine E.; Biesmeijer, Jacobus C.; Allnutt, Theodore R.; Pietravalle, Stéphane; Budge, Giles E.

    2014-01-01

    Feral honey bee populations have been reported to be in decline due to the spread of Varroa destructor, an ectoparasitic mite that when left uncontrolled leads to virus build-up and colony death. While pests and diseases are known causes of large-scale managed honey bee colony losses, no studies to date have considered the wider pathogen burden in feral colonies, primarily due to the difficulty in locating and sampling colonies, which often nest in inaccessible locations such as church spires and tree tops. In addition, little is known about the provenance of feral colonies and whether they represent a reservoir of Varroa tolerant material that could be used in apiculture. Samples of forager bees were collected from paired feral and managed honey bee colonies and screened for the presence of ten honey bee pathogens and pests using qPCR. Prevalence and quantity was similar between the two groups for the majority of pathogens, however feral honey bees contained a significantly higher level of deformed wing virus than managed honey bee colonies. An assessment of the honey bee race was completed for each colony using three measures of wing venation. There were no apparent differences in wing morphometry between feral and managed colonies, suggesting feral colonies could simply be escapees from the managed population. Interestingly, managed honey bee colonies not treated for Varroa showed similar, potentially lethal levels of deformed wing virus to that of feral colonies. The potential for such findings to explain the large fall in the feral population and the wider context of the importance of feral colonies as potential pathogen reservoirs is discussed. PMID:25126840

  16. Feasibility of using near infrared spectroscopy to detect and quantify an adulterant in high quality sandalwood oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuriakose, Saji; Joe, I. Hubert

    2013-11-01

    Determination of the authenticity of essential oils has become more significant, in recent years, following some illegal adulteration and contamination scandals. The present investigative study focuses on the application of near infrared spectroscopy to detect sample authenticity and quantify economic adulteration of sandalwood oils. Several data pre-treatments are investigated for calibration and prediction using partial least square regression (PLSR). The quantitative data analysis is done using a new spectral approach - full spectrum or sequential spectrum. The optimum number of PLS components is obtained according to the lowest root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC = 0.00009% v/v). The lowest root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP = 0.00016% v/v) in the test set and the highest coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.99989) are used as the evaluation tools for the best model. A nonlinear method, locally weighted regression (LWR), is added to extract nonlinear information and to compare with the linear PLSR model.

  17. A useful strategy based on chromatographic data combined with quality-by-design approach for food analysis applications. The case study of furanic derivatives in sugarcane honey.

    PubMed

    Silva, Pedro; Silva, Catarina L; Perestrelo, Rosa; Nunes, Fernando M; Câmara, José S

    2017-10-20

    Sugarcane honey (SCH) is one of the Madeira Island products par excellence and it is now popular worldwide. Its sui generis and peculiar sensory properties, explained by a variety of volatile compounds including furanic derivatives (FDs), arise mainly from manufacturing and storage conditions. A simple high-throughput approach based on semi-automatic microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) combined with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) was developed and validated for identification and quantification of target FDs in sugarcane honey. A Quality-by-Design (QbD) approach was used as a powerful strategy to optimize analytical conditions for high throughput analysis of FDs in complex sugar-rich food matrices. The optimum point into MEPS-Method Operable Design: Region (MODR) was obtained with R-CX sorbent, acetonitrile (ACN) as elution solvent, three loading cycles and 500μL of sample volume. The optimum point into UHPLC-MODR was obtained with a CORTECS column operating at a temperature of 50°C, ACN as eluent and a flow rate of 125μLmin -1 . The robustness was demonstrated by Monte Carlo simulation and capability analysis for estimation of residual errors. The concentration-response relationship for all FDs were described by polynomial function models, being confirmed by Fisher variance (F-test). The% recoveries were in a range of 91.9-112.1%. Good method precision was observed, yielding relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 4.9% for repeatability and 8.8% for intermediate precision. The limits of quantitation for the analytes ranged from 30.6 to 737.7μgkg -1 . The MEPS R-CX /UHPLC CORTECS -PDA method revealed an effective and potential analytical tool for SCH authenticity control based on target analysis of FDs allowing a strict control and differentiation from other similar or adulterated products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. FATAL HONEY POISONING IN SOUTHWEST CHINA: A CASE SERIES OF 31 CASES.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Xinguang; Chen, Shunan; Ye, Yinlong; Luo, Jiancheng; Li, Juanjuan; Yu, Siyang; Liu, Hui; Liu, Zhitao

    2017-01-01

    Honey poisoning cases occur in southwestern China. In this case series, we attempted to determine the symptoms and causes of honey poisoning from 2007 to 2012 in southwestern China. We also conducted a quantitative melissopalynological analysis of honey samples. During the study period, 31 honey poisoning cases occurred in the study location, all during July to August. All the cases occurred after consuming at least 100 grams of honey. The most frequent symptoms were nausea and vomiting (100%), abdominal pain (90.3%), diarrhea (74.2%), palpitations (61.3%), dizziness (54.8%), chest congestion (48.4%) and dyspnea (48.4%). Severe cases developed oliguria/anuria, twitch, hematuria, ecchymosis or hematochezia. The median time from ingestion to onset of symptoms was 29 hours. Eight patients died (mortality rate: 25.8%). The pollen of Tripterygium hypoglaucum (a plant with poisonous nectar and pollen) was detected in 22 of 29 honey samples examined (75.9%). The results of pollen analysis were consistent with the clinical findings of previous cases. T. hypoglaucum appears to be the cause of honey poisoning in southwestern China. Honey poisoning should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients who consume honey in this region and develop symptoms of food poisoning.

  19. An investigation of Turkish honeys: their physico-chemical properties, antioxidant capacities and phenolic profiles.

    PubMed

    Can, Zehra; Yildiz, Oktay; Sahin, Huseyin; Akyuz Turumtay, Emine; Silici, Sibel; Kolayli, Sevgi

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated some physico-chemical and biochemical characteristics of different honey types belonging to Turkish flora. Sixty-two honey samples were examined on the basis of pollen analyses, including 11 unifloral honeys (chestnut, heather, chaste tree, rhododendron, common eryngo, lavender, Jerusalem tea, astragalus, clover and acacia), two different honeydew honeys (lime and oak), and 7 different multifloral honeys. Electrical conductivity, moisture, Hunter color values, HMF, proline, diastase number, and sugar analyses of the honey samples were assessed for chemical characterization. Some phenolic components were analyzed by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) to determine honeys' phenolic profiles. Total phenolic compounds, total flavonoids, ferric reducing antioxidant capacity (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity were measured as antioxidant determinants. The study results confirm that physico-chemical and biological characteristics of honeys are closely related to their floral sources, and that dark-colored honeys such as oak, chestnut and heather, have a high therapeutic potential. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Identification and quantification of Cu-chlorophyll adulteration of edible oils.

    PubMed

    Fang, Mingchih; Tsai, Chia-Fen; Wu, Guan-Yan; Tseng, Su-Hsiang; Cheng, Hwei-Fang; Kuo, Ching-Hao; Hsu, Che-Lun; Kao, Ya-Min; Shih, Daniel Yang-Chih; Chiang, Yu-Mei

    2015-01-01

    Cu-pyropheophytin a, the major Cu-pigment of Cu-chlorophyll, was determined in edible oil by high-resolution mass spectrometry with a high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole (HPLC-Q)-Orbitrap system and by HPLC coupled with a photodiode-array detector. Respective limit of detection and limit of quantification levels of 0.02 μg/g and 0.05 μg/g were obtained. Twenty-nine commercial oil products marked as olive oil, grapeseed oil and blended oil, all sourced directly from a food company that committed adulteration with Cu-chlorophyll, were investigated. In this company, four green dyes illegally used in oils were seized during factory investigation by the health authorities. The food additive Cu-pyropheophytin a was found in all confiscated samples in concentrations between 0.02 and 0.39 μg/g. Survey results of another 235 commercial oil samples manufactured from other companies, including olive pomace oil, extra virgin olive oil, olive oil, grapeseed oil and blended oil, indicated high positive incidences of 63%, 39%, 44%, 97% and 8%, respectively, with a concentration range between 0.02 and 0.54 μg/g. High Cu-chlorophyll concentrations are indications for fraudulent adulteration of oils.

  1. Field populations of native Indian honey bees from pesticide intensive agricultural landscape show signs of impaired olfaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, Priyadarshini; Rana, Santanu; Bandopadhyay, Sreejata; Naik, Dattatraya G.; Sarkar, Sagartirtha; Basu, Parthiba

    2015-07-01

    Little information is available regarding the adverse effects of pesticides on natural honey bee populations. This study highlights the detrimental effects of pesticides on honey bee olfaction through behavioural studies, scanning electron microscopic imaging of antennal sensillae and confocal microscopic studies of honey bee brains for calcium ions on Apis cerana, a native Indian honey bee species. There was a significant decrease in proboscis extension response and biologically active free calcium ions and adverse changes in antennal sensillae in pesticide exposed field honey bee populations compared to morphometrically similar honey bees sampled from low/no pesticide sites. Controlled laboratory experiments corroborated these findings. This study reports for the first time the changes in antennal sensillae, expression of Calpain 1(an important calcium binding protein) and resting state free calcium in brains of honey bees exposed to pesticide stress.

  2. Field populations of native Indian honey bees from pesticide intensive agricultural landscape show signs of impaired olfaction

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, Priyadarshini; Rana, Santanu; Bandopadhyay, Sreejata; Naik, Dattatraya G.; Sarkar, Sagartirtha; Basu, Parthiba

    2015-01-01

    Little information is available regarding the adverse effects of pesticides on natural honey bee populations. This study highlights the detrimental effects of pesticides on honey bee olfaction through behavioural studies, scanning electron microscopic imaging of antennal sensillae and confocal microscopic studies of honey bee brains for calcium ions on Apis cerana, a native Indian honey bee species. There was a significant decrease in proboscis extension response and biologically active free calcium ions and adverse changes in antennal sensillae in pesticide exposed field honey bee populations compared to morphometrically similar honey bees sampled from low/no pesticide sites. Controlled laboratory experiments corroborated these findings. This study reports for the first time the changes in antennal sensillae, expression of Calpain 1(an important calcium binding protein) and resting state free calcium in brains of honey bees exposed to pesticide stress. PMID:26212690

  3. Who is 'Molly'? MDMA adulterants by product name and the impact of harm-reduction services at raves.

    PubMed

    Saleemi, Sarah; Pennybaker, Steven J; Wooldridge, Missi; Johnson, Matthew W

    2017-08-01

    Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), often sold as 'Ecstasy' or 'Molly', is commonly used at music festivals and reported to be responsible for an increase in deaths over the last decade. Ecstasy is often adulterated and contains compounds that increase morbidity and mortality. While users and clinicians commonly assume that products sold as Molly are less-adulterated MDMA products, this has not been tested. Additionally, while pill-testing services are sometimes available at raves, the assumption that these services decrease risky drug use has not been studied. This study analyzed data collected by the pill-testing organization, DanceSafe, from events across the United States from 2010 to 2015. Colorimetric reagent assays identified MDMA in only 60% of the 529 samples collected. No significant difference in the percentage of samples testing positive for MDMA was determined between Ecstasy and Molly. Individuals were significantly less likely to report intent to use a product if testing did not identify MDMA (relative risk (RR) = 0.56, p = 0.01). Results suggest that Molly is not a less-adulterated substance, and that pill-testing services are a legitimate harm-reduction service that decreases intent to consume potentially dangerous substances and may warrant consideration by legislators for legal protection. Future research should further examine the direct effects of pill-testing services and include more extensive pill-testing methods.

  4. In-vitro screening of Malaysian honey from different floral sources for antibacterial activity on human pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ng, Wen-Jie; Ken, Khai-Wei; Kumar, Roshani-Vijaya; Gunasagaran, Hemamalani; Chandramogan, Vanaysha; Lee, Ying-Yee

    2014-01-01

    Different researches on therapeutic effects of honey have been conducted in different regions; however the study on the potential antibacterial activity of Malaysian honey is still limited. In this study, antibacterial activities of different monofloral honey samples were tested against several common human pathogenic bacteria. The well-diffusion method, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) techniques were employed to investigate the putative antibacterial activity of Malaysian monofloral honey from Koompassia excelsa (Becc.) Taub (Tualang), Melaleuca cajuputi Powell (Gelam) and Durio zibethinus Murr. (Durian). Honey samples were tested against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC6518 and ATCC25923, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC12228, Enterococcus faecium LMG16192, Enterococcus faecalis LMG16216 and ATCC29212, Escherichia coli ATCC25922, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ATCC14028 and Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC13883. Marked variations were observed in the antibacterial activity of these honey samples. Durian honey failed to produce substantial antibacterial activity, whereas Tualang and Gelam honey showed a spectrum of antibacterial activity with their growth inhibitory effects against all of the tested bacterial species including vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). Present findings suggested Gelam honey possesses highest antibacterial effect among the tested Malaysian honey samples.

  5. Heavy Metal Contents and Physical Parameters of Aegiceras corniculatum, Brassica juncea, and Litchi chinensis Honeys from Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Sarker, Nandita; Chowdhury, Muhammed Alamgir Zaman; Fakhruddin, Abu Naieum Muhammad; Fardous, Zeenath; Moniruzzaman, Mohammed; Gan, Siew Hua

    2015-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the heavy metal levels and the physicochemical parameters (pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and ash, moisture, and total sugar content) of honeys from Bangladesh. Three different floral honeys were investigated, namely, khalsi (Aegiceras corniculatum), mustard (Brassica juncea), and litchi (Litchi chinensis) honeys. The heavy metals in the honeys were determined by using a High Temperature Dry Oxidation method followed by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. The mean pH, EC, and ash, moisture, and total sugar contents of the investigated honeys were 3.6, 0.51 mS/cm, 0.18%, 18.83%, and 68.30%, respectively. Iron was the most abundant among all the investigated heavy metals, ranging from 13.51 to 15.44 mg/kg. The mean concentrations of Mn and Zn in the investigated honeys were 0.28 mg/kg and 2.99 mg/kg, respectively. Cd was below the detection limit, and lead was found in some honey samples, but their contents were below the recommended Maximum Acceptable Level. Cr was also found in all of the samples, but its concentration was within the limit. The physicochemical analysis of the honey samples yielded levels within the limits set by the international honey legislation, indicating that the honey samples were of good quality and had acceptable values for maturity, purity, and freshness. PMID:26618176

  6. Heavy Metal Contents and Physical Parameters of Aegiceras corniculatum, Brassica juncea, and Litchi chinensis Honeys from Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Sarker, Nandita; Chowdhury, Muhammed Alamgir Zaman; Fakhruddin, Abu Naieum Muhammad; Fardous, Zeenath; Moniruzzaman, Mohammed; Gan, Siew Hua

    2015-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the heavy metal levels and the physicochemical parameters (pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and ash, moisture, and total sugar content) of honeys from Bangladesh. Three different floral honeys were investigated, namely, khalsi (Aegiceras corniculatum), mustard (Brassica juncea), and litchi (Litchi chinensis) honeys. The heavy metals in the honeys were determined by using a High Temperature Dry Oxidation method followed by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. The mean pH, EC, and ash, moisture, and total sugar contents of the investigated honeys were 3.6, 0.51 mS/cm, 0.18%, 18.83%, and 68.30%, respectively. Iron was the most abundant among all the investigated heavy metals, ranging from 13.51 to 15.44 mg/kg. The mean concentrations of Mn and Zn in the investigated honeys were 0.28 mg/kg and 2.99 mg/kg, respectively. Cd was below the detection limit, and lead was found in some honey samples, but their contents were below the recommended Maximum Acceptable Level. Cr was also found in all of the samples, but its concentration was within the limit. The physicochemical analysis of the honey samples yielded levels within the limits set by the international honey legislation, indicating that the honey samples were of good quality and had acceptable values for maturity, purity, and freshness.

  7. Rapid discrimination between buffalo and cow milk and detection of adulteration of buffalo milk with cow milk using synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy in combination with multivariate methods.

    PubMed

    Durakli Velioglu, Serap; Ercioglu, Elif; Boyaci, Ismail Hakki

    2017-05-01

    This research paper describes the potential of synchronous fluorescence (SF) spectroscopy for authentication of buffalo milk, a favourable raw material in the production of some premium dairy products. Buffalo milk is subjected to fraudulent activities like many other high priced foodstuffs. The current methods widely used for the detection of adulteration of buffalo milk have various disadvantages making them unattractive for routine analysis. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess the potential of SF spectroscopy in combination with multivariate methods for rapid discrimination between buffalo and cow milk and detection of the adulteration of buffalo milk with cow milk. SF spectra of cow and buffalo milk samples were recorded between 400-550 nm excitation range with Δλ of 10-100 nm, in steps of 10 nm. The data obtained for ∆λ = 10 nm were utilised to classify the samples using principal component analysis (PCA), and detect the adulteration level of buffalo milk with cow milk using partial least square (PLS) methods. Successful discrimination of samples and detection of adulteration of buffalo milk with limit of detection value (LOD) of 6% are achieved with the models having root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) and the root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) values of 2, 7, and 4%, respectively. The results reveal the potential of SF spectroscopy for rapid authentication of buffalo milk.

  8. Using DNA Metabarcoding to Identify the Floral Composition of Honey: A New Tool for Investigating Honey Bee Foraging Preferences.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Jennifer; de Vere, Natasha; Griffith, Adelaide; Ford, Col R; Allainguillaume, Joel; Hegarty, Matthew J; Baillie, Les; Adams-Groom, Beverley

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the floral composition of honey provides a method for investigating the plants that honey bees visit. We compared melissopalynology, where pollen grains retrieved from honey are identified morphologically, with a DNA metabarcoding approach using the rbcL DNA barcode marker and 454-pyrosequencing. We compared nine honeys supplied by beekeepers in the UK. DNA metabarcoding and melissopalynology were able to detect the most abundant floral components of honey. There was 92% correspondence for the plant taxa that had an abundance of over 20%. However, the level of similarity when all taxa were compared was lower, ranging from 22-45%, and there was little correspondence between the relative abundance of taxa found using the two techniques. DNA metabarcoding provided much greater repeatability, with a 64% taxa match compared to 28% with melissopalynology. DNA metabarcoding has the advantage over melissopalynology in that it does not require a high level of taxonomic expertise, a greater sample size can be screened and it provides greater resolution for some plant families. However, it does not provide a quantitative approach and pollen present in low levels are less likely to be detected. We investigated the plants that were frequently used by honey bees by examining the results obtained from both techniques. Plants with a broad taxonomic range were detected, covering 46 families and 25 orders, but a relatively small number of plants were consistently seen across multiple honey samples. Frequently found herbaceous species were Rubus fruticosus, Filipendula ulmaria, Taraxacum officinale, Trifolium spp., Brassica spp. and the non-native, invasive, Impatiens glandulifera. Tree pollen was frequently seen belonging to Castanea sativa, Crataegus monogyna and species of Malus, Salix and Quercus. We conclude that although honey bees are considered to be supergeneralists in their foraging choices, there are certain key species or plant groups that are particularly

  9. Using DNA Metabarcoding to Identify the Floral Composition of Honey: A New Tool for Investigating Honey Bee Foraging Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, Adelaide; Ford, Col R.; Allainguillaume, Joel; Hegarty, Matthew J.; Baillie, Les; Adams-Groom, Beverley

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the floral composition of honey provides a method for investigating the plants that honey bees visit. We compared melissopalynology, where pollen grains retrieved from honey are identified morphologically, with a DNA metabarcoding approach using the rbcL DNA barcode marker and 454-pyrosequencing. We compared nine honeys supplied by beekeepers in the UK. DNA metabarcoding and melissopalynology were able to detect the most abundant floral components of honey. There was 92% correspondence for the plant taxa that had an abundance of over 20%. However, the level of similarity when all taxa were compared was lower, ranging from 22–45%, and there was little correspondence between the relative abundance of taxa found using the two techniques. DNA metabarcoding provided much greater repeatability, with a 64% taxa match compared to 28% with melissopalynology. DNA metabarcoding has the advantage over melissopalynology in that it does not require a high level of taxonomic expertise, a greater sample size can be screened and it provides greater resolution for some plant families. However, it does not provide a quantitative approach and pollen present in low levels are less likely to be detected. We investigated the plants that were frequently used by honey bees by examining the results obtained from both techniques. Plants with a broad taxonomic range were detected, covering 46 families and 25 orders, but a relatively small number of plants were consistently seen across multiple honey samples. Frequently found herbaceous species were Rubus fruticosus, Filipendula ulmaria, Taraxacum officinale, Trifolium spp., Brassica spp. and the non-native, invasive, Impatiens glandulifera. Tree pollen was frequently seen belonging to Castanea sativa, Crataegus monogyna and species of Malus, Salix and Quercus. We conclude that although honey bees are considered to be supergeneralists in their foraging choices, there are certain key species or plant groups that are particularly

  10. Comparison of acute effects of heroin and Kerack on sensory and motor activity of honey bees (Apis mellifera)

    PubMed Central

    Hassanpour-Ezatti, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Previous studies demonstrated a functional similarity between vertebrate and honey bee nervous systems. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of heroin and Iranian street Kerack, a combination of heroin and caffeine, on sensory threshold and locomotor activity in honey bees. Materials and Methods: All drugs were given orally to honey bees 30 min before each experiment. The levels of these drugs and their metabolites in brain samples of honey bees were determined by GC/MS. The sucrose sensitivity test was used for evaluation of changes in honey bees’ sensory threshold. Following the administration of both drugs, the honey bees’ locomotor activity changes were evaluated in open fields. Results: 6-acetylmorphine had a higher concentration in comparison with other heroin metabolites in honey bees’ brains. Concentration of the compound in the brain was directly proportional to the amount ingested. Heroin reduced the sensory threshold of honey bees, but Kerack increased it in the same doses. Locomotor activity of honey bee in open field was enhanced after the administration of both drugs. However, immobility time of honey bees was only affected by high doses of heroin. Conclusion: Acute effects of heroin andKerack on the sensory and motor functions of honey bees were different. Findings of this research suggest that these differences originated from the activation of different neurotransmitter systems by caffeine together with activation of opioid receptors by heroin. PMID:26019799

  11. Modeling the synergistic antibacterial effects of honey characteristics of different botanical origins from the Sahara Desert of Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Laallam, Hadda; Boughediri, Larbi; Bissati, Samia; Menasria, Taha; Mouzaoui, Mohamed S.; Hadjadj, Soumia; Hammoudi, Rokia; Chenchouni, Haroun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Honey has multiple therapeutic properties due to its composition with diverse components. Objectives: This study aims to investigate the antimicrobial efficacy of Saharan honeys against bacterial pathogens, the variation of honey floral origins, and its physicochemical characteristics. Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial activity of 32 samples of honey collected from the Algerian Sahara Desert was tested on four bacteria; Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus. The botanical origin of honeys and their physicochemical properties were determined and their combined antibacterial effects were modeled using a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM). Results: Out of the 32 study samples, 14 were monofloral and 18 were multifloral. The pollen density was on average 7.86 × 106 grains/10 g of honey, water content was 14.6%, electrical conductivity (EC) was 0.5 μS/cm, pH was 4.38 ± 0 50, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) content was 82 mg/kg of honey, total sugars = 83%, reducing sugars = 71%, and the concentration of proline = 525.5 ± 550.2 mg/kg of honey. GLMM revealed that the antibacterial effect of honey varied significantly between bacteria and floral origins. This effect increased with increasing of water content and reducing sugars in honey, but it significantly decreased with increase of honey EC. E. coli was the most sensitive species with an inhibition zone of 10.1 ± 4.7 mm, while C. perfringens was the less sensitive. Honeys dominated by pollen of Fabaceae sp. were most effective with an overall antimicrobial activity equals to 13.5 ± 4.7 mm. Conclusion: Saharan honeys, of certain botanical origins, have physicochemical and pollinic characteristics with relevant potential for antibacterial purposes. This encourages a more comprehensive characterization of honeys with in vivo and in vitro investigations. PMID:26594206

  12. Properties of honey from ten species of Peruvian stingless bees.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Malaver, Antonio J; Rasmussen, Claus; Gutiérrez, María G; Gil, Florimar; Nieves, Beatriz; Vit, Patricia

    2009-09-01

    Honey produced by ten stingless bee species (Melipona crinita, M. eburnea, M. grandis, M. illota, Nannotrigona melanocera, Partamona epiphytophila, Ptilotrigona lurida, Scaptotrigona polystica, Scaura latitarsis, and Tetragonisca angustula) from Peru has been characterized according to traditional physicochemical standards (color and moisture), biochemical components (flavonoids, polyphenols, nitrites, proteins), and bioactive properties (antibacterial activity, antioxidant capacity). Analytical data are also provided for a sample of Apis mellifera and an artificial honey control. For stingless bees, honey color varied between 26 and 150 mm Pfund. M. illota produced the lightest honey, while N. melanocera and T. angustula were the darkest. Moisture varied between 20.8 and 45.8 g water/100 g, confirming higher moisture for stingless bee honey than the A. mellifera honey standard of 20 g water/100 g. Flavonoids varied from 2.6 to 31.0 mg quercetin equivalents/100g, nitrites from 0.30 to 2.88 micromoles nitrites/100 g, polyphenols from 99.7 to 464.9 mg gallic acid equivalents/100g, proteins from 0.75 to 2.86 g/100 g, and the antioxidant capacity from 93.8 to 569.6 micromoles Trolox equivalents/100 g. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was slightly lower against Staphylococcus aureus (12.5 -50 g/100 mL) than Escherichia coli (50 g/100 mL).

