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Sample records for adulterated honey samples

  1. Detection of adulteration in honey samples added various sugar syrups with 13C/12C isotope ratio analysis method.

    PubMed

    Tosun, Murat

    2013-06-01

    Honey can be adulterated in various ways. One of the adulteration methods is the addition of different sugar syrups during or after honey production. Starch-based sugar syrups, high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), glucose syrup (GS) and saccharose syrups (SS), which are produced from beet or canes, can be used for adulterating honey. In this study, adulterated honey samples were prepared with the addition of HFCS, GS and SS (beet sugar) at a ratio of 0%, 10%, 20%, 40% and 50% by weight. (13)C/(12)C analysis was conducted on these adulterated honey samples using an isotope ratio mass spectrometer in combination with an elemental analyser (EA-IRMS). As a result, adulteration using C(4) sugar syrups (HFCS and GS) could be detected to a certain extent while adulteration of honey using C(3) sugar syrups (beet sugar) could not be detected. Adulteration by using SS (beet sugar) still has a serious detection problem, especially in countries in which beet is used in manufacturing sugar. For this reason, practice and analysis methods are needed to meet this deficit and to detect the adulterations precisely in the studies that will be conducted. PMID:23411291

  2. A Hybrid Sensing Approach for Pure and Adulterated Honey Classification

    PubMed Central

    Subari, Norazian; Saleh, Junita Mohamad; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md; Zakaria, Ammar

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison between data from single modality and fusion methods to classify Tualang honey as pure or adulterated using Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) statistical classification approaches. Ten different brands of certified pure Tualang honey were obtained throughout peninsular Malaysia and Sumatera, Indonesia. Various concentrations of two types of sugar solution (beet and cane sugar) were used in this investigation to create honey samples of 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% adulteration concentrations. Honey data extracted from an electronic nose (e-nose) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) were gathered, analyzed and compared based on fusion methods. Visual observation of classification plots revealed that the PCA approach able to distinct pure and adulterated honey samples better than the LDA technique. Overall, the validated classification results based on FTIR data (88.0%) gave higher classification accuracy than e-nose data (76.5%) using the LDA technique. Honey classification based on normalized low-level and intermediate-level FTIR and e-nose fusion data scored classification accuracies of 92.2% and 88.7%, respectively using the Stepwise LDA method. The results suggested that pure and adulterated honey samples were better classified using FTIR and e-nose fusion data than single modality data. PMID:23202033

  3. A hybrid sensing approach for pure and adulterated honey classification.

    PubMed

    Subari, Norazian; Mohamad Saleh, Junita; Md Shakaff, Ali Yeon; Zakaria, Ammar

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison between data from single modality and fusion methods to classify Tualang honey as pure or adulterated using Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) statistical classification approaches. Ten different brands of certified pure Tualang honey were obtained throughout peninsular Malaysia and Sumatera, Indonesia. Various concentrations of two types of sugar solution (beet and cane sugar) were used in this investigation to create honey samples of 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% adulteration concentrations. Honey data extracted from an electronic nose (e-nose) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) were gathered, analyzed and compared based on fusion methods. Visual observation of classification plots revealed that the PCA approach able to distinct pure and adulterated honey samples better than the LDA technique. Overall, the validated classification results based on FTIR data (88.0%) gave higher classification accuracy than e-nose data (76.5%) using the LDA technique. Honey classification based on normalized low-level and intermediate-level FTIR and e-nose fusion data scored classification accuracies of 92.2% and 88.7%, respectively using the Stepwise LDA method. The results suggested that pure and adulterated honey samples were better classified using FTIR and e-nose fusion data than single modality data. PMID:23202033

  4. Application of analytical methods in authentication and adulteration of honey.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Amna Jabbar; Musharraf, Syed Ghulam; Choudhary, M Iqbal; Rahman, Atta-Ur-

    2017-02-15

    Honey is synthesized from flower nectar and it is famous for its tremendous therapeutic potential since ancient times. Many factors influence the basic properties of honey including the nectar-providing plant species, bee species, geographic area, and harvesting conditions. Quality and composition of honey is also affected by many other factors, such as overfeeding of bees with sucrose, harvesting prior to maturity, and adulteration with sugar syrups. Due to the complex nature of honey, it is often challenging to authenticate the purity and quality by using common methods such as physicochemical parameters and more specialized procedures need to be developed. This article reviews the literature (between 2000 and 2016) on the use of analytical techniques, mainly NMR spectroscopy, for authentication of honey, its botanical and geographical origin, and adulteration by sugar syrups. NMR is a powerful technique and can be used as a fingerprinting technique to compare various samples. PMID:27664687

  5. [Discrimination of Rice Syrup Adulterant of Acacia Honey Based Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-nan; Chen, Lan-zhen; Xue, Xiao-feng; Wu, Li-ming; Li, Yi; Yang, Juan

    2015-09-01

    At present, the rice syrup as a low price of the sweeteners was often adulterated into acacia honey and the adulterated honeys were sold in honey markets, while there is no suitable and fast method to identify honey adulterated with rice syrup. In this study, Near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) combined with chemometric methods were used to discriminate authenticity of honey. 20 unprocessed acacia honey samples from the different honey producing areas, mixed? with different proportion of rice syrup, were prepared of seven different concentration gradient? including 121 samples. The near infrared spectrum (NIR) instrument and spectrum processing software have been applied in the? spectrum? scanning and data conversion on adulterant samples, respectively. Then it was analyzed by Principal component analysis (PCA) and canonical discriminant analysis methods in order to discriminating adulterated honey. The results showed that after principal components analysis, the first two principal components accounted for 97.23% of total variation, but the regionalism of the score plot of the first two PCs was not obvious, so the canonical discriminant analysis was used to make the further discrimination, all samples had been discriminated correctly, the first two discriminant functions accounted for 91.6% among the six canonical discriminant functions, Then the different concentration of adulterant samples can be discriminated correctly, it illustrate that canonical discriminant analysis method combined with NIR spectroscopy is not only feasible but also practical for rapid and effective discriminate of the rice syrup adulterant of acacia honey. PMID:26669162

  6. [Discrimination of Rice Syrup Adulterant of Acacia Honey Based Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-nan; Chen, Lan-zhen; Xue, Xiao-feng; Wu, Li-ming; Li, Yi; Yang, Juan

    2015-09-01

    At present, the rice syrup as a low price of the sweeteners was often adulterated into acacia honey and the adulterated honeys were sold in honey markets, while there is no suitable and fast method to identify honey adulterated with rice syrup. In this study, Near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) combined with chemometric methods were used to discriminate authenticity of honey. 20 unprocessed acacia honey samples from the different honey producing areas, mixed? with different proportion of rice syrup, were prepared of seven different concentration gradient? including 121 samples. The near infrared spectrum (NIR) instrument and spectrum processing software have been applied in the? spectrum? scanning and data conversion on adulterant samples, respectively. Then it was analyzed by Principal component analysis (PCA) and canonical discriminant analysis methods in order to discriminating adulterated honey. The results showed that after principal components analysis, the first two principal components accounted for 97.23% of total variation, but the regionalism of the score plot of the first two PCs was not obvious, so the canonical discriminant analysis was used to make the further discrimination, all samples had been discriminated correctly, the first two discriminant functions accounted for 91.6% among the six canonical discriminant functions, Then the different concentration of adulterant samples can be discriminated correctly, it illustrate that canonical discriminant analysis method combined with NIR spectroscopy is not only feasible but also practical for rapid and effective discriminate of the rice syrup adulterant of acacia honey.

  7. FTIR characterization of Mexican honey and its adulteration with sugar syrups by using chemometric methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rios-Corripio, M. A.; Rios-Leal, E.; Rojas-López, M.; Delgado-Macuil, R.

    2011-01-01

    A chemometric analysis of adulteration of Mexican honey by sugar syrups such as corn syrup and cane sugar syrup was realized. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to measure the absorption of a group of bee honey samples from central region of Mexico. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to process FTIR spectra to determine the adulteration of bee honey. In addition to that, the content of individual sugars from honey samples: glucose, fructose, sucrose and monosaccharides was determined by using PLS-FTIR analysis validated by HPLC measurements. This analytical methodology which is based in infrared spectroscopy and chemometry can be an alternative technique to characterize and also to determine the purity and authenticity of nutritional products as bee honey and other natural products.

  8. Carbon isotope ratio (13C/12C) of pine honey and detection of HFCS adulteration.

    PubMed

    Çinar, Serap B; Ekşi, Aziz; Coşkun, İlknur

    2014-08-15

    Carbon isotope ratio ((13)C/(12)C=δ(13)C) of 100 pine honey samples collected from 9 different localities by Mugla region (Turkey) in years 2006, 2007 and 2008 were investigated. The δ(13)Cprotein value of honey samples ranged between -23.7 and -26.6‰, while the δ(13)Choney value varied between -22.7 and -27‰. For 90% of the samples, the difference in the C isotope ratio of protein and honey fraction (δ(13)Cpro-δ(13)Chon) was -1.0‰ and/or higher. Therefore, it can be said that the generally anticipated minimum value of C isotope difference (-1.0‰) for honey is also valid for pine honey. On the other hand, C4 sugar value (%), which was calculated from the δ(13)Cpro-δ(13)Chon difference, was found to be linearly correlated with the amount of adulterant (HFCS) in pine honey. These results indicate that C4 sugar value is a powerful criteria for detecting HFCS adulteration in pine honey. The δ(13)Choney and δ(13)Cprotein-δ(13)Choney values of the samples did not show any significant differences in terms of both year and locality (P>0.05), while the δ(13)Cprotein values showed significant differences due to year (P<0.05) but not due to locality (P>0.05). PMID:24679745

  9. Carbon isotope ratio (13C/12C) of pine honey and detection of HFCS adulteration.

    PubMed

    Çinar, Serap B; Ekşi, Aziz; Coşkun, İlknur

    2014-08-15

    Carbon isotope ratio ((13)C/(12)C=δ(13)C) of 100 pine honey samples collected from 9 different localities by Mugla region (Turkey) in years 2006, 2007 and 2008 were investigated. The δ(13)Cprotein value of honey samples ranged between -23.7 and -26.6‰, while the δ(13)Choney value varied between -22.7 and -27‰. For 90% of the samples, the difference in the C isotope ratio of protein and honey fraction (δ(13)Cpro-δ(13)Chon) was -1.0‰ and/or higher. Therefore, it can be said that the generally anticipated minimum value of C isotope difference (-1.0‰) for honey is also valid for pine honey. On the other hand, C4 sugar value (%), which was calculated from the δ(13)Cpro-δ(13)Chon difference, was found to be linearly correlated with the amount of adulterant (HFCS) in pine honey. These results indicate that C4 sugar value is a powerful criteria for detecting HFCS adulteration in pine honey. The δ(13)Choney and δ(13)Cprotein-δ(13)Choney values of the samples did not show any significant differences in terms of both year and locality (P>0.05), while the δ(13)Cprotein values showed significant differences due to year (P<0.05) but not due to locality (P>0.05).

  10. A biomimetic sensor for the classification of honeys of different floral origin and the detection of adulteration.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Ammar; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md; Masnan, Maz Jamilah; Ahmad, Mohd Noor; Adom, Abdul Hamid; Jaafar, Mahmad Nor; Ghani, Supri A; Abdullah, Abu Hassan; Aziz, Abdul Hallis Abdul; Kamarudin, Latifah Munirah; Subari, Norazian; Fikri, Nazifah Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    The major compounds in honey are carbohydrates such as monosaccharides and disaccharides. The same compounds are found in cane-sugar concentrates. Unfortunately when sugar concentrate is added to honey, laboratory assessments are found to be ineffective in detecting this adulteration. Unlike tracing heavy metals in honey, sugar adulterated honey is much trickier and harder to detect, and traditionally it has been very challenging to come up with a suitable method to prove the presence of adulterants in honey products. This paper proposes a combination of array sensing and multi-modality sensor fusion that can effectively discriminate the samples not only based on the compounds present in the sample but also mimic the way humans perceive flavours and aromas. Conversely, analytical instruments are based on chemical separations which may alter the properties of the volatiles or flavours of a particular honey. The present work is focused on classifying 18 samples of different honeys, sugar syrups and adulterated samples using data fusion of electronic nose (e-nose) and electronic tongue (e-tongue) measurements. Each group of samples was evaluated separately by the e-nose and e-tongue. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) were able to separately discriminate monofloral honey from sugar syrup, and polyfloral honey from sugar and adulterated samples using the e-nose and e-tongue. The e-nose was observed to give better separation compared to e-tongue assessment, particularly when LDA was applied. However, when all samples were combined in one classification analysis, neither PCA nor LDA were able to discriminate between honeys of different floral origins, sugar syrup and adulterated samples. By applying a sensor fusion technique, the classification for the 18 different samples was improved. Significant improvement was observed using PCA, while LDA not only improved the discrimination but also gave better classification. An improvement

  11. A biomimetic sensor for the classification of honeys of different floral origin and the detection of adulteration.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Ammar; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md; Masnan, Maz Jamilah; Ahmad, Mohd Noor; Adom, Abdul Hamid; Jaafar, Mahmad Nor; Ghani, Supri A; Abdullah, Abu Hassan; Aziz, Abdul Hallis Abdul; Kamarudin, Latifah Munirah; Subari, Norazian; Fikri, Nazifah Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    The major compounds in honey are carbohydrates such as monosaccharides and disaccharides. The same compounds are found in cane-sugar concentrates. Unfortunately when sugar concentrate is added to honey, laboratory assessments are found to be ineffective in detecting this adulteration. Unlike tracing heavy metals in honey, sugar adulterated honey is much trickier and harder to detect, and traditionally it has been very challenging to come up with a suitable method to prove the presence of adulterants in honey products. This paper proposes a combination of array sensing and multi-modality sensor fusion that can effectively discriminate the samples not only based on the compounds present in the sample but also mimic the way humans perceive flavours and aromas. Conversely, analytical instruments are based on chemical separations which may alter the properties of the volatiles or flavours of a particular honey. The present work is focused on classifying 18 samples of different honeys, sugar syrups and adulterated samples using data fusion of electronic nose (e-nose) and electronic tongue (e-tongue) measurements. Each group of samples was evaluated separately by the e-nose and e-tongue. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) were able to separately discriminate monofloral honey from sugar syrup, and polyfloral honey from sugar and adulterated samples using the e-nose and e-tongue. The e-nose was observed to give better separation compared to e-tongue assessment, particularly when LDA was applied. However, when all samples were combined in one classification analysis, neither PCA nor LDA were able to discriminate between honeys of different floral origins, sugar syrup and adulterated samples. By applying a sensor fusion technique, the classification for the 18 different samples was improved. Significant improvement was observed using PCA, while LDA not only improved the discrimination but also gave better classification. An improvement

  12. A Biomimetic Sensor for the Classification of Honeys of Different Floral Origin and the Detection of Adulteration

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Ammar; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md; Masnan, Maz Jamilah; Ahmad, Mohd Noor; Adom, Abdul Hamid; Jaafar, Mahmad Nor; Ghani, Supri A.; Abdullah, Abu Hassan; Aziz, Abdul Hallis Abdul; Kamarudin, Latifah Munirah; Subari, Norazian; Fikri, Nazifah Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    The major compounds in honey are carbohydrates such as monosaccharides and disaccharides. The same compounds are found in cane-sugar concentrates. Unfortunately when sugar concentrate is added to honey, laboratory assessments are found to be ineffective in detecting this adulteration. Unlike tracing heavy metals in honey, sugar adulterated honey is much trickier and harder to detect, and traditionally it has been very challenging to come up with a suitable method to prove the presence of adulterants in honey products. This paper proposes a combination of array sensing and multi-modality sensor fusion that can effectively discriminate the samples not only based on the compounds present in the sample but also mimic the way humans perceive flavours and aromas. Conversely, analytical instruments are based on chemical separations which may alter the properties of the volatiles or flavours of a particular honey. The present work is focused on classifying 18 samples of different honeys, sugar syrups and adulterated samples using data fusion of electronic nose (e-nose) and electronic tongue (e-tongue) measurements. Each group of samples was evaluated separately by the e-nose and e-tongue. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) were able to separately discriminate monofloral honey from sugar syrup, and polyfloral honey from sugar and adulterated samples using the e-nose and e-tongue. The e-nose was observed to give better separation compared to e-tongue assessment, particularly when LDA was applied. However, when all samples were combined in one classification analysis, neither PCA nor LDA were able to discriminate between honeys of different floral origins, sugar syrup and adulterated samples. By applying a sensor fusion technique, the classification for the 18 different samples was improved. Significant improvement was observed using PCA, while LDA not only improved the discrimination but also gave better classification. An improvement

  13. NIR detection of honey adulteration reveals differences in water spectral pattern.

    PubMed

    Bázár, György; Romvári, Róbert; Szabó, András; Somogyi, Tamás; Éles, Viktória; Tsenkova, Roumiana

    2016-03-01

    High fructose corn syrup (HFCS) was mixed with four artisanal Robinia honeys at various ratios (0-40%) and near infrared (NIR) spectra were recorded with a fiber optic immersion probe. Levels of HFCS adulteration could be detected accurately using leave-one-honey-out cross-validation (RMSECV=1.48; R(2)CV=0.987), partial least squares regression and the 1300-1800nm spectral interval containing absorption bands related to both water and carbohydrates. Aquaphotomics-based evaluations showed that unifloral honeys contained more highly organized water than the industrial sugar syrup, supposedly because of the greater variety of molecules dissolved in the multi-component honeys. Adulteration with HFCS caused a gradual reduction of water molecular structures, especially water trimers, which facilitate interaction with other molecules. Quick, non-destructive NIR spectroscopy combined with aquaphotomics could be used to describe water molecular structures in honey and to detect a rather common form of adulteration.

  14. NIR detection of honey adulteration reveals differences in water spectral pattern.

    PubMed

    Bázár, György; Romvári, Róbert; Szabó, András; Somogyi, Tamás; Éles, Viktória; Tsenkova, Roumiana

    2016-03-01

    High fructose corn syrup (HFCS) was mixed with four artisanal Robinia honeys at various ratios (0-40%) and near infrared (NIR) spectra were recorded with a fiber optic immersion probe. Levels of HFCS adulteration could be detected accurately using leave-one-honey-out cross-validation (RMSECV=1.48; R(2)CV=0.987), partial least squares regression and the 1300-1800nm spectral interval containing absorption bands related to both water and carbohydrates. Aquaphotomics-based evaluations showed that unifloral honeys contained more highly organized water than the industrial sugar syrup, supposedly because of the greater variety of molecules dissolved in the multi-component honeys. Adulteration with HFCS caused a gradual reduction of water molecular structures, especially water trimers, which facilitate interaction with other molecules. Quick, non-destructive NIR spectroscopy combined with aquaphotomics could be used to describe water molecular structures in honey and to detect a rather common form of adulteration. PMID:26471630

  15. Lanthanide Label Array Method for Identification and Adulteration of Honey and Cacao.

    PubMed

    Härmä, Harri; Peltomaa, Riikka; Pihlasalo, Sari

    2015-07-01

    A generic, cost-effective, and simple method has been developed to fingerprint liquids to differentiate food brands and ingredients. The method is based on a label array using nonspecific long lifetime unstable luminescent lanthanide labels. The interaction between the liquid sample and the label is typically detrimental to the luminescence of the unstable chelate leading to a sample-dependent luminescence-intensity array. The label-array method is a unique approach as the array of unstable chelates is extremely inexpensive to produce and possesses high sensitivity due to spectral as well as unstable structural properties of the lanthanide label. The global method has been applied to distinguish commercial honey and cacao brands to demonstrate its feasibility as honey and cacao are among the most adulterated food products. PMID:26102618

  16. Lanthanide Label Array Method for Identification and Adulteration of Honey and Cacao.

    PubMed

    Härmä, Harri; Peltomaa, Riikka; Pihlasalo, Sari

    2015-07-01

    A generic, cost-effective, and simple method has been developed to fingerprint liquids to differentiate food brands and ingredients. The method is based on a label array using nonspecific long lifetime unstable luminescent lanthanide labels. The interaction between the liquid sample and the label is typically detrimental to the luminescence of the unstable chelate leading to a sample-dependent luminescence-intensity array. The label-array method is a unique approach as the array of unstable chelates is extremely inexpensive to produce and possesses high sensitivity due to spectral as well as unstable structural properties of the lanthanide label. The global method has been applied to distinguish commercial honey and cacao brands to demonstrate its feasibility as honey and cacao are among the most adulterated food products.

  17. Detection of honey adulteration with starch syrup by high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaoqing; Guo, Qilei; Wang, Linlin; Lin, Li; Shi, Hailiang; Cao, Hong; Cao, Baosen

    2015-04-01

    According to saccharide profile comparison between starch syrups and pure honeys analysed through high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), a characteristic peak was found at 15.25 min retention time in HPLC chromatogram of syrup, but no peak was observed at the same retention time in chromatogram of pure honeys. This characteristic peak for syrup was identified as an overlapping peak of oligosaccharides with more than 5 degree of polymerisation (DP) based on HPLC chromatogram comparison between starch syrup and a series of standard mono-, di- and oligosaccharides of 3-7 DP. Additionally syrup content correlated linearly with the height of the characteristic peak of syrup under different slope in two ranges 2.5-7.5% and 10-100%, respectively. Therefore, the characteristic peak at 15.25 min retention time can serve as a syrup indicator in HPLC analysis of the adulterated honeys. This new HPLC method for honey adulteration detection was further applied in an authenticity inspection on more than 100 commercial honeys. In addition to the improved accuracy of honey adulteration detection, the proposed HPLC method was simple, low cost and easy practice for honey product quality control by government department considering the popularity of HPLC device and technology.

  18. Detection of honey adulteration with starch syrup by high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaoqing; Guo, Qilei; Wang, Linlin; Lin, Li; Shi, Hailiang; Cao, Hong; Cao, Baosen

    2015-04-01

    According to saccharide profile comparison between starch syrups and pure honeys analysed through high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), a characteristic peak was found at 15.25 min retention time in HPLC chromatogram of syrup, but no peak was observed at the same retention time in chromatogram of pure honeys. This characteristic peak for syrup was identified as an overlapping peak of oligosaccharides with more than 5 degree of polymerisation (DP) based on HPLC chromatogram comparison between starch syrup and a series of standard mono-, di- and oligosaccharides of 3-7 DP. Additionally syrup content correlated linearly with the height of the characteristic peak of syrup under different slope in two ranges 2.5-7.5% and 10-100%, respectively. Therefore, the characteristic peak at 15.25 min retention time can serve as a syrup indicator in HPLC analysis of the adulterated honeys. This new HPLC method for honey adulteration detection was further applied in an authenticity inspection on more than 100 commercial honeys. In addition to the improved accuracy of honey adulteration detection, the proposed HPLC method was simple, low cost and easy practice for honey product quality control by government department considering the popularity of HPLC device and technology. PMID:25442605

  19. Adulteration Identification of Commercial Honey with the C-4 Sugar Content of Negative Values by an Elemental Analyzer and Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Isotope Ratio Mass Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hao; Luo, Donghui; Xian, Yanping; Luo, Haiying; Guo, Xindong; Li, Chao; Zhao, Mouming

    2016-04-27

    According to the AOAC 998.12 method, honey is considered to contain significant C-4 sugars with a C-4 sugar content of >7%, which are naturally identified as the adulteration. However, the authenticity of honey with a C-4 sugar content of <0% calculated by the above method has been rarely investigated. A new procedure to determine δ(13)C values of honey, corresponding extracted protein and individual sugars (sucrose, glucose, and fructose), δ(2)H and δ(18)O values, sucrose content, and reducing sugar content of honey using an elemental analyzer and liquid chromatography coupled to isotope ratio mass spectroscopy, was first developed to demonstrate the authenticity of honey with a C-4 sugar content of <0%. For this purpose, 800 commercial honey samples were analyzed. A quite similar pattern on the pentagonal radar plot (isotopic compositions) between honey with -7 < C-4 sugar content (%) < 0 and 0 < C-4 sugar content (%) < 7 indicated that honey with -7 < C-4 sugar content (%) < 0 could be identified to be free of C-4 sugars as well. A very strong correlation is also observed between δ(13)C honey values and δ(13)C protein values of both honey groups. For the δ(18)O value, the C-4 sugar content (%) < -7 group has lower (p < 0.05) values (16.30‰) compared to other honey, which could be a useful parameter for adulterated honey with a C-4 sugar content (%) < -7. The use of isotopic compositions and some systematic differences permits the honey with a C-4 sugar content of <0% to be reliably detected. The developed procedure in this study first and successfully provided favorable evidence in authenticity identification of honey with a C-4 sugar content of <0%. PMID:27064147

  20. Detection of adulterated honey produced by honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies fed with different levels of commercial industrial sugar (C₃ and C₄ plants) syrups by the carbon isotope ratio analysis.

    PubMed

    Guler, Ahmet; Kocaokutgen, Hasan; Garipoglu, Ali V; Onder, Hasan; Ekinci, Deniz; Biyik, Selim

    2014-07-15

    In the present study, one hundred pure and adulterated honey samples obtained from feeding honeybee colonies with different levels (5, 20 and 100 L/colony) of various commercial sugar syrups including High Fructose Corn Syrup 85 (HFCS-85), High Fructose Corn Syrup 55 (HFCS-55), Bee Feeding Syrup (BFS), Glucose Monohydrate Sugar (GMS) and Sucrose Sugar (SS) were evaluated in terms of the δ(13)C value of honey and its protein, difference between the δ(13)C value of protein and honey (Δδ(13)C), and C4% sugar ratio. Sugar type, sugar level and the sugar type*sugar level interaction were found to be significant (P<0.001) regarding the evaluated characteristics. Adulterations could not be detected in the 5L/colony syrup level of all sugar types when the δ(13)C value of honey, Δδ(13)C (protein-honey), and C4% sugar ratio were used as criteria according to the AOAC standards. However, it was possible to detect the adulteration by using the same criteria in the honeys taken from the 20 and 100 L/colony of HFCS-85 and the 100L/colony of HFCS-55. Adulteration at low syrup level (20 L/colony) was more easily detected when the fructose content of HFCS syrup increased. As a result, the official methods (AOAC, 978.17, 1995; AOAC, 991.41, 1995; AOAC 998.12, 2005) and Internal Standard Carbon Isotope Ratio Analysis could not efficiently detect the indirect adulteration of honey obtained by feeding the bee colonies with the syrups produced from C3 plants such as sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) and wheat (Triticium vulgare). For this reason, it is strongly needed to develop novel methods and standards that can detect the presence and the level of indirect adulterations.

  1. Detection of adulterated honey produced by honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies fed with different levels of commercial industrial sugar (C₃ and C₄ plants) syrups by the carbon isotope ratio analysis.

    PubMed

    Guler, Ahmet; Kocaokutgen, Hasan; Garipoglu, Ali V; Onder, Hasan; Ekinci, Deniz; Biyik, Selim

    2014-07-15

    In the present study, one hundred pure and adulterated honey samples obtained from feeding honeybee colonies with different levels (5, 20 and 100 L/colony) of various commercial sugar syrups including High Fructose Corn Syrup 85 (HFCS-85), High Fructose Corn Syrup 55 (HFCS-55), Bee Feeding Syrup (BFS), Glucose Monohydrate Sugar (GMS) and Sucrose Sugar (SS) were evaluated in terms of the δ(13)C value of honey and its protein, difference between the δ(13)C value of protein and honey (Δδ(13)C), and C4% sugar ratio. Sugar type, sugar level and the sugar type*sugar level interaction were found to be significant (P<0.001) regarding the evaluated characteristics. Adulterations could not be detected in the 5L/colony syrup level of all sugar types when the δ(13)C value of honey, Δδ(13)C (protein-honey), and C4% sugar ratio were used as criteria according to the AOAC standards. However, it was possible to detect the adulteration by using the same criteria in the honeys taken from the 20 and 100 L/colony of HFCS-85 and the 100L/colony of HFCS-55. Adulteration at low syrup level (20 L/colony) was more easily detected when the fructose content of HFCS syrup increased. As a result, the official methods (AOAC, 978.17, 1995; AOAC, 991.41, 1995; AOAC 998.12, 2005) and Internal Standard Carbon Isotope Ratio Analysis could not efficiently detect the indirect adulteration of honey obtained by feeding the bee colonies with the syrups produced from C3 plants such as sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) and wheat (Triticium vulgare). For this reason, it is strongly needed to develop novel methods and standards that can detect the presence and the level of indirect adulterations. PMID:24594168

  2. Rapid Screening of Multiclass Syrup Adulterants in Honey by Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography/Quadrupole Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Du, Bing; Wu, Liming; Xue, Xiaofeng; Chen, Lanzhen; Li, Yi; Zhao, Jing; Cao, Wei

    2015-07-29

    Honey adulteration with sugar syrups is a widespread problem. Several types of syrups have been used in honey adulteration, and there is no available method that can simultaneously detect all of these adulterants. In this study, we generated a small-scale database containing the specific chromatographic and mass spectrometry information on sugar syrup markers and developed a simple, rapid, and effective ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC/Q-TOF-MS) method for the detection of adulterated honey. Corn syrup, high-fructose corn syrup, inverted syrup, and rice syrup were used as honey adulterants; polysaccharides, difructose anhydrides, and 2-acetylfuran-3-glucopyranoside were used as detection markers. The presence of 10% sugar syrup in honey could be easily detected in <30 min using the developed method. The results revealed that UHPLC/Q-TOF-MS was simple and rapid. PMID:26151590

  3. Rapid Screening of Multiclass Syrup Adulterants in Honey by Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography/Quadrupole Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Du, Bing; Wu, Liming; Xue, Xiaofeng; Chen, Lanzhen; Li, Yi; Zhao, Jing; Cao, Wei

    2015-07-29

    Honey adulteration with sugar syrups is a widespread problem. Several types of syrups have been used in honey adulteration, and there is no available method that can simultaneously detect all of these adulterants. In this study, we generated a small-scale database containing the specific chromatographic and mass spectrometry information on sugar syrup markers and developed a simple, rapid, and effective ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC/Q-TOF-MS) method for the detection of adulterated honey. Corn syrup, high-fructose corn syrup, inverted syrup, and rice syrup were used as honey adulterants; polysaccharides, difructose anhydrides, and 2-acetylfuran-3-glucopyranoside were used as detection markers. The presence of 10% sugar syrup in honey could be easily detected in <30 min using the developed method. The results revealed that UHPLC/Q-TOF-MS was simple and rapid.

  4. Determination of rice syrup adulterant concentration in honey using three-dimensional fluorescence spectra and multivariate calibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Quansheng; Qi, Shuai; Li, Huanhuan; Han, Xiaoyan; Ouyang, Qin; Zhao, Jiewen

    2014-10-01

    To rapidly and efficiently detect the presence of adulterants in honey, three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy (3DFS) technique was employed with the help of multivariate calibration. The data of 3D fluorescence spectra were compressed using characteristic extraction and the principal component analysis (PCA). Then, partial least squares (PLS) and back propagation neural network (BP-ANN) algorithms were used for modeling. The model was optimized by cross validation, and its performance was evaluated according to root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and correlation coefficient (R) in prediction set. The results showed that BP-ANN model was superior to PLS models, and the optimum prediction results of the mixed group (sunflower ± longan ± buckwheat ± rape) model were achieved as follow: RMSEP = 0.0235 and R = 0.9787 in the prediction set. The study demonstrated that the 3D fluorescence spectroscopy technique combined with multivariate calibration has high potential in rapid, nondestructive, and accurate quantitative analysis of honey adulteration.

  5. Polarimetric applications to identify bee honey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa-Luna, Rafael; Saucedo-Orozco, Izcoatl; Santiago-Lona, Cynthia V.; Franco-Sánchez, Juan M.; Magallanes-Luján, Alejandro

    2011-10-01

    A polarimetric characterization, consisting of the Mueller matrix determination and the measurement of the refractive index, is employed to study bee honey and corn syrup differences. Two samples of commercial marks of bee honey and one sample of commercial mark corn syrup are studied. Results show the corn syrup and one of the bee honey samples have a similar polarimetric behavior, which differs from the second bee honey sample. This behavior can be employed as a simple, qualitative test, to discriminate true bee honey from corn syrup or from adulterated bee honey.s-powe

  6. Volatiles from a rare Acer spp. honey sample from Croatia.

    PubMed

    Jerković, Igor; Marijanović, Zvonimir; Malenica-Staver, Mladenka; Lusić, Drazen

    2010-06-24

    A rare sample of maple (Acer spp.) honey from Croatia was analysed. Ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE) using: 1) pentane, 2) diethyl ether, 3) a mixture of pentane and diethyl ether (1:2 v/v) and 4) dichloromethane as solvents was applied. All the extracts were analysed by GC and GC/MS. The most representative extracts were 3) and 4). Syringaldehyde was the most striking compound, being dominant in the extracts 2), 3) and 4) with percentages 34.5%, 33.1% and 35.9%, respectively. In comparison to USE results of other single Croatian tree honey samples (Robinia pseudoacacia L. nectar honey, Salix spp. nectar and honeydew honeys, Quercus frainetto Ten. honeydew as well as Abies alba Mill. and Picea abies L. honeydew) and literature data the presence of syringaldehyde, previously identified in maple sap and syrup, can be pointed out as a distinct characteristic of the Acer spp. honey sample. Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with GC and GC/MS identified benzaldehyde (16.5%), trans-linalool oxide (20.5%) and 2-phenylethanol (14.9%) as the major compounds that are common in different honey headspace compositions.

  7. Discrimination and quantification of cocaine and adulterants in seized drug samples by infrared spectroscopy and PLSR.

    PubMed

    Grobério, Tatiane S; Zacca, Jorge J; Botelho, Élvio D; Talhavini, Marcio; Braga, Jez W B

    2015-12-01

    Middle infrared spectroscopy and multivariate analysis have been applied for the development of methods to perform both quantitative and qualitative analysis of real drug samples seized by the Brazilian Police Federal (BPF). Currently, quantification of cocaine and determination of adulterants in seizures is performed using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. However, this technique requires a relatively complex sample preparation, higher time of analysis, the destruction of sample and a high cost. In this context, this paper presents a simpler method to quantify cocaine and its major adulterants in seized materials. Out of 375 seizures, taken within a time frame of 2009-2013. A total of 1085 samples were analyzed of which 500 were selected for the calibration set and 585 for the validation set. Cocaine concentration in seized samples was determined by using middle infrared spectroscopy and partial least squares regression (PLSR), obtaining an average prediction error of 3.0% (w/w), precision of 2.0 and 11.8% (w/w) of minimum detectable cocaine concentration in a range varying from 24.2 to 99.9% (w/w). Results indicate that the developed method is able to discriminate between cocaine hydrochloride and free base samples, to quantify cocaine content as well as to estimate the concentration of main adulterants phenacetin, benzocaine, caffeine, lidocaine and aminopyrine. PMID:26448534

  8. Discrimination and quantification of cocaine and adulterants in seized drug samples by infrared spectroscopy and PLSR.

    PubMed

    Grobério, Tatiane S; Zacca, Jorge J; Botelho, Élvio D; Talhavini, Marcio; Braga, Jez W B

    2015-12-01

    Middle infrared spectroscopy and multivariate analysis have been applied for the development of methods to perform both quantitative and qualitative analysis of real drug samples seized by the Brazilian Police Federal (BPF). Currently, quantification of cocaine and determination of adulterants in seizures is performed using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. However, this technique requires a relatively complex sample preparation, higher time of analysis, the destruction of sample and a high cost. In this context, this paper presents a simpler method to quantify cocaine and its major adulterants in seized materials. Out of 375 seizures, taken within a time frame of 2009-2013. A total of 1085 samples were analyzed of which 500 were selected for the calibration set and 585 for the validation set. Cocaine concentration in seized samples was determined by using middle infrared spectroscopy and partial least squares regression (PLSR), obtaining an average prediction error of 3.0% (w/w), precision of 2.0 and 11.8% (w/w) of minimum detectable cocaine concentration in a range varying from 24.2 to 99.9% (w/w). Results indicate that the developed method is able to discriminate between cocaine hydrochloride and free base samples, to quantify cocaine content as well as to estimate the concentration of main adulterants phenacetin, benzocaine, caffeine, lidocaine and aminopyrine.

  9. Development of qualitative and quantitative PCR analysis for meat adulteration from RNA samples.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jai-Hong; Chou, Hsiao-Ting; Lee, Meng-Shiou; Sheu, Shyang-Chwen

    2016-02-01

    Total RNA samples were used to establish qualitative and quantitative PCR-based methods for assessing meat adulteration. The primers were designed based on the mRNA sequences of troponin I (TnI), mitochondrial ribosomal protein (MRP) and tropomodulin genes to distinguish chicken, pork, goat, beef and ostrich. There was no cross reaction between the primers, and the detection limit of the cDNA template was 0.01 and 20 ng in simplex PCR and multiplex PCR, respectively. In the low temperature storage test, the detection limits of cDNA template with 10 and 1 ng were determined at 4 °C and -80 °C. In quantitative assay, the precision of real-time PCR analysis expressed as a coefficient of variation (CV) ranged from 0.25% to 5.24% and the trueness, expressed as an error, ranged from 0.28% to 6.98% for adulteration. Thus, herein, we provided alternative tools for the assessment of meat adulteration using mRNA-based PCR methods.

  10. Development of qualitative and quantitative PCR analysis for meat adulteration from RNA samples.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jai-Hong; Chou, Hsiao-Ting; Lee, Meng-Shiou; Sheu, Shyang-Chwen

    2016-02-01

    Total RNA samples were used to establish qualitative and quantitative PCR-based methods for assessing meat adulteration. The primers were designed based on the mRNA sequences of troponin I (TnI), mitochondrial ribosomal protein (MRP) and tropomodulin genes to distinguish chicken, pork, goat, beef and ostrich. There was no cross reaction between the primers, and the detection limit of the cDNA template was 0.01 and 20 ng in simplex PCR and multiplex PCR, respectively. In the low temperature storage test, the detection limits of cDNA template with 10 and 1 ng were determined at 4 °C and -80 °C. In quantitative assay, the precision of real-time PCR analysis expressed as a coefficient of variation (CV) ranged from 0.25% to 5.24% and the trueness, expressed as an error, ranged from 0.28% to 6.98% for adulteration. Thus, herein, we provided alternative tools for the assessment of meat adulteration using mRNA-based PCR methods. PMID:26304356

  11. A study of the thermal decomposition of adulterated cocaine samples under optimized aerobic pyrolytic conditions.

    PubMed

    Gostic, T; Klemenc, S; Stefane, B

    2009-05-30

    The pyrolysis behaviour of pure cocaine base as well as the influence of various additives was studied using conditions that are relevant to the smoking of illicit cocaine by humans. For this purpose an aerobic pyrolysis device was developed and the experimental conditions were optimized. In the first part of our study the optimization of some basic experimental parameters of the pyrolysis was performed, i.e., the furnace temperature, the sampling start time, the heating period, the sampling time, and the air-flow rate through the system. The second part of the investigation focused on the volatile products formed during the pyrolysis of a pure cocaine free base and mixtures of cocaine base and adulterants. The anaesthetics lidocaine, benzocaine, procaine, the analgesics phenacetine and paracetamol, and the stimulant caffeine were used as the adulterants. Under the applied experimental conditions complete volatilization of the samples was achieved, i.e., the residuals of the studied compounds were not detected in the pyrolysis cell. Volatilization of the pure cocaine base showed that the cocaine recovery available for inhalation (adsorbed on traps) was approximately 76%. GC-MS and NMR analyses of the smoke condensate revealed the presence of some additional cocaine pyrolytic products, such as anhydroecgonine methyl ester (AEME), benzoic acid (BA) and carbomethoxycycloheptatrienes (CMCHTs). Experiments with different cocaine-adulterant mixtures showed that the addition of the adulterants changed the thermal behaviour of the cocaine. The most significant of these was the effect of paracetamol. The total recovery of the cocaine (adsorbed on traps and in a glass tube) from the 1:1 cocaine-paracetamol mixture was found to be only 3.0+/-0.8%, versus 81.4+/-2.9% for the pure cocaine base. The other adulterants showed less-extensive effects on the recovery of cocaine, but the pyrolysis of the cocaine-procaine mixture led to the formation of some unique pyrolytic products

  12. Papain adulteration in 11-nor-Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol- 9-carboxylic acid-positive urine samples.

    PubMed

    Larson, Scott J; Holler, Justin M; Magluilo, Joseph; Dunkley, Christopher S; Jacobs, Aaron

    2008-01-01

    The adulteration of urine samples is an ongoing problem in forensic drug-testing laboratories, even in the military where the practice of observed collections is performed. These adulterants are used to produce a false-negative result when samples are analyzed for drugs of abuse. It has been reported that papain, a cysteine protease, could be successfully used as a urine adulterant, altering the concentration of 11-nor-Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9- carboxylic acid (THCCOOH) in urine samples. The current study analyzes the effects of latex papain (Sigma, 10 mg/mL) and Lawry's Adolph's Meat Tenderizer (papain is an active ingredient, 10 mg/mL) on immunoassays (FPIA, EMIT, KIMS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis for biological samples. The samples were analyzed initially between 2 and 4 h and then at 1-, 3-, 7-, and 10-day time intervals after the addition of papain. A decrease in response averaged over the course of the study was observed with FPIA (Abbott, 22%) and EMIT (Syva) Dade Behring, 26%, Microgenics, 10%) screening assays by the addition of latex papain to the samples. An increase in response was found using the KIMS (Roche) assay (156% increase). In addition, the GC-MS results (27% decrease) demonstrate that papain affects both the screening and confirmation assays. The addition of meat tenderizer caused decrease in the FPIA (Abbott, 11%) screening assay and GC-MS results (22%) similar to the latex papain while having varied results on the other screening assays. This study confirms papain could be a potential problem for urine drug-testing programs. PMID:18652751

  13. Global information sampling in the honey bee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Brian R.

    2008-06-01

    Central to the question of task allocation in social insects is how workers acquire information. Patrolling is a curious behavior in which bees meander over the face of the comb inspecting cells. Several authors have suggested it allows bees to collect global information, but this has never been formally evaluated. This study explores this hypothesis by answering three questions. First, do bees gather information in a consistent manner as they patrol? Second, do they move far enough to get a sense of task demand in distant areas of the nest? And third, is patrolling a commonly performed task? Focal animal observations were used to address the first two predictions, while a scan sampling study was used to address the third. The results were affirmative for each question. While patrolling, workers collected information by performing periodic clusters of cell inspections. Patrolling bees not only traveled far enough to frequently change work zone; they often visited every part of the nest. Finally, the majority of the bees in the middle-age caste were shown to move throughout the nest over the course of a few hours in a manner suggestive of patrolling. Global information collection is contrary to much current theory, which assumes that workers respond to local information only. This study thus highlights the nonmutually exclusive nature of various information collection regimes in social insects.

  14. 7 CFR 1434.5 - Eligible honey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eligible honey. 1434.5 Section 1434.5 Agriculture... FOR HONEY § 1434.5 Eligible honey. To be eligible for a loan, the honey must: (a) Have been produced... merchantable quality deemed by CCC to be suitable for loan; that is, the honey: (1) Is not adulterated; (2)...

  15. 7 CFR 1434.5 - Eligible honey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eligible honey. 1434.5 Section 1434.5 Agriculture... FOR HONEY § 1434.5 Eligible honey. To be eligible for a loan, the honey must: (a) Have been produced... merchantable quality deemed by CCC to be suitable for loan; that is, the honey: (1) Is not adulterated; (2)...

  16. 7 CFR 1434.5 - Eligible honey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible honey. 1434.5 Section 1434.5 Agriculture... FOR HONEY § 1434.5 Eligible honey. To be eligible for a loan, the honey must: (a) Have been produced... merchantable quality deemed by CCC to be suitable for loan; that is, the honey: (1) Is not adulterated; (2)...

  17. Honey

    MedlinePlus

    Herbs and supplements that might slow blood clottingUsing other herbs and supplements that slow blood clotting along with ... because honey might slow blood clotting. Some other herbs that may slow blood clotting include angelica, clove, ...

  18. A study on chemical composition and detection of chemical adulteration in tetra pack milk samples commercially available in Multan.

    PubMed

    Awan, Adeela; Naseer, Misbah; Iqbal, Aasfa; Ali, Muhammad; Iqbal, Rehana; Iqbal, Furhan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze and compare the chemical composition of 8 tetra pack milk samples, Olpers (S1), Haleeb (S2), Good milk (S3), Everyday (S4), Milk Pack (S5), Dairy Queen (S6), Dairy Umang (S7), Nurpur (S8) available in local markets and to detect the presence of various chemical adulterants in tetra pack milk samples in Southern Punjab (Pakistan). Density, pH, solid not fat, total solids, lactometer reading, specific gravity and fat contents were analyzed to determine the chemical composition of milk samples. Our results revealed that all the studied parameters had statistically non significant differences (P>0.05) except total fat in milk samples which was significantly different (P=0.03) among the 8 studied milk samples. Presence of a number of chemical adulterants, formalin, cane sugar, starch, glucose, ammonium sulphate, salt, pulverized soap, detergents, skim milk powder, benzoic acid, salicylic acid, borax, boric acid and alkalinity were also detected in milk samples following standard procedures. Results indicated that formalin, cane sugar, glucose, alkalinity and benzoic acid were present in all samples while salt test was positive only for Olper milk. All other studied adulterants were not detected in 8 milk samples under study. % fat was the only significantly different feature among the studied milk quality parameters with S8 containing lowest while S5 having the maximum % fat. PMID:24374447

  19. Coca-paste seized samples characterization: chemical analysis, stimulating effect in rats and relevance of caffeine as a major adulterant.

    PubMed

    López-Hill, Ximena; Prieto, José Pedro; Meikle, María Noel; Urbanavicius, Jessika; Abin-Carriquiry, Juan Andrés; Prunell, Giselle; Umpiérrez, Eleuterio; Scorza, María Cecilia

    2011-08-01

    Coca-paste (CP) is a drug of abuse that so far has not been extensively characterized. CP is an intermediate product of the cocaine alkaloid extraction process from coca leaves, hence it has a high content of cocaine base mixed with other chemical substances (impurities) and it is probably adulterated when it reaches the consumers. Despite its high prevalence and distribution through South America, little is known about its effects on the central nervous system. In the present study, a chemical analysis of CP samples from different police seizures was performed to determine the cocaine base content and the presence and content of impurities and adulterants. Some CP representative samples were selected to study the effects on the locomotor activity induced after acute systemic administration in rats as a measure of its stimulant action. The behavioral response was compared to equivalent doses of cocaine. As expected, cocaine was the main component in most of the CP samples assayed. Caffeine was the only active adulterant detected. Interestingly, several CP samples elicited a higher stimulant effect compared to that observed after cocaine when administered at equivalent doses of cocaine base. Combined treatment of cocaine and caffeine, as surrogate of different CP samples mimicked their stimulant effect. We demonstrated that cocaine and caffeine are the main components responsible for the CP-induced stimulant action while the contribution of the impurities was imperceptible.

  20. MALDI-TOF-MS Platform for Integrated Proteomic and Peptidomic Profiling of Milk Samples Allows Rapid Detection of Food Adulterations.

    PubMed

    Sassi, Mauro; Arena, Simona; Scaloni, Andrea

    2015-07-15

    Adulteration of ovine, caprine, and buffalo milks with more common bovine material occurs for economic reasons and seasonal availability. Frauds are also associated with the use of powdered milk instead of declared, fresh material. In this context, various analytical methods have been adapted to dairy science applications with the aim to evaluate adulteration of milk samples, although time-consuming, suitable only for speciation or thermal treatment analysis, or useful for a specific fraud type. An integrated MALDI-TOF-MS platform for the combined peptidomic and proteomic profiling of milk samples is here presented, which allows rapid detection of illegal adulterations due to the addition of either nondeclared bovine material to water buffalo, goat, and ovine milks or of powdered bovine milk to the fresh counterpart. Peptide and protein markers of each animal milk were identified after direct analysis of a large number of diluted skimmed and/or enriched diluted skimmed filtrate samples. In parallel, markers of thermal treatment were characterized in different types of commercial milks. Principal components scores of ad hoc prepared species- or thermal treatment-associated adulterated milk samples were subjected to partial least-squares regression, permitting a fast accurate estimate of the fraud extents in test samples at either protein and peptide level. With respect to previous reports on MALDI-TOF-MS protein profiling methodologies for milk speciation, this study extends that approach to the analysis of the thermal treatment and introduces an independent, complementary peptide profiling measurement, which integrates protein data with additional information on peptides, validating final results and ultimately broadening the method applicability.

  1. Preliminary study on classification of rice and detection of paraffin in the adulterated samples by Raman spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xinwei; Zhang, Qinghua; Cong, Peisheng; Zhu, Zhongliang

    2013-10-15

    Rice has played an important role in staple food supply of over approximately one-half of the world population. In this study, Raman spectroscopy and several multivariate data analysis methods were applied for discrimination of rice samples from different districts of China. A total of 42 samples were examined. It is shown that the representative Raman spectra in each group are different according to geographical origin after baseline correction to enhance spectral features. Moreover, adulteration of rice is a serious problem for consumers. In addition to the obvious effect on producer profits, adulteration can also cause severe health and safety problems. Paraffin was added to give the rice a desirable translucent appearance and increase its marketability. Detection of paraffin in the adulterated rice samples was preliminarily investigated as well. The results showed that Raman spectroscopy data with chemometric techniques can be applied to rapid detecting rice adulteration with paraffin.

  2. Protocol for Optimal Quality and Quantity Pollen DNA Isolation from Honey Samples

    PubMed Central

    Lalhmangaihi, Ralte; Ghatak, Souvik; Laha, Ramachandra; Gurusubramanian, Guruswami; Kumar, Nachimuthu Senthil

    2014-01-01

    The present study illustrates an optimized sample preparation method for an efficient DNA isolation from low quantities of honey samples. A conventional PCR-based method was validated, which potentially enables characterization of plant species from as low as 3 ml bee-honey samples. In the present study, an anionic detergent was used to lyse the hard outer pollen shell, and DTT was used for isolation of thiolated DNA, as it might facilitate protein digestion and assists in releasing the DNA into solution, as well as reduce cross-links between DNA and other biomolecules. Optimization of both the quantity of honey sample and time duration for DNA isolation was done during development of this method. With the use of this method, chloroplast DNA was successfully PCR amplified and sequenced from honey DNA samples. PMID:25365793

  3. Rapid identification of the botanical and entomological sources of honey using DNA metabarcoding.

    PubMed

    Prosser, Sean W J; Hebert, Paul D N

    2017-01-01

    Honey is generated by various bee species from diverse plants, and because the value of different types of honey varies more than 100-fold, it is a target for fraud. This paper describes a protocol that employs DNA metabarcoding of three gene regions (ITS2, rbcLa, and COI) to provide an inexpensive tool to simultaneously deliver information on the botanical and entomological origins of honey. This method was used to examine seven varieties of honey: light, medium, dark, blended, pasteurized, creamed, and meliponine. Plant and insect sources were identified in five samples, but only the botanical or insect source could be identified in the other two. Two samples were found to be misrepresented. Although this method was generally successful in determining both plant and insect sources, honeys rich in polyphenolic compounds or subject to crystallization were recalcitrant to analysis, so further research is required to combat honey adulteration and mislabeling. PMID:27507464

  4. Critical aspects of the Nosema spp. diagnostic sampling in honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies.

    PubMed

    Botías, Cristina; Martín-Hernández, Raquel; Meana, Aránzazu; Higes, Mariano

    2012-06-01

    Nosemosis is one of the most widespread of the adult honey bee diseases and causes major economic losses to beekeepers. Two microsporidia have been described infecting honey bees worldwide, Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae, whose seasonality and pathology differ markedly. An increasing prevalence of microsporidian infections in honey bees has been observed worldwide during the last years. Because nosemosis has detrimental effects on both strength and productivity of the infected colonies, an accurate and reliable method to evaluate the presence of Nosema in honey bee colonies is needed. In this study a high degree of variability in the detection of microsporidia depending on the random subsample analyzed was found, suggesting that both sample size and the time of collection (month and day of sampling) notably affect the diagnosis.

  5. [Determination of exogenous gamma-amylase residue in honey].

    PubMed

    Fei, Xiaoqing; Wu, Bin; Shen, Chongyu; Zhang, Rui; Ding, Tao; Li, Lihua

    2012-08-01

    A novel method for the determination of exogenous gamma-amylase residue in honey using liquid chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (LC-IRMS) was established. After pre-separation by gel column chromatography, the gamma-amylase in honey samples was separated from the sugars. The gamma-amylase was then used to catalyze maltose into glucose. This enzymatic reaction was under the conditions of 55 degrees C and 0.03 mol/L phosphate buffer solution (pH 4.5) for 48 h. The maltose and glucose in the above enzymatic reaction solution were separated using liquid chromatography. By measuring the content of glucose with isotope ratio mass spectrometry, the gamma-amylase in honey can be determined. The linear range of gamma-amylase was 5 - 200 U/kg with the quantification limit of 5 U/kg. The recoveries were between 89.6% and 108.2% with the relative standard deviations from 3.3% to 4.9%. This method was used to analyze 38 honey and rice syrup samples, and the detection rate of gamma-amylase was 76.3%. To further verify the detection capability of this method, an authentic honey was adulterated with 15% (mass fraction) rice syrup. The gamma-amylase content in this sample was 10.2 U/kg. This method can effectively identify honey adulteration with rice syrups from the perspective of enzymology.

  6. [Determination of exogenous gamma-amylase residue in honey].

    PubMed

    Fei, Xiaoqing; Wu, Bin; Shen, Chongyu; Zhang, Rui; Ding, Tao; Li, Lihua

    2012-08-01

    A novel method for the determination of exogenous gamma-amylase residue in honey using liquid chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (LC-IRMS) was established. After pre-separation by gel column chromatography, the gamma-amylase in honey samples was separated from the sugars. The gamma-amylase was then used to catalyze maltose into glucose. This enzymatic reaction was under the conditions of 55 degrees C and 0.03 mol/L phosphate buffer solution (pH 4.5) for 48 h. The maltose and glucose in the above enzymatic reaction solution were separated using liquid chromatography. By measuring the content of glucose with isotope ratio mass spectrometry, the gamma-amylase in honey can be determined. The linear range of gamma-amylase was 5 - 200 U/kg with the quantification limit of 5 U/kg. The recoveries were between 89.6% and 108.2% with the relative standard deviations from 3.3% to 4.9%. This method was used to analyze 38 honey and rice syrup samples, and the detection rate of gamma-amylase was 76.3%. To further verify the detection capability of this method, an authentic honey was adulterated with 15% (mass fraction) rice syrup. The gamma-amylase content in this sample was 10.2 U/kg. This method can effectively identify honey adulteration with rice syrups from the perspective of enzymology. PMID:23256379

  7. Physico-chemical analysis and antimicrobial potential of Apis dorsata, Apis mellifera and Ziziphus jujube honey samples from Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Fahim, Hira; Dasti, Javid Iqbal; Ali, Ihsan; Ahmed, Safia; Nadeem, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate physico-chemical properties and antimicrobial potential of indigenous honey samples against different reference strains including Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Enterobacter aerogenes ATCC 13048, Pseudomonas aeroginosa ATCC 9027, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Salmonella typhi ATCC 14028, Klebsiella pneumonia ATCC 13883, Aspergillus niger ATCC 16404, Rhizopus oligosporus PCSIR1, Candida albicans ATCC 14053 and Candida utilis ATCC 9950. Methods By using standard methods samples were evaluated for their antimicrobial properties including additive effect of starch and non-peroxidase activity, antioxidative properties (phenol contents, flavonoid contents, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity). Prior to this evaluation, complete physico-chemical properties including pH, color, ash contents, protein contents, moisture contents, hydroxymethyl furfural contents, total sugar contents, reducing sugar and non-reducing sugar contents were analyzed. Results Relatively higher ash contents were found in the Siddar honey i.e. (0.590 0±0.033 6)% and small honey showed relatively higher protein contents i.e. (777.598±9.880) mg/kg. The moisture contents of tested honey samples ranged between 13.8%-16.6%, total sugar contents from 61.672%-72.420% and non-reducing sugar contents from 1.95%-3.93%. Presences of phenolic contents indicate higher antioxidant potential of these honey samples. All bacteria showed clear inhibition zones in response to tested honey samples whereas fungi and yeast showed inhibition at higher concentrations of these honey samples. For Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeroginosa and Aspergillus niger, overall the small honey showed the higher activity than other honey samples. Conclusion Physico-chemical analysis of honey samples confirmed good quality of honey according to the standards set by European Union Commission and Codex Alimentarius Commission

  8. Determination of Mineral, Trace Element, and Pesticide Levels in Honey Samples Originating from Different Regions of Malaysia Compared to Manuka Honey

    PubMed Central

    Moniruzzaman, Mohammed; Chowdhury, Muhammed Alamgir Zaman; Rahman, Mohammad Abdur; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Gan, Siew Hua

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the content of six minerals, five trace elements, and ten pesticide residues in honeys originating from different regions of Malaysia. Calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) were analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), while sodium (Na) and potassium (K) were analyzed by flame emission spectrometry (FAES). Trace elements such as arsenic (As), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and cobalt (Co) were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) following the microwave digestion of honey. High mineral contents were observed in the investigated honeys with K, Na, Ca, and Fe being the most abundant elements (mean concentrations of 1349.34, 236.80, 183.67, and 162.31 mg/kg, resp.). The concentrations of the trace elements were within the recommended limits, indicating that the honeys were of good quality. Principal component analysis reveals good discrimination between the different honey samples. The pesticide analysis for the presence of organophosphorus and carbamates was performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). No pesticide residues were detected in any of the investigated honey samples, indicating that the honeys were pure. Our study reveals that Malaysian honeys are rich sources of minerals with trace elements present within permissible limits and that they are free from pesticide contamination. PMID:24982869

  9. Determination of mineral, trace element, and pesticide levels in honey samples originating from different regions of Malaysia compared to manuka honey.

    PubMed

    Moniruzzaman, Mohammed; Chowdhury, Muhammed Alamgir Zaman; Rahman, Mohammad Abdur; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Gan, Siew Hua

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the content of six minerals, five trace elements, and ten pesticide residues in honeys originating from different regions of Malaysia. Calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) were analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), while sodium (Na) and potassium (K) were analyzed by flame emission spectrometry (FAES). Trace elements such as arsenic (As), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and cobalt (Co) were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) following the microwave digestion of honey. High mineral contents were observed in the investigated honeys with K, Na, Ca, and Fe being the most abundant elements (mean concentrations of 1349.34, 236.80, 183.67, and 162.31 mg/kg, resp.). The concentrations of the trace elements were within the recommended limits, indicating that the honeys were of good quality. Principal component analysis reveals good discrimination between the different honey samples. The pesticide analysis for the presence of organophosphorus and carbamates was performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). No pesticide residues were detected in any of the investigated honey samples, indicating that the honeys were pure. Our study reveals that Malaysian honeys are rich sources of minerals with trace elements present within permissible limits and that they are free from pesticide contamination. PMID:24982869

  10. Differentiation of Anatolian honey samples from different botanical origins by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy using multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Gok, Seher; Severcan, Mete; Goormaghtigh, Erik; Kandemir, Irfan; Severcan, Feride

    2015-03-01

    Botanical origin of the nectar predominantly affects the chemical composition of honey. Analytical techniques used for reliable honey authentication are mostly time consuming and expensive. Additionally, they cannot provide 100% efficiency in accurate authentication. Therefore, alternatives for the determination of floral origin of honey need to be developed. This study aims to discriminate characteristic Anatolian honey samples from different botanical origins based on the differences in their molecular content, rather than giving numerical information about the constituents of samples. Another scope of the study is to differentiate inauthentic honey samples from the natural ones precisely. All samples were tested via unsupervised pattern recognition procedures like hierarchical clustering and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Discrimination of sample groups was achieved successfully with hierarchical clustering over the spectral range of 1800-750 cm(-1) which suggests a good predictive capability of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and chemometry for the determination of honey floral source.

  11. Verification test of sensory analyses of comb and strained honeys produced as pure and feeding intensively with sucrose (Saccharum officinarum L.) syrup.

    PubMed

    Guler, Ahmet; Bek, Yuksel; Kement, Veli

    2008-08-15

    The aims of the study were to discriminate comb and strained honeys produced by the standard beekeeping method (control), shaking method (pure blossom honey), and feeding intensively (100kg/colony) with sucrose (adulterated honey) syrup by using sensory analysis and to develop a method to be used in identification of unknown or suspicion honey samples. In the study, twenty trained panelists assessed honey samples in relation to their properties including taste, odor, color, aroma, viscosity, dissolution in mouth, inflammation in throat, attractiveness, flavor and general impression during four months. There were no differences in odor, viscosity, and dissolution in mouth between comb and strained honey samples which produced by different methods (P > 0.05). Discrimination of strained honey by sensory analysis was more reliable when compared to comb honey. The ratio of correctly classified sample was 78.3% for comb and 86.7% for strained honey. The more honey was pure the more discrimination of honey sample by sensory analysis was reliable. In verification test five unknown honey samples were classified 100% in their real groups by using canonical discriminant function Coefficients of each properties evaluated and the projections of the sample points on the plane of the canonical function-1 and function-2. PMID:26050005

  12. Antioxidant Activity of Three Honey Samples in relation with Their Biochemical Components

    PubMed Central

    Rahaman, Norul Liza A.; Adnan, Nur Ardawati; Eddie Tan, Ti Tjih

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant activities based on the free radical scavenging, reducing power, and bleaching inhibition were investigated for the three commonly used honeys in Malaysia, namely, tualang, gelam, and acacia honey. The antioxidant capacity of the honey samples was correlated with their biochemical constituents such as total phenol, total flavonoid content, and total water-soluble vitamins (vitamin B1, B2, B3, B9, B12, and vitamin C). The total flavonoid content of honey samples was strongly correlated with the three antioxidative processes (r = 0.9276–0.9910). In contrast, the total water-soluble vitamins was found to be well correlated with the free radical scavenging activity (r = 0.8226). Vitamin B3 was likely to be in the highest concentration, which covered for 69–80% of the total vitamin content. A number of five phenolic acids, three flavonoids, and two organic acids had also been detected from the honey samples using UPLC-MS/MS, without sugar-removal procedure. PMID:24027653

  13. Development of an optical biosensor based immunoassay to screen infant formula milk samples for adulteration with melamine.

    PubMed

    Fodey, Terence L; Thompson, Colin S; Traynor, Imelda M; Haughey, Simon A; Kennedy, D Glenn; Crooks, Steven R H

    2011-06-15

    The illegal adulteration of milk with melamine in 2008 in China led to adverse kidney and urinary tract effects in hundreds of thousands of children and the reported deaths of six. The milk had been deliberately adulterated to elevate the apparent protein content, and subsequently melamine was detected in many milk-related products which had been exported. This led to the banning of imports of milk and milk products from China intended for the nutritional use of children and to the implementation of analytical methods to test products containing milk products. An optical biosensor inhibition immunoassay has been developed as a rapid and robust method for the analysis of infant formula and infant liquid milk samples. A compound with a chemical structure similar to that of melamine was employed as a hapten to raise a polyclonal antibody and as the immobilized antigen on the surface of a biosensor chip. The sensitivity of the assay, given as an IC(50), was calculated to be 67.9 ng mL(-1) in buffer. The antibody did not cross-react with any of the byproducts of melamine manufacture; however, significant cross-reactivity was observed with the insecticide cyromazine of which melamine is a metabolite. When sample matrix was applied to the assay, a limit of detection of <0.5 μg mL(-1) was determined in both infant formula and infant liquid milk. The development of the immunoassay and validation data for the detection of melamine is presented together with the results obtained following the analysis of melamine-contaminated milk powder.

  14. Rapid immunochemical analysis of the sulfonamide-sugar conjugated fraction of antibiotic contaminated honey samples.

    PubMed

    Muriano, A; Chabottaux, V; Diserens, J-M; Granier, B; Sanchez-Baeza, F; Marco, M-P

    2015-07-01

    A rapid high-throughput immunochemical screening (HtiS) procedure for the analysis of the sulfonamide (SA)-sugar conjugated fraction of antibiotic contaminated honey samples has been developed. Studies performed with this matrix have indicated that sulfonamide antibiotics are conjugated to sugars rapidly and quantitatively, providing samples with very low SA immunoreactivity. Therefore, sulfonamides must be first released before the analysis, and for this purpose, a simple and fast sample preparation procedure has been established consisting of hydrolyzing the sample for 5 min, adjusting the pH and buffering the sample prior to the immunochemical analysis. Under these conditions, honey samples could be directly analyzed without any additional sample treatment, other than dilution. Recovery values of the whole analytical procedure were greater than 85%. The analysis of the same samples without the hydrolysis provided recovery values below 5%. Selectivity studies performed in hydrolyzed honey samples revealed that nine relevant sulfonamide antibiotics can be detected with limit of detection (LOD) values below the action limits established by some EU countries (Belgium, 20 μg kg(-1), United Kingdom or Switzerland, 50 μg kg(-1)).

  15. Rapid immunochemical analysis of the sulfonamide-sugar conjugated fraction of antibiotic contaminated honey samples.

    PubMed

    Muriano, A; Chabottaux, V; Diserens, J-M; Granier, B; Sanchez-Baeza, F; Marco, M-P

    2015-07-01

    A rapid high-throughput immunochemical screening (HtiS) procedure for the analysis of the sulfonamide (SA)-sugar conjugated fraction of antibiotic contaminated honey samples has been developed. Studies performed with this matrix have indicated that sulfonamide antibiotics are conjugated to sugars rapidly and quantitatively, providing samples with very low SA immunoreactivity. Therefore, sulfonamides must be first released before the analysis, and for this purpose, a simple and fast sample preparation procedure has been established consisting of hydrolyzing the sample for 5 min, adjusting the pH and buffering the sample prior to the immunochemical analysis. Under these conditions, honey samples could be directly analyzed without any additional sample treatment, other than dilution. Recovery values of the whole analytical procedure were greater than 85%. The analysis of the same samples without the hydrolysis provided recovery values below 5%. Selectivity studies performed in hydrolyzed honey samples revealed that nine relevant sulfonamide antibiotics can be detected with limit of detection (LOD) values below the action limits established by some EU countries (Belgium, 20 μg kg(-1), United Kingdom or Switzerland, 50 μg kg(-1)). PMID:25704696

  16. Detection of adulteration in mulberry pekmez samples added various sugar syrups with ¹³C/¹²C isotope ratio analysis method.

    PubMed

    Tosun, Murat

    2014-12-15

    Mulberry pekmez can be adulterated in different ways either during the production process or after production is completed. To identify these adulterations, stable carbon isotope ratio analysis (SCIRA) was performed on the model examples prepared by adding saccharose syrup (SS), glucose syrup (GS) and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) into two different pure mulberry pekmez samples in the ratios of 0%, 10%, 30% and 50%. The δ(13)C ratio of the pure mulberry pekmez was determined as -26.60‰ on average, the saccharose syrup as -24.80‰, the glucose syrup as -11.20‰ and the high-fructose corn syrup as -11.40‰. In identifying the adulteration made to pekmez, especially with the high-fructose corn syrup, which is obtained from corn starch, and with the glucose syrup, the δ(13)C ratio comes into prominence. However it remains impossible identify the adulterations made with the saccharose, which is obtained from beet sugar, or invert sugar syrups. PMID:25038711

  17. Detection of adulteration in mulberry pekmez samples added various sugar syrups with ¹³C/¹²C isotope ratio analysis method.

    PubMed

    Tosun, Murat

    2014-12-15

    Mulberry pekmez can be adulterated in different ways either during the production process or after production is completed. To identify these adulterations, stable carbon isotope ratio analysis (SCIRA) was performed on the model examples prepared by adding saccharose syrup (SS), glucose syrup (GS) and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) into two different pure mulberry pekmez samples in the ratios of 0%, 10%, 30% and 50%. The δ(13)C ratio of the pure mulberry pekmez was determined as -26.60‰ on average, the saccharose syrup as -24.80‰, the glucose syrup as -11.20‰ and the high-fructose corn syrup as -11.40‰. In identifying the adulteration made to pekmez, especially with the high-fructose corn syrup, which is obtained from corn starch, and with the glucose syrup, the δ(13)C ratio comes into prominence. However it remains impossible identify the adulterations made with the saccharose, which is obtained from beet sugar, or invert sugar syrups.

  18. A survey of adulterants used to cut cocaine in samples seized in the Espírito Santo State by GC-MS allied to chemometric tools.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Lindamara M; Rodrigues, Rayza R T; Santos, Heloá; Costa, Helber B; Merlo, Bianca B; Filgueiras, Paulo R; Poppi, Ronei J; Vaz, Boniek G; Romão, Wanderson

    2016-03-01

    Cocaine is a stimulant drug of the central nervous system (CNS) extracted from the leaves of Erytroxylum coca. It is defined as a tropane alkaloid containing 1R-(exo,exo)-3-(benzoyloxy)-8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane-2-carboxylic acid methyl esther. However, despite its defined composition, a wide variety of chemical additives are present in cocaine found in the illicit market, such as benzocaine, lidocaine, caffeine, procaine and phenacetin. In this work, 512 cocaine samples seized by the Civil Police of Espirito Santo state (PC-ES, Brazil) were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) allied to principal component analysis (PCA) in order to classify the samples as a function of seizure year (2008, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012) and location (metropolitan, north, south and central). The cocaine content (wt.%) and its adulterants were also estimated. Analyzing the samples seized between 2008 and 2011, three sample sets are clearly grouped according to the degree of adulteration with caffeine and lidocaine: 100-50 wt.% of cocaine; 50-20 wt.% of cocaine; and 20-80 wt.% of lidocaine and 60-80 wt.% of caffeine, simultaneously. The last group is formed by samples seized between 2008 and 2009, which proves the higher degree of adulteration during this period. In 2012, higher cocaine content was observed for the 191 analyzed samples than in samples from previous years. The PCA data also suggests that the metropolitan region samples had a higher degree of adulteration than the state countryside samples. PMID:26976463

  19. A survey of adulterants used to cut cocaine in samples seized in the Espírito Santo State by GC-MS allied to chemometric tools.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Lindamara M; Rodrigues, Rayza R T; Santos, Heloá; Costa, Helber B; Merlo, Bianca B; Filgueiras, Paulo R; Poppi, Ronei J; Vaz, Boniek G; Romão, Wanderson

    2016-03-01

    Cocaine is a stimulant drug of the central nervous system (CNS) extracted from the leaves of Erytroxylum coca. It is defined as a tropane alkaloid containing 1R-(exo,exo)-3-(benzoyloxy)-8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane-2-carboxylic acid methyl esther. However, despite its defined composition, a wide variety of chemical additives are present in cocaine found in the illicit market, such as benzocaine, lidocaine, caffeine, procaine and phenacetin. In this work, 512 cocaine samples seized by the Civil Police of Espirito Santo state (PC-ES, Brazil) were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) allied to principal component analysis (PCA) in order to classify the samples as a function of seizure year (2008, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012) and location (metropolitan, north, south and central). The cocaine content (wt.%) and its adulterants were also estimated. Analyzing the samples seized between 2008 and 2011, three sample sets are clearly grouped according to the degree of adulteration with caffeine and lidocaine: 100-50 wt.% of cocaine; 50-20 wt.% of cocaine; and 20-80 wt.% of lidocaine and 60-80 wt.% of caffeine, simultaneously. The last group is formed by samples seized between 2008 and 2009, which proves the higher degree of adulteration during this period. In 2012, higher cocaine content was observed for the 191 analyzed samples than in samples from previous years. The PCA data also suggests that the metropolitan region samples had a higher degree of adulteration than the state countryside samples.

