Science.gov

Sample records for adulthood future research

  1. Doing Adulthood in Childhood Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, Barbro

    2012-01-01

    Since age and generation first started to be problematized, the focus has been on childhood, while adulthood has attracted less attention. In this article four examples are presented of how adulthood is constructed within the specific context of childhood research. Taking the departure in Deleuzian and actor network theories, four examples are…

  2. Diversity in the Transition to Adulthood. Research Briefing No. 85

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoon, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    While the transition to adulthood has generally been prolonged, not all young people are able to afford further study and delayed entry into paid work. This research examines the diversity in transitions (the different pathways/life choices young people can/may take) in a comparative perspective.

  3. Hispanic Behavioral Science Research: Recommendations for Future Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Amado M.; Lindholm, Kathryn J.

    1984-01-01

    Presents major developments in Hispanic behavioral science research over the past decade, and provides recommendations for future research, organized into three broad categories: life span issues (childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and elderly, all including some education-related issues), delivery of mental health services, and prevention and…

  4. Constructing Adulthood in Discussions about the Futures of Young People with Moderate-Profound Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Elizabeth; Clegg, Jennifer; Almack, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study examines how those planning futures for young people with moderate-profound intellectual disabilities invoke, deploy and interpret contrasting definitions of adulthood and perceived capacity for autonomy and self-determination. Methods: Twenty-eight young people were followed through transition from children: s to adult…

  5. Young at Heart: A Perspective for Advancing Research on Play in Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Van Vleet, Meredith; Feeney, Brooke C

    2015-09-01

    Developmental and animal research has established play as important to well-being, yet little is known about implications of play by human adults, particularly within close relationships, where it is most likely to occur. Although this is an important emerging topic for psychology, several obstacles have impeded research in this area, including definitional issues and the lack of a guiding framework. In this article, we direct attention to this neglected research area and propose a perspective on play in adulthood that provides a definition of the construct (a behavior or activity that is carried out with the goal of amusement and fun, involves an enthusiastic and in-the-moment attitude or approach, and is highly interactive among play partners or with the activity itself) and identifies potential immediate outcomes (e.g., positive affect, feelings of being accepted and valued, reductions in daily stress) and long-term outcomes (e.g., psychological, physical, and relational health) of play in adulthood, with an emphasis on play occurring within the context of close relationships. In doing so, we elucidate important avenues for future research on this topic (e.g., development of standardized measures, examination of biological mechanisms), which is ripe for investigation. PMID:26386001

  6. Future Directions in the Study of Personality in Adulthood and Older Age

    PubMed Central

    Leszko, Magdalena; Elleman, Lorien G.; Bastarache, Emily D.; Graham, Eileen K.; Mroczek, Daniel K.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, empirical evidence has brought about a change in the view on how, or even whether, personality traits change or develop in adulthood and later life. Now we know personality can and does change for many people, if not most. Changes in personality may occur due to biological or environmental factors. This paper presents key empirical findings on personality change in adulthood and provides evidence that personality change affects mental and physical health. Our goal is to provide a broad overview on personality change research that would be an invaluable resource for students and researchers. We organize this paper into 3 sections. The first is focused on techniques in analyzing personality change in adulthood and later life. The second is focused on personality change as an outcome; we explore what factors predict personality change. The third discusses a relatively novel idea: personality change as a predictor of mental and physical health. We conclude that more research on factors predicting personality change is needed and we provide suggestions on how research on personality change can progress. PMID:26159881

  7. The Future of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This report looks at the future opportunities and challenges facing the UK university research base and makes recommendations as to how the system can respond to these. It comes at a time when the UK has elected its first coalition government for 70 years and is facing unprecedented economic challenges. The report is aimed at policy makers…

  8. Future in Psychopathology Research

    PubMed Central

    Heckers, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Psychopathology research has focused either on the analysis of the mental state in the here and now or on the synthesis of mental status abnormalities with biological markers and outcome data. These two schools of psychopathology, the analytic and the synthetic, make contrasting assumptions, take different approaches, and pursue divergent goals. Analytic psychopathology favors the individual person and unique biography, whereas synthetic psychopathology abstracts from the single case and generalizes to the population level. The dimension of time, especially the prediction of future outcomes, is viewed differently by these two schools. Here I outline how Carpenter’s proposal of strong inference and theory testing in psychopathology research can be used to test the value of analytic and synthetic psychopathology. The emerging field of personalized psychiatry can clarify the relevance of psychopathology for contemporary research in psychiatry. PMID:24562493

  9. The relationship between prospective memory and episodic future thinking in younger and older adulthood.

    PubMed

    Terrett, Gill; Rose, Nathan S; Henry, Julie D; Bailey, Phoebe E; Altgassen, Mareike; Phillips, Louise H; Kliegel, Matthias; Rendell, Peter G

    2016-01-01

    Episodic future thinking (EFT), the ability to project into the future to "preexperience" an event, and prospective memory (PM), remembering to perform an intended action, are both examples of future-oriented cognition. Recently it has been suggested that EFT might contribute to PM performance but to date few studies have examined the relationship between these two capacities. The aim of the present study was to investigate the nature and specificity of this relationship, as well as whether it varies with age. Participants were 125 younger and 125 older adults who completed measures of EFT and PM. Significant, positive correlations between EFT and PM were identified in both age groups. Furthermore, EFT ability accounted for significant unique variance in the young adults, suggesting that it may make a specific contribution to PM function. Within the older adult group, EFT did not uniquely contribute to PM, possibly indicating a reduced capacity to utilize EFT, or the use of compensatory strategies. This study is the first to provide systematic evidence for an association between variation in EFT and PM abilities in both younger and older adulthood and shows that the nature of this association varies as a function of age. PMID:26018341

  10. Some ideas on the emerging future of developmental research.

    PubMed

    Kloep, Marion; Hendry, Leo B

    2014-12-01

    We are somewhat critical of the concept of emerging adulthood as a new developmental stage in modern industrial societies, and prefer the idea of systemic mechanisms and processes as the forces and factors that influence the transitions and transformations of human change across the life course. For this reason, we are pleased to see this volume is entirely dedicated to the life-phase of emerging adulthood in Mediterranean countries, suggesting that researchers are not convinced that the characteristics of emerging adulthood would be the same for young people from different cultures. While we are very positive towards this series of articles showing that emerging adulthood in Mediterranean countries has similarities, and, yet differences to other cultures, and appreciate the diverse findings of these research projects, we would want to suggest some new and more radical strategies for future developmental research. Concretely, a move away from age-bound, stage models towards a more dynamic and systemic approach to lifespan research, simply because we cannot ignore both the past and the future, whilst contemplating the present. PMID:25266579

  11. Transitions to Adulthood for Youth with Disabilities: Emerging Themes for Practice and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Debra; Gorter, Jan Willem; Freeman, Matt

    2013-01-01

    The three common themes are emerging from recent research on positive approaches to adult transitions for youth with disabilities. The first theme acknowledges that a person's condition is only one factor that influences the developmental process of transitioning into adulthood; the second theme addresses the complexity of the numerous…

  12. Research Into Educational Futures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitzer, Dean R.

    A series of articles examines the subject of educational futures, including discussions of the relevance of the topic to the training of teachers and librarians. Three games for future forecasting (SCIFI, AFAR and FAR) and a mini-delphi technique are included. A scheme for viewing alternative futures in Educational Technology through the use of…

  13. More or less "me" in past, present, and future: perceived lifetime personality during adulthood.

    PubMed

    Fleeson, W; Heckhausen, J

    1997-03-01

    This article examines whether adults perceive different levels of their own personality traits at different target ages, and what the differences are. Using abbreviated versions of assessments of the 5-factor model of personality (NEO-FFI, P.T. Costa & R.R. McCrae, 1989) and of well-being (C. D. Ryff, 1989), 398 heterogeneous participants (age 26-64) described their own personality (a) in the present, (b) when they were 20-25 years old, (c) when they will be 65-70 years old, and (d) in the ideal. Participants' responses across the 3 target ages indicated moderate change across adulthood and more variability than is typically observed in longitudinal studies of adult personality development. Anticipated late adulthood personality contained more losses than gains, although all target ages showed some gains. Participants' perceptions were characterized by early adulthood exploration, middle adulthood productivity, and later adulthood comfortableness. Additionally, older adults reported slightly lower ideals but in other ways responded very similarly to younger and middle-aged adults. PMID:9100273

  14. Museum Education Research: Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Museum Education: Roundtable Reports, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Six museum education and learning researchers discuss the need to study how people learn and behave in museums and what kind of current research studies should be undertaken. Mary Ellen Munley, in "Back to the Future: A Call for Coordinated Research Programs in Museums," describes the differences between the terms "evaluation,""audience research,"…

  15. Future Skills. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2004-01-01

    Most of the occupations for which students need to be prepared have not yet been designed, however, it is acknowledged that the majority of employment will be in service related fields. According to the research, the jobs most people will perform will only exist for three to five years, therefore, training for a specific job is not what is…

  16. Transitions to Adulthood in a Changing Economy: No Work, No Family, No Future?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Alan, Ed.; Crouter, Ann C., Ed.; Shanahan, Michael J., Ed.

    This book contains 17 papers devoted to the following four aspects of the transition to adulthood: effects of alterations in the structure of opportunity; effects of prior experiences in the family; effects of prior experience in the workplace; and career development and marriage formation during a period of rising inequality. The following papers…

  17. The Future of Research Communication

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Tim; De Waard, Anita; Herman, Ivan; Hovy, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    This report documents the program and the outcomes of Dagstuhl Perspectives Workshop 11331 “The Future of Research Communication”. The purpose of the workshop was to bring together researchers from these different disciplines, whose core research goal is changing the formats, standards, and means by which we communicate science. PMID:26317061

  18. The Future of Research Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Norward J.

    It is proposed that research universities are a vital component of higher education in the United States because they provide cultural and intellectual leadership, research potential, and the professional and technical human resources to translate research into social, industrial, and economic action. The future of these institutions in view of…

  19. The future of pediatric research.

    PubMed

    Boat, Thomas F

    2007-11-01

    The future of pediatric research will be enhanced by strengthening traditional biomedical approaches and embracing emerging opportunities. Biomedical discovery and translation of new knowledge, concepts, and devices into better diagnostic and therapeutic options will require more pediatric physician-scientists, rapid adoption of enabling technologies, increased funding for research and research training (including the creation of federally funded pediatric translational research centers), and a broader distribution of research activities across the academic pediatric community. Rapid improvement of child health outcomes also will be realized through robust health services research in pediatrics, including the application of rigorous quality improvement science that documents and disseminates successful interventions, leading to better access and effectiveness of care. Improving the value of pediatric care is a realistic goal. Achieving better outcomes through individually tailored (personalized) care for children should be tested experimentally. The future of pediatrics is bright, but will depend on the recognition of and response to a growing array of exciting opportunities. PMID:17950318

  20. Research Needs and Future Directions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The food safety challenges facing the growers, processors and consumers of fresh and fresh cut produce are complex and multi-faceted. Established and ongoing research has given new insights into the ways in which produce can be contaminated at any step in the supply chain. The goal of future researc...

  1. Smoking, Drinking, and Drug Use in Young Adulthood: The Impacts of New Freedoms and New Responsibilities. Research Monographs in Adolescence (RMA).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachman, Jerald G.; Wadsworth, Katherine N.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.; Schulenberg, John E.

    This book focuses on transitions into young adulthood by examining key roles and experiences of young adults and how they relate to changes in drug use. The findings are based on the nationwide Monitoring the Future project, and represent the majority of individuals who entered young adulthood in the United States during the years 1976 through…

  2. Young Adults' Perceived Purposes of Emerging Adulthood: Implications for Cohabitation.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Adam A; Willoughby, Brian J; Nelson, Larry J

    2016-05-18

    The authors investigated associations between young adults' perceived purposes of emerging adulthood and their attitudes toward and participation in cohabitation. In a sample of 775 never married individuals, ages 18-29 (69% female, 69% white) from the United States, young people's perceptions of this period of life were associated with their acceptance of cohabitation, their reasoning for accepting cohabitation, and the likelihood of cohabiting. Results showed that the perception that emerging adulthood is a time to prepare for future family roles was negatively associated with acceptance of cohabitation whereas the perception that emerging adulthood is a time to take risks was positively associated with acceptance of cohabitation. The perception that emerging adulthood is a time to prepare for future family roles was associated with an increased likelihood of having cohabited while the perception that emerging adulthood is a time of possibilities was associated with a decreased likelihood of having cohabited. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:26645897

  3. "I Just Don't Fit Anywhere": Support Experiences and Future Support Needs of Individuals with Asperger Syndrome in Middle Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Gemma M.; Totsika, Vasiliki; Nash, Susie; Hastings, Richard P.

    2012-01-01

    The experiences of individuals in middle adulthood with Asperger syndrome have been the subject of little previous research, especially in terms of their experience of support services. In the present research, 11 adults with Asperger syndrome were interviewed. Interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) was used to interpret the interviews.…

  4. Cognitive styles and future depressed mood in early adulthood: The importance of global attributions

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, R.M.; Heron, J.; Button, K.; Bentall, R.P.; Fernyhough, C.; Mahedy, L.; Bowes, L.; Lewis, G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cognitive theories of depression suggest that beliefs of low self-worth and the tendency to attribute negative events to causes that are global (widespread rather than specific) and stable (will persist rather than change in the future) are associated with the development of depressed mood. Such theories are supported by evidence from prospective studies and have guided the development of successful treatment and prevention strategies such as CBT. However, the relative importance of different psychological constructs within cognitive theories is unknown. This is important to refine cognitive theories and develop more efficient prevention strategies. Method We used prospective data from over 3500 young adults from the Avon Longitudinal Study for Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort in the UK to investigate the association between cognitive style, measured by short forms of the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale (DAS) and Cognitive Styles Questionnaire-Short Form (CSQ-SF) at age 18, and future depressed mood at age 19. Structural equation modelling techniques were used to separate cognitive style constructs. Results Cognitive styles were associated with future depressed mood, independently of baseline mood, both as measured by the DAS-SF and the CSQ-SF. Of the different CSQ-SF constructs, only global attributions were associated with both baseline and future mood independently of other constructs. Limitations The study was subject to attrition and the follow-up was relatively short (10 months). Conclusion The findings suggest that the tendency to attribute negative events specifically to global causes could be particularly important for depression. Reducing global attributions is potentially important in the prevention and treatment of depression. PMID:25285900

  5. Future directions in meteorite research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anders, E.; Kerridge, John F.

    1988-01-01

    Information presently available on meteorite composition and history and the areas in meteorite research that should be covered in future in order to shed additional light on the earliest history of the solar system are discussed. Attention is given to the work needed in the classification schemes for chondrites, the question of the identification of parent bodies of the major meteorite and chondrite types, the igneous differentiation of certain asteroids, the effects of irradiation, the solar-system chronology, and issues concerning the early solar system. Other important areas discussed include the elemental composition of chondrites, the magnetic properties of meteorites, the composition and the petrology of chondrules, the properties of primitive material surviving in chondrites, the micrometeorites, the nebula, the presolar material in meteorites, the nucleosynthesis, and the nucleocosmochronology.

  6. Understanding Adolescent and Family Influences on Intimate Partner Psychological Violence During Emerging Adulthood and Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Lohman, Brenda J.; Neppl, Tricia K.; Senia, Jennifer M.; Schofield, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    The intergenerational transmission of violence directed toward intimate partners has been documented for the past three decades. Overall, the literature shows that violence in the family of origin leads to violence in the family of destination. However, this predominately cross–sectional or retrospective literature is limited by self–selection, endogeneity, and reporter biases as it has not been able to assess how individual and family behaviors simultaneously experienced during adolescence influence intimate partner violence throughout adulthood. The present study used data from the Iowa Youth and Families Project (IYFP; N = 392; 52 % Female), a multi–method, multi–trait prospective approach, to overcome this limitation. We focused on psychological intimate partner violence in both emerging adulthood (19 – 23 years) and adulthood (27 – 31 years), and include self and partner ratings of violence as well as observational data in a sample of rural non-Hispanic white families. Controlling for a host of individual risk factors as well as interparental psychological violence from adolescence (14 – 15 years), the results show that exposure to parent–to–child psychological violence during adolescence is a key predictor of intimate partner violence throughout adulthood. In addition, negative emotionality and the number of sexual partners in adolescence predicted intimate partner violence in both emerging adulthood and adulthood. Exposure to family stress was associated positively with intimate partner violence in adulthood but not in emerging adulthood, whereas academic difficulties were found to increase violence in emerging adulthood only. Unlike previous research, results did not support a direct effect of interparental psychological violence on psychological violence in the next generation. Gender differences were found only in emerging adulthood. Implications of these findings are discussed in light of the current literature and future directions

  7. Young Men and Young Women. Vulnerable Youth and the Transition to Adulthood. ASPE Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zielewski, Erica H.

    2009-01-01

    This fact sheet considers differences in behaviors and outcomes between young men and young women as they transition to adulthood. It also considers whether differences between young men and young women are related to the fact that some women are caring for children. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, the analysis compares…

  8. Research Training--Present & Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    In 10 papers by independent experts, this volume explores the trends in and prospects for research training in member nations of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. "Problems and Prospects of Research Training in the 1990s" (Stuart Blume) looks at trends in national policy toward research training and issues of quality.…

  9. Hypothesis-driven research for G × E interactions: the relationship between oxytocin, parental divorce during adolescence, and depression in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Windle, Michael; Mrug, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Research in molecular genetics has generally focused on genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and exploratory candidate gene and candidate gene-environment (G × E) studies. In this article it is proposed that hypothesis-driven and biologically informed research provides a complementary approach to GWAS to advance pressing research questions about G × E relations that are of public health relevance. Prior research studies and developmental and evolutionary theory were used to guide hypothesis testing of G × E relationships in this study. The study investigated whether the oxytocin polymorphism, rs53576, moderated the relationship between parental divorce during adolescence and depression symptoms in young adulthood. Oxytocin is a neuropeptide that has been related to the regulation of complex social cognition and behaviors such as empathy, attachment, and nurturance. We hypothesized that the GG polymorphism would be associated with more depressive symptoms following parental divorce, and that this effect would be stronger in females than males. The sample consisted of 340 individuals who participated in a longitudinal study with data used both from adolescence and young adulthood. Findings using prospective follow-up and autoregressive change models supported the hypothesized relationships. Young adult females who had experienced parental divorce during adolescence and had the GG oxytocin genotype reported almost twice as many depressive symptoms relative to young adult females who also experienced parental divorce during adolescence but had the AA or AG genotype. This pattern was not indicated among males. Findings were discussed with regard to how molecular genetic factors in combination with environmental stressors, such parental divorce, framed within a developmental framework may facilitate the future study of G × E relationships in the parental divorce-child adjustment literature and contribute to a prevention science perspective. PMID:26441708

  10. Hypothesis-driven research for G × E interactions: the relationship between oxytocin, parental divorce during adolescence, and depression in young adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Windle, Michael; Mrug, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Research in molecular genetics has generally focused on genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and exploratory candidate gene and candidate gene–environment (G × E) studies. In this article it is proposed that hypothesis-driven and biologically informed research provides a complementary approach to GWAS to advance pressing research questions about G × E relations that are of public health relevance. Prior research studies and developmental and evolutionary theory were used to guide hypothesis testing of G × E relationships in this study. The study investigated whether the oxytocin polymorphism, rs53576, moderated the relationship between parental divorce during adolescence and depression symptoms in young adulthood. Oxytocin is a neuropeptide that has been related to the regulation of complex social cognition and behaviors such as empathy, attachment, and nurturance. We hypothesized that the GG polymorphism would be associated with more depressive symptoms following parental divorce, and that this effect would be stronger in females than males. The sample consisted of 340 individuals who participated in a longitudinal study with data used both from adolescence and young adulthood. Findings using prospective follow-up and autoregressive change models supported the hypothesized relationships. Young adult females who had experienced parental divorce during adolescence and had the GG oxytocin genotype reported almost twice as many depressive symptoms relative to young adult females who also experienced parental divorce during adolescence but had the AA or AG genotype. This pattern was not indicated among males. Findings were discussed with regard to how molecular genetic factors in combination with environmental stressors, such parental divorce, framed within a developmental framework may facilitate the future study of G × E relationships in the parental divorce-child adjustment literature and contribute to a prevention science perspective. PMID:26441708

  11. Future methods in pharmacy practice research.

    PubMed

    Almarsdottir, A B; Babar, Z U D

    2016-06-01

    This article describes the current and future practice of pharmacy scenario underpinning and guiding this research and then suggests future directions and strategies for such research. First, it sets the scene by discussing the key drivers which could influence the change in pharmacy practice research. These are demographics, technology and professional standards. Second, deriving from this, it seeks to predict and forecast the future shifts in use of methodologies. Third, new research areas and availability of data impacting on future methods are discussed. These include the impact of aging information technology users on healthcare, understanding and responding to cultural and social disparities, implementing multidisciplinary initiatives to improve health care, medicines optimization and predictive risk analysis, and pharmacy as business and health care institution. Finally, implications of the trends for pharmacy practice research methods are discussed. PMID:27209486

  12. An appraisal of future space biomedical research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinograd, S. P.

    1975-01-01

    Three general classes of manned space flight missions of the future are described. These include: earth-orbital, lunar, and planetary. Biomedical science and technology is analyzed emphasizing areas of research needed to support future manned space flights and the information to be obtained from them.

  13. Future directions for agricultural phosphorus research

    SciTech Connect

    Sikora, F.J.

    1992-03-01

    Future Directions for Agricultural Phosphorus Research is a collection of papers presented at a workshop in Muscle Shoals, Alabama, on July 18 and 19, 1990. The objective of the workshop was to gather representatives of academia, government, and industry to discuss and debate research needs with phosphorus in agriculture, ranging from basic to applied research. The enclosed papers present information on current knowledge in the areas of (1) identifying phosphorus solid phases in soil, (ii) enhanced phosphorus bioavailability through microbial activity, (iii) phosphorus rock quality, (iv) environmental issues regarding phosphorus in agriculture, (v) predicting phosphorus bioavailability in soil, and (vi) fertilizer management effects on phosphorus availability. Within each paper, the authors suggest future research needs in their area. With the discussion of current knowledge and future research needs, this publication was designed to benefit organizations formulating and developing research plans concerning phosphorus in agricultural systems.

  14. Mindfulness Meditation Training for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Adulthood: Current Empirical Support, Treatment Overview, and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, John T.; Zylowska, Lidia; Kollins, Scott H.

    2015-01-01

    Research examining nonpharmacological interventions for adults diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has expanded in recent years and provides patients with more treatment options. Mindfulness-based training is an example of an intervention that is gaining promising preliminary empirical support and is increasingly administered in clinical settings. The aim of this review is to provide a rationale for the application of mindfulness to individuals diagnosed with ADHD, describe the current state of the empirical basis for mindfulness training in ADHD, and summarize a treatment approach specific to adults diagnosed with ADHD: the Mindful Awareness Practices (MAPs) for ADHD Program. Two case study examples are provided to demonstrate relevant clinical issues for practitioners interested in this approach. Directions for future research, including mindfulness meditation as a standalone treatment and as a complementary approach to cognitive-behavioral therapy, are provided. PMID:25908900

  15. Recommendations for future research in hypersonic instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ocheltree, S. L.

    1993-01-01

    An overview of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop is presented. It describes the process followed to obtain a group consensus on the main technical recommendations for each of the five technical sessions of the Workshop and presents the general conclusions and recommendations for future research agreed upon by the workshop participants.

  16. Future Perspectives of Biocybernetic Research in Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, M. F.; Thwaites, H. M.

    This paper describes the future perspectives of biocybernetic communication research applied to television, i.e., the measurement of the information impact of television on both individual human beings and groups in terms of energetic changes in the human body. A summary of the recent state of the art of biocybernetic research includes discussions…

  17. Future of federal research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, D.T.

    1995-12-31

    This paper very briefly describes factors affecting federal funding for research and development. Historical, political, and economic aspects of funding are outlined. Projections of future funding is provided in general terms. The potential of the national laboratories for continued research and development contributions is described.

  18. [Eating disorders: state of the art research and future challenges].

    PubMed

    Voderholzer, U; Cuntz, U; Schlegl, S

    2012-11-01

    Eating disorders are a common mental disorder during adolescence and young adulthood. While prevalence rates of eating disorders dramatically increased during the second half of the last century, these rates have remained relatively stable over the last 20 years. According to ICD-10 eating disorders are diagnostically categorized as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and atypical eating disorders or eating disorders not otherwise specified. Concerning the etiology, genetic factors are involved, especially in anorexia nervosa, as well as psychological and sociocultural factors. Evidence-based recommendations are available for the treatment of bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder and in this context cognitive behavioral therapy is seen as the first choice. In contrast, the state of knowledge concerning the treatment of anorexia nervosa is still limited, especially concerning effective treatments for adults. Recent data only provide evidence for the effectiveness of family therapy for adolescents. Due to the lack of high quality studies, research on therapy for anorexia nervosa is a future challenge. PMID:23104604

  19. Future Earth - Research for Global Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Diana; Berkhout, Frans

    2014-05-01

    Future Earth is a 10-year international research programme that aims to provide the critical knowledge required for societies to understand and address challenges posed by global environmental change (GEC) and to seize opportunities for transitions to global sustainability. Future Earth research is organised around three broad and integrated research themes: Dynamic Planet; Global Development; and Transformations towards Sustainability. It builds upon and integrates the existing GEC Programmes: World Climate Research Programme (WCRP), the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP), DIVERSITAS (international programme of biodiversity science), the International Human Dimensions Programme (IHDP) and the Earth Systems Science Partnership (ESSP). This presentation will outline the key principles of Future Earth, such as the integration of natural and social science, and will describe how the programme intends to address the challenges of global environmental change. Some of the major research questions addressed by Future Earth could include: further understanding of the dynamics of the Earth system (including socio-ecology); risks relating to tipping points; how to ensure sustainable access to food, water and energy; and whether the present economic system provides the necessary framework for low carbon transition.

  20. The Transition to Adulthood of Youth with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandergoot, David; And Others

    The purpose of this paper is to offer new directions for equalizing the opportunities available for youth with disabilities to make a successful transition into adulthood. The first section following the introduction highlights research recommendations and public policies that should be considered as priorities for future development. The next…

  1. Past, Present and Future in Interdisciplinary Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gusdorf, Georges

    1977-01-01

    Presents examples of interdisciplinary research since the origin of western science and predicts that future interdisciplinary approaches to epistemological writing will take into account divergent thinking patterns and thereby end the domination by western intellectual imperialism. For journal availability, see SO 506 201. (Author/DB)

  2. Long-term effects of methamphetamine exposure in adolescent mice on the future ovarian reserve in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lan; Qu, Guoqiang; Dong, Xiyuan; Huang, Kai; Kumar, Molly; Ji, Licheng; Wang, Ya; Yao, Junning; Yang, Shulin; Wu, Ruxing; Zhang, Hanwang

    2016-02-01

    Currently, there is an increasing prevalence of adolescent exposure to methamphetamine (MA). However, there is a paucity of information concerning the long-term impact of early exposure to MA upon female fertility and ovarian reserve. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of long-term MA exposure in adolescents on their ovarian reserve in adulthood. Adolescent mice received intraperitoneal injections of MA (5mg/kg, three times per week) or saline from the 21st postnatal day for an 8 week period. Morphological, histological, biochemical, hormonal and ethological parameters were evaluated. An impaired ovarian reserve and vitality was found in the group treated with MA, manifesting in morphological-apparent mitochondrial damage, an activated apoptosis pathway in the ovarian tissue, a downward expression of ovarian anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH), a decreased number of primordial and growing follicles, an increased number of atretic follicles, and a depressed secretion of AMH, estradiol and progesterone from granulosa cells. However, no significant difference was noticed regarding the estrous cycle, the mating ability and the fertility outcome in the reproductive age of the mice after a period of non-medication. The present results confirmed that a long term exposure to methamphetamine in adolescent mice does have an adverse impact on their ovarian reserve, which indicates that such an early abuse of MA might influence the fertility lifespan of the female mouse. PMID:26657179

  3. NASA Lewis Research Center Futuring Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boroush, Mark; Stover, John; Thomas, Charles

    1987-01-01

    On October 21 and 22, 1986, the Futures Group ran a two-day Futuring Workshop on the premises of NASA Lewis Research Center. The workshop had four main goals: to acquaint participants with the general history of technology forecasting; to familiarize participants with the range of forecasting methodologies; to acquaint participants with the range of applicability, strengths, and limitations of each method; and to offer participants some hands-on experience by working through both judgmental and quantitative case studies. Among the topics addressed during this workshop were: information sources; judgmental techniques; quantitative techniques; merger of judgment with quantitative measurement; data collection methods; and dealing with uncertainty.

  4. Basic research for future electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahn, R. G.

    1985-01-01

    It is pointed out that the evolution of electric propulsion over the past two and a half decades has been constrained by the interaction of three broad factors, including the physics and dynamics of the propellants, the dynamical and logistical requirements of the mission, and the technological realities of materials, power sources, and thermal management. A projection of the future of electric propulsion requires, therefore, a simultaneous reassessment of all three factors. Aspects of mission specification and power systems are discussed, and basic research needed for future electric propulsion applications is considered. Attention is given to electrostatic propulsion, electrothermal propulsion, electromagnetic propulsion, electrothermal/electromagnetic hybrids, novel concepts, and ancillary concerns.

  5. Indicators of Adolescent Depression and Relationship Progression in Emerging Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Sandberg-Thoma, Sara E.; Kamp Dush, Claire M.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescent depression may be associated with future relationship problems that have long-term consequences given the developmental importance and health benefits of forming committed unions in emerging adulthood. The authors examined associations between emotional and behavioral indicators of adolescent depression (depressive symptoms, alcohol problems, and suicidal ideation) and romantic relationship and union formation and dissolution in emerging adulthood (n = 14,146) using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Adolescent alcohol problems were associated with more romantic relationships in emerging adulthood. Emerging adults with depressive symptoms or alcohol problems in adolescence were significantly more likely to enter into a cohabiting union, and those with adolescent alcohol problems were less likely to marry. Cohabiting emerging adults with a history of adolescent depressive symptoms were less likely to marry, whereas suicidal ideation was associated with a decreased likelihood of cohabitation dissolution. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:24465056

  6. Indicators of Adolescent Depression and Relationship Progression in Emerging Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Sandberg-Thoma, Sara E; Kamp Dush, Claire M

    2014-02-01

    Adolescent depression may be associated with future relationship problems that have long-term consequences given the developmental importance and health benefits of forming committed unions in emerging adulthood. The authors examined associations between emotional and behavioral indicators of adolescent depression (depressive symptoms, alcohol problems, and suicidal ideation) and romantic relationship and union formation and dissolution in emerging adulthood (n = 14,146) using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Adolescent alcohol problems were associated with more romantic relationships in emerging adulthood. Emerging adults with depressive symptoms or alcohol problems in adolescence were significantly more likely to enter into a cohabiting union, and those with adolescent alcohol problems were less likely to marry. Cohabiting emerging adults with a history of adolescent depressive symptoms were less likely to marry, whereas suicidal ideation was associated with a decreased likelihood of cohabitation dissolution. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:24465056

  7. Future fundamental combustion research for aeropropulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mularz, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    Physical fluid mechanics, heat transfer, and chemical kinetic processes which occur in the combustion chamber of aeropropulsion systems were investigated. With the component requirements becoming more severe for future engines, the current design methodology needs the new tools to obtain the optimum configuration in a reasonable design and development cycle. Research efforts in the last few years were encouraging but to achieve these benefits research is required into the fundamental aerothermodynamic processes of combustion. It is recommended that research continues in the areas of flame stabilization, combustor aerodynamics, heat transfer, multiphase flow and atomization, turbulent reacting flows, and chemical kinetics. Associated with each of these engineering sciences is the need for research into computational methods to accurately describe and predict these complex physical processes. Research needs in each of these areas are highlighted.

  8. Future research in weight bias: What next?

    PubMed

    Alberga, Angela S; Russell-Mayhew, Shelly; von Ranson, Kristin M; McLaren, Lindsay; Ramos Salas, Ximena; Sharma, Arya M

    2016-06-01

    The 2015 Canadian Weight Bias Summit disseminated the newest research advances and brought together 40 experts, stakeholders, and policy makers in various disciplines in health, education, and public policy to identify future research directions in weight bias. In this paper we aim to share the results of the Summit as well as encourage international and interdisciplinary research collaborations in weight bias reduction. Consensus emerged on six research areas that warrant further investigation in weight bias: costs, causes, measurement, qualitative research and lived experience, interventions, and learning from other models of discrimination. These discussions highlighted three key lessons that were informed by the Summit, namely: language matters, the voices of people living with obesity should be incorporated, and interdisciplinary stakeholders should be included. PMID:27129601

  9. Cultural and social influences on adolescent smoking dissipate by emerging adulthood among Hispanics in Southern California

    PubMed Central

    Allem, Jon-Patrick; Soto, Daniel W.; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Sussman, Steve; Unger, Jennifer B.

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to identify risk factors for smoking among Hispanic adolescents and determine whether these factors continued to influence smoking into emerging adulthood. Methods Data were drawn from 932 Hispanics in the greater Los Angeles area who were surveyed in high school in 2007 and then again in emerging adulthood from 2010 to 2012. Logistic regression assessed the associations between predictors in adolescence and smoking in adolescence while an order one transition logistic model assessed predictors in adolescence and smoking in emerging adulthood. Results Adult and sibling smoking status, perceptions of smoking, perceived discrimination, and fatalism all influenced smoking in adolescence but not in emerging adulthood. Discussion Once Hispanics reach emerging adulthood different tactics to reduce smoking will be needed and are where future research should be directed. PMID:24057805

  10. Futures Challenges in Thyroid Hormone Signaling Research

    PubMed Central

    Flamant, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    The canonical pathway of thyroid hormone signaling involves its binding to nuclear receptors (TRs) acting directly on the transcription of a number of genes. Recent genome-wide studies revealed that chromatin occupancy by TR is not sufficient for transactivation of gene expression. Reciprocally, in some cases, DNA binding by TR may not be required for cellular response. This leaves many new questions to be addressed in future research. PMID:27445973

  11. Futures Challenges in Thyroid Hormone Signaling Research.

    PubMed

    Flamant, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    The canonical pathway of thyroid hormone signaling involves its binding to nuclear receptors (TRs) acting directly on the transcription of a number of genes. Recent genome-wide studies revealed that chromatin occupancy by TR is not sufficient for transactivation of gene expression. Reciprocally, in some cases, DNA binding by TR may not be required for cellular response. This leaves many new questions to be addressed in future research. PMID:27445973

  12. The anticipated transition to adulthood: effects of culture and individual experience on Polish and Finnish adolescents' future orientations.

    PubMed

    Trempala, J; Malmberg, L E

    1998-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the effect of a set of individual resources and cultural factors on adolescents' probability estimations of the occurrence of positive future events in three life domains: education, occupation, and family. The hypothesis was that the effects of culture and individual resources are interwoven in the formation process of future orientation. The sample consisted of 352 17-year-old Polish and Finnish girls and boys from vocational and upper secondary schools. The 78-item questionnaire developed by the authors was used to measure different aspects of future orientation (probability, valence, and extension of future events in three life domains) and individual resources (self-esteem, control beliefs, and social knowledge about normatively and the generation gap). Data analysis showed that culture separately affected individual resources and adolescents' expectations. However, the results broadly confirmed the thesis that the culture has a limited effect on adolescents' expectations of the occurrence of future events. Moreover, these data suggested that the influence of sociocultural differences on adolescents' probability estimations is indirect. In the context of the presented data, the authors discuss their model of future orientation. PMID:9540224

  13. The Future of Nearshore Processes Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elko, N.; Feddersen, F.; Foster, D. L.; Holman, R. A.; McNinch, J.; Ozkan-Haller, H. T.; Plant, N. G.; Raubenheimer, B.; Elgar, S.; Hay, A. E.; Holland, K. T.; Kirby, J. T., Jr.; Lippmann, T. C.; Miller, J. K.; Stockdon, H. F.; Ashton, A. D.; Boehm, A. B.; Clark, D.; Cowen, E.; Dalyander, S.; Gelfenbaum, G. R.; Hapke, C. J.; MacMahan, J.; McNamara, D.; Mulligan, R. P.; Palmsten, M. L.; Ruggiero, P.; Sherwood, C. R.; Hsu, T. J.

    2014-12-01

    Over 70 members of the nearshore coastal processes research community convened in April 2014 to discuss a vision for the future of nearshore science while celebrating the memories and contributions of our recently departed colleague, Abby Sallenger. The participants reviewed community accomplishments over the past four decades. Federal agencies, including FEMA, NOAA, NPS, USGS, USACE, and NRL discussed the most pressing societal needs within the coastal zone. The group engaged in a retrospective of the last four decades of progress, assessed the current status and limitations of nearshore processes research, and developed a vision for the future that focuses on societally relevant problems. The top research topics identified included: Long-term Coastal Impacts: Meaningfully improve our understanding and prediction of the long-term coastal effects of sea level rise and changes in storminess patterns and associated efforts to protect coastal infrastructure. Extreme Events: Coastal flooding, overland flow, and concurrent morphological evolution during extreme events including the subsequent process of coastal recovery. Human and Ecosystem Health: Linkages between physical coastal processes (transport and mixing) and land-based pollution (pathogens, nutrients, toxic contaminants). Critical for addressing these research questions is enabling infrastructure, such as new observational tools and data sets, models, and nearshore-community communication and collaboration. Idea and concepts developed during the meeting (to be published in Shore and Beach) will be presented to foster collaboration and advocacy amongst the wider nearshore community. Meeting materials are available at: https://scripps.ucsd.edu/centers/nearshorefuture/.