  13. Purity, adulteration and price of drugs bought on-line versus off-line in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van der Gouwe, Daan; Brunt, Tibor M; van Laar, Margriet; van der Pol, Peggy

    2017-04-01

    On-line drug markets flourish and consumers have high expectations of on-line quality and drug value. The aim of this study was to (i) describe on-line drug purchases and (ii) compare on-line with off-line purchased drugs regarding purity, adulteration and price. Comparison of laboratory analyses of 32 663 drug consumer samples (stimulants and hallucinogens) purchased between January 2013 and January 2016, 928 of which were bought on-line. The Netherlands. Primary outcome measures were (i) the percentage of samples purchased on-line and (ii) the chemical purity of powders (or dosage per tablet); adulteration; and the price per gram, blotter or tablet of drugs bought on-line compared with drugs bought off-line. The proportion of drug samples purchased on-line increased from 1.4% in 2013 to 4.1% in 2015. The frequency varied widely, from a maximum of 6% for controlled, traditional substances [ecstasy tablets, 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA) powder, amphetamine powder, cocaine powder, 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine (2C-B) and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)] to more than a third for new psychoactive substances (NPS) [4-fluoroamphetamine (4-FA), 5/6-(2-aminopropyl)benzofuran (5/6-APB) and methoxetamine (MXE)]. There were no large differences in drug purity, yet small but statistically significant differences were found for 4-FA (on-line 59% versus off-line 52% purity for 4-FA on average, P = 0.001), MDMA powders (45 versus 61% purity for MDMA, P = 0.02), 2C-B tablets (21 versus 10 mg 2C-B/tablet dosage, P = 0.49) and ecstasy tablets (131 versus 121 mg MDMA/tablet dosage, P = 0.05). The proportion of adulterated samples purchased on-line and off-line did not differ, except for 4-FA powder, being less adulterated on-line (χ 2  = 8.3; P < 0.02). Drug prices were mainly higher on-line, ranging for various drugs from 10 to 23% higher than that of drugs purchased off-line (six of 10 substances: P < 0.05). Dutch drug users increasingly

  14. Pollen analysis of natural honeys from the central region of Shanxi, North China.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiao-Yan; Yao, Yi-Feng; Yang, Wu-De

    2012-01-01

    Based on qualitative and quantitative melissopalynological analyses, 19 Chinese honeys were classified by botanical origin to determine their floral sources. The honey samples were collected during 2010-2011 from the central region of Shanxi Province, North China. A diverse spectrum of 61 pollen types from 37 families was identified. Fourteen samples were classified as unifloral, whereas the remaining samples were multifloral. Bee-favoured families (occurring in more than 50% of the samples) included Caprifoliaceae (found in 10 samples), Laminaceae (10), Brassicaceae (12), Rosaceae (12), Moraceae (13), Rhamnaceae (15), Asteraceae (17), and Fabaceae (19). In the unifloral honeys, the predominant pollen types were Ziziphus jujuba (in 5 samples), Robinia pseudoacacia (3), Vitex negundo var. heterophylla (2), Sophora japonica (1), Ailanthus altissima (1), Asteraceae type (1), and Fabaceae type (1). The absolute pollen count (i.e., the number of pollen grains per 10 g honey sample) suggested that 13 samples belonged to Group I (<20,000 pollen grains), 4 to Group II (20,000-100,000), and 2 to Group III (100,000-500,000). The dominance of unifloral honeys without toxic pollen grains and the low value of the HDE/P ratio (i.e., honey dew elements/pollen grains from nectariferous plants) indicated that the honey samples are of good quality and suitable for human consumption.

  15. Pollen Analysis of Natural Honeys from the Central Region of Shanxi, North China

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xiao-Yan; Yao, Yi-Feng; Yang, Wu-De

    2012-01-01

    Based on qualitative and quantitative melissopalynological analyses, 19 Chinese honeys were classified by botanical origin to determine their floral sources. The honey samples were collected during 2010–2011 from the central region of Shanxi Province, North China. A diverse spectrum of 61 pollen types from 37 families was identified. Fourteen samples were classified as unifloral, whereas the remaining samples were multifloral. Bee-favoured families (occurring in more than 50% of the samples) included Caprifoliaceae (found in 10 samples), Laminaceae (10), Brassicaceae (12), Rosaceae (12), Moraceae (13), Rhamnaceae (15), Asteraceae (17), and Fabaceae (19). In the unifloral honeys, the predominant pollen types were Ziziphus jujuba (in 5 samples), Robinia pseudoacacia (3), Vitex negundo var. heterophylla (2), Sophora japonica (1), Ailanthus altissima (1), Asteraceae type (1), and Fabaceae type (1). The absolute pollen count (i.e., the number of pollen grains per 10 g honey sample) suggested that 13 samples belonged to Group I (<20,000 pollen grains), 4 to Group II (20,000–100,000), and 2 to Group III (100,000–500,000). The dominance of unifloral honeys without toxic pollen grains and the low value of the HDE/P ratio (i.e., honey dew elements/pollen grains from nectariferous plants) indicated that the honey samples are of good quality and suitable for human consumption. PMID:23185358

  16. The Antibacterial Activity of Australian Leptospermum Honey Correlates with Methylglyoxal Levels

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Leona T.; Brooks, Peter; Carter, Dee A.; Blair, Shona E.

    2016-01-01

    Most commercially available therapeutic honey is derived from flowering Leptospermum scoparium (manuka) plants from New Zealand. Australia has more than 80 Leptospermum species, and limited research to date has found at least some produce honey with high non-peroxide antibacterial activity (NPA) similar to New Zealand manuka, suggesting Australia may have a ready supply of medical-grade honey. The activity of manuka honey is largely due to the presence of methylglyoxal (MGO), which is produced non-enzymatically from dihydroxyacetone (DHA) present in manuka nectar. The aims of the current study were to chemically quantify the compounds contributing to antibacterial activity in a collection of Australian Leptospermum honeys, to assess the relationship between MGO and NPA in these samples, and to determine whether NPA changes during honey storage. Eighty different Leptospermum honey samples were analysed, and therapeutically useful NPA was seen in samples derived from species including L. liversidgei and L. polygalifolium. Exceptionally high levels of up to 1100 mg/kg MGO were present in L. polygalifolium honey samples sourced from the Northern Rivers region in NSW and Byfield, QLD, with considerable diversity among samples. There was a strong positive relationship between NPA and MGO concentration, and DHA was present in all of the active honey samples, indicating a potential for ongoing conversion to MGO. NPA was stable, with most samples showing little change following seven years of storage in the dark at 4°C. This study demonstrates the potential for Australian Leptospermum honey as a wound care product, and argues for an extension of this analysis to other Leptospermum species. PMID:28030589

  17. Effect of Iranian Ziziphus honey on growth of some foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Ekhtelat, Maryam; Ravaji, Karim; Parvari, Masood

    2016-01-01

    Honey has previously been shown to have wound healing and antimicrobial properties, but this is dependent on the type of honey, geographical location, and flower from which the final product is derived. We tested the antimicrobial activity of a natural honey originating from the Ziziphus spina-christi tree, against selected strains of bacteria. Ziziphus honey among more than a 100 verities of honey is known to have the greatest value of energy and minerals in it. The aim of this study was to determine the antibacterial activity of Ziziphus honey in 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% dilutions (v/v) against Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus. Viable count enumeration of the sample was investigated after 0, 24, 72, and 120 h postinoculation with any of the bacteria using pour-plate method. The findings indicate that Ziziphus honey was effective against these pathogenic bacteria. In a comparative trial, antibacterial activity of Ziziphus honey was higher after 120 h incubation for each four bacteria in most dilutions. The microbial count showed 3-7.5 log reduction comparing with control after 120 h. Therefore, it is recommended using Ziziphus honey as a natural preservative and antibacterial agent. Also, it could potentially be used as therapeutic agents against bacterial infection particularly to the tested microorganisms.

  18. Effect of Iranian Ziziphus honey on growth of some foodborne pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Ekhtelat, Maryam; Ravaji, Karim; Parvari, Masood

    2016-01-01

    Background: Honey has previously been shown to have wound healing and antimicrobial properties, but this is dependent on the type of honey, geographical location, and flower from which the final product is derived. We tested the antimicrobial activity of a natural honey originating from the Ziziphus spina-christi tree, against selected strains of bacteria. Ziziphus honey among more than a 100 verities of honey is known to have the greatest value of energy and minerals in it. Materials and Methods: The aim of this study was to determine the antibacterial activity of Ziziphus honey in 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% dilutions (v/v) against Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus. Viable count enumeration of the sample was investigated after 0, 24, 72, and 120 h postinoculation with any of the bacteria using pour-plate method. Results: The findings indicate that Ziziphus honey was effective against these pathogenic bacteria. In a comparative trial, antibacterial activity of Ziziphus honey was higher after 120 h incubation for each four bacteria in most dilutions. The microbial count showed 3-7.5 log reduction comparing with control after 120 h. Conclusions: Therefore, it is recommended using Ziziphus honey as a natural preservative and antibacterial agent. Also, it could potentially be used as therapeutic agents against bacterial infection particularly to the tested microorganisms. PMID:27003970

  19. Administration of honey to prevent peritoneal adhesions in a rat peritonitis model.

    PubMed

    Yuzbasioglu, Mehmet Fatih; Kurutas, Ergul Belge; Bulbuloglu, Ertan; Goksu, Mustafa; Atli, Yalcin; Bakan, Vedat; Kale, Ilhami Taner

    2009-02-01

    We investigated the effects of intraperitoneal honey on the development of postoperative intra-abdominal adhesions and oxidative stress in a model of bacterial peritonitis. Bacterial peritonitis was induced in 18 rats by cecal ligation and puncture. The rats were randomly assigned to three groups. Group 1 (n=6) received honey intraperitoneally, group 2 (n=6) received 5% dextrose intraperitoneally, and the third group received no fluid or medicine intraperitoneally one day after cecal ligation and puncture procedure. All animals were killed 14 days later so we could assess the adhesion score. Tissue antioxidant levels were measured in 1-g tissue samples taken from the abdominal wall. Adhesion scores of honey treated group were significantly lower according to the control group (P<0.05) and statistically significant. Adhesion scores of honey were lower from 5% dextrose but not statistically significant (P>0.05). Malondialdehyde values of honey group were significantly lower from the control group (P<0.05) and levels in 5% dextrose group was higher than the honey group. Catalase levels were high in control and 5% dextrose groups. Superoxide dismutase levels were higher in the control group than the honey group (statistically significant). Intraperitoneal honey decreased the formation of postoperative intra-abdominal adhesions without compromising wound healing in this bacterial peritonitis rat model. Honey also decreased the oxidative stress during peritonitis.

  20. Extra virgin (EV) and ordinary (ON) olive oils: distinction and detection of adulteration (EV with ON) as determined by direct infusion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and chemometric approaches.

    PubMed

    Alves, Júnia de O; Neto, Waldomiro B; Mitsutake, Hery; Alves, Paulo S P; Augusti, Rodinei

    2010-07-15

    Extra virgin (EV), the finest and most expensive among all the olive oil grades, is often adulterated by the cheapest and lowest quality ordinary (ON) olive oil. A new methodology is described herein that provides a simple, rapid, and accurate way not only to detect such type of adulteration, but also to distinguish between these olive oil grades (EV and ON). This approach is based on the application of direct infusion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry in the positive ion mode, ESI(+)-MS, followed by the treatment of the MS data via exploratory statistical approaches, PCA (principal component analysis) and HCA (hierarchical clustering analysis). Ten distinct brands of each EV and ON olive oil, acquired at local stores, were analyzed by ESI(+)-MS and the results from HCA and PCA clearly indicated the formation of two distinct groups related to these two categories. For the adulteration study, one brand of each olive oil grade (EV and ON) was selected. The counterfeit samples (a total of 20) were then prepared by adding assorted proportions, from 1 to 20% w/w, with increments of 1% w/w, of the ON to the EV olive oil. The PCA and HCA methodologies, applied to the ESI(+)-MS data from the counterfeit (20) and authentic (10) EV samples, were able to readily detect adulteration, even at levels as low as 1% w/w. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Variability of residue concentrations of ciprofloxacin in honey from treated hives.

    PubMed

    Chan, Danny; Macarthur, Roy; Fussell, Richard J; Wilford, Jack; Budge, Giles

    2017-04-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) were treated with a model veterinary drug compound (ciprofloxacin) in a 3-year study (2012-14) to investigate the variability of residue concentration in honey. Sucrose solution containing ciprofloxacin was administered to 45 hives (1 g of ciprofloxacin per hive) at the beginning of the honey flow in late May/mid-June 2012, 2013 and 2014. Buckfast honey bees (A. mellifera - hybrid) were used in years 2012 and 2013. Carniolan honey bees (A. mellifera carnica) were used instead of the Buckfast honey bees as a replacement due to unforeseen circumstances in the final year of the study (2014). Honey was collected over nine scheduled time points from May/June till late October each year. Up to five hives were removed and their honey analysed per time point. Honey samples were analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to determine ciprofloxacin concentration. Statistical assessment of the data shows that the inter-hive variation of ciprofloxacin concentrations in 2012/13 is very different compared with that of 2014 with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 138% and 61%, respectively. The average ciprofloxacin concentration for 2014 at the last time point was more than 10 times the concentration compared with samples from 2012/13 at the same time point. The difference between the 2012/13 data compared with the 2014 data is likely due to the different type of honey bees used in this study (2012/13 Buckfast versus 2014 Carniolan). Uncertainty estimates for honey with high ciprofloxacin concentration (upper 95th percentile) across all hives for 55-day withdrawal samples gave residual standard errors (RSEs) of 22%, 20% and 11% for 2012, 2013 and 2014, respectively. If the number of hives were to be reduced for future studies, RSEs were estimated to be 52% (2012), 54% (2013) and 26% (2014) for one hive per time point (nine total hives).

  2. Capillary zone electrophoresis for fatty acids with chemometrics for the determination of milk adulteration by whey addition.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Mendes, Thiago; Porto, Brenda Lee Simas; Bell, Maria José Valenzuela; Perrone, Ítalo Tuler; de Oliveira, Marcone Augusto Leal

    2016-12-15

    Adulteration of milk with whey is difficult to detect because these two have similar physical and chemical characteristics. The traditional methodologies to monitor this fraud are based on the analysis of caseinomacropeptide. The present study proposes a new approach to detect and quantify this fraud using the fatty acid profiles of milk and whey. Fatty acids C14:0, C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3 were selected by gas chromatography associated with discriminant analysis to differentiate milk and whey, as they are present in quite different amounts. These six fatty acids were quantified within a short time by capillary zone electrophoresis in a set of adulterated milk samples. The correlation coefficient between the true values of whey addition and the experimental values obtained by this technique was 0.973. The technique is thus useful for the evaluation of milk adulteration with whey, contributing to the quality control of milk in the dairy industry. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Detection and identification of extra virgin olive oil adulteration by GC-MS combined with chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Ferro, Miguel Duarte; Cavaco, Isabel; Liang, Yizeng

    2013-04-17

    In this study, an analytical method for the detection and identification of extra virgin olive oil adulteration with four types of oils (corn, peanut, rapeseed, and sunflower oils) was proposed. The variables under evaluation included 22 fatty acids and 6 other significant parameters (the ratio of linoleic/linolenic acid, oleic/linoleic acid, total saturated fatty acids (SFAs), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), MUFAs/PUFAs). Univariate analyses followed by multivariate analyses were applied to the adulteration investigation. As a result, the univariate analyses demonstrated that higher contents of eicosanoic acid, docosanoic acid, tetracosanoic acid, and SFAs were the peculiarities of peanut adulteration and higher levels of linolenic acid, 11-eicosenoic acid, erucic acid, and nervonic acid the characteristics of rapeseed adulteration. Then, PLS-LDA made the detection of adulteration effective with a 1% detection limit and 90% prediction ability; a Monte Carlo tree identified the type of adulteration with 85% prediction ability.

  4. Microbiological assessment of honey in México.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Quiñones, Carlos Ramón; Moreno-Terrazas, Rúben; Natividad-Bonifacio, Iván; Quiñones-Ramírez, Elsa Irma; Vázquez-Salinas, Carlos

    Honey is a product used as a natural sweetener and in several regions of Mexico and other countries it is also used as a therapeutic agent. Microbiological contamination of honey can occur during its extraction and handling. Due to the use and consumption of honey we highlighted here the importance of the assessment of its microbiological quality. One thousand nine hundred twenty samples obtained from 8 honey-producing states from Mexico were analyzed. From these samples, 40.5% (777/1920) did not comply with the NMX-036-NORMEX-2006 specification. Forty five percent (777/1920) of the samples did not comply with the mesophilic aerobic microorganism specification, neither did 17% (327/1920) of the samples with the specification for molds and 18.1% (348/1920) with the specification for yeasts. With regard to coliform bacteria, the samples contained less than 3 NMP/g. Two percent of the samples contained lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Clostridium perfringens was observed in amounts of more than 100CFU/g. None of the samples from the different states contained more than 100CFU/g of Staphylococcus aureus; Salmonella spp. was absent in all samples. It is important to avoid contamination sources and implement good hygienic practices in order to maintain and improve the quality of Mexican honeys since a large percentage of them are intended for export. If these honeys are intended for therapeutic use, it is necessary to ensure that they comply with all quality parameters and to apply specific treatments that guarantee the removal of any pathogen that may represent a risk to the patients's health. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Combined antibacterial activity of stingless bee (Apis mellipodae) honey and garlic (Allium sativum) extracts against standard and clinical pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Andualem, Berhanu

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the synergic antibacterial activity of garlic and tazma honey against standard and clinical pathogenic bacteria. Antimicrobial activity of tazma honey, garlic and mixture of them against pathogenic bacteria were determined. Chloramphenicol and water were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration of antimicrobial samples were determined using standard methods. Inhibition zone of mixture of garlic and tazma honey against all tested pathogens was significantly (P≤0.05) greater than garlic and tazma honey alone. The diameter zone of inhibition ranged from (18±1) to (35±1) mm for mixture of garlic and tazma honey, (12±1) to (20±1) mm for tazma honey and (14±1) to (22±1) mm for garlic as compared with (10±1) to (30±1) mm for chloramphenicol. The combination of garlic and tazma honey (30-35 mm) was more significantly (P≤0.05) effective against Salmonella (NCTC 8385), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Lyesria moncytogenes (ATCC 19116) and Streptococcus pneumonia (ATCC 63). Results also showed considerable antimicrobial activity of garlic and tazma honey. MIC of mixture of garlic and tazma honey at 6.25% against total test bacteria was 88.9%. MIC of mixture of garlic and tazma honey at 6.25% against Gram positive and negative were 100% and 83.33%, respectively. The bactericidal activities of garlic, tazma honey, and mixture of garlic and tazma honey against all pathogenic bacteria at 6.25% concentration were 66.6%, 55.6% and 55.6%, respectively. This finding strongly supports the claim of the local community to use the combination of tazma honey and garlic for the treatment of different pathogenic bacterial infections. Therefore, garlic in combination with tazma honey can serve as an alternative natural antimicrobial drug for the treatment of pathogenic bacterial infections. Further in vivo study is recommended to come up with a comprehensive conclusion.

  6. Honey collected from different floras of Chandigarh Tricity: a comparative study involving physicochemical parameters and biochemical activities.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pradeep; Sindhu, Rakesh K; Narayan, Shridhar; Singh, Inderbir

    2010-12-01

    Different monofloral honeys have a distinctive flavor and color because of differences in physicochemical parameters because of their principal nectar sources or floral types. Honey samples were collected from Apis mellifera colonies forged on 10 floras to analyze the quality of honey in terms of standards laid by Honey Grading and Marking Rules (HGMR), India, 2008 and Codex Alimentarious Commission (CAC), 1969 . The honey samples were analyzed for various physicochemical parameters of honey quality control, i.e., pH, total acidity, moisture, reducing sugars, non-reducing sugars, total sugars, water insoluble solids (WIS), ash content, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural content, and diastase value. The antioxidant potential was estimated using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Further, honey samples were assayed for antibacterial activities against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli using the hole-plate diffusion method. The physicochemical variation in the composition of honey because of floral source shows Ziziphus honey with high pH and diastase values along with low acidity, whereas Helianthus honey contained high reducing sugar and low moisture content. Amomum, Brassica, Acacia, and Citrus contained lowest amount of non-reducing sugars, ash, WIS, and moisture, respectively. Lowest 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) value was detected in Amomum honey, while highest HMF value was observed with Eucalyptus. The maximum antibacterial and antioxidant potential was observed in Azadirachta and Citrus, respectively. The quality of honey produced by local beekeepers met HGMR and CAC standards, and the chemical composition and biological properties of honey were dependent on the floral source from which it was produced.

  7. 7 CFR 1212.10 - Honey products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Honey products. 1212.10 Section 1212.10 Agriculture..., Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1212.10 Honey products. “Honey products” mean products where honey is a principal ingredient. For purposes of this subpart, a product shall be...

  8. Development of a Hazard Classification Scheme for Substances Used in the Fraudulent Adulteration of Foods.

    PubMed

    Everstine, Karen; Abt, Eileen; McColl, Diane; Popping, Bert; Morrison-Rowe, Sara; Lane, Richard W; Scimeca, Joseph; Winter, Carl; Ebert, Andrew; Moore, Jeffrey C; Chin, Henry B

    2018-01-01

    Food fraud, the intentional misrepresentation of the true identity of a food product or ingredient for economic gain, is a threat to consumer confidence and public health and has received increased attention from both regulators and the food industry. Following updates to food safety certification standards and publication of new U.S. regulatory requirements, we undertook a project to (i) develop a scheme to classify food fraud-related adulterants based on their potential health hazard and (ii) apply this scheme to the adulterants in a database of 2,970 food fraud records. The classification scheme was developed by a panel of experts in food safety and toxicology from the food industry, academia, and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Categories and subcategories were created through an iterative process of proposal, review, and validation using a subset of substances known to be associated with the fraudulent adulteration of foods. Once developed, the scheme was applied to the adulterants in the database. The resulting scheme included three broad categories: 1, potentially hazardous adulterants; 2, adulterants that are unlikely to be hazardous; and 3, unclassifiable adulterants. Categories 1 and 2 consisted of seven subcategories intended to further define the range of hazard potential for adulterants. Application of the scheme to the 1,294 adulterants in the database resulted in 45% of adulterants classified in category 1 (potentially hazardous). Twenty-seven percent of the 1,294 adulterants had a history of causing consumer illness or death, were associated with safety-related regulatory action, or were classified as allergens. These results reinforce the importance of including a consideration of food fraud-related adulterants in food safety systems. This classification scheme supports food fraud mitigation efforts and hazard identification as required in the U.S. Food Safety Modernization Act Preventive Controls Rules.

  9. Quantitative and Discriminative Evaluation of Contents of Phenolic and Flavonoid and Antioxidant Competence for Chinese Honeys from Different Botanical Origins.