  20. Quantification of 4'-geranyloxyferulic acid (GOFA) in honey samples of different origin by validated RP-HPLC-UV method.

    PubMed

    Genovese, Salvatore; Taddeo, Vito Alessandro; Fiorito, Serena; Epifano, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Natural honey has been employed as a nutraceutical agent with benefits and therapeutic promises for humans for many centuries. It has been largely used as food and medicine by all generations, traditions, and civilizations, both ancient and modern. Several chemicals having beneficial effects for human health have been reported as components of natural honey and these include sugars, organic acids, aminoacids, minerals, and vitamins. Also some important phytochemicals have been described and these comprise tannins, flavonoids, terpenes, saponins, and alkaloids. In this note it is described the successful application of a RP HPLC-UV-vis method for the separation and quantification of 4'-geranyloxyferulic acid (GOFA) in four honey samples of different origin. Concentration values showed a great variation between the four samples tested, being chestnut honey the one richest in GOFA (7.87 mg/g). The findings described herein represent the first example reported in the literature of the characterization of an oxyprenylated phenylpropanoid in honey.

  1. Rapid, sensitive, and reproducible screening of liquid milk for adulterants using a portable Raman spectrometer and a simple, optimized sample well.

    PubMed

    Nieuwoudt, M K; Holroyd, S E; McGoverin, C M; Simpson, M C; Williams, D E

    2016-10-01

    We have developed a powerful general spectroscopic method for rapidly screening liquid milk for adulterants by combining reflective focusing wells simply fabricated in aluminum with a small, portable Raman spectrometer with a focusing fiber optic probe. Hemispherical aluminum sample wells were specially designed to optimize internal reflection and sampling volume by matching the focal length of the mirror to the depth of focus of the laser probe. The technique was tested on milk adulterated with 4 different nitrogen-rich compounds (melamine, urea, dicyandiamide, and ammonium sulfate) and sucrose. No sample preparation of the milk was needed, and the total analysis time was 4min. Reliable sample presentation enabled average reproducibility of 8% residual standard deviation. The limit of detection interval measured from partial least squares calibrations ranged between 140 and 520mg/L for the 4 N-rich compounds and between 7,000 and 36,000mg/L (0.7-3.6%) for sucrose. The portability of the system and the reliability and reproducibility of this technique open opportunities for general, reagentless screening of milk for adulterants at the point of collection. PMID:27474982

  2. Simple and rapid simultaneous profiling of minor components of honey by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled to ultraviolet diode array detection (UV-DAD), combined with chemometric methods.

    PubMed

    Beretta, Giangiacomo; Fermo, Paola; Maffei Facino, Roberto

    2012-01-25

    This paper discusses the importance of profiling UV-responsive components, properly integrated with chemometric techniques, in detecting indicative parameters for quality control of honey. The minor components in honeys of different botanical and geographical origins were investigated by size SEC-UV-DAD. We diluted honey with mobile phase before injection into the chromatographic apparatus and a single chromatographic run gave a fast profile of high- (proteins and enzymes), intermediate- (e.g. terpenoid glycosides in lime tree honey) and low-molecular-weight components (secondary metabolites, e.g. kynurenic acid in chestnut honey). The analysis of a total number of 32 honey samples from different regions (Italy, Western Balkan countries, Brazil, Cameroon, Kenya) and of different botanical origins (herbal flower and arboreal flower nectars/honeydews) showed peculiar and characteristic distribution of these markers, which were basically related to their floral origin. Chemometric examination carried out using principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) of the chromatograms (RT vs. absorption) detected four main clusters in which the groups of (i) chestnut honeys, (ii) honeys from rain forests and (iii) counterfeit/adulterated honeys were clearly separated from the main group of flower nectar honeys. The method is fast, requiring minimal sample handling, and the chromatographic data can be analyzed by multivariate statistical techniques to obtain descriptive information about the honey's quality and composition.

  3. Determination of aminoglycoside residues in kidney and honey samples by hydrophilic interaction chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Praveen; Rúbies, Antoni; Companyó, Ramon; Centrich, Francesc

    2012-10-01

    Two methods based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry were developed for the determination of ten aminoglycosides (streptomycin, dihydrostreptomycin, spectinomycin, apramycin, paromomycin, kanamycin A, gentamycin C1, gentamycin C2/C2a, gentamycin C1a, and neomycin B) in kidney samples from food-producing animals and in honey samples. The methods involved extraction with an aqueous solution (for the kidney samples) or sample dissolution in water (for the honey samples), solid-phase extraction with a weak cation exchange cartridge and injection of the eluate into a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry system. A zwitterionic hydrophilic interaction chromatography column was used for separation of aminoglycosides and a triple quadrupole mass analyzer was used for detection. The methods were validated according to Decision 2002/657/EC. The limits of quantitation ranged from 2 to 125 μg/kg in honey and 25 to 264 μg/kg in the kidney samples. Interday precision (RSD%) ranged from 6 to 26% in honey and 2 to 21% in kidney. Trueness, expressed as the percentage of error, ranged from 7 to 20% in honey and 1 to 11% in kidney.

  4. Determination of aminoglycoside residues in kidney and honey samples by hydrophilic interaction chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Praveen; Rúbies, Antoni; Companyó, Ramon; Centrich, Francesc

    2012-10-01

    Two methods based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry were developed for the determination of ten aminoglycosides (streptomycin, dihydrostreptomycin, spectinomycin, apramycin, paromomycin, kanamycin A, gentamycin C1, gentamycin C2/C2a, gentamycin C1a, and neomycin B) in kidney samples from food-producing animals and in honey samples. The methods involved extraction with an aqueous solution (for the kidney samples) or sample dissolution in water (for the honey samples), solid-phase extraction with a weak cation exchange cartridge and injection of the eluate into a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry system. A zwitterionic hydrophilic interaction chromatography column was used for separation of aminoglycosides and a triple quadrupole mass analyzer was used for detection. The methods were validated according to Decision 2002/657/EC. The limits of quantitation ranged from 2 to 125 μg/kg in honey and 25 to 264 μg/kg in the kidney samples. Interday precision (RSD%) ranged from 6 to 26% in honey and 2 to 21% in kidney. Trueness, expressed as the percentage of error, ranged from 7 to 20% in honey and 1 to 11% in kidney. PMID:23065931

  5. Comparison of within hive sampling and seasonal activity of Nosema ceranae in honey bee colonies.

    PubMed

    Traver, Brenna E; Williams, Matthew R; Fell, Richard D

    2012-02-01

    Nosema ceranae is a microsporidian parasite of the European honey bee, Apis mellifera, that is found worldwide and in multiple Apis spp.; however, little is known about the effects of N. ceranae on A. mellifera. Previous studies using spore counts suggest that there is no longer a seasonal cycle for N. ceranae and that it is found year round with little variation in infection intensity among months. Our goal was to determine whether infection levels differ in bees collected from different areas of the hive and if there may be seasonal differences in N. ceranae infections. A multiplex species-specific real-time PCR assay was used for the detection and quantification of N. ceranae. Colonies were sampled monthly from September 2009-2010 by collecting workers from honey supers, the fringe of the brood nest, and the brood nest. We found that all bees sampled were infected with N. ceranae and that there was no significant difference in infection levels among the different groups of bees sampled (P=0.74). However, significant differences in colony infection levels were found at different times of the year (P<0.01) with the highest levels in April-June and lower levels in the fall and winter. While our study was only performed for one year, it sheds light on the fact that there may be a seasonality to N. ceranae infections. Being able to predict future N. ceranae infections can be used to better advise beekeepers on N. ceranae management.

  6. Magnetic three-dimensional graphene solid-phase extraction of chlorophenols from honey samples.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xingli; Zhou, Xin; Wang, Chun; Wu, Qiuhua; Wang, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    A novel magnetic three-dimensional graphene nano-composite (3D-G@Fe3O4) with a high surface area was synthesised by a vacuum freeze-dried method. Due to its high surface area, specific 3D nanoporous structure and excellent magnetic properties, it can be used as a magnetic solid-phase extraction adsorbent. Some chlorophenols in a honey samples were enriched by this nanocomposite prior to their determination by HPLC with ultraviolet detection. Factors that affect the extraction efficiency, such as the amount of 3D-G@Fe3O4, extraction time, sample pH, ionic strength and desorption conditions, were investigated and optimised. Under the optimum conditions, good linearity existed in the range of 10.0-1000.0 ng g(-1). The enrichment factors of the method for the analytes were in the range from 101 to 248. The limits of detection of the method (S/N = 3) were 1.0-1.5 ng g(-1). The recoveries of the method for the analytes at spiking levels of 100.0 and 400.0 ng g(-1) were in the range of 93.2-98.9%. The results showed that the proposed method is simple, reliable and sensitive. It will be a useful tool for the routine monitoring of chlorophenols in honey products. PMID:25397363

  7. Magnetic three-dimensional graphene solid-phase extraction of chlorophenols from honey samples.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xingli; Zhou, Xin; Wang, Chun; Wu, Qiuhua; Wang, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    A novel magnetic three-dimensional graphene nano-composite (3D-G@Fe3O4) with a high surface area was synthesised by a vacuum freeze-dried method. Due to its high surface area, specific 3D nanoporous structure and excellent magnetic properties, it can be used as a magnetic solid-phase extraction adsorbent. Some chlorophenols in a honey samples were enriched by this nanocomposite prior to their determination by HPLC with ultraviolet detection. Factors that affect the extraction efficiency, such as the amount of 3D-G@Fe3O4, extraction time, sample pH, ionic strength and desorption conditions, were investigated and optimised. Under the optimum conditions, good linearity existed in the range of 10.0-1000.0 ng g(-1). The enrichment factors of the method for the analytes were in the range from 101 to 248. The limits of detection of the method (S/N = 3) were 1.0-1.5 ng g(-1). The recoveries of the method for the analytes at spiking levels of 100.0 and 400.0 ng g(-1) were in the range of 93.2-98.9%. The results showed that the proposed method is simple, reliable and sensitive. It will be a useful tool for the routine monitoring of chlorophenols in honey products.

  8. Detection of adulterated commercial Spanish beeswax.

    PubMed

    Serra Bonvehi, J; Orantes Bermejo, F J

    2012-05-01

    The physical and chemical parameters (melting point and saponification number), and the fraction of hydrocarbons, monoesters, acids and alcohols have been determined in 90 samples of Spanish commercial beeswax from Apis mellifera L. The adulteration with paraffins of different melting point, cow tallow, stearic acid, and carnauba wax were determined by HTGC-FID/MS detection, and the research was focussed mainly on paraffins and microcrystallines waxes. In general, the added adulterant can be identified by the presence of non-naturally beeswax components, and by the differences of values of selected components between pure and adulterated beeswax. The detection limits were determined using pure and adulterated beeswax with different amounts of added waxes (5%, 10%, 20% and 30%). Percentages higher than 1-5% of each adulterant can be detected in the mixtures. Paraffin waxes were confirmed in 33 of the 90 samples analysed at concentrations between 5% and 30%.

  9. Detection and confirmation of milk adulteration with cheese whey using proteomic-like sample preparation and liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Campos Motta, T M; Hoff, R B; Barreto, F; Andrade, R B S; Lorenzini, D M; Meneghini, L Z; Pizzolato, T M

    2014-03-01

    Caseinomacropeptide (CMP) is a peptide released by chymosin in cheese production, remaining in whey. Thus, CMP can be used as a biomarker to fluid milk adulteration through whey addition. Commonly, CMP is analyzed by reversed phase (RP-HPLC) or size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). However, some psychrotropic microorganisms - specially Pseudomonas fluorescens - when present in storaged milk, can produce, by enzymatic pathway, a CMP-like peptide generally called pseudo-CMP. These two peptides differ from each other only by one amino acid. RP-HPLC and SEC methods are unable to distinguish these two peptides, which demand development of a confirmatory method with high selectivity. Considering the several degrees of glycosilation and phosphorylation sites in CMP, allied with possible genetic variation (CMP A and CMP B), analytical methods able to differentiate these peptides are extremely complex. In the present work, we developed a proteomic-like technique for separation and characterization of these peptides, using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization able to differentiate and subsequently quantify CMP and pseudo-CMP in milk samples in order to identify adulteration or contamination of these products. The method shows satisfactory precision (<11%) with a detection limit of 1.0 µg mL(-1) and quantification limit of 5.0 µg mL(-1). Specificity, matrix effects and applicability to real samples analysis were also performed and discussed.

  10. Toxic compounds in honey.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Nazmul; Khalil, Md Ibrahim; Islam, Md Asiful; Gan, Siew Hua

    2014-07-01

    There is a wealth of information about the nutritional and medicinal properties of honey. However, honey may contain compounds that may lead to toxicity. A compound not naturally present in honey, named 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), may be formed during the heating or preservation processes of honey. HMF has gained much interest, as it is commonly detected in honey samples, especially samples that have been stored for a long time. HMF is a compound that may be mutagenic, carcinogenic and cytotoxic. It has also been reported that honey can be contaminated with heavy metals such as lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium. Honey produced from the nectar of Rhododendron ponticum contains alkaloids that can be poisonous to humans, while honey collected from Andromeda flowers contains grayanotoxins, which can cause paralysis of limbs in humans and eventually leads to death. In addition, Melicope ternata and Coriaria arborea from New Zealand produce toxic honey that can be fatal. There are reports that honey is not safe to be consumed when it is collected from Datura plants (from Mexico and Hungary), belladonna flowers and Hyoscamus niger plants (from Hungary), Serjania lethalis (from Brazil), Gelsemium sempervirens (from the American Southwest), Kalmia latifolia, Tripetalia paniculata and Ledum palustre. Although the symptoms of poisoning due to honey consumption may differ depending on the source of toxins, most common symptoms generally include dizziness, nausea, vomiting, convulsions, headache, palpitations or even death. It has been suggested that honey should not be considered a completely safe food.

  11. Sugar and water contents of honey with dielectrc property sensing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dielectric properties of pure yellow locust, jujube and rape flower honey and their water-adulterated products with water content from 18% to 42.6% were measured with open-ended coaxial-line probe technology and a network analyzer from 10 to 4500 MHz at 25oC. Dielectric constants of pure honeys ...

  12. Microextraction in packed sorbent for the determination of pesticides in honey samples by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Salami, Fernanda H; Queiroz, Maria Eugênia C

    2013-01-01

    The present work describes the development and analytical validation of a method involving microextraction packed sorbent and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (MEPS-GC-MS) for the multi-residue analysis of 22 pesticides (permethrin, fenpropathrin, aldrin, α-hexachlorocyclohexane, β-hexachlorocyclohexane, lindane, vinclozolin, endosulfan, heptaclor, dodecaclor, tetradifon, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)ethane, 1,1-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-2,2-dichloroethylen, carbofuran, carbaryl, pirimiphos methyl, chlorpyriphos, dimethoate, disulfoton, fenamiphos, terbufos and profenofos) in honey samples. The MEPS variables of sample pH, draw-eject cycles, ionic strength and desorption procedure were optimized to improve the sensitivity of the proposed method. The method was shown to be linear at concentrations ranging from 2, 5 and 10 ng/g (limit of quantification) to 75-100 ng/g. These values are lower than those established as the maximum residue limits for honey samples. The accuracy values (82-114%) were adequate for all the analytes, as were the inter-day precision data, with coefficient of variation lower than 14%. On the basis of analytical validation, the MEPS-GC methodology has been shown to be a promising alternative for the analysis of pesticides in honey samples. The MEPS packed syringe can be reused 40 times for honey samples, whereas the conventional solid-phase extraction (SPE) column can only be used once. Compared with liquid-liquid extraction and SPE, MEPS is able to reduce sample preparation time and organic solvent consumption. PMID:23192738

  13. Distinctive Gut Microbiota of Honey Bees Assessed Using Deep Sampling from Individual Worker Bees

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Nancy A.; Hansen, Allison K.; Powell, J. Elijah; Sabree, Zakee L.

    2012-01-01

    Surveys of 16S rDNA sequences from the honey bee, Apis mellifera, have revealed the presence of eight distinctive bacterial phylotypes in intestinal tracts of adult worker bees. Because previous studies have been limited to relatively few sequences from samples pooled from multiple hosts, the extent of variation in this microbiota among individuals within and between colonies and locations has been unclear. We surveyed the gut microbiota of 40 individual workers from two sites, Arizona and Maryland USA, sampling four colonies per site. Universal primers were used to amplify regions of 16S ribosomal RNA genes, and amplicons were sequenced using 454 pyrotag methods, enabling analysis of about 330,000 bacterial reads. Over 99% of these sequences belonged to clusters for which the first blastn hits in GenBank were members of the known bee phylotypes. Four phylotypes, one within Gammaproteobacteria (corresponding to “Candidatus Gilliamella apicola”) one within Betaproteobacteria (“Candidatus Snodgrassella alvi”), and two within Lactobacillus, were present in every bee, though their frequencies varied. The same typical bacterial phylotypes were present in all colonies and at both sites. Community profiles differed significantly among colonies and between sites, mostly due to the presence in some Arizona colonies of two species of Enterobacteriaceae not retrieved previously from bees. Analysis of Sanger sequences of rRNA of the Snodgrassella and Gilliamella phylotypes revealed that single bees contain numerous distinct strains of each phylotype. Strains showed some differentiation between localities, especially for the Snodgrassella phylotype. PMID:22558460

  14. Quantification of Saccharides in Honey Samples Through Surface-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry Using HgTe Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chia-Wei; Chen, Wen-Tsen; Chang, Huan-Tsung

    2014-07-01

    Quantification of monosaccharides and disaccharides in five honey samples through surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS) using HgTe nanostructures as the matrix and sucralose as an internal standard has been demonstrated. Under optimal conditions (1× HgTe nanostructure, 0.2 mM ammonium citrate at pH 9.0), the SALDI-MS approach allows detection of fructose and maltose at the concentrations down to 15 and 10 μM, respectively. Without conducting tedious sample pretreatment and separation, the SALDI-MS approach allows determination of the contents of monosaccharides and disaccharides in honey samples within 30 min, with reproducibility (relative standard deviation <15%). Unlike only sodium adducts of standard saccharides detected, sodium adducts and potassium adducts with differential amounts have been found among various samples, showing different amounts of sodium and potassium ions in the honey samples. The SALDI-MS data reveal that the contents of monosaccharides and disaccharides in various honey samples are dependent on their nectar sources. In addition to the abundant amounts of monosaccharides and disaccharides, oligosaccharides in m/z range of 650 - 2700 are only detected in pomelo honey. Having advantages of simplicity, rapidity, and reproducibility, this SALDI-MS holds great potential for the analysis of honey samples.

  15. Headspace, volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds diversity and radical scavenging activity of ultrasonic solvent extracts from Amorpha fruticosa honey samples.

    PubMed

    Jerković, Igor; Marijanović, Zvonimir; Kezić, Janja; Gugić, Mirko

    2009-07-27

    Volatile organic compounds of Amorpha fruticosa honey samples were isolated by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE), followed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry analyses (GC, GC-MS), in order to obtain complementary data for overall characterization of the honey aroma. The headspace of the honey was dominated by 2-phenylethanol (38.3-58.4%), while other major compounds were trans- and cis-linalool oxides, benzaldehyde and benzyl alcohol. 2-Phenylethanol (10.5-16.8%) and methyl syringate (5.8-8.2%) were the major compounds of ultrasonic solvent extracts, with an array of small percentages of linalool, benzene and benzoic acid derivatives, aliphatic hydrocarbons and alcohols, furan derivatives and others. The scavenging ability of the series of concentrations of the honey ultrasonic solvent extracts and the corresponding honey samples was tested by a DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) assay. Approximately 25 times lower concentration ranges (up to 2 g/L) of the extracts exhibited significantly higher free radical scavenging potential with respect to the honey samples.

  16. Development and Evaluation of PCR Assays for the Detection of Paenibacillus larvae in Honey Samples: Comparison with Isolation and Biochemical Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Bakonyi, Tamás; Derakhshifar, Irmgard; Grabensteiner, Elvira; Nowotny, Norbert

    2003-01-01

    PCR assays were developed for the direct detection of Paenibacillus larvae in honey samples and compared with isolation and biochemical characterization procedures. Different primer pairs, designed from the 16S rRNA and the metalloproteinase precursor gene regions, and different DNA extraction methods were tested and compared. The sensitivity of the reactions was evaluated by serial dilutions of DNA extracts obtained from P. larvae cultures. The specificity of the primers was assessed by analyzing related Paenibacillus and Bacillus strains isolated from honey. The PCR assays also amplified these related bacteria, but at lower sensitivity. In the next step, the PCR assays were applied to contaminated honey and other bee products originating from 15 countries. Lysozyme treatment followed by proteinase K digestion was determined to be the best DNA extraction method for P. larvae spores. The most sensitive primer pair detected P. larvae in 18 of 23 contaminated honey samples, as well as in pollen, wax, and brood. Honey specimens containing saprophyte bacilli and paenibacilli, but not P. larvae, were PCR negative. Although the isolation and biochemical identification method (BioLog) showed higher sensitivity and specificity, PCR proved to be a valuable technique for large-scale screening of honey samples for American foulbrood, especially considering its rapidity and moderate costs. PMID:12620836

  17. Facile synthesis of polyaniline-coated SiO₂ nanofiber and its application in enrichment of fluoroquinolones from honey samples.

    PubMed

    He, Xiao-Mei; Zhu, Gang-Tian; Zheng, Hao-Bo; Xu, Sheng-Nan; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2015-08-01

    In this study, polyaniline coated SiO2 nanofibers (PANI/SiO2) was prepared by combining electrospinning technique with in-situ polymerization. The proposed strategy for the preparation of PANI/SiO2 can eliminate the aggregation of PANI and the yield of PANI/SiO2 was high. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that PANI nanoparticles were uniformly coated on the surface of SiO2 nanofibers. The as-prepared PANI/SiO2 nanofibers were then applied as the sorbent for in-syringe dispersive solid-phase extraction (dSPE) for the extraction of fluoroquinolones (FQs) from honey samples. The influence of SiO2 amount on the formation of PANI/SiO2 and several parameters that affect the extraction efficiency were investigated. Under optimized conditions, a rapid, simple and effective method for the determination of FQs in honey sample was developed by coupling with liquid chromatography-fluorescence detector (LC-FLD) analysis. Due to the fast extraction equilibrium, the whole sample pretreatment process could be accomplished within 4 min. The limits of detection (LODs) for the target FQs were found to be 0.1-1.3 ng/g. The recoveries in honey sample were in the range of 81.4-118.1% with the RSDs of 0.8-14.4% (intra-day) and 1.4-14.9% (inter-day). This study offers a new strategy for the preparation of functional SiO2 nanofibers using post-electrospinning modification by in-situ polymerization, which could be generally applied in the preparation of various separation materials with electrospun nanofibers. PMID:26048819

  18. Facile synthesis of polyaniline-coated SiO₂ nanofiber and its application in enrichment of fluoroquinolones from honey samples.

    PubMed

    He, Xiao-Mei; Zhu, Gang-Tian; Zheng, Hao-Bo; Xu, Sheng-Nan; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2015-08-01

    In this study, polyaniline coated SiO2 nanofibers (PANI/SiO2) was prepared by combining electrospinning technique with in-situ polymerization. The proposed strategy for the preparation of PANI/SiO2 can eliminate the aggregation of PANI and the yield of PANI/SiO2 was high. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that PANI nanoparticles were uniformly coated on the surface of SiO2 nanofibers. The as-prepared PANI/SiO2 nanofibers were then applied as the sorbent for in-syringe dispersive solid-phase extraction (dSPE) for the extraction of fluoroquinolones (FQs) from honey samples. The influence of SiO2 amount on the formation of PANI/SiO2 and several parameters that affect the extraction efficiency were investigated. Under optimized conditions, a rapid, simple and effective method for the determination of FQs in honey sample was developed by coupling with liquid chromatography-fluorescence detector (LC-FLD) analysis. Due to the fast extraction equilibrium, the whole sample pretreatment process could be accomplished within 4 min. The limits of detection (LODs) for the target FQs were found to be 0.1-1.3 ng/g. The recoveries in honey sample were in the range of 81.4-118.1% with the RSDs of 0.8-14.4% (intra-day) and 1.4-14.9% (inter-day). This study offers a new strategy for the preparation of functional SiO2 nanofibers using post-electrospinning modification by in-situ polymerization, which could be generally applied in the preparation of various separation materials with electrospun nanofibers.

  19. Detection of sugar adulterants in apple juice using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Kelly, J F Daniel; Downey, Gerard

    2005-05-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and attenuated total reflection sampling have been used to detect adulteration of single strength apple juice samples. The sample set comprised 224 authentic apple juices and 480 adulterated samples. Adulterants used included partially inverted cane syrup (PICS), beet sucrose (BS), high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), and a synthetic solution of fructose, glucose, and sucrose (FGS). Adulteration was carried out on individual apple juice samples at levels of 10, 20, 30, and 40% w/w. Spectral data were compressed by principal component analysis and analyzed using k-nearest neighbors and partial least squares regression techniques. Prediction results for the best classification models achieved an overall (authentic plus adulterated) correct classification rate of 96.5, 93.9, 92.2, and 82.4% for PICS, BS, HFCS, and FGS adulterants, respectively. This method shows promise as a rapid screening technique for the detection of a broad range of potential adulterants in apple juice.

  20. Fast determination of phosphorus in honey, milk and infant formulas by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry using a slurry sampling procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-García, I.; Viñas, P.; Romero-Romero, R.; Hernández-Córdoba, M.

    2007-01-01

    A procedure for the electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometric determination of phosphorus in honey, milk and infant formulas using slurried samples is described. Suspensions prepared in a medium containing 50% v/v concentrated hydrogen peroxide, 1% v/v concentrated nitric acid, 10% m/v glucose, 5% m/v sucrose and 100 mg l - 1 of potassium were introduced directly into the furnace. For the honey samples, multiple injection of the sample was necessary. The modifier selected was a mixture of 20 μg palladium and 5 μg magnesium nitrate, which was injected after the sample and before proceeding with the drying and calcination steps. Calibration was performed using aqueous standards prepared in the same suspension medium and the graph was linear between 5 and 80 mg l - 1 of phosphorus. The reliability of the procedure was checked by comparing the results obtained by the new developed method with those found when using a reference spectrophotometric method after a mineralization step, and by analyzing several certified reference materials.

  1. Voltamperometric discrimination of urea and melamine adulterated skimmed milk powder.

    PubMed

    Hilding-Ohlsson, Astrid; Fauerbach, Jonathan A; Sacco, Natalia J; Bonetto, M Celina; Cortón, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen compounds like urea and melamine are known to be commonly used for milk adulteration resulting in undesired intoxication; a well-known example is the Chinese episode occurred in 2008. The development of a rapid, reliable and economic test is of relevance in order to improve adulterated milk identification. Cyclic voltammetry studies using an Au working electrode were performed on adulterated and non-adulterated milk samples from different independent manufacturers. Voltammetric data and their first derivative were subjected to functional principal component analysis (f-PCA) and correctly classified by the KNN classifier. The adulterated and non-adulterated milk samples showed significant differences. Best results of prediction were obtained with first derivative data. Detection limits in milk samples adulterated with 1% of its total nitrogen derived from melamine or urea were as low as 85.0 mg · L(-1) and 121.4 mg · L(-1), respectively. We present this method as a fast and robust screening method for milk adulteration analysis and prevention of food intoxication.

  2. Voltamperometric Discrimination of Urea and Melamine Adulterated Skimmed Milk Powder

    PubMed Central

    Hilding-Ohlsson, Astrid; Fauerbach, Jonathan A.; Sacco, Natalia J.; Bonetto, M. Celina; Cortón, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen compounds like urea and melamine are known to be commonly used for milk adulteration resulting in undesired intoxication; a well-known example is the Chinese episode occurred in 2008. The development of a rapid, reliable and economic test is of relevance in order to improve adulterated milk identification. Cyclic voltammetry studies using an Au working electrode were performed on adulterated and non-adulterated milk samples from different independent manufacturers. Voltammetric data and their first derivative were subjected to functional principal component analysis (f-PCA) and correctly classified by the KNN classifier. The adulterated and non-adulterated milk samples showed significant differences. Best results of prediction were obtained with first derivative data. Detection limits in milk samples adulterated with 1% of its total nitrogen derived from melamine or urea were as low as 85.0 mg·L−1 and 121.4 mg·L−1, respectively. We present this method as a fast and robust screening method for milk adulteration analysis and prevention of food intoxication. PMID:23112709

  3. Photothermal method using a pyroelectric sensor for thermophysical characterization of agricultural and biological samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frandas, A.; Dadarlat, Dorin; Chirtoc, Mihai; Jalink, Henk; Bicanic, Dane D.; Paris, D.; Antoniow, Jean S.; Egee, Michel; Ungureanu, Costica

    1998-07-01

    The photopyroelectric method in different experimental configurations was used for thermophysical characterization of agricultural and biological samples. The study appears important due to the relation of thermal parameters to the quality of foodstuffs (connected to their preservation, storage and adulteration), migration profiles in biodegradable packages, and the mechanism of desiccation tolerance of seeds. Results are presented on the thermal parameters measurement and their dependence on temperature and water content for samples such as: honey, starch, seeds.

  4. Museum samples reveal rapid evolution by wild honey bees exposed to a novel parasite.

    PubMed

    Mikheyev, Alexander S; Tin, Mandy M Y; Arora, Jatin; Seeley, Thomas D

    2015-08-06

    Understanding genetic changes caused by novel pathogens and parasites can reveal mechanisms of adaptation and genetic robustness. Using whole-genome sequencing of museum and modern specimens, we describe the genomic changes in a wild population of honey bees in North America following the introduction of the ectoparasitic mite, Varroa destructor. Even though colony density in the study population is the same today as in the past, a major loss of haplotypic diversity occurred, indicative of a drastic mitochondrial bottleneck, caused by massive colony mortality. In contrast, nuclear genetic diversity did not change, though hundreds of genes show signs of selection. The genetic diversity within each bee colony, particularly as a consequence of polyandry by queens, may enable preservation of genetic diversity even during population bottlenecks. These findings suggest that genetically diverse honey bee populations can recover from introduced diseases by evolving rapid tolerance, while maintaining much of the standing genetic variation.

  5. Museum samples reveal rapid evolution by wild honey bees exposed to a novel parasite

    PubMed Central

    Mikheyev, Alexander S.; Tin, Mandy M. Y.; Arora, Jatin; Seeley, Thomas D.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding genetic changes caused by novel pathogens and parasites can reveal mechanisms of adaptation and genetic robustness. Using whole-genome sequencing of museum and modern specimens, we describe the genomic changes in a wild population of honey bees in North America following the introduction of the ectoparasitic mite, Varroa destructor. Even though colony density in the study population is the same today as in the past, a major loss of haplotypic diversity occurred, indicative of a drastic mitochondrial bottleneck, caused by massive colony mortality. In contrast, nuclear genetic diversity did not change, though hundreds of genes show signs of selection. The genetic diversity within each bee colony, particularly as a consequence of polyandry by queens, may enable preservation of genetic diversity even during population bottlenecks. These findings suggest that genetically diverse honey bee populations can recover from introduced diseases by evolving rapid tolerance, while maintaining much of the standing genetic variation. PMID:26246313

  6. Museum samples reveal rapid evolution by wild honey bees exposed to a novel parasite.

    PubMed

    Mikheyev, Alexander S; Tin, Mandy M Y; Arora, Jatin; Seeley, Thomas D

    2015-01-01

    Understanding genetic changes caused by novel pathogens and parasites can reveal mechanisms of adaptation and genetic robustness. Using whole-genome sequencing of museum and modern specimens, we describe the genomic changes in a wild population of honey bees in North America following the introduction of the ectoparasitic mite, Varroa destructor. Even though colony density in the study population is the same today as in the past, a major loss of haplotypic diversity occurred, indicative of a drastic mitochondrial bottleneck, caused by massive colony mortality. In contrast, nuclear genetic diversity did not change, though hundreds of genes show signs of selection. The genetic diversity within each bee colony, particularly as a consequence of polyandry by queens, may enable preservation of genetic diversity even during population bottlenecks. These findings suggest that genetically diverse honey bee populations can recover from introduced diseases by evolving rapid tolerance, while maintaining much of the standing genetic variation. PMID:26246313

  7. Detection of apple juice adulteration using near-infrared transflectance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    León, Lorenzo; Kelly, J Daniel; Downey, Gerard

    2005-05-01

    Near-infrared transflectance spectroscopy was used to detect adulteration of apple juice samples. A total of 150 apple samples from 19 different varieties were collected in two consecutive years from orchards throughout the main cultivation areas in Ireland. Adulterant samples at 10, 20, 30, and 40% w/w were prepared using two types of adulterants: a high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) with 45% fructose and 55% glucose, and a sugars solution (SUGARS) made with 60% fructose, 25% glucose, and 15% sucrose (the average content of these sugars in apple juice). The results show that NIR analysis can be used to predict adulteration of apple juices by added sugars with a detection limit of 9.5% for samples adulterated with HFCS, 18.5% for samples adulterated with SUGARS, and 17% for the combined (HFCS + SUGARS) adulterants. Discriminant partial least squares (PLS) regression can detect authentic apple juice with an accuracy of 86-100% and adulterant apple juice with an accuracy of 91-100% depending on the adulterant type and level of adulteration considered. This method could provide a rapid screening technique for the detection of this type of apple juice adulteration, although further work is required to demonstrate model robustness.

  8. Quality assessment of the saffron samples using second-order spectrophotometric data assisted by three-way chemometric methods via quantitative analysis of synthetic colorants in adulterated saffron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoum, Saeed; Gholami, Ali; Hemmesi, Marjan; Abbasi, Saleheh

    2015-09-01

    Saffron is a valuable culinary spice that can be used not only for dyes and cooking, but also for many medical purposes. Due to its high price and restriction of its production, various fraud manners in its production have been growing. Addition of synthetic colorants to saffron is the most common way for adulteration. In this work, chemometric methods are proposed to resolve the three-dimensional absorbance spectra-pH data for simultaneous determination of the two colorants Tartrazin and Sunset yellow, in adulterated saffron. The rank deficiency in the concentration mode impaired the system. Therefore, to extirpate the ambiguity, which results from rank deficiency, three-way variation array V was generated by subtracting the first pH spectrum from each spectrum at each pH. This allows the extraction of extent reaction profile and mixture reaction spectral profiles, as well as the relative concentrations of the analytes.

  9. Quality assessment of the saffron samples using second-order spectrophotometric data assisted by three-way chemometric methods via quantitative analysis of synthetic colorants in adulterated saffron.

    PubMed

    Masoum, Saeed; Gholami, Ali; Hemmesi, Marjan; Abbasi, Saleheh

    2015-09-01

    Saffron is a valuable culinary spice that can be used not only for dyes and cooking, but also for many medical purposes. Due to its high price and restriction of its production, various fraud manners in its production have been growing. Addition of synthetic colorants to saffron is the most common way for adulteration. In this work, chemometric methods are proposed to resolve the three-dimensional absorbance spectra-pH data for simultaneous determination of the two colorants Tartrazin and Sunset yellow, in adulterated saffron. The rank deficiency in the concentration mode impaired the system. Therefore, to extirpate the ambiguity, which results from rank deficiency, three-way variation array V was generated by subtracting the first pH spectrum from each spectrum at each pH. This allows the extraction of extent reaction profile and mixture reaction spectral profiles, as well as the relative concentrations of the analytes.

  10. Discriminant analysis of milk adulteration based on near-infrared spectroscopy and pattern recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Rong; Lv, Guorong; He, Bin; Xu, Kexin

    2011-03-01

    Since the beginning of the 21st century, the issue of food safety is becoming a global concern. It is very important to develop a rapid, cost-effective, and widely available method for food adulteration detection. In this paper, near-infrared spectroscopy techniques and pattern recognition were applied to study the qualitative discriminant analysis method. The samples were prepared and adulterated with one of the three adulterants, urea, glucose and melamine with different concentrations. First, the spectral characteristics of milk and adulterant samples were analyzed. Then, pattern recognition methods were used for qualitative discriminant analysis of milk adulteration. Soft independent modeling of class analogy and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) were used to construct discriminant models, respectively. Furthermore, the optimization method of the model was studied. The best spectral pretreatment methods and the optimal band were determined. In the optimal conditions, PLSDA models were constructed respectively for each type of adulterated sample sets (urea, melamine and glucose) and all the three types of adulterated sample sets. Results showed that, the discrimination accuracy of model achieved 93.2% in the classification of different adulterated and unadulterated milk samples. Thus, it can be concluded that near-infrared spectroscopy and PLSDA can be used to identify whether the milk has been adulterated or not and the type of adulterant used.

  11. Genetic and Epigenetic Approaches for the Possible Detection of Adulteration and Auto-Adulteration in Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) Spice.

    PubMed

    Soffritti, Giovanna; Busconi, Matteo; Sánchez, Rosa Ana; Thiercelin, Jean-Marie; Polissiou, Moschos; Roldán, Marta; Fernández, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is very expensive and, because of this, often subject to adulteration. Modern genetic fingerprinting techniques are an alternative low cost technology to the existing chemical techniques, which are used to control the purity of food products. Buddleja officinalis Maxim, Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, Curcuma longa L., Carthamus tinctorius L. and Calendula officinalis L. are among the most frequently-used adulterants in saffron spice. Three commercial kits were compared concerning the ability to recover PCR-grade DNA from saffron, truly adulterated samples and possible adulterants, with a clear difference among them, mainly with the processed samples. Only one of the three kits was able to obtain amplifiable DNA from almost all of the samples, with the exception of extracts. On the recovered DNA, new markers were developed based on the sequence of the plastid genes matK and rbcL. These primers, mainly those developed on matK, were able to recognize saffron and the adulterant species and also in mixtures with very low percentages of adulterant. Finally, considering that the addition of different parts of saffron flowers is one of the most widespread adulterations, by analyzing the DNA of the different parts of the flower (styles, stamens and tepals) at the genetic and epigenetic level, we succeeded in finding differences between the three tissues that can be further evaluated for a possible detection of the kind of fraud.

  12. Genetic and Epigenetic Approaches for the Possible Detection of Adulteration and Auto-Adulteration in Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) Spice.

    PubMed

    Soffritti, Giovanna; Busconi, Matteo; Sánchez, Rosa Ana; Thiercelin, Jean-Marie; Polissiou, Moschos; Roldán, Marta; Fernández, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is very expensive and, because of this, often subject to adulteration. Modern genetic fingerprinting techniques are an alternative low cost technology to the existing chemical techniques, which are used to control the purity of food products. Buddleja officinalis Maxim, Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, Curcuma longa L., Carthamus tinctorius L. and Calendula officinalis L. are among the most frequently-used adulterants in saffron spice. Three commercial kits were compared concerning the ability to recover PCR-grade DNA from saffron, truly adulterated samples and possible adulterants, with a clear difference among them, mainly with the processed samples. Only one of the three kits was able to obtain amplifiable DNA from almost all of the samples, with the exception of extracts. On the recovered DNA, new markers were developed based on the sequence of the plastid genes matK and rbcL. These primers, mainly those developed on matK, were able to recognize saffron and the adulterant species and also in mixtures with very low percentages of adulterant. Finally, considering that the addition of different parts of saffron flowers is one of the most widespread adulterations, by analyzing the DNA of the different parts of the flower (styles, stamens and tepals) at the genetic and epigenetic level, we succeeded in finding differences between the three tissues that can be further evaluated for a possible detection of the kind of fraud. PMID:26978342

  13. High-resolution mass spectrometry associated with data mining tools for the detection of pollutants and chemical characterization of honey samples.

    PubMed

    Cotton, Jérôme; Leroux, Fanny; Broudin, Simon; Marie, Mylène; Corman, Bruno; Tabet, Jean-Claude; Ducruix, Céline; Junot, Christophe

    2014-11-19

    Analytical methods for food control are mainly focused on restricted lists of well-known contaminants. This paper shows that liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-HRMS) associated with the data mining tools developed for metabolomics can address this issue by enabling (i) targeted analyses of pollutants, (ii) detection of untargeted and unknown xenobiotics, and (iii) detection of metabolites useful for the characterization of food matrices. A proof-of-concept study was performed on 76 honey samples. Targeted analysis indicated that 35 of 83 targeted molecules were detected in the 76 honey samples at concentrations below regulatory limits. Furthermore, untargeted metabolomic-like analyses highlighted 12 chlorinated xenobiotics, 1 of which was detected in lavender honey samples and identified as 2,6-dichlorobenzamide, a metabolite of dichlobenil, a pesticide banned in France since 2010. Lastly, multivariate statistical analyses discriminated honey samples according to their floral origin, and six discriminating metabolites were characterized thanks to the MS/MS experiments.

  14. Feasibility of ultra-trace determination of bromine and iodine in honey by ICP-MS using high sample mass in microwave-induced combustion.

    PubMed

    Costa, Vanize C; Picoloto, Rochele S; Hartwig, Carla A; Mello, Paola A; Flores, Erico M M; Mesko, Marcia F

    2015-10-01

    This work demonstrates the feasibility of ultra-trace determination of halogens in biological samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after decomposition by microwave-induced combustion (MIC). The conventional MIC method was improved to allow the combustion of samples with mass higher than that used in previous works in order to achieve better limits of detection (LODs). The applicability of the proposed method for ultra-trace determination of bromine and iodine in organic samples was demonstrated here using honey. It was possible to decompose up to 1000 mg of honey using microcrystalline cellulose as a combustion aid and polyethylene film for sample wrapping. After combustion, analytes were absorbed using 50 mmol L(-1) NH4OH and recoveries for Br and I were between 99 and 104 %, and relative standard deviations were lower than 5 %. Microwave-assisted alkaline dissolution (MA-AD) was also evaluated for honey sample preparation using NH4OH or tetramethylammonium hydroxide solutions. However, the LODs for the MA-AD method were unsuitable because the high carbon content in digests required a dilution step prior to the analysis by ICP-MS. The LODs obtained by MIC were improved from 1143 to 34 ng g(-1) for Br and from 571 to 6.0 ng g(-1) for I, when compared to the MA-AD method. Furthermore, it was possible to decompose up to eight samples simultaneously in 30 min (including the cooling step) with very low reagent consumption and consequently lower generation of effluents, making MIC method well suited for routine ultra-trace determination of Br and I in honey. Graphical Abstract A high mass of honey was efficiently digested by MIC for subsequent Br and I determination by ICP-MS.

  15. Solid-phase extraction of flavonoids in honey samples using carbamate-embedded triacontyl-modified silica sorbent.

    PubMed

    Liu, Houmei; Zhang, Mingliang; Guo, Yong; Qiu, Hongdeng

    2016-08-01

    In this study, carbamate-embedded triacontyl-modified silica (Sil-CBM-C30) is successfully prepared and used as an efficient sorbent for solid-phase extraction. The extraction performance of the resultant sorbent is evaluated with five flavonoids including myricetin, quercetin, luteolin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin. Main parameters, which affect extraction efficiencies, are carefully investigated and optimized. Comparative experiments between Sil-CBM-C30 and commercial C18 sorbents indicate that the extraction efficiencies of the former one surpass the latter one. The modification of carbamate-embedded triacontyl group on surface of silica causes analytes extracted by hydrophobic, hydrogen bonding and π-π interactions. Under optimal conditions, good linearities and satisfied LODs and LOQs are achieved. The SPE-HPLC-DAD method is successfully developed and applied for the honey sample analysis. PMID:26988475

  16. [Textual research on adulteration of Chinese materia medica in ancient China].

    PubMed

    Xie, Jin; Wang, De-Qun

    2013-09-01

    By investigating the mainstream works of herbal classics of successive ages, it is found that adulteration of Chinese materia medica appeared early in ancient China. The main methods of adulteration was producing fraud medicines in the Northern-Southern Dynasties, fake medicines began to appear in the Tang Dynasty, and status of adulteration of Chinese materia medica ran unchecked since the Ming and Qing Dynasty. By statistics, there were 76 kinds of adulteration varieties before the Republican period. The main varieties were precious drugs, animal drugs and artifacts. Commonly methods used in the process included forging and adulterating, dealing with 11 kinds and 68 kinds respectively. Adulteration probably lead to the result of imposing the changes of the used medicinal parts of Herba Pogostemonis; Radix Aconiti Lateralis prepared by adding salt, Radix Angelica Sinensis processed by wine, and Radix Astragalis seu Hedysaris processed with bee honey. However, the root cause of adulteration in Chinese materia medica was the dissociation of professional physician and pharmacist, resulting in the ignorance of medical practitioners became unable to recognize Chinese materia medica; and the immorality of medicinal merchants. Besides, rating the quality of materia medica based on its producing areas without differentiating the false from the genuine may also contribute to this result passively.

  17. Dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction of benzoylurea insecticides in honey samples with a β-cyclodextrin-modified attapulgite composite as sorbent.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Panjie; Cui, Xiangqian; Yang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Sanbing; Zhou, Wenfeng; Gao, Haixiang; Lu, Runhua

    2016-01-01

    A β-cyclodextrin-modified attapulgite composite was prepared and used as a dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction sorbent for the determination of benzoylurea insecticides in honey samples. Parameters that may influence the extraction efficiency, such as the type and volume of the eluent, the amount of the sorbent, the extraction time and the ionic strength were investigated and optimized using batch and column procedures. Under optimized conditions, good linearity was obtained for all of the tested compounds, with R(2) values of at least 0.9834. The limits of detection were determined in the range of 0.2-1.0 μg/L. The recoveries of the four benzoylurea insecticides in vitex honey and acacia honey increased from 15.2 to 81.4% and from 14.2 to 82.0%, respectively. Although the β-cyclodextrin-modified attapulgite composite did not show a brilliant adsorption capacity for the selected benzoylurea insecticides, it exhibited a higher adsorption capacity toward relatively hydrophobic compounds, such as chlorfluazuron and hexaflumuron (recoveries in vitex honey samples ranged from 70.0 to 81.4% with a precision of 1.0-3.7%). It seemed that the logPow of the benzoylurea insecticides is related to their recoveries. The results confirmed the possibility of using cyclodextrin-modified palygorskite in the determination of relatively hydrophobic trace pharmaceutical residues.

  18. Dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction of benzoylurea insecticides in honey samples with a β-cyclodextrin-modified attapulgite composite as sorbent.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Panjie; Cui, Xiangqian; Yang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Sanbing; Zhou, Wenfeng; Gao, Haixiang; Lu, Runhua

    2016-01-01

    A β-cyclodextrin-modified attapulgite composite was prepared and used as a dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction sorbent for the determination of benzoylurea insecticides in honey samples. Parameters that may influence the extraction efficiency, such as the type and volume of the eluent, the amount of the sorbent, the extraction time and the ionic strength were investigated and optimized using batch and column procedures. Under optimized conditions, good linearity was obtained for all of the tested compounds, with R(2) values of at least 0.9834. The limits of detection were determined in the range of 0.2-1.0 μg/L. The recoveries of the four benzoylurea insecticides in vitex honey and acacia honey increased from 15.2 to 81.4% and from 14.2 to 82.0%, respectively. Although the β-cyclodextrin-modified attapulgite composite did not show a brilliant adsorption capacity for the selected benzoylurea insecticides, it exhibited a higher adsorption capacity toward relatively hydrophobic compounds, such as chlorfluazuron and hexaflumuron (recoveries in vitex honey samples ranged from 70.0 to 81.4% with a precision of 1.0-3.7%). It seemed that the logPow of the benzoylurea insecticides is related to their recoveries. The results confirmed the possibility of using cyclodextrin-modified palygorskite in the determination of relatively hydrophobic trace pharmaceutical residues. PMID:26573895

  19. Bilberry adulteration using the food dye amaranth.

    PubMed

    Penman, Kerry G; Halstead, Clynton W; Matthias, Anita; De Voss, James J; Stuthe, Julia M U; Bone, Kerry M; Lehmann, Reginald P

    2006-09-20

    Vaccinium myrtillus or bilberry fruit is a commonly used herbal product. The usual method of determining the anthocyanin content is a single-wavelength spectrophotometric assay. Using this method, anthocyanin levels of two extracts were found to be 25% as claimed by the manufacturers. When high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used, however, one extract was found to contain 9% anthocyanins probably not derived from V. myrtillus but from an adulterant. This adulterant was subsequently identified, using HPLC, mass spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance, as amaranth, that is, 3-hydroxy-4-[(4-sulfo-1-naphthalenyl)azo]-2,7-naphthalenedisulfonic acid trisodium salt-a synthetic dark red sulfonic acid based naphthylazo dye. As described in this study, if deliberate adulteration occurs in an extract, a single-wavelength spectrophotometric assay is inadequate to accurately determine the levels of compounds such as anthocyanins. Detection of deliberate adulteration in commercial samples thus requires the use of alternative, more sophisticated, methods of analysis such as HPLC with photodiode array detection as a minimum.

  20. Hyperspectral sensing based analysis for determining milk adulteration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimbahune, Sanjay; Ghouse, Syed M.; B. S., Mithun; Shinde, Sujit; Jha, Amit Kumar

    2016-05-01

    This research work was designed to evaluate the suitability and applicability of hyperspectral radiometry technology for robustly detecting adulterants in diary milk. The most common milk adulterants are (a) soda, (b) urea, (c) water and (d) detergents. The main contribution of this paper is to build a mathematical model to enable quantifying the degree of common adulterants present in milk. Data was collected using a portable spectroradiometer (Eko MS-720) which measures the spectral irradiance in the range from visible to near-infrared irradiance (350 nm 1050 nm) using samples of milk contaminated with four different adulterants (soda, urea, water and detergent) with known degree of contamination deliberately added in milk. In this study, we used the data in the range of 350 - 1050 nm to identify spectral signatures of different adulterants with different degree of concentration. Data cleansing, in the form of pre-processing was followed by machine learning techniques to create a model to capture the adulterants and also the degree of adulteration. Linear regression along with wrapper subset eval as attribute evaluator and best first search as search option was found to create the best model. Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and Correlation Coefficient (CC) metrics were used to select the best model. The best model for detecting the degree of adulteration due to soda, urea, water and detergent in milk was found to have an RMSE of 0.027, 0.0069, 0.0382 and 0.0281 respectively while CC was 0.9919, 0.9997, 0.9887 and 0.9938 respectively. The preliminary experimental results demonstrate the effective use of spectroradiometer and machine learning technique in reliably detecting adulterants in milk.

  1. Polychlorinated biphenyls in honey bees

    SciTech Connect

    Morse, R.A.; Culliney, T.W.; Gutenmann, W.H.; Littman, C.B.; Lisk, D.J.

    1987-02-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) may traverse a radius of several miles from their hives and contact innumerable surfaces during their collection of nectar, pollen, propolis and water. In the process, they may become contaminated with surface constituents which are indicative of the type of environmental pollution in their particular foraging area. Honey has also been analyzed as a possible indicator of heavy metal pollution. Insecticides used in the vicinity of bee hives have been found in bees and honey. It has been recently reported that appreciable concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been found in honey bees sampled throughout Connecticut. In the work reported here, an analytical survey was conducted on PCBs in honey bees, honey, propolis and related samples in several states to learn the extent of contamination and possible sources.

  2. Adulteration of Argentinean milk fats with animal fats: Detection by fatty acids analysis and multivariate regression techniques.

    PubMed

    Rebechi, S R; Vélez, M A; Vaira, S; Perotti, M C

    2016-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to test the accuracy of the fatty acid ratios established by the Argentinean Legislation to detect adulterations of milk fat with animal fats and to propose a regression model suitable to evaluate these adulterations. For this purpose, 70 milk fat, 10 tallow and 7 lard fat samples were collected and analyzed by gas chromatography. Data was utilized to simulate arithmetically adulterated milk fat samples at 0%, 2%, 5%, 10% and 15%, for both animal fats. The fatty acids ratios failed to distinguish adulterated milk fats containing less than 15% of tallow or lard. For each adulterant, Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) was applied, and a model was chosen and validated. For that, calibration and validation matrices were constructed employing genuine and adulterated milk fat samples. The models were able to detect adulterations of milk fat at levels greater than 10% for tallow and 5% for lard.

  3. Adulterants in Urine Drug Testing.

    PubMed

    Fu, S

    2016-01-01

    Urine drug testing plays an important role in monitoring licit and illicit drug use for both medico-legal and clinical purposes. One of the major challenges of urine drug testing is adulteration, a practice involving manipulation of a urine specimen with chemical adulterants to produce a false negative test result. This problem is compounded by the number of easily obtained chemicals that can effectively adulterate a urine specimen. Common adulterants include some household chemicals such as hypochlorite bleach, laundry detergent, table salt, and toilet bowl cleaner and many commercial products such as UrinAid (glutaraldehyde), Stealth® (containing peroxidase and peroxide), Urine Luck (pyridinium chlorochromate, PCC), and Klear® (potassium nitrite) available through the Internet. These adulterants can invalidate a screening test result, a confirmatory test result, or both. To counteract urine adulteration, drug testing laboratories have developed a number of analytical methods to detect adulterants in a urine specimen. While these methods are useful in detecting urine adulteration when such activities are suspected, they do not reveal what types of drugs are being concealed. This is particularly the case when oxidizing urine adulterants are involved as these oxidants are capable of destroying drugs and their metabolites in urine, rendering the drug analytes undetectable by any testing technology. One promising approach to address this current limitation has been the use of unique oxidation products formed from reaction of drug analytes with oxidizing adulterants as markers for monitoring drug misuse and urine adulteration. This novel approach will ultimately improve the effectiveness of the current urine drug testing programs. PMID:27645818

  4. Adulterants in Urine Drug Testing.

    PubMed

    Fu, S

    2016-01-01

    Urine drug testing plays an important role in monitoring licit and illicit drug use for both medico-legal and clinical purposes. One of the major challenges of urine drug testing is adulteration, a practice involving manipulation of a urine specimen with chemical adulterants to produce a false negative test result. This problem is compounded by the number of easily obtained chemicals that can effectively adulterate a urine specimen. Common adulterants include some household chemicals such as hypochlorite bleach, laundry detergent, table salt, and toilet bowl cleaner and many commercial products such as UrinAid (glutaraldehyde), Stealth® (containing peroxidase and peroxide), Urine Luck (pyridinium chlorochromate, PCC), and Klear® (potassium nitrite) available through the Internet. These adulterants can invalidate a screening test result, a confirmatory test result, or both. To counteract urine adulteration, drug testing laboratories have developed a number of analytical methods to detect adulterants in a urine specimen. While these methods are useful in detecting urine adulteration when such activities are suspected, they do not reveal what types of drugs are being concealed. This is particularly the case when oxidizing urine adulterants are involved as these oxidants are capable of destroying drugs and their metabolites in urine, rendering the drug analytes undetectable by any testing technology. One promising approach to address this current limitation has been the use of unique oxidation products formed from reaction of drug analytes with oxidizing adulterants as markers for monitoring drug misuse and urine adulteration. This novel approach will ultimately improve the effectiveness of the current urine drug testing programs.

  5. Development of an ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction method for the determination of chlorpyrifos and organochlorine pesticide residues in honey samples using gas chromatography with mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mousavi, Mir-Michael; Arefhosseini, Seyedrafie; Alizadeh Nabili, Ali Akbar; Mahmoudpour, Mansour; Nemati, Mahboob

    2016-07-01

    A simple, rapid, and efficient ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction method followed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry in selected ion monitoring mode was developed for the determination of organochlorine pesticides in honey samples. The type and volume of organic extraction solvent, pH, effect of added salt content, and centrifuging time and speed were investigated. Under the optimum extraction conditions, 30 μL of 1, 2-dibromoethane (extraction solvent) was immersed into an ultrasonic bath for 1 min at 40°C. The limits of detection and quantification for all target pesticides were 0.003-0.06 and 0.01-0.2 ng/g, respectively. The extraction recovery was 91-100% and the enrichment factors were 168-192. The relative standard deviation for the method was <6% for intraday (n = 6) and <8% for interday precision (n = 4). The proposed method was successfully applied for the analysis of organochlorine pesticides in honey samples. PMID:27214344

  6. Melliferous flora and pollen characterization of honey samples of Apis mellifera L., 1758 in apiaries in the counties of Ubiratã and Nova Aurora, PR.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Elizabete S; Toledo, Vagner A A; Caxambu, Marcelo G; Chmura, Suzane; Takashiba, Eliza H; Sereia, Maria Josiane; Marchini, Luís C; Moreti, Augusta C C C

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to carry out a survey of the flora with potential for beekeeping in the counties of Ubiratã and Nova Aurora-PR through the collection of plants and pollen analyses in honey samples collected monthly. 208 species of plants were recorded, distributed in 66 families. The families that showed the major richness of pollen types were: Asteraceae, Myrtaceae and Solanaceae. Approximately 80 pollen types were found in honey samples, most of them were characterized as heterofloral. Cultivated plants, such as Glycine max (soybean) and Eucalyptus spp., were representative in some months of the year. Exotic species, such as Ricinus communis and Melia azedarach, were also frequent. However, over than 50% of the pollen types belong to native species of the region, such as Schinus terebinthifolius, Baccharis spp. Alchornea triplinervia, Parapiptadenia rigida, Hexaclamys edulis, Zanthoxylum sp. and Serjania spp., indicating the importance of the native vegetation for the survival of the colonies.

  7. Detection of Corn Adulteration in Brazilian Coffee (Coffea arabica) by Tocopherol Profiling and Near-Infrared (NIR) Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Winkler-Moser, Jill K; Singh, Mukti; Rennick, Kathy A; Bakota, Erica L; Jham, Gulab; Liu, Sean X; Vaughn, Steven F

    2015-12-16

    Coffee is a high-value commodity that is a target for adulteration, leading to loss of quality and causing significant loss to consumers. Therefore, there is significant interest in developing methods for detecting coffee adulteration and improving the sensitivity and accuracy of these methods. Corn and other lower value crops are potential adulterants, along with sticks and coffee husks. Fourteen pure Brazilian roasted, ground coffee bean samples were adulterated with 1-20% of roasted, ground corn and were analyzed for their tocopherol content and profile by HPLC. They were also analyzed by near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Both proposed methods of detection of corn adulteration displayed a sensitivity of around 5%, thus representing simple and fast analytical methods for detecting adulteration at likely levels of contamination. Further studies should be conducted to verify the results with a much larger sample size and additional types of adulterants.

  8. Detection of Corn Adulteration in Brazilian Coffee (Coffea arabica) by Tocopherol Profiling and Near-Infrared (NIR) Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Winkler-Moser, Jill K; Singh, Mukti; Rennick, Kathy A; Bakota, Erica L; Jham, Gulab; Liu, Sean X; Vaughn, Steven F

    2015-12-16

    Coffee is a high-value commodity that is a target for adulteration, leading to loss of quality and causing significant loss to consumers. Therefore, there is significant interest in developing methods for detecting coffee adulteration and improving the sensitivity and accuracy of these methods. Corn and other lower value crops are potential adulterants, along with sticks and coffee husks. Fourteen pure Brazilian roasted, ground coffee bean samples were adulterated with 1-20% of roasted, ground corn and were analyzed for their tocopherol content and profile by HPLC. They were also analyzed by near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Both proposed methods of detection of corn adulteration displayed a sensitivity of around 5%, thus representing simple and fast analytical methods for detecting adulteration at likely levels of contamination. Further studies should be conducted to verify the results with a much larger sample size and additional types of adulterants. PMID:26600312

  9. [Preparation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes decorated with Fe3O4 nanoparticles for determination of trace pyrethroid pesticides in water and honey samples].

    PubMed

    Yao, Weixuan; Ying, Jianbo; Zhang, Suling; Zhang, Chunxiao; Wang, Haidong; Cai, Guodong

    2015-04-01

    A magnetic carbon nanotube hybrid material was prepared using a chemical co-precipitation method. The Fe3O4 nanoparticles were enclosed onto the surface of the acid multi-walled carbon nanotubes (AMWNTs), and they were identified as Fe3O4/AMWNTs composites. This hybrid materials displayed typical superparamagnetic behavior, good dispersibility, and good adsorption capacity for pyrethroid pesticides. A magnetic solid-phase microextraction (MSPE) procedure based on Fe3O4/AMWNTs composites, combined with gas chromatography, was developed for the quantification of six pyrethroid pesticides in water and honey samples. Several important parameters affecting the extraction efficiency for six pyrethroid pesticides were optimized in sequential order, including ionic strength, extraction time and desorption time. Under the optimized conditions, this method showed wide linearity ranging from 0.5 µg/L to 50 µg/L with correlation coefficients (R2) higher than 0.990. The limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 0.07 µg/L to 0.20 µg/L at a singal-to-noise ratio of 3. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranged from 3. 8% to 8. 1%. Satisfactory recoveries (> 78.4%) were obtained for the simultaneous analysis of the six pyrethroid pesticide residues in river water, fish-pond water and two honey samples. This method is sensitive and simple. It can meet the actual requirement for the analysis of trace analytes from environmental water and honey samples. PMID:26292402

  10. Preconcentration and determination of boron in milk, infant formula, and honey samples by solid phase extraction-electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-García, I.; Viñas, P.; Romero-Romero, R.; Hernández-Córdoba, M.

    2009-02-01

    This work presents alternative procedures for the electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometric determination of boron in milk, infant formulas, and honey samples. Honey samples (10% m/v) were diluted in a medium containing 1% v/v HNO 3 and 50% v/v H 2O 2 and introduced in the atomizer. A mixture of 20 µg Pd and 0.5 µg Mg was used for chemical modification. Calibration was carried out using aqueous solutions prepared in the same medium, in the presence of 10% m/v sucrose. The detection limit was 2 µg g - 1 , equivalent to three times the standard error of the estimate ( sy/ x) of the regression line. For both infant formulas and milk samples, due to their very low boron content, we used a procedure based on preconcentration by solid phase extraction (Amberlite IRA 743), followed by elution with 2 mol L - 1 hydrochloric acid. Detection limits were 0.03 µg g - 1 for 4% m/v honey, 0.04 µg g - 1 for 5% m/v infant formula and 0.08 µg mL - 1 for 15% v/v cow milk. We confirmed the accuracy of the procedure by comparing the obtained results with those found via a comparable independent procedure, as well by the analysis of four certified reference materials.

  11. [Preparation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes decorated with Fe3O4 nanoparticles for determination of trace pyrethroid pesticides in water and honey samples].

    PubMed

    Yao, Weixuan; Ying, Jianbo; Zhang, Suling; Zhang, Chunxiao; Wang, Haidong; Cai, Guodong

    2015-04-01

    A magnetic carbon nanotube hybrid material was prepared using a chemical co-precipitation method. The Fe3O4 nanoparticles were enclosed onto the surface of the acid multi-walled carbon nanotubes (AMWNTs), and they were identified as Fe3O4/AMWNTs composites. This hybrid materials displayed typical superparamagnetic behavior, good dispersibility, and good adsorption capacity for pyrethroid pesticides. A magnetic solid-phase microextraction (MSPE) procedure based on Fe3O4/AMWNTs composites, combined with gas chromatography, was developed for the quantification of six pyrethroid pesticides in water and honey samples. Several important parameters affecting the extraction efficiency for six pyrethroid pesticides were optimized in sequential order, including ionic strength, extraction time and desorption time. Under the optimized conditions, this method showed wide linearity ranging from 0.5 µg/L to 50 µg/L with correlation coefficients (R2) higher than 0.990. The limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 0.07 µg/L to 0.20 µg/L at a singal-to-noise ratio of 3. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranged from 3. 8% to 8. 1%. Satisfactory recoveries (> 78.4%) were obtained for the simultaneous analysis of the six pyrethroid pesticide residues in river water, fish-pond water and two honey samples. This method is sensitive and simple. It can meet the actual requirement for the analysis of trace analytes from environmental water and honey samples.

  12. Characterization of honey amino acid profiles using high-pressure liquid chromatography to control authenticity.

    PubMed

    Cotte, J F; Casabianca, H; Giroud, B; Albert, M; Lheritier, J; Grenier-Loustalot, M F

    2004-03-01

    Amino acid analysis of honey by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used first to discriminate different botanical origins and then to combat adulteration. Pure honeys of seven selected floral varieties were examined. A principal component analysis (PCA) was carried out on the results after selection of the most discriminating parameters. Lavender honeys were thus perfectly characterized, but complete satisfaction was not obtained with the six other varieties. This method (analysis by HPLC and statistical processing by PCA) enabled us to detect the addition of sugar syrup to rape and fir honeys. PMID:14740139

  13. Detection of adulteration in acetonitrile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guoxiang; Fujimori, Kiyoshi; Lee, Hans; Nashed-Samuel, Yasser; Phillips, Joseph; Rogers, Gary; Shen, Hong; Yee, Chanel

    2011-05-01

    To address the increasing concern that acetonitrile may be intentionally adulterated to meet the shortfall in global supplies resulting from a downturn in its manufacturing, three analytical techniques were examined in this study. Gas Chromatography with Thermal Conductivity Detection (GC-TCD), Near Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy were assessed for their ability to detect and quantify potential adulterants including water, alternative organic solvents, and by-products associated with the production of acetonitrile. The results of the assessment of the three techniques for acetonitrile adulteration testing are discussed.

  14. Toward the development of Raman spectroscopy as a nonperturbative online monitoring tool for gasoline adulteration.

    PubMed

    Tan, Khay M; Barman, Ishan; Dingari, Narahara C; Singh, Gajendra P; Chia, Tet F; Tok, Wee L

    2013-02-01

    There is a critical need for a real-time, nonperturbative probe for monitoring the adulteration of automotive gasoline. Running on adulterated fuel leads to a substantive increase in air pollution, because of increased tailpipe emissions of harmful pollutants, as well as a reduction in engine performance. Consequently, both classification of the gasoline type and quantification of the adulteration content are of great significance for quality control. Gasoline adulteration detection is currently carried out in the laboratory with gas chromatography, which is time-consuming and costly. Here, we propose the application of Raman spectroscopic measurements for on-site rapid detection of gasoline adulteration. In this proof-of-principle report, we demonstrate the effectiveness of Raman spectra, in conjunction with multivariate analysis methods, in classifying the base oil types and simultaneously detecting the adulteration content in a wide range of commercial gasoline mixtures, both in their native states and spiked with different adulterants. In particular, we show that Raman spectra acquired with an inexpensive noncooled detector provides adequate specificity to clearly discriminate between the gasoline samples and simultaneously characterize the specific adulterant content with a limit of detection below 5%. Our promising results in this study illustrate, for the first time, the capability and the potential of Raman spectroscopy, together with multivariate analysis, as a low-cost, powerful tool for on-site rapid detection of gasoline adulteration and opens substantive avenues for applications in related fields of quality control in the oil industry.

  15. [Effect of Optical Length on Detection Accuracy of Camellia Oil Adulteration by Near Infrared Spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Sun, Tong; Wu, Yi-qing; Xu, Peng; Wen, Zhen-cai; Hu, Tian; Liu, Mu-hua

    2015-07-01

    In this research, near infrared spectroscopy was used to detect adulterated percent of camellia oil adulterated with soybean oil quantificationally at different optical lengths, and the effect of optical length on detection accuracy of adulterated percent was investigated. Soybean oil was put into camellia oil according to different mass fraction, the adulterated mass fraction was ranged from 1% to 50%. Transmission spectra of samples were acquired by a Quality Specspectrometer at different optical lengths (1, 2, 4, 10 mm), and effect of optical length on detection accuracy of adulterated percent was analyzed by comparing quantitative prediction models that developed at different calibration methods, pretreatment methods and wavelength range. The results indicate that the performance of quantitative prediction model of adulterated percent is improved as the optical length is increasing from 1 to 4 mm, while the performance of quantitative prediction model of adulterated percent is deteriorated as the optical length is increasing from 4 to 10 mm. 4 mm is a better optical length for camellia oil adulteration. The coefficients of determination of prediction (R2(P)) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) in quantitative prediction models of adulterated percent for optical lengths of 1, 2, 4, 10 mm are 0.923, 0.977, 0.989, 0.962 and 4.58%, 2.54%, 1.72%, 3.20%, respectively. PMID:26717747

  16. Studies on the physicochemical characteristics of heated honey, honey mixed with ghee and their food consumption pattern by rats.

    PubMed

    Annapoorani, A; Anilakumar, K R; Khanum, Farhath; Murthy, N Anjaneya; Bawa, A S

    2010-04-01

    Honey and ghee are the two food substances used widely in our diet. In Ayurveda, it is quoted that heated honey and honey mixed with equal amount of ghee produce deleterious effects. Hence, it was of our interest to study the physicochemical characteristics and chemical constituents of heated honey and honey mixed with ghee, and their effect on daily food intake and organ weights of rats. The specific gravity of samples showed a significant decrease in honey and ghee samples heated to 140°C. The pH of honey heated to 140°C was elevated with a reduction in the specific gravity. There was a significant rise in hydroxymethyl furfuraldehyde (HMF) in 60º and 140°C heated honey samples. The browning and total antioxidant of honey mixed ghee samples was significantly higher when compared to ghee samples. Further, the authors have also evaluated the effects of consumption of heated honey, ghee, honey mixed with equal amount of ghee and heated honey mixed with heated ghee in rats. The feeding of heated honey and honey mixed with ghee for 6 weeks showed no significant change in the food intake, weight gain and relative organ weights. The study revealed that the heated honey mixed with ghee produces HMF which may cause deleterious effects. PMID:22131701

  17. Detection of starch adulteration in onion powder by FT-NIR and FT-IR spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adulteration of onion powder with cornstarch was identified by Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The reflectance spectra of 180 pure and adulterated samples (1–35 wt% starch) were collected and preprocessed to generate calibration and predi...

  18. Preparation of stir cake sorptive extraction based on polymeric ionic liquid for the enrichment of benzimidazole anthelmintics in water, honey and milk samples.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yulei; Zhang, Jie; Huang, Xiaojia; Yuan, Dongxing

    2014-08-20

    In this work, a new stir cake sorptive extraction (SCSE) using polymeric ionic liquid monolith as sorbent was prepared. The sorbent was obtained by in situ copolymerization of an ionic liquid, 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium bis[(trifluoro methyl)sulfonyl]imide (AMII) and divinylbenzene (DB) in the presence of N,N-dimethylformamide. The influence of the content of ionic liquid and the porogen in the polymerization mixture on extraction performance was studied thoroughly. The physicochemical properties of the polymeric ionic liquid were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy and mercury intrusion porosimetry. The usefulness of SCSE-AMIIDB was demonstrated by the enrichment of trace benzimidazole anthelmintics. Several parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated, and under the optimized conditions, a simple and effective method for the determination of trace benzimidazoles residues in water, milk and honey samples was established by coupling SCSE-AMIIDB with high performance liquid chromatography/diode array detection (SCSE-AMIIDB-HPLC/DAD). Results indicated that the limits of detection (S/N=3) for target compounds were 0.020-0.072 μg L(-1), 0.035-0.10 μg L(-1) and 0.026-0.076 μg L(-1) in water, milk and honey samples, respectively. In addition, an acceptable reproducibility was achieved by evaluating the repeatability and intermediate precision with relative standard deviations (RSD) of less than 9% and 11%, respectively. Finally, the established AMII-SCSE-HPLC/DAD method was successfully applied for the determination of benzimidazoles residues in milk, honey and environmental water samples. Recoveries obtained for the determination of benzimidazole anthelmintics in spiking samples ranged from 70.2% to 117.6%, with RSD below 12% in all cases.

