Science.gov

Sample records for adulthood approximate age

  1. Gratitude From Early Adulthood to Old Age.

    PubMed

    Allemand, Mathias; Hill, Patrick L

    2016-02-01

    Are there age differences in gratitude from early adulthood to old age? The current studies tested several ways by which an association between age and dispositional gratitude may present, by considering multiple measures on both fronts. We used data from three cross-sectional studies (total N = 1,736; total age range: 19-94). The results indicated that (a) age effects in gratitude are more likely to occur for subjective age in terms of future time perspective (i.e., people's perceptions of their remaining opportunities and time) than chronological age; (b) chronological age effects are more domain specific than general in nature; and (c) they are more likely to occur for the instrumental domain as compared to the interpersonal domain. Finally, the results indicated that (d) perceived future time, particularly with respect to remaining opportunities, mediates the relation between chronological age and general gratitude. Overall, the findings suggest that gratitude is subject to a variety of developmental influences across adulthood.

  2. Adulthood Predictors of Health Promoting Behavior in Later Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holahan, Carole K.; Suzuki, Rie

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated adulthood predictors of health-promoting behavior in later aging. The participants were 162 members of the Terman Study of the Gifted (Terman et al., 1925), who responded in 1999 at an average age of 86 to a mailout questionnaire which included questions concerning their positive health behavior. Adulthood variables were…

  3. Constructing Adulthood in an Age of Uncertainty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Jennifer M.

    2012-01-01

    Past research in both the transitions to adulthood literature and cultural sociology more broadly suggests that the working class relies on traditional cultural models in their construction of identity. In the contemporary post-industrial world, however, traditional life pathways are now much less available to working-class men and women. I draw…

  4. [Physical self-perceptions in adulthood and old age].

    PubMed

    Goñi Grandmontagne, Alfredo; Rodríguez Fernández, Arantzazu; Esnaola Etxaniz, Igor

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this work is to confirm the tetra-factorial validity of the Cuestionario de Autoconcepto Físico (CAF [in English, the Physical Self-concept Questionnaire]) in adulthood and old age from the responses of 1,114 people (39.50% men and 60.50% women), divided into four age groups (24 to 34 years, n= 390; 35 to 49 years, n= 277; 50 to 64 years, n= 330; and over 65, n= 117). The correlations between scales (physical skills, physical fitness, physical attractiveness and strength) are lower than those obtained in previous studies, which supports their being different. However, confirmatory factor analysis supported the tetra-factorial structure primarily in the 24-34 age group.

  5. Respiratory and sniffing behaviors throughout adulthood and aging in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wesson, Daniel W.; Varga-Wesson, Adrienn G.; Borkowski, Anne H.; Wilson, Donald A.

    2011-01-01

    Orienting responses are physiological and active behavioral reactions evoked by novel stimulus perception and are critical for survival. We explored whether odor orienting responses are impacted throughout both adulthood and normal and pathological aging in mice. Novel odor investigation (including duration and bout numbers) and its subsequent habituation as assayed in the odor habituation task were preserved in adult C57BL/6J mice up to 12mo of age with <6% variability between age groups in investigation time. Separately, using whole-body plethysmography we found that both spontaneous respiration and odor-evoked sniffing behaviors were strikingly preserved in wildtype (WT) mice up to 26mo of age. In contrast, mice accumulating amyloid-β protein in the brain by means of overexpressing mutations in the human amyloid precursor protein gene (APP) showed preserved spontaneous respiration up to 12mo, but starting at 14mo showed significant differences from WT. Similar to WTs, odor-evoked sniffing was not impacted in APP mice up to 26mo. These results show that odor-orienting responses are minimally impacted throughout aging in mice, and suggest that the olfactomotor network is mostly spared of insults due to aging. PMID:21524667

  6. Delayed Adulthood, Delayed Desistance? Trends in the Age Distribution of Problem Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayford, Sarah R.; Furstenberg, Frank F., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    As the transition to adulthood becomes more protracted and less orderly, fewer young people occupy adult roles and experience the social control associated with these roles. One might therefore expect behaviors associated with the teenage years to spill over into older age groups, reflecting postponed entrance into full social adulthood. We test…

  7. Girls' Stable Peer Status and Their Adulthood Adjustment: A Longitudinal Study from Age 10 to Age 43

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zettergren, Peter; Bergman, Lars R.; Wangby, Margit

    2006-01-01

    Stable peer status clusters of rejected, popular, and average girls from ages 10 to 13 were identified and associated to young and middle adulthood adjustment. The study included a representative sample of 445 females from the longitudinal research program Individual Development and Adaptation. Results showed that, by young adulthood, rejected…

  8. Age at Menarche Is Associated with Divergent Alcohol Use Patterns in Early Adolescence and Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Meghan A.; Oinonen, Kirsten A.

    2011-01-01

    A cross-sectional retrospective design was employed to examine the relationship between age at menarche (AAM) and alcohol use patterns from middle childhood (age 7) to early adulthood in 265 University-aged women. Earlier menarche was associated with: (a) earlier ages at first drink and first intoxication, (b) greater use between ages 9 and 14…

  9. Psychosocial Development During Adulthood: Age and Cohort Comparisons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitbourne, Susan K.; Waterman, Alan S.

    Ontogenetic personality changes during adulthood were evaluated using the Inventory of Psychosocial Development (IPD) to yield scores corresponding to the first six stages of Erikson's developmental theory. Of the 166 males and 161 females whose undergraduate data from 1966 were available, 76 males and 71 females returned usable data. Analyses of…

  10. Small for gestational age and adulthood risk of disability pension: the contribution of childhood and adulthood conditions.

    PubMed

    Helgertz, Jonas; Vågerö, Denny

    2014-10-01

    Early exiting from the labor force and into disability pension (DP) represents a major social problem in Sweden and elsewhere. We examined how being asymmetric (A-SGA) or symmetric (S-SGA) small for gestational age predicts transitioning into DP. We analyzed a longitudinal sample of 8125 men and women from the Stockholm Birth Cohort (SBC), born in 1953 and not on DP in 1990. The SBC consists of data from various sources, including self-reported information and data from administrative registers. The follow-up period was from 1991 to 2009. Yearly information on the receipt of DP benefits from register data was operationalized as a dichotomous variable. 13 percent of the sample moved into DP during follow-up. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine whether disadvantageous fetal growth--A-SGA and S-SGA--predicted DP. Men and women born A-SGA had a substantially increased hazard of DP. The full model suggested a hazard ratio of 1.68 (CI: 1.11-2.54), only being affected slightly by adulthood conditions. Several childhood conditions were also associated with DP. Such factors, however, mainly affected DP risk through adulthood conditions. The effect of SGA on DP appeared particularly strong among individuals from socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds. The evidence presented suggests that being A-SGA influences the risk of DP, independent of childhood and adulthood conditions, and similarly for men and women. Due to A-SGA being rather infrequent, reducing the occurrence of A-SGA would, however, only have a marginal impact on the stock of DP pensioners. For the individual affected, the elevation in the risk of DP was nevertheless substantial. Other childhood conditions exercised a larger influence on the stock of DP recipients, but they mostly operated through adulthood attainment. The importance of socioeconomic resources in childhood for the long term health consequences of SGA is interesting from a policy perspective and warrants further research

  11. Settling Down and Aging Out: Toward an Interactionist Theory of Desistance and the Transition to Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Massoglia, Michael; Uggen, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Conceptions of adulthood have changed dramatically in recent decades, with shifts in the timing and sequencing of classic markers such as parenthood and school completion. Despite such changes, however, the notion that young people will eventually “settle down” and desist from delinquent behaviors is remarkably persistent. Uniting life course criminology with classic work on age norms and role behavior, we contend that people who persist in delinquency will be less likely to view themselves as adults, less likely to achieve behavioral markers of adulthood, and less likely to make timely adult transitions than others their age. Our analysis of longitudinal survey data and intensive interview data supports this proposition, with both arrest and self-reported crime blocking the passage to adult status. We conclude that settling down or desisting from delinquency is an important part of the package of role behaviors that define adulthood in the contemporary United States. PMID:21340047

  12. Age-Related Differences in Idiom Production in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conner, Peggy S.; Hyun, Jungmoon; O'Connor Wells, Barbara; Anema, Inge; Goral, Mira; Monereau-Merry, Marie-Michelle; Rubino, Daniel; Kuckuk, Raija; Obler, Loraine K.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate whether idiom production was vulnerable to age-related difficulties, we asked 40 younger (ages 18-30) and 40 older healthy adults (ages 60-85) to produce idiomatic expressions in a story-completion task. Younger adults produced significantly more correct idiom responses (73%) than did older adults (60%). When older adults generated…

  13. Gender Differences in the Age-Changing Relationship between Instrumentality and Family Contact in Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sneed, Joel R.; Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Cohen, Patricia; Gilligan, Carol; Chen, Henian; Crawford, Thomas N.; Kasen, Stephanie

    2006-01-01

    Data from the Children in the Community Transitions Study were used to examine gender differences in the impact of family contact on the development of finance and romance instrumentality from ages 17 to 27 years. Family contact decreased among both men and women across emerging adulthood, although it decreased more rapidly in men than in women.…

  14. Differentiation in Self-Perceived Adulthood: Extending the Confluence Model of Subjective Age Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Monica Kirkpatrick; Berg, Justin Allen; Sirotzki, Toni

    2007-01-01

    This study examines and extends the confluence model of age identity by testing whether young people's self-perceptions as adults are linked to role transitions, self-assessed personal qualities, and social location. We propose that young people's sense of adulthood and the factors associated with it vary based on socially structured experience…

  15. Teaching an Interactive Television Course on Adulthood and Aging: Making It Happen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donorfio, Laura K. M.; Healy, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the design, development, and successful implementation of a hybrid distance education course on adulthood and aging. The focus is on the pedagogical and technological transitions made in converting a traditional course into an interactive television course (iTV). The course was taught a total of three times, first as a…

  16. The new life stage of emerging adulthood at ages 18-29 years: implications for mental health.

    PubMed

    Arnett, Jeffrey J; Žukauskienė, Rita; Sugimura, Kazumi

    2014-12-01

    Since 1960 demographic trends towards longer time in education and late age to enter into marriage and of parenthood have led to the rise of a new life stage at ages 18-29 years, now widely known as emerging adulthood in developmental psychology. In this review we present some of the demographics of emerging adulthood in high-income countries with respect to the prevalence of tertiary education and the timing of parenthood. We examine the characteristics of emerging adulthood in several regions (with a focus on mental health implications) including distinctive features of emerging adulthood in the USA, unemployment in Europe, and a shift towards greater individualism in Japan. PMID:26361316

  17. Age-Related Differences in Moral Identity across Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krettenauer, Tobias; Murua, Lourdes Andrea; Jia, Fanli

    2016-01-01

    In this study, age-related differences in adults' moral identity were investigated. Moral identity was conceptualized a context-dependent self-structure that becomes differentiated and (re)integrated in the course of development and that involves a broad range of value-orientations. Based on a cross-sectional sample of 252 participants aged 14 to…

  18. The Age-Crime Curve in Adolescence and Early Adulthood Is Not Due to Age Differences in Economic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman, Elizabeth P.; Steinberg, Laurence D.; Piquero, Alex R.

    2013-01-01

    One of the most consistent findings in developmental criminology is the "age-crime curve"--the observation that criminal behavior increases in adolescence and decreases in adulthood. Recently, Brown and Males (Justice Policy J 8:1-30, 2011) conducted an analysis of aggregate arrest, poverty, and population data from California and concluded that…

  19. Getting to Know Me: Social Role Experiences and Age Differences in Self-Concept Clarity During Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Lodi-Smith, Jennifer; Roberts, Brent W.

    2011-01-01

    The current research had 2 aims: (1) to determine the cross-sectional age differences in self-concept clarity during adulthood and (2) to examine the importance of social role experiences for age differences in self-concept clarity. These aims were addressed in 2 large samples of adults ranging in age from 18 to 94 years. In both studies, self-concept clarity had a curvilinear relation to age such that self-concept clarity was positively related to age from young adulthood through middle age and negatively related to age in older adulthood. This relationship was moderated by annual income and community investment. In addition, annual income and health-related social role limitations mediated age differences in self-concept clarity. Findings are discussed in terms of modern theories of identity development. PMID:20663028

  20. Getting to know me: social role experiences and age differences in self-concept clarity during adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lodi-Smith, Jennifer; Roberts, Brent W

    2010-10-01

    The current research had 2 aims: (1) to determine the cross-sectional age differences in self-concept clarity during adulthood and (2) to examine the importance of social role experiences for age differences in self-concept clarity. These aims were addressed in 2 large samples of adults ranging in age from 18 to 94 years. In both studies, self-concept clarity had a curvilinear relation to age such that self-concept clarity was positively related to age from young adulthood through middle age and negatively related to age in older adulthood. This relationship was moderated by annual income and community investment. In addition, annual income and health-related social role limitations mediated age differences in self-concept clarity. Findings are discussed in terms of modern theories of identity development.

  1. Reaction time inconsistency in a spatial stroop task: age-related differences through childhood and adulthood.

    PubMed

    Williams, Benjamin R; Strauss, Esther H; Hultsch, David F; Hunter, Michael A

    2007-07-01

    Age-related differences in inconsistency of reaction time (RT) across the life span were examined on a task with differing levels of demand on executive control. A total of 546 participants, aged 5 to 76 years, completed a spatial Stroop task that permitted observations under three conditions (congruent, incongruent, and neutral) according to the correspondence between the required response (based on stimulus direction) and stimulus location. An interference effect was observed across all ages. Analyses of neutral condition data replicated previous research demonstrating RT inconsistency follows a U-shaped developmental curve across the life span. The relationship between age and inconsistency, however, depended on condition: inconsistency in the congruent condition was higher than inconsistency in both the neutral and incongruent conditions across middle-aged groups. Reaction time inconsistency may reflect processing efficiency that is maximal in young adulthood and may also be sensitive to fluctuations in performance that reflect momentarily highly efficient responding.

  2. Being overweight in early adulthood is associated with increased mortality in middle age

    PubMed Central

    Carslake, David; Jeffreys, Mona; Davey Smith, George

    2016-01-01

    Observational analyses of the association between body mass index (BMI) and all-cause mortality often suggest that overweight is neutral or beneficial, but such analyses are potentially confounded by smoking or by reverse causation. The use of BMI measured in early adulthood offers one means of reducing the latter problem. We used a cohort who were first measured while 16–24 year old students at Glasgow University in 1948–1968 and subsequently re-measured in 2000–2003, offering a rare opportunity to compare BMI measured at different ages as a predictor of mortality. Analysis of the later BMI measurements suggested that overweight was beneficial to survival, while analysis of BMI measured in early adulthood suggested that overweight was harmful and that the optimum BMI lay towards the lower end of the recommended range of 18.5–25 kg m−2. We interpret the association with later BMI as being probably distorted by reverse causality, although it remains possible instead that the optimum BMI increases with age. Differences when analyses were restricted to healthy non-smokers also suggested some residual confounding by smoking. These results suggest that analyses of BMI recorded in middle or old age probably over-estimate the optimum BMI for survival and should be treated with caution. PMID:27782178

  3. Up, Not Down: The Age Curve in Happiness from Early Adulthood to Midlife in Two Longitudinal Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galambos, Nancy L.; Fang, Shichen; Krahn, Harvey J.; Johnson, Matthew D.; Lachman, Margie E.

    2015-01-01

    Happiness is an important indicator of well-being, and little is known about how it changes in the early adult years. We examined trajectories of happiness from early adulthood to midlife in 2 Canadian longitudinal samples: high school seniors followed from ages 18-43 and university seniors followed from ages 23-37. Happiness increased into the…

  4. Age differences in genetic and environmental variations in stress-coping during adulthood: a study of female twins.

    PubMed

    Hur, Yoon-Mi; MacGregor, Alexander J; Cherkas, Lynn; Williams, Frances M K; Spector, Tim D

    2012-07-01

    The way people cope with stressors of day to day living has an important influence on health. The aim of the present study was to explore whether genetic and environmental variations in stress-coping differ over time during adulthood. The brief COPE was mailed to a large sample of the UK female twins (N = 4,736) having a wide range of age (20-87 years). Factor analyses of the items of the brief COPE yielded three coping scales: 'Problem-Solving', 'Support Seeking', and 'Avoidance'. Monozygotic and dizygotic twin correlations tended to become lower with age for all three scales, suggesting that unique environmental factors may become more important with age during adulthood. Model-fitting results showed that relative influences of unique environmental factors increased from 60 % at age 20 years to 74% at age 87 years for 'Problem-Solving' and 56 % at age 20 years to 76% at age 87 years for 'Avoidance'. During the same age period, genetic factors decreased from 40 to 26 % for 'Problem-Solving' and from 44 to 24 % for 'Avoidance'. For 'Seeking Support', the magnitude of genetic and unique environmental factors was not significantly different across the adulthood. For all three scales, shared environmental effects were negligible. Overall, our findings implicate that the effects of environment that stem from idiosyncratic experience of stressful life events accumulate and become increasingly important in adulthood.

  5. Noise exposure at young age impairs the auditory object exploration behavior of rats in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiping; Chen, Liang; Gao, Fei; Pu, Qing; Sun, Xinde

    2008-09-01

    Environment noise is ubiquitous in our daily life. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of postnatal exposure to moderate-level noise on the auditory object exploration behavior of adult rats by comparing the ability of three groups of rats to locate a sound source in a water maze. Two groups of rats, either in the critical period of hearing development or in adulthood, were exposed to 80 dB SPL interrupted white noise for 8 h per day for two weeks. The control group of rats was not exposed to the noise. The ability of the rats to locate a hidden platform that was situated near a sound source in a water maze was tested starting on postnatal day 77. A continuous improvement in the performance of control rats and rats exposed to noise in adulthood was observed during training, whereas rats exposed to noise at a young age exhibited a significantly worse performance. These findings indicated that long-term exposure of young rats to moderate-level noise caused significant impairment of their auditory object exploration behavior compared to exposure of adult animals to the same moderate-level noise.

  6. True love waits? A sibling-comparison study of age at first sexual intercourse and romantic relationships in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Harden, K Paige

    2012-01-01

    This study tested whether the timing of first sexual intercourse in adolescence predicts romantic outcomes in adulthood, including union formation, number of romantic partners, and relationship dissatisfaction. Participants were 1,659 same-sex sibling pairs from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, who were followed from adolescence (mean age = 16 years) to young adulthood (mean age = 29 years). The timing of participants' first sexual intercourse was classified as early (at age 14 or earlier), on time (between the ages of 15 and 19), or late (at age 19 or older). Compared with early and on-time age at first sex, late age at first sex was associated with decreased odds of marriage or nonmarital cohabitation and fewer romantic partners in adulthood. Among individuals who had married or cohabited with a partner, late timing of first sex was associated with significantly reduced levels of relationship dissatisfaction, even after controlling for genetic and environmental differences between families (using a sibling-comparison model), demographic outcomes in adulthood, and involvement in dating during adolescence. These results underscore the contribution of a life-span approach to our understanding of romantic relationships.

  7. Do Economic Recessions During Early and Mid-Adulthood Influence Cognitive Function in Older Age?

    PubMed Central

    Leist, Anja K.; Hessel, Philipp; Avendano, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    Background Fluctuations in the national economy shape labour market opportunities and outcomes, which in turn may influence the accumulation of cognitive reserve. This study examines whether economic recessions experienced in early and mid-adulthood are associated with later-life cognitive function. Method Data came from 12,020 respondents in 11 countries participating in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). Cognitive assessments in 2004/5 and 2006/7 were linked to complete work histories retrospectively collected in 2008/9, and to historical annual data on fluctuations in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita for each country. Controlling for confounders, we assessed whether recessions experienced at ages 25-34, 35-44 and 45-49 were associated with cognitive function at ages 50-74. Results Among men, each additional recession at ages 45-49 was associated with worse cognitive function at ages 50-74 (b = -0.06, Confidence Interval [CI] -0.11, -0.01). Among women, each additional recession at ages 25-44 was associated with worse cognitive function at ages 50-74 (b25-34 = -0.03, CI -0.04, -0.01; b35-44= -0.02, CI -0.04, -0.00). Among men, recessions at ages 45-49 influenced risk of being laid-off, whereas among women, recessions at ages 25-44 led to working part-time and higher likelihood of downward occupational mobility, which were all predictors of worse later-life cognitive function. Conclusions Recessions at ages 45-49 among men and 25-44 among women are associated with later-life cognitive function, possibly via more unfavourable labour market trajectories. If replicated in future studies, findings may indicate that policies that ameliorate the impact of recessions on labour market outcomes may promote later-life cognitive function. PMID:24258197

  8. Trajectories and Personality Correlates of Change in Perceptions of Physical and Mental Health across Adulthood and Old Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morack, Jennifer; Infurna, Frank J.; Ram, Nilam; Gerstorf, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Subjective health is known to predict later outcomes, including survival. However, less is known about subjective health changes across adulthood, how personality moderates those changes, and whether such associations differ with age. We applied growth models to 10 waves of data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey…

  9. Intraindividual Variability Is a Fundamental Phenomenon of Aging: Evidence from an 8-Year Longitudinal Study across Young, Middle, and Older Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bielak, Allison A. M.; Cherbuin, Nicolas; Bunce, David; Anstey, Kaarin J.

    2014-01-01

    Moment-to-moment intraindividual variability (IIV) in cognitive speed is a sensitive behavioral indicator of the integrity of the aging brain and brain damage, but little information is known about how IIV changes from being relatively low in young adulthood to substantially higher in older adulthood. We evaluated possible age group, sex, and task…

  10. The influence of age at menarche on cross-sectional geometry of bone in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Sešelj, Maja; Nahhas, Ramzi W; Sherwood, Richard J; Chumlea, Wm Cameron; Towne, Bradford; Duren, Dana L

    2012-07-01

    Elucidating the somatic and maturational influences on the biomechanical properties of bone in children is crucial for a proper understanding of bone strength and quality in childhood and later life, and has significant potential for predicting adult fracture and osteoporosis risks. The ability of a long bone to resist bending and torsion is primarily a function of its cross-sectional geometric properties, and is negatively impacted by smaller external bone diameter. In pubescent girls, elevated levels of estrogen impede subperiosteal bone growth and increase endosteal bone deposition, resulting in bones averaging a smaller external and internal diameter relative to boys. In addition, given a well-documented secular trend for an earlier menarche, the age at which the rate of subperiosteal bone deposition decreases may also be younger in more recent cohorts of girls. In this study we examined the relationship between pubertal timing and subsequent bone strength in girls. Specifically, we investigated the effects of age at menarche on bone strength indicators (polar moment of inertia and section modulus) determined from cross-sectional geometry of the second metacarpal (MC2) using data derived from serial hand-wrist radiographs of female participants (N=223) in the Fels Longitudinal Study, with repeated measures of MC2 between the ages of 7 and 35 years. Using multivariate regression models, we evaluated the effects of age at menarche on associations between measures of bone strength in early adulthood and the same measures at a prepubertal age. Results indicate that later age at menarche is associated with stronger adult bone (in torsion and bending) when controlling for prepubertal bone strength (R(2) ranged between 0.54 and 0.70, p<0.001). Since cross-sectional properties of bone in childhood may have long lasting implications, they should be considered along with pubertal timing in assessing risk for future fracture and in clinical recommendations.

  11. The influence of age at menarche on cross-sectional geometry of bone in young adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Šešelj, Maja; Nahhas, Ramzi W.; Sherwood, Richard J.; Chumlea, Wm. Cameron; Towne, Bradford; Duren, Dana L.

    2013-01-01

    Elucidating the somatic and maturational influences on the biomechanical properties of bone in children is crucial for a proper understanding of bone strength and quality in childhood and later life, and has significant potential for predicting adult fracture and osteoporosis risks. The ability of a long bone to resist bending and torsion is primarily a function of its cross-sectional geometric properties, and is negatively impacted by smaller external bone diameter. In pubescent girls, elevated levels of estrogen impede subperiosteal bone growth and increase endosteal bone deposition, resulting in bones averaging a smaller external and internal diameter relative to boys. In addition, given a well-documented secular trend for an earlier menarche, the age at which the rate of subperiosteal bone deposition decreases may also be younger in more recent cohorts of girls. In this study we examined the relationship between pubertal timing and subsequent bone strength in girls. Specifically, we investigated the effects of age at menarche on bone strength indicators (polar moment of inertia and section modulus) determined from cross-sectional geometry of the second metacarpal (MC2) using data derived from serial hand-wrist radiographs of female participants (N=223) in the Fels Longitudinal Study, with repeated measures of MC2 between the ages of 7 and 35 years. Using multivariate regression models, we evaluated the effects of age at menarche on associations between measures of bone strength in early adulthood and the same measures at a prepubertal age. Results indicate that later age at menarche is associated with stronger adult bone (in torsion and bending) when controlling for prepubertal bone strength (R2 ranged between 0.54 and 0.70, p<0.001). Since cross-sectional properties of bone in childhood may have long lasting implications, they should be considered along with pubertal timing in assessing risk for future fracture and in clinical recommendations. PMID:22513271

  12. The Stability of General Intelligence from Early Adulthood to Middle-Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Lars; Hartmann, Peter; Nyborg, Helmuth

    2008-01-01

    Early cross-sectional studies suggested that cognitive functions begin to decline in young adulthood, whereas the first longitudinal studies suggested that they are mainly stable in adulthood. A number of more contemporary longitudinal studies support the stability hypothesis. However, drop out effects have the consequence that most longitudinal…

  13. The impact of age and motivation on cognitive effort: implications for cognitive engagement in older adulthood.

    PubMed

    Ennis, Gilda E; Hess, Thomas M; Smith, Brian T

    2013-06-01

    We examined age differences in the effort required to perform the basic cognitive operations needed to achieve a specified objective outcome, and how hypothesized increases in effort requirements in later life are related to intrinsic motivation associated with enjoyment of and participation in effortful cognitive activities. Young (N = 59; 20-40 years) and older (N = 57; 64-85 years) adults performed a memory-search task varying in difficulty across trials, with systolic blood pressure responsivity-calculated as the increase over baseline during task performance-used as a measure of effort expenditure and task engagement. Consistent with expectations, older adults exhibited greater levels of responsivity (i.e., effort) at all levels of objective task difficulty, and this increase was reflected in subjective perceptions of difficulty. Older adults also exhibited greater levels of disengagement (i.e., effort withdrawal) than younger adults at higher levels of task difficulty, conceivably reflecting the disproportionately greater effort required for successful performance in the former group. We also found that, relative to younger adults, older adults' engagement was more sensitive to the importance attached to the task (i.e., motivation to do well). Finally, we also obtained evidence that increased costs associated with cognitive engagement in later life were negatively associated with intrinsic levels of motivation to engage in effortful cognitive activity. The results support the general conclusion that the costs of cognitive activity increase with age in adulthood, and that these costs influence individuals' willingness to engage resources in support of demanding cognitive activities.

  14. The scarring effect of unemployment throughout adulthood on psychological distress at age 50: estimates controlling for early adulthood distress and childhood psychological factors.

    PubMed

    Daly, M; Delaney, L

    2013-03-01

    Unemployment is an established predictor of psychological distress. Despite this robust relationship, the long-term impact of unemployment on human welfare has been examined in relatively few studies. In this investigation we test the association between the life-time duration of unemployment over a 34 year period from 1974 to 2008 and psychological distress at age 50 years in a sample of 6253 British adults who took part in the National Child Development Study (NCDS). In addition to adjusting for demographic characteristics, we account for the role of childhood psychological factors, which have been shown to predict adult occupational and mental health outcomes and may determine the connection between unemployment and distress. We find that intelligence and behavioral/emotional problems at age 11 predict both unemployment and psychological distress later in life. Furthermore, as predicted, the duration of unemployment throughout adulthood was associated with elevated levels of psychological distress at age 50, after adjusting for demographic characteristics including labor force status at age 50. The emotional impact of unemployment was only marginally attenuated by the inclusion of childhood factors and early-life distress levels in the analyses. Thus, unemployment may lead to worsening distress levels that persist over time and which cannot be attributed to childhood or early-life well-being or cognitive functioning early in life. Our analysis further supports the idea of psychological scarring from unemployment and the importance of employment outcomes for adult well-being.

  15. Does age of onset of risk behaviors mediate the relationship between child abuse and neglect and outcomes in middle adulthood?

    PubMed

    Horan, Jacqueline M; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2015-03-01

    Child maltreatment has been linked with a number of risk behaviors that are associated with long-lasting maladaptive outcomes across multiple domains of functioning. This study examines whether the ages of onset of four risk behaviors-sexual intercourse, alcohol use, drug use, and criminal behavior-mediate the relationship between child maltreatment and outcomes in middle adulthood among a sample of court-documented victims of child abuse/neglect and matched controls (N = 1,196; 51.7% female; 66.2% White, 32.6% Black). Adult outcomes included employment status, welfare receipt, internalizing symptoms of anxiety and depressive symptoms, substance use problems, and criminal arrests. The results indicated gender differences in these relationships. For females, age of onset of sexual intercourse mediated the relationship between child abuse/neglect and both internalizing symptoms and substance use problems in middle adulthood. For males, age at first criminal arrest mediated the relationship between child abuse/neglect and extensive involvement in the justice system in middle adulthood. Age of onset of alcohol use and drug use did not mediate the relationship between child abuse/neglect and middle adult outcomes. This study expands current knowledge by identifying associations between early initiation of risk behavior in one domain and later, continuing problems in different domains. Thus, early initiation of specific risk behaviors may have more wide-ranging negative consequences than are typically considered during intervention or treatment and strategies may need to target multiple domains of functioning.

  16. Duration of Abdominal Obesity Beginning in Young Adulthood and Incident Diabetes Through Middle Age

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Jared P.; Hankinson, Arlene L.; Loria, Catherine M.; Lewis, Cora E.; Powell-Wiley, Tiffany; Wei, Gina S.; Liu, Kiang

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine whether the duration of abdominal obesity determined prospectively using measured waist circumference (WC) is associated with the development of new-onset diabetes independent of the degree of abdominal adiposity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study is a multicenter, community-based, longitudinal cohort study of 5,115 white and black adults aged 18–30 years in 1985 to 1986. Years spent abdominally obese were calculated for participants without abdominal obesity (WC >102 cm in men and >88 cm in women) or diabetes at baseline (n = 4,092) and was based upon repeat measurements conducted 2, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20, and 25 years later. RESULTS Over 25 years, 392 participants developed incident diabetes. Overall, following adjustment for demographics, family history of diabetes, study center, and time varying WC, energy intake, physical activity, smoking, and alcohol, each additional year of abdominal obesity was associated with a 4% higher risk of developing diabetes [hazard ratio (HR) 1.04 (95% CI 1.02–1.07)]. However, a quadratic model best represented the data. HRs for 0, 1–5, 6–10, 11–15, 16–20, and >20 years of abdominal obesity were 1.00 (referent), 2.06 (1.43–2.98), 3.45 (2.28–5.22), 3.43 (2.28–5.22), 2.80 (1.73–4.54), and 2.91 (1.60–5.29), respectively; P-quadratic < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS Longer duration of abdominal obesity was associated with substantially higher risk for diabetes independent of the degree of abdominal adiposity. Preventing or at least delaying the onset of abdominal obesity in young adulthood may lower the risk of developing diabetes through middle age. PMID:23248193

  17. Young Adulthood to Old Age: Looking at Intergenerational Possibilities from a Human Development Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ReVille, Shari

    1989-01-01

    The potential interface between human development theories and intergenerational programing is explored. Erik Erikson's division of adult development into young, middle, and later adulthood, and Butler and Lewis'"characteristics of older people," are considered. Older people can offer help and encouragement to youth while themselves benefiting…

  18. Future Directions in the Study of Personality in Adulthood and Older Age

    PubMed Central

    Leszko, Magdalena; Elleman, Lorien G.; Bastarache, Emily D.; Graham, Eileen K.; Mroczek, Daniel K.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, empirical evidence has brought about a change in the view on how, or even whether, personality traits change or develop in adulthood and later life. Now we know personality can and does change for many people, if not most. Changes in personality may occur due to biological or environmental factors. This paper presents key empirical findings on personality change in adulthood and provides evidence that personality change affects mental and physical health. Our goal is to provide a broad overview on personality change research that would be an invaluable resource for students and researchers. We organize this paper into 3 sections. The first is focused on techniques in analyzing personality change in adulthood and later life. The second is focused on personality change as an outcome; we explore what factors predict personality change. The third discusses a relatively novel idea: personality change as a predictor of mental and physical health. We conclude that more research on factors predicting personality change is needed and we provide suggestions on how research on personality change can progress. PMID:26159881

  19. Association Between Duration of Overall and Abdominal Obesity Beginning in Young Adulthood and Coronary Artery Calcification in Middle Age

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Jared P.; Loria, Catherine M.; Lewis, Cora E.; Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M.; Wei, Gina S.; Carr, J. Jeffrey; Terry, James G.; Liu, Kiang

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Younger individuals are experiencing a greater cumulative exposure to excess adiposity over their lifetime. However, few studies have determined the consequences of long-term obesity. OBJECTIVE To examine whether the duration of overall and abdominal obesity was associated with the presence and 10-year progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC), a subclinical predictor of coronary heart disease. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Prospective study of 3275 white and black adults aged 18 to 30 years at baseline in 1985–1986 who did not initially have overall obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥30) or abdominal obesity (men: waist circumference [WC] >102 cm; women: >88 cm) in the multicenter, community-based Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. Participants completed computed tomography scanning for the presence of CAC during the 15-, 20-, or 25-year follow-up examinations. Duration of overall and abdominal obesity was calculated using repeat measurements of BMI and WC, respectively, performed 2, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20, and 25 years after baseline. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Presence of CAC was measured by computed tomography at the year 15 (2000–2001), year 20 (2005–2006), or year 25 (2010–2011) follow-up examinations. Ten-year progression of CAC (2000–2001 to 2010–2011) was defined as incident CAC in 2010–2011 or an increase in CAC score of 20 Agatston units or greater. RESULTS During follow-up, 40.4% and 41.0% developed overall and abdominal obesity, respectively. Rates of CAC per 1000 person-years were higher for those who experienced more than 20 years vs 0 years of overall obesity (16.0 vs 11.0, respectively) and abdominal obesity (16.7 vs 11.0). Approximately 25.2% and 27.7% of those with more than 20 years of overall and abdominal obesity, respectively, experienced progression of CAC vs 20.2% and 19.5% of those with 0 years. After adjustment for BMI or WC and potential confounders, the hazard ratios for CAC

  20. Parental support during young adulthood: Why does assistance decline with age?

    PubMed Central

    Hartnett, Caroline Sten; Furstenberg, Frank; Birditt, Kira; Fingerman, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has found that financial transfers from parents to young adult children decline as children age and that age is one of the strongest predictors of support. Using data collected from young adults (ages 18 to 34) and their parents (ages 40 to 60; N=536 parent-child dyads), we explore the possibility that the relationship between age and financial support is mediated by offspring needs, acquisition of adult roles, or geographical and emotional closeness. We find that age-related declines in offspring’s needs help to explain why financial support falls with age. However, offspring age remains a robust predictor of financial support after controlling for a wide range of factors, suggesting that age norms condition support from parents to offspring. PMID:23976811

  1. Development and aging of superficial white matter myelin from young adulthood to old age: Mapping by vertex-based surface statistics (VBSS).

    PubMed

    Wu, Minjie; Kumar, Anand; Yang, Shaolin

    2016-05-01

    Superficial white matter (SWM) lies immediately beneath cortical gray matter and consists primarily of short association fibers. The characteristics of SWM and its development and aging were seldom examined in the literature and warrant further investigation. Magnetization transfer imaging is sensitive to myelin changes in the white matter. Using an innovative multimodal imaging analysis approach, vertex-based surface statistics (VBSS), the current study vertexwise mapped age-related changes of magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) in SWM from young adulthood to old age (30-85 years, N = 66). Results demonstrated regionally selective and temporally heterochronologic changes of SWM MTR with age, including (1) inverted U-shaped trajectories of SWM MTR in the rostral middle frontal, medial temporal, and temporoparietal regions, suggesting continuing myelination and protracted maturation till age 40-50 years and accelerating demyelination at age 60 and beyond, (2) linear decline of SWM MTR in the middle and superior temporal, and pericalcarine areas, indicating early maturation and less acceleration in age-related degeneration, and (3) no significant changes of SWM MTR in the primary motor, somatosensory and auditory regions, suggesting resistance to age-related deterioration. We did not observe similar patterns of changes in cortical thickness in our sample, suggesting the observed SWM MTR changes are not due to cortical atrophy. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1759-1769, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Development and aging of superficial white matter myelin from young adulthood to old age: Mapping by vertex-based surface statistics (VBSS).

    PubMed

    Wu, Minjie; Kumar, Anand; Yang, Shaolin

    2016-05-01

    Superficial white matter (SWM) lies immediately beneath cortical gray matter and consists primarily of short association fibers. The characteristics of SWM and its development and aging were seldom examined in the literature and warrant further investigation. Magnetization transfer imaging is sensitive to myelin changes in the white matter. Using an innovative multimodal imaging analysis approach, vertex-based surface statistics (VBSS), the current study vertexwise mapped age-related changes of magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) in SWM from young adulthood to old age (30-85 years, N = 66). Results demonstrated regionally selective and temporally heterochronologic changes of SWM MTR with age, including (1) inverted U-shaped trajectories of SWM MTR in the rostral middle frontal, medial temporal, and temporoparietal regions, suggesting continuing myelination and protracted maturation till age 40-50 years and accelerating demyelination at age 60 and beyond, (2) linear decline of SWM MTR in the middle and superior temporal, and pericalcarine areas, indicating early maturation and less acceleration in age-related degeneration, and (3) no significant changes of SWM MTR in the primary motor, somatosensory and auditory regions, suggesting resistance to age-related deterioration. We did not observe similar patterns of changes in cortical thickness in our sample, suggesting the observed SWM MTR changes are not due to cortical atrophy. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1759-1769, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26955787

  3. Music through the ages: Trends in musical engagement and preferences from adolescence through middle adulthood.

    PubMed

    Bonneville-Roussy, Arielle; Rentfrow, Peter J; Xu, Man K; Potter, Jeff

    2013-10-01

    Are there developmental trends in how individuals experience and engage with music? Data from 2 large cross-sectional studies involving more than a quarter of a million individuals were used to investigate age differences in musical attitudes and preferences from adolescence through middle age. Study 1 investigated age trends in musical engagement. Results indicated that (a) the degree of importance attributed to music declines with age but that adults still consider music important, (b) young people listen to music significantly more often than do middle-aged adults, and (c) young people listen to music in a wide variety of contexts, whereas adults listen to music primarily in private contexts. Study 2 examined age trends in musical preferences. Results indicated that (a) musical preferences can be conceptualized in terms of a 5-dimensional age-invariant model, (b) certain music-preference dimensions decrease with age (e.g., Intense, Contemporary), whereas preferences for other music dimensions increase with age (e.g., Unpretentious, Sophisticated), and (c) age trends in musical preferences are closely associated with personality. Normative age trends in musical preferences corresponded with developmental changes in psychosocial development, personality, and auditory perception. Overall, the findings suggest that musical preferences are subject to a variety of developmental influences throughout the life span.

  4. Music through the ages: Trends in musical engagement and preferences from adolescence through middle adulthood.

    PubMed

    Bonneville-Roussy, Arielle; Rentfrow, Peter J; Xu, Man K; Potter, Jeff

    2013-10-01

    Are there developmental trends in how individuals experience and engage with music? Data from 2 large cross-sectional studies involving more than a quarter of a million individuals were used to investigate age differences in musical attitudes and preferences from adolescence through middle age. Study 1 investigated age trends in musical engagement. Results indicated that (a) the degree of importance attributed to music declines with age but that adults still consider music important, (b) young people listen to music significantly more often than do middle-aged adults, and (c) young people listen to music in a wide variety of contexts, whereas adults listen to music primarily in private contexts. Study 2 examined age trends in musical preferences. Results indicated that (a) musical preferences can be conceptualized in terms of a 5-dimensional age-invariant model, (b) certain music-preference dimensions decrease with age (e.g., Intense, Contemporary), whereas preferences for other music dimensions increase with age (e.g., Unpretentious, Sophisticated), and (c) age trends in musical preferences are closely associated with personality. Normative age trends in musical preferences corresponded with developmental changes in psychosocial development, personality, and auditory perception. Overall, the findings suggest that musical preferences are subject to a variety of developmental influences throughout the life span. PMID:23895269

  5. Two Thirds of the Age-Based Changes in Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence, Perceptual Speed, and Memory in Adulthood Are Shared

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghisletta, Paolo; Rabbitt, Patrick; Lunn, Mary; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2012-01-01

    Many aspects of cognition decline from middle to late adulthood, but the dimensionality and generality of this decline have rarely been examined. We analyzed 20-year longitudinal data of 6203 middle-aged to very old adults from Greater Manchester and Newcastle-upon-Tyne, UK. Participants were assessed up to eight times on 20 tasks of fluid…

  6. Up, not down: The age curve in happiness from early adulthood to midlife in two longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Galambos, Nancy L; Fang, Shichen; Krahn, Harvey J; Johnson, Matthew D; Lachman, Margie E

    2015-11-01

    Happiness is an important indicator of well-being, and little is known about how it changes in the early adult years. We examined trajectories of happiness from early adulthood to midlife in 2 Canadian longitudinal samples: high school seniors followed from ages 18-43 and university seniors followed from ages 23-37. Happiness increased into the 30s in both samples, with a slight downturn by age 43 in the high school sample. The rise in happiness after high school and university remained after controlling for important baseline covariates (gender, parents' education, grades, self-esteem), time-varying covariates known to be associated with happiness (marital status, unemployment, self-rated physical health), and number of waves of participation. The upward trend in happiness runs counter to some previous cross-sectional research claiming a high point in happiness in the late teens, decreasing into midlife. As cross-sectional designs do not assess within-person change, longitudinal studies are necessary for drawing accurate conclusions about patterns of change in happiness across the life span.

  7. Up, not down: The age curve in happiness from early adulthood to midlife in two longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Galambos, Nancy L; Fang, Shichen; Krahn, Harvey J; Johnson, Matthew D; Lachman, Margie E

    2015-11-01

    Happiness is an important indicator of well-being, and little is known about how it changes in the early adult years. We examined trajectories of happiness from early adulthood to midlife in 2 Canadian longitudinal samples: high school seniors followed from ages 18-43 and university seniors followed from ages 23-37. Happiness increased into the 30s in both samples, with a slight downturn by age 43 in the high school sample. The rise in happiness after high school and university remained after controlling for important baseline covariates (gender, parents' education, grades, self-esteem), time-varying covariates known to be associated with happiness (marital status, unemployment, self-rated physical health), and number of waves of participation. The upward trend in happiness runs counter to some previous cross-sectional research claiming a high point in happiness in the late teens, decreasing into midlife. As cross-sectional designs do not assess within-person change, longitudinal studies are necessary for drawing accurate conclusions about patterns of change in happiness across the life span. PMID:26347986

  8. Subjective Age in the Transition to Adulthood for Persons with and without Motor Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galambos, Nancy L.; Darrah, Johanna; Magill-Evans, Joyce

    2007-01-01

    This study examined subjective age (how old one feels) and associated variables in 148 emerging adults, ages 20-30 years. Seventy-six participants had a motor disability (cerebral palsy, spina bifida) and 72 had no motor disability. Participants completed questionnaires and were interviewed. There was no significant difference in subjective age…

  9. Inhibited and Aggressive Preschool Children at 23 Years of Age: Personality and Social Transitions into Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asendorpf, Jens B.; Denissen, Jaap J. A.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.

    2008-01-01

    In a 19-year longitudinal study, the 15% most inhibited and the 15% most aggressive children at ages 4-6 years were followed up until age 23 years and were compared with controls who were below average in preschool inhibition or aggressiveness. As adults, inhibited boys and girls were judged as inhibited by their parents and showed a delay in…

  10. Identity Formation in Adulthood: A Longitudinal Study from Age 27 to 50

    PubMed Central

    Fadjukoff, Päivi; Pulkkinen, Lea; Kokko, Katja

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Longitudinal patterns of identity formation were analyzed in a representative cohort group of Finnish men and women born in 1959 across ages 27, 36, 42, and 50. The data were drawn from the Jyväskylä Longitudinal Study of Personality. Identity status (diffused, moratorium, foreclosed, achieved) from all four ages was available for 172 participants (54% females). Marcia’s Identity Status Interview used in this research included five domains: religious beliefs, political identity, occupational career, intimate relationships, and lifestyle. The findings indicated great variability in identity status across domains at each age level, and the identity trajectories fluctuated from age 27 to 50. The developmental trend from age 27 to 50 was moderately progressive (toward achievement) for the five domains and for overall identity, with the exception of a slightly regressive trend in male religious identity. Remaining stable in the same status category across the four measurements was rare and emerged only for diffusion in the ideological domains. Women generally outnumbered men in identity achievement at earlier ages, but the gender differences diminished in most domains at age 50, except in religious identity. In women overall diffusion decreased over time, but in men it remained at about 20% at ages 42 and 50. PMID:27019650

  11. Age effects on the social interaction test in early adulthood male rats.

    PubMed

    Garau, A; Martí, M A; Sala, J; Balada, F

    2000-01-01

    The effects of age on active and passive social interaction were studied in Wistar rats using the social interaction test (S.I.T.). Individual behaviors such as ambulation, rearing, and defecation were also studied. Despite the widespread use of the S.I.T. in anxiety research, the effects of age on the S.I.T. have not been studied thoroughly. Male Wistar rats of 75, 135, and 180 days old were used. Our results showed age effects on active social contact, passive social contact, ambulation, rearing, and defecation. At 135 days old, animals presented the lowest scores on active social behavior and the highest scores on defecation. Moreover, exploratory behavior measured by ambulation and rearing decreased with age. These results suggest that age could be a relevant variable in the social interaction test.

  12. Socioeconomic disadvantage from childhood to adulthood and locomotor function in old age: a lifecourse analysis of the Boyd Orr and Caerphilly prospective studies

    PubMed Central

    Birnie, Kate; Martin, Richard M; Gallacher, John; Bayer, Antony; Gunnell, David; Ebrahim, Shah; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

    2012-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic influences over a lifetime impact on health and may contribute to poor physical functioning in old age. Methods We examined the impact of both childhood and adulthood socioeconomic factors on locomotor function at 63-86 years (measured with the get up and go timed walk and flamingo balance test), in the UK-based Boyd Orr (n=405) and Caerphilly (n=1,196) prospective cohorts. Results There was a marked reduction in walking speed and balance time with increasing age. Each year of age was associated with a 1.7% slower walk time and a 14% increased odds of poor balance. Participants who moved from a low socioeconomic position in childhood to a high socioeconomic position in adulthood had walking times 3% slower (95% CI: -2%, 8%) than people with high socioeconomic position in both periods. Participants who moved from a high socioeconomic position in childhood to a low adulthood socioeconomic position had walking times 5% slower (95% CI: -2%, 12%). Participants with a low socioeconomic position in both periods had walking times 10% slower (95% CI: 5%, 16%; P for trend <0.001). In Boyd Orr, low socioeconomic position in childhood was associated with poor balance in old age (OR per worsening category = 1.26; 95% CI 1.01, 1.57; P=0.043), as was socioeconomic position in adulthood (OR = 1.71; 95% CI 1.20, 2.45; P=0.003). Similar associations were not observed in Caerphilly. Conclusion Accumulating socioeconomic disadvantage from childhood to adulthood is associated with slower walking time in old age, with mixed results for balance ability. PMID:20644236

  13. The concept of compensation in cognitive aging: the case of prose processing in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Dixon, R A; Bäckman, L

    Although the rule of cognitive aging appears to be one of generalized decline with advancing age, much recent theoretical and empirical work has addressed a variety of potential exceptions to this rule. One mechanism through which decline might not be experienced is known as compensation. We describe a conceptualization of compensation that applies to lifespan cognitive development, in general, and the aging of prose processing skills, in particular. Our model of the forms and processes of compensation directs attention to the developing dynamics of cognitive skills and compensatory mechanisms. We outline three main approaches to research on compensation in cognitive aging: a) the logical experimental, b) on-line observation and manipulation, and c) several verbal report procedures. In summarizing our own research program, we emphasize that a) each of these approaches can render valuable information, b) each have some limitations, and c) there are potential theoretical benefits from employing more than one of them in a given study.

  14. Age and Sex Effects on White Matter Tracts in Psychosis from Adolescence through Middle Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Schwehm, Andrew; Robinson, Delbert G; Gallego, Juan A; Karlsgodt, Katherine H; Ikuta, Toshikazu; Peters, Bart D; Malhotra, Anil K; Szeszko, Philip R

    2016-09-01

    There is controversy regarding specificity of white matter abnormalities in psychosis, their deviation from healthy aging, and the influence of sex on these measures. We used diffusion tensor imaging to characterize putative white matter microstructure in 224 patients with psychosis and healthy volunteers across the age range of 15-64 years. Sixty-five younger (age <30 years; 47M/18F) patients with psychosis (all experiencing a first episode of illness) and 48 older (age ⩾30 years; 30M/18F) patients were age-matched to younger and older healthy volunteer groups (N=63 (40M/23F) and N=48 (29M/19F), respectively). The trajectories of two inter-hemispheric (splenium and genu), two projection (cortico-pontine and anterior thalamic), and five bilateral association (inferior fronto-occipital, inferior longitudinal, superior longitudinal, cingulum, and uncinate) tracts were quantified using tractography to derive measures of fractional anisotropy and mean, axial, and radial diffusivity. Fractional anisotropy was significantly lower in the inferior longitudinal fasciculus and superior longitudinal fasciculus in all patients compared with all healthy volunteers, with comparable effect sizes observed in both the younger and older patients compared with their respective healthy volunteer groups. Moreover, age-associated differences in fractional anisotropy within these tracts were comparable between groups across the age span. In addition, female patients had significantly lower fractional anisotropy across all tracts compared with female controls regardless of age. Our findings demonstrate comparable putative white matter abnormalities in two independent samples of patients with psychosis and argue against their progression in patients. These data further highlight the novel and potentially underappreciated role of sex in understanding white matter dysfunction in the neurobiology of psychosis. PMID:27067129

  15. Memorizing while walking: increase in dual-task costs from young adulthood to old age.

    PubMed

    Lindenberger, U; Marsiske, M; Baltes, P B

    2000-09-01

    The dual task of memorizing word lists while walking was predicted to become more difficult with age because balance and gait are in greater need of "attentional resources." Forty-seven young (ages 20-30 years), 45 middle-aged (40-50), and 48 old (60-70) adults were trained to criterion in a mnemonic technique and instructed to walk quickly and accurately on 2 narrow tracks of different path complexity. Then. participants encoded the word lists while sitting, standing, or walking on either track; likewise, speed and accuracy of walking performance were assessed with and without concurrent memory encoding. Dual-task costs increased with age in both domains; relative to young adults, the effect size of the overall increase was 0.98 standard deviation units for middle-aged and 1.47 standard deviation units for old adults. It is argued that sensory and motor aspects of behavior are increasingly in need of cognitive control with advancing age.

  16. [Resilience and psychological impairment in adulthood: the impact of age and social inequality].

    PubMed

    Pechmann, C; Petermann, F; Brähler, E; Decker, O; Schmidt, S

    2014-09-01

    In a cross-sectional study the influence of social inequality on resilience and psychological distress was investigated in a sample of N=4 142 adults. A social stratum was created, including education, financial income and job-status, as well as age (≥ 25 years). Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) showed influences of gender, social status and age on resilience (RS-11) and psychological distress: depression (PHQ-2), anxiety (GAD-7), life satisfaction (FLZ(M)). In contrast to the most continuous influence of the social background in women across any age-group, older males (≥ 65 years) were not affected by their social background. In both sexes members of the social underclass had the lowest resilience. The results indicate the need for specific intervention as to prevention.

  17. Practical Memory Concerns in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Celinda M.; Cherry, Katie E.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, we focus on practical memory concerns in adulthood. Young, middle-aged, and community-dwelling older adults responded to seven open-ended questions covering the topics of memory self-efficacy, memory management, memory remediation, and fears about memory aging in adulthood. The results revealed several similarities among the age…

  18. Daily Social Exchanges and Affect in Middle and Later Adulthood: The Impact of Loneliness and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Alissa; Bergeman, C. S.; Scott, Stacey B.

    2012-01-01

    Although daily social exchanges are important for well-being, it is unclear how different types of exchanges affect daily well-being, as well as which factors influence the way in which individuals react to their daily social encounters. The present study included a sample of 705 adults aged 31 to 91, and using Multilevel Modeling analyses…

  19. Intrinsic Aspirations and Personal Meaning across Adulthood: Conceptual Interrelations and Age/Sex Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Jessica; Robinson, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined adult age and sex differences in self-reported aspirations and personal meaning. Young, midlife, and older adults (N = 2,557) from the United Kingdom or United States completed an online survey of their aspiration striving, aspiration importance, and personal meaning (subscales of Purposeful Life, Exciting Life,…

  20. Growth pattern from birth to adulthood in African pygmies of known age

    PubMed Central

    Rozzi, Fernando V. Ramirez; Koudou, Yves; Froment, Alain; Le Bouc, Yves; Botton, Jérémie

    2015-01-01

    The African pygmy phenotype stems from genetic foundations and is considered to be the product of a disturbance in the growth hormone–insulin-like growth factor (GH–IGF) axis. However, when and how the pygmy phenotype is acquired during growth remains unknown. Here we describe growth patterns in Baka pygmies based on two longitudinal studies of individuals of known age, from the time of birth to the age of 25 years. Body size at birth among the Baka is within standard limits, but their growth rate slows significantly during the first two years of life. It then more or less follows the standard pattern, with a growth spurt at adolescence. Their life history variables do not allow the Baka to be distinguished from other populations. Therefore, the pygmy phenotype in the Baka is the result of a change in growth that occurs during infancy, which differentiates them from East African pygmies revealing convergent evolution. PMID:26218408

  1. Impulse noise exposure in early adulthood accelerates age-related hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Min; Yang, Chuanhong; Lai, Huangwen; Wang, Jian

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of impulse noise on age-related hearing loss. The study consisted of two groups. Each group contained 109 men. Group I comprised veterans with normal hearing at the end of 1979 sino-vietnamese war. All these veterans were randomly selected from Guangzhou Military Command. Group II were men with no military experience randomly chosen from the health examination center of Guangzhou General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command. Pure-tone thresholds of these two groups were measured and compared. The pure-tone thresholds of Group I were poorer than those of Group II at the frequencies of 4, 6 and 8 kHz. Thus, impulse noise accelerates age-related hearing loss.

  2. Early adulthood: an overlooked age group in national sodium reduction initiatives in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sohyun; Lee, Jounghee; Kwon, Kwang-Il; Kim, Jong-Wook; Byun, Jae-Eon; Kang, Baeg-Won; Choi, Bo Youl

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES South Korean's sodium consumption level is more than twice the upper limit level suggested by the WHO. Steep increases in the prevalence of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in Korea necessitate more effective sodium reduction programs. This study was conducted in order to compare sodium intake-related eating behaviors and key psychosocial factors according to age group and gender. SUBJECTS/METHODS Using an online survey, a total of 1,564 adults (20-59 years old) considered to be geographically representative of South Korea were recruited and surveyed. The major outcomes were perceived behaviors, knowledge, intentions, and self-efficacy related to sodium intake. RESULTS The results show that perceived behavior and level of self-efficacy related to low sodium consumption differed by age and gender. Female participants showed better behavior and intention towards low sodium intake than male counterparts. Young participants in their 20s showed the lowest intention to change their current sodium intake as well as lowest self-efficacy measures. CONCLUSIONS Future sodium reduction interventions should be developed with tailored messages targeting different age and gender groups. Specifically, interventions can be planned and implemented at the college level or for workers in their early career to increase their intention and self-efficacy as a means of preventing future health complications associated with high sodium intake. PMID:25489413

  3. Sibling Relationships in Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Billie H.

    This document contains a brief bibliography of peer-reviewed literature, with abstracts, on sibling relationships in adulthood. It is one of 12 bibliographies on aging prepared by the National Agricultural Library for its "Pathfinders" series of publications. Topics covered by the other 11 bibliographies include aging parents, adult children,…

  4. Emotion Regulation from Early Adolescence to Emerging Adulthood and Middle Adulthood: Age Differences, Gender Differences, and Emotion-Epecific Developmental Variations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmermann, Peter; Iwanski, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Despite the growing research on emotion regulation, the empirical evidence for normative age-related emotion regulation patterns is rather divergent. From a life-span perspective, normative age changes in emotion regulation may be more salient applying the same methodological approach on a broad age range examining both growth and decline during…

  5. Isoflurane exposure during mid-adulthood attenuates age-related spatial memory impairment in APP/PS1 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Su, Diansan; Zhao, Yanxing; Xu, Huan; Wang, Beilei; Chen, Xuemei; Chen, Jie; Wang, Xiangrui

    2012-01-01

    Many in vitro findings suggest that isoflurane exposure might accelerate the process of Alzheimer Disease (AD); however, no behavioral evidence exists to support this theory. In the present study, we hypothesized that exposure of APP/PS1 transgenic mice to isoflurane during mid-adulthood, which is the pre-symptomatic phase of amyloid beta (Abeta) deposition, would alter the progression of AD. Seven-month-old Tg(APPswe,PSEN1dE9)85Dbo/J transgenic mice and their wild-type littermates were exposed to 1.1% isoflurane for 2 hours per day for 5 days. Learning and memory ability was tested 48 hours and 5 months following isoflurane exposure using the Morris Water Maze and Y maze, respectively. Abeta deposition and oligomers in the hippocampus were measured by immunohistochemistry or Elisa 5 months following isoflurane exposure. We found that the performance of both the transgenic and wild-type mice in the Morris Water Maze significantly improved 48 hours following isoflurane exposure. The transgenic mice made significantly fewer discrimination errors in the Y maze following isoflurane exposure, and no differences were found between wild-type littermates 5 months following isoflurane exposure. For the transgenic mice, the Abeta plaque and oligomers in the hippocampus was significantly decreased in the 5 months following isoflurane exposure. In summary, repeated isoflurane exposure during the pre-symptomatic phase not only improved spatial memory in both the APP/PS1 transgenic and wild-type mice shortly after the exposure but also prevented age-related decline in learning and memory and attenuated the Abeta plaque and oligomers in the hippocampus of transgenic mice.

  6. Doing Adulthood in Childhood Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, Barbro

    2012-01-01

    Since age and generation first started to be problematized, the focus has been on childhood, while adulthood has attracted less attention. In this article four examples are presented of how adulthood is constructed within the specific context of childhood research. Taking the departure in Deleuzian and actor network theories, four examples are…

  7. The Course of Life: Psychoanalytic Contributions Toward Understanding Personality Development. Vol. III: Adulthood and the Aging Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenspan, Stanley I., Ed.; Pollock, George H., Ed.

    The volumes that make up "The Course of Life" series represent original contributions from international scientists and clinicians who have produced much current knowledge about the phases of human personality development. The chapters in Volume III discuss adulthood from various perspectives. Contributions cover the continuum of human development…

  8. Effects of aging on P300 between late young-age and early middle-age adulthood: an electroencephalogram event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Bourisly, Ali K

    2016-09-28

    The aim of this study was to identify age-related changes of P300 peak amplitude and P300 latency between closely separated nonsenile age groups (late young-aged adults and early middle-aged adults) and to investigate whether or not P300 has the potential to be used as a measure of cognitive aging even among nonsenile age groups. Twenty-eight adults (25-55 years old) completed an event-related potential oddball task. The elicitation of both P300 peak amplitude and P300 latency indicated age-related changes of P300. The results of the study showed that the P300 target peak amplitude was significantly larger in late young age compared with early middle age and that P300 target latency was also significantly delayed in early middle age compared with late young age. The results of this work contribute toward research efforts on a consensus on how aging affects event-related potential and/or P300. The main conclusions are that there exist significant age-related P300 changes even between closely separated, relatively younger, and nonsenile age groups, and that P300 has the potential to be used as a measure for cognitive aging even in nonsenile adults.