  14. Wound ballistics: contemporary and future research.

    PubMed

    Ryan, J M; Cooper, G J; Maynard, R L

    1988-10-01

    Wound ballistics research has contributed much to the understanding of the pathophysiology of missile injury that now exists. From this store of knowledge treatment regimes have evolved which have greatly improved the lot of the soldier wounded in war. However, research must keep pace with changes that are taking place in weapons research and development so that the particular needs of the Army Medical Services on a future battlefield can be met. The differing needs of civilian and military medical services are highlighted. The marked differences that exist between the missile wound seen and treated in a late twentieth century hospital and the wounds likely to be encountered on the modern battlefield are enumerated and discussed. PMID:3057188

  15. Future directions in preterm birth research.

    PubMed

    Jain, Joses; Gyamfi-Bannerman, Cynthia

    2016-04-01

    The problem of preterm birth continues to pose one of the most significant research challenges that we face due to its immense scope and complexity. With evidence that 95% of cases of spontaneous preterm birth are intractable to current interventions, our best hope in resolving this problem may lie in new, innovative ideas. Novel approaches to researching preterm birth are currently underway, building upon our prior discoveries and probing into the unknown on multiple fronts. Here we discuss some of the major focuses of future investigation that provide a promising outlook for discovery, including advanced techniques to evaluate the cervix, new strategies to identify the role of the microbiome, and advances in molecular and epigenetic-based research. PMID:26640166

  16. Virtually Shaping the Future of Polar Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baeseman, J. L.; Koldunov, N. V.; Jochum, K.

    2009-12-01

    The Association of Polar Early Career Scientists (APECS) is an international and interdisciplinary organization for undergraduate and graduate students, postdoctoral researchers, early faculty members, educators and others with interests in Polar Regions and the wider cryosphere that started as a result of the International Polar Year (IPY). APECS is leading the way for virtual communication of polar research through several activities: an online Polar Literature Discussion Forum, a Virtual Poster Session, and Communication beyond the conference setting. APECS has created an extensive online discussion forum where researchers share both classic and cutting-edge literature articles and critique techniques that were used by authors, helping to improve methods as well as discover new ways to approach polar research questions. Many researchers present their results as posters at conferences. APECS has taken this process to a new level by creating a format to display previously presented posters online instead of these files simply sitting on a researcher’s hard-drive. Not only are the posters online, a monthly conference call open to hundreds of participants allows researchers to share their work with a new audience - fellow researchers, community members, potential colleagues, policy makers and educators. These calls are recorded and archived online so the next time someone visits the poster, they can hear the researcher describe their work and communicate with the researcher questions they may have, potential ways to collaborate or share different methodologies to improve future endeavors. Peer-reviewed literature articles are the currency of science and APECS has capitalized on this by creating a way for researchers to increase the exposure of their publications beyond the table of contents published by journals. The Polar Literature Discussion Forum is a new way for researchers to share their papers, as well as discuss classic articles. This has become a popular

  17. Defining Future Directions for Endometriosis Research

    PubMed Central

    D’Hooghe, Thomas M.; Fazleabas, Asgerally; Giudice, Linda C.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Petraglia, Felice; Taylor, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    Endometriosis, defined as estrogen-dependent lesions containing endometrial glands and stroma outside the uterus, is a chronic and often painful gynecological condition that affects 6% to 10% of reproductive age women. Endometriosis has estimated annual costs of US $12 419 per woman (approximately €9579), comprising one-third of the direct health care costs with two-thirds attributed to loss of productivity. Decreased quality of life is the most important predictor of direct health care and total costs. It has been estimated that there is a mean delay of 6.7 years between onset of symptoms and a surgical diagnosis of endometriosis, and each affected woman loses on average 10.8 hours of work weekly, mainly owing to reduced effectiveness while working. To encourage and facilitate research into this debilitating disease, a consensus workshop to define future directions for endometriosis research was held as part of the 11th World Congress on Endometriosis in September 2011 in Montpellier, France. The objective of this workshop was to review and update the endometriosis research priorities consensus statement developed following the 10th World Congress on Endometriosis in 2008.1 A total of 56 recommendations for research have been developed, grouped under 6 subheadings: (1) diagnosis, (2) classification and prognosis, (3) clinical trials, treatment, and outcomes, (4) epidemiology, (5) pathophysiology, and (6) research policy. By producing this consensus international research priorities statement, it is the hope of the workshop participants that researchers will be encouraged to develop new interdisciplinary research proposals that will attract increased funding support for work on endometriosis. PMID:23427182

  18. Research Domain Criteria: toward future psychiatric nosologies

    PubMed Central

    Cuthbert, Bruce N.

    2015-01-01

    The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) project was initiated by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) in early 2009 as the implementation of Goal 1.4 of its just-issued strategic plan. In keeping with the NIMH mission, to “transform the understanding and treatment of mental illnesses through basic and clinical research,” RDoC was explicitly conceived as a research-related initiative. The statement of the relevant goal in the strategic plan reads: “Develop, for research purposes, new ways of classifying mental disorders based on dimensions of observable behavior and neurobiological measures.” Due to the novel approach that RDoC takes to conceptualizing and studying mental disorders, it has received widespread attention, well beyond the borders of the immediate research community. This review discusses the rationale for the experimental framework that RDoC has adopted, and its implications for the nosology of mental disorders in the future. PMID:25987867

  19. What is the future of biomedical research?

    PubMed

    Tebala, Giovanni Domenico

    2015-10-01

    Randomized controlled trials require hard work and financial commitment, whereas meta-analyses and systematic reviews can be relatively easy to perform and often get published in high impact journals. Many researchers might decide to devote themselves to the latter approach, resulting in a negative impact on clinical research. We have reviewed the number of indexed meta-analyses and systematic reviews on PubMed and compared it with the number of randomized controlled trials over the same period. Statistical analysis showed an exponential increase of synthetic studies with respect to randomized trials. The ratio between RCTs and synthetic studies is quickly decreasing. These results suggest that a growing number of researchers might prefer to commit themselves to synthetic studies more than be involved in more time consuming and funds demanding observational trials. If we are unable to invert this trend, in the future we will have a growing number of synthetic studies utilizing someone else's original data and fewer raw data to base our knowledge upon. PMID:26194725

  20. Leadership: current theories, research, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Avolio, Bruce J; Walumbwa, Fred O; Weber, Todd J

    2009-01-01

    This review examines recent theoretical and empirical developments in the leadership literature, beginning with topics that are currently receiving attention in terms of research, theory, and practice. We begin by examining authentic leadership and its development, followed by work that takes a cognitive science approach. We then examine new-genre leadership theories, complexity leadership, and leadership that is shared, collective, or distributed. We examine the role of relationships through our review of leader member exchange and the emerging work on followership. Finally, we examine work that has been done on substitutes for leadership, servant leadership, spirituality and leadership, cross-cultural leadership, and e-leadership. This structure has the benefit of creating a future focus as well as providing an interesting way to examine the development of the field. Each section ends with an identification of issues to be addressed in the future, in addition to the overall integration of the literature we provide at the end of the article. PMID:18651820

  1. Future Directions of Delirium Research and Management

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Christopher G.; Brummel, Nathan E.; Vasilevskis, Eduard E.; Girard, Timothy D.; Pandharipande, Pratik P.

    2013-01-01

    Delirium is a prevalent organ dysfunction in critically ill patients associated with significant morbidity and mortality, requiring advancements in the clinical and research realms to improve patient outcomes. Increased clinical recognition and utilization of delirium assessment tools, along with clarification of specific risk factors and presentations in varying patient populations, will be necessary in the future. To improve predictive models for outcomes, the continued development and implementation of delirium assessment tools and severity scoring systems will be required. The interplay between the pathophysiological pathways implicated in delirium and resulting clinical presentations and outcomes will need to guide the development of appropriate prevention and treatment protocols. Multicenter randomized controlled trials of interventional therapies will then need to be performed to test their ability to improve clinical outcomes. Physical and cognitive rehabilitation measures need to be further examined as additional means of improving outcomes from delirium in the hospital setting. PMID:23040289

  2. Nanofluid technology : current status and future research.

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, S. U.-S.

    1998-10-20

    Downscaling or miniaturization has been a recent major trend in modern science and technology. Engineers now fabricate microscale devices such as microchannel heat exchangers, and micropumps that are the size of dust specks. Further major advances would be obtained if the coolant flowing in the microchannels were to contain nanoscale particles to enhance heat transfer. Nanofluid technology will thus be an emerging and exciting technology of the 21st century. This paper gives a brief history of the Advanced Fluids Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), discusses the concept of nanofluids, and provides an overview of the R and D program at ANL on the production, property characterization, and performance of nanofluids. It also describes examples of potential applications and benefits of nanofluids. Finally, future research on the fundamentals and applications of nanofluids is addressed.

  3. The relationship between psychosocial features of emerging adulthood and substance use change motivation in youth.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Ilana; Henderson, Joanna; Peterson-Badali, Michele; Goldstein, Abby L

    2015-05-01

    Despite the peak prevalence of substance use and comorbid mental health problems during emerging adulthood little research has focused on understanding behavior change processes during this transitional period. This study extended Arnett's (2004) theory of the psychosocial features of emerging adulthood to explore how they may relate to treatment motivation (e.g., readiness to comply with treatment) and motivation to change (e.g., problem recognition and taking steps towards change). One hundred sixty-four youth presenting to outpatient substance abuse treatment completed questionnaires investigating problematic substance use, mental health, psychosocial features of emerging adulthood and motivation. Results of hierarchical regression analyses indicated that youth who perceived themselves as having greater responsibility towards others were more intrinsically motivated, recognized their substance use as problematic and were taking steps towards change. None of the other dimensions of emerging adulthood accounted for significant variance beyond relevant controls. Limitations, directions for future research and treatment implications are discussed. PMID:25616749

  4. Photometric support for future astonomical research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, D. S.; Genet, R. M.

    1985-01-01

    The I.A.P.P.P. is described and how that organization can provide photometric support for future astronomical research projects such as the 1982-1984 eclipse of epsilon Aurigae discussed at this workshop. I.A.P.P.P., International Amateur-Professional Photoelectric Photometry, is an organization founded in Fairborn, Ohio by the authors in 1980. Its purpose is to encourage contact between amateur and professional astronomers interested in photoelectric photometry, for their mutual benefit and for the benefit of astronomical research. Aspects dealt with include instrumentation, electronics, computer hardware and software, observing techniques, data reduction, and observing programs. Starting with the June 1980 issue, I.A.P.P.P. has published the quarterly I.A.P.P.P. Communications. The Communications contain articles dealing with all the above aspects of photoelectric photometry, although it does not publish observational results as such. Photoelectric photometry obtained by amateurs is published in the same journals which publish photometry obtained by professionals.

  5. Cultural psychiatry: research strategies and future directions.

    PubMed

    Kirmayer, Laurence J; Ban, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    This chapter reviews some key aspects of current research in cultural psychiatry and explores future prospects. The first section discusses the multiple meanings of culture in the contemporary world and their relevance for understanding mental health and illness. The next section considers methodological strategies for unpacking the concept of culture and studying the impact of cultural variables, processes and contexts. Multiple methods are needed to address the many different components or dimensions of cultural identity and experience that constitute local worlds, ways of life or systems of knowledge. Quantitative and observational methods of clinical epidemiology and experimental science as well as qualitative ethnographic methods are needed to capture crucial aspects of culture as systems of meaning and practice. Emerging issues in cultural psychiatric research include: cultural variations in illness experience and expression; the situated nature of cognition and emotion; cultural configurations of self and personhood; concepts of mental disorder and mental health literacy; and the prospect of ecosocial models of health and culturally based interventions. The conclusion considers the implications of the emerging perspectives from cultural neuroscience for psychiatric theory and practice. PMID:23816867

  6. Sepsis: a roadmap for future research.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jonathan; Vincent, Jean-Louis; Adhikari, Neill K J; Machado, Flavia R; Angus, Derek C; Calandra, Thierry; Jaton, Katia; Giulieri, Stefano; Delaloye, Julie; Opal, Steven; Tracey, Kevin; van der Poll, Tom; Pelfrene, Eric

    2015-05-01

    Sepsis is a common and lethal syndrome: although outcomes have improved, mortality remains high. No specific anti-sepsis treatments exist; as such, management of patients relies mainly on early recognition allowing correct therapeutic measures to be started rapidly, including administration of appropriate antibiotics, source control measures when necessary, and resuscitation with intravenous fluids and vasoactive drugs when needed. Although substantial developments have been made in the understanding of the basic pathogenesis of sepsis and the complex interplay of host, pathogen, and environment that affect the incidence and course of the disease, sepsis has stubbornly resisted all efforts to successfully develop and then deploy new and improved treatments. Existing models of clinical research seem increasingly unlikely to produce new therapies that will result in a step change in clinical outcomes. In this Commission, we set out our understanding of the clinical epidemiology and management of sepsis and then ask how the present approaches might be challenged to develop a new roadmap for future research. PMID:25932591

  7. Research is the Future, the Future is…….

    PubMed

    Gilchrist, Francis J

    2016-01-01

    Over the past two decades, Professor Lenney has established the Paediatric Respiratory Department at the Royal Stoke University Hospital as a centre recognised for high quality research. A broad portfolio of clinical and laboratory based research is in progress. Four research areas are discussed that are likely to contribute to the continued academic output from the unit. These are the use of selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry for the detection of biomarkers associated with pulmonary pathogens, the measurement of lung clearance index in preschool children, structured light plethysmography in children and the use of oral prednisolone for asthma exacerbations in children. PMID:26527356

  8. Neurosciences research in space Future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulzman, Frank M.; Wolfe, James W.

    Future research in the neurosciences can best be understood in the context of NASA's life sciences goals in the near term (1990-1995), mid term (1995-2000), and long term (2000 and beyond). Since NASA is planning short-duration Spacelab and International Microgravity Laboratory (IML) flights for many years to come, the acute effects of exposure to microgravity will continue to be of experimental and operational interest in the near term. To this end, major new areas of research will be devoted to ground-based studies of preflight adaptation trainers and their efficacy in preventing or reducing the incidence of space motion sickness. In addition, an extensive series of studies of the vestibular system will be conducted inflight on the IML-1 mission The IML-2 mission will emphasize behavior and performance, biological rhythms, and further vestibular studies. In the mid-term period, Spacelab missions will employ new technology such as magnetic recording techniques in order to evaluate changes in the processing of sensory and motor inputs at the brainstem and cortical level during exposure to microgravity. Two Space Life Sciences (SLS) missions planned for the mid to late 1990's, SLS-4 and SLS-5, will utilize an onboard centrifuge facility that will enable investigators to study the effects of partial gravity on sensory and motor function. In the long term (2000 and beyond), Space Station Freedom and long-duration missions will provide opportunities to explore new options in the neurosciences, such as sensory substitution and augmentation, through the use of physical sensors to provide three-dimensional tactile-visual, tactile-auditory and tactile-somatosensory inputs. The use of this technology will be extremely important in the area of robotic telepresence. Finally, Space Station Freedom and proposed LifeSat missions will provide neuroscientists the opportunity to study the effects of partial gravity and microgravity on neuronal plasticity.

  9. Current and Future Research at DANCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jandel, M.; Baramsai, B.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Hayes, A.; Kawano, T.; Mosby, S.; Rusev, G.; Stetcu, I.; Taddeucci, T. N.; Talou, P.; Ullmann, J. L.; Walker, C. L.; Wilhelmy, J. B.

    2015-05-01

    An overview of the current experimental program on measurements of neutron capture and neutron induced fission at the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) is presented. Three major projects are currently under way: 1) high precision measurements of neutron capture cross sections on Uranium isotopes, 2) research aimed at studies of the short-lived actinide isomer production in neutron capture on 235U and 3) measurements of correlated data of fission observables. New projects include developments of auxiliary detectors to improve the capability of DANCE. We are building a compact, segmented NEUtron detector Array at DANCE (NEUANCE), which will be installed in the central cavity of the DANCE array. It will provide experimental information on prompt fission neutrons in coincidence with the prompt fission gamma-rays measured by 160 BaF2 crystals of DANCE. Unique correlated data will be obtained for neutron capture and neutron-induced fission using the DANCE-NEUANCE experimental set up in the future.

  10. Current and Future Research at DANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Jandel, M.; Baramsai, B.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Hayes, A.; Kawano, T.; Mosby, S.; Rusev, G.; Stetcu, I.; Taddeucci, T. N.; Talou, P.; Ullmann, J. L.; Walker, C. L.; Wilhelmy, J. B.

    2015-05-28

    An overview of the current experimental program on measurements of neutron capture and neutron induced fission at the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) is presented. Three major projects are currently under way: 1) high precision measurements of neutron capture cross sections on Uranium isotopes, 2) research aimed at studies of the short-lived actinide isomer production in neutron capture on 235U and 3) measurements of correlated data of fission observables. New projects include developments of auxiliary detectors to improve the capability of DANCE. We are building a compact, segmented NEUtron detector Array at DANCE (NEUANCE), which will be installed in the central cavity of the DANCE array. It will thus provide experimental information on prompt fission neutrons in coincidence with the prompt fission gamma-rays measured by 160 BaF2 crystals of DANCE. Additionally, unique correlated data will be obtained for neutron capture and neutron-induced fission using the DANCE-NEUANCE experimental set up in the future.

  11. Current and Future Research at DANCE

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jandel, M.; Baramsai, B.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Hayes, A.; Kawano, T.; Mosby, S.; Rusev, G.; Stetcu, I.; Taddeucci, T. N.; et al

    2015-05-28

    An overview of the current experimental program on measurements of neutron capture and neutron induced fission at the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) is presented. Three major projects are currently under way: 1) high precision measurements of neutron capture cross sections on Uranium isotopes, 2) research aimed at studies of the short-lived actinide isomer production in neutron capture on 235U and 3) measurements of correlated data of fission observables. New projects include developments of auxiliary detectors to improve the capability of DANCE. We are building a compact, segmented NEUtron detector Array at DANCE (NEUANCE), which will be installedmore » in the central cavity of the DANCE array. It will thus provide experimental information on prompt fission neutrons in coincidence with the prompt fission gamma-rays measured by 160 BaF2 crystals of DANCE. Additionally, unique correlated data will be obtained for neutron capture and neutron-induced fission using the DANCE-NEUANCE experimental set up in the future.« less

  12. Research in a Scenario of Change: Why Research Institutions Should Begin To Plan for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krebs, Martha A.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses emerging ideas about the future of federal research and development activities as they relate to the future of industry and especially to institutions of higher learning. Discusses energy research today, a future perspective, the future of the research community, and challenges. Highlights the future orientation of the Office of Energy…

  13. Participating in Alzheimer's Research: For Yourself and Future Generations

    MedlinePlus

    ... ADEAR Participating in Alzheimer's Research: For Yourself and Future Generations Introduction Participating in a clinical trial or ... prevent Alzheimer's and other diseases, and could help future generations lead healthier lives. "When I was diagnosed ...

  14. Transitioning to Adulthood: How Do Young Adults Fare and What Characteristics Are Associated with a Lower-Risk Transition? Research Brief. Publication #2014-18

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terzian, Mary A.; Moore, Kristin A.; Constance, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Youth must navigate various developmental tasks as they transition to adulthood, and during this period of "emerging adulthood," young people explore roles and relationships before committing to the ones they will fill as adults. This brief seeks to identify patterns and transitions during emerging adulthood to obtain a better…

  15. US computer research networks: Current and future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kratochvil, D.; Sood, D.; Verostko, A.

    1989-01-01

    During the last decade, NASA LeRC's Communication Program has conducted a series of telecommunications forecasting studies to project trends and requirements and to identify critical telecommunications technologies that must be developed to meet future requirements. The Government Networks Division of Contel Federal Systems has assisted NASA in these studies, and the current study builds upon these earlier efforts. The current major thrust of the NASA Communications Program is aimed at developing the high risk, advanced, communications satellite and terminal technologies required to significantly increase the capacity of future communications systems. Also, major new technological, economic, and social-political events and trends are now shaping the communications industry of the future. Therefore, a re-examination of future telecommunications needs and requirements is necessary to enable NASA to make management decisions in its Communications Program and to ensure the proper technologies and systems are addressed. This study, through a series of Task Orders, is helping NASA define the likely communication service needs and requirements of the future and thereby ensuring that the most appropriate technology developments are pursued.

  16. The Future of Educational Research in the Professions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bland, Carole J.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This issue of the "Professions Education Research Notes" is devoted to the theme of "The Future of Educational Research in the Professions." Four articles have been extracted from the issue to form this document: "The Future of Educational Research in the Professions," by Carole J. Bland, introduces the other articles and describes, as context for…

  17. Does Arts-Based Research Have a Future?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisner, Elliot

    2006-01-01

    This article focuses on the future of arts-based research in education. The author contends that there are several features that need to be taken into account if arts-based educational research is to have a future. First, arts-based educational research needs to have a cadre of scholars committed to its exploration--individuals who regard…

  18. The effects of violence exposure on the development of impulse control and future orientation across adolescence and early adulthood: Time-specific and generalized effects in a sample of juvenile offenders.

    PubMed

    Monahan, Kathryn C; King, Kevin M; Shulman, Elizabeth P; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Chassin, Laurie

    2015-11-01

    Impulse control and future orientation increase across adolescence, but little is known about how contextual factors shape the development of these capacities. The present study investigates how stress exposure, operationalized as exposure to violence, alters the developmental pattern of impulse control and future orientation across adolescence and early adulthood. In a sample of 1,354 serious juvenile offenders, higher exposure to violence was associated with lower levels of future orientation at age 15 and suppressed development of future orientation from ages 15 to 25. Increases in witnessing violence or victimization were linked to declines in impulse control 1 year later, but only during adolescence. Thus, beyond previous experiences of exposure to violence, witnessing violence and victimization during adolescence conveys unique risk for suppressed development of self-regulation. PMID:26439073

  19. Component research for future propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, C. L.; Weden, G. J.; Zuk, J.

    1981-01-01

    The factors affecting the helicopter market for the past, present, and future are reviewed. Acquisition cost, mission reliability, life cycle cost and civil and military aspects are reviewed. The potential for advanced vehicle configurations with substantial improvements in energy efficiency, operating economics, and characteristics to satisfy the demands of the future market are identified. Advanced propulsion systems required to support these vehicle configurations and the component technology for the engine systems are discussed. The selection of components in areas of economics and efficiency is considered.

  20. Research Challenges in Future Health Care Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulatunga, Harini

    Future health care systems will involve a network of heterogeneous resources providing different levels of service and will comprise of a physical and a virtual decision and control layer. The initial results presented here will lead to health care delivery with on-line decision making in order to meet QoS requirements and management targets.

  1. Artificial Intelligence Research Branch future plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Helen (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This report contains information on the activities of the Artificial Intelligence Research Branch (FIA) at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) in 1992, as well as planned work in 1993. These activities span a range from basic scientific research through engineering development to fielded NASA applications, particularly those applications that are enabled by basic research carried out in FIA. Work is conducted in-house and through collaborative partners in academia and industry. All of our work has research themes with a dual commitment to technical excellence and applicability to NASA short, medium, and long-term problems. FIA acts as the Agency's lead organization for research aspects of artificial intelligence, working closely with a second research laboratory at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and AI applications groups throughout all NASA centers. This report is organized along three major research themes: (1) Planning and Scheduling: deciding on a sequence of actions to achieve a set of complex goals and determining when to execute those actions and how to allocate resources to carry them out; (2) Machine Learning: techniques for forming theories about natural and man-made phenomena; and for improving the problem-solving performance of computational systems over time; and (3) Research on the acquisition, representation, and utilization of knowledge in support of diagnosis design of engineered systems and analysis of actual systems.

  2. Aircraft Research and Technology for Future Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The potential characteristics of future aviation turbine fuels and the property effects of these fuels on propulsion system components are examined. The topics that are discussed include jet fuel supply and demand trends, the effects of refining variables on fuel properties, shekle oil processing, the characteristics of broadened property fuels, the effects of fuel property variations on combustor and fuel system performance, and combuster and fuel system technology for broadened property fuels.

  3. Component research for future propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, C. L.; Weden, G. J.; Zuk, J.

    1981-01-01

    A review of factors related to the acquisition and life-cycle cost, and mission reliability of helicopters is given. The potential for advanced vehicle configurations with improvements in energy efficiency, operating economics, and characteristics to satisfy the demands of the future market are identified. Special attention is given to advanced propulsion systems and related component technologies, and system requirements, powerplants and component thrusts, compressor designs, combustion systems, turbine efficiency, blade tip treatment concepts and shaft dynamics are discussed in detail.

  4. Research Universities and the Future of America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duderstadt, James J.

    2012-01-01

    The crucial importance of the research university as a key asset in achieving economic prosperity and security is widely understood, as evidenced by the efforts that nations around the globe are making to create and sustain institutions of world-class quality. Yet, while America's research universities remain the strongest in the world, they are…

  5. A Bright Future for Interdisciplinary Multilingualism Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comanaru, Ruxandra-S.; Dewaele, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Multilingualism is a prevalent reality in today's world. From an individual level to a societal one, multilingualism incorporates many aspects that have been studied extensively by diverse social research disciplines. The present article will explore the potential directions which multilingualism research can take, concentrating mainly on the…

  6. The Learning of Biology: A Structural Basis for Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Darrel L.

    1977-01-01

    This article reviews recent research studies and experiences relating the learning theories of Ausubel to biology instruction. Also some suggestions are made for future research on the learning of biology. (MR)

  7. Future of Venus Research and Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaze, L.; Limaye, S.; Nakamura, M.; Wilson, C.; Zasova, L.

    2014-04-01

    A great deal is known about Venus from the Venera, Pioneer-Venus, Magellan, and Venus Express missions. However, many significant questions remain regarding the origin, evolution and current geologic and atmospheric processes. Much can be learned from theoretical modeling of the planetary interior and atmospheric circulation, as well as from laboratory spectroscopic studies. However, to answer many of the outstanding questions, new space flight missions are needed. Multiple international space agencies are considering Venus as a possible destination for future exploration. Collaborative international participation provides a viable path to further understanding of Earth's sister planet and her role in the formation of our solar system.

  8. Component research for future propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, C. L.; Weden, G. J.; Zuk, J.

    1981-01-01

    Factors affecting the helicopter market are reviewed. The trade-offs involving acquisition cost, mission reliability, and life cycle cost are reviewed, including civil and military aspects. The potential for advanced vehicle configurations with substantial improvements in energy efficiency, operating economics, and characteristics to satisfy the demands of the future market are identified. Advanced propulsion systems required to support these vehicle configurations are discussed, as well as the component technology for the engine systems. Considerations for selection of components in areas of economics and efficiency are presented.

  9. The Future of Higher Education and the Future of Higher Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teichler, Ulrich

    2003-01-01

    Higher education research is closely linked to the debates on higher education policy and practice. It provides the information basis for decisions about the future of higher education. As the themes of the public debate on problems and reform needs in higher education change quickly, higher education research has to anticipate future problems and…

  10. Guiding future research on terrestrial ecosystem disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-04-01

    With North American ecosystems responsible for drawing hundreds of teragrams of carbon from the atmosphere each year, the tenuous balance of the terrestrial carbon budget can be upset for decades by disturbances such as fires, storms, disease outbreaks, insect infestations, and logging. Research cataloging the effects of such disturbances on regional carbon cycling tends to be sporadic or of limited scope. Most research has focused on forests but is less extensive for other important ecosystems such as grasslands or permafrost peatlands.

  11. Applying futures' research to nutrition education.

    PubMed

    Gayle, M E

    1987-09-01

    You, as individuals and as professionals, cannot be expected to solve all the problems of this decade and those projected for the future that I have discussed with you today, but you must accept the challenge to help bring individuals and society to a more holistic approach to a quality of life for all its members. The messages have gone out to children, youth, and adults that a young, thin, and beautiful image is all that is appropriate. Within the context of these messages individuals are confused and overwhelmed by their own inabilities to "be all that they can be." There are mixed messages in the media concerning drugs that are bad and drugs that are good, food that is bad and food that is good, and the connections to the environment. Your role and mine in this future will be to enter into partnerships with all policy-making and administrative agencies and with private sector groups, to work together and to share our many resources, experiences, and creative minds in moving healthy minds and bodies into the 21st century. Choices, Challenges, and Change--a time for new heroes. Who is yours? Mine is Pogo, who said, "I am faced with insurmountable opportunities." PMID:3624729

  12. Type 1 Diabetes in Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Monaghan, Maureen; Helgeson, Vicki; Wiebe, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes has traditionally been studied as a chronic illness of childhood. However, young adulthood is a critical time for the development and integration of lifelong diabetes management skills, and research is starting to identify unique challenges faced by youth with diabetes as they age into adulthood. Most young adults experience multiple transitions during this unstable developmental period, including changes in lifestyle (e.g., education, occupation, living situation), changes in health care, and shifting relationships with family members, friends, and intimate others. Young adults with type 1 diabetes must navigate these transitions while also assuming increasing responsibility for their diabetes care and overall health. Despite these critical health and psychosocial concerns, there is a notable lack of evidence-based clinical services and supports for young adults with type 1 diabetes. We review relevant evolving concerns for young adults with type 1 diabetes, including lifestyle considerations, health care transitions, psychosocial needs, and changes in supportive networks, and how type 1 diabetes impacts and is impacted by these key developmental considerations. Specific avenues for intervention and future research are offered. PMID:25901502

  13. Future human bone research in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeBlanc, A.; Shackelford, L.; Schneider, V.

    1998-01-01

    Skylab crewmembers demonstrated negative calcium (Ca) balance reaching about -300 mg/day by flight day 84. Limited bone density (BMD) measurements documented that bone was not lost equally from all parts of the skeleton. Subsequent BMD studies during long duration Russian flights documented the regional extent of bone loss. These studies demonstrated mean losses in the spine, femur neck, trochanter, and pelvis of about 1%-1.6% with large differences between individuals as well as between bone sites in a given individual. Limited available data indicate postflight bone recovery occurred in some individuals, but may require several years for complete restoration. Long duration bedrest studies showed a similar pattern of bone loss and calcium balance (-180 mg/day) as spaceflight. During long duration bedrest, resorption markers were elevated, formation markers were unchanged, 1,25 vitamin D (VitD) and calcium absorption were decreased, and serum ionized Ca was increased. Although this information is a good beginning, additional spaceflight research is needed to assess architectural and subregional bone changes, elucidate mechanisms, and develop efficient as well as effective countermeasures. Space research poses a number of unique problems not encountered in ground-based laboratory research. Therefore, researchers contemplating human spaceflight research need to consider a number of unique problems related to spaceflight in their experimental design.

  14. Roadmapping Future E-Government Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bicking, Melanie

    Global electronic markets, virtual organisations, virtual identities, virtual products and services, and Internet-related crime are growing in prominence and importance. In a world that is increasingly non-physical and borderless, what are government's roles, responsibilities and limitations? The Internet plays a central role within the transformation process from traditional governments towards modern and innovative government that the requirements of an Information Society. Based on the findings of the eGovRTD2020 project, that aims at identifying key research challenges and at implementing a model for a holistic government with horizon 2020, this paper explains the necessity to investigate and understand the Internet and in particular government's role and responsibilities in it. Furthermore, the paper provides a research roadmap that details how to address certain issue related research questions.

  15. Future directions in human-environment research.

    PubMed

    Moran, Emilio F; Lopez, Maria Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Human-environment research in the 21st century will need to change in major ways. It will need to integrate the natural and the social sciences; it will need to engage stakeholders and citizens in the design of research and in the delivery of science for the benefit of society; it will need to address ethical and democratic goals; and it will need to address a myriad of important theoretical and methodological challenges that continue to impede progress in the advance of sustainability science. PMID:26422805

  16. Research and Development of Future Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Yonehara, K.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-01

    Muon collider is a considerable candidate of the next generation high-energy lepton collider machine. A novel accelerator technology must be developed to overcome several intrinsic issues of muon acceleration. Recent research and development of critical beam elements for a muon accelerator, especially muon beam phase space ionization cooling channel, are reviewed in this paper.

  17. The Future of Research in Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke, Charles

    2006-03-01

    Since 1990 the environment for and execution of industrial research has changed profoundly. See, e.g., R. Buderi, Engines of Tomorrow (Simon and Shuster, New York, 2000); H. W. Chesbrough, Open Innovation (Harvard Business School Press, Boston, 2003); C. B. Duke, Creating Economic Value from Research Knowledge (The Industrial Physicist, Aug-Sept. 2004, pp. 29-31). According to Thomas L. Friedman (``The World is Flat,'' Farrar, Straus and Giroux, New York, 2005) a new global communications-collaboration platform has ``flattened'' the world. National alarms have been raised about the US capability to compete in this changed environment. See, e.g., ``America's Tech Might Slipping?,'' Business Week, March 14, 2004; ``Globalization and Engineering,'' The Bridge, National Academy of Engineering, Fall 2005; ``Rising Above the Gathering Storm,'' National Academy of Sciences, 2005. In this presentation I indicate why firms perform research and how they generate economic value from it. Then I discuss the profound changes in the environment for these activities since 1990. This leads to a consideration of how firms are modifying their Research and Development activities to deal with this situation. I close by noting implications of these developments on the role of physics and the careers of physical scientists in the 21st century.

  18. Biology Education Research: Lessons and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Susan R.; Nielsen, Natalie R.; Schweingruber, Heidi A.

    2013-01-01

    Biologists have long been concerned about the quality of undergraduate biology education. Over time, however, biology faculty members have begun to study increasingly sophisticated questions about teaching and learning in the discipline. These scholars, often called biology education researchers, are part of a growing field of inquiry called…

  19. Future Directions in ADHD Etiology Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigg, Joel T.

    2012-01-01

    Reviews salient emerging themes in the scientific literature related to identifying etiology and pathophysiology of ADHD. While bypassing the need for new treatment research, the review highlights three themes. First, recognition of the epigenetic effects is expected to revitalize the search for and mapping of early environmental influences on the…

  20. Soy Saponins: Current Research and Future Goals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Saponins are a biologically active class of triterpenoid phytochemicals found in soybeans at concentrations similar to those of the isoflavones, and the role they may play in nutrition and health is not well understood. Research the functionality of these compounds in animals and humans has been ha...

  1. Future Directions in ADHD Etiology Research

    PubMed Central

    Nigg, Joel T.

    2015-01-01

    Reviews salient emerging themes in the scientific literature related to identifying etiology and pathophysiology of ADHD. While bypassing the need for new treatment research, the review highlights three themes. First, recognition of the epigenetic effects is expected to revitalize the search for and mapping of early environmental influences on the development of ADHD. Second, neurobiological findings will have limited impact if not examined in the context of significant race and cultural variation in ADHD-related developmental processes, and in the context of rapidly changing social and technological contexts of children’s development worldwide. Third, further examination of the phenotype and characterization of its dimensional and categorical structure remains a major need. Overall, the coming decades of etiology research on ADHD will be expected to capitalize on new scientific tools. The hope in the field is that new insights into fundamental prevention can emerge. PMID:22642834

  2. Creating the Future: Research and Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    With the many different technical talents, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) continues to be an important force behind many scientific breakthroughs. The MSFC's annual report reviews the technology developments, research in space and microgravity sciences, studies in space system concepts, and technology transfer. The technology development programs include development in: (1) space propulsion and fluid management, (2) structures and dynamics, (3) materials and processes and (4) avionics and optics.

  3. Future directions in aeronautical research and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bower, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    The aeronautical R & D effort in NASA is discussed with emphasis on those areas where major needs and opportunities exist. In aerodynamics, areas selected for discussion include computational aerodynamics, transonic test techniques, high Reynolds number research, skin friction drag reduction, and propulsive lift. In propulsion, consideration is given to the areas of fuel-efficient subsonic propulsion, variable-flow engines, hypersonic propulsion, alternate fuels, and aircraft noise reduction. Consideration is also given to the utilization of advanced composites and integrated avionic systems.

  4. Prediction of Research Self-Efficacy and Future Research Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Rosean M.; And Others

    Although graduate programs hope that their students will be committed to research in their careers, most students express ambivalence towards research. Identifying the variables that predict involvement in research thus seems crucial. In this study 136 doctoral students from a wide range of disciplines completed the Research Self-Efficacy Scale…

  5. Phototriggerable Liposomes: Current Research and Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Anu

    2013-01-01

    The field of cancer nanomedicine is considered a promising area for improved delivery of bioactive molecules including drugs, pharmaceutical agents and nucleic acids. Among these, drug delivery technology has made discernible progress in recent years and the areas that warrant further focus and consideration towards technological developments have also been recognized. Development of viable methods for on-demand spatial and temporal release of entrapped drugs from the nanocarriers is an arena that is likely to enhance the clinical suitability of drug-loaded nanocarriers. One such approach, which utilizes light as the external stimulus to disrupt and/or destabilize drug-loaded nanoparticles, will be the discussion platform of this article. Although several phototriggerable nanocarriers are currently under development, I will limit this review to the phototriggerable liposomes that have demonstrated promise in the cell culture systems at least (but not the last). The topics covered in this review include (i) a brief summary of various phototriggerable nanocarriers; (ii) an overview of the application of liposomes to deliver payload of photosensitizers and associated technologies; (iii) the design considerations of photoactivable lipid molecules and the chemical considerations and mechanisms of phototriggering of liposomal lipids; (iv) limitations and future directions for in vivo, clinically viable triggered drug delivery approaches and potential novel photoactivation strategies will be discussed. PMID:24662363

  6. The Influence of Culture in Emerging Adulthood: Perspectives of Chinese College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Larry J.; Badger, Sarah; Wu, Bo

    2004-01-01

    Emerging adulthood refers to a time period (18-25 years of age) between adolescence and adulthood. Recent research suggests that it may be a cultural construction. More traditional, non-Western cultures may have a shortened period of emerging adulthood, or no emerging adulthood at all, because these cultures tend to place greater emphasis on…

  7. The Epilepsy Spectrum: Targeting Future Research Challenges.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Gregory L; Noebels, Jeffrey L

    2016-01-01

    There have been tremendous recent advances in our understanding of the biological underpinnings of epilepsy and associated comorbidities that justify its representation as a spectrum disorder. Advances in genetics, electrophysiology, and neuroimaging have greatly improved our ability to differentiate, diagnose, and treat individuals with epilepsy. However, we have made little overall progress in preventing epilepsy, and the number of patients who are cured remains small. Likewise, the comorbidities of epilepsy are often underdiagnosed or not adequately treated. In this article, we suggest a few areas in which additional research will likely pay big dividends for patients and their families. PMID:27371672

  8. Neurosciences research in space - Future directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sulzman, Frank M.; Wolfe, James W.