    PubMed

    Shen, Shi; Wang, Jingbo; Zhuo, Qin; Chen, Xi; Liu, Tingting; Zhang, Shuang-Qing

    2018-05-08

    Phenolics and flavonoids in honey are considered as the main phytonutrients which not only act as natural antioxidants, but can also be used as floral markers for honey identification. In this study, the chemical profiles of phenolics and flavonoids, antioxidant competences including total phenolic content, DPPH and ABTS assays and discrimination using chemometric analysis of various Chinese monofloral honeys from six botanical origins (acacia, Vitex , linden, rapeseed, Astragalus and Codonopsis ) were examined. A reproducible and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was optimized and validated for the simultaneous determination of 38 phenolics, flavonoids and abscisic acid in honey. Formononetin, ononin, calycosin and calycosin-7- O -β-d-glucoside were identified and quantified in honeys for the first time. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed obvious differences among the honey samples in three-dimensional space accounting for 72.63% of the total variance. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) also revealed that the botanical origins of honey samples correlated with their phenolic and flavonoid contents. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) classification was performed to derive a model with high prediction ability. Orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) model was employed to identify markers specific to a particular honey type. The results indicated that Chinese honeys contained various and discriminative phenolics and flavonoids, as well as antioxidant competence from different botanical origins, which was an alternative approach to honey identification and nutritional evaluation.

  10. Detection of cow milk adulteration in yak milk by ELISA.

    PubMed

    Ren, Q R; Zhang, H; Guo, H Y; Jiang, L; Tian, M; Ren, F Z

    2014-10-01

    In the current study, a simple, sensitive, and specific ELISA assay using a high-affinity anti-bovine β-casein monoclonal antibody was developed for the rapid detection of cow milk in adulterated yak milk. The developed ELISA was highly specific and could be applied to detect bovine β-casein (10-8,000 μg/mL) and cow milk (1:1,300 to 1:2 dilution) in yak milk. Cross-reactivity was <1% when tested against yak milk. The linear range of adulterant concentration was 1 to 80% (vol/vol) and the minimum detection limit was 1% (vol/vol) cow milk in yak milk. Different treatments, including heating, acidification, and rennet addition, did not interfere with the assay. Moreover, the results were highly reproducible (coefficient of variation <10%) and we detected no significant differences between known and estimated values. Therefore, this assay is appropriate for the routine analysis of yak milk adulterated with cow milk. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Chemical markers of shiikuwasha juice adulterated with calamondin juice.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kenta; Yahada, Ayumi; Sasaki, Kumi; Ogawa, Kazunori; Koga, Nobuyuki; Ohta, Hideaki

    2012-11-07

    Detection of shiikuwasha (Citrus depressa Hayata) juice adulterated with calamondin (Citrus madurensis Lour.) juice was investigated by the analyses of (1) phloretin dihydrochalcone glucoside, 3',5'-di-C-β-glucopyranosylphloretin (PD) detected by thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), (2) polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs), included nobiletin, tangeretin, and sinensetin, detected by HPLC, and (3) γ-terpinene peak percentage obtained by headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography with cryofocusing. PD was detected in calamondin juice (25.5 mg/100 mL) but not in shiikuwasha juice. Shiikuwasha juice contained higher levels of nobiletin (48.8 mg/100 mL) than calamondin juice (2.4 mg/100 mL). Shiikuwasha juice was characterized by containing a higher percentage of γ-terpinene (12.3%) than calamondin juice (0.7%). A discrimination function obtained by a linear discriminant analysis with PMFs and a peak ratio of [nobiletin/tangeretin] and γ-terpinene detected the adulteration with accuracies of 91.7%. These three chemical markers were useful to detect shiikuwasha juice that is suspected of being adulterated with calamondin juice.

  12. Adverse child health impacts resulting from food adulterations in the Greater China Region.

    PubMed

    Li, Wai Chin; Chow, Chin Fung

    2017-09-01

    Food adulteration has a long history in human society, and it still occurs in modern times. Because children are relatively vulnerable to food adulterants, studying the health impacts of food adulteration on children is important. This article provides an overview of the child health impacts of food adulterants in two recent food adulteration incidents in the Greater China Region: (1) a plasticizer incident in Taiwan and (2) a 2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5-triazine (melamine)-tainted milk incident in China. The involved food adulterants, di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), diisononyl phthalate (DiNP) and melamine, are harmful to the hippocampus, kidneys, reproductive organs and immune system of children, and they also increase the risk of cancer. To detect food adulteration and to avoid further harm caused by food adulteration, simple screening methods have been developed, and they have recently emerged as a new focus area for research. This article also summarizes the simple screening methods used to analyse the aforementioned food adulterants and reports how governments reacted to the recent food incidents. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. 49 CFR 40.95 - What are the adulterant cutoff concentrations for initial and confirmation tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Drug Testing... laboratory, you must use the cutoff concentrations for the initial and confirmation adulterant testing as...

  14. 49 CFR 40.95 - What are the adulterant cutoff concentrations for initial and confirmation tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Drug Testing... laboratory, you must use the cutoff concentrations for the initial and confirmation adulterant testing as...

  15. 49 CFR 40.95 - What are the adulterant cutoff concentrations for initial and confirmation tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Drug Testing... laboratory, you must use the cutoff concentrations for the initial and confirmation adulterant testing as...

  16. 49 CFR 40.95 - What are the adulterant cutoff concentrations for initial and confirmation tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Drug Testing... laboratory, you must use the cutoff concentrations for the initial and confirmation adulterant testing as...

  17. 49 CFR 40.95 - What are the adulterant cutoff concentrations for initial and confirmation tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Drug Testing... laboratory, you must use the cutoff concentrations for the initial and confirmation adulterant testing as...

  18. Anatolian honey is not only sweet but can also protect from breast cancer: Elixir for women from artemis to present.

    PubMed

    Seyhan, Mehmet Fatih; Yılmaz, Eren; Timirci-Kahraman, Özlem; Saygılı, Neslihan; Kısakesen, Halil İbrahim; Eronat, Allison Pınar; Ceviz, Ayşe Begüm; Bilgiç Gazioğlu, Sema; Yılmaz-Aydoğan, Hülya; Öztürk, Oğuz

    2017-09-01

    Natural products with bioactive components are widely studied on various cancer cell lines for their possible cytotoxic effects, recently. Among these products, honey stands out as a valuable bee product containing many active phenolic compounds and flavonoids. Numerous types of multifloral honey and honeydew honey are produced in Turkey owing to its abundant vegetation. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of particular tree-originated honeys from chestnut, cedar, pine, and multifloral honey on cell lines representing different types of the most common cancer of women, breast cancer, MCF7, SKBR3, and MDAMB-231, and fibrocystic breast epithelial cell line, MCF10A as a control. All honey samples were analyzed biochemically. The dose- (1, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 µg/mL) and time (24th, 48th, and 72nd hours)-dependent effects of ethanol/water solutions of the honey samples were scrutinized. Cell viability/cytotoxicity was evaluated by the water soluble tetrazolium Salt-1 (WST-1) method. Apoptotic status was detected by Annexin V-PI assay using FACSCalibur. The statistical analysis was performed using GraphPad Prism 6 and the clustering data analysis with the R programming language. The biochemical analyses of the honey samples showed that the tree-originated honey samples contained more total phenolic compounds than the multifloral honey. Phenolic content of the honey types increases in order of multifloral, pine, cedar, and chestnut, respectively, which is compatible with their cytotoxic affectivity and dark color. In addition, the antioxidant capacity of the studied honey types was observed to increase in order of multifloral < pine < cedar ≅ chestnut. According to the WST-1 data, chestnut honey induced cytotoxicity over 50% on all the cell lines, including the control MCF10A cells, even with low doses (honey concentrations starting from 1 µg/mL) (P < 0.0001). Similarly, Cedar honey was observed to be the second most effective

  19. Applying quantitative metabolomics based on chemical isotope labeling LC-MS for detecting potential milk adulterant in human milk.

    PubMed

    Mung, Dorothea; Li, Liang

    2018-02-25

    There is an increasing demand for donor human milk to feed infants for various reasons including that a mother may be unable to provide sufficient amounts of milk for their child or the milk is considered unsafe for the baby. Selling and buying human milk via the Internet has gained popularity. However, there is a risk of human milk sold containing other adulterants such as animal or plant milk. Analytical tools for rapid detection of adulterants in human milk are needed. We report a quantitative metabolomics method for detecting potential milk adulterants (soy, almond, cow, goat and infant formula milk) in human milk. It is based on the use of a high-performance chemical isotope labeling (CIL) LC-MS platform to profile the metabolome of an unknown milk sample, followed by multivariate or univariate comparison of the resultant metabolomic profile with that of human milk to determine the differences. Using dansylation LC-MS to profile the amine/phenol submetabolome, we could detect an average of 4129 ± 297 (n = 9) soy metabolites, 3080 ± 470 (n = 9) almond metabolites, 4256 ± 136 (n = 18) cow metabolites, 4318 ± 198 (n = 9) goat metabolites, 4444 ± 563 (n = 9) infant formula metabolites, and 4020 ± 375 (n = 30) human metabolites. This high level of coverage allowed us to readily differentiate the six different types of samples. From the analysis of binary mixtures of human milk containing 5, 10, 25, 50 and 75% other type of milk, we demonstrated that this method could be used to detect the presence of as low as 5% adulterant in human milk. We envisage that this method could be applied to detect contaminant or adulterant in other types of food or drinks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Radioactivity in honey of the central Italy.

    PubMed

    Meli, Maria Assunta; Desideri, Donatella; Roselli, Carla; Feduzi, Laura; Benedetti, Claudio

    2016-07-01

    Natural radionuclides and (137)Cs in twenty seven honeys produced in a region of the Central Italy were determined by alpha ((235)U, (238)U, (210)Po, (232)Th and (228)Th) and gamma spectrometry ((137)Cs, (40)K, (226)Ra and (228)Ra). The study was carried out in order to estimate the background levels of natural ((40)K, (238)U and (232)Th and their progeny) and artificial radionuclides ((137)Cs) in various honey samples, as well as to compile a data base for radioactivity levels in that region. (40)K showed a mean activity of 28.1±23.0Bqkg(-1) with a range of 7.28-101Bqkg(-1). The mean of (210)Po activity resulted 0.40±0.46Bqkg(-1) with a range of 0.03-1.98Bqkg(-1). The mean of (238)U activity resulted 0.020±0.010Bqkg(-1). (226)Ra and (228)Ra resulted always <0.34 and <0.57Bqkg(-1) respectively, (235)U, (228)Th and (232)Th were always <0.007Bqkg(-1). (137)Cs resulted <0.10Bqkg(-1) in all samples. The committed effective doses due to (210)Po from ingestion of honey for infants, children and adults account for 0.002-5.13% of the natural radiation exposure in Italy. The honeys produced in Central Italy were of good quality in relation to the studied parameters, confirming the general image of a genuine and healthy food associated to this traditional products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of Algerian honey.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Ibrahim; Moniruzzaman, Mohammed; Boukraâ, Laïd; Benhanifia, Mokhtar; Islam, Asiful; Islam, Nazmul; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Gan, Siew Hua

    2012-09-20

    The aim of the present study was to characterize the physical, biochemical and antioxidant properties of Algerian honey samples (n = 4). Physical parameters, such as pH, moisture content, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), color intensity, total sugar and sucrose content were measured. Several biochemical and antioxidant tests were performed to determine the antioxidant properties of the honey samples. The mean pH was 3.84 ± 0.01, and moisture the content was 13.21 ± 0.16%. The mean EC was 0.636 ± 0.001, and the mean TDS was 316.92 ± 0.92. The mean color was 120.58 ± 0.64 mm Pfund, and the mean 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) content was 21.49 mg/kg. The mean total sugar and reducing sugar contents were 67.03 ± 0.68 g/mL and 64.72 ± 0.52 g/g, respectively. The mean sucrose content was 2.29 ± 0.65%. High mean values of phenolic (459.83 ± 1.92 mg gallic acid/kg), flavonoid (54.23 ± 0.62 mg catechin/kg), ascorbic acid (159.70 ± 0.78 mg/kg), AEAC (278.15 ± 4.34 mg/kg), protein (3381.83 ± 6.19 mg/kg) and proline (2131.47 ± 0.90) contents, as well as DPPH (39.57% ± 4.18) and FRAP activities [337.77 ± 1.01 µM Fe (II)/100 g], were also detected, indicating that Algerian honey has a high antioxidant potential. Strong positive correlations were found between flavonoid, proline and ascorbic acid contents and color intensity with DPPH and FRAP values. Thus, the present study revealed that Algerian honey is a good source of antioxidants.

  2. Honey as a Complementary Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Miguel, MG; Antunes, MD; Faleiro, ML

    2017-01-01

    The beneficial effects of honey on human health have long been recognized. Today, many of those positive effects have been studied to elucidate its mode of action. This review briefly summarizes the best studied features of honey, highlighting it as an appealing alternative medicine. In these reports, the health benefits of honey range from antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and anti-inflammatory activity to anticancer action, metabolic and cardiovascular benefits, prebiotic properties, human pathogen control, and antiviral activity. These studies also support that the honey’s biological activity is mainly dependent on its floral or geographic origin. In addition, some promising synergies between honey and antibiotics have been found, as well as some antiviral properties that require further investigation. Altogether, these studies show that honey is effectively a nutraceutical foodstuff. PMID:28469409

  3. Development of a quantitative multi-compound method for the detection of 14 nitrogen-rich adulterants by LC-MS/MS in food materials.

    PubMed

    Frank, Nancy; Bessaire, Thomas; Tarres, Adrienne; Goyon, Alexandre; Delatour, Thierry

    2017-11-01

    The increasing number of food frauds using exogenous nitrogen-rich adulterants to artificially raise the protein content for economically motivated adulteration has demonstrated the need for a robust analytical methodology. This method should be applicable for quality control in operations covering a wide range of analyte concentrations to be able to analyse high levels as usually found in adulteration, as well as low levels due to contamination. The paper describes a LC-MS/MS method covering 14 nitrogen-rich adulterants using a simple and fast sample preparation based on dilution and clean-up by dispersive SPE. Quantification is carried out by isotopic dilution reaching LOQs of 0.05-0.20 mg/kg in a broad range of food matrices (infant formula, liquid milk, dairy ingredient, high protein meal, cereal, infant cereal, and meat/fish powder). Validation of seven commodity groups was performed according to SANCO 12571/2013, giving satisfactory results demonstrating the method's fitness for purpose at the validated range at contamination level. Method ruggedness was further assessed by transferring the developed method into another laboratory devoted to routine testing for quality control. Next to the method description, emphasis is placed on challenges and problems appearing during method development as well as validation. They are discussed in detail and solutions are provided.

  4. Development of a comprehensive analytical platform for the detection and quantitation of food fraud using a biomarker approach. The oregano adulteration case study.

    PubMed

    Wielogorska, Ewa; Chevallier, Olivier; Black, Connor; Galvin-King, Pamela; Delêtre, Marc; Kelleher, Colin T; Haughey, Simon A; Elliott, Christopher T

    2018-01-15

    Due to increasing number of food fraud incidents, there is an inherent need for the development and implementation of analytical platforms enabling detection and quantitation of adulteration. In this study a set of unique biomarkers of commonly found oregano adulterants became the targets in the development of a LC-MS/MS method which underwent a rigorous in-house validation. The method presented very high selectivity and specificity, excellent linearity (R 2 >0.988) low decision limits and detection capabilities (<2%), acceptable accuracy (intra-assay 92-113%, inter-assay 69-138%) and precision (CV<20%). The method was compared with an established FTIR screening assay and revealed a good correlation of quali- and quantitative results (R 2 >0.81). An assessment of 54 suspected adulterated oregano samples revealed that almost 90% of them contained at least one bulking agent, with a median level of adulteration of 50%. Such innovative methodologies need to be established as routine testing procedures to detect and ultimately deter food fraud. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Demonstrated Potential of Ion Mobility Spectrometry for Detection of Adulterated Perfumes and Plant Speciation

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Jared Matthew; Daum, Keith Alvin; Kalival, J. H.

    2003-01-01

    This initial study evaluates the use of ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) as a rapid test procedure for potential detection of adulterated perfumes and speciation of plant life. Sample types measured consist of five genuine perfumes, two species of sagebrush, and four species of flowers. Each sample type is treated as a separate classification problem. It is shown that discrimination using principal component analysis with K-nearest neighbors can distinguish one class from another. Discriminatory models generated using principal component regressions are not as effective. Results from this examination are encouraging and represent an initial phase demonstrating that perfumes and plants possessmore » characteristic chemical signatures that can be used for reliable identification.« less

  6. Honey - A Novel Antidiabetic Agent

    PubMed Central

    Erejuwa, Omotayo O.; Sulaiman, Siti A.; Wahab, Mohd S. Ab

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus remains a burden worldwide in spite of the availability of numerous antidiabetic drugs. Honey is a natural substance produced by bees from nectar. Several evidence-based health benefits have been ascribed to honey in the recent years. In this review article, we highlight findings which demonstrate the beneficial or potential effects of honey in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), on the gut microbiota, in the liver, in the pancreas and how these effects could improve glycemic control and metabolic derangements. In healthy subjects or patients with impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes mellitus, various studies revealed that honey reduced blood glucose or was more tolerable than most common sugars or sweeteners. Pre-clinical studies provided more convincing evidence in support of honey as a potential antidiabetic agent than clinical studies did. The not-too-impressive clinical data could mainly be attributed to poor study designs or due to the fact that the clinical studies were preliminary. Based on the key constituents of honey, the possible mechanisms of action of antidiabetic effect of honey are proposed. The paper also highlights the potential impacts and future perspectives on the use of honey as an antidiabetic agent. It makes recommendations for further clinical studies on the potential antidiabetic effect of honey. This review provides insight on the potential use of honey, especially as a complementary agent, in the management of diabetes mellitus. Hence, it is very important to have well-designed, randomized controlled clinical trials that investigate the reproducibility (or otherwise) of these experimental data in diabetic human subjects. PMID:22811614

  7. Authentication of the botanical and geographical origin of honey by front-face fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ruoff, Kaspar; Luginbühl, Werner; Künzli, Raphael; Bogdanov, Stefan; Bosset, Jacques Olivier; von der Ohe, Katharina; von der Ohe, Werner; Amado, Renato

    2006-09-06

    Front-face fluorescence spectroscopy, directly applied on honey samples, was used for the authentication of 11 unifloral and polyfloral honey types (n = 371 samples) previously classified using traditional methods such as chemical, pollen, and sensory analysis. Excitation spectra (220-400 nm) were recorded with the emission measured at 420 nm. In addition, emission spectra were recorded between 290 and 500 nm (excitation at 270 nm) as well as between 330 and 550 nm (excitation at 310 nm). A total of four different spectral data sets were considered for data analysis. Chemometric evaluation of the spectra included principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis; the error rates of the discriminant models were calculated by using Bayes' theorem. They ranged from <0.1% (polyfloral and chestnut honeys) to 9.9% (fir honeydew honey) by using single spectral data sets and from <0.1% (metcalfa honeydew, polyfloral, and chestnut honeys) to 7.5% (lime honey) by combining two data sets. This study indicates that front-face fluorescence spectroscopy is a promising technique for the authentication of the botanical origin of honey and may also be useful for the determination of the geographical origin within the same unifloral honey type.

  8. Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids from Echium vulgare in Honey Originate Primarily from Floral Nectar.

    PubMed

    Lucchetti, Matteo A; Glauser, Gaetan; Kilchenmann, Verena; Dübecke, Arne; Beckh, Gudrun; Praz, Christophe; Kast, Christina

    2016-06-29

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) in honey can be a potential human health risk. So far, it has remained unclear whether PAs in honey originate from pollen or floral nectar. We obtained honey, nectar, and plant pollen from two observation sites where Echium vulgare L. was naturally abundant. The PA concentration of honey was determined by targeted analysis using a high pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry system (HPLC-MS/MS), allowing the quantification of six different PAs and PA-N-oxides present in E. vulgare. Echium-type PAs were detected up to 0.153 μg/g in honey. Nectar and plant pollen were analyzed by nontargeted analysis using ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography-high resolution-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HR-MS), allowing the detection of 10 alkaloids in small size samples. Echium-type PAs were detected between 0.3-95.1 μg/g in nectar and 500-35000 μg/g in plant pollen. The PA composition in nectar and plant pollen was compared to the composition in honey. Echimidine (+N-oxide) was the main alkaloid detected in honey and nectar samples, while echivulgarine (+N-oxide) was the main PA found in plant pollen. These results suggest that nectar contributes more significantly to PA contamination in honey than plant pollen.

  9. Efficacy of newly formulated ointment containing 20% active antimicrobial honey in treatment of burn wound infections.

    PubMed

    Tasleem, Samiyah; Naqvi, Syed Baqir Shyum; Khan, Saadat Ali; Hashmi, Khursheed

    2013-01-01

    Honey has been familiar to possess antimicrobial potential to clear infection against burn wound infecting bacteria since ancient times. The objective of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of the newly formulated honey ointment during the treatment of burn wound infections. The Experimental (Non comparative) study was conducted at outpatient department of Dermatology, Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi from November 2009 to October 2010. The antimicrobial activity of different Pakistani floral sources (Acacia nilotica species indica, Zizyphus, Helianthus annuus and Carisa opaca) honey samples were investigated by disc diffusion method against freshly isolated burn wounds infecting bacteria. Ointment containing 20% active antimicrobial honey was formulated as a sovereign remedy. A total number of twenty patients with second degree of burn wounds on different parts of the body were studied. A thin layer of honey ointment on gauze was applied to the wounds two to three times a day up to the complete healing. During microbiological study, Pakistani honey samples were discovered to exhibit a very promising antimicrobial activity against all the wound infecting microorganisms tested. Clinical trials demonstrated that the topical application of honey ointment have significant control of infections arising form pathogenic bacteria and up to 100% healing results were observed in all burn wound cases within mean healing time for the duration of 8.15 (3-18) days time period. Newly formulated ointment containing 20% active antimicrobial honey is more effective and low-cost alternative preparation for the treatment of burn wound infections.

  10. Changes of antioxidant activity and formation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in honey during thermal and microwave processing.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Stanisław

    2013-11-15

    The paper presents the results of microwave irradiation and conventional heating of honey. These two kinds of thermal treatment result in the formation of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (HMF), and changes in the antioxidant potential of honeys, which were studied as well. Four types of honey (honeydew, lime, acacia, buckwheat) were analyzed. Honey samples were subjected to conventional heating in a water bath (WB) at 90°C up to 60min or to the action of a microwave field (MW) with constant power of 1.26W/g of the sample up to 6min. Changes in the antioxidant capacity of honeys were measured as a percentage of free radical (ABTS(+)and DPPH) scavenging ability. Changes in the total polyphenols content (TPC) (equivalents of gallic acid mg/100g of honey) were also determined. Formation of HMF in honey treated with a microwave field was faster in comparison with the conventional process. Changes in the antioxidant properties of honey subjected to thermal or microwave processing might have been botanical origin dependent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Two-year variations of phenolics, flavonoids and antioxidant contents in acacia honey.

    PubMed

    Moniruzzaman, Mohammed; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Azlan, Siti Amirah Mohd; Gan, Siew Hua

    2013-11-27

    Honey is a good source of several important chemical compounds and antioxidants and is harvested throughout the year. However, no study has determined how their contents change over the years. The aim of the present research was to investigate the changes in the phenolics, flavonoids and antioxidant properties, as well as other physicochemical properties, of Malaysian acacia honey collected during different months during a two year period. The DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) methods were used to determine the total antioxidant activity of the honey samples. Generally, honey samples collected in the beginning and the middle of the year tended to have higher sugar content, which may be attributed to its high acidic nature and low moisture content. There was a gradual increase in the phenolic content of the acacia honey samples collected between September 2010 and December 2010. The honey sample collected at the beginning of the year (January) showed the highest color intensity and was dark amber in color. It also contained the highest concentration of phenolic compounds (341.67 ± 2.94 mg(gallic acid)/kg), the highest flavonoid content (113.06 ± 6.18 mg(catechin)/kg) and the highest percentage of DPPH inhibition and the highest FRAP value, confirming its high antioxidant potential. There was a positive correlation between DPPH and total phenolic content, suggesting that phenolic compounds are the strongest contributing factor to the radical scavenging activity of Malaysian acacia honeys. Overall, our results indicated that there were significant seasonal variations in the antioxidant potentials of honey over the two year period and the time of honey collection affects its physicochemical properties. Therefore, acacia honey from Malaysia should ideally be collected during the dry season, particularly in the months of January, May and June.