  9. Healthy Lifestyle through Young Adulthood and Presence of Low Cardiovascular Disease Risk Profile in Middle Age: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in (Young) Adults (CARDIA) Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kiang; Daviglus, Martha L.; Loria, Catherine M.; Colangelo, Laura A.; Spring, Bonnie; Moller, Arlen C.; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M.

    2012-01-01

    Background A low cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profile (untreated cholesterol < 200 mg/dl, untreated blood pressure < 120/<80 mmHg, never smoking, and no history of diabetes and myocardial infarction) in middle age is associated with markedly better health outcomes in older age, but few middle aged adults have this low risk profile. We examined whether adopting a healthy lifestyle throughout young adulthood is associated with presence of the low CVD risk profile in middle age. Methods and Results The CARDIA study sample consisted of 3,154 black and white participants aged 18 to 30 years at Year 0 (Y0, 1985-86) who attended the Year 0, 7 and 20 (Y0, Y7 and Y20) examinations. Healthy lifestyle factors (HLFs) defined at Y0, Y7 and Y20 included: 1) Average BMI < 25 kg/m2; 2) No or moderate alcohol intake; 3) higher healthy diet score; 4) higher physical activity score; and 5) Never smoking. Mean age (25 years) and percentage of women (56%) were comparable across groups defined by number of HLFs. The age-, sex- and race-adjusted prevalences of low CVD risk profile at Y20 were 3.0%, 14.6%, 29.5%, 39.2% and 60.7% for people with 0 or 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 HLFs, respectively (p-trend <0.0001). Similar graded relationships were observed for each sex-race group (all p-trend<0.0001). Conclusions Maintaining a healthy lifestyle throughout young adulthood is strongly associated with low CVD risk profile in middle age. Public health and individual efforts are needed to improve adoption and maintenance of healthy lifestyles in young adults. PMID:22291127

  10. Over the hill at 24: persistent age-related cognitive-motor decline in reaction times in an ecologically valid video game task begins in early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Joseph J; Blair, Mark R; Henrey, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Typically studies of the effects of aging on cognitive-motor performance emphasize changes in elderly populations. Although some research is directly concerned with when age-related decline actually begins, studies are often based on relatively simple reaction time tasks, making it impossible to gauge the impact of experience in compensating for this decline in a real world task. The present study investigates age-related changes in cognitive motor performance through adolescence and adulthood in a complex real world task, the real-time strategy video game StarCraft 2. In this paper we analyze the influence of age on performance using a dataset of 3,305 players, aged 16-44, collected by Thompson, Blair, Chen & Henrey [1]. Using a piecewise regression analysis, we find that age-related slowing of within-game, self-initiated response times begins at 24 years of age. We find no evidence for the common belief expertise should attenuate domain-specific cognitive decline. Domain-specific response time declines appear to persist regardless of skill level. A second analysis of dual-task performance finds no evidence of a corresponding age-related decline. Finally, an exploratory analyses of other age-related differences suggests that older participants may have been compensating for a loss in response speed through the use of game mechanics that reduce cognitive load.

  11. Over the Hill at 24: Persistent Age-Related Cognitive-Motor Decline in Reaction Times in an Ecologically Valid Video Game Task Begins in Early Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Joseph J.; Blair, Mark R.; Henrey, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Typically studies of the effects of aging on cognitive-motor performance emphasize changes in elderly populations. Although some research is directly concerned with when age-related decline actually begins, studies are often based on relatively simple reaction time tasks, making it impossible to gauge the impact of experience in compensating for this decline in a real world task. The present study investigates age-related changes in cognitive motor performance through adolescence and adulthood in a complex real world task, the real-time strategy video game StarCraft 2. In this paper we analyze the influence of age on performance using a dataset of 3,305 players, aged 16-44, collected by Thompson, Blair, Chen & Henrey [1]. Using a piecewise regression analysis, we find that age-related slowing of within-game, self-initiated response times begins at 24 years of age. We find no evidence for the common belief expertise should attenuate domain-specific cognitive decline. Domain-specific response time declines appear to persist regardless of skill level. A second analysis of dual-task performance finds no evidence of a corresponding age-related decline. Finally, an exploratory analyses of other age-related differences suggests that older participants may have been compensating for a loss in response speed through the use of game mechanics that reduce cognitive load. PMID:24718593

  12. Over the hill at 24: persistent age-related cognitive-motor decline in reaction times in an ecologically valid video game task begins in early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Joseph J; Blair, Mark R; Henrey, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Typically studies of the effects of aging on cognitive-motor performance emphasize changes in elderly populations. Although some research is directly concerned with when age-related decline actually begins, studies are often based on relatively simple reaction time tasks, making it impossible to gauge the impact of experience in compensating for this decline in a real world task. The present study investigates age-related changes in cognitive motor performance through adolescence and adulthood in a complex real world task, the real-time strategy video game StarCraft 2. In this paper we analyze the influence of age on performance using a dataset of 3,305 players, aged 16-44, collected by Thompson, Blair, Chen & Henrey [1]. Using a piecewise regression analysis, we find that age-related slowing of within-game, self-initiated response times begins at 24 years of age. We find no evidence for the common belief expertise should attenuate domain-specific cognitive decline. Domain-specific response time declines appear to persist regardless of skill level. A second analysis of dual-task performance finds no evidence of a corresponding age-related decline. Finally, an exploratory analyses of other age-related differences suggests that older participants may have been compensating for a loss in response speed through the use of game mechanics that reduce cognitive load. PMID:24718593

  13. The Little Six Personality Dimensions From Early Childhood to Early Adulthood: Mean-Level Age and Gender Differences in Parents' Reports.

    PubMed

    Soto, Christopher J

    2016-08-01

    The present research pursues three major goals. First, we develop scales to measure the Little Six youth personality dimensions: Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, Openness to Experience, and Activity. Second, we examine mean-level age and gender differences in the Little Six from early childhood into early adulthood. Third, we examine the development of more specific nuance traits. We analyze parent reports, made using the common-language California Child Q-Set (CCQ), for a cross-sectional sample of 16,000 target children ranging from 3 to 20 years old. We construct CCQ-Little Six scales that reliably measure each Little Six dimension. Using these scales, we find (a) curvilinear, U-shaped age trends for Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Openness, with declines followed by subsequent inclines; (b) monotonic, negative age trends for Extraversion and Activity; (c) higher levels of Conscientiousness and Agreeableness among girls than boys, as well as higher levels of Activity among boys than girls; and (d) gender-specific age trends for Neuroticism, with girls scoring higher than boys by mid-adolescence. Finally, we find that several nuance traits show distinctive developmental trends that differ from their superordinate Little Six dimension. These results highlight childhood and adolescence as key periods of personality development.

  14. Achieving the Middle Ground in an Age of Concentrated Extremes: Mixed Middle-Income Neighborhoods and Emerging Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    SAMPSON, ROBERT J.; MARE, ROBERT D.; PERKINS, KRISTIN L.

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on stability and change in “mixed middle-income” neighborhoods. We first analyze variation across nearly two decades for all neighborhoods in the United States and in the Chicago area, particularly. We then analyze a new longitudinal study of almost 700 Chicago adolescents over an 18-year span, including the extent to which they are exposed to different neighborhood income dynamics during the transition to young adulthood. The concentration of income extremes is persistent among neighborhoods, generally, but mixed middle-income neighborhoods are more fluid. Persistence also dominates among individuals, though Latino-Americans are much more likely than African Americans or whites to be exposed to mixed middle-income neighborhoods in the first place and to transition into them over time, even when adjusting for immigrant status, education, income, and residential mobility. The results here enhance our knowledge of the dynamics of income inequality at the neighborhood level, and the endurance of concentrated extremes suggests that policies seeking to promote mixed-income neighborhoods face greater odds than commonly thought. PMID:26722129

  15. Psychiatric Disorders in Adolescence and Early Adulthood and Risk for Child-Rearing Difficulties during Middle Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Cohen, Patricia; Kasen, Stephanie; Brook, Judith S.

    2008-01-01

    Data from a community-based longitudinal study were used to investigate the associations of parental psychiatric disorders evident by early adulthood with child-rearing behavior during middle adulthood. A series of psychiatric assessments was conducted during the adolescence (mean ages 14 and 16) and early adulthood (mean age 22) of 153 males and…

  16. Association of Obesity in Early Adulthood and Middle Age with Incipient Left Ventricular Dysfunction and Structural Remodeling: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study

    PubMed Central

    Kishi, Satoru; Armstrong, Anderson C.; Gidding, Samuel S.; Colangelo, Laura A.; Venkatesh, Bharath A.; Jacobs, David R.; Carr, J. Jeffery; Terry, James G.; Liu, Kiang; Goff, David C.; Lima, João A.C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We investigated the relationship of body mass index (BMI) and its 25-year change to left ventricular (LV) structure and function. Background Longstanding obesity may be associated with clinical cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. Whether obesity relates to cardiac dysfunction during young adulthood and middle age has not been investigated. Methods The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) enrolled white and black adults aged 18-30 years in 1985-86 (Year-0). At the Year-25, cardiac function was assessed by conventional echocardiography, tissue Doppler imaging (TDI), and speckle tracking echocardiography (STE). Twenty-five year change in BMI (classified as Low:<27 Kg/m2 and High:≥27 Kg/m2) was categorized into four groups (Low-Low, High-Low, Low-High, and High-High). Multiple linear regression was used to quantify the association between categorical changes in BMI (Low-Low as reference) with LV structural and functional parameters obtained in middle age, adjusting for baseline and 25-year change in risk factors. Results The mean BMI was 24.4 kg/m2 in 3,265 participants included at Year-0. Change in BMI adjusted for risk factors was directly associated with incipient myocardial systolic dysfunction assessed by STE (High-High:β-coefficient=0.67; Low-High:β-coefficient=0.35 for longitudinal peak-systolic strain) and diastolic dysfunction assessed by TDI (High-High:β-coefficient=-074; Low-High:β-coefficient=-0.45 for e′) and STE (High-High:β-coefficient= -0.06 for circumferential early-diastolic strain rate). Greater BMI was also significantly associated with increased LV mass/height (High-High:β-coefficient=26.11; Low-High:β-coefficient=11.87). Conclusions Longstanding obesity from young adulthood to middle age is associated with impaired LV systolic and diastolic function assessed by conventional echocardiography, TDI, and STE in a large bi-racial cohort of adults aged 43-55 years. PMID:25194290

  17. The Association of Alcohol and Drug Use with Persistence of Violent Offending in Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    White, Helene R.; Buckman, Jennifer; Pardini, Dustin; Loeber, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study expanded upon an earlier study, which examined the associations between heavy drinking and persistence of serious violent offending through emerging adulthood (approximate age 25), by examining associations between alcohol, marijuana, and other drug use and disorders and persistence of serious violent offending through young adulthood (approximate age 36). Methods We used official records and self-reported longitudinal data from Black and White men from early adolescence through young adulthood (n = 391). Men were divided into four violence groups: non-violent, desisters, persisters, and very late-onsetters. Multinomial logistic regression analyses controlling for race and incarceration were used to compare these groups in terms of substance use in young adulthood and changes in use from emerging to young adulthood. Results Most previous serious violent offenders did not re-offend in young adulthood. Whereas alcohol use did not differ across groups, persisters and desisters, compared to non-violent men, were more likely to use hard drugs, deal drugs, have a lifetime substance use disorder diagnosis and show larger decreases in alcohol and marijuana frequency from emerging to young adulthood. None of these measures differed between persisters and desisters except that persisters reported larger decreases in alcohol and marijuana use frequency. Conclusions The findings demonstrated reductions in serious violent offending during young adulthood and suggested that after adolescence, illicit drug use, compared to alcohol use, may play a more important role in initiation and maintenance of serious violent offending. Future research that examines the interrelations of drug use, drug culture, and violence is warranted. PMID:26557473

  18. IQ in late adolescence/early adulthood, risk factors in middle age and later all-cause mortality in men: the Vietnam Experience Study

    PubMed Central

    Batty, G D; Shipley, M J; Mortensen, L H; Boyle, S H; Barefoot, J; Grønbæk, M; Gale, C R; Deary, I J

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the role of potential mediating factors in explaining the IQ–mortality relation. Design, setting and participants A total of 4316 male former Vietnam-era US army personnel with IQ test results at entry into the service in late adolescence/early adulthood in the 1960/1970s (mean age at entry 20.4 years) participated in a telephone survey and medical examination in middle age (mean age 38.3 years) in 1985–6. They were then followed up for mortality experience for 15 years. Main results In age-adjusted analyses, higher IQ scores were associated with reduced rates of total mortality (hazard ratio (HR)per SD increase in IQ 0.71; 95% CI 0.63 to 0.81). This relation did not appear to be heavily confounded by early socioeconomic position or ethnicity. The impact of adjusting for some potentially mediating risk indices measured in middle age on the IQ–mortality relation (marital status, alcohol consumption, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pulse rate, blood glucose, body mass index, psychiatric and somatic illness at medical examination) was negligible (<10% attenuation in risk). Controlling for others (cigarette smoking, lung function) had a modest impact (10–17%). Education (0.79; 0.69 to 0.92), occupational prestige (0.77; 0.68 to 0.88) and income (0.86; 0.75 to 0.98) yielded the greatest attenuation in the IQ–mortality gradient (21–52%); after their collective adjustment, the IQ–mortality link was effectively eliminated (0.92; 0.79 to 1.07). Conclusions In this cohort, socioeconomic position in middle age might lie on the pathway linking earlier IQ with later mortality risk but might also partly act as a surrogate for cognitive ability. PMID:18477751

  19. Predictors of Health in Middle Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Sandra P.

    There is increasing acceptance of the premise that growth and development continue throughout adult life and, as life expectancy has lengthened, there is a much expanded mid-life period. Yet, middle adulthood has been neglected as an area of theoretical and empirical examination. Adults (N=251) in middle adulthood (age 35-55) completed instruments…

  20. Empowering Later Adulthood Music Education: A Case Study of a Rock Band for Third-Age Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laes, Tuulikki

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a case study of a group of approximately 70-year-old women who are learning to play rock band instruments in a formal music school context. The study examines the individual and shared meanings that the participants assigned to taking part in the rock band. The study aligns with John Dewey's view that the meanings of…

  1. Childhood Predictors of Psychiatric Disorders among Boys: A Prospective Community-Based Follow-Up Study from Age 8 Years to Early Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sourander, Andre; Multimaki, Petteri; Nikolakaros, Georgios; Haavisto, Antti; Ristkari, Terja; Helenius, Hans; Parkkola, Kai; Piha, Jorma; Tamminen, Tuula; Moilanen, Irma; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Almqvist, Fredrik

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study early childhood predictors for early adulthood psychiatric disorders. Method: The sample included 2,712 Finnish boys born in 1981. Information about the 8-year-old boys' problem behavior was obtained from parents, teachers, and children. The 10-15-year follow-up information about psychiatric disorders in early adulthood was…

  2. Increase in reptile-associated human salmonellosis and shift toward adulthood in the age groups at risk, the Netherlands, 1985 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Heck, Max; van Pelt, Wilfrid

    2016-08-25

    While the contribution of the main food-related sources to human salmonellosis is well documented, knowledge on the contribution of reptiles is limited. We quantified and examined trends in reptile-associated salmonellosis in the Netherlands during a 30-year period, from 1985 to 2014. Using source attribution analysis, we estimated that 2% (95% confidence interval: 1.3-2.8) of all sporadic/domestic human salmonellosis cases reported in the Netherlands during the study period (n = 63,718) originated from reptiles. The estimated annual fraction of reptile-associated salmonellosis cases ranged from a minimum of 0.3% (corresponding to 11 cases) in 1988 to a maximum of 9.3% (93 cases) in 2013. There was a significant increasing trend in reptile-associated salmonellosis cases (+ 19% annually) and a shift towards adulthood in the age groups at highest risk, while the proportion of reptile-associated salmonellosis cases among those up to four years-old decreased by 4% annually and the proportion of cases aged 45 to 74 years increased by 20% annually. We hypothesise that these findings may be the effect of the increased number and variety of reptiles that are kept as pets, calling for further attention to the issue of safe reptile-human interaction and for reinforced hygiene recommendations for reptile owners.

  3. Increase in reptile-associated human salmonellosis and shift toward adulthood in the age groups at risk, the Netherlands, 1985 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Heck, Max; van Pelt, Wilfrid

    2016-08-25

    While the contribution of the main food-related sources to human salmonellosis is well documented, knowledge on the contribution of reptiles is limited. We quantified and examined trends in reptile-associated salmonellosis in the Netherlands during a 30-year period, from 1985 to 2014. Using source attribution analysis, we estimated that 2% (95% confidence interval: 1.3-2.8) of all sporadic/domestic human salmonellosis cases reported in the Netherlands during the study period (n = 63,718) originated from reptiles. The estimated annual fraction of reptile-associated salmonellosis cases ranged from a minimum of 0.3% (corresponding to 11 cases) in 1988 to a maximum of 9.3% (93 cases) in 2013. There was a significant increasing trend in reptile-associated salmonellosis cases (+ 19% annually) and a shift towards adulthood in the age groups at highest risk, while the proportion of reptile-associated salmonellosis cases among those up to four years-old decreased by 4% annually and the proportion of cases aged 45 to 74 years increased by 20% annually. We hypothesise that these findings may be the effect of the increased number and variety of reptiles that are kept as pets, calling for further attention to the issue of safe reptile-human interaction and for reinforced hygiene recommendations for reptile owners. PMID:27589037

  4. Cross-sectional study of height and weight in the population of Andalusia from age 3 to adulthood

    PubMed Central

    López-Siguero, Juan Pedro; García, Juan Manuel Fernández; Castillo, Juan de Dios Luna; Molina, Jose Antonio Moreno; Cosano, Carlos Ruiz; Ortiz, Antonio Jurado

    2008-01-01

    Background and objectives In Andalusia there were no studies including a representative sample of children and adolescent population assessing growth and weight increase. Our objectives were to develop reference standards for weight, height and BMI for the Andalusian pediatric population, from 3 to 18 years of age for both genders, and to identify the final adult height in Andalusia. Subjects and methods Two samples were collected. The first included individuals from 3 to 18 years of age (3592 girls and 3605 boys). They were stratified according type of study center, size of population of origin, age (32 categories of 0.5 years) and gender, using cluster sampling. Subjects from >18 to 23 years of age (947 women and 921 men) were sampled in 6 non-university educational centers and several university centers in Granada. Exclusion criteria included sons of non-Spanish mother or father, and individuals with chronic conditions and/or therapies affecting growth. Two trained fellows collected the data through February to December 2004, for the first sample, and through January to May 2005, for the second. Reference curves were adjusted using Cole's LMS method, and the quality of the adjustment was assessed using the tests proposed by Royston. In addition, a sensitivity analysis was applied to the final models obtained. Results Data for 9065 cases (4539 women and 4526 men) were obtained; 79.39% (n = 7197) in the up to 18 years of age group. In the first sampling only 0.07% (3 girls and 2 boys) refused to participate in the study. In addition, 327 students (4.5%) were absent when sampling was done. We present mean and standard deviation fort height, weight and BMI at 0.5 years intervals, from 3 to 23 years of age, for both genders. After adjustment with the different models, percentiles for height, weight (percentiles 3, 5, 10, 25, 50, 75, 90, 95, and 97) and BMI (percentiles 3, 5, 50, 85, 95, and 97) are presented for both genders. Conclusion This is the first study in

  5. Age-Related Differences in Altruism across Adulthood: Making Personal Financial Gain versus Contributing to the Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freund, Alexandra M.; Blanchard-Fields, Fredda

    2014-01-01

    Four studies utilizing different methodological approaches investigated adult age-related differences in altruism (i.e., contributions to the public good) and the self-centered value of increasing personal wealth. In Study 1, data from the World Values Survey (World Values Survey Association, 2009) provided 1st evidence of a negative association…

  6. Environmental enrichment improves age-related immune system impairment: long-term exposure since adulthood increases life span in mice.

    PubMed

    Arranz, Lorena; De Castro, Nuria M; Baeza, Isabel; Maté, Ianire; Viveros, Maria Paz; De la Fuente, Mónica

    2010-08-01

    Age-related changes in immunity have been shown to highly influence morbidity and mortality. The aim of the present work was to study the effects of environmental enrichment (EE) (8-16 weeks) on several functions and oxidative stress parameters of peritoneal leukocytes, previously described as health and longevity markers, in mice at different ages, namely adult (44 +/- 4 weeks), old (69 +/- 4 weeks), and very old (92 +/- 4 weeks). Mortality rates were monitored in control and enriched animals, and effects on survival of long-term exposure to EE until natural death were determined. The results showed that exposure to EE was efficient in improving the function (i.e., macrophage chemotaxis and phagocytosis, lymphocyte chemotaxis and proliferation, natural killer cell activity, interleukin-2 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels) and decreasing the oxidative-inflammatory stress (i.e., lowered oxidized glutathione content, xanthine oxidase activity, expression of Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 on CD4 and CD8 cells, and increased reduced glutathione and glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities) of immune cells. These positive effects of EE were especially remarkable in animals at older ages. Importantly, long-term exposure to EE from adult age and until natural death stands out as a useful strategy to extend longevity. Thus, the present work confirms the importance of maintaining active mental and/or physical activity aiming to improve quality of life in terms of immunity, and demonstrates that this active life must be initiated at early stages of the aging process and preserved until death to improve life span.

  7. Effects of paternal age and offspring cognitive ability in early adulthood on the risk of schizophrenia and related disorders.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Holger J; Pedersen, Carsten B; Nordentoft, Merete; Mortensen, Preben B; Ehrenstein, Vera; Petersen, Liselotte

    2014-12-01

    Advanced paternal age (APA) and intelligence quotient (IQ) are both associated with the risk of schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD) in young adult offspring. We hypothesized that the offspring SSD risk gradient associated with paternal age is mediated by offspring IQ. We investigated joint and separate associations of paternal age and offspring IQ with the risk of SSD. We used IQ routinely measured at conscription in Danish males (n=138,966) from cohorts born in 1955-84 and in 1976-1993 and followed them from a year after the conscription through 2010. We used Cox regression to estimate the incidence rate ratio (IRR) of SSD. During the follow-up, 528 men developed SSD (incidence rate [IR] 5.2 and 8.6 per 10,000 person-years in the first and second cohorts, respectively). APA was associated with higher risk of SSD (IRR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.10-1.60 per a ten-year increase in paternal age). A higher IQ was associated with lower SSD risk (IRR, 0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.63-0.74 per one SD increase). The IR of SSD was higher among persons who were draft-exempt for health reasons (<20% of the men). Overall, there was little evidence of lower premorbid IQ in APA-related SSD (individuals who developed SSD and were also offspring of older fathers). Our results do not support the notion that risk gradient for offspring SSD associated with paternal age is mediated by offspring IQ.

  8. Age-related changes in amygdala-frontal connectivity during emotional face processing from childhood into young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Wu, Minjie; Kujawa, Autumn; Lu, Lisa H; Fitzgerald, Daniel A; Klumpp, Heide; Fitzgerald, Kate D; Monk, Christopher S; Phan, K Luan

    2016-05-01

    The ability to process and respond to emotional facial expressions is a critical skill for healthy social and emotional development. There has been growing interest in understanding the neural circuitry underlying development of emotional processing, with previous research implicating functional connectivity between amygdala and frontal regions. However, existing work has focused on threatening emotional faces, raising questions regarding the extent to which these developmental patterns are specific to threat or to emotional face processing more broadly. In the current study, we examined age-related changes in brain activity and amygdala functional connectivity during an fMRI emotional face matching task (including angry, fearful, and happy faces) in 61 healthy subjects aged 7-25 years. We found age-related decreases in ventral medial prefrontal cortex activity in response to happy faces but not to angry or fearful faces, and an age-related change (shifting from positive to negative correlation) in amygdala-anterior cingulate cortex/medial prefrontal cortex (ACC/mPFC) functional connectivity to all emotional faces. Specifically, positive correlations between amygdala and ACC/mPFC in children changed to negative correlations in adults, which may suggest early emergence of bottom-up amygdala excitatory signaling to ACC/mPFC in children and later development of top-down inhibitory control of ACC/mPFC over amygdala in adults. Age-related changes in amygdala-ACC/mPFC connectivity did not vary for processing of different facial emotions, suggesting changes in amygdala-ACC/mPFC connectivity may underlie development of broad emotional processing, rather than threat-specific processing. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1684-1695, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. SELF-CONCEPT DIFFERENTIATION AND SELF-CONCEPT CLARITY ACROSS ADULTHOOD: ASSOCIATIONS WITH AGE AND PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING*

    PubMed Central

    DIEHL, MANFRED; HAY, ELIZABETH L.

    2011-01-01

    This study focused on the identification of conceptually meaningful groups of individuals based on their joint self-concept differentiation (SCD) and self-concept clarity (SCC) scores. Notably, we examined whether membership in different SCD-SCC groups differed by age and also was associated with differences in psychological well-being (PWB). Cluster analysis revealed five distinct SCD-SCC groups: a self-assured, unencumbered, fragmented-only, confused-only, and fragmented and confused group. Individuals in the self-assured group had the highest mean scores for positive PWB and the lowest mean scores for negative PWB, whereas individuals in the fragmented and confused group showed the inverse pattern. Findings showed that it was psychologically advantageous to belong to the self-assured group at all ages. As hypothesized, older adults were more likely than young adults to be in the self-assured cluster, whereas young adults were more likely to be in the fragmented and confused cluster. Thus, consistent with extant theorizing, age was positively associated with psychologically adaptive self-concept profiles. This study examined whether conceptually meaningful subgroups of individuals can be identified based on their joint scores on self-concept differentiation (SCD) and self-concept clarity (SCC). Specifically, we considered whether individuals within such subgroups differed systematically from one another on measures of positive and negative psychological well-being (PWB). Of interest to us was also whether there were age differences in the distribution of adults across the SCD-SCC groups and whether age moderated the association between PWB and SCD-SCC grouping. PMID:22010361

  10. Emerging Adulthood in Argentina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Facio, Alicia; Micocci, Fabiana

    2003-01-01

    Examined conceptions of emerging adulthood among Argentinians in their middle twenties. Found wide support for individualistic criteria for adulthood, but also criteria suggesting more collectivistic values. Identified gender, social class origin, and educational attainment differences. Concluded that emerging adulthood is a distinct developmental…

  11. NWA 7034 Martian Breccia: Disturbed Rb-Sr Systematics, Preliminary Is Approximately 4.4 Ga Sm-Nd Age

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, L. E.; Shih, C.-Y.; Peng, Zhan Xiong; Agee, C

    2013-01-01

    Agee et al. [1] reported a Rb-Sr age of 2.089 [plus or minus] 0.081 Ga for the unique Martian meteoritic breccia NWA 7034 making it the oldest Martian basalt, dating to the early Am-azonian epoch [2] of Martian geologic history. We have attempt-ed to confirm this exciting result. Our new Rb-Sr analyses show the Rb-Sr isotopic system to be disturbed, but preliminary Sm-Nd data suggest an even older age of approximately 4.4 Ga for at least some brec-cia components.

  12. The Influence of Culture in Emerging Adulthood: Perspectives of Chinese College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Larry J.; Badger, Sarah; Wu, Bo

    2004-01-01

    Emerging adulthood refers to a time period (18-25 years of age) between adolescence and adulthood. Recent research suggests that it may be a cultural construction. More traditional, non-Western cultures may have a shortened period of emerging adulthood, or no emerging adulthood at all, because these cultures tend to place greater emphasis on…

  13. Evidence for an approximately 4.5 aeon age of plagioclase clasts in a lunar highland breccia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jessberger, E. K.; Huneke, J. C.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1974-01-01

    Argon from neutron-irradiated mineral separates and whole rock samples of a metamorphosed breccia (65015) from Apollo 16 has been analyzed with a large number of gas extraction steps in order to obtain a high resolution in the apparent ages and to identify the gas released from different sources. The results on plagioclase show a Ar-40/Ar-39 plateau age of 3.98 b.y. which is attributed to the time of metamorphism, and an age of about 4.5 b.y. in the high-temperature fraction. Correlation of the release pattern with Ar-37 instead of Ar-39 permits the association of the approximate 4.5 b.y. age with relict plagioclasts which were demonstrated in previous petrographic and Rb-Sr studies as being unequilibrated. This result suggests that it is possible to identify lithic components which represent the early lunar crust.

  14. Age-related changes in motor imagery from early childhood to adulthood: probing the internal representation of speed-accuracy trade-offs.

    PubMed

    Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C M; Wilson, Peter H

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to chart the development of motor imagery ability between 5 and 29 years of age and its relationship to fine-motor skill. 237 participants performed a computerized Virtual Radial Fitts Task (VRFT) as a measure of Motor Imagery (MI) ability. Participants aimed at five targets, positioned along radial axes from a central target circle. The targets differed in width over trials (2.5, 5, 10, 20 or 40 mm). Performance was indexed by the relationship between the movement time (MT) in executed and imagined movements. A subset of participants (11-19 years old, n=22) also performed the task with their non-preferred hand. We also examined if manual skill (measured by peg board task and posting coins) was related to the executed and imagined MT on the VRFT. Our results showed that the accuracy of the imagined movement improved steadily over childhood, reaching an asymptote during adolescence and into early adulthood. The correlation between the real and virtual MT using the preferred hand did not differ appreciably from that using the non-preferred hand. If the children could perform the tasks with their non-preferred hand (11 years and older), they also scaled performance in relatively precise terms using the less dextrous non-preferred hand. The correlation between real MT on the VRFT and fine-motor performance ranged between .53 and .42, while that for virtual movement was between .37 and .34. MI ability predicts manual skill to a moderate degree. PMID:23164627

  15. Passage to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furstenberg, Frank F.

    2010-01-01

    Today, young people are transitioning to adulthood later in life than they were in the 1960s and 70s. Why has this change occurred and what does it mean for young adults, their families, and the larger society? This article discusses the transition to adulthood from an historical perspective. It then explores the challenges of this later…

  16. Medical Perspectives on Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katchadourian, Herant A.

    1976-01-01

    Written for the layman, this article describes the concept of adulthood in human biology as observed from the perspective of the naturally unfolding human life cycle. Specific male and female physical characteristics are examined and psychiatric viewpoints on adulthood are presented. (DDB)

  17. Angelman syndrome in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Larson, Anna M; Shinnick, Julianna E; Shaaya, Elias A; Thiele, Elizabeth A; Thibert, Ronald L

    2015-02-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurogenetic disorder. The goal of this study was to investigate the primary health issues affecting adults with AS and to further characterize the natural history and genotype-phenotype correlations. Standardized phone interviews with caregivers for 110 adolescents and adults with AS were conducted. The impact of age, sex, and genotype on specific outcomes in neurology, orthopedics, internal medicine, and psychiatry were investigated. The mean age of individuals with AS was 24 years (range 16-50y). Active seizures were present in 41% of individuals, and 72% had sleep dysfunction. Significant constipation was present in 85%, and 32% were overweight or obese, with obesity disproportionately affecting women. Scoliosis affected 50% with a mean age at diagnosis of 12 years, and 24% of those diagnosed with scoliosis required surgery, an intervention disproportionately affecting men. Sixty-eight percent were able to walk independently, and 13% were able to speak 5 or more words. Self-injurious behavior was exhibited in 52% of individuals. The results of this study indicate that epilepsy severity may assume a bimodal age distribution: seizures are typically most severe in early childhood but may recur in adulthood. While late-adolescent and adult sleep patterns were improved when compared to the degree of sleep dysfunction present during infancy and childhood, the prevalence of poor sleep in adults remained quite high. Primary areas of clinical management identified include the following: seizures, sleep, aspiration risk, GERD, constipation, dental care, vision, obesity, scoliosis, bone density, mobility, communication, behavior, and anxiety. PMID:25428759

  18. Conceptualizing Transitions to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyn, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of theories of the transition to young adulthood. It sets out the argument for conceptual renewal and discusses some implications of new patterns of transition for adult education.

  19. Transitions in Gambling Participation during Late Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Bray, Bethany C.; Lee, Grace P.; Liu, Weiwei; Storr, Carla L.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.; Martins, Silvia S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine transitions in gambling participation from late adolescence into emerging adulthood, and to identify factors (i.e., gender, race, intervention status, lunch status, conduct disorder, parental monitoring, neighborhood environment, and substance use) that might influence these transitions. Methods Markov modeling was used to describe movement between past-year gambling states (i.e., non-gambling and gambling) over five years. Annual data on past-year gambling behavior and substance use were collected from 515 young men and women starting at age 17. Results Past-year gambling declined from 51% prevalence at age 17 to 21% prevalence at age 22. Participants who reported no past-year gambling at a particular annual assessment had more than an 80% probability of also reporting no past-year gambling at the following assessment. Men were 1.07–2.82 times more likely than women to transition from past-year non-gambling to gambling year-to-year, and women were 1.27–5.26 times more likely than men to transition from past-year gambling to non-gambling year-to-year. In addition, gender and past-year tobacco use interacted such that men who used tobacco were most likely (and men who did not use tobacco least likely) to gamble at baseline. Conclusions Transition rates between gambling states appear to be relatively stable over time from late adolescence into emerging adulthood; however, men and those who engage in substance use may be at increased risk for gambling participation. Implications and Contribution The current study provides important information about the naturalistic transitions in gambling behavior during late adolescence and emerging adulthood among an urban, mainly ethnic minority population. The finding that approximately half of past-year gamblers do not gamble during the following year suggests that gambling follows a variable developmental course. PMID:24656449

  20. Perceived Discrimination and Personality Development in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutin, Angelina R.; Stephan, Yannick; Terracciano, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Perceived discrimination is common and a significant source of stress that may have implications for personality development across adulthood. In this study, we examined whether experiences with discrimination were associated with maladaptive changes in the 5 major dimensions of personality using 2 longitudinal samples that differed in age and…

  1. Normative Beliefs Regarding Aggression in Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, David A.; Springer, Melanie M.; Nelson, Larry J.; Bean, Nathaniel H.

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have examined the nature of aggression in emerging adulthood (ages 18-25), a unique developmental period wherein relationships become increasingly important and intimate. Consistent with a greater emphasis on relationships, relationally manipulative forms of aggression may be particularly salient during this time period. Based on…

  2. Personality-Cognition Relations across Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soubelet, Andrea; Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    Although an increasing number of studies have investigated relations between dimensions of personality and level of cognitive functioning, the research results have been somewhat inconsistent. Furthermore, relatively little is known about whether the personality-cognition relations vary as a function of age in adulthood. The current project…

  3. The Structure of Visuospatial Memory in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mammarella, Irene C.; Borella, Erika; Pastore, Massimiliano; Pazzaglia, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the structure of visuospatial memory in adulthood. Adults 40-89 years of age (n = 160) performed simple storage and complex visuospatial span tasks. Simple storage tasks were distinguished into three presentation formats: (i) visual, which involved maintaining shapes and textures; (ii) spatial-sequential,…

  4. Personal effort in social relationships across adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lang, Frieder R; Wagner, Jenny; Wrzus, Cornelia; Neyer, Franz J

    2013-06-01

    We explored age differences in the amount of personal effort that people put forth to maintain relationships across adulthood in diverse family-life contexts. More specifically, we examined how personal effort in social relationships is age-differently related to emotional closeness and perceptions of reciprocity. A total of 658 early-midlife (37 years) and old-age adults (73 years) from three life contexts (biological parents, parents from blended families with at least one stepchild, childless individuals) completed a questionnaire assessing ego-centered social networks, relationship quality, perceived conflict, and personal characteristics. As expected, perceived relationship effort was more pronounced and more strongly associated with emotional closeness in old age than in early midlife. In both age groups, perceived effort was comparably associated with reciprocity and conflict. Such associations were similar across the different life contexts. The findings suggest that perceived personal effort in social relationships contributes to the proactive shaping of social worlds across adulthood. PMID:23586359

  5. Counterfactual reasoning: From childhood to adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Rafetseder, Eva; Schwitalla, Maria; Perner, Josef

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the developmental progression of counterfactual reasoning from childhood to adulthood. In contrast to the traditional view, it was recently reported by Rafetseder and colleagues that even a majority of 6-year-old children do not engage in counterfactual reasoning when asked counterfactual questions (Child Development, 2010, Vol. 81, pp. 376–389). By continuing to use the same method, the main result of the current Study 1 was that performance of the 9- to 11-year-olds was comparable to that of the 6-year-olds, whereas the 12- to 14-year-olds approximated adult performance. Study 2, using an intuitively simpler task based on Harris and colleagues (Cognition, 1996, Vol. 61, pp. 233–259), resulted in a similar conclusion, specifically that the ability to apply counterfactual reasoning is not fully developed in all children before 12 years of age. We conclude that children who failed our tasks seem to lack an understanding of what needs to be changed (events that are causally dependent on the counterfactual assumption) and what needs to be left unchanged and so needs to be kept as it actually happened. Alternative explanations, particularly executive functioning, are discussed in detail. PMID:23219156

  6. Risk and Resilience Factors in Coping with Daily Stress in Adulthood: The Role of Age, Self-Concept Incoherence, and Personal Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diehl, Manfred; Hay, Elizabeth L.

    2010-01-01

    This study observed young, middle-aged, and older adults (N = 239; M[subscript age] = 49.6 years; range = 18-89 years) for 30 consecutive days to examine the association between daily stress and negative affect, taking into account potential risk (i.e., self-concept incoherence) and resilience (i.e., age, perceived personal control) factors.…

  7. Young Adults' Perceived Purposes of Emerging Adulthood: Implications for Cohabitation.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Adam A; Willoughby, Brian J; Nelson, Larry J

    2016-01-01

    The authors investigated associations between young adults' perceived purposes of emerging adulthood and their attitudes toward and participation in cohabitation. In a sample of 775 never married individuals, ages 18-29 (69% female, 69% white) from the United States, young people's perceptions of this period of life were associated with their acceptance of cohabitation, their reasoning for accepting cohabitation, and the likelihood of cohabiting. Results showed that the perception that emerging adulthood is a time to prepare for future family roles was negatively associated with acceptance of cohabitation whereas the perception that emerging adulthood is a time to take risks was positively associated with acceptance of cohabitation. The perception that emerging adulthood is a time to prepare for future family roles was associated with an increased likelihood of having cohabited while the perception that emerging adulthood is a time of possibilities was associated with a decreased likelihood of having cohabited. Implications for future research are discussed.

  8. An Approximately 4.35 Ga Ar-Ar Age for GRA 8 and the Complex Chronology of its Parent Body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, J.; Nyquist, Laurence E.; Bogard, D. D.; Garrison, D. H.; Shih, C.-Y.; Reese, Y. D.

    2010-01-01

    GRA06128 and GRA06129 (hereafter GRA 8 and GRA 9) are partial melts of a parent body of approximately chondritic composition. We reported a conventional Sm-147-Nd-143 isochron age of 4.559+/-0.096 Ga and a 146 Sm-142Nd model age of 4.549+/-0.036 for combined data for the two rocks. Plagioclase plus whole rock and leachate (approx.phosphate) samples gave a secondary Sm-147-Nd-143 age of 3.4+/-0.4 Ga. An Ar-39-Ar-40 age of 4.460+/-0.028 Ga was interpreted as dating metamorphism in GRA 9. We report Ar-39-Ar-40 ages in the range approx.4344-4366 Ma for GRA 8, establishing similar but different Ar-39-Ar-40 ages for the two rocks, consistent with their different Sr-isotopic systematics, and discuss these ages in the context of the complex sequence of events that affected these samples.

  9. An Approximately 4.35 Ga Ar-Ar Age for GRA 8 and the Complex Chronology of its Parent Body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, J.; Nyquist, L. E.; Bogard, D. D.; Garrison, D. H.; Shih, C.-Y.; Reese, Y. D.

    2010-01-01

    GRA06128 and GRA06129 (hereafter GRA 8 and GRA 9) are partial melts of a parent body of approximately chondritic composition. We reported a conventional SM-147Sm-ND_143 isochron age of 4.559 +/-.096 Ga and a SM-146-142Nd model age of 4.549 +/- 0.036 for combined data for the two rocks. Plagioclase plus whole rock and leachate (approximately phosphate) samples gave a secondary SM-147-ND-143 age of 3.4 +/-0.4 Ga. An Ar-39-Ar-40 age of 4.460+/-0.028 Ga was interpreted by as dating metamorphism in GRA 9. We report Ar-39-Ar-40 ages in the range approximately 4344-4366 Ma for GRA 8, establishing similar but different Ar-39-Ar-40 ages for the two rocks, consistent with their different Sr-istopic systematics, and discuss these ages in the context of the complex sequence of events that affected these samples

  10. Developmental trajectories of African American adolescents' family conflict: differences in mental health problems in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Choe, Daniel Ewon; Stoddard, Sarah A; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2014-04-01

    Family conflict is a salient risk factor for African American adolescents' mental health problems. No study we are aware of has estimated trajectories of their family conflict and whether groups differ in internalizing and externalizing problems during the transition to young adulthood, a critical antecedent in adult mental health and psychopathology. As hypothesized, latent class growth analysis approximated 4 developmental trajectories of family conflict during high school for 681 African American adolescents (49% boys). Trajectory classes differed in anxiety, depressive symptoms, and violent behavior at age 20, supporting expectations that adolescents demonstrating elevated levels and atypical trajectories of family conflict in high school would report greater mental health problems as young adults. Family conflict jeopardizes African American adolescents' transition to young adulthood by contributing to mental health problems.

  11. Graded response to short photoperiod during development and early adulthood in Siberian hamsters and the effects on reproduction as females age

    PubMed Central

    Place, Ned J.; Cruickshank, Jenifer

    2009-01-01

    Short day (SD) lengths delay puberty, suppress ovulation, inhibit sexual behavior, and decelerate reproductive aging in female Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus). To date, the modulation of the age-associated decline in reproductive outcomes has only been demonstrated in female hamsters experiencing different day lengths during development. To determine if developmental delay is necessary for photo-inhibition to decelerate reproductive aging, hamsters raised in LD were transferred to SD as young adults and remained there for 6 months. Females that demonstrated the most immediate and sustained photo-inhibition were found to have greater numbers of ovarian primordial follicles at advanced ages (9 and 12 months) than did females held in LD, nonresponders to SD, and females with a marginal SD-response. Similarly, for females raised in SD from conception to 6 months of age, prolonged developmental delay was associated with greater numbers of primordial follicles at later ages as compared to hamsters that became refractory to SD. A robust response to SD in juvenile and adult hamsters is associated with decelerated reproductive aging, which may result in greater reproductive success in older females as compared to age-matched individuals demonstrating a more modest response to SD. PMID:19470367

  12. Best Friends in Adolescence Show Similar Educational Careers in Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiuru, Noona; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Zettergren, Peter; Andersson, Hakan; Bergman, Lars

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the role of best friends in educational career development from adolescence to adulthood. Participants' (N=476) reciprocal best friendships were identified at age 15, while their educational attainment was investigated in early adulthood (age 26), their intelligence (IQ) at age 13, and parental education, educational…

  13. A prospective examination of the path from child abuse and neglect to illicit drug use in middle adulthood: the potential mediating role of four risk factors.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Helen W; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2009-03-01

    This study examines prostitution, homelessness, delinquency and crime, and school problems as potential mediators of the relationship between childhood abuse and neglect (CAN) and illicit drug use in middle adulthood. Children with documented cases of physical and sexual abuse and neglect (ages 0-11) during 1967-1971 were matched with non-maltreated children and followed into middle adulthood (approximate age 39). Mediators were assessed in young adulthood (approximate age 29) through in-person interviews between 1989 and 1995 and official arrest records through 1994 (N = 1,196). Drug use was assessed via self-reports of past year use of marijuana, psychedelics, cocaine, and/or heroin during 2000-2002 (N = 896). Latent variable structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test: (1) a four-factor model with separate pathways from CAN to illicit drug use through each of the mediating risk factors and (2) a second-order model with a single mediating risk factor comprised of prostitution, homelessness, delinquency and crime, and poor school performance. Analyses were performed separately for women and men, controlling for race/ethnicity and early drug use. In the four-factor model for both men and women, CAN was significantly related to each of the mediators, but no paths from the mediators to drug use were significant. For women, the second-order risk factor mediated the relationship between CAN and illicit drug use in middle adulthood. For men, neither child abuse and neglect nor the second-order risk factor predicted drug use in middle adulthood. These results suggest that for women, the path from CAN to middle adulthood drug use is part of a general "problem behavior syndrome" evident earlier in life.

  14. [Food allergy in adulthood].

    PubMed

    Werfel, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Food allergies can newly arise in adulthood or persist following a food allergy occurring in childhood. The prevalence of primary food allergy is basically higher in children than in adults; however, in the routine practice food allergies in adulthood appear to be increasing and after all a prevalence in Germany of 3.7 % has been published. The clinical spectrum of manifestations of food allergies in adulthood is broad. Allergy symptoms of the immediate type can be observed as well as symptoms occurring after a delay, such as indigestion, triggering of hematogenous contact eczema or flares of atopic dermatitis. The same principles for diagnostics apply in this group as in childhood. In addition to the anamnesis, skin tests and in vitro tests, as a rule elimination diets and in particular provocation tests are employed. Molecular allergy diagnostics represent a major step forward, which allow a better assessment of the risk of systemic reactions to certain foodstuffs (e.g. peanuts) and detection of cross-reactions in cases of apparently multiple sensitivities. Current German and European guidelines from 2015 are available for the practical approach to clarification of food allergies. The most frequent food allergies in adults are nuts, fruit and vegetables, which can cross-react with pollen as well as wheat, shellfish and crustaceans. The therapy of allergies involves a consistent avoidance of the allogen. Detailed dietary plans are available with avoidance strategies and instructions for suitable food substitutes. A detailed counseling of affected patients by specially trained personnel is necessary especially in order to avoid nutritional deficiencies and to enable patients to enjoy a good quality of life. PMID:27207694

  15. [Food allergy in adulthood].

    PubMed

    Werfel, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Food allergies can newly arise in adulthood or persist following a food allergy occurring in childhood. The prevalence of primary food allergy is basically higher in children than in adults; however, in the routine practice food allergies in adulthood appear to be increasing and after all a prevalence in Germany of 3.7 % has been published. The clinical spectrum of manifestations of food allergies in adulthood is broad. Allergy symptoms of the immediate type can be observed as well as symptoms occurring after a delay, such as indigestion, triggering of hematogenous contact eczema or flares of atopic dermatitis. The same principles for diagnostics apply in this group as in childhood. In addition to the anamnesis, skin tests and in vitro tests, as a rule elimination diets and in particular provocation tests are employed. Molecular allergy diagnostics represent a major step forward, which allow a better assessment of the risk of systemic reactions to certain foodstuffs (e.g. peanuts) and detection of cross-reactions in cases of apparently multiple sensitivities. Current German and European guidelines from 2015 are available for the practical approach to clarification of food allergies. The most frequent food allergies in adults are nuts, fruit and vegetables, which can cross-react with pollen as well as wheat, shellfish and crustaceans. The therapy of allergies involves a consistent avoidance of the allogen. Detailed dietary plans are available with avoidance strategies and instructions for suitable food substitutes. A detailed counseling of affected patients by specially trained personnel is necessary especially in order to avoid nutritional deficiencies and to enable patients to enjoy a good quality of life.

  16. The Relationship between School-Aged Bullying and Trust, Shyness and Quality of Friendships in Young Adulthood: A Preliminary Research Note

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jantzer, Amanda M.; Hoover, John H.; Narloch, Rodger

    2006-01-01

    We collected data on 170 college students to assess retrospective perception of school-aged bullying experiences, hardiness and aspects of friendships and romantic relationships on the dimensions of trust, relationship quality and shyness. We found that rates of reported victimization were positively correlated with contemporaneous shyness levels.…

  17. Archean Age Fossils from Northwestern Australia (Approximately 3.3 to 3.5 GA, Warrawoona Group, Towers Formation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Penny A. Morris

    1999-01-01

    Archean aged rocks from the Pilbara Block area of western Australia (Warrawoona Group, Towers Formation, -3.3-3.5 Ga) contain microfossils that are composed of various sizes of spheres and filaments. The first descriptions of these microfossils were published in the late 1970's (Dunlop, 1978; Dunlop, et. al., 1978). The authenticity of the microfossils is well established. The small size of the microfossils prevents isotope dating, at least with the present technology. Microbiologists, however, have established guidelines to determine the authenticity of the Archean aged organic remains (Schopf, Walter, 1992).

  18. Modelling of the Electric Field Distribution in Deep Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in the Adolescence, in the Adulthood, and in the Old Age.

    PubMed

    Fiocchi, Serena; Longhi, Michela; Ravazzani, Paolo; Roth, Yiftach; Zangen, Abraham; Parazzini, Marta

    2016-01-01

    In the last few years, deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (dTMS) has been used for the treatment of depressive disorders, which affect a broad category of people, from adolescents to aging people. To facilitate its clinical application, particular shapes of coils, including the so-called Hesed coils, were designed. Given their increasing demand and the lack of studies which accurately characterize their use, this paper aims to provide a picture of the distribution of the induced electric field in four realistic human models of different ages and gender. In detail, the electric field distributions were calculated by using numerical techniques in the brain structures potentially involved in the progression of the disease and were quantified in terms of both amplitude levels and focusing power of the distribution. The results highlight how the chosen Hesed coil (H7 coil) is able to induce the maxima levels of E mainly in the prefrontal cortex, particularly for the younger model. Moreover, growing levels of induced electric fields with age were found by going in deep in the brain, as well as a major capability to penetrate in the deepest brain structures with an electric field higher than 50%, 70%, and 90% of the peak found in the cortex. PMID:27069502

  19. Modelling of the Electric Field Distribution in Deep Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in the Adolescence, in the Adulthood, and in the Old Age

    PubMed Central

    Fiocchi, Serena; Longhi, Michela; Ravazzani, Paolo; Roth, Yiftach; Zangen, Abraham; Parazzini, Marta

    2016-01-01

    In the last few years, deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (dTMS) has been used for the treatment of depressive disorders, which affect a broad category of people, from adolescents to aging people. To facilitate its clinical application, particular shapes of coils, including the so-called Hesed coils, were designed. Given their increasing demand and the lack of studies which accurately characterize their use, this paper aims to provide a picture of the distribution of the induced electric field in four realistic human models of different ages and gender. In detail, the electric field distributions were calculated by using numerical techniques in the brain structures potentially involved in the progression of the disease and were quantified in terms of both amplitude levels and focusing power of the distribution. The results highlight how the chosen Hesed coil (H7 coil) is able to induce the maxima levels of E mainly in the prefrontal cortex, particularly for the younger model. Moreover, growing levels of induced electric fields with age were found by going in deep in the brain, as well as a major capability to penetrate in the deepest brain structures with an electric field higher than 50%, 70%, and 90% of the peak found in the cortex. PMID:27069502

  20. Risk and resilience factors in coping with daily stress in adulthood: the role of age, self-concept incoherence, and personal control.

    PubMed

    Diehl, Manfred; Hay, Elizabeth L

    2010-09-01

    This study observed young, middle-aged, and older adults (N = 239; Mage = 49.6 years; range = 18-89 years) for 30 consecutive days to examine the association between daily stress and negative affect, taking into account potential risk (i.e., self-concept incoherence) and resilience (i.e., age, perceived personal control) factors. Results indicated that younger individuals and individuals with a more incoherent self-concept showed higher average negative affect across the study. As well, individuals reported higher negative affect on days that they experienced more stress than usual and on days that they reported less control than usual. These main effects were qualified by significant interactions. In particular, the association between daily stress and negative affect was stronger on days on which adults reported low control compared with days on which they reported high control (i.e., perceptions of control buffered stress). Reactivity to daily stress did not differ for individuals of different ages or for individuals with different levels of self-concept incoherence. Although all individuals reported higher negative affect on days on which they reported less control than usual, this association was more pronounced among younger adults. The current study helps to elucidate the role of risk and resilience factors when adults are faced with daily stress.

  1. Does Consumption of LC Omega-3 PUFA Enhance Cognitive Performance in Healthy School-Aged Children and throughout Adulthood? Evidence from Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Stonehouse, Welma

    2014-01-01

    Long-chain (LC) omega-3 PUFA derived from marine sources may play an important role in cognitive performance throughout all life stages. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the dominant omega-3 in the brain, is a major component of neuronal cell membranes and affects various neurological pathways and processess. Despite its critical role in brain function, human’s capacity to synthesize DHA de novo is limited and its consumption through the diet is important. However, many individuals do not or rarely consume seafood. The aim of this review is to critically evaluate the current evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCT) in healthy school-aged children, younger and older adults to determine whether consumption of LC omega-3 PUFA improves cognitive performance and to make recommendations for future research. Current evidence suggests that consumption of LC omega-3 PUFA, particularly DHA, may enhance cognitive performance relating to learning, cognitive development, memory and speed of performing cognitive tasks. Those who habitually consume diets low in DHA, children with low literacy ability and malnourished and older adults with age-related cognitive decline and mild cognitive impairment seem to benefit most. However, study design limitations in many RCTs hamper firm conclusions. The measurement of a uniform biomarker, e.g., % DHA in red blood cells, is essential to establish baseline DHA-status, to determine targets for cognitive performance and to facilitate dosage recommendations. It is recommended that future studies be at least 16 weeks in duration, account for potential interaction effects of gender, age and apolipoprotein E genotype, include vegan/vegetarian populations, include measures of speed of cognitive performance and include brain imaging technologies as supportive information on working mechanisms of LC omega-3 PUFA. PMID:25054550

  2. Does consumption of LC omega-3 PUFA enhance cognitive performance in healthy school-aged children and throughout adulthood? Evidence from clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Stonehouse, Welma

    2014-07-01

    Long-chain (LC) omega-3 PUFA derived from marine sources may play an important role in cognitive performance throughout all life stages. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the dominant omega-3 in the brain, is a major component of neuronal cell membranes and affects various neurological pathways and processess. Despite its critical role in brain function, human's capacity to synthesize DHA de novo is limited and its consumption through the diet is important. However, many individuals do not or rarely consume seafood. The aim of this review is to critically evaluate the current evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCT) in healthy school-aged children, younger and older adults to determine whether consumption of LC omega-3 PUFA improves cognitive performance and to make recommendations for future research. Current evidence suggests that consumption of LC omega-3 PUFA, particularly DHA, may enhance cognitive performance relating to learning, cognitive development, memory and speed of performing cognitive tasks. Those who habitually consume diets low in DHA, children with low literacy ability and malnourished and older adults with age-related cognitive decline and mild cognitive impairment seem to benefit most. However, study design limitations in many RCTs hamper firm conclusions. The measurement of a uniform biomarker, e.g., % DHA in red blood cells, is essential to establish baseline DHA-status, to determine targets for cognitive performance and to facilitate dosage recommendations. It is recommended that future studies be at least 16 weeks in duration, account for potential interaction effects of gender, age and apolipoprotein E genotype, include vegan/vegetarian populations, include measures of speed of cognitive performance and include brain imaging technologies as supportive information on working mechanisms of LC omega-3 PUFA. PMID:25054550

  3. Does consumption of LC omega-3 PUFA enhance cognitive performance in healthy school-aged children and throughout adulthood? Evidence from clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Stonehouse, Welma

    2014-07-22

    Long-chain (LC) omega-3 PUFA derived from marine sources may play an important role in cognitive performance throughout all life stages. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the dominant omega-3 in the brain, is a major component of neuronal cell membranes and affects various neurological pathways and processess. Despite its critical role in brain function, human's capacity to synthesize DHA de novo is limited and its consumption through the diet is important. However, many individuals do not or rarely consume seafood. The aim of this review is to critically evaluate the current evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCT) in healthy school-aged children, younger and older adults to determine whether consumption of LC omega-3 PUFA improves cognitive performance and to make recommendations for future research. Current evidence suggests that consumption of LC omega-3 PUFA, particularly DHA, may enhance cognitive performance relating to learning, cognitive development, memory and speed of performing cognitive tasks. Those who habitually consume diets low in DHA, children with low literacy ability and malnourished and older adults with age-related cognitive decline and mild cognitive impairment seem to benefit most. However, study design limitations in many RCTs hamper firm conclusions. The measurement of a uniform biomarker, e.g., % DHA in red blood cells, is essential to establish baseline DHA-status, to determine targets for cognitive performance and to facilitate dosage recommendations. It is recommended that future studies be at least 16 weeks in duration, account for potential interaction effects of gender, age and apolipoprotein E genotype, include vegan/vegetarian populations, include measures of speed of cognitive performance and include brain imaging technologies as supportive information on working mechanisms of LC omega-3 PUFA.

  4. Extra structurally abnormal chromosomes (ESAC) detected at amniocentesis: frequency in approximately 75,000 prenatal cytogenetic diagnoses and associations with maternal and paternal age.

    PubMed Central

    Hook, E B; Cross, P K

    1987-01-01

    We analyzed rates of extra structurally abnormal chromosomes (ESAC) detected in prenatal cytogenetic diagnoses of amniotic fluid reported to the New York Chromosome Registry. These karyotypes include both extra unidentified structurally abnormal chromosomes (EUSAC)--often denoted as "markers"--and extra identified structurally abnormal chromosomes (EISAC). The rate of all EUSAC was 0.64/1,000 (0.32-0.40/1,000 mutant and 0.23-0.32 inherited), and that of all EISAC was 0.11/1,000 (0.07/1,000 mutant and 0.04/1,000 inherited). The rate of all ESAC was approximately 0.8/1,000-0.4-0.5/1,000 mutant and 0.3-0.4/1,000 inherited. Mean +/- SD maternal age of mutant cases was 37.5 +/- 2.9, significantly greater than the value of 35.8 years in controls. A regression analysis indicated a rate of change of the log of the rate of about +0.20 with each year of maternal age between 30 and 45 years. When paternal age was introduced, the maternal age coefficient increased to about +0.25--close to that seen for 47, +21--but the paternal age coefficient was -0.06. After being matched for maternal age and year of diagnosis, the case-control difference in paternal age for 24 mutant cases was -2.4 with a 95% confidence interval of -4.6 to -0.1 years. In a regression analysis of the effects of both parental ages on the (log) rate, the maternal age coefficient was +0.25 and the paternal age coefficient was -0.06. These results are consistent with a (weak) negative paternal age effect in the face of a strong maternal age effect. Since ESAC include a heterogeneous group of abnormalities, the maternal age and paternal age trends, if not the result of statistical fluctuation or undetected biases, may involve different types of events. Data in the literature suggest that chromosomes with de novo duplicated inversions of 15p have a strong maternal age effect (but little paternal age effect). Such chromosomes, however, do not account for the active maternal age trends seen in the data analyzed here

  5. Genetic and Environmental Stability of Neuroticism From Adolescence to Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Nivard, Michel G; Middeldorp, Christel M; Dolan, Conor V; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2015-12-01

    Longitudinal studies of neuroticism have shown that, on average, neuroticism scores decrease from adolescence to adulthood. The heritability of neuroticism is estimated between 0.30 and 0.60 and does not seem to vary greatly as a function of age. Shared environmental effects are rarely reported. Less is known about the role of genetic and environmental influences on the rank order stability of neuroticism in the period from adolescence to adulthood. We studied the stability of neuroticism in a cohort sequential (classical) twin design, from adolescence (age 14 years) to young adulthood (age 32 years). A genetic simplex model that was fitted to the longitudinal neuroticism data showed that the genetic stability of neuroticism was relatively high (genetic correlations between adjacent age bins >0.9), and increased from adolescence to adulthood. Environmental stability was appreciably lower (environmental correlations between adjacent age bins were between 0.3 and 0.6). This low stability was largely due to age-specific environmental variance, which was dominated by measurement error. This attenuated the age-to-age environmental correlations. We constructed an environmental covariance matrix corrected for this error, under the strong assumption that all age-specific environmental variance is error variance. The environmental (co)variance matrix corrected for attenuation revealed highly stable environmental influences on neuroticism (correlations between adjacent age bins were between 0.7 and 0.9). Our results indicate that both genetic and environmental influences have enduring effects on individual differences in neuroticism.