    1991-01-01

    In order to gain a better understanding of the effects of long-duration space missions on the central nervous system, near-term research, to take place from 1990-1995, will be directed at investigating the acute effects of microgravity and the 'space adaptation syndrome'. These include experiments scheduled for the Spacelab Life Sciences 1 which is designed to evaluate changes in the visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive systems. An extensive series of experiments, collectively termed Microgravity Vestibular Investigations (MVI), is also planned for the IML-1 mission to be flown in 1992. The IML-2 mission will emphasize behavior and performance, biological rhythms, and further vestibular studies. Mid-term goals, projected to be achieved from 1995-2000, include the use of new technology such as magnetic recording techniques. Long-term goals are also discussed including studies dealing with neuronal plasticity and sensory substitution, augmentation, and robotic telepresence.

  9. Alcohol research: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Gunzerath, Lorraine; Hewitt, Brenda G; Li, Ting-Kai; Warren, Kenneth R

    2011-01-01

    Created forty years ago, the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) has played a major role in the great strides made in the understanding, treatment, prevention, and public acceptance of alcohol-use disorders. Throughout most of U.S. history "habitual drunkenness" was viewed as a problem of moral degeneracy or character flaw inherent in the individual. However, the wealth of scientific evidence amassed throughout NIAAA's history has established alcoholism as a medical condition, that is, as a disease for which affected individuals should feel no shame or be treated with disdain. We look at the developments in alcohol epidemiology, typology, etiology, prevention, and treatment research over the past 40 years. We also discuss how NIAAA addresses alcohol disorders from a life-course framework, affecting all stages of the lifespan, from fetus through child, adolescent, and young adult, to midlife/senior adult, with each stage involving different risks, consequences, prevention efforts, and treatment strategies. PMID:21182533

  10. Diet and cancer: future etiologic research.

    PubMed Central

    Schatzkin, A; Dorgan, J; Swanson, C; Potischman, N

    1995-01-01

    In light of several credible diet and cancer hypotheses, we suggest strategies for advancing our understanding in this area. Two conceptual approaches can be taken in defining dietary exposure: the decompositional approach focuses on specific nutrients and other chemical constituents of food, whereas the integrative approach emphasizes the action of whole foods or food patterns (cuisines). Diet-cancer hypotheses can be organized according to this conceptual framework. We review four types of scientific investigation available to us for advancing the diet and cancer field: metabolic (clinical nutrition) studies; animal studies; observational epidemiologic investigations; and clinical trials. Each of these designs has its strengths and limitations. Observational epidemiologic studies and trials have the particular advantage of examining explicit cancer end points in humans. Results from metabolic and animal research, however, can complement the findings from epidemiologic studies and trials. Finally, we briefly review strategies for evaluating promising hypotheses linking diet to cancers of the large bowel, lung, breast, and prostate. PMID:8741779

  11. Wildland fire ash: future research directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodí, Merche B.; Martins, Deborah A.; Cerdà, Artemi; Balfour, Victoria N.; Santin, Cristina; Doerr, Stefan H.; Pereira, Paulo; Mataix-Solera, Jorge

    2014-05-01

    Ash is a key component of the forest fires affected land (Cerdà, 1998; Bodí et al., 2011; Pereira et al., 2013a). Ash controls the hydrological processes and determines the water repellency (Dlapa et al., 2012) and the infiltration rates (Cerdà and Doerr, 2008;). Moreover, ash is the key factor on runoff initiation and then on the soil erosion. Little is known about the impact of ash in different ecosystems, but during the last decade a substantial increase in the papers that show the role of ash in the Earth and Soil System were published (Bodí et al., 2012; Pereira et al., 2013b).. Ash is being found as the key component of the post-fire pedological, geomorphological and hydrological response after forest fires (Fernández et al., 2012; Martín et al., 2012; Bodí et al., 2013; Guénon et al., 2013; Pereira et al., 2013c). A recent State-of-the-Art review about wildland fire ash (Bodí et al., 2014) compiles the knowledge regarding the production, composition and eco-hydro-geomorphic effects of wildland fire ash. In the present paper we indicate the knowledge gaps detected and suggest topics that need more research effort concerning: i) data collection and analysis techniques: a) To develop standardized sampling techniques that allow cross comparison among sites and avoid inclusion of the underlying soil unless the burned surface soil forms part of the ash layer, b) To develop standardized methods to define and characterize ash, including its color, physical properties such as particle size distribution or density, proportion of pyrogenic C, chemical and biological reactivity and persistence in the environment, c) To validate, calibrate and test measurements collected through remote sensing with on-the-ground measurements. ii) ash production, deposition redistribution and fate: d) To untangle the significance of the effects of maximum temperature reached during combustion versus the duration of heating, e) To understand the production of ash by measuring its

  12. Wildland fire ash: future research directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodí, Merche B.; Martins, Deborah A.; Cerdà, Artemi; Balfour, Victoria N.; Santin, Cristina; Doerr, Stefan H.; Pereira, Paulo; Mataix-Solera, Jorge

    2014-05-01

    Ash is a key component of the forest fires affected land (Cerdà, 1998; Bodí et al., 2011; Pereira et al., 2013a). Ash controls the hydrological processes and determines the water repellency (Dlapa et al., 2012) and the infiltration rates (Cerdà and Doerr, 2008;). Moreover, ash is the key factor on runoff initiation and then on the soil erosion. Little is known about the impact of ash in different ecosystems, but during the last decade a substantial increase in the papers that show the role of ash in the Earth and Soil System were published (Bodí et al., 2012; Pereira et al., 2013b).. Ash is being found as the key component of the post-fire pedological, geomorphological and hydrological response after forest fires (Fernández et al., 2012; Martín et al., 2012; Bodí et al., 2013; Guénon et al., 2013; Pereira et al., 2013c). A recent State-of-the-Art review about wildland fire ash (Bodí et al., 2014) compiles the knowledge regarding the production, composition and eco-hydro-geomorphic effects of wildland fire ash. In the present paper we indicate the knowledge gaps detected and suggest topics that need more research effort concerning: i) data collection and analysis techniques: a) To develop standardized sampling techniques that allow cross comparison among sites and avoid inclusion of the underlying soil unless the burned surface soil forms part of the ash layer, b) To develop standardized methods to define and characterize ash, including its color, physical properties such as particle size distribution or density, proportion of pyrogenic C, chemical and biological reactivity and persistence in the environment, c) To validate, calibrate and test measurements collected through remote sensing with on-the-ground measurements. ii) ash production, deposition redistribution and fate: d) To untangle the significance of the effects of maximum temperature reached during combustion versus the duration of heating, e) To understand the production of ash by measuring its

  13. Medical Perspectives on Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katchadourian, Herant A.

    1976-01-01

    Written for the layman, this article describes the concept of adulthood in human biology as observed from the perspective of the naturally unfolding human life cycle. Specific male and female physical characteristics are examined and psychiatric viewpoints on adulthood are presented. (DDB)

  14. Acamprosate: recent findings and future research directions.

    PubMed

    Mann, Karl; Kiefer, Falk; Spanagel, Rainer; Littleton, John

    2008-07-01

    This article explores the mechanisms of action and the potential responder profile of acamprosate, a compound efficacious in relapse prevention of alcoholism. New evidence at the molecular and cellular level suggests that acamprosate attenuates hyper-glutamatergic states that occur during early abstinence and involves iono (NMDA)- and metabotrotropic (mGluR5) glutamate receptors along with augmented intracellular calcium release and electrophysiological changes. Thus mutant mice with enhanced glutamate levels exhibit higher alcohol consumption than wild type mice and respond better to acamprosate, demonstrating that acamprosate acts mainly on a hyper-glutamatergic system. This mode of action further suggests that acamprosate exhibits neuroprotective properties. In rats, cue-induced reinstatement behavior is significantly reduced by acamprosate treatment whereas cue-induced craving responses in alcohol-dependent patients seem not to be affected by this treatment. An ongoing study ("Project Predict") defines specific responder profiles for an individualized use of acamprosate and naltrexone. Neurophysiological as well as psychometric data are used to define 2 groups of patients: "reward cravers" and "relief cravers". While naltrexone should work better in the first group, acamprosate is hypothesized to be efficacious in the latter where withdrawal associated and/or cue induced hyper-glutamatergic states are thought to trigger relapse. Further research should target the definition of subgroups applying endophenotypic approaches, e.g. by detecting a hyperglutamatergic syndrome using MR spectroscopy. PMID:18540918

  15. Race and Child Welfare Services: Past Research and Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtney, Mark E.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Reviews child welfare research studies and discusses empirical literature on relationships among race, services, and outcomes in selected child welfare domains. Provides summary of previous research. Presents conceptual and methodological considerations for future research on role of race in child welfare and development of culturally competent…

  16. Special Education Teacher Education Research: Current Status and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sindelar, Paul T.; Brownell, Mary T.; Billingsley, Bonnie

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors propose an agenda for special education teacher education researchers, with particular attention to policy work and studies of innovations in pre-service preparation, induction and mentoring, and professional development. Because previous research is limited and unfocused, the foundation for future research is weak,…

  17. Directions for Future Research in Vocational Special Needs Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojewski, Jay W.; Meers, Gary D.

    A two-phase empirical investigation identified, categorized, and prioritized research needs in vocational special education for the next 10 years. Phase 1 involved 18 university personnel in a three-round Delphi technique that generated 91 future research objectives. Research statements collected from Round 1 questionnaires were used to construct…

  18. Prospects for Technical Communication: Research for Futures Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathes, J. C.

    The need for technical communication to enable the transition from a "postindustrial" future to an alternative future is incalculable; however, research is required to improve current technical communication models and methods. The current rhetoric of technical communication derives from an inadequate command-generated technical communication…

  19. Big Ideas for the Future: UK Research That Will Have a Profound Effect on Our Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Big ideas for the future is a joint report by Universities UK and Research Councils UK, published as part of the second annual Universities Week campaign. This new report explores the excellent research taking place in UK higher education today and what it will mean for us in 20 years' time. It demonstrates the value of public investment in higher…

  20. Future Secretariat: an innovation research coordination and governance structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojima, D. S.; Johan, R.; Cramer, W.; Fukushi, K.; Allard, S.

    2014-12-01

    Future Earth, an emerging global sustainability research program, will be managed by a novel, internationally distributed secretariat spanning the globe and providing a platform for co-design, co-production, and co-delivery of knowledge to support research on the earth system, global development and transformation toward sustainability. The Future Earth secretariat has an innovative structure consisting of five global hubs functioning as a single entity; these hubs are located in Canada, Japan, France, Sweden, and the United States. The secretariat's reach is extended through a set of regional hubs covering Latin America, the Middle East, Africa, Europe, and Asia, with the potential to expand to additional areas. This secretariat will operate under the auspices of the Future Earth Governing Council The Future Earth Secretariat will support and enable the implementation of knowledge-sharing between research and stakeholder communities to enable society to cope with and to alter global environmental trends, and to transition society toward sustainability. The secretariat will provide coordination support to over 25 global environmental core projects and committees; coordinate scientific work across the whole Future Earth agenda; develop and implement innovative mechanisms for bottom-up inputs, synthesis and integration. Future Earth, as a research program, aims to support global transformations toward sustainability through partnerships among scientific and stakeholder communities worldwide. It brings together existing international environmental research core projects associated with DIVERSITAS, the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme, the International Human Dimensions Programme, and the World Climate Research Programme—to support coordinated, interdisciplinary research that can be used by decision makers seeking to reduce their impact and provide more sustainable products and services. USGCRP partners with Future Earth through scientific participation in

  1. The Evolution and Future of Cognitive Research in Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Jack A.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the evolution and current status of cognitive research in music. Identifies the field's five research branches: (1) sensation; (2) perception; (3) concept formation and memory; (4) affect or emotions; and (5) psychomotor activity. Recommends five changes for the future of cognitive musicology. (CFR)

  2. Current status and future research in motion planning

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Y.K.

    1995-07-01

    There have been numerous research efforts in the field of motion planning, resulting in many theoretical and practical results. We review the current status of existing motion planning algorithms, evaluate their completeness and efficiencies on modern computers, and suggest fruitful future research directions.

  3. Research in Inertial Fusion Sciences: Now and in the Future

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, H T; Campbell, E M; Hogan, W J; Orth, C D

    2001-04-10

    We review the current and future state of research in inertial fusion sciences. We describe the National Ignition Facility (NIF), the IFE development plan, applications of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) to various high-energy sciences, uses of petawatt laser systems, and concepts for the ICF integrated research experiment (IRE) and IFE power plants.

  4. Official Language Bilingualism for Allophones in Canada: Exploring Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mady, Callie; Turnbull, Miles

    2012-01-01

    This article offers a review of policy and research as they relate to Allophones and their access to French Second Official Language (FSOL) programs in English-dominant Canada. Possible areas of future research are woven throughout the review as questions emerge in the summary of relevant literature. (Contains 3 notes.)

  5. An Exploration of Future Trends in Environmental Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardoin, Nicole M.; Clark, Charlotte; Kelsey, Elin

    2013-01-01

    This article describes future trends in environmental education (EE) research based on a mixed-methods study where data were collected through a content analysis of peer-reviewed articles published in EE journals between 2005 and 2010; interviews with experts engaged in EE research and sustainability-related fields; surveys with current EE…

  6. Mass Communication Research; Major Issues and Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, W. Phillips, Ed.; Yu, Frederick T. C., Ed.

    The papers in this edited volume on the directions in mass communication research deal with two broad questions: What is the current state of knowledge with respect to the area in question? And what might be the most fruitful directions for future research? The nine articles include: (1) an attempt to structure the field of mass communication; (2)…

  7. Presidential Address: Culture and the Future of Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halse, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Recent changes in higher education have confronted education research with a conundrum: how our traditionally multidisciplinary field can refine itself as a unified discipline. In this address I sketch out what this conundrum may mean for education research, both substantively and methodologically, in the future. I propose that one starting point…

  8. Research Agenda: Priorities for Future Research in Second Language Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoynoff, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    In a recent state-of-the-art (SoA) article (Stoynoff 2009), I reviewed some of the trends in language assessment research and considered them in light of validation activities associated with four widely used international measures of L2 English ability. This Thinking Allowed article presents an opportunity to revisit the four broad areas of L2…

  9. Relational Inquiries and the Research Interview: Mentoring Future Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoskins, Marie L.; White, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    In this article we describe some of the challenges and constraints that students face when they engage in qualitative research interviews. We borrow extensively from Ron Pelias' in-depth description of "leaning in" during everyday life encounters. Although he refers to other kinds of relationships, we believe that the similarities…

  10. Clinical Research Informatics: Recent Advances and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives To summarize significant developments in Clinical Research Informatics (CRI) over the past two years and discuss future directions. Methods Survey of advances, open problems and opportunities in this field based on exploration of current literature. Results Recent advances are structured according to three use cases of clinical research: Protocol feasibility, patient identification/recruitment and clinical trial execution. Discussion CRI is an evolving, dynamic field of research. Global collaboration, open metadata, content standards with semantics and computable eligibility criteria are key success factors for future developments in CRI. PMID:26293865

  11. Cold Fronts Research Programme: Progress, Future Plans, and Research Directions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, B. F.; Wilson, K. J.; Garratt, J. R.; Smith, R. K.

    1985-09-01

    Following the analysis of data collected during Phases land II of the Cold Fronts Research Programme (CFRP) a conceptual model for the Australian summertime "cool change" has been proposed. The model provides a focus and a framework for the design of Phase III.The model is based on data gathered from a mesoscale network centered on Mount Gambier, South Australia, and includes the coastal waters to the west and relatively flat terrain to the east. The first objective of Phase III is to generalize the model so that it is applicable to the ocean waters to the far west of Mount Gambier and to the more rugged terrain farther to the east in the vicinity of Melbourne, Victoria. The remaining objectives concentrate on resolving unsatisfactory aspects of the model such as the evolution of convective lines and the relationship between the surface cold front and the upper-tropospheric cold pool and its associated jet stream.The integrated nature of the Cold Fronts Research Programme has meant that it has stimulated a wide range of research activities that extend beyond the field observations. The associated investigations include climatological, theoretical, and numerical modeling studies.

  12. Conceptualizing Transitions to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyn, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of theories of the transition to young adulthood. It sets out the argument for conceptual renewal and discusses some implications of new patterns of transition for adult education.

  13. The Future of Qualitative Research in Psychology: Accentuating the Positive.

    PubMed

    Gough, Brendan; Lyons, Antonia

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we reflect on current trends and anticipate future prospects regarding qualitative research in Psychology. We highlight various institutional and disciplinary obstacles to qualitative research diversity, complexity and quality. At the same time, we note some causes for optimism, including publication breakthroughs and vitality within the field. The paper is structured into three main sections which consider: 1) the positioning of qualitative research within Psychology; 2) celebrating the different kinds of knowledge produced by qualitative research; and 3) implementing high quality qualitative research. In general we accentuate the positive, recognising and illustrating innovative qualitative research practices which generate new insights and propel the field forward. We conclude by emphasising the importance of research training: for qualitative research to flourish within Psychology (and beyond), students and early career researchers require more sophisticated, in-depth instruction than is currently offered. PMID:26179872

  14. Future buildings Forum-2025: Toward a methodology for future buildings research

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, R.S.

    1990-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore methods that could be used in studying buildings of the future. The methodology that the forum will develop will have a number of likely applications, among them: the development of research agendas for new building energy technologies; the development of information and analytical capabilities usable by other IEA annexes to address their technology assessment needs; and the generation of information that can serve as input to global energy models designed to inform energy policy decisions. This paper is divided into two major sections. The first is an overview of existing methods of futures research. Terms and concepts are explained, providing the basis for the second section. The second section proposes a framework and general methodology for studying future buildings. This preliminary, or strawman, methodology is intended to provoke early thinking and discussions on how the research should be approached. 24 refs., 8 figs.

  15. Structural dynamics technology research in NASA: Perspective on future needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The perspective of a NASA ad hoc study group on future research needs in structural dynamics within the aerospace industry is presented. The common aspects of the design process across the industry are identified and the role of structural dynamics is established through a discussion of various design considerations having their basis in structural dynamics. The specific structural dynamics issues involved are identified and assessed as to their current technological status and trends. Projections of future requirements based on this assessment are made and areas of research to meet them are identified.

  16. Leaders, leadership and future primary care clinical research

    PubMed Central

    Furler, John; Cleland, Jennifer; Del Mar, Chris; Hanratty, Barbara; Kadam, Umesh; Lasserson, Daniel; McCowan, Colin; Magin, Parker; Mitchell, Caroline; Qureshi, Nadeem; Rait, Greta; Steel, Nick; van Driel, Mieke; Ward, Alison

    2008-01-01

    Background A strong and self confident primary care workforce can deliver the highest quality care and outcomes equitably and cost effectively. To meet the increasing demands being made of it, primary care needs its own thriving research culture and knowledge base. Methods Review of recent developments supporting primary care clinical research. Results Primary care research has benefited from a small group of passionate leaders and significant investment in recent decades in some countries. Emerging from this has been innovation in research design and focus, although less is known of the effect on research output. Conclusion Primary care research is now well placed to lead a broad re-vitalisation of academic medicine, answering questions of relevance to practitioners, patients, communities and Government. Key areas for future primary care research leaders to focus on include exposing undergraduates early to primary care research, integrating this early exposure with doctoral and postdoctoral research career support, further expanding cross disciplinary approaches, and developing useful measures of output for future primary care research investment. PMID:18822178

  17. Research in paediatric neuropsychology--past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Frampton, Ian

    2004-01-01

    Reviews of the research literature in a range of neurodevelopmental disorders and acquired brain injury reveal a remarkably consistent historical transition through three phases, here termed structural, theoretical and dynamic neuropsychology. Of course, any attempt to summarize such a complex and rich history using a simplistic heuristic will inevitably fail to capture the wide diversity of the research effort. Nevertheless, it is argued that looking at three distinct phases in the history of research helps to organize the field and points to possible future directions for applied research. Using examples from an eclectic range of disorders including childhood obsessive compulsive disorder, congenital hemiplegia and disorders implicating mutation of neurodevelopmental control genes, the implications for future efforts in paediatric neurorehabilitation are considered. PMID:14744672

  18. Communicative Language Testing: Current Issues and Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Luke

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses a range of current issues and future research possibilities in Communicative Language Testing (CLT) using, as its departure point, the key questions which emerged during the CLT symposium at the 2010 Language Testing Forum. The article begins with a summary of the 2010 symposium discussion in which three main issues related…

  19. The Study of the Future: An Agenda for Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucher, Wayne I., Ed.

    This collection of 18 papers is concerned with the beliefs, methods, practices, and results associated with the type of forecasting which has become known in the last 10 to 15 years as "futures research." Topics discussed include: (1) forecasting methodology; (2) the validity of forecasting systems; (3) unforeseen developments; (4) forecasting in…

  20. Tuberous Sclerosis Complex: A Roadmap for Future Research.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Anna

    2016-07-01

    Investigators from the NINDS and the Tuberous Sclerosis Alliance sponsored a workshop in March 2015, which joined basic scientists and clinicians with expertise in various aspects of Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC), in order to assess the current state of TSC research and to set future goals. PMID:27617567

  1. Educational Imperatives of the Future Research Library: A Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodsworth, Anne; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Seven articles discuss the competencies needed by library and information science school graduates. Surveys of needed competencies are compared, a model of the information activities of a research library of the future is proposed, staffing and educational requirements are discussed, and a need for new philosophies of user services is suggested.…

  2. Conclusions, Reflections, and Prospects for Future Research, Policy, and Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark-Kazak, Christina

    2012-01-01

    This concluding chapter draws together some of the key themes from the contributions and proposes some recommended areas for future research, policy, and programming. It highlights the artificiality of categorization processes related to both migration and childhood that independent child migrants encounter, and problematizes the…

  3. Transforming the Future of Learning with Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askell-Williams, Helen, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    The field of education is a vital component of today's society, enriching and facilitating the attainment of new knowledge. Progress continues to be achieved in this area as new methods are envisioned that increase education's value. "Transforming the Future of Learning with Educational Research" brings together diverse perspectives that…

  4. The tau and beyond: Future research on heavy leptons

    SciTech Connect

    Perl, M.I.

    1988-01-01

    This paper outlines directions for future experimental research on the tau and tau neutrino. Present limits on the existence of heavier charged leptons are reviewed, with emphasis on the close-mass lepton pair concept. 44 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Water management: Current and future challenges and research directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosgrove, William J.; Loucks, Daniel P.

    2015-06-01

    Water distinguishes our planet compared to all the others we know about. While the global supply of available freshwater is more than adequate to meet all current and foreseeable water demands, its spatial and temporal distributions are not. There are many regions where our freshwater resources are inadequate to meet domestic, economic development and environmental needs. In such regions, the lack of adequate clean water to meet human drinking water and sanitation needs is indeed a constraint on human health and productivity and hence on economic development as well as on the maintenance of a clean environment and healthy ecosystems. All of us involved in research must find ways to remove these constraints. We face multiple challenges in doing that, especially given a changing and uncertain future climate, and a rapidly growing population that is driving increased social and economic development, globalization, and urbanization. How best to meet these challenges requires research in all aspects of water management. Since 1965, the journal Water Resources Research has played an important role in reporting and disseminating current research related to managing the quantity and quality and cost of this resource. This paper identifies the issues facing water managers today and future research needed to better inform those who strive to create a more sustainable and desirable future.

  6. A future perspective on technological obsolescenceat NASA, Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcintyre, Robert M.

    1990-01-01

    The present research effort was the first phase of a study to forecast whether technological obsolescence will be a problem for the engineers, scientists, and technicians at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). There were four goals of the research: to review the literature on technological obsolescence; to determine through interviews of division chiefs and branch heads Langley's perspective on future technological obsolescence; to begin making contacts with outside industries to find out how they view the possibility of technological obsolescence; and to make preliminary recommendations for dealing with the problem. A complete description of the findings of this research can be reviewed in a technical report in preparation. The following are a small subset of the key findings of the study: NASA's centers and divisions vary in their missions and because of this, in their capability to control obsolescence; research-oriented organizations within NASA are believed by respondents to keep up to date more than the project-oriented organizations; asked what are the signs of a professional's technological obsolescence, respondents had a variety of responses; top performing scientists were viewed as continuous learners, keeping up to date by a variety of means; when asked what incentives were available to aerospace technologists for keeping up to data, respondents specified a number of ideas; respondents identified many obstacles to professionals' keeping up to date in the future; and most respondents expressed some concern for the future of the professionals at NASA vis a vis the issue of professional obsolescence.

  7. Space robotics: Recent accomplishments and opportunities for future research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Raymond C.; Buttrill, Carey S.; Dorsey, John T.; Juang, Jer-Nan; Lallman, Frederick J.; Moerder, Daniel D.; Scott, Michael A.; Troutman, Patrick; Williams, Robert L., II

    1992-01-01

    The Langley Guidance, Navigation, and Control Technical Committee (GNCTC) was one of six technical committees created in 1991 by the Chief Scientist, Dr. Michael F. Card. During the kickoff meeting Dr. Card charged the chairmen to: (1) establish a cross-Center committee; (2) support at least one workshop in a selected discipline; and (3) prepare a technical paper on recent accomplishments in the discipline and on opportunities for future research. The Guidance, Navigation, and Control Committee was formed and selected for focus on the discipline of Space robotics. This report is a summary of the committee's assessment of recent accomplishments and opportunities for future research. The report is organized as follows. First is an overview of the data sources used by the committee. Next is a description of technical needs identified by the committee followed by recent accomplishments. Opportunities for future research ends the main body of the report. It includes the primary recommendation of the committee that NASA establish a national space facility for the development of space automation and robotics, one element of which is a telerobotic research platform in space. References 1 and 2 are the proceedings of two workshops sponsored by the committee during its June 1991, through May 1992 term. The focus of the committee for the June 1992 - May 1993 term will be to further define to the recommended platform in space and to add an additional discipline which includes aircraft related GN&C issues. To the latter end members performing aircraft related research will be added to the committee. (A preliminary assessment of future opportunities in aircraft-related GN&C research has been included as appendix A.)

  8. Future Requirements for Satellite Altimetry: Recommendations from the GAMBLE Project for Future Missions and Research Programmes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotton, P. D.; Menard, Y.

    2006-07-01

    The GAMBLE th ematic network brought together European exper ts in ocean altimetry to consider future developmen ts in satellite altimetry. The aim was to provide r ecommendations for research activ ities, and future altimeter missions, th at w ere necessary to support and build on present developments in operational o ceanography and to main tain o cean monitoring programmes. This paper reviews user r equiremen ts for operational products th at rely on altimeter d ata, and assess how well presen t and planned activities satisfy those requ irements. It provides recommendations for future missions required to form a cost-eff ectiv e, robust, operational satellite altimeter measuremen t system. [1] provides a full discussion.

  9. Inventing Adulthoods: A Biographical Approach to Youth Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Sheila J.; Holland, Janet; McGrellis, Sheena; Sharpe, Sue; Thomson, Rachel

    2006-01-01

    "Inventing Adulthoods: A Biographical Approach to Youth Transitions" is a ground-breaking book that offers a new approach to understanding young people's lives and their transitions to adulthood. Contrary to policy and research approaches that often see young people's lives in a fragmented way, the book argues that a biographical approach to youth…

  10. Conceptions of Adulthood among Migrant Women Workers in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhong, Juan; Arnett, Jeffrey J.

    2014-01-01

    The experiences of emerging adulthood may vary in different historical and cultural contexts. Little research has been dedicated to how non college students view adulthood in developing countries. Currently, millions of young people are migrating from rural villages to industrial cities in China. The purpose of this study was to investigate…

  11. Shaping the Future of Research: a perspective from junior scientists

    PubMed Central

    MacKellar, Drew C.; Mazzilli, Sarah A.; Pai, Vaibhav P.; Goodwin, Patricia R.; Walsh, Erica M.; Robinson-Mosher, Avi; Bowman, Thomas A.; Kraemer, James; Erb, Marcella L.; Schoenfeld, Eldi; Shokri, Leila; Jackson, Jonathan D.; Islam, Ayesha; Mattozzi, Matthew D.; Krukenberg, Kristin A.; Polka, Jessica K.

    2015-01-01

    The landscape of scientific research and funding is in flux as a result of tight budgets, evolving models of both publishing and evaluation, and questions about training and workforce stability. As future leaders, junior scientists are uniquely poised to shape the culture and practice of science in response to these challenges. A group of postdocs in the Boston area who are invested in improving the scientific endeavor, planned a symposium held on October 2 nd and 3 rd, 2014, as a way to join the discussion about the future of US biomedical research. Here we present a report of the proceedings of participant-driven workshops and the organizers’ synthesis of the outcomes. PMID:25653845

  12. Drug discovery research in India: current state and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Balganesh, Tanjore; Kundu, Tapas K; Chakraborty, Tushar Kanti; Roy, Siddhartha

    2014-07-10

    Indian civilization developed a strong system of traditional medicine and was one of the first nations to develop a synthetic drug. In the postindependence era, Indian pharmaceutical industry developed a strong base for production of generic drugs. Challenges for the future are to give its traditional medicine a strong scientific base and develop research and clinical capability to consistently produce new drugs based on advances in modern biological sciences. PMID:25050153

  13. Advances and future directions of research on spectral methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patera, A. T.

    1986-01-01

    Recent advances in spectral methods are briefly reviewed and characterized with respect to their convergence and computational complexity. Classical finite element and spectral approaches are then compared, and spectral element (or p-type finite element) approximations are introduced. The method is applied to the full Navier-Stokes equations, and examples are given of the application of the technique to several transitional flows. Future directions of research in the field are outlined.

  14. The microball and Gammasphere: Research highlights and future directions

    SciTech Connect

    Devlin, M.; Sarantites, D.G.; LaFosse, D.R.; Lerma, F.

    1996-12-31

    The Microball, a compact, 4{pi} charged-particle detector array, has been used in conjunction with Gammasphere for numerous physics experiments, and more are planned in the near future. A summary of this research program is presented, and the device and its capabilities are described. An example of its use in the study of the population and entry state excitation energy distributions of normal and superdeformed bands in {sup 82}Sr is presented.

  15. FIFE in 1992 - Results, scientific gains, and future research directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellers, P. J.; Hall, F. G.

    1992-01-01

    A summary is presented of some of the more significant findings of the science teams and science staff of FIFE, emphasizing scientific gains, and outlining some future research directions. Attention is given to interactions between surface and boudary layer heat fluxes, momentum fluxes, and correlations between near-surface heat and CO2 fluxes and satellite data. Consideration is given to improved understanding of the exchanges between the land surface and the atmosphere at the local scale.

  16. Future directions in air quality research: economic issues.

    PubMed

    Adams, Richard M; Horst, Robert L

    2003-06-01

    Our challenge was to address future directions in air quality research that involve economic issues. The paper outlines the role of economics in the evaluation of air pollution impacts on environmental systems and describes existing research. We identify studies that address economic effects in the agricultural sector, in the commercial forest sector, and in unmanaged natural systems. Effects related to ozone exposure are highlighted. The summary of available research is followed by a discussion of research recommendations. Several short-term recommendations are identified that can augment some of the new research being considered by scientists. A more ambitious, long-term research project is outlined for valuing air pollution impacts in unmanaged natural environments. Specifically, the paper describes possible advantages of an 'integrated assessment' framework that more formally brings together the complex relationships that exist in both ecological and economic systems. A final section contains thoughts on the importance of education (i.e., information transfer) in the research process, especially in relation to policy. It is further noted that education should be inclusive of all members of the research team, throughout all stages of the research process. PMID:12676216

  17. Sleep and everyday functioning in older adulthood.

    PubMed

    Parsey, Carolyn M; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen; Belenky, Gregory

    2015-02-01

    As individuals age they report increasing numbers of sleep problems (e.g., increased nighttime wakings) and this poorer sleep quality has been associated with increased risk for various medical conditions; however limited research has focused on the implications of sleep quality on everyday functioning in older adulthood. We compared three methods of sleep data collection (wrist actigraphy, self-report questionnaires, and sleep diary) and evaluated their relationships with three approaches to assessing everyday functioning (direct observation, self-report, and paper-and-pencil-based problem-solving tasks) in cognitively healthy older adults. Consistent with previous research, subjective sleep measures correlated significantly with each other but did not correlate with objective sleep measures. Multiple regression analyses revealed neither objective nor subjective sleep measures predicted everyday functioning. Individual variability in sleep may affect prediction of everyday functioning using a cross-sectional sample. Future research should investigate the combined influence of sleep and cognitive factors on everyday functioning in older adults. PMID:25548088

  18. Generativity in Middle Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardin, Paula

    The study described in this paper was conducted to delineate the phenomenon of generativity in middle-aged adults in an attempt to identify its major characteristics, attributes, determinants, and situational or circumstantial variables. Three themes emerged from a literature survey of materials on middle adulthood: the theme of the entry…

  19. Food reward system: current perspectives and future research needs

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Stephen C.; Pelchat, Marcia; Grigson, Patricia Sue; Stice, Eric; Farooqi, Sadaf; Khoo, Chor San; Mattes, Richard D.; Beauchamp, Gary K.

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews current research and cross-disciplinary perspectives on the neuroscience of food reward in animals and humans, examines the scientific hypothesis of food addiction, discusses methodological and terminology challenges, and identifies knowledge gaps and future research needs. Topics addressed herein include the role of reward and hedonic aspects in the regulation of food intake, neuroanatomy and neurobiology of the reward system in animals and humans, responsivity of the brain reward system to palatable foods and drugs, translation of craving versus addiction, and cognitive control of food reward. The content is based on a workshop held in 2013 by the North American Branch of the International Life Sciences Institute. PMID:26011903

  20. Substorms - Future of magnetospheric substorm-storm research

    SciTech Connect

    Akasofu, S.I. )

    1989-04-01

    Seven approaches and/or areas of magnetospheric substorm and storm science which should be emphasized in future research are briefly discussed. They are: the combining of groups of researchers who study magnetic storms and substorms in terms of magnetic reconnection with those that do not, the possible use of a magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling model to merge the groups, the development of improved input-output relationships, the complementing of satellite and ground-based observations, the need for global imaging of the magnetosphere, the complementing of observations with computer simulations, and the need to study the causes of changes in the north-south component of the IMF. 36 refs.

  1. Status of Problem-Based Learning Research in Pharmacy Education: A Call for Future Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cisneros, Robert M.; Salisbury-Glennon, Jill D.; Anderson-Harper, Heidi M.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the current status of problem-based learning (PBL) research in pharmacy education, identifies trends and student outcomes from the pharmacy courses that have used PBL, presents a brief review of PBL research in medical education, and recommends future directions for PBL research in pharmacy education. (EV)

  2. Personalized Telehealth in the Future: A Global Research Agenda.

    PubMed

    Dinesen, Birthe; Nonnecke, Brandie; Lindeman, David; Toft, Egon; Kidholm, Kristian; Jethwani, Kamal; Young, Heather M; Spindler, Helle; Oestergaard, Claus Ugilt; Southard, Jeffrey A; Gutierrez, Mario; Anderson, Nick; Albert, Nancy M; Han, Jay J; Nesbitt, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    As telehealth plays an even greater role in global health care delivery, it will be increasingly important to develop a strong evidence base of successful, innovative telehealth solutions that can lead to scalable and sustainable telehealth programs. This paper has two aims: (1) to describe the challenges of promoting telehealth implementation to advance adoption and (2) to present a global research agenda for personalized telehealth within chronic disease management. Using evidence from the United States and the European Union, this paper provides a global overview of the current state of telehealth services and benefits, presents fundamental principles that must be addressed to advance the status quo, and provides a framework for current and future research initiatives within telehealth for personalized care, treatment, and prevention. A broad, multinational research agenda can provide a uniform framework for identifying and rapidly replicating best practices, while concurrently fostering global collaboration in the development and rigorous testing of new and emerging telehealth technologies. In this paper, the members of the Transatlantic Telehealth Research Network offer a 12-point research agenda for future telehealth applications within chronic disease management. PMID:26932229

  3. Personalized Telehealth in the Future: A Global Research Agenda

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    As telehealth plays an even greater role in global health care delivery, it will be increasingly important to develop a strong evidence base of successful, innovative telehealth solutions that can lead to scalable and sustainable telehealth programs. This paper has two aims: (1) to describe the challenges of promoting telehealth implementation to advance adoption and (2) to present a global research agenda for personalized telehealth within chronic disease management. Using evidence from the United States and the European Union, this paper provides a global overview of the current state of telehealth services and benefits, presents fundamental principles that must be addressed to advance the status quo, and provides a framework for current and future research initiatives within telehealth for personalized care, treatment, and prevention. A broad, multinational research agenda can provide a uniform framework for identifying and rapidly replicating best practices, while concurrently fostering global collaboration in the development and rigorous testing of new and emerging telehealth technologies. In this paper, the members of the Transatlantic Telehealth Research Network offer a 12-point research agenda for future telehealth applications within chronic disease management. PMID:26932229

  4. Planning for the future workforce in hematology research.

    PubMed

    Hoots, W Keith; Abkowitz, Janis L; Coller, Barry S; DiMichele, Donna M

    2015-04-30

    The medical research and training enterprise in the United States is complex in both its scope and implementation. Accordingly, adaptations to the associated workforce needs present particular challenges. This is particularly true for maintaining or expanding national needs for physician-scientists where training resource requirements and competitive transitional milestones are substantial. For the individual, these phenomena can produce financial burden, prolong the career trajectory, and significantly influence career pathways. Hence, when national data suggest that future medical research needs in a scientific area may be met in a less than optimal manner, strategies to expand research and training capacity must follow. This article defines such an exigency for research and training in nonneoplastic hematology and presents potential strategies for addressing these critical workforce needs. The considerations presented herein reflect a summary of the discussions presented at 2 workshops cosponsored by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the American Society of Hematology. PMID:25758827

  5. Future Research and Policy Directions in Physician Reimbursement

    PubMed Central

    McMenamin, Peter

    1981-01-01

    Payments to physicians absorb the second largest share of the health care dollar in the United States. In 1979, the share was 19 percent of the total, or $40.6 billion (Gibson, 1980). The Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) alone spent $8.6 billion for physician services, representing approximately 16 percent of all public funds disbursed under HCFA programs. This paper presents an overview of various issues concerning physician reimbursement. Several major areas have been identified (access, cost, quality, and improving or refining the Office of Research, Demonstrations, and Statistics' [ORDS] research techniques for analyzing topics concerning physician reimbursement). Each area is introduced with a brief discussion of some of the problems associated with the physician reimbursement systems relating to that area. Selected results are then presented from the previous research in each area, along with descriptions of continuing studies currently underway. Each section concludes with a discussion of potential future directions for new research or data development. PMID:10309465

  6. Genome research in Austria--a program of the future.

    PubMed

    Pasterk, Markus G

    2002-11-01

    Genome research is a central area both for progress in scientific findings in life sciences and for the innovative capacity in medical science, and the pharmaceutical and biotech industries. The research findings obtained by interdisciplinary cooperation are of paramount epistemological importance. They will establish a new understanding of biology. In this context, there will be revolutionary opportunities for new medical therapies, for instance, or for keeping plants and animals healthy. Austria will participate in this science and innovation field and will use the resulting opportunities for scientific and economic development as well as for overall social prosperity. For this purpose, [corrected] Austria has developed the 'Austrian Genome Research Programme', a 'programme of the future' for Austria. This program will be based on the good foundations that genome research has already established in Austria. PMID:12437484

  7. Planning for the future workforce in hematology research

    PubMed Central

    Abkowitz, Janis L.; Coller, Barry S.; DiMichele, Donna M.