  12. An in vitro examination of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of buckwheat honey.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, A J J; van den Worm, E; van Ufford, H C Quarles; Halkes, S B A; Hoekstra, M J; Beukelman, C J

    2008-04-01

    Hydroxyl radical and hypochlorite anion formed at the wound site from superoxide anion produced by activated polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) are considered important factors in impaired wound healing. Superoxide anion may also react with nitric oxide produced by macrophages to form peroxynitrite, a third strong oxidant that damages surrounding tissue. In order to select honey for use in wound-healing products, different samples were compared for their capacity to reduce levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vitro. Honey samples were tested in assays for inhibition of ROS production by activated human PMNs, antioxidant activity (scavenging of superoxide anion in a cell-free system) and inhibition of human complement (reducing levels of ROS by limiting formation of complement factors that attract and stimulate PMNs). For buckwheat honey (NewYork, US), moisture and free acid content were determined by refractive index measurement and potentiometric titration respectively. Honey constituents other than sugars were investigated by thin layer chromatography, using natural product reagent to detect phenolic compounds. Constituents with antioxidant properties were detected by spraying the chromatogram with DPPH. Although most honey samples were shown to be active, significant differences were observed, with the highly active honey exceeding the activities of samples with minor effects by factors of 4 to 30. Most pronounced activities were found for American buckwheat honey from the state of NewYork. Phenolic constituents of buckwheat honey were shown to have antioxidant activity. As buckwheat honey was most effective in reducing ROS levels, it was selected for use in wound-healing products. The major antioxidant properties in buckwheat honey derive from its phenolic constituents, which are present in relatively large amounts. Its phenolic compounds may also exert antibacterial activity, whereas its low pH and high free acid content may assist wound healing.

  13. Genetic Stock Identification Of Production Colonies Of Russian Honey Bees

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The prevalence of Nosema ceranae in managed honey bee colonies has increased dramatically in the past 10 – 20 years worldwide. A variety of genetic testing methods for species identification and prevalence are now available. However sample size and preservation method of samples prior to testing hav...

  14. Honey bee pathology: current threats to honey bees and beekeeping.

    PubMed

    Genersch, Elke

    2010-06-01

    Managed honey bees are the most important commercial pollinators of those crops which depend on animal pollination for reproduction and which account for 35% of the global food production. Hence, they are vital for an economic, sustainable agriculture and for food security. In addition, honey bees also pollinate a variety of wild flowers and, therefore, contribute to the biodiversity of many ecosystems. Honey and other hive products are, at least economically and ecologically rather, by-products of beekeeping. Due to this outstanding role of honey bees, severe and inexplicable honey bee colony losses, which have been reported recently to be steadily increasing, have attracted much attention and stimulated many research activities. Although the phenomenon "decline of honey bees" is far from being finally solved, consensus exists that pests and pathogens are the single most important cause of otherwise inexplicable colony losses. This review will focus on selected bee pathogens and parasites which have been demonstrated to be involved in colony losses in different regions of the world and which, therefore, are considered current threats to honey bees and beekeeping.

  15. Antiproliferative effect of methanolic extraction of tualang honey on human keloid fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Keloid is a type of scar which extends beyond the boundaries of the original wound. It can spread to the surrounding skin by invasion. The use of Tualang honey is a possible approach for keloid treatment. The objective of this study was to determine the antiproliferative effect of methanolic extraction of Tualang honey to primary human keloid fibroblasts and to identify the volatile compounds in methanol extraction of Tualang honey. Methods Crude Tualang honey was extracted with methanol and then dried using rota vapor to remove remaining methanol from honey. Normal and keloid fibroblasts were verified and treated with the extracted honey. Cell proliferation was tested with [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yi)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt] (MTS) assay. Extraction of Tualang honey using methanol was carried out and the extracted samples were analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The result was analysed using SPSS and tested with Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Results Methanolic extraction of honey has positive anti proliferative effect on keloid fibroblasts in a dose-dependent manner. The presence of fatty acids such as palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and octadecanoic acid may contribute to the anti-proliferative effect in keloid fibroblasts. Conclusions The methanolic honey extraction has an antiproliferative effect on keloid fibroblasts and a range of volatile compounds has been identified from Tualang honey. The antiproliferative effect of keloid fibroblasts towards Tualang honey may involve cell signaling pathway. Identifying other volatile compounds from different organic solvents should be carried out in future. PMID:21943200

  16. Neural networks applied to discriminate botanical origin of honeys.

    PubMed

    Anjos, Ofélia; Iglesias, Carla; Peres, Fátima; Martínez, Javier; García, Ángela; Taboada, Javier

    2015-05-15

    The aim of this work is develop a tool based on neural networks to predict the botanical origin of honeys using physical and chemical parameters. The managed database consists of 49 honey samples of 2 different classes: monofloral (almond, holm oak, sweet chestnut, eucalyptus, orange, rosemary, lavender, strawberry trees, thyme, heather, sunflower) and multifloral. The moisture content, electrical conductivity, water activity, ashes content, pH, free acidity, colorimetric coordinates in CIELAB space (L(∗), a(∗), b(∗)) and total phenols content of the honey samples were evaluated. Those properties were considered as input variables of the predictive model. The neural network is optimised through several tests with different numbers of neurons in the hidden layer and also with different input variables. The reduced error rates (5%) allow us to conclude that the botanical origin of honey can be reliably and quickly known from the colorimetric information and the electrical conductivity of honey. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterization of Botanical and Geographical Origin of Corsican “Spring” Honeys by Melissopalynological and Volatile Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yin; Battesti, Marie-José; Costa, Jean; Paolini, Julien

    2014-01-01

    Pollen spectrum, physicochemical parameters and volatile fraction of Corsican “spring” honeys were investigated with the aim of developing a multidisciplinary method for the qualification of honeys in which nectar resources are under-represented in the pollen spectrum. Forty-one Corsican “spring” honeys were certified by melissopalynological analysis using directory and biogeographical origin of 50 representative taxa. Two groups of honeys were distinguished according to the botanical origin of samples: “clementine” honeys characterized by the association of cultivated species from oriental plain and other “spring” honeys dominated by wild herbaceous taxa from the ruderal and/or maquis area. The main compounds of the “spring” honey volatile fraction were phenylacetaldehyde, benzaldehyde and methyl-benzene. The volatile composition of “clementine” honeys was also characterized by three lilac aldehyde isomers. Statistical analysis of melissopalynological, physicochemical and volatile data showed that the presence of Citrus pollen in “clementine” honeys was positively correlated with the amount of linalool derivatives and methyl anthranilate. Otherwise, the other “spring” honeys were characterized by complex nectariferous species associations and the content of phenylacetaldehyde and methyl syringate. PMID:28234308

  18. Determination of the botanical origin of honey by front-face synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lenhardt, Lea; Zeković, Ivana; Dramićanin, Tatjana; Dramićanin, Miroslav D; Bro, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    Front-face synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy combined with chemometrics is used to classify honey samples according to their botanical origin. Synchronous fluorescence spectra of three monofloral (linden, sunflower, and acacia), polyfloral (meadow mix), and fake (fake acacia and linden) honey types (109 samples) were collected in an excitation range of 240-500 nm for synchronous wavelength intervals of 30-300 nm. Chemometric analysis of the gathered data included principal component analysis and partial least squares discriminant analysis. Mean cross-validated classification errors of 0.2 and 4.8% were found for a model that accounts only for monofloral samples and for a model that includes both the monofloral and polyfloral groups, respectively. The results demonstrate that single synchronous fluorescence spectra of different honeys differ significantly because of their distinct physical and chemical characteristics and provide sufficient data for the clear differentiation among honey groups. The spectra of fake honey samples showed pronounced differences from those of genuine honey, and these samples are easily recognized on the basis of their synchronous fluorescence spectra. The study demonstrated that this method is a valuable and promising technique for honey authentication.

  19. Interactions between Cooccurring Lactic Acid Bacteria in Honey Bee Hives

    PubMed Central

    Rokop, Z. P.; Horton, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to the honey bee gut, which is colonized by a few characteristic bacterial clades, the hive of the honey bee is home to a diverse array of microbes, including many lactic acid bacteria (LAB). In this study, we used culture, combined with sequencing, to sample the LAB communities found across hive environments. Specifically, we sought to use network analysis to identify microbial hubs sharing nearly identical operational taxonomic units, evidence which may indicate cooccurrence of bacteria between environments. In the process, we identified interactions between noncore bacterial members (Fructobacillus and Lactobacillaceae) and honey bee-specific “core” members. Both Fructobacillus and Lactobacillaceae colonize brood cells, bee bread, and nectar and may serve the role of pioneering species, establishing an environment conducive to the inoculation by honey bee core bacteria. Coculture assays showed that these noncore bacterial members promote the growth of honey bee-specific bacterial species. Specifically, Fructobacillus by-products in spent medium supported the growth of the Firm-5 honey bee-specific clade in vitro. Metabolic characterization of Fructobacillus using carbohydrate utilization assays revealed that this strain is capable of utilizing the simple sugars fructose and glucose, as well as the complex plant carbohydrate lignin. We tested Fructobacillus for antibiotic sensitivity and found that this bacterium, which may be important for establishment of the microbiome, is sensitive to the commonly used antibiotic tetracycline. Our results point to the possible significance of “noncore” and environmental microbial community members in the modulation of honey bee microbiome dynamics and suggest that tetracycline use by beekeepers should be limited. PMID:26253685

  20. Interactions between Cooccurring Lactic Acid Bacteria in Honey Bee Hives.

    PubMed

    Rokop, Z P; Horton, M A; Newton, I L G

    2015-10-01

    In contrast to the honey bee gut, which is colonized by a few characteristic bacterial clades, the hive of the honey bee is home to a diverse array of microbes, including many lactic acid bacteria (LAB). In this study, we used culture, combined with sequencing, to sample the LAB communities found across hive environments. Specifically, we sought to use network analysis to identify microbial hubs sharing nearly identical operational taxonomic units, evidence which may indicate cooccurrence of bacteria between environments. In the process, we identified interactions between noncore bacterial members (Fructobacillus and Lactobacillaceae) and honey bee-specific "core" members. Both Fructobacillus and Lactobacillaceae colonize brood cells, bee bread, and nectar and may serve the role of pioneering species, establishing an environment conducive to the inoculation by honey bee core bacteria. Coculture assays showed that these noncore bacterial members promote the growth of honey bee-specific bacterial species. Specifically, Fructobacillus by-products in spent medium supported the growth of the Firm-5 honey bee-specific clade in vitro. Metabolic characterization of Fructobacillus using carbohydrate utilization assays revealed that this strain is capable of utilizing the simple sugars fructose and glucose, as well as the complex plant carbohydrate lignin. We tested Fructobacillus for antibiotic sensitivity and found that this bacterium, which may be important for establishment of the microbiome, is sensitive to the commonly used antibiotic tetracycline. Our results point to the possible significance of "noncore" and environmental microbial community members in the modulation of honey bee microbiome dynamics and suggest that tetracycline use by beekeepers should be limited. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Physicochemical properties of the Harenna forest honey, Bale, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Belay, Abera; Solomon, W K; Bultossa, Geremew; Adgaba, Nuru; Melaku, Samuel

    2013-12-15

    In this study, the physicochemical properties of the Harenna forest honey were characterised. The Harenna forest honey moisture, reducing sugar, sucrose, water insoluble solids, ash, free acid, pH, HMF contents, electrical conductivity and specific rotation were found to be 17.89±1.02 g/100 g, 69.48±1.72 g/100 g, 2.43±1.02 g/100 g, 0.12±0.08 g/100 g, 0.19±0.09 g/100 g, 34.57±4.80 meq/kg, 3.87±0.16, 0.84±0.46 mg/1000 g, 0.70±0.04 mS/cm and -132±15.27 [α]D(20), respectively. All quality indicators of honey from traditional and frame hives were within the criteria set by Codex Alimentarus (CA), European Union (EU) and Ethiopian standard, except for water insoluble solids. The type of hives significantly affected the moisture (p<0.01), reducing sugar (p<0.05), ash (p<0.05) and HMF (p<0.05) contents of the Harenna forest honey. The sampling location also significantly affected the moisture (p<0.001), water insoluble solids (p<0.01), ash (p<0.01), electrical conductivity (p<0.001) and specific rotation (p<0.001) values of the Harenna forest honey. Significant correlations were observed between moisture content and electrical conductivity (r=0.76, p<0.01), and electrical conductivity and specific rotation (r=0.74, p<0.01). Traditional hive has no negative effect on quality factors of honey if honey harvesting, handling and processing is properly carried out. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Detection and Quantification of Adulteration in Ground Roasted Asian Palm Civet Coffee Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy in Tandem with Chemometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhandy, D.; Yulia, M.; Ogawa, Y.; Kondo, N.

    2018-05-01

    In the present research, an evaluation of using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy in tandem with full spectrum partial least squares (FS-PLS) regression for quantification of degree of adulteration in civet coffee was conducted. A number of 126 ground roasted coffee samples with degree of adulteration 0-51% were prepared. Spectral data were acquired using a NIR spectrometer equipped with an integrating sphere for diffuse reflectance measurement in the range of 1300-2500 nm. The samples were divided into two groups calibration sample set (84 samples) and prediction sample set (42 samples). The calibration model was developed on original spectra using FS-PLS regression with full-cross validation method. The calibration model exhibited the determination coefficient R2=0.96 for calibration and R2=0.92 for validation. The prediction resulted in low root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) (4.67%) and high ratio prediction to deviation (RPD) (3.75). In conclusion, the degree of adulteration in civet coffee have been quantified successfully by using NIR spectroscopy and FS-PLS regression in a non-destructive, economical, precise, and highly sensitive method, which uses very simple sample preparation.

  3. Differential diagnosis of the honey bee trypanosomatids Crithidia mellificae and Lotmaria passim.

    PubMed

    Ravoet, Jorgen; Schwarz, Ryan S; Descamps, Tine; Yañez, Orlando; Tozkar, Cansu Ozge; Martin-Hernandez, Raquel; Bartolomé, Carolina; De Smet, Lina; Higes, Mariano; Wenseleers, Tom; Schmid-Hempel, Regula; Neumann, Peter; Kadowaki, Tatsuhiko; Evans, Jay D; de Graaf, Dirk C

    2015-09-01

    Trypanosomatids infecting honey bees have been poorly studied with molecular methods until recently. After the description of Crithidia mellificae (Langridge and McGhee, 1967) it took about forty years until molecular data for honey bee trypanosomatids became available and were used to identify and describe a new trypanosomatid species from honey bees, Lotmaria passim (Evans and Schwarz, 2014). However, an easy method to distinguish them without sequencing is not yet available. Research on the related bumble bee parasites Crithidia bombi and Crithidia expoeki revealed a fragment length polymorphism in the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1), which enabled species discrimination. In search of fragment length polymorphisms for differential diagnostics in honey bee trypanosomatids, we studied honey bee trypanosomatid cell cultures of C. mellificae and L. passim. This research resulted in the identification of fragment length polymorphisms in ITS1 and ITS1-2 markers, which enabled us to develop a diagnostic method to differentiate both honey bee trypanosomatid species without the need for sequencing. However, the amplification success of the ITS1 marker depends probably on the trypanosomatid infection level. Further investigation confirmed that L. passim is the dominant species in Belgium, Japan and Switzerland. We found C. mellificae only rarely in Belgian honey bee samples, but not in honey bee samples from other countries. C. mellificae was also detected in mason bees (Osmia bicornis and Osmia cornuta) besides in honey bees. Further, the characterization and comparison of additional markers from L. passim strain SF (published as C. mellificae strain SF) and a Belgian honey bee sample revealed very low divergence in the 18S rRNA, ITS1-2, 28S rRNA and cytochrome b sequences. Nevertheless, a variable stretch was observed in the gp63 virulence factor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Analysis of pharmaceutical adulterants in plant food supplements by UHPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Paíga, Paula; Rodrigues, Manuela J E; Correia, Manuela; Amaral, Joana S; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2017-03-01

    A method based on the Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS) extraction and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was successfully developed and validated for the analysis of 26 pharmaceutical compounds belonging to different therapeutic classes (anorexics, stimulants, anxiolytics, antidepressants and laxatives), which are all prone to be illegally added into weight-loss plant food supplements (PFS) for their pharmacological activity. Internal standard calibration with six isotopically labelled compounds rendered good linearity in the range of 5 to 1000μg/l, depending on the compound, and good sensitivity with limits of quantification in the range of 0.02-9.80μg/l. Recoveries were assessed for all the 16 samples analysed and were found between 70% and 120% for over 90% of the analytes. The average recovery value was 90.8%, for the different studied matrices (liquids, liquid ampoules, tablets and capsules), with RSD values lower than 10% for all forms. The changes introduced to the QuEChERS procedure maintained the good performance characteristics of the extraction method while preserving the chromatographic system for the introduction of unwanted matrix compounds. Synephrine was the only compound detected and quantified in one sample, but at a very low concentration (768μg/l) and its presence may be due to the plant extracts used in the formulation, as synephrine is known to be a natural constituent of Citrus aurantium amara. Despite none of the 16 evaluated samples were found to be adulterated by the illegal addition of the drugs included in this work, the developed methodology can be very useful for monitoring the adulteration of weight-loss PFS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Shedding light on food fraud: spectrophotometric and spectroscopic methods as a tool against economically motivated adulteration of food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petronijević, R. B.; Velebit, B.; Baltić, T.

    2017-09-01

    Intentional modification of food or substitution of food ingredients with the aim of gaining profit is food fraud or economically motivated adulteration (EMA). EMA appeared in the food supply chain, and following the global expansion of the food market, has become a world-scale problem for the global economy. Food frauds have involved oils, milk and meat products, infant formula, honey, juices, spices, etc. New legislation was enacted in the last decade in order to fight EMA. Effective analytical methods for food fraud detection are few and still in development. The majority of the methods in common use today for EMA detection are time consuming and inappropriate for use on the production line or out of the laboratory. The next step in the evolution of analytical techniques to combat food fraud is development of fast, accurate methods applicable using portable or handheld devices. Spectrophotometric and spectroscopic methods combined with chemometric analysis, and perhaps in combination with other rapid physico-chemical techniques, could be the answer. This review discusses some analytical techniques based on spectrophotometry and spectroscopy, which are used to reveal food fraud and EMA.

  6. Characterization of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) nectar-to-honey transformation pathway using FTIR-ATR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Svečnjak, Lidija; Prđun, Saša; Rogina, Josip; Bubalo, Dragan; Jerković, Igor

    2017-10-01

    Samples of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) nectar, honey sac content and honey were analyzed by FTIR-ATR spectroscopy and reference methods. The spectral analysis allowed detection of the major chemical constituents in C. unshiu nectar-to-honey transformation pathway thus providing information on the intensity and location of the compositional changes occurring during this process. The preliminary results showed that in average more than one-third of sugar-related nectar-to-honey conversion takes place directly in the honey sac; the average sugar content (w/w) was 17.93% (nectar), 47.03% (honey sac) and 79.63% (honey). FTIR-ATR results showed great spectral similarity of analyzed honey samples and small degree variations in both sugar and water content in nectar samples. The spectral data revealed distinctive differences in the chemical composition of individual honey sac contents with the most intensive and complex absorption envelope in the spectral region between 1175 and 950cm -1 (glucose, fructose and sucrose absorption bands). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Simultaneous analysis by Quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometry and UHPLC-MS/MS for the determination of sedative-hypnotics and sleep inducers in adulterated products.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Park, Han Na; Choi, Ji Yeon; Kim, Nam Sook; Park, Hyung-Joon; Park, Seong Soo; Baek, Sun Young

    2017-12-01

    Adulterated products are continuously detected in society and cause problems. In this study, we developed and validated a method for determining synthetic sedative-hypnotics and sleep inducers, including barbital, benzodiazepam, zolpidem, and first-generation antihistamines, in adulterated products using Quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometry and ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. In Quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometry analysis, target compounds were confirmed using a combination of retention time, mass tolerance, mass accuracy, and fragment ions. For quantification, several validation parameters were employed using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation was 0.05-53 and 0.17-177 ng/mL, respectively. The correlation coefficient for linearity was more than 0.995. The intra- and interassay accuracies were 86-110 and 84-111%, respectively. Their precision values were evaluated as within 4.0 (intraday) and 10.7% (interday). Mean recoveries of target compounds in adulterated products ranged from 85 to 116%. The relative standard deviation of stability was less than 10.7% at 4°C for 48 h. The 144 adulterated products obtained over 3 years (2014-2016) from online and in-person vendors were tested using established methods. After rapidly screening with Quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometry, the detected samples were quantified using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Two of them were adulterated with phenobarbital. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Practical procedure for discriminating monofloral honey with a broad pollen profile variability using an electronic tongue.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Mara E B C; Dias, Luís G; Veloso, Ana C A; Estevinho, Letícia; Peres, António M; Machado, Adélio A S C

    2014-10-01

    Colour and floral origin are key parameters that may influence the honey market. Monofloral light honey are more demanded by consumers, mainly due to their flavour, being more valuable for producers due to their higher price when compared to darker honey. The latter usually have a high anti-oxidant content that increases their healthy potential. This work showed that it is possible to correctly classify monofloral honey with a high variability in floral origin with a potentiometric electronic tongue after making a preliminary selection of honey according their colours: white, amber and dark honey. The results showed that the device had a very satisfactory sensitivity towards floral origin (Castanea sp., Echium sp., Erica sp., Lavandula sp., Prunus sp. and Rubus sp.), allowing a leave-one-out cross validation correct classification of 100%. Therefore, the E-tongue shows potential to be used at analytical laboratory level for honey samples classification according to market and quality parameters, as a practical tool for ensuring monofloral honey authenticity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Adequacy of the Measurement Capability of Fatty Acid Compositions and Sterol Profiles to Determine Authenticity of Milk Fat Through Formulation of Adulterated Butter.

    PubMed

    Soha, Sahel; Mortazavian, Amir M; Piravi-Vanak, Zahra; Mohammadifar, Mohammad A; Sahafar, Hamed; Nanvazadeh, Sara

    2015-01-01

    In this research a comparison has been made between the fatty acid and sterol compositions of Iranian pure butter and three samples of adulterated butter. These samples were formulated using edible vegetable fats/oils with similar milk fat structures including palm olein, palm kernel and coconut oil to determine the authenticity of milk fat. The amount of vegetable fats/oils used in the formulation of the adulterated butter was 10%. The adulterated samples were formulated so that their fatty acid profiles were comforted with acceptable levels of pure butter as specified by the Iranian national standard. Based on the type of the vegetable oil/fat, fatty acids such as C4:0, C12:0 and C18:2 were used as indicators for the adulterated formulations. According to the standard method of ISO, the analysis was performed using gas chromatography. The cholesterol contents were 99.71% in pure butter (B1), and 97.61%, 98.48% and 97.98% of the total sterols in the samples adulterated with palm olein, palm kernel and coconut oil (B2, B3 and B4), respectively. Contents of the main phytosterol profiles such as β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol were also determined. The β-sitosterol content, as an indicator of phytosterols, was 0% in pure butter, and 1.81%, 1.67% and 2.16%, of the total sterols in the adulterated samples (B2, B3 and B4), respectively. Our findings indicate that fatty acid profiles are not an efficient indicator for butter authentication. Despite the increase in phytosterols and the reduction in cholesterol and with regard to the conformity of the sterol profiles of the edible fats/oils used in the formulations with Codex standards, lower cholesterol and higher phytosterols contents should have been observed. It can therefore be concluded that sterol measurement is insufficient to verify the authenticity of the milk fat in butter. It can therefore be concluded that sterol measurement is insufficient in verifying the authenticity of milk fat.

  10. Simultaneous detection of multiple adulterants in dry milk using macro-scale Raman chemical imaging

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The potential of Raman chemical imaging for simultaneously detecting multiple adulterants in milk powder was investigated. Potential chemical adulterants, including ammonium sulfate, dicyandiamide, melamine, and urea, were mixed together into skim dry milk in the concentration range of 0.1–5.0% for ...

  11. 9 CFR 381.151 - Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...; Processing Requirements § 381.151 Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling. (a) In the event there is polluted water (including but not limited to flood water) in an official... rendered adulterated by the water shall be condemned. (b) After the polluted water has receded from an...

  12. 9 CFR 318.14 - Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...; REINSPECTION AND PREPARATION OF PRODUCTS General § 318.14 Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling. (a) In the event there is polluted water (including but not limited to flood water) in... that have been rendered adulterated by the water shall be condemned. (b) After the polluted water has...