  6. Emerging Adulthood: Resilience and Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Vanessa; Meyer, Jill

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This article provides an overview of emerging adulthood, recentering, and resilience of youth with disabilities. Emerging adulthood is a developmental period during which individuals experience delays in attainment of adult roles and social expectations. Recentering is a process that emerging adults experience as they make distinct shifts…

  7. Associations between childhood socioeconomic position and adulthood obesity.

    PubMed

    Senese, Laura C; Almeida, Nisha D; Fath, Anne Kittler; Smith, Brendan T; Loucks, Eric B

    2009-01-01

    Childhood socioeconomic position (SEP) is inversely associated with cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Obesity in adulthood may be a biologic mechanism. Objectives were to systematically review literature published between 1998 and 2008 that examined associations of childhood SEP with adulthood obesity. Five databases (Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Web of Science) were searched for studies from any country, in any language. Forty-eight publications based on 30 studies were identified. In age-adjusted analyses, inverse associations were found between childhood SEP and adulthood obesity in 70% (14 of 20) of studies in females and 27% (4 of 15) in males. In studies of females showing inverse associations between childhood SEP and adulthood obesity, typical effect sizes in age-adjusted analyses for the difference in body mass index between the highest and lowest SEP were 1.0-2.0 kg/m(2); for males, effect sizes were typically 0.2-0.5 kg/m(2). Analyses adjusted for age and adult SEP showed inverse associations in 47% (8 of 17) of studies in females and 14% (2 of 14) of studies in males. When other covariates were additionally adjusted for, inverse associations were found in 4 of 12 studies in females and 2 of 8 studies in males; effect sizes were typically reduced compared with analyses adjusted for age only. In summary, the findings suggest that childhood SEP is inversely related to adulthood obesity in females and not associated in males after adjustment for age. Adulthood SEP and other obesity risk factors may be the mechanisms responsible for the observed associations between childhood SEP and adulthood obesity.

  8. Preparing for adulthood: thousands upon thousands of new cells are born in the hippocampus during puberty, and most survive with effortful learning.

    PubMed

    Curlik, Daniel M; Difeo, Gina; Shors, Tracey J

    2014-01-01

    The dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation generates new granule neurons throughout life. The number of neurons produced each day is inversely related to age, with thousands more produced during puberty than during adulthood, and many fewer produced during senescence. In adulthood, approximately half of these cells undergo apoptosis shortly after they are generated. Most of these cells can be rescued from death by effortful and successful learning experiences (Gould et al., 1999; Waddell and Shors, 2008; Curlik and Shors, 2011). Once rescued, the newly-generated cells differentiate into neurons, and remain in the hippocampus for at least several months (Leuner et al., 2004). Here, we report that many new hippocampal cells also undergo cell death during puberty. Because the juvenile brain is more plastic than during adulthood, and because many experiences are new, we hypothesized that a great number of cells would be rescued by learning during puberty. Indeed, adolescent rats that successfully acquired the trace eyeblink response retained thousands more cells than animals that were not trained, and those that failed to learn. Because the hippocampus generates thousands more cells during puberty than during adulthood, these results support the idea that the adolescent brain is especially responsive to learning. This enhanced response can have significant consequences for the functional integrity of the hippocampus. Such a massive increase in cell proliferation is likely an adaptive response as the young animal must emerge from the care of its mother to face the dangers, challenges, and opportunities of adulthood. PMID:24795549

  9. Childhood wrist circumference is not a predictor of insulin resistance in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Ashley N; Kelly, Aaron S; Prineas, Ronald J; Marlatt, Kara L; Dengel, Donald R; Sinaiko, Alan R; Moran, Antoinette; Steinberger, Julia

    2015-04-01

    We sought to determine whether childhood wrist circumference predicts insulin resistance in adulthood. Measures were taken in prepubertal children and then approximately 30 years later in the same subjects as adults. Our findings suggest that wrist circumference in childhood is not a predictor of insulin resistance in adulthood. PMID:25596104

  10. Mapping brain development during childhood, adolescence and young adulthood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiaojuan; Jin, Zhen; Chen, Kewei; Peng, Danling; Li, Yao

    2009-02-01

    Using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM), this study systematically investigated the differences and similarities of brain structural changes during the early three developmental periods of human lives: childhood, adolescence and young adulthood. These brain changes were discussed in relationship to the corresponding cognitive function development during these three periods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data from 158 Chinese healthy children, adolescents and young adults, aged 7.26 to 22.80 years old, were included in this study. Using the customized brain template together with the gray matter/white matter/cerebrospinal fluid prior probability maps, we found that there were more age-related positive changes in the frontal lobe, less in hippocampus and amygdala during childhood, but more in bilateral hippocampus and amygdala and left fusiform gyrus during adolescence and young adulthood. There were more age-related negative changes near to central sulcus during childhood, but these changes extended to the frontal and parietal lobes, mainly in the parietal lobe, during adolescence and young adulthood, and more in the prefrontal lobe during young adulthood. So gray matter volume in the parietal lobe significantly decreased from childhood and continued to decrease till young adulthood. These findings may aid in understanding the age-related differences in cognitive function.

  11. Pathways to adulthood and their precursors and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Skogbrott Birkeland, Marianne; Leversen, Ingrid; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Wold, Bente

    2014-02-01

    Norway has an extensive welfare system which may provide adolescents with many options and high levels of flexibility in terms of pathways to adulthood. This study aimed to describe Norwegian developmental pathways to adulthood, including changes in role statuses (such as living situations, education, work, marriage/cohabitation and parenthood) from 16 to 30 years of age, and their precursors and outcomes. Repeated measures latent class analysis of longitudinal data from 998 Norwegian individuals indicated three main pathways to adulthood among women and men. In both sexes, most individuals undertook a long period of education and postponed family formation. However, some individuals started working early, a group of women established families with partners and children early, and a group of men remained primarily single between 16 and 30 years of age. Furthermore, the results show that pathways to adulthood in Norway are surprisingly similar to pathways in other countries such as the US, UK and Finland. The results indicate that pathways to adulthood are influenced by social reproduction factors in a country with high levels of welfare benefits as well. In addition, the results suggest that pathways involving living with a partner and either higher education or work are associated with high life satisfaction at age 30.

  12. The Southern Urals Large Igneous Province with an age of approximately 1380 Ma: Precision U-Pb ID-TIMS constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronkin, Yu. L.; Tichomirowa, M.; Maslov, A. V.

    2016-06-01

    The formation of the Large Igneous Province (LIP) approximately 1380 Ma old in the South Urals was related to the Mashak riftogenic event in the Bashkir meganticlinorium, which was synchronous with the emplacement of different magmatic bodies (the Berdyaush pluton of rapakivi granites and associated rocks, the Main dike of the Bakal ore field, and the Medvedev, Guben, and Kusa massifs, among others) localized among sedimentary deposits of the Burzyan and Yurmatin Groups representing Lower and Middle Riphean type units of northern Eurasia. The U-Pb ID-TIMS age of 1379.6 Ma (MSWD = 1.3) obtained with an accuracy of ±2.9 Ma (confidence interval 95%) combined with the available published U-Pb ID-TIMS data constrain the age and duration of the Early-Middle Riphean pulse in the LIP formation in the Southern Urals.

  13. Monograph: Young Adulthood and Middle Age, 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monograph: Young Adulthood and Middle Age, 1989

    1989-01-01

    The inaugural volume of this serial contains 12 articles that represent a diverse population of counselors: (1) "Issues in Counseling Immigrants" (Linda Sheppard); (2) "Family Support and Starting a Small Business" (Michael Cusack and Peter Emerson); (3) "Professional Disillusionment: Crisis or Catalyst" (Kay Miller, Susan Cooper-Shoup and…

  14. Entering adulthood in a recession tempers later narcissism.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Emily C

    2014-07-01

    Despite widespread interest in narcissism, relatively little is known about the conditions that encourage or dampen it. Drawing on research showing that macroenvironmental conditions in emerging adulthood can leave a lasting imprint on attitudes and behaviors, I argue that people who enter adulthood during recessions are less likely to be narcissistic later in life than those who come of age in more prosperous times. Using large samples of American adults, Studies 1 and 2 showed that people who entered adulthood during worse economic times endorsed fewer narcissistic items as older adults. Study 3 extended these findings to a behavioral manifestation of narcissism: the relative pay of CEOs. CEOs who came of age in worse economic times paid themselves less relative to other top executives in their firms. These findings suggest that macroenvironmental experiences at a critical life stage can have lasting implications for how unique, special, and deserving people believe themselves to be.

  15. Supporting Homeless Youth during the Transition to Adulthood: Housing-Based Independent Living Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dworsky, Amy

    2010-01-01

    While many young people depend on parental financial and emotional support well past the age of 18, those who are homeless must make the transition to adulthood without that support. This article discusses the needs of homeless youth as they transition to adulthood. It then describes three housing-based independent living programs designed to…

  16. Attention Problems in Very Preterm Children from Childhood to Adulthood: The Bavarian Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breeman, Linda D.; Jaekel, Julia; Baumann, Nicole; Bartmann, Peter; Wolke, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Background: Very preterm (VP; gestational age <32 weeks) and very low birth weight (VLBW; <1500 grams) is related to attention problems in childhood and adulthood. The stability of these problems into adulthood is not known. Methods: The Bavarian Longitudinal Study is a prospective cohort study that followed 260 VP/VLBW and 229 term-born…

  17. The Prospective Association of Youth Assets with Tobacco Use in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheney, Marshall K.; Oman, Roy F.; Vesely, Sara K.; Aspy, Cheryl B.; Tolma, Eleni L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Youth assets protect adolescents from tobacco use, but their influence in young adulthood is unknown. Purpose: To determine the prospective influence of assets possessed in young adulthood with tobacco use the following year. Methods: Data from waves 4 and 5 from the Youth Asset Study (n = 450, ages 18-22 at wave 5) were used. Logistic…

  18. Developmental Trajectories of Cigarette Smoking and Their Correlates From Early Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orlando, Maria; Tucker, Joan S.; Ellickson, Phyllis L.; Klein, David J.

    2004-01-01

    Smoking initiation typically occurs in adolescence and increases over time into emerging adulthood. Thus adolescence and emerging adulthood compose a critical time period for prevention and intervention efforts. To inform these efforts, this study used latent growth mixture modeling to identify 6 smoking trajectories from ages 13 to 23 among 5,914…

  19. Childhood Maltreatment Predicts Allostatic Load in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Widom, Cathy Spatz; Horan, Jacqueline; Brzustowicz, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment has been linked to numerous negative health outcomes. However, few studies have examined mediating processes using longitudinal designs or objectively measured biological data. This study sought to determine whether child abuse and neglect predicts allostatic load (a composite indicator of accumulated stress-induced biological risk) and to examine potential mediators. Using a prospective cohort design, children (ages 0-11) with documented cases of abuse and neglect were matched with non-maltreated children and followed up into adulthood with in-person interviews and a medical status exam (mean age 41). Allostatic load was assessed with nine physical health indicators. Child abuse and neglect predicted allostatic load, controlling for age, sex, and race. The direct effect of child abuse and neglect persisted despite the introduction of potential mediators of internalizing and externalizing problems in adolescence and social support and risky lifestyle in middle adulthood. These findings reveal the long-term impact of childhood abuse and neglect on physical health over 30 years later. PMID:25700779

  20. Taxonomy for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus with Onset before Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Clovis A; Avcin, Tadej; Brunner, Hermine I

    2012-01-01

    Objective To propose a common nomenclature to refer to individuals who fulfill the American College of Rheumatology Classification Criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) during childhood or adolescence. Methods The medical literature was reviewed for studies conducted in the target population between 1960 and December of 2011 to obtain information about the terms used to refer to such children and adolescents. We reviewed the threshold ages used and disease features considered to discriminate these individuals from patients with onset of SLE during adulthood. Furthermore, the nomenclature used in other chronic diseases with onset during both childhood and adulthood was assessed. Results There was an astonishing variability in the age cut-offs used to define SLE-onset prior to adulthood, ranging from 14 to 21 years but most studies used 18 years of age. The principal synonyms in the medical literature were SLE without reference to the age at onset of disease, childhood-onset SLE, juvenile SLE, and pediatric (or paediatric) SLE. Conclusions Based on the definition of childhood, in analogy with other complex chronic disease commencing prior to adulthood, and given the current absence of definite genetic variations that discriminate adults from children, the term childhood-onset SLE is proposed when referring to individuals with onset of SLE prior to age 18 years. PMID:22730317

  1. Men's and Women's Pathways to Adulthood and Their Adolescent Precursors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oesterle, Sabrina; Hawkins, J. David; Hill, Karl G.; Bailey, Jennifer A.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared men's and women's pathways to adulthood by examining how role transitions in education, work, marriage, and parenthood intersect and form developmental pathways from ages 18-30. The study investigated how sociodemographic factors and adolescent experiences were associated with these pathways. We used latent class analysis to…

  2. Is Pubertal Timing Associated with Psychopathology in Young Adulthood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graber, Julia A.; Seeley, John R.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This investigation tested whether the timing of puberty continued to be associated with experiences of psychopathology (symptoms and disorders) from mid-adolescence into young adulthood. Method: At age 24, 931 participants from a large community sample, who had been interviewed twice during adolescence, completed a telephone interview…

  3. Subjective Acceleration of Time Experience in Everyday Life across Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Dennis; Lang, Frieder R.

    2015-01-01

    Most people believe that time seems to pass more quickly as they age. Building on assumptions of socioemotional selectivity theory, we investigated whether awareness that one's future lifetime is limited is associated with one's experience of time during everyday activities across adulthood in 3 studies. In the first 2 studies (Study 1: N = 608;…

  4. Tracking Club Sport Participation from Childhood to Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Rosalina; Williams, Sheila; Poulton, Richie; Reeder, Anthony I.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the strength of tracking sport participation from childhood to early adulthood among the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study cohort. Participation in sport, dance, or gymnastics as part of a club or group (outside of school) was assessed at ages 7, 9, 15, 18, and 21 years. In addition to the traditionally…

  5. Longitudinal Trajectories of Perceived Body Weight: Adolescence to Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Li, Kaigang

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine longitudinal trajectories of perceived weight from adolescence to early adulthood by gender. Methods: We analyzed 9 waves (1997-2005) of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 8302) using Mplus. Results: Perceived overweight increased over time among girls and did not level off until 23 years of age. Blacks…

  6. The military and the transition to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Kelty, Ryan; Kleykamp, Meredith; Segal, David R

    2010-01-01

    Ryan Kelty, Meredith Kleykamp, and David Segal examine the effect of military service on the transition to adulthood. They highlight changes since World War II in the role of the military in the lives of young adults, focusing especially on how the move from a conscription to an all-volunteer military has changed the way military service affects youths' approach to adult responsibilities. The authors note that today's all-volunteer military is both career-oriented and family-oriented, and they show how the material and social support the military provides to young servicemen and women promotes responsible membership in family relationships and the wider community. As a result, they argue, the transition to adulthood, including economic independence from parents, is more stable and orderly for military personnel than for their civilian peers. At the same time, they stress that serving in the military in a time of war holds dangers for young adults. The authors examine four broad areas of military service, focusing in each on how men and women in uniform today make the transition to adulthood. They begin by looking at the social characteristics of those who serve, especially at differences in access to the military and its benefits by socio-demographic characteristics, such as age, gender, race and ethnicity, social class, and sexual orientation. Military service also has important effects on family formation, including the timing of marriage and parenthood, family structure, and the influence of military culture on families. Family formation among servicemen and women, the authors observe, is earlier and more stable than among civilians of the same age. The authors then consider the educational and employment consequences of service. Finally, they scrutinize the dangers of military service during times of war and examine the physical and psychological effects of wartime military service. They also note the sexual trauma endured both by male and female military

  7. Preterm Birth: Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Marilee C.; Cristofalo, Elizabeth; Kim, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Preterm birth is associated with greater difficulty with transitions from childhood to adolescence to adulthood. Adolescents and young adults born preterm have higher rates of cerebral palsy, intellectual disability, cognitive impairment, learning disability, executive dysfunction, attention deficit disorder, and social-emotional difficulties than…

  8. Promoting Intellectual Growth in Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehle, Thomas J.; Bray, Melissa A.; Chafouleas, Sandra M; McLoughlin, Caven S.

    2002-01-01

    Article discusses problems associated with promoting intellectual growth in adulthood. Defines characteristics of intelligent behavior as incorporating individual attainment of Resources, Intimacy, Competence, and Health (RICH). Presents the RICH theory as a way to define and address the goals of intelligent enhancement. (JDM)

  9. Type 1 Diabetes in Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Monaghan, Maureen; Helgeson, Vicki; Wiebe, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes has traditionally been studied as a chronic illness of childhood. However, young adulthood is a critical time for the development and integration of lifelong diabetes management skills, and research is starting to identify unique challenges faced by youth with diabetes as they age into adulthood. Most young adults experience multiple transitions during this unstable developmental period, including changes in lifestyle (e.g., education, occupation, living situation), changes in health care, and shifting relationships with family members, friends, and intimate others. Young adults with type 1 diabetes must navigate these transitions while also assuming increasing responsibility for their diabetes care and overall health. Despite these critical health and psychosocial concerns, there is a notable lack of evidence-based clinical services and supports for young adults with type 1 diabetes. We review relevant evolving concerns for young adults with type 1 diabetes, including lifestyle considerations, health care transitions, psychosocial needs, and changes in supportive networks, and how type 1 diabetes impacts and is impacted by these key developmental considerations. Specific avenues for intervention and future research are offered. PMID:25901502

  10. Type 1 diabetes in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Monaghan, Maureen; Helgeson, Vicki; Wiebe, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes has traditionally been studied as a chronic illness of childhood. However, young adulthood is a critical time for the development and integration of lifelong diabetes management skills, and research is starting to identify unique challenges faced by youth with diabetes as they age into adulthood. Most young adults experience multiple transitions during this unstable developmental period, including changes in lifestyle (e.g., education, occupation, living situation), changes in health care, and shifting relationships with family members, friends, and intimate others. Young adults with type 1 diabetes must navigate these transitions while also assuming increasing responsibility for their diabetes care and overall health. Despite these critical health and psychosocial concerns, there is a notable lack of evidence-based clinical services and supports for young adults with type 1 diabetes. We review relevant evolving concerns for young adults with type 1 diabetes, including lifestyle considerations, health care transitions, psychosocial needs, and changes in supportive networks, and how type 1 diabetes impacts and is impacted by these key developmental considerations. Specific avenues for intervention and future research are offered. PMID:25901502

  11. The Implications of Adult Identity for Educational and Work Attainment in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Janel E.; Johnson, Monica Kirkpatrick; Elder, Glen H., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the relation of young adult identities (ages 18-22 years), reflecting subjective age and psychosocial maturity, to educational and career attainment in young adulthood (ages 25-29 years). Add Health data show that having an older subjective age alone does not curtail attainment; the critical issue is the level of…

  12. Developmental histories of perceived racial discrimination and diurnal cortisol profiles in adulthood: A 20-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Adam, Emma K; Heissel, Jennifer A; Zeiders, Katharine H; Richeson, Jennifer A; Ross, Emily C; Ehrlich, Katherine B; Levy, Dorainne J; Kemeny, Margaret; Brodish, Amanda B; Malanchuk, Oksana; Peck, Stephen C; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E; Eccles, Jacquelynne S

    2015-12-01

    Perceived racial discrimination (PRD) has been associated with altered diurnal cortisol rhythms in past cross-sectional research. We investigate whether developmental histories of PRD, assessed prospectively, are associated with adult diurnal cortisol profiles. One-hundred and twelve (N=50 Black, N=62 White) adults from the Maryland Adolescent Development in Context Study provided saliva samples in adulthood (at approximately age 32 years) at waking, 30min after waking, and at bedtime for 7 days. Diurnal cortisol measures were calculated, including waking cortisol levels, diurnal cortisol slopes, the cortisol awakening response (CAR), and average daily cortisol (AUC). These cortisol outcomes were predicted from measures of PRD obtained over a 20-year period beginning when individuals were in 7th grade (approximately age 12). Greater average PRD measured across the 20-year period predicted flatter adult diurnal cortisol slopes for both Black and White adults, and a lower CAR. Greater average PRD also predicted lower waking cortisol for Black, but not White adults. PRD experiences in adolescence accounted for many of these effects. When adolescent and young adult PRD are entered together predicting cortisol outcomes, PRD experiences in adolescence (but not young adulthood) significantly predicted flatter diurnal cortisol slopes for both Black and White adults. Adolescent, but not young adult PRD, also significantly predicted lower waking and lower average cortisol for Black adults. Young adult PRD was, however, a stronger predictor of the CAR, predicting a marginally lower CAR for Whites, and a significantly larger CAR for Blacks. Effects were robust to controlling for covariates including health behaviors, depression, income and parent education levels. PRD experiences interacted with parent education and income to predict aspects of the diurnal cortisol rhythm. Although these results suggest PRD influences on cortisol for both Blacks and Whites, the key findings

  13. The Evaluation of Effect of Developer Age in the Detection of Approximal Caries Using Three Speed Dental X-Ray Films: An In-Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Madalli, Vijaylaxmi B; Annigeri, Rajeshwari G; Basavaraddi, Shrinivas M

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Ever since the first radiograph was taken in 1895, radiographs have become an essential part of dental practice. Since radiation exposure for the patients is a major concern, it is important for us to reduce the radiation exposure to the patient and surrounding environment, without compromising the quality of image. Since improper film processing is one of the major causes of poor image quality, it is very important to test dental films under a variety of processing conditions. So this study was conducted to compare the diagnostic accuracy between Kodak Ultraspeed, Ektaspeed and Agfa Dentus M2 Comfort films for the detection of approximal caries in fresh as well as in aged processing solution. Methods: Hundred extracted unrestored maxillary and mandibular teeth were aligned in a group of five teeth in each plaster model. Total of 20 plaster models were constructed and only 3 teeth in the middle were utilized for the study. The final sample consisted of 60 teeth in the study. The exposure time for Ultraspeed film was standardized at 0.5 seconds and for Ektaspeed and Agfa Dentus M2 films, the exposure time was 0.32 seconds. For each radiograph two blocks were used simulating bitewing radiograph. All 20 plaster blocks were exposed using three film types at standardized exposure timings with 30 radiographs each week. The procedure was repeated every week until 6 weeks. Radiographs were evaluated by an observer and assessed by following four point scale 0- sound tooth, 1- lesion in enamel, 2- lesion in amelodentinal junction, 3- dentinal lesion. Only distal surfaces were assessed. Thereafter all the teeth were subjected for histological study and actual depth of the lesion was recorded which acted as gold standard and this reading was subtracted in observer readings after radiographic examination. All data collected were analyzed statistically using ANOVA, paired and unpaired t-tests. Results: Ektaspeed and Agfa films required less exposure

  14. Cohort Profile: The Panel Study of Income Dynamics' Child Development Supplement and Transition into Adulthood Study.

    PubMed

    McGonagle, Katherine A; Sastry, Narayan

    2015-04-01

    The Child Development Supplement (CDS) was started in 1997 to collect information on children and caregivers in families in the USA that participated in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), an ongoing national longitudinal household survey that began in 1968. CDS was launched with the goal of creating a comprehensive, nationally representative, prospective database of young children and their families for studying the dynamic process of children's health and development. The same children and their caregivers were interviewed in up to three waves approximately every 5 years (1997, 2002-03, and 2007-08), with a child-based response rate of 90% in the most recent wave. Upon reaching age 18 years and finishing or leaving high school, the children in the CDS cohort shifted to a six-wave follow-up study launched in 2005 called the PSID Transition into Adulthood (TA) study. The TA data have been collected biennially through 2013, with a final wave planned for 2015. Once these young adults form their own economically independent households, they join the PSID. The main categories of data emphasize the major developmental tasks of childhood and young adulthood, including influences on successful development in the domains of family, schools and neighbourhoods. The majority of data and documentation are freely and publicly available through the PSID Online Data Center.

  15. Cohort Profile: The Panel Study of Income Dynamics' Child Development Supplement and Transition into Adulthood Study

    PubMed Central

    McGonagle, Katherine A; Sastry, Narayan

    2015-01-01

    The Child Development Supplement (CDS) was started in 1997 to collect information on children and caregivers in families in the USA that participated in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), an ongoing national longitudinal household survey that began in 1968. CDS was launched with the goal of creating a comprehensive, nationally representative, prospective database of young children and their families for studying the dynamic process of children’s health and development. The same children and their caregivers were interviewed in up to three waves approximately every 5 years (1997, 2002–03, and 2007–08), with a child-based response rate of 90% in the most recent wave. Upon reaching age 18 years and finishing or leaving high school, the children in the CDS cohort shifted to a six-wave follow-up study launched in 2005 called the PSID Transition into Adulthood (TA) study. The TA data have been collected biennially through 2013, with a final wave planned for 2015. Once these young adults form their own economically independent households, they join the PSID. The main categories of data emphasize the major developmental tasks of childhood and young adulthood, including influences on successful development in the domains of family, schools and neighbourhoods. The majority of data and documentation are freely and publicly available through the PSID Online Data Center. PMID:24706732

  16. Family history of alcoholism and the stability of personality in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Larkins, Jenny M; Sher, Kenneth J

    2006-12-01

    The authors examined the magnitude and durability of personality differences related to family history of alcoholism (FH) and the development of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) in late adolescence and early adulthood. Data were taken from a longitudinal sample (N = 487; approximately half FH-positive [+]) who completed the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (H. J. Eysenck & S. B. G. Eysenck, 1975) at 3 points spanning 11 years (participants were 18 years old at baseline). Hierarchical linear analyses showed that FH+ participants had higher levels of neuroticism and psychoticism over the study period, independent of AUD. Despite relatively large mean decreases in neuroticism (as well as extraversion), the magnitude of the between-groups differences found at age 18 were maintained over the next decade. These changes thus reflect stable underlying differences in personality and not artifacts of higher rates of AUDs in FH+ individuals, recently living in an alcoholic home, vulnerability to the developmental challenge of leaving home, and/or a developmental lag.

  17. Disorganized attachment in infancy predicts greater amygdala volume in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lyons-Ruth, K; Pechtel, P; Yoon, S A; Anderson, C M; Teicher, M H

    2016-07-15

    Early life stress in rodents is associated with increased amygdala volume in adulthood. In humans, the amygdala develops rapidly during the first two years of life. Thus, disturbed care during this period may be particularly important to amygdala development. In the context of a 30-year longitudinal study of impoverished, highly stressed families, we assessed whether disorganization of the attachment relationship in infancy was related to amygdala volume in adulthood. Amygdala volumes were assessed among 18 low-income young adults (8M/10F, 29.33±0.49years) first observed in infancy (8.5±5.6months) and followed longitudinally to age 29. In infancy (18.58±1.02mos), both disorganized infant attachment behavior and disrupted maternal communication were assessed in the standard Strange Situation Procedure (SSP). Increased left amygdala volume in adulthood was associated with both maternal and infant components of disorganized attachment interactions at 18 months of age (overall r=0.679, p<0.004). Later stressors, including childhood maltreatment and attachment disturbance in adolescence, were not significantly related to left amygdala volume. Left amygdala volume was further associated with dissociation and limbic irritability in adulthood. Finally, left amygdala volume mediated the prediction from attachment disturbance in infancy to limbic irritability in adulthood. Results point to the likely importance of quality of early care for amygdala development in human children as well as in rodents. The long-term prediction found here suggests that the first two years of life may be an early sensitive period for amygdala development during which clinical intervention could have particularly important consequences for later child outcomes.

  18. Disorganized attachment in infancy predicts greater amygdala volume in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lyons-Ruth, K; Pechtel, P; Yoon, S A; Anderson, C M; Teicher, M H

    2016-07-15

    Early life stress in rodents is associated with increased amygdala volume in adulthood. In humans, the amygdala develops rapidly during the first two years of life. Thus, disturbed care during this period may be particularly important to amygdala development. In the context of a 30-year longitudinal study of impoverished, highly stressed families, we assessed whether disorganization of the attachment relationship in infancy was related to amygdala volume in adulthood. Amygdala volumes were assessed among 18 low-income young adults (8M/10F, 29.33±0.49years) first observed in infancy (8.5±5.6months) and followed longitudinally to age 29. In infancy (18.58±1.02mos), both disorganized infant attachment behavior and disrupted maternal communication were assessed in the standard Strange Situation Procedure (SSP). Increased left amygdala volume in adulthood was associated with both maternal and infant components of disorganized attachment interactions at 18 months of age (overall r=0.679, p<0.004). Later stressors, including childhood maltreatment and attachment disturbance in adolescence, were not significantly related to left amygdala volume. Left amygdala volume was further associated with dissociation and limbic irritability in adulthood. Finally, left amygdala volume mediated the prediction from attachment disturbance in infancy to limbic irritability in adulthood. Results point to the likely importance of quality of early care for amygdala development in human children as well as in rodents. The long-term prediction found here suggests that the first two years of life may be an early sensitive period for amygdala development during which clinical intervention could have particularly important consequences for later child outcomes. PMID:27060720

  19. Marriage and Health in the Transition to Adulthood: Evidence for African Americans in the Add Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Lee, Hedwig; DeLeone, Felicia Yang

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the relationships among early marriage (before age 26 years), cohabitation, and health for African Americans and Whites during the transition to adulthood using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). The study examines three categories of health outcomes relevant to young adulthood: physical…

  20. Social status attainment during the transition to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lui, Camillia K; Chung, Paul J; Wallace, Steven P; Aneshensel, Carol S

    2014-07-01

    The transition from adolescence to adulthood is a critical time for status attainment, with income, education, work experience, and independence from parents accruing at varying speeds and intensities. This study takes an intergenerational life-course perspective that incorporates parents' and one's own social status to examine the status attainment process from adolescence into adulthood in the domains of economic capital (e.g., income) and human capital (e.g., education, occupation). Survey data from three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (analytic n = 8,977) are analyzed using latent class analysis to capture the ebb and flow of social status advantages and disadvantages from adolescence (Wave 1) through young adulthood (Wave 3) into adulthood (Wave 4). The analytic sample is composed of 50.3 % females and 70.2 % Whites, 15.3 % Blacks, 11.0 % Hispanics, and 3.5 % Asians ages 12-18 at Wave 1 and 25-31 at Wave 4. Four latent classes are found for economic capital and five for human capital. The importance of parents' social status is demonstrated by the presence of large groups with persistently low and persistently high social status over time in both domains. The capacity of individuals to determine their own status, however, is shown by equally large groups with upward and downward mobility in both domains. These findings demonstrate the dynamic nature of social status during this critical developmental period.

  1. Adverse childhood experiences and health anxiety in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Reiser, Sarah J; McMillan, Katherine A; Wright, Kristi D; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2014-03-01

    Childhood experiences are thought to predispose a person to the development of health anxiety later in life. However, there is a lack of research investigating the influence of specific adverse experiences (e.g., childhood abuse, household dysfunction) on this condition. The current study examined the cumulative influence of multiple types of childhood adversities on health anxiety in adulthood. Adults 18-59 years of age (N=264) completed a battery of measures to assess adverse childhood experiences, health anxiety, and associated constructs (i.e., negative affect and trait anxiety). Significant associations were observed between adverse childhood experiences, health anxiety, and associated constructs. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicted that adverse childhood experiences were predictive of health anxiety in adulthood; however, the unique contribution of these experience were no longer significant following the inclusion of the other variables of interest. Subsequently, mediation analyses indicated that both negative affect and trait anxiety independently mediated the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and health anxiety in adulthood. Increased exposure to adverse childhood experiences is associated with higher levels of health anxiety in adulthood; this relationship is mediated through negative affect and trait anxiety. Findings support the long-term negative impact of cumulative adverse childhood experiences and emphasize the importance of addressing negative affect and trait anxiety in efforts to prevent and treat health anxiety. PMID:24011493

  2. Social Status Attainment during the Transition to Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Lui, Camillia K.; Chung, Paul J.; Wallace, Steven P.; Aneshensel, Carol S.

    2013-01-01

    The transition from adolescence to adulthood is a critical time for status attainment, with income, education, work experience, and independence from parents accruing at varying speeds and intensities. This study takes an intergenerational life-course perspective that incorporates parents’ and one’s own social status to examine the status attainment process from adolescence into adulthood in the domains of economic capital (e.g., income) and human capital (e.g., education, occupation). Survey data from three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (analytic n=8,977) are analyzed using latent class analysis to capture the ebb and flow of social status advantages and disadvantages from adolescence (Wave 1) through young adulthood (Wave 3) into adulthood (Wave 4). The analytic sample is composed of 50.3% females and 70.2% Whites, 15.3% Blacks, 11.0% Hispanics, and 3.5% Asians ages 12 to 18 at Wave 1 and 25 to 31 at Wave 4. Four latent classes are found for economic capital and five for human capital. The importance of parents’ social status is demonstrated by the presence of large groups with persistently low and persistently high social status over time in both domains. The capacity of individuals to determine their own status, however, is shown by equally large groups with upward and downward mobility in both domains. These findings demonstrate the dynamic nature of social status during this critical developmental period. PMID:24129883

  3. Childhood cognitive ability and body composition in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Kumpulainen, S M; Heinonen, K; Salonen, M K; Andersson, S; Wolke, D; Kajantie, E; Eriksson, J G; Raikkonen, K

    2016-01-01

    Background: Childhood cognitive ability has been identified as a novel risk factor for adulthood overweight and obesity as assessed by adult body mass index (BMI). BMI does not, however, distinguish fat-free and metabolically harmful fat tissue. Hence, we examined the associations between childhood cognitive abilities and body fat percentage (BF%) in young adulthood. Methods: Participants of the Arvo Ylppö Longitudinal Study (n=816) underwent tests of general reasoning, visuomotor integration, verbal competence and language comprehension (M=100; s.d.=15) at the age of 56 months. At the age of 25 years, they underwent a clinical examination, including measurements of BF% by the InBody 3.0 eight-polar tactile electrode system, weight and height from which BMI (kg m−2) was calculated and waist circumference (cm). Results: After adjustments for sex, age and BMI-for-age s.d. score at 56 months, lower general reasoning and visuomotor integration in childhood predicted higher BMI (kg m−2) increase per s.d. unit decrease in cognitive ability (−0.32, 95% confidence interval −0.60,−0.05; −0.45, −0.75,−0.14, respectively) and waist circumference (cm) increase per s.d. unit decrease in cognitive ability (−0.84, −1.56,−0.11; −1.07,−1.88,−0.26, respectively) in adulthood. In addition, lower visuomotor integration predicted higher BF% per s.d. unit decrease in cognitive ability (−0.62,−1.14,−0.09). Associations between general reasoning and BMI/waist were attenuated when adjusted for smoking, alcohol consumption, intake of fruits and vegetables and physical activity in adulthood, and all associations, except for visuomotor integration and BMI, were attenuated when adjusted for parental and/or own attained education and/or birth weight. Conclusions: Of the measured childhood cognitive abilities, only lower visuomotor integration was associated with BF% in adulthood. This challenges the view that cognitive ability, at least when measured in

  4. Genetic Influences on Brain Developmental Trajectories on Neuroimaging Studies: From Infancy to Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Douet, Vanessa; Chang, Linda; Cloak, Christine; Ernst, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Human brain development has been studied intensively with neuroimaging. However, little is known about how genes influence developmental brain trajectories, even though a significant number of genes (about 10,000, or approximately one-third) in the human genome are expressed primarily in the brain and during brain development. Interestingly, in addition to showing differential expression among tissues, many genes are differentially expressed across the ages (e.g., antagonistic pleiotropy). Age-specific gene expression plays an important role in several critical events in brain development, including neuronal cell migration, synaptogenesis and neurotransmitter receptor specificity, as well as in aging and neurodegenerative disorders (e.g., Alzheimer disease or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis). In addition, the majority of psychiatric and mental disorders are polygenic, and many have onsets during childhood and adolescence. In this review, we summarize the major findings from neuroimaging studies that link genetics with brain development, from infancy to young adulthood. Specifically, we focus on the heritability of brain structures across the ages, age-related genetic influences on brain development and sex-specific developmental trajectories. PMID:24077983

  5. Daily physical activity and life satisfaction across adulthood.

    PubMed

    Maher, Jaclyn P; Pincus, Aaron L; Ram, Nilam; Conroy, David E

    2015-10-01

    Physical activity is considered a valuable tool for enhancing life satisfaction. However, the processes linking these constructs likely differ across the adult life span. In older adults the association between physical activity and life satisfaction appears to involve usual levels of physical activity (i.e., a between-person association driven by differences between more and less active people). In younger adults the association has consistently been based on day-to-day physical activity (i.e., a within-person association driven by differences between more and less active days). To resolve this inconsistency, a daily diary study was conducted with a life span sample of community-dwelling adults (age 18-89 years; N = 150) over three 21-day measurement bursts. Usual physical activity was positively associated with life satisfaction in middle and older adulthood; however, this association was not present in young adulthood. When present, this between-person association was mediated by physical and mental health. A within-person association between physical activity and life satisfaction was also present (and did not differ across age). Generally, on days when people were more physically active then was typical for them, they experienced greater life satisfaction. Age differences in life satisfaction followed a cubic trajectory: lower during emerging adulthood, higher during midlife, and lower during older adulthood. This study adds to accumulating evidence that daily fluctuations in physical activity have important implications for well-being regardless of age, and clarifies developmental differences in life satisfaction dynamics that can inform strategies for enhancing life satisfaction.

  6. Daily Physical Activity and Life Satisfaction across Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Maher, Jaclyn P.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Ram, Nilam; Conroy, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity is considered a valuable tool for enhancing life satisfaction. However, the processes linking these constructs likely differ across the adult lifespan. In older adults the association between physical activity and life satisfaction appears to involve usual levels of physical activity (i.e., a between-person association driven by differences between more and less active people). In younger adults the association has consistently been based on day-to-day physical activity (i.e., a within-person association driven by differences between more and less active days). To resolve this inconsistency, a daily diary study was conducted with a lifespan sample of community-dwelling adults (age 18– 89 years; N = 150) over three 21-day measurement bursts. Usual physical activity was positively associated with life satisfaction in middle and older adulthood; however, this association was not present in young adulthood. When present, this between-person association was mediated by physical and mental health. A within-person association between physical activity and life satisfaction was also present (and did not differ across age). Generally, on days when people were more physically active then was typical for them, they experienced greater life satisfaction. Age differences in life satisfaction followed a cubic trajectory: lower during emerging adulthood, higher during midlife, and lower during older adulthood. This study adds to accumulating evidence that daily fluctuations in physical activity have important implications for well-being regardless of age, and clarifies developmental differences in life satisfaction dynamics that can inform strategies for enhancing life satisfaction. PMID:26280838

  7. Structural modeling of contrast sensitivity in adulthood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scialfa, Charles T.; Kline, Donald W.; Wood, Philip K.

    2002-01-01

    Structural equation modeling was used to assess the utility of the sensorineural model of contrast sensitivity proposed by Sekuler et al. [Vision Res. 24, 689 (1984)] to account for spatial vision in adulthood. In Study 1, visual acuity and contrast sensitivity (1.5-18 c/deg) were measured in 84 people between the ages of 19 and 81 yr. No three-filter model fitted the data well. Although a two-filter model was associated with good fit indices, parameter estimates for both filters were inconsistent with physiological and behavioral data. In Study 2, acuity and contrast sensitivity (1.5-18 c/deg) were assessed in 95 observers between the ages of 23 and 73 yr. All measures were gathered once per month over a three-month period. The Sekuler et al. three-filter model did not fit the data from any time of measure, but a two-filter, bandpass model provided a consistent and excellent fit for all three waves. The model suggests that age-related change in the neural mechanisms underlying contrast sensitivity is minimal once acuity is controlled. Discrepancies between this conclusion and that reported by Sekuler et al. may be related to test type, psychophysical method, reliability, and sample selection.

  8. Using Trait-State Models to Evaluate the Longitudinal Consistency of Global Self-Esteem From Adolescence to Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Donnellan, M Brent; Kenny, David A; Trzesniewski, Kali H; Lucas, Richard E; Conger, Rand D

    2012-12-01

    The present research used a latent variable trait-state model to evaluate the longitudinal consistency of self-esteem during the transition from adolescence to adulthood. Analyses were based on ten administrations of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale (Rosenberg, 1965) spanning the ages of approximately 13 to 32 for a sample of 451 participants. Results indicated that a completely stable trait factor and an autoregressive trait factor accounted for the majority of the variance in latent self-esteem assessments, whereas state factors accounted for about 16% of the variance in repeated assessments of latent self-esteem. The stability of individual differences in self-esteem increased with age consistent with the cumulative continuity principle of personality development.

  9. Preterm birth: Transition to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Allen, Marilee C; Cristofalo, Elizabeth; Kim, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Preterm birth is associated with greater difficulty with transitions from childhood to adolescence to adulthood. Adolescents and young adults born preterm have higher rates of cerebral palsy, intellectual disability, cognitive impairment, learning disability, executive dysfunction, attention deficit disorder, and social-emotional difficulties than their peers born fullterm. Compared to individuals born fullterm, more preterm survivors have major neurodevelopmental or psychiatric disability and need financial supports and societal resources. Neuroimaging studies of adolescents and adults born preterm report higher rates of brain injury, differences in regional brain structure, and different brain circuits than in those born fullterm. Making the transition to adulthood is more difficult for young adults who were born preterm than their peers born fullterm, in that fewer complete high school and higher education, find and keep meaningful employment, and live independently from their parents. As a group, they do not tend to be risk-takers, and they have lower rates of alcohol abuse, use of illicit drugs, and criminal offenses than do their peers. Despite their many challenges, the majority of adults born preterm function well, form personal relationships, integrate well into their community, and are as satisfied with their quality of life as are their peers. Concerns regarding current preterm infants, with more extremely preterm survivors, overwhelming our medical, educational, and societal resources should serve as an impetus for research on prevention of preterm births and brain injury, as well as how to support and promote their ongoing neuromaturation and recovery from injury. PMID:25708075

  10. A prospective cohort study of deficient maternal nurturing attitudes predicting adulthood work stress independent of adulthood hostility and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Hintsanen, M; Kivimäki, M; Hintsa, T; Theorell, T; Elovainio, M; Raitakari, O T; Viikari, J S A; Keltikangas-Järvinen, L

    2010-09-01

    Stressful childhood environments arising from deficient nurturing attitudes are hypothesized to contribute to later stress vulnerability. We examined whether deficient nurturing attitudes predict adulthood work stress. Participants were 443 women and 380 men from the prospective Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Work stress was assessed as job strain and effort-reward imbalance in 2001 when the participants were from 24 to 39 years old. Deficient maternal nurturance (intolerance and low emotional warmth) was assessed based on mothers' reports when the participants were at the age of 3-18 years and again at the age of 6-21 years. Linear regressions showed that deficient emotional warmth in childhood predicted lower adulthood job control and higher job strain. These associations were not explained by age, gender, socioeconomic circumstances, maternal mental problems or participant hostility, and depressive symptoms. Deficient nurturing attitudes in childhood might affect sensitivity to work stress and selection into stressful work conditions in adulthood. More attention should be paid to pre-employment factors in work stress research. PMID:20666648

  11. Vulnerable Youth and Transitions to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Rongbing; Sen, Bisakha; Foster, E. Michael

    2014-01-01

    This chapter focuses on vulnerable youth, the challenges they face during their transitions to adulthood, and the adverse effects of limited support systems on those transitions. The authors offer recommendations on how adult educators can help facilitate smooth transitions into adulthood for vulnerable youth.

  12. Parent--child relations and offending during young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Wendi L; Giordano, Peggy C; Manning, Wendy D; Longmore, Monica A

    2011-07-01

    There is a long tradition of studying parent-child relationships and adolescent delinquency. However, the association between parent-child relationships and criminal offending during young adulthood is less well understood. Although the developmental tasks of young adulthood tend to focus on intimate relationships, employment, and family formation, the parent-child bond persists over the life course and likely continues to inform and shape behavior beyond adolescence. Using data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (TARS), the influence of parental involvement on patterns of offending among respondents interviewed first as adolescents (mean age of 15 years), and later as young adults (mean age of 20 years), is examined. The TARS sample used for our study (N = 1,007) is demographically diverse (49.5% female; 25.3% Black; 7.2% Hispanic) and includes youth beyond those enrolled in college. The influences of both early and later parenting factors such as support, monitoring and conflict on young adults' criminal behavior are examined. Results show that early monitoring and ongoing parental support are associated with lower offending in young adulthood. These effects persist net of peer influence and adolescent delinquency. This suggests the importance of examining multiple ways in which parental resources and support influence early adult behavior and well-being.

  13. Offending, Substance Use, and Cohabitation in Young Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lonardo, Robert A; Manning, Wendy D; Giordano, Peggy C; Longmore, Monica A

    2010-12-01

    Over half of young adults have cohabited, but relatively little is known about the role delinquency and substance use play in youths' odds of cohabiting as well as the implications of cohabitation for early adult offending and substance use. This study focuses on the reciprocal relationship between cohabitation during late adolescence and young adulthood and self-reported offending and substance use. Using longitudinal data, we find that net of traditional predictors delinquency involvement is associated with increased odds of cohabitation and cohabiting at younger ages while substance use is not related to cohabiting during early adulthood. Further analysis indicates that cohabitation is associated with lower reports of substance use. However, cohabitation is not associated with self-reported offending. The results help to unravel the connection between cohabitation experience, offending and substance use, and early adult outcomes.

  14. Family obligation and the transition to young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Fuligni, Andrew J; Pedersen, Sara

    2002-09-01

    Changes in a sense of obligation to assist, support, and respect the family were examined among an ethnically diverse group of 745 American individuals as they began to move from secondary school into young adulthood. A sense of family obligation increased for all young adults, with slight variations according to ethnic and financial backgrounds. Young adults from Filipino and Latin American families reported the strongest sense of familial duty during young adulthood, which partially explained their tendency to live with and contribute financially to their families. The implications of family obligation for employment and educational persistence depended on age and academic performance in high school. Finally, a sense of family obligation was associated with more positive emotional well-being. PMID:12220060

  15. Identity status change during adolescence and young adulthood: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kroger, Jane; Martinussen, Monica; Marcia, James E

    2010-10-01

    The present study was designed to examine developmental patterns of identity status change during adolescence and young adulthood through meta-analysis. Some 124 studies appearing in PsycINFO, ERIC, Sociological Abstracts, and Dissertation Abstracts International between 1966 and 2005 provided data. All calculations were performed using the software program, Comprehensive Meta-analysis. Results from longitudinal studies showed the mean proportion of adolescents making progressive identity status changes was .36, compared with .15 who made regressive changes and .49 who remained stable. Cross-sectional studies showed the mean proportion of moratoriums rising steadily to age 19 years and declining thereafter, while the mean proportion of the identity achieved rose over late adolescence and young adulthood; foreclosure and diffusion statuses declined over the high school years, but fluctuated throughout late adolescence and young adulthood. Meta-analyses showed that large mean proportions of samples were not identity achieved by young adulthood. Possible reasons for this phenomenon are explored.

  16. Economic stress in childhood and adulthood, and poor psychological health: three life course hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Martin; Fridh, Maria; Rosvall, Maria

    2014-02-28

    Investigations of mental health in a life course perspective are scarce. The aim is to investigate associations between economic stress in childhood and adulthood, and poor psychological health in adulthood with reference to the accumulation, critical period and social mobility hypotheses in life course epidemiology. The 2008 public health survey in Skåne is a cross-sectional postal questionnaire study. A random sample was invited which yielded 28,198 respondents aged 18-80 (55% participation). Psychological health was assessed with the GHQ12 instrument. Logistic regression models were used to investigate the associations adjusting for age, country of birth, socioeconomic status, emotional support, instrumental support and trust, and stratifying by sex. The accumulation hypothesis was confirmed because combined childhood and adulthood exposures to economic stress were associated with poor psychological health in a graded manner. The social mobility hypothesis was also confirmed. The critical period hypothesis was not confirmed because both childhood and adulthood economic stress remained significantly associated with poor psychological health in adulthood. Economic stress in childhood is associated with mental health in adulthood.

  17. Changes in Religiosity Across the Transition to Young Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Chan, Melissa; Tsai, Kim M; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2015-08-01

    Social identities, as those pertaining to religion, may change over time as adolescents make the important transition into young adulthood. This 4-year longitudinal study examined developmental changes in religious affiliation, identity, and participation across the transition from adolescence to young adulthood among 584 individuals (from M age  = 17.9 years to M age  = 22.1 years; 55 % female). We also investigated whether changes varied as a function of individual (i.e., gender and ethnicity) and contextual (i.e., college type and residential status) factors, as well as the association between religiosity and well-being (e.g., meaning and purpose in life, depressive symptoms). The results indicated a significant decline in reported affiliation with a particular religious group or faith for all youth. The change in a psychological sense of religious identity varied by gender, and the change in religious participation differed by ethnicity, but other individual-difference factors generally played minor roles in the changes in religiosity across time. Religiosity was more consistently linked with a greater sense of meaning and purpose than with fewer depressive symptoms across the transition to adulthood, suggesting that it may be particularly important for eudaimonic well-being. Overall, the findings suggest that youth generally experience a decrease in religiosity as they transition to young adulthood, but this rate of change may vary between individuals. The results have important implications for the way in which religion is viewed and lived out by young adults in the United States.

  18. Cardiovascular Health through Young Adulthood and Cognitive Functioning in Midlife

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Jared P.; Loria, Catherine M.; Launer, Lenore J.; Sidney, Stephen; Liu, Kiang; Jacobs, David R.; Zhu, Na; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M.; He, Ka; Yaffe, Kristine

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between overall cardiovascular health as recently defined by the American Heart Association in young adulthood to middle-age and cognitive function in midlife. Overall ideal cardiovascular health incorporates 7 metrics, including the avoidance of overweight or obesity, a healthful diet, nonsmoking, and physical activity, total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting glucose at goal levels. Methods This analysis of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study, a multicenter community-based study with 25 years of follow-up, included 2,932 participants aged 18 to 30 years at baseline (Year 0) who attended follow-up exams at Years 7 and 25. Cardiovascular health metrics were measured at each examination. The Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), modified Stroop Test, and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) were completed at Year 25. Results A greater number of ideal cardiovascular metrics in young adulthood and middle-age was independently associated with better cognitive function in midlife (p-trend<0.01, for all). Specifically, each additional ideal metric was associated with 1.32 more symbols on the DSST (95% CI: 0.93 to 1.71), a 0.77-point lower interference score on the Stroop Test (−1.03 to −0.45), and 0.12 more words on the RAVLT (0.04 to 0.20). Participants who had ≥5 ideal metrics at a greater number of the 3 examinations over the 25-year period exhibited better performance on each cognitive test in middle-age (p-trend<0.01, for all). Interpretation Ideal cardiovascular health in young adulthood and its maintenance to middle-age is associated with better psychomotor speed, executive function, and verbal memory in midlife. PMID:23443990

  19. Eruption age of an approximately 100,000-year-old basalt from Ar-40/Ar-39 analysis of partially degassed xenoliths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillespie, A. R.; Huneke, J. C.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1984-01-01

    Eleven samples from five partially degassed Mesozoic granitic xenoliths and two late Pleistocene host basalt samples from Sawmill Canyon in Sierra Nevada, California, have been analyzed using stepwise Ar-40/Ar-39 dating techniques. The petrography and analytic techniques are described and the results are presented. Isotopic compositions of Ar released from the xenoliths in several extraction steps at temperatures below about 900 C were colinear in Ar-36/Ar-40 versus Ar-39/Ar-40 diagrams and defined isochrons, giving a mean age of degassing of 119,000 + or - 7000 yr. Ar-40 extracted at higher temperatures included ancient radiogenic Ar-40 that never diffused from the xenoliths during immersion in the magma. This Ar-40 caused an increase in the apparent age for the high-temperature extractions. The high precision of the eruption age determined by this method is comparable to that obtained elsewhere by conventional K/Ar dating of sanidine.

  20. The Salience of Adolescent Romantic Experiences for Romantic Relationship Qualities in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, Stephanie D.; Collins, W. Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Conceptual links between aspects of adolescents' dating experiences (i.e., involvement and quality; ages 15-17.5) and qualities of their romantic relationships in young adulthood (ages 20-21) were examined in a prospective longitudinal design. Even after accounting for earlier relationship experiences with parents and peers, aspects of adolescent…

  1. Continuity and Discontinuity in Perceptions of Family Relationships from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Kim M.; Telzer, Eva H.; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    The present 8-year longitudinal study examined how multiple aspects of family relationships change across the transition from adolescence (M[subscript age] = 15 years) to young adulthood (M[subscript age] = 22 years) among 821 individuals. Results showed that there was more discontinuity than continuity in family relationships across this…

  2. Obesity and weight gain in adulthood and telomere length.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangmi; Parks, Christine G; DeRoo, Lisa A; Chen, Honglei; Taylor, Jack A; Cawthon, Richard M; Sandler, Dale P

    2009-03-01

    Obesity and weight gain in adulthood are associated with an increased risk of several cancers. Telomeres play a critical role in maintaining genomic integrity and may be involved in carcinogenesis. Using data from 647 women ages 35 to 74 years in the United States and Puerto Rico (2003-2004), we examined the association between current and past anthropometric characteristics and telomere length in blood. In a multivariate linear regression model, higher current body mass index (BMI) and hip circumference were inversely associated with telomere length. Higher BMI in the 30s was associated with shorter telomere length among women ages>or=40 years (Ptrend<0.01). Weight gain since the age 30s (Ptrend=0.07) and weight cycling (Ptrend=0.04) were also inversely associated with telomere length. When current BMI and BMI at ages 30 to 39 years were considered together, the most marked decrease in telomere length was found for women who had overweight or obese BMI at both time points (mean telomere repeat copy number to single-copy gene copy number ratio=1.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.21-1.30) compared with women who had normal BMI at both times (mean telomere repeat copy number to single-copy gene copy number ratio=1.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.30-1.36). These findings support the hypothesis that obesity may accelerate aging, and highlight the importance of maintaining a desirable weight in adulthood.

  3. Alcohol consumption in late adolescence and early adulthood--where is the problem?

    PubMed

    Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Gmel, Gerhard

    2013-07-25

    Risky single-occasion drinking (RSOD) is more common in late adolescence and early adulthood (approximately between the ages of 16 and 30) than in any other period in life. This is also the age when young people in Switzerland and many other European countries are legally allowed to buy and drink alcohol, but they usually do not yet have adult responsibilities. This paper reviews evidence from the international literature and provides examples of studies conducted in Switzerland demonstrating that (a) RSOD is by far most prevalent on Saturday evenings followed by Friday evenings, usually because young people go out and do not have any work or study responsibilities the next day; (b) RSOD results from drinking in private before going out ("predrinking") and accelerating the pace of drinking (i.e. increasing the number of drinks consumed per hour); (c) RSOD is often not accidental but purposeful,. to seek excitement, to have fun and to feel the effects of alcohol; (d) RSOD occurs predominantly outside the home, mostly in bars, pubs, discos or at special events and festivals; (e) RSOD often results in intended and unintended injuries and other acute consequences, which are leading risk factors for mortality and morbidity in this age group. Effective prevention strategies should include attempts to reduce opportunities to engage in heavy drinking as well as strategies to reduce its harmful consequences.

  4. The Role of Task Persistence in Young Adolescence for Successful Educational and Occupational Attainment in Middle Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Hakan; Bergman, Lars R.

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the importance of task persistence in young adolescence for successful educational and occupational attainment in middle adulthood. Data from age 13 (N = 1,092) and adult age (age 43 for women, N = 569 and age 47 for men, N = 393) were taken from the Swedish longitudinal research program…

  5. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: manifestation in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Riccio, Cynthia A; Wolfe, Monica; Davis, Brandon; Romine, Cassandra; George, Carrie; Lee, Donghyung

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the manifestation of ADHD in adults using a combination of structured clinical interview, behavioral self-report, and a range of neuropsychological measures. Symptom criteria that are endorsed by adults with ADHD as compared to non-diagnosed adults and an adult sample with other clinical disorders tend to reflect problems with follow-through, forgetting, organization, and losing things. Notably, adults in the No Diagnosis group endorsed a higher frequency of symptoms than base rates reported elsewhere. Related to sense of time, adults with ADHD endorsed problems with meeting deadlines, not completing tasks, not planning ahead, and having a poorer sense of time significantly more frequently than adults in either the No-Diagnosis or Other Clinical Disorder group. Results highlighted the need for further research specific to the manifestation of ADHD in adulthood and the development of diagnostic criteria that take into account the differences in development as well as age-related differences in contextual demands. PMID:15708734

  6. Fluoxetine exposure during adolescence increases preference for cocaine in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Iñiguez, Sergio D.; Riggs, Lace M.; Nieto, Steven J.; Wright, Katherine N.; Zamora, Norma N.; Cruz, Bryan; Zavala, Arturo R.; Robison, Alfred J.; Mazei-Robison, Michelle S.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, there is a high prevalence of antidepressant prescription rates within juvenile populations, yet little is known about the potential long-lasting consequences of such treatments, particularly on subsequent responses to drugs of abuse. To address this issue at the preclinical level, we examined whether adolescent exposure to fluoxetine (FLX), a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, results in changes to the sensitivity of the rewarding properties of cocaine in adulthood. Separate groups of male c57bl/6 mice were exposed to FLX (0 or 20 mg/kg) for 15 consecutive days either during adolescence (postnatal days [PD] 35–49) or adulthood (PD 65–79). Twenty-one days after FLX treatment, behavioral responsivity to cocaine (0, 2.5, 5, 10, or 20 mg/kg) conditioned place preference was assessed. Our data shows that mice pretreated with FLX during adolescence, but not during adulthood, display an enhanced dose-dependent preference to the environment paired with cocaine (5 or 10 mg/kg) when compared to age-matched saline pretreated controls. Taken together, our findings suggest that adolescent exposure to FLX increases sensitivity to the rewarding properties of cocaine, later in life. PMID:26449406

  7. Individuation in Slovene emerging adults: its associations with demographics, transitional markers, achieved criteria for adulthood, and life satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Zupančič, Maja; Komidar, Luka; Levpušček, Melita Puklek

    2014-12-01

    The study investigated associations of Slovene emerging adults' age, gender, living situation, romantic relationship, and employment status with aspects of individuation in relation to mother and father. Controlling for demographic variables and transitional markers of adulthood, we further explored the contribution of individuation measures to individuals' perceptions of achieved criteria for adulthood and life satisfaction. The participants provided self-reports on the Individuation Test for Emerging Adults, the Satisfaction With Life Scale, and the list of Achieved Criteria for Adulthood. Age and living out of parental home were positively associated with self-reliance in relation to both parents, whereas female gender was related to higher levels of connectedness and seeking parental support. Along with age and involvement in a romantic relationship, connectedness and self-reliance predicted adulthood criteria attainment and life satisfaction. The results support the models of individuation that emphasize growing autonomy and retaining connectedness to parents as pathways towards personal adjustments.