  19. Honey Ants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, John R.

    1984-01-01

    Provides background information on honey ants. These ants are found in dry or desert regions of North America, Africa, and Australia. Also provides a list of activities using local species of ants. (JN)

  20. Fast and global authenticity screening of honey using ¹H-NMR profiling.

    PubMed

    Spiteri, Marc; Jamin, Eric; Thomas, Freddy; Rebours, Agathe; Lees, Michèle; Rogers, Karyne M; Rutledge, Douglas N

    2015-12-15

    An innovative analytical approach was developed to tackle the most common adulterations and quality deviations in honey. Using proton-NMR profiling coupled to suitable quantification procedures and statistical models, analytical criteria were defined to check the authenticity of both mono- and multi-floral honey. The reference data set used was a worldwide collection of more than 800 honeys, covering most of the economically significant botanical and geographical origins. Typical plant nectar markers can be used to check monofloral honey labeling. Spectral patterns and natural variability were established for multifloral honeys, and marker signals for sugar syrups were identified by statistical comparison with a commercial dataset of ca. 200 honeys. Although the results are qualitative, spiking experiments have confirmed the ability of the method to detect sugar addition down to 10% levels in favorable cases. Within the same NMR experiments, quantification of glucose, fructose, sucrose and 5-HMF (regulated parameters) was performed. Finally markers showing the onset of fermentation are described.

  1. Determination of butter adulteration with margarine using Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Uysal, Reyhan Selin; Boyaci, Ismail Hakki; Genis, Hüseyin Efe; Tamer, Ugur

    2013-12-15

    In this study, adulteration of butter with margarine was analysed using Raman spectroscopy combined with chemometric methods (principal component analysis (PCA), principal component regression (PCR), partial least squares (PLS)) and artificial neural networks (ANNs). Different butter and margarine samples were mixed at various concentrations ranging from 0% to 100% w/w. PCA analysis was applied for the classification of butters, margarines and mixtures. PCR, PLS and ANN were used for the detection of adulteration ratios of butter. Models were created using a calibration data set and developed models were evaluated using a validation data set. The coefficient of determination (R(2)) values between actual and predicted values obtained for PCR, PLS and ANN for the validation data set were 0.968, 0.987 and 0.978, respectively. In conclusion, a combination of Raman spectroscopy with chemometrics and ANN methods can be applied for testing butter adulteration.

  2. The identification of the relationship between chemical and electrical parameters of honeys using artificial neural networks.

    PubMed

    Pentoś, Katarzyna; Luczycka, Deta; Wróbel, Radosław

    2014-10-01

    A number of significant scientific studies have confirmed the health benefits of honey. Due to the high price of natural honey, it is a common target for adulteration which reduces its medicinal value. Adulteration detection methods require specific laboratory equipment and are very expensive. The development of measurement techniques enables the measurement of electrical characteristics of strained honey. Honey electrical parameters can possibly be used for its quality assessment. The identification of the relationship between chemical and electrical parameters of honeys and analysis to determine if there are frequency-dependent changes, can help in developing of that group of methods. The aim of this research was to determine how the chemical parameters of certain honeys influence the dielectric loss factor and the permittivity of strained honey measured in various frequencies. Another aim was to determine whether the percentage influence of certain chemical parameters of honeys on electrical characteristics significantly depends on frequency value. The research was based on neural network models and sensitivity analysis. The percentage influence of certain chemical parameters on electrical characteristics significantly depends on frequency value.

  3. Adulteration of soluble coffee with coffee husks and parchments.

    PubMed

    Prodolliet, J; Bruelhart, M; Blanc, M B; Leloup, V; Cherix, G; Donnelly, C M; Viani, R

    1995-01-01

    Commercial soluble coffee can be adulterated with coffee husks or parchments. Xylose is a good tracer for this type of mispractice. The analysis of total xylose in a wide selection of green beans and the assessment of its fate during processing allowed the derivation of a maximum total xylose limit of 0.40%, above which a soluble coffee should be considered as adulterated. Out of the 700 commercial soluble coffees analyzed, 81 exhibited a total xylose level above this limit. Of the samples with total xylose level lower than the limit, 99% displayed concentrations in free mannitol and total glucose below 0.30 and 2.10%, respectively.

  4. Electrospun nanostructured polystyrene as a new coating material for solid-phase microextraction: Application to separation of multipesticides from honey samples.

    PubMed

    Zali, Sara; Jalali, Fahimeh; Es-Haghi, Ali; Shamsipur, Mojtaba

    2015-10-01

    For the first time, electrospun polystyrene nanostructure was used as coating material on a stainless steel wire for solid-phase microextraction. Surface morphology of the coating was studied by scanning electron microscopy which showed the formation of nanofibers on the wire. The coating was stable after conditioning at 250°C for 2h. The efficiency of the polystyrene coating was approved by extracting a mixture of seven pesticides (polar and apolar) from head space of honey samples followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The important parameters affecting extraction efficiency such as, extraction time and temperature, desorption conditions, agitation rate and ionic strength were investigated. Under optimized experimental conditions, detection limits for the investigated pesticides ranged from 0.1-2μgL(-1). The intra- and inter-day precisions of the developed method were 3.5-17.6% and 10.0-25.0%, respectively. Finally, all the investigated pesticides were spiked to honey samples and extracted by the proposed method. The accuracies of determination of all the species were found to be in the range of 81-125%. PMID:26363374

  5. Screening of volatile compounds in honey using a new sampling strategy combining multiple extraction temperatures in a single assay by HS-SPME-GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Bianchin, Joyce Nunes; Nardini, Giuliana; Merib, Josias; Dias, Adriana Neves; Martendal, Edmar; Carasek, Eduardo

    2014-02-15

    This paper proposes a new optimization strategy for the extraction of volatile compounds from honey samples using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and separation/detection by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The new optimization strategy was based on the use of three different extraction temperatures in a single assay, aiming at extracting a high number of compounds with wide range of volatilities. As an analytical tool, experimental designs were used for the optimization. The variables extraction time (10-80 min), extraction temperature (0-60 °C), water volume (0.5-5 mL) and percentage of sodium chloride saturation in water (0-100%) were optimised using a five-level fractional central composite design with CAR/DVB/PDMS fibre. The final optimised combination of extraction times at each temperature was 60 min with the sample temperature being held at 60 °C for 36 min, 40 °C for 18 min and 0 °C for 6 min. The proposed method was compared to conventional methods which employ one or two extraction temperatures. It was found that the proposed method presented better results considering the response in terms of the arithmetic means of the peak areas. The use of multiple extraction temperatures for the HS-SPME procedure proved to be an excellent alternative for the screening of compounds present in honey with a wide range of volatilities. PMID:24128584

  6. Electrospun nanostructured polystyrene as a new coating material for solid-phase microextraction: Application to separation of multipesticides from honey samples.

    PubMed

    Zali, Sara; Jalali, Fahimeh; Es-Haghi, Ali; Shamsipur, Mojtaba

    2015-10-01

    For the first time, electrospun polystyrene nanostructure was used as coating material on a stainless steel wire for solid-phase microextraction. Surface morphology of the coating was studied by scanning electron microscopy which showed the formation of nanofibers on the wire. The coating was stable after conditioning at 250°C for 2h. The efficiency of the polystyrene coating was approved by extracting a mixture of seven pesticides (polar and apolar) from head space of honey samples followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The important parameters affecting extraction efficiency such as, extraction time and temperature, desorption conditions, agitation rate and ionic strength were investigated. Under optimized experimental conditions, detection limits for the investigated pesticides ranged from 0.1-2μgL(-1). The intra- and inter-day precisions of the developed method were 3.5-17.6% and 10.0-25.0%, respectively. Finally, all the investigated pesticides were spiked to honey samples and extracted by the proposed method. The accuracies of determination of all the species were found to be in the range of 81-125%.

  7. Phenytoin Toxicity from Cocaine Adulteration

    PubMed Central

    Roldan, Carlos J.

    2014-01-01

    The use of phenytoin (PHT) as a cocaine adulterant was reported decades ago; that practice is still current. Ironically PHT has also been used for the treatment of cocaine dependence. A drug smuggler developed PHT toxicity after swallowing several rocks of crack. We investigated the current trends of PHT as a cocaine adulterant and its toxicological implications. We also reviewed the clinical use of PTH in relation to cocaine. The use of PHT as cocaine cut is a current practice. This may affect the clinical manifestations and the management of the cocaine-related visits to the emergency department. PMID:24672596

  8. Quantitative analysis and detection of adulteration in pork using near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yuxia; Cheng, Fang; Xie, Lijuan

    2010-04-01

    Authenticity is an important food quality criterion. Rapid methods for confirming authenticity or detecting adulteration are increasingly demanded by food processors and consumers. Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been used to detect economic adulteration in pork . Pork samples were adulterated with liver and chicken in 10% increments. Prediction and quantitative analysis were done using raw data and pretreatment spectra. The optimal prediction result was achieved by partial least aquares(PLS) regression with standard normal variate(SNV) pretreatment for pork adulterated with liver samples, and the correlation coefficient(R value), the root mean square error of calibration(RMSEC) and the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) were 0.97706, 0.0673 and 0.0732, respectively. The best model for pork meat adulterated with chicken samples was obtained by PLS with the raw spectra, and the correlation coefficient(R value), RMSEP and RMSEC were 0.98614, 0.0525, and 0.122, respectively. The result shows that NIR technology can be successfully used to detect adulteration in pork meat adulterated with liver and chicken.

  9. Detection of sibutramine in adulterated dietary supplements using attenuated total reflectance-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Deconinck, E; Cauwenbergh, T; Bothy, J L; Custers, D; Courselle, P; De Beer, J O

    2014-11-01

    Sibutramine is one of the most occurring adulterants encountered in dietary supplements with slimming as indication. These adulterated dietary supplements often contain a herbal matrix. When customs intercept these kind of supplements it is almost impossible to discriminate between the legal products and the adulterated ones, due to misleading packaging. Therefore in most cases these products are confiscated and send to laboratories for analysis. This results inherently in the confiscation of legal, non-adulterated products. Therefore there is a need for easy to use equipment and techniques to perform an initial screening of samples. Attenuated total reflectance-infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy was evaluated for the detection of sibutramine in adulterated dietary supplements. Data interpretation was performed using different basic chemometric techniques. It was found that the use of ATR-IR combined with the k-Nearest Neighbours (k-NN) was able to detect all adulterated dietary supplements in an external test set and this with a minimum of false positive results. This means that a small amount of legal products will still be confiscated and analyzed in a laboratory to be found negative, but no adulterated samples will pass the initial ATR-IR screening.

  10. Detection of sibutramine in adulterated dietary supplements using attenuated total reflectance-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Deconinck, E; Cauwenbergh, T; Bothy, J L; Custers, D; Courselle, P; De Beer, J O

    2014-11-01

    Sibutramine is one of the most occurring adulterants encountered in dietary supplements with slimming as indication. These adulterated dietary supplements often contain a herbal matrix. When customs intercept these kind of supplements it is almost impossible to discriminate between the legal products and the adulterated ones, due to misleading packaging. Therefore in most cases these products are confiscated and send to laboratories for analysis. This results inherently in the confiscation of legal, non-adulterated products. Therefore there is a need for easy to use equipment and techniques to perform an initial screening of samples. Attenuated total reflectance-infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy was evaluated for the detection of sibutramine in adulterated dietary supplements. Data interpretation was performed using different basic chemometric techniques. It was found that the use of ATR-IR combined with the k-Nearest Neighbours (k-NN) was able to detect all adulterated dietary supplements in an external test set and this with a minimum of false positive results. This means that a small amount of legal products will still be confiscated and analyzed in a laboratory to be found negative, but no adulterated samples will pass the initial ATR-IR screening. PMID:25173110

  11. The "Adulteration" of Children's Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Jo

    1984-01-01

    Suggesting that children's books have become more adult in content and tone, this essay addresses problem of organization of children's library materials to provide access to adult readers. Extent of adult appeal in children's books, examples of "adulterated" nonfiction and fiction, and questions concerning organizational and attitudinal changes…

  12. β-CD/ATP composite materials for use in dispersive solid-phase extraction to measure (fluoro)quinolone antibiotics in honey samples.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiangqian; Zhang, Panjie; Yang, Xiaoling; Yang, Miyi; Zhou, Wenfeng; Zhang, Sanbin; Gao, Haixiang; Lu, Runhua

    2015-06-01

    A novel sorbent (β-CD/ATP composite) for dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) prepared by bonding β-cyclodextrin to modified attapulgite via silane coupling was used to determine the concentrations of four (fluoro)quinolones (Qs) in honey samples. The subsequent quantification of the Qs (ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, and gatifloxacin) was accomplished using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet detection after the d-SPE procedure. Parameters that may influence the extraction efficiency, such as type and volume of the eluent, type and amount of the sorbent, times of the vortex and sonication process, and pH of the sample, were investigated using batch and column procedures. The optimal experimental conditions (5 mL sample at pH 3, 4 mg of β-CD/ATP composite as the sorbent, 200 μL of 40% ammonia in methanol as the eluent, with vortex time 60s and sonication time 6 min, and no addition of salt) were obtained from this statistical evaluation. The limits of detection (LODs) were determined to the range from 0.30 to 3.95 μg L(-1). Good recoveries (83.6-88.6%) were obtained under the optimum conditions, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs), which are used to indicate reproducibility, were less than 7.4%. The method was validated with three real honey samples, and the results demonstrated that β-CD/ATP composite possessed a high adsorption capacity for Qs. Although the LODs were slightly higher than expected, this study confirmed the possibility of using cyclodextrin grafted palygorskite in analytical applications. PMID:26002334

  13. Near Infrared Spectroscopy Detection and Quantification of Herbal Medicines Adulterated with Sibutramine.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Neirivaldo Cavalcante; Honorato, Ricardo Saldanha; Pimentel, Maria Fernanda; Garrigues, Salvador; Cervera, Maria Luisa; de la Guardia, Miguel

    2015-09-01

    There is an increasing demand for herbal medicines in weight loss treatment. Some synthetic chemicals, such as sibutramine (SB), have been detected as adulterants in herbal formulations. In this study, two strategies using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy have been developed to evaluate potential adulteration of herbal medicines with SB: a qualitative screening approach and a quantitative methodology based on multivariate calibration. Samples were composed by products commercialized as herbal medicines, as well as by laboratory adulterated samples. Spectra were obtained in the range of 14,000-4000 per cm. Using PLS-DA, a correct classification of 100% was achieved for the external validation set. In the quantitative approach, the root mean squares error of prediction (RMSEP), for both PLS and MLR models, was 0.2% w/w. The results prove the potential of NIR spectroscopy and multivariate calibration in quantifying sibutramine in adulterated herbal medicines samples. PMID:26260573

  14. Near Infrared Spectroscopy Detection and Quantification of Herbal Medicines Adulterated with Sibutramine.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Neirivaldo Cavalcante; Honorato, Ricardo Saldanha; Pimentel, Maria Fernanda; Garrigues, Salvador; Cervera, Maria Luisa; de la Guardia, Miguel

    2015-09-01

    There is an increasing demand for herbal medicines in weight loss treatment. Some synthetic chemicals, such as sibutramine (SB), have been detected as adulterants in herbal formulations. In this study, two strategies using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy have been developed to evaluate potential adulteration of herbal medicines with SB: a qualitative screening approach and a quantitative methodology based on multivariate calibration. Samples were composed by products commercialized as herbal medicines, as well as by laboratory adulterated samples. Spectra were obtained in the range of 14,000-4000 per cm. Using PLS-DA, a correct classification of 100% was achieved for the external validation set. In the quantitative approach, the root mean squares error of prediction (RMSEP), for both PLS and MLR models, was 0.2% w/w. The results prove the potential of NIR spectroscopy and multivariate calibration in quantifying sibutramine in adulterated herbal medicines samples.

  15. [Identification of adulterants in adulterated milks by near infrared spectroscopy combined with non-linear pattern recognition methods].

    PubMed

    Ni, Li-Jun; Zhong, Lin; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Li-Guo; Huang, Shi-Xinz

    2014-10-01

    In the present work, two hundred and eighty seven raw milks collected from pastures in Shanghai and surrounding areas of Shanghai were used as true milk samples and divided into three true milk sets. Five hundred and twenty six adulterated milk samples, which contained dextrin (or starch) mixed with melamine (or urea, or ammonium nitrate), were prepared as six different adulterated milk sets. The concentrations of these adulterants in the adulterated milks were designed to be 0.15%~ 0.45% (starch or dextrin), 700-2,100 mg · kg(-1) (ammonium nitrate), 524-1,572 mg · kg(-1) (urea), and 365.5-1,096.5 mg · kg(-1) (melamine) to guarantee the protein content of adulterated milks detected by Kjeldahl method not lower than 3%. All the near infrared spectra (NIR) of the samples should have a pretreatment of normal variable transformation (SNV) before they were used to build discriminating models. The three true milk sets and six adulterated milk sets were combined in different ways in order to build NIR models for discriminating different kinds of adulterants (i. e. , dextrin, starch, melamine, urea and ammonium nitrate) based on simplified K-nearest neighbor classification algorithm (IS-KNN) and an improved and simplified of support vector machine (ν-SVM) method. The relationship between mass concentration of the adulterants and the rate of correct discrimination was also investigated. The results show that the average discrimination accuracy of IS-KNN and ν-SVM for identifying melamine, urea and ammonium nitrate were in the region of 49.55% to 51.01%, 61.78% to 68.79% and 68.25% to 73.51%, respectively. Therefore within the concentration regions designed in this study, it is difficult to distinguish different kinds of pseudo proteins by NIR spectroscopy. However, the average accuracy of IS-KNN and ν-SVM for identifying starch and dextrin are 92.33% and 93.66%, 77.29% and 85.08%, respectively. Most discrimination results of ν-SVM are better than those of IS-KNN. The

  16. Targeted and non-targeted detection of lemon juice adulteration by LC-MS and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhengfang; Jablonski, Joseph E

    2016-01-01

    Economically motivated adulteration (EMA) of lemon juice was detected by LC-MS and principal component analysis (PCA). Twenty-two batches of freshly squeezed lemon juice were adulterated by adding an aqueous solution containing 5% citric acid and 6% sucrose to pure lemon juice to obtain 30%, 60% and 100% lemon juice samples. Their total titratable acidities, °Brix and pH values were measured, and then all the lemon juice samples were subject to LC-MS analysis. Concentrations of hesperidin and eriocitrin, major phenolic components of lemon juice, were quantified. The PCA score plots for LC-MS datasets were used to preview the classification of pure and adulterated lemon juice samples. Results showed a large inherent variability in the chemical properties among 22 batches of 100% lemon juice samples. Measurement or quantitation of one or several chemical properties (targeted detection) was not effective in detecting lemon juice adulteration. However, by using the LC-MS datasets, including both chromatographic and mass spectrometric information, 100% lemon juice samples were successfully differentiated from adulterated samples containing 30% lemon juice in the PCA score plot. LC-MS coupled with chemometric analysis can be a complement to existing methods for detecting juice adulteration. PMID:26807674

  17. Targeted and non-targeted detection of lemon juice adulteration by LC-MS and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhengfang; Jablonski, Joseph E

    2016-01-01

    Economically motivated adulteration (EMA) of lemon juice was detected by LC-MS and principal component analysis (PCA). Twenty-two batches of freshly squeezed lemon juice were adulterated by adding an aqueous solution containing 5% citric acid and 6% sucrose to pure lemon juice to obtain 30%, 60% and 100% lemon juice samples. Their total titratable acidities, °Brix and pH values were measured, and then all the lemon juice samples were subject to LC-MS analysis. Concentrations of hesperidin and eriocitrin, major phenolic components of lemon juice, were quantified. The PCA score plots for LC-MS datasets were used to preview the classification of pure and adulterated lemon juice samples. Results showed a large inherent variability in the chemical properties among 22 batches of 100% lemon juice samples. Measurement or quantitation of one or several chemical properties (targeted detection) was not effective in detecting lemon juice adulteration. However, by using the LC-MS datasets, including both chromatographic and mass spectrometric information, 100% lemon juice samples were successfully differentiated from adulterated samples containing 30% lemon juice in the PCA score plot. LC-MS coupled with chemometric analysis can be a complement to existing methods for detecting juice adulteration.

  18. Buckwheat honeys: screening of composition and properties.

    PubMed

    Pasini, Federica; Gardini, Silvia; Marcazzan, Gian Luigi; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza

    2013-12-01

    The quality of 10 buckwheat honeys, collected from Italian and est European beekeepers declaring to produce monofloral honey, were evaluated by means of their pollen, physicochemical, phenolic and volatile composition data. The results of the traditional analyses and in particular electrical conductivity, optical rotation, pH and sugar composition revealed some poorly pure samples that could not fit in the buckwheat tipology. Honey volatiles, analysed by solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass-spectrometry (GC/MS), showed more than 100 volatile compounds, most of them present in all honey samples but with quantitative variation. Besides many furfural derivates, 3-methylbutanoic acid was the main volatile compound found in most of honeys. Also the presence of 2- and 3-methylbutanal and pheynalcetaldehyde confirmed the typical buckwheat aroma of some studied samples, corroborating physicochemical data. The HPLC phenolic profile was similar across the samples and p-hydroxybenzoic and p-coumaric acids proved to be the main components. PMID:23871027

  19. Antimicrobial activity and rutin identification of honey produced by the stingless bee Melipona compressipes manaosensis and commercial honey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Honey has been identified as a potential alternative to the widespread use of antibiotics, which are of significant concern considering the emergence of resistant bacteria. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of honey samples produced by a stingless bee species and by Apis sp. against pathogenic bacteria, as well as to identify the presence of phenolic compounds. Methods Honey samples from the stingless bee M. compressipes manaosensis were collected twice, during the dry and rainy seasons. Three commercial honey samples from Apis sp. were also included in this study. Two different assays were performed to evaluate the antibacterial potential of the honey samples: agar-well diffusion and broth macrodilution. Liquid-liquid extraction was used to assess phenolic compounds from honey. HPLC analysis was performed in order to identify rutin and apigenin on honey samples. Chromatograms were recorded at 340 and 290 nm. Results Two honey samples were identified as having the highest antimicrobial activity using the agar diffusion method. Honey produced by Melipona compressipes manaosensis inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli (0157: H7), Proteus vulgaris, Shigella sonnei and Klebsiella sp. A sample of honey produced by Apis sp. also inhibited the growth of Salmonella paratyphi. The macrodilution technique presented greater sensitivity for the antibacterial testing, since all honey samples showed activity. Flavonoid rutin was identified in the honey sample produced by the stingless bee. Conclusions Honey samples tested in this work showed antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The results reported herein highlight the potential of using honey to control bacterial growth. PMID:23815879

  20. Determination of non-opioid analgesics in adulterated food and dietary supplements by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung Joo; Lee, Ji Hyun; Park, Hyoung Joon; Kim, Jung-Yeon; Cho, Sooyeul; Kim, Woo Seong

    2014-01-01

    Commercially available non-opioid analgesics such as acetaminophen and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been used to adulterate some foods and dietary supplements. Considering the rapid growth of the dietary supplement market, it is essential to analyse various analgesics used for adulteration over a time period. Acetaminophen and 16 NSAIDs used to adulterate food and dietary supplements were simultaneously determined by LC-MS/MS. The method was validated by determining the coefficient of determinations, limit of quantification and recovery, and samples were analysed for the determination of analgesics. Consequently, acetaminophen, diclofenac, ibuprofen, indomethacin, naproxen and piroxicam were detected in 53 samples (n = 214). Ibuprofen was the most commonly used adulterant, which was detected in a wide concentration range (1.06-233.40 mg g(-1)) and was present in about one-third of the adulterated samples. Various types of samples, in particular pills and capsules (73.6% of the total positive samples), were found to be adulterated with non-opioid analgesics. Samples containing high concentrations of analgesics can have a deleterious effect on human health, and thus the continued monitoring of adulterated food and dietary supplements is essential to maintain a healthy life.

  1. Bioactive Constituents and Antioxidant Activity of Some Carpathian Basin honeys.

    PubMed

    Gyergyák, Kinga; Boros, Borbála; Marton, Krisztina; Felinger, Attila; Papp, Nóra; Farkas, Ágnes

    2016-02-01

    Unifloral honeys have a high commercial value and should undergo a strict quality control before marketing. This study aimed at determining floral origin, polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in 7 samples marketed as lavender and thyme honeys. The samples were subjected to pollen analysis to confirm their botanical origin. Coupled chromatographic techniques (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS) were optimized for the separation and identification of polyphenolic compounds. The antioxidant properties of the samples were determined by spectrophotometric methods. Pollen profile analysis revealed that only 3 out of 5 alleged lavender honeys contained a low percentage (0.6-1.5) of lavender pollen; and there were only traces (0.1-0.6%) of thyme pollen in the alleged thyme honeys. Polyphenolic constituents did not allow for the clear separation of honey samples, revealing no marker compounds previously associated with lavender and thyme honeys. All samples contained large amounts of chlorogenic acid, chrysin, hesperetin, kaempferol and p-coumaric acid; as well as abscisic acid, a plant hormone known to be present in floral nectar and honey. Our results suggest that only one of five alleged lavender honeys and neither of the two alleged thyme honeys are true unifloral honeys. However, they can still provide various health benefits, such as being good sources of antioxidants. There was no relationship between the antioxidant activity and the uni- or multifloral character of the honey samples. Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity was the lowest in the honey sample with lavender and the highest in one of the alleged lavender honeys. Our findings highlight the importance of microscopical and phytochemical analyses of honeys before marketing, to ensure satisfactory quality for customers. PMID:27032212

  2. Bioactive Constituents and Antioxidant Activity of Some Carpathian Basin honeys.

    PubMed

    Gyergyák, Kinga; Boros, Borbála; Marton, Krisztina; Felinger, Attila; Papp, Nóra; Farkas, Ágnes

    2016-02-01

    Unifloral honeys have a high commercial value and should undergo a strict quality control before marketing. This study aimed at determining floral origin, polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in 7 samples marketed as lavender and thyme honeys. The samples were subjected to pollen analysis to confirm their botanical origin. Coupled chromatographic techniques (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS) were optimized for the separation and identification of polyphenolic compounds. The antioxidant properties of the samples were determined by spectrophotometric methods. Pollen profile analysis revealed that only 3 out of 5 alleged lavender honeys contained a low percentage (0.6-1.5) of lavender pollen; and there were only traces (0.1-0.6%) of thyme pollen in the alleged thyme honeys. Polyphenolic constituents did not allow for the clear separation of honey samples, revealing no marker compounds previously associated with lavender and thyme honeys. All samples contained large amounts of chlorogenic acid, chrysin, hesperetin, kaempferol and p-coumaric acid; as well as abscisic acid, a plant hormone known to be present in floral nectar and honey. Our results suggest that only one of five alleged lavender honeys and neither of the two alleged thyme honeys are true unifloral honeys. However, they can still provide various health benefits, such as being good sources of antioxidants. There was no relationship between the antioxidant activity and the uni- or multifloral character of the honey samples. Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity was the lowest in the honey sample with lavender and the highest in one of the alleged lavender honeys. Our findings highlight the importance of microscopical and phytochemical analyses of honeys before marketing, to ensure satisfactory quality for customers.

  3. Purity and adulterant analysis of crack seizures in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, André R; Carvalho, Virginia M; Carvalho, Débora G; Diaz, Ernesto; Bustillos, Jose Oscar William Vega; Spinosa, Helenice de S; Chasin, Alice A M

    2014-10-01

    Cocaine represents a serious problem to society. Smoked cocaine is very addictive and it is frequently associated with violence and health issues. Knowledge of the purity and adulterants present in seized cocaine, as well as variations in drug characteristics are useful to identify drug source and estimate health impact. No data are available regarding smoked cocaine composition in most countries, and the smoked form is increasing in the Brazilian market. The purpose of the present study is to contribute to the current knowledge on the status of crack cocaine seized samples on the illicit market by the police of São Paulo. Thus, 404 samples obtained from street seizures conducted by the police were examined. The specimens were macroscopically characterized by color, form, odor, purity, and adulterant type, as well as smoke composition. Samples were screened for cocaine using modified Scott test and thin-layer chromatographic (TLC) technique. Analyses of purity and adulterants were performed with gas chromatography equipped with flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Additionally, smoke composition was analyzed by GC-mass spectrometry (MS), after samples burning. Samples showed different colors and forms, the majority of which is yellow (74.0%) or white (20.0%). Samples free of adulterants represented 76.3% of the total. Mean purity of the analyzed drug was 71.3%. Crack cocaine presented no correlations between macroscopic characteristics and purity. Smoke analysis showed compounds found also in the degradation of diesel and gasoline. Therefore, the drug marketed as crack cocaine in São Paulo has similar characteristics to coca paste. High purity can represent a greater risk of dependency and smoke compounds are possibly worsening drug health impact.

  4. Synchronous front-face fluorescence spectroscopy for authentication of the adulteration of edible vegetable oil with refined used frying oil.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jin; Li, Rong; Jiang, Zi-Tao; Tang, Shu-Hua; Wang, Ying; Shi, Meng; Xiao, Yi-Qian; Jia, Bin; Lu, Tian-Xiang; Wang, Hao

    2017-02-15

    Synchronous front-face fluorescence spectroscopy has been developed for the discrimination of used frying oil (UFO) from edible vegetable oil (EVO), the estimation of the using time of UFO, and the determination of the adulteration of EVO with UFO. Both the heating time of laboratory prepared UFO and the adulteration of EVO with UFO could be determined by partial least squares regression (PLSR). To simulate the EVO adulteration with UFO, for each kind of oil, fifty adulterated samples at the adulterant amounts range of 1-50% were prepared. PLSR was then adopted to build the model and both full (leave-one-out) cross-validation and external validation were performed to evaluate the predictive ability. Under the optimum condition, the plots of observed versus predicted values exhibited high linearity (R(2)>0.96). The root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) were both lower than 3%. PMID:27664635

  5. Synchronous front-face fluorescence spectroscopy for authentication of the adulteration of edible vegetable oil with refined used frying oil.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jin; Li, Rong; Jiang, Zi-Tao; Tang, Shu-Hua; Wang, Ying; Shi, Meng; Xiao, Yi-Qian; Jia, Bin; Lu, Tian-Xiang; Wang, Hao

    2017-02-15

    Synchronous front-face fluorescence spectroscopy has been developed for the discrimination of used frying oil (UFO) from edible vegetable oil (EVO), the estimation of the using time of UFO, and the determination of the adulteration of EVO with UFO. Both the heating time of laboratory prepared UFO and the adulteration of EVO with UFO could be determined by partial least squares regression (PLSR). To simulate the EVO adulteration with UFO, for each kind of oil, fifty adulterated samples at the adulterant amounts range of 1-50% were prepared. PLSR was then adopted to build the model and both full (leave-one-out) cross-validation and external validation were performed to evaluate the predictive ability. Under the optimum condition, the plots of observed versus predicted values exhibited high linearity (R(2)>0.96). The root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) were both lower than 3%.

  6. Screening of adulterants in powdered foods and ingredients using line-scan Raman chemical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Jianwei; Chao, Kuanglin; Kim, Moon S.

    2015-05-01

    A newly developed line-scan Raman imaging system using a 785 nm line laser was used to authenticate powdered foods and ingredients. The system was used to collect hyperspectral Raman images in a wavenumber range of 102-2865 cm-1 from three representative food powders mixed with selected adulterants with a concentration of 0.5%, including milk and melamine, flour and benzoyl peroxide, and starch and maleic anhydride. An acoustic mixer was used to create food adulterant mixtures. All the mixed samples were placed in sample holders with a surface area of 50 mm×50 mm. Spectral and image processing algorithms were developed based on single-band images at unique Raman peaks of the individual adulterants. Chemical images were created to show identification, spatial distribution, and morphological features of the adulterant particles mixed in the food powders. The potential of estimating mass concentrations of the adulterants using the percentages of the adulterant pixels in the chemical images was also demonstrated.

  7. Neuropharmacological effects of Nigerian honey in mice.

    PubMed

    Akanmu, Moses Atanda; Olowookere, Temitope Adunni; Atunwa, Soliu Abiola; Ibrahim, Basirat Olufunmilola; Lamidi, Oluwafunmilayo Fatima; Adams, Philomena Arekekhuegbe; Ajimuda, Bolanle Olubunmi; Adeyemo, Lilian Edelauvo

    2011-01-01

    Honey is a natural sweet substance that bees produce by transforming flower nectar or other sweet secretions of plants. It has widespread use in traditional medicine in various parts of the world. It has been reported to assist in building the entire central nervous system. The beneficial effects of honey have been attributed to the possible polyphenolic contents and some other constituents. The geographical locations and the sources of plant nectars may contribute to the effects of honey samples. Thus, we evaluated the neuropharmacological effects of six samples of honey (10%, 20% and 40%(V)/v, p.o.) from three geographical locations of Nigeria using the following behavioral models: Novelty-induced behaviors (NIB), learning and memory, pentobarbital-induced hypnosis, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, analgesic and antidepressant models in mice. The results showed that honey significantly (p< 0.05) decreased locomotion and rearing behaviors in NIB and amphetamine-induced locomotor activity when compared to the control group. Exploratory behavior was significantly increased in both holeboard and elevated plus maze but had no significant effect on spatial working memory. Honey sample from Umudike has significant hypnotic and anticonvulsant effects. The antinociceptive models (hot plate and tail flick tests) showed that the honey samples significantly increased the pain reaction time and naloxone blocked these central antinociceptive effects. The force swimming test showed that only the Idanre (ID) honey sample had antidepressant effect. In conclusion, some of these honey samples have central inhibitory property, anxiolytic, antinociceptive, anticonvulsant and antidepressant effects, thus may be used as nutraceutic. It can also be inferred that some of these effects are probably mediated through dopaminergic and opioidergic systems.

  8. The unique manuka effect: why New Zealand manuka honey fails the AOAC 998.12 C-4 sugar method.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Karyne M; Grainger, Megan; Manley-Harris, Merilyn

    2014-03-26

    Conversion of dihydroxyacteone (DHA) to methylglyoxal (MGO) has been shown to be the key mechanism for the growth in "apparent" C-4 sugar content in nonperoxide activity (NPA) manuka honey. This reaction is enhanced by heating and storage time and is demonstrated for the first time in clover honey adulterated with DHA purchased from a chemical supplier and in manuka honey containing naturally occurring DHA and MGO. After heating at 37 °C for 83 days, pure clover honey with no added DHA has the same apparent C-4 sugar content as at t = 0 days. The same clover honey adulterated with synthetic DHA added at t = 0 days and heated at 37 °C over the same time scale shows a change in apparent C-4 sugars from 2.8 to 5.0%. Four NPA manuka honeys heated over longer periods show an increase in apparent C-4 sugars of up to 280% after 241 days. This study strongly suggests that a protein fractionation effect occurs in the conversion of DHA to MGO in higher NPA manuka honey, rendering the remaining δ(13)C protein value more negative and falsely indicating C-4 sugar addition when using the AOAC 998.12 method.

  9. The unique manuka effect: why New Zealand manuka honey fails the AOAC 998.12 C-4 sugar method.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Karyne M; Grainger, Megan; Manley-Harris, Merilyn

    2014-03-26

    Conversion of dihydroxyacteone (DHA) to methylglyoxal (MGO) has been shown to be the key mechanism for the growth in "apparent" C-4 sugar content in nonperoxide activity (NPA) manuka honey. This reaction is enhanced by heating and storage time and is demonstrated for the first time in clover honey adulterated with DHA purchased from a chemical supplier and in manuka honey containing naturally occurring DHA and MGO. After heating at 37 °C for 83 days, pure clover honey with no added DHA has the same apparent C-4 sugar content as at t = 0 days. The same clover honey adulterated with synthetic DHA added at t = 0 days and heated at 37 °C over the same time scale shows a change in apparent C-4 sugars from 2.8 to 5.0%. Four NPA manuka honeys heated over longer periods show an increase in apparent C-4 sugars of up to 280% after 241 days. This study strongly suggests that a protein fractionation effect occurs in the conversion of DHA to MGO in higher NPA manuka honey, rendering the remaining δ(13)C protein value more negative and falsely indicating C-4 sugar addition when using the AOAC 998.12 method. PMID:24446986

  10. The effects of adulterants and selected ingested compounds on drugs-of-abuse testing in urine.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Amitava

    2007-09-01

    Household chemicals such as bleach, table salt, laundry detergent, toilet bowl cleaner, vinegar, lemon juice, and eyedrops are used for adulterating urine specimens. Most of these adulterants except eyedrops can be detected by routine specimen integrity tests (creatinine, pH, temperature, and specific gravity); however, certain adulterants such as Klear, Whizzies, Urine Luck, and Stealth cannot. These adulterants can successfully mask drug testing if the concentrations of certain abused drugs are moderate. Several spot tests have been described to detect the presence of such adulterants in urine. Urine dipsticks are commercially available for detecting the presence of such adulterants, along with performance of tests for creatinine, pH, and specific gravity. Certain hair shampoo and saliva-cleaning mouthwashes are available to escape detection in hair or saliva samples, but the effectiveness of such products in masking drugs-of-abuse testing has not been demonstrated. Ingestion of poppy seed cake may result in positive screening test results for opiates, and hemp oil exposure can cause positive results for marijuana. These would be identified as true-positive results in drugs-of-abuse testing even though they do not represent the actual drug of abuse.

  11. The effects of adulterants and selected ingested compounds on drugs-of-abuse testing in urine.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Amitava

    2007-09-01

    Household chemicals such as bleach, table salt, laundry detergent, toilet bowl cleaner, vinegar, lemon juice, and eyedrops are used for adulterating urine specimens. Most of these adulterants except eyedrops can be detected by routine specimen integrity tests (creatinine, pH, temperature, and specific gravity); however, certain adulterants such as Klear, Whizzies, Urine Luck, and Stealth cannot. These adulterants can successfully mask drug testing if the concentrations of certain abused drugs are moderate. Several spot tests have been described to detect the presence of such adulterants in urine. Urine dipsticks are commercially available for detecting the presence of such adulterants, along with performance of tests for creatinine, pH, and specific gravity. Certain hair shampoo and saliva-cleaning mouthwashes are available to escape detection in hair or saliva samples, but the effectiveness of such products in masking drugs-of-abuse testing has not been demonstrated. Ingestion of poppy seed cake may result in positive screening test results for opiates, and hemp oil exposure can cause positive results for marijuana. These would be identified as true-positive results in drugs-of-abuse testing even though they do not represent the actual drug of abuse. PMID:17709324

  12. Determination of chlorophenols in honey samples using in-situ ionic liquid-dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction as a pretreatment method followed by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Fan, Chen; Li, Nai; Cao, Xueli

    2015-05-01

    In-situ ionic liquid-dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (IL-DLLME) method was developed as a pretreatment method for the detection of six chlorophenols (CPs) in honey samples. The hydrophobic ionic liquid [C4MIM][NTf2], formed in-situ by the hydrophilic ionic liquid [C4MIM][BF4] and the ion exchange reagent LiNTf2 was used as the microextractant solvent of CPs from honey sample. Then the enriched analytes were back-extracted into 40 μL of 0.14 M NaOH solution and finally subjected to analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography. The method showed low limit of detection of CPs, 0.8-3.2 μg/L and high enrichment factor, 34-65 with the recoveries range from 91.60% to 114.33%. The method is simple, rapid, environmentally friendly and with high extraction efficiency.

  13. Adulteration detection in milk using infrared spectroscopy combined with two-dimensional correlation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Bin; Liu, Rong; Yang, Renjie; Xu, Kexin

    2010-02-01

    Adulteration of milk and dairy products has brought serious threats to human health as well as enormous economic losses to the food industry. Considering the diversity of adulterants possibly mixed in milk, such as melamine, urea, tetracycline, sugar/salt and so forth, a rapid, widely available, high-throughput, cost-effective method is needed for detecting each of the components in milk at once. In this paper, a method using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) combined with two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy is established for the discriminative analysis of adulteration in milk. Firstly, the characteristic peaks of the raw milk are found in the 4000-400 cm-1 region by its original spectra. Secondly, the adulterant samples are respectively detected with the same method to establish a spectral database for subsequent comparison. Then, 2D correlation spectra of the samples are obtained which have high time resolution and can provide information about concentration-dependent intensity changes not readily accessible from one-dimensional spectra. And the characteristic peaks in the synchronous 2D correlation spectra of the suspected samples are compared with those of raw milk. The differences among their synchronous spectra imply that the suspected milk sample must contain some kinds of adulterants. Melamine, urea, tetracycline and glucose adulterants in milk are identified respectively. This nondestructive method can be used for a correct discrimination on whether the milk and dairy products are adulterated with deleterious substances and it provides a new simple and cost-effective alternative to test the components of milk.

  14. Features of different honeys identified by acoustic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czech, B.; Dzida, M.; Cembala, T.; Marczak, W.

    2008-02-01

    A physicochemical method of identification of bee honeys has not been worked out yet. Instead, rather subjective tasting is a common practice in honey processing plants. This work was aimed on identification of honeys on the basis of differences in the speed of ultrasound. 20 samples of honey belonging to four types were investigated. Correlations between the speed of sound in aqueous solutions of honeys and the sugar content were found for three out of the four types. Although interesting and explicable in terms of the honey composition, the results seem to have rather limited practical use. Correlation of speeds of sound with concentration of main components of honey would probably give more promising results, but practical application of such approach seems difficult to foresee.

  15. Evaluation of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) adulteration with plant adulterants by (1)H NMR metabolite fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Petrakis, Eleftherios A; Cagliani, Laura R; Polissiou, Moschos G; Consonni, Roberto

    2015-04-15

    In the present work, a preliminary study for the detection of adulterated saffron and the identification of the adulterant used by means of (1)H NMR and chemometrics is reported. Authentic Greek saffron and four typical plant-derived materials utilised as bulking agents in saffron, i.e., Crocus sativus stamens, safflower, turmeric, and gardenia were investigated. A two-step approach, relied on the application of both OPLS-DA and O2PLS-DA models to the (1)H NMR data, was adopted to perform authentication and prediction of authentic and adulterated saffron. Taking into account the deficiency of established methodologies to detect saffron adulteration with plant adulterants, the method developed resulted reliable in assessing the type of adulteration and could be viable for dealing with extensive saffron frauds at a minimum level of 20% (w/w).

  16. A new selective liquid membrane extraction method for the determination of basic herbicides in agro-processed fruit juices and Ethiopian honey wine (Tej) samples.

    PubMed

    Megersa, Negussie; Kassahun, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Supported liquid membrane (SLM) extraction was optimised for trace extraction and enrichment of selected triazine herbicides from a variety of agro-processed fruit juices and Ethiopian honey wine (Tej) samples. In the extraction process, a 1:1 mixture of n-undecane and di-n-hexylether was immobilised in a thin porous PTFE membrane that forms a barrier between two aqueous phases (the donor and acceptor phases) in a flow system. The extracts constitute the selectively enriched analytes collected from the acceptor phase and were analysed by transferring to a HPLC-UV system using a diode array detector at 235 nm. High enrichment factors were obtained with very good repeatability of results, and the detection limit was lower than 3.00 µg l⁻¹ for ametryn in apple juice. The optimised method showed very good linearity of over 50-500 µg l⁻¹ with a correlation coefficient of >0.990 or better for triplicate analysis. All chromatograms gave well resolved peaks with no interfering peaks at the retention times of the selected triazines, showing high selectivity of the SLM extraction method in combination with HPLC-UV for the selected matrices. The optimised method can be used as an alternative solventless extraction method for microgram-level extraction of other triazine herbicides and a variety of pesticides from liquid and semi-liquid environmental, biological and food matrices. PMID:22324905

  17. Adulteration screening of botanical materials by a sensitive and model-free approach using infrared spectroscopic imaging and two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jian-bo; Zhou, Qun; Sun, Su-qin

    2016-11-01

    Infrared (IR) spectroscopy is often used as a simple, fast, and green method for the adulteration screening of botanical materials for foods and herbs. However, the overlapping of absorption signals of various substances significantly decrease the sensitivity and specificity of IR spectroscopy in the detection of adulterated samples. In this research, a model-free approach is proposed for the sensitive and non-targeted screening of botanical materials adulterated by adding other plant materials. First, the spectra of the entities in the test sample are collected by near-infrared spectroscopic imaging and clustered by unsupervised pattern recognition methods. The sample may be adulterated if there are two or more clusters of the entities. Next, the entities of different clusters are characterized by mid-infrared spectroscopy to interpret the chemical compositions to determine the clustering is caused whether by adulteration or other reasons. Second derivative spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy are often needed to resolve the overlapped bands mathematically or experimentally to find the characteristic signals to identify the authentic and adulterant entities. The feasibility of this approach was proved by the simulated adulterated sample of saffron. In conclusion, botanical materials adulterated by adding other plant materials can be detected by a simple, fast, sensitive, and green screening approach using IR spectroscopic imaging, two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy, and necessary chemometrics techniques.

  18. Determination of Milk Fat Adulteration with Vegetable Oils and Animal Fats by Gas Chromatographic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Man; Kim, Ha-Jung; Park, Jung-Min

    2015-09-01

    This study assessed the potential application of gas chromatography (GC) in detecting milk fat (MF) adulteration with vegetable oils and animal fats and of characterizing samples by fat source. One hundred percent pure MF was adulterated with different vegetable oils and animal fats at various concentrations (0%, 10%, 30%, 50%, 70%, and 90%). GC was used to obtain the fatty acid (FA) profiles, triacylglycerol (TG) contents, and cholesterol contents. The pure MF and the adulterated MF samples were discriminated based on the total concentrations of saturated FAs and on the 2 major FAs (oleic acid [C18:1n9c] and linoleic acid [C18:2n6c], TGs [C52 and C54], and cholesterol contents using statistical analysis to compared difference. These bio-markers enabled the detection of as low as 10% adulteration of non-MF into 100% pure MF. The study demonstrated the high potential of GC to rapidly detect MF adulteration with vegetable and animal fats, and discriminate among commercial butter and milk products according to the fat source. These data can be potentially useful in detecting foreign fats in these butter products. Furthermore, it is important to consider that several individual samples should be analyzed before coming to a conclusion about MF authenticity.

  19. Determination of Milk Fat Adulteration with Vegetable Oils and Animal Fats by Gas Chromatographic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Man; Kim, Ha-Jung; Park, Jung-Min

    2015-09-01

    This study assessed the potential application of gas chromatography (GC) in detecting milk fat (MF) adulteration with vegetable oils and animal fats and of characterizing samples by fat source. One hundred percent pure MF was adulterated with different vegetable oils and animal fats at various concentrations (0%, 10%, 30%, 50%, 70%, and 90%). GC was used to obtain the fatty acid (FA) profiles, triacylglycerol (TG) contents, and cholesterol contents. The pure MF and the adulterated MF samples were discriminated based on the total concentrations of saturated FAs and on the 2 major FAs (oleic acid [C18:1n9c] and linoleic acid [C18:2n6c], TGs [C52 and C54], and cholesterol contents using statistical analysis to compared difference. These bio-markers enabled the detection of as low as 10% adulteration of non-MF into 100% pure MF. The study demonstrated the high potential of GC to rapidly detect MF adulteration with vegetable and animal fats, and discriminate among commercial butter and milk products according to the fat source. These data can be potentially useful in detecting foreign fats in these butter products. Furthermore, it is important to consider that several individual samples should be analyzed before coming to a conclusion about MF authenticity. PMID:26265530

  20. Eliminating false positive C4 sugar tests on New Zealand Manuka honey.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Karyne M; Somerton, Kerry; Rogers, Pamela; Cox, Julie

    2010-08-30

    Carbon isotope analyses (delta(13)C) of some New Zealand Manuka honeys show that they often fail the internationally recognised Association of Official Analytical Chemists sugar test (AOAC method 998.12) which detects added C(4) sugar, although these honeys are from unadulterated sources. Failure of these high value products is detrimental to the New Zealand honey industry, not only in lost export revenue, but also in brand and market reputation damage. The standard AOAC test compares the carbon isotope value of the whole honey and corresponding protein isolated from the same honey. Differences between whole honey and protein delta(13)C values should not be greater than +1.0 per thousand, as it indicates the possibility of adulteration with syrups or sugars from C(4) plants such as high fructose corn syrup or cane sugar.We have determined that during the standard AOAC method, pollen and other insoluble components are isolated with the flocculated protein. These non-protein components have isotope values which are considerably different from those of the pure protein, and can shift the apparent delta(13)C value of protein further away from the delta(13)C value of the whole honey, giving a false positive result for added C(4) sugar. To eliminate a false positive C(4) sugar test for Manuka honey, prior removal of pollen and other insoluble material from the honey is necessary to ensure that only the pure protein is isolated. This will enable a true comparison between whole honey and protein delta(13)C isotopes. Furthermore, we strongly suggest this modification to the AOAC method be universally adopted for all honey C(4) sugar tests.

  1. Eliminating false positive C4 sugar tests on New Zealand Manuka honey.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Karyne M; Somerton, Kerry; Rogers, Pamela; Cox, Julie

    2010-08-30

    Carbon isotope analyses (delta(13)C) of some New Zealand Manuka honeys show that they often fail the internationally recognised Association of Official Analytical Chemists sugar test (AOAC method 998.12) which detects added C(4) sugar, although these honeys are from unadulterated sources. Failure of these high value products is detrimental to the New Zealand honey industry, not only in lost export revenue, but also in brand and market reputation damage. The standard AOAC test compares the carbon isotope value of the whole honey and corresponding protein isolated from the same honey. Differences between whole honey and protein delta(13)C values should not be greater than +1.0 per thousand, as it indicates the possibility of adulteration with syrups or sugars from C(4) plants such as high fructose corn syrup or cane sugar.We have determined that during the standard AOAC method, pollen and other insoluble components are isolated with the flocculated protein. These non-protein components have isotope values which are considerably different from those of the pure protein, and can shift the apparent delta(13)C value of protein further away from the delta(13)C value of the whole honey, giving a false positive result for added C(4) sugar. To eliminate a false positive C(4) sugar test for Manuka honey, prior removal of pollen and other insoluble material from the honey is necessary to ensure that only the pure protein is isolated. This will enable a true comparison between whole honey and protein delta(13)C isotopes. Furthermore, we strongly suggest this modification to the AOAC method be universally adopted for all honey C(4) sugar tests. PMID:20635333

  2. Floral classification of honey using liquid chromatography-diode array detection-tandem mass spectrometry and chemometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jinhui; Yao, Lihu; Li, Yi; Chen, Lanzhen; Wu, Liming; Zhao, Jing

    2014-02-15

    A high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS/MS) method for the floral origin traceability of chaste honey and rape honey samples was firstly presented in this study. Kaempferol, morin and ferulic acid were used as floral markers to distinguish chaste honey from rape honey. Chromatographic fingerprinting at 270 nm and 360 nm could be used to characterise chaste honey and rape honey according to the analytical profiles. Principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares (PLS), partial least squares-discrimination analysis (PLS-DA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) were applied to classify the honey samples according to their floral origins. The results showed that chaste honey and rape honey could be successfully classified by their floral sources with the analytical methods developed through this study and could be considered encouraging and promising for the honey traceability from unifloral or multifloral nectariferous sources.

  3. Cyanide residue levels in extracted honey, comb honey and wax cappings.

    PubMed

    Ihnat, M; Nelson, D L

    1979-01-01

    Cyanide (CN) residue levels were determined in samples of extracted honey, comb honey and was cappings at 1 hr, 24 hr, and 48 hr intervals after destroying the bees in honey bee colonies with normal (ca. 8.5 g) and twice normal (ca. 17 g) doses of CyanogasR A-dust. Applications of CyanogasR A-dust, administered by means of a dust pump at normal and twice normal doses, gave an average residue of 0.01 and 0.04 microgram CN/g of extracted honey, 0.01 and 0.02 microgram CN/g of comb honey and 0.04 and 0.06 microgram CN/g of wax cappings, respectively. When the CyanogasR A-dust (ca. 17 g) was placed on a tray and placed on the bottom board of the hive, the average residue levels for extracted honey, comb honey and wax cappings were less than 0.004, 0.01 and 0.02 microgram CN/g, respectively. Random honey samples from beekeepers, who used CyanogasR to destroy bees, had a median level of 0.031 microgram CN/g, whereas honey from a packing plant and other commercial samples contained less than 0.004--0.026, median less than 0.004 microgram CN/g. Based on residue data from this study, the temporary registration for CyanogasR, to kill honey bees after crop removal, was revised to a full registration in May 1977.

  4. Degradation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in honey.

    PubMed

    Fallico, B; Arena, E; Zappala, M

    2008-11-01

    5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) is the most important intermediate product of the acid-catalyzed dehydration reaction of hexoses and/or Maillard reaction; furthermore, it is the most used index to evaluate thermal damages or ageing in food products. Usually its degradation reactions, being very slow, are neglected. This study reports the findings concerning the degradation kinetics of HMF, in honeys of different floral origin at a temperature between 25 and 50 degrees C. The results highlighted higher degradation rates (k(HMF) (degradation)) compared to the corresponding formation rates (k(HMF) (formation)) in chestnut and citrus samples. Similar k-values were found in multifloral honey. Moreover, the reaction of HMF degradation was characterized by lower activation energy (E(a)) values compared to E(a) formation values. The final concentration of HMF in honey, during storage at room temperature, should be ascribed to high sugar concentration. The fluctuation of HMF in honeys could depend on the equilibrium between the accumulation and the degradation processes. This can affect the validity of HMF as storage index in some honeys, above all during the analysis of those honeys whose legislation is too restrictive (citrus) or in chestnut honey analysis where it does not accumulate. PMID:19021792

  5. Study of organic honey from the Northeast Portugal.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Teresa; Feás, Xesús; Iglesias, Antonio; Estevinho, Leticia M

    2011-06-27

    Concerns about traces of numerous toxic substances and authenticity have prompted consumer demand for honey that is certified as organic, based on strict ecological, natural principles and traceability. The present study aims to characterize organic honey samples (n = 73) from Northeast Portugal, with respect to floral nectar origin, physicochemical parameters and microbial safety. The phenols and flavonoids contents, often referred to as responsible for honey's bioactive properties, were also assessed. All organic honey samples were classified as monofloral lavender (Lavandula sp.), exceeded in quality the international physicochemical standards and showed low microbiological counts (yeast, moulds and aerobic mesophiles), with negative results in respect to fecal coliforms, Salmonella and sulphite-reducing Clostridium spp. Correlation of the palynological, physicochemical and microbiological results is necessary to check the authenticity, quality and sanitation of honey. Although not required by international legislation, results of those assessments provide a complete outlook and elucidation of the organic honey's properties, which could promote its valorisation.

  6. Novel, Rapid Identification, and Quantification of Adulterants in Extra Virgin Olive Oil Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy and Chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Azizian, Hormoz; Mossoba, Magdi M; Fardin-Kia, Ali Reza; Delmonte, Pierluigi; Karunathilaka, Sanjeewa R; Kramer, John K G

    2015-07-01

    A new, rapid Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopic procedure is described to screen for the authenticity of extra virgin olive oils (EVOO) and to determine the kind and amount of an adulterant in EVOO. To screen EVOO, a partial least squares (PLS1) calibration model was developed to estimate a newly created FT-NIR index based mainly on the relative intensities of two unique carbonyl overtone absorptions in the FT-NIR spectra of EVOO and other mixtures attributed to volatile (5280 cm(-1)) and non-volatile (5180 cm(-1)) components. Spectra were also used to predict the fatty acid (FA) composition of EVOO or samples spiked with an adulterant using previously developed PLS1 calibration models. Some adulterated mixtures could be identified provided the FA profile was sufficiently different from those of EVOO. To identify the type and determine the quantity of an adulterant, gravimetric mixtures were prepared by spiking EVOO with different concentrations of each adulterant. Based on FT-NIR spectra, four PLS1 calibration models were developed for four specific groups of adulterants, each with a characteristic FA composition. Using these different PLS1 calibration models for prediction, plots of predicted vs. gravimetric concentrations of an adulterant in EVOO yielded linear regression functions with four unique sets of slopes, one for each group of adulterants. Four corresponding slope rules were defined that allowed for the determination of the nature and concentration of an adulterant in EVOO products by applying these four calibration models. The standard addition technique was used for confirmation. PMID:26050093

  7. Food Adulteration and Consumer Awareness in Dhaka City, 1995-2011

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Tahmeed

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT We conducted this study to investigate the magnitude of food adulteration during 1995–2011 and consumer awareness in Dhaka city. We reviewed results of food sample testing by Public Health Food Laboratory of Dhaka City Corporation, Bangladesh Standards and Testing Institution, Consumers Association of Bangladesh publications, reports from lay press, including those on mobile magistrate court operations. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 96 residents of Dhaka city, using a structured questionnaire in 2006. The overall proportion of food samples adulterated decreased during 2001-2005, and 40-54% of daily-consumed food was adulterated during 1995-2011. More than 35 food items were commonly adulterated. Consumers considered expiry date and quality or freshness as the best criteria while buying packaged and open food items respectively; only 11 (12%) respondents considered approval of regulatory authority for buying packaged food items. More than half of the food consumed in Dhaka city is adulterated, which warrants actions by the Government, the industry, and the consumers. PMID:25395908

  8. Food adulteration and consumer awareness in Dhaka City, 1995-2011.

    PubMed

    Nasreen, Sharifa; Ahmed, Tahmeed

    2014-09-01

    We conducted this study to investigate the magnitude of food adulteration during 1995-2011 and consumer awareness in Dhaka city. We reviewed results of food sample testing by Public Health Food Laboratory of Dhaka City Corporation, Bangladesh Standards and Testing Institution, Consumers Association of Bangladesh publications, reports from lay press, including those on mobile magistrate court operations. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 96 residents of Dhaka city, using a structured questionnaire in 2006. The overall proportion of food samples adulterated decreased during 2001-2005, and 40-54% of daily-consumed food was adulterated during 1995-2011. More than 35 food items were commonly adulterated. Consumers considered expiry date and quality or freshness as the best criteria while buying packaged and open food items respectively; only 11 (12%) respondents considered approval of regulatory authority for buying packaged food items. More than half of the food consumed in Dhaka city is adulterated, which warrants actions by the Government, the industry, and the consumers.

  9. Rapid detection of peanut oil adulteration using low-field nuclear magnetic resonance and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wenran; Wang, Xin; Chen, Lihua

    2017-02-01

    (1)H low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) and chemometrics were employed to screen the quality changes of peanut oil (PEO) adulterated with soybean oil (SO), rapeseed oil (RO), or palm oil (PAO) in ratios ranging from 0% to 100%. Significant differences in the LF-NMR parameters, single component relaxation time (T2W), and peak area proportion (S21 and S22), were detected between pure and adulterated peanut oil samples. As the ratio of adulteration increased, the T2W, S21, and S22 changed linearly; however, the multicomponent relaxation times (T21 and T22) changed slightly. The established principal component analysis or discriminant analysis models can correctly differentiate authentic PEO from fake and adulterated samples with at least 10% of SO, RO, or PAO. The binary blends of oils can be clearly classified by discriminant analysis when the adulteration ratio is above 30%, illustrating possible applications in screening the oil species in peanut oil blends. PMID:27596419

  10. Rapid detection of peanut oil adulteration using low-field nuclear magnetic resonance and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wenran; Wang, Xin; Chen, Lihua

    2017-02-01

    (1)H low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) and chemometrics were employed to screen the quality changes of peanut oil (PEO) adulterated with soybean oil (SO), rapeseed oil (RO), or palm oil (PAO) in ratios ranging from 0% to 100%. Significant differences in the LF-NMR parameters, single component relaxation time (T2W), and peak area proportion (S21 and S22), were detected between pure and adulterated peanut oil samples. As the ratio of adulteration increased, the T2W, S21, and S22 changed linearly; however, the multicomponent relaxation times (T21 and T22) changed slightly. The established principal component analysis or discriminant analysis models can correctly differentiate authentic PEO from fake and adulterated samples with at least 10% of SO, RO, or PAO. The binary blends of oils can be clearly classified by discriminant analysis when the adulteration ratio is above 30%, illustrating possible applications in screening the oil species in peanut oil blends.

  11. [Identification of cattail pollen (puhuang), pine pollen (songhuafen) and its adulterants by ITS2 sequence].

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao-Xi; Sun, Wei; Ren, Wei-Chao; Xiang, Li; Zhao, Bo; Zhang, Ya-Qin; Song, Ming; Mu, Ze-Jing; Chen, Shi-Lin

    2014-06-01

    DNA barcoding method was conducted for the authentication of pollen materials due to difficulty of discriminating pollen materials bearing morphological similarity. In this study, a specific focus was to identify cattail pollen (Puhuang) and pine pollen (Songhuafen) samples from their adulterants which are frequently mixed-together. Regions of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) from 60 samples were sequenced, and new primers for cattail pollen were designed according to the sequence information. The results from the NJ trees showed that the species of pine pollen, Puhuang and their adulterants can be classified as obvious monophyly. Therefore, we propose to adapt DNA barcoding methodology to accurately distinguish cattail pollen, pine pollen and their adulterant materials. It is a great help for drug regulatory agency to supervise the quality of medicinal materials.

  12. A comprehensive strategy to detect the fraudulent adulteration of herbs: The oregano approach.

    PubMed

    Black, Connor; Haughey, Simon A; Chevallier, Olivier P; Galvin-King, Pamela; Elliott, Christopher T

    2016-11-01

    Fraud in the global food supply chain is becoming increasingly common due to the huge profits associated with this type of criminal activity. Food commodities and ingredients that are expensive and are part of complex supply chains are particularly vulnerable. Both herbs and spices fit these criteria perfectly and yet strategies to detect fraudulent adulteration are still far from robust. An FT-IR screening method coupled to data analysis using chemometrics and a second method using LC-HRMS were developed, with the latter detecting commonly used adulterants by biomarker identification. The two tier testing strategy was applied to 78 samples obtained from a variety of retail and on-line sources. There was 100% agreement between the two tests that over 24% of all samples tested had some form of adulterants present. The innovative strategy devised could potentially be used for testing the global supply chains for fraud in many different forms of herbs. PMID:27211681

  13. A comprehensive strategy to detect the fraudulent adulteration of herbs: The oregano approach.

    PubMed

    Black, Connor; Haughey, Simon A; Chevallier, Olivier P; Galvin-King, Pamela; Elliott, Christopher T

    2016-11-01

    Fraud in the global food supply chain is becoming increasingly common due to the huge profits associated with this type of criminal activity. Food commodities and ingredients that are expensive and are part of complex supply chains are particularly vulnerable. Both herbs and spices fit these criteria perfectly and yet strategies to detect fraudulent adulteration are still far from robust. An FT-IR screening method coupled to data analysis using chemometrics and a second method using LC-HRMS were developed, with the latter detecting commonly used adulterants by biomarker identification. The two tier testing strategy was applied to 78 samples obtained from a variety of retail and on-line sources. There was 100% agreement between the two tests that over 24% of all samples tested had some form of adulterants present. The innovative strategy devised could potentially be used for testing the global supply chains for fraud in many different forms of herbs.

  14. Metatranscriptomic analyses of honey bee colonies.

    PubMed

    Tozkar, Cansu Ö; Kence, Meral; Kence, Aykut; Huang, Qiang; Evans, Jay D

    2015-01-01

    Honey bees face numerous biotic threats from viruses to bacteria, fungi, protists, and mites. Here we describe a thorough analysis of microbes harbored by worker honey bees collected from field colonies in geographically distinct regions of Turkey. Turkey is one of the World's most important centers of apiculture, harboring five subspecies of Apis mellifera L., approximately 20% of the honey bee subspecies in the world. We use deep ILLUMINA-based RNA sequencing to capture RNA species for the honey bee and a sampling of all non-endogenous species carried by bees. After trimming and mapping these reads to the honey bee genome, approximately 10% of the sequences (9-10 million reads per library) remained. These were then mapped to a curated set of public sequences containing ca. Sixty megabase-pairs of sequence representing known microbial species associated with honey bees. Levels of key honey bee pathogens were confirmed using quantitative PCR screens. We contrast microbial matches across different sites in Turkey, showing new country recordings of Lake Sinai virus, two Spiroplasma bacterium species, symbionts Candidatus Schmidhempelia bombi, Frischella perrara, Snodgrassella alvi, Gilliamella apicola, Lactobacillus spp.), neogregarines, and a trypanosome species. By using metagenomic analysis, this study also reveals deep molecular evidence for the presence of bacterial pathogens (Melissococcus plutonius, Paenibacillus larvae), Varroa destructor-1 virus, Sacbrood virus, and fungi. Despite this effort we did not detect KBV, SBPV, Tobacco ringspot virus, VdMLV (Varroa Macula like virus), Acarapis spp., Tropilaeleps spp. and Apocephalus (phorid fly). We discuss possible impacts of management practices and honey bee subspecies on microbial retinues. The described workflow and curated microbial database will be generally useful for microbial surveys of healthy and declining honey bees. PMID:25852743

  15. Metatranscriptomic analyses of honey bee colonies.

    PubMed

    Tozkar, Cansu Ö; Kence, Meral; Kence, Aykut; Huang, Qiang; Evans, Jay D

    2015-01-01

    Honey bees face numerous biotic threats from viruses to bacteria, fungi, protists, and mites. Here we describe a thorough analysis of microbes harbored by worker honey bees collected from field colonies in geographically distinct regions of Turkey. Turkey is one of the World's most important centers of apiculture, harboring five subspecies of Apis mellifera L., approximately 20% of the honey bee subspecies in the world. We use deep ILLUMINA-based RNA sequencing to capture RNA species for the honey bee and a sampling of all non-endogenous species carried by bees. After trimming and mapping these reads to the honey bee genome, approximately 10% of the sequences (9-10 million reads per library) remained. These were then mapped to a curated set of public sequences containing ca. Sixty megabase-pairs of sequence representing known microbial species associated with honey bees. Levels of key honey bee pathogens were confirmed using quantitative PCR screens. We contrast microbial matches across different sites in Turkey, showing new country recordings of Lake Sinai virus, two Spiroplasma bacterium species, symbionts Candidatus Schmidhempelia bombi, Frischella perrara, Snodgrassella alvi, Gilliamella apicola, Lactobacillus spp.), neogregarines, and a trypanosome species. By using metagenomic analysis, this study also reveals deep molecular evidence for the presence of bacterial pathogens (Melissococcus plutonius, Paenibacillus larvae), Varroa destructor-1 virus, Sacbrood virus, and fungi. Despite this effort we did not detect KBV, SBPV, Tobacco ringspot virus, VdMLV (Varroa Macula like virus), Acarapis spp., Tropilaeleps spp. and Apocephalus (phorid fly). We discuss possible impacts of management practices and honey bee subspecies on microbial retinues. The described workflow and curated microbial database will be generally useful for microbial surveys of healthy and declining honey bees.

  16. Metatranscriptomic analyses of honey bee colonies

    PubMed Central

    Tozkar, Cansu Ö.; Kence, Meral; Kence, Aykut; Huang, Qiang; Evans, Jay D.

    2015-01-01

    Honey bees face numerous biotic threats from viruses to bacteria, fungi, protists, and mites. Here we describe a thorough analysis of microbes harbored by worker honey bees collected from field colonies in geographically distinct regions of Turkey. Turkey is one of the World's most important centers of apiculture, harboring five subspecies of Apis mellifera L., approximately 20% of the honey bee subspecies in the world. We use deep ILLUMINA-based RNA sequencing to capture RNA species for the honey bee and a sampling of all non-endogenous species carried by bees. After trimming and mapping these reads to the honey bee genome, approximately 10% of the sequences (9–10 million reads per library) remained. These were then mapped to a curated set of public sequences containing ca. Sixty megabase-pairs of sequence representing known microbial species associated with honey bees. Levels of key honey bee pathogens were confirmed using quantitative PCR screens. We contrast microbial matches across different sites in Turkey, showing new country recordings of Lake Sinai virus, two Spiroplasma bacterium species, symbionts Candidatus Schmidhempelia bombi, Frischella perrara, Snodgrassella alvi, Gilliamella apicola, Lactobacillus spp.), neogregarines, and a trypanosome species. By using metagenomic analysis, this study also reveals deep molecular evidence for the presence of bacterial pathogens (Melissococcus plutonius, Paenibacillus larvae), Varroa destructor-1 virus, Sacbrood virus, and fungi. Despite this effort we did not detect KBV, SBPV, Tobacco ringspot virus, VdMLV (Varroa Macula like virus), Acarapis spp., Tropilaeleps spp. and Apocephalus (phorid fly). We discuss possible impacts of management practices and honey bee subspecies on microbial retinues. The described workflow and curated microbial database will be generally useful for microbial surveys of healthy and declining honey bees. PMID:25852743

  17. Major royal jelly proteins as markers of authenticity and quality of honey.

    PubMed

    Bilikova, Katarina; Kristof Krakova, Tatiana; Yamaguchi, Kikuji; Yamaguchi, Yoshihisa

    2015-12-01

    Until now, the properties of honey have been defined based exclusively on the content of plant components in the nectar of given plant. We showed that apalbumin1, the major royal jelly (RJ) protein, is an authentic and regular component of honey. Apalbumin1 and other RJ proteins and peptides are responsible for the immunostimulatory properties and antibiotic activity of honey. For the quantification of apalbumin1, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed using polyclonal anti-apalbumin1 antibody. The method is suitable for honey authenticity determination; moreover it is useful for detection of the honey, honeybee pollen and RJ in products of medicine, pharmacy, cosmetics, and food industry, where presences of these honeybee products are declared. Results from the analysis for presence and amount of apalbumin1 in honeys will be used for high-throughput screening of honey samples over the world. On the basis of our experiments which show that royal jelly proteins are regular and physiologically active components of honey we propose to change the definition of honey (according to the EU Honey Directive 2001/110/EC) as follows: Honey is a natural sweet substance produced by honey bees from nectar of plants or from secretions of plants, or excretions of plant sucking insects, which honey bees collect, transform by combining with major royal jelly proteins and other specific substances of their own, deposit, dehydrate, store and leave in the honey comb to ripen and mature.

  18. Major royal jelly proteins as markers of authenticity and quality of honey.

    PubMed

    Bilikova, Katarina; Kristof Krakova, Tatiana; Yamaguchi, Kikuji; Yamaguchi, Yoshihisa

    2015-12-01

    Until now, the properties of honey have been defined based exclusively on the content of plant components in the nectar of given plant. We showed that apalbumin1, the major royal jelly (RJ) protein, is an authentic and regular component of honey. Apalbumin1 and other RJ proteins and peptides are responsible for the immunostimulatory properties and antibiotic activity of honey. For the quantification of apalbumin1, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed using polyclonal anti-apalbumin1 antibody. The method is suitable for honey authenticity determination; moreover it is useful for detection of the honey, honeybee pollen and RJ in products of medicine, pharmacy, cosmetics, and food industry, where presences of these honeybee products are declared. Results from the analysis for presence and amount of apalbumin1 in honeys will be used for high-throughput screening of honey samples over the world. On the basis of our experiments which show that royal jelly proteins are regular and physiologically active components of honey we propose to change the definition of honey (according to the EU Honey Directive 2001/110/EC) as follows: Honey is a natural sweet substance produced by honey bees from nectar of plants or from secretions of plants, or excretions of plant sucking insects, which honey bees collect, transform by combining with major royal jelly proteins and other specific substances of their own, deposit, dehydrate, store and leave in the honey comb to ripen and mature. PMID:26751857

  19. Glass transition temperature of honey as a function of water content as determined by differential scanning calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Kántor, Z; Pitsi, G; Thoen, J

    1999-06-01

    The glass transition of pure and diluted honey and the glass transition of the maximally freeze-concentrated solution of honey were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The glass transition temperature, of the pure honey samples accepted as unadulterated varied between -42 and -51 degrees C. Dilution of honey to 90 wt % honey content resulted in a shift of the glass transition temperature by -13 to -20 degrees C. The concentration of the maximally freeze-concentrated honey solutions, as expressed in terms of honey content is approximately 102-103%, i.e., slightly more concentrated in sugars than honey itself. The application of DSC measurements of and in characterization of honey may be considered, but requires systematic study on a number of honeys. PMID:10794630

  20. HPLC/PDA/ESI-MS evaluation of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) adulteration.

    PubMed

    Sabatino, Leonardo; Scordino, Monica; Gargano, Maria; Belligno, Adalgisa; Traulo, Pasqualino; Gagliano, Giacomo

    2011-12-01

    The present study evaluated the reliability of the ISO/TS 3632-2 UV-Vis spectrometric method for saffron classification, making experiments on saffron samples to which were added increasing concentrations of common saffron spice adulterants (safflower, marigold and turmeric). The results showed that the ISO/TS 3632-2 method is not able to detect addition of up to 10-20%, w/w, of saffron adulterants. For additions from 20 to 50%, w/w, of the three adulterants, saffron was classified in a wrong category; addition of higher than 50%, w/w, determined variations in the investigated parameters that did not allow identification of the product as "saffron". In all cases, the method did not permit the recognition of the nature of the adulterant. On the contrary, the specificity of the HPLC/PDA/MS technique allowed the unequivocal identification of adulterant characteristic marker molecules that could be recognized by the values of absorbance and mass. The selection of characteristic ions of each marker molecule has revealed concentrations of up to 5%, w/w, for safflower and marigold and up to 2% for turmeric. In addition, the high dyeing power of turmeric allowed the determination of 2%, w/w, addition using exclusively the HPLC/PDA technique.