  13. 9 CFR 352.12 - Disposal of diseased or otherwise adulterated carcasses and parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposal of diseased or otherwise adulterated carcasses and parts. 352.12 Section 352.12 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... INSPECTION Exotic Animals § 352.12 Disposal of diseased or otherwise adulterated carcasses and parts. This...

  14. Effects of the adulteration technique on the near-infrared detection of melamine in milk powder

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The fraudulent adulteration of protein-rich food ingredients with melamine in 2007 and 2008 highlighted the public health and economic consequences of adulterating foods with chemicals not approved for food use. U.S. Pharmacopeia is leading a collaborative project to develop reference materials as w...

  15. 75 FR 13555 - Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 540.375 Canned Salmon - Adulteration Involving Decomposition (CPG...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ...] (Formerly Docket No. 1998N-0046) Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 540.375 Canned Salmon -- Adulteration... of Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 540.375 Canned Salmon -- Adulteration Involving Decomposition (CPG... relating to decomposition in fish and fishery products, including canned salmon, is provided in CPG Sec...

  16. 9 CFR 318.14 - Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling. 318.14 Section 318.14 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND...; REINSPECTION AND PREPARATION OF PRODUCTS General § 318.14 Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure...

  17. 9 CFR 381.151 - Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adulteration of product by polluted...; Processing Requirements § 381.151 Adulteration of product by polluted water; procedure for handling. (a) In.... (c) Hermetically sealed containers of poultry product which have been contaminated by polluted water...

  18. Antimicrobial activity of honey from the stingless bee Trigona carbonaria determined by agar diffusion, agar dilution, broth microdilution and time-kill methodology.

    PubMed

    Boorn, K L; Khor, Y-Y; Sweetman, E; Tan, F; Heard, T A; Hammer, K A

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the spectrum of antimicrobial activity of 11 samples of stingless bee honey compared to medicinal, table and artificial honeys. Activity was assessed by agar diffusion, agar dilution, broth microdilution and time-kill viability assays. By agar dilution, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranges were 4% to >10% (w/v) for Gram-positive bacteria, 6% to >16% (w/v) for Gram-negative bacteria and 6% to >10% (w/v) for Candida spp. By broth microdilution, all organisms with the exception of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata were inhibited at honeys ranged from 7.1% to 16.0% and were 11.7% for medicinal honey and 26.5% for table honey. Treatment of organisms with 20% (w/v) stingless bee honey for 60 min resulted in decreases of 1-3 log for Staphylococcus aureus, >3 log for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and <1 log for C. albicans. Similar treatment with each control honey resulted in decreases of <1 log for all organisms. Stingless bee honey has broad-spectrum antibacterial activity although activity against Candida was limited. Stingless bee honey samples varied in activity and the basis for this remains to be determined. Stingless bee honey had similar activity to medicinal honey and may therefore have a role as a medicinal agent.

  19. Poisoning due to tutin in honey-a report of an outbreak in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Beasley, Michael; Hood, Dell; Anderson, Philippa; Reeve, John; Slaughter, Robin J

    2018-04-13

    In autumn 2008, an outbreak of toxic honey poisoning was identified. The outbreak was not recognised initially until three cases from one family group presented to hospital, with a common factor of recent consumption of locally produced honey. The aim of this study was to investigate potential cases of this honey poisoning and determine which toxin was involved. The incident was investigated retrospectively by Waikato District Health Board's Population Health unit and the New Zealand Food Safety Authority (NZFSA). Identified patients were followed up by questionnaire to gather case information. HortResearch (now Plant and Food Research) tested honey samples for toxins. The causative agent was identified as tutin, which comes from the New Zealand native plant tutu (Coriaria arborea) which has long been known as a potential source of contamination of honey produced in the warmer parts of New Zealand. Retrospective case investigation identified a total of 22 possible or probable cases, based on a clinical case definition. The spectrum of toxic effects reported were broadly similar to those previously described for tutin, derived either directly from the plant itself or indirectly from honey. There were 13 samples of honey, linked to symptomatic individuals, which were available for testing. Of these, 10 were positive for tutin and its hydroxy metabolite hyenanchin (hydroxytutin) and one was positive for hyenanchin alone. Toxic honey production is a significant risk in parts of New Zealand. Beekeepers and health professionals need to be informed of this risk and know how best to manage it. Due to this poisoning incident, public and professional awareness of honey poisoning has been substantially enhanced. This incident led to development of new food safety standards for New Zealand honey.

  20. Adulteration Practices of Psychoactive Illicit Drugs: An Updated Review.

    PubMed

    Solimini, Renata; Rotolo, Maria C; Pellegrini, Manuela; Minutillo, Adele; Pacifici, Roberta; Busardò, Francesco P; Zaami, Simona

    2017-01-01

    Powdery drugs such as cocaine and heroin are frequently adulterated or diluted predominantly to obtain more doses and to increase the drug dealer's profits, but also to enhance, to modify or to oppose drug effects. The aim of this report is to provide an overview of the recent scientific literature on medicines as well as on new psychoactive substances, used as cutting agents (i.e. pharmacologically active adulterants) and on the related adverse health effects on consumers, possibly due to the synergistic effect of the adulterants laced with substances of abuse. A literature search up to January 2017 was performed on MEDLINE, Scopus and Web of Science and reports and documents of international agencies or institutions were also searched. Pharmacologically active substances such as: paracetamol, caffeine, dextromethorphan, clenbuterol for heroin; levamisole, phenacetine, lidocaine, hydroxyzine and diltiazem for cocaine; caffeine and phentermine for amphetamine, have been identified over the years. Furthermore, since cocaine and morphine (this latter as a precursor of heroin) are both extracted from natural products, some impurities and minor alkaloids can be present in the final preparation. In this context, it is worth considering that new psychoactive substances are also used as cutting agents. The wide availability of illicit psychotropic drugs is the most serious hazard threatening consumers. Indeed emergency departments are often responsible in evaluating damages caused not only by the base substance, but also by other eventual compounds added to mimic or antagonize drug effects or simply dilute the drug amount, with a possible harmful synergic toxic action. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. Range and Frequency of Africanized Honey Bees in California (USA)

    PubMed Central

    Kono, Yoshiaki; Kohn, Joshua R.

    2015-01-01

    Africanized honey bees entered California in 1994 but few accounts of their northward expansion or their frequency relative to European honey bees have been published. We used mitochondrial markers and morphometric analyses to determine the prevalence of Africanized honeybees in San Diego County and their current northward progress in California west of the Sierra Nevada crest. The northernmost African mitotypes detected were approximately 40 km south of Sacramento in California’s central valley. In San Diego County, 65% of foraging honey bee workers carry African mitochondria and the estimated percentage of Africanized workers using morphological measurements is similar (61%). There was no correlation between mitotype and morphology in San Diego County suggesting Africanized bees result from bidirectional hybridization. Seventy percent of feral hives, but only 13% of managed hives, sampled in San Diego County carried the African mitotype indicating that a large fraction of foraging workers in both urban and rural San Diego County are feral. We also found a single nucleotide polymorphism at the DNA barcode locus COI that distinguishes European and African mitotypes. The utility of this marker was confirmed using 401 georeferenced honey bee sequences from the worldwide Barcode of Life Database. Future censuses can determine whether the current range of the Africanized form is stable, patterns of introgression at nuclear loci, and the environmental factors that may limit the northern range of the Africanized honey bee. PMID:26361047

  2. Using differential scanning calorimetry, laser refractometry, electrical conductivity and spectrophotometry for discrimination of different types of Bulgarian honey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlaeva, I.; Nikolova, K.; Bodurov, I.; Marudova, M.; Tsankova, D.; Lekova, S.; Viraneva, A.; Yovcheva, T.

    2017-01-01

    The potential of several physical methods for investigation of the botanical origin of honey has been discussed. Samples from the three most prevalent types of honey in Bulgaria (acacia, linden and honeydew) have been used. They have been examined by laser refractometry, UV, VIS and FTIR spectroscopy, electric conductivity measurement and differential scanning calorimetry. The purpose of this study was to reveal the physical characterizations of honeys from different flora produced in Bulgaria and to identify honeys with a high apitherapy potential for future studies.

  3. Detection of plant microRNAs in honey.

    PubMed

    Gismondi, Angelo; Di Marco, Gabriele; Canini, Antonella

    2017-01-01

    For the first time in the literature, our group has managed to demonstrate the existence of plant RNAs in honey samples. In particular, in our work, different RNA extraction procedures were performed in order to identify a purification method for nucleic acids from honey. Purity, stability and integrity of the RNA samples were evaluated by spectrophotometric, PCR and electrophoretic analyses. Among all honey RNAs, we specifically revealed the presence of both plastidial and nuclear plant transcripts: RuBisCO large subunit mRNA, maturase K messenger and 18S ribosomal RNA. Surprisingly, nine plant microRNAs (miR482b, miR156a, miR396c, miR171a, miR858, miR162a, miR159c, miR395a and miR2118a) were also detected and quantified by qPCR. In this context, a comparison between microRNA content in plant samples (i.e. flowers, nectars) and their derivative honeys was carried out. In addition, peculiar microRNA profiles were also identified in six different monofloral honeys. Finally, the same plant microRNAs were investigated in other plant food products: tea, cocoa and coffee. Since plant microRNAs introduced by diet have been recently recognized as being able to modulate the consumer's gene expression, our research suggests that honey's benefits for human health may be strongly correlated to the bioactivity of plant microRNAs contained in this matrix.

  4. Rapid authentication of adulteration of olive oil by near-infrared spectroscopy using support vector machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jingzhu; Dong, Jingjing; Dong, Wenfei; Chen, Yan; Liu, Cuiling

    2016-10-01

    A classification method of support vector machines with linear kernel was employed to authenticate genuine olive oil based on near-infrared spectroscopy. There were three types of adulteration of olive oil experimented in the study. The adulterated oil was respectively soybean oil, rapeseed oil and the mixture of soybean and rapeseed oil. The average recognition rate of second experiment was more than 90% and that of the third experiment was reach to 100%. The results showed the method had good performance in classifying genuine olive oil and the adulteration with small variation range of adulterated concentration and it was a promising and rapid technique for the detection of oil adulteration and fraud in the food industry.

  5. A Study on the Quality and Identity of Brazilian Pampa Biome Honey: Evidences for Its Beneficial Effects against Oxidative Stress and Hyperglycemia

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, L. C.; Batista, J. E. S.; Zemolin, A. P. P.; Nunes, M. E. M.; Lippert, D. B.; Royes, L. F. F.; Soares, F. A.; Pereira, A. B.; Posser, T.; Franco, J. L.

    2014-01-01

    We characterized, for the first time, the quality and identity of Brazilian Pampa biome honey and its antioxidant properties in vitro (FRAP, DDPH and ABTS). The potential protective effect of honey against oxidative stress induced by iron (Fe) and paraquat, (PQ) in a Drosophila melanogaster model (in vivo) was also tested. The results indicated that all honey samples tested showed antioxidant activity in vitro. Flies treated with honey showed increased lifespan and were protected against oxidative stress induced by Fe and PQ. Despite the high concentration of sugars in honey (approximately 70–80%), our results demonstrate a hypoglycemic-like effect of honey in Drosophila. Thus, this study demonstrates the high quality of Brazilian Pampa biome honey as well as its significant antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo, pointing to the potential use of this natural product as an alternative in the therapy of oxidative stress-associated diseases. PMID:26904632

  6. A Study on the Quality and Identity of Brazilian Pampa Biome Honey: Evidences for Its Beneficial Effects against Oxidative Stress and Hyperglycemia.

    PubMed

    Cruz, L C; Batista, J E S; Zemolin, A P P; Nunes, M E M; Lippert, D B; Royes, L F F; Soares, F A; Pereira, A B; Posser, T; Franco, J L

    2014-01-01

    We characterized, for the first time, the quality and identity of Brazilian Pampa biome honey and its antioxidant properties in vitro (FRAP, DDPH and ABTS). The potential protective effect of honey against oxidative stress induced by iron (Fe) and paraquat, (PQ) in a Drosophila melanogaster model (in vivo) was also tested. The results indicated that all honey samples tested showed antioxidant activity in vitro. Flies treated with honey showed increased lifespan and were protected against oxidative stress induced by Fe and PQ. Despite the high concentration of sugars in honey (approximately 70-80%), our results demonstrate a hypoglycemic-like effect of honey in Drosophila. Thus, this study demonstrates the high quality of Brazilian Pampa biome honey as well as its significant antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo, pointing to the potential use of this natural product as an alternative in the therapy of oxidative stress-associated diseases.

  7. Mineral content of the honey produced in Zulia state, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Sulbarán de Ferrer, Betzabé; Ojeda de Rodríguez, Graciela; Peña, Jorge; Martínez, Janeth; Morán, María

    2004-09-01

    The mineral content of the honey produced in five zones of the Zulia state, Venezuela, during dry and rainy seasons was determined. The analyzed elements were: sodium, potassium (by emission spectroscopy), calcium, magnesium, copper, iron, manganese (by atomic absorption spectroscopy), phosphorus (phosphate ions, by colorimetric method), and ash content of raw honey samples directly collected from different beekeepers. The mean values for Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, Mn, and P were 353+84; 1774+138; 237+66; 52+24; 0.76+0.43; 13.5+10.23; 0.92+0.42 and 1642+323 mg/kg respectively. The mean ash content was 0.431+0.15%. Potassium was the most abundant of the elements determined. This results confirm that Zulian honey can be considered a good source of minerals.

  8. Influence of Honey on the Suppression of Human Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) Peroxidation (In vitro)

    PubMed Central

    Abd El-Hady, Faten K.

    2009-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of four honey samples from different floral sources (Acacia, Coriander, Sider and Palm) were evaluated with three different assays; DPPH free radical scavenging assay, superoxide anion generated in xanthine–xanthine oxidase (XOD) system and low density lipoprotein (LDL) peroxidation assay. The dark Palm and Sider honeys had the highest antioxidant activity in the DPPH assay. But all the honey samples exhibited more or less the same highly significant antioxidant activity within the concentration of 1mg honey/1 ml in XOD system and LDL peroxidation assays. The chemical composition of these samples was investigated by GC/MS and HPLC analysis, 11 compounds being new to honey. The GC/MS revealed the presence of 90 compounds, mainly aliphatic acids (37 compounds), which represent 54.73, 8.72, 22.87 and 64.10% and phenolic acids (15 compound) 2.3, 1.02, 2.07 and 11.68% for Acacia, Coriander, Sider and Palm honeys. In HPLC analysis, 19 flavonoids were identified. Coriander and Sider honeys were characterized by the presence of large amounts of flavonoids. PMID:18955249

  9. Influence of Honey on the Suppression of Human Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) Peroxidation (In vitro).

    PubMed

    Hegazi, Ahmed G; Abd El-Hady, Faten K

    2009-03-01

    The antioxidant activity of four honey samples from different floral sources (Acacia, Coriander, Sider and Palm) were evaluated with three different assays; DPPH free radical scavenging assay, superoxide anion generated in xanthine-xanthine oxidase (XOD) system and low density lipoprotein (LDL) peroxidation assay. The dark Palm and Sider honeys had the highest antioxidant activity in the DPPH assay. But all the honey samples exhibited more or less the same highly significant antioxidant activity within the concentration of 1mg honey/1 ml in XOD system and LDL peroxidation assays. The chemical composition of these samples was investigated by GC/MS and HPLC analysis, 11 compounds being new to honey. The GC/MS revealed the presence of 90 compounds, mainly aliphatic acids (37 compounds), which represent 54.73, 8.72, 22.87 and 64.10% and phenolic acids (15 compound) 2.3, 1.02, 2.07 and 11.68% for Acacia, Coriander, Sider and Palm honeys. In HPLC analysis, 19 flavonoids were identified. Coriander and Sider honeys were characterized by the presence of large amounts of flavonoids.

  10. Spectroscopic study of honey from Apis mellifera from different regions in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frausto-Reyes, C.; Casillas-Peñuelas, R.; Quintanar-Stephano, JL; Macías-López, E.; Bujdud-Pérez, JM; Medina-Ramírez, I.

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze by Raman and UV-Vis-NIR Spectroscopic techniques, Mexican honey from Apis Mellífera, using representative samples with different botanic origins (unifloral and multifloral) and diverse climates. Using Raman spectroscopy together with principal components analysis, the results obtained represent the possibility to use them for determination of floral origin of honey, independently of the region of sampling. For this, the effect of heat up the honey was analyzed in relation that it was possible to greatly reduce the fluorescence background in Raman spectra, which allowed the visualization of fructose and glucose peaks. Using UV-Vis-NIR, spectroscopy, a characteristic spectrum profile of transmittance was obtained for each honey type. In addition, to have an objective characterization of color, a CIE Yxy and CIE L*a*b* colorimetric register was realized for each honey type. Applying the principal component analysis and their correlation with chromaticity coordinates allowed classifying the honey samples in one plot as: cutoff wavelength, maximum transmittance, tones and lightness. The results show that it is possible to obtain a spectroscopic record of honeys with specific characteristics by reducing the effects of fluorescence.

  11. Recent Honey Bee Colony Declines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-26

    neonicotinoids, which contain the active ingredient imidacloprid , and similar other chemicals, such as clothianidin and thiamethoxam. Honey bees are...navigational and foraging abilities of honey bees.23 Concerns about imidacloprid , as CRS-9 24 Northwest Coalition for Alternatives to Pesticides... Imidacloprid , Fact Sheet,” Journal of Pesticide Reform, Spring 2001, at [http://www.moraybeekeepers.co.uk/imiacloprid]; Apiculteurs de France, “Composite

  12. Phenolic profile, antioxidant activity and palynological analysis of stingless bee honey from Amazonas, Northern Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Isnandia Andréa Almeida; da Silva, Tania Maria Sarmento; Camara, Celso Amorim; Queiroz, Neide; Magnani, Marciane; de Novais, Jaílson Santos; Soledade, Luiz Edmundo Bastos; Lima, Edeltrudes de Oliveira; de Souza, Antonia Lucia; de Souza, Antonio Gouveia

    2013-12-15

    In this study honey samples produced by Melipona (Michmelia) seminigra merrillae, collected in seven counties distributed in the central and southern region of Amazonas state in Brazil, were analysed for their botanical origin, content and profile of phenolic compounds, and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Twenty-two pollen types were identified. The total phenolic content ranged from 17 to 66 mg GAE/g of extract; the highest contents were found in honeys produced from pollen types such as Clidemia and Myrcia. The antioxidant activity was higher in the samples that contained higher quantities of phenolic compounds. In relation to the antibacterial activity, samples CAD3, CAD4 and SAD3 presented the best results. Fourteen phenolic compounds were determined. Among them, we identified the flavonoid taxifolin, which has not previously been described in honeys from stingless bees, and we report the identification of catechol in Brazilian honey samples for the first time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Diverse Range of Novel RNA Viruses in Geographically Distinct Honey Bee Populations.

    PubMed

    Remnant, Emily J; Shi, Mang; Buchmann, Gabriele; Blacquière, Tjeerd; Holmes, Edward C; Beekman, Madeleine; Ashe, Alyson

    2017-08-15

    Understanding the diversity and consequences of viruses present in honey bees is critical for maintaining pollinator health and managing the spread of disease. The viral landscape of honey bees ( Apis mellifera ) has changed dramatically since the emergence of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor , which increased the spread of virulent variants of viruses such as deformed wing virus. Previous genomic studies have focused on colonies suffering from infections by Varroa and virulent viruses, which could mask other viral species present in honey bees, resulting in a distorted view of viral diversity. To capture the viral diversity within colonies that are exposed to mites but do not suffer the ultimate consequences of the infestation, we examined populations of honey bees that have evolved naturally or have been selected for resistance to Varroa This analysis revealed seven novel viruses isolated from honey bees sampled globally, including the first identification of negative-sense RNA viruses in honey bees. Notably, two rhabdoviruses were present in three geographically diverse locations and were also present in Varroa mites parasitizing the bees. To characterize the antiviral response, we performed deep sequencing of small RNA populations in honey bees and mites. This provided evidence of a Dicer-mediated immune response in honey bees, while the viral small RNA profile in Varroa mites was novel and distinct from the response observed in bees. Overall, we show that viral diversity in honey bee colonies is greater than previously thought, which encourages additional studies of the bee virome on a global scale and which may ultimately improve disease management. IMPORTANCE Honey bee populations have become increasingly susceptible to colony losses due to pathogenic viruses spread by parasitic Varroa mites. To date, 24 viruses have been described in honey bees, with most belonging to the order Picornavirales Collapsing Varroa -infected colonies are often overwhelmed

  14. A Diverse Range of Novel RNA Viruses in Geographically Distinct Honey Bee Populations

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Mang; Buchmann, Gabriele; Blacquière, Tjeerd; Beekman, Madeleine; Ashe, Alyson

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Understanding the diversity and consequences of viruses present in honey bees is critical for maintaining pollinator health and managing the spread of disease. The viral landscape of honey bees (Apis mellifera) has changed dramatically since the emergence of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor, which increased the spread of virulent variants of viruses such as deformed wing virus. Previous genomic studies have focused on colonies suffering from infections by Varroa and virulent viruses, which could mask other viral species present in honey bees, resulting in a distorted view of viral diversity. To capture the viral diversity within colonies that are exposed to mites but do not suffer the ultimate consequences of the infestation, we examined populations of honey bees that have evolved naturally or have been selected for resistance to Varroa. This analysis revealed seven novel viruses isolated from honey bees sampled globally, including the first identification of negative-sense RNA viruses in honey bees. Notably, two rhabdoviruses were present in three geographically diverse locations and were also present in Varroa mites parasitizing the bees. To characterize the antiviral response, we performed deep sequencing of small RNA populations in honey bees and mites. This provided evidence of a Dicer-mediated immune response in honey bees, while the viral small RNA profile in Varroa mites was novel and distinct from the response observed in bees. Overall, we show that viral diversity in honey bee colonies is greater than previously thought, which encourages additional studies of the bee virome on a global scale and which may ultimately improve disease management. IMPORTANCE Honey bee populations have become increasingly susceptible to colony losses due to pathogenic viruses spread by parasitic Varroa mites. To date, 24 viruses have been described in honey bees, with most belonging to the order Picornavirales. Collapsing Varroa-infected colonies are often

  15. Non-target evaluation of contaminants in honey bees and pollen samples by gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hakme, E; Lozano, A; Gómez-Ramos, M M; Hernando, M D; Fernández-Alba, A R

    2017-10-01

    This work presents a non-targeted screening approach for the detection and quantitation of contaminants in bees and pollen, collected from the same hive, by GC-EI-ToF-MS. It consists of a spectral library datasets search using a compound database followed by a manual investigation and analytical standard confirmation together with semi-quantitation purposes. Over 20% of the compounds found automatically by the library search could not be confirmed manually. This number of false positive detections was mainly a consequence of an inadequate ion ratio criterion (±30%), not considered in the automatic searching procedure. Eight compounds were detected in bees and pollen. They include insecticides/acaricides (chlorpyrifos, coumaphos, fluvalinate-tau, chlorfenvinphos, pyridaben, and propyl cresol) at a concentration range of 1-1207 μg kg -1 , herbicides (oxyfluorfen) at a concentration range of 212-1773 μg kg -1 and a growth regulator hormone (methoprene). Some compounds were detected only in pollen; such as herbicides (clomazone), insecticides/acaricides and fungicides used to control Varroa mites as benzylbenzoate, bufencarb, allethrin, permethrin, eugenol and cyprodinil. Additional compounds were detected only in bees: flamprop-methyl, 2-methylphenol (2-49 μg kg -1 ) and naphthalene (1-23 μg kg -1 ). The proposed method presents important advantages as it can avoid the use of an unachievable number of analytical standards considered target compounds "a priori" but not present in the analyzed samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Presence of Russian honey bee genotypes in swarms in Louisiana.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Swarm traps were placed in an area around USDA, ARS apiaries near Baton Rouge, Louisiana, which had contained ARS Russian and other honey bees for several years. Eighty swarms were sampled and analyzed for their genotype (Russian, hybrid or non-Russian) and mite infestation percentages. Ten swarms...