  8. Long-term effects of child abuse and neglect on emotion processing in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Young, Joanna Cahall; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2014-08-01

    To determine whether child maltreatment has a long-term impact on emotion processing abilities in adulthood and whether IQ, psychopathology, or psychopathy mediate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and emotion processing in adulthood. Using a prospective cohort design, children (ages 0-11) with documented cases of abuse and neglect during 1967-1971 were matched with non-maltreated children and followed up into adulthood. Potential mediators (IQ, Post-Traumatic Stress [PTSD], Generalized Anxiety [GAD], Dysthymia, and Major Depressive [MDD] Disorders, and psychopathy) were assessed in young adulthood with standardized assessment techniques. In middle adulthood (Mage=47), the International Affective Picture System was used to measure emotion processing. Structural equation modeling was used to test mediation models. Individuals with a history of childhood maltreatment were less accurate in emotion processing overall and in processing positive and neutral pictures than matched controls. Childhood physical abuse predicted less accuracy in neutral pictures and childhood sexual abuse and neglect predicted less accuracy in recognizing positive pictures. MDD, GAD, and IQ predicted overall picture recognition accuracy. However, of the mediators examined, only IQ acted to mediate the relationship between child maltreatment and emotion processing deficits. Although research has focused on emotion processing in maltreated children, these new findings show an impact child abuse and neglect on emotion processing in middle adulthood. Research and interventions aimed at improving emotional processing deficiencies in abused and neglected children should consider the role of IQ.

  9. Long-term effects of child abuse and neglect on emotion processing in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Young, Joanna Cahall; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2014-08-01

    To determine whether child maltreatment has a long-term impact on emotion processing abilities in adulthood and whether IQ, psychopathology, or psychopathy mediate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and emotion processing in adulthood. Using a prospective cohort design, children (ages 0-11) with documented cases of abuse and neglect during 1967-1971 were matched with non-maltreated children and followed up into adulthood. Potential mediators (IQ, Post-Traumatic Stress [PTSD], Generalized Anxiety [GAD], Dysthymia, and Major Depressive [MDD] Disorders, and psychopathy) were assessed in young adulthood with standardized assessment techniques. In middle adulthood (Mage=47), the International Affective Picture System was used to measure emotion processing. Structural equation modeling was used to test mediation models. Individuals with a history of childhood maltreatment were less accurate in emotion processing overall and in processing positive and neutral pictures than matched controls. Childhood physical abuse predicted less accuracy in neutral pictures and childhood sexual abuse and neglect predicted less accuracy in recognizing positive pictures. MDD, GAD, and IQ predicted overall picture recognition accuracy. However, of the mediators examined, only IQ acted to mediate the relationship between child maltreatment and emotion processing deficits. Although research has focused on emotion processing in maltreated children, these new findings show an impact child abuse and neglect on emotion processing in middle adulthood. Research and interventions aimed at improving emotional processing deficiencies in abused and neglected children should consider the role of IQ. PMID:24747007

  10. Special Needs: Planning for Adulthood (Videos)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which Ones & When? Smart School Lunches Emmy-Nominated Video "Cerebral Palsy: Shannon's Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Special Needs: Planning for Adulthood (Video) KidsHealth > ...

  11. Trajectories of perceived discrimination from adolescence to emerging adulthood and substance use among Hispanic youth in Los Angeles.

    PubMed

    Unger, Jennifer B; Soto, Daniel W; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes

    2016-02-01

    Previous studies have documented associations between perceptions of racial/ethnic discrimination and adverse health outcomes among Hispanics and other minority groups. However, these studies have not examined change in perceived discrimination over the lifecourse and whether trajectories of perceived discrimination affect outcomes differently. This study of 2722 Hispanic students identified trajectories of perceived discrimination from 9th grade through emerging adulthood (approximately ages 14-23), and compared these trajectory groups on substance use outcomes. Four distinct trajectory groups were identified: (1) low and stable discrimination, (2) increasing discrimination, (3) initially high but decreasing discrimination, and (4) high and stable discrimination. Compared with the low and stable discrimination group, the groups that experienced higher levels of discrimination were at higher risk of cigarette, alcohol, marijuana, and hard drug use. Specifically, the group with increasing discrimination (group 2) had a higher risk of alcohol, marijuana, and hard drug use; the group with initially high but decreasing discrimination (group 3) had a higher risk of cigarette smoking and alcohol use; and the group with high and stable discrimination (group 4) had a higher risk of alcohol, marijuana, and hard drug use. Results indicate that experiencing discrimination during adolescence, emerging adulthood, or both, regardless of whether the discrimination increases or decreases, could place Hispanic youth at risk for substance use. Health education programs are needed to help Hispanic youth learn effective skills to cope with discrimination without resorting to substance use.

  12. Inhibitory Control During Emotional Distraction Across Adolescence and Early Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Cohen-Gilbert, Julia E.; Thomas, Kathleen M.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the changing relation between emotion and inhibitory control during adolescence. One hundred participants between 11 and 25 years of age performed a go-nogo task in which task-relevant stimuli (letters) were presented at the center of large task-irrelevant images depicting negative, positive, or neutral scenes selected from the International Affective Picture System. Longer reaction times for negative trials were found across all age groups, suggesting that negative but not positive emotional images captured attention across this age range. However, age differences in accuracy on inhibitory trials suggest that response inhibition is more readily disrupted by negative emotional distraction in early adolescence relative to late childhood, late adolescence or early adulthood. PMID:23506340

  13. Transition to adulthood: mental retardation, families, and culture.

    PubMed

    Blacher, J

    2001-03-01

    A conceptual model was proposed guiding a study of mental retardation and family well-being during the transition from late adolescence into young adulthood. The developmental period from about age 18 to 26 is critical, in that formal schooling ends and changes in residential, vocational, and social status are likely. Furthermore, the proposal was made that the success of transitional experiences in these three realms will influence family well-being, an outcome of primary interest at this stage of the lifecycle of the family. Individual characteristics, environment and culture, and family involvement with programs are hypothesized to influence family well-being, but primarily through their impact on transition success.

  14. ADULTHOOD ANIMAL ABUSE AMONG MEN ARRESTED FOR DOMESTIC VIOLENCE

    PubMed Central

    Febres, Jeniimarie; Brasfield, Hope; Shorey, Ryan C.; Elmquist, Joanna; Ninnemann, Andrew; Schonbrun, Yael C.; Temple, Jeff R.; Recupero, Patricia R.; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2014-01-01

    Learning more about intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators could aid the development of more effective treatments. The prevalence of adulthood animal abuse (AAA) perpetration and its association with IPV perpetration, antisociality, and alcohol use in 307 men arrested for domestic violence was examined. 41% (n = 125) of the men committed at least one act of animal abuse since the age of 18, in contrast to the 3.0% prevalence rate reported by men in the general population. Controlling for antisociality and alcohol use, AAA showed a trend towards a significant association with physical and severe psychological IPV perpetration. PMID:25324474

  15. Adulthood animal abuse among men arrested for domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Febres, Jeniimarie; Brasfield, Hope; Shorey, Ryan C; Elmquist, Joanna; Ninnemann, Andrew; Schonbrun, Yael C; Temple, Jeff R; Recupero, Patricia R; Stuart, Gregory L

    2014-09-01

    Learning more about intimate partner violence (IPV), perpetrators could aid the development of more effective treatments. The prevalence of adulthood animal abuse (AAA) perpetration and its association with IPV perpetration, antisociality, and alcohol use in 307 men arrested for domestic violence were examined. Forty-one percent (n = 125) of the men committed at least one act of animal abuse since the age of 18, in contrast to the 1.5% prevalence rate reported by men in the general population. Controlling for antisociality and alcohol use, AAA showed a trend toward a significant association with physical and severe psychological IPV perpetration.

  16. Tobacco Smoking in Adolescence Predicts Maladaptive Coping Styles in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: To examine the extent to which cigarette smoking in adolescence is associated with maladaptive versus adaptive coping behaviors in adulthood. Method: The data came from a longitudinal study of New Zealand adolescents followed into adulthood at age 32 years. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), we examined the predictive association between daily smoking of cigarettes and symptoms of tobacco dependence from 18 to 26 years of age and later coping at age 32 years. We included pathways from childhood family disadvantage in addition to both adolescent stress–worry and adult coping in the model. Results: SEM revealed that cigarette smoking had a small but direct inverse effect on later adaptive coping (−.14) and a direct effect on maladaptive coping (.23) independent of the relationships between adolescent coping and stress–worry and later adult coping. Conclusions: The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that tobacco smoking may inhibit the development of self-efficacy or one’s ability to act with appropriate coping behaviors in any given situation. PMID:23817581

  17. Empathy development in adolescence predicts social competencies in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Allemand, Mathias; Steiger, Andrea E; Fend, Helmut A

    2015-04-01

    This 23-year study explored the predictive associations between empathy development in adolescence and self-reported social competencies and outcomes in adulthood. Participants were 1,527 adults aged 35 years (48.3% female). The predictor variable (adolescent empathy) was measured yearly at the ages of 12 to 16 years. The outcome variables (adult empathy, communication skills, social integration, relationship satisfaction, and conflicts in relationships) were measured at the age of 35 years. Five important results stand out. First, longitudinal measurement invariance was established for the measure of adolescent empathy. Second, empathy tended to increase during the adolescent years. Third, significant interindividual differences in level and change of adolescent empathy were found. Fourth, gender was related to level of adolescent empathy, favoring girls over boys. Fifth, not only level but also change in adolescent empathy predicted individual differences in social competencies in adulthood two decades later. These findings demonstrate that developmental processes that are relevant for adjustment reveal long-term social consequences beyond the adolescent years.

  18. The roles of antisocial history and emerging adulthood developmental adaption in predicting adult antisocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Alink, Lenneke R A; Egeland, Byron

    2013-01-01

    Different trajectories of antisocial behavior in childhood and adolescence have been identified by several researchers. However, more needs to be known about the development of antisocial behavior in adulthood and about factors that account for continuity and change. In this study, we investigated the developmental course into adulthood of different trajectories of antisocial behavior in childhood and adolescence. Second, we examined the role of developmental adaptation in emerging adulthood in accounting for the continuity and change of antisocial behavior. The participants (N = 162) were drawn from an ongoing 28-year longitudinal study. Trajectory groups (EOP: Early Onset/Persistent, n = 30; AO: Adolescent Onset, n = 32; Other, n = 100) were based on measures of externalizing behavior assessed at six time points in childhood and adolescence. Through interviews and questionnaires in adulthood, the quality of romantic relationships and the participants' work ethic (age 23), duration of unemployment (between ages 23 and 26 years), the level of externalizing problems (ages 23 and 26), and the number of antisocial personality disorder symptoms (age 28) were assessed. Results indicated that individuals in the EOP group showed the highest levels of antisocial behavior throughout emerging and early adulthood. Negative experiences in the work and romantic relationship domains was related to the continuity of antisocial behavior in the EOP group. For the AO group, a shorter duration of unemployment was related to lower levels of antisocial behavior. This study shows that early history plays an important role in the development of antisocial behavior and in the way developmental adaptation in emerging adulthood accounts for continuity and change of antisocial behavior.

  19. Personality disorder traits associated with risk for unipolar depression during middle adulthood.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jeffrey G; Cohen, Patricia; Kasen, Stephanie; Brook, Judith S

    2005-09-15

    Data from the Children in the Community Study, a prospective longitudinal investigation, were used to investigate the association of personality disorder (PD) traits, evident by early adulthood, with risk for the development of unipolar depressive disorders by middle adulthood. Antisocial, borderline, dependent, depressive, histrionic, and schizotypal PD traits, identified between ages 14 and 22, were significantly associated with risk for dysthymic disorder (DD) or major depressive disorder (MDD) by a mean age of 33 after a history of unipolar depression and other psychiatric disorder was controlled statistically. Individuals without a history of unipolar depression who met diagnostic criteria for > or =1 PD by a mean age of 22 were at elevated risk for DD or MDD by a mean age of 33 years. Individuals identified as having a DSM-IV Cluster A (paranoid, schizoid, or schizotypal) or Cluster C (avoidant, dependent, obsessive-compulsive) PD by a mean age of 22 years were at elevated risk for recurrent or chronic unipolar depression. The findings of this study suggest that some types of PD traits that become evident by early adulthood may contribute to an increased risk for the development or recurrence of unipolar depressive disorders by middle adulthood.

  20. Personality development from adolescence to emerging adulthood: linking trajectories of ego development to the family context and identity formation.

    PubMed

    Syed, Moin; Seiffge-Krenke, Inge

    2013-02-01

    This longitudinal study analyzed personality development using an individual approach by examining changes in ego development across the transition from adolescence to emerging adulthood. Specifically, the study mapped the heterogeniety in ego development growth trajectories and linked the different trajectories to the family context in adolescence and identity development in emerging adulthood. Participants were 98 families with a child who were followed from age 14 to age 24. Latent class growth analysis identified 4 distinct trajectories of growth in ego development of the children over the 10-year period. The results indicated that growth was more rapid during adolescence and tended to taper off in emerging adulthood. In addition, promotion of personal growth within the family and parents' ego development were particulary instrumental in children's ego developmental gains in adolescence. Finally, youth who demonstrated continued ego development into emerging adulthood also demonstrated heightened levels of identity exploration.

  1. Age and Outstanding Occupational Achievement: Lehman Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mumford, Michael D.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews the findings of Lehman's study of age and outstanding occupational achievement along with the explanations of why major contributions most likely occur in young adulthood. Proposes an alternative explanation based on the central developmental tasks facing individuals in young adulthood and middle age. (JAC)

  2. The Stability of Vocational Interests from Early Adolescence to Middle Adulthood: A Quantitative Review of Longitudinal Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Low, K. S. Douglas; Yoon, Mijung; Roberts, Brent W.; Rounds, James

    2005-01-01

    The present meta-analysis examined the stability of vocational interests from early adolescence (age 12) to middle adulthood (age 40). Stability was represented by rank-order and profile correlations. Interest stability remained unchanged during much of adolescence and increased dramatically during the college years (age 18-21.9), where it…

  3. Understanding adolescent and family influences on intimate partner psychological violence during emerging adulthood and adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lohman, Brenda J; Neppl, Tricia K; Senia, Jennifer M; Schofield, Thomas J

    2013-04-01

    The intergenerational transmission of violence directed toward intimate partners has been documented for the past three decades. Overall, the literature shows that violence in the family of origin leads to violence in the family of destination. However, this predominately cross-sectional or retrospective literature is limited by self-selection, endogeneity, and reporter biases as it has not been able to assess how individual and family behaviors simultaneously experienced during adolescence influence intimate partner violence throughout adulthood. The present study used data from the Iowa Youth and Families Project (IYFP; N = 392; 52 % Female), a multi-method, multi-trait prospective approach, to overcome this limitation. We focused on psychological intimate partner violence in both emerging adulthood (19-23 years) and adulthood (27-31 years), and include self and partner ratings of violence as well as observational data in a sample of rural non-Hispanic white families. Controlling for a host of individual risk factors as well as interparental psychological violence from adolescence (14-15 years), the results show that exposure to parent-to-child psychological violence during adolescence is a key predictor of intimate partner violence throughout adulthood. In addition, negative emotionality and the number of sexual partners in adolescence predicted intimate partner violence in both emerging adulthood and adulthood. Exposure to family stress was associated positively with intimate partner violence in adulthood but not in emerging adulthood, whereas academic difficulties were found to increase violence in emerging adulthood only. Unlike previous research, results did not support a direct effect of interparental psychological violence on psychological violence in the next generation. Gender differences were found only in emerging adulthood. Implications of these findings are discussed in light of the current literature and future directions. PMID:23430562

  4. Associations of childhood adversity and adulthood trauma with C-reactive protein: A cross-sectional population-based study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Joy E; Neylan, Thomas C; Epel, Elissa; O'Donovan, Aoife

    2016-03-01

    Mounting evidence highlights specific forms of psychological stress as risk factors for ill health. Particularly strong evidence indicates that childhood adversity and adulthood trauma exposure increase risk for physical and psychiatric disorders, and there is emerging evidence that inflammation may play a key role in these relationships. In a population-based sample from the Health and Retirement Study (n=11,198, mean age 69 ± 10), we examine whether childhood adversity, adulthood trauma, and the interaction between them are associated with elevated levels of the systemic inflammatory marker high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). All models were adjusted for age, gender, race, education, and year of data collection, as well as other possible confounds in follow-up sensitivity analyses. In our sample, 67% of individuals had experienced at least one traumatic event during adulthood, and those with childhood adversity were almost three times as likely to have experienced trauma as an adult. Childhood adversities and adulthood traumas were independently associated with elevated levels of hsCRP (β=0.03, p=0.01 and β=0.05, p<0.001, respectively). Those who had experienced both types of stress had higher levels of hsCRP than those with adulthood trauma alone, Estimate=-0.06, 95% CI [-0.003, -0.12], p=0.04, but not compared to those with childhood adversity alone, Estimate=-0.06, 95% CI [0.03, -0.16], p=0.19. There was no interaction between childhood and adulthood trauma exposure. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine adulthood trauma exposure and inflammation in a large population-based sample, and the first to explore the interaction of childhood adversity and adulthood trauma with inflammation. Our study demonstrates the prevalence of trauma-related inflammation in the general population and suggests that childhood adversity and adulthood trauma are independently associated with elevated inflammation. PMID:26616398

  5. Developmental histories of perceived racial discrimination and diurnal cortisol profiles in adulthood: A 20-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Adam, Emma K; Heissel, Jennifer A; Zeiders, Katharine H; Richeson, Jennifer A; Ross, Emily C; Ehrlich, Katherine B; Levy, Dorainne J; Kemeny, Margaret; Brodish, Amanda B; Malanchuk, Oksana; Peck, Stephen C; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E; Eccles, Jacquelynne S

    2015-12-01

    Perceived racial discrimination (PRD) has been associated with altered diurnal cortisol rhythms in past cross-sectional research. We investigate whether developmental histories of PRD, assessed prospectively, are associated with adult diurnal cortisol profiles. One-hundred and twelve (N=50 Black, N=62 White) adults from the Maryland Adolescent Development in Context Study provided saliva samples in adulthood (at approximately age 32 years) at waking, 30min after waking, and at bedtime for 7 days. Diurnal cortisol measures were calculated, including waking cortisol levels, diurnal cortisol slopes, the cortisol awakening response (CAR), and average daily cortisol (AUC). These cortisol outcomes were predicted from measures of PRD obtained over a 20-year period beginning when individuals were in 7th grade (approximately age 12). Greater average PRD measured across the 20-year period predicted flatter adult diurnal cortisol slopes for both Black and White adults, and a lower CAR. Greater average PRD also predicted lower waking cortisol for Black, but not White adults. PRD experiences in adolescence accounted for many of these effects. When adolescent and young adult PRD are entered together predicting cortisol outcomes, PRD experiences in adolescence (but not young adulthood) significantly predicted flatter diurnal cortisol slopes for both Black and White adults. Adolescent, but not young adult PRD, also significantly predicted lower waking and lower average cortisol for Black adults. Young adult PRD was, however, a stronger predictor of the CAR, predicting a marginally lower CAR for Whites, and a significantly larger CAR for Blacks. Effects were robust to controlling for covariates including health behaviors, depression, income and parent education levels. PRD experiences interacted with parent education and income to predict aspects of the diurnal cortisol rhythm. Although these results suggest PRD influences on cortisol for both Blacks and Whites, the key findings

  6. Adolescent family experiences and educational attainment during early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Melby, Janet N; Conger, Rand D; Fang, Shu-Ann; Wickrama, K A S; Conger, Katherine J

    2008-11-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the degree to which a family investment model would help account for the association between family of origin socioeconomic characteristics and the later educational attainment of 451 young adults (age 26) from 2-parent families. Parents' educational level, occupational prestige, and family income in 1989 each had a statistically significant direct relationship with youths' educational attainment in 2002. Consistent with the theoretical model guiding the study, parents' educational level and family income also demonstrated statistically significant indirect effects on later educational attainment through their associations with growth trajectories for supportive parenting, sibling relations, and adolescent academic engagement. Supportive parenting and sibling relations were linked to later educational attainment through their association with adolescent academic engagement. Academic engagement during adolescence was associated with educational attainment in young adulthood. These basic processes operated similarly regardless of youths' gender, target youths' age relative to a near-age sibling, gender composition of the sibling dyad, or gender of parent.

  7. Adolescent Family Experiences and Educational Attainment during Early Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Melby, Janet N.; Conger, Rand D.; Fang, Shu-Ann; Wickrama, K. A. S.; Conger, Katherine J.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the degree to which a family investment model would help account for the association between family of origin socioeconomic characteristics and the later educational attainment of 451 young adults (age 26) from two-parent families. Parents’ educational level, occupational prestige, and family income in 1989 each had a statistically significant direct relationship with youths’ educational attainment in 2002. Consistent with the theoretical model guiding the study, parents’ educational level and family income also demonstrated statistically significant indirect effects on later educational attainment through their associations with growth trajectories for supportive parenting, sibling relations, and adolescent academic engagement. Supportive parenting and sibling relations were linked to later educational attainment through their association with adolescent academic engagement. Academic engagement during adolescence was associated with educational attainment in young adulthood. These basic processes operated similarly regardless of youths’ gender, target youths’ age relative to a near-age sibling, gender composition of the sibling dyad, or gender of parent. PMID:18999319

  8. The Health Consequences of Obesity in Young Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hoi Lun; Medlow, Sharon; Steinbeck, Katharine

    2016-03-01

    Young adults are gaining weight faster than any age group. This weight gain and the appearance of obesity-related comorbidities often commence in adolescence. Psychosocial distress and mental health issues are common and debilitating, and treatment approaches are likely to be similar to those for adolescents. At the same time, young adults may have physical morbidities which will continue and worsen throughout adulthood, such as hypertension, diabetes and polycystic ovarian syndrome. Health consequences of obesity are challenging to manage in young adults as their symptoms may be minimal, they are less likely to engage with healthcare due to other life priorities and their neurocognitive developmental stage makes therapy adherence difficult. Clinicians who manage young adults with obesity need to be aware of these age-specific challenges, as well as the sexual and reproductive health concerns that are present in this age group. PMID:26830309

  9. Responses to ostracism across adulthood.

    PubMed

    Hawkley, Louise C; Williams, Kipling D; Cacioppo, John T

    2011-04-01

    Ostracism is ubiquitous across the lifespan. From social exclusion on the playground, to romantic rejection, to workplace expulsion, to social disregard for the aged, ostracism threatens a fundamental human need to belong that reflexively elicits social pain and sadness. Older adults may be particularly vulnerable to ostracism because of loss of network members and meaningful societal roles. On the other hand, socioemotional selectivity theory suggests that older adults may be less impacted by ostracism because of an age-related positivity bias. We examined these hypotheses in two independent studies, and tested mechanisms that may account for age differences in the affective experience of ostracism. A study of 18- to 86-year-old participants in the Time-Sharing Experiments for the Social Sciences program showed an age-related decrease in the impact of ostracism on needs satisfaction and negative affectivity. A study of 53- to 71-year-old participants in the Chicago Health, Aging, and Social Relations Study (CHASRS) showed that ostracism diminished positive affectivity in younger (<60 years) but not older adults. Age group differences in response to ostracism were consistent with the positivity bias hypothesis, were partly explained by age differences in the impact of physical pain, but were not explained by autonomic nervous system activity, computer experience, or intimate social loss or stressful life experiences. PMID:20504868

  10. Diagnostic Transitions from Childhood to Adolescence to Early Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Copeland, William E.; Adair, Carol E.; Smetanin, Paul; Stiff, David; Briante, Carla; Colman, Ian; Fergusson, David; Horwood, John; Poulton, Richie; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Background Quantifying diagnostic transitions across development is needed to estimate the long-term burden of mental illness. This study estimated patterns of diagnostic transitions from childhood to adolescence and from adolescence to early adulthood. Methods Patterns of diagnostic transitions were estimated using data from three prospective, longitudinal studies involving close to 20,000 observations of 3,722 participants followed across multiple developmental periods covering ages 9 to 30. Common DSM psychiatric disorders were assessed in childhood (ages 9 to 12; two samples), adolescence (ages 13 to 18; three samples), and early adulthood (ages 19 to age 32; three samples) with structured psychiatric interviews and questionnaires. Results Having a disorder at an early period was associated with at least a 3-fold increase in odds for having a disorder at a later period. Homotypic and heterotypic transitions were observed for every disorder category. The strongest evidence of continuity was seen for behavioral disorders (particularly ADHD) with less evidence for emotional disorders such as depression and anxiety. Limited evidence was found in adjusted models for behavioral disorders predicting later emotional disorders. Adult substance disorders were preceded by behavioral disorders, but not anxiety or depression. Conclusions Having a disorder in childhood or adolescence is a potent risk factor for a range of psychiatric problems later in development. These findings provide further support for prevention and early life intervention efforts and suggest that treatment at younger ages, while justified in its own right, may also have potential to reduce the risk for disorders later in development. PMID:23451804

  11. The Development of Narrative Identity in Late Adolescence and Emergent Adulthood: The Continued Importance of Listeners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasupathi, Monisha; Hoyt, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    Research on narrative identity in late adolescence and early adulthood has not extensively examined how conversational storytelling affects the development of narrative identity. This is a major gap, given the importance of this age period for narrative identity development and the clear importance of parent-child conversations in the development…

  12. School Performance in Childhood and Adolescence as a Predictor of Depressive Symptoms in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehtinen, Henri; Raikkonen, Katri; Heinonen, Kati; Raitakari, Olli T.; Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa

    2006-01-01

    The current study examined whether school performance in childhood and adolescence predicts depressive symptoms in adulthood over 12 to 21 years. Questionnaires measuring grade point average (GPA), having remedial education or incurring penalties during the current school term were obtained from parents when the participants were aged 9, 12 and…

  13. Growing Up Fast: Stress Exposure and Subjective "Weathering" in Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Holly; Hagan, John; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2008-01-01

    We examine "subjective weathering" among females entering adulthood, using three waves of a national study. Subjective weathering is a social psychological component of aging that is associated with "physical weathering" previously observed in research on physical health. We examine the influence of stressors from childhood and adolescence on…

  14. Neural Correlates of Performance Monitoring during the Transition to Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kneževic, Martina; Veroude, Kim; Jolles, Jelle; Krabbendam, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive challenges during transition to adulthood are generally high and require particular skills, such as self-control, performance evaluation, and behavioral adjustment for success in everyday living. However, age and sex differences in timing and efficiency of brain maturational processes in the early twenties are not well known. We used a…

  15. Cognitive, Linguistic and Adaptive Functioning in Williams Syndrome: Trajectories from Early to Middle Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howlin, Patricia; Elison, Sarah; Udwin, Orlee; Stinton, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Background: Little is known about trajectories of cognitive functioning as individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) move though adulthood. Method: The present study investigated cognitive, linguistic and adaptive functioning in adults with WS aged 19-55 years, using both cross-sectional and longitudinal approaches. Results: Data from the…

  16. "...But that's Just the Stereotype": Gender and Ethnicity in Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basit, Tehmina N.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the role of gender and ethnicity in young minority ethnic British citizens' transition to adulthood. As part of a larger study using a mixed methods approach, in-depth interviews were conducted with 20 young men and women aged 14-24 at different stages of education, employment and non-employment. By employing Bourdieu's…

  17. Prospective Longitudinal Associations between Persistent Sleep Problems in Childhood and Anxiety and Depression Disorders in Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Alice M.; Caspi, Avshalom; Eley, Thalia C.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Poulton, Richie

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the associations between persistent childhood sleep problems and adulthood anxiety and depression. Parents of 943 children (52% male) participating in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study provided information on their children's sleep and internalizing problems at ages 5, 7, and 9…

  18. Low-Income African American Youth. Vulnerable Youth and the Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuehn, Daniel; McDaniel, Marla

    2009-01-01

    The transition to adulthood could present challenges for African American youth from low-income families. This fact sheet uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 to explore racial differences in adolescent risk behavior, education, employment, and earnings among low income youth age 18 to 24. Differences discussed herein are…

  19. Trajectories of Educational Expectations from Adolescence to Young Adulthood in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tynkkynen, Lotta; Tolvanen, Asko; Salmela-Aro, Katariina

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this person-oriented, 5-wave longitudinal study was to examine the trajectories of educational expectations from adolescence to young adulthood in the context of the expectancy-value theory (Eccles et al., 1983). Altogether, 853 (48% female; M age = 16 years) Finnish adolescents reported their educational expectation, 1st in the…

  20. Depression in Young and Middle Adulthood: A Summary of the Problem and Treatments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sortland, Theresa K.

    The depressed person is often trapped in a vicious cycle of dysfunctional thoughts and feelings of powerlessness. Young adults are prone to depression because of the intimacy versus isolation conflict. Young adulthood (ages 18-35) focuses on the search for intimacy, establishment of a career, and formation of a lifestyle. The failure to succeed in…

  1. Understanding the Impact of Poverty on Critical Events in Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berzin, Stephanie Cosner; De Marco, Allison C.

    2010-01-01

    Current trends have allowed some youth a lengthened transition to adulthood, in part because of demographic shifts that delay the time until adolescents assume adult roles. Although these trends are well documented, less research has examined how this impacts vulnerable subgroups. Using a sample of predominantly White youth (ages 18-33) from the…

  2. Adaptive Functioning in Autism Spectrum Disorder during the Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Nicole L.; Smith, Christopher J.; Pollard, Elena; Ober-Reynolds, Sharman; Kirwan, Janet; Malligo, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    There is a dearth of research regarding adaptive functioning during the transition to adulthood in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Profiles on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second Edition were examined by age and intellectual ability in 75 participants with ASD (16-58 years). Results extend previous reports of a cognitive advantage over…

  3. Safety Nets and Scaffolds: Parental Support in the Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Teresa Toguchi; Kim, Minzee; Uno, Mayumi; Mortimer, Jeylan; O'Brien, Kirsten Bengtson

    2011-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from the Youth Development Study (analytic sample N = 712), we investigate how age, adult role acquisition and attainments, family resources, parent-child relationship quality, school attendance, and life events influence support received from parents in young adulthood. Parental assistance was found to be less forthcoming…

  4. The New, Longer Road to Adulthood: Schooling, Work, and Idleness among Rural Youth. Number 9

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Anastasia; McLaughlin, Diane; Coleman-Jensen, Alisha

    2009-01-01

    This report focuses on the education and work experiences of rural youth during the emerging adult years (age 20 to 24), as they make the transition from adolescence to adulthood. It documents how rural emerging adults combine work and school and experience idleness, closely examines their educational attainment, and compares their experiences…

  5. Depression, Self-Esteem, and Anger in Emerging Adulthood: Seven-Year Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galambos, Nancy L.; Barker, Erin T.; Krahn, Harvey J.

    2006-01-01

    This study used a school-based community sample (N = 920) to examine trajectories of depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and expressed anger in the critical years of emerging adulthood (ages 18-25). Using data from 5 waves, the authors discovered that multilevel models indicated that, on average, depressive symptoms and expressed anger declined,…

  6. Parental Educational Attainment and Sense of Control in Mid-and Late-Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Michael M.

    2013-01-01

    Sense of control is greater among children who grow up in households of higher socioeconomic status. It is unclear if this childhood advantage persists throughout life or if schooling and adulthood experiences override any early childhood advantage. Using data from 2 nationally representative samples of primarily middle-aged (National Survey of…

  7. Psychopathy and Offending From Adolescence to Adulthood: A 10-Year Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gretton, Heather M.; Hare, Robert D.; Catchpole, Rosalind E. H.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the predictive validity of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV; A. E. Forth, D. S. Kosson, & R. D. Hare, 2003) from adolescence to early adulthood. The authors coded the PCL:YV using file information and collected criminal record information over a 10-year follow-up period on 157 boys, ages 12 through 18,…

  8. A Comparative Study of Clinical Correlates in Schizophrenia with Onset in Childhood, Adolescence and Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biswas, Parthasarathy; Malhotra, Savita; Malhotra, Anil; Gupta, Nitin

    2006-01-01

    Background: Childhood onset schizophrenia (COS) is a rare disorder. Comparative data on the effect of differential age of onset on clinical profile in schizophrenia are very few. Method: Subjects with COS (n = 15), adolescence onset schizophrenia (AdOS, n = 20) and adulthood onset schizophrenia (AOS, n = 20) were compared on socio-demographic,…

  9. Childhood personality as a harbinger of competence and resilience in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Shiner, Rebecca L; Masten, Ann S

    2012-05-01

    This study examined the significance of childhood Big Five personality traits for competence and resilience in early adulthood. Resilience was defined in terms of adaptive success in age-salient developmental tasks despite significant adversity throughout childhood/adolescence. The Project Competence Longitudinal Study tracked 205 young people from childhood (around age 10) to emerging adulthood (EA, age 20) and young adulthood (YA, age 30; 90% retention). Multimethod composites were created for personality traits, adversity exposure, and adult outcomes of academic achievement, work, rule-abiding conduct, friendship, and romantic relationships. Regressions showed significant main effects of childhood personality predicting adult outcomes, controlling for adversity, with few interaction effects. In person-focused analyses, the resilient group in EA and YA (high competence, high adversity) showed higher childhood conscientiousness, agreeableness, and openness and lower neuroticism than the maladaptive group (low competence, high adversity). The competent (high competence, low adversity) and resilient groups showed similar childhood traits. Turnaround cases, who changed from the maladaptive group in EA to the resilient group in YA, exhibited higher childhood conscientiousness than persistently maladaptive peers. Findings suggest that children on pathways to success in adulthood, whether facing low or high adversity, have capacities for emotion regulation, empathy and connection, dedication to schoolwork, and mastery and exploration. PMID:22559127

  10. Exposure to Childhood Sexual and Physical Abuse and Adjustment in Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fergusson, David M.; Boden, Joseph M.; Horwood, L. John

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This research examined linkages between exposure to childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and childhood physical punishment/abuse (CPA) and mental health issues in early adulthood. Method: The investigation analyzed data from a birth cohort of over 1,000 New Zealand young adults studied to the age of 25. Results: Exposure to CSA and CPA was…

  11. Through Wise Eyes: Thriving Elder Women's Perspectives on Thriving in Elder Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford, Beverly Hardcastle

    2006-01-01

    Prompted by increasing U.S. longevity and aging demographics, this phenomenological study explored what it is like for 13 women, 75-91, to thrive in elder adulthood. Through multiple interviews, projective inventories, and focus groups, 6 group patterns emerged: (a) vital involvement and service, (b) desire to learn, (c) appreciation of basic life…

  12. The Influence of a Small Christian University's Culture on Selected Characteristics of Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuster, Melvin; Mongetta, Jillian

    2009-01-01

    In the past 50 years researchers have identified a number of demographic shifts occurring within industrialized societies that have resulted in changes in the nature of the developmental processes occurring in young adults. Arnett (2000) labels this new, socially constructed time period, between the ages of 18 and 25 years, as emerging adulthood.…

  13. Childhood Poverty and the Transition to Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Kendig, Sarah M; Mattingly, Marybeth J; Bianchi, Suzanne M

    2014-04-01

    The authors used the Panel Study of Income Dynamics 2007 Transition to Adulthood data in combination with the 2002 Child Development Supplement to examine social class bifurcation in young adulthood. Results indicate that poor youth possibly take on adult roles "too early" at the same time that high-income youth may be supported for a long period past their 18(th) birthday. Although not all evidence is consistent with this bifurcated story, childhood poverty does play a key role. Young adults from poor families establish financial independence early (e.g., contributing to family bills during adolescence, considering themselves fully responsible for their finances as young adults), whereas young adults from more affluent homes are more likely to receive financial transfers from their parents (who often help them pay for college and other expenses). These findings highlight the ways in which socioeconomic inequality in childhood can differentiate youth's experiences of adolescence and young adulthood.

  14. Sibling Relationships during the Transition to Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Conger, Katherine Jewsbury; Little, Wendy M.

    2009-01-01

    Recent research has shed new light on individual development during the early adulthood years, yet few investigators have examined sibling relationships during this stage of life. These relationships undergo transformations as individuals enter adult roles and orient their lives towards friends and romantic partners and establish independence from parents and siblings. This review examines major life events and role transitions such as leaving home, completing school, obtaining employment, getting married, and having children that influence individuals and their sibling relationships. In addition, the review considers how sibling relationships may affect individuals during the transition to adulthood, and considers the context of family and culture. The article concludes with suggestions for future research on sibling relationships during early adulthood and beyond. PMID:20700389

  15. Differences in early onset alcohol use and heavy drinking among persons with childhood and adulthood trauma.

    PubMed

    Waldrop, Angela E; Ana, Elizabeth J Santa; Saladin, Michael E; McRae, Aimee L; Brady, Kathleen T

    2007-01-01

    We examined predictors for age at onset of first alcohol use and onset of heaviest alcohol use among men (n = 43) and women (n = 46) with alcohol dependence and PTSD, PTSD only, alcohol dependence only, and controls, with a particular focus on individuals with child versus adult trauma. Using analysis of variance procedures, results showed differences in onset of first alcohol use and heaviest drinking between childhood and adulthood trauma victims. These preliminary results indicate that behavioral mechanisms associated with alcohol use patterns between individuals with childhood and adulthood trauma are dissimilar, suggesting greater psychopathological consequences for individuals with childhood trauma.

  16. Growing up fast: stress exposure and subjective "weathering" in emerging adulthood.

    PubMed

    Foster, Holly; Hagan, John; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2008-06-01

    We examine "subjective weathering" among females entering adulthood, using three waves of a national study. Subjective weathering is a social psychological component of aging that is associated with "physical weathering" previously observed in research on physical health. We examine the influence of stressors from childhood and adolescence on subjective weathering and depressive symptoms in emerging adulthood. Childhood abuse is associated with early menarche, as anticipated in research on physical weathering. Early menarche and child abuse are in turn associated with intimate partner violence exposure in adolescence. Both early menarche and intimate partner violence are associated with early parenthood and diminish the likelihood of high school graduation. These experiences culminate in subjective weathering associated with depressive symptoms in emerging adulthood. Our findings connect physical and subjective weathering within the stress process paradigm.

  17. The Continuation of Intimate Partner Violence from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Ming; Ueno, Koji; Gordon, Mellissa; Fincham, Frank D.

    2012-01-01

    Little attention has been paid to whether violence in adolescent romantic relationships is associated with relationship violence later in young adulthood. This study examined the continuation of intimate partner violence (IPV) from adolescence to young adulthood. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, results from negative binomial models and propensity score models showed that being victimized by relationship partners in adolescence was significantly associated with both perpetration and victimization in romantic relationships in young adulthood. Women reported higher levels of perpetration and lower levels of victimization than men did. Those who were living together (married or cohabiting) reported higher levels of victimization and perpetration than those who were dating. Further, such associations existed beyond the effects of parent–child violence and general aggression tendencies, suggesting the continuation of relationship-specific violence. Finally, these patterns persisted after controlling for participants’ age, race and ethnicity, parental education, and family structure. PMID:23687386

  18. BODY WEIGHT AND HEALTH FROM EARLY TO MID-ADULTHOOD: A LONGITUDINAL ANALYSIS*

    PubMed Central

    Zajacova, Anna; Burgard, Sarah A.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the influence of body weight in early adulthood, and changes in weight over time, on self rated health (SRH) as people age into mid-adulthood. While prior research focused on cross-sectional samples of older adults, we use longitudinal data from the NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study (NHEFS) and double-trajectory latent growth models to study the association between body mass index (BMI) and SRH trajectories over twenty years. Results indicate that high BMI in early adulthood and gaining more weight over time are both associated with a faster decline in health ratings. Among white women only, those with a higher BMI at the baseline also report lower initial SRH. A small part of the weight-health associations is due to sociodemographic factors, but not baseline health behaviors or medical conditions. The findings provide new support for the cumulative disadvantage perspective, documenting the increasing health inequalities in a cohort of young adults. PMID:20420297

  19. From Childhood Maltreatment to Allostatic Load in Adulthood: The Role of Social Support.

    PubMed

    Horan, Jacqueline M; Widom, Cathy S

    2015-11-01

    Although previous research has documented that social support acts as a protective factor for individuals exposed to trauma, most research relies on assessments of social support at one point in time. The present study used data from a prospective cohort design study to examine the stability of social support from childhood through middle adulthood in individuals with documented histories of childhood abuse and neglect and matched controls (aged 0-11) and assessed the impact of social support on allostatic load, a composite measure of physiological stress response assessed through blood tests and physical measurements, in middle adulthood. Maltreated children are more likely to have unstable social support across the life span, compared to matched controls. Social support across the life span partially mediated the relationship between child maltreatment and allostatic load in adulthood, although there were differences by race and sex. These findings have implications for interventions to prevent the negative consequences of child maltreatment.

  20. Lifespan adversity and later adulthood telomere length in the nationally representative US Health and Retirement Study

    PubMed Central

    Gemmill, Alison; Weir, David; Adler, Nancy E.; Prather, Aric A.

    2016-01-01

    Stress over the lifespan is thought to promote accelerated aging and early disease. Telomere length is a marker of cell aging that appears to be one mediator of this relationship. Telomere length is associated with early adversity and with chronic stressors in adulthood in many studies. Although cumulative lifespan adversity should have bigger impacts than single events, it is also possible that adversity in childhood has larger effects on later life health than adult stressors, as suggested by models of biological embedding in early life. No studies have examined the individual vs. cumulative effects of childhood and adulthood adversities on adult telomere length. Here, we examined the relationship between cumulative childhood and adulthood adversity, adding up a range of severe financial, traumatic, and social exposures, as well as comparing them to each other, in relation to salivary telomere length. We examined 4,598 men and women from the US Health and Retirement Study. Single adversities tended to have nonsignificant relations with telomere length. In adjusted models, lifetime cumulative adversity predicted 6% greater odds of shorter telomere length. This result was mainly due to childhood adversity. In adjusted models for cumulative childhood adversity, the occurrence of each additional childhood event predicted 11% increased odds of having short telomeres. This result appeared mainly because of social/traumatic exposures rather than financial exposures. This study suggests that the shadow of childhood adversity may reach far into later adulthood in part through cellular aging. PMID:27698131

  1. Maturing out of alcohol involvement: transitions in latent drinking statuses from late adolescence to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lee, Matthew R; Chassin, Laurie; Villalta, Ian K

    2013-11-01

    Research has shown a developmental process of "maturing out" of alcohol involvement beginning in young adulthood, but the precise nature of changes characterizing maturing out is unclear. We used latent transition analysis to investigate these changes in a high-risk sample from a longitudinal study of familial alcoholism (N = 844; 51% children of alcoholics; 53% male, 71% non-Hispanic Caucasian, 27% Hispanic). Analyses classified participants into latent drinking statuses during late adolescence (ages 17-22), young adulthood (ages 23-28), and adulthood (ages 29-40), and characterized transitions among these statuses over time. The resulting four statuses were abstainers, low-risk drinkers who typically drank less than weekly and rarely binged or showed drinking problems, moderate-risk drinkers who typically binged less than weekly and showed moderate risk for drinking problems, and high-risk drinkers who typically binged at least weekly and showed high risk for drinking problems. Maturing out between late adolescence and young adulthood was most common among initial high-risk drinkers, but they typically declined to moderate-risk drinking rather than to nonrisky drinking statuses. This suggests that the developmental phenomenon of maturing out pertains primarily to relatively high-risk initial drinkers and that many high-risk drinkers who mature out merely reduce rather than eliminate their risky drinking. PMID:24229554

  2. The Military and the Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelty, Ryan; Kleykamp, Meredith; Segal, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Ryan Kelty, Meredith Kleykamp, and David Segal examine the effect of military service on the transition to adulthood. They highlight changes since World War II in the role of the military in the lives of young adults, focusing especially on how the move from a conscription to an all-volunteer military has changed the way military service affects…

  3. Predicting Markers of Adulthood among Adolescent Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxford, Monica L.; Lee, Jungeun O.; Lohr, Mary Jane

    2010-01-01

    This prospective longitudinal study examines the antecedents of adolescent mothers' transition into adulthood and their attainment of multiple adult statuses in their early 30s in a nonclinical sample. The distribution, timing, and impact of factors in adolescence (education, employment, marriage, economic status, criminal involvement, and others)…

  4. Predictors of Positive Development in Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Meredith; Sanson, Ann; Hawkins, Mary T.; Letcher, Primrose; Toumbourou, John W.; Smart, Diana; Vassallo, Suzanne; Olsson, Craig A.

    2011-01-01

    This article responds to recent calls for a focus on successful development in young people and examination of its developmental precursors, in order to identify potentially modifiable targets for interventions. The current study examined child and adolescent precursors of positive functioning in emerging adulthood, including individual…

  5. Counterfactual Reasoning: From Childhood to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafetseder, Eva; Schwitalla, Maria; Perner, Josef

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the developmental progression of counterfactual reasoning from childhood to adulthood. In contrast to the traditional view, it was recently reported by Rafetseder and colleagues that even a majority of 6-year-old children do not engage in counterfactual reasoning when asked counterfactual questions…

  6. Vulnerable Populations and the Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osgood, D. Wayne; Foster, E. Michael; Courtney, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    D. Wayne Osgood, E. Michael Foster, and Mark E. Courtney examine the transition to adulthood for youth involved in social service and justice systems during childhood and adolescence. They survey the challenges faced by youth in the mental health system, the foster care system, the juvenile justice system, the criminal justice system, and special…

  7. Novelty Seeking in Adulthood: Increases Accompany Decline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reio, Thomas G., Jr.; Choi, Namok

    2004-01-01

    Using stereotypes, researchers have predicted that novelty seeking declines in adulthood. Through this cross-sectional study, the authors revealed that only the external sensational type of novelty seeking declined, whereas the internal sensational and internal and external cognitive types remained stable or increased. A population of 233 adults…

  8. Transition into Adulthood and the Disabled Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Violet Y.

    2011-01-01

    Transitioning in to adult-hood as a special needs youth can be a challenging experience for both disabled youth and their families. IDEA 2004 legislation mandates all special needs individuals receive skill development in the areas of self-determination, self-advocacy, employment, adult service agency access and independent living. School…

  9. Emerging Adulthood in Mexican and Spanish Youth: Theories and Realities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arias, Daniel Fierro; Hernandez, Amparo Moreno

    2007-01-01

    A delay in the end of the adolescent period, and hence the onset of common adult roles, is a trend in most of today's Western industrialized societies. Related to this fact, in recent years emerging adulthood has been proposed as a distinct developmental period between adolescence and young adulthood. Typical normative markers of adulthood are…

  10. Ongoing incestuous abuse during adulthood.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Warwick

    2013-01-01

    Individual cases of adult incestuous abuse have surfaced repeatedly in the lay and professional literature of the past 1.5 centuries without it occasioning systematic investigation, such as the reporting of a case series of individuals subjected to such extreme abuse. Yet substantial numbers of patients with dissociative identity disorder at the time of presentation report incestuous abuse continuing into the adult years, and for many the abuse is ongoing. Data relating to a series of 10 such incestuously abused women are presented. These patients were sexually abused from a very early age (typically from before age 3), with the manipulation of their sexual response a key component in conditioning an enduring sexualized attachment. Shame and fear were also used to ensure compliance and silence. The women, when able to speak of it, describe the induction by their paternal abuser of orgasm at an early age, typically around the age of 6. The women have high indices of self-harm and suicidality and are prone to placing themselves in dangerous reenactment scenarios. The average duration of incestuous abuse for this group of women was 31 years, and the average estimate of total episodes of sexual abuse was 3,320. Most women do not feel that they own their body and experience being "fused" to their father. Their mother was reported as an active participant in the sexual abuse or as having done nothing to protect their daughter despite seeing obvious evidence of incest. The fathers, despite a propensity to use or threaten violence, were generally outwardly productively employed, financially comfortable, and stably married and half had close church involvement. However, suicide and murder occurred within the 1st- or 2nd-degree relatives of these women at a high frequency. All 10 had been sexually abused by various groupings of individuals connected to their fathers. PMID:23627476

  11. Ongoing incestuous abuse during adulthood.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Warwick

    2013-01-01

    Individual cases of adult incestuous abuse have surfaced repeatedly in the lay and professional literature of the past 1.5 centuries without it occasioning systematic investigation, such as the reporting of a case series of individuals subjected to such extreme abuse. Yet substantial numbers of patients with dissociative identity disorder at the time of presentation report incestuous abuse continuing into the adult years, and for many the abuse is ongoing. Data relating to a series of 10 such incestuously abused women are presented. These patients were sexually abused from a very early age (typically from before age 3), with the manipulation of their sexual response a key component in conditioning an enduring sexualized attachment. Shame and fear were also used to ensure compliance and silence. The women, when able to speak of it, describe the induction by their paternal abuser of orgasm at an early age, typically around the age of 6. The women have high indices of self-harm and suicidality and are prone to placing themselves in dangerous reenactment scenarios. The average duration of incestuous abuse for this group of women was 31 years, and the average estimate of total episodes of sexual abuse was 3,320. Most women do not feel that they own their body and experience being "fused" to their father. Their mother was reported as an active participant in the sexual abuse or as having done nothing to protect their daughter despite seeing obvious evidence of incest. The fathers, despite a propensity to use or threaten violence, were generally outwardly productively employed, financially comfortable, and stably married and half had close church involvement. However, suicide and murder occurred within the 1st- or 2nd-degree relatives of these women at a high frequency. All 10 had been sexually abused by various groupings of individuals connected to their fathers.

  12. Social Networks of Homeless Youth in Emerging Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Wenzel, Suzanne; Holloway, Ian; Golinelli, Daniela; Ewing, Brett; Bowman, Richard; Tucker, Joan

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the social networks of homeless youth in emerging adulthood despite the importance of this information for interventions to reduce health risks. This study examined the composition of social networks, and the risks and supports present within them, in a random sample of 349 homeless youth (33.4% female, 23.9% African American, 17.7% Hispanic) between the ages of 18 and 24. Social network members who were met on the street were among the most likely to be perceived as engaging in risky sex, as well as to engage in substance use with the youth. Youth were more likely to count on relatives and sex partners for support compared to other network members, but they also were more likely to use substances with sex partners and perceived them as engaging in risky sex. Interventions may need to recognize the importance of intimate relationships during the developmental stage of emerging adulthood by enhancing supportive bonds and reducing substance use and risky sex in these relationships. PMID:21863378

  13. Social networks of homeless youth in emerging adulthood.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, Suzanne; Holloway, Ian; Golinelli, Daniela; Ewing, Brett; Bowman, Richard; Tucker, Joan

    2012-05-01

    Little is known about the social networks of homeless youth in emerging adulthood despite the importance of this information for interventions to reduce health risks. This study examined the composition of social networks, and the risks and supports present within them, in a random sample of 349 homeless youth (33.4% female, 23.9% African American, 17.7% Hispanic) between the ages of 18 and 24. Social network members who were met on the street were among the most likely to be perceived as engaging in risky sex, as well as to engage in substance use with the youth. Youth were more likely to count on relatives and sex partners for support compared to other network members, but they also were more likely to use substances with sex partners and perceived them as engaging in risky sex. Interventions may need to recognize the importance of intimate relationships during the developmental stage of emerging adulthood by enhancing supportive bonds and reducing substance use and risky sex in these relationships.

  14. Cannabis Use and Related Harms in the Transition to Young Adulthood: A Longitudinal Study of Australian Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Patton, George C.; Toumbourou, John W.

    2013-01-01

    The current study documents the changing rates of cannabis use, misuse and cannabis-related social harms among Australian adolescents as they grow into young adulthood. It utilised data from a longitudinal study of young people at ages 15, 16, 17, and 19. The rates of cannabis use were found to increase as participants aged; past year use…

  15. Goal Disengagement Capacities and Severity of Disease across Older Adulthood: The Sample Case of the Common Cold

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jobin, Joelle; Wrosch, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    This study examined age-related associations between goal disengagement capacities, emotional distress, and disease severity across older adulthood. Given that an age-related increase in the experience of stressors might render important goals unattainable, it is expected that goal disengagement capacities would predict a decrease in the severity…

  16. Evaluation of the Psychometric Properties of the Revised Inventory of the Dimensions of Emerging Adulthood (IDEA-R) in a Sample of Continuation High School Students.

    PubMed

    Lisha, Nadra E; Grana, Rachel; Sun, Ping; Rohrbach, Louise; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Reifman, Alan; Sussman, Steve

    2014-06-01

    It is now presumed that youth do not move directly from adolescence to adulthood, but rather pass through a transitional period, "emerging adulthood." The Revised Inventory of the Dimensions of Emerging Adulthood (IDEA-R) is a self-report instrument developed to examine the attributes of this period. "At-risk" youth appear to enter emerging adulthood developmental tasks at a slightly earlier age than general population youth. In the present study, a 21-item version of the IDEA was administered to a sample of 1676 "at-risk" continuation (alternative) high school students in Southern California. Principal component factor analysis with orthogonal rotation revealed three factors the authors labeled "Identity Exploration," "Experimentation/Possibilities," and "Independence." Overall, the measure demonstrated high internal consistency. Construct validity analyses indicated that the measure was correlated with demographics, risk behaviors, and psychological measures. The authors conclude that the IDEA-R is a useful instrument for measuring emerging adulthood in at-risk populations.

  17. Prevalence and predictors of sexual inexperience in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Haydon, Abigail A; Cheng, Mariah M; Herring, Amy H; McRee, Annie-Laurie; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker

    2014-02-01

    The emergence of partnered sexual behavior represents an important developmental transition. However, little is known about individuals who remain sexually inexperienced well into adulthood. We used data from 2,857 individuals who participated in Waves I-IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) and reported no sexual activity (i.e., oral-genital, vaginal, or anal sex) by age 18 to identify, using discrete-time survival models, adolescent sociodemographic, biosocial, and behavioral characteristics that predicted adult sexual inexperience. The mean age of participants at Wave IV was 28.5 years (SD = 1.92). Over one out of eight participants who did not initiate sexual activity during adolescence remained abstinent as young adults. Sexual non-attraction significantly predicted sexual inexperience among both males (aOR = 0.5) and females (aOR = 0.6). Males also had lower odds of initiating sexual activity after age 18 if they were non-Hispanic Asian, reported later than average pubertal development, or were rated as physically unattractive (aORs = 0.6-0.7). Females who were overweight, had lower cognitive performance, or reported frequent religious attendance had lower odds of sexual experience (aORs = 0.7-0.8) while those who were rated by the interviewers as very attractive or whose parents had lower educational attainment had higher odds of sexual experience (aORs = 1.4-1.8). Our findings underscore the heterogeneity of this unique population and suggest that there are a number of different pathways that may lead to either voluntary or involuntary adult sexual inexperience. Understanding the meaning of sexual inexperience in young adulthood may have important implications for the study of sexuality development across the life course.

  18. The role of task persistence in young adolescence for successful educational and occupational attainment in middle adulthood.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Håkan; Bergman, Lars R

    2011-07-01

    The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the importance of task persistence in young adolescence for successful educational and occupational attainment in middle adulthood. Data from age 13 (N = 1,092) and adult age (age 43 for women, N = 569 and age 47 for men, N = 393) were taken from the Swedish longitudinal research program entitled "Individual Development and Adaptation." In line with previous research, task persistence was found to be related to changes in grades between age 13 and age 16, over and above other childhood factors. Task persistence at age 13 was also a significant predictor of both income and occupational level in middle adulthood for the men, controlling for a number of childhood factors (including intelligence), and even when educational attainment in adulthood was taken into account. Finally, task persistence was related to educational attainment in adulthood. The authors suggest that task persistence is a second fundamental factor besides general mental ability, influencing attainment within the area of working life and education. The influence of task persistence is discussed in form of personality-environment selection mechanisms.

  19. A study of the dynamics of sex differences in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Trofimova, Irina

    2013-01-01

    Studies of gender differences using primarily young individuals show that males, on average, perform better than females in physical activities but worse than females on tests of verbal abilities. There is however a controversy about the existence of these sex differences in adulthood. Our study used 1271 participants from four cultural backgrounds (Chinese, multi-generation Canadians, Indu-Canadians, and European-Canadians) divided in five age groups. We measured sex differences in the time required for participants to complete a lexical task experiment, and also assessed their verbal tempo and physical endurance using a validated temperament test (Structure of Temperament Questionnaire). We found a significant female advantage in time on the lexical task and on the temperament scale of social-verbal tempo, and a male advantage on the temperament scale of physical endurance. These sex differences, however, were more pronounced in young age groups (17-24), fading in older groups. This "middle age-middle sex" phenomenon suggests that sex differences in these two types of abilities observed in younger groups might be "a matter of age," and should not be attributed to gender in general. A one-dimensional approach to sex differences (common in meta-analytic studies) therefore overlooks a possible interaction of sex differences with age. PMID:23442018

  20. "Gateway hypothesis" and early drug use: Additional findings from tracking a population-based sample of adolescents to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Nkansah-Amankra, Stephen; Minelli, Mark

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the consistency of the relationship between early drug use in adolescence and illegal drug use in adulthood as proposed in the "gateway theory" and to determine whether pre-existing depressive symptoms modifies this relationship. We used contractual data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult health data spanning a 14 year period. We assessed the relationship between gateway drugs at baseline (age 11-20 years) and drug use in adulthood using generalized estimating equation (GEE) regression models. Gateways drugs used in early adolescence were significantly associated with marijuana use, illegal drugs and cocaine in older adolescence, but over time these relationships were not consistent in adulthood. Changes in the pattern of psychoactive drug use were important predictors of drug use in adulthood. A history of higher depressive symptoms was associated with higher frequencies of psychoactive drug use over time. Users of mental health services in adolescence were less likely to use drugs in older adolescence and in adulthood. Relationships between early drug use and later drug use in adulthood cannot be solely explained by the gateway hypothesis. Collectively, adolescent drug prevention and treatment programs should apply theory-based and evidence-proven multisectoral intervention strategies rather than providing a brief counseling on individual's behaviors. This evidence should include understanding that changes in behavior should involve broader analyses of the underlying social context for drug use and in particular the role of the community social norms in driving a group's behaviors. PMID:27413674

  1. Emerging Adulthood: Age-Related Tasks and Underlying Self Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman, Shmuel; Feldman, Benni; Blatt, Sidney; Cohen, Omri; Mahler, Amalya

    2005-01-01

    Seventy-two Israeli emerging adults were interviewed for descriptions of themselves and accounts of their personal, social, and professional dreams, current life status, romantic relationships, and relationships with their parents. Interviews were transcribed and rated on scales assessing self-processes, attainment of professional and romantic…

  2. Journal of Young Adulthood and Middle Age, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Young Adulthood and Middle Age, 1991

    1991-01-01

    The "Articles" section of this issue includes: (1) "Continuing Education Needs of Counselors Working with Adult Clients: Results of A Survey" (Larry Burlew and Peter Emerson); (2) "Gender Differences in Adult Development" (Cindy Rigamer); (3) "Developmental Counseling and Therapy with Involuntary Midlife Career Changes" (Dianne M. Kenney and…

  3. Treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Castrén, Eero; Elgersma, Ype; Maffei, Lamberto; Hagerman, Randi

    2012-10-10

    Brain development in neurodevelopmental disorders has been considered to comprise a sequence of critical periods, and abnormalities occurring during early development have been considered irreversible in adulthood. However, findings in mouse models of neurodevelopmental disorders, including fragile X, Rett syndrome, Down syndrome, and neurofibromatosis type I suggest that it is possible to reverse certain molecular, electrophysiological, and behavioral deficits associated with these disorders in adults by genetic or pharmacological manipulations. Furthermore, recent studies have suggested that critical period-like plasticity can be reactivated in the adult brain by environmental manipulations or by pharmacotherapy. These studies open up a tantalizing possibility that targeted pharmacological treatments in combination with regimes of training or rehabilitation might alleviate or reverse the symptoms of neurodevelopmental disorders even after the end of critical developmental periods. Even though translation from animal experimentation to clinical practice is challenging, these results suggest a rational basis for treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders in adulthood.