    2015-01-01

    The medical research and training enterprise in the United States is complex in both its scope and implementation. Accordingly, adaptations to the associated workforce needs present particular challenges. This is particularly true for maintaining or expanding national needs for physician-scientists where training resource requirements and competitive transitional milestones are substantial. For the individual, these phenomena can produce financial burden, prolong the career trajectory, and significantly influence career pathways. Hence, when national data suggest that future medical research needs in a scientific area may be met in a less than optimal manner, strategies to expand research and training capacity must follow. This article defines such an exigency for research and training in nonneoplastic hematology and presents potential strategies for addressing these critical workforce needs. The considerations presented herein reflect a summary of the discussions presented at 2 workshops cosponsored by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the American Society of Hematology. PMID:25758827

  8. Relationship Education Research: Current Status and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Markman, Howard J.; Rhoades, Galena K.

    2011-01-01

    The overarching aim of this paper is to review research on relationship education programs and approaches that have been published or accepted for publication since the last review article in 2002. This paper provides a critical overview of the relationship education field and sets an agenda for research and practice for the next decade. A theme weaved throughout the paper are the ways in which relationship education is similar and different from couples therapy and we conclude that there can be a synergistic, healthy marriage between the two. We then provide recommendations for future directions for research in the relationship education field. Finally, the co-authors comment on our experiences in both the relationship education field and couples therapy field as both researchers and interventionists. PMID:22283386

  9. Education and Labour Market Transitions in Young Adulthood. Culture, Tourism and the Centre for Education Statistics. Research Paper. Catalogue no. 81-595-M No. 075

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaienks, Danielle; Gluszynski, Tomasz

    2009-01-01

    Young adulthood is filled with major life events and pursuing higher education is one of the most common transitions. It is also the time when many young adults enter the labour market, move out of their parents' household and begin family formation. These significant events affect each other and impact the rest of their lives. Given the…

  10. Future directions of C3 research at DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, D. G.; Dahmann, J. S.

    Research into C3 related problems is a major effort of the Information Science and Technology Office of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. The major thrusts of projects are in the area of future, high-risk efforts, often resulting in the development of a conceptual model or prototype. Some of these prototypes are then further developed to provide an infrastructure for future research. The programs can be divided into two groups: base technology research programs and testbed programs. The testbeds provide a focus for the technology programs.

  11. Future directions of C3 research at DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency)

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, D.G.; Dahmann, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    Research into C3 related problems is a major effort of the Information Science and Technology Office of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. The major thrusts of projects is in the area of future, high-risk efforts, often resulting in the development of a conceptual model or prototype. Some of these prototypes are then further developed to provide an infrastructure for future research. The programs can be divided into two groups: base technology research programs and testbed programs. The testbeds provide a focus for the technology programs.

  12. Trends in catalysis research to meet future refining needs

    SciTech Connect

    Absi-Halabi, M.; Stanislaus, A.; Qabazard, H.

    1997-02-01

    The main emphasis of petroleum refining during the `70s and early `80s was to maximize conversion of heavy oils to gasoline and middle distillate products. While this objective is still important, the current focus that began in the late `80s is to develop cleaner products. This is a result of strict environmental constraints to reduce emissions from both the products and refineries. Developing catalysts with improved activity, selectivity and stability for use in processes producing such environmentally acceptable fuels is the most economical and effective route for refiners. Novel technologies such as biocatalysis and catalytic membranes are examples of current successful laboratory-scale attempts to resolve anticipated future industry problems. Since catalysts play a key role in refining processes, it is important to examine the challenges facing catalysis research to meet future refining developments. The paper discusses the factors influencing refining, advancements in refining technology and catalysis, short-term future trends in refining catalysts research, and long-term trends in refining catalysts. 56 refs.

  13. Distinguishing Features of Emerging Adulthood: The Role of Self-Classification as an Adult

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Larry J.; Barry, Carolyn McNamara

    2005-01-01

    Research reveals that most 18- to 25-year-old individuals do not consider themselves to be adults. This time period between adolescence and adulthood has been newly defined as emerging adulthood. The purpose of this study was to (a) attempt to identify perceived adults and (b) explore whether differences in adulthood criteria, achievement of those…

  14. Trajectories of Antisocial Behavior and Psychosocial Maturity From Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Monahan, Kathryn C.; Steinberg, Laurence; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Mulvey, Edward P.

    2010-01-01

    Most theorizing about desistance from antisocial behavior in late adolescence has emphasized the importance of individuals’ transition into adult roles. In contrast, little research has examined how psychological development in late adolescence and early adulthood contributes desistance. The present study examined trajectories of antisocial behavior among serious juvenile offenders from 14 through 22 years of age and tested how impulse control, suppression of aggression, future orientation, consideration of others, personal responsibility, and resistance to peer influence distinguished between youths who persisted in antisocial behavior and youths who desisted. Different patterns of development in psychosocial maturity from adolescence to early adulthood, especially with respect to impulse control and suppression of aggression, distinguished among individuals who followed different trajectories of antisocial behavior. Compared with individuals who desisted from antisocial behavior, youths who persisted in antisocial behavior exhibited deficits in elements of psychosocial maturity, particularly in impulse control, suppression of aggression, and future orientation. PMID:19899922

  15. Satellite remote sensing, biodiversity research and conservation of the future

    PubMed Central

    Pettorelli, Nathalie; Safi, Kamran; Turner, Woody

    2014-01-01

    Assessing and predicting ecosystem responses to global environmental change and its impacts on human well-being are high priority targets for the scientific community. The potential for synergies between remote sensing science and ecology, especially satellite remote sensing and conservation biology, has been highlighted by many in the past. Yet, the two research communities have only recently begun to coordinate their agendas. Such synchronization is the key to improving the potential for satellite data effectively to support future environmental management decision-making processes. With this themed issue, we aim to illustrate how integrating remote sensing into ecological research promotes a better understanding of the mechanisms shaping current changes in biodiversity patterns and improves conservation efforts. Added benefits include fostering innovation, generating new research directions in both disciplines and the development of new satellite remote sensing products. PMID:24733945

  16. Future Research Directions in Asthma. An NHLBI Working Group Report.

    PubMed

    Levy, Bruce D; Noel, Patricia J; Freemer, Michelle M; Cloutier, Michelle M; Georas, Steve N; Jarjour, Nizar N; Ober, Carole; Woodruff, Prescott G; Barnes, Kathleen C; Bender, Bruce G; Camargo, Carlos A; Chupp, Geoff L; Denlinger, Loren C; Fahy, John V; Fitzpatrick, Anne M; Fuhlbrigge, Anne; Gaston, Ben M; Hartert, Tina V; Kolls, Jay K; Lynch, Susan V; Moore, Wendy C; Morgan, Wayne J; Nadeau, Kari C; Ownby, Dennis R; Solway, Julian; Szefler, Stanley J; Wenzel, Sally E; Wright, Rosalind J; Smith, Robert A; Erzurum, Serpil C

    2015-12-01

    Asthma is a common chronic disease without cure. Our understanding of asthma onset, pathobiology, classification, and management has evolved substantially over the past decade; however, significant asthma-related morbidity and excess healthcare use and costs persist. To address this important clinical condition, the NHLBI convened a group of extramural investigators for an Asthma Research Strategic Planning workshop on September 18-19, 2014, to accelerate discoveries and their translation to patients. The workshop focused on (1) in utero and early-life origins of asthma, (2) the use of phenotypes and endotypes to classify disease, (3) defining disease modification, (4) disease management, and (5) implementation research. This report summarizes the workshop and produces recommendations to guide future research in asthma. PMID:26305520

  17. Constructing Adulthood in an Age of Uncertainty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Jennifer M.

    2012-01-01

    Past research in both the transitions to adulthood literature and cultural sociology more broadly suggests that the working class relies on traditional cultural models in their construction of identity. In the contemporary post-industrial world, however, traditional life pathways are now much less available to working-class men and women. I draw…

  18. Novelty Seeking in Adulthood: Increases Accompany Decline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reio, Thomas G., Jr.; Choi, Namok

    2004-01-01

    Using stereotypes, researchers have predicted that novelty seeking declines in adulthood. Through this cross-sectional study, the authors revealed that only the external sensational type of novelty seeking declined, whereas the internal sensational and internal and external cognitive types remained stable or increased. A population of 233 adults…

  19. Knowledge Of Memory Aging In Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, Karri S.; Cherry, Katie E.; Su, L. Joseph; Chiu, Yu-Wen; Jazwinski, S. Michal

    2006-01-01

    The Knowledge of Memory Aging Questionnaire (KMAQ) measures laypersons' knowledge of memory changes in adulthood for research or educational purposes. Half of the questions pertain to normal memory aging and the other half cover pathological memory deficits due to non-normative factors, such as adult dementia. In this study, we compared memory…

  20. Personality-Cognition Relations across Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soubelet, Andrea; Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    Although an increasing number of studies have investigated relations between dimensions of personality and level of cognitive functioning, the research results have been somewhat inconsistent. Furthermore, relatively little is known about whether the personality-cognition relations vary as a function of age in adulthood. The current project…

  1. Future Applications of Remote Sensing to Archeological Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sever, Thomas L.

    2003-01-01

    Archeology was one of the first disciplines to use aerial photography in its investigations at the turn of the 20th century. However, the low resolution of satellite technology that became available in the 1970 s limited their application to regional studies. That has recently changed. The arrival of the high resolution, multi-spectral capabilities of the IKONOS and QUICKBIRD satellites and the scheduled launch of new satellites in the next few years provides an unlimited horizon for future archeological research. In addition, affordable aerial and ground-based remote sensing instrumentation are providing archeologists with information that is not available through traditional methodologies. Although many archeologists are not yet comfortable with remote sensing technology a new generation has embraced it and is accumulating a wealth of new evidence. They have discovered that through the use of remote sensing it is possible to gather information without disturbing the site and that those cultural resources can be monitored and protected for the future.

  2. Space facilities: Meeting future needs for research, development, and operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The National Facilities Study (NFS) represents an interagency effort to develop a comprehensive and integrated long-term plan for world-class aeronautical and space facilities that meet current and projected needs for commercial and government aerospace research and development and space operations. At the request of NASA and the DOD, the National Research Council's Committee on Space Facilities has reviewed the space related findings of the NFS. The inventory of more than 2800 facilities will be an important resource, especially if it continues to be updated and maintained as the NFS report recommends. The data in the inventory provide the basis for a much better understanding of the resources available in the national facilities infrastructure, as well as extensive information on which to base rational decisions about current and future facilities needs. The working groups have used the inventory data and other information to make a set of recommendations that include estimates of cast savings and steps for implementation. While it is natural that the NFS focused on cost reduction and consolidations, such a study is most useful to future planning if it gives equal weight to guiding the direction of future facilities needed to satisfy legitimate national aspirations. Even in the context of cost reduction through facilities closures and consolidations, the study is timid about recognizing and proposing program changes and realignments of roles and missions to capture what could be significant savings and increased effectiveness. The recommendations of the Committee on Space Facilities are driven by the clear need to be more realistic and precise both in recognizing current incentives and disincentives in the aerospace industry and in forecasting future conditions for U.S. space activities.

  3. Identifying Future Scientists: Predicting Persistence into Research Training

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    This study used semistructured interviews and grounded theory to look for characteristics among college undergraduates that predicted persistence into Ph.D. and M.D./Ph.D. training. Participants in the summer undergraduate and postbaccalaureate research programs at the Mayo Clinic College of Medicine were interviewed at the start, near the end, and 8–12 months after their research experience. Of more than 200 themes considered, five characteristics predicted those students who went on to Ph.D. and M.D./Ph.D. training or to M.D. training intending to do research: 1) Curiosity to discover the unknown, 2) Enjoyment of problem solving, 3) A high level of independence, 4) The desire to help others indirectly through research, and 5) A flexible, minimally structured approach to the future. Web-based surveys with different students confirmed the high frequency of curiosity and/or problem solving as the primary reason students planned research careers. No evidence was found for differences among men, women, and minority and nonminority students. Although these results seem logical compared with successful scientists, their constancy, predictive capabilities, and sharp contrast to students who chose clinical medicine were striking. These results provide important insights into selection and motivation of potential biomedical scientists and the early experiences that will motivate them toward research careers. PMID:18056303

  4. Identifying future scientists: predicting persistence into research training.

    PubMed

    McGee, Richard; Keller, Jill L

    2007-01-01

    This study used semistructured interviews and grounded theory to look for characteristics among college undergraduates that predicted persistence into Ph.D. and M.D./Ph.D. training. Participants in the summer undergraduate and postbaccalaureate research programs at the Mayo Clinic College of Medicine were interviewed at the start, near the end, and 8-12 months after their research experience. Of more than 200 themes considered, five characteristics predicted those students who went on to Ph.D. and M.D./Ph.D. training or to M.D. training intending to do research: 1) Curiosity to discover the unknown, 2) Enjoyment of problem solving, 3) A high level of independence, 4) The desire to help others indirectly through research, and 5) A flexible, minimally structured approach to the future. Web-based surveys with different students confirmed the high frequency of curiosity and/or problem solving as the primary reason students planned research careers. No evidence was found for differences among men, women, and minority and nonminority students. Although these results seem logical compared with successful scientists, their constancy, predictive capabilities, and sharp contrast to students who chose clinical medicine were striking. These results provide important insights into selection and motivation of potential biomedical scientists and the early experiences that will motivate them toward research careers. PMID:18056303

  5. Future Directions for Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Damiano, Cara R.; Mazefsky, Carla A.; White, Susan W.; Dichter, Gabriel S.

    2014-01-01

    This article suggests future directions for research aimed at improved understanding of the etiology and pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as well as pharmacologic and psychosocial interventions for ASD across the lifespan. The past few years have witnessed unprecedented transformations in the understanding of ASD neurobiology, genetics, early identification, and early intervention. However, recent increases in ASD prevalence estimates highlight the urgent need for continued efforts to translate novel ASD discoveries into effective interventions for all individuals with ASD. In this article we highlight promising areas for ongoing and new research expected to quicken the pace of scientific discovery and ultimately the translation of research findings into accessible and empirically supported interventions for those with ASD. We highlight emerging research in the following domains as particularly promising and pressing: (1) preclinical models; (2) experimental therapeutics; (3) early identification and intervention; (4) psychiatric comorbidities and the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative; (5) ecological momentary assessment; (6) neurotechnologies; and (7) the needs of adults with ASD. Increased research emphasis in these areas has the potential to hasten the translation of knowledge on the etiological mechanisms of ASD to psychosocial and biological interventions to reduce the burden of ASD on affected individuals and their families. PMID:25216048

  6. Genes and elite athletes: a roadmap for future research.

    PubMed

    Eynon, Nir; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Oliveira, José; Duarte, José Alberto; Birk, Ruth; Lucia, Alejandro

    2011-07-01

    There is compelling evidence that genetic factors influence several phenotype traits related to physical performance and training response as well as to elite athletic status. Previous case-control studies showed that ∼20 genetic variants seem to be associated with elite endurance athletic status. The present review aims to introduce novel methodological approaches in the field of sports genetics research, which can be applied in the near future to analyse the genotype profile associated with elite athletic status. These include genotype-phenotype association studies using gene expression analysis, analysis of post-transcriptional factors, particularly microRNAs, genome-wide scan linkage or genome-wide association studies, and novel algorithm approaches, such as 'genotype scores'. Several gaps in the current body of knowledge have been identified including, among others: small sample size of most athletic cohorts, lack of corroboration with replication cohorts of different ethnic backgrounds (particularly, made up of non-Caucasian athletes), the need of research accounting for the potential role of epigenetics in elite athletic performance, and also the need for future models that take into account the association between athletic status and complex gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. Some recommendations are provided to minimize research limitations in the field of sport genetics. PMID:21540342

  7. Genes and elite athletes: a roadmap for future research

    PubMed Central

    Eynon, Nir; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Oliveira, José; Duarte, José Alberto; Birk, Ruth; Lucia, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    Abstract There is compelling evidence that genetic factors influence several phenotype traits related to physical performance and training response as well as to elite athletic status. Previous case-control studies showed that ∼20 genetic variants seem to be associated with elite endurance athletic status. The present review aims to introduce novel methodological approaches in the field of sports genetics research, which can be applied in the near future to analyse the genotype profile associated with elite athletic status. These include genotype–phenotype association studies using gene expression analysis, analysis of post-transcriptional factors, particularly microRNAs, genome-wide scan linkage or genome-wide association studies, and novel algorithm approaches, such as ‘genotype scores’. Several gaps in the current body of knowledge have been indentified including, among others: small sample size of most athletic cohorts, lack of corroboration with replication cohorts of different ethnic backgrounds (particularly, made up of non-Caucasian athletes), the need of research accounting for the potential role of epigenetics in elite athletic performance, and also the need for future models that take into account the association between athletic status and complex gene–gene and gene–environment interactions. Some recommendations are provided to minimize research limitations in the field of sport genetics. PMID:21540342

  8. Foresight scanning: future directions of clinical and pharmaceutical research.

    PubMed

    Foster, Brian C

    2008-01-01

    Foresight Scanning: Future Directions of Clinical and Pharmaceutical Research. Brian C. Foster, Therapeutic Products Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada ABSTRACT The Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences Satellite Symposium on Foresight Scanning, May 26 and 27, 2008, Nordegg, Alberta, Canada, focussed on the future directions of clinical and pharmaceutical research. The symposium brought together a group of clinicians, regulatory scientists, researchers and students to examine where clinical, pharmaceutical, and regulatory science might be in 10 to 15 years. Industry, regulatory, analytical, and clinical perspectives were presented and discussed, as well as the impact of exogenous (indirect) and endogenous (direct) change drivers. Unconditional funding was provided by Bayer HealthCare; they had no input on the direction of the meeting or selection of speakers. It was envisioned that the more important endogenous drivers may not be new information or changes in technology, policy, regulation, or health care delivery, but amplification of long-term underlying trends by emergence of new technologies, convergence of existing technologies or new communication and collaboration vehicles such as Web 2.0. PMID:19183518

  9. Future Challenges and Opportunities in Online Prescription Drug Promotion Research

    PubMed Central

    Southwell, Brian G.; Rupert, Douglas J.

    2016-01-01

    Despite increased availability of online promotional tools for prescription drug marketers, evidence on online prescription drug promotion is far from settled or conclusive. We highlight ways in which online prescription drug promotion is similar to conventional broadcast and print advertising and ways in which it differs. We also highlight five key areas for future research: branded drug website influence on consumer knowledge and behavior, interactive features on branded drug websites, mobile viewing of branded websites and mobile advertisements, online promotion and non-US audiences, and social media and medication decisions. PMID:26927597

  10. Burden of disease--implications for future research.

    PubMed

    Michaud, C M; Murray, C J; Bloom, B R

    2001-02-01

    One overall challenge for public health and medicine in the future is to allocate available resources effectively to reduce major causes of disease burden globally and to decrease health disparities between poor and affluent populations. The major risk factors for death and disability worldwide are malnutrition; poor water supply, sanitation, and personal and domestic hygiene; unsafe sexual behavior; tobacco use; alcohol use; occupational hazards; hypertension; physical inactivity; illicit drugs; and air pollution. The challenge for research in the 21st century is to maintain and improve life expectancy and the quality of life that was achieved for most of the world's population during the 20th century. PMID:11176854

  11. Questions raised over future of UK research council

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2010-02-01

    Five senior physicists have written to the UK science minister, Lord Drayson, about the "dismal future" for researchers in the country in the wake of a £40m shortfall in the budget of the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC). The physicists, who chair the STFC's five advisory panels, have also called for structural reforms to be made to the council. They warn that unless the government takes action to reverse the situation, the UK will be "perceived as an untrustworthy partner in global projects" and predict that a brain drain of the best UK scientists to positions overseas will ensue.

  12. Preterm birth: Transition to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Allen, Marilee C; Cristofalo, Elizabeth; Kim, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Preterm birth is associated with greater difficulty with transitions from childhood to adolescence to adulthood. Adolescents and young adults born preterm have higher rates of cerebral palsy, intellectual disability, cognitive impairment, learning disability, executive dysfunction, attention deficit disorder, and social-emotional difficulties than their peers born fullterm. Compared to individuals born fullterm, more preterm survivors have major neurodevelopmental or psychiatric disability and need financial supports and societal resources. Neuroimaging studies of adolescents and adults born preterm report higher rates of brain injury, differences in regional brain structure, and different brain circuits than in those born fullterm. Making the transition to adulthood is more difficult for young adults who were born preterm than their peers born fullterm, in that fewer complete high school and higher education, find and keep meaningful employment, and live independently from their parents. As a group, they do not tend to be risk-takers, and they have lower rates of alcohol abuse, use of illicit drugs, and criminal offenses than do their peers. Despite their many challenges, the majority of adults born preterm function well, form personal relationships, integrate well into their community, and are as satisfied with their quality of life as are their peers. Concerns regarding current preterm infants, with more extremely preterm survivors, overwhelming our medical, educational, and societal resources should serve as an impetus for research on prevention of preterm births and brain injury, as well as how to support and promote their ongoing neuromaturation and recovery from injury. PMID:25708075

  13. Research planning for the future of psychiatric diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Regier, D A; Kuhl, E A; Narrow, W E; Kupfer, D J

    2012-10-01

    More than 10 years prior to the anticipated 2013 publication of DSM-5, processes were set in motion to assess the research and clinical issues that would best inform future diagnostic classification of mental disorders. These efforts intended to identify the clinical and research needs within various populations, examine the current state of the science to determine the empirical evidence for improving criteria within and across disorders, and stimulate research in areas that could potentially provide evidence for change. In the second phase of the revision process, the American Psychiatric Institute for Research and Education (APIRE) recently completed the 5-year international series of 13 diagnostic conferences convened by APA/APIRE in collaboration with the World Health Organization and the National Institutes of Health (NIH), under a cooperative grant funded by the NIH. From these conferences, the DSM-5 Task Force and Work Groups have developed plans for potential revisions for DSM-5, including the incorporation of dimensional approaches within and across diagnostic groups to clarify heterogeneity, improve diagnostic validity, and enhance clinical case conceptualization. Use of dimensions for measurement-based care has been shown to be feasible in psychiatric and primary care settings and may inform monitoring of disorder threshold, severity, and treatment outcomes. The integration of dimensions with diagnostic categories represents an exciting and potentially transformative approach for DSM-5 to simultaneously address DSM-IV's clinical short-comings and create novel pathways for research in neurobiology, genetics, and psychiatric epidemiology. PMID:21676595

  14. Geriatric epilepsy: research and clinical directions for the future.

    PubMed

    Roberson, Erik D; Hope, Omotola A; Martin, Roy C; Schmidt, Dieter

    2011-09-01

    There is a growing awareness of the need for improved treatment and care of older adults with epilepsy. The present review article highlights key clinical and research issues in the emerging field of geriatric epilepsy. Drs. Martin and Schmidt explore the scope of the problems in the field, outline topic areas including cognitive health/dementia, and diagnostic challenges, and also present important research questions that should be considered for the future. As part of this presentation, we will highlight the work of two promising young investigators whose work holds great promise for the field of geriatric epilepsy. Dr. Roberson will discuss his work focusing on the relationship of epilepsy and cognitive impairment, particularly as it relates to Alzheimer's disease pathology including tau and its role in epileptiform activity. Dr. Hope will outline key issues, as well as her work, relating to defining and measuring quality care in geriatric epilepsy. PMID:21596624

  15. What is "neuromarketing"? A discussion and agenda for future research.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nick; Broderick, Amanda J; Chamberlain, Laura

    2007-02-01

    Recent years have seen advances in neuroimaging to such an extent that neuroscientists are able to directly study the frequency, location, and timing of neuronal activity to an unprecedented degree. However, marketing science has remained largely unaware of such advances and their huge potential. In fact, the application of neuroimaging to market research--what has come to be called "neuromarketing"--has caused considerable controversy within neuroscience circles in recent times. This paper is an attempt to widen the scope of neuromarketing beyond commercial brand and consumer behaviour applications, to include a wider conceptualisation of marketing science. Drawing from general neuroscience and neuroeconomics, neuromarketing as a field of study is defined, and some future research directions are suggested. PMID:16769143

  16. Suggested future directions in high-speed transition experimental research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, Dennis

    1990-01-01

    Historical developments in the area of high-speed experimental transition research are outlined, and future directions in this area as determined by the panel membership are listed. The directions include measurement and modeling of initial disturbance fields, both in ground facilities and flight, for all modes; development of advanced high-speed instrumentation for disturbance field measurements, measurements of the details of receptivity in multitudinous flows; further development and use of high-speed quiet tunnels; stability and transition studies for multitudinous flows; detailed studies of the transitional region for boundary layers, free flows, vortices separated flows, corner flows, etc.; and studies of flow-chemistry effects on transition phenomena. Applied research such areas as the physics of perforated-surface suction stabilization and the resolution of anomalies in the existing high-speed database is also suggested.

  17. Future opportunities for photovoltaic materials and device research

    SciTech Connect

    Deb, S.K. )

    1994-06-30

    The semiconductor material science and associated device technologies have entered into a new era, almost a revolutionary period. The use of sophisticated computation techniques has given theoreticians the predictive power for novel materials architecture; the experimentalists have the ability to grow materials and devices under carefully controlled conditions and manipulate materials on an atomic scale; and the powerful analytical tools have enabled us to gain insight on the surface, interface, and bulk properties of materials and devices with a high degree of precision. These have opened up some opportunities for doing some very exciting materials and device research in the area of semiconductor materials, in general, and photovoltaic (PV) materials and devices, in particular. In this brief review, a global view of semiconductor materials for PV applications will be taken and an attempt will be made to identify future research opportunities.

  18. Postoperative ileus: mechanisms and future directions for research.

    PubMed

    Vather, Ryash; O'Grady, Greg; Bissett, Ian P; Dinning, Phil G

    2014-05-01

    Postoperative ileus (POI) is an abnormal pattern of gastrointestinal motility characterized by nausea, vomiting, abdominal distension and/or delayed passage of flatus or stool, which may occur following surgery. Postoperative ileus slows recovery, increases the risk of developing postoperative complications and confers a significant financial load on healthcare institutions. The aim of the present review is to provide a succinct overview of the clinical features and pathophysiological mechanisms of POI, with final comment on selected directions for future research.Terminology used when describing POI is inconsistent, with little differentiation made between the obligatory period of gut dysfunction seen after surgery ('normal POI') and the more clinically and pathologically significant entity of a 'prolonged POI'. Both normal and prolonged POI represent a fundamentally similar pathophysiological phenomenon. The aetiology of POI is postulated to be multifactorial, with principal mediators being inflammatory cell activation, autonomic dysfunction (both primarily and as part of the surgical stress response), agonism at gut opioid receptors, modulation of gastrointestinal hormone activity and electrolyte derangements. A final common pathway for these effectors is impaired contractility and motility and gut wall oedema. There are many potential directions for future research. In particular, there remains scope to accurately characterize the gastrointestinal dysfunction that underscores an ileus, development of an accurate risk stratification tool will facilitate early implementation of preventive measures and clinical appraisal of novel therapeutic strategies that target individual pathways in the pathogenesis of ileus warrant further investigation. PMID:24754527

  19. Future Directions in Early Cystic Fibrosis Lung Disease Research

    PubMed Central

    Banks-Schlegel, Susan; Accurso, Frank J.; Boucher, Richard C.; Cutting, Garry R.; Engelhardt, John F.; Guggino, William B.; Karp, Christopher L.; Knowles, Michael R.; Kolls, Jay K.; LiPuma, John J.; Lynch, Susan; McCray, Paul B.; Rubenstein, Ronald C.; Singh, Pradeep K.; Sorscher, Eric; Welsh, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Since the 1989 discovery that mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene cause cystic fibrosis (CF), there has been substantial progress toward understanding the molecular basis for CF lung disease, leading to the discovery and development of new therapeutic approaches. However, the earliest impact of the loss of CFTR function on airway physiology and structure and its relationship to initial infection and inflammation are poorly understood. Universal newborn screening for CF in the United States represents an unprecedented opportunity for investigating CF clinical manifestations very early in life. Recently developed animal models with pulmonary phenotypic manifestations also provide a window into the early consequences of this genetic disorder. For these reasons, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) convened a working group of extramural experts, entitled “Future Research Directions in Early CF Lung Disease” on September 21–22, 2010, to identify future research directions of great promise in CF. The priority areas identified included (1) exploring pathogenic mechanisms of early CF lung disease; (2) leveraging newborn screening to elucidate the natural history of early lung disease; (3) developing a spectrum of biomarkers of early lung disease that reflects CF pathophysiology, clinical outcome, and response to treatment; (4) exploring the role of genetics/genomics (e.g., modifier genes, gene–environmental interactions, and epigenetics) in early CF pathogenesis; (5) defining early microbiological events in CF lung disease; and (6) elucidating the initial airway inflammatory, remodeling, and repair mechanisms in CF lung disease. PMID:22312017

  20. Compact Toroidal Hybrid Research Program: Recent Progress and Future Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, D. A.; Cianciosa, M.; Hanson, J. D.; Hartwell, G. J.; Hebert, J. D.; Herfindal, J. L.; Knowlton, S. F.; Archmiller, M. C.; Traverso, P.; Pandya, M.; Ma, X.

    2012-10-01

    Understanding the control and avoidance of major disruptions in current carrying toroidal plasmas is important in mitigating the effects of rapid loss of confinement in future devices. The Compact Toroidal Hybrid (CTH) experiment is investigating the passive avoidance of disruptions with the addition of a small amount of vacuum transform provided by external coils. In ohmically-driven stellarator plasmas no disruptions of any kind are observed if the vacuum transform exceeds ˜ 0.11. Recent progress on the suppression of low-qa (high a), density limit, and vertically unstable plasma disruptions is overviewed. Interpretation of these results makes use of 3D equilibrium reconstructions using the V3FIT code [1]. Several new diagnostic tools have recently been developed and implemented on CTH. These new research tools include multi-chord interferometry, bolometry, Hα emission detection, a two-color soft x-ray camera, and upgraded magnetic sensor arrays. In addition to these diagnostic improvements, a new 200 kW gyrotron system will provide additional heating power for stellarator target plasmas. Future research directions and plans will also be discussed. [4pt] [1] J. D. Hanson, S. P. Hirshman, S. F. Knowlton, L. L. Lao, E. A. Lazarus, J. M. Shields, Nucl. Fusion, 49 (2009) 075031

  1. Building a Bright Future. The Hydro Research Foundation's Fellowship Program

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughn, Brenna; Linke, Deborah M.

    2015-12-29

    The Hydro Fellowship Program (program) began as an experiment to discover whether the hydropower industry could find mechanisms to attract new entrants through conducting relevant research to benefit the industry. This nationwide, new-to-the-world program was started through funding from the Wind and Water Power Technologies Office of the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Office of the Department of Energy (DOE). Between 2010-2015, the Hydro Research Foundation (HRF) designed and implemented a program to conduct valuable research and attract new entrants to the hydro workforce. This historic grant has empowered and engaged industry members from 25 organizations by working with 91 students and advisors at 24 universities in 19 states. The work funded answered pressing research needs in the fields of civil, mechanical, environmental, and electrical engineering, as well as law, energy engineering and materials innovation. In terms of number of individuals touched through funding, 148 individuals were supported by this work through direct research, mentorship, oversight of the work, partnerships and the day-to-day program administration. Based on the program results, it is clear that the funding achieved the hoped-for outcomes and has the capacity to draw universities into the orbit of hydropower and continue the conversation about industry research and development needs. The Foundation has fostered unique partnerships at the host universities and has continued to thrive with the support of the universities, advisors, industry and the DOE. The Foundation has demonstrated industry support through mentorships, partnerships, underwriting the costs and articulating the universities’ support through in-kind cost sharing. The Foundation recommends that future work be continued to nurture these graduate level programs using the initial work and improvements in the successor program, the Research Awards Program, while stimulating engagement of academia at the

  2. 'I am a mother': young women's negotiation of femininity and risk in the transition to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Graham, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    In studies of sexual risk behaviour among youth, the role of dominant conceptions of masculinity and femininity has received increasing attention. However, where research has sought to explore femininity, it has predominantly focused on adolescent girls. This paper departs from previous research by offering insights into how young women negotiate their femininity as they transition from adolescence to adulthood and encounter changing social contexts. Drawing on data from ethnographic enquiry, it argues that as young women transition out of school and into emerging adulthood, their options for negotiating different types of femininity become constrained, with consequences for engagement in sexual risk behaviours. This may to some extent explain why in some South African contexts older young women are more vulnerable to HIV infection than adolescent girls. The paper offer insights into future prospects for youth development programming seeking to reduce young women's vulnerability to risk. PMID:26413859

  3. Reduced hippocampal and medial prefrontal gray matter mediate the association between reported childhood maltreatment and trait anxiety in adulthood and predict sensitivity to future life stress

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The experience of early life stress is a consistently identified risk factor for the development of mood and anxiety disorders. Preclinical research employing animal models of early life stress has made inroads in understanding this association and suggests that the negative sequelae of early life stress may be mediated by developmental disruption of corticolimbic structures supporting stress responsiveness. Work in humans has corroborated this idea, as childhood adversity has been associated with alterations in gray matter volumes of the hippocampus, amygdala, and medial prefrontal cortex. Yet, missing from this body of research is a full understanding of how these neurobiological vulnerabilities may mechanistically contribute to the reported link between adverse childhood experiences and later affective psychopathology. Results Analyses revealed that self-reported childhood maltreatment was associated with reduced gray matter volumes within the medial prefrontal cortex and left hippocampus. Furthermore, reduced left hippocampal and medial prefrontal gray matter volume mediated the relationship between childhood maltreatment and trait anxiety. Additionally, individual differences in corticolimbic gray matter volume within these same structures predicted the anxious symptoms as a function of life stress 1 year after initial assessment. Conclusions Collectively, these findings provide novel evidence that reductions in corticolimbic gray matter, particularly within the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex, are associated with reported childhood maltreatment and individual differences in adult trait anxiety. Furthermore, our results suggest that these structural alterations contribute to increased affective sensitivity to stress later in life in those that have experienced early adversity. More broadly, the findings contribute to an emerging literature highlighting the critical importance of early stress on the development of corticolimbic structures

  4. Juvenile fibromyalgia: current status of research and future developments

    PubMed Central

    Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita; Ting, Tracy V.

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile-onset fibromyalgia (JFM) is a poorly understood chronic pain condition most commonly affecting adolescent girls. The condition is characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain and other associated symptoms, including fatigue, nonrestorative sleep, headaches, irritable bowel symptoms, dysautonomia and mood disorders such as anxiety and/or depression. In the past few years, there has been a greater focus on understanding JFM in adolescents. Research studies have provided insight into the clinical characteristics of this condition and its effect on both short-term and long-term psychosocial and physical functioning. The importance of early and effective intervention is being recognized, as research has shown that symptoms of JFM tend to persist and do not resolve over time as was previously believed. Efforts to improve treatments for JFM are underway, and new evidence strongly points to the potential benefits of cognitive–behavioural therapy on improving mood and daily functioning. Research into pharmacotherapy and other nonpharmacological options is in progress. Advancements in the understanding of adult fibromyalgia have paved the way for future studies on diagnosis, assessment and management of JFM. This Review focuses on our current knowledge of the condition, provides an update of the latest research advances, and highlights areas for further study. PMID:24275966

  5. Water, Society and the future of water resources research (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    The subject of water and society is broad, but at heart is the study of water as a resource, essential to human activities, a vital input to food and energy production, the sustaining medium for ecosystems and yet also a destructive hazard. Society demands, withdraws, competes, uses and wastes the resource in dynamic counterpart. The science of water management emerges from this interface, a field at the nexus of engineering and geoscience, with substantial influence from economics and other social sciences. Within this purview are some of the most pressing environmental questions of our time, such as adaptation to climate change, direct and indirect connections between water and energy policy, the continuing dependence of agriculture on depletion of the world's aquifers, the conservation or preservation of ecosystems within increasingly human-influenced river systems, and food security and poverty reduction for the earth's poorest inhabitants. This presentation will present and support the hypothesis that water resources research is a scientific enterprise separate from, yet closely interrelated to, hydrologic science. We will explore the scientific basis of water resources research, review pressing research questions and opportunities, and propose an action plan for the advancement of the science of water management. Finally, the presentation will propose a Chapman Conference on Water and Society: The Future of Water Resources Research in the spring of 2015.