  1. Rapid quantitative analysis of adulterant Lonicera species in preparations of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao; Guo, Qing; Yu, Boyang

    2015-12-01

    Lonicerae Japonicae Flos is often adulterated with Lonicerae Flos, which is derived from the other four Lonicera species, in both the crude drug and Lonicerae Japonicae Flos preparations. We proposed a methodology for the quantitative analysis of adulterant Lonicerae Flos in Lonicerae Japonicae Flos preparations. Taking macranthoidins A, B, dipsacoside B (saponins), sweroside (iridoids), and luteolin-7-O-d-glucoside (flavonoids) as markers, a method of ultra high performance liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry was employed to determine their amounts in Lonicerae Flos, Lonicerae Japonicae Flos, and Lonicerae Japonicae Flos preparations. The proportion of adulterant Lonicerae Flos in Lonicerae Japonicae Flos preparations was estimated based on the saponin contents of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos and Lonicerae Flos. All analytes separated under isocratic elution in 12 min with acceptable linearity, precision, repeatability, and accuracy. Lonicerae Japonicae Flos was easily distinguished from Lonicerae Flos by the total amount of saponins (0.067 and > 45.8 mg/g for Lonicerae Japonicae Flos and Lonicerae Flos, respectively). Eighteen of twenty one Lonicerae Japonicae Flos preparation samples were adulterated with Lonicerae Flos in proportions of 11.3-100%. The developed ultra high performance liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry method could be used for the identification of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos and the four species of Lonicerae Flos and for the analysis of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos preparations adulterated with Lonicerae Flos. PMID:26420337

  2. [Identification of albiziae cortex, albiziae flos and their adulterants using ITS2 barcoding].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Sha; Pang, Xiao-Hui; Song, Jing-Yuan; Chen, Shi-Lin

    2014-06-01

    The ITS2 barcode was used to accurately identify Albiziae Cortex, Albiziae Flos and their adulterants in this study. A total of46 samples from Albiziae Cortex, Albiziae Flos and their adulterants were collected. The ITS2 regions were amplified and sequenced. Sequences were assembled using the CodonCode Aligner. The genetic distances of ITS2 region were calculated using MEGA 5.0. BLAST1, nearest distance and phylogenetic tree (NJ-tree) methods were used to assess the identification efficiency of the ITS2 barcode. The results revealed that the intraspecific genetic distances of Albizia julibrissin were lower than the interspecific genetic distances between A. julibrissin and its adulterants. The identification efficiency of ITS2 barcode using BLAST1 was 100%. The NJ-tree showed that A. julibrissin and their adulterants can be easily differentiated according to their monophyly. The ITS2 barcode is suitable to be as a barcode to identify Albiziae Cortex, Albiziae Flos and their adulterants. PMID:25244737

  3. Screening adulteration of polypropylene bottles with postconsumer recycled plastics for oral drug package by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Xie, Lan-Gui; Sun, Hui-Min; Jin, Shao-Hong

    2011-11-14

    Adulteration of pharmaceutical packaging containers with postconsumer recycled plastic materials was considerably difficult to identify due to the similar chemical compositions of virgin and recycled plastics. In the present study, near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy coupled with conformity test was proposed to screen the adulteration of pharmaceutical packaging containers. Two kinds of representative screening models were investigated on polypropylene (PP) bottles for oral drug package. The reliability of the screening models was validated through studying the identification reliability, specificity, and robustness of the methods. The minimum spiking level of two modeled adulterants at the proportion of 20% could be detected, and the unqualified sample from a domestic manufacturer was rejected by this developed method. This strategy represents a rapid and promising analytical method for screening the adulteration of pharmaceutical plastic packaging containers with postconsumer recycled plastics.

  4. Detection and quantification of adulteration of sesame oils with vegetable oils using gas chromatography and multivariate data analysis.

    PubMed

    Peng, Dan; Bi, Yanlan; Ren, Xiaona; Yang, Guolong; Sun, Shangde; Wang, Xuede

    2015-12-01

    This study was performed to develop a hierarchical approach for detection and quantification of adulteration of sesame oil with vegetable oils using gas chromatography (GC). At first, a model was constructed to discriminate the difference between authentic sesame oils and adulterated sesame oils using support vector machine (SVM) algorithm. Then, another SVM-based model is developed to identify the type of adulterant in the mixed oil. At last, prediction models for sesame oil were built for each kind of oil using partial least square method. To validate this approach, 746 samples were prepared by mixing authentic sesame oils with five types of vegetable oil. The prediction results show that the detection limit for authentication is as low as 5% in mixing ratio and the root-mean-square errors for prediction range from 1.19% to 4.29%, meaning that this approach is a valuable tool to detect and quantify the adulteration of sesame oil.

  5. Detection and quantification of adulteration of sesame oils with vegetable oils using gas chromatography and multivariate data analysis.

    PubMed

    Peng, Dan; Bi, Yanlan; Ren, Xiaona; Yang, Guolong; Sun, Shangde; Wang, Xuede

    2015-12-01

    This study was performed to develop a hierarchical approach for detection and quantification of adulteration of sesame oil with vegetable oils using gas chromatography (GC). At first, a model was constructed to discriminate the difference between authentic sesame oils and adulterated sesame oils using support vector machine (SVM) algorithm. Then, another SVM-based model is developed to identify the type of adulterant in the mixed oil. At last, prediction models for sesame oil were built for each kind of oil using partial least square method. To validate this approach, 746 samples were prepared by mixing authentic sesame oils with five types of vegetable oil. The prediction results show that the detection limit for authentication is as low as 5% in mixing ratio and the root-mean-square errors for prediction range from 1.19% to 4.29%, meaning that this approach is a valuable tool to detect and quantify the adulteration of sesame oil. PMID:26041212

  6. Transgenic soybean pollen (Glycine max L.) in honey from the Yucatán peninsula, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Villanueva-Gutiérrez, R.; Echazarreta-González, C.; Roubik, D. W.; Moguel-Ordóñez, Y. B.

    2014-01-01

    Using precise pollen species determination by conventional microscopic methods, accompanied by molecular genetic markers, we found bees collect GMO (genetically modified) soybean pollen and incorporate it in Yucatan honey. Honey comb samples from Las Flores, Campeche, Mexico, often contained soybean pollen. Pollen in honey was analyzed in nine samples; six contained substantial soy pollen and two tested positive for soybean GMO. Our analyses confirm field observations that honey bees, Apis mellifera, gather soybean pollen and nectar. The resultant risk for honey production in the Yucatán Peninsula and Mexico is evident in wholesale price reduction of 12% when GMO products are detected and honey consignments are rejected. Although this affects only 1% of current export honey (2011–2013) GMO soybean is an unacknowledged threat to apiculture and its economics in one of the world's foremost honey producing areas. PMID:24503936

  7. Transgenic soybean pollen (Glycine max L.) in honey from the Yucatán peninsula, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Villanueva-Gutiérrez, R; Echazarreta-González, C; Roubik, D W; Moguel-Ordóñez, Y B

    2014-02-07

    Using precise pollen species determination by conventional microscopic methods, accompanied by molecular genetic markers, we found bees collect GMO (genetically modified) soybean pollen and incorporate it in Yucatan honey. Honey comb samples from Las Flores, Campeche, Mexico, often contained soybean pollen. Pollen in honey was analyzed in nine samples; six contained substantial soy pollen and two tested positive for soybean GMO. Our analyses confirm field observations that honey bees, Apis mellifera, gather soybean pollen and nectar. The resultant risk for honey production in the Yucatán Peninsula and Mexico is evident in wholesale price reduction of 12% when GMO products are detected and honey consignments are rejected. Although this affects only 1% of current export honey (2011-2013) GMO soybean is an unacknowledged threat to apiculture and its economics in one of the world's foremost honey producing areas.

  8. Transgenic soybean pollen (Glycine max L.) in honey from the Yucatán peninsula, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Villanueva-Gutiérrez, R; Echazarreta-González, C; Roubik, D W; Moguel-Ordóñez, Y B

    2014-01-01

    Using precise pollen species determination by conventional microscopic methods, accompanied by molecular genetic markers, we found bees collect GMO (genetically modified) soybean pollen and incorporate it in Yucatan honey. Honey comb samples from Las Flores, Campeche, Mexico, often contained soybean pollen. Pollen in honey was analyzed in nine samples; six contained substantial soy pollen and two tested positive for soybean GMO. Our analyses confirm field observations that honey bees, Apis mellifera, gather soybean pollen and nectar. The resultant risk for honey production in the Yucatán Peninsula and Mexico is evident in wholesale price reduction of 12% when GMO products are detected and honey consignments are rejected. Although this affects only 1% of current export honey (2011-2013) GMO soybean is an unacknowledged threat to apiculture and its economics in one of the world's foremost honey producing areas. PMID:24503936

  9. Physicochemical characterization and antioxidant activity of commercial Portuguese honeys.

    PubMed

    Aazza, Smail; Lyoussi, Badiaa; Antunes, Dulce; Miguel, Maria Graça

    2013-08-01

    The present study evaluated the physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant activity of 13 commercial honeys from diverse floral origin, produced in Portugal. The values of electrical conductivity of cardoon and pennyroyal honeys were superior to the maximum limits defined by European legislation. Citrus, strawberry tree, and 1 sample of lavender honeys had values of diastase activity below those determined by European legislation. Strawberry tree, pennyroyal, and cardoon honeys had the highest amounts of potassium that coincided with the highest electrical conductivity. Strawberry tree honey was the most effective as antioxidant along with cardoon and heather honeys. This ability was strongly correlated with the amounts of phenols and flavonoids and not with the levels of vitamin C or proline.

  10. LC-MS/MS analysis of neonicotinoid insecticides in honey: methodology and residue findings in Austrian honeys.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Gina; Czerwenka, Christoph

    2011-12-14

    An analytical method for the simultaneous determination of residues of eight neonicotinoid insecticides and two metabolites in honey using LC-MS/MS was developed and validated. Two approaches of sample preparation were investigated, with the final method involving acetonitrile extraction and subsequent cleanup by dispersive solid-phase extraction (QuEChERS type). Validation was based on quintuplicate analysis at three fortification levels and showed satisfactory recoveries (60-114%) and high precision (RSDs between 2.7 and 12.8%). Low limits of detection and quantification could be achieved for all analytes ranging from 0.6 to 5 μg/kg and from 2 to 10 μg/kg, respectively. Investigations of Austrian honey samples revealed the presence of acetamiprid, thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam residues in honey; however, no sample exceeded the maximum residue limits. On average, flower honey samples contained neonicotinoid residues in higher quantities compared to forest honey samples.

  11. Validation of an off line solid phase extraction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of systemic insecticide residues in honey and pollen samples collected in apiaries from NW Spain.

    PubMed

    García-Chao, María; Agruña, María Jesús; Flores Calvete, Gonzalo; Sakkas, Vasilis; Llompart, María; Dagnac, Thierry

    2010-07-01

    The use of pesticides to protect crops against plagues and insects is one of the most important ways to assure agricultural quality and productivity. However, bad application practices may cause the contamination of different environmental compartments and animal species, as a consequence of migration or accumulation of those compounds. Fipronil, imidacloprid and thiametoxam are systemic or systemic-like insecticides widely used in maize crops. Their heavy action in the nervous system of target insects also means a high toxicity to non-target pollinator insects such as honey bees which can get in touch with them through pollen and nectar during foraging activities. These insecticides have even been suspected to cause a significant decrease of honeybee colonies that has been observed in many countries since the past decade. Since September 1st 2008, the European Commission set new MRLs in food and feed of plant and animal origin. The pesticides included in this study have MRLs in honey and pollen between 10 and 50 ng g(-1). In the present work, an analytical method was developed with the aim of determining residues of fipronil and some of its metabolites (fipronil sulfone, fipronil sulfide, fipronil desulfinyl and fipronil carboxamide), thiamethoxam and imidacloprid in honey and pollen samples. The extraction optimization was performed using a Doehlert experimental design by studying two factors, the mixture and the ratio of solvents used. Prior to the extraction procedure, raw hive samples containing honey, pollen and wax were centrifuged at 4000 rpm. The upper solid material was removed, and 1 g of the lower phase was mixed with 3 mL of the optimized mixture of methanol/water (10/90). The extract was passed through a florisil cartridge and the target compounds were eluted with methanol and analysed by LC-MS/MS in selective reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. The method was validated according to the guidelines included in the SANCO/10684/2009 document and the ISO

  12. Botanical origin, colour, granulation, and sensory properties of the Harenna forest honey, Bale, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Belay, Abera; Solomon, W K; Bultossa, Geremew; Adgaba, Nuru; Melaku, Samuel

    2015-01-15

    In this study, the Harenna forest honey samples were investigated with respect to their botanical origin, granulation, colour and sensory properties. Sixteen honey samples were collected from two representative sites (Chiri, C, and Wabero, W) using random sampling techniques. Botanical origin was investigated using qualitative pollen analysis by counting 500 pollen grains using harmonised methods of melissopalynology. Granulation, colour, and sensory properties of honey were determined by visual observation, using Pfund grader, acceptability and preference tests, respectively. Honey samples were also tested for tetracycline. Honey obtained from Wabero is originated dominantly from Syzygium guineense while Chiri was multifloral. The colour of honey ranged from 34 to 85 with light amber and extra light amber colours. The honey samples were free from tetracycline residue and form coarse granules slowly. Significant variation (p>0.05) in sensory preference and acceptability tests not observed due to hive types and locations.

  13. Impact of floral sources and processing on the antimicrobial activities of different unifloral honeys

    PubMed Central

    Elbanna, Khaled; Attalla, Khaled; Elbadry, Medhat; Abdeltawab, Awad; Gamal-Eldin, Hosny; Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study in vitro antibacterial activity and physicochemical properties of three unifloral honeys (citrus, clover and cotton honeys), and to study the impacts of storage, dilution with water (33%, w/v) and autoclaving (121 °C for 15 min) on honeys characteristics. Methods Honey samples from monofloral sources including citrus (Citrus spp.), Egyptian clover (Trifolium alexandrium) and cotton (Gossypium vitifolium) were obtained during three successive seasons (2010-2012). Physicochemical properties and antimicrobial activities of different honey samples were studies. Results In honey samples stored for 12 or 24 month, colour, hydroxymethyl furfural and acidity increased, while refractive index, water activity, total soluble solids, electrical conductivity and pH remained relatively unaffected, but H2O2 values decreased. Types of honey exhibited various degrees of antibacterial activity against different indicator bacteria, wherein the highest antibacterial activity was recorded for clover honey followed by citrus and cotton honeys, respectively. Different species of bacteria were differed in their sensitivity to honey, wherein Salmonella enteritidis was the most sensitive followed by Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli, respectively. Storage up to 24 months at room temperature slightly reduced the antibacterial activity. The reduction levels were about 2.6% and 4.6% after 12 and 24 months, respectively. Diluting honeys with water increased the antibacterial activity by ca. 8.3%, while autoclaving decreased the antibacterial activity by ca. 13.5%. The relative contribution of the peroxide and non-peroxide components in the total antibacterial activity of fresh honeys was investigated. The antibacterial activity of honeys was mainly attributed to non-peroxide antibacterial agents, wherein their contribution was ca. 88%, while the contribution of H2O2 was only 12%. The contribution of the thermostable antibacterial components

  14. Antimicrobial properties of honey.

    PubMed

    Israili, Zafar H

    2014-01-01

    Honey has been widely accepted as food and medicine by all generations, traditions, and civilizations, both ancient and modern. For at least 2700 years, honey has been used by humans to treat a variety of ailments through topical application, but only recently have the antiseptic and antimicrobial properties of honey been discovered. Honey has been reported to be effective in a number of human pathologies. Clinical studies have demonstrated that application of honey to severely infected cutaneous wounds rapidly clears infection from the wound and improves tissue healing. A large number of in vitro and limited clinical studies have confirmed the broad-spectrum antimicrobial (antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and antimycobacterial) properties of honey, which may be attributed to the acidity (low pH), osmotic effect, high sugar concentration, presence of bacteriostatic and bactericidal factors (hydrogen peroxide, antioxidants, lysozyme, polyphenols, phenolic acids, flavonoids, methylglyoxal, and bee peptides), and increase in cytokine release, and to immune modulating and anti-inflammatory properties of honey; the antimicrobial action involves several mechanisms. Despite a large amount of data confirming the antimicrobial activity of honey, there are no studies that support the systemic use of honey as an antibacterial agent. PMID:23782759

  15. Multiyear survey targeting disease incidence in US honey bees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The US National Honey Bee Disease Survey sampled colony pests and diseases from 2009 to 2014. We verified the absence of Tropilaelaps spp., the Asian honey bee (Apis cerana), and slow bee paralysis virus. Endemic health threats were quantified, including Varroa destructor, Nosema spp., and eight hon...

  16. Classification of Chinese Honeys According to Their Floral Origins Using Elemental and Stable Isotopic Compositions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhaobin; Chen, Lanzhen; Wu, Liming; Xue, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Jing; Li, Yi; Ye, Zhihua; Lin, Guanghui

    2015-06-10

    The objective of this study is to test the feasibility of multi-isotopic and elemental analyses combined with chemometric techniques for differentiating the botanical origins of major honey products in China. The stable isotope and elemental compositions of 57 honey samples from four major floral origins in China (i.e., rape honey, acacia honey, vitex honey, and jujube honey) were analyzed using stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), respectively. The results showed that hydrogen and oxygen isotopes could be more suitable than the carbon isotope for discriminating the floral origins of major honeys in China. There were significant differences in the contents of most elements between or among different floral origins. The combination of IRMS and ICP-MS methods provides the most effective and accurate approach (in most cases close to 100% accuracy) for classifying Chinese honeys according to their floral origins.

  17. [Qualitative-Quantitative Analysis of Rice Bran Oil Adulteration Based on Laser Near Infrared Spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Tu, Bin; Song, Zhi-qiang; Zheng, Xiao; Zeng, Lu-lu; Yin, Cheng; He, Dong-ping; Qi, Pei-shi

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study is mainly to have qualitative-quantitative analysis on the adulteration in rice bran oil by near-infrared spectroscopy analytical technology combined with chemo metrics methods. The author configured 189 adulterated oil samples according to the different mass ratios by selecting rice bran oil as base oil and choosing soybean oil, corn oil, colza oil, and waste oil of catering industry as adulterated oil. Then, the spectral data of samples was collected by using near-infrared spectrometer, and it was pre-processed through the following methods, including without processing, Multiplicative Scatter Correction(MSC), Orthogonal Signal Correction(OSC), Standard Normal Variate and Standard Normal Variate transformation DeTrending(SNV_DT). Furthermore, this article extracted characteristic wavelengths of the spectral datum from the pre-processed date by Successive Projections Algorithm(SPA), established qualitatively classified calibration methods of adulterated oil through classification method of Support Vector Machine(SVM), optimized model parameters(C, g) by Mesh Search Algorithm and determined the optimal process condition. In extracting characteristic wavelengths of the spectral datum from pretreatment by Backward interval Partial Least Squares(BiPLS) and SPA, quantitatively classified calibration models of adulterated oil through Partial Least Squares(PLS) and Support Vector Machine Regression(SVR) was established respectively. In the end, the author optimized the combination of model parameters(C, g) by Mesh Search Algorithm and determined the optimal parameter model. According to the analysis, the accuracy of prediction set and calibration set for SVC model reached 95% and 100% respectively. Compared with the prediction of the adulteration oil content of rice bran oil which was established by the PLS model, the SVR model is the better one, although both of them could implement the content prediction. Furthermore, the correlation

  18. Physicochemical properties of honey from Marche, Central Italy: classification of unifloral and multifloral honeys by multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Truzzi, Cristina; Illuminati, Silvia; Annibaldia, Anna; Finale, Carolina; Rossetti, Monica; Scarponi, Giuseppe

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was the physicochemical characterization and classification of Italian honey from Marche Region with a chemometric approach. A total of 135 honeys of different botanical origins [acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia L.), chestnut (Castanea sativa), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), lime (Tilia spp.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), Metcalfa honeydew and multifloral honey] were considered. The average results of electrical conductivity (0.14-1.45 mS cm(-1)), pH (3.89-5.42), free acidity (10.9-39.0 meq(NaOH) kg(-1)), lactones (2.4-4.5 meq(NaOH) kg(-1)), total acidity (14.5-40.9 meq(NaOH) kg(-1)), proline (229-665 mg kg(-1)) and 5-(hydroxy-methyl)-2-furaldehyde (0.6-3.9 mg kg(-1)) content show wide variability among the analysed honey types, with statistically significant differences between the different honey types. Pattern recognition methods such as principal component analysis and discriminant analysis were performed in order to find a relationship between variables and types of honey and to classify honey on the basis of its physicochemical properties. The variables of electrical conductivity, acidity (free, lactones), pH and proline content exhibited higher discriminant power and provided enough information for the classification and distinction of unifloral honey types, but not for the classification of multifloral honey (100% and 85% of samples correctly classified, respectively).

  19. Physicochemical properties of honey from Marche, Central Italy: classification of unifloral and multifloral honeys by multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Truzzi, Cristina; Illuminati, Silvia; Annibaldia, Anna; Finale, Carolina; Rossetti, Monica; Scarponi, Giuseppe

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was the physicochemical characterization and classification of Italian honey from Marche Region with a chemometric approach. A total of 135 honeys of different botanical origins [acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia L.), chestnut (Castanea sativa), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), lime (Tilia spp.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), Metcalfa honeydew and multifloral honey] were considered. The average results of electrical conductivity (0.14-1.45 mS cm(-1)), pH (3.89-5.42), free acidity (10.9-39.0 meq(NaOH) kg(-1)), lactones (2.4-4.5 meq(NaOH) kg(-1)), total acidity (14.5-40.9 meq(NaOH) kg(-1)), proline (229-665 mg kg(-1)) and 5-(hydroxy-methyl)-2-furaldehyde (0.6-3.9 mg kg(-1)) content show wide variability among the analysed honey types, with statistically significant differences between the different honey types. Pattern recognition methods such as principal component analysis and discriminant analysis were performed in order to find a relationship between variables and types of honey and to classify honey on the basis of its physicochemical properties. The variables of electrical conductivity, acidity (free, lactones), pH and proline content exhibited higher discriminant power and provided enough information for the classification and distinction of unifloral honey types, but not for the classification of multifloral honey (100% and 85% of samples correctly classified, respectively). PMID:25532290

  20. Impurities, adulterants and diluents of illicit heroin in Denmark (Jutland and Funen).

    PubMed

    Kaa, E; Bent, K

    1986-07-14

    The contents of impurities, adulterants and diluents in 77 samples of illicit heroin were determined by a combination of high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography. The origin of each sample was characterized by calculating the content of the opium alkaloids in relation to the heroin content. The routes of distribution were compared by determination of the contents of caffeine, procaine and sugars. The results were used as a "chemical fingerprint" of each sample. The results indicate that it is difficult to prove, with certainty, that two samples are identical. However, in most cases, by determining the amounts of impurities, adulterants and diluents in heroin samples, it will be possible to ascertain whether two samples are different and, in many cases, to determine with reasonable certainty whether two samples are identical.

  1. Non-thermal plasma as preparative technique to evaluate olive oil adulteration.

    PubMed

    Van Durme, Jim; Vandamme, Jeroen

    2016-10-01

    In recent years adulteration of pure extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) with other types of vegetable oils has become an important issue. In this study, non-thermal plasma (NTP) is investigated as an innovative preparative analytical technique enabling classification of adulterated olive oil from an ascertained authentic batch of olive oil in a more sensitive manner. Non-thermal plasma discharges are a source of highly oxidative species such as singlet oxygen, and atomic oxygen. It was assumed that NTP-induced oxidation triggers unique lipid oxidation mechanisms depending on the specific composition of the oil matrix and minor constituents. In this work EVOO samples were adulterated with sunflower oil (1-3%) and submitted to NTP treatment. Results showed that while untreated samples could not be classified from the authentic olive oil reference, NTP treatments of 60min (Ar/O2 0.1%) on the oil batches resulted in the formation of a unique set of secondary volatile lipid oxidation products enabling classification of adulterated oil samples.

  2. Non-thermal plasma as preparative technique to evaluate olive oil adulteration.

    PubMed

    Van Durme, Jim; Vandamme, Jeroen

    2016-10-01

    In recent years adulteration of pure extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) with other types of vegetable oils has become an important issue. In this study, non-thermal plasma (NTP) is investigated as an innovative preparative analytical technique enabling classification of adulterated olive oil from an ascertained authentic batch of olive oil in a more sensitive manner. Non-thermal plasma discharges are a source of highly oxidative species such as singlet oxygen, and atomic oxygen. It was assumed that NTP-induced oxidation triggers unique lipid oxidation mechanisms depending on the specific composition of the oil matrix and minor constituents. In this work EVOO samples were adulterated with sunflower oil (1-3%) and submitted to NTP treatment. Results showed that while untreated samples could not be classified from the authentic olive oil reference, NTP treatments of 60min (Ar/O2 0.1%) on the oil batches resulted in the formation of a unique set of secondary volatile lipid oxidation products enabling classification of adulterated oil samples. PMID:27132839

  3. Fast and global authenticity screening of honey using ¹H-NMR profiling.

    PubMed

    Spiteri, Marc; Jamin, Eric; Thomas, Freddy; Rebours, Agathe; Lees, Michèle; Rogers, Karyne M; Rutledge, Douglas N

    2015-12-15

    An innovative analytical approach was developed to tackle the most common adulterations and quality deviations in honey. Using proton-NMR profiling coupled to suitable quantification procedures and statistical models, analytical criteria were defined to check the authenticity of both mono- and multi-floral honey. The reference data set used was a worldwide collection of more than 800 honeys, covering most of the economically significant botanical and geographical origins. Typical plant nectar markers can be used to check monofloral honey labeling. Spectral patterns and natural variability were established for multifloral honeys, and marker signals for sugar syrups were identified by statistical comparison with a commercial dataset of ca. 200 honeys. Although the results are qualitative, spiking experiments have confirmed the ability of the method to detect sugar addition down to 10% levels in favorable cases. Within the same NMR experiments, quantification of glucose, fructose, sucrose and 5-HMF (regulated parameters) was performed. Finally markers showing the onset of fermentation are described. PMID:26190601

  4. Fluorescence spectroscopy coupled with PARAFAC and PLS DA for characterization and classification of honey.

    PubMed

    Lenhardt, Lea; Bro, Rasmus; Zeković, Ivana; Dramićanin, Tatjana; Dramićanin, Miroslav D

    2015-05-15

    Fluorescence spectroscopy coupled with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and Partial least squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS DA) were used for characterization and classification of honey. Excitation emission spectra were obtained for 95 honey samples of different botanical origin (acacia, sunflower, linden, meadow, and fake honey) by recording emission from 270 to 640 nm with excitation in the range of 240-500 nm. The number of fluorophores present in honey, excitation and emission spectra of each fluorophore, and their relative concentration are determined using a six-component PARAFAC model. Emissions from phenolic compounds and Maillard reaction products exhibited the largest difference among classes of honey of different botanical origin. The PLS DA classification model, constructed from PARAFAC model scores, detected fake honey samples with 100% sensitivity and specificity. Honey samples were also classified using PLS DA with errors of 0.5% for linden, 10% for acacia, and about 20% for both sunflower and meadow mix.

  5. Investigating C-4 sugar contamination of manuka honey and other New Zealand honey varieties using carbon isotopes.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Karyne M; Sim, Mike; Stewart, Simon; Phillips, Andy; Cooper, Jannine; Douance, Cedric; Pyne, Rebecca; Rogers, Pam

    2014-03-26

    Carbon isotopes (δ(13)C honey and δ(13)C protein) and apparent C-4 sugar contents of 1023 New Zealand honeys from 15 different floral types were analyzed to investigate which New Zealand honey is prone to failing the AOAC 998.12 C-4 sugar test and evaluate the occurrence of false-positive results. Of the 333 honey samples that exceeded the 7% C-4 sugar threshold, 324 samples of these were New Zealand manuka honey (Leptospermum scoparium, 97.2% of all fails found in the study). Three monofloral honeys (ling, kamahi, and tawari) had nine samples (2.8% of all fails found in the study) with apparent C-4 sugars exceeding 7%. All other floral types analyzed did not display C-4 sugar fails. False-positive results were found to occur for higher activity New Zealand manuka honey with a methylglyoxal content >250 mg/kg or a nonperoxide activity >10+, and for some ling, kamahi and tawari honeys. Recommendations for future interpretation of the AOAC 998.12 C-4 sugar method are proposed.

  6. Honey physicochemical properties of three species of the Brazilian Melipona.

    PubMed

    Lage, Lorena G A; Coelho, Lívia L; Resende, Helder C; Tavares, Mara G; Campos, Lucio A O; Fernandes-Salomão, Tânia M

    2012-09-01

    Physicochemical analyses were carried out to evaluate 27 samples of honeys from three species of the Brazilian genus Melipona (M. capixaba, M. rufiventris and M. mondury) from Espírito Santo and Minas Gerais States. The parameters water activity (Aw), percentage of soluble solids (Brix %), pH, acidity (meq/Kg) and moisture (%) were evaluated. The honey characteristics obtained from these samples were very similar to the ones from other Melipona species. However, regarding the honey from Apis (honey bee), only the pH values were similar. The low pH value and the high acidity detected in Melipona honey are potential factors for increasing the honey shelf life because they do not provide favorable conditions for the microbial development. On the other hand, the high level of water activity favors the growth of microorganisms, especially yeast, which demands a more careful handled and storage. The observed differences between Melipona and Apis honey reinforce the need for specific quality settings for stingless bee honey.

  7. Determination of whey adulteration in milk powder by using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bilge, Gonca; Sezer, Banu; Eseller, Kemal Efe; Berberoglu, Halil; Topcu, Ali; Boyaci, Ismail Hakki

    2016-12-01

    A rapid and in situ method has been developed to detect and quantify adulterated milk powder through adding whey powder by using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The methodology is based on elemental composition differences between milk and whey products. Milk powder, sweet and acid whey powders were produced as standard samples, and milk powder was adulterated with whey powders. Based on LIBS spectra of standard samples and commercial products, species was identified using principle component analysis (PCA) method, and discrimination rate of milk and whey powders was found as 80.5%. Calibration curves were obtained with partial least squares regression (PLS). Correlation coefficient (R(2)) and limit of detection (LOD) values were 0.981 and 1.55% for adulteration with sweet whey powder, and 0.985 and 0.55% for adulteration with acid whey powder, respectively. The results were found to be consistent with the data from inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) method. PMID:27374522

  8. Identification of different forms of cocaine and substances used in adulteration using near-infrared Raman spectroscopy and infrared absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Penido, Ciro A F O; Pacheco, Marcos Tadeu T; Zângaro, Renato A; Silveira, Landulfo

    2015-01-01

    Identification of cocaine and subsequent quantification immediately after seizure are problems for the police in developing countries such as Brazil. This work proposes a comparison between the Raman and FT-IR techniques as methods to identify cocaine, the adulterants used to increase volume, and possible degradation products in samples seized by the police. Near-infrared Raman spectra (785 nm excitation, 10 sec exposure time) and FT-IR-ATR spectra were obtained from different samples of street cocaine and some substances commonly used as adulterants. Freebase powder, hydrochloride powder, and crack rock can be distinguished by both Raman and FT-IR spectroscopies, revealing differences in their chemical structure. Most of the samples showed characteristic peaks of degradation products such as benzoylecgonine and benzoic acid, and some presented evidence of adulteration with aluminum sulfate and sodium carbonate. Raman spectroscopy is better than FT-IR for identifying benzoic acid and inorganic adulterants in cocaine. PMID:25428273

  9. Economically motivated adulteration (EMA) of food: common characteristics of EMA incidents.

    PubMed

    Everstine, Karen; Spink, John; Kennedy, Shaun

    2013-04-01

    Economically motivated adulteration (EMA) of food, also known as food fraud, is the intentional adulteration of food for financial advantage. A common form of EMA, undeclared substitution with alternative ingredients, is usually a health concern because of allergen labeling requirements. As demonstrated by the nearly 300,000 illnesses in China from melamine adulteration of infant formula, EMA also has the potential to result in serious public health consequences. Furthermore, EMA incidents reveal gaps in quality assurance testing methodologies that could be exploited for intentional harm. In contrast to foodborne disease outbreaks, EMA incidents present a particular challenge to the food industry and regulators because they are deliberate acts that are intended to evade detection. Large-scale EMA incidents have been described in the scientific literature, but smaller incidents have been documented only in media sources. We reviewed journal articles and media reports of EMA since 1980. We identified 137 unique incidents in 11 food categories: fish and seafood (24 incidents), dairy products (15), fruit juices (12), oils and fats (12), grain products (11), honey and other natural sweeteners (10), spices and extracts (8), wine and other alcoholic beverages (7), infant formula (5), plant-based proteins (5), and other food products (28). We identified common characteristics among the incidents that may help us better evaluate and reduce the risk of EMA. These characteristics reflect the ways in which existing regulatory systems or testing methodologies were inadequate for detecting EMA and how novel detection methods and other deterrence strategies can be deployed. Prevention and detection of EMA cannot depend on traditional food safety strategies. Comprehensive food protection, as outlined by the Food Safety Modernization Act, will require innovative methods for detecting EMA and for targeting crucial resources toward the riskiest food products.

  10. Economically motivated adulteration (EMA) of food: common characteristics of EMA incidents.

    PubMed

    Everstine, Karen; Spink, John; Kennedy, Shaun

    2013-04-01

    Economically motivated adulteration (EMA) of food, also known as food fraud, is the intentional adulteration of food for financial advantage. A common form of EMA, undeclared substitution with alternative ingredients, is usually a health concern because of allergen labeling requirements. As demonstrated by the nearly 300,000 illnesses in China from melamine adulteration of infant formula, EMA also has the potential to result in serious public health consequences. Furthermore, EMA incidents reveal gaps in quality assurance testing methodologies that could be exploited for intentional harm. In contrast to foodborne disease outbreaks, EMA incidents present a particular challenge to the food industry and regulators because they are deliberate acts that are intended to evade detection. Large-scale EMA incidents have been described in the scientific literature, but smaller incidents have been documented only in media sources. We reviewed journal articles and media reports of EMA since 1980. We identified 137 unique incidents in 11 food categories: fish and seafood (24 incidents), dairy products (15), fruit juices (12), oils and fats (12), grain products (11), honey and other natural sweeteners (10), spices and extracts (8), wine and other alcoholic beverages (7), infant formula (5), plant-based proteins (5), and other food products (28). We identified common characteristics among the incidents that may help us better evaluate and reduce the risk of EMA. These characteristics reflect the ways in which existing regulatory systems or testing methodologies were inadequate for detecting EMA and how novel detection methods and other deterrence strategies can be deployed. Prevention and detection of EMA cannot depend on traditional food safety strategies. Comprehensive food protection, as outlined by the Food Safety Modernization Act, will require innovative methods for detecting EMA and for targeting crucial resources toward the riskiest food products. PMID:23575142

  11. Fruits and fruit products. Non-parametric methods for detection of adulteration of concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Schatzki, T F; Vandercook, C E

    1978-07-01

    The composition of organic constituents (total sugars, reactive phenols, total amino acids, arginine, and gamma-aminobutyric acid) has been measured in a large (360 samples) selection of concentrated orange juice for manufacturing and orange pulp wash in the U.S. trade. The detection of adulteration with sugar, reducing sugars, and citric acid addition has been investigated by using non-parametric nearest neighbor classification techniques in the 4-space of log ratios of the compositions. The results show that such detection is possible with a type 1=type 2 error rate of 10% for 20% adulteration if at least 7 samples are taken. The assumptions of such samplings are discussed.

  12. Honey Bee Infecting Lake Sinai Viruses.

    PubMed

    Daughenbaugh, Katie F; Martin, Madison; Brutscher, Laura M; Cavigli, Ian; Garcia, Emma; Lavin, Matt; Flenniken, Michelle L

    2015-06-23

    Honey bees are critical pollinators of important agricultural crops. Recently, high annual losses of honey bee colonies have prompted further investigation of honey bee infecting viruses. To better characterize the recently discovered and very prevalent Lake Sinai virus (LSV) group, we sequenced currently circulating LSVs, performed phylogenetic analysis, and obtained images of LSV2. Sequence analysis resulted in extension of the LSV1 and LSV2 genomes, the first detection of LSV4 in the US, and the discovery of LSV6 and LSV7. We detected LSV1 and LSV2 in the Varroa destructor mite, and determined that a large proportion of LSV2 is found in the honey bee gut, suggesting that vector-mediated, food-associated, and/or fecal-oral routes may be important for LSV dissemination. Pathogen-specific quantitative PCR data, obtained from samples collected during a small-scale monitoring project, revealed that LSV2, LSV1, Black queen cell virus (BQCV), and Nosema ceranae were more abundant in weak colonies than strong colonies within this sample cohort. Together, these results enhance our current understanding of LSVs and illustrate the importance of future studies aimed at investigating the role of LSVs and other pathogens on honey bee health at both the individual and colony levels.

  13. Honey Bee Infecting Lake Sinai Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Daughenbaugh, Katie F.; Martin, Madison; Brutscher, Laura M.; Cavigli, Ian; Garcia, Emma; Lavin, Matt; Flenniken, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    Honey bees are critical pollinators of important agricultural crops. Recently, high annual losses of honey bee colonies have prompted further investigation of honey bee infecting viruses. To better characterize the recently discovered and very prevalent Lake Sinai virus (LSV) group, we sequenced currently circulating LSVs, performed phylogenetic analysis, and obtained images of LSV2. Sequence analysis resulted in extension of the LSV1 and LSV2 genomes, the first detection of LSV4 in the US, and the discovery of LSV6 and LSV7. We detected LSV1 and LSV2 in the Varroa destructor mite, and determined that a large proportion of LSV2 is found in the honey bee gut, suggesting that vector-mediated, food-associated, and/or fecal-oral routes may be important for LSV dissemination. Pathogen-specific quantitative PCR data, obtained from samples collected during a small-scale monitoring project, revealed that LSV2, LSV1, Black queen cell virus (BQCV), and Nosema ceranae were more abundant in weak colonies than strong colonies within this sample cohort. Together, these results enhance our current understanding of LSVs and illustrate the importance of future studies aimed at investigating the role of LSVs and other pathogens on honey bee health at both the individual and colony levels. PMID:26110586

  14. [Detection of Adulteration in Milk Powder with Starch Near Infrared].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning-ning; Shen, Bing-hui; Guan, Jian-jun; Zhao, Zhong-rui; Zhu, Ye-wei; Zhang, Lu-da; Yan, Yan-lu; Zheng, Yu-yan; Dong, Cheng-yu; Kang, Ding-ming

    2015-08-01

    Three China trademarks of milk powder called Mengniu, Yili, Wandashan were taken as testing samples. Each of them mixed varied amount of starch in different gradient, which were consisted of 32 adulterated milk powder samples mixed with starch, was taken as standard samples for constructing predicted model. To those 32 samples, the reflecting spectrum characteristics in middle wave of near infrared spectrum with Near Infrared Spectrum Analyzer (Micro NIR 1700) produced by JDSU Ltd. USA were collected for five repeats in five different days. The time span was nearly two months. Firstly, we build the model used the reflecting spectrum characteristics of those samples with biomimetic pattern recognition (BPR) arithmetic to do the qualitative analysis. The analysis included the reliability of testing result and stability of the model. When we took ninety percent as the evaluation threshold of testing result of CAR (Correct Acceptance Rate) and CRR (Correct Rejection Rate), the lowest starch content of adulterate milk powder in all tested samples which the tested result were bigger than that abovementioned threshold was designated CAR threshold (CAR-T) and CRR threshold (CRR-T). CAR means the correct rate of accepting a sample which is belong to itself, CRR means correct rate of refusing to accept a sample which is not belong to itself. The results were shown that, when we constructed a model based on the near infrared spectrum data from each of three China trademark milk powders, respectively, if we constructed a model with infrared spectrum data tested in a same day, both the CAR-T and CRR-T of adulterate starch content of a sample can reach 0.1% in predicting the remainder infrared spectrum data tested within a same day. The three China trademarks of milk powder had the same result. In addition, when we ignored the trademarks, put the spectrum data of adulterate milk powder samples mixed with the same content of starch of three China trademarks milk powder together

  15. [Detection of Adulteration in Milk Powder with Starch Near Infrared].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning-ning; Shen, Bing-hui; Guan, Jian-jun; Zhao, Zhong-rui; Zhu, Ye-wei; Zhang, Lu-da; Yan, Yan-lu; Zheng, Yu-yan; Dong, Cheng-yu; Kang, Ding-ming

    2015-08-01

    Three China trademarks of milk powder called Mengniu, Yili, Wandashan were taken as testing samples. Each of them mixed varied amount of starch in different gradient, which were consisted of 32 adulterated milk powder samples mixed with starch, was taken as standard samples for constructing predicted model. To those 32 samples, the reflecting spectrum characteristics in middle wave of near infrared spectrum with Near Infrared Spectrum Analyzer (Micro NIR 1700) produced by JDSU Ltd. USA were collected for five repeats in five different days. The time span was nearly two months. Firstly, we build the model used the reflecting spectrum characteristics of those samples with biomimetic pattern recognition (BPR) arithmetic to do the qualitative analysis. The analysis included the reliability of testing result and stability of the model. When we took ninety percent as the evaluation threshold of testing result of CAR (Correct Acceptance Rate) and CRR (Correct Rejection Rate), the lowest starch content of adulterate milk powder in all tested samples which the tested result were bigger than that abovementioned threshold was designated CAR threshold (CAR-T) and CRR threshold (CRR-T). CAR means the correct rate of accepting a sample which is belong to itself, CRR means correct rate of refusing to accept a sample which is not belong to itself. The results were shown that, when we constructed a model based on the near infrared spectrum data from each of three China trademark milk powders, respectively, if we constructed a model with infrared spectrum data tested in a same day, both the CAR-T and CRR-T of adulterate starch content of a sample can reach 0.1% in predicting the remainder infrared spectrum data tested within a same day. The three China trademarks of milk powder had the same result. In addition, when we ignored the trademarks, put the spectrum data of adulterate milk powder samples mixed with the same content of starch of three China trademarks milk powder together

  16. Extraction and determination of chloramphenicol in feed water, milk, and honey samples using an ionic liquid/sodium citrate aqueous two-phase system coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Han, Juan; Wang, Yun; Yu, Cui-lan; Yan, Yong-sheng; Xie, Xue-qiao

    2011-01-01

    A green, simple, non-toxic, and sensitive sample pretreatment procedure coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed for the analysis of chloramphenicol (CAP) that exploits an aqueous two-phase system based on imidazolium ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, [Bmim]BF(4)) and organic salt (Na(3)C(6)H(5)O(7)) using a liquid-liquid extraction technique. The influence factors on partition behaviors of CAP were studied, including the type and amount of salts, the pH value, the volume of [Bmim]BF(4), and the extraction temperature. Extraction efficiency of the CAP was found to increase with increasing temperature and the volume of [Bmim]BF(4). Thermodynamic studies indicated that hydrophobic interactions were the main driving force, although electrostatic interactions and salting-out effects were also important for the transfer of the CAP. Under the optimal conditions, 90.1% of the CAP could be extracted into the ionic liquid-rich phase in a single-step extraction. This method was practical when applied to the analysis of CAP in feed water, milk, and honey samples with a linear range of 2~1,000 ng mL(-1). The method yielded a limit of detection of 0.3 ng mL(-1) and a limit of quantification of 1.0 ng mL(-1). The recovery of CAP was 90.4-102.7% from aqueous samples of real feed water, milk, and honey samples by the proposed method. This novel process is much simpler and more environmentally friendly and is suggested to have important applications for the separation of antibiotics. PMID:21063686

  17. Identification of monofloral honeys using HPLC-ECD and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Du, Xiaojing; Cheng, Ni; Chen, Lanzhen; Xue, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Jing; Wu, Liming; Cao, Wei

    2016-03-01

    A total of 77 jujube, longan and chaste honey samples were collected from 18 different areas of China. Thirteen types of phenolic acids in the honey samples were analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD). Moreover, HPLC-ECD fingerprints of the monofloral honey samples were established. From the analysis of the HPLC-ECD fingerprints, common chromatography peak information was obtained, and principal component analysis and discriminant analysis were performed using selected common chromatography peak areas as variables. By comparing with phenolic acids as variables, using a chemometric analysis which is based on the use of common chromatography peaks as variables, 36 honey samples and 41 test samples could be correctly identified according to their floral origin.

  18. Management increases genetic diversity of honey bees via admixture.

    PubMed

    Harpur, Brock A; Minaei, Shermineh; Kent, Clement F; Zayed, Amro

    2012-09-01

    The process of domestication often brings about profound changes in levels of genetic variation in animals and plants. The honey bee, Apis mellifera, has been managed by humans for centuries for both honey and wax production and crop pollination. Human management and selective breeding are believed to have caused reductions in genetic diversity in honey bee populations, thereby contributing to the global declines threatening this ecologically and economically important insect. However, previous studies supporting this claim mostly relied on population genetic comparisons of European and African (or Africanized) honey bee races; such conclusions require reassessment given recent evidence demonstrating that the honey bee originated in Africa and colonized Europe via two independent expansions. We sampled honey bee workers from two managed populations in North America and Europe as well as several old-world progenitor populations in Africa, East and West Europe. Managed bees had highly introgressed genomes representing admixture between East and West European progenitor populations. We found that managed honey bees actually have higher levels of genetic diversity compared with their progenitors in East and West Europe, providing an unusual example whereby human management increases genetic diversity by promoting admixture. The relationship between genetic diversity and honey bee declines is tenuous given that managed bees have more genetic diversity than their progenitors and many viable domesticated animals.

  19. Detection of starch adulteration in onion powder by FT-NIR and FT-IR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lohumi, Santosh; Lee, Sangdae; Lee, Wang-Hee; Kim, Moon S; Mo, Changyeun; Bae, Hanhong; Cho, Byoung-Kwan

    2014-09-24

    Adulteration of onion powder with cornstarch was identified by Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The reflectance spectra of 180 pure and adulterated samples (1-35 wt % starch) were collected and preprocessed to generate calibration and prediction sets. A multivariate calibration model of partial least-squares regression (PLSR) was executed on the pretreated spectra to predict the presence of starch. The PLSR model predicted adulteration with an R(p)2 of 0.98 and a standard error of prediction (SEP) of 1.18% for the FT-NIR data and an R(p)2 of 0.90 and SEP of 3.12% for the FT-IR data. Thus, the FT-NIR data were of greater predictive value than the FT-IR data. Principal component analysis on the preprocessed data identified the onion powder in terms of added starch. The first three principal component loadings and β coefficients of the PLSR model revealed starch-related absorption. These methods can be applied to rapidly detect adulteration in other spices.

  20. Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of Malaysian honeys produced by Apis cerana, Apis dorsata and Apis mellifera

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of Malaysian monofloral honey samples—acacia, pineapple and borneo honey—and compare them with tualang honey. Acacia and pineapple honey are produced by Apis mellifera bees while borneo and tualang honey are produced by Apis cerana and Apis dorsata bees, respectively. Methods The physical parameters of honey, such as pH, moisture content, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), color intensity, total sugar and apparent sucrose content, were measured. Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) was measured using high performance liquid chromatography, and a number of biochemical and antioxidant tests were performed to determine the antioxidant properties of the honey samples. Results Acacia honey was the most acidic (pH 3.53), whereas pineapple honey had the lowest moisture content (14.86%), indicating that both types of honey can resist microbial spoilage more effectively when compared to tualang honey (pH 3.80 and 17.53% moisture content). Acacia honey contained the highest EC (0.76 mS/cm), whereas borneo honey had the highest (377 ppm) TDS. The mean HMF content in Malaysian honey was 35.98 mg/kg. Tualang honey, which is amber color, had the highest color intensity (544.33 mAU). Acacia honey is the sweetest, and contained the highest concentration of total sugar, reducing sugar and apparent sucrose. Tualang honey had the highest concentration of phenolic compounds (352.73 ± 0.81 mg galic acid/kg), flavonoids (65.65 ± 0.74 mg catechin/kg), DPPH (59.89%), FRAP values (576.91 ± 0.64 μM Fe (II)/100 g) and protein content (4.83 ± 0.02 g/kg) as well as the lowest AEAC values (244.10 ± 5.24 mg/kg), indicating its strong antioxidant properties. Proline, an important amino acid that is present in honey was also measured in the present study and it was found at the highest concentration in pineapple honey. Several strong correlations were found among the

  1. Rapid detection of economic adulterants in fresh milk by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Abernethy, Grant; Higgs, Kerianne

    2013-05-01

    A method to aid in the detection of the economically driven adulteration of fresh milk with a range of small, nitrogen containing compounds, including melamine, ammeline, ammelide, cyanuric acid, allantoin, thiourea, urea, biuret, triuret, semicarbazide, aminotriazine, 3- and 4-aminotriazole, cyanamide, dicyandiamide, guanidine, choline, hydroxyproline, nitrate, and a range of amino acids, has been developed. (15)N2-Urea is used as an internal standard. The adulteration of milk with exogenous urea has previously been difficult to detect because of the variation in the naturally occurring levels of urea in milk. However, by monitoring the contaminants biuret and triuret, which comprise up to 1% of synthetic urea, the adulteration of milk with urea-based fertilizer can be detected. We estimate that to be economically viable, adulteration of the order of 90-4000ppm of the above adulterants would need to be added to fresh milk. For most of the compounds, an arbitrary detection threshold of 2ppm is therefore more than sufficient. For biuret, a lower detection threshold, better than 0.5ppm, is desirable and the sensitivity for biuret and triuret can be improved by the post-column addition of lithium to create lithium adducts under electrospray ionisation. Sample handling involves a two-step solvent precipitation method that is deployed in a 96-well plate format, and the hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography uses a rapid gradient (1.2min). Three separate injections, to detect the positively charged compounds, the negatively charged compounds and amino acids and finally the lithium adducts, are used. This rapid and qualitative survey method may be deployed as a second tier screening method to quickly reduce sample numbers indicated as irregular by an FTIR based screening system, and to direct analysis to appropriate quantification methods. PMID:23540766

  2. Detection and quantification of species authenticity and adulteration in crabmeat using visible and near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Gayo, Javier; Hale, Scott A

    2007-02-01

    Seafood processing often removes morphological properties of seafood species that enable the consumer to distinguish one type of organism from another. For this reason, species substitution is the most common form of economic adulteration in the seafood industry. Visible and near-infrared spectroscopy (Vis/NIR) has been used to detect and quantify species authenticity and adulteration in crabmeat samples. Atlantic blue crabmeat was adulterated with blue swimmer crabmeat in 10% increments. Water absorption bands dominated the main features in the crabmeat spectra, with a decrease in sample absorbance with increasing adulteration percentage. Several data pretreatments, i.e., moving average, combing, first and second derivatives, and multiplicative scatter correction, in addition to the raw data, were investigated for prediction and quantitative data analysis using partial least-squares. In addition, quantitative analysis was done using the full spectrum and a sequential approach in which 50 wavelengths were added sequentially to determine a new model and find an optimal solution. The results suggest that Vis/NIR spectroscopy is a suitable technology that can be applied to detect and quantify species authenticity and adulteration in crabmeat.

  3. Linking soil, water, and honey composition to assess the geographical origin of argentinean honey by multielemental and isotopic analyses.

    PubMed

    Baroni, María V; Podio, Natalia S; Badini, Raúl G; Inga, Marcela; Ostera, Héctor A; Cagnoni, Mariana; Gautier, Eduardo A; García, Pilar Peral; Hoogewerff, Jurian; Wunderlin, Daniel A

    2015-05-13

    The objective of this research was to investigate the development of a reliable fingerprint from elemental and isotopic signatures of Argentinean honey to assess its geographical provenance. Honey, soil, and water from three regions (Córdoba, Buenos Aires, and Entre Rı́os) were collected. The multielemental composition was determined by ICP-MS. δ(13)C was measured by isotopic ratio mass spectrometry, whereas the (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratio was determined using thermal ionization mass spectrometry. The data were analyzed by chemometrics looking for the association between the elements, stable isotopes, and honey samples from the three studied areas. Honey samples were differentiated by classification trees and discriminant analysis using a combination of eight key variables (Rb, K/Rb, B, U, (87)Sr/(86)Sr, Na, La, and Zn) presenting differences among the studied regions. The application of canonical correlation analysis and generalized procrustes analysis showed 91.5% consensus between soil, water, and honey samples, in addition to clear differences between studied areas. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the correspondence between soil, water, and honey samples using different statistical methods, showing that elemental and isotopic honey compositions are related to soil and water characteristics of the site of origin.

  4. The effect of thermal treatment on the enhancement of detection of adulteration in extra virgin olive oils by synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy and chemometric analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabood, F.; Boqué, R.; Folcarelli, R.; Busto, O.; Jabeen, F.; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Hussain, J.

    2016-05-01

    In this study the effect of thermal treatment on the enhancement of synchronous fluorescence spectroscopic method for discrimination and quantification of pure extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) samples from EVOO samples adulterated with refined oil was investigated. Two groups of samples were used. One group was analyzed at room temperature (25 °C) and the other group was thermally treated in a thermostatic water bath at 75 °C for 8 h, in contact with air and with light exposure, to favor oxidation. All the samples were then measured with synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy. Synchronous fluorescence spectra were acquired by varying the wavelength in the region from 250 to 720 nm at 20 nm wavelength differential interval of excitation and emission. Pure and adulterated olive oils were discriminated by using partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). It was found that the best PLS-DA models were those built with the difference spectra (75 °C-25 °C), which were able to discriminate pure from adulterated oils at a 2% level of adulteration of refined olive oils. Furthermore, PLS regression models were also built to quantify the level of adulteration. Again, the best model was the one built with the difference spectra, with a prediction error of 3.18% of adulteration.

  5. The effect of thermal treatment on the enhancement of detection of adulteration in extra virgin olive oils by synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy and chemometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Mabood, F; Boqué, R; Folcarelli, R; Busto, O; Jabeen, F; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Hussain, J

    2016-05-15

    In this study the effect of thermal treatment on the enhancement of synchronous fluorescence spectroscopic method for discrimination and quantification of pure extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) samples from EVOO samples adulterated with refined oil was investigated. Two groups of samples were used. One group was analyzed at room temperature (25 °C) and the other group was thermally treated in a thermostatic water bath at 75 °C for 8h, in contact with air and with light exposure, to favor oxidation. All the samples were then measured with synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy. Synchronous fluorescence spectra were acquired by varying the wavelength in the region from 250 to 720 nm at 20 nm wavelength differential interval of excitation and emission. Pure and adulterated olive oils were discriminated by using partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). It was found that the best PLS-DA models were those built with the difference spectra (75 °C-25 °C), which were able to discriminate pure from adulterated oils at a 2% level of adulteration of refined olive oils. Furthermore, PLS regression models were also built to quantify the level of adulteration. Again, the best model was the one built with the difference spectra, with a prediction error of 3.18% of adulteration. PMID:26963728

  6. Detection of Adulterated Vegetable Oils Containing Waste Cooking Oils Based on the Contents and Ratios of Cholesterol, β-Sitosterol, and Campesterol by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Haixiang; Wang, Yongli; Xu, Xiuli; Ren, Heling; Li, Li; Xiang, Li; Zhong, Weike

    2015-01-01

    A simple and accurate authentication method for the detection of adulterated vegetable oils that contain waste cooking oil (WCO) was developed. This method is based on the determination of cholesterol, β-sitosterol, and campesterol in vegetable oils and WCO by GC/MS without any derivatization. A total of 148 samples involving 12 types of vegetable oil and WCO were analyzed. According to the results, the contents and ratios of cholesterol, β-sitosterol, and campesterol were found to be criteria for detecting vegetable oils adulterated with WCO. This method could accurately detect adulterated vegetable oils containing 5% refined WCO. The developed method has been successfully applied to multilaboratory analysis of 81 oil samples. Seventy-five samples were analyzed correctly, and only six adulterated samples could not be detected. This method could not yet be used for detection of vegetable oils adulterated with WCO that are used for frying non-animal foods. It provides a quick method for detecting adulterated edible vegetable oils containing WCO.

  7. Detection of Adulterated Vegetable Oils Containing Waste Cooking Oils Based on the Contents and Ratios of Cholesterol, β-Sitosterol, and Campesterol by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Haixiang; Wang, Yongli; Xu, Xiuli; Ren, Heling; Li, Li; Xiang, Li; Zhong, Weike

    2015-01-01

    A simple and accurate authentication method for the detection of adulterated vegetable oils that contain waste cooking oil (WCO) was developed. This method is based on the determination of cholesterol, β-sitosterol, and campesterol in vegetable oils and WCO by GC/MS without any derivatization. A total of 148 samples involving 12 types of vegetable oil and WCO were analyzed. According to the results, the contents and ratios of cholesterol, β-sitosterol, and campesterol were found to be criteria for detecting vegetable oils adulterated with WCO. This method could accurately detect adulterated vegetable oils containing 5% refined WCO. The developed method has been successfully applied to multilaboratory analysis of 81 oil samples. Seventy-five samples were analyzed correctly, and only six adulterated samples could not be detected. This method could not yet be used for detection of vegetable oils adulterated with WCO that are used for frying non-animal foods. It provides a quick method for detecting adulterated edible vegetable oils containing WCO. PMID:26651578

  8. Identification of maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.) and its adulterants by a DNA-barcoding approach based on the ITS sequence.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jin-Jin; Zhao, Qing-Sheng; Liu, Yi-Lan; Zha, Sheng-Hua; Zhao, Bing

    2015-09-01

    Maca (Lepidium meyenii) is an herbaceous plant that grows in high plateaus and has been used as both food and folk medicine for centuries because of its benefits to human health. In the present study, ITS (internal transcribed spacer) sequences of forty-three maca samples, collected from different regions or vendors, were amplified and analyzed. The ITS sequences of nineteen potential adulterants of maca were also collected and analyzed. The results indicated that the ITS sequence of maca was consistent in all samples and unique when compared with its adulterants. Therefore, this DNA-barcoding approach based on the ITS sequence can be used for the molecular identification of maca and its adulterants. PMID:26412424

  9. Identification of authentic and adulterated Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Lei; Chen, Jian-bo; Zhou, Qun; Zhang, Gui-jun; Sun, Su-qin; Guo, Yi-zhen

    2016-11-01

    As a kind of expensive perfume and valuable herb, the commercial Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum (ALR) is often adulterated for economic motivations. In this research, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and two-dimensional (2D) correlation analysis are employed to establish a simple and quick identification method for the authentic and adulterated ALR. In the conventional infrared spectra, the standard ALR has a strong peak at 1658 cm-1 referring to the conjugated carbonyl of resin, while this peak is absent in the adulterated samples. The position, intensity, and shape of the auto-peaks and cross-peaks of the authentic and adulterated ALR are much different in the synchronous 2D correlation spectra with thermal perturbation. In the range of 1700-1500 cm-1, the standard ALR has four obvious auto-peaks, while the strongest one is at 1659 cm-1. The adulterated sample w-1 has three obvious auto-peaks and the strongest one is at 1647 cm-1. The adulterated sample w-2 has three obvious auto-peaks and the strongest one is at 1519 cm-1. The adulterated sample w-3 has four obvious auto-peaks and the strongest one is at 1690 cm-1. The above auto-peaks confirm that the standard ALR contains a certain content of resin compounds, while the three counterfeits contain little or different resins. The results show the potential of FT-IR spectroscopy and 2D correlation analysis in the simple and quick identification of authentic and adulterated ALR.

  10. Chemical Adulterants in Herbal Medicinal Products: A Review.

    PubMed

    Calahan, Jacob; Howard, Dylan; Almalki, Ahmad J; Gupta, Mahabir P; Calderón, Angela I

    2016-04-01

    Many herbal medicinal products have been found to contain synthetic prescription drugs as chemical adulterants. This has become evident by the number of toxicity cases and adverse reactions reported in which casualties were reported via analytical techniques that detected the presence of chemical adulterants in them, which could be responsible for their toxicity. The adulteration of herbal medicinal products with synthetic drugs continues to be a serious problem for regulatory agencies. This review provides up to date information on cases of toxicity, major chemical adulterants in herbal medicinal products, and current analytical techniques used for their detection. PMID:27054916

  11. Determination of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in tea, herbal drugs and honey.

    PubMed

    Bodi, Dorina; Ronczka, Stefan; Gottschalk, Christoph; Behr, Nastassja; Skibba, Anne; Wagner, Matthias; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika; Preiss-Weigert, Angelika; These, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Honey was previously considered to be one of the main food sources of human pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) exposure in Europe. However, comprehensive analyses of honey and tea sampled in the Berlin retail market revealed unexpected high PA amounts in teas. This study comprised the analysis of 87 honey as well as 274 tea samples including black, green, rooibos, melissa, peppermint, chamomile, fennel, nettle, and mixed herbal tea or fruit tea. Total PA concentrations in tea ranged from < LOD to 5647 µg kg(-1), while a mean value of about 10 µg kg(-1) was found in honey samples. Additionally, herbal drugs were investigated to identify the source of PA in teas. Results suggest that PA in tea samples are most likely a contamination caused by co-harvesting of PA-producing plants. In some cases such as fennel, anise or caraway, it cannot be excluded that these plants are able to produce PA themselves.

  12. Determination of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in tea, herbal drugs and honey.

    PubMed

    Bodi, Dorina; Ronczka, Stefan; Gottschalk, Christoph; Behr, Nastassja; Skibba, Anne; Wagner, Matthias; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika; Preiss-Weigert, Angelika; These, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Honey was previously considered to be one of the main food sources of human pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) exposure in Europe. However, comprehensive analyses of honey and tea sampled in the Berlin retail market revealed unexpected high PA amounts in teas. This study comprised the analysis of 87 honey as well as 274 tea samples including black, green, rooibos, melissa, peppermint, chamomile, fennel, nettle, and mixed herbal tea or fruit tea. Total PA concentrations in tea ranged from < LOD to 5647 µg kg(-1), while a mean value of about 10 µg kg(-1) was found in honey samples. Additionally, herbal drugs were investigated to identify the source of PA in teas. Results suggest that PA in tea samples are most likely a contamination caused by co-harvesting of PA-producing plants. In some cases such as fennel, anise or caraway, it cannot be excluded that these plants are able to produce PA themselves. PMID:25222912

  13. Automated DNA extraction from pollen in honey.

    PubMed

    Guertler, Patrick; Eicheldinger, Adelina; Muschler, Paul; Goerlich, Ottmar; Busch, Ulrich

    2014-04-15

    In recent years, honey has become subject of DNA analysis due to potential risks evoked by microorganisms, allergens or genetically modified organisms. However, so far, only a few DNA extraction procedures are available, mostly time-consuming and laborious. Therefore, we developed an automated DNA extraction method from pollen in honey based on a CTAB buffer-based DNA extraction using the Maxwell 16 instrument and the Maxwell 16 FFS Nucleic Acid Extraction System, Custom-Kit. We altered several components and extraction parameters and compared the optimised method with a manual CTAB buffer-based DNA isolation method. The automated DNA extraction was faster and resulted in higher DNA yield and sufficient DNA purity. Real-time PCR results obtained after automated DNA extraction are comparable to results after manual DNA extraction. No PCR inhibition was observed. The applicability of this method was further successfully confirmed by analysis of different routine honey samples.

  14. Identification of gasoline adulteration using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography combined to multivariate data processing.

    PubMed

    Pedroso, Marcio Pozzobon; de Godoy, Luiz Antonio Fonseca; Ferreira, Ernesto Correa; Poppi, Ronei Jesus; Augusto, Fabio

    2008-08-01

    A method to detect potential adulteration of commercial gasoline (Type C gasoline, available in Brazil and containing 25% (v/v) ethanol) is presented here. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GCxGC-FID) data and multivariate calibration (multi-way partial least squares regression, N-PLS) were combined to obtain regression models correlating the concentration of gasoline on samples from chromatographic data. Blends of gasoline and white spirit, kerosene and paint thinner (adopted as model adulterants) were used for calibration; the regression models were evaluated using samples of Type C gasoline spiked with these solvents, as well as with ethanol. The method was also checked with real samples collected from gas stations and analyzed using the official method. The root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) for gasoline concentrations on test samples calculated using the regression model ranged from 3.3% (v/v) to 8.2% (v/v), depending on the composition of the blends; in addition, the results for the real samples agree with the official method. These observations suggest that GCxGC-FID and N-PLS can be an alternative for routine monitoring of fuel adulteration, as well as to solve several other similar analytical problems where mixtures should be detected and quantified as single species in complex samples. PMID:18571187

  15. Standardization of UV-visible data in a food adulteration classification problem.

    PubMed

    Di Anibal, Carolina V; Ruisánchez, Itziar; Fernández, Mailén; Forteza, Rafel; Cerdà, Victor; Pilar Callao, M

    2012-10-15

    This study evaluates the performance of multivariate calibration transfer methods in a classification context. The spectral variation caused by some experimental conditions can worsen the performance of the initial multivariate classification model but this situation can be solved by implementing standardization methods such as Piecewise Direct Standardization (PDS). This study looks at the adulteration of culinary spices with banned dyes such as Sudan I, II, III and IV. The samples are characterised by their UV-visible spectra and Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) is used to discriminate between unadulterated samples and samples adulterated with any of the four Sudan dyes. Two different datasets that need to be standardised are presented. The standardization process yields positive classification results comparable to those obtained from the initial PLS-DA model, in which high classification performance was achieved. PMID:23442691

  16. [Identification of Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans and its adulterants using DNA barcode].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Yin; Chen, Jun; Jia, Jing; Liu, Dong; Shi, Lin-Chun; Zhang, Hui; Song, Jing-Yuan; Yao, Hui

    2014-06-01

    In this study, the COI barcode was used to identify the Scolopendra medicinal materials and its adulterants in order to provide a new method for the identification of Scolopendra. Genomic DNA was extracted from the experimental samples. The COI sequences were amplified and sequenced bi-directionally. Sequence alignment and NJ tree construction was carried out by MEGA6.0 software. The results showed that the COI sequences can be obtained from all experimental samples. The average inter-specific K2P distance of Scolopendra was 0.222 and the minimum inter-specific distance was 0.190. All the Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans medicinal samples clustered into a clade in the NJ tree and can be distinguished from its adulterants. In a conclusion, COI can be used to correctly identify Scolopendra medicinal materials, and it will be a potential DNA barcode for identifying other animal medicinal materials. PMID:25244746

  17. Standardization of UV-visible data in a food adulteration classification problem.

    PubMed

    Di Anibal, Carolina V; Ruisánchez, Itziar; Fernández, Mailén; Forteza, Rafel; Cerdà, Victor; Pilar Callao, M

    2012-10-15

    This study evaluates the performance of multivariate calibration transfer methods in a classification context. The spectral variation caused by some experimental conditions can worsen the performance of the initial multivariate classification model but this situation can be solved by implementing standardization methods such as Piecewise Direct Standardization (PDS). This study looks at the adulteration of culinary spices with banned dyes such as Sudan I, II, III and IV. The samples are characterised by their UV-visible spectra and Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) is used to discriminate between unadulterated samples and samples adulterated with any of the four Sudan dyes. Two different datasets that need to be standardised are presented. The standardization process yields positive classification results comparable to those obtained from the initial PLS-DA model, in which high classification performance was achieved.

  18. Methyl syringate: a chemical marker of asphodel (Asphodelus microcarpus Salzm. et Viv.) monofloral honey.

    PubMed

    Tuberoso, Carlo I G; Bifulco, Ersilia; Jerković, Igor; Caboni, Pierluigi; Cabras, Paolo; Floris, Ignazio

    2009-05-13

    During the liquid chromatographic study of the phenolic fraction of monofloral honeys was detected in the asphodel honey ( Asphodelus microcarpus Salzm. et Viv.) chromatogram a distinctive peak not detected in other monofloral honeys such as Arbutus unedo L., Hedysarum coronarium , Eucalyptus spp., and Galactites tomentosa . After thin layer chromatography (TLC) purification and characterization by NMR and LC-MS/MS, the compound was identified as methyl syringate (MSYR) and confirmed against an original standard. Levels of MSYR were measured in honeys of 2005, 2006, and 2007 by HPLC-DAD analysis. Level determination of MSYR was repeated in 2008 for 2006 and 2007 honeys to evaluate chemical stability of this phenolic compound. Levels of MSYR measured 1 year after the sampling did not show significant statistical differences (p < 0.05). The stability of MSYR was also confirmed by 12 asphodel honey samples collected in 2005 that showed amounts of methyl syringate comparable with those found in fresh honey. For the evaluation of MSYR origin, samples of nectars were collected from flowers and the content of MSYR was measured. Levels of MSYR in honeys are originated from the nectar with an average contribution of the nectar to the honey of 80%. Melissopalinological analysis did not allow the attribution of the honey monofloral origin because levels of asphodel pollen were <6% for all analyzed samples. Previously reported levels of MSYR for robinia, rape, chestnut, clover, linden blossom, dandelion, sunflower, thyme, manuka, and fir honeys were <5 mg/kg. For this reason, a minimum level of 122.6 mg/kg for MSYR in asphodel honeys can be considered as a chemical marker and, unlike the melissopalynological analysis, can be used for the origin attribution and to evaluate the percent of asphodel nectar in the honey. PMID:19309074

  19. Antibacterial activity of different natural honeys from Transylvania, Romania.

    PubMed

    Vica, Mihaela Laura; Glevitzky, Mirel; Dumitrel, Gabriela-Alina; Junie, Lia Monica; Popa, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Honey is used in food industry and medicine due to its nutritive, therapeutic and dietetic qualities. The microbiological characteristics of 10 unpasteurized honey samples of known origin, collected from Transylvania beekeepers (Romania) were determined. The antibacterial activity of these types of honey against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella anatum, Salmonella choleraesuis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis subsp. spizizenii and Listeria monocytogenes strains was studied. The most sensitive to the antibacterial activity were the two staphylococus strains (the largest diameter of inhibition zone was 18 mm) and B. subtilis strains (13.5 mm). The strains of B. cereus, E. coli, L. monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. were found to present resistance to some of the honey samples. Manna, sunflower and polyfloral honeys presented high antibacterial activity while acacia and linden honeys had a lower activity in terms of the number of sensible strains. Statistical analysis shows that the type of strains and the type of honey have influence on the diameter of inhibition. PMID:24380618

  20. Milk adulteration: Detection of bovine milk in bulk goat milk produced by smallholders in northeastern Brazil by a duplex PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, N P A; Givisiez, P E N; Queiroga, R C R E; Azevedo, P S; Gebreyes, W A; Oliveira, C J B

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the adulteration of goat milk produced by smallholders in semiarid northeastern Brazil with bovine milk as an adulterant. The study was requested by the association of smallholder producers in the region to investigate and to inhibit adulteration practices as a need to ensure the quality and safety of goat milk. A duplex PCR assay has been developed and standardized. Further validation was performed in 160 fresh bulk goat milk samples. The detection limit of the duplex PCR was 0.5% bovine milk in goat milk and the results indicated that 41.2% of the goat milk presented to market was positive for bovine milk. Making the test available to the association of producers, together with extension activities, have been applied to reduce adulteration in goat milk sold to small-scale dairy plants and to ensure the species origin for goat milk in the state of Paraíba.