  4. Obesity Early in Adulthood Increases Risk but Does Not Affect Outcomes of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Manal M.; Abdel-Wahab, Reham; Kaseb, Ahmed; Shalaby, Ahmed; Phan, Alexandria T.; El-Serag, Hashem B.; Hawk, Ernest; Morris, Jeff; Raghav, Kanwal Pratap Singh; Lee, Ju-Seog; Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas; Bortus, Gehan; Torres, Harrys A.; Amos, Christopher I.; Wolff, Robert A.; Li, Donghui

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS Despite the significant association between obesity and several cancers, it has been difficult to establish an association between obesity and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Patients with HCC often have ascites, making it a challenge to accurately determine body mass index (BMI), and many factors contribute to the development of HCC. We performed a case–control study to investigate whether obesity early in adulthood affects risk, age of onset, or outcomes of patients with HCC. METHODS We interviewed 622 patients newly diagnosed with HCC from January 2004 through December 2013, along with 660 healthy controls (frequency-matched by age and sex) to determine weights, heights, and body sizes (self-reported) at various ages before HCC development or enrollment as controls. Multivariable logistic and Cox regression analyses were performed to determine the independent effects of early obesity on risk for HCC and patient outcomes, respectively. BMI was calculated, and patients with a BMI ≥30 kg/m2 were considered obese. RESULTS Obesity in early adulthood (age, mid-20s to mid-40s) is a significant risk factor for HCC. The estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were 2.6 (1.4–4.4), 2.3 (1.2–4.4), and 3.6 (1.5–8.9) for the entire population, men, and women, respectively. Each unit increase in BMI at early adulthood was associated with a 3.89-month decrease in age at HCC diagnosis (P<.001). Moreover, there is a synergistic interaction between obesity and hepatitis virus infection. However, we found no effect of obesity on the overall survival of patients with HCC. CONCLUSION Early adulthood obesity is associated with increased risk of developing HCC at a young age in the absence of major HCC risk factors, with no effect on outcomes of patients with HCC. PMID:25836985

  5. Approximate flavor symmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Rasin, A.

    1994-04-01

    We discuss the idea of approximate flavor symmetries. Relations between approximate flavor symmetries and natural flavor conservation and democracy models is explored. Implications for neutrino physics are also discussed.

  6. Narrative and the social construction of adulthood.

    PubMed

    Hammack, Phillip L; Toolis, Erin

    2014-01-01

    This chapter develops three points of elaboration and theoretical expansion upon Cohler's (1982) treatise on personal narrative and life course. First, we highlight Cohler's emphasis on an interpretive, idiographic approach to the study of lives and reveal the radicalism of this approach, particularly in its ability to interrogate the lived experience of social categorization. Second, we link Cohler's position directly to cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT) and consider the link between inner and social speech through the idea of narrative engagement. Finally, following Cohler's life course perspective on human development, we suggest that adulthood is best conceived as a cultural discourse to which individuals orient their personal narratives through a dynamic process of narrative engagement rather than a clearly demarcated life stage. Emerging adulthood is linked to cultural and economic processes of globalization in the 21st century and challenges static notions of social roles traditionally associated with compulsory heterosexuality (e.g., marriage and parenthood). Narrative processes in emerging adulthood occur through both situated storytelling and the formation of a life story that provides coherence and social meaning, both of which have key implications for social stasis and change. PMID:25251509

  7. Functional outcomes of very premature infants into adulthood.

    PubMed

    Saigal, Saroj

    2014-04-01

    The outcomes of very low birth weight survivors born in the early post-neonatal intensive care era have now been reported to young adulthood in several longitudinal cohort studies, and more recently from large Scandinavian national databases. The latter reports corroborate the findings that despite disabilities, a significant majority of very low birth weight survivors are leading productive lives, and are functioning better than expected. This is reassuring, but there are still concerns about future psychopathology, cardiovascular and metabolic problems as they approach middle age. Although these findings may not be directly applicable to the current survivors of modern neonatal intensive care, they do provide a yardstick by which to project the outcomes of future survivors until more contemporaneous data are available. PMID:24289905

  8. Physical activity and brain plasticity in late adulthood.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Kirk I; Gildengers, Ariel G; Butters, Meryl A

    2013-03-01

    The human brain shrinks with advancing age, but recent research suggests that it is also capable of remarkable plasticity, even in late life. In this review we summarize the research linking greater amounts of physical activity to less cortical atrophy, better brain function, and enhanced cognitive function, and argue that physical activity takes advantage of the brain's natural capacity for plasticity. Further, although the effects of physical activity on the brain are relatively widespread, there is also some specificity, such that prefrontal and hippocampal areas appear to be more influenced than other areas of the brain. The specificity of these effects, we argue, provides a biological basis for understanding the capacity for physical activity to influence neurocognitive and neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression. We conclude that physical activity is a promising intervention that can influence the endogenous pharmacology of the brain to enhance cognitive and emotional function in late adulthood.

  9. The Transition to Adulthood: Life Course Structures and Subjective Perceptions*

    PubMed Central

    Eliason, Scott R.; Mortimer, Jeylan T.; Vuolo, Mike

    2015-01-01

    We examine the relationships between objective life course structures and the subjective sense of timing of adult roles and acquisition of adult identity. Hierarchical latent class analysis is applied to longitudinal data from the Youth Development Study, describing roles related to school, work, family formation, and living arrangements from age 17 to 30. The transition to adulthood in this cohort is well-represented by five pathways probabilistically mapping the timing and sequencing of these roles and their configurations. Three pathways are characterized by a school-to-work transition with on-time, delayed, or negligible family formation. The remaining pathways involve early parenthood with either a partner and stable full-time work or the lack of a partner and low labor force attachment. We then show that the subjective sense of timing with respect to certain adult roles and adult identity acquisition is empirically tied to these life course structures. PMID:26441473

  10. Adolescent home-leaving and the transition to adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Egondi, Thaddaeus; Kabiru, Caroline; Beguy, Donatien; Kanyiva, Muindi; Jessor, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Home-leaving is considered an important marker of the transition to adulthood and is usually framed as an individual decision. We move beyond this limited assumption to examine a broader conceptualization that might better illuminate home-leaving among youth in impoverished circumstances. We adopt the Problem Behavior Theory-framework to investigate the association of home-leaving with behavioral and psychosocial variables and with other transitions. We use data on adolescents aged 14–22 years from a three-wave study conducted between 2007 and 2010. We used variable- and person-centered cross-sectional analyses, as well as predictive analysis of home-leaving by subsequent waves. Parental controls protection predicted home-leaving by subsequent waves. Overall, protective factors moderated the association of problem behavior involvement with leaving home in Nairobi’s slums. PMID:24089582

  11. Stability, change, and heritability of borderline personality disorder traits from adolescence to adulthood: a longitudinal twin study.

    PubMed

    Bornovalova, Marina A; Hicks, Brian M; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

    2009-01-01

    Although personality disorders are best understood in the context of lifetime development, there is a paucity of work examining their longitudinal trajectory. An understanding of the expected course and the genetic and environmental contributions to these disorders is necessary for a detailed understanding of risk processes that lead to their manifestation. The current study examined the longitudinal course and heritability of borderline personality disorder (BPD) over a period of 10 years starting in adolescence (age 14) and ending in adulthood (age 24). In doing so, we built on existing research by using a large community sample of adolescent female twins, a sensitive dimensional measure of BPD traits, an extended follow-up period, and a longitudinal twin design that allowed us to investigate the heritability of BPD traits at four discrete ages spanning midadolescence to early adulthood. Results indicated that mean-level BPD traits significantly decline from adolescence to adulthood, but rank order stability remained high. BPD traits were moderately heritable at all ages, with a slight trend for increased heritability from age 14 to age 24. A genetically informed latent growth curve model indicated that both the stability and change of BPD traits are highly influenced by genetic factors and modestly by nonshared environmental factors. Our results indicate that as is the case for other personality dimensions, trait BPD declines as individuals mature from adolescence to adulthood, and that this process is influenced in part by the same genetic factors that influence BPD trait stability.

  12. Approximation of Laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niiniluoto, Ilkka

    2014-03-01

    Approximation of laws is an important theme in the philosophy of science. If we can make sense of the idea that two scientific laws are "close" to each other, then we can also analyze such methodological notions as approximate explanation of laws, approximate reduction of theories, approximate empirical success of theories, and approximate truth of laws. Proposals for measuring the distance between quantitative scientific laws were given in Niiniluoto (1982, 1987). In this paper, these definitions are reconsidered as a response to the interesting critical remarks by Liu (1999).

  13. The implications of adult identity for educational and work attainment in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Benson, Janel E; Johnson, Monica Kirkpatrick; Elder, Glen H

    2012-11-01

    This study investigates the relation of young adult identities (ages 18-22 years), reflecting subjective age and psychosocial maturity, to educational and career attainment in young adulthood (ages 25-29 years). Add Health data show that having an older subjective age alone does not curtail attainment; the critical issue is the level of psychosocial maturity that accompanies subjective age. Those with older subjective ages and low psychosocial maturation have the lowest attainment at ages 25-29 years, while those with older subjective ages and high psychosocial maturation show considerable progress toward work-related attainment. For those with younger subjective ages, a lower level of psychosocial maturity is not as detrimental to attainment. PMID:22103305

  14. Childhood and adulthood temperament and problem behaviors and adulthood substance use.

    PubMed

    Ohannessian, C M; Stabenau, J R; Hesselbrock, V M

    1995-01-01

    A sample of 229 adult men and women were assessed to examine the relationships between childhood and adulthood temperament and problem behaviors. The influence of these variables on adult substance use was also assessed. Results indicated that individuals who had "difficult" temperament characteristics (e.g., hyperactivity) and who experienced problem behaviors (e.g., antisocial behaviors) as children were likely to exhibit them as adults. In addition, the continuation of temperament characteristics and problem behaviors from childhood into adulthood did not demonstrate a high degree of specificity. When the relationships between temperament and problem behaviors to substance use were examined, conduct disorder during childhood and antisocial behavior during adulthood were found to be the best predictors of adult substance abuse. Moreover, this relationship became increasingly stronger with more substance involvement. These results underscore the importance of examining substance use in finer detail by assessing the pattern of substance use, instead of overall substance use involvement.

  15. Early Life Stress and Physical and Psychosocial Functioning in Late Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Alastalo, Hanna; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B.; Räikkönen, Katri; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Osmond, Clive; Barker, David J. P.; Heinonen, Kati; Kajantie, Eero; Eriksson, Johan G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Severe stress experienced in early life may have long-term effects on adult physiological and psychological health and well-being. We studied physical and psychosocial functioning in late adulthood in subjects separated temporarily from their parents in childhood during World War II. Methods The 1803 participants belong to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, born 1934–44. Of them, 267 (14.8%) had been evacuated abroad in childhood during WWII and the remaining subjects served as controls. Physical and psychosocial functioning was assessed with the Short Form 36 scale (SF-36) between 2001 and 2004. A test for trends was based on linear regression. All analyses were adjusted for age at clinical examination, social class in childhood and adulthood, smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, body mass index, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Results Physical functioning in late adulthood was lower among the separated men compared to non-separated men (b = −0.40, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: −0.71 to −0.08). Those men separated in school age (>7 years) and who were separated for a duration over 2 years had the highest risk for lower physical functioning (b = −0.89, 95% CI: −1.58 to −0.20) and (b = −0.65, 95% CI: −1.25 to −0.05), respectively). Men separated for a duration over 2 years also had lower psychosocial functioning (b = −0.70, 95% CI: −1.35 to −0.06). These differences in physical and psychosocial functioning were not observed among women. Conclusion Early life stress may increase the risk for impaired physical functioning in late adulthood among men. Timing and duration of the separation influenced the physical and psychosocial functioning in late adulthood. PMID:23861956

  16. Symptoms of Depression and Difficulty Initiating Sleep from Early Adolescence to Early Adulthood: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Hayley, Amie C.; Skogen, Jens Christoffer; Sivertsen, Børge; Wold, Bente; Berk, Michael; Pasco, Julie A.; Øverland, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To assess the direction of the relationship and degree of shared associations between symptoms of depression and difficulty initiating sleep (DIS) from early adolescence to early adulthood. Design: Cross-sectional and longitudinal assessment of the symptoms of depression-DIS association from early adolescence (age 13 y) to early adulthood (age 23 y). Setting: Hordaland, Norway. Participants: There were 1,105 individuals (55% male) who took part in the Norwegian Longitudinal Health Behaviour Study (NLHB) and participated at least once across seven data collection waves during the years 1990–2000. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Characteristic data were obtained during the first assessment. Symptoms of depression and instances of DIS were assessed during each data collection wave. Symptoms of depression and DIS were associated in all data waves, and one-step cross-lagged bivariate correlations were significant and comparatively high for both factors. Structural equation modelling indicated that DIS and symptoms of depression at wave 1 remain relatively stable across waves (all P < 0.001), and a significant and consistent unidirectional cross-lagged effect was noted running from symptoms of depression to DIS from early adolescence to early adulthood. DIS is only marginally and inconsistently associated with the lagged symptoms of depression score across waves. Conclusions: These results suggest that symptoms of depression established in early adolescence are a moderate predictor of difficulty initiating sleep (DIS) in early adulthood, whereas the reverse association of DIS predicting depression was not convincingly supported. These findings are in contrast to previous findings that suggest sleep problems as a risk factor for the later development of depression. Citation: Hayley AC, Skogen JC, Sivertsen B, Wold B, Berk M, Pasco JA, Øverland S. Symptoms of depression and difficulty initiating sleep from early adolescence to early

  17. Depression and Anxiety Change from Adolescence to Adulthood in Individuals with and without Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Botting, Nicola; Toseeb, Umar; Pickles, Andrew; Durkin, Kevin; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2016-01-01

    This prospective longitudinal study aims to determine patterns and predictors of change in depression and anxiety from adolescence to adulthood in individuals with language impairment (LI). Individuals with LI originally recruited at age 7 years and a comparison group of age-matched peers (AMPs) were followed from adolescence (16 years) to adulthood (24 years). We determine patterns of change in depression and anxiety using the Child Manifest Anxiety Scale-Revised (CMAS-R) and Short Moods and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ). In addition to examining associations with gender, verbal and nonverbal skills, we use a time-varying variable to investigate relationships between depression and anxiety symptoms and transitions in educational/employment circumstances. The results show that anxiety was higher in participants with LI than age matched peers and remained so from adolescence to adulthood. Individuals with LI had higher levels of depression symptoms than did AMPs at 16 years. Levels in those with LI decreased post-compulsory schooling but rose again by 24 years of age. Those who left compulsory school provision (regardless of school type) for more choice-driven college but who were not in full-time employment or study by 24 years of age were more likely to show this depression pathway. Verbal and nonverbal skills were not predictive of this pattern of depression over time. The typical female vulnerability for depression and anxiety was observed for AMPs but not for individuals with LI. These findings have implications for service provision, career/employment advice and support for individuals with a history of LI during different transitions from adolescence to adulthood. PMID:27404489

  18. Depression and Anxiety Change from Adolescence to Adulthood in Individuals with and without Language Impairment.

    PubMed

    Botting, Nicola; Toseeb, Umar; Pickles, Andrew; Durkin, Kevin; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2016-01-01

    This prospective longitudinal study aims to determine patterns and predictors of change in depression and anxiety from adolescence to adulthood in individuals with language impairment (LI). Individuals with LI originally recruited at age 7 years and a comparison group of age-matched peers (AMPs) were followed from adolescence (16 years) to adulthood (24 years). We determine patterns of change in depression and anxiety using the Child Manifest Anxiety Scale-Revised (CMAS-R) and Short Moods and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ). In addition to examining associations with gender, verbal and nonverbal skills, we use a time-varying variable to investigate relationships between depression and anxiety symptoms and transitions in educational/employment circumstances. The results show that anxiety was higher in participants with LI than age matched peers and remained so from adolescence to adulthood. Individuals with LI had higher levels of depression symptoms than did AMPs at 16 years. Levels in those with LI decreased post-compulsory schooling but rose again by 24 years of age. Those who left compulsory school provision (regardless of school type) for more choice-driven college but who were not in full-time employment or study by 24 years of age were more likely to show this depression pathway. Verbal and nonverbal skills were not predictive of this pattern of depression over time. The typical female vulnerability for depression and anxiety was observed for AMPs but not for individuals with LI. These findings have implications for service provision, career/employment advice and support for individuals with a history of LI during different transitions from adolescence to adulthood. PMID:27404489

  19. Depression and Anxiety Change from Adolescence to Adulthood in Individuals with and without Language Impairment.

    PubMed

    Botting, Nicola; Toseeb, Umar; Pickles, Andrew; Durkin, Kevin; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2016-01-01

    This prospective longitudinal study aims to determine patterns and predictors of change in depression and anxiety from adolescence to adulthood in individuals with language impairment (LI). Individuals with LI originally recruited at age 7 years and a comparison group of age-matched peers (AMPs) were followed from adolescence (16 years) to adulthood (24 years). We determine patterns of change in depression and anxiety using the Child Manifest Anxiety Scale-Revised (CMAS-R) and Short Moods and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ). In addition to examining associations with gender, verbal and nonverbal skills, we use a time-varying variable to investigate relationships between depression and anxiety symptoms and transitions in educational/employment circumstances. The results show that anxiety was higher in participants with LI than age matched peers and remained so from adolescence to adulthood. Individuals with LI had higher levels of depression symptoms than did AMPs at 16 years. Levels in those with LI decreased post-compulsory schooling but rose again by 24 years of age. Those who left compulsory school provision (regardless of school type) for more choice-driven college but who were not in full-time employment or study by 24 years of age were more likely to show this depression pathway. Verbal and nonverbal skills were not predictive of this pattern of depression over time. The typical female vulnerability for depression and anxiety was observed for AMPs but not for individuals with LI. These findings have implications for service provision, career/employment advice and support for individuals with a history of LI during different transitions from adolescence to adulthood.

  20. Life course transitions in early adulthood and SES disparities in tobacco use.

    PubMed

    Pampel, Fred C; Mollborn, Stefanie; Lawrence, Elizabeth M

    2014-01-01

    A huge literature has documented adult socioeconomic disparities in smoking but says less about how these disparities emerge over the life course. Building on findings that smoking among adolescents differs only modestly by parental SES, we utilize a life course perspective on social differentiation to help explain the widening disparities in smoking in young adulthood. Our theory suggests that achieved socioeconomic status and the nature and timing of adult role transitions affect age-based trajectories of smoking and widen disparities in adult smoking. The analyses use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, which follows a representative national sample over four waves from ages 11-17 in 1994/1995 to 26-34 in 2007/2008. The results show divergent age trajectories in smoking by parental education and that achieved socioeconomic status and life course roles in young adulthood account in good part for differences in the age trajectories. The findings demonstrate the value of the life course perspective in understanding processes of increasing stratification in health behavior and health during the transition to adulthood.

  1. Adversity in childhood linked to elevated striatal dopamine function in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Egerton, Alice; Valmaggia, Lucia R; Howes, Oliver D; Day, Fern; Chaddock, Christopher A; Allen, Paul; Winton-Brown, Toby T; Bloomfield, Michael A P; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; Chilcott, Jack; Lappin, Julia M; Murray, Robin M; McGuire, Philip

    2016-10-01

    Childhood adversity increases the risk of psychosis in adulthood. Theoretical and animal models suggest that this effect may be mediated by increased striatal dopamine neurotransmission. The primary objective of this study was to examine the relationship between adversity in childhood and striatal dopamine function in early adulthood. Secondary objectives were to compare exposure to childhood adversity and striatal dopamine function in young people at ultra high risk (UHR) of psychosis and healthy volunteers. Sixty-seven young adults, comprising 47 individuals at UHR for psychosis and 20 healthy volunteers were recruited from the same geographic area and were matched for age, gender and substance use. Presynaptic dopamine function in the associative striatum was assessed using 18F-DOPA positron emission tomography. Childhood adversity was assessed using the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse questionnaire. Within the sample as a whole, both severe physical or sexual abuse (T63=2.92; P=0.005), and unstable family arrangements (T57=2.80; P=0.007) in childhood were associated with elevated dopamine function in the associative striatum in adulthood. Comparison of the UHR and volunteer subgroups revealed similar incidence of childhood adverse experiences, and there was no significant group difference in dopamine function. This study provides evidence that childhood adversity is linked to elevated striatal dopamine function in adulthood. PMID:27344984

  2. Cumulative stress in childhood is associated with blunted reward-related brain activity in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Jamie L; Albert, Dustin; Iselin, Anne-Marie R; Carré, Justin M; Dodge, Kenneth A; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2016-03-01

    Early life stress (ELS) is strongly associated with negative outcomes in adulthood, including reduced motivation and increased negative mood. The mechanisms mediating these relations, however, are poorly understood. We examined the relation between exposure to ELS and reward-related brain activity, which is known to predict motivation and mood, at age 26, in a sample followed since kindergarten with annual assessments. Using functional neuroimaging, we assayed individual differences in the activity of the ventral striatum (VS) during the processing of monetary rewards associated with a simple card-guessing task, in a sample of 72 male participants. We examined associations between a cumulative measure of ELS exposure and VS activity in adulthood. We found that greater levels of cumulative stress during childhood and adolescence predicted lower reward-related VS activity in adulthood. Extending this general developmental pattern, we found that exposure to stress early in development (between kindergarten and grade 3) was significantly associated with variability in adult VS activity. Our results provide an important demonstration that cumulative life stress, especially during this childhood period, is associated with blunted reward-related VS activity in adulthood. These differences suggest neurobiological pathways through which a history of ELS may contribute to reduced motivation and increased negative mood. PMID:26443679

  3. Cumulative stress in childhood is associated with blunted reward-related brain activity in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Jamie L; Albert, Dustin; Iselin, Anne-Marie R; Carré, Justin M; Dodge, Kenneth A; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2016-03-01

    Early life stress (ELS) is strongly associated with negative outcomes in adulthood, including reduced motivation and increased negative mood. The mechanisms mediating these relations, however, are poorly understood. We examined the relation between exposure to ELS and reward-related brain activity, which is known to predict motivation and mood, at age 26, in a sample followed since kindergarten with annual assessments. Using functional neuroimaging, we assayed individual differences in the activity of the ventral striatum (VS) during the processing of monetary rewards associated with a simple card-guessing task, in a sample of 72 male participants. We examined associations between a cumulative measure of ELS exposure and VS activity in adulthood. We found that greater levels of cumulative stress during childhood and adolescence predicted lower reward-related VS activity in adulthood. Extending this general developmental pattern, we found that exposure to stress early in development (between kindergarten and grade 3) was significantly associated with variability in adult VS activity. Our results provide an important demonstration that cumulative life stress, especially during this childhood period, is associated with blunted reward-related VS activity in adulthood. These differences suggest neurobiological pathways through which a history of ELS may contribute to reduced motivation and increased negative mood.

  4. Heterogeneity of Depressive Symptom Trajectories through Adolescence: Predicting Outcomes in Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Chaiton, Michael; Contreras, Gisèle; Brunet, Jennifer; Sabiston, Catherine M.; O’Loughlin, Erin; Low, Nancy C. P.; Karp, Igor; Barnett, Tracie A.; O’Loughlin, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study describes developmental trajectories of depressive symptoms in adolescents and examines the association between trajectory group and mental health outcomes in young adulthood. Methods: Depressive symptoms were self-reported every three months from grade seven through grade 11 by 1293 adolescents in the Nicotine Dependence in Teens (NDIT) study and followed in young adulthood (average age 20.4, SD=0.7, n=865). Semi-parametric growth modeling was used to identify sex-specific trajectories of depressive symptoms. Results: Three distinct trajectory groups were identified: 50% of boys and 29% of girls exhibited low, decreasing levels of depressive symptoms; 14% of boys and 28% of girls exhibited high and increasing levels; and 36% of boys and 43% of girls exhibited moderate levels with linear increase. Trajectory group was a statistically significant independent predictor of depression, stress, and self-rated mental health in young adulthood in boys and girls. Boys, but not girls, in the high trajectory group had a statistically significant increase in the likelihood of seeking psychiatric care. Conclusions: Substantial heterogeneity in changes in depressive symptoms over time was found. Because early depressive symptoms predict mental health problems in young adulthood, monitoring adolescents for depressive symptoms may help identify those most at risk and in need of intervention. PMID:23667355

  5. Do Specific Transitional Patterns of Antisocial Behavior during Adolescence Increase Risk for Problems in Young Adulthood?

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Emily C.; Pflieger, Jacqueline C.; Connell, Arin M.; Connell, Christian M.

    2014-01-01

    Latent transition analysis was used to identify patterns and trajectories of antisocial behavior (ASB) and their association with young adult outcomes in a nationally representative sample of adolescents (N = 5,422; 53.9% female). Participants were on average 13.96 years of age (SD= 1.06) at wave 1 of the study. Latent class analysis identified four classes of ASB including a non-ASB class, an aggressive class, a petty theft class, and a serious ASB class. In general, youth who were classified as serious stable ASB were the most at risk for problematic functioning in young adulthood. Youth who escalated to more serious patterns of ASB or reduced involvement also were at greater risk of negative outcomes in young adulthood compared to stable non-ASB youth, although they generally fared better than youth involved in stable patterns of more serious ASB. Gender differences indicated that involvement in ASB was a greater risk factor for alcohol use among boys and a greater risk factor for depression among girls in young adulthood. Results are discussed in terms of the predictive validity of classes of ASB to functioning in young adulthood and the implications of this research for prevention efforts. PMID:24893667

  6. Birth weight and cognitive function in early adulthood: the Australian Aboriginal birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Pearce, M S; Mann, K D; Singh, G; Sayers, S M

    2014-06-01

    It has been suggested that in addition to genetic factors, fetal and post-natal growth influence cognition in early adulthood. However, most studies have been in developed populations, so it is unclear if the same findings would be seen in other, less developed, settings, and have used testing tools not applicable to an Australia Aboriginal population. This study investigated the relationships between cognitive function in early adulthood and birth weight and contemporary height. Simple reaction time (SRT), choice reaction time (CRT) and working memory (WM) were assessed using the CogState battery. A significant association was seen between birth weight and SRT in early adulthood, but not with the other two cognitive measures. Urban dwellers had significantly shorter SRT and CRT than their remote counterparts. Contemporary body mass index and maternal age were associated with CRT. Only fetal growth restriction was associated with WM, with greater WM in those with restricted growth. No associations were seen with contemporary height. These results suggest that fetal growth may be more important than the factors influencing post-natal growth in terms of cognition in early adulthood in this population, but that the associations may be inconsistent between cognitive outcomes. Further research is required to identify whether similar associations are seen in other, similar, populations and to assess why differences in cognitive outcome measures are seen.

  7. The first sight of love: Relationship-defining memories and marital satisfaction across adulthood.

    PubMed

    Alea, Nicole; Vick, Stephanie C

    2010-10-01

    The current study begins the exploration of relationship-defining memories (i.e., the first time someone met their spouse) across adulthood. Men and women ranging from 20 to 85 years old (N=267; M age=47.19) completed a measure of marital satisfaction, wrote a relationship-defining memory, and answered questions about the quality of their memory (i.e., vividness, valence, emotional intensity, and rehearsal). Data were collected online. Results indicate that individuals over 70 and those younger than 30 rehearsed relationship-defining memories most often. Women in midlife also reported more vivid memories. The quality of relationship-defining memories also predicted marital satisfaction. Relationship-defining memories that were more vivid, positive, emotionally intense, and rehearsed related to higher marital satisfaction. Age and gender differences were minimal. Results are discussed in the context of the adaptive social function of autobiographical memories, such that these memories might have a role in influencing marital satisfaction across adulthood.

  8. Long-term Effects of Fathers’ Depressed Mood on Youth Internalizing Symptoms in Early Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Reeb, Ben T.; Wu, Ed Y.; Martin, Monica J.; Gelardi, Kristina L.; Shirley Chan, Sut Yee; Conger, Katherine J.

    2014-01-01

    While an accumulating body of research has documented increased risk for psychopathology among children of depressed fathers, most studies have used cross-sectional design and little is known about offspring outcomes beyond childhood. Using prospective data from a community sample (N = 395), we found that paternal depressive symptoms when children were in early adolescence (age 13) predicted offspring depressive and anxiety symptoms at age 21, controlling for baseline youth symptoms, maternal depressive symptoms, and other known correlates of internalizing problems in early adulthood. Associations were not moderated by maternal depressive symptoms or child gender. These results suggest that the unique and long-term effects of paternal depression on children's risk for mood disorders may persist into adulthood. PMID:25750495

  9. Oral health beliefs in adolescence and oral health in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Broadbent, J M; Thomson, W M; Poulton, R

    2006-04-01

    According to theory, health beliefs are related to health behaviors. We investigated whether individuals who hold favorable oral-health-related beliefs over time have better adult oral health than those who do not. Beliefs about the efficacy of water fluoridation, keeping the mouth clean, avoiding sweet foods, visiting the dentist, using dental floss, and using fluoridated toothpaste were assessed in a birth cohort at ages 15, 18, and 26 years. At each age, the majority of participants endorsed the importance of each practice. However, there was also evidence of instability across time. Individuals who held stable favorable dental beliefs from adolescence through adulthood had fewer teeth missing due to caries, less periodontal disease, better oral hygiene, better self-rated oral health, and more restorations. Dental beliefs can change between adolescence and young adulthood, and these changes are related to oral health. In particular, unfavorable dental health beliefs are related to poorer oral health.

  10. Country, sex, and parent occupational status: moderators of the continuity of aggression from childhood to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Kokko, Katja; Simonton, Sharon; Dubow, Eric; Lansford, Jennifer E; Olson, Sheryl L; Huesmann, L Rowell; Boxer, Paul; Pulkkinen, Lea; Bates, John E; Dodge, Kenneth A; Pettit, Gregory S

    2014-01-01

    Using data from two American and one Finnish long-term longitudinal studies, we examined continuity of general aggression from age 8 to physical aggression in early adulthood (age 21-30) and whether continuity of aggression differed by country, sex, and parent occupational status. In all samples, childhood aggression was assessed via peer nominations and early adulthood aggression via self-reports. Multi-group structural equation models revealed significant continuity in aggression in the American samples but not in the Finnish sample. These relations did not differ by sex but did differ by parent occupational status: whereas there was no significant continuity among American children from professional family-of-origin backgrounds, there was significant continuity among American children from non-professional backgrounds.

  11. Sparse pseudospectral approximation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantine, Paul G.; Eldred, Michael S.; Phipps, Eric T.

    2012-07-01

    Multivariate global polynomial approximations - such as polynomial chaos or stochastic collocation methods - are now in widespread use for sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification. The pseudospectral variety of these methods uses a numerical integration rule to approximate the Fourier-type coefficients of a truncated expansion in orthogonal polynomials. For problems in more than two or three dimensions, a sparse grid numerical integration rule offers accuracy with a smaller node set compared to tensor product approximation. However, when using a sparse rule to approximately integrate these coefficients, one often finds unacceptable errors in the coefficients associated with higher degree polynomials. By reexamining Smolyak's algorithm and exploiting the connections between interpolation and projection in tensor product spaces, we construct a sparse pseudospectral approximation method that accurately reproduces the coefficients of basis functions that naturally correspond to the sparse grid integration rule. The compelling numerical results show that this is the proper way to use sparse grid integration rules for pseudospectral approximation.

  12. Parental pre‐pregnancy BMI is a dominant early‐life risk factor influencing BMI of offspring in adulthood.

    PubMed Central

    Rath, S. R.; Marsh, J. A.; Newnham, J. P.; Zhu, K.; Atkinson, H. C.; Mountain, J.; Oddy, W. H.; Hughes, I. P.; Harris, M.; Leong, G. M.; Cotterill, A. M.; Sly, P. D.; Pennell, C. E.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective We examined parental and early‐life variables in order to identify risk factors for adulthood overweight and obesity in offspring. We report here on the longitudinal prevalence of overweight and obesity in Australian children born between 1989 and 1991 and followed from birth to age 22. Methods Data were analysed on 1355 participants from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, with anthropometry collected during pregnancy, at birth, one year and at three yearly intervals thereafter. Multivariate analyses and cross‐sectional logistic regression quantified the timing and contribution of early‐life risk factors for overweight and obesity in young‐adulthood. Results At five years of age 12.6% of children were overweight and 5.2% were obese. By early adulthood, the prevalence of obesity had increased to 12.8%, whilst overweight remained relatively stable at 14.2% (range from early childhood to adulthood 11–16%). Parental pre‐pregnancy body mass index (BMI) was the strongest determinant of adult offspring BMI. Although rapid first year weight gain was associated with increased offspring BMI, the impact of first year weight‐gain diminished over childhood, whilst the impact of parental BMI increased over time. Conclusions Parental pre‐pregnancy BMI and rapid early‐life weight gain predispose offspring to obesity in adulthood. PMID:27812379

  13. Approximations for photoelectron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritzsche, V.

    1989-04-01

    The errors of several approximations in the theoretical approach of photoelectron scattering are systematically studied, in tungsten, for electron energies ranging from 10 to 1000 eV. The large inaccuracies of the plane-wave approximation (PWA) are substantially reduced by means of effective scattering amplitudes in the modified small-scattering-centre approximation (MSSCA). The reduced angular momentum expansion (RAME) is so accurate that it allows reliable calculations of multiple-scattering contributions for all the energies considered.

  14. Longitudinal Examination of Age-Predicted Symptom-Limited Exercise Maximum Heart Rate

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Na; Suarez, Jose; Sidney, Steve; Sternfeld, Barbara; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Carnethon, Mercedes R.; Lewis, Cora E.; Crow, Richard S.; Bouchard, Claude; Haskell, William; Jacobs, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the association of age with maximal heart rate (MHR). Methods Data were obtained in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. Participants were black and white men and women aged 18-30 in 1985-86 (year 0). A symptom-limited maximal graded exercise test was completed at years 0, 7, and 20 by 4969, 2583, and 2870 participants, respectively. After exclusion 9622 eligible tests remained. Results In all 9622 tests, estimated MHR (eMHR, beats/minute) had a quadratic relation to age in the age range 18 to 50 years, eMHR=179+0.29*age-0.011*age2. The age-MHR association was approximately linear in the restricted age ranges of consecutive tests. In 2215 people who completed both year 0 and 7 tests (age range 18 to 37), eMHR=189–0.35*age; and in 1574 people who completed both year 7 and 20 tests (age range 25 to 50), eMHR=199–0.63*age. In the lowest baseline BMI quartile, the rate of decline was 0.20 beats/minute/year between years 0-7 and 0.51 beats/minute/year between years 7-20; while in the highest baseline BMI quartile there was a linear rate of decline of approximately 0.7 beats/minute/year over the full age of 18 to 50 years. Conclusion Clinicians making exercise prescriptions should be aware that the loss of symptom-limited MHR is much slower at young adulthood and more pronounced in later adulthood. In particular, MHR loss is very slow in those with lowest BMI below age 40. PMID:20639723

  15. Impact of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis Associated Uveitis in Early Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Vernie, Lenneke A.; Rothova, Aniki; v. d. Doe, Patricia; Los, Leonoor I.; Schalij-Delfos, Nicoline E.; de Boer, Joke H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Typically juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA)-associated uveitis (further referred as ‘JIA-uveitis’) has its onset in childhood, but some patients suffer its, sometimes visual threatening, complications or ongoing disease activity in adulthood. The objective of this study was to analyze uveitis activity, complications and visual prognosis in adulthood. Methods In this multicenter study, 67 adult patients (129 affected eyes) with JIA-uveitis were retrospectively studied for best corrected visual acuity, visual fields, uveitis activity, topical/systemic treatments, ocular complications, and ocular surgeries during their 18th, 22nd and 30th year of life. Because treatment strategies changed after the year 1990, outcomes were stratified for onset of uveitis before and after 1990. Results Sixty-two of all 67 included patients (93%) had bilateral uveitis. During their 18th life year, 4/52 patients (8%) had complete remission, 28/52 (54%) had uveitis activity and 37/51 patients (73%) were on systemic immunomodulatory treatment. Bilateral visual impairment or legal blindness occurred in 2/51 patients (4%); unilateral visual impairment or legal blindness occurred in 17/51 patients (33%) aged 18 years. The visual prognosis appeared to be slightly better for patients with uveitis onset after the year 1990 (for uveitis onset before 1990 (n = 7) four patients (58%) and for uveitis onset after 1990 (n = 44) 13 patients (30%) were either visual impaired or blind). At least one ocular surgery was performed in 10/24 patients (42%) between their 18th and 22nd year of life. Conclusions Bilateral visual outcome in early adulthood in patients with JIA-uveitis appears to be fairly good, although one third of the patients developed one visually impaired or blind eye. However, a fair amount of the patients suffered from ongoing uveitis activity and needed ongoing treatment as well as surgical interventions. Awareness of these findings is important for ophthalmologists and

  16. Conceptualizing the Step-Down for Foster Youth Approaching Adulthood: Perceptions of Service Providers, Caseworkers, and Foster Parents

    PubMed Central

    Havlicek, Judy; McMillen, J. Curtis; Fedoravicius, Nicole; McNelly, David; Robinson, Debra

    2012-01-01

    Studies find considerable movement between residential treatment and less restrictive foster home settings, with approximately half of foster youth who are stepped down eventually returning to a higher level of care. Very little is known about the step down for foster youth who are approaching adulthood in locked residential facilities. A qualitative study of stepping down a small sample of foster youth, as perceived by team members delivering a model of treatment foster care, is presented. These findings reveal the dimensions of stepping down foster youth at the onset of adulthood, and highlight the importance of providing foster youth with developmental opportunities to engage in the social roles and tasks of late adolescence and/or early adulthood. Implications for further refining the concept of stepping down from a developmental perspective are discussed. PMID:23878410

  17. Subjective acceleration of time experience in everyday life across adulthood.

    PubMed

    John, Dennis; Lang, Frieder R

    2015-12-01

    Most people believe that time seems to pass more quickly as they age. Building on assumptions of socioemotional selectivity theory, we investigated whether awareness that one's future lifetime is limited is associated with one's experience of time during everyday activities across adulthood in 3 studies. In the first 2 studies (Study 1: N = 608; Study 2: N = 398), participants completed a web-based version of the day reconstruction method. In Study 3 (N = 392) participants took part in a newly developed tomorrow construction method, a web-based experimental method for assessing everyday life plans. Results confirmed that older adults' subjective interpretation of everyday episodes is that these episodes pass more quickly compared with younger adults. The subjective acceleration of time experience in old age was more pronounced during productive activities than during regenerative-consumptive activities. The age differences were partly related to limited time remaining in life. In addition, subjective acceleration of time experience was associated with positive evaluations of everyday activities. Findings suggest that subjective acceleration of time in older adults' daily lives reflects an adaptation to limitations in time remaining in life. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. Approximate spatial reasoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, Soumitra

    1988-01-01

    A model for approximate spatial reasoning using fuzzy logic to represent the uncertainty in the environment is presented. Algorithms are developed which can be used to reason about spatial information expressed in the form of approximate linguistic descriptions similar to the kind of spatial information processed by humans. Particular attention is given to static spatial reasoning.

  19. Substance Use in Adolescence and Early Adulthood: Which Best Predicts Violence in Early Adulthood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcus, Robert F.; Jamison, Eric G., II

    2013-01-01

    Waves I and III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) were used to test the contributions of alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, cocaine, LSD, PCP, and other illicit drugs to violence in early adulthood (e.g., took part in a gang fight, pulled a knife or gun, used a weapon in a fight, used a weapon to get something). The…

  20. Lifetime overweight and obesity and body composition in adulthood: the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Callo, Gabriela; Gigante, Denise Pretucci; Barros, Fernando C; Horta, Bernardo Lessa

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the association between overweight/obesity at different moments in the life cycle and body composition in early adulthood. Data were used from the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study, which has followed live born children of families residing in the urban area of Pelotas at different ages. At 30 years of age, 3,701 cohort members were interviewed and body composition was assessed using Bod Pod, 2,219 cohort members had at least one weight and height measurement taken in the three periods (childhood, adolescence, and adulthood), 24% never presented overweight, and 68.6% were never classified as obese. Elevated body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat at 30 years of age were associated with individuals classified as overweight in all three periods or in adolescence and adulthood, while those with overweight/obesity only in childhood or adolescence showed mean BMI and percent body fat similar to those who had never presented overweight/obesity. The results indicate the benefit of early interruption of overweight/obesity.

  1. Connecting developmental trajectories: biases in face processing from infancy to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Scherf, K Suzanne; Scott, Lisa S

    2012-09-01

    The nature of the developmental trajectory of face recognition abilities from infancy through adulthood is multifaceted and currently not well understood. We argue that the understanding of this trajectory can be greatly informed by taking a more functionalist approach in which the influence of age-appropriate developmental tasks and goals are considered. To build this argument, we provide a focused review of developmental change across several important biases within face processing (species, race, age, and gender biases) from infancy through adulthood. We show that no existing theoretical framework can simultaneously and parsimoniously explain these very different trajectories and relative degrees of plasticity. We offer several examples of infant- and adolescent-specific developmental tasks that we predict have an essential influence on the content and description of information that individuals need to extract from faces at these very different developmental stages. Finally, we suggest that this approach may provide a unique opportunity to study the role of early experience in (i.e., age of acquisition effects) and the quality and range of experiences that are critical for shaping behaviors through the course of development, from infancy to adulthood. PMID:22711622

  2. The typical developmental trajectory of social and executive functions in late adolescence and early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Sophie Jane; Barker, Lynne Ann; Heavey, Lisa; McHale, Sue

    2013-07-01

    Executive functions and social cognition develop through childhood into adolescence and early adulthood and are important for adaptive goal-oriented behavior (Apperly, Samson, & Humphreys, 2009; Blakemore & Choudhury, 2006). These functions are attributed to frontal networks known to undergo protracted maturation into early adulthood (Barker, Andrade, Morton, Romanowski, & Bowles, 2010; Lebel, Walker, Leemans, Phillips, & Beaulieu, 2008), although social cognition functions are also associated with widely distributed networks. Previously, nonlinear development has been reported around puberty on an emotion match-to-sample task (McGivern, Andersen, Byrd, Mutter, & Reilly, 2002) and for IQ in midadolescence (Ramsden et al., 2011). However, there are currently little data on the typical development of social and executive functions in late adolescence and early adulthood. In a cross-sectional design, 98 participants completed tests of social cognition and executive function, Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (Wechsler, 1999), Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (Zigmond & Snaith, 1983), and measures of pubertal development and demographics at ages 17, 18, and 19. Nonlinear age differences for letter fluency and concept formation executive functions were found, with a trough in functional ability in 18-year-olds compared with other groups. There were no age group differences on social cognition measures. Gender accounted for differences on 1 scale of concept formation, 1 dynamic social interaction scale, and 2 empathy scales. The clinical, developmental, and educational implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:22946438

  3. Links between Adolescents’ Closeness to Adoptive Parents and Attachment Style in Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Grant-Marsney, Holly A.; Grotevant, Harold D.; Sayer, Aline G.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether adolescents’ closeness to adoptive parents (APs) predicted attachment styles in close relationships outside their family during young adulthood. In a longitudinal study of domestic infant adoptions, closeness to adoptive mother and adoptive father was assessed in 156 adolescents (M = 15.7 years). Approximately nine years later (M = 25.0 years), closeness to parents was assessed again as well as attachment style in their close relationships. Multilevel modeling was used to predict attachment style in young adulthood from the average and discrepancy of closeness to adolescents’ adoptive mothers and fathers and the change over time in closeness to APs. Less avoidant attachment style was predicted by stronger closeness to both APs during adolescence. Increased closeness to APs over time was related to less anxiety in close relationships. Higher closeness over time to either AP was related to less avoidance and anxiety in close relationships. PMID:25859067

  4. Maternal Oral Health Predicts Their Children’s Caries Experience in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Shearer, D.M.; Thomson, W.M.; Broadbent, J.M.; Poulton, R.

    2011-01-01

    The long-term effects of poor maternal oral health are unknown. We determined whether maternal oral health when children were young was a risk indicator for caries experience in adulthood, using oral examination and interview data from age-5 and age-32 assessments in the Dunedin Study, and maternal self-rated oral health data from the age-5 assessment. The main outcome measure was probands’ caries status at age 32. Analyses involved 835 individuals (82.3% of the surviving cohort) dentally examined at both ages, whose mothers were interviewed at the age-5 assessment. There was a consistent gradient in age-32 caries experience across the categories of maternal self-rated oral health status (from the age-5 assessment): it was greatest among the probands whose mothers rated their oral health as “poor” or who were edentulous, and lowest among those whose mothers rated their oral health as “excellent”. Unfavorable maternal self-rated oral health when children are young should be regarded as a risk indicator for poor oral health among offspring as they reach adulthood. PMID:21248361

  5. Genetic and environmental influences on affiliation with deviant peers during adolescence and early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Tarantino, Nicholas; Tully, Erin C; Garcia, Sarah E; South, Susan; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

    2014-03-01

    Adolescence and early adulthood is a time when peer groups become increasingly influential in the lives of young people. Youths exposed to deviant peers risk susceptibility to externalizing behaviors and related psychopathology. In addition to environmental correlates of deviant peer affiliation, a growing body of evidence has suggested that affiliation with deviant peers is heritable. This study examined the magnitude of genetic and environmental influences on affiliation with deviant peers, changes in the relative importance of these factors, and which of these factors contribute to the stability of affiliation across this critical developmental period using a longitudinal twin study design that assessed same-sex twins (485 monozygotic pairs, 271 dizygotic pairs) at 3 discrete ages: 15, 18, and 21 years of age. Biometric models revealed that genetic influences increased with age. New genetic influences appeared during late adolescence, and no new genetic influences emerged by age 21. Environmental influences shared by sibling pairs decreased with age, while the proportion of nonshared environmental effects unique to each individual remained relatively stable over the course of development. Shared environmental influences were largely age-overlapping, whereas nonshared environmental influences were largely age-specific. In summary, this study found variance in affiliation with deviant peers is explained by shared and nonshared environment effects as well as by genetic influences (46% by age 21), supporting the role of genetically influenced selection factors. The shared environment was almost exclusively responsible for the stability in late adolescence, while genetic influences were primarily responsible for stability in early adulthood.

  6. "Kids Who Smoke Think that They Can Be Adults as Well": Children's Smoking and Transitions to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milton, Beth S.; Dugdill, Lindsey; Porcellato, Lorna A.; Springett, R. Jane

    2008-01-01

    This article aims to explore the ways in which preadolescents associate smoking with transitions to adulthood, in the context of sociological theories of childhood, using data from the Liverpool Longitudinal Study of Smoking. The research found that at age 9 many of the cohort argued that smoking was more acceptable for adults because they had…

  7. The Initiation Experience: Recognition of Adulthood [And] When Does a Child Become a Man/Woman? Mini-Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    African-American Inst., New York, NY. School Services Div.

    An initiation ceremony which marks the passage from adolescence to adulthood in an African village is the topic of this learning module for elementary and secondary students. A reading is adapted from the autobiography of a Guinean youth who participated in the initiation experience with other boys in his village at the age of 12 years. A lesson…

  8. Family Antecedents and Consequences of Trajectories of Depressive Symptoms from Adolescence to Young Adulthood: A Life Course Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickrama, K. A. S.; Conger, Rand D.; Lorenz, Frederick O.; Jung, Tony

    2008-01-01

    Using prospective data from 485 adolescents over a 10-year period, the present study identifies distinct segments of depressive symptom trajectories--a nonsignificant slope during adolescence and a significant negative slope during the transition to adulthood. The study hypothesized that different age-graded life experiences would differentially…

  9. Reciprocal Relationships between Symptoms of Depression and Parental Support during the Transition from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Needham, Belinda L.

    2008-01-01

    This study applies latent growth curve analysis to data from three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 10,828) and finds that symptoms of depression and social support interact with one another in a dynamic fashion across the transition from adolescence (mean age at Wave 1 = 15.28 years) to young adulthood (mean age…

  10. The Relationship among Work Possible Selves, Socioeconomic Position, and the Psychological Well-Being of Individuals in Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pisarik, Christopher T.; Shoffner, Marie F.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relationships among work possible selves, socioeconomic position, gender, and psychological well-being. Participants were college students in early adulthood (N = 201), aged 20 to 35. Work possible selves, a construct based on the theory of possible selves, were examined. The results showed relationships between…

  11. Economic Recession, Teacher-Reported Cuts to School Resources, and Children's Economic and Psychiatric Problems in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huurre, Taina; Santalahti, Päivi; Kiviruusu, Olli; Solantaus, Tytti

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated whether cuts to school resources made during economic recession contribute to children's psychiatric and economic problems in early adulthood. The cohort consisted of 817 Finnish children. Data was gathered from teachers during a recession (child age 12) and from national registers on children's post-recession use of…

  12. Early, On-Time, and Late Behavioural Autonomy in Adolescence: Psychosocial Correlates in Young and Middle Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlova, Maria K.; Haase, Claudia M.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on two nationally representative German studies (N[subscript 1] = 1744, N[subscript 2] = 759), we examined correlates of early, on-time, and late curfew autonomy, a retrospective indicator of behavioural autonomy, in young and middle adulthood (19-37 years of age). Adjustment in four domains was considered: educational attainment,…

  13. Poor Fine-Motor and Visuospatial Skills Predict Persistence of Pediatric-Onset Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder into Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloch, Michael H.; Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; Dombrowski, Philip A.; Panza, Kaitlyn E.; Craiglow, Brittany G.; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Leckman, James F.; Peterson, Bradley S.; Schultz, Robert T.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Half of pediatric-onset OCD cases remit by adulthood. Studies have demonstrated that initial response to pharmacotherapy, age of onset, prominent hoarding symptoms, and the presence of comorbid tic disorders are associated with long-term outcome. Our goal was to examine the association between childhood performance on…

  14. Co-Occurring Trajectories of Symptoms of Anxiety, Depression, and Oppositional Defiance from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leadbeater, Bonnie; Thompson, Kara; Gruppuso, Vincenza

    2012-01-01

    This study uses a cohort-sequential longitudinal design to examine the patterns of change and codevelopment of anxiety, depression, and oppositional defiant symptoms (ODS) from late adolescence to young adulthood. Four waves of data were collected biennially by individual interview with a random, community-based sample of 662 youth ages 12 to 18…

  15. Does Ethicality Wane with Adulthood? A Study of the Ethical Values of Entrepreneurship Students and Nascent Entrepreneurs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lourenço, Fernando; Sappleton, Natalie; Cheng, Ranis

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined the following questions: Does gender influence the ethicality of enterprise students to a greater extent than it does nascent entrepreneurs? If this is the case, then is it due to factors associated with adulthood such as age, work experience, marital status, and parental status? Sex-role socialization theory and moral…

  16. Parental Education Predicts Corticostriatal Functionality in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Manuck, Stephen B.; Sheu, Lei K.; Kuan, Dora C. H.; Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; Craig, Anna E.; Hariri, Ahmad R.

    2011-01-01

    Socioeconomic disadvantage experienced in early development predicts ill health in adulthood. However, the neurobiological pathways linking early disadvantage to adult health remain unclear. Lower parental education—a presumptive indicator of early socioeconomic disadvantage—predicts health-impairing adult behaviors, including tobacco and alcohol dependencies. These behaviors depend, in part, on the functionality of corticostriatal brain systems that 1) show developmental plasticity and early vulnerability, 2) process reward-related information, and 3) regulate impulsive decisions and actions. Hence, corticostriatal functionality in adulthood may covary directly with indicators of early socioeconomic disadvantage, particularly lower parental education. Here, we tested the covariation between parental education and corticostriatal activation and connectivity in 76 adults without confounding clinical syndromes. Corticostriatal activation and connectivity were assessed during the processing of stimuli signaling monetary gains (positive feedback [PF]) and losses (negative feedback). After accounting for participants’ own education and other explanatory factors, lower parental education predicted reduced activation in anterior cingulate and dorsomedial prefrontal cortices during PF, along with reduced connectivity between these cortices and orbitofrontal and striatal areas implicated in reward processing and impulse regulation. In speculation, adult alterations in corticostriatal functionality may represent facets of a neurobiological endophenotype linked to socioeconomic conditions of early development. PMID:20810623

  17. Forecasting life satisfaction across adulthood: benefits of seeing a dark future?

    PubMed

    Lang, Frieder R; Weiss, David; Gerstorf, Denis; Wagner, Gert G

    2013-03-01

    Anticipating one's future self is a unique human capacity that contributes importantly to adaptation and health throughout adulthood and old age. Using the adult life span sample of the national German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP; N > 10,000, age range 18 to 96 years), we investigated age-differential stability, correlates, and outcomes of accuracy in anticipation of future life satisfaction across 6 subsequent 5-year time intervals. As expected, we observed few age differences in current life satisfaction but stronger age differences in future expectations: Younger adults anticipated improved future life satisfaction, overestimating their actual life satisfaction 5 years later. By contrast, older adults were more pessimistic about the future, generally underestimating their actual life satisfaction after 5 years. Such age differences persisted above and beyond the effects of self-rated health and income. Survival analyses revealed that, in later adulthood, underestimating one's life satisfaction 5 years later was related to lower hazard ratios for disability (n = 735 became disabled) and mortality (n = 879 died) across 10 or more years, even after controlling for age, sex, education, income, and self-rated health. Findings suggest that older adults are more likely to underestimate their life satisfaction in the future and that such underestimation was associated with positive health outcomes.

  18. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Affiliation with Deviant Peers during Adolescence and Early Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Tarantino, Nicholas; Tully, Erin C.; Garcia, Sarah E.; South, Susan; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence and early adulthood is a time when peer groups become increasingly influential in the lives of young people. Youth exposed to deviant peers risk susceptibility to externalizing behaviors and related psychopathology. In addition to environmental correlates of deviant peer affiliation, a growing body of evidence suggests that affiliation with deviant peers is heritable. This study examined the magnitude of genetic and environmental influences on affiliation with deviant peers, changes in the relative importance of these factors, and which of these factors contribute to the stability of affiliation across this critical developmental period using a longitudinal twin study design that assessed same-sex twins (485 monozygotic pairs, 271 dizygotic pairs) at three discrete ages-15-, 18-, and 21-years-old. Biometric models revealed that genetic influences increased with age. New genetic influences appeared during late adolescence, and no new genetic influences emerged by age 21. Environmental influences shared by sibling pairs decreased with age, while the proportion of nonshared environmental effects unique to each individual remained relatively stable over the course of development. Shared environmental influences were largely age-overlapping whereas nonshared environmental influences were largely age-specific. In summary, this study found variance in affiliation with deviant peers is explained by shared and nonshared environment effects as well as by genetic influences (46% by age 21), supporting the role of genetically influenced selection factors. The shared environment was almost exclusively responsible for the stability in late adolescence, while genetic influences were primarily responsible for stability in early adulthood. PMID:24015689

  19. Nonmedical Use of Prescription Opioids during the Transition to Adulthood: A Multi-Cohort National Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; Schulenberg, John E.; O’Malley, Patrick M.; Patrick, Megan E.; Kloska, Deborah D.

    2013-01-01

    Aims To examine nonmedical use of prescription opioids (NMUPO) patterns during the transition from adolescence to adulthood, and assess individual characteristics and other substance use behaviors associated with longitudinal patterns of NMUPO. Design Nationally representative samples of high school seniors in the United States (wave 1: modal age 18 years) were followed longitudinally across three biennial follow-up waves (waves 2, 3, and 4: modal ages 19/20, 21/22, and 23/24). Setting Data were collected via self-administered questionnaires to high school seniors and young adults. Participants The longitudinal sample consisted of 27,268 individuals in 30 cohorts (high school senior years 1976–2005) who participated in all four waves. Measurements Self-reports of NMUPO and other substance use behaviors. Findings Approximately 11.6% (95% CI = 11.2%, 12.0%) of the sample reported past-year NMUPO in at least one of the four waves. Among those who reported past-year NMUPO in at least one wave, 69.0% (67.6%, 70.4%), 20.5% (19.3%, 21.7%), 7.8% (7.1%, 8.6%), and 2.7% (2.3%, 3.1%) reported NMUPO at one, two, three, and four waves, respectively. Several wave 1 variables were associated with greater odds of multiple waves of NMUPO and individuals who reported more waves of NMUPO had greater odds of other substance use behaviors. Conclusions Although most nonmedical use of prescription opioids (NMUPO) among 18-year-olds in the United States appears to be non-continuing, about one-third of the sample reporting NMUPO appear to continue use beyond age 18 and have elevated odds of other substance use behaviors at ages 23/24. PMID:24025114

  20. Birth order and physical fitness in early adulthood: evidence from Swedish military conscription data.

    PubMed

    Barclay, Kieron; Myrskylä, Mikko

    2014-12-01

    Physical fitness at young adult ages is an important determinant of physical health, cognitive ability, and mortality. However, few studies have addressed the relationship between early life conditions and physical fitness in adulthood. An important potential factor influencing physical fitness is birth order, which prior studies associate with several early- and later-life outcomes such as height and mortality. This is the first study to analyse the association between birth order and physical fitness in late adolescence. We use military conscription data on 218,873 Swedish males born between 1965 and 1977. Physical fitness is measured by a test of maximal working capacity, a measure of cardiovascular fitness closely related to V02max. We use linear regression with sibling fixed effects, meaning a within-family comparison, to eliminate the confounding influence of unobserved factors that vary between siblings. To understand the mechanism we further analyse whether the association between birth order and physical fitness varies by sibship size, parental socioeconomic status, birth cohort or length of the birth interval. We find a strong, negative and monotonic relationship between birth order and physical fitness. For example, third-born children have a maximal working capacity approximately 0.1 (p < 0.000) standard deviations lower than first-born children. The association exists both in small (3 or less children) and large families (4 or more children), in high and low socioeconomic status families, and amongst cohorts born in the 1960s and the 1970s. While in the whole population the birth order effect does not depend on the length of the birth intervals, in two-child families a longer birth interval strengthens the advantage of the first-born. Our results illustrate the importance of birth order for physical fitness, and suggest that the first-born advantage already arises in late adolescence. PMID:25462615

  1. Approximate kernel competitive learning.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian-Sheng; Zheng, Wei-Shi; Lai, Jian-Huang

    2015-03-01

    Kernel competitive learning has been successfully used to achieve robust clustering. However, kernel competitive learning (KCL) is not scalable for large scale data processing, because (1) it has to calculate and store the full kernel matrix that is too large to be calculated and kept in the memory and (2) it cannot be computed in parallel. In this paper we develop a framework of approximate kernel competitive learning for processing large scale dataset. The proposed framework consists of two parts. First, it derives an approximate kernel competitive learning (AKCL), which learns kernel competitive learning in a subspace via sampling. We provide solid theoretical analysis on why the proposed approximation modelling would work for kernel competitive learning, and furthermore, we show that the computational complexity of AKCL is largely reduced. Second, we propose a pseudo-parallelled approximate kernel competitive learning (PAKCL) based on a set-based kernel competitive learning strategy, which overcomes the obstacle of using parallel programming in kernel competitive learning and significantly accelerates the approximate kernel competitive learning for large scale clustering. The empirical evaluation on publicly available datasets shows that the proposed AKCL and PAKCL can perform comparably as KCL, with a large reduction on computational cost. Also, the proposed methods achieve more effective clustering performance in terms of clustering precision against related approximate clustering approaches.