  6. Past, present and future of laser fusion research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, C.

    1996-05-01

    The concept of laser fusion was devised very shortly after the invention of laser. In 1972, the Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University was established by the author in accordance with the Edward Teller's special lecture on ``New Internal Combustion Engine'' for IQEC at Montreal which predicted the implosion fusion. In 1975 we invented the so called indirect drive fusion concept ``Cannonball Target'' which became later to be recognize as a same concept of ``Hohlraum Target'' from Livermore. As well known, ICF research in the US had been veiled for a long time due to the defense classification. While researchers from Japan, Germany and elsewhere have concentrated the efforts to investigate the inertial fusion energy which seems to be very interesting for a future civil energy. They were publishing their own works not only on the direct implosion scheme but also the indirect implosion experiment. These advanced results often frustrated the US researchers who were not allowed to talk about the details of their works. In 1988, international members of the ICF research society including the US scientists gathered together at ECLIM to discuss the necessity of freedom in the ICF research and concluded to make a statement ``Madrid Manifest'' which requested the declassification of the ICF research internationally. After 6 years of halt, the US DOE decided to declassify portions of the program as a part of secretary Hazel O'Leary's openness initiative. The first revealed presentation from the US was done at Seville 1994, which however were well known already. Classification impeded the progress by restricting the flow of information and did not allow the ICF work to compete by the open scientific security. The implosion experiments by GEKKO XII Osaka demonstrated a high temperature compression of DT fuel up to 10 keV, neutron yield 1013 and a high density compression of CDT hollow shell pellet to reach 1000 g/cm3 respectively. These results gave us a strong

  7. Past, present and future of laser fusion research

    SciTech Connect

    Yamanaka, C.

    1996-05-01

    The concept of laser fusion was devised very shortly after the invention of laser. In 1972, the Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University was established by the author in accordance with the Edward Teller{close_quote}s special lecture on {open_quote}{open_quote}New Internal Combustion Engine{close_quote}{close_quote} for IQEC at Montreal which predicted the implosion fusion. In 1975 we invented the so called indirect drive fusion concept {open_quote}{open_quote}Cannonball Target{close_quote}{close_quote} which became later to be recognize as a same concept of {open_quote}{open_quote}Hohlraum Target{close_quote}{close_quote} from Livermore. As well known, ICF research in the US had been veiled for a long time due to the defense classification. While researchers from Japan, Germany and elsewhere have concentrated the efforts to investigate the inertial fusion energy which seems to be very interesting for a future civil energy. They were publishing their own works not only on the direct implosion scheme but also the indirect implosion experiment. These advanced results often frustrated the US researchers who were not allowed to talk about the details of their works. In 1988, international members of the ICF research society including the US scientists gathered together at ECLIM to discuss the necessity of freedom in the ICF research and concluded to make a statement {open_quote}{open_quote}Madrid Manifest{close_quote}{close_quote} which requested the declassification of the ICF research internationally. After 6 years of halt, the US DOE decided to declassify portions of the program as a part of secretary Hazel O{close_quote}Leary{close_quote}s openness initiative. The first revealed presentation from the US was done at Seville 1994, which however were well known already. Classification impeded the progress by restricting the flow of information and did not allow the ICF work to compete by the open scientific security. (Abstract Truncated)

  8. Concepts of hydrological connectivity: Research approaches, pathways and future agendas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracken, L. J.; Wainwright, J.; Ali, G. A.; Tetzlaff, D.; Smith, M. W.; Reaney, S. M.; Roy, A. G.

    2013-04-01

    For effective catchment management and intervention in hydrological systems a process-based understanding of hydrological connectivity is required so that: i) conceptual rather than solely empirical understanding drives how systems are interpreted; and ii) there is an understanding of how continuous flow fields develop under different sets of environmental conditions to enable managers to know when, where and how to intervene in catchment processes successfully. In order to direct future research into process-based hydrological connectivity this paper: i) evaluates the extent to which different concepts of hydrological connectivity have emerged from different approaches to measure and predict flow in different environments; ii) discusses the extent to which these different concepts are mutually compatible; and iii) assesses further research to contribute to a unified understanding of hydrological processes. Existing research is categorised into five different approaches to investigating hydrological connectivity: i) evaluating soil-moisture patterns (soil-moisture connectivity); ii) understanding runoff patterns and processes on hillslopes (flow-process connectivity); iii) investigating topographic controls (terrain-connectivity) including the impact of road networks on hydrological connectivity and catchment runoff; iv) developing models to explore and predict hydrological connectivity; and v) developing indices of hydrological connectivity. Analysis of published research suggests a relationship between research group, approach, geographic setting and the interpretation of hydrological connectivity. For further understanding of hydrological connectivity our knowledge needs to be developed using a range of techniques and approaches, there should be common understandings between researchers approaching the concept from different perspectives, and these meanings need to be communicated effectively with those responsible for land management.

  9. Internet Research: Implications for The Future of Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Shortliffe, Ted

    1999-01-01

    The phenomenal growth in Internet usage, largely due to the success of the World Wide Web, has stressed the international networking infrastructure in ways that were never contemplated when the early ARPAnet emerged from research laboratories in the 1970s. Some of the challenges are logistical and legal, and have to do with management of domain names, intellectual-property agreements, and international business activities. Others are technical, resulting both because we are envisioning applications that the current Internet cannot support, and because the existing infrastructure cannot scale to a world in which a huge portion of the world's population is online and individual homes and businesses may have IP addresses for tens of electronic devices, such as appliances, heating systems, or security alarms. In this presentation, I will discuss some of the US research and testbed activities that are currently underway in an effort to respond to the technical challenges. These include the Internet-2 testbed created by a consortium of academic institutions, and the federal government's Next Generation Internet research initiative. I will explain the difference between these two programs and identify some of the technical requirements other than a simple increase in bandwidth that have been identified for the evolving Internet. This will lead to a discussion of the limitations of the current Internet that have constrained its use in health care and that accordingly help to define the networking research agenda that is of greatest importance to the biomedical community. Policy and regulatory issues that arise because of health care's use of the Internet will also be discussed, as will those technical requirements that may be unique to biomedical applications. One goal of the discussion will be to motivate an international discussion of the ways in which the medical informatics community should be engaged in both basic and applied research in the area of networking and the

  10. Childhood overweight: a contextual model and recommendations for future research.

    PubMed

    Davison, K K; Birch, L L

    2001-08-01

    The prevalence of overweight among children has doubled within the past two decades. Increases in the rate of childhood overweight are of particular concern due to the negative health and psychological effects noted among overweight children. As shown by previous research, the development of childhood overweight involves a complex set of factors from multiple contexts that interact with each other to place a child at risk of overweight. This multifaceted system can be conceptualized using Ecological Systems Theory (EST). EST highlights the importance of considering the context(s), or ecological niche, in which a person is located in order to understand the emergence of a particular characteristic. In the case of a child, the ecological niche includes the family and the school, which are in turn embedded in larger social contexts including the community and society at large. In this review, EST is used as a framework with which to summarize research assessing predictors of childhood overweight. Specifically, child characteristics that place children at risk of the development of overweight (including dietary intake, physical activity, and sedentary behaviour) will be reviewed while taking into consideration the influence of the familial environment, the school environment, and the community and larger social environments. It is concluded that future research needs to adopt a broader contextual approach in order to understand and intervene against the processes leading to the development of overweight among children and that the use of theories or paradigms such as EST will facilitate developing and testing models of causal processes. PMID:12120101

  11. Science and Observation Recommendations for Future NASA Carbon Cycle Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClain, Charles R.; Collatz, G. J.; Kawa, S. R.; Gregg, W. W.; Gervin, J. C.; Abshire, J. B.; Andrews, A. E.; Behrenfeld, M. J.; Demaio, L. D.; Knox, R. G.

    2002-01-01

    Between October 2000 and June 2001, an Agency-wide planning, effort was organized by elements of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to define future research and technology development activities. This planning effort was conducted at the request of the Associate Administrator of the Office of Earth Science (Code Y), Dr. Ghassem Asrar, at NASA Headquarters (HQ). The primary points of contact were Dr. Mary Cleave, Deputy Associate Administrator for Advanced Planning at NASA HQ (Headquarters) and Dr. Charles McClain of the Office of Global Carbon Studies (Code 970.2) at GSFC. During this period, GSFC hosted three workshops to define the science requirements and objectives, the observational and modeling requirements to meet the science objectives, the technology development requirements, and a cost plan for both the science program and new flight projects that will be needed for new observations beyond the present or currently planned. The plan definition process was very intensive as HQ required the final presentation package by mid-June 2001. This deadline was met and the recommendations were ultimately refined and folded into a broader program plan, which also included climate modeling, aerosol observations, and science computing technology development, for contributing to the President's Climate Change Research Initiative. This technical memorandum outlines the process and recommendations made for cross-cutting carbon cycle research as presented in June. A separate NASA document outlines the budget profiles or cost analyses conducted as part of the planning effort.

  12. Historical Perspective and Future Directions in Platelet Research

    PubMed Central

    Coller, Barry S.

    2011-01-01

    Platelets are a remarkable mammalian adaptation that are required for human survival by virtue of their ability to prevent and arrest bleeding. Ironically, however, in the past century, the platelets’ hemostatic activity became maladaptive for the increasingly large percentage of individuals who develop age-dependent progressive atherosclerosis. As a result, platelets also make a major contribution to ischemic thrombotic vascular disease, the leading cause of death worldwide. In this brief review, I provide historical descriptions of a highly selected group of topics to provide a framework for understanding our current knowledge and the trends that are likely to continue into the future of platelet research. For convenience, I separate the eras of platelet research into the “Descriptive Period” extending from ~1880-1960 and the “Mechanistic Period” encompassing the past ~50 years since 1960. We currently are reaching yet another inflection point, as there is a major shift from a focus on traditional biochemistry and cell and molecular biology to an era of single molecule biophysics, single cell biology, single cell molecular biology, structural biology, computational simulations, and the high-throughput, data-dense techniques collectively named with the “omics” postfix. Given the progress made in understanding, diagnosing, and treating many rare and common platelet disorders during the past 50 years, I think it appropriate to consider it a Golden Age of Platelet Research and to recognize all of the investigators who have made important contributions to this remarkable achievement. PMID:21781274

  13. Past missions - the best way to train future planetary researchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlova, Natalia; Solodovnikova, Anastasiya; Zubarev, Anatoly; Garov, Andrey; Patraty, Vyacheslav; Kokhanov, Alexander; Karachevtseva, Irina; Nadezhdina, Irina; Konopikhin, Anatoly; Oberst, Juergen

    2015-04-01

    Practice shows that it is much more interesting and useful to learn from real examples than on imaginary tasks from exercise books. The more technologies and software improves and develops, the more information and new products can be obtained from new processing of archive information collected by past planetary missions. So at MIIGAiK we carry out modern processing of lunar panoramic images obtained by Soviet Lunokhod missions (1970-1973). During two years of the study, which is a part of PRoViDE project (http://www.provide-space.eu/), many students, PhD students, young scientists, as well as professors have taken part in this research. Processing of the data obtained so long ago requires development of specific methods, techniques, special software and extraordinary approach. All these points help to interest young people in planetary science and develop their skills as researchers. Another advantage of data from previous missions is that you can compare your results with the ones obtained during the mission. This also helps to test the developed techniques and software on real data and adjust them for implementation in future missions. The work on Lunokhod data processing became the basis of master and PhD theses of MIIGAiK students and scientists at MExLab. Acknowledgments: The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement No 312377 PRoViDE.

  14. Advances in low-level jet research and future prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongbo; He, Mingyang; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Qinghong

    2014-02-01

    The low-level jet (LLJ) is closely related to severe rainfall events, air pollution, wind energy utilization, aviation safety, sandstorms, forest fire, and other weather and climate phenomena. Therefore, it has attracted considerable attention since its discovery. Scientists have carried out many studies on LLJs and made significant achievements during the past five or six decades. This article summarizes and assesses the current knowledge on this subject, and focuses in particular on three aspects: 1) LLJ classification, definition, distribution, and structure; 2) LLJ formation and evolutionary mechanisms; and 3) relationships between LLJ and rainfall, as well as other interdisciplinary fields. After comparing the status of LLJ research at home (China) and abroad, we then discuss the shortcomings of LLJ research in China. We suggest that this includes: coarse definitions of the LLJ, lack of observations and inadequate quality control, few thorough explorations of LLJ characteristics and formation mechanisms, and limited studies in interdisciplinary fields. The future prospects for several LLJ research avenues are also speculated.

  15. Childhood overweight: a contextual model and recommendations for future research

    PubMed Central

    Davison, K. K.; Birch, L. L.

    2008-01-01

    Summary The prevalence of overweight among children has doubled within the past two decades. Increases in the rate of childhood overweight are of particular concern due to the negative health and psychological effects noted among overweight children. As shown by previous research, the development of childhood overweight involves a complex set of factors from multiple contexts that interact with each other to place a child at risk of overweight. This multifaceted system can be conceptualized using Ecological Systems Theory (EST). EST highlights the importance of considering the context(s), or ecological niche, in which a person is located in order to understand the emergence of a particular characteristic. In the case of a child, the ecological niche includes the family and the school, which are in turn embedded in larger social contexts including the community and society at large. In this review, EST is used as a framework with which to summarize research assessing predictors of childhood overweight. Specifically, child characteristics that place children at risk of the development of overweight (including dietary intake, physical activity, and sedentary behaviour) will be reviewed while taking into consideration the influence of the familial environment, the school environment, and the community and larger social environments. It is concluded that future research needs to adopt a broader contextual approach in order to understand and intervene against the processes leading to the development of overweight among children and that the use of theories or paradigms such as EST will facilitate developing and testing models of causal processes. PMID:12120101

  16. Recent Advances in PV Research and Future Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deb, Satyen K.

    1998-04-01

    The photovoltaic technology is making a major thrust in the commercial arena with 1997 worldwide production of PV modules reaching over 125 MW and growing at the rate of 20-25semiconductor materials and devices are emerging as strong contenders for PV applications even though silicon is still the 'work-horse' of the industry. Ultra-high efficiency solar cells fabricated from gallium arsenide (GaAs) and its ternary alloys like gallium indium phosphide (GaInP2) are finding applications in space technology. Enormous progress has also been made on various thin-film solar cell technologies, which offer the promise for substantially reducing the cost of PV systems. Some of the leading contenders are amorphous and polycrystalline silicon, compound semiconductor thin films such as copper indium diselenide (CuInSe2) based alloys, and cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin films. Exciting new developments are happening in the use of nano-particle semiconductor materials like titanium dioxide (TiO2) for low-cost PV devices. Intense research on these and other materials and devices is making a strong impact on the technology. In this presentation, a brief overview of recent advances in PV research will b e made and the trends and opportunities for future research directions will be identified.

  17. Tendon Mechanobiology: Current Knowledge and Future Research Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Lavagnino, Michael; Wall, Michelle E.; Little, Dianne; Banes, Albert J.; Guilak, Farshid; Arnoczky, Steven P.

    2015-01-01

    Tendons mainly function as load-bearing tissues in the muscloskeletal system, transmitting loads from muscle to bone. Tendons are dynamic structures that respond to the magnitude, direction, frequency, and duration of physiologic as well as pathologic mechanical loads via complex interactions between cellular pathways and the highly specialized extracellular matrix. This paper reviews the evolution and current knowledge of mechanobiology in tendon development, homeostasis, disease, and repair. In addition, we review several novel mechanotransduction pathways that have been identified recently in other tissues and cell types, providing potential research opportunities in the field of tendon mechanobiology. We also highlight current methods, models, and technologies being used in a wide variety of mechanobiology research that could be investigated in the context of their potential applicability for answering some of the fundamental unanswered questions in this field. The article concludes with a review of the major questions and future goals discussed during the recent ORS/ISMMS New Frontiers in Tendon Research Conference held September 10–11, 2014 in New York City. PMID:25763779

  18. Langley Research Center Utility Risk from Future Climate Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Young, Russell J.; Ganoe, Rene

    2015-01-01

    The successful operation of NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) depends on services provided by several public utility companies. These include Newport News Waterworks, Dominion Virginia Power, Virginia Natural Gas and Hampton Roads Sanitation District. LaRC's plan to respond to future climate change should take into account how these companies plan to avoid interruption of services while minimizing cost to the customers. This report summarizes our findings from publicly available documents on how each company plans to respond. This will form the basis for future planning for the Center. Our preliminary findings show that flooding and severe storms could interrupt service from the Waterworks and Sanitation District but the potential is low due to plans in place to address climate change on their system. Virginia Natural Gas supplies energy to produce steam but most current steam comes from the Hampton trash burning plant, thus interruption risk is low. Dominion Virginia Power does not address climate change impacts on their system in their public reports. The potential interruption risk is considered to be medium. The Hampton Roads Sanitation District is projecting a major upgrade of their system to mitigate clean water inflow and infiltration. This will reduce infiltration and avoid overloading the pump stations and treatment plants.

  19. [Food allergy in adulthood].

    PubMed

    Werfel, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Food allergies can newly arise in adulthood or persist following a food allergy occurring in childhood. The prevalence of primary food allergy is basically higher in children than in adults; however, in the routine practice food allergies in adulthood appear to be increasing and after all a prevalence in Germany of 3.7 % has been published. The clinical spectrum of manifestations of food allergies in adulthood is broad. Allergy symptoms of the immediate type can be observed as well as symptoms occurring after a delay, such as indigestion, triggering of hematogenous contact eczema or flares of atopic dermatitis. The same principles for diagnostics apply in this group as in childhood. In addition to the anamnesis, skin tests and in vitro tests, as a rule elimination diets and in particular provocation tests are employed. Molecular allergy diagnostics represent a major step forward, which allow a better assessment of the risk of systemic reactions to certain foodstuffs (e.g. peanuts) and detection of cross-reactions in cases of apparently multiple sensitivities. Current German and European guidelines from 2015 are available for the practical approach to clarification of food allergies. The most frequent food allergies in adults are nuts, fruit and vegetables, which can cross-react with pollen as well as wheat, shellfish and crustaceans. The therapy of allergies involves a consistent avoidance of the allogen. Detailed dietary plans are available with avoidance strategies and instructions for suitable food substitutes. A detailed counseling of affected patients by specially trained personnel is necessary especially in order to avoid nutritional deficiencies and to enable patients to enjoy a good quality of life. PMID:27207694

  20. Computerized clinical guidelines: current status & principles for future research.

    PubMed

    Kondylakis, Haridimos; Tsiknakis, Manolis

    2012-01-01

    Although it is widely accepted that the adoption of computerized clinical guidelines would improve the quality of the provided health care, their influence in the daily practice is limited. In this paper we provide insights on the core topics related to computer interpretable clinical guidelines and we present shortly the main approaches in the area. Then we discuss the current limitations, and we present three simple principles that according to our view should be adopted to enhance the penetration of computerized clinical guidelines in the health care organizations. The overall goal of this paper is not only to give readers a quick overview of the works in the area, but also to provide necessary insights for the practical understanding of the issues involved and draw directions for future research and development activities. PMID:22874227

  1. Cognitive behavioral therapy: current status and future research directions.

    PubMed

    McMain, Shelley; Newman, Michelle G; Segal, Zindel V; DeRubeis, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), an umbrella term that includes a diverse group of treatments, is defined by a strong commitment to empiricism. While CBT has a robust empirical base, areas for improvement remain. This article reviews the status of the current empirical base and its limitations, and presents future directions for advancement of the field. Ultimately, studies are needed that will identify the predictors, mediators, and moderators of treatment response in order to increase knowledge on how to personalize interventions for each client and to strengthen the impact of CBT. Efforts to advance the dissemination and implementation of CBT, innovative approaches such as practice-oriented research, and the advantages of incorporating new and existing technologies, are discussed as well. PMID:25689506

  2. Trends in research and development for future detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattai, Ariella

    2013-12-01

    Development of novel detector concepts has always played a major role in supporting and enabling scientific research. In the forthcoming phase of high energy physics (HEP), the design and development of new detectors and detector concepts will be even more important than it was in the past owing to the harsh environmental conditions and the challenging requests imposed by the physicists' needs for: improved spatial and time resolution, innovative functions, acquisition speed, radiation tolerance, minimal power consumption, robustness and reliability, minimal material and more. This overview addresses the challenges that upgrades and future projects in HEP will impose in terms of novel technologies and stresses the detectors' potential and limitations in attempting to achieve the scientific goals. In addition the increasingly strong dependence on large-scale industrial production and industrial development, especially in the area of integrated electronics, sensors and large complex systems will be addressed.

  3. A bright future for bioluminescent imaging in viral research

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Stewart M; McGregor, Alistair

    2015-01-01

    Summary Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) has emerged as a powerful tool in the study of animal models of viral disease. BLI enables real-time in vivo study of viral infection, host immune response and the efficacy of intervention strategies. Substrate dependent light emitting luciferase enzyme when incorporated into a virus as a reporter gene enables detection of bioluminescence from infected cells using sensitive charge-coupled device (CCD) camera systems. Advantages of BLI include low background, real-time tracking of infection in the same animal and reduction in the requirement for larger animal numbers. Transgenic luciferase-tagged mice enable the use of pre-existing nontagged viruses in BLI studies. Continued development in luciferase reporter genes, substrates, transgenic animals and imaging systems will greatly enhance future BLI strategies in viral research. PMID:26413138

  4. Summary: present and future challenges for stem cell research.

    PubMed

    Hogan, B L M

    2008-01-01

    Stem cell research is being driven forward at an intense pace by creative interactions among scientists working in different fields. These include developmental and reproductive biology, regeneration, genomics, live cell imaging, RNA biology, and cancer biology, to name a few. Numerous model systems and techniques are being exploited, and lab scientists are teaming up with bioengineers and clinicians. The ferment of ideas that makes the field so exciting was in full evidence throughout the Symposium. However, many challenges still need to be overcome to translate basic discoveries into therapeutic outcomes that will save lives and fulfill the promises that have been made. This chapter summarizes some of the highlights of the Symposium and indicates future directions that are being taken by leaders in the field. PMID:19329577

  5. High Density Electroencephalography in Sleep Research: Potential, Problems, Future Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Lustenberger, Caroline; Huber, Reto

    2012-01-01

    High density EEG (hdEEG) during sleep combines the superior temporal resolution of EEG recordings with high spatial resolution. Thus, this method allows a topographical analysis of sleep EEG activity and thereby fosters the shift from a global view of sleep to a local one. HdEEG allowed to investigate sleep rhythms in terms of their characteristic behavior (e.g., the traveling of slow waves) and in terms of their relationship to cortical functioning (e.g., consciousness and cognitive abilities). Moreover, recent studies successfully demonstrated that hdEEG can be used to study brain functioning in neurological and neuro-developmental disorders, and to evaluate therapeutic approaches. This review highlights the potential, the problems, and future perspective of hdEEG in sleep research. PMID:22593753

  6. Past, present and future research directions with Pichia anomala.

    PubMed

    Passoth, Volkmar; Olstorpe, Matilda; Schnürer, Johan

    2011-01-01

    The first International Pichia anomala Symposium provided a survey of past, recent and ongoing research on this yeast. The research community working with this yeast has focussed on several areas. Based on molecular data, a revision of the taxonomy is required: the name P. anomala is no longer applicable, as the genus Pichia is polyphyletic. The current debate centres on whether the yeast should be designated as Wickerhamomyces anomalus or if the previous name, Hansenula anomala, should be re-instated. The anti-microbial activities of this yeast received considerable attention during the symposium. H. anomala has been extensively studied as a biopreservation agent in many different post-harvest systems. Several mechanisms account for its anti-microbial activities, including the production of killer proteins and toxic volatile metabolites. Anti-idiotypic antibodies generating an "internal image" of a killer protein have been found to possess therapeutic activity against a broad range of microorganisms. A great diversity of H. anomala strains was reported at the symposium. Strains have been isolated from several food and feed systems and even from the intestine and reproductive organs of a malaria vector (Anopheles stephensi). Feed and food supplemented with certain H. anomala strains show an improved quality due, for example, to the addition of advantageous proteins and phytase activity. However, a number of apparent opportunistic pathogenic strains have also been isolated. Strain differentiation, especially the recognition of potentially pathogenic isolates, is an important challenge for the future commercialisation of this yeast. Future industrial and agricultural application of this yeast also raises questions of the economics of large-scale production, its survival during storage (formulation) and of safety regulations, all of which require further investigation. PMID:20924674

  7. The developmental psychopathology of alcohol use and alcohol disorders: Research achievements and future directions

    PubMed Central

    CHASSIN, LAURIE; SHER, KENNETH J.; HUSSONG, ANDREA; CURRAN, PATRICK

    2013-01-01

    The last 25 years have seen significant advances in our conceptualization of alcohol use and alcohol use disorders within a developmental framework, along with advances in our empirical understanding that have been potentiated by advances in quantitative methods. These include advances in understanding the heterogeneity of trajectories of alcohol outcomes; new insights about early childhood antecedents, and adolescence and emerging adulthood as important developmental periods for alcohol outcomes; a more nuanced understanding of the influences of developmental transitions, and their timing and contexts; a greater appreciation for the importance of considering multiple levels of analysis (including an increasing number of genetically informative studies); a continuing focus on studying multiple pathways underlying alcohol outcomes; and an increasing focus on studying the effects of alcohol exposure on future development. The current paper reviews these advances and suggests directions for future study. PMID:24342856

  8. Water research to support society: past, present and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arheimer, Berit

    2014-05-01

    Scientists are nowadays claiming that we are leaving the geological era of Holocene and have entered the Anthropocene (the Age of Man), a man-made world, in which humans are not observers of nature but central to its workings and commanding the planet's features, fluxes and material cycles. Both the hydrological and the biogeochemical cycles are radically changed compared to pristine conditions and the biodiversity is radically declining as the human population is growing. The co-evolution between society and environment is complex and not always reversible and we therefore need more research on effects of change to raise awareness and prepare for consequences. Many problems caused by humans are also well recognized and can be remediated. As the society develops also the environmental concerns normally becomes more important leading to remedial measures and pollution control. The change in water quality for many rivers world-wide shows similar flux over time related to level of economic development, going from deterioration to recovery as an effect of improved water management. Water management is of major importance for sustainable development, both for efficient water use and ecosystem protection. Water management should be based on (i) best available site information and (ii) best practices from understanding cause-effect relationships; yet, large areas still remains un-monitored and the relations between processes are complex and often not well understood. These knowledge gaps hamper the societal development and are thus two key challenges to address in the hydrological sciences initiative Panta Rhei. This presentation will address some of these challenges for water research in the past, present and future. Hydrology is by tradition an applied research, in which scientific questions co-evolve with societal needs. This will be exemplified this by giving a brief overview of the shift in research questions at one national institute, SMHI, during the last 100 years

  9. Photovoltaic manufacturing: Present status, future prospects, and research needs

    SciTech Connect

    Wolden, C.A.; Fthenakis, V.; Kurtin, J.; Baxter, J.; Repins, I.; Shasheen, S.; Torvik, J.; Rocket, A.; Aydil, E.

    2011-03-29

    In May 2010 the United States National Science Foundation sponsored a two-day workshop to review the state-of-the-art and research challenges in photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing. This article summarizes the major conclusions and outcomes from this workshop, which was focused on identifying the science that needs to be done to help accelerate PV manufacturing. A significant portion of the article focuses on assessing the current status of and future opportunities in the major PV manufacturing technologies. These are solar cells based on crystalline silicon (c-Si), thin films of cadmium telluride (CdTe), thin films of copper indium gallium diselenide, and thin films of hydrogenated amorphous and nanocrystalline silicon. Current trends indicate that the cost per watt of c-Si and CdTe solar cells are being reduced to levels beyond the constraints commonly associated with these technologies. With a focus on TW/yr production capacity, the issue of material availability is discussed along with the emerging technologies of dye-sensitized solar cells and organic photovoltaics that are potentially less constrained by elemental abundance. Lastly, recommendations are made for research investment, with an emphasis on those areas that are expected to have cross-cutting impact.

  10. Implementation of proteomics for cancer research: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Parisa; Shahrokni, Armin; Ranjbar, Mohammad R Nezami

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of the death, accounts for about 13% of all annual deaths worldwide. Many different fields of science are collaborating together studying cancer to improve our knowledge of this lethal disease, and find better solutions for diagnosis and treatment. Proteomics is one of the most recent and rapidly growing areas in molecular biology that helps understanding cancer from an omics data analysis point of view. The human proteome project was officially initiated in 2008. Proteomics enables the scientists to interrogate a variety of biospecimens for their protein contents and measure the concentrations of these proteins. Current necessary equipment and technologies for cancer proteomics are mass spectrometry, protein microarrays, nanotechnology and bioinformatics. In this paper, we provide a brief review on proteomics and its application in cancer research. After a brief introduction including its definition, we summarize the history of major previous work conducted by researchers, followed by an overview on the role of proteomics in cancer studies. We also provide a list of different utilities in cancer proteomics and investigate their advantages and shortcomings from theoretical and practical angles. Finally, we explore some of the main challenges and conclude the paper with future directions in this field. PMID:24761843

  11. 50 years of Arabidopsis research: highlights and future directions.

    PubMed

    Provart, Nicholas J; Alonso, Jose; Assmann, Sarah M; Bergmann, Dominique; Brady, Siobhan M; Brkljacic, Jelena; Browse, John; Chapple, Clint; Colot, Vincent; Cutler, Sean; Dangl, Jeff; Ehrhardt, David; Friesner, Joanna D; Frommer, Wolf B; Grotewold, Erich; Meyerowitz, Elliot; Nemhauser, Jennifer; Nordborg, Magnus; Pikaard, Craig; Shanklin, John; Somerville, Chris; Stitt, Mark; Torii, Keiko U; Waese, Jamie; Wagner, Doris; McCourt, Peter

    2016-02-01

    922 I. 922 II. 922 III. 925 IV. 925 V. 926 VI. 927 VII. 928 VIII. 929 IX. 930 X. 931 XI. 932 XII. 933 XIII. Natural variation and genome-wide association studies 934 XIV. 934 XV. 935 XVI. 936 XVII. 937 937 References 937 SUMMARY: The year 2014 marked the 25(th) International Conference on Arabidopsis Research. In the 50 yr since the first International Conference on Arabidopsis Research, held in 1965 in Göttingen, Germany, > 54 000 papers that mention Arabidopsis thaliana in the title, abstract or keywords have been published. We present herein a citational network analysis of these papers, and touch on some of the important discoveries in plant biology that have been made in this powerful model system, and highlight how these discoveries have then had an impact in crop species. We also look to the future, highlighting some outstanding questions that can be readily addressed in Arabidopsis. Topics that are discussed include Arabidopsis reverse genetic resources, stock centers, databases and online tools, cell biology, development, hormones, plant immunity, signaling in response to abiotic stress, transporters, biosynthesis of cells walls and macromolecules such as starch and lipids, epigenetics and epigenomics, genome-wide association studies and natural variation, gene regulatory networks, modeling and systems biology, and synthetic biology. PMID:26465351

  12. Peaking for optimal performance: Research limitations and future directions.

    PubMed

    Pyne, David B; Mujika, Iñigo; Reilly, Thomas

    2009-02-01

    A key element of the physical preparation of athletes is the taper period in the weeks immediately preceding competition. Existing research has defined the taper, identified various forms used in contemporary sport, and examined the prescription of training volume, load, intensity, duration, and type (progressive or step). Current limitations include: the lack of studies on team, combative, racquet, and precision (target) sports; the relatively small number of randomized controlled trials; the narrow focus on a single competition (single peak) compared with multiple peaking for weekly, multi-day or multiple events; and limited understanding of the physiological, neuromuscular, and biomechanical basis of the taper. Future research should address these limitations, together with the influence of prior training on optimal tapering strategies, and the interactions between the taper and long-haul travel, heat, and altitude. Practitioners seek information on how to prescribe tapers from season to season during an athlete's career, or a team's progression through a domestic league season, or multi-year Olympic or World Cup cycle. Practical guidelines for planning effective tapers for the Vancouver 2010 and London 2012 Olympics will evolve from both experimental investigations and modelling of successful tapers currently employed in a wide range of sports. PMID:19153861

  13. Future developments in brain-machine interface research

    PubMed Central

    Lebedev, Mikhail A; Tate, Andrew J; Hanson, Timothy L; Li, Zheng; O'Doherty, Joseph E; Winans, Jesse A; Ifft, Peter J; Zhuang, Katie Z; Fitzsimmons, Nathan A; Schwarz, David A; Fuller, Andrew M; An, Je Hi; Nicolelis, Miguel A L

    2011-01-01

    Neuroprosthetic devices based on brain-machine interface technology hold promise for the restoration of body mobility in patients suffering from devastating motor deficits caused by brain injury, neurologic diseases and limb loss. During the last decade, considerable progress has been achieved in this multidisciplinary research, mainly in the brain-machine interface that enacts upper-limb functionality. However, a considerable number of problems need to be resolved before fully functional limb neuroprostheses can be built. To move towards developing neuroprosthetic devices for humans, brain-machine interface research has to address a number of issues related to improving the quality of neuronal recordings, achieving stable, long-term performance, and extending the brain-machine interface approach to a broad range of motor and sensory functions. Here, we review the future steps that are part of the strategic plan of the Duke University Center for Neuroengineering, and its partners, the Brazilian National Institute of Brain-Machine Interfaces and the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) Center for Neuroprosthetics, to bring this new technology to clinical fruition. PMID:21779720

  14. The role of adolescent nutrition and physical activity in the prediction of verbal intelligence during early adulthood: a genetically informed analysis of twin pairs.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Dylan B; Beaver, Kevin M

    2015-01-01

    A large body of research has revealed that nutrition and physical activity influence brain functioning at various stages of the life course. Nevertheless, very few studies have explored whether diet and exercise influence verbal intelligence as youth transition from adolescence into young adulthood. Even fewer studies have explored the link between these health behaviors and verbal intelligence while accounting for genetic and environmental factors that are shared between siblings. Employing data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the current study uses a sample of same-sex twin pairs to test whether youth who engage in poorer fitness and nutritional practices are significantly more likely to exhibit reduced verbal intelligence during young adulthood. The results suggests that, independent of the effects of genetic and shared environmental factors, a number of nutritional and exercise factors during adolescence influence verbal intelligence during adulthood. Limitations are noted and suggestions for future research are outlined. PMID:25568969

  15. The Role of Adolescent Nutrition and Physical Activity in the Prediction of Verbal Intelligence during Early Adulthood: A Genetically Informed Analysis of Twin Pairs

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Dylan B.; Beaver, Kevin M.

    2015-01-01

    A large body of research has revealed that nutrition and physical activity influence brain functioning at various stages of the life course. Nevertheless, very few studies have explored whether diet and exercise influence verbal intelligence as youth transition from adolescence into young adulthood. Even fewer studies have explored the link between these health behaviors and verbal intelligence while accounting for genetic and environmental factors that are shared between siblings. Employing data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the current study uses a sample of same-sex twin pairs to test whether youth who engage in poorer fitness and nutritional practices are significantly more likely to exhibit reduced verbal intelligence during young adulthood. The results suggests that, independent of the effects of genetic and shared environmental factors, a number of nutritional and exercise factors during adolescence influence verbal intelligence during adulthood. Limitations are noted and suggestions for future research are outlined. PMID:25568969

  16. Civic engagement and the transition to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Constance; Levine, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Constance Flanagan and Peter Levine survey research on civic engagement among U.S. adolescents and young adults. Civic engagement, they say, is important both for the functioning of democracies and for the growth and maturation it encourages in young adults, but opportunities for civic engagement are not evenly distributed by social class or race and ethnicity. Today's young adults, note the authors, are less likely than those in earlier generations to exhibit many important characteristics of citizenship, raising the question of whether these differences represent a decline or simply a delay in traditional adult patterns of civic engagement. Flanagan and Levine also briefly discuss the civic and political lives of immigrant youth in the United States, noting that because these youth make up a significant share of the current generation of young adults, their civic engagement is an important barometer of the future of democracy. The authors next survey differences in civic participation for youth from different social, racial, and ethnic backgrounds. They explore two sets of factors that contribute to a lower rate of civic engagement among low-income and minority young adults. The first is cumulative disadvantage-unequal opportunities and influences before adulthood, especially parental education. The second is different institutional opportunities for civic engagement among college and non-college youth during the young-adult years. Flanagan and Levine survey various settings where young adults spend time-schools and colleges, community organizations, faith-based institutions, community organizing and activism projects, and military and other voluntary service programs-and examine the opportunities for civic engagement that each affords. As the transition to adulthood has lengthened, say the authors, colleges have become perhaps the central institution for civic incorporation of younger generations. But no comparable institution exists for young adults who do not

  17. Nutrition and neurodegeneration: epidemiological evidence and challenges for future research.

    PubMed

    Gillette-Guyonnet, Sophie; Secher, Marion; Vellas, Bruno

    2013-03-01

    The prevention of dementias, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), is a growing public health concern, due to a lack of effective curative treatment options and a rising global prevalence. Various potential risk or preventive factors have been suggested by epidemiological research, including modifiable lifestyle factors such as diet. Current epidemiological data are in favour of a protective role of certain micronutrients (B vitamins related to homocysteine metabolism, the anti-oxidant vitamins C and E, flavonoids, polyunsatured omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin D) and macronutrients (fish) in the prevention of cognitive decline and dementia/AD. Some factors have been targeted by interventions tested in randomized controlled trials (RCTs), but many of the results are conflicting with observational evidence. Epidemiological analysis of the relations between nutrient consumption and cognitive decline is complex and it is highly unlikely that a single component plays a major role. In addition, since multiple factors across the life course influence brain function in late life, multidomain interventions might be more promising in the prevention of cognitive decline and dementia/AD. Designing such trials remains very challenging for researchers. The main objective of this paper is to review the epidemiologic data linking potential protective factors to cognitive decline or dementia/AD, focusing particularly on the roles of adiposity, caloric restriction, micro (group B vitamins related to homocysteine metabolism, the anti-oxidant vitamins C and E, flavonoids, polyunsatured omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin D) and macronutrients (fish). Limitations of the current data, divergence with results of interventional prevention studies and challenges for future research are discussed. PMID:23384081

  18. Nutrition and neurodegeneration: epidemiological evidence and challenges for future research

    PubMed Central

    Gillette‐Guyonnet, Sophie; Secher, Marion; Vellas, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    The prevention of dementias, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), is a growing public health concern, due to a lack of effective curative treatment options and a rising global prevalence. Various potential risk or preventive factors have been suggested by epidemiological research, including modifiable lifestyle factors such as diet. Current epidemiological data are in favour of a protective role of certain micronutrients (B vitamins related to homocysteine metabolism, the anti‐oxidant vitamins C and E, flavonoids, polyunsatured omega‐3 fatty acids, vitamin D) and macronutrients (fish) in the prevention of cognitive decline and dementia/AD. Some factors have been targeted by interventions tested in randomized controlled trials (RCTs), but many of the results are conflicting with observational evidence. Epidemiological analysis of the relations between nutrient consumption and cognitive decline is complex and it is highly unlikely that a single component plays a major role. In addition, since multiple factors across the life course influence brain function in late life, multidomain interventions might be more promising in the prevention of cognitive decline and dementia/AD. Designing such trials remains very challenging for researchers. The main objective of this paper is to review the epidemiologic data linking potential protective factors to cognitive decline or dementia/AD, focusing particularly on the roles of adiposity, caloric restriction, micro (group B vitamins related to homocysteine metabolism, the anti‐oxidant vitamins C and E, flavonoids, polyunsatured omega‐3 fatty acids, vitamin D) and macronutrients (fish). Limitations of the current data, divergence with results of interventional prevention studies and challenges for future research are discussed. PMID:23384081

  19. Munchausen by Internet: Current Research and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Jacqui

    2012-01-01

    about their health in the online environment. We also suggest directions for future research. PMID:22914203

  20. Proceeding of human exoskeleton technology and discussions on future research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhiqiang; Xie, Hanxing; Li, Weilin; Yao, Zheng

    2014-05-01

    After more than half a century of intense efforts, the development of exoskeleton has seen major advances, and several remarkable achievements have been made. Reviews of developing history of exoskeleton are presented, both in active and passive categories. Major models are introduced, and typical technologies are commented on. Difficulties in control algorithm, driver system, power source, and man-machine interface are discussed. Current researching routes and major developing methods are mapped and critically analyzed, and in the process, some key problems are revealed. First, the exoskeleton is totally different from biped robot, and relative studies based on the robot technologies are considerably incorrect. Second, biomechanical studies are only used to track the motion of the human body, the interaction between human and machines are seldom studied. Third, the traditional developing ways which focused on servo-controlling have inborn deficiency from making portable systems. Research attention should be shifted to the human side of the coupling system, and the human ability to learn and adapt should play a more significant role in the control algorithms. Having summarized the major difficulties, possible future works are discussed. It is argued that, since a distinct boundary cannot be drawn in such strong-coupling human-exoskeleton system, the more complex the control system gets, the more difficult it is for the user to learn to use. It is suggested that the exoskeleton should be treated as a simple wearable tool, and downgrading its automatic level may be a change toward a brighter research outlook. This effort at simplification is definitely not easy, as it necessitates theoretical supports from fields such as biomechanics, ergonomics, and bionics.