  1. Immunochemical authentication of manuka honey using a monoclonal antibody specific to a glycoside of methyl syringate.

    PubMed

    Kato, Yoji; Araki, Yukako; Juri, Maki; Fujinaka, Rie; Ishisaka, Akari; Kitamoto, Noritoshi; Nitta, Yoko; Niwa, Toshio; Takimoto, Yosuke

    2014-11-01

    Leptosperin, a novel glycoside of methyl syringate, is exclusively present in manuka honey derived from the Leptospermum species Leptospermum scoparium. Quantification of leptosperin might thus be applicable for authentication of honey. The concentration of leptosperin has high linearity with antibacterial activity. We established a monoclonal antibody to leptosperin and characterized the antibody in detail by a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), comparing the results with those of the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for validation. The antigen in manuka honey was confirmed as leptosperin by HPLC fractionation with quantitation by an ELISA. Leptosperin contents of 50 honey samples were analyzed by an established ELISA, which can handle 20 samples (duplicate) on one 96-well plate. Significant coincidence with the chemical quantitation was observed. Immunochemical quantitation of leptosperin would be an economical and facile method for the possible authentication of manuka honey, allowing many honey samples to be processed and analyzed by an ELISA simultaneously.

  2. A DNA barcoding approach to identify plant species in multiflower honey.

    PubMed

    Bruni, I; Galimberti, A; Caridi, L; Scaccabarozzi, D; De Mattia, F; Casiraghi, M; Labra, M

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the ability of DNA barcoding to identify the plant origins of processed honey. Four multifloral honeys produced at different sites in a floristically rich area in the northern Italian Alps were examined by using the rbcL and trnH-psbA plastid regions as barcode markers. An extensive reference database of barcode sequences was generated for the local flora to determine the taxonomic composition of honey. Thirty-nine plant species were identified in the four honey samples, each of which originated from a mix of common plants belonging to Castanea, Quercus, Fagus and several herbaceous taxa. Interestingly, at least one endemic plant was found in all four honey samples, providing a clear signature for the geographic identity of these products. DNA of the toxic plant Atropa belladonna was detected in one sample, illustrating the usefulness of DNA barcoding for evaluating the safety of honey.

  3. Riboflavin and lumichrome in Dalmatian sage honey and other unifloral honeys determined by LC-DAD technique.

    PubMed

    Tuberoso, Carlo Ignazio Giovanni; Jerković, Igor; Bifulco, Ersilia; Marijanovic, Zvonimir; Congiu, Francesca; Bubalo, Dragan

    2012-12-01

    Riboflavin (vitamin B(2)) and its metabolite lumichrome were quantified in 117 samples from 11 unifloral honeys types (Arbutus unedo L., Asphodelus microcarpus Salzm. et Viv., Citrus spp., Eucalyptus spp., Hedysarum coronarium L., Castanea sativa L. honeydew, Mentha spp., Paliurus spina-christi., Salix spp., Salvia officinalis L., Satureja spp.). The quantification of these two compounds was performed by LC-DAD method which does not require sample purification. The proposed method in our study has low limits of detection and quantification, very good linearity in a large concentration range and very good precision. It allows simultaneous determination of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and known chemical biomarkers of unifloral honeys such as abscisic acid diastereomers, homogentisic acid, methyl syringate and kynurenic acid. No statistical correlation was observed between riboflavin and lumichrome content. Although, the concentration of vitamin B(2) in honey may be too low (<6.1mg/kg) to generate interest in the field of nutrition, the presence of its main metabolite lumichrome may be useful to determine the botanical origin of certain unifloral honeys. In fact, the analysis of 11 unifloral honey types showed that Dalmatian sage (S. officinalis L.) honey is characterised by unusual high levels of lumichrome (20.2±2.6mg/kg). The botanical origin of lumichrome from sage flower was assessed by analysing bee-stomach extracts. Other analytical parameters, such as total phenols, antioxidant and antiradical activities, HMF and diastase activity were studied in Dalmatian sage honey. PMID:22953948

  4. Widespread occurrence of honey bee pathogens in solitary bees.

    PubMed

    Ravoet, Jorgen; De Smet, Lina; Meeus, Ivan; Smagghe, Guy; Wenseleers, Tom; de Graaf, Dirk C

    2014-10-01

    Solitary bees and honey bees from a neighbouring apiary were screened for a broad set of putative pathogens including protists, fungi, spiroplasmas and viruses. Most sampled bees appeared to be infected with multiple parasites. Interestingly, viruses exclusively known from honey bees such as Apis mellifera Filamentous Virus and Varroa destructor Macula-like Virus were also discovered in solitary bees. A microsporidium found in Andrena vaga showed most resemblance to Nosema thomsoni. Our results suggest that bee hives represent a putative source of pathogens for other pollinators. Similarly, solitary bees may act as a reservoir of honey bee pathogens.

  5. The Chemical Composition of Honey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, David W.

    2007-01-01

    Honey is a supersaturated sugar solution, created by bees, and used by human beings as a sweetener. However, honey is more than just a supersaturated sugar solution; it also contains acids, minerals, vitamins, and amino acids in varying quantities. In this article, we will briefly explore the chemical composition of honey. (Contains 2 figures and…

  6. Radioactivity of honeys from Poland after the Fukushima accident.

    PubMed

    Borawska, Maria H; Kapała, Jacek; Puścion-Jakubik, Anna; Horembała, Justyna; Markiewicz-Żukowska, Renata

    2013-11-01

    Concentration of radioactive isotopes in honey constitutes an important bioindicator of environmental radiation. One hundred six honey samples were collected from hives and from bottled honey provided by beekeepers from north-eastern Poland in 2010, before the Fukushima accident, and during the two-year period directly following this catastrophe (2011-2012). Cesium-137 (Cs-137) and potassium-40 (K-40) were determined in lime, multifloral, buckwheat, honeydew and other kinds of honey samples. The obtained mean concentrations of Cs-137 and K-40 (Bq kg(-1)) in honey samples were: 1.19 and 32.92 in 2010, 0.90 and 31.13 in 2011, 1.31 and 36.06 in 2012, respectively. Significant differences were not observed. Therefore, the studied honey samples collected after the Fukushima accident are found to be safe for humans with levels of Cs-137 and K-40 not posing any threats. However, the total concentration of Cs-137 and K-40 in samples stopped decreasing in 2010-2011 and showed a slight increase in 2012. This relation may suggest the impact of pollution from Fukushima and requires further research in the coming years.

  7. Antioxidant and sensorial properties of linden honey with dried apricots.

    PubMed

    Ćetković, Gordana; Čanadanović-Brunet, Jasna; Vulić, Jelena; Djilas, Sonja; Tumbas Šaponjac, Vesna

    2014-11-01

    The total phenol (TPh) and flavonoid contents (TFd), and antioxidant and sensorial properties of linden honey (LH) with dried apricots (20, 30, and 40%) were evaluated. TPh increased 4.3 times for LH40 (from 23.96 to 102.87 mg gallic acid equiv./100 g honey), while increase of TFd was slightly lower, ca. 2.9-fold for LH40 (from 18.11 to 51.72 mg rutin equiv./100 g honey). Based on HPLC analysis, the most dominant phenolic compound was gallic acid (11.14 mg/100 g honey in LH and 42.65 mg/100 g honey in LH40). In three different assays, the antioxidant activity increased with increasing concentration of apricots in honey. The values varied from 13.36 for LH to 7.06 mg/ml for LH40; the values ranged from 189.83 for LH to 11.23 mg/ml for LH40; the RP0.5 (reducing power) values ranged from 169.00 for LH to 27.60 mg/ml for LH40. Based on the correlation analysis, it is obvious that TPh and TFd were associated with the antioxidant activities of honey samples. A high degree of correlation existed between antioxidant activities of honey samples and TPh (R from 0.945 to 0.996) and TFd (R from 0.805 to 0.934). Obtained scores for individual sensory properties indicated very good quality of honey with dried apricots.

  8. Identification and Quantitation of 2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline in Manuka Honey (Leptospermum scoparium).

    PubMed

    Rückriemen, Jana; Schwarzenbolz, Uwe; Adam, Simone; Henle, Thomas

    2015-09-30

    Manuka honey from New Zealand is known for its exceptional antibacterial activity, which is due to high amounts of the 1,2-dicarbonyl compound methylglyoxal (MGO). MGO in manuka honey is formed via non-enzymatic dehydration from dihydroxyacetone (DHA) during honey maturation. MGO and DHA are highly reactive substances, leading to a variety of unique chemical reactions. During Strecker reaction between proline and MGO, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2-AP), an important aroma compound, is formed. Using liquid-liquid extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, 2-AP was identified unambiguously in manuka honey for the first time. Quantitation was carried out via external matrix calibration, using a synthetic 2-AP standard and artificial honey. The 2-AP concentration in 11 commercial samples of manuka honey ranged from 0.08 to 0.45 mg/kg. For manuka honey samples containing MGO in concentrations above 250 mg/kg, significantly higher amounts of 2-AP were found when compared to non-manuka honeys. When high amounts of MGO were artificially added to non-manuka multifloral honey, an increase of the 2-AP concentration from 0.07 to 0.40 mg/kg after 12 weeks of storage at 37 °C was observed, concomitant with a significant increase in the concentration of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). No increase of 2-AP was found during storage at ambient temperature. 2-AP together with MGO can be a suitable parameter for the quality control of manuka honey.

  9. Characterisation of the aroma profiles of different honeys and corresponding flowers using solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry.

    PubMed

    Seisonen, Sirli; Kivima, Evelin; Vene, Kristel

    2015-02-15

    The aroma profiles of thirteen different honey samples from four botanical origins: heather (Calluna vulgaris), raspberry (Rubus idaeus), rape (Brassica napus), alder buckthorn (Frangula alnus) and the blossoms of the four corresponding flowers were investigated to find odour-active compounds exclusively representing specific honeys based on odour-active compounds from the blossoms. Gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas-chromatography-olfactometry were used to determine and identify the odour-active compounds. Data was analysed using agglomerative hierarchical clustering and correspondence analysis. Honeys from the same botanical origin clustered together; however, none of the identified compounds were exclusive to a particular honey/blossom combination. Heather honey had the flavour profile most different to the others. Isophorone and 2-methylbutyric acid were found only in heather honeys. Heather honey was characterised by having more "sweet" and "candy-like" notes, raspberry honeys had more "green" notes, while alder buckthorn had more "honey" and "floral" notes.

  10. Adulteration of apple with pear juice: emphasis on major carbohydrates, proline, and arbutin.

    PubMed

    Thavarajah, Pushparajah; Low, Nicholas H

    2006-06-28

    Detection of juice-to-juice adulteration based on chemical composition studies is a common method used by government regulatory agencies and food companies. This study investigated the use of major carbohydrate (fructose, glucose and sucrose), polyol (sorbitol), proline, and phenolic profiles as indicators of pear adulteration of apple juice (PAAJ). For this work, a total of 105 authentic apple juice samples from 13 countries and 27 authentic pear juice samples from 5 countries were analyzed. Because the major carbohydrate ranges for these juices showed significant overlap their use as markers for PAAJ detection would be very limited. It was found that sorbitol and proline means for apple and pear were significantly different; however, their broad natural ranges would afford PAAJ at levels up to 30% without detection. In addition, careful selection of the pear juice used as the adulterant would further limit the usefulness of these markers for PAAJ detection. Arbutin was conclusively identified as a marker for pear juice on the basis of its presence in all 27 authentic pear samples and its absence (<0.5 microg/mL) in all 105 apple juice samples analyzed in this study. The application of the developed HPLC-PDA method for arbutin analysis to detect PAAJ at levels as low as 2% (v/v) was demonstrated. A confirmation method for the presence of arbutin in pure pear juice and apple adulterated with pear juice was introduced on the basis of the hydrolysis of arbutin to hydroquinone employing beta-glucosidase, with reactant and product monitoring by HPLC-PDA.

  11. Precision and sensitivity of a test for vegetable fat adulteration of milk fat.

    PubMed

    Fox, J R; Duthie, A H; Wulff, S

    1988-03-01

    A test for routine screening of Mozzarella cheese and butter for vegetable fat adulteration is described. Fat is extracted and saponified. The potassium salts of the fatty acids are measured through direct gas chromatographic analysis. A ratio, calculated from the concentrations of butyric and oleic acids, is used to evaluate the purity of a sample. The test offers good precision and can detect less than 10% partially hydrogenated vegetable fat.

  12. Characterization of Lavandula spp. Honey Using Multivariate Techniques

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, melissopalynological and physicochemical analyses have been the most used to determine the botanical origin of honey. However, when performed individually, these analyses may provide less unambiguous results, making it difficult to discriminate between mono and multifloral honeys. In this context, with the aim of better characterizing this beehive product, a selection of 112 Lavandula spp. monofloral honey samples from several regions were evaluated by association of multivariate statistical techniques with physicochemical, melissopalynological and phenolic compounds analysis. All honey samples fulfilled the quality standards recommended by international legislation, except regarding sucrose content and diastase activity. The content of sucrose and the percentage of Lavandula spp. pollen have a strong positive association. In fact, it was found that higher amounts of sucrose in honey are related with highest percentage of pollen of Lavandula spp.. The samples were very similar for most of the physicochemical parameters, except for proline, flavonoids and phenols (bioactive factors). Concerning the pollen spectrum, the variation of Lavandula spp. pollen percentage in honey had little contribution to the formation of samples groups. The formation of two groups regarding the physicochemical parameters suggests that the presence of other pollen types in small percentages influences the factor termed as “bioactive”, which has been linked to diverse beneficial health effects. PMID:27588420

  13. Rapid honey characterization and botanical classification by an electronic tongue.

    PubMed

    Major, Nikola; Marković, Ksenija; Krpan, Marina; Sarić, Goran; Hruškar, Mirjana; Vahčić, Nada

    2011-07-15

    In this paper a commercial electronic tongue (αAstree, Alpha M.O.S.) was applied for botanical classification and physicochemical characterization of honey samples. The electronic tongue was comprised of seven potentiometric sensors coupled with an Ag/AgCl reference electrode. Botanical classification was performed by PCA, CCA and ANN modeling on 12 samples of acacia, chestnut and honeydew honey. The physicochemical characterization of honey was obtained by ANN modeling and the parameters included were electrical conductivity, acidity, water content, invert sugar and total sugar. The initial reference values for the physicochemical parameters observed were determined by traditional methods. Botanical classification of honey samples obtained by ANN was 100% accurate while the highest correlation between observed and predicted values was obtained for electrical conductivity (0.999), followed by acidity (0.997), water content (0.994), invert sugar content (0.988) and total sugar content (0.979). All developed ANN models for rapid honey characterization and botanical classification performed excellently showing the potential of the electronic tongue as a tool in rapid honey analysis and characterization. The advantage of using such a technique is a simple sample preparation procedure, there are no chemicals involved and there are no additional costs except the initial measurements required for ANN model development.

  14. Characterization of Lavandula spp. Honey Using Multivariate Techniques.

    PubMed

    Estevinho, Leticia M; Chambó, Emerson Dechechi; Pereira, Ana Paula Rodrigues; Carvalho, Carlos Alfredo Lopes de; Toledo, Vagner de Alencar Arnaut de

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, melissopalynological and physicochemical analyses have been the most used to determine the botanical origin of honey. However, when performed individually, these analyses may provide less unambiguous results, making it difficult to discriminate between mono and multifloral honeys. In this context, with the aim of better characterizing this beehive product, a selection of 112 Lavandula spp. monofloral honey samples from several regions were evaluated by association of multivariate statistical techniques with physicochemical, melissopalynological and phenolic compounds analysis. All honey samples fulfilled the quality standards recommended by international legislation, except regarding sucrose content and diastase activity. The content of sucrose and the percentage of Lavandula spp. pollen have a strong positive association. In fact, it was found that higher amounts of sucrose in honey are related with highest percentage of pollen of Lavandula spp.. The samples were very similar for most of the physicochemical parameters, except for proline, flavonoids and phenols (bioactive factors). Concerning the pollen spectrum, the variation of Lavandula spp. pollen percentage in honey had little contribution to the formation of samples groups. The formation of two groups regarding the physicochemical parameters suggests that the presence of other pollen types in small percentages influences the factor termed as "bioactive", which has been linked to diverse beneficial health effects. PMID:27588420

  15. The growing prevalence of Nosema ceranae in honey bees in Spain, an emerging problem for the last decade.

    PubMed

    Botías, Cristina; Martín-Hernández, Raquel; Garrido-Bailón, Encarna; González-Porto, Amelia; Martínez-Salvador, Amparo; De la Rúa, Pilar; Meana, Aránzazu; Higes, Mariano

    2012-08-01

    Microsporidiosis caused by infection with Nosema apis or Nosema ceranae has become one of the most widespread diseases of honey bees and can cause important economic losses for beekeepers. Honey can be contaminated by spores of both species and it has been reported as a suitable matrix to study the field prevalence of other honey bee sporulated pathogens. Historical honey sample collections from the CAR laboratory (Centro Apícola Regional) were analyzed by PCR to identify the earliest instance of emergence, and to determine whether the presence of Nosema spp. in honey was linked to the spread of these microsporidia in honey bee apiaries. A total of 240 frozen honey samples were analyzed by PCR and the results compared with rates of Nosema spp. infection in worker bee samples from different years and geographical areas. The presence of Nosema spp. in hive-stored honey from naturally infected honey bee colonies (from an experimental apiary) was also monitored, and although collected honey bees resulted in a more suitable sample to study the presence of microsporidian parasites in the colonies, a high probability of finding Nosema spp. in their hive-stored honey was observed. The first honey sample in which N. ceranae was detected dates back to the year 2000. In subsequent years, the number of samples containing N. ceranae tended to increase, as did the detection of Nosema spp. in adult worker bees. The presence of N. ceranae as early as 2000, long before generalized bee depopulation and colony losses in 2004 may be consistent with a long incubation period for nosemosis type C or related with other unknown factors. The current prevalence of nosemosis, primarily due to N. ceranae, has reached epidemic levels in Spain as confirmed by the analysis of worker honey bees and commercial honey.

  16. Rapid identification of illegal synthetic adulterants in herbal anti-diabetic medicines using near infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yanchun; Lei, Deqing; Hu, Changqin

    2014-05-01

    We created a rapid detection procedure for identifying herbal medicines illegally adulterated with synthetic drugs using near infrared spectroscopy. This procedure includes a reverse correlation coefficient method (RCCM) and comparison of characteristic peaks. Moreover, we made improvements to the RCCM based on new strategies for threshold settings. Any tested herbal medicine must meet two criteria to be identified with our procedure as adulterated. First, the correlation coefficient between the tested sample and the reference must be greater than the RCCM threshold. Next, the NIR spectrum of the tested sample must contain the same characteristic peaks as the reference. In this study, four pure synthetic anti-diabetic drugs (i.e., metformin, gliclazide, glibenclamide and glimepiride), 174 batches of laboratory samples and 127 batches of herbal anti-diabetic medicines were used to construct and validate the procedure. The accuracy of this procedure was greater than 80%. Our data suggest that this protocol is a rapid screening tool to identify synthetic drug adulterants in herbal medicines on the market.

  17. Rapid identification of illegal synthetic adulterants in herbal anti-diabetic medicines using near infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yanchun; Lei, Deqing; Hu, Changqin

    We created a rapid detection procedure for identifying herbal medicines illegally adulterated with synthetic drugs using near infrared spectroscopy. This procedure includes a reverse correlation coefficient method (RCCM) and comparison of characteristic peaks. Moreover, we made improvements to the RCCM based on new strategies for threshold settings. Any tested herbal medicine must meet two criteria to be identified with our procedure as adulterated. First, the correlation coefficient between the tested sample and the reference must be greater than the RCCM threshold. Next, the NIR spectrum of the tested sample must contain the same characteristic peaks as the reference. In this study, four pure synthetic anti-diabetic drugs (i.e., metformin, gliclazide, glibenclamide and glimepiride), 174 batches of laboratory samples and 127 batches of herbal anti-diabetic medicines were used to construct and validate the procedure. The accuracy of this procedure was greater than 80%. Our data suggest that this protocol is a rapid screening tool to identify synthetic drug adulterants in herbal medicines on the market.

  18. Concentrations of neonicotinoid insecticides in honey, pollen and honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) in central Saskatchewan, Canada.

    PubMed

    Codling, Garry; Al Naggar, Yahya; Giesy, John P; Robertson, Albert J

    2016-02-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides (NIs) and their transformation products were detected in honey, pollen and honey bees, (Apis mellifera) from hives located within 30 km of the City of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. Clothianidin and thiamethoxam were the most frequently detected NIs, found in 68 and 75% of honey samples at mean concentrations of 8.2 and 17.2 ng g(-1) wet mass, (wm), respectively. Clothianidin was also found in >50% of samples of bees and pollen. Concentrations of clothianidin in bees exceed the LD50 in 2 of 28 samples, while for other NIs concentrations were typically 10-100-fold less than the oral LD50. Imidaclorpid was detected in ∼30% of samples of honey, but only 5% of pollen and concentrations were honey and pollen by bees over winter, during which worker bees live longer than in summer, suggested that, in some hives, consumption of honey and pollen during over-wintering might have adverse effects on bees. PMID:26606186

  19. Concentrations of neonicotinoid insecticides in honey, pollen and honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) in central Saskatchewan, Canada.

    PubMed

    Codling, Garry; Al Naggar, Yahya; Giesy, John P; Robertson, Albert J

    2016-02-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides (NIs) and their transformation products were detected in honey, pollen and honey bees, (Apis mellifera) from hives located within 30 km of the City of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. Clothianidin and thiamethoxam were the most frequently detected NIs, found in 68 and 75% of honey samples at mean concentrations of 8.2 and 17.2 ng g(-1) wet mass, (wm), respectively. Clothianidin was also found in >50% of samples of bees and pollen. Concentrations of clothianidin in bees exceed the LD50 in 2 of 28 samples, while for other NIs concentrations were typically 10-100-fold less than the oral LD50. Imidaclorpid was detected in ∼30% of samples of honey, but only 5% of pollen and concentrations were honey and pollen by bees over winter, during which worker bees live longer than in summer, suggested that, in some hives, consumption of honey and pollen during over-wintering might have adverse effects on bees.

  20. Modeling Honey Bee Populations.

    PubMed

    Torres, David J; Ricoy, Ulises M; Roybal, Shanae

    2015-01-01

    Eusocial honey bee populations (Apis mellifera) employ an age stratification organization of egg, larvae, pupae, hive bees and foraging bees. Understanding the recent decline in honey bee colonies hinges on understanding the factors that impact each of these different age castes. We first perform an analysis of steady state bee populations given mortality rates within each bee caste and find that the honey bee colony is highly susceptible to hive and pupae mortality rates. Subsequently, we study transient bee population dynamics by building upon the modeling foundation established by Schmickl and Crailsheim and Khoury et al. Our transient model based on differential equations accounts for the effects of pheromones in slowing the maturation of hive bees to foraging bees, the increased mortality of larvae in the absence of sufficient hive bees, and the effects of food scarcity. We also conduct sensitivity studies and show the effects of parameter variations on the colony population.

  1. Modeling Honey Bee Populations

    PubMed Central

    Torres, David J.; Ricoy, Ulises M.; Roybal, Shanae

    2015-01-01

    Eusocial honey bee populations (Apis mellifera) employ an age stratification organization of egg, larvae, pupae, hive bees and foraging bees. Understanding the recent decline in honey bee colonies hinges on understanding the factors that impact each of these different age castes. We first perform an analysis of steady state bee populations given mortality rates within each bee caste and find that the honey bee colony is highly susceptible to hive and pupae mortality rates. Subsequently, we study transient bee population dynamics by building upon the modeling foundation established by Schmickl and Crailsheim and Khoury et al. Our transient model based on differential equations accounts for the effects of pheromones in slowing the maturation of hive bees to foraging bees, the increased mortality of larvae in the absence of sufficient hive bees, and the effects of food scarcity. We also conduct sensitivity studies and show the effects of parameter variations on the colony population. PMID:26148010

  2. Modeling Honey Bee Populations.

    PubMed

    Torres, David J; Ricoy, Ulises M; Roybal, Shanae

    2015-01-01

    Eusocial honey bee populations (Apis mellifera) employ an age stratification organization of egg, larvae, pupae, hive bees and foraging bees. Understanding the recent decline in honey bee colonies hinges on understanding the factors that impact each of these different age castes. We first perform an analysis of steady state bee populations given mortality rates within each bee caste and find that the honey bee colony is highly susceptible to hive and pupae mortality rates. Subsequently, we study transient bee population dynamics by building upon the modeling foundation established by Schmickl and Crailsheim and Khoury et al. Our transient model based on differential equations accounts for the effects of pheromones in slowing the maturation of hive bees to foraging bees, the increased mortality of larvae in the absence of sufficient hive bees, and the effects of food scarcity. We also conduct sensitivity studies and show the effects of parameter variations on the colony population. PMID:26148010

  3. Nigerian Honey Ameliorates Hyperglycemia and Dyslipidemia in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Erejuwa, Omotayo O.; Nwobodo, Ndubuisi N.; Akpan, Joseph L.; Okorie, Ugochi A.; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum T.; Ezeokpo, Basil C.; Nwadike, Kenneth I.; Erhiano, Erhirhie; Abdul Wahab, Mohd S.; Sulaiman, Siti A.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic dyslipidemia contributes to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Hence, its treatment is necessary to reduce cardiovascular events. Honey reduces hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia. The reproducibility of these beneficial effects and their generalization to honey samples of other geographical parts of the world remain controversial. Currently, data are limited and findings are inconclusive especially with evidence showing honey increased glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetic patients. It was hypothesized that this deteriorating effect might be due to administered high doses. This study investigated if Nigerian honey could ameliorate hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. It also evaluated if high doses of honey could worsen glucose and lipid abnormalities. Honey (1.0, 2.0 or 3.0 g/kg) was administered to diabetic rats for three weeks. Honey (1.0 or 2.0 g/kg) significantly (p < 0.05) increased high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol while it significantly (p < 0.05) reduced hyperglycemia, triglycerides (TGs), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, coronary risk index (CRI) and cardiovascular risk index (CVRI). In contrast, honey (3.0 g/kg) significantly (p < 0.05) reduced TGs and VLDL cholesterol. This study confirms the reproducibility of glucose lowering and hypolipidemic effects of honey using Nigerian honey. However, none of the doses deteriorated hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia. PMID:26927161

  4. Nigerian Honey Ameliorates Hyperglycemia and Dyslipidemia in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Erejuwa, Omotayo O; Nwobodo, Ndubuisi N; Akpan, Joseph L; Okorie, Ugochi A; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum T; Ezeokpo, Basil C; Nwadike, Kenneth I; Erhiano, Erhirhie; Abdul Wahab, Mohd S; Sulaiman, Siti A

    2016-02-24

    Diabetic dyslipidemia contributes to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Hence, its treatment is necessary to reduce cardiovascular events. Honey reduces hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia. The reproducibility of these beneficial effects and their generalization to honey samples of other geographical parts of the world remain controversial. Currently, data are limited and findings are inconclusive especially with evidence showing honey increased glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetic patients. It was hypothesized that this deteriorating effect might be due to administered high doses. This study investigated if Nigerian honey could ameliorate hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. It also evaluated if high doses of honey could worsen glucose and lipid abnormalities. Honey (1.0, 2.0 or 3.0 g/kg) was administered to diabetic rats for three weeks. Honey (1.0 or 2.0 g/kg) significantly (p < 0.05) increased high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol while it significantly (p < 0.05) reduced hyperglycemia, triglycerides (TGs), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, coronary risk index (CRI) and cardiovascular risk index (CVRI). In contrast, honey (3.0 g/kg) significantly (p < 0.05) reduced TGs and VLDL cholesterol. This study confirms the reproducibility of glucose lowering and hypolipidemic effects of honey using Nigerian honey. However, none of the doses deteriorated hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia.

  5. Anti-biofilm effects of honey against wound pathogens Proteus mirabilis and Enterobacter cloacae.

    PubMed

    Majtan, Juraj; Bohova, Jana; Horniackova, Miroslava; Klaudiny, Jaroslav; Majtan, Viktor

    2014-01-01

    Biofilm growth and its persistence within wounds have recently been suggested as contributing factors to impaired healing. The goal of this study was to investigate the anti-biofilm effects of several honey samples of different botanical origin, including manuka honey against Proteus mirabilis and Enterobacter cloacae wound isolates. Quantification of biofilm formation was carried out using a microtiter plate assay. All honeys at a sub-inhibitory concentration of 10% (w/v) significantly reduced the biofilm development of both isolates. Similarly, at a concentration of 50% (w/v), each of the honeys caused significant partial detachment of Pr. mirabilis biofilm after 24 h. On the other hand, no honey was able to significantly detach Ent. cloacae biofilm. In addition, treatment of Ent. cloacae and Pr. mirabilis biofilms with all honeys resulted in a significant decrease in colony-forming units per well values in a range of 0.35-1.16 and 1.2-7.5 log units, respectively. Of the tested honeys, manuka honey possessed the most potent anti-biofilm properties. Furthermore, methylglyoxal, an antibacterial compound of manuka honey, was shown to be responsible for killing biofilm-embedded wound bacteria. These findings suggest that manuka honey could be used as a potential therapy for the treatment of wounds containing Pr. mirabilis or Ent. cloacae.

  6. Nigerian Honey Ameliorates Hyperglycemia and Dyslipidemia in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Erejuwa, Omotayo O; Nwobodo, Ndubuisi N; Akpan, Joseph L; Okorie, Ugochi A; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum T; Ezeokpo, Basil C; Nwadike, Kenneth I; Erhiano, Erhirhie; Abdul Wahab, Mohd S; Sulaiman, Siti A

    2016-03-01

    Diabetic dyslipidemia contributes to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Hence, its treatment is necessary to reduce cardiovascular events. Honey reduces hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia. The reproducibility of these beneficial effects and their generalization to honey samples of other geographical parts of the world remain controversial. Currently, data are limited and findings are inconclusive especially with evidence showing honey increased glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetic patients. It was hypothesized that this deteriorating effect might be due to administered high doses. This study investigated if Nigerian honey could ameliorate hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. It also evaluated if high doses of honey could worsen glucose and lipid abnormalities. Honey (1.0, 2.0 or 3.0 g/kg) was administered to diabetic rats for three weeks. Honey (1.0 or 2.0 g/kg) significantly (p < 0.05) increased high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol while it significantly (p < 0.05) reduced hyperglycemia, triglycerides (TGs), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, coronary risk index (CRI) and cardiovascular risk index (CVRI). In contrast, honey (3.0 g/kg) significantly (p < 0.05) reduced TGs and VLDL cholesterol. This study confirms the reproducibility of glucose lowering and hypolipidemic effects of honey using Nigerian honey. However, none of the doses deteriorated hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia. PMID:26927161

  7. Determination of quality and adulteration of tequila through the use of surface plasmon resonance.

    PubMed

    Luna-Moreno, D; Monzón-Hernández, D; Noé-Arias, E; Regalado, L E

    2012-07-20

    In this work, the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique is used to determine the quality or adulteration of tequila beverages. Graphic analyses of the position and width of the SPR curve are related to the complex refractive index of the sample, showing differentiated regions where one can easily and unambiguously identify white, aged, or extra-aged tequilas, and even adulterated or low quality tequilas. The curves generated by aged and extra-aged tequilas, with respect to those obtained from white tequilas, are wider, while the resonant peak shifts towards larger angles. This behavior should be attributed to the aging process. The resonance curve is generated in 20 s, minimizing the variations of the SPR curve parameters due to temperature fluctuations.

  8. Determination of neonicotinoid insecticides and their metabolites in honey bee and honey by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gbylik-Sikorska, Malgorzata; Sniegocki, Tomasz; Posyniak, Andrzej

    2015-05-15

    The original analytical method for the simultaneous determination and confirmation of neonicotinoids insecticides (imidacloprid, clothianidin, acetamiprid, thiametoxam, thiacloprid, nitenpyram, dinotefuran) and some of their metabolites (imidacloprid guanidine, imidacloprid olefin, imidacloprid urea, desnitro-imidacloprid hydrochloride, thiacloprid-amid and acetamiprid-N-desmethyl) in honey bee and honey was developed. Preparation of honey bee samples involves the extraction with mixture of acetonitrile and ethyl acetate followed by cleaned up using the Sep-Pak Alumina N Plus Long cartridges. Honey samples were dissolved in 1% mixture of acetonitrile and ethyl acetate with addition of TEA, then extracts were cleaned up with Strata X-CW cartridges. The identity of analytes was confirmed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. All compounds were separated on a Luna C18 column with gradient elution. The whole procedure was validated according to the requirements of SANCO 12571/2013. The average recoveries of the analytes ranged from 85.3% to 112.0%, repeatabilities were in the range of 2.8-11.2%, within-laboratory reproducibility was in the range of 3.3-14.6%, the limits of quantitation were in the range of 0.1-0.5μgkg(-1), depending of analyte and matrices. The validated method was successfully applied for the determination of clothianidin, imidacloprid and imidacloprid urea in real incurred honey bee samples and clothianidin in honey. PMID:25864015

  9. Determination of neonicotinoid insecticides and their metabolites in honey bee and honey by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gbylik-Sikorska, Malgorzata; Sniegocki, Tomasz; Posyniak, Andrzej

    2015-05-15

    The original analytical method for the simultaneous determination and confirmation of neonicotinoids insecticides (imidacloprid, clothianidin, acetamiprid, thiametoxam, thiacloprid, nitenpyram, dinotefuran) and some of their metabolites (imidacloprid guanidine, imidacloprid olefin, imidacloprid urea, desnitro-imidacloprid hydrochloride, thiacloprid-amid and acetamiprid-N-desmethyl) in honey bee and honey was developed. Preparation of honey bee samples involves the extraction with mixture of acetonitrile and ethyl acetate followed by cleaned up using the Sep-Pak Alumina N Plus Long cartridges. Honey samples were dissolved in 1% mixture of acetonitrile and ethyl acetate with addition of TEA, then extracts were cleaned up with Strata X-CW cartridges. The identity of analytes was confirmed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. All compounds were separated on a Luna C18 column with gradient elution. The whole procedure was validated according to the requirements of SANCO 12571/2013. The average recoveries of the analytes ranged from 85.3% to 112.0%, repeatabilities were in the range of 2.8-11.2%, within-laboratory reproducibility was in the range of 3.3-14.6%, the limits of quantitation were in the range of 0.1-0.5μgkg(-1), depending of analyte and matrices. The validated method was successfully applied for the determination of clothianidin, imidacloprid and imidacloprid urea in real incurred honey bee samples and clothianidin in honey.

  10. Modifications and adaptations of the Charm II rapid antibody assay for chloramphenicol in honey.

    PubMed

    McMullen, Sarah E; Lansden, John A; Schenck, Frank J

    2004-07-01

    The Charm II screening method for the presence of chloramphenicol in honey has a sensitivity of 0.3 ppb. This screening method is a simple, rapid antibody assay using [3H]chloramphenicol and a binding reagent. Analysis of different types of honey revealed considerable differences in results. Honey can be liquid, crystallized (creamed), or partially crystallized and is classified by the U.S. Department of Agriculture into seven color categories: water white, extra white, white, extra light amber, light amber, amber, and dark amber. Fortified and nonfortified liquid amber honey tested appropriately with the Charm II unit and the negative control provided with the unit after slight modifications were made. However, approximately 70% of creamed honey samples fortified at 0.6 ppb did not test positive for the presence of chloramphenicol using the provided negative control. Matrix quenching effects were evaluated, and these effects were accounted for by establishing different assay conditions for different honey types.

  11. Melissopalynological and volatile analysis of honeys from Corsican Arbutus unedo habitat.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yin; Battesti, Marie-José; Costa, Jean; Paolini, Julien

    2014-10-01

    Thirty Corsican "autumn maquis" honeys were characterized by the typical combination of autumnal taxa: Arbutus unedo, Hedera helix, Smilax aspera, Rosmarinus officinalis, and two Asteraceae pollen forms. Corsican origin was characterized by the diversity of the taxa's biogeographical origins and significant presence of Castanea sativa and Quercus sp. Volatile fractions of "autumn maquis" honeys were dominated by isophorone and 3,4,5-trimethylphenol. The latter is reported in A. unedo honey for the first time. Otherwise, both A. unedo flower and "autumn maquis" honeys exhibited high contents of isophorone derivatives. H. helix honey exhibited phenylacetaldehyde, benzyl nitrile, 3-hydroxy-4-phenylbutan-2-one and nonanal as major compounds, which were scarcely represented in the studied "autumn maquis" honey samples. PMID:25522552

  12. Honey: A Biologic Wound Dressing.

    PubMed

    Molan, Peter; Rhodes, Tanya

    2015-06-01

    Honey has been used as a wound dressing for thousands of years, but only in more recent times has a scientific explanation become available for its effectiveness. It is now realized that honey is a biologic wound dressing with multiple bioactivities that work in concert to expedite the healing process. The physical properties of honey also expedite the healing process: its acidity increases the release of oxygen from hemoglobin thereby making the wound environment less favorable for the activity of destructive proteases, and the high osmolarity of honey draws fluid out of the wound bed to create an outflow of lymph as occurs with negative pressure wound therapy. Honey has a broad-spectrum antibacterial activity, but there is much variation in potency between different honeys. There are 2 types of antibacterial activity. In most honeys the activity is due to hydrogen peroxide, but much of this is inactivated by the enzyme catalase that is present in blood, serum, and wound tissues. In manuka honey, the activity is due to methylglyoxal which is not inactivated. The manuka honey used in wound-care products can withstand dilution with substantial amounts of wound exudate and still maintain enough activity to inhibit the growth of bacteria. There is good evidence for honey also having bioactivities that stimulate the immune response (thus promoting the growth of tissues for wound repair), suppress inflammation, and bring about rapid autolytic debridement. There is clinical evidence for these actions, and research is providing scientific explanations for them. PMID:26061489

  13. Honey: A Biologic Wound Dressing.

    PubMed

    Molan, Peter; Rhodes, Tanya

    2015-06-01

    Honey has been used as a wound dressing for thousands of years, but only in more recent times has a scientific explanation become available for its effectiveness. It is now realized that honey is a biologic wound dressing with multiple bioactivities that work in concert to expedite the healing process. The physical properties of honey also expedite the healing process: its acidity increases the release of oxygen from hemoglobin thereby making the wound environment less favorable for the activity of destructive proteases, and the high osmolarity of honey draws fluid out of the wound bed to create an outflow of lymph as occurs with negative pressure wound therapy. Honey has a broad-spectrum antibacterial activity, but there is much variation in potency between different honeys. There are 2 types of antibacterial activity. In most honeys the activity is due to hydrogen peroxide, but much of this is inactivated by the enzyme catalase that is present in blood, serum, and wound tissues. In manuka honey, the activity is due to methylglyoxal which is not inactivated. The manuka honey used in wound-care products can withstand dilution with substantial amounts of wound exudate and still maintain enough activity to inhibit the growth of bacteria. There is good evidence for honey also having bioactivities that stimulate the immune response (thus promoting the growth of tissues for wound repair), suppress inflammation, and bring about rapid autolytic debridement. There is clinical evidence for these actions, and research is providing scientific explanations for them.

  14. [Bee, wax and honey].

    PubMed

    de Laguérenne, Claude

    2003-01-01

    The archives of Nantes contain two manuscripts of the XVIIth century from which we found 63 formulae which enter bees, honey and wax. Our study concerns these various galeniques forms for internal use or external used in therapeutics and in beauty care.

  15. Parasite Pressures on Feral Honey Bees (Apis mellifera sp.)

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Catherine E.; Biesmeijer, Jacobus C.; Allnutt, Theodore R.; Pietravalle, Stéphane; Budge, Giles E.

    2014-01-01

    Feral honey bee populations have been reported to be in decline due to the spread of Varroa destructor, an ectoparasitic mite that when left uncontrolled leads to virus build-up and colony death. While pests and diseases are known causes of large-scale managed honey bee colony losses, no studies to date have considered the wider pathogen burden in feral colonies, primarily due to the difficulty in locating and sampling colonies, which often nest in inaccessible locations such as church spires and tree tops. In addition, little is known about the provenance of feral colonies and whether they represent a reservoir of Varroa tolerant material that could be used in apiculture. Samples of forager bees were collected from paired feral and managed honey bee colonies and screened for the presence of ten honey bee pathogens and pests using qPCR. Prevalence and quantity was similar between the two groups for the majority of pathogens, however feral honey bees contained a significantly higher level of deformed wing virus than managed honey bee colonies. An assessment of the honey bee race was completed for each colony using three measures of wing venation. There were no apparent differences in wing morphometry between feral and managed colonies, suggesting feral colonies could simply be escapees from the managed population. Interestingly, managed honey bee colonies not treated for Varroa showed similar, potentially lethal levels of deformed wing virus to that of feral colonies. The potential for such findings to explain the large fall in the feral population and the wider context of the importance of feral colonies as potential pathogen reservoirs is discussed. PMID:25126840

  16. Parasite pressures on feral honey bees (Apis mellifera sp.).

    PubMed

    Thompson, Catherine E; Biesmeijer, Jacobus C; Allnutt, Theodore R; Pietravalle, Stéphane; Budge, Giles E

    2014-01-01

    Feral honey bee populations have been reported to be in decline due to the spread of Varroa destructor, an ectoparasitic mite that when left uncontrolled leads to virus build-up and colony death. While pests and diseases are known causes of large-scale managed honey bee colony losses, no studies to date have considered the wider pathogen burden in feral colonies, primarily due to the difficulty in locating and sampling colonies, which often nest in inaccessible locations such as church spires and tree tops. In addition, little is known about the provenance of feral colonies and whether they represent a reservoir of Varroa tolerant material that could be used in apiculture. Samples of forager bees were collected from paired feral and managed honey bee colonies and screened for the presence of ten honey bee pathogens and pests using qPCR. Prevalence and quantity was similar between the two groups for the majority of pathogens, however feral honey bees contained a significantly higher level of deformed wing virus than managed honey bee colonies. An assessment of the honey bee race was completed for each colony using three measures of wing venation. There were no apparent differences in wing morphometry between feral and managed colonies, suggesting feral colonies could simply be escapees from the managed population. Interestingly, managed honey bee colonies not treated for Varroa showed similar, potentially lethal levels of deformed wing virus to that of feral colonies. The potential for such findings to explain the large fall in the feral population and the wider context of the importance of feral colonies as potential pathogen reservoirs is discussed. PMID:25126840

  17. A variety of volatile compounds as markers in unifloral honey from dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.).

    PubMed

    Jerković, Igor; Mastelić, Josip; Marijanović, Zvonimir

    2006-12-01

    Volatile compounds of unifloral Salvia officinalis L. honey has been investigated for the first time. The botanical origin of ten unifloral Salvia honey samples has been ascertained by pollen analysis (the honey samples displayed 23-60% of Salvia pollen). Fifty-four volatile compounds were identified by GC and GC/MS in ten Salvia honey extracts obtained by ultrasound-assisted extraction (USE) with pentane/Et(2)O 1 : 2. The yield of isolated volatiles varied from 25.7 to 30.5 mg kg(-1). Salvia honey could be distinguished on the basis of the high percentage of benzoic acid (6.4-14.8%), and especially phenylacetic acid (5.7-18.4%). Minor, but floral-origin important volatiles were identified such as shikimate pathway derivatives, 'degraded-carotenoid-like' structures (3,5,5-trimethylcyclohex-2-ene derivatives) and 2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-2-ene derivatives. Compounds from other metabolic pathways such as aliphatic acids and higher linear hydrocarbons, as well as heterocycles (pyrans, furans, and pyrroles), were also present. Most of the identified compounds do not constitute specific Salvia honey markers, due to their presence in honeys of other botanical origins; however, their ratio in different honeys could be useful to distinguish floral origin. Salvia-honey volatile markers were: benzoic acid, phenylacetic acid, p-anisaldehyde, alpha-isophorone, 4-ketoisophorone, dehydrovomifoliol, 2,6,6-trimethyl-4-oxocyclohex-2-ene-1-carbaldehyde, 2,2,6-trimethylcyclohexane-1,4-dione, and coumaran.

  18. Field populations of native Indian honey bees from pesticide intensive agricultural landscape show signs of impaired olfaction.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Priyadarshini; Rana, Santanu; Bandopadhyay, Sreejata; Naik, Dattatraya G; Sarkar, Sagartirtha; Basu, Parthiba

    2015-07-27

    Little information is available regarding the adverse effects of pesticides on natural honey bee populations. This study highlights the detrimental effects of pesticides on honey bee olfaction through behavioural studies, scanning electron microscopic imaging of antennal sensillae and confocal microscopic studies of honey bee brains for calcium ions on Apis cerana, a native Indian honey bee species. There was a significant decrease in proboscis extension response and biologically active free calcium ions and adverse changes in antennal sensillae in pesticide exposed field honey bee populations compared to morphometrically similar honey bees sampled from low/no pesticide sites. Controlled laboratory experiments corroborated these findings. This study reports for the first time the changes in antennal sensillae, expression of Calpain 1(an important calcium binding protein) and resting state free calcium in brains of honey bees exposed to pesticide stress.

  19. Field populations of native Indian honey bees from pesticide intensive agricultural landscape show signs of impaired olfaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, Priyadarshini; Rana, Santanu; Bandopadhyay, Sreejata; Naik, Dattatraya G.; Sarkar, Sagartirtha; Basu, Parthiba

    2015-07-01

    Little information is available regarding the adverse effects of pesticides on natural honey bee populations. This study highlights the detrimental effects of pesticides on honey bee olfaction through behavioural studies, scanning electron microscopic imaging of antennal sensillae and confocal microscopic studies of honey bee brains for calcium ions on Apis cerana, a native Indian honey bee species. There was a significant decrease in proboscis extension response and biologically active free calcium ions and adverse changes in antennal sensillae in pesticide exposed field honey bee populations compared to morphometrically similar honey bees sampled from low/no pesticide sites. Controlled laboratory experiments corroborated these findings. This study reports for the first time the changes in antennal sensillae, expression of Calpain 1(an important calcium binding protein) and resting state free calcium in brains of honey bees exposed to pesticide stress.

  20. Field populations of native Indian honey bees from pesticide intensive agricultural landscape show signs of impaired olfaction.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Priyadarshini; Rana, Santanu; Bandopadhyay, Sreejata; Naik, Dattatraya G; Sarkar, Sagartirtha; Basu, Parthiba

    2015-01-01

    Little information is available regarding the adverse effects of pesticides on natural honey bee populations. This study highlights the detrimental effects of pesticides on honey bee olfaction through behavioural studies, scanning electron microscopic imaging of antennal sensillae and confocal microscopic studies of honey bee brains for calcium ions on Apis cerana, a native Indian honey bee species. There was a significant decrease in proboscis extension response and biologically active free calcium ions and adverse changes in antennal sensillae in pesticide exposed field honey bee populations compared to morphometrically similar honey bees sampled from low/no pesticide sites. Controlled laboratory experiments corroborated these findings. This study reports for the first time the changes in antennal sensillae, expression of Calpain 1(an important calcium binding protein) and resting state free calcium in brains of honey bees exposed to pesticide stress. PMID:26212690

  1. Field populations of native Indian honey bees from pesticide intensive agricultural landscape show signs of impaired olfaction

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, Priyadarshini; Rana, Santanu; Bandopadhyay, Sreejata; Naik, Dattatraya G.; Sarkar, Sagartirtha; Basu, Parthiba

    2015-01-01

    Little information is available regarding the adverse effects of pesticides on natural honey bee populations. This study highlights the detrimental effects of pesticides on honey bee olfaction through behavioural studies, scanning electron microscopic imaging of antennal sensillae and confocal microscopic studies of honey bee brains for calcium ions on Apis cerana, a native Indian honey bee species. There was a significant decrease in proboscis extension response and biologically active free calcium ions and adverse changes in antennal sensillae in pesticide exposed field honey bee populations compared to morphometrically similar honey bees sampled from low/no pesticide sites. Controlled laboratory experiments corroborated these findings. This study reports for the first time the changes in antennal sensillae, expression of Calpain 1(an important calcium binding protein) and resting state free calcium in brains of honey bees exposed to pesticide stress. PMID:26212690

  2. Heavy Metal Contents and Physical Parameters of Aegiceras corniculatum, Brassica juncea, and Litchi chinensis Honeys from Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Sarker, Nandita; Chowdhury, Muhammed Alamgir Zaman; Fakhruddin, Abu Naieum Muhammad; Fardous, Zeenath; Moniruzzaman, Mohammed; Gan, Siew Hua

    2015-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the heavy metal levels and the physicochemical parameters (pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and ash, moisture, and total sugar content) of honeys from Bangladesh. Three different floral honeys were investigated, namely, khalsi (Aegiceras corniculatum), mustard (Brassica juncea), and litchi (Litchi chinensis) honeys. The heavy metals in the honeys were determined by using a High Temperature Dry Oxidation method followed by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. The mean pH, EC, and ash, moisture, and total sugar contents of the investigated honeys were 3.6, 0.51 mS/cm, 0.18%, 18.83%, and 68.30%, respectively. Iron was the most abundant among all the investigated heavy metals, ranging from 13.51 to 15.44 mg/kg. The mean concentrations of Mn and Zn in the investigated honeys were 0.28 mg/kg and 2.99 mg/kg, respectively. Cd was below the detection limit, and lead was found in some honey samples, but their contents were below the recommended Maximum Acceptable Level. Cr was also found in all of the samples, but its concentration was within the limit. The physicochemical analysis of the honey samples yielded levels within the limits set by the international honey legislation, indicating that the honey samples were of good quality and had acceptable values for maturity, purity, and freshness. PMID:26618176

  3. Discrimination between authentic and adulterated liquors by near-infrared spectroscopy and ensemble classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hui; Tan, Chao; Wu, Tong; Wang, Li; Zhu, Wanping

    2014-09-01

    Chinese liquor is one of the famous distilled spirits and counterfeit liquor is becoming a serious problem in the market. Especially, age liquor is facing the crisis of confidence because it is difficult for consumer to identify the marked age, which prompts unscrupulous traders to pose off low-grade liquors as high-grade liquors. An ideal method for authenticity confirmation of liquors should be non-invasive, non-destructive and timely. The combination of near-infrared spectroscopy with chemometrics proves to be a good way to reach these premises. A new strategy is proposed for classification and verification of the adulteration of liquors by using NIR spectroscopy and chemometric classification, i.e., ensemble support vector machines (SVM). Three measures, i.e., accuracy, sensitivity and specificity were used for performance evaluation. The results confirmed that the strategy can serve as a screening tool applied to verify adulteration of the liquor, that is, a prior step used to condition the sample to a deeper analysis only when a positive result for adulteration is obtained by the proposed methodology.

  4. New psychoactive substances as adulterants of controlled drugs. A worrying phenomenon?

    PubMed

    Giné, Claudio Vidal; Espinosa, Iván Fornís; Vilamala, Mireia Ventura

    2014-01-01

    The use of new psychoactive substances (NPS) as adulterants has received little attention in the literature. In this paper, results from Energy Control's drug checking service documenting the use of NPS as adulterants of controlled drugs are presented, and some reflections about possible explanations for this new phenomenon, potential risks for users, and challenges that it poses are discussed. From 2009 to 2012, 24 NPS belonging to several chemical classes such as phenethylamines, substituted cathinones, tryptamines, and methoxetamine were identified in 173 samples believed to be MDMA, amphetamine, ketamine, cocaine, mescaline, or methamphetamine. The NPS adulterant most frequently observed was 2-(4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)ethanamine (2C-B) followed by 1-(4-fluorophenyl)propan-2-amine (4-FA). Sixty-nine different combinations of substances were detected: 20 involving a controlled drug combined with an NPS, and 49 involving one or more NPS that substituted the controlled drug. As these combinations could pose substantial risks to users, the need to improve knowledge about toxicity associated with these combinations, and the danger of these substances being incorporated into the products of illegal markets, are highlighted. Drug checking services and the European Union's early-warning system operated by the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) and Europol can play an important role in reducing the harm associated with this phenomenon.

  5. New psychoactive substances as adulterants of controlled drugs. A worrying phenomenon?

    PubMed

    Giné, Claudio Vidal; Espinosa, Iván Fornís; Vilamala, Mireia Ventura

    2014-01-01

    The use of new psychoactive substances (NPS) as adulterants has received little attention in the literature. In this paper, results from Energy Control's drug checking service documenting the use of NPS as adulterants of controlled drugs are presented, and some reflections about possible explanations for this new phenomenon, potential risks for users, and challenges that it poses are discussed. From 2009 to 2012, 24 NPS belonging to several chemical classes such as phenethylamines, substituted cathinones, tryptamines, and methoxetamine were identified in 173 samples believed to be MDMA, amphetamine, ketamine, cocaine, mescaline, or methamphetamine. The NPS adulterant most frequently observed was 2-(4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)ethanamine (2C-B) followed by 1-(4-fluorophenyl)propan-2-amine (4-FA). Sixty-nine different combinations of substances were detected: 20 involving a controlled drug combined with an NPS, and 49 involving one or more NPS that substituted the controlled drug. As these combinations could pose substantial risks to users, the need to improve knowledge about toxicity associated with these combinations, and the danger of these substances being incorporated into the products of illegal markets, are highlighted. Drug checking services and the European Union's early-warning system operated by the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) and Europol can play an important role in reducing the harm associated with this phenomenon. PMID:24470121

  6. Using DNA Metabarcoding to Identify the Floral Composition of Honey: A New Tool for Investigating Honey Bee Foraging Preferences.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Jennifer; de Vere, Natasha; Griffith, Adelaide; Ford, Col R; Allainguillaume, Joel; Hegarty, Matthew J; Baillie, Les; Adams-Groom, Beverley

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the floral composition of honey provides a method for investigating the plants that honey bees visit. We compared melissopalynology, where pollen grains retrieved from honey are identified morphologically, with a DNA metabarcoding approach using the rbcL DNA barcode marker and 454-pyrosequencing. We compared nine honeys supplied by beekeepers in the UK. DNA metabarcoding and melissopalynology were able to detect the most abundant floral components of honey. There was 92% correspondence for the plant taxa that had an abundance of over 20%. However, the level of similarity when all taxa were compared was lower, ranging from 22-45%, and there was little correspondence between the relative abundance of taxa found using the two techniques. DNA metabarcoding provided much greater repeatability, with a 64% taxa match compared to 28% with melissopalynology. DNA metabarcoding has the advantage over melissopalynology in that it does not require a high level of taxonomic expertise, a greater sample size can be screened and it provides greater resolution for some plant families. However, it does not provide a quantitative approach and pollen present in low levels are less likely to be detected. We investigated the plants that were frequently used by honey bees by examining the results obtained from both techniques. Plants with a broad taxonomic range were detected, covering 46 families and 25 orders, but a relatively small number of plants were consistently seen across multiple honey samples. Frequently found herbaceous species were Rubus fruticosus, Filipendula ulmaria, Taraxacum officinale, Trifolium spp., Brassica spp. and the non-native, invasive, Impatiens glandulifera. Tree pollen was frequently seen belonging to Castanea sativa, Crataegus monogyna and species of Malus, Salix and Quercus. We conclude that although honey bees are considered to be supergeneralists in their foraging choices, there are certain key species or plant groups that are particularly

  7. Using DNA Metabarcoding to Identify the Floral Composition of Honey: A New Tool for Investigating Honey Bee Foraging Preferences.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Jennifer; de Vere, Natasha; Griffith, Adelaide; Ford, Col R; Allainguillaume, Joel; Hegarty, Matthew J; Baillie, Les; Adams-Groom, Beverley

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the floral composition of honey provides a method for investigating the plants that honey bees visit. We compared melissopalynology, where pollen grains retrieved from honey are identified morphologically, with a DNA metabarcoding approach using the rbcL DNA barcode marker and 454-pyrosequencing. We compared nine honeys supplied by beekeepers in the UK. DNA metabarcoding and melissopalynology were able to detect the most abundant floral components of honey. There was 92% correspondence for the plant taxa that had an abundance of over 20%. However, the level of similarity when all taxa were compared was lower, ranging from 22-45%, and there was little correspondence between the relative abundance of taxa found using the two techniques. DNA metabarcoding provided much greater repeatability, with a 64% taxa match compared to 28% with melissopalynology. DNA metabarcoding has the advantage over melissopalynology in that it does not require a high level of taxonomic expertise, a greater sample size can be screened and it provides greater resolution for some plant families. However, it does not provide a quantitative approach and pollen present in low levels are less likely to be detected. We investigated the plants that were frequently used by honey bees by examining the results obtained from both techniques. Plants with a broad taxonomic range were detected, covering 46 families and 25 orders, but a relatively small number of plants were consistently seen across multiple honey samples. Frequently found herbaceous species were Rubus fruticosus, Filipendula ulmaria, Taraxacum officinale, Trifolium spp., Brassica spp. and the non-native, invasive, Impatiens glandulifera. Tree pollen was frequently seen belonging to Castanea sativa, Crataegus monogyna and species of Malus, Salix and Quercus. We conclude that although honey bees are considered to be supergeneralists in their foraging choices, there are certain key species or plant groups that are particularly

  8. Using DNA Metabarcoding to Identify the Floral Composition of Honey: A New Tool for Investigating Honey Bee Foraging Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, Adelaide; Ford, Col R.; Allainguillaume, Joel; Hegarty, Matthew J.; Baillie, Les; Adams-Groom, Beverley

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the floral composition of honey provides a method for investigating the plants that honey bees visit. We compared melissopalynology, where pollen grains retrieved from honey are identified morphologically, with a DNA metabarcoding approach using the rbcL DNA barcode marker and 454-pyrosequencing. We compared nine honeys supplied by beekeepers in the UK. DNA metabarcoding and melissopalynology were able to detect the most abundant floral components of honey. There was 92% correspondence for the plant taxa that had an abundance of over 20%. However, the level of similarity when all taxa were compared was lower, ranging from 22–45%, and there was little correspondence between the relative abundance of taxa found using the two techniques. DNA metabarcoding provided much greater repeatability, with a 64% taxa match compared to 28% with melissopalynology. DNA metabarcoding has the advantage over melissopalynology in that it does not require a high level of taxonomic expertise, a greater sample size can be screened and it provides greater resolution for some plant families. However, it does not provide a quantitative approach and pollen present in low levels are less likely to be detected. We investigated the plants that were frequently used by honey bees by examining the results obtained from both techniques. Plants with a broad taxonomic range were detected, covering 46 families and 25 orders, but a relatively small number of plants were consistently seen across multiple honey samples. Frequently found herbaceous species were Rubus fruticosus, Filipendula ulmaria, Taraxacum officinale, Trifolium spp., Brassica spp. and the non-native, invasive, Impatiens glandulifera. Tree pollen was frequently seen belonging to Castanea sativa, Crataegus monogyna and species of Malus, Salix and Quercus. We conclude that although honey bees are considered to be supergeneralists in their foraging choices, there are certain key species or plant groups that are particularly

  9. Modeling the synergistic antibacterial effects of honey characteristics of different botanical origins from the Sahara Desert of Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Laallam, Hadda; Boughediri, Larbi; Bissati, Samia; Menasria, Taha; Mouzaoui, Mohamed S.; Hadjadj, Soumia; Hammoudi, Rokia; Chenchouni, Haroun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Honey has multiple therapeutic properties due to its composition with diverse components. Objectives: This study aims to investigate the antimicrobial efficacy of Saharan honeys against bacterial pathogens, the variation of honey floral origins, and its physicochemical characteristics. Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial activity of 32 samples of honey collected from the Algerian Sahara Desert was tested on four bacteria; Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus. The botanical origin of honeys and their physicochemical properties were determined and their combined antibacterial effects were modeled using a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM). Results: Out of the 32 study samples, 14 were monofloral and 18 were multifloral. The pollen density was on average 7.86 × 106 grains/10 g of honey, water content was 14.6%, electrical conductivity (EC) was 0.5 μS/cm, pH was 4.38 ± 0 50, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) content was 82 mg/kg of honey, total sugars = 83%, reducing sugars = 71%, and the concentration of proline = 525.5 ± 550.2 mg/kg of honey. GLMM revealed that the antibacterial effect of honey varied significantly between bacteria and floral origins. This effect increased with increasing of water content and reducing sugars in honey, but it significantly decreased with increase of honey EC. E. coli was the most sensitive species with an inhibition zone of 10.1 ± 4.7 mm, while C. perfringens was the less sensitive. Honeys dominated by pollen of Fabaceae sp. were most effective with an overall antimicrobial activity equals to 13.5 ± 4.7 mm. Conclusion: Saharan honeys, of certain botanical origins, have physicochemical and pollinic characteristics with relevant potential for antibacterial purposes. This encourages a more comprehensive characterization of honeys with in vivo and in vitro investigations. PMID:26594206

  10. Comparison of acute effects of heroin and Kerack on sensory and motor activity of honey bees (Apis mellifera)

    PubMed Central

    Hassanpour-Ezatti, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Previous studies demonstrated a functional similarity between vertebrate and honey bee nervous systems. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of heroin and Iranian street Kerack, a combination of heroin and caffeine, on sensory threshold and locomotor activity in honey bees. Materials and Methods: All drugs were given orally to honey bees 30 min before each experiment. The levels of these drugs and their metabolites in brain samples of honey bees were determined by GC/MS. The sucrose sensitivity test was used for evaluation of changes in honey bees’ sensory threshold. Following the administration of both drugs, the honey bees’ locomotor activity changes were evaluated in open fields. Results: 6-acetylmorphine had a higher concentration in comparison with other heroin metabolites in honey bees’ brains. Concentration of the compound in the brain was directly proportional to the amount ingested. Heroin reduced the sensory threshold of honey bees, but Kerack increased it in the same doses. Locomotor activity of honey bee in open field was enhanced after the administration of both drugs. However, immobility time of honey bees was only affected by high doses of heroin. Conclusion: Acute effects of heroin andKerack on the sensory and motor functions of honey bees were different. Findings of this research suggest that these differences originated from the activation of different neurotransmitter systems by caffeine together with activation of opioid receptors by heroin. PMID:26019799

  11. Pollen analysis of natural honeys from the central region of Shanxi, North China.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiao-Yan; Yao, Yi-Feng; Yang, Wu-De

    2012-01-01

    Based on qualitative and quantitative melissopalynological analyses, 19 Chinese honeys were classified by botanical origin to determine their floral sources. The honey samples were collected during 2010-2011 from the central region of Shanxi Province, North China. A diverse spectrum of 61 pollen types from 37 families was identified. Fourteen samples were classified as unifloral, whereas the remaining samples were multifloral. Bee-favoured families (occurring in more than 50% of the samples) included Caprifoliaceae (found in 10 samples), Laminaceae (10), Brassicaceae (12), Rosaceae (12), Moraceae (13), Rhamnaceae (15), Asteraceae (17), and Fabaceae (19). In the unifloral honeys, the predominant pollen types were Ziziphus jujuba (in 5 samples), Robinia pseudoacacia (3), Vitex negundo var. heterophylla (2), Sophora japonica (1), Ailanthus altissima (1), Asteraceae type (1), and Fabaceae type (1). The absolute pollen count (i.e., the number of pollen grains per 10 g honey sample) suggested that 13 samples belonged to Group I (<20,000 pollen grains), 4 to Group II (20,000-100,000), and 2 to Group III (100,000-500,000). The dominance of unifloral honeys without toxic pollen grains and the low value of the HDE/P ratio (i.e., honey dew elements/pollen grains from nectariferous plants) indicated that the honey samples are of good quality and suitable for human consumption. PMID:23185358

  12. [Detection of Syrup Adulterants in Prepackaged Pure Pineapple Juice by Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Chemometric Analysis].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Mi; Ke, Jian; Li, Bao-li; Tang, Cui-e; Tan, Jun; Liu, Rui; Wang, Hong; Li, Tao; Zhou, Sheng-yin

    2015-10-01

    This study was performed to establish a method that can quickly and accurately identify adulterated syrup in the pure pineapple juice. A attenuated total internal refraction-fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to collect the range of 900 -1 500 cm(-1) infrared spectra of 234 samples pure pineapple juice and adulterated syrup by beet syrup, rice syrup and cassava syrup. By using linear discriminant analysis and support vector machine for the identification model, comparing the full spectral and selected wavelengths based on principal component analysis loading plots of the two models to identify adulteration. Studies showed that the correct rate of validation set by linear discriminant analysis and support vector machine model on full spectral were both higher than 88%, variables were significantly reduced from 312 to 8 after selecting the eight characteristic wavelengths, the correct rate of validation set by linear discriminant analysis model was up to 96.15% and support vector machine was increase to 94.87%. The results demonstrated that the model built using a attenuated total internal refraction-fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in combination with chemometric methods after selected characteristic wavelengths could be used for the identification of the adulterated syrup in the pure pineapple juice. PMID:26904809

  13. Effect of Iranian Ziziphus honey on growth of some foodborne pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Ekhtelat, Maryam; Ravaji, Karim; Parvari, Masood

    2016-01-01

    Background: Honey has previously been shown to have wound healing and antimicrobial properties, but this is dependent on the type of honey, geographical location, and flower from which the final product is derived. We tested the antimicrobial activity of a natural honey originating from the Ziziphus spina-christi tree, against selected strains of bacteria. Ziziphus honey among more than a 100 verities of honey is known to have the greatest value of energy and minerals in it. Materials and Methods: The aim of this study was to determine the antibacterial activity of Ziziphus honey in 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% dilutions (v/v) against Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus. Viable count enumeration of the sample was investigated after 0, 24, 72, and 120 h postinoculation with any of the bacteria using pour-plate method. Results: The findings indicate that Ziziphus honey was effective against these pathogenic bacteria. In a comparative trial, antibacterial activity of Ziziphus honey was higher after 120 h incubation for each four bacteria in most dilutions. The microbial count showed 3-7.5 log reduction comparing with control after 120 h. Conclusions: Therefore, it is recommended using Ziziphus honey as a natural preservative and antibacterial agent. Also, it could potentially be used as therapeutic agents against bacterial infection particularly to the tested microorganisms. PMID:27003970

  14. Residues of organochlorine and synthetic pyrethroid pesticides in honey, an indicator of ambient environment, a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Malhat, Farag M; Haggag, Mohamed N; Loutfy, Naglaa M; Osman, Mohamed A M; Ahmed, Mohamed Tawfic

    2015-02-01

    Samples of honey were screened to monitor residues of organochlorine and pyrethroid pesticides. The study meant to examine the quality of honey, and to use honey as a bioindicator of environmental contamination. Residue levels were determined by gas chromatography (GC-μECD). Samples had a wide spectrum of organochlorine and synthetic pyrethroids pesticides, with hexachlorobenzene (HCB) as the most frequently detected organochlorine, followed by permethrin, heptachlor epoxide. Only one sample had a concentration of γ-HCH higher than maximum residue limit of honey (0.01 mg kg(-1)). Residues of organochlorines detected, indicate the presence of some fresh supplies, despite the ban imposed on their use. The study confirmed that honey bee and beehive matrices could be used as gauge for monitoring environment contamination. From public health point of view, the observed levels of pesticide residues in honey do not pose a serious health risk to the consumers, but raises questions of the source of organochlorines.

  15. Identification of adulteration in milk by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cozzolino, R; Passalacqua, S; Salemi, S; Malvagna, P; Spina, E; Garozzo, D

    2001-09-01

    The development is described of a rapid, simply and accurate analytical method aimed at evaluating both the presence of cow milk in either raw ewe and water buffalo milk samples employed in industrial processes and the addition of powdered milk to samples of fresh raw milk, using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS). The presence of adulteration is defined by evaluating the protein patterns coming from the most abundant whey proteins, alpha-lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin, used as molecular markers. As no pretreatment of the milk samples is required and owing to the speed and ease of use of MALDI-MS the proposed analytical protocol can be used as a routine strategy for the identification of possible adulteration of the raw fresh milk samples that the dairy industry receives from producers every day.

  16. Highly sensitive on-site detection of drugs adulterated in botanical dietary supplements using thin layer chromatography combined with dynamic surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fang, Fang; Qi, Yunpeng; Lu, Feng; Yang, Liangbao

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of botanical dietary supplements (BDS) doped with illegal adulterants has become a serious problem all over the world, which could cause great threat to human's health. Therefore, it is of great value to identify BDS. Herein, we put forward a highly sensitive method for on-site detection of antitussive and antiasthmatic drugs adulterated in BDS using thin layer chromatography (TLC) combined with dynamic surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (DSERS). Adulterants in BDS were separated on a TLC plate and located under UV illumination. Then DSERS detection was performed using a portable Raman spectrometer with 50% glycerol silver colloid serving as DSERS active substrate. Here, the effects of different solvents on detection efficacy were evaluated using phenformin hydrochloride (PHE) as a probe. It was shown that 50% glycerol resulted in higher SERS enhancement and relatively higher stability. Moreover, practical application of this novel TLC-DSERS method was demonstrated with rapid analysis of real BDS samples and one sample adulterated with benproperine phosphate (BEN) was found. Furthermore, the obtained result was verified by ultra performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS). The sensitivity of the TLC-DSERS technique is 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than that of TLC-SERS technique. The results turned out that this combined method would have good prospects for on-site and sensitive detection of adulterated BDS.

  17. Highly sensitive on-site detection of drugs adulterated in botanical dietary supplements using thin layer chromatography combined with dynamic surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fang, Fang; Qi, Yunpeng; Lu, Feng; Yang, Liangbao

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of botanical dietary supplements (BDS) doped with illegal adulterants has become a serious problem all over the world, which could cause great threat to human's health. Therefore, it is of great value to identify BDS. Herein, we put forward a highly sensitive method for on-site detection of antitussive and antiasthmatic drugs adulterated in BDS using thin layer chromatography (TLC) combined with dynamic surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (DSERS). Adulterants in BDS were separated on a TLC plate and located under UV illumination. Then DSERS detection was performed using a portable Raman spectrometer with 50% glycerol silver colloid serving as DSERS active substrate. Here, the effects of different solvents on detection efficacy were evaluated using phenformin hydrochloride (PHE) as a probe. It was shown that 50% glycerol resulted in higher SERS enhancement and relatively higher stability. Moreover, practical application of this novel TLC-DSERS method was demonstrated with rapid analysis of real BDS samples and one sample adulterated with benproperine phosphate (BEN) was found. Furthermore, the obtained result was verified by ultra performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS). The sensitivity of the TLC-DSERS technique is 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than that of TLC-SERS technique. The results turned out that this combined method would have good prospects for on-site and sensitive detection of adulterated BDS. PMID:26695274

  18. Honey bee toxicology.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Reed M

    2015-01-01

    Insecticides are chemicals used to kill insects, so it is unsurprising that many insecticides have the potential to harm honey bees (Apis mellifera). However, bees are exposed to a great variety of other potentially toxic chemicals, including flavonoids and alkaloids that are produced by plants; mycotoxins produced by fungi; antimicrobials and acaricides that are introduced by beekeepers; and fungicides, herbicides, and other environmental contaminants. Although often regarded as uniquely sensitive to toxic compounds, honey bees are adapted to tolerate and even thrive in the presence of toxic compounds that occur naturally in their environment. The harm caused by exposure to a particular concentration of a toxic compound may depend on the level of simultaneous exposure to other compounds, pathogen levels, nutritional status, and a host of other factors. This review takes a holistic view of bee toxicology by taking into account the spectrum of xenobiotics to which bees are exposed. PMID:25341092

  19. Honey bee toxicology.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Reed M

    2015-01-01

    Insecticides are chemicals used to kill insects, so it is unsurprising that many insecticides have the potential to harm honey bees (Apis mellifera). However, bees are exposed to a great variety of other potentially toxic chemicals, including flavonoids and alkaloids that are produced by plants; mycotoxins produced by fungi; antimicrobials and acaricides that are introduced by beekeepers; and fungicides, herbicides, and other environmental contaminants. Although often regarded as uniquely sensitive to toxic compounds, honey bees are adapted to tolerate and even thrive in the presence of toxic compounds that occur naturally in their environment. The harm caused by exposure to a particular concentration of a toxic compound may depend on the level of simultaneous exposure to other compounds, pathogen levels, nutritional status, and a host of other factors. This review takes a holistic view of bee toxicology by taking into account the spectrum of xenobiotics to which bees are exposed.