  2. Approximate kernel competitive learning.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian-Sheng; Zheng, Wei-Shi; Lai, Jian-Huang

    2015-03-01

    Kernel competitive learning has been successfully used to achieve robust clustering. However, kernel competitive learning (KCL) is not scalable for large scale data processing, because (1) it has to calculate and store the full kernel matrix that is too large to be calculated and kept in the memory and (2) it cannot be computed in parallel. In this paper we develop a framework of approximate kernel competitive learning for processing large scale dataset. The proposed framework consists of two parts. First, it derives an approximate kernel competitive learning (AKCL), which learns kernel competitive learning in a subspace via sampling. We provide solid theoretical analysis on why the proposed approximation modelling would work for kernel competitive learning, and furthermore, we show that the computational complexity of AKCL is largely reduced. Second, we propose a pseudo-parallelled approximate kernel competitive learning (PAKCL) based on a set-based kernel competitive learning strategy, which overcomes the obstacle of using parallel programming in kernel competitive learning and significantly accelerates the approximate kernel competitive learning for large scale clustering. The empirical evaluation on publicly available datasets shows that the proposed AKCL and PAKCL can perform comparably as KCL, with a large reduction on computational cost. Also, the proposed methods achieve more effective clustering performance in terms of clustering precision against related approximate clustering approaches. PMID:25528318

  3. Parent-Child Relations and Offending during Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Wendi L.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Manning, Wendy D.; Longmore, Monica A.

    2011-01-01

    There is a long tradition of studying parent-child relationships and adolescent delinquency. However, the association between parent-child relationships and criminal offending during young adulthood is less well understood. Although the developmental tasks of young adulthood tend to focus on intimate relationships, employment, and family…

  4. An Examination of Emerging Adulthood in Romanian College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Larry J.

    2009-01-01

    Little work has been done to examine emerging adulthood in Eastern European countries such as Romania that are making the transition out of communism into the broader free-market economy of Western Europe. The purpose of this study was to (a) examine the criteria that college students in Romania have for adulthood, and (b) explore whether…

  5. Conceptions of Adulthood among Migrant Women Workers in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhong, Juan; Arnett, Jeffrey J.

    2014-01-01

    The experiences of emerging adulthood may vary in different historical and cultural contexts. Little research has been dedicated to how non college students view adulthood in developing countries. Currently, millions of young people are migrating from rural villages to industrial cities in China. The purpose of this study was to investigate…

  6. Inventing Adulthoods: A Biographical Approach to Youth Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Sheila J.; Holland, Janet; McGrellis, Sheena; Sharpe, Sue; Thomson, Rachel

    2006-01-01

    "Inventing Adulthoods: A Biographical Approach to Youth Transitions" is a ground-breaking book that offers a new approach to understanding young people's lives and their transitions to adulthood. Contrary to policy and research approaches that often see young people's lives in a fragmented way, the book argues that a biographical approach to youth…

  7. America's Youth: Transitions to Adulthood. NCES 2012-026

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aud, Susan; KewalRamani, Angelina; Frohlich, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    The transition to adulthood in the United States has changed in recent decades as many of the traditional milestones that mark adulthood, such as household establishment and marriage, have changed or been delayed (McLanahan et al. 2010; Arnett 2000). Among these changes are increased participation and attainment in education; extenuation of…

  8. Learning Disabilities in Adulthood: Persisting Problems and Evolving Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, Paul J., Ed.; Reiff, Henry B., Ed.

    This book provides a multifaceted view of learning disabilities in adulthood through the efforts of many contributors who offer a diversity of perceptions and expertise. The focus spans from young to late adulthood and reflects state-of-the-art knowledge and the best practices of the field. The topic areas are clustered into psychological,…

  9. Interaction between the DRD4 VNTR Polymorphism and Proximal and Distal Environments in Alcohol Dependence during Emerging and Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Park, Aesoon; Sher, Kenneth J.; Todorov, Alexandre A.; Heath, Andrew C.

    2011-01-01

    The manifestation of alcohol dependence at different developmental stages may be associated with different genetic and environmental factors. Taking a developmental approach, the current study characterized interaction between the dopamine receptor 4 variable number tandem repeat (DRD4 VNTR) polymorphism and developmentally specific environmental factors (childhood adversity, college/Greek involvement, and delayed adult role transition) on alcohol dependence during emerging and young adulthood. Prospective data were obtained from a cohort of 234 Caucasian individuals (56% female) followed up at ages 18 through 34. A longitudinal hierarchical factor model was estimated to model a trait-like persistent alcohol dependence factor throughout emerging and young adulthood and two residual state-like alcohol dependence factors limited to emerging adulthood and young adulthood, respectively. To account for those alcohol dependence factors, three two-way interaction effects between the DRD4 VNTR polymorphism and the three developmentally specific environment factors were modeled. Carriers of the DRD4 long allele showed greater susceptibility to environmental effects; they showed more persistent alcohol dependence symptoms as childhood adversity increased and more alcohol dependence symptoms limited to emerging adulthood as college/Greek involvement increased. Alcohol dependence among non-carriers of the long allele, however, did not differ as a function of those environments. Although replication is necessary, these findings highlight the importance of repeated phenotypic assessments across development and modeling both distal and proximal environments and their interaction with genetic susceptibility at specific developmental stages. PMID:21381802

  10. Growing up as "man of the house": adultification and transition into adulthood for young men in economically disadvantaged families.

    PubMed

    Roy, Kevin; Messina, Lauren; Smith, Jocelyn; Waters, Damian

    2014-03-01

    Many children in economically disadvantaged communities assume adult roles in their families. Negotiating the responsibilities and expectations associated with becoming what some young men describe as "man of the house" has important implications for how adolescent boys move into adulthood. In this study, we share insights from field work and life-history interviews with low-income, young African American men and Salvadoran men in the Washington, DC/Baltimore region to illustrate how adultification may deliver contradictory expectations for adolescents. The findings also show how the accelerated responsibilities that accompany the experience of adultification create difficulties in the young men's transition into adulthood. These findings indicate that the age period of emerging adulthood may begin earlier for economically disadvantaged young men.

  11. It gets better or does it? Peer victimization and internalizing problems in the transition to young adulthood

    PubMed Central

    LEADBEATER, BONNIE J.; THOMPSON, KARA; SUKHAWATHANAKUL, PAWEENA

    2016-01-01

    Consistent research shows that peer victimization predicts internalizing symptoms in childhood and adolescence, but the extent to which peer victimization and its harmful effects on mental health persists into young adulthood is unclear. The current study describes patterns of physical and relational victimization during and after high school, and examines concurrent and prospective associations between internalizing symptoms (depressive and anxious symptoms) and peer victimization (physical and relational) from adolescence to young adulthood (ages 12–27). Data were collected from the Victoria Healthy Youth Survey, a five-wave multicohort study conducted biennially between 2003 and 2011 (N = 662). Physical victimization was consistently low and stable over time. Relational victimization increased for males after high school. Both types of victimization were associated concurrently with internalizing symptoms across young adulthood for males and for females. Although sex differences were important, victimization in high school also predicted increases in internalizing problems over time. PMID:25047291

  12. Does religiousness buffer against the fear of death and dying in late adulthood? Findings from a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Wink, Paul; Scott, Julia

    2005-07-01

    We used longitudinal data (N = 155) to investigate the relation between religiousness and fear of death and dying in late adulthood. We found no linear relations between religiousness and fear of death and dying. Individuals who were moderately religious feared death more than individuals who scored high or low on religiousness. Fear of death also characterized participants who lacked congruence between belief in an afterlife and religious practices. We replicated the curvilinear relation between fear of death and religiousness in late adulthood with religiousness in middle adulthood, controlling for sociodemographic variables, life satisfaction, social support, and stressors. Older participants (in their mid-70s) who experienced more bereavement and illness feared the dying process less than younger participants (in their late 60s). The findings support the hypothesis that firmness and consistency of beliefs and practices, rather than religiousness per se, buffers against death anxiety in old age.

  13. Pathways to Adult Marijuana and Cocaine Use: A Prospective Study of African Americans from Age 6 to 42

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fothergill, Kate E.; Ensminger, Margaret E.; Green, Kerry M.; Robertson, Judith A.; Juon, Hee Soon

    2009-01-01

    This study examines pathways to adult marijuana and cocaine use in a cohort of African Americans from Woodlawn, an inner city community in Chicago. Assessments were conducted in first grade (age 6), adolescence (age 16), early adulthood (age 32), and in mid-adulthood (age 42). The "social adaptation life course" framework guided the focus on…

  14. Childhood and Adolescent Television Viewing and Antisocial Behavior in Early Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Lindsay A.; McAnally, Helena M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether excessive television viewing throughout childhood and adolescence is associated with increased antisocial behavior in early adulthood. METHODS: We assessed a birth cohort of 1037 individuals born in Dunedin, New Zealand, in 1972–1973, at regular intervals from birth to age 26 years. We used regression analysis to investigate the associations between television viewing hours from ages 5 to 15 years and criminal convictions, violent convictions, diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder, and aggressive personality traits in early adulthood. RESULTS: Young adults who had spent more time watching television during childhood and adolescence were significantly more likely to have a criminal conviction, a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder, and more aggressive personality traits compared with those who viewed less television. The associations were statistically significant after controlling for sex IQ, socioeconomic status, previous antisocial behavior, and parental control. The associations were similar for both sexes, indicating that the relationship between television viewing and antisocial behavior is similar for male and female viewers. CONCLUSIONS: Excessive television viewing in childhood and adolescence is associated with increased antisocial behavior in early adulthood. The findings are consistent with a causal association and support the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendation that children should watch no more than 1 to 2 hours of television each day. PMID:23420910

  15. The Interpersonal Antecedents of Supportive Parenting: A Prospective, Longitudinal Study from Infancy to Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Raby, K. Lee; Lawler, Jamie M.; Shlafer, Rebecca J.; Hesemeyer, Paloma S.; Collins, W. Andrew; Sroufe, L. Alan

    2014-01-01

    This study drew on prospective, longitudinal data to test the hypothesis that the intergenerational transmission of positive parenting is mediated by competence in subsequent relationships with peers and romantic partners. Interview-based ratings of supportive parenting were completed with a sample of 113 individuals (46% male) followed from birth to age 32. Results indicated that supportive parenting during adulthood was predicted by observed maternal sensitivity during the first three years of life, even after controlling for adults’ age at first childbirth and adults’ socioeconomic status and educational attainment at the time of the second generation parenting assessments. Moreover, the intergenerational association in parenting was mediated by later competence in relationships with peers and romantic partners. Specifically, sensitive caregiving in infancy and early childhood predicted teachers’ rankings of children’s social competence with peers during childhood and adolescence, which in turn forecasted later interview ratings of romantic relationship competence during young adulthood, which in turn predicted supportive parenting in adulthood. Findings are discussed with respect to current theory and research on the intergenerational transmission of parenting. PMID:25419799

  16. Mental health trajectories from adolescence to adulthood: Language disorder and other childhood and adolescent risk factors.

    PubMed

    Bao, Lin; Brownlie, E B; Beitchman, Joseph H

    2016-05-01

    Longitudinal research on mental health development beyond adolescence among nonclinical populations is lacking. This study reports on psychiatric disorder trajectories from late adolescence to young adulthood in relation to childhood and adolescent risk factors. Participants were recruited for a prospective longitudinal study tracing a community sample of 5-year-old children with communication disorders and a matched control cohort to age 31. Psychiatric disorders were measured at ages 19, 25, and 31. Known predictors of psychopathology and two school-related factors specifically associated with language disorder (LD) were measured by self-reports and semistructured interviews. The LD cohort was uniquely characterized by a significantly decreasing disorder trajectory in early adulthood. Special education was associated with differential disorder trajectories between LD and control cohorts, whereas maltreatment history, specific learning disorder, family structure, and maternal psychological distress were associated with consistent trajectories between cohorts. From late adolescence to young adulthood, childhood LD was characterized by a developmentally limited course of psychiatric disorder; maltreatment was consistently characterized by an elevated risk of psychiatric disorder regardless of LD history, whereas special education was associated with significantly decreasing risk of psychiatric disorder only in the presence of LD.

  17. Long-term effects of family functioning and child characteristics on problem drinking in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Engels, Rutger C M E; Vermulst, Ad A; Dubas, Judith S; Bot, Sander M; Gerris, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Several studies have shown that disturbances in the parent-child relationship in childhood are related to patterns of alcohol abuse in adolescence and young adulthood. Recently some researchers, however, argue that whether poor parenting is detrimental depends on specific child characteristics. Hence, instead of examining overall effects of parenting, it might be more appropriate to search for specific child-environment effects that lead to problematic drinking patterns. In this paper, we investigate the interplay between child characteristics (lack of self-control and aggression) and parenting on problematic alcohol use in young adulthood. Data were used from a longitudinal study that followed 301 children and their parents for a period of 10 years. Both parents and their children were interviewed on parenting practices and child characteristics when the child was a young adolescent (mean age of 12 years at time 1) and extensive information on problematic alcohol use was gathered when the participants were young adults (mean age was 22 at time 3). Findings showed strong effects of childhood aggression (men only) and poor family functioning on enhanced levels of problem drinking in young adulthood. Further, the combination of high levels of aggression and low levels of family functioning were related to problem drinking in men, whereas the combination of low parental control and low levels of affection expression were related to problem drinking in women.

  18. Trajectories and stability of self-reported short sleep duration from adolescence to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Hayley, Amie C; Skogen, Jens C; Øverland, Simon; Wold, Bente; Williams, Lana J; Kennedy, Gerard A; Sivertsen, Børge

    2015-12-01

    The trajectories and stability of self-reported sleep duration recorded at ages 13, 15, and 23 years on reported sleep duration at age 30 years among 1105 students (55% male) who participated in the Norwegian Longitudinal Health and Behaviour Study were examined. Questionnaire data were used to obtain demographic and sleep variables. Dichotomised short sleep duration was based on normative values and set as ≤ 8.5 h (age 13 years), ≤ 8 h (age 15 years) and ≤ 7 h (ages 23 and 30 years). Results indicated a significant overall reduction in total sleep duration (h per night) across age groups. Sleep duration (continuous) at age 15 and 23 years (whole group) was moderately but positively correlated with sleep duration at age 30 years (P < 0.01). When split by sex, at age 15 years, this association was present among females only (P < 0.01); however, at age 23 years, this association was present in both male and females (both P < 0.001). Categorical short sleep at age 23 years (whole group) was associated with short sleep at age 30 years (unadjusted odds ratio = 3.67, 95% confidence interval 2.36-5.69). Following sex stratification, this effect was significant for both males (unadjusted odds ratio = 3.77, 95% confidence interval: 2.22-6.42) and females (unadjusted odds ratio = 2.71, 95% confidence interval: 1.46-5.04). No associations were noted for categorical short sleep at ages 13 or 15 years, and subsequent short sleep at 30 years. Habitual short sleep duration during middle adulthood is not sustained from the time of early adolescence. Rather, these trends appear to be formed during early adulthood. PMID:26172979

  19. Trajectories and stability of self-reported short sleep duration from adolescence to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Hayley, Amie C; Skogen, Jens C; Øverland, Simon; Wold, Bente; Williams, Lana J; Kennedy, Gerard A; Sivertsen, Børge

    2015-12-01

    The trajectories and stability of self-reported sleep duration recorded at ages 13, 15, and 23 years on reported sleep duration at age 30 years among 1105 students (55% male) who participated in the Norwegian Longitudinal Health and Behaviour Study were examined. Questionnaire data were used to obtain demographic and sleep variables. Dichotomised short sleep duration was based on normative values and set as ≤ 8.5 h (age 13 years), ≤ 8 h (age 15 years) and ≤ 7 h (ages 23 and 30 years). Results indicated a significant overall reduction in total sleep duration (h per night) across age groups. Sleep duration (continuous) at age 15 and 23 years (whole group) was moderately but positively correlated with sleep duration at age 30 years (P < 0.01). When split by sex, at age 15 years, this association was present among females only (P < 0.01); however, at age 23 years, this association was present in both male and females (both P < 0.001). Categorical short sleep at age 23 years (whole group) was associated with short sleep at age 30 years (unadjusted odds ratio = 3.67, 95% confidence interval 2.36-5.69). Following sex stratification, this effect was significant for both males (unadjusted odds ratio = 3.77, 95% confidence interval: 2.22-6.42) and females (unadjusted odds ratio = 2.71, 95% confidence interval: 1.46-5.04). No associations were noted for categorical short sleep at ages 13 or 15 years, and subsequent short sleep at 30 years. Habitual short sleep duration during middle adulthood is not sustained from the time of early adolescence. Rather, these trends appear to be formed during early adulthood.

  20. Parental educational attainment and sense of control in mid- and late-adulthood.

    PubMed

    Ward, Michael M

    2013-07-01

    Sense of control is greater among children who grow up in households of higher socioeconomic status. It is unclear if this childhood advantage persists throughout life or if schooling and adulthood experiences override any early childhood advantage. Using data from 2 nationally representative samples of primarily middle-aged (National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States, or MIDUS), and older adults (Health and Retirement Study, or HRS), I tested if personal mastery and perceived constraints in adulthood were associated with the educational attainment of the participant's father or mother, adjusting for participant's education level, income, and other demographic characteristics. In both samples, personal mastery was not associated with either parent's education level, but perceived constraints had a graded inverse association with mother's education level. These results indicate that childhood experiences continue to be associated with perceived constraints, even in later life, and may not be completely overridden by adult experiences.

  1. [Care continuity for patients with tic disorders during transition from childhood to adulthood].

    PubMed

    Kano, Yukiko

    2010-01-01

    Chronic tic disorders including Tourette syndrome are defined as disorders with tics continuing for over a year. Although a substantial portion of patients with chronic tic disorders have improvement or remission of their tics until adulthood, some of them still have necessity to receive treatment for tic disorders in adulthood. Regardless of age and severity of tics, basic treatment for tic disorders consists of psycho-education and family guidance which encourage patients and people around them to understand, accept and cope with tics appropriately. In most of the adult cases with tic disorders who require aggressive treatment, tics and/or comorbidities including obsessive-compulsive symptoms are so severe that they usually have medication including antipsychotics.

  2. Childhood emotional abuse, negative emotion-driven impulsivity, and alcohol use in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sunny H; Lee, Sungkyu; Jeon, Sae-Mi; Wills, Thomas A

    2015-12-01

    Childhood emotional abuse has been linked to problematic alcohol use in later life but there is a paucity of empirically based knowledge about the developmental pathways linking emotional abuse and alcohol use in young adulthood. Using a community sample of young individuals aged 18-25 (N=268; female 52%), we performed structural equation modeling to investigate whether emotional abuse influences alcohol use through urgent personality trait and to determine pathways for these effects in a multivariate context. We also examined variations in these pathways by four different alcohol use outcomes including frequency of alcohol use, binge drinking, alcohol-related problems, and alcohol use disorders (AUD). The present study found that emotional abuse was related to urgency, which in turn influenced four types of alcohol use. Urgency may play a significant role in linking childhood maltreatment to alcohol use in young adulthood. PMID:25743371

  3. Trajectories of Antisocial Behavior and Psychosocial Maturity From Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Monahan, Kathryn C.; Steinberg, Laurence; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Mulvey, Edward P.

    2010-01-01

    Most theorizing about desistance from antisocial behavior in late adolescence has emphasized the importance of individuals’ transition into adult roles. In contrast, little research has examined how psychological development in late adolescence and early adulthood contributes desistance. The present study examined trajectories of antisocial behavior among serious juvenile offenders from 14 through 22 years of age and tested how impulse control, suppression of aggression, future orientation, consideration of others, personal responsibility, and resistance to peer influence distinguished between youths who persisted in antisocial behavior and youths who desisted. Different patterns of development in psychosocial maturity from adolescence to early adulthood, especially with respect to impulse control and suppression of aggression, distinguished among individuals who followed different trajectories of antisocial behavior. Compared with individuals who desisted from antisocial behavior, youths who persisted in antisocial behavior exhibited deficits in elements of psychosocial maturity, particularly in impulse control, suppression of aggression, and future orientation. PMID:19899922

  4. Childhood parental divorce and cortisol in young adulthood: evidence for mediation by family income.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Amy J; Luecken, Linda J

    2009-10-01

    Childhood parental divorce has been linked with negative physical and psychological health in adulthood, potentially due to alterations in adrenocortical activity resulting from chronic stress. The current study evaluated cortisol in 94 young adults (mean age 19.9) from families characterized by parental divorce (n=43) or intact parental marriages (n=51). Salivary cortisol was assessed prior to and at 3 time points after a challenging speech task. Participants from divorced families had significantly lower cortisol across the experimental period than those from intact families, even after controlling for family conflict and current depression and anxiety. Lower family income was also associated with lower cortisol, and partially mediated the relationship between parental divorce and cortisol. Findings suggest that childhood parental divorce is associated with attenuated cortisol in young adulthood, which may be explained by lower income in divorced families.

  5. Associations between psychosomatic symptoms in adolescence and mental health symptoms in early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Kinnunen, Pirjo; Laukkanen, Eila; Kylmä, Jari

    2010-02-01

    This longitudinal study explored associations between psychosomatic symptoms in adolescence and mental health symptoms in early adulthood. The baseline data were collected in 1996 from 14-year-old pupils (n = 235; 116 girls, 119 boys) at schools using a structured questionnaire that included a 14-item scale of psychosomatic symptoms. The follow-up data were collected in 2006 from the same persons at the age of 24 using the Symptom Checklist-90. Follow-up questionnaires were returned by 149 (63.4%) young adults (88 women and 61 men). Young adults who had many psychosomatic symptoms in adolescence suffered more often than the others from somatization and anxiety symptoms in early adulthood. In addition, women had more symptoms of depression and paranoid ideation, and men had more interpersonal sensitivity and psychotic symptoms. Psychosomatic symptoms in adolescence might be important signals of mental health and this should be taken seriously in school health and in general primary care. PMID:20158547

  6. Marriage and Health in the Transition to Adulthood: Evidence for African Americans in Add Health.

    PubMed

    Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Lee, Hedwig; Deleone, Felicia Yang

    2010-08-01

    This paper examines the relationship between early marriage (before age 26), cohabitation, and health for African Americans and whites during the transition to adulthood using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). We examine three categories of health outcomes relevant to young adulthood: physical health, mental health, and health risk behaviors. Lagged dependent variable models are used to examine the health effects of early marriage and cohabitation accounting for potential health selection into unions. Our results indicate that early marriage by young adults does not have protective effects for African Americans, and finds more negative effects for African American men than women. There are mixed results for whites with some protective effects of marriage for binge drinking. Early marriage for both African Americans and whites is associated with increased Body Mass Index (BMI). Cohabitation is uniformly associated with negative health outcomes for all race and sex groups.

  7. Prospective Interrelationships Between Late Adolescent Personality and Major Depressive Disorder in Early Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Sylia; DiRago, Ana C.; Iacono, William G.

    2013-01-01

    Background A well-established body of literature demonstrates concurrent associations between personality traits and major depressive disorder (MDD), but there have been relatively fewer investigations of their dynamic interplay over time. Methods Prospective interrelationships between late adolescent personality and MDD in early adulthood were examined in a community sample of male and female twins from the Minnesota Twin Family Study (N = 1252). Participants were classified into naturally occurring MDD groups based on the timing (adolescent- versus adult-onset) and course (chronic/recurrent versus remitting) of MDD. MDD diagnoses were assessed at ages 17, 20, 24, and 29, and personality traits (Negative Emotionality [NEM], Positive Emotionality [PEM], Constraint [CON]) were assessed at ages 17, 24, and 29. Results Multilevel modeling analyses indicated that higher age-17 NEM was associated with the subsequent development of MDD, and any MDD, regardless of onset or course, was associated with higher NEM through age 29. Moreover, the chronic/recurrent MDD groups failed to show the normative decrease in NEM from late adolescence to early adulthood. Lower age-17 PEM was also associated with the subsequent development of MDD, but only among the chronic/recurrent MDD groups. Finally, the adolescent-onset MDD groups reported lower age-17 CON relative to the never depressed and adult-onset MDD groups. Conclusions Taken together, results speak to the role of personality traits for conferring risk for the onset of MDD in late adolescence and early adulthood, as well as the pernicious implications of chronic/recurrent MDD, particularly when it onsets during adolescence, for adaptive personality development. PMID:23689064

  8. Cardiovascular fitness is associated with cognition in young adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Åberg, Maria A. I.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Torén, Kjell; Svartengren, Magnus; Bäckstrand, Björn; Johnsson, Tommy; Cooper-Kuhn, Christiana M.; Åberg, N. David; Nilsson, Michael; Kuhn, H. Georg

    2009-01-01

    During early adulthood, a phase in which the central nervous system displays considerable plasticity and in which important cognitive traits are shaped, the effects of exercise on cognition remain poorly understood. We performed a cohort study of all Swedish men born in 1950 through 1976 who were enlisted for military service at age 18 (N = 1,221,727). Of these, 268,496 were full-sibling pairs, 3,147 twin pairs, and 1,432 monozygotic twin pairs. Physical fitness and intelligence performance data were collected during conscription examinations and linked with other national databases for information on school achievement, socioeconomic status, and sibship. Relationships between cardiovascular fitness and intelligence at age 18 were evaluated by linear models in the total cohort and in subgroups of full-sibling pairs and twin pairs. Cardiovascular fitness, as measured by ergometer cycling, positively associated with intelligence after adjusting for relevant confounders (regression coefficient b = 0.172; 95% CI, 0.168–0.176). Similar results were obtained within monozygotic twin pairs. In contrast, muscle strength was not associated with cognitive performance. Cross-twin cross-trait analyses showed that the associations were primarily explained by individual specific, non-shared environmental influences (≥80%), whereas heritability explained <15% of covariation. Cardiovascular fitness changes between age 15 and 18 y predicted cognitive performance at 18 y. Cox proportional-hazards models showed that cardiovascular fitness at age 18 y predicted educational achievements later in life. These data substantiate that physical exercise could be an important instrument for public health initiatives to optimize educational achievements, cognitive performance, as well as disease prevention at the society level. PMID:19948959

  9. Trajectories of prosocial behaviors conducive to civic outcomes during the transition to adulthood: the predictive role of family dynamics.

    PubMed

    Kanacri, Bernadette P Luengo; Pastorelli, Concetta; Zuffianò, Antonio; Eisenberg, Nancy; Ceravolo, Rosalba; Caprara, Gian Vittorio

    2014-12-01

    The current study explored the prediction of civic engagement by diverse trajectories of prosocial behaviors as well family dynamics (i.e., filial self-efficacy and relational parent-child support) across four times of assessment (from age 16-17 to age 22-23) during the transition to adulthood. Three different trajectories of prosocial behaviors were identified for 686 Italian youths: high-increasing (18%), medium-stable (48%), and low-stable (34%). An increasing pattern of change in prosocial behaviors was predicted by filial self-efficacy at age 16-17, which in turn mediated longitudinal relations to civic engagement and civic values at age 22-23. Results highlighted that during the transition to adulthood youths' beliefs about their ability to negotiate with their parents without losing autonomy and relatedness are relevant in promoting prosocial behaviors and civic involvement, especially in the context of Mediterranean countries.

  10. Debt, cohabitation, and marriage in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Addo, Fenaba R

    2014-10-01

    Despite growing evidence that debt influences pivotal life events in early and young adulthood, the role of debt in the familial lives of young adults has received relatively little attention. Using data from the NLSY 1997 cohort (N = 6,749) and a discrete-time competing risks hazard model framework, I test whether the transition to first union is influenced by a young adult's credit card and education loan debt above and beyond traditional educational and labor market characteristics. I find that credit card debt is positively associated with cohabitation for men and women, and that women with education loan debt are more likely than women without such debt to delay marriage and transition into cohabitation. Single life may be difficult to afford, but marital life is un-affordable as well. Cohabitation presents an alternative to single life, but not necessarily a marital substitute for these young adults.

  11. Adulthood personality correlates of childhood adversity

    PubMed Central

    Carver, Charles S.; Johnson, Sheri L.; McCullough, Michael E.; Forster, Daniel E.; Joormann, Jutta

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Childhood adversity has been linked to internalizing and externalizing disorders and personality disorders in adulthood. This study extends that research by examining several personality measures as correlates of childhood adversity. Method: In a college sample self-reports were collected of childhood adversity, several scales relating to personality, and current depression symptoms as a control variable. The personality-related scales were reduced to four latent variables, which we termed anger/aggression, extrinsic focus, agreeableness, and engagement. Results: Controlling for concurrent depressive symptoms and gender, higher levels of reported childhood adversity related to lower agreeableness and to higher anger/aggression and extrinsic focus. Conclusions: Findings suggest that early adversity is linked to personality variables relevant to the building of social connection. PMID:25484874

  12. Body weight gain during adulthood and uterine myomas: Pró-Saúde Study.

    PubMed

    Boclin, Karine de Lima Sírio; Torres, Fernanda Pelegrini; Faerstein, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    This study intended to investigate whether body weight gain during adulthood is associated with uterine myomas. 1,560 subjects were evaluated in a Pró-Saúde Study. Weight gain was evaluated in a continuous fashion and also in quintiles. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated through logistic regression models that were adjusted for education levels, color/race, body mass indices at age 20, age of menarche, parity, use of oral contraceptive methods, smoking, health insurance, and the Papanicolaou tests. No relevant differences were observed regarding the presence of uterine myomas among weight gain quintiles in that studied population. PMID:26558353

  13. Body weight gain during adulthood and uterine myomas: Pró-Saúde Study

    PubMed Central

    Boclin, Karine de Lima Sírio; Torres, Fernanda Pelegrini; Faerstein, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study intended to investigate whether body weight gain during adulthood is associated with uterine myomas. 1,560 subjects were evaluated in a Pró-Saúde Study. Weight gain was evaluated in a continuous fashion and also in quintiles. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated through logistic regression models that were adjusted for education levels, color/race, body mass indices at age 20, age of menarche, parity, use of oral contraceptive methods, smoking, health insurance, and the Papanicolaou tests. No relevant differences were observed regarding the presence of uterine myomas among weight gain quintiles in that studied population. PMID:26558353

  14. Developmental change in the acuity of the "Number Sense": The Approximate Number System in 3-, 4-, 5-, and 6-year-olds and adults.

    PubMed

    Halberda, Justin; Feigenson, Lisa

    2008-09-01

    Behavioral, neuropsychological, and brain imaging research points to a dedicated system for processing number that is shared across development and across species. This foundational Approximate Number System (ANS) operates over multiple modalities, forming representations of the number of objects, sounds, or events in a scene. This system is imprecise and hence differs from exact counting. Evidence suggests that the resolution of the ANS, as specified by a Weber fraction, increases with age such that adults can discriminate numerosities that infants cannot. However, the Weber fraction has yet to be determined for participants of any age between 9 months and adulthood, leaving its developmental trajectory unclear. Here we identify the Weber fraction of the ANS in 3-, 4-, 5-, and 6-year-old children and in adults. We show that the resolution of this system continues to increase throughout childhood, with adultlike levels of acuity attained surprisingly late in development. PMID:18793076

  15. Effect of adolescent substance use and antisocial behavior on the development of early adulthood depression.

    PubMed

    Choi, Tai Kiu; Worley, Matthew J; Trim, Ryan S; Howard, David; Brown, Sandra A; Hopfer, Christian J; Hewitt, John K; Wall, Tamara L

    2016-04-30

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a prevalent and frequently comorbid psychiatric disorder. This study evaluates the development of depressive symptoms, MDD diagnosis, and suicidal ideation in a high-risk sample (N=524) diagnosed with conduct disorder (CD) and substance use disorder (SUD) symptoms as youth and re-assessed approximately 6.5 years later. Dual trajectory classes of both alcohol and other drug use (AOD) and antisocial behavior (ASB), previously identified using latent class growth analyses (LCGA), were used to predict depression outcomes. The Dual Chronic, Increasing AOD/Persistent ASB, and Decreasing Drugs/Persistent ASB classes had higher past-week depression scores, more past-year MDD symptoms, and were more likely to have past-year MDD than the Resolved class. The Dual Chronic and Decreasing Drugs/Persistent ASB classes also had more past-year MDD symptoms than the Persistent AOD/Adolescent ASB class. Youth at highest risk for developing or maintaining depression in adulthood had the common characteristic of persistent antisocial behavior. This suggests young adulthood depression is associated more with persistent antisocial behavior than with persistent substance use in comorbid youth. As such, interventions targeting high-risk youth, particularly those with persistent antisocial behavior, are needed to help reduce the risk of severe psychosocial consequences (including risk for suicide) in adulthood. PMID:27086224

  16. Social and Emotional Aging

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Susan; Carstensen, Laura L.

    2014-01-01

    The past several decades have witnessed unidimensional decline models of aging give way to life-span developmental models that consider how specific processes and strategies facilitate adaptive aging. In part, this shift was provoked by the stark contrast between findings that clearly demonstrate decreased biological, physiological, and cognitive capacity with those suggesting that people are generally satisfied in old age and experience relatively high levels of emotional well-being. In recent years, this supposed “paradox” of aging has been reconciled through careful theoretical analysis and empirical investigation. Viewing aging as adaptation sheds light on resilience, wellbeing, and emotional distress across adulthood. PMID:19575618

  17. On Stochastic Approximation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Hans

    This paper deals with a stochastic process for the approximation of the root of a regression equation. This process was first suggested by Robbins and Monro. The main result here is a necessary and sufficient condition on the iteration coefficients for convergence of the process (convergence with probability one and convergence in the quadratic…

  18. Optimal approximate doubles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Siendong

    2009-11-01

    The nonlocality of quantum states on a bipartite system \\mathcal {A+B} is tested by comparing probabilistic outcomes of two local observables of different subsystems. For a fixed observable A of the subsystem \\mathcal {A,} its optimal approximate double A' of the other system \\mathcal {B} is defined such that the probabilistic outcomes of A' are almost similar to those of the fixed observable A. The case of σ-finite standard von Neumann algebras is considered and the optimal approximate double A' of an observable A is explicitly determined. The connection between optimal approximate doubles and quantum correlations is explained. Inspired by quantum states with perfect correlation, like Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen states and Bohm states, the nonlocality power of an observable A for general quantum states is defined as the similarity that the outcomes of A look like the properties of the subsystem \\mathcal {B} corresponding to A'. As an application of optimal approximate doubles, maximal Bell correlation of a pure entangled state on \\mathcal {B}(\\mathbb {C}^{2})\\otimes \\mathcal {B}(\\mathbb {C}^{2}) is found explicitly.

  19. Approximating Integrals Using Probability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maruszewski, Richard F., Jr.; Caudle, Kyle A.

    2005-01-01

    As part of a discussion on Monte Carlo methods, which outlines how to use probability expectations to approximate the value of a definite integral. The purpose of this paper is to elaborate on this technique and then to show several examples using visual basic as a programming tool. It is an interesting method because it combines two branches of…

  20. The school age child with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Lynn; Kelly, Michelle M; Reynolds, Kathryn; Conlan, Misty; Taylor, Felisha

    2015-01-01

    Currently, in the United States, there are approximately 1 in 150 adults living with congenital heart disease (CHD) (). Infant and childhood mortality related to CHD decreased by 31% between 1987 and 2005 (). This survival trend is predicted to increase each year due to advancements in treatment and management of CHD. This significant shift in the epidemiology of CHD requires nurses to take action in preparing children with CHD and their families for their teenage years and young adulthood. The school-age child is the ideal age to begin teaching the child about their healthcare needs and how to care for themselves in preparation for the future. The school-age child with CHD has specific physical, intellectual, emotional, and developmental needs that must be considered and managed using a multidisciplinary approach. Pediatric nurses must be aware of these needs as they help the child and their family seamlessly and successfully transition into young adulthood as a happy and healthy CHD survivor. PMID:25330332

  1. Long-Term Mental Health among Low-Income, Minority Women Following Exposure to Multiple Natural Disasters in Early and Late Adolescence Compared to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Marni B.; Harville, Emily W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: High impact experiences following a natural disaster have been shown to influence later psychopathology. Individual-level factors such as age may also contribute to a disaster's impact on mental health, though it is unclear whether young age confers a protective effect or represents a period of increased risk as compared to adulthood.…

  2. Early Life Conditions, Adverse Life Events, and Chewing Ability at Middle and Later Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Watt, Richard G.; Tsakos, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to determine the extent to which early life conditions and adverse life events impact chewing ability in middle and later adulthood. Methods. Secondary analyses were conducted based on data from waves 2 and 3 of the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), collected in the years 2006 to 2009 and encompassing information on current chewing ability and the life history of persons aged 50 years or older from 13 European countries. Logistic regression models were estimated with sequential inclusion of explanatory variables representing living conditions in childhood and adverse life events. Results. After controlling for current determinants of chewing ability at age 50 years or older, certain childhood and later life course socioeconomic, behavioral, and cognitive factors became evident as correlates of chewing ability at age 50 years or older. Specifically, childhood financial hardship was identified as an early life predictor of chewing ability at age 50 years or older (odds ratio = 1.58; 95% confidence interval = 1.22, 2.06). Conclusions. Findings suggest a potential enduring impact of early life conditions and adverse life events on oral health in middle and later adulthood and are relevant for public health decision-makers who design strategies for optimal oral health. PMID:24625140

  3. A Prospective Examination of the Mechanisms Linking Childhood Physical Abuse to Body Mass Index in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Melville M.; Nikulina, Valentina; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has reported associations between childhood physical abuse and Body Mass Index (BMI) in adulthood. This paper examined the role of four potential mediators (anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress, and coping) hypothesized to explain this relationship. Using data from a prospective cohort design, court-substantiated cases of childhood physical abuse (N = 78) and non-maltreated comparisons (N = 349) were followed-up and assessed in adulthood at three time points (1989-1995, 2000-2002, and 2003-2005) when participants were ages 29.2, 39.5, and 41.2, respectively. At age 41, average BMI of the current sample was 29.97, falling between overweight and obese categories. Meditation analyses were conducted, controlling for age, sex, race, smoking, and self-reported weight. Childhood physical abuse was positively associated with subsequent generalized anxiety, major depression and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms at age 29.2 and higher levels of depression and posttraumatic stress predicted higher BMI at age 41.2. In contrast, higher levels of anxiety predicted lower BMI. Coping did not mediate between physical abuse and BMI. Anxiety symptoms mediated the relationship between physical abuse and BMI for women, but not men. These findings illustrate the complexity of studying the consequences of physical abuse, particularly the relationship between psychiatric symptoms and adult health outcomes. PMID:25648448

  4. A Prospective Examination of the Mechanisms Linking Childhood Physical Abuse to Body Mass Index in Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Francis, Melville M; Nikulina, Valentina; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2015-08-01

    Previous research has reported associations between childhood physical abuse and body mass index (BMI) in adulthood. This article examined the role of four potential mediators (anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress, and coping) hypothesized to explain this relationship. Using data from a prospective cohort design, court-substantiated cases of childhood physical abuse (N = 78) and nonmaltreated comparisons (N = 349) were followed up and assessed in adulthood at three time points (1989-1995, 2000-2002, and 2003-2005) when participants were of age 29.2, 39.5, and 41.2, respectively. At age 41, average BMI of the current sample was 29.97, falling between overweight and obese categories. Meditation analyses were conducted, controlling for age, sex, race, smoking, and self-reported weight. Childhood physical abuse was positively associated with subsequent generalized anxiety, major depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms at age 29.2 and higher levels of depression and posttraumatic stress predicted higher BMI at age 41.2. In contrast, higher levels of anxiety predicted lower BMI. Coping did not mediate between physical abuse and BMI. Anxiety symptoms mediated the relationship between physical abuse and BMI for women, but not for men. These findings illustrate the complexity of studying the consequences of physical abuse, particularly the relationship between psychiatric symptoms and adult health outcomes. PMID:25648448

  5. Optimizing the Zeldovich approximation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melott, Adrian L.; Pellman, Todd F.; Shandarin, Sergei F.

    1994-01-01

    We have recently learned that the Zeldovich approximation can be successfully used for a far wider range of gravitational instability scenarios than formerly proposed; we study here how to extend this range. In previous work (Coles, Melott and Shandarin 1993, hereafter CMS) we studied the accuracy of several analytic approximations to gravitational clustering in the mildly nonlinear regime. We found that what we called the 'truncated Zeldovich approximation' (TZA) was better than any other (except in one case the ordinary Zeldovich approximation) over a wide range from linear to mildly nonlinear (sigma approximately 3) regimes. TZA was specified by setting Fourier amplitudes equal to zero for all wavenumbers greater than k(sub nl), where k(sub nl) marks the transition to the nonlinear regime. Here, we study the cross correlation of generalized TZA with a group of n-body simulations for three shapes of window function: sharp k-truncation (as in CMS), a tophat in coordinate space, or a Gaussian. We also study the variation in the crosscorrelation as a function of initial truncation scale within each type. We find that k-truncation, which was so much better than other things tried in CMS, is the worst of these three window shapes. We find that a Gaussian window e(exp(-k(exp 2)/2k(exp 2, sub G))) applied to the initial Fourier amplitudes is the best choice. It produces a greatly improved crosscorrelation in those cases which most needed improvement, e.g. those with more small-scale power in the initial conditions. The optimum choice of kG for the Gaussian window is (a somewhat spectrum-dependent) 1 to 1.5 times k(sub nl). Although all three windows produce similar power spectra and density distribution functions after application of the Zeldovich approximation, the agreement of the phases of the Fourier components with the n-body simulation is better for the Gaussian window. We therefore ascribe the success of the best-choice Gaussian window to its superior treatment

  6. Emerging Adulthood: Developmental Period Facilitative of the Addictions.

    PubMed

    Sussman, Steve; Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen

    2014-06-01

    Following adolescence and prior to young adulthood is a life developmental period that has been referred to as "emerging adulthood." This period of life involves an extended duration of learning and experimentation before settling into a career and stable relationship. Risky behaviors may be most tolerated or even promoted during emerging adulthood. Various substance and behavioral addictions are most likely to be realized during this period. Understanding what differentiates emerging adults that develop or do not develop full-blown addictions will assist in the creation of more efficacious prevention and cessation programs.

  7. Military Service, Exposure to Trauma, and Health in Older Adulthood: An Analysis of Northern Vietnamese Survivors of the Vietnam War

    PubMed Central

    Teerawichitchainan, Bussarawan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to better understand the association between early life exposure to war and trauma and older adult health status in a developing setting. Methods. We analyzed data of 405 Vietnamese men and women in 1 northern Vietnam commune who entered early adulthood during the Vietnam War and who are now entering late adulthood (i.e., ages 55 years and older in 2010). Results. The toll of war’s trauma in the aging northern Vietnamese population was perceptible in the association between exposure to war trauma and various measures of physical health, including negative self-reported health and somatic symptoms. Killing another person and being exposed to toxic substances in warfare was especially detrimental to health in older adulthood. War traumas were likely implicated more strongly as determinants of late adulthood health in men than in women. The weak association between trauma exposure and reported depressive symptoms raised questions about measuring mental health. Conclusions. Military service and war trauma were important determinants of older adult health beyond the US context, given the widespread waging of war and concentration of recent armed conflicts within developing societies. PMID:24922129

  8. Munchausen by proxy victims in adulthood: a first look.

    PubMed

    Libow, J A

    1995-09-01

    Very little is known about the long-term impact of Munchausen by Proxy abuse on children, as many victims probably are never identified and most have been lost to follow-up soon after termination of protective services supervision. This exploratory study examined the childhood experiences and long-term psychological outcomes for 10 adults, ranging from 33 to 71 years of age, who were self-identified victims of illness fabrication by a parent. Subjects completed a 33-item questionnaire including demographic and open-ended questions and a checklist of PTSD symptoms, supplemented by telephone interviews. Subjects described a range of experiences from poisonings and induced bone fractures to symptom exaggeration. Subjects generally felt unloved and unsafe in childhood; a few were directly aware of their parent's deceptions. They made limited attempts to alert others, with little success. Subjects reported significant emotional and physical problems in childhood, and problems in adulthood including insecurity, reality-testing issues, avoidance of medical treatment and posttraumatic stress symptoms. Most of their siblings were also abused, physically or medically. Some subjects express considerable residual anger towards the abusing mothers, but a surprising degree of sympathy for the fathers who passively colluded or failed to protect. Some of the MBPS parents have continued fabricating their own medical illnesses or harassing their adult children with fabricated dramas even decades later. PMID:8528818

  9. Interpersonal Development, Stability, and Change in Early Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Aidan G. C.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Lenzenweger, Mark F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective This goal of this research was to explore the development of the interpersonal system mapped by the interpersonal circumplex in early adulthood (Ages 18-22). Method This study uses the Longitudinal Study of Personality Disorders sample (N = 250; 53% Female). Participants completed the Revised Interpersonal Adjective Scales (Wiggins, Trapnell, & Phillips, 1988) in their freshman, sophomore, and senior years of college. Estimates of structural, rank-order, mean, individual, and ipsative stability were calculated for the broad interpersonal dimensions of Dominance and Affiliation, and also the lower-order octant scales. Additionally, the interpersonal profile parameters of differentiation and prototypicality were calculated at each wave and explored longitudinally, and also used as predictors of interpersonal stability. Results We found excellent structural and high rank-order and ipsative stability in the interpersonal scales over this time period. Mean increases on the Affiliation axis, but not on the Dominance axis, were found to mask differential rates of change among the octant scales, along with significant individual variation in the rates of change. Interpersonal differentiation and prototypicality were related to higher stability in overall interpersonal style. Conclusions Results point to evidence of both stability and nuanced change, illuminating some of the features of the structural variables that can be derived from interpersonal circumplex profiles. PMID:22224462

  10. Protective factors associated with resilient functioning in young adulthood after childhood exposure to violence.

    PubMed

    Howell, Kathryn H; Miller-Graff, Laura E

    2014-12-01

    Children may be subjected to many forms of violence and a significant number will experience multiple victimizations. These children are at high risk for developing psychological and emotional difficulties that may last into adulthood. Despite the increased risk for psychopathology, a substantial percentage of young adults exhibit resilient functioning following a history of childhood violence. This study examines the role of social support, spirituality, and emotional intelligence in promoting resilience during emerging adulthood. Participants included 321 young adult American college students, age 18-24, who experienced childhood violence, including community violence, interpersonal aggression, child maltreatment, peer/sibling victimization, and/or sexual assault. Findings revealed that this sample was highly victimized, with an average of 9 violent experiences reported during childhood. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that after controlling for exposure to childhood victimization, other potentially traumatic events, and current depression and anxiety symptoms, higher resilience during emerging adulthood was associated with greater spirituality, greater emotional intelligence, and support from friends (but not from family). Findings suggest that the potency of protective factors outweighs that of adversity and psychopathology when predicting resilient functioning. By identifying variables that can enhance resilience, this study offers unique insight into how functioning may be improved by both individual and environmental factors.

  11. Unsteady diffusional screening in 3D pulmonary acinar structures: from infancy to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Hofemeier, Philipp; Shachar-Berman, Lihi; Tenenbaum-Katan, Janna; Filoche, Marcel; Sznitman, Josué

    2016-07-26

    Diffusional screening in the lungs is a physical phenomenon where the specific topological arrangement of alveolated airways of the respiratory region leads to a depletion, or 'screening', of oxygen molecules with increasing acinar generation. Here, we revisit diffusional screening phenomena in anatomically-inspired pulmonary acinar models under realistic breathing maneuvers. By modelling 3D bifurcating alveolated airways capturing both convection and diffusion, unsteady oxygen transport is investigated under cyclic breathing motion. To evaluate screening characteristics in the developing lungs during growth, four representative stages of lung development were chosen (i.e. 3 months, 1 year and 9 months, 3 years and adulthood) that capture distinct morphological acinar changes spanning alveolarization phases to isotropic alveolar growth. Numerical simulations unveil the dramatic changes in O2 transport occurring during lung development, where young infants exhibit highest acinar efficiencies that rapidly converge with age to predictions at adulthood. With increased ventilatory effort, transient dynamics of oxygen transport is fundamentally altered compared to tidal breathing and emphasizes the augmented role of convection. Resolving the complex convective acinar flow patterns in 3D acinar trees allows for the first time a spatially-localized and time-resolved characterization of oxygen transport in the pulmonary acinus, from infancy to adulthood.

  12. Prospective Predictors of Novel Tobacco and Nicotine Product Use in Emerging Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Hampson, Sarah E.; Andrews, Judy A.; Severson, Herbert H.; Barckley, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether risk factors for cigarette smoking assessed in adolescence predict the use of novel tobacco and nicotine products (hookah, little cigars, and e-cigarettes) in early emerging adulthood. Methods In a longitudinal study (N = 862), risk factors were measured in middle and high school and novel product use was measured in emerging adulthood (mean age 22.4 years). Structural equation modelling was used to test a model predicting lifetime use of any of hookah, little cigars, and e-cigarettes in early emerging adulthood from distal predictors (gender, maternal smoking through Grade 8, already tried alcohol, cigarettes, or marijuana by Grade 8, and sensation seeking at Grade 8), and potential mediators (intentions to smoke cigarettes, drink alcohol or smoke marijuana at Grade 9, and smoking trajectory across high school). Results The most prevalent novel tobacco product was hookah (21.7%), followed by little cigars (16.8%), and e-cigarettes (6.6%). Maternal smoking, having already tried substances, and sensation seeking each predicted the use of at least one of these products via an indirect path through intentions to use substances and membership in a high school smoking trajectory. Conclusions Risk factors for cigarette smoking were found to predict novel tobacco use, suggesting that interventions to prevent cigarette smoking could be extended to include common novel tobacco products. PMID:26206439

  13. Developmental epidemiology of drug use and abuse in adolescence and young adulthood: Evidence of generalized risk

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, R.H.C.; Young, S.E.; Hopfer, C.J.; Corley, R.P.; Stallings, M.C.; Crowley, T.J.; Hewitt, J.K.

    2009-01-01

    Past studies highlight a narrowing gender gap and the existence of a shared etiology across substances of abuse; however, few have tested developmental models using longitudinal data. We present data on developmental trends of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use, abuse and dependence assessed during adolescence and young adulthood in a community-based Colorado twin sample of 1733 respondents through self-report questionnaires and structured psychiatric interviews. Additionally, we report on the rates of multiple substance use and disorders at each developmental stage, and the likelihood of a substance use disorder (SUD; i.e., abuse or dependence) diagnosis in young adulthood based on adolescent drug involvement. Most notably, we evaluate whether the pattern of multiple substance use and disorders and likelihood ratios across substances support a model of generalized risk. Lastly, we evaluate whether the ranked magnitudes of substance-specific risk match the addiction liability ranking. Substance use and SUDs are developmental phenomena, which increase from adolescence to young adulthood with fewand inconsistent gender differences. Adolescents and young adults are not specialized users, but rather tend to use or abuse multiple substances increasingly with age. Risk analyses indicated that progression toward a SUD for any substance was increased with prior involvement with any of the three substances during adolescence. Despite the high prevalence of alcohol use, tobacco posed the greatest substance-specific risk for developing subsequent problems. Our data also confirm either a generalized risk or correlated risk factors for early onset substance use and subsequent development of SUDs. PMID:19250776

  14. Life-course socioeconomic trajectories and diurnal cortisol regulation in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Per E; Janlert, Urban; Theorell, Töres; Hammarström, Anne

    2010-05-01

    Although the health risk of socioeconomic disadvantage over the life-course is fairly established, the mechanisms are less studied. One candidate pathway is long-term dysregulation of cortisol. This study assesses whether socioeconomic trajectories from adolescence to adulthood influences the regulation of cortisol in mid-adulthood, and further investigates the importance of adolescence as a critical period and of accumulation of socioeconomic disadvantage. Participants were drawn from a 27-year prospective cohort study (n=732, 68% of the original cohort). Information on socioeconomic status (SES) was collected at the ages of 16 (based on parental occupation), 21, 30 and 43 (based on own occupation) years, and at 43 years participants collected one-day salivary cortisol samples at awakening, after 15min, before lunch and at bedtime. We found that the cortisol awakening response (CAR) differed with respect to SES trajectory; those with stable low or early low/upwardly mobile SES tended to display higher CAR than those with early high/downwardly mobile, highly mobile or stable high trajectories. Further analyses revealed that early low SES was related to higher CAR, and in women low SES was related to lower bedtime cortisol, independently of later SES and potential confounders. We found no support for a linear effect of accumulation of socioeconomic disadvantage. In conclusion, our study gives support for an independent effect of low socioeconomic status early in life, on the regulation of cortisol in adulthood. PMID:19879057

  15. Early Cannabis Use and Schizotypal Personality Disorder Symptoms from Adolescence to Middle Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Anglin, Deidre M.; Corcoran, Cheryl; Brown, Alan; Chen, Henian; Lighty, Quenesha; Brook, Judith; Cohen, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Background While increasing evidence suggests that cannabis use may play a role in the development of schizophrenia in some young people, less is known about the strength and specificity of its relationship to latent schizophrenia liability, i.e., schizotypal personality disorder traits. Aims Determine the predictive value of cannabis use during childhood and early adolescence on schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) symptoms projecting into adulthood, using a community-based longitudinal cohort from upstate New York. Method Prospective data from 804 participants was used to determine associations between early cannabis use and later schizotypal symptoms, accounting for important potential confounds (e.g., adolescent schizotypal symptoms). Results Cannabis use with onset prior to age 14 strongly predicted SPD symptoms in adulthood, independent of early adolescent SPD symptoms, major depression, anxiety disorder, other drug use, and cigarette use. There was no interaction effect of early cannabis use and early adolescent SPD symptoms on SPD symptoms into adulthood. Conclusions Our data provide further support for a strong association of early cannabis use with the development of symptoms characteristic of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. As with studies in schizophrenia, early SPD symptoms could not fully explain the association of early cannabis use with later schizotypal symptoms. The mechanisms that underlie the association of cannabis use and schizotypal symptoms in a developmental context deserve further exploration. PMID:22325079

  16. Varying contributions of growth and ageing to racial and sex differences in femoral neck structure and strength in old age.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Fang; Duan, Yunbo; Beck, Thomas J; Seeman, Ego

    2005-06-01

    The structural basis of racial and sex differences in femoral neck (FN) fragility in old age was assessed in a cross-sectional study of 829 healthy Chinese and 1181 healthy Caucasian subjects aged 18 to 93 years in Melbourne, Australia. We measured FN bone mineral density (BMD), periosteal diameter, and estimated endocortical diameter, cortical thickness, volumetric BMD (vBMD), section modulus, and buckling ratio using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Racial and sex differences in structural and strength indices were adjusted for age, bone length and body weight and were expressed in standard deviation (SD) unit. In young adulthood, Chinese women had a 0.85 SD narrower FN, a 0.47 SD thinner cortex and a 0.79 SD shorter FN axis length (FNAL) than Caucasian women. Across age, Chinese and Caucasian women had similar increments in endocortical and periosteal diameters and similar decrements in cortical thickness and vBMD (both approximately 20%). In young adult males, FN periosteal diameter did not differ by race, but cortical thickness was 0.35 SD lower in Chinese than Caucasians. Across age, increments in periosteal and endocortical diameters were less in Chinese than Caucasian men so cortical thickness and vBMD diminished less in Chinese than in Caucasian men. In both races, young adult women had narrower FN than men. As Chinese women had a greater increment in periosteal diameter than Chinese men across age, the sex difference in FN periosteal diameter established in young adulthood diminished in old age. As Caucasian men had a greater increment in periosteal diameter than Caucasian women, the sex difference in FN periosteal diameter established in young adulthood increased with age. In old age, for both sexes, Chinese had a higher fracture risk in bending than Caucasians, but a lower fracture risk by buckling. For both races, women had a higher fracture risk in bending than men. Racial and sexual dimorphism in the absolute and relative behavior of the periosteal and

  17. Where Cognitive Development and Aging Meet: Face Learning Ability Peaks after Age 30

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germine, Laura T.; Duchaine, Bradley; Nakayama, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Research on age-related cognitive change traditionally focuses on either development or aging, where development ends with adulthood and aging begins around 55 years. This approach ignores age-related changes during the 35 years in-between, implying that this period is uninformative. Here we investigated face recognition as an ability that may…

  18. Rapid Postnatal Weight Gain and Visceral Adiposity in Adulthood: The Fels Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Demerath, Ellen W.; Reed, Derek; Choh, Audrey C.; Soloway, Laura; Lee, Miryoung; Czerwinski, Stefan A.; Chumlea, William C.; Siervogel, Rogers M.; Towne, Bradford

    2009-01-01

    Rapid infant weight gain is associated with increased abdominal adiposity, but there is no published report of the relationship of early infant growth to differences in specific adipose tissue depots in the abdomen, including visceral adipose tissue (VAT). In this study, we tested the associations of birth weight, infant weight gain, and other early life traits with VAT, abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (ASAT), and other body composition measures using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in middle adulthood (mean age = 46.5 years). The sample included 233 appropriate for gestational age singleton white children (114 males) enrolled in the Fels Longitudinal Study. Multivariate-adjusted general linear models were used to test the association of infant weight gain (from 0 to 2 years), maternal BMI, gestational age, parity, maternal age, and other covariates with adulthood body composition. Compared to infants with slow weight gain, rapid weight gain was associated with elevated risk of obesity (adjusted odds ratio = 4.1, 95% confidence interval = 1.4, 11.1), higher total body fat (+7 kg, P = 0.0002), percent body fat (+5%, P = 0.0006), logVAT mass (+0.43 kg, P = 0.02), logASAT mass (+0.47 kg, P = 0.001), and percent abdominal fat (+5%, P = 0.03). There was no evidence that the increased abdominal adipose tissue was due to a preferential deposition of VAT. In conclusion, rapid infant weight gain is associated with increases in both VAT and ASAT, as well as total adiposity and the risk of obesity in middle adulthood. PMID:19373221

  19. Early Maternal Withdrawal and Nonverbal Childhood IQ as Precursors for Substance Use Disorder in Young Adulthood: Results of a 20-Year Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Pechtel, Pia; Woodman, Ashley; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen

    2012-01-01

    The relation between early mother-infant interaction and later socio-emotional development has been well established. The present study addresses the more recent interest in the impact of maternal caregiving on cognitive development and their role in decision-making in young adulthood. Using data from a prospective longitudinal study on attachment, prediction from early mother-infant interactions at age 18 months and from verbal and nonverbal cognitive skill at age 5 were examined as predictors of a substance use disorder (abuse/dependence) in young adulthood (age 20) on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID). Results reveal that the mother's withdrawal from interaction with the infant at age 18 months, coded using the AMBIANCE coding system (Atypical Maternal Behavior Instrument for Assessment and Classification), was associated with the child's lower nonverbal cognitive scores but not verbal cognitive scores at age 5. In addition, maternal withdrawal at 18 months predicted a clinical diagnosis of substance use disorder (alcohol/cannabis) at age 20. Finally, nonverbal reasoning at age 5 mediated the relationship between early maternal withdrawal and substance use disorder (alcohol/cannabis) in young adulthood. Findings indicate the need for further work examining how early maternal withdrawal affects nonverbal cognitive development by school entry, and how these nonverbal deficits further contribute to maladaptive coping strategies such as substance use by young adulthood. PMID:25473440

  20. Early Maternal Withdrawal and Nonverbal Childhood IQ as Precursors for Substance Use Disorder in Young Adulthood: Results of a 20-Year Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Pechtel, Pia; Woodman, Ashley; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen

    2014-01-01

    The relation between early mother–infant interaction and later socio-emotional development has been well established. The present study addresses the more recent interest in the impact of maternal caregiving on cognitive development and their role in decision-making in young adulthood. Using data from a prospective longitudinal study on attachment, prediction from early mother–infant interactions at age 18 months and from verbal and nonverbal cognitive skill at age 5 were examined as predictors of a substance use disorder (abuse/dependence) in young adulthood (age 20) on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID). Results reveal that the mother’s withdrawal from interaction with the infant at age 18 months, coded using the AMBIANCE coding system (Atypical Maternal Behavior Instrument for Assessment and Classification), was associated with the child’s lower nonverbal cognitive scores but not verbal cognitive scores at age 5. In addition, maternal withdrawal at 18 months predicted a clinical diagnosis of substance use disorder (alcohol/cannabis) at age 20. Finally, nonverbal reasoning at age 5 mediated the relationship between early maternal withdrawal and substance use disorder (alcohol/cannabis) in young adulthood. Findings indicate the need for further work examining how early maternal withdrawal affects nonverbal cognitive development by school entry, and how these nonverbal deficits further contribute to maladaptive coping strategies such as substance use by young adulthood. PMID:25473440

  1. Civic engagement and the transition to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Constance; Levine, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Constance Flanagan and Peter Levine survey research on civic engagement among U.S. adolescents and young adults. Civic engagement, they say, is important both for the functioning of democracies and for the growth and maturation it encourages in young adults, but opportunities for civic engagement are not evenly distributed by social class or race and ethnicity. Today's young adults, note the authors, are less likely than those in earlier generations to exhibit many important characteristics of citizenship, raising the question of whether these differences represent a decline or simply a delay in traditional adult patterns of civic engagement. Flanagan and Levine also briefly discuss the civic and political lives of immigrant youth in the United States, noting that because these youth make up a significant share of the current generation of young adults, their civic engagement is an important barometer of the future of democracy. The authors next survey differences in civic participation for youth from different social, racial, and ethnic backgrounds. They explore two sets of factors that contribute to a lower rate of civic engagement among low-income and minority young adults. The first is cumulative disadvantage-unequal opportunities and influences before adulthood, especially parental education. The second is different institutional opportunities for civic engagement among college and non-college youth during the young-adult years. Flanagan and Levine survey various settings where young adults spend time-schools and colleges, community organizations, faith-based institutions, community organizing and activism projects, and military and other voluntary service programs-and examine the opportunities for civic engagement that each affords. As the transition to adulthood has lengthened, say the authors, colleges have become perhaps the central institution for civic incorporation of younger generations. But no comparable institution exists for young adults who do not

  2. An Institutional Framework for the Study of the Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, JoAnn S.

    2014-01-01

    The transition to adulthood has received the attention of scholars, practitioners, and policy makers in recent years. For some, the transition is an extended period during which commitments to adulthood institutions are delayed, termed emerging adulthood. For others, the transition is brief and commitments to adulthood institutions begin without…

  3. Impact of Adolescent Alcohol and Drug Use on Neuropsychological Functioning in Young Adulthood: 10-Year Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Karen L.; Medina, Krista Lisdahl; Padula, Claudia B.; Tapert, Susan F.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Alcohol and other substance use disorders (AUD/SUD) are common among youth and often continue into adulthood; therefore, the neurocognitive effects of substance use are of great concern. Because neuromaturation continues into young adulthood, youth with AUD/SUD may be at risk for lasting cognitive decrements. This study prospectively examines neuropsychological functioning over 10 years as a function of AUD/SUD history and outcomes. Methods The 51 participants consisted of 18 youth with persisting AUD/SUD, 19 youth with remitted AUD/SUD, and 14 community youth with no AUD/SUD history followed over 10 years (ages 16 to 27 on average) with neuropsychological testing and substance use interviews on 8 occasions. Neuropsychological performance from baseline to 10-year follow-up was compared between the three groups. Results Despite scoring higher than controls at intake, both AUD/SUD groups showed a relative decline in visuospatial construction at 10-year follow-up (p=.001). Regressions showed that alcohol use (β=−.33, p < .01) and drug withdrawal symptoms (β=−.31, p<.05) over follow-up were predictive of year 10 visuospatial function. Alcohol use also predicted verbal learning and memory (β=−.28, p<.05), while stimulant use predicted visual learning and memory function (β=−.33, p=.01). More recent substance use was associated with poorer executive function (β=.28, p<.05). Discussion These findings confirm prior studies suggesting that heavy, chronic alcohol and other substance use persisting from adolescence to young adulthood may produce cognitive disadvantages, primarily in visuospatial and memory abilities. Youth who chronically consume heavy quantities of alcohol and/or experience drug withdrawal symptoms may be particularly at risk for cognitive deterioration by young adulthood. PMID:21532924

  4. Cannabinoids reverse the effects of early stress on neurocognitive performance in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Alteba, Shirley; Korem, Nachshon; Akirav, Irit

    2016-07-01

    Early life stress (ES) significantly increases predisposition to psychopathologies. Cannabinoids may cause cognitive deficits and exacerbate the effects of ES. Nevertheless, the endocannabinoid system has been suggested as a therapeutic target for the treatment of stress- and anxiety-related disorders. Here we examined whether cannabinoids administered during "late adolescence" (extensive cannabis use in humans at the ages 18-25) could reverse the long-term adverse effects of ES on neurocognitive function in adulthood. Male and female rats were exposed to ES during post-natal days (P) 7-14, injected with the cannabinoid CB1/2 receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (WIN; 1.2 mg/kg, i.p.) for 2 wk during late adolescence (P45-60) and tested in adulthood (P90) for working memory, anxiety, and alterations in CB1 receptors (CB1r), and glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) in the stress circuit [hippocampus, prefrontal cortex (PFC), and basolateral amygdala (BLA)]. ES males and females exhibited impaired performance in short-term memory in adulthood in the spatial location and social recognition tasks; males were also impaired in the novel object recognition task. WIN administered during late adolescence prevented these stress-induced impairments and reduced anxiety levels. WIN normalized the ES-induced up-regulation in PFC-GRs and CA1-CB1r in females. In males, WIN normalized the ES-induced up-regulation in PFC-GR and down-regulation in BLA-CB1r. There is a crucial role of the endocannabinoid system in the effects of early life stress on behavior at adulthood. Differences in recognition memory and in the expression of GRs and CB1r in the fear circuit suggest sex differences in the mechanism underlying coping with stress. PMID:27317195

  5. Adolescent nicotine treatment changes the response of acetylcholine systems to subsequent nicotine administration in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Slotkin, Theodore A; Bodwell, Bethany E; Ryde, Ian T; Seidler, Frederic J

    2008-05-15

    Nicotine alters the developmental trajectory of acetylcholine (ACh) systems in the immature brain, with vulnerability extending from fetal stages through adolescence. We administered nicotine to adolescent rats (postnatal days PN30-47) and then examined the subsequent response to nicotine given in adulthood (PN90-107), simulating plasma levels in smokers, and performing evaluations during nicotine treatment (PN105) and withdrawal (PN110, PN120 and PN130), as well as assessing persistent changes at 6 months of age (PN180). We measured nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) binding, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity, a marker for ACh terminals, and hemicholinium-3 (HC3) binding to the choline transporter, an index of ACh presynaptic activity. By itself, adolescent nicotine exposure evoked sex-selective deficits in cerebrocortical HC3 binding while elevating ChAT in young adulthood in striatum and midbrain. Nicotine given in adulthood produced profound nAChR upregulation lasting 2 weeks after discontinuing treatment, and decrements in cerebrocortical and striatal HC3 binding emerged during withdrawal, indicative of reduced ACh synaptic activity. For all three parameters, adolescent nicotine altered the responses to nicotine given in adulthood, producing both sensitization and desensitization that depended on sex and brain region, effects that parallel the disparate behavioral outcomes reported for these treatments. The interaction seen here for the impact of adolescent nicotine exposure on adult nicotine responses was substantially greater than that found previously for the effects of prenatal nicotine exposure on adult responses. Our findings thus reinforce the importance of adolescence as a critical period in which the future responsiveness to nicotine is programmed.