  17. Adulteration of diesel/biodiesel blends by vegetable oil as determined by Fourier transform (FT) near infrared spectrometry and FT-Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Flavia C C; Brandão, Christian R R; Ramalho, Hugo F; da Costa, Leonardo A F; Suarez, Paulo A Z; Rubim, Joel C

    2007-03-28

    In this work it has been shown that the routine ASTM methods (ASTM 4052, ASTM D 445, ASTM D 4737, ASTM D 93, and ASTM D 86) recommended by the ANP (the Brazilian National Agency for Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels) to determine the quality of diesel/biodiesel blends are not suitable to prevent the adulteration of B2 or B5 blends with vegetable oils. Considering the previous and actual problems with fuel adulterations in Brazil, we have investigated the application of vibrational spectroscopy (Fourier transform (FT) near infrared spectrometry and FT-Raman) to identify adulterations of B2 and B5 blends with vegetable oils. Partial least square regression (PLS), principal component regression (PCR), and artificial neural network (ANN) calibration models were designed and their relative performances were evaluated by external validation using the F-test. The PCR, PLS, and ANN calibration models based on the Fourier transform (FT) near infrared spectrometry and FT-Raman spectroscopy were designed using 120 samples. Other 62 samples were used in the validation and external validation, for a total of 182 samples. The results have shown that among the designed calibration models, the ANN/FT-Raman presented the best accuracy (0.028%, w/w) for samples used in the external validation.

  18. Application of FTIR-ATR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate analysis for rapid estimation of butter adulteration.

    PubMed

    Fadzlillah, Nurrulhidayah Ahmad; Rohman, Abdul; Ismail, Amin; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Khatib, Alfi

    2013-01-01

    In dairy product sector, butter is one of the potential sources of fat soluble vitamins, namely vitamin A, D, E, K; consequently, butter is taken into account as high valuable price from other dairy products. This fact has attracted unscrupulous market players to blind butter with other animal fats to gain economic profit. Animal fats like mutton fat (MF) are potential to be mixed with butter due to the similarity in terms of fatty acid composition. This study focused on the application of FTIR-ATR spectroscopy in conjunction with chemometrics for classification and quantification of MF as adulterant in butter. The FTIR spectral region of 3910-710 cm⁻¹ was used for classification between butter and butter blended with MF at various concentrations with the aid of discriminant analysis (DA). DA is able to classify butter and adulterated butter without any mistakenly grouped. For quantitative analysis, partial least square (PLS) regression was used to develop a calibration model at the frequency regions of 3910-710 cm⁻¹. The equation obtained for the relationship between actual value of MF and FTIR predicted values of MF in PLS calibration model was y = 0.998x + 1.033, with the values of coefficient of determination (R²) and root mean square error of calibration are 0.998 and 0.046% (v/v), respectively. The PLS calibration model was subsequently used for the prediction of independent samples containing butter in the binary mixtures with MF. Using 9 principal components, root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) is 1.68% (v/v). The results showed that FTIR spectroscopy can be used for the classification and quantification of MF in butter formulation for verification purposes.

  19. Honey Do Franchising Group, Inc. Information Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Honey Do Franchising Group, Inc., a/k/a The Honey Do Service, Inc. (the Company) is located in Bristol, Virginia. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at properties constructed prior to 1978, located in Bristol, Virginia.

  20. 27 CFR 24.203 - Honey wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...; and (3) Pure, dry sugar or honey for sweetening. Sugar may be added only after fermentation is... paragraph (b) of this section, a winemaker, in the production of wine from honey, may add the following: (1...

  1. 27 CFR 24.203 - Honey wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...; and (3) Pure, dry sugar or honey for sweetening. Sugar may be added only after fermentation is... paragraph (b) of this section, a winemaker, in the production of wine from honey, may add the following: (1...

  2. 27 CFR 24.203 - Honey wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...; and (3) Pure, dry sugar or honey for sweetening. Sugar may be added only after fermentation is... paragraph (b) of this section, a winemaker, in the production of wine from honey, may add the following: (1...

  3. 27 CFR 24.203 - Honey wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...; and (3) Pure, dry sugar or honey for sweetening. Sugar may be added only after fermentation is... paragraph (b) of this section, a winemaker, in the production of wine from honey, may add the following: (1...

  4. The determination of the botanical origin in honeys with over-represented pollen: combination of melissopalynological, sensory and physicochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Rodopoulou, Maria-Anna; Tananaki, Chrysoula; Dimou, Maria; Liolios, Vasilios; Kanelis, Dimitrios; Goras, Georgios; Thrasyvoulou, Andreas

    2018-05-01

    Pollen analysis of honey is the basic method for the determination of its botanical origin. However, the presence of over-represented pollen in honeys may lead the analysis to false results. This can be more severe if this pollen is present in unifloral under-represented honeys of commercial importance (e.g. thyme honey). In the present study, we investigated the abundance of over-represented pollen grains on several quality characteristics in honey samples. In particular, we mixed honeys characterised as over-represented, specifically chestnut and eucalyptus, with thyme honeys in different analogies, and we also analysed the melissopalynological, organoleptic, physicochemical (water content, electrical conductivity, colour) and volatile characteristics of the blends. The most sensitive parameters were the microscopic characteristics, followed by the organoleptic ones. Blends of thyme honey with an originally low percentage of thyme pollen were the most influenced and could not be characterised as unifloral regarding their melissopalynological characteristics, even when they were mixed with small quantities of honeys with over-represented pollen (i.e. 5%). The present study confirms that, in the case of presence of over-represented pollen in honeys, pollen analysis alone cannot give trustworthy results for the determination of the botanical origin, even though their exclusion during pollen analysis, when they are present in percentages of up to 30%, could provide more accurate results. Consequently, pollen analysis should also be combined with the other analyses, especially in honeys with under-represented and over-represented pollens, to give safer results for the botanical characterisation of honeys. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Rapid analysis of adulterations in Chinese lotus root powder (LRP) by near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy coupled with chemometric class modeling techniques.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lu; Shi, Peng-Tao; Ye, Zi-Hong; Yan, Si-Min; Yu, Xiao-Ping

    2013-12-01

    This paper develops a rapid analysis method for adulteration identification of a popular traditional Chinese food, lotus root powder (LRP), by near-infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics. 85 pure LRP samples were collected from 7 main lotus producing areas of China to include most if not all of the significant variations likely to be encountered in unknown authentic materials. To evaluate the model specificity, 80 adulterated LRP samples prepared by blending pure LRP with different levels of four cheaper and commonly used starches were measured and predicted. For multivariate quality models, two class modeling methods, the traditional soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) and a recently proposed partial least squares class model (PLSCM) were used. Different data preprocessing techniques, including smoothing, taking derivative and standard normal variate (SNV) transformation were used to improve the classification performance. The results indicate that smoothing, taking second-order derivatives and SNV can improve the class models by enhancing signal-to-noise ratio, reducing baseline and background shifts. The most accurate and stable models were obtained with SNV spectra for both SIMCA (sensitivity 0.909 and specificity 0.938) and PLSCM (sensitivity 0.909 and specificity 0.925). Moreover, both SIMCA and PLSCM could detect LRP samples mixed with 5% (w/w) or more other cheaper starches, including cassava, sweet potato, potato and maize starches. Although it is difficult to perform an exhaustive collection of all pure LRP samples and possible adulterations, NIR spectrometry combined with class modeling techniques provides a reliable and effective method to detect most of the current LRP adulterations in Chinese market. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Honey bee cognition.

    PubMed

    Gould, J L

    1990-11-01

    The visual memory of honey bees is stored pictorially. Bees will accept a mirror-image reversal of a familiar pattern in the absence of the original, but prefer the original over the reversal; the matching system of bees, therefore, does not incorporate a mirror-image ambiguity. Bees will not accept a rotation of a familiar vertical pattern, but readily recognize any rotation of a horizontal pattern; the context-specific ability to make a mental transformation seems justified by natural contingencies. Bees are able to construct and use cognitive maps of their home area, though it is possible to create conditions under which they lack useful cues. Other experiments suggest that recruits, having attended a dance in the hive specifying the distance and direction of a food source, can evaluate the "plausibility" of the location without leaving the hive; this suggests a kind of imagination.

  7. [Application of ICP-MS to Identify the Botanic Source of Characteristic Honey in South Yunnan].

    PubMed

    Wei, Yue; Chen, Fang; Wang, Yong; Chen, Lan-zhen; Zhang, Xue-wen; Wang, Yan-hui; Wu, Li-ming; Zhou, Qun

    2016-01-01

    By adopting inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) combined with chemometric analysis technology, 23 kinds of minerals in four kinds of characteristic honey derived from Yunnan province were analyzed. The result showed that 21 kinds of mineral elements, namely Na, Mg, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sr, Mo, Cd, Sb, Ba, Tl and Pb, have significant differences among different varieties of honey. The results of principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the cumulative variance contribution rate of the first four main components reached 77.74%, seven kinds of elements (Mg, Ca, Mn, Co, Sr, Cd, Ba) from the first main component contained most of the honey information. Through the stepwise discriminant analysis, seven kinds of elements (Mg, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Sr, Pb) were filtered. out and used to establish the discriminant function model, and the correct classification rates of the proposed model reached 90% and 86.7%, respectively, which showed elements contents could be effectively indicators to discriminate the four kinds characteristic honey in southern Yunnan Province. In view of all the honey samples were harvested from apiaries located at south Yunnan Province where have similar climate, soil and other environment conditions, the differences of the mineral elements contents for the honey samples mainly due to their corresponding nectariferous plant. Therefore, it is feasible to identify honey botanical source through the differences of mineral elements.

  8. Honeybees (Apis mellifera) as a biological barrier for contamination of honey by environmental toxic metals.

    PubMed

    Dżugan, Małgorzata; Wesołowska, Monika; Zaguła, Grzegorz; Kaczmarski, Mateusz; Czernicka, Maria; Puchalski, Czesław

    2018-01-27

    The aim of the study was to investigate the transfer of toxic metals from honeybee workers (Apis mellifera L.) to bee honey in relation to the ecological state of the environment. The materials of the study consisted of samples of honeybee bodies and varietal honeys taken from the same apiary located in three areas: R1-urbanized (16), R2-ecologically clean (16) and R3-industrialized (15) of south-eastern Poland. The contents of 14 elements in all tested samples, including toxic metals (Cd, Pb, Hg, Al, Ni, Tl) as well as bioelements (K, Mg, Ca, Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu, Se), were analysed by the ICP-OES method with prior microwave mineralization. The concentrations of the majority of the studied elements, excluding aluminum and lead, were significantly higher in bee bodies than in honey samples (P < 0.05). The pollution of bee bodies by toxic metals was dependent on the environmental cleanliness, and the most pollution was observed in the industrialized area. The bee body was the most effective barrier for Cd and Tl transfer to the honey, while the level of Ni was similar in both tested materials. The Al concentration was significantly higher in honey than bee bodies (14.81 ± 24.69 and 6.51 ± 5.83 mg kg -1 , respectively), which suggests the possibility of secondary contamination of honey. The greatest sensitivity to heavy metal pollution was observed in honeydew honey compared to nectar honeys (P < 0.05). It was proved for the first time that bees work as biofilters for toxic metals and prevent honey contamination.

  9. Growth inhibition of foodborne pathogens and food spoilage organisms by select raw honeys.

    PubMed

    Mundo, Melissa A; Padilla-Zakour, Olga I; Worobo, Randy W

    2004-12-01

    Twenty-seven honey samples from different floral sources and geographical locations were evaluated for their ability to inhibit the growth of seven food spoilage organisms (Alcaligenes faecalis, Aspergillus niger, Bacillus stearothermophilus, Geotrichum candidum, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Penicillium expansum, Pseudomonas fluorescens) and five foodborne pathogens (Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica Ser. Typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus) using an overlay inhibition assay. They were also tested for specific activity against S. aureus 9144 and B. stearothermophilus using the equivalent percent phenol test--a well diffusion assay corresponding to a dilute phenol standard curve. Honey inhibited bacterial growth due to high sugar concentration (reduced water activity), hydrogen peroxide generation, and proteinaceous compounds present in the honey. Some antibacterial activity was due to other unidentified components. The ability of honey to inhibit the growth of microorganisms varies widely, and could not be attributed to a specific floral source or demographic region produced in this study. Antibacterially active samples in this study included Montana buckwheat, tarweed, manuka, melaleuca, and saw palmetto. Furthermore, the bacteria were not uniformly affected by honey. Varying sensitivities to the antimicrobial properties were observed with four strains of S. aureus thus emphasizing the variability in the antibacterial effect of honey samples. Mold growth was not inhibited by any of the honeys tested. B. stearothermophilus, a heat-resistant spoilage bacteria, was shown to be highly sensitive to honey in both the overlay and well diffusion assays; other sensitive bacteria included A. faecalis and L. acidophilus. Non-peroxide antibacterial activity was observed in both assays; the highest instance was observed in the specific activity assay against B. stearothermophilus. Further research could indicate whether

  10. Characterization of Spanish honeys with protected designation of origin "Miel de Granada" according to their mineral content.

    PubMed

    de Alda-Garcilope, C; Gallego-Picó, A; Bravo-Yagüe, J C; Garcinuño-Martínez, R M; Fernández-Hernando, P

    2012-12-01

    Honey attributes such as geographical origin or specified botanical sources often command a premium price due to their organoleptic or pharmacoactive properties. "Miel de Granada" is a highly quality product with protected designation of origin (PDO) which includes six monofloral honeys and two multifloral honeys. Our objective was the characterization of "Miel de Granada" according to their metal content. Metal content was specific enough and allowed discrimination from honeys of different botanical and geographical origins and confirmed the authenticity of PDO labelling as Granada product with the determination of only five elements (K, Na, Ca, Mg and Zn). Chemometric techniques as cluster analysis and ANOVA were used to classify honeys according to their botanical and geographical origin in the metal data. Metal content marks the differences in honey samples and can be used as a tool to assess the quality of honeys. ANOVA showed significant differences among rosemary honeys from different geographical areas despite the botanical factor weight. Our research contributes to the groundwork studies to determine the geographical origin of Spanish honeys. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of Turmeric Powder Adulterated with Metanil Yellow Using FT-Raman and FT-IR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Dhakal, Sagar; Chao, Kuanglin; Schmidt, Walter; Qin, Jianwei; Kim, Moon; Chan, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Turmeric powder (Curcuma longa L.) is valued both for its medicinal properties and for its popular culinary use, such as being a component in curry powder. Due to its high demand in international trade, turmeric powder has been subject to economically driven, hazardous chemical adulteration. This study utilized Fourier Transform-Raman (FT-Raman) and Fourier Transform-Infra Red (FT-IR) spectroscopy as separate but complementary methods for detecting metanil yellow adulteration of turmeric powder. Sample mixtures of turmeric powder and metanil yellow were prepared at concentrations of 30%, 25%, 20%, 15%, 10%, 5%, 1%, and 0.01% (w/w). FT-Raman and FT-IR spectra were acquired for these mixture samples as well as for pure samples of turmeric powder and metanil yellow. Spectral analysis showed that the FT-IR method in this study could detect the metanil yellow at the 5% concentration, while the FT-Raman method appeared to be more sensitive and could detect the metanil yellow at the 1% concentration. Relationships between metanil yellow spectral peak intensities and metanil yellow concentration were established using representative peaks at FT-Raman 1406 cm−1 and FT-IR 1140 cm−1 with correlation coefficients of 0.93 and 0.95, respectively. PMID:28231130

  12. Neonicotinoid residues in UK honey despite European Union moratorium

    PubMed Central

    Ridding, Lucy; Freeman, Stephen N.; Pereira, M. Gloria; Sleep, Darren; Redhead, John; Aston, David; Carreck, Norman L.; Shore, Richard F.; Bullock, James M.; Heard, Matthew S.; Pywell, Richard F.

    2018-01-01

    Due to concerns over negative impacts on insect pollinators, the European Union has implemented a moratorium on the use of three neonicotinoid pesticide seed dressings for mass-flowering crops. We assessed the effectiveness of this policy in reducing the exposure risk to honeybees by collecting 130 samples of honey from bee keepers across the UK before (2014: N = 21) and after the moratorium was in effect (2015: N = 109). Neonicotinoids were present in about half of the honey samples taken before the moratorium, and they were present in over a fifth of honey samples following the moratorium. Clothianidin was the most frequently detected neonicotinoid. Neonicotinoid concentrations declined from May to September in the year following the ban. However, the majority of post-moratorium neonicotinoid residues were from honey harvested early in the year, coinciding with oilseed rape flowering. Neonicotinoid concentrations were correlated with the area of oilseed rape surrounding the hive location. These results suggest mass flowering crops may contain neonicotinoid residues where they have been grown on soils contaminated by previously seed treated crops. This may include winter seed treatments applied to cereals that are currently exempt from EU restrictions. Although concentrations of neonicotinoids were low (<2.0 ng g-1), and posed no risk to human health, they may represent a continued risk to honeybees through long-term chronic exposure. PMID:29298300

  13. Jujube honey from China: physicochemical characteristics and mineral contents.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Juan; Suo, Zhirong; Zhao, Pinpin; Cheng, Ni; Gao, Hui; Zhao, Jing; Cao, Wei

    2013-03-01

    We investigated and compared the physicochemical properties (moisture, color, ash, pH, electrical conductivity, free acidity, lactonic acidity, total acidity, fructose, glucose, sucrose, diastase activity, and HMF) and mineral contents (Al, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, As, Cd, Pb, and Zn), as well as total proline and total protein contents of 23 jujube honey samples collected from different regions of China. The mineral content was determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The physicochemical values were in the range of approved limits (conforming to EU legislation) in all 23 samples. The physicochemical properties of jujube honey showed significant variations among samples. The mean pH value of the jujube honeys was 6.71. The most abundant minerals were potassium, calcium, sodium, and magnesium, ranging between 1081.4 and 2642.9, 97.1 and 194.2, 7.79 and 127.8, and 10.36 and 24.67 mg/kg, respectively, and potassium made up 71% of the total mineral content. This study demonstrated remarkable variation in physicochemical parameters and mineral contents of jujube honey, mainly depending on its geographic source. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Antitumour and antioxidant potential of some selected Pakistani honeys.

    PubMed

    Noor, Nadia; Sarfraz, Raja Adil; Ali, Shaukat; Shahid, Muhammad

    2014-01-15

    Antitumour potential of honey is attributed to its excellent antioxidant activity which in turn depends on the geographical origin. The present study focuses on exploration of antioxidant and antitumour potential as well as total phenolic contents (TPC) of 58 Pakistani honeys involving spectrochemical techniques and potato disk assay. Agrobacterium tumefaciens was used to induce tumours in potato disks. All analysed honey samples exhibited 1.33±0.00-155.16±0.98mg/100g of TPC, 50% 2,2-diphenyl picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) inhibition, ⩾7.36±0.43-39.86±2.34mg/100g qurecitin equivalent antioxidant contents, ⩾13.69±0.91-65.50±1.37mg/100g ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant contents, 64.65±0.43-1780.74±11.79mM ferric reducing antioxidant power and 60% peroxide inhibition. Antitumour activity observed for 43 natural and 10 commercial samples was ⩾20%. Two samples from Faisalabad region showed 87.50±5.50% and 79.00±5.56% antitumour activity which were reference standard. It was concluded that Pakistani honeys possessed excellent antioxidant and antitumour potential overall. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Determination of five abused drugs in nitrite-adulterated urine by immunoassays and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tsai, S C; ElSohly, M A; Dubrovsky, T; Twarowska, B; Towt, J; Salamone, S J

    1998-10-01

    The adulteration of urine specimens with nitrite ion hasseen shown to mask the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) confirmation testing of marijuana use. This study was designed to further investigate the effect of nitrite adulteration on the detection of five commonly abused drugs by immunoassay screening and GC-MS analysis. The drugs tested are cocaine metabolite (benzoylecgonine), morphine, 11-nor-delta-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THCCOOH), amphetamine, and phencyclidine. The immunoassays evaluated included the instrument-based Abuscreen ONLINE assays, the on-site Abuscreen ONTRAK assays, and the one-step ONTRAK TESTCUP-5 assay. Multianalyte standards containing various levels of drugs were used to test the influence of both potassium and sodium nitrite. In the ONLINE immunoassays, the presence of up to 1.0M nitrite in the multianalyte standards had no significant effect for benzoylecgonine, morphine, and phencyclidine assays. With a high concentration of nitrite, ONLINE became more sensitive for amphetamine (detected more drug than what was expected) and less sensitive for THCCOOH (detected less drug than what was expected). No effects of nitrite were observed on the results of the Abuscreen ONTRAK assays. Similarly, no effects were observed on the absolute qualitative results of the TESTCUP-5 when testing the nitrite-adulterated standards. However, the produced intensities of the signals that indicate the negative test results were slightly lowered in the THC and phencyclidine assays. The presence of 1.0M of nitrite did not show dramatic interference with the GC-MS analysis of benzoylecgonine, morphine, amphetamine, and phencyclidine. In contrast, nitrite ion significantly interfered with the detection of THCCOOH by GC-MS. The presence of 0.03M of nitrite ion resulted in significant loss in the recovery of THCCOOH and its internal standard by GC-MS. The problem of nitrite adulteration could be alleviated by sodium bisulfite treatment even

  16. Determination of vegetable oils and fats adulterants in diesel oil by high performance liquid chromatography and multivariate methods.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Luiz Filipe Paiva; Braga, Jez Willian Batista; Suarez, Paulo Anselmo Ziani

    2012-02-17

    The current legislation requires the mandatory addition of biodiesel to all Brazilian road diesel oil A (pure diesel) marketed in the country and bans the addition of vegetable oils for this type of diesel. However, cases of irregular addition of vegetable oils directly to the diesel oil may occur, mainly due to the lower cost of these raw materials compared to the final product, biodiesel. In Brazil, the situation is even more critical once the country is one of the largest producers of oleaginous products in the world, especially soybean, and also it has an extensive road network dependent on diesel. Therefore, alternatives to control the quality of diesel have become increasingly necessary. This study proposes an analytical methodology for quality control of diesel with intention to identify and determine adulterations of oils and even fats of vegetable origin. This methodology is based on detection, identification and quantification of triacylglycerols on diesel (main constituents of vegetable oils and fats) by high performance liquid chromatography in reversed phase with UV detection at 205nm associated with multivariate methods. Six different types of oils and fats were studied (soybean, frying oil, corn, cotton, palm oil and babassu) and two methods were developed for data analysis. The first one, based on principal component analysis (PCA), nearest neighbor classification (KNN) and univariate regression, was used for samples adulterated with a single type of oil or fat. In the second method, partial least square regression (PLS) was used for the cases where the adulterants were mixtures of up to three types of oils or fats. In the first method, the techniques of PCA and KNN were correctly classified as 17 out of 18 validation samples on the type of oil or fat present. The concentrations estimated for adulterants showed good agreement with the reference values, with mean errors of prediction (RMSEP) ranging between 0.10 and 0.22% (v/v). The PLS method was

  17. 77 FR 72385 - Honey From China; Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-893 (Second Review)] Honey From China... U.S.C. 1675(c)), that revocation of the antidumping duty order on honey from China would be likely... (November 2012), entitled Honey from China: Investigation No. 731-TA-893 (Second Review). By order of the...

  18. 7 CFR 1212.10 - Honey products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Honey products. 1212.10 Section 1212.10 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion...

  19. 7 CFR 1212.9 - Honey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Honey. 1212.9 Section 1212.9 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion...

  20. Visible and near-infrared spectral signatures for adulteration assessment of extra virgin olive oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignani, A. G.; Ciaccheri, L.; Ottevaere, H.; Thienpont, H.; Conte, L.; Marega, M.; Cichelli, A.; Attilio, C.; Cimato, A.

    2010-04-01

    Because of its high price, the extra virgin olive oil is frequently target for adulteration with lower quality oils. This paper presents an innovative optical technique capable of quantifying the adulteration of extra virgin olive oil caused by lowergrade olive oils. It relies on spectral fingerprinting the test liquid by means of diffuse-light absorption spectroscopy carried out by optical fiber technology in the wide 400-1700 nm spectral range. Then, a smart multivariate processing of spectroscopic data is applied for immediate prediction of adulterant concentration.

  1. Rapid detection of milk adulteration using intact protein flow injection mass spectrometric fingerprints combined with chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Du, Lijuan; Lu, Weiying; Cai, Zhenzhen Julia; Bao, Lei; Hartmann, Christoph; Gao, Boyan; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2018-02-01

    Flow injection mass spectrometry (FIMS) combined with chemometrics was evaluated for rapidly detecting economically motivated adulteration (EMA) of milk. Twenty-two pure milk and thirty-five counterparts adulterated with soybean, pea, and whey protein isolates at 0.5, 1, 3, 5, and 10% (w/w) levels were analyzed. The principal component analysis (PCA), partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and support vector machine (SVM) classification models indicated that the adulterated milks could successfully be classified from the pure milks. FIMS combined with chemometrics might be an effective method to detect possible EMA in milk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The use of gamma radiation from cobalt-60 in the control of diseases of the honey-bee and the sterilization of honey

    SciTech Connect

    Katznelson, H.; Robb, J. A.