  20. Demonstrated Potential of Ion Mobility Spectrometry for Detection of Adulterated Perfumes and Plant Speciation

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Jared Matthew; Daum, Keith Alvin; Kalival, J. H.

    2003-01-01

    This initial study evaluates the use of ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) as a rapid test procedure for potential detection of adulterated perfumes and speciation of plant life. Sample types measured consist of five genuine perfumes, two species of sagebrush, and four species of flowers. Each sample type is treated as a separate classification problem. It is shown that discrimination using principal component analysis with K-nearest neighbors can distinguish one class from another. Discriminatory models generated using principal component regressions are not as effective. Results from this examination are encouraging and represent an initial phase demonstrating that perfumes and plants possess characteristic chemical signatures that can be used for reliable identification.

  1. Can the dietary element content of virgin argan oils really be used for adulteration detection?

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Faez A E; Bchitou, Rahma; Bouhaouss, Ahmed; Gharby, Saïd; Harhar, Hicham; Guillaume, Dominique; Charrouf, Zoubida

    2013-01-01

    Levels of eight dietary elements were assessed by ICP-AES in virgin edible and beauty argan oil samples prepared from four remote locations of the argan forest, and over a three-year period. The data showed sufficiently little variability to assess that all argan oil samples present, in terms of dietary elements, a similar composition, independently from the tree location within the argan forest. Therefore, adulteration detection by trace element analysis in edible and beauty argan oil is a method that can be generalised. PMID:23017399

  2. Can the dietary element content of virgin argan oils really be used for adulteration detection?

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Faez A E; Bchitou, Rahma; Bouhaouss, Ahmed; Gharby, Saïd; Harhar, Hicham; Guillaume, Dominique; Charrouf, Zoubida

    2013-01-01

    Levels of eight dietary elements were assessed by ICP-AES in virgin edible and beauty argan oil samples prepared from four remote locations of the argan forest, and over a three-year period. The data showed sufficiently little variability to assess that all argan oil samples present, in terms of dietary elements, a similar composition, independently from the tree location within the argan forest. Therefore, adulteration detection by trace element analysis in edible and beauty argan oil is a method that can be generalised.

  3. Biogenic amine content, histamine-forming bacteria, and adulteration of pork in tuna sausage products.

    PubMed

    Kung, Hsien-Feng; Tsai, Yung-Hsiang; Chang, Shih-Chih; Hong, Tang-Yao

    2012-10-01

    Twenty-five tuna sausage products were purchased from retail markets in Taiwan. The rates of occurrence of biogenic amines, histamine-forming bacteria, and adulteration by pork and poultry were determined. The average content of various biogenic amines in all tested samples was less than 2.0 mg/100 g (<0.05 to 1.85 mg/100 g). Thirteen histamine-producing bacterial strains isolated from tested samples produced 12.1 to 1,261 ppm of histamine in Trypticase soy broth supplemented with 1.0% L-histidine. Among them, Raoultella ornithinolytica (one strain), Enterobacter aerogenes (one strain), and Staphylococcus pasteuri (two strains) were identified as prolific histamine formers. PCR assay revealed that the adulteration rates were 80% (20 of 25) and 4% (1 of 25) for pork and poultry, respectively, in tuna sausage. The fish species in the tuna sausage samples were identified as Thunnus albacares for 22 samples (88%), Thunnus alalunga for 1 sample (4%), and Thunnus thynnus for 1 sample (4%), whereas the remaining sample was identified as Makaira nigricans (blue marlin). PMID:23043830

  4. Biogenic amine content, histamine-forming bacteria, and adulteration of pork in tuna sausage products.

    PubMed

    Kung, Hsien-Feng; Tsai, Yung-Hsiang; Chang, Shih-Chih; Hong, Tang-Yao

    2012-10-01

    Twenty-five tuna sausage products were purchased from retail markets in Taiwan. The rates of occurrence of biogenic amines, histamine-forming bacteria, and adulteration by pork and poultry were determined. The average content of various biogenic amines in all tested samples was less than 2.0 mg/100 g (<0.05 to 1.85 mg/100 g). Thirteen histamine-producing bacterial strains isolated from tested samples produced 12.1 to 1,261 ppm of histamine in Trypticase soy broth supplemented with 1.0% L-histidine. Among them, Raoultella ornithinolytica (one strain), Enterobacter aerogenes (one strain), and Staphylococcus pasteuri (two strains) were identified as prolific histamine formers. PCR assay revealed that the adulteration rates were 80% (20 of 25) and 4% (1 of 25) for pork and poultry, respectively, in tuna sausage. The fish species in the tuna sausage samples were identified as Thunnus albacares for 22 samples (88%), Thunnus alalunga for 1 sample (4%), and Thunnus thynnus for 1 sample (4%), whereas the remaining sample was identified as Makaira nigricans (blue marlin).

  5. Genomics of the honey bee microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Nancy A.

    2015-01-01

    The guts of honey bee workers contain a distinctive community of bacterial species. They are microaerophilic or anaerobic, and were not clearly deliniated by earlier studies relying on laboratory culture of isolates under atmospheric oxygen levels. Recently, a more complete picture of the potential metabolism and functions of these bacteria has been possible, using genomic approaches based on metagenomic samples, as well as cultured isolates. Of these, most are host-restricted and are generally absent outside adult guts. These species include both Gram negative groups, such as Gilliamella apicola and Snodgrassella alvi, and Gram positive groups such as certain Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species. These gut bacterial species appear to have undergone long term coevolution with honey bee and, in some cases, bumble bee hosts. Prediction of gene functions from genome sequences suggests roles in nutrition, digestion, and potentially in defense against pathogens. In particular, genes for sugar utilization and carbohydrate breakdown are enriched in G. apicola and the Lactobacillus species. PMID:26140264

  6. Nanoparticle-based assay for the detection of virgin argan oil adulteration and its rapid quality evaluation.

    PubMed

    Zougagh, M; Salghi, R; Dhair, S; Rios, A

    2011-03-01

    A new method, based on the formation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and spectrophotometric analysis, is proposed to determine total phenolic acids in virgin argan oil samples. These compounds have reducibility due to the presence of the phenol group in their molecular structure, and a redox reaction occurs in the presence of HAuCl(4). The formation of AuNPs as a result of the redox reaction leading to colour changes can be visually observed, resulting in strong light signals that show absorption at 555 nm. As ferulic acid represents more than 95% of the total phenolic acid content of virgin argan oil, this compound was used as an adulteration marker to carry out the screening of samples for the evaluation of the authenticity of virgin argan oils. The analytical features of this screening method also allowed a low precision quantization of the quality of the product. Then, a reference HPLC-DAD/FD method was used to confirm the potential adulterated samples, as well as to provide a detailed quantitative analysis of the most representative phenolic compounds in the samples. The overall screening-confirmation strategy was validated by analysing pure virgin argan oil samples and argan oil samples adulterated with other commercial vegetable oils, demonstrating the reliability of the results. This approach is characterised by its simplicity, low cost, rapid information and responded to practical laboratories needs.

  7. Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of Algerian honey.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Ibrahim; Moniruzzaman, Mohammed; Boukraâ, Laïd; Benhanifia, Mokhtar; Islam, Asiful; Islam, Nazmul; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Gan, Siew Hua

    2012-09-20

    The aim of the present study was to characterize the physical, biochemical and antioxidant properties of Algerian honey samples (n = 4). Physical parameters, such as pH, moisture content, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), color intensity, total sugar and sucrose content were measured. Several biochemical and antioxidant tests were performed to determine the antioxidant properties of the honey samples. The mean pH was 3.84 ± 0.01, and moisture the content was 13.21 ± 0.16%. The mean EC was 0.636 ± 0.001, and the mean TDS was 316.92 ± 0.92. The mean color was 120.58 ± 0.64 mm Pfund, and the mean 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) content was 21.49 mg/kg. The mean total sugar and reducing sugar contents were 67.03 ± 0.68 g/mL and 64.72 ± 0.52 g/g, respectively. The mean sucrose content was 2.29 ± 0.65%. High mean values of phenolic (459.83 ± 1.92 mg gallic acid/kg), flavonoid (54.23 ± 0.62 mg catechin/kg), ascorbic acid (159.70 ± 0.78 mg/kg), AEAC (278.15 ± 4.34 mg/kg), protein (3381.83 ± 6.19 mg/kg) and proline (2131.47 ± 0.90) contents, as well as DPPH (39.57% ± 4.18) and FRAP activities [337.77 ± 1.01 µM Fe (II)/100 g], were also detected, indicating that Algerian honey has a high antioxidant potential. Strong positive correlations were found between flavonoid, proline and ascorbic acid contents and color intensity with DPPH and FRAP values. Thus, the present study revealed that Algerian honey is a good source of antioxidants.

  8. Radioactivity in honey of the central Italy.

    PubMed

    Meli, Maria Assunta; Desideri, Donatella; Roselli, Carla; Feduzi, Laura; Benedetti, Claudio

    2016-07-01

    Natural radionuclides and (137)Cs in twenty seven honeys produced in a region of the Central Italy were determined by alpha ((235)U, (238)U, (210)Po, (232)Th and (228)Th) and gamma spectrometry ((137)Cs, (40)K, (226)Ra and (228)Ra). The study was carried out in order to estimate the background levels of natural ((40)K, (238)U and (232)Th and their progeny) and artificial radionuclides ((137)Cs) in various honey samples, as well as to compile a data base for radioactivity levels in that region. (40)K showed a mean activity of 28.1±23.0Bqkg(-1) with a range of 7.28-101Bqkg(-1). The mean of (210)Po activity resulted 0.40±0.46Bqkg(-1) with a range of 0.03-1.98Bqkg(-1). The mean of (238)U activity resulted 0.020±0.010Bqkg(-1). (226)Ra and (228)Ra resulted always <0.34 and <0.57Bqkg(-1) respectively, (235)U, (228)Th and (232)Th were always <0.007Bqkg(-1). (137)Cs resulted <0.10Bqkg(-1) in all samples. The committed effective doses due to (210)Po from ingestion of honey for infants, children and adults account for 0.002-5.13% of the natural radiation exposure in Italy. The honeys produced in Central Italy were of good quality in relation to the studied parameters, confirming the general image of a genuine and healthy food associated to this traditional products.

  9. Anaphylaxis/angioedema caused by honey ingestion.

    PubMed

    Vezir, Emine; Kaya, Ayşenur; Toyran, Müge; Azkur, Dilek; Dibek Mısırlıoğlu, Emine; Kocabaş, Can Naci

    2014-01-01

    Honey allergy is a very rare, but serious health condition. In this study, we presented six patients who described systemic allergic reactions after ingestion of honey. Three of the six patients had suffered from anaphylaxis. Honey-specific IgE was measured and skin-prick tests for honey were performed to diagnose honey allergy. The results of honey-specific IgE of all patients were positive. Four patients had high serum-specific IgE for honey bee venom and two of five patients had also experienced anaphylaxis due to bee stings. Skin-prick tests with honey and pollens were positive in five patients. Honey is one of the foods that can cause severe systemic reactions. Specific IgE and skin-prick tests are helpful for the diagnosis of honey allergy.

  10. Genetic Stock Identification Of Production Colonies Of Russian Honey Bees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of Nosema ceranae in managed honey bee colonies has increased dramatically in the past 10 – 20 years worldwide. A variety of genetic testing methods for species identification and prevalence are now available. However sample size and preservation method of samples prior to testing hav...

  11. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in food: downstream contamination in the food chain caused by honey and pollen.

    PubMed

    Kempf, M; Wittig, M; Schönfeld, K; Cramer, L; Schreier, P; Beuerle, T

    2011-03-01

    In recent years, there has been a steadily growing number of published data on pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) in honey and pollen. This raises the question whether honey and/or pollen used as ingredients in food processing might provoke a downstream contamination in the food chain. Here we addressed two different facets in connection with PAs in honey and pollen. First, we analysed the PA content of several food types such as mead (n = 19), candy (n = 10), fennel honey (n = 9), soft drinks (n = 5), power bars and cereals (n = 7), jelly babies (n = 3), baby food (n = 3), supplements (n = 3) and fruit sauce (n = 1) that contained honey as an ingredient in the range of 5% to approximately 37%. Eight out of 60 retail samples were tested as being PA-positive, corresponding to 13%. Positive samples were found in mead, candy and fennel honey, and the average PA content was calculated to be 0.10 µg g(-1) retronecine equivalents (ranging from 0.010 to 0.484 µg g(-1)). Furthermore, we investigated the question whether and how PAs from PA pollen are transferred from pollen into honey. We conducted model experiments with floral pollen of Senecio vernalis and PA free honey and tested the influence of the quantity of PA pollen, contact time and a simulated honey filtration on the final PA content of honey. It could clearly be demonstrated that the PA content of honey was directly proportional to the amount of PA pollen in honey and that the transfer of PAs from pollen to honey was a rather quick process. Consequently, PA pollen represents a major source for the observed PA content in honey. On the other hand, a good portion remains in the pollen. This fraction is not detected by the common analytical methods, but will be ingested, and it represents an unknown amount of 'hidden' PAs. In addition, the results showed that a technically and legally possible honey filtration (including the removal of all pollen) would not be an option to reduce the PA level of the final product

  12. Oil Adulteration Identification by Hyperspectral Imaging Using QHM and ICA

    PubMed Central

    Han, Zhongzhi; Wan, Jianhua; Deng, Limiao; Liu, Kangwei

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of identification of qualified and adulterated oil product using hyperspectral imaging(HIS) technique, a novel feature set based on quantized histogram matrix (QHM) and feature selection method using improved kernel independent component analysis (iKICA) is proposed for HSI. We use UV and Halogen excitations in this study. Region of interest(ROI) of hyperspectral images of 256 oil samples from four varieties are obtained within the spectral region of 400–720nm. Radiation indexes extracted from each ROI are used as feature vectors. These indexes are individual band radiation index (RI), difference of consecutive spectral band radiation index (DRI), ratio of consecutive spectral band radiation index (RRI) and normalized DRI (NDRI). Another set of features called quantized histogram matrix (QHM) are extracted by applying quantization on the image histogram from these features. Based on these feature sets, improved kernel independent component analysis (iKICA) is used to select significant features. For comparison, algorithms such as plus L reduce R (plusLrR), Fisher, multidimensional scaling (MDS), independent component analysis (ICA), and principle component analysis (PCA) are also used to select the most significant wavelengths or features. Support vector machine (SVM) is used as the classifier. Experimental results show that the proposed methods are able to obtain robust and better classification performance with fewer number of spectral bands and simplify the design of computer vision systems. PMID:26820311

  13. Oil Adulteration Identification by Hyperspectral Imaging Using QHM and ICA.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhongzhi; Wan, Jianhua; Deng, Limiao; Liu, Kangwei

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of identification of qualified and adulterated oil product using hyperspectral imaging(HIS) technique, a novel feature set based on quantized histogram matrix (QHM) and feature selection method using improved kernel independent component analysis (iKICA) is proposed for HSI. We use UV and Halogen excitations in this study. Region of interest(ROI) of hyperspectral images of 256 oil samples from four varieties are obtained within the spectral region of 400-720nm. Radiation indexes extracted from each ROI are used as feature vectors. These indexes are individual band radiation index (RI), difference of consecutive spectral band radiation index (DRI), ratio of consecutive spectral band radiation index (RRI) and normalized DRI (NDRI). Another set of features called quantized histogram matrix (QHM) are extracted by applying quantization on the image histogram from these features. Based on these feature sets, improved kernel independent component analysis (iKICA) is used to select significant features. For comparison, algorithms such as plus L reduce R (plusLrR), Fisher, multidimensional scaling (MDS), independent component analysis (ICA), and principle component analysis (PCA) are also used to select the most significant wavelengths or features. Support vector machine (SVM) is used as the classifier. Experimental results show that the proposed methods are able to obtain robust and better classification performance with fewer number of spectral bands and simplify the design of computer vision systems. PMID:26820311

  14. Two-year variations of phenolics, flavonoids and antioxidant contents in acacia honey.

    PubMed

    Moniruzzaman, Mohammed; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Azlan, Siti Amirah Mohd; Gan, Siew Hua

    2013-11-27

    Honey is a good source of several important chemical compounds and antioxidants and is harvested throughout the year. However, no study has determined how their contents change over the years. The aim of the present research was to investigate the changes in the phenolics, flavonoids and antioxidant properties, as well as other physicochemical properties, of Malaysian acacia honey collected during different months during a two year period. The DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) methods were used to determine the total antioxidant activity of the honey samples. Generally, honey samples collected in the beginning and the middle of the year tended to have higher sugar content, which may be attributed to its high acidic nature and low moisture content. There was a gradual increase in the phenolic content of the acacia honey samples collected between September 2010 and December 2010. The honey sample collected at the beginning of the year (January) showed the highest color intensity and was dark amber in color. It also contained the highest concentration of phenolic compounds (341.67 ± 2.94 mg(gallic acid)/kg), the highest flavonoid content (113.06 ± 6.18 mg(catechin)/kg) and the highest percentage of DPPH inhibition and the highest FRAP value, confirming its high antioxidant potential. There was a positive correlation between DPPH and total phenolic content, suggesting that phenolic compounds are the strongest contributing factor to the radical scavenging activity of Malaysian acacia honeys. Overall, our results indicated that there were significant seasonal variations in the antioxidant potentials of honey over the two year period and the time of honey collection affects its physicochemical properties. Therefore, acacia honey from Malaysia should ideally be collected during the dry season, particularly in the months of January, May and June.

  15. Honey - A Novel Antidiabetic Agent

    PubMed Central

    Erejuwa, Omotayo O.; Sulaiman, Siti A.; Wahab, Mohd S. Ab

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus remains a burden worldwide in spite of the availability of numerous antidiabetic drugs. Honey is a natural substance produced by bees from nectar. Several evidence-based health benefits have been ascribed to honey in the recent years. In this review article, we highlight findings which demonstrate the beneficial or potential effects of honey in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), on the gut microbiota, in the liver, in the pancreas and how these effects could improve glycemic control and metabolic derangements. In healthy subjects or patients with impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes mellitus, various studies revealed that honey reduced blood glucose or was more tolerable than most common sugars or sweeteners. Pre-clinical studies provided more convincing evidence in support of honey as a potential antidiabetic agent than clinical studies did. The not-too-impressive clinical data could mainly be attributed to poor study designs or due to the fact that the clinical studies were preliminary. Based on the key constituents of honey, the possible mechanisms of action of antidiabetic effect of honey are proposed. The paper also highlights the potential impacts and future perspectives on the use of honey as an antidiabetic agent. It makes recommendations for further clinical studies on the potential antidiabetic effect of honey. This review provides insight on the potential use of honey, especially as a complementary agent, in the management of diabetes mellitus. Hence, it is very important to have well-designed, randomized controlled clinical trials that investigate the reproducibility (or otherwise) of these experimental data in diabetic human subjects. PMID:22811614

  16. Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids from Echium vulgare in Honey Originate Primarily from Floral Nectar.

    PubMed

    Lucchetti, Matteo A; Glauser, Gaetan; Kilchenmann, Verena; Dübecke, Arne; Beckh, Gudrun; Praz, Christophe; Kast, Christina

    2016-06-29

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) in honey can be a potential human health risk. So far, it has remained unclear whether PAs in honey originate from pollen or floral nectar. We obtained honey, nectar, and plant pollen from two observation sites where Echium vulgare L. was naturally abundant. The PA concentration of honey was determined by targeted analysis using a high pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry system (HPLC-MS/MS), allowing the quantification of six different PAs and PA-N-oxides present in E. vulgare. Echium-type PAs were detected up to 0.153 μg/g in honey. Nectar and plant pollen were analyzed by nontargeted analysis using ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography-high resolution-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HR-MS), allowing the detection of 10 alkaloids in small size samples. Echium-type PAs were detected between 0.3-95.1 μg/g in nectar and 500-35000 μg/g in plant pollen. The PA composition in nectar and plant pollen was compared to the composition in honey. Echimidine (+N-oxide) was the main alkaloid detected in honey and nectar samples, while echivulgarine (+N-oxide) was the main PA found in plant pollen. These results suggest that nectar contributes more significantly to PA contamination in honey than plant pollen. PMID:27244472

  17. Honey bee pathology: current threats to honey bees and beekeeping.

    PubMed

    Genersch, Elke

    2010-06-01

    Managed honey bees are the most important commercial pollinators of those crops which depend on animal pollination for reproduction and which account for 35% of the global food production. Hence, they are vital for an economic, sustainable agriculture and for food security. In addition, honey bees also pollinate a variety of wild flowers and, therefore, contribute to the biodiversity of many ecosystems. Honey and other hive products are, at least economically and ecologically rather, by-products of beekeeping. Due to this outstanding role of honey bees, severe and inexplicable honey bee colony losses, which have been reported recently to be steadily increasing, have attracted much attention and stimulated many research activities. Although the phenomenon "decline of honey bees" is far from being finally solved, consensus exists that pests and pathogens are the single most important cause of otherwise inexplicable colony losses. This review will focus on selected bee pathogens and parasites which have been demonstrated to be involved in colony losses in different regions of the world and which, therefore, are considered current threats to honey bees and beekeeping.

  18. Pesticides in honey: A review on chromatographic analytical methods.

    PubMed

    Tette, Patrícia Amaral Souza; Rocha Guidi, Letícia; Glória, Maria Beatriz de Abreu; Fernandes, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Honey is a product of high consumption due to its nutritional and antimicrobial properties. However, residues of pesticides, used in plagues' treatment in the hive or in crop fields in the neighborhoods, can compromise its quality. Therefore, determination of these contaminants in honey is essential, since the use of pesticides has increased significantly in recent decades because of the growing demand for food production. Furthermore, pesticides in honey can be an indicator of environmental contamination. As the concentration of these compounds in honey is usually at trace levels and several pesticides can be found simultaneously, the use of highly sensitive and selective techniques is required. In this context, miniaturized sample preparation approaches and liquid or gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry became the most important analytical techniques. In this review we present and discuss recent studies dealing with pesticide determination in honey, focusing on sample preparation and separation/detection methods as well as application of the developed methods worldwide. Furthermore, trends and future perspectives are presented. PMID:26717823

  19. Pesticides in honey: A review on chromatographic analytical methods.

    PubMed

    Tette, Patrícia Amaral Souza; Rocha Guidi, Letícia; Glória, Maria Beatriz de Abreu; Fernandes, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Honey is a product of high consumption due to its nutritional and antimicrobial properties. However, residues of pesticides, used in plagues' treatment in the hive or in crop fields in the neighborhoods, can compromise its quality. Therefore, determination of these contaminants in honey is essential, since the use of pesticides has increased significantly in recent decades because of the growing demand for food production. Furthermore, pesticides in honey can be an indicator of environmental contamination. As the concentration of these compounds in honey is usually at trace levels and several pesticides can be found simultaneously, the use of highly sensitive and selective techniques is required. In this context, miniaturized sample preparation approaches and liquid or gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry became the most important analytical techniques. In this review we present and discuss recent studies dealing with pesticide determination in honey, focusing on sample preparation and separation/detection methods as well as application of the developed methods worldwide. Furthermore, trends and future perspectives are presented.

  20. A rapid method for the determination of honey diastase activity.

    PubMed

    Sakač, Nikola; Sak-Bosnar, Milan

    2012-05-15

    A new rapid method for the determination of honey diastase activity using direct potentiometric principles has been proposed. A platinum redox sensor has been used to quantify the amount of free triiodide released from a starch triiodide complex after starch hydrolysis by honey diastase. The method was tested on honey samples with varying diastase activities. The first 5 min of data for each sample were used for linear regression analysis in order to calculate diastase activity. The new method was compared with classical Schade and commercial Phadebas procedures. The results showed good correlations with both methods and offered a simple method for unit conversion to DN units for diastase activity, making the method suitable for routine analysis.

  1. Use of differential scanning calorimetry to detect canola oil (Brassica napus L.) adulterated with lard stearin.

    PubMed

    Marikkar, Jalaldeen Mohammed Nazrim; Rana, Sohel

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to detect and quantify lard stearin (LS) content in canola oil (CaO) using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Authentic samples of CaO were obtained from a reliable supplier and the adulterant LS were obtained through a fractional crystallization procedure as reported previously. Pure CaO samples spiked with LS in levels ranging from 5 to 15% (w/w) were analyzed using DSC to obtain their cooling and heating profiles. The results showed that samples contaminated with LS at 5% (w/w) level can be detected using characteristic contaminant peaks appearing in the higher temperature regions (0 to 70°C) of the cooling and heating curves. Pearson correlation analysis of LS content against individual DSC parameters of the adulterant peak namely peak temperature, peak area, peak onset temperature indicated that there were strong correlations between these with the LS content of the CaO admixtures. When these three parameters were engaged as variables in the execution of the stepwise regression procedure, predictive models for determination of LS content in CaO were obtained. The predictive models obtained with single DSC parameter had relatively lower coefficient of determination (R(2) value) and higher standard error than the models obtained using two DSC parameters in combination. This study concluded that the predictive models obtained with peak area and peak onset temperature of the adulteration peak would be more accurate for prediction of LS content in CaO based on the highest coefficient of determination (R(2) value) and smallest standard error.

  2. Detecting multiple adulterants in dry milk using Raman chemical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Jianwei; Chao, Kuanglin; Kim, Moon S.

    2012-05-01

    This study investigated the potential of Raman chemical imaging for simultaneously detecting multiple adulterants in milk powder. Potential chemical adulterants, including ammonium sulfate, dicyandiamide, melamine, and urea, were together mixed into nonfat dry milk in the concentration range of 0.1%-5.0% for each adulterant. A benchtop point-scan Raman imaging system using a 785-nm laser was assembled to acquire hyperspectral images in the wavenumber range of 102-2538 cm-1. Each mixture was imaged in an area of 25×25 mm2 with a spatial resolution of 0.25 mm. Selfmodeling mixture analysis (SMA) was used to extract pure component spectra, by which the four types of the adulterants were identified at all concentration levels based on their spectral information divergence values to the reference spectra. Raman chemical images were created using the contribution images from SMA, and their use to effectively visualize identification and spatial distribution of the multiple adulterant particles in the dry milk was demonstrated.

  3. A rapid reversed-phase thin layer chromatographic protocol for detection of adulteration in ghee (clarified milk fat) with vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Rani, Anupama; Sharma, Vivek; Arora, Sumit; Lal, Darshan; Kumar, Anil

    2015-04-01

    Detection of milk fat adulteration with foreign fats/oils continues to be a challenge for the dairy industry as well as food testing laboratories, especially in the present scenario of rampant adulteration using the scientific knowledge by unscrupulous persons involved in the trade. In the present investigation a rapid reversed-phase thin layer chromatographic (RP-TLC) protocol was standardized to ascertain the purity of milk fat. RP-TLC protocol did not show any false positive results in the genuine ghee (clarified butter fat) samples of known origin. Adulteration of ghee with coconut oil up to 7. 5 %, soybean oil, sunflower oil and groundnut oil up to 1 %, while, designer oil up to 2 % level could be detected using the standardized RP-TLC protocol. The protocol standardized is rapid and convenient to use. PMID:25825547

  4. 49 CFR 40.95 - What are the adulterant cutoff concentrations for initial and confirmation tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What are the adulterant cutoff concentrations for... Laboratories § 40.95 What are the adulterant cutoff concentrations for initial and confirmation tests? (a) As a laboratory, you must use the cutoff concentrations for the initial and confirmation adulterant testing...

  5. 49 CFR 40.95 - What are the adulterant cutoff concentrations for initial and confirmation tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What are the adulterant cutoff concentrations for... Laboratories § 40.95 What are the adulterant cutoff concentrations for initial and confirmation tests? (a) As a laboratory, you must use the cutoff concentrations for the initial and confirmation adulterant testing...

  6. 49 CFR 40.95 - What are the adulterant cutoff concentrations for initial and confirmation tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What are the adulterant cutoff concentrations for... Laboratories § 40.95 What are the adulterant cutoff concentrations for initial and confirmation tests? (a) As a laboratory, you must use the cutoff concentrations for the initial and confirmation adulterant testing...

  7. 49 CFR 40.95 - What are the adulterant cutoff concentrations for initial and confirmation tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What are the adulterant cutoff concentrations for... Laboratories § 40.95 What are the adulterant cutoff concentrations for initial and confirmation tests? (a) As a laboratory, you must use the cutoff concentrations for the initial and confirmation adulterant testing...

  8. 49 CFR 40.95 - What are the adulterant cutoff concentrations for initial and confirmation tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the adulterant cutoff concentrations for... Laboratories § 40.95 What are the adulterant cutoff concentrations for initial and confirmation tests? (a) As a laboratory, you must use the cutoff concentrations for the initial and confirmation adulterant testing...

  9. Interactions between Cooccurring Lactic Acid Bacteria in Honey Bee Hives.

    PubMed

    Rokop, Z P; Horton, M A; Newton, I L G

    2015-10-01

    In contrast to the honey bee gut, which is colonized by a few characteristic bacterial clades, the hive of the honey bee is home to a diverse array of microbes, including many lactic acid bacteria (LAB). In this study, we used culture, combined with sequencing, to sample the LAB communities found across hive environments. Specifically, we sought to use network analysis to identify microbial hubs sharing nearly identical operational taxonomic units, evidence which may indicate cooccurrence of bacteria between environments. In the process, we identified interactions between noncore bacterial members (Fructobacillus and Lactobacillaceae) and honey bee-specific "core" members. Both Fructobacillus and Lactobacillaceae colonize brood cells, bee bread, and nectar and may serve the role of pioneering species, establishing an environment conducive to the inoculation by honey bee core bacteria. Coculture assays showed that these noncore bacterial members promote the growth of honey bee-specific bacterial species. Specifically, Fructobacillus by-products in spent medium supported the growth of the Firm-5 honey bee-specific clade in vitro. Metabolic characterization of Fructobacillus using carbohydrate utilization assays revealed that this strain is capable of utilizing the simple sugars fructose and glucose, as well as the complex plant carbohydrate lignin. We tested Fructobacillus for antibiotic sensitivity and found that this bacterium, which may be important for establishment of the microbiome, is sensitive to the commonly used antibiotic tetracycline. Our results point to the possible significance of "noncore" and environmental microbial community members in the modulation of honey bee microbiome dynamics and suggest that tetracycline use by beekeepers should be limited. PMID:26253685

  10. Physicochemical properties of the Harenna forest honey, Bale, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Belay, Abera; Solomon, W K; Bultossa, Geremew; Adgaba, Nuru; Melaku, Samuel

    2013-12-15

    In this study, the physicochemical properties of the Harenna forest honey were characterised. The Harenna forest honey moisture, reducing sugar, sucrose, water insoluble solids, ash, free acid, pH, HMF contents, electrical conductivity and specific rotation were found to be 17.89±1.02 g/100 g, 69.48±1.72 g/100 g, 2.43±1.02 g/100 g, 0.12±0.08 g/100 g, 0.19±0.09 g/100 g, 34.57±4.80 meq/kg, 3.87±0.16, 0.84±0.46 mg/1000 g, 0.70±0.04 mS/cm and -132±15.27 [α]D(20), respectively. All quality indicators of honey from traditional and frame hives were within the criteria set by Codex Alimentarus (CA), European Union (EU) and Ethiopian standard, except for water insoluble solids. The type of hives significantly affected the moisture (p<0.01), reducing sugar (p<0.05), ash (p<0.05) and HMF (p<0.05) contents of the Harenna forest honey. The sampling location also significantly affected the moisture (p<0.001), water insoluble solids (p<0.01), ash (p<0.01), electrical conductivity (p<0.001) and specific rotation (p<0.001) values of the Harenna forest honey. Significant correlations were observed between moisture content and electrical conductivity (r=0.76, p<0.01), and electrical conductivity and specific rotation (r=0.74, p<0.01). Traditional hive has no negative effect on quality factors of honey if honey harvesting, handling and processing is properly carried out.

  11. Interactions between Cooccurring Lactic Acid Bacteria in Honey Bee Hives

    PubMed Central

    Rokop, Z. P.; Horton, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to the honey bee gut, which is colonized by a few characteristic bacterial clades, the hive of the honey bee is home to a diverse array of microbes, including many lactic acid bacteria (LAB). In this study, we used culture, combined with sequencing, to sample the LAB communities found across hive environments. Specifically, we sought to use network analysis to identify microbial hubs sharing nearly identical operational taxonomic units, evidence which may indicate cooccurrence of bacteria between environments. In the process, we identified interactions between noncore bacterial members (Fructobacillus and Lactobacillaceae) and honey bee-specific “core” members. Both Fructobacillus and Lactobacillaceae colonize brood cells, bee bread, and nectar and may serve the role of pioneering species, establishing an environment conducive to the inoculation by honey bee core bacteria. Coculture assays showed that these noncore bacterial members promote the growth of honey bee-specific bacterial species. Specifically, Fructobacillus by-products in spent medium supported the growth of the Firm-5 honey bee-specific clade in vitro. Metabolic characterization of Fructobacillus using carbohydrate utilization assays revealed that this strain is capable of utilizing the simple sugars fructose and glucose, as well as the complex plant carbohydrate lignin. We tested Fructobacillus for antibiotic sensitivity and found that this bacterium, which may be important for establishment of the microbiome, is sensitive to the commonly used antibiotic tetracycline. Our results point to the possible significance of “noncore” and environmental microbial community members in the modulation of honey bee microbiome dynamics and suggest that tetracycline use by beekeepers should be limited. PMID:26253685

  12. Detection of argan oil adulteration with vegetable oils by high-performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detection.

    PubMed

    Salghi, Rachid; Armbruster, Wolfgang; Schwack, Wolfgang

    2014-06-15

    Triacylglycerol profiles were selected as indicator of adulteration of argan oils to carry out a rapid screening of samples for the evaluation of authenticity. Triacylglycerols were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detection. Different peak area ratios were defined to sensitively detect adulteration of argan oil with vegetable oils such as sunflower, soy bean, and olive oil up to the level of 5%. Based on four reference argan oils, mean limits of detection and quantitation were calculated to approximately 0.4% and 1.3%, respectively. Additionally, 19 more argan oil reference samples were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography-refractive index detection, resulting in highly comparative results. The overall strategy demonstrated a good applicability in practise, and hence a high potential to be transferred to routine laboratories.

  13. The application of Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS) to detect melamine adulteration of soya bean meal.

    PubMed

    Haughey, Simon A; Graham, Stewart F; Cancouët, Emmanuelle; Elliott, Christopher T

    2013-02-15

    Soya bean products are used widely in the animal feed industry as a protein based feed ingredient and have been found to be adulterated with melamine. This was highlighted in the Chinese scandal of 2008. Dehulled soya (GM and non-GM), soya hulls and toasted soya were contaminated with melamine and spectra were generated using Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS). By applying chemometrics to the spectral data, excellent calibration models and prediction statistics were obtained. The coefficients of determination (R(2)) were found to be 0.89-0.99 depending on the mathematical algorithm used, the data pre-processing applied and the sample type used. The corresponding values for the root mean square error of calibration and prediction were found to be 0.081-0.276% and 0.134-0.368%, respectively, again depending on the chemometric treatment applied to the data and sample type. In addition, adopting a qualitative approach with the spectral data and applying PCA, it was possible to discriminate between the four samples types and also, by generation of Cooman's plots, possible to distinguish between adulterated and non-adulterated samples.

  14. Competitive immunochromatographic assay for leptosperin as a plausible authentication marker of manuka honey.

    PubMed

    Kato, Yoji; Araki, Yukako; Juri, Maki; Ishisaka, Akari; Nitta, Yoko; Niwa, Toshio; Kitamoto, Noritoshi; Takimoto, Yosuke

    2016-03-01

    Manuka honey is known as one of the premium honeys because of its unique property: a potent antibacterial activity. Leptosperin, methyl syringate 4-O-β-d-gentiobioside, has been specifically identified in manuka honey. Because leptosperin is relatively stable under warmer conditions, measuring leptosperin levels may be applied to authenticate manuka honey. In this study, an immunochromatographic separation and quantification of leptosperin techniques have been developed. The concentration of leptosperin measured by immunochromatography was significantly correlated with the concentration measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Because the immunochromatographic method is rapid and reliable, it could be applied to on-site quality control or inspection of honey samples by a beekeeper, a manufacturer, an inspector, a retailer, or a consumer.

  15. [A new herbs traceability method based on DNA barcoding-origin-morphology analysis--an example from an adulterant of 'Heiguogouqi'].

    PubMed

    Gu, Xuan; Zhang, Xiao-qin; Song, Xiao-na; Zang, Yi-mei; Li Yan-peng; Ma, Chang-hua; Zhao, Bai-xiao; Liu, Chun-sheng

    2014-12-01

    The fruit of Lycium ruthenicum is a common folk medicine in China. Now it is popular for its antioxidative effect and other medical functions. The adulterants of the herb confuse consumers. In order to identify a new adulterant of L. ruthenicum, a research was performed based on NCBI Nucleotide Database ITS Sequence, combined analysis of the origin and morphology of the adulterant to traceable varieties. Total genomic DNA was isolated from the materials, and nuclear DNA ITS sequences were amplified and sequenced; DNA fragments were collated and matched by using ContingExpress. Similarity identification of BLAST analysis was performed. Besides, the distribution of plant origin and morphology were considered to further identification and verification. Families and genera were identified by molecular identification method. The adulterant was identified as plant belonging to Berberis. Origin analysis narrowed the range of sample identification. Seven different kinds of plants in Berberis were potential sources of the sample. Adulterants variety was traced by morphological analysis. The united molecular identification-origin-morphology research proves to be a preceding way to medical herbs traceability with time-saving and economic advantages and the results showed the new adulterant of L. ruthenicum was B. kaschgarica. The main differences between B. kaschgarica and L. ruthenicum are as follows: in terms of the traits, the surface of B. kaschgarica is smooth and crispy, and that of L. ruthenicum is shrinkage, solid and hard. In microscopic characteristics, epicarp cells of B. aschgarica thickening like a string of beads, stone cells as the rectangle, and the stone cell walls of L. ruthenicum is wavy, obvious grain layer. In molecular sequences, the length of ITS sequence of B. kaschgarica is 606 bp, L. ruthenicum is 654 bp, the similarity of the two sequences is 53.32%.

  16. [A new herbs traceability method based on DNA barcoding-origin-morphology analysis--an example from an adulterant of 'Heiguogouqi'].

    PubMed

    Gu, Xuan; Zhang, Xiao-qin; Song, Xiao-na; Zang, Yi-mei; Li Yan-peng; Ma, Chang-hua; Zhao, Bai-xiao; Liu, Chun-sheng

    2014-12-01

    The fruit of Lycium ruthenicum is a common folk medicine in China. Now it is popular for its antioxidative effect and other medical functions. The adulterants of the herb confuse consumers. In order to identify a new adulterant of L. ruthenicum, a research was performed based on NCBI Nucleotide Database ITS Sequence, combined analysis of the origin and morphology of the adulterant to traceable varieties. Total genomic DNA was isolated from the materials, and nuclear DNA ITS sequences were amplified and sequenced; DNA fragments were collated and matched by using ContingExpress. Similarity identification of BLAST analysis was performed. Besides, the distribution of plant origin and morphology were considered to further identification and verification. Families and genera were identified by molecular identification method. The adulterant was identified as plant belonging to Berberis. Origin analysis narrowed the range of sample identification. Seven different kinds of plants in Berberis were potential sources of the sample. Adulterants variety was traced by morphological analysis. The united molecular identification-origin-morphology research proves to be a preceding way to medical herbs traceability with time-saving and economic advantages and the results showed the new adulterant of L. ruthenicum was B. kaschgarica. The main differences between B. kaschgarica and L. ruthenicum are as follows: in terms of the traits, the surface of B. kaschgarica is smooth and crispy, and that of L. ruthenicum is shrinkage, solid and hard. In microscopic characteristics, epicarp cells of B. aschgarica thickening like a string of beads, stone cells as the rectangle, and the stone cell walls of L. ruthenicum is wavy, obvious grain layer. In molecular sequences, the length of ITS sequence of B. kaschgarica is 606 bp, L. ruthenicum is 654 bp, the similarity of the two sequences is 53.32%. PMID:25898573

  17. Practical procedure for discriminating monofloral honey with a broad pollen profile variability using an electronic tongue.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Mara E B C; Dias, Luís G; Veloso, Ana C A; Estevinho, Letícia; Peres, António M; Machado, Adélio A S C

    2014-10-01

    Colour and floral origin are key parameters that may influence the honey market. Monofloral light honey are more demanded by consumers, mainly due to their flavour, being more valuable for producers due to their higher price when compared to darker honey. The latter usually have a high anti-oxidant content that increases their healthy potential. This work showed that it is possible to correctly classify monofloral honey with a high variability in floral origin with a potentiometric electronic tongue after making a preliminary selection of honey according their colours: white, amber and dark honey. The results showed that the device had a very satisfactory sensitivity towards floral origin (Castanea sp., Echium sp., Erica sp., Lavandula sp., Prunus sp. and Rubus sp.), allowing a leave-one-out cross validation correct classification of 100%. Therefore, the E-tongue shows potential to be used at analytical laboratory level for honey samples classification according to market and quality parameters, as a practical tool for ensuring monofloral honey authenticity. PMID:25059162

  18. Antifungal effect of lavender honey against Candida albicans , Candida krusei and Cryptococcus neoformans.

    PubMed

    Estevinho, Maria Leticia; Afonso, Sílvia Esteves; Feás, Xesús

    2011-10-01

    Monofloral lavender honey samples (n = 30), were analyzed to test antifungal effect against Candida albicans, Candida krusei, and Cryptococcus neoformans. The specific growth rates (μ) showed that all the yeast growths were reduced in the presence of honey. The honey concentration (% w/v) that inhibited 10% of the yeasts growth (X min) ranged from 31.0% (C. albicans), 16.8% (C. krusei) and 23.0% (C. neoformans). A synthetic honey solution was also tested to determine antifungal activity attributable to sugars. The presence of synthetic honey in the C. krusei culture medium at concentrations above 58.0% (w/v) was established as X min, while C. albicans and C. neoformans were more resistant, since X min values were not reached over the ranged tested (10-60%, w/v). What the data suggests is that the component in the lavender honey responsible for the observed antifungal in vitro properties is not sugar based. Honey might be tapped as a natural resource to look for new medicines for the treatment of mycotic infections. This could be very useful, onsidering the increasing resistance of antifungals. It should be noticed that this is the first study concerning the effect of lavender honey on the growth of pathogenic yeasts.

  19. Practical procedure for discriminating monofloral honey with a broad pollen profile variability using an electronic tongue.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Mara E B C; Dias, Luís G; Veloso, Ana C A; Estevinho, Letícia; Peres, António M; Machado, Adélio A S C

    2014-10-01

    Colour and floral origin are key parameters that may influence the honey market. Monofloral light honey are more demanded by consumers, mainly due to their flavour, being more valuable for producers due to their higher price when compared to darker honey. The latter usually have a high anti-oxidant content that increases their healthy potential. This work showed that it is possible to correctly classify monofloral honey with a high variability in floral origin with a potentiometric electronic tongue after making a preliminary selection of honey according their colours: white, amber and dark honey. The results showed that the device had a very satisfactory sensitivity towards floral origin (Castanea sp., Echium sp., Erica sp., Lavandula sp., Prunus sp. and Rubus sp.), allowing a leave-one-out cross validation correct classification of 100%. Therefore, the E-tongue shows potential to be used at analytical laboratory level for honey samples classification according to market and quality parameters, as a practical tool for ensuring monofloral honey authenticity.

  20. Differentiation of Saraca Asoca Crude Drug From Its Adulterant

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Samuel; Mathew, Gracy; Joy, P.P.; Skari, Baby P.; Joseph, T.S.

    2005-01-01

    Saraca asoca commonly known as asoka, which is considered as a sacred tree by Hindus and Buddhists possesses various medicinal uses. The stem bark of the tree is the principal constituent of several ayurvedic preparations which are widely prescribed in leucorrhoea, haematuria, menorrhagia and other diseases of the female genitourinary system. Because of destructive extraction and the absence of an organized cultivation programme, the avilbility of the crude drug is diminishing and this has resulted in the sale of adulterants. The commonly used adulterant is the bark of Polyalthia longifolia which shows some similarity with that of asoka. Studies were conducted at Aromatic and Medicinal Plants Research station, Odakkali (Kerala Agricultural University) during 2001-2002 to evolve methods for differentiating the original drug from the adulterant species by anatomical biochemical and chromatographic techniques. PMID:22557174

  1. Honey: an immunomodulator in wound healing.

    PubMed

    Majtan, Juraj

    2014-01-01

    Honey is a popular natural product that is used in the treatment of burns and a broad spectrum of injuries, in particular chronic wounds. The antibacterial potential of honey has been considered the exclusive criterion for its wound healing properties. The antibacterial activity of honey has recently been fully characterized in medical-grade honeys. Recently, the multifunctional immunomodulatory properties of honey have attracted much attention. The aim of this review is to provide closer insight into the potential immunomodulatory effects of honey in wound healing. Honey and its components are able to either stimulate or inhibit the release of certain cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6) from human monocytes and macrophages, depending on wound condition. Similarly, honey seems to either reduce or activate the production of reactive oxygen species from neutrophils, also depending on the wound microenvironment. The honey-induced activation of both types of immune cells could promote debridement of a wound and speed up the repair process. Similarly, human keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cell responses (e.g., cell migration and proliferation, collagen matrix production, chemotaxis) are positively affected in the presence of honey; thus, honey may accelerate reepithelization and wound closure. The immunomodulatory activity of honey is highly complex because of the involvement of multiple quantitatively variable compounds among honeys of different origins. The identification of these individual compounds and their contributions to wound healing is crucial for a better understanding of the mechanisms behind honey-mediated healing of chronic wounds.

  2. International multidimensional authenticity specification (IMAS) algorithm for detection of commercial pomegranate juice adulteration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanjun; Krueger, Dana; Durst, Robert; Lee, Rupo; Wang, David; Seeram, Navindra; Heber, David

    2009-03-25

    The pomegranate fruit ( Punica granatum ) has become an international high-value crop for the production of commercial pomegranate juice (PJ). The perceived consumer value of PJ is due in large part to its potential health benefits based on a significant body of medical research conducted with authentic PJ. To establish criteria for authenticating PJ, a new International Multidimensional Authenticity Specifications (IMAS) algorithm was developed through consideration of existing databases and comprehensive chemical characterization of 45 commercial juice samples from 23 different manufacturers in the United States. In addition to analysis of commercial juice samples obtained in the United States, data from other analyses of pomegranate juice and fruits including samples from Iran, Turkey, Azerbaijan, Syria, India, and China were considered in developing this protocol. There is universal agreement that the presence of a highly constant group of six anthocyanins together with punicalagins characterizes polyphenols in PJ. At a total sugar concentration of 16 degrees Brix, PJ contains characteristic sugars including mannitol at >0.3 g/100 mL. Ratios of glucose to mannitol of 4-15 and of glucose to fructose of 0.8-1.0 are also characteristic of PJ. In addition, no sucrose should be present because of isomerase activity during commercial processing. Stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry as > -25 per thousand assures that there is no added corn or cane sugar added to PJ. Sorbitol was present at <0.025 g/100 mL; maltose and tartaric acid were not detected. The presence of the amino acid proline at >25 mg/L is indicative of added grape products. Malic acid at >0.1 g/100 mL indicates adulteration with apple, pear, grape, cherry, plum, or aronia juice. Other adulteration methods include the addition of highly concentrated aronia, blueberry, or blackberry juices or natural grape pigments to poor-quality juices to imitate the color of pomegranate juice, which results in

  3. International multidimensional authenticity specification (IMAS) algorithm for detection of commercial pomegranate juice adulteration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanjun; Krueger, Dana; Durst, Robert; Lee, Rupo; Wang, David; Seeram, Navindra; Heber, David

    2009-03-25

    The pomegranate fruit ( Punica granatum ) has become an international high-value crop for the production of commercial pomegranate juice (PJ). The perceived consumer value of PJ is due in large part to its potential health benefits based on a significant body of medical research conducted with authentic PJ. To establish criteria for authenticating PJ, a new International Multidimensional Authenticity Specifications (IMAS) algorithm was developed through consideration of existing databases and comprehensive chemical characterization of 45 commercial juice samples from 23 different manufacturers in the United States. In addition to analysis of commercial juice samples obtained in the United States, data from other analyses of pomegranate juice and fruits including samples from Iran, Turkey, Azerbaijan, Syria, India, and China were considered in developing this protocol. There is universal agreement that the presence of a highly constant group of six anthocyanins together with punicalagins characterizes polyphenols in PJ. At a total sugar concentration of 16 degrees Brix, PJ contains characteristic sugars including mannitol at >0.3 g/100 mL. Ratios of glucose to mannitol of 4-15 and of glucose to fructose of 0.8-1.0 are also characteristic of PJ. In addition, no sucrose should be present because of isomerase activity during commercial processing. Stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry as > -25 per thousand assures that there is no added corn or cane sugar added to PJ. Sorbitol was present at <0.025 g/100 mL; maltose and tartaric acid were not detected. The presence of the amino acid proline at >25 mg/L is indicative of added grape products. Malic acid at >0.1 g/100 mL indicates adulteration with apple, pear, grape, cherry, plum, or aronia juice. Other adulteration methods include the addition of highly concentrated aronia, blueberry, or blackberry juices or natural grape pigments to poor-quality juices to imitate the color of pomegranate juice, which results in

  4. Identification and Quantitation of 2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline in Manuka Honey (Leptospermum scoparium).

    PubMed

    Rückriemen, Jana; Schwarzenbolz, Uwe; Adam, Simone; Henle, Thomas

    2015-09-30

    Manuka honey from New Zealand is known for its exceptional antibacterial activity, which is due to high amounts of the 1,2-dicarbonyl compound methylglyoxal (MGO). MGO in manuka honey is formed via non-enzymatic dehydration from dihydroxyacetone (DHA) during honey maturation. MGO and DHA are highly reactive substances, leading to a variety of unique chemical reactions. During Strecker reaction between proline and MGO, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2-AP), an important aroma compound, is formed. Using liquid-liquid extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, 2-AP was identified unambiguously in manuka honey for the first time. Quantitation was carried out via external matrix calibration, using a synthetic 2-AP standard and artificial honey. The 2-AP concentration in 11 commercial samples of manuka honey ranged from 0.08 to 0.45 mg/kg. For manuka honey samples containing MGO in concentrations above 250 mg/kg, significantly higher amounts of 2-AP were found when compared to non-manuka honeys. When high amounts of MGO were artificially added to non-manuka multifloral honey, an increase of the 2-AP concentration from 0.07 to 0.40 mg/kg after 12 weeks of storage at 37 °C was observed, concomitant with a significant increase in the concentration of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). No increase of 2-AP was found during storage at ambient temperature. 2-AP together with MGO can be a suitable parameter for the quality control of manuka honey. PMID:26365614

  5. Range and Frequency of Africanized Honey Bees in California (USA)

    PubMed Central

    Kono, Yoshiaki; Kohn, Joshua R.

    2015-01-01

    Africanized honey bees entered California in 1994 but few accounts of their northward expansion or their frequency relative to European honey bees have been published. We used mitochondrial markers and morphometric analyses to determine the prevalence of Africanized honeybees in San Diego County and their current northward progress in California west of the Sierra Nevada crest. The northernmost African mitotypes detected were approximately 40 km south of Sacramento in California’s central valley. In San Diego County, 65% of foraging honey bee workers carry African mitochondria and the estimated percentage of Africanized workers using morphological measurements is similar (61%). There was no correlation between mitotype and morphology in San Diego County suggesting Africanized bees result from bidirectional hybridization. Seventy percent of feral hives, but only 13% of managed hives, sampled in San Diego County carried the African mitotype indicating that a large fraction of foraging workers in both urban and rural San Diego County are feral. We also found a single nucleotide polymorphism at the DNA barcode locus COI that distinguishes European and African mitotypes. The utility of this marker was confirmed using 401 georeferenced honey bee sequences from the worldwide Barcode of Life Database. Future censuses can determine whether the current range of the Africanized form is stable, patterns of introgression at nuclear loci, and the environmental factors that may limit the northern range of the Africanized honey bee. PMID:26361047

  6. Range and Frequency of Africanized Honey Bees in California (USA).

    PubMed

    Kono, Yoshiaki; Kohn, Joshua R

    2015-01-01

    Africanized honey bees entered California in 1994 but few accounts of their northward expansion or their frequency relative to European honey bees have been published. We used mitochondrial markers and morphometric analyses to determine the prevalence of Africanized honeybees in San Diego County and their current northward progress in California west of the Sierra Nevada crest. The northernmost African mitotypes detected were approximately 40 km south of Sacramento in California's central valley. In San Diego County, 65% of foraging honey bee workers carry African mitochondria and the estimated percentage of Africanized workers using morphological measurements is similar (61%). There was no correlation between mitotype and morphology in San Diego County suggesting Africanized bees result from bidirectional hybridization. Seventy percent of feral hives, but only 13% of managed hives, sampled in San Diego County carried the African mitotype indicating that a large fraction of foraging workers in both urban and rural San Diego County are feral. We also found a single nucleotide polymorphism at the DNA barcode locus COI that distinguishes European and African mitotypes. The utility of this marker was confirmed using 401 georeferenced honey bee sequences from the worldwide Barcode of Life Database. Future censuses can determine whether the current range of the Africanized form is stable, patterns of introgression at nuclear loci, and the environmental factors that may limit the northern range of the Africanized honey bee.

  7. Range and Frequency of Africanized Honey Bees in California (USA).

    PubMed

    Kono, Yoshiaki; Kohn, Joshua R

    2015-01-01

    Africanized honey bees entered California in 1994 but few accounts of their northward expansion or their frequency relative to European honey bees have been published. We used mitochondrial markers and morphometric analyses to determine the prevalence of Africanized honeybees in San Diego County and their current northward progress in California west of the Sierra Nevada crest. The northernmost African mitotypes detected were approximately 40 km south of Sacramento in California's central valley. In San Diego County, 65% of foraging honey bee workers carry African mitochondria and the estimated percentage of Africanized workers using morphological measurements is similar (61%). There was no correlation between mitotype and morphology in San Diego County suggesting Africanized bees result from bidirectional hybridization. Seventy percent of feral hives, but only 13% of managed hives, sampled in San Diego County carried the African mitotype indicating that a large fraction of foraging workers in both urban and rural San Diego County are feral. We also found a single nucleotide polymorphism at the DNA barcode locus COI that distinguishes European and African mitotypes. The utility of this marker was confirmed using 401 georeferenced honey bee sequences from the worldwide Barcode of Life Database. Future censuses can determine whether the current range of the Africanized form is stable, patterns of introgression at nuclear loci, and the environmental factors that may limit the northern range of the Africanized honey bee. PMID:26361047

  8. [Methods of analyzing soybean meal adulteration in fish meal based on visible and near infrared reflectance spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Shi, Guang-Tao; Han, Lu-Jia; Yang, Zeng-Ling; Liu, Xian

    2009-02-01

    The present study investigated the feasibility of visible and near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) method for the detection of fish meal adulteration with vegetable meal. Here the authors collected fish meal and soybean meal (representative vegetable meal) which were common used in our country. Fish meal was adulterated with different proportion of soybean meal and then the doping test samples were prepared. Qualitative discriminant analysis and quantitative analysis were studied with representative fish meal adulterated with soybean meal. Two hundred and six calibration samples and 103 validation samples were used in the qualitative discriminant analysis. The effects of different spectrum pre-treatment methods and spectrum regions were considered when the qualitative discriminant analysis model was established. Based on the smallest standard error of cross validation (SECV) and the correct rate, the spectrum region of visible and NIR was chosen as the best region. The eventually established pre-treatment methods were the standard multi-scatter correction (Std MSC) combined with the second derivative (2, 4, 4, 1). Then the independent external validation set was used to test the model, and there was no false positive samples and false negative samples. The correct discriminant rate was 96.12%. In quantitative analysis, 130 fish meal samples adulterated with soybean meal were used as calibration set. The calibration model was established by partial least squares (PLS). Furthermore, the effect of different spectrum pre-treatment methods and the spectrum region were considered. The results showed that the best pre-treatment method was the standard normalized variate (SNV) combined with the second derivative (2, 4, 4, 1). The coefficient of determination (R2) and the standard errors of calibration (SEC) were 0.989 0 and 1.539 0 respectively between the predictive value and the actual value. Sixty five fish meal samples adulterated with soybean meal were used

  9. A novel, direct, reagent-free method for the detection of beeswax adulteration by single-reflection attenuated total reflectance mid-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Maia, Miguel; Barros, Ana I R N A; Nunes, Fernando M

    2013-03-30

    In this work, a novel, direct, reagent-free method for the detection of beeswax adulteration by paraffin, microcrystalline wax, tallow and stearic acid using single-reflection attenuated total reflectance mid-infrared spectroscopy was developed. The use of the absorbance ratios of [Formula: see text] , [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] allows a minimum of 5% paraffin/microcrystalline wax and tallow adulteration and 0.5% stearic acid adulteration of beeswax to be detected. The upper and lower critical limits for beeswax authenticity were established from the analysis of virgin beeswax and were validated by independent analysis of real sheet and comb beeswax samples using high-temperature gas chromatography with flame-ionization detection. In addition to its simplicity with respect to sample handling, the amount of sample and the time needed are far less than those required in previously described methods, which are based on chemical analysis and chromatographic techniques. These advantages result in time and cost savings, an increase in the number of samples that can be analyzed, and, most importantly, the detection of the main beeswax adulterants using a single method.

  10. Estimation of honey authenticity by multielements characteristics using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) combined with chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Chudzinska, M; Baralkiewicz, D

    2010-01-01

    In our study the mineral content of 55 honey samples, which represented three different types of honey: honeydew, buckwheat and rape honey from different areas in Poland, was evaluated. Determination of 13 elements (Al, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cu, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Zn) was performed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. We tried to prove that the analysis of quality and quantity of honey elements could be used to define honey origin by using ICP-MS as a technique for simultaneous determination of elements. Chemometric methods, such as CA and PCA, were applied to classify honey according to mineral content. CA showed three clusters corresponding to the three botanical origins of honey. PCA permitted the reduction of 13 variables to four principal components explaining 77.19% of the total variance. The first most important principal component was strongly associated with the value of K, Al, Ni and Cd. This study revealed that CA and PCA analysis appear useful tools for differentiation of honey samples authenticity using the profile of mineral content and they highlighted the relationship between the elements distribution and honey type.

  11. A Study on the Quality and Identity of Brazilian Pampa Biome Honey: Evidences for Its Beneficial Effects against Oxidative Stress and Hyperglycemia

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, L. C.; Batista, J. E. S.; Zemolin, A. P. P.; Nunes, M. E. M.; Lippert, D. B.; Royes, L. F. F.; Soares, F. A.; Pereira, A. B.; Posser, T.; Franco, J. L.

    2014-01-01

    We characterized, for the first time, the quality and identity of Brazilian Pampa biome honey and its antioxidant properties in vitro (FRAP, DDPH and ABTS). The potential protective effect of honey against oxidative stress induced by iron (Fe) and paraquat, (PQ) in a Drosophila melanogaster model (in vivo) was also tested. The results indicated that all honey samples tested showed antioxidant activity in vitro. Flies treated with honey showed increased lifespan and were protected against oxidative stress induced by Fe and PQ. Despite the high concentration of sugars in honey (approximately 70–80%), our results demonstrate a hypoglycemic-like effect of honey in Drosophila. Thus, this study demonstrates the high quality of Brazilian Pampa biome honey as well as its significant antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo, pointing to the potential use of this natural product as an alternative in the therapy of oxidative stress-associated diseases. PMID:26904632

  12. Determination of neonicotinoids in Estonian honey by liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Laaniste, Asko; Leito, Ivo; Rebane, Riin; Lõhmus, Rünno; Lõhmus, Ants; Punga, Fredrik; Kruve, Anneli

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the study was to provide a comprehensive overview of neonicotinoid pesticide residues in honey samples for a single country and compare the results with the import data for neonicotinoid pesticides. The levels of four neonicotinoid pesticides, namely thiamethoxam, imidacloprid, acetamiprid, and thiacloprid, were determined in 294 honey samples harvested from 2005 to 2013 from more than 200 locations in Estonia. For the analyzed honey samples, 27% contained thiacloprid, and its levels in all cases were below the maximum residue level set by the European Union. The other neonicotinoids were not detected. The proportion of thiacloprid-positive samples for different years correlates well with the data on thiacloprid imports into Estonia, indicating that honey contamination with neonicotinoids can be estimated based on the import data. PMID:27050772

  13. Determination of neonicotinoids in Estonian honey by liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Laaniste, Asko; Leito, Ivo; Rebane, Riin; Lõhmus, Rünno; Lõhmus, Ants; Punga, Fredrik; Kruve, Anneli

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the study was to provide a comprehensive overview of neonicotinoid pesticide residues in honey samples for a single country and compare the results with the import data for neonicotinoid pesticides. The levels of four neonicotinoid pesticides, namely thiamethoxam, imidacloprid, acetamiprid, and thiacloprid, were determined in 294 honey samples harvested from 2005 to 2013 from more than 200 locations in Estonia. For the analyzed honey samples, 27% contained thiacloprid, and its levels in all cases were below the maximum residue level set by the European Union. The other neonicotinoids were not detected. The proportion of thiacloprid-positive samples for different years correlates well with the data on thiacloprid imports into Estonia, indicating that honey contamination with neonicotinoids can be estimated based on the import data.

  14. Phenolic profile, antioxidant activity and palynological analysis of stingless bee honey from Amazonas, Northern Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Isnandia Andréa Almeida; da Silva, Tania Maria Sarmento; Camara, Celso Amorim; Queiroz, Neide; Magnani, Marciane; de Novais, Jaílson Santos; Soledade, Luiz Edmundo Bastos; Lima, Edeltrudes de Oliveira; de Souza, Antonia Lucia; de Souza, Antonio Gouveia

    2013-12-15

    In this study honey samples produced by Melipona (Michmelia) seminigra merrillae, collected in seven counties distributed in the central and southern region of Amazonas state in Brazil, were analysed for their botanical origin, content and profile of phenolic compounds, and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Twenty-two pollen types were identified. The total phenolic content ranged from 17 to 66 mg GAE/g of extract; the highest contents were found in honeys produced from pollen types such as Clidemia and Myrcia. The antioxidant activity was higher in the samples that contained higher quantities of phenolic compounds. In relation to the antibacterial activity, samples CAD3, CAD4 and SAD3 presented the best results. Fourteen phenolic compounds were determined. Among them, we identified the flavonoid taxifolin, which has not previously been described in honeys from stingless bees, and we report the identification of catechol in Brazilian honey samples for the first time.

  15. Effect of gamma radiation on honey quality control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bera, A.; Almeida-Muradian, L. B.; Sabato, S. F.

    2009-07-01

    Honey is one of the most complex substances produced by bees, mainly from the nectar of flowers. Gamma radiation is a technique that can be used to decrease the number of microbiological problems associated with food and increase the shelf life of certain products. The objective of this study was to verify the effect of gamma radiation with source of cobalto-60 (10 kGy) on some parameters used in honey quality control. Seven samples of pure honey were obtained from local markets in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2007. The methods used are in accordance with Brazilian Regulations. The physicochemical parameters analyzed were: moisture, HMF, free acidity, pH, sugars and ash. The results showed that gamma radiation, in the dose mentioned above, did not cause significant physicochemical alterations.

  16. Rapid on-site detection of ephedrine and its analogues used as adulterants in slimming dietary supplements by TLC-SERS.

    PubMed

    Lv, Diya; Cao, Yan; Lou, Ziyang; Li, Shujin; Chen, Xiaofei; Chai, Yifeng; Lu, Feng

    2015-02-01

    Ephedrine and its analogues are in the list of prohibited substance in adulteration to botanical dietary supplements (BDS) for their uncontrollable stimulating side effects. However, they were always adulterated illegally in BDS to promote losing weight. In order to avoid detection, various kinds of ephedrine analogues were added rather than ephedrine itself. This has brought about great difficulties in authentication of BDS. In this study, we put forward for the first time a method which combined thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) to directly identify trace adulterant. Ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, methylephedrine, and norephedrine were mixed and used in this method to develop an analytical model. As a result, the four analogues were separated efficiently in TLC analysis, and trace-components and low-background SERS detection was realized. The limit of detection (LOD) of the four analogues was 0.01 mg/mL. Eight common Raman peaks (△υ = 620, 1003, 1030, 1159, 1181, 1205, 1454, 1603 cm(-1)) were extracted experimentally and statistically to characterize the common feature of ephedrine analogues. A TLC-SERS method coupled with common-peak model was adopted to examine nine practical samples, two of which were found to be adulterated with ephedrine analogues. Identification results were then confirmed by UPLC-QTOF/MS analysis. The proposed method was simple, rapid, and accurate and can also be employed to trace adulterant identification even when there are no available reference derivatives on-site or unknown types of ephedrine analogues are adulterated.

  17. Carbon and nitrogen isotopic signatures and nitrogen profile to identify adulteration in organic fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Verenitch, Sergei; Mazumder, Asit

    2012-08-29

    Recently it has been shown that stable isotopes of nitrogen can be used to discriminate between organic and synthetic fertilizers, but the robustness of the approach is questionable. This work developed a comprehensive method that is far more robust in identifying an adulteration of organic nitrogen fertilizers. Organic fertilizers of various types (manures, composts, blood meal, bone meal, fish meal, products of poultry and plant productions, molasses and seaweed based, and others) available on the North American market were analyzed to reveal the most sensitive criteria as well as their quantitative ranges, which can be used in their authentication. Organic nitrogen fertilizers of known origins with a wide δ(15)N range between -0.55 and 28.85‰ (n = 1258) were characterized for C and N content, δ(13)C, δ(15)N, viscosity, pH, and nitrogen profile (urea, ammonia, organic N, water insoluble N, and NO3). A statistically significant data set of characterized unique organic nitrogen fertilizers (n = 335) of various known origins has been assembled. Deliberately adulterated samples of different types of organic fertilizers mixed with synthetic fertilizers at a wide range of proportions have been used to develop the quantitative critical characteristics of organic fertilizers as the key indicators of their adulteration. Statistical analysis based on the discriminant functions of the quantitative critical characteristics of organic nitrogen fertilizers from 14 different source materials revealed a very high average rate of correct classification. The developed methodology has been successfully used as a source identification tool for numerous commercial nitrogen fertilizers available on the North American market.

  18. Feasibility of using near infrared spectroscopy to detect and quantify an adulterant in high quality sandalwood oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuriakose, Saji; Joe, I. Hubert

    2013-11-01

    Determination of the authenticity of essential oils has become more significant, in recent years, following some illegal adulteration and contamination scandals. The present investigative study focuses on the application of near infrared spectroscopy to detect sample authenticity and quantify economic adulteration of sandalwood oils. Several data pre-treatments are investigated for calibration and prediction using partial least square regression (PLSR). The quantitative data analysis is done using a new spectral approach - full spectrum or sequential spectrum. The optimum number of PLS components is obtained according to the lowest root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC = 0.00009% v/v). The lowest root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP = 0.00016% v/v) in the test set and the highest coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.99989) are used as the evaluation tools for the best model. A nonlinear method, locally weighted regression (LWR), is added to extract nonlinear information and to compare with the linear PLSR model.

  19. Rapid determination of alpha tocopherol in olive oil adulterated with sunflower oil by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Bakre, S M; Gadmale, D K; Toche, R B; Gaikwad, V B

    2015-05-01

    A new method is developed to determine the presence of sunflower oil in olive oil. α-tocopherol is selected as discriminating parameter for detecting sunflower oil adulterant in olive oil. Admixtures of olive oil and sunflower oil (5 %, 10 %, 15 % and 20 % sunflower oil in olive oil) are prepared. These admixtures are analysed by reversed phase high pressure liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detector. The sample preparation does not require saponification or addition of antioxidant. The chromatographic system consists of a C18 column with methanol: acetonitrile (50:50) mobile phase. Fluorescence detector excitation wavelength is set at 290 nm and emission wavelength is set at 330 nm. The α tocopherol concentration increases linearly in olive oil adulterated with sunflower oil. The method is simple, selective, sensitive and is precise (RSD = 2.65 %) for α tocopherol. The present method can precisely detect 5 % sunflower oil in olive oil.

  20. Identification and quantification of turkey meat adulteration in fresh, frozen-thawed and cooked minced beef by FT-NIR spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Alamprese, Cristina; Amigo, José Manuel; Casiraghi, Ernestina; Engelsen, Søren Balling

    2016-11-01

    This work aims at the development of a method based on FT-NIR spectroscopy and multivariate analysis for the identification and quantification of minced beef meat adulteration with turkey meat. Samples were analyzed as raw, frozen-thawed and cooked. Different multivariate regression and class-modeling strategies were evaluated. PLS regression models with R(2) in prediction higher than 0.884 and RMSEP lower than 10.8% were developed. PLS-DA applied to discriminate each type of sample in two classes (adulteration threshold=20%) showed values of sensitivity and specificity in prediction higher than 0.84 and 0.76, respectively. Thus, the study demonstrates that FT-NIR spectroscopy coupled with suitable chemometric strategies is a reliable tool for the identification and quantification of minced beef adulteration with turkey meat not only in fresh products, but also in frozen-thawed and cooked samples. This achievement is of crucial importance in the meat industry due to the increasing number of processed meat products, in which technological treatments can mask a possible inter-species adulteration. PMID:27337677

  1. A copper interdigitated electrode and chemometrical tools used for the discrimination of the adulteration of ethanol fuel with water.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Lígia; Paixão, Thiago R L C

    2011-12-15

    A new approach for the discrimination of the adulteration process of ethanol fuel with water is reported using a copper interdigitated electrode and chemometrical tools. The sensor was constructed using copper sheets with non-chemical modification of the electrode surface. The discrimination process was performed using capacitance values recorded at different frequencies (1,000 Hz to 0.1 MHz) as the input data for non-supervised pattern recognition methods (PCA: principal component analysis and HCA: hierarchical cluster analysis). The relative standard deviation for the capacitance signals obtained from ten independent interdigitated sensors was below 5.0%. The ability of the device to differentiate non-adulterated ethanol samples from those adulterated with water was demonstrated. In all analysed cases, there was good separation between the different samples in the score plots and the dendrograms obtained from PCA and hierarchical cluster analyses, respectively. Furthermore, the water content was quantified using a PCA approach. The results were consistent with those obtained using the Karl-Fischer method at a 95% confidence level, as measured using Student's t-test.