  1. Emerging Adulthood: Resilience and Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Vanessa; Meyer, Jill

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This article provides an overview of emerging adulthood, recentering, and resilience of youth with disabilities. Emerging adulthood is a developmental period during which individuals experience delays in attainment of adult roles and social expectations. Recentering is a process that emerging adults experience as they make distinct shifts…

  2. Cancer Treatment-Related Cardiotoxicity: Understanding the Current State of Knowledge and Developing Future Research Priorities

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer Treatment-Related Cardiotoxicity: Understanding the Current State of Knowledge and Developing Future Research Priorities, a 2013 workshop sponsored by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program.

  3. Review of the Status of Learning in Research on Sport Education: Future Research and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Rui; Mesquita, Isabel; Hastie, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Research concerning Sport Education’s educational impact has shown unequivocal results according to students’ personal and social development. Nevertheless, research is still sparse with respect to the model’s impact on student learning outcomes. The goal of the present review is to therefore scrutinize what is currently known regarding students’ learning during their participation in Sport Education. This research spans a variety of studies, cross various countries, school grades, the sports studied, as well as the methods applied and dimensions of student learning analyzed. While research on the impact of Sport Education on students’ learning, as well as teachers’ and students’ perceptions about student learning has shown students’ improvements during the participation in Sport Education seasons, there is still considerable variance in these results. For example, some studies report superior learning opportunities to boys and higher skill-level students while other studies have identified superior learning opportunities for girls and lower skill-level students. These inconsistent results can be explained by factors not considered in the Sport Education research, such as the effect of time on students’ learning and the control of the teaching-learning process within Sport Education units. In this review directions for future research and practice are also described. Future research should define, implement, and evaluate protocols for student-coaches’ preparation in order to understand the influence of this issue on students’ learning as well as consider the implementation of hybrid approaches. Moreover, future studies should consider the interaction of gender and skill level and a retention test in the analysis of students’ learning improvements in order to obtain a more realist and complete portrait of the impact of Sport Education. Finally, in order to reach an entirely understanding of the teaching-learning process, it is necessary to

  4. Review of the status of learning in research on sport education: future research and practice.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Rui; Mesquita, Isabel; Hastie, Peter A

    2014-12-01

    Research concerning Sport Education's educational impact has shown unequivocal results according to students' personal and social development. Nevertheless, research is still sparse with respect to the model's impact on student learning outcomes. The goal of the present review is to therefore scrutinize what is currently known regarding students' learning during their participation in Sport Education. This research spans a variety of studies, cross various countries, school grades, the sports studied, as well as the methods applied and dimensions of student learning analyzed. While research on the impact of Sport Education on students' learning, as well as teachers' and students' perceptions about student learning has shown students' improvements during the participation in Sport Education seasons, there is still considerable variance in these results. For example, some studies report superior learning opportunities to boys and higher skill-level students while other studies have identified superior learning opportunities for girls and lower skill-level students. These inconsistent results can be explained by factors not considered in the Sport Education research, such as the effect of time on students' learning and the control of the teaching-learning process within Sport Education units. In this review directions for future research and practice are also described. Future research should define, implement, and evaluate protocols for student-coaches' preparation in order to understand the influence of this issue on students' learning as well as consider the implementation of hybrid approaches. Moreover, future studies should consider the interaction of gender and skill level and a retention test in the analysis of students' learning improvements in order to obtain a more realist and complete portrait of the impact of Sport Education. Finally, in order to reach an entirely understanding of the teaching-learning process, it is necessary to use research designs that

  5. Future volcanic lake research: revealing secrets from poorly studied lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouwet, D.; Tassi, F.; Mora-Amador, R. A.

    2012-04-01

    Volcanic lake research boosted after the 1986 Lake Nyos lethal gas burst, a limnic rather than volcanic event. This led to the formation of the IAVCEI-Commission on Volcanic Lakes, which grew out into a multi-disciplinary scientific community since the 1990's. At Lake Nyos, a degassing pipe is functional since 2001, and two additional pipes were added in 2011, aimed to prevent further limnic eruption events. There are between 150 and 200 volcanic lakes on Earth. Some acidic crater lakes topping active magmatic-hydrothermal systems are monitored continuously or discontinuously. Such detailed studies have shown their usefulness in volcanic surveillance (e.g. Ruapehu, Yugama-Kusatsu-Shiran, Poás). Others are "Nyos-type" lakes, with possible gas accumulation in bottom waters and thus potentially hazardous. "Nyos-type" lakes tend to remain stably stratified in tropical and sub-tropical climates (meromictic), leading to long-term gas build-up and thus higher potential risk. In temperate climates, such lakes tend to turn over in winter (monomictic), and thus liberating its gas charge yearly. We line out research strategies for the different types of lakes. We believe a complementary, multi-disciplinary approach (geochemistry, geophysics, limnology, biology, statistics, etc.) will lead to new insights and ideas, which can be the base for future following-up and monitoring. After 25 years of pioneering studies on rather few lakes, the scientific community should be challenged to study the many poorly studied volcanic lakes, in order to better constrain the related hazard, based on probabilistic approaches.

  6. Present and Future Automotive Composite Materials Research Efforts at DOE

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, C.D.

    1999-07-03

    Automobiles of the future will be forced to travel fi.uther on a tank of fuel while discharging lower levels of pollutants. Currently, the United States uses in excess of 16.4 million barrels of petroleum per day. Sixty-six percent of that petroleum is used in the transportation of people and goods. Automobiles currently account for just under two-thirds of the nation's gasoline consumptio~ and about one-third of the total United States energy usage. [1] By improving transportation related fiel efficiency, the United States can lessen the impact that emissions have on our environment and provide a cleaner environment for fiture generations. In 1992, The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Transportation Materials completed a comprehensive program plan entitled, The Lightweight MateriaIs (LWko Multi-Year Program Plan, for the development of technologies aimed at reducing vehicle mass [2]. This plan was followed in 1997 by the more comprehensive Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies research and development plan titled, Energy Eficient Vehicles for a Cleaner Environment [3] which outlines the department's plans for developing more efficient vehicles during the next ~een years. Both plans identi~ potential applications, technology needs, and R&D priorities. The goal of the Lightweight Materials Program is to develop materials and primary processing methods for the fabrication of lighter weight components which can be incorporated into automotive systems. These technologies are intended to reduce vehicle weight, increase fuel efficiency and decrease emissions. The Lightweight Materials program is jointly managed by the Department of Energy(DOE) and the United States Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP). Composite materiak program work is coordinated by cooperative research efforts between the DOE and the Automotive Composites Consortium (ACC).

  7. Microbicide acceptability research: current approaches and future directions.

    PubMed

    Mantell, Joanne E; Myer, Landon; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Stein, Zena; Ramjee, Gita; Morar, Neetha S; Harrison, Polly F

    2005-01-01

    With growing recognition of the potential value of microbicides for HIV/STI prevention, the importance of the acceptability of this brand-new technology has been widely acknowledged. We review the current body of microbicide acceptability research, characterize the limitations in assessment approaches, and suggest strategies for improvement. Electronic databases and abstracts of recent meetings were searched for acceptability data regarding vaginal and rectal products that may be used for HIV prevention. Of the 61 studies reviewed, more than half assessed acceptability based primarily on the description of a hypothetical microbicide, or with the demonstration of a spermicide or lubricant. Physical characteristics of microbicidal products, their effects after insertion, and their effects on sensation during intercourse (for both partners) were the dimensions most frequently assessed (measured in 77%, 49% and 49% of studies, respectively). Attention to the social context of use was inadequate. As acceptability is likely to be a key determinant in the use-effectiveness of microbicides, in-depth understanding of the social processes that shape microbicide acceptability across diverse populations will become increasingly valuable. This includes exploring the effects that sexual partners, health care providers, and key opinion leaders have on the acceptability of microbicides among women and men, including youth and people living with HIV. Future research will benefit from studies of the acceptability of other contraceptive-barrier methods (especially the female condom), use of an agreed-upon operationalization of acceptability, use of acceptability assessments within clinical trials, expansion of measurement domains, and assessment of changes in perceptions of acceptability and use over time. Failure to understand the key factors associated with microbicide acceptability is likely to hinder the adoption and continued use of products that are effective in preventing HIV

  8. Fog Research: A Review of Past Achievements and Future Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gultepe, I.; Tardif, R.; Michaelides, S. C.; Cermak, J.; Bott, A.; Bendix, J.; Müller, M. D.; Pagowski, M.; Hansen, B.; Ellrod, G.; Jacobs, W.; Toth, G.; Cober, S. G.

    2007-06-01

    The scientific community that includes meteorologists, physical scientists, engineers, medical doctors, biologists, and environmentalists has shown interest in a better understanding of fog for years because of its effects on, directly or indirectly, the daily life of human beings. The total economic losses associated with the impact of the presence of fog on aviation, marine and land transportation can be comparable to those of tornadoes or, in some cases, winter storms and hurricanes. The number of articles including the word ``fog'' in Journals of American Meteorological Society alone was found to be about 4700, indicating that there is substantial interest in this subject. In spite of this extensive body of work, our ability to accurately forecast/nowcast fog remains limited due to our incomplete understanding of the fog processes over various time and space scales. Fog processes involve droplet microphysics, aerosol chemistry, radiation, turbulence, large/small-scale dynamics, and surface conditions (e.g., partaining to the presence of ice, snow, liquid, plants, and various types of soil). This review paper summarizes past achievements related to the understanding of fog formation, development and decay, and in this respect, the analysis of observations and the development of forecasting models and remote sensing methods are discussed in detail. Finally, future perspectives for fog-related research are highlighted.

  9. Selenium bioavailability: current knowledge and future research requirements.

    PubMed

    Fairweather-Tait, Susan J; Collings, Rachel; Hurst, Rachel

    2010-05-01

    Information on selenium bioavailability is required to derive dietary recommendations and to evaluate and improve the quality of food products. The need for robust data is particularly important in light of recent suggestions of potential health benefits associated with different intakes of selenium. The issue is not straightforward, however, because of large variations in the selenium content of foods (determined by a combination of geologic/environmental factors and selenium supplementation of fertilizers and animal feedstuffs) and the chemical forms of the element, which are absorbed and metabolized differently. Although most dietary selenium is absorbed efficiently, the retention of organic forms is higher than that of inorganic forms. There are also complications in the assessment and quantification of selenium species within foodstuffs. Often, extraction is only partial, and the process can alter the form or forms present in the food. Efforts to improve, standardize, and make more widely available techniques for species quantification are required. Similarly, reliable and sensitive functional biomarkers of selenium status are required, together with improvements in current biomarker methods. This requirement is particularly important for the assessment of bioavailability, because some functional biomarkers respond differently to the various selenium species. The effect of genotype adds a potential further dimension to the process of deriving bioavailability estimates and underlines the need for further research to facilitate the process of deriving dietary recommendations in the future. PMID:20200264

  10. Mitochondrial pyruvate transport: a historical perspective and future research directions

    PubMed Central

    McCommis, Kyle S.; Finck, Brian N.

    2015-01-01

    Pyruvate is the end-product of glycolysis, a major substrate for oxidative metabolism, and a branching point for glucose, lactate, fatty acid and amino acid synthesis. The mitochondrial enzymes that metabolize pyruvate are physically separated from cytosolic pyruvate pools and rely on a membrane transport system to shuttle pyruvate across the impermeable inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM). Despite long-standing acceptance that transport of pyruvate into the mitochondrial matrix by a carrier-mediated process is required for the bulk of its metabolism, it has taken almost 40 years to determine the molecular identity of an IMM pyruvate carrier. Our current understanding is that two proteins, mitochondrial pyruvate carriers MPC1 and MPC2, form a hetero-oligomeric complex in the IMM to facilitate pyruvate transport. This step is required for mitochondrial pyruvate oxidation and carboxylation – critical reactions in intermediary metabolism that are dysregulated in several common diseases. The identification of these transporter constituents opens the door to the identification of novel compounds that modulate MPC activity, with potential utility for treating diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and other common causes of morbidity and mortality. The purpose of the present review is to detail the historical, current and future research investigations concerning mitochondrial pyruvate transport, and discuss the possible consequences of altered pyruvate transport in various metabolic tissues. PMID:25748677

  11. Alcohol and NMDA receptor: current research and future direction

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekar, Raman

    2013-01-01

    The brain is one of the major targets of alcohol actions. Most of the excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system is mediated by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. However, one of the most devastating effects of alcohol leads to brain shrinkage, loss of nerve cells at specific regions through a mechanism involving excitotoxicity, oxidative stress. Earlier studies have indicated that chronic exposure to ethanol both in vivo and in vitro, increases NR1 and NR2B gene expression and their polypeptide levels. The effect of alcohol and molecular changes on the regulatory process, which modulates NMDAR functions including factors altering transcription, translation, post-translational modifications, and protein expression, as well as those influencing their interactions with different regulatory proteins (downstream effectors) are incessantly increasing at the cellular level. Further, I discuss the various genetically altered mice approaches that have been used to study NMDA receptor subunits and their functional implication. In a recent countable review, epigenetic dimension (i.e., histone modification-induced chromatin remodeling and DNA methylation, in the process of alcohol related neuroadaptation) is one of the key molecular mechanisms in alcohol mediated NMDAR alteration. Here, I provide a recount on what has already been achieved, current trends and how the future research/studies of the NMDA receptor might lead to even greater engagement with many possible new insights into the neurobiology and treatment of alcoholism. PMID:23754976

  12. Global Alzheimer Research Summit: basic and clinical research: present and future Alzheimer research.

    PubMed

    Gonsalves, Danielle; Jovanovic, Katarina; Da Costa Dias, Bianca; Weiss, Stefan F T

    2012-01-01

    We report here on the proceedings of the Global Alzheimer Summit that took place September 22-23, 2011 in Madrid, Spain. As Alzheimer disease (AD) is the leading cause of neurodegeneration in elderly individuals and as yet has no effective therapeutic option, it continues to stimulate global research interests. At the conference, leaders in the field of AD research provided insights into current developments in various areas of research, namely molecular mechanisms, genetics, novel aspects of AD research and translational research. Emphasis was also placed on the importance of biomarkers in the diagnosis of AD and development of current therapeutic strategies. PMID:22453170

  13. Science and cycling: current knowledge and future directions for research.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Greg; Davison, Richard; Jeukendrup, Asker; Passfield, Louis

    2003-09-01

    In this holistic review of cycling science, the objectives are: (1) to identify the various human and environmental factors that influence cycling power output and velocity; (2) to discuss, with the aid of a schematic model, the often complex interrelationships between these factors; and (3) to suggest future directions for research to help clarify how cycling performance can be optimized, given different race disciplines, environments and riders. Most successful cyclists, irrespective of the race discipline, have a high maximal aerobic power output measured from an incremental test, and an ability to work at relatively high power outputs for long periods. The relationship between these characteristics and inherent physiological factors such as muscle capilliarization and muscle fibre type is complicated by inter-individual differences in selecting cadence for different race conditions. More research is needed on high-class professional riders, since they probably represent the pinnacle of natural selection for, and physiological adaptation to, endurance exercise. Recent advances in mathematical modelling and bicycle-mounted strain gauges, which can measure power directly in races, are starting to help unravel the interrelationships between the various resistive forces on the bicycle (e.g. air and rolling resistance, gravity). Interventions on rider position to optimize aerodynamics should also consider the impact on power output of the rider. All-terrain bicycle (ATB) racing is a neglected discipline in terms of the characterization of power outputs in race conditions and the modelling of the effects of the different design of bicycle frame and components on the magnitude of resistive forces. A direct application of mathematical models of cycling velocity has been in identifying optimal pacing strategies for different race conditions. Such data should, nevertheless, be considered alongside physiological optimization of power output in a race. An even distribution

  14. REPORT OF RESEARCH ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND FUTURE GOALS HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, Mark B.; Kapustin, Anton N.; Schwarz, John Henry; Carroll, Sean; Ooguri, Hirosi; Gukov, Sergei; Preskill, John; Hitlin, David G.; Porter, Frank C.; Patterson, Ryan B.; Newman, Harvey B.; Spiropulu, Maria; Golwala, Sunil; Zhu, Ren-Yuan

    2014-08-26

    of activity include: CDMS II data analysis, contributions to SuperCDMS Soudan operations and analysis, R&D towards SuperCDMS SNOLAB, development of a novel screener for radiocontamination (the BetaCage), and development of new WIMP detector concepts. Ren-Yuan Zhu leads the HEP crystal laboratory for the advanced detector R&D effort. The crystal lab is involved in development of novel scintillating crystals and has proposed several crystal based detector concepts for future HEP experiments at the energy and intensity frontiers. Its current research effort is concentrated on development of fast crystal scintillators with good radiation hardness and low cost. II) THEORETICAL PHYSICS The main theme of Sergei Gukov's current research is the relation between the geometry of quantum group invariants and their categorification, on the one hand, and the physics of supersymmetric gauge theory and string theory, on the other. Anton Kapustin's research spans a variety of topics in non-perturbative Quantum Field Theory (QFT). His main areas of interest are supersymmetric gauge theories, non-perturbative dualities in QFT, disorder operators, Topological Quantum Field Theory, and non-relativistic QFT. He is also interested in the foundations and possible generalizations of Quantum Mechanics. Hirosi Ooguri's current research has two main components. One is to find exact results in Calabi-Yau compactification of string theory. Another is to explore applications of the AdS/CFT correspondence. He also plans to continue his project with Caltech postdoctoral fellows on BPS spectra of supersymmetric gauge theories in diverse dimensions. John Preskill works on quantum information science. This field may lead to important future technologies, and also lead to new understanding of issues in fundamental physics John Schwarz has been exploring a number of topics in superstring theory/M-theory, supersymmetric gauge theory, and their AdS/CFT relationships. Much of the motivation for these

  15. Future Research Needs for Long-Term Monitoring Program Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minsker, B. S.; Dougherty, D. E.; Williams, G.; Davis, C. B.

    2002-05-01

    An ASCE Task Committee is preparing a manual of practice on long-term monitoring (LTM) program design for groundwater (including vadose) systems. The committee has identified several areas for future research and technology transfer that will improve LTM design. LTM is an on-going activity aimed at assessing remediation performance, containment integrity, and/or continued non-contamination of the subsurface and groundwater. LTM has different goals and needs than site characterization, so data collection, analysis, and modeling approaches must evolve to meet these new needs. Many new sensors and field measurement methods for LTM are under development, and research is needed to develop methods to integrate these data sources with more traditional samples drawn from wells to maximize the information extracted from the data. These new methods need to be able to provide information to assess performance of waste management activities and to understand long-term behavior by optimizing the collection and analysis of multiple data types. The effects of different sampling and measurement methods on monitoring results and their implications for the design of LTM programs also require study. Additional research needs include development of methods to assess flow control strategies, to identify monitoring redundancy in fractured media, and to better incorporate uncertainty into the LTM design process. Well-tested, documented, and open datasets are needed to validate and compare the performance of methods. Technology transfer activities must address the need for evolution of regulatory guidance to encompass the types of data analysis that are needed to assess remediation or containment performance, to identify appropriate LTM plans, and to incorporate novel data collection methods that may support better decision quality through the use of more extensive measurements with lower individual precisions than traditional measurements or may measure an indicator parameter rather than

  16. Shaping the future of medical rehabilitation research: Using the interdisciplinary research model.

    PubMed

    Delisa, Joel A

    2004-04-01

    This memorial lecture addresses the fundamental requirements for developing a framework for interdisciplinary rehabilitation research. The needs for funding, clinical trials, staffing, education, and infrastructure are examined from the vantage points of my experiences as an educator, investigator, chief executive officer, department chair, and dean. Developing an academic base for the specialty of physical medicine and rehabilitation and demonstrating our expertise in rehabilitation research are fundamental to academic acceptance and will enhance our ability to compete for future funding for our investigations. PMID:15083427

  17. Some Recent Advances and Future Directions in Permafrost Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanovsky, V. E.; Grosse, G.; Marchenko, S. S.

    2010-12-01

    The impact of climate warming on permafrost and the potential of climate feedbacks resulting from permafrost thawing have recently received a great deal of attention. Field-based studies, remote sensing and modeling are revealing complex feedbacks of permafrost degradation to terrestrial and offshore environments in Polar Regions and the Earth’s atmosphere. Major research questions that remain to be adequately answered involve uncertainties about the vulnerability of permafrost to thaw, a projected decline in permafrost extent during the coming decades, ecosystem feedbacks, and the global consequences to climate change of mobilizing ancient carbon from permafrost as it thaws. Some of these important questions are: How resilient is permafrost to climate change and external disturbance, and what are the feedbacks to permafrost stability? How will permafrost degradation and landform changes alter hydrology and ecosystems? How large are carbon pools in and beneath permafrost including subsea permafrost, how vulnerable are they to disturbance related to degradation of permafrost, and to what extent will altered carbon and energy cycles affect the global climate? Ground temperatures are a primary indicator of permafrost stability. The monitoring network of the Thermal State of Permafrost (TSP) program under the Fourth International Polar Year (IPY) has more than 550 sites across the circumpolar region. TSP measurements, combined with numerical thermal modeling, now provide a relatively comprehensive assessment of panarctic permafrost dynamics during the last ~100 years. However, current numerical models project the future state of permafrost largely based on subsurface thermal dynamics driven by regional or global climate model projections and internal surface and ground properties. These models largely ignore complicated sub-grid scale feedbacks associated with dynamic ecological components and disturbance. Disturbances of the ground thermal regime can be triggered by

  18. Social Class, Family Formation, and Delinquency in Early Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Kuhl, Danielle C.; Chavez, Jorge M.; Swisher, Raymond R.; Wilczak, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Recent research suggests increasing heterogeneity in the transition from adolescence to early adulthood. This study considers how this heterogeneity may influence delinquency between these two developmental periods. We focus on the role of family transitions, educational attainment, and employment in predicting risk of nonviolent delinquency and substance use, as well as disparities in transitions across socioeconomic status subgroups. Data are from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health). We find that family and neighborhood advantage are negatively associated with transitions into marriage, cohabitation, and parenthood, yet positively associated with educational attainment. In addition, adolescent family and neighborhood advantage are associated with a continuation of delinquent behavior and substance use during early adulthood. In multivariate analyses, accounting for family transitions in early adulthood largely attenuates the relationship between neighborhood advantage in adolescence and delinquency in early adulthood. We conclude by discussing the implications of our findings for developmental criminology. PMID:27418713

  19. Future of Research in Family Medicine: Where To From Here?

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Carol P.

    2004-01-01

    Desired research outcomes in family medicine vary according to the developmental stage of the discipline and the context of practice. Several milestones in the evolution of family practice research worldwide have been achieved. Now family medicine researchers face the challenge of discovering how evidence-based primary health care can be delivered in a sustainable way to individuals within communities. To advance family medicine research, we must ensure that trainees have a positive research attitude, develop academic clinician-researchers, lobby for primary care research funding, support practitioners who wish to do research in their own practices, sustain practice-based research networks, and study important questions. PMID:15655092

  20. Research Universities and Scientific Misconduct: History, Policies, and the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steneck, Nicholas H.

    1994-01-01

    The evolution of research misconduct policies in universities is traced since the late 1970s. It is argued that research universities have been slow to accept responsibility for research misconduct, and they are urged to examine their research environments and place more emphasis on research ethics education. (MSE)

  1. Modeling course-based undergraduate research experiences: an agenda for future research and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Corwin, Lisa A; Graham, Mark J; Dolan, Erin L

    2015-03-01

    Course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) are being championed as scalable ways of involving undergraduates in science research. Studies of CUREs have shown that participating students achieve many of the same outcomes as students who complete research internships. However, CUREs vary widely in their design and implementation, and aspects of CUREs that are necessary and sufficient to achieve desired student outcomes have not been elucidated. To guide future research aimed at understanding the causal mechanisms underlying CURE efficacy, we used a systems approach to generate pathway models representing hypotheses of how CURE outcomes are achieved. We started by reviewing studies of CUREs and research internships to generate a comprehensive set of outcomes of research experiences, determining the level of evidence supporting each outcome. We then used this body of research and drew from learning theory to hypothesize connections between what students do during CUREs and the outcomes that have the best empirical support. We offer these models as hypotheses for the CURE community to test, revise, elaborate, or refute. We also cite instruments that are ready to use in CURE assessment and note gaps for which instruments need to be developed. PMID:25687826

  2. Modeling Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experiences: An Agenda for Future Research and Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Corwin, Lisa A.; Graham, Mark J.; Dolan, Erin L.

    2015-01-01

    Course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) are being championed as scalable ways of involving undergraduates in science research. Studies of CUREs have shown that participating students achieve many of the same outcomes as students who complete research internships. However, CUREs vary widely in their design and implementation, and aspects of CUREs that are necessary and sufficient to achieve desired student outcomes have not been elucidated. To guide future research aimed at understanding the causal mechanisms underlying CURE efficacy, we used a systems approach to generate pathway models representing hypotheses of how CURE outcomes are achieved. We started by reviewing studies of CUREs and research internships to generate a comprehensive set of outcomes of research experiences, determining the level of evidence supporting each outcome. We then used this body of research and drew from learning theory to hypothesize connections between what students do during CUREs and the outcomes that have the best empirical support. We offer these models as hypotheses for the CURE community to test, revise, elaborate, or refute. We also cite instruments that are ready to use in CURE assessment and note gaps for which instruments need to be developed. PMID:25687826

  3. Qualitative Research in the Foreseeable Future: No Study Left Behind?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flinders, David J.

    2003-01-01

    Questions efficacy of Department of Education's recent decision to support only studies using quantitative experimental research designs. Describes advantages of qualitative research. (Contains 23 references.) (PKP)

  4. UAS Integration in the NAS Project and Future Autonomy Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Charles W.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation highlights NASA use of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) and related technologies for civil purposes. This briefing will give more insight into the UAS projects progress and future goals.

  5. Using Futures Research Techniques in Strategic Planning: A Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, James L.; Cope, Robert G.

    1985-01-01

    The ways in which a futures and strategic planning preconference workshop provided an environmental scan to identify a number of issues facing higher education are described. Exercises designed to rank and evaluate these issues are discussed. (MLW)

  6. Household Equipment Research: Past Accomplishments, Challenges for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovingood, Rebecca P.; Lytton, Ruth H.

    1984-01-01

    Reviewing household equipment research over 75 years, this study found researchers responding to needs for information on new appliances, energy, and consumer protection. Since 1950 research has increasingly reflected marketers' concerns. Researchers have been hampered by problems of conceptualization, visibility, funding, and a reactive…

  7. The State of Mentoring Research: A Qualitative Review of Current Research Methods and Future Research Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Tammy D.; Eby, Lillian T.; O'Brien, Kimberly E.; Lentz, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Research regarding mentoring relationships has flourished during the past 20 years. This article reviews the methodology and content of 200 published mentoring articles. Some of the major concerns raised in this review include over reliance on cross-sectional designs and self-report data, a failure to differentiate between different forms of…

  8. The Markers and Meanings of Growing Up: Contemporary Young Women’s Transition from Adolescence to Adulthood*

    PubMed Central

    Aronson, Pamela

    2008-01-01

    Growing up in the shadow of the women’s movement has created contradictory life course and identity possibilities for young women. Although prior research has examined the formal markers of adulthood, we know little about how young women themselves perceive these markers. Forty-two in-depth interviews revealed that the subjective meanings of young women’s transition to adulthood are actually far more complex than previously assumed. While becoming a parent and becoming financially independent were seen by interviewees as reflecting an adult orientation, completing schooling was tied to class-differentiated views of growing up. In addition, beginning full-time work was subjectively linked to future career uncertainty, and getting married did not diminish young women’s emphasis on self-development and independence from men. Taken together, these findings indicate that there is a disjuncture between women’s objective and subjective transition to adulthood. This study suggests that our previous understandings of the transition to adulthood do not reflect the full complexity of how young women subjectively experience it or the extent to which class impacts these perceptions. PMID:18418470

  9. Protecting Human Research Subjects: The Past Defines the Future

    PubMed Central

    Breault, Joseph L.

    2006-01-01

    The creation of Institutional Review Boards to assure the protection of research subjects came out of terrible research abuses that resulted in the Belmont Report and federal regulations establishing rules for federally funded research and its independent review. The Common Rule became widely accepted as the way to oversee human research that is funded by federal agencies, or used in FDA submissions. The Office of Human Research Protections, now under the Secretary of DHHS, created Federalwide Assurances with groups that receive federal funding and others, the vast majority of which have agreed to apply the same ethical rules to all research regardless of funding source. There are controversies over the best methods to protect human research subjects, confusion about how to handle some of the gray areas, increased regulatory burdens, and debates about the adequacy of the IRB system. New exciting directions have evolved and overall, research subjects appear better protected than ever. PMID:21765779

  10. The AOA Dissertation Research Program: Resource for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritz, D.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses implications of the Dissertation Research Grant Program of the Department of Health, Education and Welfare's Administration on Aging for practitioners, career training institutions, the research community, and policymakers. Provides information about the program's administration, eligibility requirements, evaluation procedures, and…

  11. School-Based Performance Awards: Research Findings and Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Carolyn; Heneman, Herbert, III; Milanowski, Anthony

    This paper synthesizes research on how motivation influenced teachers at two school-based performance award (SBPA) programs in Kentucky and in North Carolina. The research was conducted between 1995 and 1998 by the Consortium for Policy Research in Education. SBPA programs provide teachers and other school staff with pay bonuses for the…

  12. A Conceptual Framework for the Future of Successful Research Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lintz, Elizabeth M.

    2008-01-01

    Research administration has experienced dramatic changes over the past decades. As scientific research has evolved, higher education institutions have tried to adapt, with varying degrees of success. This paper presents a conceptual framework based on six cornerstones of research administration: mission, information, communication, collaboration,…

  13. Subjective Acceleration of Time Experience in Everyday Life across Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Dennis; Lang, Frieder R.

    2015-01-01

    Most people believe that time seems to pass more quickly as they age. Building on assumptions of socioemotional selectivity theory, we investigated whether awareness that one's future lifetime is limited is associated with one's experience of time during everyday activities across adulthood in 3 studies. In the first 2 studies (Study 1: N = 608;…

  14. Intel Teach to the Future[R] Leadership Forum: Formative Research. CCT Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasnik, Shelley

    2004-01-01

    Consistent with the longitudinal evaluation of the Intel Teach to the Future Essentials Course that Education Development Center's Center for Children and Technology (CCT) has been conducting since the program's inception in 2000, the Intel Foundation commissioned CCT to conduct a formative evaluation of the Leadership Forum Pilot program. This…

  15. Energy and the Future: Research Priorities and National Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Allen L.

    1973-01-01

    Article provides an account of alternatives for solving energy shortage problems in future years. A national policy is needed. More concerted effort should be made to develop technologies for conversion of energy from conventional and non-conventional resources so that energy is cheaper, available for use and without environmental hazards. (PS)

  16. Angelman syndrome in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Larson, Anna M; Shinnick, Julianna E; Shaaya, Elias A; Thiele, Elizabeth A; Thibert, Ronald L

    2015-02-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurogenetic disorder. The goal of this study was to investigate the primary health issues affecting adults with AS and to further characterize the natural history and genotype-phenotype correlations. Standardized phone interviews with caregivers for 110 adolescents and adults with AS were conducted. The impact of age, sex, and genotype on specific outcomes in neurology, orthopedics, internal medicine, and psychiatry were investigated. The mean age of individuals with AS was 24 years (range 16-50y). Active seizures were present in 41% of individuals, and 72% had sleep dysfunction. Significant constipation was present in 85%, and 32% were overweight or obese, with obesity disproportionately affecting women. Scoliosis affected 50% with a mean age at diagnosis of 12 years, and 24% of those diagnosed with scoliosis required surgery, an intervention disproportionately affecting men. Sixty-eight percent were able to walk independently, and 13% were able to speak 5 or more words. Self-injurious behavior was exhibited in 52% of individuals. The results of this study indicate that epilepsy severity may assume a bimodal age distribution: seizures are typically most severe in early childhood but may recur in adulthood. While late-adolescent and adult sleep patterns were improved when compared to the degree of sleep dysfunction present during infancy and childhood, the prevalence of poor sleep in adults remained quite high. Primary areas of clinical management identified include the following: seizures, sleep, aspiration risk, GERD, constipation, dental care, vision, obesity, scoliosis, bone density, mobility, communication, behavior, and anxiety. PMID:25428759

  17. Stem Cell Research in Pakistan; Past, Present and Future

    PubMed Central

    Zahra, Sayeda Anum; Muzavir, Sayed Raheel; Ashraf, Sadia; Ahmad, Aftab

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Stem cells have proved to have great therapeutic potential as stem cell treatment is replacing traditional ways of treatment in different disorders like cancer, aplastic anemia, stroke, heart disorders. The developed and developing countries are investing differently in this area of research so research output and clinical translation of research greatly vary among developed and developing countries. Present study was done to investigate the current status of stem cells research in Pakistan and ways to improve it. Results Many advanced countries (USA, UK and Canada etc.) are investing heavily in stem cell research and treatment. Different developing countries like Iran, Turkey and India are also following the developed countries and investing a lot in stem cells research. Pakistan is also making efforts in establishing this field to get desired benefits but unfortunately the progress is at very low pace. If Government plays an active role along with private sector, stem cell research in Pakistan can be boosted up. The numbers of publications from Pakistan are very less compared to developed and neighboring countries and Pakistan also has very less number of institutes working in this area of research. Conclusions Stem cells research is at its initial stages in Pakistan and there is great need to bring Government, academia and industry together so they could make serious efforts to promote research in this very important field. This will help millions of patients suffering from incurable disorders and will also reduce economic loss. PMID:26019749

  18. Future research on gender symmetry in physical assaults on partners.

    PubMed

    Straus, Murray A

    2006-11-01

    In the light of evidence from about 200 studies showing gender symmetry in perpetration of partner assault, research can now focus on why gender symmetry is predominant and on the implications of symmetry for primary prevention and treatment of partner violence. Progress in such research is handicapped by a number of problems: (1) Insufficient empirical research and a surplus of discussion and theory, (2) Blinders imposed by commitment to a single causal factor theory-patriarchy and male dominance-in the face of overwhelming evidence that this is only one of a multitude of causes, (3) Research purporting to investigate gender differences but which obtains data on only one gender, (4) Denial of research grants to projects that do not assume most partner violence is by male perpetrators, (5) Failure to investigate primary prevention and treatment programs for female offenders, and (6) Suppression of evidence on female perpetration by both researchers and agencies. PMID:17043370

  19. Research Models of the Future for Industrial and Organizational Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Gerald V.

    This paper presents three different aspects of research in industrial and organizational psychology. First, characteristics of major advances in science, and in the social and behavioral sciences are given, including: (1) team research is more common for major advances; and (2) young men under 35 are responsible for many major contributions.…

  20. The Future of Teaching Research in the Social Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, C.

    2009-01-01

    Current literature on teaching research methodology in the social sciences highlights the changing nature of our world in terms of its complexity and diversity, and points to how this affects the way in which we search for answers to related problems (Brew 2003, 3; Tashakkori and Teddlie 2003, 74). New ways of approaching research problems that…

  1. Constructing a Roadmap for Future Universal Screening Research beyond Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Clayton R.; Volpe, Robert J.; Livanis, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The majority of the literature on universal screening in education is devoted to academic screeners. However, research clearly indicates that other aspects of student functioning are closely associated with outcomes inside and outside of school. As a result, there are gaps in the current literature that call for additional research extending…

  2. Rater Cognition Research: Some Possible Directions for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myford, Carol M.