    1962-04-01

    Honeycomb and honey heavily contaminated with spores of Bacillus larvae (agent of American foulbrood disease of honeybee larvae) were exposed to gamma radiation from Co 60. Sterility was achieved by a dose of 1.5 x 10 4 to 2.0 x 10 6 rad. Sugar-tolerant yeasts in honey were effectively destroyed by a dose of 1 x 10 6 rad whereas cysts of Nosema apis (agent of nosema disease of adult bees) were inactivated by a dose of 0.2 x 10 6 rad. The honey samples before testing were golden-brown and irradiation caused a progressive decrease in the intensity of thismore » color resulting in a straw-colored liquid on treatment with a dose of 2 Mrad. There was a slight change in honey flavor and gas evolution occurred in all treated samples. The results show that pasteurization or sterilization of honey can be achieved with relatively little difficulty and with a comparatively small irradiation unit. However, a slight intensification of flavor as a result of gamma irradiation and a distinct change from a dark to a light color requires further study in relation to the food and market value of the honey.« less

  3. Is it possible to screen for milk or whey protein adulteration with melamine, urea and ammonium sulphate, combining Kjeldahl and classical spectrophotometric methods?

    PubMed

    Finete, Virgínia de Lourdes Mendes; Gouvêa, Marcos Martins; Marques, Flávia Ferreira de Carvalho; Netto, Annibal Duarte Pereira

    2013-12-15

    The Kjeldahl method and four classic spectrophotometric methods (Biuret, Lowry, Bradford and Markwell) were applied to evaluate the protein content of samples of UHT whole milk deliberately adulterated with melamine, ammonium sulphate or urea, which can be used to defraud milk protein and whey contents. Compared with the Kjeldahl method, the response of the spectrophotometric methods was unaffected by the addition of the nitrogen compounds to milk or whey. The methods of Bradford and Markwell were most robust and did not exhibit interference subject to composition. However, the simultaneous interpretation of results obtained using these methods with those obtained using the Kjeldahl method indicated the addition of nitrogen-rich compounds to milk and/or whey. Therefore, this work suggests a combination of results of Kjeldahl and spectrophotometric methods should be used to screen for milk adulteration by these compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Silver-nanoparticle-based surface-enhanced Raman scattering wiper for the detection of dye adulteration of medicinal herbs.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Zhu, Qingxia; Lv, Diya; Zheng, Binxing; Liu, Yanhua; Chai, Yifeng; Lu, Feng

    2015-08-01

    By using a silver nanoparticle wiper as a surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrate, a highly sensitive, convenient, and rapid platform for detecting dye adulteration of medicinal herbs was obtained. Commercially available filter paper was functionalized with silver nanoparticles to transform it into the flexible wiper. This device was found to collect dye molecules with unprecedented ease. Experiments were performed to optimize various factors such as the type of wiper used, the wetting reagent, and the wetting/wiping mode and time. Excellent wiper performance was observed in the detection of the simulated adulteration of samples with dyes at various concentrations. The limits of detection for nine dyes, including 10(-6) g/mL for malachite green, 10(-7) g/mL for Rhodamine 6G, and 5 × 10(-8) g/mL for methylene blue, were discerned. The results of this investigation show that this proposed method is potentially highly advantageous for field-based applications. Graphical Abstract Schematic diagram illustrating the fabrication of the paper-based SERS substrate, sample collection process on a herb and SERS examination with the portable Raman spectrometer.

  5. Analysis of adulterants in a traditional herbal medicinal product using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lau, Aik-Jiang; Holmes, Michael J; Woo, Soo-On; Koh, Hwee-Ling

    2003-02-26

    Adulterations with synthetic drugs are common problems with herbal medicine and this can potentially cause serious adverse effects. It is therefore important to determine the presence of synthetic drugs in herbal medicine to ensure patients' safety. The objective of this study was to develop sensitive and specific methods to analyse phenylbutazone, caffeine and oxyphenbutazone present in a traditional Indonesian herbal product. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) methods in the selected reaction-monitoring (SRM) mode were developed. It was found that the sample contained 0.53% w/w (n=3, RSD=7.56%) phenylbutazone and 0.04% w/w (n=3, RSD=8.39%) caffeine. This corresponded to 43.17 mg phenylbutazone and 3.23 mg caffeine in each sachet of powder. The methods were validated for linearity, precision, accuracy, LOD and LOQ. LOD and LOQ were found to be 3.69 and 12.29 ng/ml, respectively for phenylbutazone. For caffeine, the LOD and LOQ were 0.84 and 2.80 ng/ml, respectively. Oxyphenbutazone in the sample was found to be present at a level below the quantification level of 10.2 ng/ml. With better methods developed for analysis of adulterants in herbal medicine, the quality and safety of these medicines can be better controlled and regulated to ensure patients' safety.

  6. Classification and identification of Rhodobryum roseum Limpr. and its adulterants based on fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhen; Wang, Zhenjie; Shang, Zhonglin; Zhao, Jiancheng

    2017-01-01

    Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) with the attenuated total reflectance technique was used to identify Rhodobryum roseum from its four adulterants. The FTIR spectra of six samples in the range from 4000 cm-1 to 600 cm-1 were obtained. The second-derivative transformation test was used to identify the small and nearby absorption peaks. A cluster analysis was performed to classify the spectra in a dendrogram based on the spectral similarity. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to classify the species of six moss samples. A cluster analysis with PCA was used to identify different genera. However, some species of the same genus exhibited highly similar chemical components and FTIR spectra. Fourier self-deconvolution and discrete wavelet transform (DWT) were used to enhance the differences among the species with similar chemical components and FTIR spectra. Three scales were selected as the feature-extracting space in the DWT domain. The results show that FTIR spectroscopy with chemometrics is suitable for identifying Rhodobryum roseum and its adulterants.

  7. Changes in the free amino acid contents of honeys during storage at ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, M Teresa; Martín-Alvarez, Pedro J; Polo, M Carmen; de Lorenzo, Cristina; Gonzalez, Montserrat; Pueyo, Encarnación

    2006-11-29

    This study was carried out to establish the changes in the free amino acid contents of floral honeys, honeydew honeys, and blend honeys during storage at room temperature and to test the capacity of the amino acids to distinguish the origin of the honeys after storage. For this purpose, 54 artisanal honeys (39 floral, 5 honeydew, and 10 blend) were studied. Samples were taken from recently collected honeys and at 3, 6, 9, 12, 16, 20, and 24 months after harvesting. The contents of most of the free amino acids were found to decrease with storage time, with the greatest reduction observed in the first 9 months. The contents of the amino acids aspartic acid, beta-alanine, and proline increased in the first few months after storage, reaching maximum values at 6 months, suggesting the possible existence of enzymatic activities. The application of stepwise discriminant analysis to the free amino acid content data demonstrated that the contents of the amino acids valine, beta-alanine, gamma-aminobutyric acid, serine, isoleucine, alpha-alanine, ornithine, and glutamine correctly assigned 87% of honeys to their group of origin: floral, honeydew, or blend.

  8. Gelam (Melaleuca spp.) Honey-Based Hydrogel as Burn Wound Dressing

    PubMed Central

    Mohd Zohdi, Rozaini; Abu Bakar Zakaria, Zuki; Yusof, Norimah; Mohamed Mustapha, Noordin; Abdullah, Muhammad Nazrul Hakim

    2012-01-01

    A novel cross-linked honey hydrogel dressing was developed by incorporating Malaysian honey into hydrogel dressing formulation, cross-linked and sterilized using electron beam irradiation (25 kGy). In this study, the physical properties of the prepared honey hydrogel and its wound healing efficacy on deep partial thickness burn wounds in rats were assessed. Skin samples were taken at 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after burn for histopathological and molecular evaluations. Application of honey hydrogel dressings significantly enhanced (P < 0.05) wound closure and accelerated the rate of re-epithelialization as compared to control hydrogel and OpSite film dressing. A significant decrease in inflammatory response was observed in honey hydrogel treated wounds as early as 7 days after burn (P < 0.05). Semiquantitative analysis using RT-PCR revealed that treatment with honey hydrogel significantly (P < 0.05) suppressed the expression of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1α, IL-1β, and IL-6). The present study substantiates the potential efficacy of honey hydrogel dressings in accelerating burn wound healing. PMID:21941590

  9. Effect of honey on bacterial translocation and intestinal morphology in obstructive jaundice

    PubMed Central

    Gencay, Cem; Kilicoglu, Sibel Serin; Kismet, Kemal; Kilicoglu, Bulent; Erel, Serap; Muratoglu, Sabahattin; Sunay, Asli Elif; Erdemli, Esra; Akkus, Mehmet Ali

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effects of honey on bacterial translocation and intestinal villus histopathology in experimental obstructive jaundice. METHODS: Thirty Wistar-Albino rats were randomly divided into three groups each including 10 animals: group I, sham-operated; group II, ligation and section of the common bile duct (BDL); group III, bile duct ligation followed by oral supplementation of honey (BDL + honey) 10 g/kg per day. Liver, blood, spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes, and ileal samples were taken for microbiological, light and transmission electrone microscopic examination. RESULTS: Although the number of villi per centimeter and the height of the mucosa were higher in sham group, there was no statistically significant difference between sham and BDL + honey groups (P > 0.05). On the other hand, there was a statistically significant difference between BDL group and other groups (P < 0.05). The electron microscopic changes were also different between these groups. Sham and honey groups had similar incidence of bacterial translocation (P > 0.05). BDL group had significantly higher rates of bacterial translocation as compared with sham and honey groups. Bacterial translocation was predominantly detected in mesenteric lymph nodes. CONCLUSION: Supplementation of honey in presence of obstructive jaundice ameliorates bacterial translocation and improves ileal morphology. PMID:18528939

  10. Effects of oxidizing adulterants on detection of 11-nor-delta9-THC-9-carboxylic acid in urine.

    PubMed

    Paul, Buddha D; Jacobs, Aaron

    2002-10-01

    Bleach, nitrite, chromate, and hydrogen peroxide-peroxidase are effective urine adulterants used by the illicit drug users to conceal marijuana-positive results. Methods for detecting nitrite and chromate are available. Effects of other oxidizing agents that could possibly be used as adulterants and are difficult to detect or measure are presented in this report. Urine samples containing 40 ng/mL of 11-nor-delta9-THC-9-carboxylic acid (THC-acid) were treated with 10 mmol/L of commonly available oxidizing agents. Effects of horseradish peroxidase of activity 10 unit/mL and extracts from 2.5 g of red radish (Raphanus sativus, Radicula group), horseradish (Armoracia rusticana), Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus, Daikon group), and black mustard seeds (Brassica nigra), all with 10 mmol/L of hydrogen peroxide, were also examined. After 5 min, 16 h and 48 h of exposure at room temperature (23 degrees C) the specimens were tested by a gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric method for THC-acid. A control group treated with sodium hydrosulfite to reduce the oxidants, was also tested to investigate the effect of oxidizing agents on THC-acid in the extraction method. THC-acid was lost completely in the extraction method when treated with chromate, nitrite, oxone, and hydrogen peroxide/ferrous ammonium sulfate (Fenton's reagent). Some losses were also observed with persulfate and periodate (up to 25%). These oxidants, and other oxidizing agents like permanganate, periodate, peroxidase, and extracts from red radish, horseradish, Japanese radish and black mustard seeds destroyed most of the THC-acid (> 94%) within 48 h of exposure. Chlorate, perchlorate, iodate, and oxychloride under these conditions showed little or no effect. Complete loss was observed when THC-acid was exposed to 50 mmol/L of oxychloride for 48 h. Several oxidizing adulterants that are difficult to test by the present urine adulterant testing methods showed considerable effects on the destruction of THC

  11. Voltammetric fingerprinting of oils and its combination with chemometrics for the detection of extra virgin olive oil adulteration.

    PubMed

    Tsopelas, Fotios; Konstantopoulos, Dimitris; Kakoulidou, Anna Tsantili

    2018-07-26

    In the present work, two approaches for the voltammetric fingerprinting of oils and their combination with chemometrics were investigated in order to detect the adulteration of extra virgin olive oil with olive pomace oil as well as the most common seed oils, namely sunflower, soybean and corn oil. In particular, cyclic voltammograms of diluted extra virgin olive oils, regular (pure) olive oils (blends of refined olive oils with virgin olive oils), olive pomace oils and seed oils in presence of dichloromethane and 0.1 M of LiClO 4 in EtOH as electrolyte were recorded at a glassy carbon working electrode. Cyclic voltammetry was also employed in methanolic extracts of olive and seed oils. Datapoints of cyclic voltammograms were exported and submitted to Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Partial Least Square- Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA). In diluted oils, PLS-DA provided a clear discrimination between olive oils (extra virgin and regular) and olive pomace/seed oils, while SIMCA showed a clear discrimination of extra virgin olive oil in regard to all other samples. Using methanolic extracts and considering datapoints recorded between 0.6 and 1.3 V, PLS-DA provided more information, resulting in three clusters-extra virgin olive oils, regular olive oils and seed/olive pomace oils-while SIMCA showed inferior performance. For the quantification of extra virgin olive oil adulteration with olive pomace oil or seed oils, a model based on Partial Least Square (PLS) analysis was developed. Detection limit of adulteration in olive oil was found to be 2% (v/v) and the linearity range up to 33% (v/v). Validation and applicability of all models was proved using a suitable test set. In the case of PLS, synthetic oil mixtures with 4 known adulteration levels in the range of 4-26% were also employed as a blind test set. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Honey and contemporary wound care: an overview.

    PubMed

    Cutting, Keith F

    2007-11-01

    A growing body of research and empirical evidence have supported the re-discovery of medicinal grade honey as a wound management agent. Pre-clinical study results suggest that honey has therapeutic benefit; clinical study results have shown that honey effectively addresses exudate, inflammation, devitalized tissue, and infection. Honey-containing dressings and gels have been developed to facilitate the application of medicinal-grade honey to the wound. Clinical studies to compare the safety and effectiveness of these products to other moisture-retentive dressings and treatment modalities are warranted.

  13. Pathogen prevalence and abundance in honey bee colonies involved in almond pollination.

    PubMed

    Cavigli, Ian; Daughenbaugh, Katie F; Martin, Madison; Lerch, Michael; Banner, Katie; Garcia, Emma; Brutscher, Laura M; Flenniken, Michelle L

    Honey bees are important pollinators of agricultural crops. Since 2006, US beekeepers have experienced high annual honey bee colony losses, which may be attributed to multiple abiotic and biotic factors, including pathogens. However, the relative importance of these factors has not been fully elucidated. To identify the most prevalent pathogens and investigate the relationship between colony strength and health, we assessed pathogen occurrence, prevalence, and abundance in Western US honey bee colonies involved in almond pollination. The most prevalent pathogens were Black queen cell virus (BQCV), Lake Sinai virus 2 (LSV2), Sacbrood virus (SBV), Nosema ceranae , and trypanosomatids. Our results indicated that pathogen prevalence and abundance were associated with both sampling date and beekeeping operation, that prevalence was highest in honey bee samples obtained immediately after almond pollination, and that weak colonies had a greater mean pathogen prevalence than strong colonies.

  14. Honey with Psilocybe mushrooms: a revival of a very old preparation on the drug market?

    PubMed

    Bogusz, M J; Maier, R D; Schäfer, A T; Erkens, M

    1998-01-01

    In 1996 samples of suspicious honey preparations were confiscated at the Dutch-German border. The labels on the 50 ml jars indicated that the honey contained Stropharia cubensis (better known as Psilocybe cubensis). The jars were filled with honey with a ca. 1 cm layer of fine particles on the top. The particles were collected and subjected to microscopic and chemical analysis. By microscopy mushroom tissue (plectenchym) and spores typical for the genus Psilocybe were identified in all samples. The HPLC analysis with atmospheric pressure mass spectrometry and diode array detection revealed psilocine but psilocybine was not found. The quantitative analysis was very difficult due to the matrix problems. A search showed that the honey with Psilocybe can be purchased in Dutch coffee shops without any limitations although psilocine and psilocybine belong to listed substances according to Dutch law.

  15. Detection and quantification of extra virgin olive oil adulteration by means of autofluorescence excitation-emission profiles combined with multi-way classification.

    PubMed

    Durán Merás, Isabel; Domínguez Manzano, Jaime; Airado Rodríguez, Diego; Muñoz de la Peña, Arsenio

    2018-02-01

    Within olive oils, extra virgin olive oil is the highest quality and, in consequence, the most expensive one. Because of that, it is common that some merchants attempt to take economic advantage by mixing it up with other less expensive oils, like olive oil or olive pomace oil. In consequence, the characterization and authentication of extra virgin olive oils is a subject of great interest, both for industry and consumers. This paper reports the potential of front-face total fluorescence spectroscopy combined with second-order chemometric methods for the detection of extra virgin olive oils adulteration with other olive oils. Excitation-emission matrices (EEMs) of extra virgin olive oils and extra virgin olive oils adulterated with olive oils or with olive pomace oils were recorded using front-face fluorescence spectroscopy. The full information content in these fluorescence images was analyzed with the aid of unsupervised parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), PARAFAC supervised by linear discriminant analysis (LDA-PARAFAC), and discriminant unfolded partial least-squares (DA-UPLS). The discriminant ability of LDA-PARAFAC was studied through the tridimensional plots of the canonical vectors, defining a surface separating the established categories. For DA-UPLS, the discriminant ability was established through the bidimensional plots of predicted values of calibration and validation samples, in order to assign each sample to a given class. The models demonstrated the possibility of detecting adulterations of extra virgin olive oils with percentages of around 15% and 3% of olive and olive pomace oils, respectively. Also, UPLS regression was used to quantify the adulteration level of extra virgin olive oils with olive oils or with olive pomace oils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Astronomy and Existentialism in Albert Camus' ``The Adulterous Woman''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garwood, D.

    2013-04-01

    Camus' short story “An Adulterous Woman” from his collection Exile and the Kingdom narrates the experience of Janine, wife of a French Algerian cloth-trader, who accompanies her husband on a business trip to the Saharan interior at mid-20th century. The desert landscape and its weather play an integral role in the plot. Blending realism and fantasy that borders on science fiction, the narrator characterizes the sky as an animate cosmological energy whose virility is masked by sunlight during the day. Released after sundown and portrayed as a liberator at the climax of the story, the shaman-like night sky descends upon Janine as a shower of stars that leaves her with an existential sense of self. This paper explores themes of astronomy and existentialism that Camus develops through Janine's “adultery” with a cosmological force, supplemented by visual imagery related to the aesthetic and scientific cultural contexts of the story and Camus' era.

  17. [Study on ITS sequences of Aconitum vilmorinianum and its medicinal adulterant].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-nan; Du, Chun-hua; Fu, De-huan; Gao, Li; Zhou, Pei-jun; Wang, Li

    2012-09-01

    To analyze and compare the ITS sequences of Aconitum vilmorinianum and its medicinal adulterant Aconitum austroyunnanense. Total genomic DNA were extracted from sample materials by improved CTAB method, ITS sequences of samples were amplified using PCR systems, directly sequenced and analyzed using software DNAStar, ClustalX1.81 and MEGA 4.0. 299 consistent sites, 19 variable sites and 13 informative sites were found in ITS1 sequences, 162 consistent sites, 2 variable sites and 1 informative sites were found in 5.8S sequences, 217 consistent sites, 3 variable sites and 1 informative site were found in ITS2 sequences. Base transition and transversion was not found only in 5.8S sequences, 2 sites transition and 1 site transversion were found in ITS1 sequences, only 1 site transversion was found in ITS2 sequences comparting the ITS sequences data matrix. By analyzing the ITS sequences data matrix from 2 population of Aconitum vilmorinianum and 3 population of Aconitum austroyunnanense, we found a stable informative site at the 596th base in ITS2 sequences, in all the samples of Aconitum vilmorinianum the base was C, and in all the samples of Aconitum austroyunnanense the base was A. Aconitum vilmorinianum and Aconitum austroyunnanense can be identified by their characters of ITS sequences, and the variable sites in ITS1 sequences are more than in ITS2 sequences.

  18. The effect of standard heat and filtration processing procedures on antimicrobial activity and hydrogen peroxide levels in honey.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cuilan; Campbell, Leona T; Blair, Shona E; Carter, Dee A

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the antimicrobial properties of honey. In most honey types, antimicrobial activity is due to the generation of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), but this can vary greatly among samples. Honey is a complex product and other components may modulate activity, which can be further affected by commercial processing procedures. In this study we examined honey derived from three native Australian floral sources that had previously been associated with H(2)O(2)-dependent activity. Antibacterial activity was seen in four red stringybark samples only, and ranged from 12 to 21.1% phenol equivalence against Staphylococcus aureus. Antifungal activity ranged from MIC values of 19-38.3% (w/v) against Candida albicans, and all samples were significantly more active than an osmotically equivalent sugar solution. All honey samples were provided unprocessed and following commercial processing. Processing was usually detrimental to antimicrobial activity, but occasionally the reverse was seen and activity increased. H(2)O(2) levels varied from 0 to 1017 μM, and although samples with no H(2)O(2) had little or no antimicrobial activity, some samples had relatively high H(2)O(2) levels yet no antimicrobial activity. In samples where H(2)O(2) was detected, the correlation with antibacterial activity was greater in the processed than in the unprocessed samples, suggesting other factors present in the honey influence this activity and are sensitive to heat treatment. Antifungal activity did not correlate with the level of H(2)O(2) in honey samples, and overall it appeared that H(2)O(2) alone was not sufficient to inhibit C. albicans. We conclude that floral source and H(2)O(2) levels are not reliable predictors of the antimicrobial activity of honey, which currently can only be assessed by standardized antimicrobial testing. Heat processing should be reduced where possible, and honey destined for medicinal use should be retested post-processing to ensure that

  19. Polish Natural Bee Honeys Are Anti-Proliferative and Anti-Metastatic Agents in Human Glioblastoma multiforme U87MG Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Moskwa, Justyna; Borawska, Maria H.; Markiewicz-Zukowska, Renata; Puscion-Jakubik, Anna; Naliwajko, Sylwia K.; Socha, Katarzyna; Soroczynska, Jolanta

    2014-01-01

    Honey has been used as food and a traditional medicament since ancient times. However, recently many scientists have been concentrating on the anti-oxidant, anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory and other properties of honey. In this study, we investigated for the first time an anticancer effect of different honeys from Poland on tumor cell line - glioblastoma multiforme U87MG. Anti-proliferative activity of honeys and its interferences with temozolomide were determined by a cytotoxicity test and DNA binding by [H3]-thymidine incorporation. A gelatin zymography was used to conduct an evaluation of metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) expression in U87MG treatment with honey samples. The honeys were previously tested qualitatively (diastase activity, total phenolic content, lead and cadmium content). The data demonstrated that the examined honeys have a potent anti-proliferative effect on U87MG cell line in a time- and dose-dependent manner, being effective at concentrations as low as 0.5% (multifloral light honey - viability 53% after 72 h of incubation). We observed that after 48 h, combining honey with temozolomide showed a significantly higher inhibitory effect than the samples of honey alone. We observed a strong inhibition of MMP-2 and MMP-9 for the tested honeys (from 20 to 56% and from 5 to 58% compared to control, respectively). Our results suggest that Polish honeys have an anti-proliferative and anti-metastatic effect on U87MG cell line. Therefore, natural bee honey can be considered as a promising adjuvant treatment for brain tumors. PMID:24594866

  20. Honey: its medicinal property and antibacterial activity

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Manisha Deb; Mandal, Shyamapada

    2011-01-01

    Indeed, medicinal importance of honey has been documented in the world's oldest medical literatures, and since the ancient times, it has been known to possess antimicrobial property as well as wound-healing activity. The healing property of honey is due to the fact that it offers antibacterial activity, maintains a moist wound condition, and its high viscosity helps to provide a protective barrier to prevent infection. Its immunomodulatory property is relevant to wound repair too. The antimicrobial activity in most honeys is due to the enzymatic production of hydrogen peroxide. However, another kind of honey, called non-peroxide honey (viz., manuka honey), displays significant antibacterial effects even when the hydrogen peroxide activity is blocked. Its mechanism may be related to the low pH level of honey and its high sugar content (high osmolarity) that is enough to hinder the growth of microbes. The medical grade honeys have potent in vitro bactericidal activity against antibiotic-resistant bacteria causing several life-threatening infections to humans. But, there is a large variation in the antimicrobial activity of some natural honeys, which is due to spatial and temporal variation in sources of nectar. Thus, identification and characterization of the active principle(s) may provide valuable information on the quality and possible therapeutic potential of honeys (against several health disorders of humans), and hence we discussed the medicinal property of honeys with emphasis on their antibacterial activities. PMID:23569748

  1. Iridovirus and microsporidian linked to honey bee colony decline.

    PubMed

    Bromenshenk, Jerry J; Henderson, Colin B; Wick, Charles H; Stanford, Michael F; Zulich, Alan W; Jabbour, Rabih E; Deshpande, Samir V; McCubbin, Patrick E; Seccomb, Robert A; Welch, Phillip M; Williams, Trevor; Firth, David R; Skowronski, Evan; Lehmann, Margaret M; Bilimoria, Shan L; Gress, Joanna; Wanner, Kevin W; Cramer, Robert A

    2010-10-06

    In 2010 Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), again devastated honey bee colonies in the USA, indicating that the problem is neither diminishing nor has it been resolved. Many CCD investigations, using sensitive genome-based methods, have found small RNA bee viruses and the microsporidia, Nosema apis and N. ceranae in healthy and collapsing colonies alike with no single pathogen firmly linked to honey bee losses. We used Mass spectrometry-based proteomics (MSP) to identify and quantify thousands of proteins from healthy and collapsing bee colonies. MSP revealed two unreported RNA viruses in North American honey bees, Varroa destructor-1 virus and Kakugo virus, and identified an invertebrate iridescent virus (IIV) (Iridoviridae) associated with CCD colonies. Prevalence of IIV significantly discriminated among strong, failing, and collapsed colonies. In addition, bees in failing colonies contained not only IIV, but also Nosema. Co-occurrence of these microbes consistently marked CCD in (1) bees from commercial apiaries sampled across the U.S. in 2006-2007, (2) bees sequentially sampled as the disorder progressed in an observation hive colony in 2008, and (3) bees from a recurrence of CCD in Florida in 2009. The pathogen pairing was not observed in samples from colonies with no history of CCD, namely bees from Australia and a large, non-migratory beekeeping business in Montana. Laboratory cage trials with a strain of IIV type 6 and Nosema ceranae confirmed that co-infection with these two pathogens was more lethal to bees than either pathogen alone. These findings implicate co-infection by IIV and Nosema with honey bee colony decline, giving credence to older research pointing to IIV, interacting with Nosema and mites, as probable cause of bee losses in the USA, Europe, and Asia. We next need to characterize the IIV and Nosema that we detected and develop management practices to reduce honey bee losses.