  2. Identification and quantification of Cu-chlorophyll adulteration of edible oils.

    PubMed

    Fang, Mingchih; Tsai, Chia-Fen; Wu, Guan-Yan; Tseng, Su-Hsiang; Cheng, Hwei-Fang; Kuo, Ching-Hao; Hsu, Che-Lun; Kao, Ya-Min; Shih, Daniel Yang-Chih; Chiang, Yu-Mei

    2015-01-01

    Cu-pyropheophytin a, the major Cu-pigment of Cu-chlorophyll, was determined in edible oil by high-resolution mass spectrometry with a high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole (HPLC-Q)-Orbitrap system and by HPLC coupled with a photodiode-array detector. Respective limit of detection and limit of quantification levels of 0.02 μg/g and 0.05 μg/g were obtained. Twenty-nine commercial oil products marked as olive oil, grapeseed oil and blended oil, all sourced directly from a food company that committed adulteration with Cu-chlorophyll, were investigated. In this company, four green dyes illegally used in oils were seized during factory investigation by the health authorities. The food additive Cu-pyropheophytin a was found in all confiscated samples in concentrations between 0.02 and 0.39 μg/g. Survey results of another 235 commercial oil samples manufactured from other companies, including olive pomace oil, extra virgin olive oil, olive oil, grapeseed oil and blended oil, indicated high positive incidences of 63%, 39%, 44%, 97% and 8%, respectively, with a concentration range between 0.02 and 0.54 μg/g. High Cu-chlorophyll concentrations are indications for fraudulent adulteration of oils. PMID:26010536

  3. Identification and quantification of Cu-chlorophyll adulteration of edible oils.

    PubMed

    Fang, Mingchih; Tsai, Chia-Fen; Wu, Guan-Yan; Tseng, Su-Hsiang; Cheng, Hwei-Fang; Kuo, Ching-Hao; Hsu, Che-Lun; Kao, Ya-Min; Shih, Daniel Yang-Chih; Chiang, Yu-Mei

    2015-01-01

    Cu-pyropheophytin a, the major Cu-pigment of Cu-chlorophyll, was determined in edible oil by high-resolution mass spectrometry with a high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole (HPLC-Q)-Orbitrap system and by HPLC coupled with a photodiode-array detector. Respective limit of detection and limit of quantification levels of 0.02 μg/g and 0.05 μg/g were obtained. Twenty-nine commercial oil products marked as olive oil, grapeseed oil and blended oil, all sourced directly from a food company that committed adulteration with Cu-chlorophyll, were investigated. In this company, four green dyes illegally used in oils were seized during factory investigation by the health authorities. The food additive Cu-pyropheophytin a was found in all confiscated samples in concentrations between 0.02 and 0.39 μg/g. Survey results of another 235 commercial oil samples manufactured from other companies, including olive pomace oil, extra virgin olive oil, olive oil, grapeseed oil and blended oil, indicated high positive incidences of 63%, 39%, 44%, 97% and 8%, respectively, with a concentration range between 0.02 and 0.54 μg/g. High Cu-chlorophyll concentrations are indications for fraudulent adulteration of oils.

  4. Analysis of volatile compounds of Malaysian Tualang (Koompassia excelsa) honey using gas chromatography mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nurul Syazana, M S; Gan, S H; Halim, A S; Shah, Nurul Syazana Mohamad; Gan, Siew Hua; Sukari, Halim Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    The constituents of honey's volatile compounds depend on the nectar source and differ depending on the place of origin. To date, the volatile constituents of Tualang honey have never been investigated. The objective of this study was to analyze the volatile compounds in local Malaysian Tualang honey. A continuous extraction of Tualang honey using five organic solvents was carried out starting from non-polar to polar solvents and the extracted samples were analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Overall, 35 volatile compounds were detected. Hydrocarbons constitute 58.5% of the composition of Tualang honey. Other classes of chemical compounds detected included acids, aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, terpenes, furans and a miscellaneous group. Methanol yielded the highest number of extracted compounds such as acids and 5-(Hydroxymethyl) furfural (HMF). This is the first study to describe the volatile compounds in Tualang honey. The use of a simple one tube, stepwise, non-thermal liquid-liquid extraction of honey is a advantageous as it prevents sample loss. Further research to test the clinical benefits of these volatile compounds is recommended.

  5. [Application of ICP-MS to Identify the Botanic Source of Characteristic Honey in South Yunnan].

    PubMed

    Wei, Yue; Chen, Fang; Wang, Yong; Chen, Lan-zhen; Zhang, Xue-wen; Wang, Yan-hui; Wu, Li-ming; Zhou, Qun

    2016-01-01

    By adopting inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) combined with chemometric analysis technology, 23 kinds of minerals in four kinds of characteristic honey derived from Yunnan province were analyzed. The result showed that 21 kinds of mineral elements, namely Na, Mg, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sr, Mo, Cd, Sb, Ba, Tl and Pb, have significant differences among different varieties of honey. The results of principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the cumulative variance contribution rate of the first four main components reached 77.74%, seven kinds of elements (Mg, Ca, Mn, Co, Sr, Cd, Ba) from the first main component contained most of the honey information. Through the stepwise discriminant analysis, seven kinds of elements (Mg, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Sr, Pb) were filtered. out and used to establish the discriminant function model, and the correct classification rates of the proposed model reached 90% and 86.7%, respectively, which showed elements contents could be effectively indicators to discriminate the four kinds characteristic honey in southern Yunnan Province. In view of all the honey samples were harvested from apiaries located at south Yunnan Province where have similar climate, soil and other environment conditions, the differences of the mineral elements contents for the honey samples mainly due to their corresponding nectariferous plant. Therefore, it is feasible to identify honey botanical source through the differences of mineral elements. PMID:27228779

  6. [Application of ICP-MS to Identify the Botanic Source of Characteristic Honey in South Yunnan].

    PubMed

    Wei, Yue; Chen, Fang; Wang, Yong; Chen, Lan-zhen; Zhang, Xue-wen; Wang, Yan-hui; Wu, Li-ming; Zhou, Qun

    2016-01-01

    By adopting inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) combined with chemometric analysis technology, 23 kinds of minerals in four kinds of characteristic honey derived from Yunnan province were analyzed. The result showed that 21 kinds of mineral elements, namely Na, Mg, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sr, Mo, Cd, Sb, Ba, Tl and Pb, have significant differences among different varieties of honey. The results of principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the cumulative variance contribution rate of the first four main components reached 77.74%, seven kinds of elements (Mg, Ca, Mn, Co, Sr, Cd, Ba) from the first main component contained most of the honey information. Through the stepwise discriminant analysis, seven kinds of elements (Mg, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Sr, Pb) were filtered. out and used to establish the discriminant function model, and the correct classification rates of the proposed model reached 90% and 86.7%, respectively, which showed elements contents could be effectively indicators to discriminate the four kinds characteristic honey in southern Yunnan Province. In view of all the honey samples were harvested from apiaries located at south Yunnan Province where have similar climate, soil and other environment conditions, the differences of the mineral elements contents for the honey samples mainly due to their corresponding nectariferous plant. Therefore, it is feasible to identify honey botanical source through the differences of mineral elements.

  7. Detecting multiple adulterants in dry milk using Raman chemical imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A Raman chemical imaging method was developed for detecting the presence of multiple chemical adulterants in dry milk powder. Four chemicals (ammonium sulfate, dicyandiamide, melamine, and urea) were added in equal concentrations, between 0.1% and 5.0%, to nonfat dry milk. An area of 25×25 mm2 for e...

  8. 5-HMF and carbohydrates content in stingless bee honey by CE before and after thermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Biluca, Fabíola C; Della Betta, Fabiana; de Oliveira, Gabriela Pirassol; Pereira, Lais Morilla; Gonzaga, Luciano Valdemiro; Costa, Ana Carolina Oliveira; Fett, Roseane

    2014-09-15

    This study aimed to assess 5-hydroximethylfurfural and carbohydrates (fructose, glucose, and sucrose) in 13 stingless bee honey samples before and after thermal treatment using a capillary electrophoresis method. The methods were validated for the parameters of linearity, matrix effects, precision, and accuracy. A factorial design was implemented to determine optimal thermal treatment conditions and then verify the postprocedural 5-HMF formation, but once 5-HMF were samples obtained from Brazil, expressed good linearity, precision, and accuracy. None of the thirteen in natura samples presented 5-HMF, and carbohydrate levels ranged from 48.59% to 69.36%. In the same conditions of thermal treatment, Apis mellifera honey presented higher 5-HMF content than stingless bee honey. Results suggest that a high temperature related to briefer thermal treatment could be an efficient way to extend shelf life without affecting 5-HMF content in stingless bee honey.

  9. Antitumour and antioxidant potential of some selected Pakistani honeys.

    PubMed

    Noor, Nadia; Sarfraz, Raja Adil; Ali, Shaukat; Shahid, Muhammad

    2014-01-15

    Antitumour potential of honey is attributed to its excellent antioxidant activity which in turn depends on the geographical origin. The present study focuses on exploration of antioxidant and antitumour potential as well as total phenolic contents (TPC) of 58 Pakistani honeys involving spectrochemical techniques and potato disk assay. Agrobacterium tumefaciens was used to induce tumours in potato disks. All analysed honey samples exhibited 1.33±0.00-155.16±0.98mg/100g of TPC, 50% 2,2-diphenyl picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) inhibition, ⩾7.36±0.43-39.86±2.34mg/100g qurecitin equivalent antioxidant contents, ⩾13.69±0.91-65.50±1.37mg/100g ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant contents, 64.65±0.43-1780.74±11.79mM ferric reducing antioxidant power and 60% peroxide inhibition. Antitumour activity observed for 43 natural and 10 commercial samples was ⩾20%. Two samples from Faisalabad region showed 87.50±5.50% and 79.00±5.56% antitumour activity which were reference standard. It was concluded that Pakistani honeys possessed excellent antioxidant and antitumour potential overall.

  10. Food Adulteration: From Vulnerability Assessment to New Analytical Solutions.

    PubMed

    Cavin, Christophe; Cottenet, Geoffrey; Blancpain, Carine; Bessaire, Thomas; Frank, Nancy; Zbinden, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Crises related to the presence of melamine in milk or horse meat in beef have been a wake-up call to the whole food industry showing that adulteration of food raw materials is a complex issue. By analysing the situation, it became clear that the risk-based approach applied to ensure the safety related to chemical contaminants in food is not adequate for food fraud. Therefore, a specific approach has been developed to evaluate adulteration vulnerabilities within the food chain. Vulnerabilities will require the development of new analytical solutions. Fingerprinting methodologies can be very powerful in determining the status of a raw material without knowing the identity of each constituent. Milk adulterated by addition of adulterants with very different chemical properties could be detected rapidly by Fourier-transformed mid-infrared spectroscopy (FT-mid-IR) fingerprinting technology. In parallel, a fast and simple multi-analytes liquid-chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry (LC/MS-MS) method has been developed to detect either high levels of nitrogen-rich compounds resulting from adulteration or low levels due to accidental contamination either in milk or in other sensitive food matrices. To verify meat species authenticity, DNA-based methods are preferred for both raw ingredients and processed food. DNA macro-array, and more specifically the Meat LCD Array have showed efficient and reliable meat identification, allowing the simultaneous detection of 32 meat species. While the Meat LCD Array is still a targeted approach, DNA sequencing is a significant step towards an untargeted one.

  11. Food Adulteration: From Vulnerability Assessment to New Analytical Solutions.

    PubMed

    Cavin, Christophe; Cottenet, Geoffrey; Blancpain, Carine; Bessaire, Thomas; Frank, Nancy; Zbinden, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Crises related to the presence of melamine in milk or horse meat in beef have been a wake-up call to the whole food industry showing that adulteration of food raw materials is a complex issue. By analysing the situation, it became clear that the risk-based approach applied to ensure the safety related to chemical contaminants in food is not adequate for food fraud. Therefore, a specific approach has been developed to evaluate adulteration vulnerabilities within the food chain. Vulnerabilities will require the development of new analytical solutions. Fingerprinting methodologies can be very powerful in determining the status of a raw material without knowing the identity of each constituent. Milk adulterated by addition of adulterants with very different chemical properties could be detected rapidly by Fourier-transformed mid-infrared spectroscopy (FT-mid-IR) fingerprinting technology. In parallel, a fast and simple multi-analytes liquid-chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry (LC/MS-MS) method has been developed to detect either high levels of nitrogen-rich compounds resulting from adulteration or low levels due to accidental contamination either in milk or in other sensitive food matrices. To verify meat species authenticity, DNA-based methods are preferred for both raw ingredients and processed food. DNA macro-array, and more specifically the Meat LCD Array have showed efficient and reliable meat identification, allowing the simultaneous detection of 32 meat species. While the Meat LCD Array is still a targeted approach, DNA sequencing is a significant step towards an untargeted one. PMID:27198809

  12. Fluorescence markers in some New Zealand honeys.

    PubMed

    Bong, Jessie; Loomes, Kerry M; Schlothauer, Ralf C; Stephens, Jonathan M

    2016-02-01

    The fluorescence characteristics of various New Zealand honeys were investigated to establish if this technique might detect signatures unique to manuka (Leptospermum scoparium) and kanuka (Kunzea ericoides) honeys. We found unique fluorescence profiles for these honeys which distinguished them from other New Zealand honey floral types. Two excitation-emission (ex-em) marker wavelengths each for manuka and kanuka honeys were identified; manuka honey at 270-365 (MM1) and 330-470 (MM2) nm and kanuka honey at 275-305 (KM1) and 445-525 (KM2) nm. Dilution of manuka and kanuka honeys with other honey types that did not possess these fluorescence profiles resulted in a proportional reduction in fluorescence signal of the honeys at the marker wavelengths. By comparison, rewarewa (Knightia excelsa), kamahi (Weinmannia racemosa), and clover (Trifolium spp.) honeys did not exhibit unique fluorescence patterns. These findings suggests that a fluorescence-based screening approach has potential utility for determining the monoflorality status of manuka and kanuka honeys.

  13. 7 CFR 1212.9 - Honey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Honey. 1212.9 Section 1212.9 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research,...

  14. 7 CFR 1212.9 - Honey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Honey. 1212.9 Section 1212.9 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research,...

  15. 27 CFR 24.203 - Honey wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Honey wine. 24.203 Section... THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Agricultural Wine § 24.203 Honey wine. (a) Subject to paragraph (b) of this section, a winemaker, in the production of wine from honey, may add the following:...

  16. 7 CFR 1212.10 - Honey products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Honey products. 1212.10 Section 1212.10 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research,...

  17. 7 CFR 1212.9 - Honey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Honey. 1212.9 Section 1212.9 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research,...

  18. 7 CFR 1212.10 - Honey products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Honey products. 1212.10 Section 1212.10 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research,...

  19. 7 CFR 1212.10 - Honey products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Honey products. 1212.10 Section 1212.10 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research,...

  20. 27 CFR 24.203 - Honey wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Honey wine. 24.203 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Agricultural Wine § 24.203 Honey wine. (a) Subject to paragraph (b) of this section, a winemaker, in the production of wine from honey, may add the following:...

  1. 27 CFR 24.203 - Honey wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Honey wine. 24.203 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Agricultural Wine § 24.203 Honey wine. (a) Subject to paragraph (b) of this section, a winemaker, in the production of wine from honey, may add the following:...

  2. 27 CFR 24.203 - Honey wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Honey wine. 24.203 Section... THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Agricultural Wine § 24.203 Honey wine. (a) Subject to paragraph (b) of this section, a winemaker, in the production of wine from honey, may add the following:...

  3. 7 CFR 1212.9 - Honey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Honey. 1212.9 Section 1212.9 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research,...

  4. 7 CFR 1212.10 - Honey products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Honey products. 1212.10 Section 1212.10 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research,...

  5. 27 CFR 24.203 - Honey wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Honey wine. 24.203 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Agricultural Wine § 24.203 Honey wine. (a) Subject to paragraph (b) of this section, a winemaker, in the production of wine from honey, may add the following:...

  6. 7 CFR 1212.10 - Honey products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Honey products. 1212.10 Section 1212.10 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research,...

  7. 7 CFR 1212.9 - Honey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Honey. 1212.9 Section 1212.9 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research,...

  8. Characterization of Spanish unifloral honeys by solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, Esther; Martínez-Castro, Isabel; Sanz, Jesús

    2005-06-01

    Volatile compounds have been investigated in unifloral honeys of the most popular types in Spain. A total of 21 eucalyptus samples, 35 rosemary samples, 33 heather samples, and 15 citrus samples were collected in the course of 3 years in different Spanish regions. Samples were analyzed by SPME followed by GC-MS. About 83 compounds were identified; the concentrations of 33 of them were selected to be processed by multivariate analysis. Discriminant analysis allowed correct assignment of most samples: 94% citrus, 92% eucalyptus, 84% heather, and 84% rosemary. As pure reference honeys are not available, a two step data analysis is proposed, selecting the samples most clearly classified in discriminant analysis as "reference samples" to be used in multiple regression to estimate the most representative compounds for each honey type and considering the rest of the samples as of mixed origin. PMID:16013836

  9. Raman spectroscopy as an effective screening method for detecting adulteration of milk with small nitrogen-rich molecules and sucrose.

    PubMed

    Nieuwoudt, M K; Holroyd, S E; McGoverin, C M; Simpson, M C; Williams, D E

    2016-04-01

    Adulteration of milk for commercial gain is acknowledged as a serious issue facing the dairy industry. Several analytical techniques can be used to detect adulteration but they often require time-consuming sample preparation, expensive laboratory equipment, and highly skilled personnel. Here we show that Raman spectroscopy provides a simple, selective, and sensitive method for screening milk, specifically for small nitrogen-rich compounds, such as melamine, urea, ammonium sulfate, dicyandiamide, and for sucrose. Univariate and multivariate statistical methods were used to determine limits of detection and quantification from Raman spectra of milk spiked with 50 to 1,000 mg/L of the N-rich compounds and 0.25 to 4% sucrose. Partial least squares (PLS) calibration provided limit of detection minimum thresholds <200mg/L (0.02%) for the 4 N-rich compounds and <0.8% for sucrose, without the need for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. The results show high reproducibility (7% residual standard deviation) and 100% efficiency for screening of milk for these adulterants. PMID:26874427

  10. Capillary zone electrophoresis for fatty acids with chemometrics for the determination of milk adulteration by whey addition.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Mendes, Thiago; Porto, Brenda Lee Simas; Bell, Maria José Valenzuela; Perrone, Ítalo Tuler; de Oliveira, Marcone Augusto Leal

    2016-12-15

    Adulteration of milk with whey is difficult to detect because these two have similar physical and chemical characteristics. The traditional methodologies to monitor this fraud are based on the analysis of caseinomacropeptide. The present study proposes a new approach to detect and quantify this fraud using the fatty acid profiles of milk and whey. Fatty acids C14:0, C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3 were selected by gas chromatography associated with discriminant analysis to differentiate milk and whey, as they are present in quite different amounts. These six fatty acids were quantified within a short time by capillary zone electrophoresis in a set of adulterated milk samples. The correlation coefficient between the true values of whey addition and the experimental values obtained by this technique was 0.973. The technique is thus useful for the evaluation of milk adulteration with whey, contributing to the quality control of milk in the dairy industry. PMID:27451230

  11. Capillary zone electrophoresis for fatty acids with chemometrics for the determination of milk adulteration by whey addition.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Mendes, Thiago; Porto, Brenda Lee Simas; Bell, Maria José Valenzuela; Perrone, Ítalo Tuler; de Oliveira, Marcone Augusto Leal

    2016-12-15

    Adulteration of milk with whey is difficult to detect because these two have similar physical and chemical characteristics. The traditional methodologies to monitor this fraud are based on the analysis of caseinomacropeptide. The present study proposes a new approach to detect and quantify this fraud using the fatty acid profiles of milk and whey. Fatty acids C14:0, C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3 were selected by gas chromatography associated with discriminant analysis to differentiate milk and whey, as they are present in quite different amounts. These six fatty acids were quantified within a short time by capillary zone electrophoresis in a set of adulterated milk samples. The correlation coefficient between the true values of whey addition and the experimental values obtained by this technique was 0.973. The technique is thus useful for the evaluation of milk adulteration with whey, contributing to the quality control of milk in the dairy industry.

  12. Two-dimensional hetero-spectral mid-infrared and near-infrared correlation spectroscopy for discrimination adulterated milk.

    PubMed

    Yang, Renjie; Liu, Rong; Dong, Guimei; Xu, Kexin; Yang, Yanrong; Zhang, Weiyu

    2016-03-15

    A new approach for discriminant analysis of adulterated milk is proposed based on two-dimensional (2D) hetero-spectral near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (IR) correlation spectroscopy along with multi-way partial least squares discriminant analysis (NPLS-DA). NIR transmittance spectra and IR attenuated total reflection spectra of pure milk and adulterated milk with level of melamine varying from 0.03 to 3 g·L(-1) were collected at room temperature. The synchronous 2D hetero-spectral IR/NIR correlation spectra of all samples were calculated to build a discriminant model to classify adulterated milk and pure milk. Also, the NPLS-DA models were built based on synchronous 2D homo-spectral NIR/NIR and IR/IR correlation spectra, respectively. Comparison results showed that the NPLS-DA model could provide better results using 2D hetero-spectral IR/NIR correlation spectra than using 2D homo-spectral NIR/NIR and 2D IR/IR correlation spectra.

  13. Detection of milk fat adulteration by linear discriminant analysis of fatty acid data.

    PubMed

    Ulberth, F

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of the fatty acid (FA) profile of milk fat (MF) by gas-liquid chromatography is widely used to detect adulteration with foreign fats. On the basis of the FA spectra of 352 genuine Austrian MF samples collected over a 4-year period, the effectiveness of concentration ranges of the major FA of MF and of certain FA ratios to identify non-MF/MF mixtures was tested. FA ratios proved useful for the detection of coconut fat in MF and admixture of vegetable oils rich in linoleic acid down to a level of 2%. This approach failed to identify non-MF/MF blends containing beef tallow, lard, olive oil, or palm oil at a level less than 10% commingling. Linear discriminant analysis applied to FA data was successful in distinguishing pure MF from adulterated MF. Computer-simulated data were used to derive the discriminant functions. Saturated and unsaturated FA with 18 C atoms were the most useful discriminating variables selected by a stepwise variable selection procedure. More than 95% of a data set composed of pure MF, and non-MF/MF blends containing 3% of either tallow, lard, olive oil, or palm oil were correctly classified. The validity of the classification rule was also tested by 206 gravimetrically prepared fat mixtures. Mixtures containing > 3% foreign fat were detected in all cases. PMID:7950432

  14. [Identification of Daturae flos and its adulterants based on DNA barcoding technique].

    PubMed

    Han, Jian-ping; Li, Mei-ni; Luo, Kun; Liu, Mei-zi; Chen, Xiao-chen; Chen, Shi-lin

    2011-11-01

    To identify the original plant of Daturae Flos from its adulterants by DNA barcoding, the sequences of ITS2, psbA-trnH, matK, rbcL of four species including Datura metel, Darura innoxia, Darura stramonium and Brugmansia arborea were compared and analyzed. The PCR and sequencing success rate of the four regions (ITS2, psbA-trnH, matK, rbcL) was 100%, 90%, 100% and 85%, respectively. Sequences were assembled with CodonCode Aligner. K2P distances were calculated and NJ tree was performed by MEGA 4.1. Thirty SNPs were found among ITS2 sequences, and 33 insert/deletes were found among psbA-trnH intergenic regions. The interspecific K2P distance of ITS2 and psbA-trnH was obviously higher than that of the intraspecific one. As to matK and rbcL, there was no "Barcoding Gap" existing between inter- and intra-specific distances. The NJ trees of the four regions/combinations were built separately. Samples of Brugmansia arborea were clustered into one clade, and the other species of Datura L. formed another clade. The results showed that either ITS2 or psbA-trnH was useful to identify Daturae Flos from its adulterants. PMID:22260038

  15. A survey of the in vitro antifungal activity of heather (Erica sp.) organic honey.

    PubMed

    Feás, Xesús; Estevinho, María L

    2011-10-01

    Monofloral heather (Erica sp.) honey samples (n=89), harvested in Portugal according to European organic beekeeping rules, were analyzed to test their antifungal effect against Candida albicans, Candida krusei, and Cryptococcus neoformans. A synthetic honey solution was also tested to determine antifungal activity attributable to sugars. The specific growth rate (μ) values showed that growth of all the yeasts was reduced in the presence of honey. The honey concentration (% wt/vol) that inhibited 10% of the yeast growth (X(min)) was 13.5% for C. albicans, 20.5% for C. krusei, and 17.1% for C. neoformans. The respective concentrations of heather honey and synthetic honey in the C. krusei culture medium above 60% (wt/vol) that inhibited 90% of the yeast growth (X(max)) and X(min), respectively, were established, whereas C. albicans and C. neoformans were more resistant because X(max) values were not reached over the range tested (10-60%, wt/vol). Heather honey might be tapped as a natural resource to look for new medicines for the treatment of mycotic infections. Further studies are now required to demonstrate if this antifungal activity has any clinical application.

  16. Evaluation of selected honey and one of its phenolic constituent eugenol against L1210 lymphoid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Mondhe, Dilip; Wani, Z A; Supriyanto, Eko

    2014-01-01

    People affected with leukemia are on the rise and several strategies were employed to thwart this deadly disease. Recent decade of research focuses on phenolic constituents as a tool for combating various inflammatory, cancer, and cardiac diseases. Our research showed honey and its phenolic constituents as crusaders against cancer. In this work, we explored the antileukemic activity of selected honey and one of its phenolic constituent eugenol against L1210 leukemia animal model. Results of this experiment showed that the selected honey samples as well as eugenol after intraperitoneal injection could not increase the median survival time (MST) of animals. Further, there was only slight marginal increase in the %T/C values of honey and eugenol treated groups. The number of phenolics present in the honey may not be a prime factor to promote antileukemic effect since there was no difference in the MST of two different honeys tested. This study limits the use of selected honey and eugenol against leukemia animal model.

  17. Evaluation of selected honey and one of its phenolic constituent eugenol against L1210 lymphoid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Mondhe, Dilip; Wani, Z A; Supriyanto, Eko

    2014-01-01

    People affected with leukemia are on the rise and several strategies were employed to thwart this deadly disease. Recent decade of research focuses on phenolic constituents as a tool for combating various inflammatory, cancer, and cardiac diseases. Our research showed honey and its phenolic constituents as crusaders against cancer. In this work, we explored the antileukemic activity of selected honey and one of its phenolic constituent eugenol against L1210 leukemia animal model. Results of this experiment showed that the selected honey samples as well as eugenol after intraperitoneal injection could not increase the median survival time (MST) of animals. Further, there was only slight marginal increase in the %T/C values of honey and eugenol treated groups. The number of phenolics present in the honey may not be a prime factor to promote antileukemic effect since there was no difference in the MST of two different honeys tested. This study limits the use of selected honey and eugenol against leukemia animal model. PMID:25506620

  18. Application of FTIR-ATR spectroscopy to the quantification of sugar in honey.

    PubMed

    Anjos, Ofélia; Campos, Maria Graça; Ruiz, Pablo Contreras; Antunes, Paulo

    2015-02-15

    A Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic method with attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) and partial least squares (PLS) regression model for the prediction of sugar content in honey samples was calculated. Standards of trehalose, glucose, fructose, sucrose, melezitose, turanose and maltose were used to identify and quantify the individual sugar components in 63 honey samples by HPAEC-IPAD. Fructose and glucose are the highest sugars in honey with an average value of 36% and 26%, respectively. The 1stDer spectra with MSC or SLS in the wave number range from 1500 to 750cm(-1) provide the best calibration model with a r(2) of 86.60 and 86.01 with RPD of 2.6 and 2.55, respectively for fructose and glucose. For turanose and melezitose good models were also found. The FTIR-ATR showed to be a good methodology to quantify the main sugar content in honey and easily adapted to routine analysis.

  19. Honey with Psilocybe mushrooms: a revival of a very old preparation on the drug market?

    PubMed

    Bogusz, M J; Maier, R D; Schäfer, A T; Erkens, M

    1998-01-01

    In 1996 samples of suspicious honey preparations were confiscated at the Dutch-German border. The labels on the 50 ml jars indicated that the honey contained Stropharia cubensis (better known as Psilocybe cubensis). The jars were filled with honey with a ca. 1 cm layer of fine particles on the top. The particles were collected and subjected to microscopic and chemical analysis. By microscopy mushroom tissue (plectenchym) and spores typical for the genus Psilocybe were identified in all samples. The HPLC analysis with atmospheric pressure mass spectrometry and diode array detection revealed psilocine but psilocybine was not found. The quantitative analysis was very difficult due to the matrix problems. A search showed that the honey with Psilocybe can be purchased in Dutch coffee shops without any limitations although psilocine and psilocybine belong to listed substances according to Dutch law. PMID:9587797

  20. Polish Natural Bee Honeys Are Anti-Proliferative and Anti-Metastatic Agents in Human Glioblastoma multiforme U87MG Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Moskwa, Justyna; Borawska, Maria H.; Markiewicz-Zukowska, Renata; Puscion-Jakubik, Anna; Naliwajko, Sylwia K.; Socha, Katarzyna; Soroczynska, Jolanta

    2014-01-01

    Honey has been used as food and a traditional medicament since ancient times. However, recently many scientists have been concentrating on the anti-oxidant, anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory and other properties of honey. In this study, we investigated for the first time an anticancer effect of different honeys from Poland on tumor cell line - glioblastoma multiforme U87MG. Anti-proliferative activity of honeys and its interferences with temozolomide were determined by a cytotoxicity test and DNA binding by [H3]-thymidine incorporation. A gelatin zymography was used to conduct an evaluation of metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) expression in U87MG treatment with honey samples. The honeys were previously tested qualitatively (diastase activity, total phenolic content, lead and cadmium content). The data demonstrated that the examined honeys have a potent anti-proliferative effect on U87MG cell line in a time- and dose-dependent manner, being effective at concentrations as low as 0.5% (multifloral light honey - viability 53% after 72 h of incubation). We observed that after 48 h, combining honey with temozolomide showed a significantly higher inhibitory effect than the samples of honey alone. We observed a strong inhibition of MMP-2 and MMP-9 for the tested honeys (from 20 to 56% and from 5 to 58% compared to control, respectively). Our results suggest that Polish honeys have an anti-proliferative and anti-metastatic effect on U87MG cell line. Therefore, natural bee honey can be considered as a promising adjuvant treatment for brain tumors. PMID:24594866

  1. Polish natural bee honeys are anti-proliferative and anti-metastatic agents in human glioblastoma multiforme U87MG cell line.

    PubMed

    Moskwa, Justyna; Borawska, Maria H; Markiewicz-Zukowska, Renata; Puscion-Jakubik, Anna; Naliwajko, Sylwia K; Socha, Katarzyna; Soroczynska, Jolanta

    2014-01-01

    Honey has been used as food and a traditional medicament since ancient times. However, recently many scientists have been concentrating on the anti-oxidant, anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory and other properties of honey. In this study, we investigated for the first time an anticancer effect of different honeys from Poland on tumor cell line - glioblastoma multiforme U87MG. Anti-proliferative activity of honeys and its interferences with temozolomide were determined by a cytotoxicity test and DNA binding by [H3]-thymidine incorporation. A gelatin zymography was used to conduct an evaluation of metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) expression in U87MG treatment with honey samples. The honeys were previously tested qualitatively (diastase activity, total phenolic content, lead and cadmium content). The data demonstrated that the examined honeys have a potent anti-proliferative effect on U87MG cell line in a time- and dose-dependent manner, being effective at concentrations as low as 0.5% (multifloral light honey - viability 53% after 72 h of incubation). We observed that after 48 h, combining honey with temozolomide showed a significantly higher inhibitory effect than the samples of honey alone. We observed a strong inhibition of MMP-2 and MMP-9 for the tested honeys (from 20 to 56% and from 5 to 58% compared to control, respectively). Our results suggest that Polish honeys have an anti-proliferative and anti-metastatic effect on U87MG cell line. Therefore, natural bee honey can be considered as a promising adjuvant treatment for brain tumors.

  2. Iridovirus and Microsporidian Linked to Honey Bee Colony Decline

    PubMed Central

    Bromenshenk, Jerry J.; Henderson, Colin B.; Wick, Charles H.; Stanford, Michael F.; Zulich, Alan W.; Jabbour, Rabih E.; Deshpande, Samir V.; McCubbin, Patrick E.; Seccomb, Robert A.; Welch, Phillip M.; Williams, Trevor; Firth, David R.; Skowronski, Evan; Lehmann, Margaret M.; Bilimoria, Shan L.; Gress, Joanna; Wanner, Kevin W.; Cramer, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    Background In 2010 Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), again devastated honey bee colonies in the USA, indicating that the problem is neither diminishing nor has it been resolved. Many CCD investigations, using sensitive genome-based methods, have found small RNA bee viruses and the microsporidia, Nosema apis and N. ceranae in healthy and collapsing colonies alike with no single pathogen firmly linked to honey bee losses. Methodology/Principal Findings We used Mass spectrometry-based proteomics (MSP) to identify and quantify thousands of proteins from healthy and collapsing bee colonies. MSP revealed two unreported RNA viruses in North American honey bees, Varroa destructor-1 virus and Kakugo virus, and identified an invertebrate iridescent virus (IIV) (Iridoviridae) associated with CCD colonies. Prevalence of IIV significantly discriminated among strong, failing, and collapsed colonies. In addition, bees in failing colonies contained not only IIV, but also Nosema. Co-occurrence of these microbes consistently marked CCD in (1) bees from commercial apiaries sampled across the U.S. in 2006–2007, (2) bees sequentially sampled as the disorder progressed in an observation hive colony in 2008, and (3) bees from a recurrence of CCD in Florida in 2009. The pathogen pairing was not observed in samples from colonies with no history of CCD, namely bees from Australia and a large, non-migratory beekeeping business in Montana. Laboratory cage trials with a strain of IIV type 6 and Nosema ceranae confirmed that co-infection with these two pathogens was more lethal to bees than either pathogen alone. Conclusions/Significance These findings implicate co-infection by IIV and Nosema with honey bee colony decline, giving credence to older research pointing to IIV, interacting with Nosema and mites, as probable cause of bee losses in the USA, Europe, and Asia. We next need to characterize the IIV and Nosema that we detected and develop management practices to reduce honey bee losses

  3. Effect of honey on multidrug resistant organisms and its synergistic action with three common antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Karayil, S; Deshpande, S D; Koppikar, G V

    1998-01-01

    A total of 15 bacterial strains (7 Pseudomonas & 8 Klebsiella species) isolated from various samples which showed multi-drug resistance were studied to verify in vitro antibacterial action of honey on the principle of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) & its synergism with 3 common antibiotics--Gentamicin, Amikacin & Ceftazidime. The MIC of honey with saline for both organisms was found to be 1:2. The synergistic action was seen in the case of Pseudomonas spp. and not with Klebsiella spp. PMID:10703581

  4. Detection and identification of extra virgin olive oil adulteration by GC-MS combined with chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Ferro, Miguel Duarte; Cavaco, Isabel; Liang, Yizeng

    2013-04-17

    In this study, an analytical method for the detection and identification of extra virgin olive oil adulteration with four types of oils (corn, peanut, rapeseed, and sunflower oils) was proposed. The variables under evaluation included 22 fatty acids and 6 other significant parameters (the ratio of linoleic/linolenic acid, oleic/linoleic acid, total saturated fatty acids (SFAs), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), MUFAs/PUFAs). Univariate analyses followed by multivariate analyses were applied to the adulteration investigation. As a result, the univariate analyses demonstrated that higher contents of eicosanoic acid, docosanoic acid, tetracosanoic acid, and SFAs were the peculiarities of peanut adulteration and higher levels of linolenic acid, 11-eicosenoic acid, erucic acid, and nervonic acid the characteristics of rapeseed adulteration. Then, PLS-LDA made the detection of adulteration effective with a 1% detection limit and 90% prediction ability; a Monte Carlo tree identified the type of adulteration with 85% prediction ability.

  5. Tracking the dehydration process of raw honey by synchronous two-dimensional near infrared correlation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guiyun; Sun, Xin; Huang, Yuping; Chen, Kunjie

    2014-11-01

    Though much attention is paid to honey quality assessment, few reports on characteristic of manually dehydrated honey have been found. The aim of this investigation is to track the dehydration process of raw honey using synchronous two-dimensional (2D) near infrared correlation spectroscopy. To minimize the impact of dehydration to honey quality, seventy-two honey samples from six different dehydration stages were obtained using drum wind drying method with temperature controlled at 40 °C. Their dynamic short-wave NIR spectra from 600 to 1100 nm were collected in the transmission mode from 10 to 50 °C with an increment of 5 °C and were analyzed using synchronous two-dimensional correlation method. Short-wave NIR spectral data has been exploited less than other NIR region for its weaker signal especially for water absorption's interference with useful information. The investigation enlarged the signal at this band using synchronous 2D correlation analysis, revealing the fingerprinting feature of rape honey and chaste honey during the artificial dehydration process. The results have shown that, with the help of 2D correlation analysis, this band can detect the variation of the second overtone of O-H and N-H groups vibration upon their H-bonds forming or collapsing resulted from the interactions between water and solute. The results have also shown that 2D-NIRS method is able to convert the tiny changes in honey constituents into the detectable fingerprinting difference, which provides a new method for assessing honey quality.

  6. Inhalation of honey reduces airway inflammation and histopathological changes in a rabbit model of ovalbumin-induced chronic asthma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Honey is widely used in folk medicine to treat cough, fever, and inflammation. In this study, the effect of aerosolised honey on airway tissues in a rabbit model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma was investigated. The ability of honey to act either as a rescuing agent in alleviating asthma-related symptoms or as a preventive agent to preclude the occurrence of asthma was also assessed. Methods Forty New Zealand white rabbits were sensitized twice with mixture of OVA and aluminium hydroxide on days 1 and 14. Honey treatments were given from day 23 to day 25 at two different doses (25% (v/v) and 50% (v/v) of honey diluted in sterile phosphate buffer saline. In the aerosolised honey as a rescue agent group, animals were euthanized on day 28; for the preventive group, animals were further exposed to aerosolised OVA for 3 days starting from day 28 and euthanized on day 31. The effects of honey on inflammatory cell response, airway inflammation, and goblet cell hyperplasia were assessed for each animal. Results Histopathological analyses revealed that aerosolised honey resulted in structural changes of the epithelium, mucosa, and submucosal regions of the airway that caused by the induction with OVA. Treatment with aerosolised honey has reduced the number of airway inflammatory cells present in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and inhibited the goblet cell hyperplasia. Conclusion In this study, aerosolised honey was used to effectively treat and manage asthma in rabbits, and it could prove to be a promising treatment for asthma in humans. Future studies with a larger sample size and studies at the gene expression level are needed to better understand the mechanisms by which aerosolised honey reduces asthma symptoms. PMID:24886260

  7. Determination of anabolic-androgenic steroid adulterants in counterfeit drugs by UHPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Cho, So-Hyun; Park, Hyoung Joon; Lee, Ji Hyun; Do, Jung-Ah; Heo, Seok; Jo, Jeong Hwa; Cho, Sooyeul

    2015-01-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) have been illegally used in counterfeit drugs to improve the performance of athletes. In addition, AASs have been used for cosmetic purpose by non-athletes. To determine the presence of 26 AASs, an analysis method using ultra-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was developed and validated. The validated method was applied to 19 counterfeit drugs collected from the Internet and off-line markets during 2014. Nearly 50% (9/19) of the samples contained one of these 26 AASs. In addition, the concentration ranges of the AASs ranged from 0.09 to 119,228.57 mg/kg in the suspected samples. The determined AASs primarily consisted of testosterone and testosterone 17-propionate (26%) followed by boldenone (21%). These results indicate the adulteration of over-the-counter counterfeit drugs, and the continuous monitoring of counterfeit drugs or dubious dietary supplements containing anabolic steroids is warranted.

  8. Determination of anabolic-androgenic steroid adulterants in counterfeit drugs by UHPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Cho, So-Hyun; Park, Hyoung Joon; Lee, Ji Hyun; Do, Jung-Ah; Heo, Seok; Jo, Jeong Hwa; Cho, Sooyeul

    2015-01-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) have been illegally used in counterfeit drugs to improve the performance of athletes. In addition, AASs have been used for cosmetic purpose by non-athletes. To determine the presence of 26 AASs, an analysis method using ultra-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was developed and validated. The validated method was applied to 19 counterfeit drugs collected from the Internet and off-line markets during 2014. Nearly 50% (9/19) of the samples contained one of these 26 AASs. In addition, the concentration ranges of the AASs ranged from 0.09 to 119,228.57 mg/kg in the suspected samples. The determined AASs primarily consisted of testosterone and testosterone 17-propionate (26%) followed by boldenone (21%). These results indicate the adulteration of over-the-counter counterfeit drugs, and the continuous monitoring of counterfeit drugs or dubious dietary supplements containing anabolic steroids is warranted. PMID:25880245

  9. Characteristics of Honey from Serpentine Area in the Eastern Rhodopes Mt., Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Atanassova, Juliana; Pavlova, Dolja; Lazarova, Maria; Yurukova, Lilyana

    2016-09-01

    Honey samples collected during 2007-2010 from serpentine and non-serpentine localities in the Eastern Rhodopes Mt. (Bulgaria) were characterized on the basis of their pollen content by qualitative melissopalynological analysis and physicochemical composition. Water content, pH, electrical conductivity, macroelements-K, Ca, Mg, P, and microelements-As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, and Zn were determined after the Harmonised Methods of the International Honey Commission and ICP-AES method. The results from serpentine honey samples were compared with data from bee pollen collected from the same serpentine area. Different elements have different concentrations in honey from the same botanical type even collected from the same geographical region, same locality, and same beehive but in different vegetation season. The elements Mg, Mn, Ni, and P contribute mostly for separation of the serpentine honey samples based on measured elemental concentrations and performed principal component analysis. The element concentrations were higher in bee pollen and above the permissible limits for the toxic metals Cd and Pb. No specific indicator plant species was found for identification of the geographical origin of serpentine honey in relation to the forage of bees. PMID:26821353

  10. Characteristics of Honey from Serpentine Area in the Eastern Rhodopes Mt., Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Atanassova, Juliana; Pavlova, Dolja; Lazarova, Maria; Yurukova, Lilyana

    2016-09-01

    Honey samples collected during 2007-2010 from serpentine and non-serpentine localities in the Eastern Rhodopes Mt. (Bulgaria) were characterized on the basis of their pollen content by qualitative melissopalynological analysis and physicochemical composition. Water content, pH, electrical conductivity, macroelements-K, Ca, Mg, P, and microelements-As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, and Zn were determined after the Harmonised Methods of the International Honey Commission and ICP-AES method. The results from serpentine honey samples were compared with data from bee pollen collected from the same serpentine area. Different elements have different concentrations in honey from the same botanical type even collected from the same geographical region, same locality, and same beehive but in different vegetation season. The elements Mg, Mn, Ni, and P contribute mostly for separation of the serpentine honey samples based on measured elemental concentrations and performed principal component analysis. The element concentrations were higher in bee pollen and above the permissible limits for the toxic metals Cd and Pb. No specific indicator plant species was found for identification of the geographical origin of serpentine honey in relation to the forage of bees.

  11. Optical sensor for the determination of adulteration in petrol: design and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishor, Kamal; Sinha, R. K.; Varshney, Anshu D.; Kumar, Vinit

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, we report design and development of optical sensor for the determination of adulteration in petrol using optical time-domain reflectometer (OTDR). OTDR is generally used to find out fault in optical fibers but we effectively use this technique for the determination of the percentage of adulteration in petrol. This OTDR method enables detection of adulteration in petrol very accurately. The OTDR measurement method reported in this paper is easy to carry out and also a cost effective tool for the determination of adulteration in petrol.

  12. [Discriminating and quantifying potential adulteration in virgin olive oil by near infrared spectroscopy with BP-ANN and PLS].

    PubMed

    Weng, Xin-Xin; Lu, Feng; Wang, Chuan-Xian; Qi, Yun-Peng

    2009-12-01

    In the present paper, the use of near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) as a rapid and cost-effective classification and quantification techniques for the authentication of virgin olive oil were preliminarily investigated. NIR spectra in the range of 12 000 - 3 700 cm(-1) were recorded for pure virgin olive oil and virgin olive oil samples adulterated with varying concentrations of sesame oil, soybean oil and sunflower oil (5%-50% adulterations in the weight of virgin olive oil). The spectral range from 12 000 to 5 390 cm(-1) was adopted to set up an analysis model. In order to handle these data efficiently, after pretreatment, firstly, principal component analysis (PCA) was used to compress thousands of spectral data into several variables and to describe the body of the spectra, and the analysis suggested that the cumulate reliabilities of the first six components was more than 99.999%. Then ANN-BP was chosen as further research method. The six components were secondly applied as ANN-BP inputs. The experiment took a total of 100 samples as original model examples and left 52 samples as unknown samples to predict. Finally, the results showed that the 52 test samples were discriminated accurately. And the calibration models of quantitative analysis were built using partial-least-square (PLS). The R values for PLS model are 98.77, 99.37 and 99.44 for sesame oil, soybean oil and sunflower oil respectively, the root mean standard errors of cross validation (RMSECV) are 1.3, 1.1 and 1.04 respectively. Overall, the near infrared spectroscopic method in the present paper played a good role in the discrimination and quantification, and offered a new approach to the rapid discrimination of pure and adulterated virgin olive oil. PMID:20210151

  13. Immunological characterization of honey proteins and identification of MRJP 1 as an IgE-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Takeshi; Takamatsu, Nobue; Nakashima, Takashi; Arita, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    We encountered a fourth case of honey allergy in Japan. We characterized and identified the IgE-binding proteins in honey using the serum of a honey-allergenic patient. Immunoblot analysis revealed that IgE in the patient serum specifically bound to four proteins in each honey sample. At least three of these IgE-binding proteins were N-linked glycoproteins. To identify the 60-kDa IgE-binding protein in dandelion honey, the N-terminal sequences of the fragmented protein were analyzed, revealing the protein to be major royal jelly protein 1 (MRJP 1). Three IgE-binding proteins removed of N-linked oligosaccharide showed a large reduction in IgE-binding activity as compared with the intact protein. This suggests that the carbohydrates in the IgE-binding proteins are a major epitope for patient IgE.

  14. Stability of dicyclohexylamine and fumagillin in honey.

    PubMed

    van den Heever, Johan P; Thompson, Thomas S; Curtis, Jonathan M; Pernal, Stephen F

    2015-07-15

    Fumagillin is extensively used to control nosema disease in apiculture. In the commercial formulation, fumagillin is present as a salt in an equimolar quantity with dicyclohexylamine (DCH). In this study DCH was observed to be significantly more resistant to degradation in honey than fumagillin using LC-MS/MS analysis. Observed half-lives for DCH ranged from a minimum of 368 days when kept at 34 °C in darkness, to a maximum of 852 days when stored at 21 °C in darkness. A maximum half-life of 246 days was observed for fumagillin in samples kept in darkness at a temperature of 21 °C. The observed half-life of fumagillin was estimated to be 3 days when exposed to light at 21 °C, and complete decomposition was observed after 30 days under the same conditions. The stability of DCH, combined with its genotoxicity and tumorigenic properties make it an important potential contaminant in honey destined for human consumption. PMID:25722149

  15. Preliminary Characterization of Monofloral Coffea spp. Honey: Correlation between Potential Biomarkers and Pollen Content.

    PubMed

    Schievano, Elisabetta; Finotello, Claudia; Mammi, Stefano; Belci, Anna Illy; Colomban, Silvia; Navarini, Luciano

    2015-07-01

    To determine the botanical origin of Coffea honey, a new method using proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) is proposed. Integration of the aromatic region of the NMR spectrum of Coffea honey diluted in deuterated water allowed us to simultaneously quantify caffeine, theobromine, and trigonelline, as well as other compounds. The amounts of the three markers listed are significantly higher than those previously reported for Citrus spp. honey: caffeine ranged from 15 to 98 mg/kg, theobromine from 25 to 160 mg/kg, and trigonelline from 23 to 86 mg/kg. The concurrent presence of these three substances is proposed as an indicator of the botanical origin of Coffea honey. Excellent correlation was found between these markers and the relative amounts of Coffea pollen measured in the same samples.

  16. Modern analytical techniques in the assessment of the authenticity of Serbian honey.

    PubMed

    Milojković Opsenica, Dušanka; Lušić, Dražen; Tešić, Živoslav

    2015-12-01

    Food authenticity in a broader sense means fulfilling chemical and physical criteria prescribed by the proposed legislation. In the case of honey authenticity, two aspects are of major concern: the manufacturing process and the labelling of final products in terms of their geographical and botanical origin. A reliable assessment of honey authenticity has been a longterm preoccupation of chemists-analysts and it usually involves the use of several criteria and chemical markers, as well as a combination of analytical and statistical (chemometric) methods. This paper provides an overview of different criteria and modern methods for the assessment of honey authenticity in the case of a statistically significant number of authentic honey samples of several botanical types from various regions of Serbia.

  17. Modern analytical techniques in the assessment of the authenticity of Serbian honey.

    PubMed

    Milojković Opsenica, Dušanka; Lušić, Dražen; Tešić, Živoslav

    2015-12-01

    Food authenticity in a broader sense means fulfilling chemical and physical criteria prescribed by the proposed legislation. In the case of honey authenticity, two aspects are of major concern: the manufacturing process and the labelling of final products in terms of their geographical and botanical origin. A reliable assessment of honey authenticity has been a longterm preoccupation of chemists-analysts and it usually involves the use of several criteria and chemical markers, as well as a combination of analytical and statistical (chemometric) methods. This paper provides an overview of different criteria and modern methods for the assessment of honey authenticity in the case of a statistically significant number of authentic honey samples of several botanical types from various regions of Serbia. PMID:26751854

  18. Characterisation and fate of grayanatoxins in mad honey produced from Rhododendron ponticum nectar.

    PubMed

    Kurtoglu, Arzum Bahar; Yavuz, Recep; Evrendilek, Gulsun Akdemir

    2014-10-15

    Mad honey from Rhododendron ponticum nectar is produced in a large quantity in the western Black Sea region of Turkey and causes poisoning due to consumption of grayanatoxins (GTX I and III). There are a few studies about characterisation of GTXs in mad honey produced from R.ponticum. This study quantified basic properties including concentrations of GTX I and GTX III in mad honey samples collected in three consecutive years. Although the chemical composition of mad honey varied annually depending on the production year, mean GTX I and GTX III contents were estimated at 20.4±1.69 and 8.20±1.93mg/kg, respectively. The concentrations of GTXs did not change significantly during storage of 6months.

  19. Kiwifruit Flower Odor Perception and Recognition by Honey Bees, Apis mellifera.

    PubMed

    Twidle, Andrew M; Mas, Flore; Harper, Aimee R; Horner, Rachael M; Welsh, Taylor J; Suckling, David M

    2015-06-17

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from male and female kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa 'Hayward') flowers were collected by dynamic headspace sampling. Honey bee (Apis mellifera) perception of the flower VOCs was tested using gas chromatography coupled to electroantennogram detection. Honey bees consistently responded to six compounds present in the headspace of female kiwifruit flowers and five compounds in the headspace of male flowers. Analysis of the floral volatiles by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and microscale chemical derivatization showed the compounds to be nonanal, 2-phenylethanol, 4-oxoisophorone, (3E,6E)-α-farnesene, (6Z,9Z)-heptadecadiene, and (8Z)-heptadecene. Bees were then trained via olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension response (PER) to synthetic mixtures of these compounds using the ratios present in each flower type. Honey bees trained to the synthetic mixtures showed a high response to the natural floral extracts, indicating that these may be the key compounds for honey bee perception of kiwifruit flower odor.

  20. Contribution of the bees and combs to honey volatiles: blank-trial probe for chemical profiling of honey biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Jerković, Igor; Marijanović, Zvonimir; Ljubicić, I; Gugić, M

    2010-05-01

    This research is focused on the immediate contribution of the bees and combs to honey volatiles in order to exclude these compounds as botanical-origin biomarkers for honey authentification. Therefore, the bees were closed in a hive containing empty combs under controlled food-flow conditions (saccharose solution). The obtained 'saccharose honey' probe samples were subjected to ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE), followed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry analyses (GC and GC/MS). A total of 66 compounds were identified. Higher alcohols made up ca. 50% of the total volatiles, mainly (Z)-octadec-9-en-1-ol, hexadecan-1-ol, and octadecan-1-ol, with minor percentages of undecan-1-ol, dodecan-1-ol, tetradecan-1-ol, pentadecan-1-ol, and heptadecan-1-ol. Other abundant compounds were saturated long-chain linear hydrocarbons, C(10)-C(25), C(27), and C(28), particularly C(23), C(25), and C(27)). Identified chemical structures were related to the composition of combs and cuticular waxes, and less to the bee pheromones. In addition, the impact of two-hour heat treatment at 80 degrees and one-year storage at room temperature on the same probe was investigated in order to identify thermal and storage artefacts. These findings can be considered as blank-trial probe (no plant source) for honey chemical profiling and identification of reliable botanical origin biomarkers. PMID:20491078

  1. Color evaluation of seventeen European unifloral honey types by means of spectrophotometrically determined CIE L*Cab*h(ab)° chromaticity coordinates.

    PubMed

    Tuberoso, Carlo Ignazio Giovanni; Jerković, Igor; Sarais, Giorgia; Congiu, Francesca; Marijanović, Zvonimir; Kuś, Piotr Marek

    2014-02-15

    CIE (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage) L(*)Cab(*)h(ab)° color coordinates for 305 samples of 17 unifloral honeys types (asphodel, buckwheat, black locust, sweet chestnut, citrus, eucalyptus, Garland thorn, honeydew, heather, lime, mint, rapeseed, sage, strawberry tree, sulla flower, savory and thistle) from different geographic locations in Europe were spectrophotometrically assessed and statistically evaluated. Preliminary separation of unifloral honeys was obtained by means of L(*)-C(ab)(*) color coordination correlation. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) revealed an expected segregation of the honeys types according to their chromatic characteristics. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) allowed to obtain a more defined distinction of the 17 unifloral honey types, particularly when using 3D graphics. CIE L(*)C(ab)(*)hab(*) color coordinates were useful for the identification of several honey types. The proposed method represents a simple and efficient procedure that can be used as a basis for the authentication of unifloral honeys worldwide.

  2. Color evaluation of seventeen European unifloral honey types by means of spectrophotometrically determined CIE L*Cab*h(ab)° chromaticity coordinates.

    PubMed

    Tuberoso, Carlo Ignazio Giovanni; Jerković, Igor; Sarais, Giorgia; Congiu, Francesca; Marijanović, Zvonimir; Kuś, Piotr Marek

    2014-02-15

    CIE (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage) L(*)Cab(*)h(ab)° color coordinates for 305 samples of 17 unifloral honeys types (asphodel, buckwheat, black locust, sweet chestnut, citrus, eucalyptus, Garland thorn, honeydew, heather, lime, mint, rapeseed, sage, strawberry tree, sulla flower, savory and thistle) from different geographic locations in Europe were spectrophotometrically assessed and statistically evaluated. Preliminary separation of unifloral honeys was obtained by means of L(*)-C(ab)(*) color coordination correlation. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) revealed an expected segregation of the honeys types according to their chromatic characteristics. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) allowed to obtain a more defined distinction of the 17 unifloral honey types, particularly when using 3D graphics. CIE L(*)C(ab)(*)hab(*) color coordinates were useful for the identification of several honey types. The proposed method represents a simple and efficient procedure that can be used as a basis for the authentication of unifloral honeys worldwide. PMID:24128479

  3. A comprehensive approach for milk adulteration detection using inherent bio-physical properties as 'Universal Markers': Towards a miniaturized adulteration detection platform.

    PubMed

    Tripathy, Suryasnata; Ghole, Aniket Ramesh; Deep, Khandavalli; Vanjari, Siva Rama Krishna; Singh, Shiv Govind

    2017-02-15

    This paper proposes a novel milk quality detection approach based on utilization of inherent biophysical properties as 'markers' for adulteration. Unlike the traditional adulterant-specific approaches, this method is generic and universal. It exploits the change in innate milk properties, such as electrical conductivity and pH, upon addition of adulterants as a transduction mechanism for detecting milk adulteration. In this work, adulteration with more than 10 commercially known hazardous adulterants is detected by monitoring the changes in milk electrical conductivity and pH. The electrical parameters for pure milk were standardized using AC impedance-spectroscopy with glassy carbon working electrode and platinum counter/reference electrode at a potential of 0.3V and in the frequency range of 1Hz-1MHz. The experiments were repeated using gold-electrodes fabricated on glass-substrate as a first step towards developing a miniaturized platform. The concept of a 'unified-universal-marker' for successful prediction of adulteration is accentuated in this work.

  4. A comprehensive approach for milk adulteration detection using inherent bio-physical properties as 'Universal Markers': Towards a miniaturized adulteration detection platform.

    PubMed

    Tripathy, Suryasnata; Ghole, Aniket Ramesh; Deep, Khandavalli; Vanjari, Siva Rama Krishna; Singh, Shiv Govind

    2017-02-15

    This paper proposes a novel milk quality detection approach based on utilization of inherent biophysical properties as 'markers' for adulteration. Unlike the traditional adulterant-specific approaches, this method is generic and universal. It exploits the change in innate milk properties, such as electrical conductivity and pH, upon addition of adulterants as a transduction mechanism for detecting milk adulteration. In this work, adulteration with more than 10 commercially known hazardous adulterants is detected by monitoring the changes in milk electrical conductivity and pH. The electrical parameters for pure milk were standardized using AC impedance-spectroscopy with glassy carbon working electrode and platinum counter/reference electrode at a potential of 0.3V and in the frequency range of 1Hz-1MHz. The experiments were repeated using gold-electrodes fabricated on glass-substrate as a first step towards developing a miniaturized platform. The concept of a 'unified-universal-marker' for successful prediction of adulteration is accentuated in this work. PMID:27664695

  5. Therapeutic Manuka Honey: No Longer So Alternative.

    PubMed

    Carter, Dee A; Blair, Shona E; Cokcetin, Nural N; Bouzo, Daniel; Brooks, Peter; Schothauer, Ralf; Harry, Elizabeth J

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal honey research is undergoing a substantial renaissance. From a folklore remedy largely dismissed by mainstream medicine as "alternative", we now see increased interest by scientists, clinical practitioners and the general public in the therapeutic uses of honey. There are a number of drivers of this interest: first, the rise in antibiotic resistance by many bacterial pathogens has prompted interest in developing and using novel antibacterials; second, an increasing number of reliable studies and case reports have demonstrated that certain honeys are very effective wound treatments; third, therapeutic honey commands a premium price, and the honey industry is actively promoting studies that will allow it to capitalize on this; and finally, the very complex and rather unpredictable nature of honey provides an attractive challenge for laboratory scientists. In this paper we review manuka honey research, from observational studies on its antimicrobial effects through to current experimental and mechanistic work that aims to take honey into mainstream medicine. We outline current gaps and remaining controversies in our knowledge of how honey acts, and suggest new studies that could make honey a no longer "alternative" alternative.

  6. Therapeutic Manuka Honey: No Longer So Alternative.

    PubMed

    Carter, Dee A; Blair, Shona E; Cokcetin, Nural N; Bouzo, Daniel; Brooks, Peter; Schothauer, Ralf; Harry, Elizabeth J

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal honey research is undergoing a substantial renaissance. From a folklore remedy largely dismissed by mainstream medicine as "alternative", we now see increased interest by scientists, clinical practitioners and the general public in the therapeutic uses of honey. There are a number of drivers of this interest: first, the rise in antibiotic resistance by many bacterial pathogens has prompted interest in developing and using novel antibacterials; second, an increasing number of reliable studies and case reports have demonstrated that certain honeys are very effective wound treatments; third, therapeutic honey commands a premium price, and the honey industry is actively promoting studies that will allow it to capitalize on this; and finally, the very complex and rather unpredictable nature of honey provides an attractive challenge for laboratory scientists. In this paper we review manuka honey research, from observational studies on its antimicrobial effects through to current experimental and mechanistic work that aims to take honey into mainstream medicine. We outline current gaps and remaining controversies in our knowledge of how honey acts, and suggest new studies that could make honey a no longer "alternative" alternative. PMID:27148246

  7. Therapeutic Manuka Honey: No Longer So Alternative

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Dee A.; Blair, Shona E.; Cokcetin, Nural N.; Bouzo, Daniel; Brooks, Peter; Schothauer, Ralf; Harry, Elizabeth J.

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal honey research is undergoing a substantial renaissance. From a folklore remedy largely dismissed by mainstream medicine as “alternative”, we now see increased interest by scientists, clinical practitioners and the general public in the therapeutic uses of honey. There are a number of drivers of this interest: first, the rise in antibiotic resistance by many bacterial pathogens has prompted interest in developing and using novel antibacterials; second, an increasing number of reliable studies and case reports have demonstrated that certain honeys are very effective wound treatments; third, therapeutic honey commands a premium price, and the honey industry is actively promoting studies that will allow it to capitalize on this; and finally, the very complex and rather unpredictable nature of honey provides an attractive challenge for laboratory scientists. In this paper we review manuka honey research, from observational studies on its antimicrobial effects through to current experimental and mechanistic work that aims to take honey into mainstream medicine. We outline current gaps and remaining controversies in our knowledge of how honey acts, and suggest new studies that could make honey a no longer “alternative” alternative. PMID:27148246

  8. Adequacy of the Measurement Capability of Fatty Acid Compositions and Sterol Profiles to Determine Authenticity of Milk Fat Through Formulation of Adulterated Butter.

    PubMed

    Soha, Sahel; Mortazavian, Amir M; Piravi-Vanak, Zahra; Mohammadifar, Mohammad A; Sahafar, Hamed; Nanvazadeh, Sara

    2015-01-01

    In this research a comparison has been made between the fatty acid and sterol compositions of Iranian pure butter and three samples of adulterated butter. These samples were formulated using edible vegetable fats/oils with similar milk fat structures including palm olein, palm kernel and coconut oil to determine the authenticity of milk fat. The amount of vegetable fats/oils used in the formulation of the adulterated butter was 10%. The adulterated samples were formulated so that their fatty acid profiles were comforted with acceptable levels of pure butter as specified by the Iranian national standard. Based on the type of the vegetable oil/fat, fatty acids such as C4:0, C12:0 and C18:2 were used as indicators for the adulterated formulations. According to the standard method of ISO, the analysis was performed using gas chromatography. The cholesterol contents were 99.71% in pure butter (B1), and 97.61%, 98.48% and 97.98% of the total sterols in the samples adulterated with palm olein, palm kernel and coconut oil (B2, B3 and B4), respectively. Contents of the main phytosterol profiles such as β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol were also determined. The β-sitosterol content, as an indicator of phytosterols, was 0% in pure butter, and 1.81%, 1.67% and 2.16%, of the total sterols in the adulterated samples (B2, B3 and B4), respectively. Our findings indicate that fatty acid profiles are not an efficient indicator for butter authentication. Despite the increase in phytosterols and the reduction in cholesterol and with regard to the conformity of the sterol profiles of the edible fats/oils used in the formulations with Codex standards, lower cholesterol and higher phytosterols contents should have been observed. It can therefore be concluded that sterol measurement is insufficient to verify the authenticity of the milk fat in butter. It can therefore be concluded that sterol measurement is insufficient in verifying the authenticity of milk fat.

  9. Adequacy of the Measurement Capability of Fatty Acid Compositions and Sterol Profiles to Determine Authenticity of Milk Fat Through Formulation of Adulterated Butter.

    PubMed

    Soha, Sahel; Mortazavian, Amir M; Piravi-Vanak, Zahra; Mohammadifar, Mohammad A; Sahafar, Hamed; Nanvazadeh, Sara

    2015-01-01

    In this research a comparison has been made between the fatty acid and sterol compositions of Iranian pure butter and three samples of adulterated butter. These samples were formulated using edible vegetable fats/oils with similar milk fat structures including palm olein, palm kernel and coconut oil to determine the authenticity of milk fat. The amount of vegetable fats/oils used in the formulation of the adulterated butter was 10%. The adulterated samples were formulated so that their fatty acid profiles were comforted with acceptable levels of pure butter as specified by the Iranian national standard. Based on the type of the vegetable oil/fat, fatty acids such as C4:0, C12:0 and C18:2 were used as indicators for the adulterated formulations. According to the standard method of ISO, the analysis was performed using gas chromatography. The cholesterol contents were 99.71% in pure butter (B1), and 97.61%, 98.48% and 97.98% of the total sterols in the samples adulterated with palm olein, palm kernel and coconut oil (B2, B3 and B4), respectively. Contents of the main phytosterol profiles such as β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol were also determined. The β-sitosterol content, as an indicator of phytosterols, was 0% in pure butter, and 1.81%, 1.67% and 2.16%, of the total sterols in the adulterated samples (B2, B3 and B4), respectively. Our findings indicate that fatty acid profiles are not an efficient indicator for butter authentication. Despite the increase in phytosterols and the reduction in cholesterol and with regard to the conformity of the sterol profiles of the edible fats/oils used in the formulations with Codex standards, lower cholesterol and higher phytosterols contents should have been observed. It can therefore be concluded that sterol measurement is insufficient to verify the authenticity of the milk fat in butter. It can therefore be concluded that sterol measurement is insufficient in verifying the authenticity of milk fat. PMID:26246145

  10. Application of an Electronic Nose Instrument to Fast Classification of Polish Honey Types

    PubMed Central

    Dymerski, Tomasz; Gębicki, Jacek; Wardencki, Waldemar; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents practical utilization of an electronic nose prototype, based on the FIGARO semiconductor sensors, in fast classification of Polish honey types—acacia flower, linden flower, rape, buckwheat and honeydew ones. A set of thermostating modules of the prototype provided gradient temperature characteristics of barbotage-prepared gas mixtures and stable measurement conditions. Three chemometric data analysis methods were employed for the honey samples classification: principal component analysis (PCA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and cluster analysis (CA) with the furthest neighbour method. The investigation confirmed usefulness of this type of instrument in correct classification of all aforementioned honey types. In order to provide optimum measurement conditions during honey samples classification the following parameters were selected: volumetric flow rate of carrier gas—15 L/h, barbotage temperature—35 °C, time of sensor signal acquisition since barbotage process onset—60 s. Chemometric analysis allowed discrimination of three honey types using PCA and CA and all five honey types with LDA. The reproducibility of 96% of the results was within the range 4.9%–8.6% CV. PMID:24945677

  11. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of vitex honey against paracetamol induced liver damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan; Li, Dan; Cheng, Ni; Gao, Hui; Xue, Xiaofeng; Cao, Wei; Sun, Liping

    2015-07-01

    Fourteen vitex honeys from China were investigated to evaluate its antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol-induced liver damage. All honey samples exhibited high total phenolic content (344-520 mg GAE per kg), total flavonoid content (19-31 mg Rutin per kg), and strong antioxidant activity in DPPH radical scavenging, ferric reducing antioxidant power and Ferrous ion-chelating ability. Nine phenolic acids were detected in vitex honey samples, in which caffeic acid was the main compound. Honey from Heibei Zanhuang (S2) ranked the highest antioxidant activity was orally administered to mice (5 g kg(-1), 20 g kg(-1)) for 70 days. In high-dose (20 g kg(-1)), vitex honey pretreatment resulting in significant increase in serum oxygen radical absorbance capacity (15.07%) and decrease in Cu(2+)-mediate lipoprotein oxidation (80.07%), and suppression in alanine aminotransferase (75.79%) and aspartate aminotransferase (74.52%), enhancement in the superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities and reduction in malondialdehyde (36.15%) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (19.6%) formation compared with paracetamol-intoxicated group. The results demonstrated the hepatoprotection of vitex honey against paracetamol-induced liver damage might attribute to its antioxidant and/or perhaps pro-oxidative property. PMID:26084988

  12. Application of an electronic nose instrument to fast classification of Polish honey types.

    PubMed

    Dymerski, Tomasz; Gębicki, Jacek; Wardencki, Waldemar; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents practical utilization of an electronic nose prototype, based on the FIGARO semiconductor sensors, in fast classification of Polish honey types-acacia flower, linden flower, rape, buckwheat and honeydew ones. A set of thermostating modules of the prototype provided gradient temperature characteristics of barbotage-prepared gas mixtures and stable measurement conditions. Three chemometric data analysis methods were employed for the honey samples classification: principal component analysis (PCA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and cluster analysis (CA) with the furthest neighbour method. The investigation confirmed usefulness of this type of instrument in correct classification of all aforementioned honey types. In order to provide optimum measurement conditions during honey samples classification the following parameters were selected: volumetric flow rate of carrier gas-15 L/h, barbotage temperature-35 °C, time of sensor signal acquisition since barbotage process onset-60 s. Chemometric analysis allowed discrimination of three honey types using PCA and CA and all five honey types with LDA. The reproducibility of 96% of the results was within the range 4.9%-8.6% CV. PMID:24945677

  13. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of vitex honey against paracetamol induced liver damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan; Li, Dan; Cheng, Ni; Gao, Hui; Xue, Xiaofeng; Cao, Wei; Sun, Liping

    2015-07-01

    Fourteen vitex honeys from China were investigated to evaluate its antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol-induced liver damage. All honey samples exhibited high total phenolic content (344-520 mg GAE per kg), total flavonoid content (19-31 mg Rutin per kg), and strong antioxidant activity in DPPH radical scavenging, ferric reducing antioxidant power and Ferrous ion-chelating ability. Nine phenolic acids were detected in vitex honey samples, in which caffeic acid was the main compound. Honey from Heibei Zanhuang (S2) ranked the highest antioxidant activity was orally administered to mice (5 g kg(-1), 20 g kg(-1)) for 70 days. In high-dose (20 g kg(-1)), vitex honey pretreatment resulting in significant increase in serum oxygen radical absorbance capacity (15.07%) and decrease in Cu(2+)-mediate lipoprotein oxidation (80.07%), and suppression in alanine aminotransferase (75.79%) and aspartate aminotransferase (74.52%), enhancement in the superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities and reduction in malondialdehyde (36.15%) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (19.6%) formation compared with paracetamol-intoxicated group. The results demonstrated the hepatoprotection of vitex honey against paracetamol-induced liver damage might attribute to its antioxidant and/or perhaps pro-oxidative property.

  14. Preservation of honey bee semen.

    PubMed

    TABER, S; BLUM, M S

    1960-06-10

    Fertilized eggs have been obtained from queen honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) inseminated with sperm that had been stored in vitro at above-freezing temperatures for up to 68 days. The effects of various experimental storage treatments on semen are described. Semen shipped by ordinary mail has been successfully used for artificial insemination. PMID:13836523

  15. Sleep deprivation in honey bees.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Stefan; Herrmann, Eva; Kaiser, Walter

    2004-06-01

    Rest at night in forager honey bees (Apis mellifera) meets essential criteria of sleep. This paper reports the effect of a 12-h total sleep deprivation (SD) by forced activity on the behaviour of these animals. The behaviour of sleep-deprived animals is compared with that of control animals under LD [periodic alternation between light (L) and darkness (D)] 12 : 12 hours. SD for 12 h during the first D period resulted in a significant difference with respect to the parameter 'hourly amount of antennal immobility' between sleep-deprived and control animals during the remaining L and D periods. This difference did not occur in the L period following the deprivation night, but rather it became obvious at the beginning of the following D period. The increase of the amount of antennal immobility in sleep-deprived bees was accompanied by an increase of the duration of episodes of antennal immobility. Moreover, the latency from 'lights off' to the first episode of antennal immobility lasting 20 s or longer ('deep sleep latency') tended to be shorter in sleep-deprived than in control animals. Disturbing the bees during the day (L period) did not result in such differences between disturbed and control animals. Highest reaction thresholds in sleeping honey bees occur during long episodes of antennal immobility. We therefore conclude that honey bees compensate a sleep deficit by intensification (deepening) of the sleep process and thus that sleep in honey bees, like that in other arthropods and mammals, is controlled by regulatory mechanisms.