    2012-01-01

    Over the last several decades, researchers have studied many and varied aspects of rater cognition. Those interested in pursuing basic research have focused on gaining an understanding of raters' thought processes as they score different types of performances and products, striving to understand how raters' mental representations and the cognitive…

  3. Uncertain Future for Education Research Despite Increased Congressional Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sroufe, Gerald E.

    1991-01-01

    The 101st Congress and the Administration have cooperated to provide a solid increase for education, research, and statistics for 1991, but a new deficit reduction measure prohibits increases for the next three years. Observes that appropriations committees now favor research and are unlikely to divert these funds. (DM)

  4. Research accomplishments and future goals in particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, J.S.

    1990-01-05

    This document presents our proposal to continue the activities of Boston University researchers in eight projects in high energy physics research: Colliding Beams Physics; Accelerator Design Physics; MACRO Project; Proton Decay Project; Theoretical Particle Physics; Muon G-2 Project; and Hadron Collider Physics. The scope of each of these projects is presented in detail in this paper.

  5. Reflections on Future Research in Adolescent Reproductive Health

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Catherine M.; Loriaux, D. Lynn; Grumbach, Melvin M.; Rogol, Alan D.; Nelson, Lawrence M.

    2009-01-01

    A group of basic scientists, clinicians, clinical investigators, psychologists, patient advocacy groups, and representatives from professional societies and governmental agencies met at the National Institutes of Health in October, 2007 with the long-term goal of having the menstrual cycle accepted and understood as a marker of general health in adolescent girls. An equally important goal was to develop a research agenda for this area of investigation. This chapter comprises the highlights of discussions throughout that meeting, with an emphasis on ideas generated during a final session led by an internationally renowned physician-scientist, in which reports from four breakout groups were presented. The specific goal assigned to each group was to develop an agenda that would set the stage for how research should be conducted over the next 100 years, and to identify the pressing research questions that should be addressed related to the menstrual cycle and adolescent health. The four areas represented in discussion groups included: genetic research; metabolic and reproductive research; emotional health; and the promotion of conduct of clinical research. Insights are also provided by five clinical investigators, including two outside experts, on both topics of priority for a research agenda in the area of adolescent reproductive health, as well as how the research itself should be conducted. PMID:18574236

  6. Relationship Education Research: Current Status and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markman, Howard J.; Rhoades, Galena K.

    2012-01-01

    The overarching aim of this article is to review the research on relationship education programs and approaches that has been published or accepted for publication since the last review article in 2003. This article provides a critical overview of the relationship education field and sets an agenda for research and practice for the next decade. A…

  7. The Research on School Marketing: Current Issues and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oplatka, Izhar; Hemsley-Brown, Jane

    2004-01-01

    This review provides a synthesis of the scholarship that has sought to expand the understanding of educational marketing practice in schools. The following research questions guided this review. What are the common themes and characteristics that emerge from research about marketing in schools? What remains underdeveloped in the characterization…

  8. Economics of Education Research: A Review and Future Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dearden, Lorraine; Machin, Stephen; Vignoles, Anna

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we offer an appraisal of the economics of education research area, charting its history as a field and discussing the ways in which economists have contributed both to education research and to education policy-making. In particular, we highlight the theoretical and methodological contributions that economists have made to the field…

  9. Future Directions in Community Power Research: A Colloquium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wirt, Frederick M., Ed.

    This compilation of symposium papers on community power structure research focuses on the theme that community power structure research must shift away from case study methods and move toward aggregate data analysis. Advocating comparative analysis, seven authors present their views under the following topics: (1) Charles R. Adrian, "Several Loose…

  10. Race and racism in nursing research: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Porter, Cornelia P; Barbee, Evelyn

    2004-01-01

    Nursing research on race and racism began in the 1970s. However, because these concepts were seen as cultural attitudes, race and racism were obscured. The evidence on the presence of negative attitudes, biases, and stereotypes about different racial and ethnic groups is inconsistent. During the past two decades, research on race and racism has grown, but there is still an urgent need for more high-quality research on this subject. The major recommendations from this review are to conduct observational research on racism in clinical and practice settings, not as an intellectual end in itself; to assist in eliminating of the historically based disparities among members of racial and ethnic groups; and to conduct research about racism as it affects mobility in educational and practice settings. PMID:15368766

  11. Phenomenology and Mass Communication Research: An Uncertain Past and a Promising Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, D. Charles; Barkin, Steve M.

    Future research on mass media and mass communication organizations might profitably emphasize phenomenological methods (phenomenology being an interpersonal, subjective reality construction as contrasted to an objective, rationalistic, institutional reality construction). Some major phenomenological concepts important to such research were…

  12. Status and future directions for advanced accelerator research - conventional and non-conventional collider concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Siemann, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between advanced accelerator research and future directions for particle physics is discussed. Comments are made about accelerator research trends in hadron colliders, muon colliders, and e{sup +}3{sup {minus}} linear colliders.

  13. The future of psychotherapy outcome research: science or political rhetoric?

    PubMed

    Peebles, J

    2000-11-01

    Although the relationship between research and clinical psychology has at times been conflicted, it has also been productive. Psychologists from both specialties have benefited from each others' work. The area of psychotherapy outcome research represents an important interface between the fields of clinical and research psychology. In an era of scarce resources and demands for accountability, there is pressure for researchers to justify the value of clinical practices. Recently, numerous articles have appeared recommending changes to the way psychotherapy research is conducted. The authors of these articles emphasize with urgency the importance of conducting and reporting research in a manner that will influence the decisions of policymakers and sanction funding for psychotherapy services. This article is an exploration of the impact of these recommendations, whose objective appears to be the promotion of psychological techniques for inclusion in clinical practice guidelines. It is argued that such recommendations may be in conflict with the philosophy and methods of science and may adversely affect public perception, perhaps leading psychologists to be seen as political lobbyists rather than clinicians and researchers. PMID:11092419

  14. Nest predation research: Recent findings and future perspectives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chalfoun, Anna L.; Ibanez-Alamo, J. D.; Magrath, R. D.; Schmidt, Kenneth A.; Thomson, R. L.; Oteyza, Juan C.; Haff, T. M.; Martin, T.E.

    2016-01-01

    Nest predation is a key source of selection for birds that has attracted increasing attention from ornithologists. The inclusion of new concepts applicable to nest predation that stem from social information, eavesdropping or physiology has expanded our knowledge considerably. Recent methodological advancements now allow focus on all three players within nest predation interactions: adults, offspring and predators. Indeed, the study of nest predation now forms a vital part of avian research in several fields, including animal behaviour, population ecology, evolution and conservation biology. However, within nest predation research there are important aspects that require further development, such as the comparison between ecological and evolutionary antipredator responses, and the role of anthropogenic change. We hope this review of recent findings and the presentation of new research avenues will encourage researchers to study this important and interesting selective pressure, and ultimately will help us to better understand the biology of birds.

  15. The future of intersite networking. [Office of Energy Research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-11-01

    Copies of viewgraphs and summaries of three discussion groups are presented. The purpose of the workshop was to identify strategies for meeting the computer networking needs to the scientists under the Office of Energy Research. (WRF)

  16. Future Directions in Rotorcraft Technology at Ames Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aiken, Edwin W.; Ormiston, Robert A; Young, Larry A.

    2000-01-01

    Members of the NASA and Army rotorcraft research community at Ames Research Center have developed a vision for 'Vertical Flight 2025'. This paper describes the development of that vision and the steps being taken to implement it. In an effort to realize the vision, consistent with both NASA and Army Aviation strategic plans, two specific technology development projects have been identified: (1) one focused on a personal transportation system capable of vertical flight (the 'Roto-Mobile') and (2) the other on small autonomous rotorcraft (which is inclusive of vehicles which range in grams of gross weight for 'MicroRotorcraft' to thousands of kilograms for rotorcraft uninhabited aerial vehicles). The paper provides a status report on these projects as well as a summary of other revolutionary research thrusts being planned and executed at Ames Research Center.

  17. Research accomplishments and future goals in particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-30

    This document presents our proposal to continue the activities of Boston University researchers in high energy physics research. We have a broad program of participation in both non-accelerator and accelerator-based efforts. High energy research at Boston University has a special focus on the physics program of the Superconducting Supercollider. We are active in research and development for detector subsystems, in the design of experiments, and in study of the phenomenology of the very high energy interactions to be observed at the SSC. The particular areas discussed in this paper are: colliding beams physics; accelerator design physics; MACRO project; proton decay project; theoretical particle physics; muon G-2 project; fast liquid scintillators; SSCINTCAL project; TRD project; massively parallel processing for the SSC; and physics analysis and vertex detector upgrade at L3.

  18. International Arctic Research Collaborations: Past, Present and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kintisch, E. S.

    2015-12-01

    International cooperation on Arctic research has a long and storied history, predating even the first International Polar Year in 1881. But scientists want to improve and expand current efforts to conduct international Arctic research, despite politcal and legal barriers that can hamper it. A review of the past and present aspects of such research can inform that effort. As part of a six month fellowship at the Center for Science Diplomacy at the American Association for the Advancement of Science I studied the history and current status of international cooperation in the Arctic. I will report on my findings, which include the fact that some of the first substantial international environmental research and regulatory cooperation began in the far North. My session will identify the elements that make international research collaborations successful, for example more than a century of cooperative work by Russian and Norwegian fishery scientists to monitor and regulate the cod trade in the Barents Sea. And it will explore the challenges that can threaten such collaborations. These can include rules that stymie data collection, block the import of certain analytical equipment across national boundaries, and bar the export of soil or water samples. I will mention specific complications to recent international arctic research projects. These include the SWERUS cruise, a joint effort between Sweden, Russia and the US, an effort to study carbon fluxes over the East Siberian Arctic Shelf in 2014. The session will also review progress towards a new international agreeement, first proposed by the US, on improving arctic research cooperation. That deal is focused on removing the bureacratic and legal barriers to scientists seeking to conduct arctic research on foreign waters and land.

  19. Polar Research Board annual report, 1987 and future plans

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This annual report describes the Polar Research Board, its origin and objectives, its work and plans, and its principle activities and accomplishments during calendar year 1987. The Overview presents a concise summary of the various aspects of the Board's program and of its responsibilities as US National Committee for the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) of the International Council of Scientific Unins. Arctic and Antarctic activities are described.

  20. Polar Research Board annual report, 1987 and future plans

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-31

    This annual report describes the Polar Research Board, its origin and objectives, its work and plans, and its principle activities and accomplishments during calendar year 1987. The Overview presents a concise summary of the various aspects of the Board`s program and of its responsibilities as US National Committee for the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) of the International Council of Scientific Unins. Arctic and Antarctic activities are described.

  1. Imagine! On the Future of Teaching and Learning and the Academic Research Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kelly E.

    2014-01-01

    In the future, what role will the academic research library play in achieving the mission of higher education? This essay describes seven strategies that academic research libraries can adopt to become future-present libraries--libraries that foster what Douglas Thomas and John Seely Brown have called "a new culture of learning." Written…

  2. Saliva proteome research: current status and future outlook.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Benjamin L; Cooper-White, Justin; Punyadeera, Chamindie K

    2013-09-01

    Human saliva harbours proteins of clinical relevance and about 30% of blood proteins are also present in saliva. This highlights that saliva can be used for clinical applications just as urine or blood. However, the translation of salivary biomarker discoveries into clinical settings is hampered by the dynamics and complexity of the salivary proteome. This review focuses on the current status of technological developments and achievements relating to approaches for unravelling the human salivary proteome. We discuss the dynamics of the salivary proteome, as well as the importance of sample preparation and processing techniques and their influence on downstream protein applications; post-translational modifications of salivary proteome and protein: protein interactions. In addition, we describe possible enrichment strategies for discerning post-translational modifications of salivary proteins, the potential utility of selected-reaction-monitoring techniques for biomarker discovery and validation, limitations to proteomics and the biomarker challenge and future perspectives. In summary, we provide recommendations for practical saliva sampling, processing and storage conditions to increase the quality of future studies in an emerging field of saliva clinical proteomics. We propose that the advent of technologies allowing sensitive and high throughput proteome-wide analyses, coupled to well-controlled study design, will allow saliva to enter clinical practice as an alternative to blood-based methods due to its simplistic nature of sampling, non-invasiveness, easy of collection and multiple collections by untrained professionals and cost-effective advantages. PMID:22612344

  3. Preparing Foster Youth for Adulthood: A Knowledge-Building Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mech, Edmund V.

    1994-01-01

    Introduces articles presenting a cross section of current research activity on preparing foster youth for adulthood. Suggests it is vital to develop a knowledge-building agenda; that research efforts be prospective and programmatic rather than ex post facto, occasional, or sporadic; and that attention be directed toward testing and evaluating…

  4. Disability and Adulthood in Mexico: An Ethnographic Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skivington, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to better understand the cultural meaning of adulthood and disability in a large city in central Mexico. Using an ethnographic case study research design that included interviews and observations, this study addressed the research question: What is the cultural meaning and accompanying challenges of becoming an adult with…

  5. Complex plasma research on ISS past, present, and future facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seurig, R.; Morfill, G.; Fortov, V.; Hofmann, P.

    2007-11-01

    The research in dusty plasma, also known as complex plasma, under prolonged microgravity condition took its first steps in 1998 onboard the Russian Space Station MIR: cosmonauts Vladimir Solovyov and Pavel Vinogradov conducted the first experiments to obtain plasma-dust crystals in the 'Plazmennyi Kristall 1'(PK-1) device using the sun as a 'natural' ionization source. This experiment was followed afterwards by the PK-2 already utilizing its own DC plasma generator. A major step came only three years later with the PKE-Nefedov facility (formerly called PKE-3). Launched in February 2001 and operated in over 13 missions for five consecutive years in the Russian Segment of the International Space Station ISS, this bilateral German-Russian research facility has already shown some surprising, new behavior of radio-frequency induced complex plasmas. An advanced model of PKE-Nefedov, the PK-3 Plus experiment apparatus, is getting readied to be launched to ISS on Progress Cargo spacecraft 20P. Additional developments are in progress to continue this exciting growing research field with: (a) PK-4 utilizing high voltage DC controlled plasma, and (b) IMPACT Laboratory, the European Space Agency's next generation premier research laboratory for plasma and dust physics on the ISS. The paper will provide background information of each of the complex plasma research facilities.

  6. Accounting for context: future directions in bioethics theory and research.

    PubMed

    Douglas-Steele, D; Hundert, E M

    1996-06-01

    Many physicians have found that the traditional approach to bioethics fails to account for important aspects of their moral experience in practice. New approaches to bioethics theory are challenging the traditional application of universal moral principles based in liberal moral theory. At the same time, a shift in both the goals and methods of bioethics education has accompanied its "coming of age" in the medical school curriculum. Taken together, these changes challenge both bioethics educators and theorists to come closer to the details and nuances of real clinical encounters. The emerging trend emphasizes the importance of context in bioethics education and in the moral theory and research undergirding it. This article introduces one research approach examining the practical life contexts of medical students' ethical experiences and learning. It calls for increased attention to research and theory in bioethics that more adequately accounts for the ways different contexts produce significant changes in meaning and understanding in medical encounters. PMID:8767639

  7. Contemporary issues and future directions for research into pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, M; Baron, E

    2000-08-01

    The recent healthy increase in research into all aspects of gambling is noted. The dominant theme accounting for most of this research is the mental disorder model of pathological gambling and measures that have been derived from this conceptualization. It is suggested that an alternative approach focusing on the construct of choice or subjective control over gambling may be a research direction that will ensure that progress is maintained. In this paper a context for the discussion is provided by first identifying briefly fundamental conceptual and methodological issues associated with the mental disorder model. In particular it is argued that the heterogeneity of the diagnosis of pathological gambling makes the research task of assessing truly independent variables extremely difficult. Subsequently an illustrative schema is presented that demonstrates both the potential advantages and some of the complexities associated with the dependent variable of self-control over gambling behaviour. The main advantages are argued to be (a) the focus of research is narrowed to one potential cause of harmful impacts rather than the great diversity of impacts themselves, (b) prospective studies of regular gamblers in real gambling venues may be a key source of insight into the development of pathological gambling and (c) it promotes the development of theoretical links with the mainstream of the discipline of psychology. Despite the conceptual difficulties that may be associated with the variable of self-control, it is suggested that these may be overcome because contemporary research into the addictive behaviours has demonstrated considerable success in the definition and measurement of control and related themes such as craving, restraint and temptation. PMID:11092063

  8. Behavioral Intervention Technologies: Evidence review and recommendations for future research

    PubMed Central

    Mohr, David C.; Burns, Michelle Nicole; Schueller, Stephen M.; Clarke, Gregory; Klinkman, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings of a technical expert panel convened by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and the National Institute of Mental Health, charged with reviewing the state of research on behavioral intervention technologies (BITs) in mental health and identifying the top research priorities. BITs is the comprehensive term used to refer to behavioral and psychological interventions that use information and communication technology features to address behavioral and mental health outcomes. Mental health BITs using videoconferencing and standard telephone technologies to deliver psychotherapy have been wellvalidated. Web-based interventions have shown efficacy across a broad range of mental health outcomes, although outcomes vary widely. Social media such as online support groups have produced generally disappointing outcomes when used alone. Mobile technologies have received limited attention for mental health outcomes, although findings from behavioral health suggest they are promising. Virtual reality has shown good efficacy for anxiety and pediatric disorders. Serious gaming has received relatively little work in mental health. Recommendations for next step research in each of these are made. Research focused on understanding of reach, adherence, barriers and cost is recommended. As BITs can generate large amounts of data, improvements in the collection, storage, analysis, and visualization of big data will be required. Traditional psychological and behavioral theories have proven insufficient to understand how BITs produce behavioral change. Thus new theoretical models, as well as new evaluation strategies, will be required. Finally, for BITs to have a public health impact, research on implementation and application to prevention will be required. PMID:23664503

  9. Biological underpinnings of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures: directions for future research.

    PubMed

    Asadi-Pooya, Ali A

    2016-07-01

    Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) are relatively common occurrences in epilepsy centers, but their pathophysiology is still poorly understood. Research that elucidates the pathophysiology of PNES, including their neurobiological basis and biomarkers, may have important clinical implications. The literature provides some evidence that genetic factors, intrinsic factors, and environmental factors probably play a significant role as the biological underpinnings of PNES. Researchers may be able to learn more about the pathophysiology of PNES by investigating the effects of each of these factors on functional and structural brain connectivity. PMID:26956567

  10. DOE Automotive Composite Materials Research: Present and Future Efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, C.D.

    1999-08-10

    One method of increasing automotive energy efficiency is through mass reduction of structural components by the incorporation of composite materials. Significant use of glass reinforced polymers as structural components could yield a 20--30% reduction in vehicle weight while the use of carbon fiber reinforced materials could yield a 40--60% reduction in mass. Specific areas of research for lightweighting automotive components are listed, along with research needs for each of these categories: (1) low mass metals; (2) polymer composites; and (3) ceramic materials.

  11. The present and future role of microfluidics in biomedical research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sackmann, Eric K.; Fulton, Anna L.; Beebe, David J.

    2014-03-01

    Microfluidics, a technology characterized by the engineered manipulation of fluids at the submillimetre scale, has shown considerable promise for improving diagnostics and biology research. Certain properties of microfluidic technologies, such as rapid sample processing and the precise control of fluids in an assay, have made them attractive candidates to replace traditional experimental approaches. Here we analyse the progress made by lab-on-a-chip microtechnologies in recent years, and discuss the clinical and research areas in which they have made the greatest impact. We also suggest directions that biologists, engineers and clinicians can take to help this technology live up to its potential.

  12. Future Directions for Fusion Propulsion Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Robert B.; Cassibry, Jason T.

    2005-01-01

    Fusion propulsion is inevitable if the human race remains dedicated to exploration of the solar system. There are fundamental reasons why fusion surpasses more traditional approaches to routine crewed missions to Mars, crewed missions to the outer planets, and deep space high speed robotic missions, assuming that reduced trip times, increased payloads, and higher available power are desired. A recent series of informal discussions were held among members from government, academia, and industry concerning fusion propulsion. We compiled a sufficient set of arguments for utilizing fusion in space. .If the U.S. is to lead the effort and produce a working system in a reasonable amount of time, NASA must take the initiative, relying on, but not waiting for, DOE guidance. Arguments for fusion propulsion are presented, along with fusion enabled mission examples, fusion technology trade space, and a proposed outline for future efforts.

  13. Perceived Value of Research Preparation Opportunities for Future Music Education Professors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohwer, Debbie; Svec, Christina

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe research leaders' perceptions of the relative importance of various research preparation opportunities for future music education professors. The 122 questionnaire respondents answered 38 Likert-type and open-ended content questions that asked about research experiences, research skills, research…

  14. Future challenges for nuclear data research in fission (u)

    SciTech Connect

    Chadwick, Mark B

    2010-01-01

    I describe some high priority research areas in nuclear fission, where applications in nuclear reactor technologies and in modeling criticality in general are demanding higher accuracies in our databases. We focus on fission cross sections, fission neutron spectra, and fission product data.

  15. Priorities in pediatric epilepsy research: improving children's futures today.

    PubMed

    Berg, Anne T; Baca, Christine B; Loddenkemper, Tobias; Vickrey, Barbara G; Dlugos, Dennis

    2013-09-24

    The Priorities in Pediatric Epilepsy Research workshop was held in the spirit of patient-centered and patient-driven mandates for developing best practices in care, particularly for epilepsy beginning under age 3 years. The workshop brought together parents, representatives of voluntary advocacy organizations, physicians, allied health professionals, researchers, and administrators to identify priority areas for pediatric epilepsy care and research including implementation and testing of interventions designed to improve care processes and outcomes. Priorities highlighted were 1) patient outcomes, especially seizure control but also behavioral, academic, and social functioning; 2) early and accurate diagnosis and optimal treatment; 3) role and involvement of parents (communication and shared decision-making); and 4) integration of school and community organizations with epilepsy care delivery. Key factors influencing pediatric epilepsy care included the child's impairments and seizure presentation, parents, providers, the health care system, and community systems. Care was represented as a sequential process from initial onset of seizures to referral for comprehensive evaluation when needed. We considered an alternative model in which comprehensive care would be utilized from onset, proactively, rather than reactively after pharmacoresistance became obvious. Barriers, including limited levels of evidence about many aspects of diagnosis and management, access to care--particularly epilepsy specialty and behavioral health care--and implementation, were identified. Progress hinges on coordinated research efforts that systematically address gaps in knowledge and overcoming barriers to access and implementation. The stakes are considerable, and the potential benefits for reduced burden of refractory epilepsy and lifelong disabilities may be enormous. PMID:23966254

  16. Research on Community Bands: Past, Present, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohwer, Debbie

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review of literature was to synthesize findings of studies investigating community bands. This review of literature centers on research that has been conducted on community bands in status studies, historical/cultural studies, pedagogical studies, health and wellness studies, and intergenerational studies. The last section of…

  17. Reconciling (Seemingly) Discrepant Findings: Implications for Practice and Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Nicholas A.; Herzog, Serge

    2011-01-01

    Decades of research in survey methodology and psychology have yielded important insights about how to create effective and valid survey instruments. As Porter (in press) has argued convincingly, college student surveys often fall well short of these standards by placing unrealistic demands on students' memory and by assuming that students readily…

  18. Building Futures: The Head Start Impact Study. Research Design Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puma, Michael; Bell, Stephen; Shapiro, Gary; Broene, Pam; Cook, Ronna; Friedman, Janet; Heid, Camilla

    Along with the rapid expansion over the past decade of Head Start, a program providing comprehensive early childhood development services to low-income children, their families, and their communities, has come the demand for rigorous research to demonstrate program effectiveness. This report describes the proposed design of a national study of the…

  19. Studying Science Teacher Identity: Current Insights and Future Research Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avraamidou, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 10?years an increasing number of articles have been published in leading science education journals that report on research about teacher identity and describe interventions that support teacher identity development. My purpose in this review paper is to examine how the construct of science teacher identity has been conceptualised…

  20. Exploring the Future of Lifelong Learning: Advocacy, Research and Footprinting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisholm, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    This reflective think-tank contribution begins by comparing advocacy and research as distinct modalities of professional and social action. In practice they frequently elide and merge into one another. While alliance and complementarity between the two modalities is constructive for shaping policy and practice, it poses risks when governments and…

  1. Multilingualism in Australia: Reflections on Current and Future Research Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubino, Antonia

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives a critical overview of Australian research in the area of immigrant languages, arguing that this field of study is a significant component of the wider applied linguistics scene in Australia and has also contributed to enhancing the broad appreciation of the cultural and linguistic diversity of the country. It shows that research…

  2. BIO2010: Transforming Undergraduate Education for Future Research Biologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academies Press, 2003

    2003-01-01

    The report discusses incorporating more math, physics, chemistry, engineering and computer science into classes and laboratory work and emphasizing independent research will help undergraduate education reflect real-world science. Schools, professional societies and funding agencies should develop new teaching materials and facilitate faculty…

  3. Making Numbers Matter: Present and Future Research in Risk Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagerlin, Angela; Ubel, Peter A.; Smith, Dylan M.; Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To summarize existing research on individual numeracy and methods for presenting risk information to patients. Methods: We selectively retrieved articles from MEDLINE and the "Social Sciences Citation Index". Results: Many Americans have low numeracy skills, a deficit that impedes effective health care. Approaches to risk communication…

  4. Identifying Future Scientists: Predicting Persistence into Research Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Richard; Keller, Jill L.

    2007-01-01

    This study used semistructured interviews and grounded theory to look for characteristics among college undergraduates that predicted persistence into Ph.D. and M.D./Ph.D. training. Participants in the summer undergraduate and postbaccalaureate research programs at the Mayo Clinic College of Medicine were interviewed at the start, near the end,…

  5. Psychological Issues in Cancer Genetics: Current Research and Future Priorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopwood, Penelope

    1997-01-01

    Data concerning the psychological impact of high risk of cancer are reviewed, including implications of genetic testing, breast screening,and accuracy of women's risk estimates. Work in progress on prophylactic mastectomy and chemoprevention is reviewed. Research on cancer families, and interventions and prevention strategies for high-risk…

  6. Future Directions for NCI’s Surveillance Research Program

    Cancer.gov

    Since the early 1970s, NCI’s SEER program has been an invaluable resource for statistics on cancer in the United States. For the past several years, SEER researchers have been working toward a much broader and comprehensive goal for providing cancer stati

  7. Research on Hearing and Balance--Current and Future Developments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, James B., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    This article reviews current research that has located disease genes causing hearing impairments, discovered the ability of sensory cells of the inner ear to regenerate, developed vaccines to prevent otitis media, developed programmable hearing aids, improved cochlear implants, and demonstrated the positive effects of physical therapy with balance…

  8. Gifted Male Readers: Current Understandings and Suggestions for Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagnani, Alexander R.

    2013-01-01

    Research literature concerning gifted male readers relies primarily on more extensive bodies of work regarding gifted males and male readers. Studied as a whole, the two halves portray a worrisome state of affairs for gifted male readers, who lag behind their female counterparts in the same patterns found across the ability spectrum. This literacy…

  9. Creating the Future: "New Directions" in American Research Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brint, Steven

    2005-01-01

    This paper assesses the causes and consequences of recent American efforts to configure the research university as an engine of economic and social change. Drawing upon interviews and strategic plans, the paper describes recent policies to encourage "interdisciplinary creativity," in a context of increasing income from private gifts and endowments.

  10. Women in Management: Leadership Theories, Research Results, and Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam, Linda L.

    This review of the literature about women in management advocates the pursuit of research on women executives as unique components in the organizational setting, with the warning that careful and unremitting attention be paid to the selection of theoretical perspectives. It examines trait and role theory, and discusses such factors as…

  11. A Critical Look at Communication Strategies: Possibilities for Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doqaruni, Vahid Rahmani

    2015-01-01

    Like general theories of human communication, previous research into second language (L2) communication strategies (CSs) has also been characterized on either interactional conceived account or cognitively conceived one. However, this paper is a critical attempt to show that CSs' full significance can only be understood if the domain of CSs…

  12. Incidence of type 1 diabetes in age groups above 15 years: facts, hypothesis and prospects for future epidemiologic research.

    PubMed

    Bruno, G; Gruden, G; Songini, M

    2016-06-01

    Although onset of type 1 diabetes can occur in adulthood, epidemiological data are scarce, limiting our potential to identify unknown determinants of the disease. Paucity of registries expanding the recruitment of incident cases up to adulthood, atypical clinical features of type 1 diabetes at onset, misclassification of type 1 as type 2 diabetes and little use of markers of β-cell autoimmunity represents major obstacles in studying the risk of type 1 diabetes in adults. New strategies in study design, data collection and analyses may overcome these problems in the future. Population-based surveys and registries including adulthood; use of etiological rather than clinical criteria to define type 1 diabetes; availability of electronic health records as prescription data sources to avoid missing data; and application of proper statistical methods will be instrumental to gain better insight on the epidemiology and natural history of the disease. PMID:26787492

  13. The age of citizen science: Stimulating future environmental research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, S. N.

    2010-12-01

    Public awareness of the state of the ocean is growing with issues such as climate change, over-harvesting, marine pollution, coral bleaching, ocean acidification and sea level rise appearing regularly in popular media outlets. Society is also placing greater value on the range of ecosystem services the ocean provides. This increased consciousness of environmental change due to a combination of anthropogenic activities and impacts from climate change offers scientists the opportunity of engaging citizens in environmental research. The term citizen science refers to scientific research carried out by citizens and led by professionals, which involves large scale data collection whilst simultaneously engaging and educating those who participate. Most projects that engage citizen scientists have been specifically designed to provide an educational benefit to the volunteer and benefit the scientific inquiry by collecting extensive data sets over large geographical areas. Engaging the public in environmental science is not a new concept and successful projects (such as the Audobon Christmas Bird Count and Earthwatch) have been running for several decades resulting in hundreds of thousands of people conducting long-term field research in partnership with scientists based at universities worldwide. The realm of citizen science projects is continually expanding, with public engagement options ranging from science online; to backyard afternoon studies; to fully immersive experiential learning projects running for weeks at a time. Some organisations, such as Earthwatch also work in partnership with private industry; giving scientists access to more funding opportunities than those avenues traditionally available. These scientist -industry partnerships provide mutual benefits as the results of research projects in environments such as coastal ecosystems feed directly back into business risk strategies; for example mitigating shoreline erosion, storm surges, over fishing and

  14. Support for international agricultural research: current status and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Zeigler, Robert S; Mohanty, Samarendu

    2010-11-30

    The success of the first Green Revolution in the form of abundant food supplies and low prices over the past two decades has diverted the world's attention from agriculture to other pressing issues. This has resulted in lower support for the agricultural research work primarily undertaken by the 15 research centers of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR). The total support in real dollars for most of the last three decades has been more or less flat although the number of centers increased from 4 to 15. However, since 2000, the funding situation has improved for the CGIAR centers, with almost all the increase coming from grants earmarked for specific research projects. Even for some centers such as the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), the downward trend continued as late as 2006 with the budget in real dollars reaching the 1978 level of support. The recent food crisis has renewed the call for a second Green Revolution by revitalizing yield growth to feed the world in the face of growing population and a shrinking land base for agricultural use. The slowdown in yield growth because of decades of neglect in agricultural research and infrastructure development has been identified as the underlying reason for the recent food crisis. For the second Green Revolution to be successful, the CGIAR centers will have to play a complex role by expanding productivity in a sustainable manner with fewer resources. Thus, it is crucial to examine the current structure of support for the CGIAR centers and identify the challenges ahead in terms of source and end use of funds for the success of the second Green Revolution. The objective of this paper is to provide a historical perspective on the support to the CGIAR centers and to examine the current status of funding, in particular, the role of project-specific grants in rebuilding capacity of these centers. The paper will also discuss the nature of the support (unrestricted vs. project

  15. Predictable Chronic Mild Stress in Adolescence Increases Resilience in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Suo, Lin; Zhao, Liyan; Si, Jijian; Liu, Jianfeng; Zhu, Weili; Chai, Baisheng; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Jiajia; Ding, Zengbo; Luo, Yixiao; Shi, Haishui; Shi, Jie; Lu, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Stress in adolescence has been widely demonstrated to have a lasting impact in humans and animal models. Developmental risk and protective factors play an important role in the responses to stress in adulthood. Mild-to-moderate stress in adolescence may resist the negative impacts of adverse events in adulthood. However, little research on resilience has been conducted. In this study, we used a predictable chronic mild stress (PCMS) procedure (5 min of daily restraint stress for 28 days) in adolescent rats (postnatal days (PNDs) 28–55) to test the resilience effect of PCMS on depressive-like behavior in the sucrose preference test and forced swim test and anxiety-like behavior in the novelty-suppressed feeding test and elevated plus maze in adulthood. We also investigated the role of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling in the brain during the PCMS procedure in adolescence. Moreover, we investigated the effect of PCMS in adolescence on subsequent responses to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS; PNDs 63–83) in adulthood. The results demonstrated that PCMS during adolescence produced antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like effects and increased mTOR signaling activity in the prefrontal cortex in early adulthood. Either systemic administration or intra-PFC infusion of the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin completely blocked the behavioral effects produced by PCMS in adolescence. PCMS during adolescence resisted depressive- and anxiety-like behavior caused by CUS in adulthood. These findings indicate that PCMS in adolescence can contribute to resilience against depression and anxiety caused by stress in adulthood. PMID:23478858

  16. The Changing Adolescent Experience: Societal Trends and the Transition to Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortimer, Jeylan T.; Larson, Reed W.

    The path adolescents take from childhood to adulthood is a product of social, economic, political, and technological forces. These forces may facilitate youths preparation to become healthy adults, or they may leave youth unprepared for adulthood. Knowledgeable projections are vital in shaping the agenda for research; for alerting educators,…

  17. Rethinking the Youth Phase of the Life-Course: The Case for Emerging Adulthood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bynner, John

    2005-01-01

    A whole flurry of new thinking and research about young people in the USA has been stimulated by Jeffery Arnett's theory of 'Emerging Adulthood'. This argues for recognition of a new stage of the life-course between adolescence and adulthood reflecting the extension of youth transitions to independence brought about by globalization and…

  18. Development of Borderline Personality Disorder in Adolescence and Young Adulthood: Introduction to the Special Section

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stepp, Stephanie D.

    2012-01-01

    Recognizable symptoms and features of borderline personality disorder (BPD) appear during adolescence. However, there has been resistance to diagnose or research this disorder prior to adulthood because of clinical lore that BPD is a long-standing illness and that personality traits are not stable until adulthood. This has resulted in little…

  19. Witnessing versus Experiencing Direct Violence in Childhood as Correlates of Adulthood PTSD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulkarni, Madhur R.; Graham-Bermann, Sandra; Rauch, Sheila A. M.; Seng, Julia

    2011-01-01

    Research has established that childhood violence exposure plays a considerable role in the development of deleterious outcomes in childhood and adulthood. However, important gaps remain in understanding the complex relationships between early violence exposure, adulthood trauma exposure, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study…

  20. Community-Based Participatory Clinical Research in Obesity by Adolescents: Pipeline for Researchers of the Future

    PubMed Central

    Branch, Robert; Chester, Ann

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel, untapped opportunity, challenging cultural and man-power barriers to transferring advances in biomedical science knowledge that will improve community health care (Type II Clinical Translational Research) in a medically underserved community. We describe a pilot model in which adolescents apply principles of Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) at the epicenter of the obesity diabetes epidemic in rural Appalachia in West Virginia. The model invites minority, financially disadvantaged, and educationally disadvantaged adolescents to become educated on ethics, then provides infrastructure to support study design and conduct of CBPR. This experience demonstrates that these adolescents can efficiently, with quality and integrity, reach into the most vulnerable of communities and their own families to show that the prevalence of obesity is at 50% and diabetes 10.4% (n = 989). Our experience illustrates the infrastructure requirements for this strategy to be successful and emphasizes the substantial benefit that could accrue if the model is successfully sustained. The benefit includes not only the translation of knowledge to influence community lifestyle behavior but also the creation of a pipeline of new biomedical scientists for the future. PMID:20443918

  1. Current and Future Research in Active Control of Lightweight, Flexible Structures Using the X-56 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, John J.; Bosworth, John T.; Burken, John J.; Suh, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    The X-56 Multi-Utility Technology Testbed aircraft system is a versatile experimental research flight platform. The system was primarily designed to investigate active control of lightweight flexible structures, but is reconfigurable and capable of hosting a wide breadth of research. Current research includes flight experimentation of a Lockheed Martin designed active control flutter suppression system. Future research plans continue experimentation with alternative control systems, explore the use of novel sensor systems, and experiments with the use of novel control effectors. This paper describes the aircraft system, current research efforts designed around the system, and future planned research efforts that will be hosted on the aircraft system.

  2. Solar-terrestrial research opportunities - A look to the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Intriligator, D. S.

    1984-01-01

    Recent and proposed research programs and their impact on the understanding of solar-terrestrial interactions, the processes driving solar activity, and the propagation of the solar wind are outlined. The magnetospheres of the earth and major planets have been mapped and their interactions with the solar wind modeled. MHD activity has been identified as the driving force for stellar surface activity, and Pioneer data are permitting a mapping of the outer areas of the heliosphere. Further studies are required to understand solar magnetic field-earth magnetosphere, ionosphere-atmosphere interactions, the effects of solar heating on earth atmosphere ozone levels, and the effects of solar transient events on the earth atmosphere. The initiation of an International Geosphere-Biosphere Program is now under study and several satellites for solar-terrestrial research are under development as cooperative efforts among the U.S., Japanese, and European agencies.

  3. The future radioactive ion beam research program at Oak Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, James B.