  2. Iridovirus and Microsporidian Linked to Honey Bee Colony Decline

    PubMed Central

    Bromenshenk, Jerry J.; Henderson, Colin B.; Wick, Charles H.; Stanford, Michael F.; Zulich, Alan W.; Jabbour, Rabih E.; Deshpande, Samir V.; McCubbin, Patrick E.; Seccomb, Robert A.; Welch, Phillip M.; Williams, Trevor; Firth, David R.; Skowronski, Evan; Lehmann, Margaret M.; Bilimoria, Shan L.; Gress, Joanna; Wanner, Kevin W.; Cramer, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    Background In 2010 Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), again devastated honey bee colonies in the USA, indicating that the problem is neither diminishing nor has it been resolved. Many CCD investigations, using sensitive genome-based methods, have found small RNA bee viruses and the microsporidia, Nosema apis and N. ceranae in healthy and collapsing colonies alike with no single pathogen firmly linked to honey bee losses. Methodology/Principal Findings We used Mass spectrometry-based proteomics (MSP) to identify and quantify thousands of proteins from healthy and collapsing bee colonies. MSP revealed two unreported RNA viruses in North American honey bees, Varroa destructor-1 virus and Kakugo virus, and identified an invertebrate iridescent virus (IIV) (Iridoviridae) associated with CCD colonies. Prevalence of IIV significantly discriminated among strong, failing, and collapsed colonies. In addition, bees in failing colonies contained not only IIV, but also Nosema. Co-occurrence of these microbes consistently marked CCD in (1) bees from commercial apiaries sampled across the U.S. in 2006–2007, (2) bees sequentially sampled as the disorder progressed in an observation hive colony in 2008, and (3) bees from a recurrence of CCD in Florida in 2009. The pathogen pairing was not observed in samples from colonies with no history of CCD, namely bees from Australia and a large, non-migratory beekeeping business in Montana. Laboratory cage trials with a strain of IIV type 6 and Nosema ceranae confirmed that co-infection with these two pathogens was more lethal to bees than either pathogen alone. Conclusions/Significance These findings implicate co-infection by IIV and Nosema with honey bee colony decline, giving credence to older research pointing to IIV, interacting with Nosema and mites, as probable cause of bee losses in the USA, Europe, and Asia. We next need to characterize the IIV and Nosema that we detected and develop management practices to reduce honey bee losses

  3. Detection of plant microRNAs in honey

    PubMed Central

    Gismondi, Angelo; Di Marco, Gabriele

    2017-01-01

    For the first time in the literature, our group has managed to demonstrate the existence of plant RNAs in honey samples. In particular, in our work, different RNA extraction procedures were performed in order to identify a purification method for nucleic acids from honey. Purity, stability and integrity of the RNA samples were evaluated by spectrophotometric, PCR and electrophoretic analyses. Among all honey RNAs, we specifically revealed the presence of both plastidial and nuclear plant transcripts: RuBisCO large subunit mRNA, maturase K messenger and 18S ribosomal RNA. Surprisingly, nine plant microRNAs (miR482b, miR156a, miR396c, miR171a, miR858, miR162a, miR159c, miR395a and miR2118a) were also detected and quantified by qPCR. In this context, a comparison between microRNA content in plant samples (i.e. flowers, nectars) and their derivative honeys was carried out. In addition, peculiar microRNA profiles were also identified in six different monofloral honeys. Finally, the same plant microRNAs were investigated in other plant food products: tea, cocoa and coffee. Since plant microRNAs introduced by diet have been recently recognized as being able to modulate the consumer’s gene expression, our research suggests that honey’s benefits for human health may be strongly correlated to the bioactivity of plant microRNAs contained in this matrix. PMID:28241034

  4. Swimming of the Honey Bees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roh, Chris; Gharib, Morteza

    2016-11-01

    When the weather gets hot, nursing honey bees nudge foragers to collect water for thermoregulation of their hive. While on their mission to collect water, foragers sometimes get trapped on the water surface, forced to interact with a different fluid environment. In this study, we present the survival strategy of the honey bees at the air-water interface. A high-speed videography and shadowgraph were used to record the honey bees swimming. A unique thrust mechanism through rapid vibration of their wings at 60 to 150 Hz was observed. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CBET-1511414; additional support by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-1144469.

  5. Novel identification strategy for ground coffee adulteration based on UPLC-HRMS oligosaccharide profiling.

    PubMed

    Cai, Tie; Ting, Hu; Jin-Lan, Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most common and most valuable beverages. According to International Coffee Organization (ICO) reports, the adulteration of coffee for financial reasons is regarded as the most serious threat to the sustainable development of the coffee market. In this work, a novel strategy for adulteration identification in ground coffee was developed based on UPLC-HRMS oligosaccharide profiling. Along with integrated statistical analysis, 17 oligosaccharide composition were identified as markers for the identification of soybeans and rice in ground coffee. This strategy, validated by manual mixtures, optimized both the reliability and authority of adulteration identification. Rice and soybean adulterants present in ground coffee in amounts as low as 5% were identified and evaluated. Some commercial ground coffees were also successfully tested using this strategy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 21 CFR 314.170 - Adulteration and misbranding of an approved drug.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA Action on... subject to the adulteration and misbranding provisions in sections 501, 502, and 503 of the act. FDA is...

  7. 21 CFR 314.170 - Adulteration and misbranding of an approved drug.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA Action on... subject to the adulteration and misbranding provisions in sections 501, 502, and 503 of the act. FDA is...

  8. 21 CFR 314.170 - Adulteration and misbranding of an approved drug.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA Action on... subject to the adulteration and misbranding provisions in sections 501, 502, and 503 of the act. FDA is...

  9. 21 CFR 314.170 - Adulteration and misbranding of an approved drug.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA Action on... subject to the adulteration and misbranding provisions in sections 501, 502, and 503 of the act. FDA is...

  10. 21 CFR 314.170 - Adulteration and misbranding of an approved drug.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA Action on... subject to the adulteration and misbranding provisions in sections 501, 502, and 503 of the act. FDA is...

  11. Honey and metformin ameliorated diabetes-induced damages in testes of rat; correlation with hormonal changes

    PubMed Central

    Nasrolahi, Ozra; Khaneshi, Fereshteh; Rahmani, Fatemeh; Razi, Mazdak

    2013-01-01

    Background: The global prevalence of diabetes mellitus is on rise. Diabetes-induced oxidative stress has been known to affect liver, pancreas, kidney and reproductive organs pathologically. Honey is a natural product of bee with antioxidant properties. Objective: Current study aimed to analyze the protective effects of Metformin (MF) alone and MF+ natural honey co-administration on diabetes-induced histological derangements in testis of rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty six, mature male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups including; control, honey-dosed non-diabetic, diabetes-induced (65 mg/kg, single dose), honey-administrated diabetic (1.0 g/kg/day), Metformin-received diabetic (100 mg/kg/day), Metformin and honey-co-treated diabetic which were followed 40 days. The animals were anesthetized by diethyl ether and the blood samples were collected. The serum levels of testosterone, Insulin, LH and FSH analyzed using antibody enzyme immunoassay method. The testicular tissues were dissected out and underwent to histological analyses. Results: The biochemical analyses revealed that the diabetes resulted in significantly reduced testosterone (p<0.01), LH and FSH (P<0.01, 0.001) levels in serum. Light microscopic analyses showed remarkable (p<0.01) reduction in seminiferous tubules diameter (STD), spermiogenesis index (SPI) and thickness of the epithelium in the diabetic group versus control and co-treated groups. Simultaneous administration of the honey with MF could fairly up-regulate testosterone, LH and FSH levels. The animals in metformin and honey-treated group exhibited with improved tubules atrophy, elevated spermiogenesis index and germinal epithelium thickness. Conclusion: Our data indicated that co-administration of Metformin and honey could inhibit the diabetes-induced damages in testicular tissue. Moreover, the simultaneous administration of metformin and honey up-regulated the diabetes-reduced insulin, LH, FSH and testosterone levels. This

  12. Honey and metformin ameliorated diabetes-induced damages in testes of rat; correlation with hormonal changes.

    PubMed

    Nasrolahi, Ozra; Khaneshi, Fereshteh; Rahmani, Fatemeh; Razi, Mazdak

    2013-12-01

    The global prevalence of diabetes mellitus is on rise. Diabetes-induced oxidative stress has been known to affect liver, pancreas, kidney and reproductive organs pathologically. Honey is a natural product of bee with antioxidant properties. Current study aimed to analyze the protective effects of Metformin (MF) alone and MF+ natural honey co-administration on diabetes-induced histological derangements in testis of rats. Thirty six, mature male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups including; control, honey-dosed non-diabetic, diabetes-induced (65 mg/kg, single dose), honey-administrated diabetic (1.0 g/kg/day), Metformin-received diabetic (100 mg/kg/day), Metformin and honey-co-treated diabetic which were followed 40 days. The animals were anesthetized by diethyl ether and the blood samples were collected. The serum levels of testosterone, Insulin, LH and FSH analyzed using antibody enzyme immunoassay method. The testicular tissues were dissected out and underwent to histological analyses. The biochemical analyses revealed that the diabetes resulted in significantly reduced testosterone (p<0.01), LH and FSH (P<0.01, 0.001) levels in serum. Light microscopic analyses showed remarkable (p<0.01) reduction in seminiferous tubules diameter (STD), spermiogenesis index (SPI) and thickness of the epithelium in the diabetic group versus control and co-treated groups. Simultaneous administration of the honey with MF could fairly up-regulate testosterone, LH and FSH levels. The animals in metformin and honey-treated group exhibited with improved tubules atrophy, elevated spermiogenesis index and germinal epithelium thickness. Our data indicated that co-administration of Metformin and honey could inhibit the diabetes-induced damages in testicular tissue. Moreover, the simultaneous administration of metformin and honey up-regulated the diabetes-reduced insulin, LH, FSH and testosterone levels. This article extracted from M.Sc. thesis. (Ozra Nasrolahi).

  13. Tracking the dehydration process of raw honey by synchronous two-dimensional near infrared correlation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guiyun; Sun, Xin; Huang, Yuping; Chen, Kunjie

    2014-11-01

    Though much attention is paid to honey quality assessment, few reports on characteristic of manually dehydrated honey have been found. The aim of this investigation is to track the dehydration process of raw honey using synchronous two-dimensional (2D) near infrared correlation spectroscopy. To minimize the impact of dehydration to honey quality, seventy-two honey samples from six different dehydration stages were obtained using drum wind drying method with temperature controlled at 40 °C. Their dynamic short-wave NIR spectra from 600 to 1100 nm were collected in the transmission mode from 10 to 50 °C with an increment of 5 °C and were analyzed using synchronous two-dimensional correlation method. Short-wave NIR spectral data has been exploited less than other NIR region for its weaker signal especially for water absorption's interference with useful information. The investigation enlarged the signal at this band using synchronous 2D correlation analysis, revealing the fingerprinting feature of rape honey and chaste honey during the artificial dehydration process. The results have shown that, with the help of 2D correlation analysis, this band can detect the variation of the second overtone of O-H and N-H groups vibration upon their H-bonds forming or collapsing resulted from the interactions between water and solute. The results have also shown that 2D-NIRS method is able to convert the tiny changes in honey constituents into the detectable fingerprinting difference, which provides a new method for assessing honey quality.

  14. Analysis of cocaine and its adulterants in drugs for international trafficking seized by the Brazilian Federal Police.

    PubMed

    Lapachinske, Silvio Fernandes; Okai, Guilherme Gonçalves; dos Santos, Ariana; de Bairros, André Valle; Yonamine, Mauricio

    2015-02-01

    Here, gas chromatography with nitrogen phosphorous detector (GC-NPD) method was developed and validated for the quantification of cocaine and adulterants (caffeine, 4-dimethylaminoantipyrine, levamisole, lidocaine and phenacetin) in illicit samples. The method was based on direct dilution of samples in methanol, sonication for 5 min and centrifugation. After appropriate dilution, an aliquot was injected into GC-MS in order to identify the active compounds and into GC-NPD for the analytes quantification. Bupivacaine was used as an internal standard. The method showed to be precise, accurate and linear over a range of 0.5-100% (weight/weight percentages) for all analytes, except phenacetin which showed a linear range between 2% and 100%. The method was successfully applied to 54 samples seized by the Brazilian Federal Police in the International Airport of Sao Paulo and mailing services during the year 2011. All the samples were associated with international trafficking and were apprehended while leaving the country. The purity of cocaine ranged from 16.5% to 91.4%. Cocaine was the only detected active compound in 29.6% of total samples. Among the identified cutting agents, levamisole was the most abundant (55.6% of the total samples) and relative concentrations (weight/weight percentages) ranged from 0.7% to 23%. Lidocaine, caffeine, phenacetin and 4-dimethylaminoantipyrine were also identified in these samples in minor concentrations. In contrast with what we initially hypothesized, drugs intended to international trafficking did not present high cocaine purity and most of the samples were laced with adulterants before leaving Brazil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Honey: an immunomodulator in wound healing.

    PubMed

    Majtan, Juraj

    2014-01-01

    Honey is a popular natural product that is used in the treatment of burns and a broad spectrum of injuries, in particular chronic wounds. The antibacterial potential of honey has been considered the exclusive criterion for its wound healing properties. The antibacterial activity of honey has recently been fully characterized in medical-grade honeys. Recently, the multifunctional immunomodulatory properties of honey have attracted much attention. The aim of this review is to provide closer insight into the potential immunomodulatory effects of honey in wound healing. Honey and its components are able to either stimulate or inhibit the release of certain cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6) from human monocytes and macrophages, depending on wound condition. Similarly, honey seems to either reduce or activate the production of reactive oxygen species from neutrophils, also depending on the wound microenvironment. The honey-induced activation of both types of immune cells could promote debridement of a wound and speed up the repair process. Similarly, human keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cell responses (e.g., cell migration and proliferation, collagen matrix production, chemotaxis) are positively affected in the presence of honey; thus, honey may accelerate reepithelization and wound closure. The immunomodulatory activity of honey is highly complex because of the involvement of multiple quantitatively variable compounds among honeys of different origins. The identification of these individual compounds and their contributions to wound healing is crucial for a better understanding of the mechanisms behind honey-mediated healing of chronic wounds. © 2014 by the Wound Healing Society.

  16. Inhalation of honey reduces airway inflammation and histopathological changes in a rabbit model of ovalbumin-induced chronic asthma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Honey is widely used in folk medicine to treat cough, fever, and inflammation. In this study, the effect of aerosolised honey on airway tissues in a rabbit model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma was investigated. The ability of honey to act either as a rescuing agent in alleviating asthma-related symptoms or as a preventive agent to preclude the occurrence of asthma was also assessed. Methods Forty New Zealand white rabbits were sensitized twice with mixture of OVA and aluminium hydroxide on days 1 and 14. Honey treatments were given from day 23 to day 25 at two different doses (25% (v/v) and 50% (v/v) of honey diluted in sterile phosphate buffer saline. In the aerosolised honey as a rescue agent group, animals were euthanized on day 28; for the preventive group, animals were further exposed to aerosolised OVA for 3 days starting from day 28 and euthanized on day 31. The effects of honey on inflammatory cell response, airway inflammation, and goblet cell hyperplasia were assessed for each animal. Results Histopathological analyses revealed that aerosolised honey resulted in structural changes of the epithelium, mucosa, and submucosal regions of the airway that caused by the induction with OVA. Treatment with aerosolised honey has reduced the number of airway inflammatory cells present in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and inhibited the goblet cell hyperplasia. Conclusion In this study, aerosolised honey was used to effectively treat and manage asthma in rabbits, and it could prove to be a promising treatment for asthma in humans. Future studies with a larger sample size and studies at the gene expression level are needed to better understand the mechanisms by which aerosolised honey reduces asthma symptoms. PMID:24886260

  17. Inhalation of honey reduces airway inflammation and histopathological changes in a rabbit model of ovalbumin-induced chronic asthma.

    PubMed

    Kamaruzaman, Nurfatin Asyikhin; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Kaur, Gurjeet; Yahaya, Badrul

    2014-05-29

    Honey is widely used in folk medicine to treat cough, fever, and inflammation. In this study, the effect of aerosolised honey on airway tissues in a rabbit model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma was investigated. The ability of honey to act either as a rescuing agent in alleviating asthma-related symptoms or as a preventive agent to preclude the occurrence of asthma was also assessed. Forty New Zealand white rabbits were sensitized twice with mixture of OVA and aluminium hydroxide on days 1 and 14. Honey treatments were given from day 23 to day 25 at two different doses (25% (v/v) and 50% (v/v) of honey diluted in sterile phosphate buffer saline. In the aerosolised honey as a rescue agent group, animals were euthanized on day 28; for the preventive group, animals were further exposed to aerosolised OVA for 3 days starting from day 28 and euthanized on day 31. The effects of honey on inflammatory cell response, airway inflammation, and goblet cell hyperplasia were assessed for each animal. Histopathological analyses revealed that aerosolised honey resulted in structural changes of the epithelium, mucosa, and submucosal regions of the airway that caused by the induction with OVA. Treatment with aerosolised honey has reduced the number of airway inflammatory cells present in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and inhibited the goblet cell hyperplasia. In this study, aerosolised honey was used to effectively treat and manage asthma in rabbits, and it could prove to be a promising treatment for asthma in humans. Future studies with a larger sample size and studies at the gene expression level are needed to better understand the mechanisms by which aerosolised honey reduces asthma symptoms.

  18. Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of Bangladeshi honeys stored for more than one year

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is no available information on physicochemical and antioxidant properties on Bangladeshi honey. We investigated five different monofloral and three different multifloral honey samples collected from different parts of Bangladesh. Methods The levels of phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant content (AEAC), proline, protein and antioxidants were determined in the honey samples using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. Results The highest level of phenolic was 688.5 ± 5.9 mg Gallic acid/kg, and the highest level of flavonoid was 155 ± 6.9 mg Catechin/kg. The highest color intensity was 2034.00 ± 17.5 mAU, and the highest protein content was 8.6 ± 0.0mg/g. High levels of proline (2932.8 ± 3.7 mg/kg), ascorbic acid (154.3 ± 0.3 mg/kg), AEAC (34.1 ± 1.4mg/100 g) and FRAP (772.4 ± 2.5 μmol Fe (II)/100 g) were detected in some of the samples, especially the multifloral honey samples, indicating good antioxidant properties. A strong positive correlation was found between phenolics, flavonoids, DPPH, FRAP and color intensity, indicating that in addition to total phenolic and flavonoid concentrations, color intensity and amino acid are good indicators of the antioxidant potential of honey. Except for a single sample (BDH-6), the honey samples stored for 1.5 years at room temperature still had 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) values within the recommended range (mean = 10.93 mg/kg), indicating that the rate of HMF production in Bangladeshi honey samples is low. Conclusion It is postulated that the low rate of HMF formation could be attributed to the acidic and low moisture content in the samples. In general, multifloral honeys have higher antioxidant properties based on their high levels of phenolics, flavonoids, AEAC, DPPH and FRAP when compared to monofloral honeys. We also found that monofloral honey samples from Guizotia

  19. Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of Bangladeshi honeys stored for more than one year.

    PubMed

    Islam, Asiful; Khalil, Ibrahim; Islam, Nazmul; Moniruzzaman, Mohammed; Mottalib, Abdul; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Gan, Siew Hua

    2012-10-08

    There is no available information on physicochemical and antioxidant properties on Bangladeshi honey. We investigated five different monofloral and three different multifloral honey samples collected from different parts of Bangladesh. The levels of phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant content (AEAC), proline, protein and antioxidants were determined in the honey samples using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. The highest level of phenolic was 688.5 ± 5.9 mg Gallic acid/kg, and the highest level of flavonoid was 155 ± 6.9 mg Catechin/kg. The highest color intensity was 2034.00 ± 17.5 mAU, and the highest protein content was 8.6 ± 0.0mg/g. High levels of proline (2932.8 ± 3.7 mg/kg), ascorbic acid (154.3 ± 0.3 mg/kg), AEAC (34.1 ± 1.4mg/100 g) and FRAP (772.4 ± 2.5 μmol Fe (II)/100 g) were detected in some of the samples, especially the multifloral honey samples, indicating good antioxidant properties. A strong positive correlation was found between phenolics, flavonoids, DPPH, FRAP and color intensity, indicating that in addition to total phenolic and flavonoid concentrations, color intensity and amino acid are good indicators of the antioxidant potential of honey. Except for a single sample (BDH-6), the honey samples stored for 1.5 years at room temperature still had 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) values within the recommended range (mean = 10.93 mg/kg), indicating that the rate of HMF production in Bangladeshi honey samples is low. It is postulated that the low rate of HMF formation could be attributed to the acidic and low moisture content in the samples. In general, multifloral honeys have higher antioxidant properties based on their high levels of phenolics, flavonoids, AEAC, DPPH and FRAP when compared to monofloral honeys. We also found that monofloral honey samples from Guizotia abyssinica and Nigella sativa had high

  20. How honey bees carry pollen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matherne, Marguerite E.; Anyanwu, Gabriel; Leavey, Jennifer K.; Hu, David L.

    2017-11-01

    Honey bees are the tanker of the skies, carrying thirty percent of their weight in pollen per foraging trip using specialized orifices on their body. How do they manage to hang onto those pesky pollen grains? In this experimental study, we investigate the adhesion force of pollen to the honeybee. To affix pollen to themselves, honey bees form a suspension of pollen in nectar, creating a putty-like pollen basket that is skewered by leg hairs. We use tensile tests to show that the viscous force of the pollen basket is more than ten times the honeybee's flight force. This work may provide inspiration for the design of robotic flying pollinators.