  16. Q&A: Michael Honey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helicher, Karl

    2007-01-01

    The mid-1960s saw civil rights victories in Congress during Lyndon B. Johnson's presidency. In "Going Down Jericho Road," Michael Honey wrote how Martin Luther King Jr.'s final focus showed that the struggle for black and working class parity continued. The 1968 Memphis sanitation workers strike was a gritty struggle won in the streets by a host…

  17. Honey Bees: Sweetness and Mites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Honey bee colony losses have been in the news lately and the potential reasons for these losses have taken up much space in the news media. In order to clarify what role mites play in the current loss (2006-2007) of bee colonies, called Colony Collapse Disorder, a better understanding of what a mit...

  18. Preservation of honey bee semen.

    PubMed

    TABER, S; BLUM, M S

    1960-06-10

    Fertilized eggs have been obtained from queen honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) inseminated with sperm that had been stored in vitro at above-freezing temperatures for up to 68 days. The effects of various experimental storage treatments on semen are described. Semen shipped by ordinary mail has been successfully used for artificial insemination.

  19. Honeybee glucose oxidase--its expression in honeybee workers and comparative analyses of its content and H2O2-mediated antibacterial activity in natural honeys.

    PubMed

    Bucekova, Marcela; Valachova, Ivana; Kohutova, Lenka; Prochazka, Emanuel; Klaudiny, Jaroslav; Majtan, Juraj

    2014-08-01

    Antibacterial properties of honey largely depend on the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which is generated by glucose oxidase (GOX)-mediated conversion of glucose in diluted honey. However, honeys exhibit considerable variation in their antibacterial activity. Therefore, the aim of the study was to identify the mechanism behind the variation in this activity and in the H2O2 content in honeys associated with the role of GOX in this process. Immunoblots and in situ hybridization analyses demonstrated that gox is solely expressed in the hypopharyngeal glands of worker bees performing various tasks and not in other glands or tissues. Real-time PCR with reference genes selected for worker heads shows that the gox expression progressively increases with ageing of the youngest bees and nurses and reached the highest values in processor bees. Immunoblot analysis of honey samples revealed that GOX is a regular honey component but its content significantly varied among honeys. Neither botanical source nor geographical origin of honeys affected the level of GOX suggesting that some other factors such as honeybee nutrition and/or genetic/epigenetic factors may take part in the observed variation. A strong correlation was found between the content of GOX and the level of generated H2O2 in honeys except honeydew honeys. Total antibacterial activity of most honey samples against Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate significantly correlated with the H2O2 content. These results demonstrate that the level of GOX can significantly affect the total antibacterial activity of honey. They also support an idea that breeding of novel honeybee lines expressing higher amounts of GOX could help to increase the antibacterial efficacy of the hypopharyngeal gland secretion that could have positive influence on a resistance of colonies against bacterial pathogens. PMID:24969731

  20. Honeybee glucose oxidase--its expression in honeybee workers and comparative analyses of its content and H2O2-mediated antibacterial activity in natural honeys.

    PubMed

    Bucekova, Marcela; Valachova, Ivana; Kohutova, Lenka; Prochazka, Emanuel; Klaudiny, Jaroslav; Majtan, Juraj

    2014-08-01

    Antibacterial properties of honey largely depend on the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which is generated by glucose oxidase (GOX)-mediated conversion of glucose in diluted honey. However, honeys exhibit considerable variation in their antibacterial activity. Therefore, the aim of the study was to identify the mechanism behind the variation in this activity and in the H2O2 content in honeys associated with the role of GOX in this process. Immunoblots and in situ hybridization analyses demonstrated that gox is solely expressed in the hypopharyngeal glands of worker bees performing various tasks and not in other glands or tissues. Real-time PCR with reference genes selected for worker heads shows that the gox expression progressively increases with ageing of the youngest bees and nurses and reached the highest values in processor bees. Immunoblot analysis of honey samples revealed that GOX is a regular honey component but its content significantly varied among honeys. Neither botanical source nor geographical origin of honeys affected the level of GOX suggesting that some other factors such as honeybee nutrition and/or genetic/epigenetic factors may take part in the observed variation. A strong correlation was found between the content of GOX and the level of generated H2O2 in honeys except honeydew honeys. Total antibacterial activity of most honey samples against Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate significantly correlated with the H2O2 content. These results demonstrate that the level of GOX can significantly affect the total antibacterial activity of honey. They also support an idea that breeding of novel honeybee lines expressing higher amounts of GOX could help to increase the antibacterial efficacy of the hypopharyngeal gland secretion that could have positive influence on a resistance of colonies against bacterial pathogens.

  1. Honeybee glucose oxidase—its expression in honeybee workers and comparative analyses of its content and H2O2-mediated antibacterial activity in natural honeys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucekova, Marcela; Valachova, Ivana; Kohutova, Lenka; Prochazka, Emanuel; Klaudiny, Jaroslav; Majtan, Juraj

    2014-08-01

    Antibacterial properties of honey largely depend on the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which is generated by glucose oxidase (GOX)-mediated conversion of glucose in diluted honey. However, honeys exhibit considerable variation in their antibacterial activity. Therefore, the aim of the study was to identify the mechanism behind the variation in this activity and in the H2O2 content in honeys associated with the role of GOX in this process. Immunoblots and in situ hybridization analyses demonstrated that gox is solely expressed in the hypopharyngeal glands of worker bees performing various tasks and not in other glands or tissues. Real-time PCR with reference genes selected for worker heads shows that the gox expression progressively increases with ageing of the youngest bees and nurses and reached the highest values in processor bees. Immunoblot analysis of honey samples revealed that GOX is a regular honey component but its content significantly varied among honeys. Neither botanical source nor geographical origin of honeys affected the level of GOX suggesting that some other factors such as honeybee nutrition and/or genetic/epigenetic factors may take part in the observed variation. A strong correlation was found between the content of GOX and the level of generated H2O2 in honeys except honeydew honeys. Total antibacterial activity of most honey samples against Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate significantly correlated with the H2O2 content. These results demonstrate that the level of GOX can significantly affect the total antibacterial activity of honey. They also support an idea that breeding of novel honeybee lines expressing higher amounts of GOX could help to increase the antibacterial efficacy of the hypopharyngeal gland secretion that could have positive influence on a resistance of colonies against bacterial pathogens.

  2. Honeybees and honey as monitors for heavy metal contamination near thermal power plants in Mugla, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Silici, Sibel; Uluozlu, Ozgur Dogan; Tuzen, Mustafa; Soylak, Mustafa

    2016-03-01

    In the present work, 6 honeydew samples of known geographical and botanical origins and 11 honeybee samples were analyzed to detect possible contamination by the thermoelectric power plants in Mugla, Turkey. The contents of trace elements were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry after application of microwave digestion. The samples from the thermal power plants, which were 10-22 km away from the hives, that did not cause pollution in honeydew honeys were also analyzed. The levels of copper, cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), zinc, manganese, iron, chromium, nickel, and aluminum were similar to the values found in other recent studies in literature. However, it was found that the contamination levels of the toxic elements such as Pb and Cd in honeybee samples measured relatively higher than that of honey samples. The study concludes that honeybees may be better bioindicators of heavy metal pollution than honey.

  3. Sublethal imidacloprid effects on honey bee flower choices when foraging.

    PubMed

    Karahan, Ahmed; Çakmak, Ibrahim; Hranitz, John M; Karaca, Ismail; Wells, Harrington

    2015-11-01

    Neonicotinoids, systemic neuro-active pesticides similar to nicotine, are widely used in agriculture and are being investigated for a role in honey bee colony losses. We examined one neonicotinoid pesticide, imidacloprid, for its effects on the foraging behavior of free-flying honey bees (Apis mellifera anatoliaca) visiting artificial blue and white flowers. Imidacloprid doses, ranging from 1/5 to 1/50 of the reported LD50, were fed to bees orally. The study consisted of three experimental parts performed sequentially without interruption. In Part 1, both flower colors contained a 4 μL 1 M sucrose solution reward. Part 2 offered bees 4 μL of 1.5 M sucrose solution in blue flowers and a 4 μL 0.5 M sucrose solution reward in white flowers. In Part 3 we reversed the sugar solution rewards, while keeping the flower color consistent. Each experiment began 30 min after administration of the pesticide. We recorded the percentage of experimental bees that returned to forage after treatment. We also recorded the visitation rate, number of flowers visited, and floral reward choices of the bees that foraged after treatment. The forager return rate declined linearly with increasing imidacloprid dose. The number of foraging trips by returning bees was also affected adversely. However, flower fidelity was not affected by imidacloprid dose. Foragers visited both blue and white flowers extensively in Part 1, and showed greater fidelity for the flower color offering the higher sugar solution reward in Parts 2 and 3. Although larger samples sizes are needed, our study suggests that imidacloprid may not affect the ability to select the higher nectar reward when rewards were reversed. We observed acute, mild effects on foraging by honey bees, so mild that storage of imidacloprid tainted-honey is very plausible and likely to be found in honey bee colonies. PMID:26415950

  4. Sublethal imidacloprid effects on honey bee flower choices when foraging.

    PubMed

    Karahan, Ahmed; Çakmak, Ibrahim; Hranitz, John M; Karaca, Ismail; Wells, Harrington

    2015-11-01

    Neonicotinoids, systemic neuro-active pesticides similar to nicotine, are widely used in agriculture and are being investigated for a role in honey bee colony losses. We examined one neonicotinoid pesticide, imidacloprid, for its effects on the foraging behavior of free-flying honey bees (Apis mellifera anatoliaca) visiting artificial blue and white flowers. Imidacloprid doses, ranging from 1/5 to 1/50 of the reported LD50, were fed to bees orally. The study consisted of three experimental parts performed sequentially without interruption. In Part 1, both flower colors contained a 4 μL 1 M sucrose solution reward. Part 2 offered bees 4 μL of 1.5 M sucrose solution in blue flowers and a 4 μL 0.5 M sucrose solution reward in white flowers. In Part 3 we reversed the sugar solution rewards, while keeping the flower color consistent. Each experiment began 30 min after administration of the pesticide. We recorded the percentage of experimental bees that returned to forage after treatment. We also recorded the visitation rate, number of flowers visited, and floral reward choices of the bees that foraged after treatment. The forager return rate declined linearly with increasing imidacloprid dose. The number of foraging trips by returning bees was also affected adversely. However, flower fidelity was not affected by imidacloprid dose. Foragers visited both blue and white flowers extensively in Part 1, and showed greater fidelity for the flower color offering the higher sugar solution reward in Parts 2 and 3. Although larger samples sizes are needed, our study suggests that imidacloprid may not affect the ability to select the higher nectar reward when rewards were reversed. We observed acute, mild effects on foraging by honey bees, so mild that storage of imidacloprid tainted-honey is very plausible and likely to be found in honey bee colonies.

  5. Sensibility of hydrous ethanol adulteration detection using ultrasonic parameters validated in a metrological base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    K-K Figueiredo, Monique; Costa-Felix, Rodrigo P. B.; Maggi, Luis E.; Alvarenga, André V.; Romeiro, Gilberto A.

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study is to identify possible changes in fuels, in this case hydrous ethanol, through ultrasonic parameters such as attenuation and propagation speed. The system setup and method were implemented at Inmetro's Laboratory of Ultrasound. Experiments and method uncertainties were assessed accordingly to ISO/IEC Guide 98 1:2009 (Uncertainty of measurement - Part 1: Introduction to the expression of uncertainty in measurement). Mixtures of ethanol and water varying from 90% to 94% of alcohol in mass were used as testing samples. Attenuation and propagation speed were accurately measured and uncertainties evaluated. The accordingly to Brazilian biofuel regulations, the concentration of water in hydrous ethanol can be accepted at a maximum concentration of 93.8 and minimum of 92.6 of alcohol in mass. To achieve that figure, a functional combination of tested parameters should be implemented. Those results could be used as a tool to identify adulteration of biofuel, even in analysis performed on site.

  6. ANTI-STAPHYLOCOCCAL ACTIVITY OF MELALEUCA HONEY.

    PubMed

    Ng, Wen-jie; Lim, Mei-siew

    2015-05-01

    Honey is well-known for its antioxidant properties due to the presence of phytochemical compounds, which are also involved in antibacterial activities. In this study, properties (total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, free radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing-antioxidant power, reducing sugar content, and pH) of Malaysian Melaleuca honey were investigated for their antistaphylococcal activity, against both methicillin-sensitive (MSSA) and resistant (MRSA) Staphylococcus aureus strains using a hole-in-plate diffusion method. The outcome revealed there is a significant positive correlation between the antistaphylococcal activity and increase in honey concentration [20%-80% (v/v) in distilled water], which also correlated with each of the above mentioned parameter in honey, except for pH value that shows negative correlation. Furthermore, there was no difference in susceptibility to Melaleuca honey between MSSA and MRSA strains. Thus, in addition to being an antioxidant product, Melaleuca honey has a potential as a natural antistaphylococcal agent.

  7. ANTI-STAPHYLOCOCCAL ACTIVITY OF MELALEUCA HONEY.

    PubMed

    Ng, Wen-jie; Lim, Mei-siew

    2015-05-01

    Honey is well-known for its antioxidant properties due to the presence of phytochemical compounds, which are also involved in antibacterial activities. In this study, properties (total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, free radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing-antioxidant power, reducing sugar content, and pH) of Malaysian Melaleuca honey were investigated for their antistaphylococcal activity, against both methicillin-sensitive (MSSA) and resistant (MRSA) Staphylococcus aureus strains using a hole-in-plate diffusion method. The outcome revealed there is a significant positive correlation between the antistaphylococcal activity and increase in honey concentration [20%-80% (v/v) in distilled water], which also correlated with each of the above mentioned parameter in honey, except for pH value that shows negative correlation. Furthermore, there was no difference in susceptibility to Melaleuca honey between MSSA and MRSA strains. Thus, in addition to being an antioxidant product, Melaleuca honey has a potential as a natural antistaphylococcal agent. PMID:26521521

  8. Microbiological decontamination of natural honey by irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migdał, W.; Owczarczyk, H. B.; K ȩdzia, B.; Hołderna-K ȩdzia, E.; Madajczyk, D.

    2000-03-01

    Degree of microbiological decontamination, organoleptic and physico-chemical properties of natural honeys were investigated after radiation treatment. Seven kinds of honeys were irradiated with the beams of 10 MeV electrons from a 10 kW linear accelerator "Elektronika 10-10" at the dose 10 kGy. It was shown, that after irradiation, the total count of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and moulds decrease by 99%. The antibiotic value in investigated honeys increased in turn from 1.67 to 2.67 after irradiation. Such factors and parameters of investigated honeys as their consistency, content of water and saccharose, acidity, the diastase and 5-HMF values were not changed significantly after irradiation. Decontamination by irradiation is a process which allows us to obtain high microbiological purity of honeys. It is especially needed, when honeys are used in surgical treatment of injuries and in nutrition of babies with food deficiency.

  9. Direct potentiometric determination of diastase activity in honey.

    PubMed

    Sak-Bosnar, Milan; Sakač, Nikola

    2012-11-15

    A novel method for the determination of diastase activity is reported. The method is based on a direct potentiometric measurement of triiodide ion that is released when a starch-triiodide complex is hydrolysed by honey diastase. The increase of free triiodide ion concentration in a sample is found to be directly proportional to the diastase activity of the sample. A response mechanism of the platinum redox electrode is proposed, allowing a calculation of the diastase activity factor (F). The sensor and analyte parameters, including F, were obtained by least squares fitting of potentiometric data using the optimisation function of the Solver add-in of Microsoft Excel. The values of F obtained by the new direct potentiometric method were compared with those obtained using the standard Phadebas method (DN values), and the two values were found to agree within experimental error. Finally, the diastase activity of nine varieties of honey was determined using the novel method developed here.

  10. Combined antibacterial activity of stingless bee (Apis mellipodae) honey and garlic (Allium sativum) extracts against standard and clinical pathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Andualem, Berhanu

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the synergic antibacterial activity of garlic and tazma honey against standard and clinical pathogenic bacteria. Methods Antimicrobial activity of tazma honey, garlic and mixture of them against pathogenic bacteria were determined. Chloramphenicol and water were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration of antimicrobial samples were determined using standard methods. Results Inhibition zone of mixture of garlic and tazma honey against all tested pathogens was significantly (P≤0.05) greater than garlic and tazma honey alone. The diameter zone of inhibition ranged from (18±1) to (35±1) mm for mixture of garlic and tazma honey, (12±1) to (20±1) mm for tazma honey and (14±1) to (22±1) mm for garlic as compared with (10±1) to (30±1) mm for chloramphenicol. The combination of garlic and tazma honey (30-35 mm) was more significantly (P≤0.05) effective against Salmonella (NCTC 8385), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Lyesria moncytogenes (ATCC 19116) and Streptococcus pneumonia (ATCC 63). Results also showed considerable antimicrobial activity of garlic and tazma honey. MIC of mixture of garlic and tazma honey at 6.25% against total test bacteria was 88.9%. MIC of mixture of garlic and tazma honey at 6.25% against Gram positive and negative were 100% and 83.33%, respectively. The bactericidal activities of garlic, tazma honey, and mixture of garlic and tazma honey against all pathogenic bacteria at 6.25% concentration were 66.6%, 55.6% and 55.6%, respectively. Conclusions This finding strongly supports the claim of the local community to use the combination of tazma honey and garlic for the treatment of different pathogenic bacterial infections. Therefore, garlic in combination with tazma honey can serve as an alternative natural antimicrobial drug for the treatment of pathogenic bacterial infections. Further in vivo study is recommended to come

  11. Flumethrin residue levels in honey from apiaries of China by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Yu, L S; Liu, F; Wu, H; Tan, H R; Ruan, X C; Chen, Y; Chao, Z

    2015-01-01

    A method for detection of flumethrin residue in honey by high-performance liquid chromatography was established. After n-hexane-dichloromethane (4:6, vol/vol) extraction, the honey samples were concentrated by rotary evaporation, purified by an Oasis HLB solid-phase extraction column, and detected using a UV detector at 267 nm. The interference of the matrix was greatly reduced by optimizing pretreatment conditions; thus, the minimal detection limit of cyhalothrin was 0.005 mg/kg, the average recovery was 80.8 to 96.8%, and the coefficient of variation was 0.6 to 1.5%. The precision and reproducibility of this method was suitable and applicable for detecting flumethrin residue in honey. With this method, 135 honey samples from seven locations in the People's Republic of China were tested; 77 samples tested positive for flumethrin residue, resulting in a detection rate of 75.3%. Samples from the Guangdong province had the highest flumethrin residue level (0.122 mg/kg) of the locations tested. On the basis of analytical validation, the high-performance liquid chromatography has been shown to be a promising alternative for the analysis of flumethrin residue in honey samples. PMID:25581190

  12. Flumethrin residue levels in honey from apiaries of China by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Yu, L S; Liu, F; Wu, H; Tan, H R; Ruan, X C; Chen, Y; Chao, Z

    2015-01-01

    A method for detection of flumethrin residue in honey by high-performance liquid chromatography was established. After n-hexane-dichloromethane (4:6, vol/vol) extraction, the honey samples were concentrated by rotary evaporation, purified by an Oasis HLB solid-phase extraction column, and detected using a UV detector at 267 nm. The interference of the matrix was greatly reduced by optimizing pretreatment conditions; thus, the minimal detection limit of cyhalothrin was 0.005 mg/kg, the average recovery was 80.8 to 96.8%, and the coefficient of variation was 0.6 to 1.5%. The precision and reproducibility of this method was suitable and applicable for detecting flumethrin residue in honey. With this method, 135 honey samples from seven locations in the People's Republic of China were tested; 77 samples tested positive for flumethrin residue, resulting in a detection rate of 75.3%. Samples from the Guangdong province had the highest flumethrin residue level (0.122 mg/kg) of the locations tested. On the basis of analytical validation, the high-performance liquid chromatography has been shown to be a promising alternative for the analysis of flumethrin residue in honey samples.

  13. Evaluation of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in honeys from different origins.

    PubMed

    Corredera, Lourdes; Bayarri, Susana; Pérez-Arquillué, Consuelo; Lázaro, Regina; Molino, Francisco; Herrera, Antonio

    2014-03-01

    A survey of honey samples from different geographical and botanical origins, including some samples collected from a fire-affected area in Spain, was conducted to assess their content of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The levels of the determined toxic elements (Pb, Cd, As, and Sn) were low and were in the range of those reported by other studies. In our work the total amount of heavy metals and Pb was higher in dark honeys than in pale honeys. In the collected samples, no detectable levels of the 15 PAHs studied were found. The obtained data served to assess the levels of heavy metals and PAHs in honey samples from different geographical and environmental origins and to contribute to the scarce data about pollutant content of this matrix. In light of these results, the analyzed samples do not pose any serious concern to human health, and the data obtained in this study could serve to contribute to the establishment of specific maximum limits for honey. PMID:24674446

  14. Mad honey intoxication mimicking acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dur, Ali; Sonmez, Ertan; Civelek, Cemil; AhmetTurkdogan, Kenan; AkifVatankulu, Mehmet; Sogut, Ozgur

    2014-09-01

    Mad honey intoxication or grayanotoxin poisoning is caused by consumption of grayanotoxin-containing toxic honey produced from leaves and flowers of the Rhododendron family. Despite the rarity of intoxication cases, the correct diagnosis and treatment are required because of the significance of haemodynamic disturbance and confounding of symptoms for disease identification. We report herein a case of a patient with mad honey intoxication mimicking acute non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction and review the pathophysiology and diagnostic considerations.

  15. Comprehensive screening of veterinary drugs in honey by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Staub Spörri, Aline; Jan, Philippe; Cognard, Emmanuelle; Ortelli, Didier; Edder, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    In the context of multi-residue screening in honey, a complete methodology was developed for 200 veterinary drugs comprising a sample preparation step and an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry analysis. In addition, specific analytical strategies were developed for two compounds, streptomycin and chloramphenicol, using UHPLC and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Methodologies were then applied to real honey samples obtained from the Swiss market. PMID:24499104

  16. Screening of adulterants in milk powder using a high-throughput Raman chemical imaging method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Milk is one of the most common targets for economically motivated adulteration. Adulterants in milk can cause illness and death when consumed, thus rapid and accurate detection method is needed for authenticating milk products. Our previous studies based on a point-scan Raman imaging system have dem...

  17. Detection of roasted and ground coffee adulteration by HPLC and by amperometric and by post-column derivatization UV-Vis detection.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Diego S; Pauli, Elis D; de Abreu, Julia E M; Massura, Francys W; Cristiano, Valderi; Santos, Maria J; Nixdorf, Suzana L

    2014-03-01

    Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages in the world. Due to its commercial importance, the detection of impurities and foreign matters has been a constant concern in fraud verification, especially because it is difficult to percept adulterations with the naked eye in samples of roasted and ground coffee. In Brazil, the most common additions are roasted materials, such as husks, sticks, corn, wheat middling, soybean, and more recently - acai palm seeds. The performance and correlation of two chromatographic methods, HPLC-HPAEC-PAD and post-column derivatization HPLC-UV-Vis, were compared for carbohydrate analysis in coffee samples. To verify the correlation between the two methods, the principal component analysis for the same mix of triticale and acai seeds in different proportions with coffee was employed. The performance for detecting adulterations in roasted and ground coffee of the two methods was compared.

  18. Fast screening and secure confirmation of milk powder adulteration with maltodextrin via electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry [ESI(+)-MS] and selective enzymatic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Sanvido, Gustavo B; Garcia, Jerusa S; Corilo, Yuri E; Vaz, Boniek G; Zacca, Jorge J; Cosso, Ricardo G; Eberlin, Marcos N; Peter, Martin G

    2010-09-01

    Direct-infusion electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry [ESI(+)-MS] of several milk powder samples, confiscated by the Brazilian Federal Police, showed ions accounting for sodiated and potassiated molecules of disaccharides (m/z 365 and 381) as well as trisaccharides (m/z 527 and 543), whereas monosaccharide ions were not detected. The trisaccharide ions were not detected in samples of genuine milk powder, raising the suspicion that their presence indicates adulteration by the addition of maltodextrin. In control samples, maltose and maltotriose were hydrolyzed by alpha-glucosidase and not beta-galactosidase, whereas lactose was resistant to alpha-glucosidase but was hydrolyzed with beta-galactosidase. Samples suspected of being adulterated behaved in the same fashion, confirming the presence of maltose and maltotriose or maltodextrin. Direct-infusion ESI-MS is shown therefore to provide rapid screening of milk powder for adulteration with maltodextrin, whereas its combination with selective enzymatic hydrolysis provides highly reliable confirmation for unambiguous results.

  19. DNA-based Simultaneous Identification of Three Terminalia Species Targeting Adulteration

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sonal; Shrivastava, Neeta

    2016-01-01

    Background: Various parts of three Terminalia species, namely, Terminalia arjuna (stem bark), Terminalia bellirica (fruit), and Terminalia chebula (fruit) are widely known for their therapeutic principles and other commercial values. However, stem bark of T. bellirica and T. chebula along with Terminalia tomentosa are reported as adulterants of T. arjuna. Correct botanical identification is very critical for safe and effective herbal drugs. DNA-based identification approaches are advancing the conventional methods and sometime proved more beneficial. Objective: The purpose of the study was to develop polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region to ascertain the identity of T. arjuna herbal material as well as detection of mixing of other three Terminalia species. Materials and Methods: DNA from stem barks samples were isolated and subjected to ITS region amplification and sequencing. Sequences were compared for polymorphic nucleotides determination to develop species-specific primers. Final primers were selected on the basis of in silico analysis and experimentally validated. PCR assays for botanical identification of Terminalia species were developed. Sensitivity testing and assay validation were also performed. Results: The PCR assays developed for Terminalia species were resulted in definite amplicons of the corresponding species. No cross-reactivity of the primers was detected. Sensitivity was found enough to amplify as low as 2 ng of DNA. Mixing of DNA in various concentrations for validation also proved the sensitivity of assay to detect original botanicals in the mixture. The developed methods proved very specific and sensitive to authenticate Arjuna bark to develop evidence-based herbal medicines. SUMMARY Internal transcribed spacer-based species-specific polymerase chain reaction.(PCR) assays were developed to authenticate Terminalia arjuna stem bark and to identify substitution/adulteration of Terminalia bellirica

  20. Honey in the treatment of infantile gastroenteritis.

    PubMed

    Haffejee, I E; Moosa, A

    1985-06-22

    A clinical study was undertaken using honey in oral rehydration solution in infants and children with gastroenteritis. The aim was to evaluate the influence of honey on the duration of acute diarrhoea and its value as a glucose substitute in oral rehydration. The results showed that honey shortens the duration of bacterial diarrhoea, does not prolong the duration of non-bacterial diarrhoea, and may safely be used as a substitute for glucose in an oral rehydration solution containing electrolytes. The correct dilution of honey, as well as the presence of electrolytes in the oral rehydration solution, however, must be maintained.

  1. Synergistic Effect of Honey and Propolis on Cutaneous Wound Healing in Rats.

    PubMed

    Takzaree, Nasrin; Hadjiakhondi, Abbas; Hassanzadeh, Gholamreza; Rouini, Mohammad Reza; Manayi, Azadeh

    2016-04-01

    Accelerating wound healing is now considered as a principle clinical treatment and increasing the quality and speed of healing which has always been emphasized by the scientists. Propolis and honey are natural bee products with wide range of biological and medicinal properties. This study was aimed to determine the synergistic effect of honey and propolis in wound healing of rat skin. A total of 75 Wistar rats weighing 200-250 gr were placed under general anesthesia and sterile conditions. Then a square shape wound with 1.5*1.5 mm dimension was made on the back of the neck. Animals were randomly divided into control, honey, propolis, combined honey propolis and phenytoin 1% groups, respectively. Rats were randomly divided into the following groups: 4th, 7th and, 14th days of treatment in each period of study. Wound area in the experimental group was covered once daily with a fixed amount of thyme honey, propolis, propolis and honey and phenytoin cream (1%), the control group did not receive any treatment. For histological studies, during the fourth, seventh and fourteenth day's rats were sacrificed and samples were taken from the wound and adjacent skin. After histological staining fibroblast, neutrophils, macrophages and vascular sections were counted in the wound bed. The macroscopic and microscopic evaluations showed that the percentage of wound healing on different days in the experimental and control groups were significant (P<0.05). The macroscopic and microscopic evaluation showed that the percentage of wound healing on different days in combined propolis and honey experimental group was significantly different from the control group (Multivariate ANOVA test) (P<0.05). Combined application of propolis and honey on the open wound healing in rats has a synergistic effect.

  2. Synergistic Effect of Honey and Propolis on Cutaneous Wound Healing in Rats.

    PubMed

    Takzaree, Nasrin; Hadjiakhondi, Abbas; Hassanzadeh, Gholamreza; Rouini, Mohammad Reza; Manayi, Azadeh

    2016-04-01

    Accelerating wound healing is now considered as a principle clinical treatment and increasing the quality and speed of healing which has always been emphasized by the scientists. Propolis and honey are natural bee products with wide range of biological and medicinal properties. This study was aimed to determine the synergistic effect of honey and propolis in wound healing of rat skin. A total of 75 Wistar rats weighing 200-250 gr were placed under general anesthesia and sterile conditions. Then a square shape wound with 1.5*1.5 mm dimension was made on the back of the neck. Animals were randomly divided into control, honey, propolis, combined honey propolis and phenytoin 1% groups, respectively. Rats were randomly divided into the following groups: 4th, 7th and, 14th days of treatment in each period of study. Wound area in the experimental group was covered once daily with a fixed amount of thyme honey, propolis, propolis and honey and phenytoin cream (1%), the control group did not receive any treatment. For histological studies, during the fourth, seventh and fourteenth day's rats were sacrificed and samples were taken from the wound and adjacent skin. After histological staining fibroblast, neutrophils, macrophages and vascular sections were counted in the wound bed. The macroscopic and microscopic evaluations showed that the percentage of wound healing on different days in the experimental and control groups were significant (P<0.05). The macroscopic and microscopic evaluation showed that the percentage of wound healing on different days in combined propolis and honey experimental group was significantly different from the control group (Multivariate ANOVA test) (P<0.05). Combined application of propolis and honey on the open wound healing in rats has a synergistic effect. PMID:27309263

  3. A novel approach for honey pollen profile assessment using an electronic tongue and chemometric tools.

    PubMed

    Dias, Luís G; Veloso, Ana C A; Sousa, Mara E B C; Estevinho, Letícia; Machado, Adélio A S C; Peres, António M

    2015-11-01

    Nowadays the main honey producing countries require accurate labeling of honey before commercialization, including floral classification. Traditionally, this classification is made by melissopalynology analysis, an accurate but time-consuming task requiring laborious sample pre-treatment and high-skilled technicians. In this work the potential use of a potentiometric electronic tongue for pollinic assessment is evaluated, using monofloral and polyfloral honeys. The results showed that after splitting honeys according to color (white, amber and dark), the novel methodology enabled quantifying the relative percentage of the main pollens (Castanea sp., Echium sp., Erica sp., Eucaliptus sp., Lavandula sp., Prunus sp., Rubus sp. and Trifolium sp.). Multiple linear regression models were established for each type of pollen, based on the best sensors' sub-sets selected using the simulated annealing algorithm. To minimize the overfitting risk, a repeated K-fold cross-validation procedure was implemented, ensuring that at least 10-20% of the honeys were used for internal validation. With this approach, a minimum average determination coefficient of 0.91 ± 0.15 was obtained. Also, the proposed technique enabled the correct classification of 92% and 100% of monofloral and polyfloral honeys, respectively. The quite satisfactory performance of the novel procedure for quantifying the relative pollen frequency may envisage its applicability for honey labeling and geographical origin identification. Nevertheless, this approach is not a full alternative to the traditional melissopalynologic analysis; it may be seen as a practical complementary tool for preliminary honey floral classification, leaving only problematic cases for pollinic evaluation. PMID:26572837

  4. A novel approach for honey pollen profile assessment using an electronic tongue and chemometric tools.

    PubMed

    Dias, Luís G; Veloso, Ana C A; Sousa, Mara E B C; Estevinho, Letícia; Machado, Adélio A S C; Peres, António M

    2015-11-01

    Nowadays the main honey producing countries require accurate labeling of honey before commercialization, including floral classification. Traditionally, this classification is made by melissopalynology analysis, an accurate but time-consuming task requiring laborious sample pre-treatment and high-skilled technicians. In this work the potential use of a potentiometric electronic tongue for pollinic assessment is evaluated, using monofloral and polyfloral honeys. The results showed that after splitting honeys according to color (white, amber and dark), the novel methodology enabled quantifying the relative percentage of the main pollens (Castanea sp., Echium sp., Erica sp., Eucaliptus sp., Lavandula sp., Prunus sp., Rubus sp. and Trifolium sp.). Multiple linear regression models were established for each type of pollen, based on the best sensors' sub-sets selected using the simulated annealing algorithm. To minimize the overfitting risk, a repeated K-fold cross-validation procedure was implemented, ensuring that at least 10-20% of the honeys were used for internal validation. With this approach, a minimum average determination coefficient of 0.91 ± 0.15 was obtained. Also, the proposed technique enabled the correct classification of 92% and 100% of monofloral and polyfloral honeys, respectively. The quite satisfactory performance of the novel procedure for quantifying the relative pollen frequency may envisage its applicability for honey labeling and geographical origin identification. Nevertheless, this approach is not a full alternative to the traditional melissopalynologic analysis; it may be seen as a practical complementary tool for preliminary honey floral classification, leaving only problematic cases for pollinic evaluation.

  5. A new threat to honey bees, the parasitic phorid fly Apocephalus borealis.

    PubMed

    Core, Andrew; Runckel, Charles; Ivers, Jonathan; Quock, Christopher; Siapno, Travis; Denault, Seraphina; Brown, Brian; Derisi, Joseph; Smith, Christopher D; Hafernik, John

    2012-01-01

    Honey bee colonies are subject to numerous pathogens and parasites. Interaction among multiple pathogens and parasites is the proposed cause for Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), a syndrome characterized by worker bees abandoning their hive. Here we provide the first documentation that the phorid fly Apocephalus borealis, previously known to parasitize bumble bees, also infects and eventually kills honey bees and may pose an emerging threat to North American apiculture. Parasitized honey bees show hive abandonment behavior, leaving their hives at night and dying shortly thereafter. On average, seven days later up to 13 phorid larvae emerge from each dead bee and pupate away from the bee. Using DNA barcoding, we confirmed that phorids that emerged from honey bees and bumble bees were the same species. Microarray analyses of honey bees from infected hives revealed that these bees are often infected with deformed wing virus and Nosema ceranae. Larvae and adult phorids also tested positive for these pathogens, implicating the fly as a potential vector or reservoir of these honey bee pathogens. Phorid parasitism may affect hive viability since 77% of sites sampled in the San Francisco Bay Area were infected by the fly and microarray analyses detected phorids in commercial hives in South Dakota and California's Central Valley. Understanding details of phorid infection may shed light on similar hive abandonment behaviors seen in CCD. PMID:22235317

  6. Shifts in the Midgut/Pyloric Microbiota Composition within a Honey Bee Apiary throughout a Season.

    PubMed

    Ludvigsen, Jane; Rangberg, Anbjørg; Avershina, Ekaterina; Sekelja, Monika; Kreibich, Claus; Amdam, Gro; Rudi, Knut

    2015-01-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are prominent crop pollinators and are, thus, important for effective food production. The honey bee gut microbiota is mainly host specific, with only a few species being shared with other insects. It currently remains unclear how environmental/dietary conditions affect the microbiota within a honey bee population over time. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to characterize the composition of the midgut/pyloric microbiota of a honey bee apiary throughout a season. The rationale for investigating the midgut/pyloric microbiota is its dynamic nature. Monthly sampling of a demographic homogenous population of bees was performed between May and October, with concordant recording of the honey bee diet. Mixed Sanger-and Illumina 16S rRNA gene sequencing in combination with a quantitative PCR analysis were used to determine the bacterial composition. A marked increase in α-diversity was detected between May and June. Furthermore, we found that four distinct phylotypes belonging to the Proteobacteria dominated the microbiota, and these displayed major shifts throughout the season. Gilliamella apicola dominated the composition early on, and Snodgrassella alvi began to dominate when the other bacteria declined to an absolute low in October. In vitro co-culturing revealed that G. apicola suppressed S. alvi. No shift was detected in the composition of the microbiota under stable environment/dietary conditions between November and February. Therefore, environmental/dietary changes may trigger the shifts observed in the honey bee midgut/pyloric microbiota throughout a season.

  7. Determination of phenolic compounds in honey using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

    PubMed

    Campone, Luca; Piccinelli, Anna Lisa; Pagano, Imma; Carabetta, Sonia; Di Sanzo, Rosa; Russo, Mariateresa; Rastrelli, Luca

    2014-03-21

    Honey is a valuable functional food rich in phenolic compounds with a broad spectrum of biological activities. Analysis of the phenolic compounds in honey is a very promising tool for the quality control, the authentication and characterization of botanical origin, and the nutraceutical research. This work describes a novel approach for the rapid analysis of five phenolic acids and 10 flavonoids in honey. Phenolic compounds were rapidly extracted and concentrated from diluted honey by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) and then analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography with UV absorbance detection (HPLC-UV). Some important parameters, such as the nature and volume of extraction and dispersive solvents, pH and salt effect were carefully investigated and optimized to achieve the best extraction efficiency. Under the optimal conditions, an exhaustive extraction for twelve of the investigated analytes (recoveries >70%), with a precision (RSD<10%) highly acceptable for complex matrices, and detection and quantification limits at ppb levels (1.4-12 and 4.7-40ngg(-1), respectively) were attained. The proposed method, compared with the most widely used method in the analysis of phenolic compounds in honey, provided similar or higher extraction efficiency, except in the case of the most hydrophilic phenolic acids. The capability of DLLME to the extraction of other honey phytochemicals, such as abscisic acid, was also demonstrated. The main advantages of developed method are the simplicity of operation, the rapidity to achieve a very high sample throughput and low cost.

  8. A New Threat to Honey Bees, the Parasitic Phorid Fly Apocephalus borealis

    PubMed Central

    Core, Andrew; Runckel, Charles; Ivers, Jonathan; Quock, Christopher; Siapno, Travis; DeNault, Seraphina; Brown, Brian; DeRisi, Joseph; Smith, Christopher D.; Hafernik, John

    2012-01-01

    Honey bee colonies are subject to numerous pathogens and parasites. Interaction among multiple pathogens and parasites is the proposed cause for Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), a syndrome characterized by worker bees abandoning their hive. Here we provide the first documentation that the phorid fly Apocephalus borealis, previously known to parasitize bumble bees, also infects and eventually kills honey bees and may pose an emerging threat to North American apiculture. Parasitized honey bees show hive abandonment behavior, leaving their hives at night and dying shortly thereafter. On average, seven days later up to 13 phorid larvae emerge from each dead bee and pupate away from the bee. Using DNA barcoding, we confirmed that phorids that emerged from honey bees and bumble bees were the same species. Microarray analyses of honey bees from infected hives revealed that these bees are often infected with deformed wing virus and Nosema ceranae. Larvae and adult phorids also tested positive for these pathogens, implicating the fly as a potential vector or reservoir of these honey bee pathogens. Phorid parasitism may affect hive viability since 77% of sites sampled in the San Francisco Bay Area were infected by the fly and microarray analyses detected phorids in commercial hives in South Dakota and California's Central Valley. Understanding details of phorid infection may shed light on similar hive abandonment behaviors seen in CCD. PMID:22235317

  9. Shifts in the Midgut/Pyloric Microbiota Composition within a Honey Bee Apiary throughout a Season.

    PubMed

    Ludvigsen, Jane; Rangberg, Anbjørg; Avershina, Ekaterina; Sekelja, Monika; Kreibich, Claus; Amdam, Gro; Rudi, Knut

    2015-01-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are prominent crop pollinators and are, thus, important for effective food production. The honey bee gut microbiota is mainly host specific, with only a few species being shared with other insects. It currently remains unclear how environmental/dietary conditions affect the microbiota within a honey bee population over time. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to characterize the composition of the midgut/pyloric microbiota of a honey bee apiary throughout a season. The rationale for investigating the midgut/pyloric microbiota is its dynamic nature. Monthly sampling of a demographic homogenous population of bees was performed between May and October, with concordant recording of the honey bee diet. Mixed Sanger-and Illumina 16S rRNA gene sequencing in combination with a quantitative PCR analysis were used to determine the bacterial composition. A marked increase in α-diversity was detected between May and June. Furthermore, we found that four distinct phylotypes belonging to the Proteobacteria dominated the microbiota, and these displayed major shifts throughout the season. Gilliamella apicola dominated the composition early on, and Snodgrassella alvi began to dominate when the other bacteria declined to an absolute low in October. In vitro co-culturing revealed that G. apicola suppressed S. alvi. No shift was detected in the composition of the microbiota under stable environment/dietary conditions between November and February. Therefore, environmental/dietary changes may trigger the shifts observed in the honey bee midgut/pyloric microbiota throughout a season. PMID:26330094

  10. Detection of adulteration in virgin olive oil using a fiber optic long period grating based sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libish, T. M.; Bobby, M. C.; Linesh, J.; Mathew, S.; Pradeep, C.; Nampoori, V. P. N.; Biswas, P.; Bandyopadhyay, S.; Dasgupta, K.; Radhakrishnan, P.

    2013-04-01

    A fiber optic sensing system for the detection of adulteration of virgin olive oil by less expensive sunflower oil is presented. The fundamental principle of detection is the sensitive dependence of the resonance peaks of a long period grating (LPG) on the changes in the refractive index of the environmental medium surrounding the cladding surface of the grating. The performance of the sensor has been tested by monitoring the amplitude changes of the attenuation bands of the LPG in response to variation of adulteration level. With good repeatability, the detection limit of adulteration is 4% and the sensor sensitivity is around 0.07 dB vol%-1 of adulterant in the measurement range. The developed sensor is user-friendly, reusable and allows instantaneous measurement of the amount of adulteration without involving any reagents.

  11. Characterization of Argentine honeys on the basis of their mineral content and some typical quality parameters

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The levels of 19 elements (As, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Se, Tl, U, V, Zn) from sixteen different Argentine production sites of unifloral [eucalyptus (Eucaliptus rostrata), chilca (Baccharis salicifolia), Algarrobo (Prosopis sp.), mistol (Ziziphus mistol) and citric] and multifloral honeys were measured with the aim to test the quality of the selected samples. Typical quality parameters of honeys were also determined (pH, sugar content, moisture). Mineral elements were determined by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS DRC). We also evaluated the suitability of honey as a possible biomonitor of environmental pollution. Thus, the sites were classified through cluster analysis (CA) and then pattern recognition methods such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and discriminant analysis (DA) were applied. Results Mean values for quality parameters were: pH, 4.12 and 3.81; sugar 82.1 and 82.0 °brix; moisture, 16.90 and 17.00% for unifloral and multifloral honeys respectively. The water content showed good maturity. Likewise, the other parameters confirmed the good quality of the honeys analysed. Potassium was quantitatively the most abundant metal, accounting for 92,5% of the total metal contents with an average concentration of 832.0 and 816.2 μg g-1 for unifloral and multifloral honeys respectively. Sodium was the second most abundant major metal in honeys with a mean value of 32.16 and 33.19 μg g-1 for unifloral and multifloral honeys respectively. Mg, Ca, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu were present at low-intermediate concentrations. For the other 11 trace elements determined in this study (As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, Pb, Se, Tl, U and V), the mean concentrations were very low or below of the LODs. The sites were classified through CA by using elements’ and physicochemical parameters data, then DA on the PCA factors was applied. Dendrograms identified three main groups. PCA explained 52.03% of the total variability

  12. Rapid analysis of adulterations in Chinese lotus root powder (LRP) by near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy coupled with chemometric class modeling techniques.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lu; Shi, Peng-Tao; Ye, Zi-Hong; Yan, Si-Min; Yu, Xiao-Ping

    2013-12-01

    This paper develops a rapid analysis method for adulteration identification of a popular traditional Chinese food, lotus root powder (LRP), by near-infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics. 85 pure LRP samples were collected from 7 main lotus producing areas of China to include most if not all of the significant variations likely to be encountered in unknown authentic materials. To evaluate the model specificity, 80 adulterated LRP samples prepared by blending pure LRP with different levels of four cheaper and commonly used starches were measured and predicted. For multivariate quality models, two class modeling methods, the traditional soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) and a recently proposed partial least squares class model (PLSCM) were used. Different data preprocessing techniques, including smoothing, taking derivative and standard normal variate (SNV) transformation were used to improve the classification performance. The results indicate that smoothing, taking second-order derivatives and SNV can improve the class models by enhancing signal-to-noise ratio, reducing baseline and background shifts. The most accurate and stable models were obtained with SNV spectra for both SIMCA (sensitivity 0.909 and specificity 0.938) and PLSCM (sensitivity 0.909 and specificity 0.925). Moreover, both SIMCA and PLSCM could detect LRP samples mixed with 5% (w/w) or more other cheaper starches, including cassava, sweet potato, potato and maize starches. Although it is difficult to perform an exhaustive collection of all pure LRP samples and possible adulterations, NIR spectrometry combined with class modeling techniques provides a reliable and effective method to detect most of the current LRP adulterations in Chinese market.

  13. Proton NMR for detection, identification and quantification of adulterants in 160 herbal food supplements marketed for weight loss.

    PubMed

    Hachem, Rabab; Assemat, Gaëtan; Martins, Nathalie; Balayssac, Stéphane; Gilard, Véronique; Martino, Robert; Malet-Martino, Myriam

    2016-05-30

    One hundred and sixty food supplements (FS) marketed for weight loss and mainly purchased on the Internet were analyzed. All the FS were claimed as 100% natural containing only natural compounds, plant extracts and/or vitamins and the presence of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) was never mentioned. (1)H NMR spectroscopy was used for detecting the presence of adulterants and for their identification and quantification. Mass spectrometry was used as a complementary method for supporting their identification. Among the 164 samples considered because capsules from 5 different blisters of the same FS were analyzed, 56% were tainted with six API. Forty three contained sibutramine as single adulterant (26%), 9 phenolphthalein (6%) and 23 a mixture of these API (14%) that were both withdrawn from the market several years ago because of toxicity concerns. Sildenafil was found in 12 samples, either as a single adulterant (n=5) or in combination with sibutramine (n=3), phenolphthalein (n=3) and both sibutramine and phenolphthalein (n=1). Fluoxetine was present in 4 formulations, alone (n=3) or in combination with sibutramine and orlistat (n=1). At last, lorcaserine was detected in one FS. The content of sibutramine per dosage unit was comprised between 0.1 and 22 mg and that of phenolphthalein between 0.05 and 56 mg. The study also highlights poor manufacturing practices as evidenced for instance by the variability of API in capsules from different blisters of the same box. This paper demonstrates the need for more effective quality control of weight loss FS and the efficiency of (1)H NMR spectroscopy for the detection of tainted FS. PMID:26928212

  14. Proton NMR for detection, identification and quantification of adulterants in 160 herbal food supplements marketed for weight loss.

    PubMed

    Hachem, Rabab; Assemat, Gaëtan; Martins, Nathalie; Balayssac, Stéphane; Gilard, Véronique; Martino, Robert; Malet-Martino, Myriam

    2016-05-30

    One hundred and sixty food supplements (FS) marketed for weight loss and mainly purchased on the Internet were analyzed. All the FS were claimed as 100% natural containing only natural compounds, plant extracts and/or vitamins and the presence of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) was never mentioned. (1)H NMR spectroscopy was used for detecting the presence of adulterants and for their identification and quantification. Mass spectrometry was used as a complementary method for supporting their identification. Among the 164 samples considered because capsules from 5 different blisters of the same FS were analyzed, 56% were tainted with six API. Forty three contained sibutramine as single adulterant (26%), 9 phenolphthalein (6%) and 23 a mixture of these API (14%) that were both withdrawn from the market several years ago because of toxicity concerns. Sildenafil was found in 12 samples, either as a single adulterant (n=5) or in combination with sibutramine (n=3), phenolphthalein (n=3) and both sibutramine and phenolphthalein (n=1). Fluoxetine was present in 4 formulations, alone (n=3) or in combination with sibutramine and orlistat (n=1). At last, lorcaserine was detected in one FS. The content of sibutramine per dosage unit was comprised between 0.1 and 22 mg and that of phenolphthalein between 0.05 and 56 mg. The study also highlights poor manufacturing practices as evidenced for instance by the variability of API in capsules from different blisters of the same box. This paper demonstrates the need for more effective quality control of weight loss FS and the efficiency of (1)H NMR spectroscopy for the detection of tainted FS.

  15. The formulation makes the honey bee poison.

    PubMed

    Mullin, Christopher A; Chen, Jing; Fine, Julia D; Frazier, Maryann T; Frazier, James L

    2015-05-01

    Dr. Fumio Matsumura's legacy embraced a passion for exploring environmental impacts of agrochemicals on non-target species such as bees. Why most formulations are more toxic to bees than respective active ingredients and how pesticides interact to cause pollinator decline cannot be answered without understanding the prevailing environmental chemical background to which bees are exposed. Modern pesticide formulations and seed treatments, particularly when multiple active ingredients are blended, require proprietary adjuvants and inert ingredients to achieve high efficacy for targeted pests. Although we have found over 130 different pesticides and metabolites in beehive samples, no individual pesticide or amount correlates with recent bee declines. Recently we have shown that honey bees are sensitive to organosilicone surfactants, nonylphenol polyethoxylates and the solvent N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), widespread co-formulants used in agrochemicals and frequent pollutants within the beehive. Effects include learning impairment for adult bees and chronic toxicity in larval feeding bioassays. Multi-billion pounds of formulation ingredients like NMP are used and released into US environments. These synthetic organic chemicals are generally recognized as safe, have no mandated tolerances, and residues remain largely unmonitored. In contrast to finding about 70% of the pesticide active ingredients searched for in our pesticide analysis of beehive samples, we have found 100% of the other formulation ingredients targeted for analysis. These 'inerts' overwhelm the chemical burden from active pesticide, drug and personal care ingredients with which they are formulated. Honey bees serve as an optimal terrestrial bioindicator to determine if 'the formulation and not just the dose makes the poison'. PMID:25987217

  16. The formulation makes the honey bee poison.

    PubMed

    Mullin, Christopher A; Chen, Jing; Fine, Julia D; Frazier, Maryann T; Frazier, James L

    2015-05-01

    Dr. Fumio Matsumura's legacy embraced a passion for exploring environmental impacts of agrochemicals on non-target species such as bees. Why most formulations are more toxic to bees than respective active ingredients and how pesticides interact to cause pollinator decline cannot be answered without understanding the prevailing environmental chemical background to which bees are exposed. Modern pesticide formulations and seed treatments, particularly when multiple active ingredients are blended, require proprietary adjuvants and inert ingredients to achieve high efficacy for targeted pests. Although we have found over 130 different pesticides and metabolites in beehive samples, no individual pesticide or amount correlates with recent bee declines. Recently we have shown that honey bees are sensitive to organosilicone surfactants, nonylphenol polyethoxylates and the solvent N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), widespread co-formulants used in agrochemicals and frequent pollutants within the beehive. Effects include learning impairment for adult bees and chronic toxicity in larval feeding bioassays. Multi-billion pounds of formulation ingredients like NMP are used and released into US environments. These synthetic organic chemicals are generally recognized as safe, have no mandated tolerances, and residues remain largely unmonitored. In contrast to finding about 70% of the pesticide active ingredients searched for in our pesticide analysis of beehive samples, we have found 100% of the other formulation ingredients targeted for analysis. These 'inerts' overwhelm the chemical burden from active pesticide, drug and personal care ingredients with which they are formulated. Honey bees serve as an optimal terrestrial bioindicator to determine if 'the formulation and not just the dose makes the poison'.

  17. Special Issue: Honey Bee Viruses.

    PubMed

    Gisder, Sebastian; Genersch, Elke

    2015-10-01

    Pollination of flowering plants is an important ecosystem service provided by wild insect pollinators and managed honey bees. Hence, losses and declines of pollinating insect species threaten human food security and are of major concern not only for apiculture or agriculture but for human society in general. Honey bee colony losses and bumblebee declines have attracted intensive research interest over the last decade and although the problem is far from being solved we now know that viruses are among the key players of many of these bee losses and bumblebee declines. With this special issue on bee viruses we, therefore, aimed to collect high quality original papers reflecting the current state of bee virus research. To this end, we focused on newly discovered viruses (Lake Sinai viruses, bee macula-like virus), or a so far neglected virus species (Apis mellifera filamentous virus), and cutting edge technologies (mass spectrometry, RNAi approach) applied in the field.

  18. Special Issue: Honey Bee Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Gisder, Sebastian; Genersch, Elke

    2015-01-01

    Pollination of flowering plants is an important ecosystem service provided by wild insect pollinators and managed honey bees. Hence, losses and declines of pollinating insect species threaten human food security and are of major concern not only for apiculture or agriculture but for human society in general. Honey bee colony losses and bumblebee declines have attracted intensive research interest over the last decade and although the problem is far from being solved we now know that viruses are among the key players of many of these bee losses and bumblebee declines. With this special issue on bee viruses we, therefore, aimed to collect high quality original papers reflecting the current state of bee virus research. To this end, we focused on newly discovered viruses (Lake Sinai viruses, bee macula-like virus), or a so far neglected virus species (Apis mellifera filamentous virus), and cutting edge technologies (mass spectrometry, RNAi approach) applied in the field. PMID:26702462

  19. Special Issue: Honey Bee Viruses.

    PubMed

    Gisder, Sebastian; Genersch, Elke

    2015-10-01

    Pollination of flowering plants is an important ecosystem service provided by wild insect pollinators and managed honey bees. Hence, losses and declines of pollinating insect species threaten human food security and are of major concern not only for apiculture or agriculture but for human society in general. Honey bee colony losses and bumblebee declines have attracted intensive research interest over the last decade and although the problem is far from being solved we now know that viruses are among the key players of many of these bee losses and bumblebee declines. With this special issue on bee viruses we, therefore, aimed to collect high quality original papers reflecting the current state of bee virus research. To this end, we focused on newly discovered viruses (Lake Sinai viruses, bee macula-like virus), or a so far neglected virus species (Apis mellifera filamentous virus), and cutting edge technologies (mass spectrometry, RNAi approach) applied in the field. PMID:26702462

  20. Application of FTIR-ATR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate analysis for rapid estimation of butter adulteration.

    PubMed

    Fadzlillah, Nurrulhidayah Ahmad; Rohman, Abdul; Ismail, Amin; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Khatib, Alfi

    2013-01-01

    In dairy product sector, butter is one of the potential sources of fat soluble vitamins, namely vitamin A, D, E, K; consequently, butter is taken into account as high valuable price from other dairy products. This fact has attracted unscrupulous market players to blind butter with other animal fats to gain economic profit. Animal fats like mutton fat (MF) are potential to be mixed with butter due to the similarity in terms of fatty acid composition. This study focused on the application of FTIR-ATR spectroscopy in conjunction with chemometrics for classification and quantification of MF as adulterant in butter. The FTIR spectral region of 3910-710 cm⁻¹ was used for classification between butter and butter blended with MF at various concentrations with the aid of discriminant analysis (DA). DA is able to classify butter and adulterated butter without any mistakenly grouped. For quantitative analysis, partial least square (PLS) regression was used to develop a calibration model at the frequency regions of 3910-710 cm⁻¹. The equation obtained for the relationship between actual value of MF and FTIR predicted values of MF in PLS calibration model was y = 0.998x + 1.033, with the values of coefficient of determination (R²) and root mean square error of calibration are 0.998 and 0.046% (v/v), respectively. The PLS calibration model was subsequently used for the prediction of independent samples containing butter in the binary mixtures with MF. Using 9 principal components, root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) is 1.68% (v/v). The results showed that FTIR spectroscopy can be used for the classification and quantification of MF in butter formulation for verification purposes.

  1. Measurement of gasoline adulteration using optical fiber sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz Marulanda, Leonardo A.; Torres Moreno, Cesar O.; Mattos Velazque, Lorenzo

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents the application of a fiber optic sensor based on bifurcated fiber bundles; in the bifurcated design, separate fibers carry the excitation and emission radiation. The physics principle is simple, the fraction of light transmitted between the receive elements in the bundle and the transmit elements in the bundles depends of the light wave passes through the gasoline; three fuel-adulterant mixtures in different proportions by volume were prepared and individually tested. The high sensitivity of laser, and the versatility of fiber-optic technology and experiment proved that the system has simple construct and high sensitivity during absorption on a transition process.

  2. Sleep deprivation in honey bees.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Stefan; Herrmann, Eva; Kaiser, Walter

    2004-06-01

    Rest at night in forager honey bees (Apis mellifera) meets essential criteria of sleep. This paper reports the effect of a 12-h total sleep deprivation (SD) by forced activity on the behaviour of these animals. The behaviour of sleep-deprived animals is compared with that of control animals under LD [periodic alternation between light (L) and darkness (D)] 12 : 12 hours. SD for 12 h during the first D period resulted in a significant difference with respect to the parameter 'hourly amount of antennal immobility' between sleep-deprived and control animals during the remaining L and D periods. This difference did not occur in the L period following the deprivation night, but rather it became obvious at the beginning of the following D period. The increase of the amount of antennal immobility in sleep-deprived bees was accompanied by an increase of the duration of episodes of antennal immobility. Moreover, the latency from 'lights off' to the first episode of antennal immobility lasting 20 s or longer ('deep sleep latency') tended to be shorter in sleep-deprived than in control animals. Disturbing the bees during the day (L period) did not result in such differences between disturbed and control animals. Highest reaction thresholds in sleeping honey bees occur during long episodes of antennal immobility. We therefore conclude that honey bees compensate a sleep deficit by intensification (deepening) of the sleep process and thus that sleep in honey bees, like that in other arthropods and mammals, is controlled by regulatory mechanisms. PMID:15175094

  3. Infant botulism following honey ingestion.

    PubMed

    Abdulla, C O; Ayubi, A; Zulfiquer, F; Santhanam, G; Ahmed, M A S; Deeb, J

    2012-09-07

    An apparently well baby girl born at term was presented with signs and symptoms suggestive of acute onset of generalised floppiness at the age of 3 months. Clinically, the baby had lower motor neuron type of muscle weakness; detailed investigation lead to the diagnosis of neuromuscular junction disorder secondary to botulism toxicity. Further tests confirmed the botulism toxicity secondary to honey ingestion. The baby was treated with specific anticlostridium antibodies; she recovered remarkably, now growing and developing normally.

  4. Determination of vegetable oils and fats adulterants in diesel oil by high performance liquid chromatography and multivariate methods.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Luiz Filipe Paiva; Braga, Jez Willian Batista; Suarez, Paulo Anselmo Ziani

    2012-02-17

    The current legislation requires the mandatory addition of biodiesel to all Brazilian road diesel oil A (pure diesel) marketed in the country and bans the addition of vegetable oils for this type of diesel. However, cases of irregular addition of vegetable oils directly to the diesel oil may occur, mainly due to the lower cost of these raw materials compared to the final product, biodiesel. In Brazil, the situation is even more critical once the country is one of the largest producers of oleaginous products in the world, especially soybean, and also it has an extensive road network dependent on diesel. Therefore, alternatives to control the quality of diesel have become increasingly necessary. This study proposes an analytical methodology for quality control of diesel with intention to identify and determine adulterations of oils and even fats of vegetable origin. This methodology is based on detection, identification and quantification of triacylglycerols on diesel (main constituents of vegetable oils and fats) by high performance liquid chromatography in reversed phase with UV detection at 205nm associated with multivariate methods. Six different types of oils and fats were studied (soybean, frying oil, corn, cotton, palm oil and babassu) and two methods were developed for data analysis. The first one, based on principal component analysis (PCA), nearest neighbor classification (KNN) and univariate regression, was used for samples adulterated with a single type of oil or fat. In the second method, partial least square regression (PLS) was used for the cases where the adulterants were mixtures of up to three types of oils or fats. In the first method, the techniques of PCA and KNN were correctly classified as 17 out of 18 validation samples on the type of oil or fat present. The concentrations estimated for adulterants showed good agreement with the reference values, with mean errors of prediction (RMSEP) ranging between 0.10 and 0.22% (v/v). The PLS method was

  5. Validation of a commercial receptor kit Sulfasensor Honey for the screening of sulfonamides in honey according to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC.

    PubMed

    Gaudin, V; Rault, A; Verdon, E

    2012-01-01

    The Sulfasensor Honey kit is a receptor test dedicated to the screening of sulphonamide residues respectively in different matrices. The aim of this project was to evaluate and validate this kit according to the Community Reference Laboratory (CRL) guideline for the validation of screening methods to achieve the French control plan for honey. The test is robust, quick (90 min for 40 samples), easy to perform and easy to read. The false-positive rate was estimated to be 12.5%. The detection capabilities CCβ of the kit were lower than or equal to 25 µg kg(-1) for sulfamethazine, sulfamerazine, sulfathiazole and sulfapyridine, and between 25 and 50 µg kg(-1) for sulfadiazine and sulfadimethoxine, 150 µg kg(-1) for sulfaquinoxaline, and 1000 µg kg(-1) for sulfamethoxazole and sulfamethizole. Sulfanilamide was not detected by the kit. The kit was applicable to a wide variety of honeys (different floral and geographical origins, liquid or solid). This kit was used to implement the French control plan for the detection of antibiotic residues in honey in 2010 in parallel with an HPLC method. However, in 2011 the kit was replaced by an LC-MS/MS method for the screening and confirmation of sulfonamide residues in honey, which detects all the sulfonamides of interest. PMID:22455559

  6. Objective Definition of Monofloral and Polyfloral Honeys Based on NMR Metabolomic Profiling.

    PubMed

    Schievano, Elisabetta; Finotello, Claudia; Uddin, Jalal; Mammi, Stefano; Piana, Lucia

    2016-05-11

    In this paper, a remarkably precise, simple, and objective definition of monofloral and polyfloral honey based on NMR metabolomics is proposed. The spectra of organic extracts of 983 samples of 16 botanical origins were used to derive one-versus-all OPLS-DA classification models. The predictive components of the statistical models reveal not only the principal but also the secondary floral origins present in a sample of honey, a novel feature with respect to the methods present in the literature that are able to confirm the authenticity of monofloral honeys but not to characterize a mixture of honey types. This result descends from the peculiar features of the chloroform spectra that show diagnostic resonances for almost each botanical origin, making these NMR spectra suitable fingerprints. The reliability of the method was tested with an additional 120 samples, and the class assignments were compared with those obtained by traditional analysis. The two approaches are in excellent agreement in identifying the floral species present in honeys and in the botanical classification. Therefore, this NMR method may prove to be a valid solution to the huge limitations of traditional classification, which is very demanding and complex. PMID:27086991

  7. Hologenome theory and the honey bee pathosphere

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent research shows substantial genomic diversity among the parasites and pathogens honey bees encounter, a robust microbiota living within bees, and a genome-level view of relationships across global honey bee races. Different combinations of these genomic complexes may explain regional variatio...

  8. Metatranscriptomic analyses of honey bee colonies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Honey bees face numerous biotic threats from viruses to bacteria, fungi, protists, and mites. Here we describe a thorough analysis of microbes harbored by worker honey bees collected from field colonies in geographically distinct regions of Turkey. Turkey is one of the World’s most important centers...

  9. Pathogen webs in collapsing honey bee colonies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent losses in honey bee colonies are unusual in their severity, geographical distribution, and, in some cases, failure to present recognized symptoms of known disease. Domesticated honey bees face numerous pests and pathogens, tempting hypotheses that colony collapses arise from exposure to new o...

  10. Swedish Scientists have Solved Honey's Enigma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, it was discovered by Olofsson and Vasquez (2008) that a novel flora composed of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) of the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, exists in the honey stomach of the honey bee Apis mellifera. The twelve different flora members varied numerically with the sources o...

  11. Physiology and biochemistry of honey bees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite their tremendous economic importance, honey bees are not a typical model system for studying general questions of insect physiology. This is primarily due to the fact that honey bees live in complex social settings which impact their physiological and biochemical characteristics. Not surpris...

  12. 7 CFR 1434.5 - Eligible honey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... not been scorched, burned, or subjected to excessive heat resulting in objectionable flavor, color deterioration or carmelization; (3) Does not contain any ineligible honey floral sources; such as andromeda... by the Director, Price Support Division, FSA. If any blends of honey contain such ineligible...

  13. 7 CFR 1434.5 - Eligible honey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... not been scorched, burned, or subjected to excessive heat resulting in objectionable flavor, color deterioration or carmelization; (3) Does not contain any ineligible honey floral sources; such as andromeda... by the Director, Price Support Division, FSA. If any blends of honey contain such ineligible...

  14. Cell culture techniques in honey bee research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cell culture techniques are indispensable in most if not all life science disciplines to date. Wherever cell culture models are lacking scientific development is hampered. Unfortunately this has been and still is the case in honey bee research because permanent honey bee cell lines have not yet been...

  15. Detection, identification and quantification by 1H NMR of adulterants in 150 herbal dietary supplements marketed for improving sexual performance.

    PubMed

    Gilard, Véronique; Balayssac, Stéphane; Tinaugus, Aurélie; Martins, Nathalie; Martino, Robert; Malet-Martino, Myriam

    2015-01-01

    One hundred and fifty dietary supplements (DS) marketed to increase sexual performance were analyzed. All these formulations were claimed to contain only natural compounds, plant extracts and/or vitamins. (1)H NMR spectroscopy was used for detecting the presence of adulterants and for their identification and quantification. Mass spectrometry was used as a complementary method for confirming the chemical structures. 61% of DS were adulterated with phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (PDE-5i) (27% with the PDE-5i medicines sildenafil, tadalafil and vardenafil, and 34% with their structurally modified analogues). Among them, 64% contained only one PDE-5i and 36% mixtures of two, three and even four. The amounts of PDE-5i medicines were higher than the maximum recommended dose in 25% of DS tainted with these drugs. Additional 5.5% DS included other drugs for the treatment of sexual dysfunction (yohimbine, flibanserin, phentolamine, dehydroepiandrosterone or testosterone). Some DS (2.5%) contained products (osthole, icariin) extracted from plants known to improve sexual performance. Only 31% of the samples could be considered as true herbal/natural products. A follow-up over time of several DS revealed that manufacturers make changes in the chemical composition of the formulations. Lack of quality or consistent manufacture (contamination possibly due to inadequate cleaning of the manufacturing chain, presence of impurities or degradation products, various compositions of a given DS with the same batch number, inadequate labelling) indicated poor manufacturing practices. In conclusion, this paper demonstrates the power of (1)H NMR spectroscopy as a first-line method for the detection of adulterated herbal/natural DS and the need for more effective quality control of purported herbal DS. PMID:25459948

  16. Is it possible to screen for milk or whey protein adulteration with melamine, urea and ammonium sulphate, combining Kjeldahl and classical spectrophotometric methods?

    PubMed

    Finete, Virgínia de Lourdes Mendes; Gouvêa, Marcos Martins; Marques, Flávia Ferreira de Carvalho; Netto, Annibal Duarte Pereira

    2013-12-15

    The Kjeldahl method and four classic spectrophotometric methods (Biuret, Lowry, Bradford and Markwell) were applied to evaluate the protein content of samples of UHT whole milk deliberately adulterated with melamine, ammonium sulphate or urea, which can be used to defraud milk protein and whey contents. Compared with the Kjeldahl method, the response of the spectrophotometric methods was unaffected by the addition of the nitrogen compounds to milk or whey. The methods of Bradford and Markwell were most robust and did not exhibit interference subject to composition. However, the simultaneous interpretation of results obtained using these methods with those obtained using the Kjeldahl method indicated the addition of nitrogen-rich compounds to milk and/or whey. Therefore, this work suggests a combination of results of Kjeldahl and spectrophotometric methods should be used to screen for milk adulteration by these compounds.

  17. Is honey able to potentiate the antioxidant and cytotoxic properties of medicinal plants consumed as infusions for hepatoprotective effects?

    PubMed

    Pereira, Carla; Barreira, João C M; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Lopes, Melissa; Queiroz, Maria João R P; Vilas-Boas, Miguel; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-05-01

    Due to the enormous variety of phytochemicals present in plants, their extracts have been used for centuries in the treatment of innumerable diseases, being perceived as an invaluable source of medicines for humans. Furthermore, the combination of different plants was reported as inducing an improved effect (synergism) in comparison with the additive activity of the plants present in those mixtures. Nevertheless, information regarding the effects of plant infusions added with honey is still rather scarce. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to evaluate the interaction between chestnut honey, a natural product with well-reported beneficial properties, and three medicinal plants (either as a single plant or as combinations of two and three plants), with regard to their antioxidant activity and hepatotoxicity. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by comparing the results from four different assays; hepatotoxicity was assessed in two different cell lines. Results were compared by analysis of variance and linear discriminant analysis. The addition of honey to the infusions had a beneficial result in both cases, producing a synergistic effect in all samples, except β-carotene bleaching inhibition for artichoke + milk thistle + honey preparation and also preparations with lower hepatotoxicity, except in the case of artichoke + honey. Moreover, from the discriminant linear analysis output, it became obvious that the effect of honey addition overcame that resulting from using single plant or mixed plant based infusions. Also, the enhanced antioxidant activity of infusions containing honey was confirmed by lower hepatotoxicity. PMID:25800338

  18. Classification of 7 monofloral honey varieties by PTR-ToF-MS direct headspace analysis and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Schuhfried, Erna; Sánchez del Pulgar, José; Bobba, Marco; Piro, Roberto; Cappellin, Luca; Märk, Tilmann D; Biasioli, Franco

    2016-01-15

    Honey, in particular monofloral varieties, is a valuable commodity. Here, we present proton transfer reaction-time of flight-mass spectrometry, PTR-ToF-MS, coupled to chemometrics as a successful tool in the classification of monofloral honeys, which should serve in fraud protection against mispresentation of the floral origin of honey. We analyzed 7 different honey varieties from citrus, chestnut, sunflower, honeydew, robinia, rhododendron and linden tree, in total 70 different honey samples and a total of 206 measurements. Only subtle differences in the profiles of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the headspace of the different honeys could be found. Nevertheless, it was possible to successfully apply 6 different classification methods with a total correct assignment of 81-99% in the internal validation sets. The most successful methods were stepwise linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and probabilistic neural network (PNN), giving total correct assignments in the external validation sets of 100 and 90%, respectively. Clearly, PTR-ToF-MS/chemometrics is a powerful tool in honey classification.

  19. Is honey able to potentiate the antioxidant and cytotoxic properties of medicinal plants consumed as infusions for hepatoprotective effects?

    PubMed

    Pereira, Carla; Barreira, João C M; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Lopes, Melissa; Queiroz, Maria João R P; Vilas-Boas, Miguel; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-05-01

    Due to the enormous variety of phytochemicals present in plants, their extracts have been used for centuries in the treatment of innumerable diseases, being perceived as an invaluable source of medicines for humans. Furthermore, the combination of different plants was reported as inducing an improved effect (synergism) in comparison with the additive activity of the plants present in those mixtures. Nevertheless, information regarding the effects of plant infusions added with honey is still rather scarce. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to evaluate the interaction between chestnut honey, a natural product with well-reported beneficial properties, and three medicinal plants (eith