  6. Adolescent nicotine treatment changes the response of acetylcholine systems to subsequent nicotine administration in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Slotkin, Theodore A; Bodwell, Bethany E; Ryde, Ian T; Seidler, Frederic J

    2008-05-15

    Nicotine alters the developmental trajectory of acetylcholine (ACh) systems in the immature brain, with vulnerability extending from fetal stages through adolescence. We administered nicotine to adolescent rats (postnatal days PN30-47) and then examined the subsequent response to nicotine given in adulthood (PN90-107), simulating plasma levels in smokers, and performing evaluations during nicotine treatment (PN105) and withdrawal (PN110, PN120 and PN130), as well as assessing persistent changes at 6 months of age (PN180). We measured nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) binding, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity, a marker for ACh terminals, and hemicholinium-3 (HC3) binding to the choline transporter, an index of ACh presynaptic activity. By itself, adolescent nicotine exposure evoked sex-selective deficits in cerebrocortical HC3 binding while elevating ChAT in young adulthood in striatum and midbrain. Nicotine given in adulthood produced profound nAChR upregulation lasting 2 weeks after discontinuing treatment, and decrements in cerebrocortical and striatal HC3 binding emerged during withdrawal, indicative of reduced ACh synaptic activity. For all three parameters, adolescent nicotine altered the responses to nicotine given in adulthood, producing both sensitization and desensitization that depended on sex and brain region, effects that parallel the disparate behavioral outcomes reported for these treatments. The interaction seen here for the impact of adolescent nicotine exposure on adult nicotine responses was substantially greater than that found previously for the effects of prenatal nicotine exposure on adult responses. Our findings thus reinforce the importance of adolescence as a critical period in which the future responsiveness to nicotine is programmed. PMID:18395624

  7. Lifetime Socioeconomic Status, Historical Context, and Genetic Inheritance in Shaping Body Mass in Middle and Late Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hexuan; Guo, Guang

    2016-01-01

    This study demonstrates body mass in middle and late adulthood as a consequence of the complex interplay among individuals’ genes, lifetime socioeconomic experiences, and the historical context in which they live. Drawing on approximately 9,000 genetic samples from the Health and Retirement Study, we first investigate how socioeconomic status (SES) over the life course moderates the impact of 32 established obesity-related genetic variants on body mass index (BMI) in middle and late adulthood. Further, we consider differences across birth cohorts in the genetic influence on BMI and cohort variations in the moderating effects of life-course SES on the genetic influence. Our analyses suggest that persistently low SES over the life course or downward mobility (e.g., high SES in childhood but low SES in adulthood) amplified the genetic influence on BMI, while persistently high SES or upward mobility (e.g., low SES in childhood but high SES in adulthood) compensated for such influence. For more recent birth cohorts, while the genetic influence on BMI became stronger, the moderating effects of lifetime SES on the genetic influence were weaker compared to earlier cohorts. We discuss these findings in light of social changes during the obesity epidemic in the United States. PMID:27231400

  8. Social Class, Family Formation, and Delinquency in Early Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Kuhl, Danielle C.; Chavez, Jorge M.; Swisher, Raymond R.; Wilczak, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Recent research suggests increasing heterogeneity in the transition from adolescence to early adulthood. This study considers how this heterogeneity may influence delinquency between these two developmental periods. We focus on the role of family transitions, educational attainment, and employment in predicting risk of nonviolent delinquency and substance use, as well as disparities in transitions across socioeconomic status subgroups. Data are from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health). We find that family and neighborhood advantage are negatively associated with transitions into marriage, cohabitation, and parenthood, yet positively associated with educational attainment. In addition, adolescent family and neighborhood advantage are associated with a continuation of delinquent behavior and substance use during early adulthood. In multivariate analyses, accounting for family transitions in early adulthood largely attenuates the relationship between neighborhood advantage in adolescence and delinquency in early adulthood. We conclude by discussing the implications of our findings for developmental criminology. PMID:27418713

  9. Approximate option pricing

    SciTech Connect

    Chalasani, P.; Saias, I.; Jha, S.

    1996-04-08

    As increasingly large volumes of sophisticated options (called derivative securities) are traded in world financial markets, determining a fair price for these options has become an important and difficult computational problem. Many valuation codes use the binomial pricing model, in which the stock price is driven by a random walk. In this model, the value of an n-period option on a stock is the expected time-discounted value of the future cash flow on an n-period stock price path. Path-dependent options are particularly difficult to value since the future cash flow depends on the entire stock price path rather than on just the final stock price. Currently such options are approximately priced by Monte carlo methods with error bounds that hold only with high probability and which are reduced by increasing the number of simulation runs. In this paper the authors show that pricing an arbitrary path-dependent option is {number_sign}-P hard. They show that certain types f path-dependent options can be valued exactly in polynomial time. Asian options are path-dependent options that are particularly hard to price, and for these they design deterministic polynomial-time approximate algorithms. They show that the value of a perpetual American put option (which can be computed in constant time) is in many cases a good approximation to the value of an otherwise identical n-period American put option. In contrast to Monte Carlo methods, the algorithms have guaranteed error bounds that are polynormally small (and in some cases exponentially small) in the maturity n. For the error analysis they derive large-deviation results for random walks that may be of independent interest.

  10. The Ratio between Positive and Negative Affect and Flourishing Mental Health across Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Diehl, Manfred; Hay, Elizabeth L.; Berg, Kathleen M.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from a 30-day diary study with 239 adults (81 young, 81 middle-aged, and 77 older adults) this study examined whether a specific ratio between positive and negative affect distinguished individuals with different mental health status and especially flourishing from non-flourishing individuals. In addition, the study addressed whether there were age differences in the positivity ratio when daily affect data were used, and whether the proposed critical positivity ratio of 2.9 discriminated equally well between individuals with different mental health status across the adult lifespan. Findings showed that the ratio of positive to negative affect differed across adulthood such that age was associated with an increasing preponderance of positive to negative affect. The positivity ratio was also associated with mental health status in the hypothesized direction; higher positivity ratios were associated with better mental health. Finally, although the data supported the notion of a positivity ratio of 2.9 as a “critical value” in young adulthood, this value did not equally well discriminate the mental health status of middle-aged and older adults. PMID:21562989

  11. The ratio between positive and negative affect and flourishing mental health across adulthood.

    PubMed

    Diehl, Manfred; Hay, Elizabeth L; Berg, Kathleen M

    2011-09-01

    Using data from a 30-day diary study with 239 adults (81 young, 81 middle-aged, and 77 older adults), this study examined whether a specific ratio between positive and negative affect distinguished individuals with different mental health status and especially flourishing from non-flourishing individuals. In addition, the study addressed whether there were age differences in the positivity ratio when daily affect data were used, and whether the proposed critical positivity ratio of 2.9 discriminated equally well between individuals with different mental health status across the adult lifespan. Findings showed that the ratio of positive to negative affect differed across adulthood such that age was associated with an increasing preponderance of positive to negative affect. The positivity ratio was also associated with mental health status in the hypothesized direction; higher positivity ratios were associated with better mental health. Finally, although the data supported the notion of a positivity ratio of 2.9 as a 'critical value' in young adulthood, this value did not equally well discriminate the mental health status of middle-aged and older adults. PMID:21562989

  12. The longitudinal development of social and executive functions in late adolescence and early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Sophie J; Barker, Lynne A; Heavey, Lisa; McHale, Sue

    2015-01-01

    Our earlier work suggests that, executive functions and social cognition show protracted development into late adolescence and early adulthood (Taylor et al., 2013). However, it remains unknown whether these functions develop linearly or non-linearly corresponding to dynamic changes to white matter density at these age ranges. Executive functions are particularly in demand during the transition to independence and autonomy associated with this age range (Ahmed and Miller, 2011). Previous research examining executive function (Romine and Reynolds, 2005) and social cognition (Dumontheil et al., 2010a) in late adolescence has utilized a cross sectional design. The current study employed a longitudinal design with 58 participants aged 17, 18, and 19 years completing social cognition and executive function tasks, Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (Wechsler, 1999), Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (Watson et al., 1988), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (Zigmond and Snaith, 1983) at Time 1 with follow up testing 12-16 months later. Inhibition, rule detection, strategy generation and planning executive functions and emotion recognition with dynamic stimuli showed longitudinal development between time points. Self-report empathy and emotion recognition functions using visual static and auditory stimuli were stable by age 17 whereas concept formation declined between time points. The protracted development of some functions may reflect continued brain maturation into late adolescence and early adulthood including synaptic pruning (Sowell et al., 2001) and changes to functional connectivity (Stevens et al., 2007) and/or environmental change. Clinical implications, such as assessing the effectiveness of rehabilitation following Head Injury, are discussed.

  13. The Role of Constraint in the Development of Nicotine, Marijuana, and Alcohol Dependence in Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Vrieze, Scott I.; Vaidyanathan, Uma; Hicks, Brian M.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2014-01-01

    The personality-related construct of behavioral disinhibition is hypothesized to confer a generalized risk for alcohol and drug dependence. On average, rates of substance use and scores on measures of disinhibition peak in adolescence and decline as people mature into adulthood. The present study investigated this developmental change by evaluating the relationship between disinhibition and substance use disorders using a longitudinal study of 2,608 twins assessed at ages 17, 24, and 29. These ages include the period of highest risk for substance use disorders (ages 17-24) as well as when substance dependence symptoms typically decline (ages 24-29). Disinhibition was measured with the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire higher-order scale of Constraint, as well as its constituent facet scales of Harm Avoidance, Control, and Traditionalism. Constraint’s relationship with substance dependence was statistically significant but small and largely genetic, with the genetic relationship declining from adolescence into adulthood. However, this result appeared to be almost entirely driven by Traditionalism, a propensity to hold traditional moral and social values, and not an obvious component of behavioral disinhibition. The results suggest that personality measures of Control and Harm Avoidance play only a small role in the development of substance dependence during late adolescence, and previous findings linking personality measures of disinhibition and substance use may be driven significantly by social and moral values than deficits in impulse control. PMID:24343204

  14. Parenthood and Leaving Home in Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Hofferth, Sandra L.; Curtin, Sally C.

    2014-01-01

    With increases in nonmarital fertility, the sequencing of transitions in early adulthood has become even more complex. Once the primary transition out of the parental home, marriage was first replaced by nonfamily living and cohabitation; more recently, many young adults have become parents before entering a coresidential union. Studies of leaving home, however, have not examined the role of early parenthood. Using the Young Adult Study of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (n = 4,674), we use logistic regression to analyze parenthood both as a correlate of leaving home and as a route from the home. We find that even in mid-adolescence, becoming a parent is linked with leaving home. Coming from a more affluent family is linked with leaving home via routes that do not involve children rather than those that do, and having a warm relationship with either a mother or a father retards leaving home, particularly to nonfamily living, but is not related to parental routes out of the home. PMID:25544790

  15. Strength and Vulnerability Integration (SAVI): A Model of Emotional Well-Being Across Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Susan Turk

    2010-01-01

    The following paper presents the theoretical model of Strength and Vulnerability Integration (SAVI) to explain factors that influence emotion regulation and emotional well-being across adulthood. The model posits that trajectories of adult development are marked by age-related enhancement in the use of strategies that serve to avoid or limit exposure to negative stimuli, but age-related vulnerabilities in situations that elicit high levels of sustained emotional arousal. When older adults avoid or reduce exposure to emotional distress, they often respond better than younger adults; when they experience high levels of sustained emotional arousal, however, age-related advantages in emotional well-being are attenuated, and older adults are hypothesized to have greater difficulties returning to homeostasis. SAVI provides a testable model to understand the literature on emotion and aging and to predict trajectories of emotional experience across the adult life span. PMID:21038939

  16. Parental neglect during childhood and increased risk of obesity in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lissau, I; Sørensen, T I

    1994-02-01

    The association of various features of family life with obesity in childhood is well established, but less is known about the effect of these influences on the risk of later obesity. In this prospective, population-based study, we examined the influence of parental care in childhood on the risk of obesity in the offspring in young adulthood. In 1974, 1258 pupils aged 9-10 years were randomly selected from the third grade of Copenhagen schools. Information on 987 pupils was obtained from the form teachers on family structure and the perceived support from the parents; school medical services reported on the child's general hygiene. 756 (86%) of the 881 eligible participants were followed up 10 years later. The influence of family factors in childhood on the risk of obesity (body-mass index > 95th centile) in young adulthood was estimated by odds ratios with control for age and body-mass index in 1974, sex, and social background. Family structure (biological or other parents and number of siblings) did not significantly affect the risk of adult obesity. Parental neglect greatly increased the risk in comparison with harmonious support (odds ratio 7.1 [95% CI 2.6-19.3]). Dirty and neglected children had a much greater risk of adult obesity than averagely groomed children (9.8 [3.5-28.2]). However, being an only child, receiving overprotective parental support, or being well-groomed had no effect. Parental neglect during childhood predicts a great risk of obesity in young adulthood, independent of age and body-mass index in childhood, sex, and social background. PMID:7905145

  17. Approximate strip exchanging.

    PubMed

    Roy, Swapnoneel; Thakur, Ashok Kumar

    2008-01-01

    Genome rearrangements have been modelled by a variety of primitives such as reversals, transpositions, block moves and block interchanges. We consider such a genome rearrangement primitive Strip Exchanges. Given a permutation, the challenge is to sort it by using minimum number of strip exchanges. A strip exchanging move interchanges the positions of two chosen strips so that they merge with other strips. The strip exchange problem is to sort a permutation using minimum number of strip exchanges. We present here the first non-trivial 2-approximation algorithm to this problem. We also observe that sorting by strip-exchanges is fixed-parameter-tractable. Lastly we discuss the application of strip exchanges in a different area Optical Character Recognition (OCR) with an example.

  18. Hierarchical Approximate Bayesian Computation

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Brandon M.; Van Zandt, Trisha

    2013-01-01

    Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) is a powerful technique for estimating the posterior distribution of a model’s parameters. It is especially important when the model to be fit has no explicit likelihood function, which happens for computational (or simulation-based) models such as those that are popular in cognitive neuroscience and other areas in psychology. However, ABC is usually applied only to models with few parameters. Extending ABC to hierarchical models has been difficult because high-dimensional hierarchical models add computational complexity that conventional ABC cannot accommodate. In this paper we summarize some current approaches for performing hierarchical ABC and introduce a new algorithm called Gibbs ABC. This new algorithm incorporates well-known Bayesian techniques to improve the accuracy and efficiency of the ABC approach for estimation of hierarchical models. We then use the Gibbs ABC algorithm to estimate the parameters of two models of signal detection, one with and one without a tractable likelihood function. PMID:24297436

  19. Childhood Psychosocial Cumulative Risks and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Adulthood: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study

    PubMed Central

    Hakulinen, Christian; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Elovainio, Marko; Kubzansky, Laura D.; Jokela, Markus; Hintsanen, Mirka; Juonala, Markus; Kivimäki, Mika; Josefsson, Kim; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Kähönen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Raitakari, Olli T

    2015-01-01

    Objective Adverse experiences in childhood may influence cardiovascular risk in adulthood. We examined the prospective associations between types of psychosocial adversity as well as having multiple adversities (e.g., cumulative risk) with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and its progression among young adults. Higher cumulative risk score in childhood was expected to be associated with higher IMT and its progression. Methods Participants were 2265 men and women (age range: 24-39 years in 2001) from the on-going Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study whose carotid IMT were measured in 2001 and 2007. A cumulative psychosocial risk score, assessed at the study baseline in 1980, was derived from four separate aspects of the childhood environment that may impose risk (childhood stressful life-events, parental health behavior family, socioeconomic status, and childhood emotional environment). Results The cumulative risk score was associated with higher IMT in 2007 (b=.004; se=.001; p<.001) and increased IMT progression from 2001 to 2007 (b=.003; se=.001; p=.001). The associations were robust to adjustment for conventional cardiovascular risk factors in childhood and adulthood, including adulthood health behavior, adulthood socioeconomic status and depressive symptoms. Among the individual childhood psychosocial risk categories, having more stressful life-events was associated with higher IMT in 2001 (b=.007; se=.003; p=.016) and poorer parental health behavior predicted higher IMT in 2007 (b=.004; se=.002; p=.031) after adjustment for age, sex and childhood cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusions Early life psychosocial environment influences cardiovascular risk later in life and considering cumulative childhood risk factors may be more informative than individual factors in predicting progression of preclinical atherosclerosis in adulthood. PMID:26809108

  20. Trajectories of depressive symptoms from adolescence to young adulthood: the role of self-esteem and body-related predictors.

    PubMed

    Rawana, Jennine S; Morgan, Ashley S

    2014-04-01

    Although depression is a common issue among youth, it is unclear how important developmental factors, such as body mass index (BMI), self-esteem, and eating-and weight-related disturbances relate to the development of depression across adolescence and into young adulthood. Gender differences in these relationships and the specific nature of these relationships among adolescent boys and young men require further study. Using multilevel growth curve modeling, this study examined the effects of BMI, self-esteem, and eating- and weight-related disturbances (i.e., body dissatisfaction and weight management effort) and their interactive effects with gender on the developmental trajectory of depressive symptoms using the Canadian-based National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (N = 4,359 ages 12-21, 48.7 % female). On average, depressive symptoms decreased slightly at ages 12 through 14, began to increase from ages 14 through 17, and then began to decrease through age 21. Adolescent girls were at increased risk for depressive symptoms throughout adolescence and young adulthood compared to boys. This effect was compounded by low levels of self-esteem across adolescence and young adulthood. Engaging in weight management effort was associated with lower initial levels of depressive symptoms in early adolescence. The study's findings contribute to basic etiologic research regarding the trajectory of depressive symptoms in adolescence and young adulthood suggesting that mid-adolescents may be most vulnerable to depression compared to other adolescent age groups. The findings also underscore the importance of fostering positive self-esteem among adolescent girls and young women to prevent depression and exploring the protective effect of specific weight management strategies in future research.

  1. Longitudinal study of striatal activation to reward and loss anticipation from mid-adolescence into late adolescence/early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lamm, C; Benson, B E; Guyer, A E; Perez-Edgar, K; Fox, N A; Pine, D S; Ernst, M

    2014-08-01

    Adolescent risk-taking behavior has been associated with age-related changes in striatal activation to incentives. Previous cross-sectional studies have shown both increased and decreased striatal activation to incentives for adolescents compared to adults. The monetary incentive delay (MID) task, designed to assess functional brain activation in anticipation of reward, has been used extensively to examine striatal activation in both adult and adolescent populations. The current study used this task with a longitudinal approach across mid-adolescence and late adolescence/early adulthood. Twenty-two participants (13 male) were studied using the MID task at two time-points, once in mid-adolescence (mean age=16.11; SD=1.44) and a second time in late adolescence/early adulthood (mean age=20.14; SD=.67). Results revealed greater striatal activation with increased age in high- compared to low-incentive contexts (incentive magnitude), for gain as well as for loss trials (incentive valence). Results extend cross-sectional findings and show reduced striatal engagement in adolescence compared to adulthood during preparation for action in an incentive context.

  2. Adolescent Risk Factors for Adult Alcohol Use and Abuse: Stability and Change of Predictive Value across Early and Middle Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Merline, Alicia; Jager, Justin; Schulenberg, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Aims To examine age-18 risk factors for alcohol use and heavy drinking during early (ages 22 and 26) and middle (age 35) adulthood, and for symptoms of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) in middle adulthood. Design Nationally representative samples of U.S. adolescents in their senior year of secondary school (age 18) were followed into middle adulthood. Structural equation models estimated the associations between age-18 characteristics and current drinking and heavy drinking at ages 22, 26 and 35 and symptoms of AUDs at age 35. Participants The sample consisted of 21,137 respondents from 11 senior year cohorts (1976–1986) from the Monitoring the Future study. Findings Many predictor variables had stable associations with alcohol use over time, although their ability to explain variance in alcohol use declined with increasing time lags. Being White predicted alcohol use, but not symptoms of AUDs. Parental drinking, risk taking, and use of cigarettes and marijuana predicted heavy drinking through age 35. Planning to attend college predicted more heavy drinking at age 22 and less frequent heavy drinking by midlife. High school theft and property damage predicted later AUD symptoms. Most associations were invariant across gender, with variations typically taking the form of stronger associations between predictors and alcohol use for men. Invariance in findings across cohorts indicates that results reflect general developmental trends rather than specific historically bounded ones. Conclusions Many adolescent individual and contextual characteristics remain important predictors of adult alcohol use and abuse, and their predictive impact varies as a function of age and type of alcohol outcome. These associations are largely equivalent across gender and cohort, thus reflecting robust developmental linkages. PMID:18426542

  3. Effects of intrauterine growth retardation on mental performance and behavior, outcomes during adolescence and adulthood.

    PubMed

    Hack, M

    1998-01-01

    Studies of the long-term effects of intrauterine growth retardation on mental performance and behavior are reviewed. The results of the majority of studies suggest that, if effects of prematurity and of other associated complicating factors are controlled for, effects of IUGR per se, that can sometimes be demonstrated at an earlier age, become diluted by socio-environmental conditions at later stages in life and no longer appear to have a detrimental effect on mental and behavioral outcomes in adolescence and adulthood.

  4. Personality disorders as an expression of the dimensional polarity in personality development in late adulthood women.

    PubMed

    Henriques-Calado, Joana; Duarte-Silva, Maria Eugénia; Campos, Rui C; Junqueira, Diana; Sacoto, Carlota; Keong, Ana Marta

    2014-01-01

    Relationships between Axis II personality disorders and Sidney Blatt constructs of dependency and self-criticism were explored in a late adulthood women sample. The sample consisted of 102 women (M = 72.07 years of age, SD = 7.04) who were administered two measures, the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4+ and the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire. The histrionic, dependent, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder scales are shown to be significant predictors of dependency, and the narcissistic, borderline, and avoidant scales are significant predictors of self-criticism. The application of a dimensional interpersonal approach to psychopathology is discussed.

  5. Do Early-Life Conditions Predict Functional Health Status in Adulthood? The Case of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Cheng; Soldo, Beth J; Elo, Irma T

    2010-01-01

    Relatively few researchers have investigated early antecedents of adult functional limitations in developing countries. In this study, we assessed associations between childhood conditions and adult lower-body functional limitations (LBFL) as well as the potential mediating role of adult socioeconomic status, smoking, body mass index, and chronic diseases or symptoms. Based on data from the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS) of individuals born prior to 1951 and contacted in 2001 and 2003, we found that childhood nutritional deprivation, serious health problems, and family background predict adult LBFL in Mexico. Adjustment for the potential mediators in adulthood attenuates these associations only to a modest degree. PMID:21074924

  6. Transition to adulthood of female garment-factory workers in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Amin, S; Diamond, I; Naved, R T; Newby, M

    1998-06-01

    This article examines data from a study on garment-factory workers in Bangladesh to explore the implications of work for the early socialization of young women. For the first time, large numbers of young Bangladeshi women are being given an alternative to lives in which they move directly from childhood to adulthood through early marriage and childbearing. Employment creates a period of transition in contrast to the abrupt assumption of adult roles at very young ages that marriage and childbearing mandate. This longer transition creates a period of adolescence for young women working in the garment sector that is shown to have strong implications for the women's long-term reproductive health.

  7. Number of Years of Team and Individual Sport Participation During Adolescence and Depressive Symptoms in Early Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Sabiston, Catherine M; Jewett, Rachel; Ashdown-Franks, Garcia; Belanger, Mathieu; Brunet, Jennifer; O'Loughlin, Erin; O'Loughlin, Jennifer

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the longitudinal and unique association between number of years of team sport and individual sport participation during adolescence and depressive symptoms during early adulthood. Adolescents (n = 860) reported team sport and individual sport participation in each year of secondary school for five years. Participants reported depressive symptoms using the Major Depression Inventory three years after secondary school. Multivariate linear regression was performed to model the associations of sport participation with depressive symptoms while controlling for sex, age, parent education, and baseline depressive symptoms. In the final model, adolescents who consistently participated in team sport during high school reported lower depression scores in early adulthood (β = -.09, p = .02). Number of years of individual sport participation was not statistically significantly associated with depressive symptoms in early adulthood. Based on these findings, team sport participation may protect against depressive symptoms in early adulthood. If this finding is replicated, strategies should be implemented to encourage and maintain team sport participation during adolescence. Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms that link team sport participation to lower depression.

  8. The Effect of Prenatal and Childhood Development on Hearing, Vision and Cognition in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Dawes, Piers; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Moore, David R.; Fortnum, Heather; Edmondson-Jones, Mark; McCormack, Abby; Munro, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear what the contribution of prenatal versus childhood development is for adult cognitive and sensory function and age-related decline in function. We examined hearing, vision and cognitive function in adulthood according to self-reported birth weight (an index of prenatal development) and adult height (an index of early childhood development). Subsets (N = 37,505 to 433,390) of the UK Biobank resource were analysed according to visual and hearing acuity, reaction time and fluid IQ. Sensory and cognitive performance was reassessed after ~4 years (N = 2,438 to 17,659). In statistical modelling including age, sex, socioeconomic status, educational level, smoking, maternal smoking and comorbid disease, adult height was positively associated with sensory and cognitive function (partial correlations; pr 0.05 to 0.12, p < 0.001). Within the normal range of birth weight (10th to 90th percentile), there was a positive association between birth weight and sensory and cognitive function (pr 0.06 to 0.14, p < 0.001). Neither adult height nor birth weight was associated with change in sensory or cognitive function. These results suggest that adverse prenatal and childhood experiences are a risk for poorer sensory and cognitive function and earlier development of sensory and cognitive impairment in adulthood. This finding could have significant implications for preventing sensory and cognitive impairment in older age. PMID:26302374

  9. Concurrent and Prospective Relationships between Social Engagement and Personality Traits in Older Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Lodi-Smith, Jennifer; Roberts, Brent W.

    2012-01-01

    The current research examined the longitudinal relationship between social engagement and personality traits in older adults. Specifically, the present research examined how engagement in family and community roles related to conscientiousness, agreeableness, and emotional stability in a sample of 100 Illinois residents age 60 to 86 assessed twice over a period of two and a half years. Social engagement and personality traits were prospectively related to conscientiousness and agreeableness over time in three ways. First, concurrent relationships during Wave 1 suggest that agreeable older adults are more socially engaged. Next, Wave 1 standing on both personality traits and social engagement predicted respective change over time. In addition, changes in engagement and personality traits covaried over time. The specific patterns present in the current study suggest that while some relationships were consistent with research findings in young adulthood and midlife, role investment in old age may have a distinctly different meaning than role investment earlier in the lifespan. These patterns suggest that personality traits can both inform our understanding of engagement during older adulthood and that personality traits may be meaningful outcomes of the aging experience in their own right. PMID:22268792

  10. Approximate Bayesian multibody tracking.

    PubMed

    Lanz, Oswald

    2006-09-01

    Visual tracking of multiple targets is a challenging problem, especially when efficiency is an issue. Occlusions, if not properly handled, are a major source of failure. Solutions supporting principled occlusion reasoning have been proposed but are yet unpractical for online applications. This paper presents a new solution which effectively manages the trade-off between reliable modeling and computational efficiency. The Hybrid Joint-Separable (HJS) filter is derived from a joint Bayesian formulation of the problem, and shown to be efficient while optimal in terms of compact belief representation. Computational efficiency is achieved by employing a Markov random field approximation to joint dynamics and an incremental algorithm for posterior update with an appearance likelihood that implements a physically-based model of the occlusion process. A particle filter implementation is proposed which achieves accurate tracking during partial occlusions, while in cases of complete occlusion, tracking hypotheses are bound to estimated occlusion volumes. Experiments show that the proposed algorithm is efficient, robust, and able to resolve long-term occlusions between targets with identical appearance. PMID:16929730

  11. Developmental trajectories of work values and job entitlement beliefs in the transition to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Chow, Angela; Krahn, Harvey J; Galambos, Nancy L

    2014-04-01

    Employing a life span developmental systems perspective, this study used a 5-wave (1985-1992) Canadian longitudinal data set (N = 404) to examine trajectories of intrinsic and extrinsic work values and job entitlement beliefs from age 18 to 25. Piecewise growth models (Slope 1: age 18-20; Slope 2: age 20-25) showed intriguing patterns of change. Unconditional and conditional models suggested downward trends in all 3 measures from age 18 to 20. After age 20, the 2 work values reversed direction. Competing scarcity and value reinforcement hypotheses guided the analysis of change in work values and job entitlement beliefs conditional on unemployment experiences and postsecondary education pathways. Supporting a scarcity hypothesis, more unemployment from age 18 to 20 was associated with a faster increase in intrinsic and extrinsic work values, and a slower decrease in job entitlement beliefs from age 20 to 25. In line with a value reinforcement hypothesis, more unemployment from age 20 to 25 was associated with a slower concurrent increase in intrinsic work values. A postsecondary selection effect was observed; individuals who eventually obtained a university degree had higher intrinsic work values and job entitlement beliefs at age 18. Also congruent with a scarcity hypothesis, young adults with only a high school education experienced a significantly faster increase in extrinsic work values from age 20 to 25. This study highlights the transition to adulthood as a key developmental period for change in work values and beliefs.

  12. Identity consolidation in early adulthood: relations with ego-resiliency, the context of marriage, and personality change.

    PubMed

    Pals, J L

    1999-04-01

    Identity consolidation during early adulthood was conceptualized as a process of investing oneself in new adult roles, responsibilities, and contexts and evaluating one's ongoing experience in order to construct a coherent, grounded, and positive identity. The current study longitudinally examined (age 21 to age 27) the roles of ego-resiliency, an important personality resource, and marriage, an important identity context, in the process of identity consolidation as it unfolded in a cohort of women who experienced early adulthood during the early 1960s. Prototypes of identity in marriage were developed to reflect the different ways these women invested and evaluated their identities in the context of marriage. Results showed that ego-resiliency at age 21 and the experience of identity in marriage at age 27 were both related to identity consolidation at age 27, and findings also suggested that the relation of age 21 ego-resiliency to age 27 identity consolidation was mediated by identity in marriage. Finally, successful identity consolidation was associated with increasing ego-resiliency from age 21 to age 27. Discussion focuses on the interaction between personality and social context in the process of identity consolidation and the role of identity consolidation in personality change.

  13. Body size in early life and risk of lymphoid malignancies and histological subtypes in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Cairns, Benjamin J.; Kroll, Mary E.; Reeves, Gillian K.; Green, Jane; Beral, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    Risk of adult lymphoid malignancy is associated with recent adiposity. Some have reported apparent associations with adiposity in childhood or early adulthood, but whether these associations are independent of recent adiposity is unknown. Birth weight, body size at age 10 years, clothes size at age 20 years, and recent body mass index (BMI) were recorded in 745,273 UK women, mean age 60.1 (SD 4.9) at baseline, without prior cancer. They were followed for 11 years, during which time 5,765 lymphoid malignancies occurred. Using Cox regression, a higher risk of lymphoid malignancy was strongly associated with higher recent BMI (RR=1.33, 95%CI 1.17‐1.51, for BMI 35+ vs <22.5 kg/m2), and this association remained essentially unchanged after adjustment for birth weight and body size at 10. Higher lymphoid malignancy risk was also associated with large size at birth, at age 10, and at age 20 years, but after adjustment for recent BMI, the significance of the associations with large size at birth and at age 10 years was sufficiently reduced that residual confounding by adult BMI could not be excluded; a weak association with large size at 20 years remained (adjusted RR =1.17, 95%CI 1.10–1.24 for large size at age 20 vs. medium or small size). We found no strong evidence of histological specificity in any of these associations. In conclusion, our findings suggest a possible role of adiposity throughout adulthood in the risk of lymphoid malignancy, but the independent contribution of body size at birth and during childhood appears to be small. PMID:26888490

  14. Tobacco Use and Health in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Judith S.; Brook, David W.; Zhang, Chenshu; Cohen, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    In this prospective longitudinal study, the authors investigated the association between lifetime tobacco use and subsequent health problems by age 30. The authors interviewed a community group of 749 participants from upstate New York at mean ages of 14, 16, 22, and 27 years. Daily tobacco use during any of the time periods, as well as the number…

  15. The impact of social stress during adolescence or adulthood and coping strategy on cognitive function of female rats.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Kevin; Barry, Mark; Plona, Zachary; Ho, Andrew; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Valentino, Rita J

    2015-06-01

    The age of stressor exposure can determine its neurobehavioral impact. For example, exposure of adolescent male rats to resident-intruder stress impairs cognitive flexibility in adulthood. The current study examined the impact of this stressor in female rats. Rats were exposed to resident-intruder stress during early adolescence (EA), mid-adolescence (MA) or adulthood (Adult). They were tested in an operant strategy-shifting task for side discrimination (SD), reversal learning (REV) and strategy set-shifting (SHIFT) the following week. Performance varied with age, stress and coping style. MA and EA rats performed SD and SHIFT better than other ages, respectively. Social stress impaired performance in rats depending on their coping strategy as determined by a short (SL) or long (LL) latency to become subordinate. SL rats were impaired in SD and REV, whereas EA-LL rats were impaired in SHIFT. These impairing effects of female adolescent stress did not endure into adulthood. Strategy set-shifting performance for female adolescents was positively correlated with medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) activation as indicated by c-fos expression suggesting that this region is engaged during task performance. This contrasts with the inverse relationship between these indices reported for male adolescent rats. Together, the results demonstrate that social stress produces cognitive impairments for female rats that depend on age and coping style but unlike males, the impairing effects of female adolescent social stress are immediate and do not endure into adulthood. Sex differences in the impact of adolescent social stress on cognition may reflect differences in mPFC engagement during the task.

  16. Three Approximate Entropies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubkin, Elihu

    2002-04-01

    In 1993,(E. & T. Lubkin, Int.J.Theor.Phys. 32), 993 (1993) we gave exact mean trace of squared density matrix P for 3 models of an n-dimensional part of an nK-dimensional pure state. Models named: random nK ket (Haar); pure-pure driven by random Hamiltonian (Gauss); Gauss with n,K coupling reset small (weak). Neglecting higher powers of P gives the approximation: ln(n)- defines deficit = (n - 1)/2 which yields deficits, Haar: n((n+K)/(nK+1) - 1)/2 = ( n - 1/n - 1/K + 1/nnK )/2K + Order(f[n] / KKK); Gauss: (n/2)( (n+K)/(nK+1) + 2(nK+1-n-K)/nK(nK+1)(nK+3)) - 1/2 = ( n - 1/n - 1/K + 2/nK - 1/nnK )/2K + Order( f[n]/KKK ); weak: (n/2)(2(K+n)/((K+1)(n+1))) - 1/2 = (n/(n+1))(1 + (n-1)/K - (n-1)/KK + Order(f[n]/KKK)) - 1/2 [unreliable]. These would stay poor even as Karrow∞ unless deficit << 1 bit. Haar and Gauss come out good, but weak has too large a deficit. Though many authors (beginning with Don Page(D.N.Page, PRL 71), 1291 (1993)) have found the exact for Haar, I haven't yet seen exact for Gauss or for weak.

  17. Approximation by hinge functions

    SciTech Connect

    Faber, V.

    1997-05-01

    Breiman has defined {open_quotes}hinge functions{close_quotes} for use as basis functions in least squares approximations to data. A hinge function is the max (or min) function of two linear functions. In this paper, the author assumes the existence of smooth function f(x) and a set of samples of the form (x, f(x)) drawn from a probability distribution {rho}(x). The author hopes to find the best fitting hinge function h(x) in the least squares sense. There are two problems with this plan. First, Breiman has suggested an algorithm to perform this fit. The author shows that this algorithm is not robust and also shows how to create examples on which the algorithm diverges. Second, if the author tries to use the data to minimize the fit in the usual discrete least squares sense, the functional that must be minimized is continuous in the variables, but has a derivative which jumps at the data. This paper takes a different approach. This approach is an example of a method that the author has developed called {open_quotes}Monte Carlo Regression{close_quotes}. (A paper on the general theory is in preparation.) The author shall show that since the function f is continuous, the analytic form of the least squares equation is continuously differentiable. A local minimum is solved for by using Newton`s method, where the entries of the Hessian are estimated directly from the data by Monte Carlo. The algorithm has the desirable properties that it is quadratically convergent from any starting guess sufficiently close to a solution and that each iteration requires only a linear system solve.

  18. Interacting effect of MAOA genotype and maternal prenatal smoking on aggressive behavior in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Hohmann, Sarah; Zohsel, Katrin; Buchmann, Arlette F; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Holz, Nathalie; Boecker-Schlier, Regina; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Rietschel, Marcella; Witt, Stephanie H; Schmidt, Martin H; Esser, Günter; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Hohm, Erika; Laucht, Manfred

    2016-08-01

    Findings on the etiology of aggressive behavior have provided evidence for an effect both of genetic factors, such as variation in the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene, and adverse environmental factors. Recent studies have supported the existence of gene × environment interactions, with early experiences playing a key role. In the present study, the effects of prenatal nicotine exposure, MAOA genotype and their interaction on aggressive behavior during young adulthood were examined. In a sample of 272 young adults (129 males, 143 females) from an epidemiological cohort study, smoking during pregnancy was measured with a standardized parent interview at the offspring's age of 3 months. Aggressive behavior was assessed between the ages of 19 and 25 years using the Young Adult Self-Report. DNA was genotyped for the MAOA 5' untranslated region variable number of tandem repeats polymorphism (VNTR). Results revealed a significant interaction between MAOA and smoking during pregnancy, indicating higher levels of aggressive behavior in young adults carrying the MAOA low-expressing genotype who had experienced prenatal nicotine exposure (n = 8, p = .025). In contrast, in carriers of the MAOA high-expressing genotype, maternal smoking during pregnancy had no effect on aggressive behavior during young adulthood (n = 20, p = .145). This study extends earlier findings demonstrating an interaction between MAOA genotype and prenatal nicotine exposure on aggressive behavior into young adulthood. The results point to the long-term adverse effects of smoking during pregnancy on the offspring's mental health, possibly underlining the importance of smoking cessation during pregnancy. According to the nature of the study (particularly sample size and power), analyses are exploratory and results need to be interpreted cautiously. PMID:27300740

  19. Repeated Blood Pressure Measurements in Childhood in Prediction of Hypertension in Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Oikonen, Mervi; Nuotio, Joel; Magnussen, Costan G; Viikari, Jorma S A; Taittonen, Leena; Laitinen, Tomi; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Jokinen, Eero; Jula, Antti; Cheung, Michael; Sabin, Matthew A; Daniels, Stephen R; Raitakari, Olli T; Juonala, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension may be predicted from childhood risk factors. Repeated observations of abnormal blood pressure in childhood may enhance prediction of hypertension and subclinical atherosclerosis in adulthood compared with a single observation. Participants (1927, 54% women) from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study had systolic and diastolic blood pressure measurements performed when aged 3 to 24 years. Childhood/youth abnormal blood pressure was defined as above 90th or 95th percentile. After a 21- to 31-year follow-up, at the age of 30 to 45 years, hypertension (>140/90 mm Hg or antihypertensive medication) prevalence was found to be 19%. Carotid intima-media thickness was examined, and high-risk intima-media was defined as intima-media thickness >90th percentile or carotid plaques. Prediction of adulthood hypertension and high-risk intima-media was compared between one observation of abnormal blood pressure in childhood/youth and multiple observations by improved Pearson correlation coefficients and area under the receiver operating curve. When compared with a single measurement, 2 childhood/youth observations improved the correlation for adult systolic (r=0.44 versus 0.35, P<0.001) and diastolic (r=0.35 versus 0.17, P<0.001) blood pressure. In addition, 2 abnormal childhood/youth blood pressure observations increased the prediction of hypertension in adulthood (0.63 for 2 versus 0.60 for 1 observation, P=0.003). When compared with 2 measurements, third observation did not provide any significant improvement for correlation or prediction (P always >0.05). A higher number of childhood/youth observations of abnormal blood pressure did not enhance prediction of adult high-risk intima-media thickness. Compared with a single measurement, the prediction of adult hypertension was enhanced by 2 observations of abnormal blood pressure in childhood/youth.

  20. Interacting effect of MAOA genotype and maternal prenatal smoking on aggressive behavior in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Hohmann, Sarah; Zohsel, Katrin; Buchmann, Arlette F; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Holz, Nathalie; Boecker-Schlier, Regina; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Rietschel, Marcella; Witt, Stephanie H; Schmidt, Martin H; Esser, Günter; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Hohm, Erika; Laucht, Manfred

    2016-08-01

    Findings on the etiology of aggressive behavior have provided evidence for an effect both of genetic factors, such as variation in the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene, and adverse environmental factors. Recent studies have supported the existence of gene × environment interactions, with early experiences playing a key role. In the present study, the effects of prenatal nicotine exposure, MAOA genotype and their interaction on aggressive behavior during young adulthood were examined. In a sample of 272 young adults (129 males, 143 females) from an epidemiological cohort study, smoking during pregnancy was measured with a standardized parent interview at the offspring's age of 3 months. Aggressive behavior was assessed between the ages of 19 and 25 years using the Young Adult Self-Report. DNA was genotyped for the MAOA 5' untranslated region variable number of tandem repeats polymorphism (VNTR). Results revealed a significant interaction between MAOA and smoking during pregnancy, indicating higher levels of aggressive behavior in young adults carrying the MAOA low-expressing genotype who had experienced prenatal nicotine exposure (n = 8, p = .025). In contrast, in carriers of the MAOA high-expressing genotype, maternal smoking during pregnancy had no effect on aggressive behavior during young adulthood (n = 20, p = .145). This study extends earlier findings demonstrating an interaction between MAOA genotype and prenatal nicotine exposure on aggressive behavior into young adulthood. The results point to the long-term adverse effects of smoking during pregnancy on the offspring's mental health, possibly underlining the importance of smoking cessation during pregnancy. According to the nature of the study (particularly sample size and power), analyses are exploratory and results need to be interpreted cautiously.

  1. Sibling Relationships in Adolescence and Early Adulthood With People Who Have Intellectual Disability.

    PubMed

    Floyd, Frank J; Costigan, Catherine L; Richardson, Shana S

    2016-09-01

    Cross-sectional (N = 106) and longitudinal (N = 35) samples of siblings (ages 11-38) reported on closeness and conflict in their relationships with sisters and brothers with intellectual disability. For closeness, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) distinguished feelings of emotional closeness from reciprocal sharing behaviors for these siblings. Age effects and changes over time indicated increasing emotional closeness and a general reduction in conflict from adolescence to young adulthood, with stable reciprocal sharing. Cross-sectionally, closeness was greater when siblings were involved in caregiving, and conflict was less when siblings no longer co-resided. Sibling constellation features (sex, birth order, age spacing) had limited effects at this developmental period. Findings support a combination of life-span developmental change and enduring attachment in these sibling relationships. PMID:27611350

  2. The relocation bump: Memories of middle adulthood are organized around residential moves.

    PubMed

    Enz, Karalyn F; Pillemer, David B; Johnson, Kenneth M

    2016-08-01

    The lifetime temporal distribution of older adults' autobiographical memories peaks during the transitional period of late adolescence and early adulthood, a phenomenon known as the reminiscence bump. This age-specific memory enhancement suggests that transitions may provide a more general organizing structure for autobiographical memory. To test this hypothesis, we examined how older adults' memories of events that occurred between the ages of 40 and 60 were distributed around residential relocations occurring within this same time frame. The temporal distribution of memories showed a marked relocation bump around the age of the most important residential move. Although previous research has focused on the negative effects of relocation, the current findings suggest that transitions could have a positive effect on autobiographical memory. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27454038

  3. Trajectories of binge drinking and personality change across emerging adulthood.

    PubMed

    Ashenhurst, James R; Harden, Kathryn P; Corbin, William R; Fromme, Kim

    2015-12-01

    College students binge drink more frequently than the broader population, yet most individuals "mature out" of binge drinking. Impulsivity and sensation seeking traits are important for understanding who is at risk for maintaining binge drinking across college and the transition to adult roles. We use latent class growth analysis (LCGA) to examine longitudinal binge-drinking trajectories spanning from the end of high school through 2 years after college (M ages = 18.4 to 23.8). Data were gathered over 10 waves from students at a large Southwestern university (N = 2,245). We use latent factor models to estimate changes in self-reported impulsive (IMP) and sensation-seeking (SS) personality traits across 2 time periods-(a) the end of high school to the end of college and (b) the 2-year transition out of college. LCGA suggested 7 binge-drinking trajectories: frequent, moderate, increasing, occasional, low increasing, decreasing, and rare. Models of personality showed that from high school through college, change in SS and IMP generally paralleled drinking trajectories, with increasing and decreasing individuals showing corresponding changes in SS. Across the transition out of college, only the increasing group demonstrated a developmentally deviant increase in IMP, whereas all other groups showed normative stability or decreases in both IMP and SS. These data indicate that "late bloomers," who begin binge drinking only in the later years of college, are a unique at-risk group for drinking associated with abnormal patterns of personality maturation during emerging adulthood. Our results indicate that personality targeted interventions may benefit college students. PMID:26348219

  4. Child maltreatment, alexithymia, and problematic internet use in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Yates, Tuppett M; Gregor, Margo A; Haviland, Mark G

    2012-04-01

    The goals of this study were to (a) examine the phenomenology and developmental correlates of problematic Internet use (PIU) in a large and diverse college student sample; (b) evaluate a developmental process model of PIU in which the expected association between child maltreatment and PIU would be explained by alexithymia; and (c) explore these relations as a function of gender and race. PIU was assessed in a sample of 1,470 college students (62.9 percent female, 37.1 percent male; M(age)=19.13 years [SD=1.49]; 46.1 percent Asian, 28.2 percent Hispanic, 16.3 percent White, 5.9 percent Black, and 3.5 percent Multiracial/Other) who participated in a larger study of young adult adaptation, which included measures of child maltreatment, alexithymia, self-concept, social support, and psychopathology. Males and Asian students endorsed higher levels of PIU than females and other ethnoracial groups, respectively. PIU was related to contemporaneous maladaptation in the form of decreased self-concept, lower social support, and increased psychopathology across groups. Experiences of child maltreatment were related to increased PIU, and mediation analyses showed that this relation was partially explained by alexithymia. These relations were comparable across males and females and between Asian and non-Asian respondents. The analyses provide evidence for the significant role of child maltreatment and the cognitive-affective deficits it precipitates in understanding pathways toward PIU in young adulthood. Our findings suggest that maltreated youth are at disproportionate risk for PIU, and their capacities to regulate and process emotion are important targets for prevention and therapeutic intervention. PMID:22313343

  5. Trajectories of Binge Drinking and Personality Change Across Emerging Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Ashenhurst, James R.; Harden, Kathryn P.; Corbin, William R.; Fromme, Kim

    2015-01-01

    College students binge drink more frequently than the broader population, yet most individuals “mature out” of binge drinking. Impulsivity and sensation seeking traits are important for understanding who is at risk for maintaining binge drinking across college and the transition to adult roles. We use latent class growth analysis (LCGA) to examine longitudinal binge-drinking trajectories spanning from the end of high school through two years after college (mean ages 18.4 to 23.8). Data were gathered over 10 waves from students at a large Southwestern university (N = 2,245). We use latent factor models to estimate changes in self-reported impulsive (IMP) and sensation-seeking (SS) personality traits across two time periods – (1) the end of high school to the end of college, and (2) across the two-year transition out of college. LCGA suggested seven binge drinking trajectories: Frequent, Moderate, Increasing, Occasional, Low Increasing, Decreasing, and Rare. Models of personality showed that from high school through college, change in SS and IMP generally paralleled drinking trajectories, with Increasing and Decreasing individuals showing corresponding changes in SS. Across the transition out of college, only the Increasing group demonstrated a developmentally deviant increase in IMP, whereas all other groups showed normative stability or decreases in both IMP and SS. These data indicate that “late bloomers,” who begin binge drinking only in the later years of college, are a unique at-risk group for drinking associated with abnormal patterns of personality maturation during emerging adulthood. Our results indicate that personality targeted interventions may benefit college students. PMID:26348219

  6. Conditions during adulthood affect cohort-specific reproductive success in an Arctic-nesting goose population.

    PubMed

    Weegman, Mitch D; Bearhop, Stuart; Hilton, Geoff M; Walsh, Alyn; Fox, Anthony David

    2016-01-01

    Variation in fitness between individuals in populations may be attributed to differing environmental conditions experienced among birth (or hatch) years (i.e., between cohorts). In this study, we tested whether cohort fitness could also be explained by environmental conditions experienced in years post-hatch, using 736 lifelong resighting histories of Greenland white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons flavirostris) marked in their first winter. Specifically, we tested whether variation in age at first successful reproduction, the size of the first successful brood and the proportion of successful breeders by cohort was explained by environmental conditions experienced on breeding areas in west Greenland during hatch year, those in adulthood prior to successful reproduction and those in the year of successful reproduction, using North Atlantic Oscillation indices as proxies for environmental conditions during these periods. Fifty-nine (8%) of all marked birds reproduced successfully (i.e., were observed on wintering areas with young) only once in their lifetime and 15 (2%) reproduced successfully twice or thrice. Variation in age at first successful reproduction was explained by the environmental conditions experienced during adulthood in the years prior to successful reproduction. Birds bred earliest (mean age 4) when environmental conditions were 'good' prior to the year of successful reproduction. Conversely, birds successfully reproduced at older ages (mean age 7) if they experienced adverse conditions prior to the year of successful reproduction. Hatch year conditions and an interaction between those experienced prior to and during the year of successful reproduction explained less (marginally significant) variation in age at first successful reproduction. Environmental conditions did not explain variation in the size of the first successful brood or the proportion of successful breeders. These findings show that conditions during adulthood prior to the year of

  7. Conditions during adulthood affect cohort-specific reproductive success in an Arctic-nesting goose population

    PubMed Central

    Bearhop, Stuart; Hilton, Geoff M.; Walsh, Alyn; Fox, Anthony David

    2016-01-01

    Variation in fitness between individuals in populations may be attributed to differing environmental conditions experienced among birth (or hatch) years (i.e., between cohorts). In this study, we tested whether cohort fitness could also be explained by environmental conditions experienced in years post-hatch, using 736 lifelong resighting histories of Greenland white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons flavirostris) marked in their first winter. Specifically, we tested whether variation in age at first successful reproduction, the size of the first successful brood and the proportion of successful breeders by cohort was explained by environmental conditions experienced on breeding areas in west Greenland during hatch year, those in adulthood prior to successful reproduction and those in the year of successful reproduction, using North Atlantic Oscillation indices as proxies for environmental conditions during these periods. Fifty-nine (8%) of all marked birds reproduced successfully (i.e., were observed on wintering areas with young) only once in their lifetime and 15 (2%) reproduced successfully twice or thrice. Variation in age at first successful reproduction was explained by the environmental conditions experienced during adulthood in the years prior to successful reproduction. Birds bred earliest (mean age 4) when environmental conditions were ‘good’ prior to the year of successful reproduction. Conversely, birds successfully reproduced at older ages (mean age 7) if they experienced adverse conditions prior to the year of successful reproduction. Hatch year conditions and an interaction between those experienced prior to and during the year of successful reproduction explained less (marginally significant) variation in age at first successful reproduction. Environmental conditions did not explain variation in the size of the first successful brood or the proportion of successful breeders. These findings show that conditions during adulthood prior to the year of

  8. Conditions during adulthood affect cohort-specific reproductive success in an Arctic-nesting goose population.

    PubMed

    Weegman, Mitch D; Bearhop, Stuart; Hilton, Geoff M; Walsh, Alyn; Fox, Anthony David

    2016-01-01

    Variation in fitness between individuals in populations may be attributed to differing environmental conditions experienced among birth (or hatch) years (i.e., between cohorts). In this study, we tested whether cohort fitness could also be explained by environmental conditions experienced in years post-hatch, using 736 lifelong resighting histories of Greenland white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons flavirostris) marked in their first winter. Specifically, we tested whether variation in age at first successful reproduction, the size of the first successful brood and the proportion of successful breeders by cohort was explained by environmental conditions experienced on breeding areas in west Greenland during hatch year, those in adulthood prior to successful reproduction and those in the year of successful reproduction, using North Atlantic Oscillation indices as proxies for environmental conditions during these periods. Fifty-nine (8%) of all marked birds reproduced successfully (i.e., were observed on wintering areas with young) only once in their lifetime and 15 (2%) reproduced successfully twice or thrice. Variation in age at first successful reproduction was explained by the environmental conditions experienced during adulthood in the years prior to successful reproduction. Birds bred earliest (mean age 4) when environmental conditions were 'good' prior to the year of successful reproduction. Conversely, birds successfully reproduced at older ages (mean age 7) if they experienced adverse conditions prior to the year of successful reproduction. Hatch year conditions and an interaction between those experienced prior to and during the year of successful reproduction explained less (marginally significant) variation in age at first successful reproduction. Environmental conditions did not explain variation in the size of the first successful brood or the proportion of successful breeders. These findings show that conditions during adulthood prior to the year of

  9. The nature of spontaneous sleep across adulthood.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Scott S; Murphy, Patricia J

    2007-03-01

    The decline in sleep quality that often accompanies aging is thought to be the consequence of alterations in both circadian and homeostatic processes widely assumed to be responsible for sleep/wake regulation. A number of experimental approaches have been used to examine various aspects of age-related sleep changes, but none has examined spontaneous sleep across the entire 24-h day. Using the 'disentrainment' protocol, we studied such sleep in young, middle-aged and older adults. All subjects exhibited polyphasic sleep patterns, characterized by relatively short intervals of both sleep and waking. Whereas, the average duration of major nighttime sleep was significantly shorter in middle-aged and older subjects than in young adults, daytime napping was essentially unaffected by age. Comparisons of sleep and circadian variables between age groups suggest differential effects on sleep of the two regulatory processes, with changes in homeostatic drive preceding those of the circadian component. These findings add to a surprisingly scant literature on the longitudinal decline in sleep quality associated with aging. PMID:17309760

  10. In your 20s it's quantity, in your 30s it's quality: the prognostic value of social activity across 30 years of adulthood.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, Cheryl L; Reis, Harry T; Duberstein, Paul R

    2015-03-01

    Social connection, a leading factor in the promotion of health, well-being, and longevity, requires social knowledge and the capacity to cultivate intimacy. Life span development theorists have speculated that social information-seeking goals, emphasized at the beginning of early adulthood, give way to emotional closeness goals in later stages of early adulthood. Drawing on developmental theory (Baltes & Carstensen, 2003; Baltes, 1997), this 30-year prospective study assessed social activity at age 20 and age 30 with experience sampling methods, and psychosocial outcomes (social integration, friendship quality, loneliness, depression, and psychological well-being) at age 50. Results supported the hypothesis that the quantity (but not the quality) of social interactions at age 20, and the quality (but not the quantity) of social interactions at age 30 predict midlife psychosocial outcomes. Longitudinal structural models revealed that age-20 interaction quantity had a direct, unmediated effect on age-50 social and psychological outcomes. The effects of age-20 interaction quality on midlife outcomes, on the other hand, were mediated by age-30 interaction quality. Our findings are consistent with the idea that selection and optimization serve important functions in early adulthood, and that engaging in developmentally appropriate social activity contributes to psychosocial adjustment in the decades that follow.

  11. In Your 20s it’s Quantity, in Your 30s it’s Quality: The Prognostic Value of Social Activity Across 30 Years of Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Carmichael, Cheryl L.; Reis, Harry T.; Duberstein, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Social connection, a leading factor in the promotion of health, well-being, and longevity, requires social knowledge and the capacity to cultivate intimacy. Lifespan development theorists have speculated that social information-seeking goals, emphasized at the beginning of early adulthood, give way to emotional closeness goals in later stages of early adulthood. Drawing on developmental theory (Baltes, 1997; Baltes & Carstensen, 2003), this 30-year prospective study assessed social activity at age-20 and age-30 with experience sampling methods, and psychosocial outcomes (social integration, friendship quality, loneliness, depression, and psychological well-being) at age-50. Results supported the hypothesis that the quantity (but not the quality) of social interactions at age-20, and the quality (but not the quantity) of social interactions at age-30 predict midlife psychosocial outcomes. Longitudinal structural models revealed that age-20 interaction quantity had a direct, unmediated effect on age-50 social and psychological outcomes. The effects of age-20 interaction quality on midlife outcomes, on the other hand, were mediated by age-30 interaction quality. Our findings are consistent with the idea that selection and optimization serve important functions in early adulthood, and that engaging in developmentally appropriate social activity contributes to psychosocial adjustment in the decades that follow. PMID:25774426

  12. "Transitions Are Scary for Our Kids, and They're Scary for Us": Family Member and Youth Perspectives on the Challenges of Transitioning to Adulthood with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheak-Zamora, Nancy C.; Teti, Michelle; First, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) face many challenges as they age into adulthood. Because little is known about the perspectives of caregivers and youth during this critical transition, this study explored their social, educational, and vocational needs and experiences. Method: Two focus groups were conducted with youth…

  13. A Prospective Examination of the Path from Child Abuse and Neglect to Illicit Drug Use in Middle Adulthood: The Potential Mediating Role of Four Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Helen W.; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2009-01-01

    This study examines prostitution, homelessness, delinquency and crime, and school problems as potential mediators of the relationship between childhood abuse and neglect (CAN) and illicit drug use in middle adulthood. Children with documented cases of physical and sexual abuse and neglect (ages 0-11) during 1967-1971 were matched with…

  14. Retrospective Ratings of ADHD Symptoms Made at Young Adulthood by Clinic-Referred Boys with ADHD-Related Problems, Their Brothers without ADHD, and Control Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loney, Jan; Ledolter, Johannes; Kramer, John R.; Volpe, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    Retrospective childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms are required to diagnosis adult ADHD, but the validity of self-rated symptoms across time is questionable. Here, boys with ADHD-related problems, their brothers without ADHD, and former schoolmates rated themselves during young adulthood for ages 9, 14, and 19.…

  15. The first sight of love: Relationship-defining memories and marital satisfaction across adulthood.

    PubMed

    Alea, Nicole; Vick, Stephanie C

    2010-10-01

    The current study begins the exploration of relationship-defining memories (i.e., the first time someone met their spouse) across adulthood. Men and women ranging from 20 to 85 years old (N=267; M age=47.19) completed a measure of marital satisfaction, wrote a relationship-defining memory, and answered questions about the quality of their memory (i.e., vividness, valence, emotional intensity, and rehearsal). Data were collected online. Results indicate that individuals over 70 and those younger than 30 rehearsed relationship-defining memories most often. Women in midlife also reported more vivid memories. The quality of relationship-defining memories also predicted marital satisfaction. Relationship-defining memories that were more vivid, positive, emotionally intense, and rehearsed related to higher marital satisfaction. Age and gender differences were minimal. Results are discussed in the context of the adaptive social function of autobiographical memories, such that these memories might have a role in influencing marital satisfaction across adulthood. PMID:20721804

  16. Personality Pathology and Increased Use of Medical Resources in Later Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Powers, Abigail; Strube, Michael J.; Oltmanns, Thomas F.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Personality pathology is associated with many negative health outcomes in young adulthood, including overutilization of healthcare resources. It is unclear, however, what the relation between personality pathology and medical resource utilization is as individuals age and develop new physical health problems. Design The present study examined whether personality disorder (PD) features were related to greater medical resource utilization in a sample of 1,630 community-dwelling participants, aged 55–64 years. PD features and health status were measured at baseline; medical resource utilization and new physical health problems were measured at four 6-month follow-up assessments. Multilevel modeling analyses tested associations between number of physical health problems and PD features in medical resource use over time. Results Greater number of physical health problems significantly predicted higher medical resource utilization. The results also showed that many PD features were related to higher reported medical resource utilization independent of health status and sociodemographic variables. Schizoid and schizotypal PD features were associated with less reported medical resource utilization. When all PDs were included in the model together, dependent, antisocial, histrionic, and narcissistic PD features remained predictive of higher medical resource utilization. Conclusions Personality pathology remains a relevant predictor of greater medical resource utilization into later adulthood and should be considered an important risk factor when trying to determine ways to reduce costly overuse of healthcare resources among older adults. PMID:24315559

  17. Active lifestyle in childhood and adolescence prevents obesity development in young adulthood: Iowa Bone Development Study

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Soyang; Janz, Kathleen F.; Letuchy, Elena M.; Burns, Trudy L.; Levy, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that individuals who are active but who decrease physical activity (PA) over time have a higher risk of becoming obese in young adulthood, when compared to individuals who are consistently active throughout childhood and adolescence. Methods Iowa Bone Development Study cohort members (242 males and 251 females) participated in accelerometry assessments, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans, and dietary questionnaire surveys at ages 5, 8, 11, 13, 15, 17, and 19 years. Group-based trajectory analyses identified distinct trajectory patterns of moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA), percentage of body fat (%BF), and energy intake. A multivariable logistic regression model was fit to estimate the odds of “becoming obese” based on the MVPA trajectories, adjusted for mother’s education, somatic maturation, and energy intake. Results Among males, 74.7% had a “normal” body fat pattern, 14.6% had a “becoming obese” pattern, and 10.7% had a “consistently obese” pattern, while among females, the percentages were 58.6%, 28.6% and 12.8%, respectively. Participants who were active (≥45 minutes MVPA) as children but decreased MVPA with age were more likely to become obese, compared to consistently active participants (adjusted OR=2.77; 95% CI=1.16, 6.58). Conclusions An active lifestyle throughout childhood and adolescence could prevent obesity development in young adulthood. PMID:26538514

  18. A pilot of a tripartite prevention program for homeless young women in the transition to adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Wenzel, Suzanne L.; D'Amico, Elizabeth J.; Barnes, Dionne; Gilbert, Mary Lou

    2009-01-01

    Background Among young women who are impoverished and homeless, the transition to adulthood (ages 18 through 25) is associated with alcohol and drug (AOD) use, risky sexual activity, and increased risk of being victimized by intimate partner violence (IPV). Methods “The Power of YOU”, a program using motivational interviewing, was designed to address these problems. We tested the “Power of YOU” with 31 homeless women (ages 18 - 25) in seven focus groups. Women completed questionnaires assessing background characteristics and satisfaction at the end of each group. Each group was followed by a feedback session which was audiorecorded and transcribed. Key themes were identified. Results During a past-6 month period, 38.7% of women reported alcohol intoxication, 19.3% reported two to three male sex partners, and 22.2% reported major physical violence from a partner. Women expressed satisfaction and provided consistently positive feedback on the intervention, reporting, for example, that it was “helpful to know how to put a condom on” and that they appreciated the attention paid to safety planning. Conclusions Results from this pilot suggest that “The Power of YOU” may hold promise in helping homeless young women in the transition to adulthood make healthier choices and plan and prepare for high risk situations, and that the non-confrontational, non-judgmental approach of motivational interviewing appeared appropriate for this population. PMID:19345588

  19. The acceptance model of intuitive eating: a comparison of women in emerging adulthood, early adulthood, and middle adulthood.

    PubMed

    Augustus-Horvath, Casey L; Tylka, Tracy L

    2011-01-01

    The acceptance model of intuitive eating (Avalos & Tylka, 2006) posits that body acceptance by others helps women appreciate their body and resist adopting an observer's perspective of their body, which contribute to their eating intuitively/adaptively. We extended this model by integrating body mass index (BMI) into its structure and investigating it with emerging (ages 18-25 years old, n = 318), early (ages 26-39 years old, n = 238), and middle (ages 40-65 years old, n = 245) adult women. Multiple-group analysis revealed that this model fit the data for all age groups. Body appreciation and resistance to adopt an observer's perspective mediated the body acceptance by others-intuitive eating link. Body acceptance by others mediated the social support-body appreciation and BMI-body appreciation links. Early and middle adult women had stronger negative BMI-body acceptance by others and BMI-intuitive eating relationships and a stronger positive body acceptance by others-body appreciation relationship than emerging adult women. Early adult women had a stronger positive resistance to adopt observer's perspective-body appreciation relationship than emerging and middle adult women.

  20. Alterations in neonatal neurosteroids affect exploration during adolescence and prepulse inhibition in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Darbra, Sònia; Pallarès, Marc

    2010-05-01

    Allopregnanolone (AlloP) is a neurosteroid that plays an important role during neural development. Alterations of endogenous neonatal allopregnanolone levels alter the localisation and function of GABA neurons in the adult brain and affect behaviour in adulthood. We have carried out research into the effects of an increase (AlloP administration) or a decrease (administration of finasteride, inhibitor of the AlloP synthesis) of neonatal AlloP levels during the fifth to ninth postnatal days in male Wistar rats on the novelty exploration (Boissier test) at adolescent ages (40 and 60 days old), and on the prepulse inhibition achievement in adulthood (85 days). We also investigated the role of a GABA(A) modulator (midazolam, 1, 1.75 or 2.5mg/kg body weight) in the long-lasting behavioural changes in adulthood (85 days). Results indicate that neonatal finasteride decreases both novelty-exploration (head-dipping and locomotion) and anxiety-relevant scores (the distance travelled in and the number of entries into the central zone) at adolescent age, along with a reduction in body weight and general locomotion. Also, neonatal AlloP administration decreases prepulse inhibition in adulthood. Prepulse inhibition disruption was only partially reproduced decreasing the neonatal AlloP levels by means of finasteride administration. Although there was no interaction between neonatal neurosteroid manipulation and adult benzodiazepine treatments, the effects of midazolam were dose-dependent: the lowest dose of midazolam increased whereas the highest disrupted the expected progressive reduction of the startle response (and the consequent improvement of the PPI percentage) after the gradual increase in prepulse intensity. Reduced prepulse inhibition of startle provides evidence of deficient sensorimotor gating in several disorders, including schizophrenia. Alterations of AlloP levels during maturation could partly explain the inter-individual differences shown by adult subjects in

  1. Predictors of Nutrition Information Comprehension in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Lisa M. Soederberg; Gibson, Tanja N.; Applegate, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective The goal of the present study was to examine relationships among several predictors of nutrition comprehension. We were particularly interested in exploring whether nutrition knowledge or motivation moderated the effects of attention on comprehension across a wide age range of adults. Methods Ninety-three participants, ages 18 to 80, completed measures of nutrition knowledge and motivation and then read nutrition information (from which attention allocation was derived) and answered comprehension questions. Results In general, predictor variables were highly intercorrelated. However, knowledge, but not motivation, had direct effects on comprehension accuracy. In contrast, motivation influenced attention, which in turn influenced accuracy. Results also showed that comprehension accuracy decreased- and knowledge increased -with age. When knowledge was statistically controlled, age declines in comprehension increased. Conclusion Knowledge is an important predictor of nutrition information comprehension and its role increases in later life. Motivation is also important; however, its effects on comprehension differ from knowledge. Practice Implications Health educators and clinicians should consider cognitive skills such as knowledge as well as motivation and age of patients when deciding how to best convey health information. The increased role of knowledge among older adults suggests that lifelong educational efforts may have important payoffs in later life. PMID:19854605

  2. Adversity, time, and well-being: A longitudinal analysis of time perspective in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Holman, E Alison; Silver, Roxane Cohen; Mogle, Jacqueline A; Scott, Stacey B

    2016-09-01

    Despite the prominence of time in influential aging theories and the ubiquity of stress across the life span, research addressing how time perspective (TP) and adversity are associated with well-being across adulthood is rare. Examining the role of TP in coping with life events over the life span would be best accomplished after large-scale population-based exposure to a specific event, with repeated assessments to examine within- and between-person differences over time. A national sample aged 18-91 years (N = 722, M = 49.4 years) was followed for 3 years after the September 11, 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks. Respondents completed assessments of 9/11-related television (TV) exposure 9-21 days after the attacks, temporal disintegration 2 months post-9/11, and TP, ongoing stress, and well-being at 12, 24, and 36 months post-9/11. Results provided support for measurement invariance of TP across time and across age. Early 9/11-related TV exposure was significantly associated with greater temporal disintegration. Temporal disintegration and ongoing stress, in turn, were associated with between- and within-person variation in past TP. This effect was qualified by an age interaction that indicated a stronger relationship between ongoing stress and past TP for younger compared with older adults. Past and future TP were significantly and independently related to individual differences and within-person variation in psychological well-being, regardless of age. Future work should incorporate adversity as an important correlate of TP across adulthood. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27599020

  3. Accuracy of self-reported versus measured weight over adolescence and young adulthood: findings from the national longitudinal study of adolescent health, 1996-2008.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Philippa; Sastry, Narayan; Duffy, Denise; Ailshire, Jennifer

    2014-07-15

    Many studies rely on self-reports to capture population trends and trajectories in weight gain over adulthood, but the validity of self-reports is often considered a limitation. The purpose of this work was to examine long-term trajectories of self-reporting bias in a national sample of American youth. With 3 waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1996-2008), we used growth curve models to examine self-reporting bias in trajectories of weight gain across adolescence and early adulthood (ages 13-32 years). We investigated whether self-reporting bias is constant over time, or whether adolescents become more accurate in reporting their weight as they move into young adulthood, and we examined differences in self-reporting bias by sex, race/ethnicity, and attained education. Adolescent girls underreported their weight by 0.86 kg on average, and this rate of underreporting increased over early adulthood. In contrast, we found no evidence that boys underreported their weight either in adolescence or over the early adult years. For young men, self-reports of weight were unbiased estimates of measured weight among all racial/ethnic and educational subpopulations over adolescence and early adulthood. PMID:24944288

  4. Evaluation of the Psychometric Properties of the Revised Inventory of the Dimensions of Emerging Adulthood (IDEA-R) in a Sample of Continuation High School Students

    PubMed Central

    Lisha, Nadra E.; Grana, Rachel; Sun, Ping; Rohrbach, Louise; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Reifman, Alan; Sussman, Steve

    2013-01-01

    It is now presumed that youth do not move directly from adolescence to adulthood, but rather pass through a transitional period, “emerging adulthood.” The Revised Inventory of the Dimensions of Emerging Adulthood (IDEA-R) is a self-report instrument developed to examine the attributes of this period. “At-risk” youth appear to enter emerging adulthood developmental tasks at a slightly earlier age than general population youth. In the present study, a 21-item version of the IDEA was administered to a sample of 1676 “at-risk” continuation (alternative) high school students in Southern California. Principal component factor analysis with orthogonal rotation revealed three factors the authors labeled “Identity Exploration,” “Experimentation/Possibilities,” and “Independence.” Overall, the measure demonstrated high internal consistency. Construct validity analyses indicated that the measure was correlated with demographics, risk behaviors, and psychological measures. The authors conclude that the IDEA-R is a useful instrument for measuring emerging adulthood in at-risk populations. PMID:22786874

  5. Accuracy of self-reported versus measured weight over adolescence and young adulthood: findings from the national longitudinal study of adolescent health, 1996-2008.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Philippa; Sastry, Narayan; Duffy, Denise; Ailshire, Jennifer

    2014-07-15

    Many studies rely on self-reports to capture population trends and trajectories in weight gain over adulthood, but the validity of self-reports is often considered a limitation. The purpose of this work was to examine long-term trajectories of self-reporting bias in a national sample of American youth. With 3 waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1996-2008), we used growth curve models to examine self-reporting bias in trajectories of weight gain across adolescence and early adulthood (ages 13-32 years). We investigated whether self-reporting bias is constant over time, or whether adolescents become more accurate in reporting their weight as they move into young adulthood, and we examined differences in self-reporting bias by sex, race/ethnicity, and attained education. Adolescent girls underreported their weight by 0.86 kg on average, and this rate of underreporting increased over early adulthood. In contrast, we found no evidence that boys underreported their weight either in adolescence or over the early adult years. For young men, self-reports of weight were unbiased estimates of measured weight among all racial/ethnic and educational subpopulations over adolescence and early adulthood.

  6. Accuracy of Self-Reported Versus Measured Weight Over Adolescence and Young Adulthood: Findings From the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, 1996–2008

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Philippa; Sastry, Narayan; Duffy, Denise; Ailshire, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Many studies rely on self-reports to capture population trends and trajectories in weight gain over adulthood, but the validity of self-reports is often considered a limitation. The purpose of this work was to examine long-term trajectories of self-reporting bias in a national sample of American youth. With 3 waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1996–2008), we used growth curve models to examine self-reporting bias in trajectories of weight gain across adolescence and early adulthood (ages 13–32 years). We investigated whether self-reporting bias is constant over time, or whether adolescents become more accurate in reporting their weight as they move into young adulthood, and we examined differences in self-reporting bias by sex, race/ethnicity, and attained education. Adolescent girls underreported their weight by 0.86 kg on average, and this rate of underreporting increased over early adulthood. In contrast, we found no evidence that boys underreported their weight either in adolescence or over the early adult years. For young men, self-reports of weight were unbiased estimates of measured weight among all racial/ethnic and educational subpopulations over adolescence and early adulthood. PMID:24944288

  7. Developmental cascade models of a parenting-focused program for divorced families on mental health problems and substance use in emerging adulthood.

    PubMed

    Wolchik, Sharlene A; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin N; Kim, Han-Joe

    2016-08-01

    A developmental cascade model from functioning in adolescence to emerging adulthood was tested using data from a 15-year longitudinal follow-up of 240 emerging adults whose families participated in a randomized, experimental trial of a preventive program for divorced families. Families participated in the program or literature control condition when the offspring were ages 9-12. Short-term follow-ups were conducted 3 months and 6 months following completion of the program when the offspring were in late childhood/early adolescence. Long-term follow-ups were conducted 6 years and 15 years after program completion when the offspring were in middle to late adolescence and emerging adulthood, respectively. It was hypothesized that the impact of the program on mental health and substance use outcomes in emerging adulthood would be explained by developmental cascade effects of program effects in adolescence. The results provided support for a cascade effects model. Specifically, academic competence in adolescence had cross-domain effects on internalizing problems and externalizing problems in emerging adulthood. In addition, adaptive coping in adolescence was significantly, negatively related to binge drinking. It was unexpected that internalizing symptoms in adolescence were significantly negatively related to marijuana use and alcohol use. Gender differences occurred in the links between mental health problems and substance use in adolescence and mental health problems and substance use in emerging adulthood. PMID:27427811

  8. Links between Family Gender Socialization Experiences in Childhood and Gendered Occupational Attainment in Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Katie M.; Crouter, Ann C.; McHale, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Gendered occupational segregation remains prevalent across the world. Although research has examined factors contributing to the low number of women in male-typed occupations – namely science, technology, engineering, and math – little longitudinal research has examined the role of childhood experiences in both young women’s and men’s later gendered occupational attainment. This study addressed this gap in the literature by examining family gender socialization experiences in middle childhood – namely parents’ attitudes and work and family life – as contributors to the gender typicality of occupational attainment in young adulthood. Using data collected from mothers, fathers, and children over approximately 15 years, the results revealed that the associations between childhood socialization experiences (∼10 years old) and occupational attainment (∼26 years old) depended on the sex of the child. For sons but not daughters, mothers’ more traditional attitudes towards women’s roles predicted attaining more gender-typed occupations. In addition, spending more time with fathers in childhood predicted daughters attaining less and sons acquiring more gender-typed occupations in young adulthood. Overall, evidence supports the idea that childhood socialization experiences help to shape individuals’ career attainment and thus contribute to gender segregation in the labor market. PMID:26977112

  9. The Predictive Influence of Youth Assets on Drinking and Driving Behaviors in Adolescence and Young Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Haegerich, Tamara M; Shults, Ruth A; Oman, Roy F; Vesely, Sara K

    2016-06-01

    Drinking and driving among adolescents and young adults remains a significant public health burden. Etiological research is needed to inform the development and selection of preventive interventions that might reduce alcohol-involved crashes and their tragic consequences. Youth assets-that is, skills, competencies, relationships, and opportunities-can help youth overcome challenges, successfully transition into adulthood, and reduce problem behavior. We examined the predictive influence of individual, relationship, and community assets on drinking and driving (DD) and riding with a drinking driver (RDD). We assessed prospective relationships through analysis of data from the Youth Assets Study, a community-based longitudinal study of socio-demographically diverse youth. Results from calculation of marginal models using a Generalized Estimating Equation approach revealed that parent and peer relationship and school connectedness assets reduced the likelihood of both drinking and driving and riding with a drinking driver approximately 1 year later. The most important and consistent asset that influenced DD and RDD over time was parental monitoring, highlighting the role of parental influence extending beyond the immediate teen driving context into young adulthood. Parenting-focused interventions could influence factors that place youth at risk for injury from DD to RDD, complementing other evidence-based strategies such as school-based instructional programs and zero tolerance Blood Alcohol Concentration laws for young and inexperienced drivers. PMID:26779910

  10. Longitudinal replication studies of GWAS risk SNPs influencing body mass index over the course of childhood and adulthood.

    PubMed

    Mei, Hao; Chen, Wei; Jiang, Fan; He, Jiang; Srinivasan, Sathanur; Smith, Erin N; Schork, Nicholas; Murray, Sarah; Berenson, Gerald S

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified multiple common variants associated with body mass index (BMI). In this study, we tested 23 genotyped GWAS-significant SNPs (p-value<5*10-8) for longitudinal associations with BMI during childhood (3-17 years) and adulthood (18-45 years) for 658 subjects. We also proposed a heuristic forward search for the best joint effect model to explain the longitudinal BMI variation. After using false discovery rate (FDR) to adjust for multiple tests, childhood and adulthood BMI were found to be significantly associated with six SNPs each (q-value<0.05), with one SNP associated with both BMI measurements: KCTD15 rs29941 (q-value<7.6*10-4). These 12 SNPs are located at or near genes either expressed in the brain (BDNF, KCTD15, TMEM18, MTCH2, and FTO) or implicated in cell apoptosis and proliferation (FAIM2, MAP2K5, and TFAP2B). The longitudinal effects of FAIM2 rs7138803 on childhood BMI and MAP2K5 rs2241423 on adulthood BMI decreased as age increased (q-value<0.05). The FTO candidate SNPs, rs6499640 at the 5 '-end and rs1121980 and rs8050136 downstream, were associated with childhood and adulthood BMI, respectively, and the risk effects of rs6499640 and rs1121980 increased as birth weight decreased. The best joint effect model for childhood and adulthood BMI contained 14 and 15 SNPs each, with 11 in common, and the percentage of explained variance increased from 0.17% and 9.0*10(-6)% to 2.22% and 2.71%, respectively. In summary, this study evidenced the presence of long-term major effects of genes on obesity development, implicated in pathways related to neural development and cell metabolism, and different sets of genes associated with childhood and adulthood BMI, respectively. The gene effects can vary with age and be modified by prenatal development. The best joint effect model indicated that multiple variants with effects that are weak or absent alone can nevertheless jointly exert a large longitudinal effect on BMI.

  11. Residential Selection across the Life Course: Adolescent Contextual and Individual Determinants of Neighborhood Disadvantage in Mid-Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Gustafsson, Per E.; San Sebastian, Miguel; Janlert, Urban; Theorell, Töres; Westerlund, Hugo; Hammarström, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Background Numerous cross-sectional studies have examined neighborhood effects on health. Residential selection in adulthood has been stressed as an important cause of selection bias but has received little empirical attention, particularly its determinants from the earlier life course. The present study aims to examine whether neighborhood, family, school, health behaviors and health in adolescence are related to socioeconomic disadvantage of one's neighborhood of residence in adulthood. Methods Based on the prospective Northern Swedish Cohort (analytical N = 971, 90.6% retention rate), information was collected at age 16 years concerning family circumstances, school adjustment, health behaviors and mental and physical health. Neighborhood register data was linked to the cohort and used to operationalize aggregated measures of neighborhood disadvantage (ND) at age 16 and 42. Data was analyzed with linear mixed models, with ND in adulthood regressed on adolescent predictors and neighborhood of residence in adolescence as the level-2 unit. Results Neighborhood disadvantage in adulthood was clustered by neighborhood of residence in adolescence (ICC = 8.6%). The clustering was completely explained by ND in adolescence. Of the adolescent predictors, ND (b = .14 (95% credible interval = .07–.22)), final school marks (b = −.18 (−.26–−.10)), socioeconomic disadvantage (b = .07 (.01–.14)), and, with borderline significance, school peer problems (b = .07 (−.00–.13)), were independently related to adulthood ND in the final adjusted model. In sex-stratified analyses, the most important predictors were school marks (b = −.21 (−.32–−.09)) in women, and neighborhood of residence (ICC = 15.5%) and ND (b = .20 (.09–.31)) in men. Conclusions These findings show that factors from adolescence – which also may impact on adult health – could influence the neighborhood context in which one will live in adulthood. This

  12. Tracking of physical activity, fitness, body composition and diet from adolescence to young adulthood: The Young Hearts Project, Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Boreham, Colin; Robson, Paula J; Gallagher, Alison M; Cran, Gordon W; Savage, J Maurice; Murray, Liam J

    2004-10-01

    BACKGROUND: The assumption that lifestyles formed early in life track into adulthood has been used to justify the targeting of health promotion programmes towards children and adolescents. The aim of the current study was to use data from the Northern Ireland Young Hearts Project to ascertain the extent of tracking, between adolescence and young adulthood, of physical activity, aerobic fitness, selected anthropometric variables, and diet. METHODS: Males (n 245) and females (n 231) were assessed at age 15 y, and again in young adulthood [mean (SD) age 22 (1.6) y]. At both timepoints, height, weight and skinfold thicknesses were measured, and physical activity and diet were assessed by questionnaire and diet history method respectively. At 15y, fitness was assessed using the 20 metre shuttle run, while at young adulthood, the PWC170 cycle ergometer test was used. For each measurement made at 15y, subjects were ranked into 'low' (L1; lowest 25%), 'medium' (M1; middle 50%) or 'high' (H1; highest 25%) categories. At young adulthood, similar categories (L2, M2, H2) were created. The extent of tracking of each variable over time was calculated using 3 x 3 matrices constructed using these two sets of categories, and summarised using kappa (kappa) statistics. RESULTS: Tracking of diet and fitness was poor (kappa

  13. 8-Year Prospective Study of Depressive Symptoms and Change in Insulin from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Shomaker, Lauren B.; Goodman, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether depressive symptoms predict change in fasting insulin among adolescents followed into young adulthood. We hypothesized that higher depressive symptoms would predict increased insulin and that puberty and race/ethnicity would moderate this relationship. Methods Data came from the Princeton School District Study, a school-based longitudinal cohort of non-Hispanic black and white adolescents (2001–2011). Depressive symptoms, fasting insulin, and body mass index (BMI) were measured at baseline (adolescence) and eight years later (young adulthood) in 685 participants. Puberty was assessed using a validated protocol measuring sex steroids and physical changes. The primary outcome was change in fasting insulin. Analyses accounted for age, sex, race, parental education, baseline insulin, BMI z, puberty, and time to follow up. Results At baseline, depressive symptoms were correlated with insulin (rho = .13, p = .001). High baseline insulin predicted insulin change (B = −11.50, SE = 2.30, p< .001). Depressive symptoms also predicted insulin change, but only for pubertal adolescents (B = −.23, SE = .11, p = .038). This relationship was moderated by race (p < .047); depressive symptoms predicted insulin change only among pubertal black adolescents ( p= .030), not whites (p = .49), and in the direction opposite that hypothesized (Bblacks = −.51, SE = .23). Post-hoc analyses revealed pubertal black adolescents with high depressive symptoms had the highest baseline insulin, which stayed high across the follow up period. Conclusions Among pubertal black adolescents, elevated depressive symptoms are associated with increased risk for sustained hyperinsulinemia from adolescence into adulthood. These youths may be particularly vulnerable for type 2 diabetes. PMID:26368574

  14. Developmental changes in within- and between-network connectivity between late childhood and adulthood.

    PubMed

    Barber, Anita D; Caffo, Brian S; Pekar, James J; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2013-01-01

    A number of behavioral changes occur between late childhood and adulthood, including maturation of social cognition, reward receptivity, impulsiveness, risk-taking and cognitive control. Although some of these abilities show linear improvements with age, some abilities may temporarily worsen, reflecting both the restructuring and/or strengthening of connections within some brain systems. The current study uses resting state functional connectivity to examine developmental differences between late childhood and adulthood in task positive (TP) regions, which play a role in cognitive control functions, and task negative (TN) regions, which play a role in social cognition, self-referential, and internally-directed thought. Within the TP network, developmental differences in connectivity were found with the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Within the TN network, developmental differences in connectivity were found with a broad area of the medial prefrontal cortex and the right parahippocampal gyrus. Connections between the two networks also showed significant developmental differences. Stronger anticorrelations were found in the TN maps of the adult group for the right anterior insula/inferior frontal gyrus, bilateral anterior inferior parietal lobule, bilateral superior parietal lobule and an anterior portion of the right posterior cingulate cortex. There was a significant brain-behavior relationship between the strength of anticorrelation in these regions and inhibitory control performance on two Go/No-go tasks suggesting that the development of anticorrelations between late childhood and adulthood supports mature inhibitory control. Overall, maturation of these networks occurred in specific regions which are associated with cognitive control of goal-directed behavior, including those involved in working memory, social cognition, and inhibitory control. PMID:23174403

  15. Developmental Changes In Within- and Between-Network Connectivity Between Late Childhood and Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Anita D.; Caffo, Brian S.; Pekar, James J.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2012-01-01

    A number of behavioral changes occur between late childhood and adulthood, including maturation of social cognition, reward receptivity, impulsiveness, risk-taking and cognitive control. Although some of these abilities show linear improvements with age, some abilities may temporarily worsen, reflecting both the restructuring and/or strengthening of connections within some brain systems. The current study uses resting state functional connectivity to examine developmental differences between late childhood and adulthood in task positive (TP) regions, which play a role in cognitive control functions, and task negative (TN) regions, which play a role in social cognition, self-referential, and internally-directed thought. Within the TP network, developmental differences in connectivity were found with the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Within the TN network, developmental differences in connectivity were found with a broad area of the medial prefrontal cortex and the right parahippocampal gyrus. Connections between the two networks also showed significant developmental differences. Stronger anticorrelations were found in the TN maps of the adult group for the right anterior insula/inferior frontal gyrus, bilateral anterior inferior parietal lobule, bilateral superior parietal lobule and an anterior portion of the right posterior cingulate cortex. There was a significant brain-behavior relationship between the strength of anticorrelation in these regions and inhibitory control performance on two Go/No-go tasks suggesting that the development of anticorrelations between late childhood and adulthood supports mature inhibitory control. Overall, maturation of these networks occurred in specific regions which are associated with cognitive control of goal-directed behavior, including those involved in working memory, social cognition, and inhibitory control. PMID:23174403

  16. Alcohol Use Among American Indian High School Youths From Adolescence and Young Adulthood: A Latent Markov Model*

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Christina M.; Beals, Janette; Whitesell, Nancy Rumbaugh

    2008-01-01

    Objective: We explored patterns of alcohol use among American Indian youths as well as concurrent predictors and developmental outcomes 6 years later. Method: This study used six semi-annual waves of data collected across 3 years from 861 American Indian youths, ages 14-20 initially, from two western tribes. Using a latent Markov model, we examined patterns of change in latent states of adolescent alcohol use in the past 6 months, combining these states of alcohol use into three latent statuses that described patterns of change across the 3 years: abstainers, inconsistent drinkers, and consistent drinkers. We then explored how the latent statuses differed, both initially and in young adulthood (ages 20-26). Results: Both alcohol use and nonuse were quite stable across time, although we also found evidence of change. Despite some rather troubling drinking patterns as teens, especially among consistent drinkers, most of the youths had achieved important tasks of young adulthood. But patterns of use during adolescence were related to greater levels of substance use in young adulthood. Conclusions: Latent Markov modeling provided a useful categorization of alcohol use that more finely differentiated those youths who would otherwise have been considered inconsistent drinkers. Findings also suggest that broad-based interventions during adolescence may not be the most important ones; instead, programs targeting later alcohol and other drug use may be a more strategic use of often limited resources. PMID:18781241

  17. Dyadic coregulation and deviant talk in adolescent friendships: interaction patterns associated with problematic substance use in early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Piehler, Timothy F; Dishion, Thomas J

    2014-04-01

    In a sample of 711 ethnically diverse adolescents, the observed interpersonal dynamics of dyadic adolescent friendship interactions were coded to predict early adulthood tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use. Deviant discussion content within the interactions was coded along with dyadic coregulation (i.e., interpersonal coordination, attention synchrony). Structural equation modeling revealed that, as expected, deviant content in adolescent interactions at age 16-17 years was strongly predictive of problematic use of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana at ages 22 and 23. Although dyadic coregulation was not directly predictive of early adulthood substance use, it did moderate the impact of deviant talk within the dyad on future alcohol and marijuana use. For these substances, high levels of dyadic coregulation increased the risk associated with high levels of deviant talk for problematic use in early adulthood. Results held when comparing across genders and across ethnic groups. The results suggest that these interpersonal dynamics are associated with developmental trajectories of risk for or resilience to peer influence processes.

  18. Changes in Processing Adverbial Conjuncts Throughout Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Ronald J.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examines the use and understanding of concordant and discordant adverbial conjuncts in the latter part of the life span. Young, middle-aged, and elderly adults, matched for education level, were studied. Results indicate a significant decline in processing adverbial conjuncts in the elderly, due to a deficit in linguistic processing rather than a…

  19. Learning: Meeting the Challenges of Older Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Mary Alice

    Erik Erikson's model (1963, 1982) is most useful to an understanding of development and aging. He describes lifelong growth as related to tasks that must be performed. At each stage of life, times of stability are followed by developmental crises. Upon resolving the crisis, the individual can enjoy the particular beauty and security of that…

  20. Forgiving and Feeling Forgiven in Late Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torges, Cynthia; Ingersoll-Dayton, Berit; Krause, Neal

    2013-01-01

    Enright and colleagues (1996) emphasized the beneficial effect of experiencing forgiveness across multiple domains. We build upon their conceptualization of forgiveness by adding a domain--forgiveness by God--to create global forgiveness. In the current study, we use data from a nationally representative study, the Religion, Aging and Health…

  1. Creativity in Adulthood. ERIC Digest No. 204.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerka, Sandra

    Popular misconceptions about creativity include the following: it is limited to a few unique individuals, it declines seriously with age, and it is associated with uniqueness or innovation. As the focus of creativity research has shifted from examination of the personality traits of creative individuals to examination of the social and…

  2. North/South Differences Among Italian Emerging Adults Regarding Criteria Deemed Important for Adulthood and Life Satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Piumatti, Giovanni; Garro, Maria; Pipitone, Laura; Di Vita, Angela Maria; Rabaglietti, Emanuela

    2016-05-01

    The main goal of this study was to compare Northern and Southern Italian emerging adult university students, regarding the importance attributed to criteria for adulthood and the levels of life and education satisfaction. Self-report questionnaires were filled by 475 Northern and Southern Italian University students (Age M = 22.91, 76% females, n = 359). Multivariate analysis of variance revealed that Southern emerging adults were more likely to place importance on family capacities, norm compliance, interdependence and role transitions as criteria for achieving adulthood than Northern emerging adults. Regarding gender differences, females were more likely to believe in the importance of norm compliance than males, while males were more likely to espouse the importance of legal transitions. Finally, emerging adults from the North reported higher levels of life satisfaction than their Southern counterparts. We interpreted these findings in light of socio-economical and gender socialization differences among Northern and Southern Italian emerging adults. PMID:27298636

  3. Non-supportive Parenting Affects Telomere Length in Young Adulthood Among African Americans: Mediation through Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Beach, Steven R. H.; Lei, Man Kit; Brody, Gene H.; Yu, Tianyi; Philibert, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Telomere length (TL) is an indicator of age related changes at the cellular level associated with heightened mortality risk. The effect of non-supportive parenting (NSP) during late adolescence and young adulthood on TL 5 years later was examined in a sample of N = 183 young adult African Americans to determine if effects of NSP on TL were mediated by substance use. Results indicated that the effect of caregiver reported NSP on diminished TL was mediated by escalation of drinking and smoking in young adulthood, even after controlling effects of socioeconomic status risk, gender, BMI, young adult stress, and intervention status. Results suggest that prevention of NSP may influence later physical health consequences by influencing substance use trajectory. PMID:25485673

  4. Co-Development of Psychopathic Features and Alcohol Use during Emerging Adulthood: Disaggregating Between- and Within-Person Change

    PubMed Central

    Hawes, Samuel W.; Crane, Cory A.; Henderson, Craig E.; Mulvey, Edward P.; Schubert, Carol A.; Pardini, Dustin A.

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined whether there is a bidirectional association between changes in alcohol use and psychopathic features during the transition into emerging adulthood. The nature of this association was investigated among a large sample of serious male adolescent offenders (N = 1,170) across 7 annual assessments (ages ~17–23), with a focus on disaggregating between- and within-person change. Findings indicated that there was significant variability between participants in their rate of change of psychopathic features and alcohol use throughout this period of development. Both, between- and within-person increases in alcohol use tended to parallel increases in psychopathic features during the transition into emerging adulthood. In addition, evidence indicated that during years when adolescents consumed more alcohol than normal, they experienced higher than usual levels of self-reported psychopathic features at the subsequent assessment. The relevance of these findings for public policy and their potential to inform treatments and interventions are discussed. PMID:26375828

  5. North/South Differences Among Italian Emerging Adults Regarding Criteria Deemed Important for Adulthood and Life Satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Piumatti, Giovanni; Garro, Maria; Pipitone, Laura; Di Vita, Angela Maria; Rabaglietti, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to compare Northern and Southern Italian emerging adult university students, regarding the importance attributed to criteria for adulthood and the levels of life and education satisfaction. Self-report questionnaires were filled by 475 Northern and Southern Italian University students (Age M = 22.91, 76% females, n = 359). Multivariate analysis of variance revealed that Southern emerging adults were more likely to place importance on family capacities, norm compliance, interdependence and role transitions as criteria for achieving adulthood than Northern emerging adults. Regarding gender differences, females were more likely to believe in the importance of norm compliance than males, while males were more likely to espouse the importance of legal transitions. Finally, emerging adults from the North reported higher levels of life satisfaction than their Southern counterparts. We interpreted these findings in light of socio-economical and gender socialization differences among Northern and Southern Italian emerging adults. PMID:27298636

  6. Leaving the Faith: How Religious Switching Changes Pathways to Adulthood among Conservative Protestant Youth

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Jennifer L.; Sutton, April; Fitzgerald, Scott T.

    2015-01-01

    Research revealing associations between conservative Protestantism and lower socioeconomic status is bedeviled by questions of causal inference. Religious switching offers another way to understand the causal ordering of religious participation and demographic markers of class position. In this paper, we look at adolescents who change their religious affiliation across four waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) and then observe their transition to adulthood using four crucial markers – completed educational attainment, age at first marriage, age at first birth, and income at the final wave. Results show that switching out of a conservative Protestant denomination in adolescence can alter some, but not all, of the negative consequences associated with growing up in a conservative Protestant household. Specifically, family formation is delayed among switchers, but early cessation of education is not. PMID:26322318

  7. The role of siblings in identity development in adolescence and emerging adulthood.

    PubMed

    Wong, Thessa M L; Branje, Susan J T; VanderValk, Inge E; Hawk, Skyler T; Meeus, Wim H J

    2010-10-01

    This study examined the role of siblings on identity formation in adolescence and emerging adulthood, using a three-wave longitudinal design. Measures of identity formation were filled out by 498 sibling dyads. Sibling effects differed as a function of age and gender configuration within the dyads. Controlled for age, earlier-born siblings reported the most advanced levels of identity formation, and later-born siblings the lowest. Positive relations between siblings' identity and changes in identity of respondents provided support for modeling processes between siblings. The identity of earlier-born same-sex siblings, in particular, tends to be important in influencing identity formation. Contrary to the expectations, differentiation processes between siblings did not appear to influence identity formation. It is apparent from this study that both the gender and birth order of siblings affect whether their own identity formation processes influence those of adolescents and emerging adults.

  8. Examining the Pathways between Gratitude and Self-Rated Physical Health across Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Patrick L.; Allemand, Mathias; Roberts, Brent W.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined whether dispositional gratitude predicts physical health among adults, and if so, whether this relationship occurs because grateful individuals lead healthier lives, either psychologically or physically. Specifically, we examined whether psychological health, healthy activities, and willingness to seek help for health concerns mediated the link between gratitude and self-reported physical health, as well as if these mediational pathways are moderated by age, in a broad sample of Swiss adults (N = 962, Mage = 52 years, age range: 19 to 84). Dispositional gratitude correlated positively with self-reported physical health, and this link was mediated by psychological health, healthy activities, and willingness to seek help for health concerns. However, the indirect effects for psychological health and healthy activities were stronger for older than younger adults. In other words, the mechanisms explaining why gratitude predicts health appear to differ across adulthood. PMID:23139438

  9. Adolescent leadership and adulthood fertility: revisiting the "central theoretical problem of human sociobiology".

    PubMed

    Jokela, Markus; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa

    2009-02-01

    Human motivation for social status may reflect an evolved psychological adaptation that increased individual reproductive success in the evolutionary past. However, the association between status striving and reproduction in contemporary humans is unclear. It may be hypothesized that personality traits related to status achievement increase fertility even if modern indicators of socioeconomic status do not. We examined whether four subcomponents of type-A personality--leadership, hard-driving, eagerness, and aggressiveness--assessed at the age of 12 to 21 years predicted the likelihood of having children by the age of 39 in a population-based sample of Finnish women and men (N=1,313). Survival analyses indicated that high adolescent leadership increased adulthood fertility in men and women, independently of education level and urbanicity of residence. The findings suggest that personality determinants of status achievement may predict increased reproductive success in contemporary humans.

  10. Parental bond and life course transitions from adolescence to young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Bucx, Freek; van Wel, Frits

    2008-01-01

    In this study the effects of life course transitions in adolescence and young adulthood (leaving the parental home, living together with a partner,entering parenthood, and becoming financially independent) on the parent-child bond are investigated. Data are presented from a three-wave study of 1,064 adolescents and young adults (aged 12-24 years at Wave 1) over a six-year period. As the youth in this study proceeded through the life course, they tended to report a closer parental bond. However, this age-related effect was counterbalanced by a tendency toward a weakened bond with parents following departure from the parental home. Results are in line with individuation theory, which contends that parent-child relationships become less close as a result of transitions leading to more autonomy.

  11. Effects of childhood poverty and chronic stress on emotion regulatory brain function in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Kim, Pilyoung; Evans, Gary W; Angstadt, Michael; Ho, S Shaun; Sripada, Chandra S; Swain, James E; Liberzon, Israel; Phan, K Luan

    2013-11-12

    Childhood poverty has pervasive negative physical and psychological health sequelae in adulthood. Exposure to chronic stressors may be one underlying mechanism for childhood poverty-health relations by influencing emotion regulatory systems. Animal work and human cross-sectional studies both suggest that chronic stressor exposure is associated with amygdala and prefrontal cortex regions important for emotion regulation. In this longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging study of 49 participants, we examined associations between childhood poverty at age 9 and adult neural circuitry activation during emotion regulation at age 24. To test developmental timing, concurrent, adult income was included as a covariate. Adults with lower family income at age 9 exhibited reduced ventrolateral and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity and failure to suppress amygdala activation during effortful regulation of negative emotion at age 24. In contrast to childhood income, concurrent adult income was not associated with neural activity during emotion regulation. Furthermore, chronic stressor exposure across childhood (at age 9, 13, and 17) mediated the relations between family income at age 9 and ventrolateral and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity at age 24. The findings demonstrate the significance of childhood chronic stress exposures in predicting neural outcomes during emotion regulation in adults who grew up in poverty.

  12. Psychological Defense Styles, Childhood Adversities and Psychopathology in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickel, R.; Egle, U. T.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The present study explores the link between reported sexual and/or physical abuse and psychological defense styles, as well as the association of both with psychological distress in adulthood. In two patient samples that differ in psychological distress and somatization, we examine whether the adversities reported and immature defense…

  13. Adolescents' Attachment Representations and Developmental Tasks in Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharf, Miri; Mayseless, Ofra; Kivenson-Baron, Inbal

    2004-01-01

    The association between attachment representations and adolescents' coping with 3 developmental tasks of emerging adulthood-leaving home, advancing in the capacity for mature intimacy, and developing individuation-was examined. Israeli male adolescents (N = 88) were administered the Adult Attachment Interview during their high-school senior year.…

  14. Overcoming the Odds: High Risk Children from Birth to Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Emmy E.; Smith, Ruth S.

    The lives of 505 individuals born in 1955 on the island of Kauai (Hawaii) were followed from the prenatal period to adulthood to elucidate their resilience in the face of childhood adversity or their recovery in later years. The Kauai Longitudinal Study monitored the impact of a variety of biological and psychosocial risk factors, stressful life…

  15. Work as a Way to Improve Socialization to Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silberman, Harry F.

    If work experience is a desirable way to improve the socialization of youth to adulthood, there is a need to know the kind of work experience which should be provided, and the ways in which opportunities for such experiences can be increased. Generally, the author believes that young people are less likely to be intimidated by the bureaucratic…

  16. Autism and the Transition to Adulthood: Success beyond the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wehman, Paul; Smith, Marcia Datlow; Schall, Carol

    2009-01-01

    Professionals who work with young adults will get hard-to-find information on how specific social, behavioral, and cognitive characteristics of people with autism affect the transition to adulthood, exploring potential challenges and traits that can be powerful assets. Compelling stories throughout this book illustrate how successful transition…

  17. Diagnostic Transitions from Childhood to Adolescence to Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, William E.; Adair, Carol E.; Smetanin, Paul; Stiff, David; Briante, Carla; Colman, Ian; Fergusson, David; Horwood, John; Poulton, Richie; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Background: Quantifying diagnostic transitions across development is needed to estimate the long-term burden of mental illness. This study estimated patterns of diagnostic transitions from childhood to adolescence and from adolescence to early adulthood. Methods: Patterns of diagnostic transitions were estimated using data from three prospective,…

  18. The Transition to Adulthood of Youth with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandergoot, David; And Others

    The purpose of this paper is to offer new directions for equalizing the opportunities available for youth with disabilities to make a successful transition into adulthood. The first section following the introduction highlights research recommendations and public policies that should be considered as priorities for future development. The next…

  19. Lifestyle changes in the management of adulthood and childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Orio, Francesco; Tafuri, Domenico; Ascione, Antonio; Marciano, Francesca; Savastano, Silvia; Colarieti, Giorgio; Orio, Marcello; Colao, Annamaria; Palomba, Stefano; Muscogiuri, Giovanna

    2016-12-01

    Adulthood and childhood obesity is rapidly becoming an epidemic problem and it has a short and long-term impact on health. Short-term consequences are mostly represented by psychological effects; in fact obese children have more chances to develop psychological or psychiatric problems than non-obese children. The main long-term effect is represented by the fact that childhood obesity continues into adulthood obesity and this results in negative effects in young adult life, since obesity increases the risk to develop morbidity and premature mortality. The obesity-related diseases are mostly represented by hypertension, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular diseases. Medical treatment should be discouraged in childhood because of the side effects and it should be only reserved for obese children with related medical complications. Lifestyle changes should be encouraged in both adulthood and childhood obesity. This review focuses on the management of obesity both in adulthood and in childhood, paying particular attention to lifestyle changes that should be recommended.

  20. Seeking Social Inventions to Improve the Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Mary Agnes; Hamilton, Stephen F.

    2015-01-01

    Social inventions are new ways of solving human problems. This article reports on an action research project designed to find social inventions to reduce structural lag in four programs that support the transition to adulthood of marginalized youth in Latin America. The investigators engaged youth and staff members in identifying important…

  1. Understanding Emerging Adulthood from a Goal-Setting Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman, Shmuel; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2010-01-01

    The chapter first introduces the concept of emerging adulthood as a period of life that is characterized by instabilities and fluctuations. Then, the role of goal setting and aspirations in individual development during this stage of life is discussed. Following this, seven chapters of the present special issue are introduced, and the ways in…

  2. Essentials of Transition Planning. Brookes Transition to Adulthood Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wehman, Paul

    2011-01-01

    For young people with disabilities, crossing the bridge to adulthood will be empowering instead of intimidating--when their support teams know the essentials of effective transition planning. Now all the fundamentals of well-crafted transition plans are collected in one concise quick-guide, straight from one of the top authorities on helping young…

  3. Models and Determinants of Vocabulary Growth from Kindergarten to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beitchman, Joseph H.; Jiang, Hedy; Koyama, Emiko; Johnson, Carla J.; Escobar, Michael; Atkinson, Leslie; Brownlie, E. B.; Vida, Ron

    2008-01-01

    Background: Increasing evidence suggests that childhood language problems persist into early adulthood. Nevertheless, little is known about how individual and environmental characteristics influence the language growth of individuals identified with speech/language problems. Method: Individual growth curve models were utilised to examine how…

  4. Down Syndrome, Birth to Adulthood: Giving Families an EDGE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rynders, John E.; Horrobin, J. Margaret

    This updated book provides a collection of longitudinal perspectives on experiences of individuals with Down Syndrome, from birth to adulthood. The book is an outgrowth of a federally funded early intervention study called Project EDGE (Expanding Developmental Growth through Education). Contents cover the following topics: historical review of…

  5. Unrecognized Learning Disabilities in Adulthood: Implications for Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, John W.

    Unrecognized learning disabilities in adulthood can also be viewed as concepts fundamental to change. These disabilities may include: (1) not being able to make appropriate choices and decisions; (2) not utilizing strategies such as checking things out with people, and monitoring one's own performance; (3) not being able to transfer learning from…

  6. Behavioral Phenotype of Fragile X Syndrome in Adolescence and Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Leann E.; Barker, Erin T.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Abbeduto, Leonard; Greenberg, Jan S.

    2012-01-01

    The present study explored the behavioral profile of individuals with fragile X syndrome during adolescence and adulthood. Individuals with both fragile X syndrome and autism (n = 30) were compared with (a) individuals diagnosed with fragile X syndrome (but not autism; n = 106) and (b) individuals diagnosed with autism (but not fragile X syndrome;…

  7. Psychosocial Predictors of Women's Physical Health in Middle Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Sandra P.

    Although health is a key element in one's experience of middle adulthood as a time of productivity and personal fulfillment, research on psychosocial factors predictive of mid-life health is sparse, especially for women. Psychosocial variables are not only highly salient to health, but also are potentially modifiable by women themselves. This…

  8. The Dynamic Interdependence of Developmental Domains across Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sneed, Joel R.; Hamagami, Fumiaki; McArdle, John J.; Cohen, Patricia; Chen, Henian

    2007-01-01

    Emerging adulthood is a period in which profound role changes take place across a number of life domains including finance, romance, and residence. On the basis of dynamic systems theory, change in one domain should be related to change in another domain, because the concept of development according to this approach is a relational one. To…

  9. Diversity in the Transition to Adulthood. Research Briefing No. 85

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoon, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    While the transition to adulthood has generally been prolonged, not all young people are able to afford further study and delayed entry into paid work. This research examines the diversity in transitions (the different pathways/life choices young people can/may take) in a comparative perspective.

  10. Suicide Risk at Young Adulthood: Continuities and Discontinuities from Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooven, Carole; Snedker, Karen A.; Thompson, Elaine Adams

    2012-01-01

    Young adult suicide is an important social problem, yet little is known about how risk for young adult suicide develops from earlier life stages. In this study the authors report on 759 young adults who were potential high school dropouts as youth. At both adolescence and young adulthood, measures of suicide risk status and related suicide risk…

  11. Disability and Adulthood in Mexico: An Ethnographic Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skivington, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to better understand the cultural meaning of adulthood and disability in a large city in central Mexico. Using an ethnographic case study research design that included interviews and observations, this study addressed the research question: What is the cultural meaning and accompanying challenges of becoming an adult with…

  12. Stability and Change in Positive Development during Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Mary T.; Letcher, Primrose; Sanson, Ann; O'Connor, Meredith; Toumbourou, John W.; Olsson, Craig

    2011-01-01

    Calls have been made for a greater focus on successful development and how positive functioning can be conceptualized in theory and empirical research. Drawing on a large Australian community sample (N = 890; 61.7% female), this article examines the structure and stability of positive development at two time points during young adulthood.…

  13. Preparing Foster Youth for Adulthood: A Knowledge-Building Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mech, Edmund V.

    1994-01-01

    Introduces articles presenting a cross section of current research activity on preparing foster youth for adulthood. Suggests it is vital to develop a knowledge-building agenda; that research efforts be prospective and programmatic rather than ex post facto, occasional, or sporadic; and that attention be directed toward testing and evaluating…

  14. EMBRYONIC AND FETAL PROGRAMMING OF PHYSIOLOGICAL DISORDERS IN ADULTHOOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the past decade, numerous epidemiological studies have indicated strong inverse associations between birth weight and risk of coronary heart disease, hypertension, type 2-diabetes and other diseases in adulthood. The ¿Barker hypothesis¿ thus postulates that a number of organ ...

  15. Lifestyle changes in the management of adulthood and childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Orio, Francesco; Tafuri, Domenico; Ascione, Antonio; Marciano, Francesca; Savastano, Silvia; Colarieti, Giorgio; Orio, Marcello; Colao, Annamaria; Palomba, Stefano; Muscogiuri, Giovanna

    2016-12-01

    Adulthood and childhood obesity is rapidly becoming an epidemic problem and it has a short and long-term impact on health. Short-term consequences are mostly represented by psychological effects; in fact obese children have more chances to develop psychological or psychiatric problems than non-obese children. The main long-term effect is represented by the fact that childhood obesity continues into adulthood obesity and this results in negative effects in young adult life, since obesity increases the risk to develop morbidity and premature mortality. The obesity-related diseases are mostly represented by hypertension, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular diseases. Medical treatment should be discouraged in childhood because of the side effects and it should be only reserved for obese children with related medical complications. Lifestyle changes should be encouraged in both adulthood and childhood obesity. This review focuses on the management of obesity both in adulthood and in childhood, paying particular attention to lifestyle changes that should be recommended. PMID:27600645

  16. Romantic Relationship Patterns in Young Adulthood and Their Developmental Antecedents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauer, Amy J.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Bates, John E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    The delayed entry into marriage that characterizes modern society raises questions about young adults' romantic relationship trajectories and whether patterns found to characterize adolescent romantic relationships persist into young adulthood. The current study traced developmental transitions into and out of romantic relationships from age…

  17. Power Load Margin Concept: Key Components of Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiman, Elaine R.

    In March 1959, Howard McClusky introduced his Power Load Margin (PLM) theory and proposed that it be used for studying the adult years and for developing and building realistic educational programs for adults. His formula, which states that the key components of adulthood are load (the demands made upon the individual by self and society) and…

  18. Types and Precipitants of Growth and Decline in Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Benjamin H.; Still, Eva; Newby-Clark, Ian R.

    2007-01-01

    To further explore central developmental themes of emerging adulthood, the authors conducted a study that combines qualitative and quantitative data about the types of personal growth and decline reported by a sample of emerging adults, who also described the life events and other experiences that brought about these personal changes. After…

  19. Preparation of Youth for Adulthood: Symposium VI A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masud, Jariah Hj; And Others

    Concerned generally with the preparation of youth for adulthood, this symposium presentation provides a paper that discusses the need for consumer education for Malaysian youth, and also two abstracts: the first reports findings of a study of adolescents' buying practices in Malaysia, and the second is a survey of university students' attitudes…

  20. On a New Schedule: Transitions to Adulthood and Family Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furstenberg, Frank F., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Frank Furstenberg examines how the newly extended timetable for entering adulthood is affecting, and being affected by, the institution of the Western, particularly the American, family. He reviews a growing body of research on the family life of young adults and their parents and draws out important policy implications of the new schedule for the…