    1994-03-01

    Early in 1995, the ORNL Holifield Facility is scheduled to return to operation as a dedicated radioactive ion beam (RIB) facility. This enhanced capability will open up new possibilities for research on the structure of and phenomena occurring in proton-rich nuclei. Among the opportunities will be the creation of heavier N≈Z nuclei, approaching 100Sn, and the study of exotic nuclear shapes, extensions of studies of the p-n interaction and super-allowed beta decay, and examination of nuclear structure near the proton drip line. In addition to new nuclear and atomic physics research opportunities, the beams from the Holifield RIB facility are expected to provide new capabilities for measurements important to nuclear astrophysics. To carry out this experimental program, various upgrades are planned to the existing experimental apparatus, and a new, third-generation, recoil-mass separator is being constructed.

  4. Solar Irradiance: Recent Results and Future Research Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Thomas N.

    2009-05-01

    The solar irradiance, being the radiance integrated over the full disk, is the primary energy input for Earth's environment. Understanding the solar input is key for several terrestrial research topics concerning, to name a few, atmospheric ozone photochemistry, natural forcings on climate change, and improving space weather forecasting. From a solar physics viewpoint, the solar irradiance offers interesting challenges on understanding the sources of the variability of the solar irradiance, which has a strong dependence in wavelength and varies over all time periods from seconds to centuries. Recent solar irradiance results from the TIMED and SORCE satellite missions, such as concerning the current solar cycle minimum, will be presented. In addition, some outstanding questions for solar irradiance research will be addressed within the context of how they can be answered with the new missions, SDO, Glory, and PICARD, that are expected to be launched in late 2009.

  5. [Clinical research on malaria: what for the future?].

    PubMed

    Cot, M

    2005-06-01

    Malaria still remains one of the main public health problems in the world. In spite of early and numerous clinical trials, the situation seems to have been worsening in the last ten years. Malaria clinical research involves several levels: Several meta-analyses have been performed on this topic (in particular, the Cochrane Database Library has published studies on malaria prevention during pregnancy, management of clinical malaria attacks, vaccine trials or impregnated bed net trials). All these studies show the uneven quality of trials (only 10% to 50% can be kept in the analysis for methodological reasons), which seldom lead to similar conclusions. Besides, as resistances of both parasites and vectors to drugs or insecticides are regularly increasing, trials have to be repeated and new molecules have to be found and evaluated. Finally, practical application of such interventions may be difficult, due to the heterogeneity of epidemiological situations and the poverty of target populations. Various initiatives aiming to develop malaria clinical research have recently been launched. Donators are public or international (Global Fund, Roll Back Malaria Initiative, NIH, EDCTP programme), as well as private (Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation). These substantial funds should enhance the research of new antimalarial drugs and large-scale, adequately designed trials. However, to make sure these trials really benefit to populations exposed to the disease, ethical principles should be co-elaborated with developing countries, within collaborative networks between laboratories from industrialized and developing countries. PMID:16227916

  6. Animal Research in Space: Past, Present, and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, Kenneth; Sun, Sidney; Tomko, David

    Animals, principally non-human primates, were the early pioneers of spaceflight demonstrating that higher organisms could survive the rigors of launch to low earth orbit and the unique microgravity and radiation environment of orbital spaceflight. Following dispelling the fears that spaceflight could cause major disruptions in key body systems, non-human primates gave way to rodent research, particularly rats, in order to increase the number of specimens per flight opportunity, reduce the cost of support equipment, and to focus on how animals adapt to the near absence of gravity. In the virtual absence of gravity, changes were observed in the musculoskeletal system, sensorimotor, cardiovascular, and other systems. To accommodate rodents during spaceflight special facilities had to be developed for both crewed and unscrewed space vehicles. e.g. the Space Shuttle, and free flyers like the Russian Cosmos biosatellites, respectively. With a crew onboard, scientists have the opportunity to use them to obtain samples from the animals, measure physiological function, observe and record animal behavior, and administer drugs or challenges. However, on free flyers one can utilize materials and techniques not possible on crewed spacecraft due to safety, cost, and/or flight resources or competing priorities. This presentation will provide a brief glimpse of some of the highlights in the history of animal research in space, recent results, and current prospects for the next decade, i.e., flight opportunities, rodent habitats, and support equipment for rodent research.

  7. The Heffter Research Institute: past and hopeful future.

    PubMed

    Nichols, David E

    2014-01-01

    This essay describes the founding of the Heffter Research Institute in 1993 and its development up to the present. The Institute is the only scientific research organization dedicated to scientific research into the medical value of psychedelics, and it has particularly focused on the use of psilocybin. The first clinical treatment study was of the value of psilocybin in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Next was a UCLA study of psilocybin to treat end-of-life distress in end-stage cancer patients. While that study was ongoing, a trial was started at Johns Hopkins University (JHU) to study the efficacy of psilocybin in treating anxiety and depression resulting from a cancer diagnosis. Following the successful completion of the UCLA project, a larger study was started at New York University, which is near completion. A pilot study of the value of psilocybin in treating alcoholism at the University of New Mexico also is nearing completion, with a larger two-site study being planned. Other studies underway involve the use of psilocybin in a smoking cessation program and a study of the effects of psilocybin in long-term meditators, both at JHU. The institute is now planning for a Phase 3 clinical trial of psilocybin to treat distress in end-stage cancer patients. PMID:24830182

  8. Zebrafish antipredatory responses: A future for translational research?

    PubMed Central

    Gerlai, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Human neuropsychiatric conditions associated with abnormally exaggerated or misdirected fear (anxiety disorders and phobias) still represent a large unmet medical need because the biological mechanisms underlying these diseases are not well understood. Animal models have been proposed to facilitate this research. Here I review the literature with a focus on zebrafish, an upcoming laboratory organism in behavioral brain research. I argue that abnormal human fear responses are likely the result of the malfunction of neurobiological mechanisms (brain areas, circuits and/or molecular mechanisms) that originally evolved to support avoidance of predators or other harm in nature. I also argue that the understanding of the normal as well as pathological functioning of such mechanisms may be best achieved if one utilizes naturalistic experimental approaches. In case of laboratory model organisms, this may entail presenting stimuli associated with predators and measuring species-specific antipredatory responses. Although zebrafish is a relatively new subject of such inquiry, I review the recently rapidly increasing number of zebrafish studies in this area, and conclude that zebrafish is a promising research tool for the analysis of the neurobiology and genetics of vertebrate fear responses. PMID:19836422

  9. Indian Ocean Research Data: Past, Present and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, Cynthia; Groman, Robert; Allison, Molly; Copley, Nancy; Gegg, Stephen; Kinkade, Danie; Rauch, Shannon; Glover, David; Wiebe, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Open access to well-documented data is essential to enable improved understanding of the key processes and their complex interactions in the Indian Ocean. For decades, marine ecosystem data have been collected by expeditions conducting research in this fascinating region. The data from many of the projects including the International Indian Ocean Expedition of the 1960s, the US Joint Global Ocean flux Study (JGOFS) Arabian Sea Expedition of the 1990s, and several more recent projects have been contributed by the original investigators to the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO). BCO-DMO is funded by the US National Science Foundation to work with marine scientists to improve access to research data and ensure long term preservation of the data that comprise an important part of a research program's legacy. The data are freely available from the Web-accessible BCO-DMO system that supports data discovery, access, display, user-customizable export, and download. The authors will provide an overview of the BCO-DMO data system including examples of the range of data types and an introduction to system capabilities.

  10. Research accomplishments and future goals in particle physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-06-01

    This proposal presents the research accomplishments and ongoing activities of Boston University researchers in high energy physics. Some changes have been made in the structure of the program from the previous arrangement of tasks. Task B, Accelerator Design Physics, is being submitted as a separate proposal for an independent grant; this will be consistent with the nature of the research and the source of funding. Boston University is active in seven principal areas: (1) Task A: Colliding Beams - physics of e(sup +)e(sup -) and (anti p)p collisions; (2) Task C: MACRO Experiment - search for magnetic monopoles and study of cosmic rays; (3) Task D: Proton Decay - search for nucleon instability and study of neutrino interactions; (4) Tasks E, J, and N: Particle Theory - theoretical high energy particle physics, including two Outstanding Junior Investigator awards; (5) Task F: Muon G-2 - measurement of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon; (6) Task K: SSCintcal - calorimetry for the GEM Experiment; (7) Task L: Muon Detectors for the GEM Experiment. The body of the proposal is devoted to detailed discussions of each of the tasks. The total budget request for the program appears in a summary chapter that includes a general budget discussion and individual budget requests and explanations for each of the tasks.

  11. Animal biowarfare research: historical perspective and potential future attacks.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Jung-Yong; Park, Jee-Yong; Cho, Yun Sang; Cho, In-Soo

    2012-12-01

    A biological attack on livestock or poultry could result in the loss of valuable animals, costs related to the containment of outbreaks and the disposal of carcasses, lost trade and other economic effects involving suppliers, transporters, distributors and restaurants; however, it is not possible to secure all livestock, and livestock are much less well guarded than human targets. Thus, the vulnerability of the livestock industry to the introduction of biological agents varies for the following reasons: (i) the majority of lethal and contagious biological agents are environmentally resilient, endemic in foreign countries and harmless to humans, making it easier for terrorists to acquire, handle and deploy these pathogens, (ii) with animals concentrated in fewer production facilities and frequently transported between these facilities, a single pathogen introduction could cause widespread infection and (iii) the extent of human travel around the globe makes it difficult to exclude exotic animal diseases as possible biological agents. Historically, many governments have developed and planned to use biological agents for direct attacks on livestock or poultry. In the past, developed nations have actively developed biological weapons to target animals. The potential spectrum of bioterrorism ranges from isolated acts against individuals by individuals to tactical and strategic military attacks and state-sponsored international terrorism intended to cause mass casualties in animals, humans or both. This review provides an overview of the past development and use of biological weapons and describes potential future attacks. PMID:22646760

  12. Melodic intonation therapy: back to basics for future research.

    PubMed

    Zumbansen, Anna; Peretz, Isabelle; Hébert, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    We present a critical review of the literature on melodic intonation therapy (MIT), one of the most formalized treatments used by speech-language therapist in Broca's aphasia. We suggest basic clarifications to enhance the scientific support of this promising treatment. First, therapeutic protocols using singing as a speech facilitation technique are not necessarily MIT. The goal of MIT is to restore propositional speech. The rationale is that patients can learn a new way to speak through singing by using language-capable regions of the right cerebral hemisphere. Eventually, patients are supposed to use this way of speaking permanently but not to sing overtly. We argue that many treatment programs covered in systematic reviews on MIT's efficacy do not match MIT's therapeutic goal and rationale. Critically, we identified two main variations of MIT: the French thérapie mélodique et rythmée (TMR) that trains patients to use singing overtly as a facilitation technique in case of speech struggle and palliative versions of MIT that help patients with the most severe expressive deficits produce a limited set of useful, readymade phrases. Second, we distinguish between the immediate effect of singing on speech production and the long-term effect of the entire program on language recovery. Many results in the MIT literature can be explained by this temporal perspective. Finally, we propose that MIT can be viewed as a treatment of apraxia of speech more than aphasia. This issue should be explored in future experimental studies. PMID:24478754

  13. Promoting Intellectual Growth in Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehle, Thomas J.; Bray, Melissa A.; Chafouleas, Sandra M; McLoughlin, Caven S.

    2002-01-01

    Article discusses problems associated with promoting intellectual growth in adulthood. Defines characteristics of intelligent behavior as incorporating individual attainment of Resources, Intimacy, Competence, and Health (RICH). Presents the RICH theory as a way to define and address the goals of intelligent enhancement. (JDM)

  14. Preterm Birth: Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Marilee C.; Cristofalo, Elizabeth; Kim, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Preterm birth is associated with greater difficulty with transitions from childhood to adolescence to adulthood. Adolescents and young adults born preterm have higher rates of cerebral palsy, intellectual disability, cognitive impairment, learning disability, executive dysfunction, attention deficit disorder, and social-emotional difficulties than…

  15. Nanoindentation in Materials Research: Past, Present, and Future

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, Warren; Pharr, George Mathews

    2010-01-01

    The method we introduced in 1992 for measuring hardness and elastic modulus by nanoindentation testing has been widely adopted and used in the characterization of mechanical behavior at small scales. Since its original development, the method has undergone numerous refinements and changes brought about by improvements to testing equipment and techniques, as well as advances in our understanding of the mechanics of elastic-plastic contact. In this article, we briefly review the history of the method, comment on its capabilities and limitations, and discuss some of the emerging areas in materials research where it has played, or promises to play, an important role.

  16. Future research on animal temperatures using electronic equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Nott, S.B.; Seawright, G.L.

    1981-11-01

    Available literature on animal temperature is reviewed and research priorities, using newly developed electronic identification and temperature-sensing equipment, are suggested. Applications to beef-cattle, dairy-cattle, and swine operations receive major attention. Skepticism of existing temperature data obtained with rectal thermometers is expressed. Physiological control of animal temperature is described as is the new monitoring technology (transponders and battery-operated radio transmitters). Primary emphasis is given to the diseases and managerial applications where temperature monitoring equipment is likely to be most profitable.

  17. Microarrays—Current and Future Applications in Biomedical Research

    PubMed Central

    Certa, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Microarrays covers research where microarrays are applied to address complex biological questions. This new open access journal publishes articles where novel applications or state-of-the art technology developments in the field are reported. In addition, novel methods or data analysis algorithms are under the scope of Microarrays. This journal will serve as a platform for fast and efficient sharing of data within this large user community. As one of the first microarray users in Europe back in 1996, I am proud to serve as Editor-in-Chief and I believe we have assembled a highly proficient Editorial Board, responsible for a fair and fast peer-review of articles.

  18. Astroinformatics, data mining and the future of astronomical research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brescia, Massimo; Longo, Giuseppe

    2013-08-01

    Astronomy, as many other scientific disciplines, is facing a true data deluge which is bound to change both the praxis and the methodology of every day research work. The emerging field of astroinformatics, while on the one end appears crucial to face the technological challenges, on the other is opening new exciting perspectives for new astronomical discoveries through the implementation of advanced data mining procedures. The complexity of astronomical data and the variety of scientific problems, however, call for innovative algorithms and methods as well as for an extreme usage of ICT technologies.

  19. Research directions for future generations of cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Clark, Graeme

    2004-09-01

    Physiological and psychophysical research indicates that improved hearing in noise and music appreciation are likely with cochlear implants, with better reproduction of the fine temporospatial patterns of neural response in the auditory pathways due to phase differences in neuron firing patterns as the result of the basilar membrane travelling wave. An initial speech-processing strategy, to in part reproduce this information, is showing better frequency discrimination and musical perception. However, more exact reproduction is likely with a new generation electrode array which could involve the use of neurotrophins and inherently conducting polymers. The siting and design of this, as well as safety, needs further investigation before it is implemented. PMID:18792214

  20. Melodic Intonation Therapy: Back to Basics for Future Research

    PubMed Central

    Zumbansen, Anna; Peretz, Isabelle; Hébert, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    We present a critical review of the literature on melodic intonation therapy (MIT), one of the most formalized treatments used by speech-language therapist in Broca’s aphasia. We suggest basic clarifications to enhance the scientific support of this promising treatment. First, therapeutic protocols using singing as a speech facilitation technique are not necessarily MIT. The goal of MIT is to restore propositional speech. The rationale is that patients can learn a new way to speak through singing by using language-capable regions of the right cerebral hemisphere. Eventually, patients are supposed to use this way of speaking permanently but not to sing overtly. We argue that many treatment programs covered in systematic reviews on MIT’s efficacy do not match MIT’s therapeutic goal and rationale. Critically, we identified two main variations of MIT: the French thérapie mélodique et rythmée (TMR) that trains patients to use singing overtly as a facilitation technique in case of speech struggle and palliative versions of MIT that help patients with the most severe expressive deficits produce a limited set of useful, readymade phrases. Second, we distinguish between the immediate effect of singing on speech production and the long-term effect of the entire program on language recovery. Many results in the MIT literature can be explained by this temporal perspective. Finally, we propose that MIT can be viewed as a treatment of apraxia of speech more than aphasia. This issue should be explored in future experimental studies. PMID:24478754

  1. Current trends and future directions in flower development research

    PubMed Central

    Scutt, Charlie P.; Vandenbussche, Michiel

    2014-01-01

    Flowers, the reproductive structures of the approximately 400 000 extant species of flowering plants, exist in a tremendous range of forms and sizes, mainly due to developmental differences involving the number, arrangement, size and form of the floral organs of which they consist. However, this tremendous diversity is underpinned by a surprisingly robust basic floral structure in which a central group of carpels forms on an axis of determinate growth, almost invariably surrounded by two successive zones containing stamens and perianth organs, respectively. Over the last 25 years, remarkable progress has been achieved in describing the molecular mechanisms that control almost all aspects of flower development, from the phase change that initiates flowering to the final production of fruits and seeds. However, this work has been performed almost exclusively in a small number of eudicot model species, chief among which is Arabidopsis thaliana. Studies of flower development must now be extended to a much wider phylogenetic range of flowering plants and, indeed, to their closest living relatives, the gymnosperms. Studies of further, more wide-ranging models should provide insights that, for various reasons, cannot be obtained by studying the major existing models alone. The use of further models should also help to explain how the first flowering plants evolved from an unknown, although presumably gymnosperm-like ancestor, and rapidly diversified to become the largest major plant group and to dominate the terrestrial flora. The benefits for society of a thorough understanding of flower development are self-evident, as human life depends to a large extent on flowering plants and on the fruits and seeds they produce. In this preface to the Special Issue, we introduce eleven articles on flower development, representing work in both established and further models, including gymnosperms. We also present some of our own views on current trends and future directions of the

  2. Exploring Astrobiology: Future and In-Service Teacher Research Experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cola, J.; Williams, L. D.; Snell, T.; Gaucher, E.; Harris, B.; Usselman, M. C.; Millman, R. S.

    2009-12-01

    The Georgia Tech Center for Ribosome Adaptation and Evolution, a center funded by the NASA Astrobiology Institute, developed an educational Astrobiology program titled, “Life on the Edge: Astrobiology.” The purpose of the program was to provide educators with the materials, exposure, and skills necessary to prepare our future workforce and to foster student interest in scientific discovery on Earth and throughout the universe. A one-week, non-residential summer enrichment program for high school students was conducted and tested by two high school educators, an undergraduate student, and faculty in the Schools of Biology, and Chemistry and Biochemistry at Georgia Tech. In an effort to promote and encourage entry into teaching careers, Georgia Tech paired in-service teachers in the Georgia Intern-Fellowship for Teachers (GIFT) program with an undergraduate student interested in becoming a teacher through the Tech to Teaching program. The GIFT and Tech to Teaching fellows investigated extremophiles which have adapted to life under extreme environmental conditions. As a result, extremophiles became the focus of a week-long, “Life on the Edge: Astrobiology” curriculum aligned with the Georgia Performance Standards in Biology. Twenty-five high school students explored the adaptation and survival rates for various types of extremophiles exposed to UV radiation and desiccation; students were also introduced to hands-on activities and techniques such as genomic DNA purification, gel electrophoresis, and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The impact on everyone invested and involved in the Astrobiology program including the GIFT and Tech to Teaching fellows, high school students, and faculty are discussed.

  3. Fatigue in Multiple Sclerosis: Misconceptions and Future Research Directions

    PubMed Central

    Rudroff, Thorsten; Kindred, John H.; Ketelhut, Nathaniel B.

    2016-01-01

    Fatigue is one of the most disabling side effects in people with multiple sclerosis. While this fact is well known, there has been a remarkable lack of progress in determining the pathophysiological mechanisms behind fatigue and the establishment of effective treatments. The main barrier has been the lack of a unified definition of fatigue that can be objectively tested with validated experimental models. In this “perspective article” we propose the use of the following model and definition of fatigue: the decrease in physical and/or mental performance that results from changes in central, psychological, and/or peripheral factors. These changes depend on the task being performed, the environmental conditions it is performed in, and the physical and mental capacity of the individual. Our definition and model of fatigue outlines specific causes of fatigue and how it affects task performance. We also outline the strengths and weaknesses of commonly used measures of fatigue and suggest, based on our model and definition, new research strategies, which should include multiple measures. These studies should be mechanistic with validated experimental models to determine changes in central, psychological, and/or peripheral factors that explain fatigue. The proposed new research strategies may lead to the identification of the origins of MS related fatigue and the development of new, more effective treatments. PMID:27531990

  4. Fatigue in Multiple Sclerosis: Misconceptions and Future Research Directions.

    PubMed

    Rudroff, Thorsten; Kindred, John H; Ketelhut, Nathaniel B

    2016-01-01

    Fatigue is one of the most disabling side effects in people with multiple sclerosis. While this fact is well known, there has been a remarkable lack of progress in determining the pathophysiological mechanisms behind fatigue and the establishment of effective treatments. The main barrier has been the lack of a unified definition of fatigue that can be objectively tested with validated experimental models. In this "perspective article" we propose the use of the following model and definition of fatigue: the decrease in physical and/or mental performance that results from changes in central, psychological, and/or peripheral factors. These changes depend on the task being performed, the environmental conditions it is performed in, and the physical and mental capacity of the individual. Our definition and model of fatigue outlines specific causes of fatigue and how it affects task performance. We also outline the strengths and weaknesses of commonly used measures of fatigue and suggest, based on our model and definition, new research strategies, which should include multiple measures. These studies should be mechanistic with validated experimental models to determine changes in central, psychological, and/or peripheral factors that explain fatigue. The proposed new research strategies may lead to the identification of the origins of MS related fatigue and the development of new, more effective treatments. PMID:27531990

  5. Disaggregated Data and Beyond: Future Queries in Cancer Control Research

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Anh Bao; Chawla, Neetu; Noone, Anne-Michelle; Srinivasan, Shobha

    2014-01-01

    The goal of health equity requires the collection and reporting of disaggregated data in underrepresented populations such as Asian American (AA) and Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander (NHOPI) communities. A recent Department of Health and Human Services report outlines the necessity for disaggregated data which would offer communities, providers and planners better tools to address health problems. In a recent collaboration, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and several registries published a series of papers tracking cancer incidence data on AA and NHOPI communities using data from the NCI’s Surveillance and Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program. The findings indicate a need for concentrated focus and planning for the next stages of cancer prevention and control for AA and NHOPI subpopulations. In this article, we provide (a) the context for the perpetuation of the model minority myth as well as historical and socio-cultural factors that have shaped health and disease for AA and NHOPI subgroups; (b) potential strategies for research and public health policy for AA and NHOPI groups using subpopulation-based approaches while addressing challenges and limitations; and (c) a portfolio analysis of currently funded projects within the NCI/DCCPS to identify gaps and areas of potential research. PMID:25368401

  6. Future Research Directions for Multimorbidity Involving Cardiovascular Diseases.

    PubMed

    Salive, Marcel E

    2016-05-01

    Multimorbidity, defined as the co-occurrence of two or more chronic conditions, increases with age and may be found in approximately two-thirds of older adults in population studies, commonly including a variety of cardiovascular risk factors and chronic diseases. This article offers a research agenda for cardiovascular disease from a patient-centered multimorbidity perspective. Definitional issues remain for multimorbidity, along with high interest in understanding the inter-relationships between aging, diseases, treatments, and organ dysfunction in the development and progression of multimorbidity. Clinical trials, practice-based and population-based observational studies, and linkages of big data can play a role in improving health outcomes among persons with multimorbidity. PMID:27113155

  7. Electroactive Biofilms: Current Status and Future Research Needs

    SciTech Connect

    Borole, Abhijeet P; Reguera, Gemma; Ringeisen, Bradley; Wang, Zhiwu; Feng, Yujie; Kim, Byung Hong

    2011-01-01

    Electroactive biofilms generated by electrochemically active microorganisms have many potential applications in bioenergy and chemicals production. This review assesses the effects of microbiological and process parameters on enrichment of such biofilms as well as critically evaluates the current knowledge of the mechanisms of extracellular electron transfer in BES systems. First we discuss the role of biofilm forming microorganisms vs. planktonic microorganisms. Physical, chemical and electrochemical parameters which dictate the enrichment and subsequent performance of the biofilms are discussed. Potential dependent biological parameters including biofilm growth rate, specific electron transfer rate and others and their relationship to BES system performance is assessed. A review of the mechanisms of electron transfer in BES systems is included followed by a discussion of biofilm and its exopolymeric components and their electrical conductivity. A discussion of the electroactive biofilms in biocathodes is also included. Finally, we identify the research needs for further development of the electroactive biofilms to enable commercial applications.

  8. Concrete-polymer composites: current status and future research needs

    SciTech Connect

    Kukacka, L E

    1981-04-01

    When plastics are combined with mixtures of inorganic materials, high-strength, durable, fast-setting composites are produced. These materials are used in structural engineering and other applications, and as a result of the successes obtained to date, considerable research and development work is in progress throughout the world. One family of polymer-based composites receiving considerable attention is the concrete-polymer materials. Work in this area is directed toward developing new high-strength durable materials by combining cement and concrete technology with that of polymer chemistry. In addition to the significant property enhancement, many combinations of siliceous materials with polymers require lower energy inputs per unit of performance than either component alone.

  9. Enhancing water cycle measurements for future hydrologic research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loescher, H.W.; Jacobs, J.M.; Wendroth, O.; Robinson, D.A.; Poulos, G.S.; McGuire, K.; Reed, P.; Mohanty, B.P.; Shanley, J.B.; Krajewski, W.

    2007-01-01

    The Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Sciences, Inc., established the Hydrologic Measurement Facility to transform watershed-scale hydrologic research by facilitating access to advanced instrumentation and expertise that would not otherwise be available to individual investigators. We outline a committee-based process that determined which suites of instrumentation best fit the needs of the hydrological science community and a proposed mechanism for the governance and distribution of these sensors. Here, we also focus on how these proposed suites of instrumentation can be used to address key scientific challenges, including scaling water cycle science in time and space, broadening the scope of individual subdisciplines of water cycle science, and developing mechanistic linkages among these subdisciplines and spatio-temporal scales. ?? 2007 American Meteorological Society.

  10. A look into the future of ALS research.

    PubMed

    Clerc, Pascaline; Lipnick, Scott; Willett, Catherine

    2016-06-01

    Although amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also referred as 'Lou Gehrig's Disease,' was first described in 1869 and the first disease-associated gene was discovered almost 20 years ago, the disease etiology is still not fully understood and treatment options are limited to one drug approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The slow translational progress suggests that current research models are not ideal to study such a complicated disease and need to be re-examined. Progress will require greater insight into human genes and biology involved in ALS susceptibility, as well as a deeper understanding of disease phenotype at the histological and molecular levels. Improving human disease outcome will require directing focus toward improved assessment technologies and innovative approaches. PMID:26861067

  11. Research in mosquito control: current challenges for a brighter future.

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-08-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are a key threat for millions of people worldwide, since they act as vectors for devastating pathogens and parasites. In this scenario, vector control is crucial. Mosquito larvae are usually targeted using organophosphates, insect growth regulators, and microbial agents. Indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated bed nets are also employed. However, these chemicals have negative effects on human health and the environment and induce resistance in a number of vectors. Newer and safer tools have been recently implemented to enhance control of mosquitoes. Here, I focus on some crucial challenges about eco-friendly control of mosquito vectors, mainly the improvement of behavior-based control strategies (sterile insect technique ("SIT") and "boosted SIT") and plant-borne mosquitocidals, including green-synthesized nanoparticles. A number of hot areas that need further research and cooperation among parasitologists, entomologists, and behavioral ecologists are highlighted. PMID:26093499

  12. Some thoughts on future directions in margin research

    SciTech Connect

    Mutter, J.C. )

    1990-05-01

    Looking through the abstracts of presentations for this symposium, the authors see a science in transition. The quarter century since plate tectonic theory provided geoscience with a guiding framework in which to carry forward research into global tectonic phenomenon has witnessed a flourishing of research into the structure and evolution of continental margins. Margin evolution can now be placed firmly within this theoretical construct, thereby providing one of the key elaborations of the original theory that has given it its strength and value. What, then, is the next stage Are they in a period of normal science characterized by the detailed verification of an established paradigm, or can they hope for a really new direction Two approaches seem to present themselves. One is to focus attention on anomalies-things that don't quite fit or are not very easily covered by the present paradigm. Volcanic passive margins don't fit very well within the simple kinematic statement of plate tectonics, nor do eustasy and its effect on sedimentary sequences. While study of these square pegs in the round hole of plate theory may not bring them to a new paradigm, they might well provide significant modifications to the current wisdom. Perhaps a more fruitful approach is to propose that they are at a point in the development of other science at which the era of verification of the plate tectonic paradigm is sufficiently mature (perhaps even at its end) that the proper direction now is to establish a rigorous physical basis for the phenomena that are kinematically described by plate theory. The objective should be to created a higher order theory and thereby illuminate these known phenomena. Numerical and analytical modeling of deformational processes, magma generation, and migration are making leading contributions to this endeavor.

  13. Future Soil Moisture Satellite Missions and Research Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Njoku, E. G.; Jackson, T. J.; O'Neill, P. E.

    2001-12-01

    many opportunities, and research needs, to be addressed in developing innovative approaches to utilization of the new satellite-derived data. Issues include development of new processing and retrieval algorithms, methods for jointly assimilating satellite-derived and in-situ data into hydrologic models, and validation of derived soil moisture data and products. An overview of the current soil moisture mission and planning status, and ongoing and needed research, will be provided in this paper.

  14. Soil Contamination and Remediation Strategies. Current research and future challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petruzzelli, G.

    2012-04-01

    eliminating the source of pollution, but also on blocking the pathways from contaminants to receptors or reducing the exposure to contaminants,. Future challenge integration of sustainability into remediation decision-making. Soil is not a waste! There is a growing interest in the clean up approaches that maintain soil quality after remediation treatments. This issue is of great importance in the U.S.A. where the EPA from 2009 is promoting innovative clean-up strategies (Green Remediation). Green remediation is defined as the practice of considering all environmental effects of remedy and incorporating options to maximize environmental benefit of cleanup actions . These remediation strategies restore contaminated sites to productive use with a great attention to the global environmental quality, including the preservation of soil functionality according to the following principles: use minimally invasive technologies; use passive energy technologies such as bioremediation and phytoremediation as primary remedies or finishing steps where possible and effective; minimize soil and habitat disturbance; minimize bioavailability of contaminants trough adequate contaminant source and plume control If we move from the current definition of remedial targets based on total concentrations, technologies with low impact on the environment can be utilized reducing the wrong choice to disposal soil in landfill destroying quickly a not renewable essential resource.

  15. Sleep disturbance due to noise: current issues and future research.

    PubMed

    Hume, Ken

    2010-01-01

    There is growing interest in carrying out further research to understand and reduce the impact of aircraft noise on airport neighborhood in anticipation of the projected substantial increase in global aviation. Soundscapes provide new analytical methods and a broader, more comprehensive appreciation of the aural environment, which may have a useful role in understanding noise-induced sleep disturbance and annoyance. Current noise metrics like Leq do not provide a common language to report noise environment to residents, which is a key obstacle to effective noise management and acceptance. Non-auditory effects complicate the production of consistent dose-response functions for aircraft noise affecting sleep and annoyance. There are various end-points that can be chosen to assess the degree of sleep disturbance, which has detracted from the clarity of results that has been communicated to wider audiences. The World Health Organization (WHO-Europe) has produced Night Noise Guidelines for Europe, which act as a clear guide for airports and planners to work towards. Methodological inadequacies and the need for simpler techniques to record sleep will be considered with the exciting potential to greatly increase cost-effective field data acquisition, which is needed for large scale epidemiological studies. PMID:20472952

  16. Asthma in the Elderly: Current Understanding and Future Research Needs

    PubMed Central

    Hanania, Nicola A.; King, Monroe J.; Braman, Sidney S.; Saltoun, Carol; Wise, Robert A.; Enright, Paul; Falsey, Ann A; Mathur, Sameer K.; Ramsdell, Joe W.; Rogers, Linda; Stempel, David A.; Lima, John J.; Fish, James E.; Wilson, Sandra R.; Boyd, Cynthia; Patel, Kushang V.; Irvin, Charles G.; Yawn, Barbara P.; Halm, Ethan A; Wasserman, Stephen I.; Sands, Mark F.; Ershler, William B.; Ledford, Dennis K.

    2011-01-01

    Asthma in the elderly (AIE) is under diagnosed and under treated and there is a paucity of knowledge. The National Institute on Aging convened this workshop to identify what is known, what gaps in knowledge remain and suggest research directions needed to improve the understanding and care of AIE. Asthma presenting at an advanced age often has similar clinical and physiologic consequences as seen with younger individuals but co-morbid illnesses and the psychosocial effects of aging may affect the diagnosis, clinical presentation and care of asthma in this population. At least two phenotypes exist among elderly asthma; those with long-standing asthma have more severe airflow limitation and less complete reversibility than those with late-onset asthma. Many challenges exist in the recognition and treatment of asthma in the elderly. Furthermore, the pathophysiological mechanisms of AIE are likely to be different from those seen in young asthmatics and these differences may influence the clinical course and outcomes of asthma in this population. PMID:21872730

  17. European Fusion Materials Research Program - Recent Results and Future Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Diegele, E.; Andreani, R.; Laesser, R.; Schaaf, B. van der

    2005-05-15

    The paper reviews the objectives and the status of the current EU long-term materials program. It highlights recent results, discusses some of the key issues and major existing problems to be resolved and presents an outlook on the R and D planned for the next few years. The main objectives of the Materials Development program are the development and qualification of reduced activation structural materials for the Test Blanket Modules (TBMs) in ITER and of low activation structural materials resistant to high fluence neutron irradiation for in-vessel components such as breeding blanket, divertor and first wall in DEMO. The EU strategy assumes: (i) ITER operation starting in 2015 with DEMO relevant Test Blanket Modules to be installed from day one of operation, (ii) IFMIF operation in 2017 and (iii) DEMO final design activities in 2022 to 2025. The EU candidate structural material EUROFER for TBMs has to be fully code qualified for licensing well before 2015. In parallel, research on materials for operation at higher temperatures is conducted following a logical sequence, by supplementing EUROFER with the oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steels and, thereafter, with fibre-reinforced Silicon Carbide (SiC{sub f}/SiC). Complementary, tungsten alloys are developed as structural material for high temperature applications such as gas-cooled divertors.

  18. Why is Neuroimmunopharmacology crucial for the future of addiction research?

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, Mark R; Watkins, Linda R

    2013-01-01

    A major development in drug addiction research in recent years has been the discovery that immune signaling within the central nervous system contributes significantly to mesolimbic dopamine reward signaling induced by drugs of abuse, and hence is involved in the presentation of reward behaviors. Additionally, in the case of opioids, these hypotheses have advanced through to the discovery of the novel site of opioid action at the innate immune pattern recognition receptor Toll-like receptor 4 as the necessary triggering event that engages this reward facilitating central immune signaling. Thus, the hypothesis of major proinflammatory contributions to drug abuse was born. This review will examine these key discoveries, but also address several key lingering questions of how central immune signaling is able to contribute in this fashion to the pharmacodynamics of drugs of abuse. It is hoped that by combining the collective wisdom of neuroscience, immunology and pharmacology, into Neuroimmunopharmacology, we may more fully understanding the neuronal and immune complexities of how drugs of abuse, such as opioids, create their rewarding and addiction states. Such discoveries will point us in the direction such that one day soon we might successfully intervene to successfully treat drug addiction. PMID:23764149

  19. Promising future for the transgenic rat in transplantation research.

    PubMed

    Doorschodt, B M; Teubner, A; Kobayashi, E; Tolba, R H

    2014-10-01

    The rat is the most widely used animal species in surgical research and offers distinct advantages over the mouse in transplantation models due to its size and close genetic similarity to humans. Sequencing of the rat genome and successful application of transgenic technologies which had only been available for mice have since led to a resurgence of the use of rat models. Transplantation provides the possibility to deliver transgenes through a variety of routes which can potentially offer treatment modalities for post-transplant dysfunction and rejection. Moreover, the use of genetically encoded fluorescent light probes has enabled in vivo visualization of organs and tissue in living animals. In recent years, generation of gene knockout rats via the zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN) and transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) technologies has offered alternatives to the sophisticated embryonic stem cell based gene-targeting. In this review, we aim to provide an overview of transplantation studies involving transgenic techniques using rat models and recent advances in methods to modify the rat genome. Through novel gene modification techniques, precise, complete and conditional knockout and knockin rat models have become available which can provide promising new treatment options and opportunities for studying human transplant-related pathophysiology. PMID:24975516

  20. Gestational diabetes mellitus. Unresolved issues and future research directions.

    PubMed Central

    Okun, N.; Verma, A.; Demianczuk, N.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To summarize the controversial aspects of gestational diabetes (GDM) and introduce readers to possible relevant research questions that could be examined to provide clinicians with good-quality data on which to base decisions about this relatively common pregnancy-related issue. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SELECTION: Ongoing review of the English literature related to GDM. Sources were not restricted to prospective, controlled trials, as these are severely limited in number. SYNTHESIS: Controversial issues include the relevance of GDM to clinically meaningful outcomes in the index pregnancy, the effectiveness of current therapy in altering these outcomes, and the resultant questionable relevance of routine screening and diagnosis of an entity with as yet uncertain significance in pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Suggested questions to be addressed in multicentre controlled trials include randomization with respect to screening and with respect to treatment. Until such trials are completed, continuing with a standard approach to screening, diagnosis, and treatment, such as that suggested by the third international workshop on GDM, is recommended. PMID:9626427

  1. CRYRING@ESR: present status and future research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lestinsky, M.; Bräuning-Demian, A.; Danared, H.; Engström, M.; Enders, W.; Fedotova, S.; Franzke, B.; Heinz, A.; Herfurth, F.; Källberg, A.; Kester, O.; Litvinov, Y.; Steck, M.; Reistad, D.; Simonsson, A.; Skeppstedt, Ö.; Stöhlker, T.; Vorobjev, G.; the CRYRING@ESR working Group

    2015-11-01

    The former storage ring CRYRING has been shipped from the Manne Siegbahn Laboratory in Stockholm to Darmstadt as a Swedish in-kind contribution to FAIR. At its new location downstream of ESR all ion species presently accessible in ESR can be transferred to CRYRING, in which ions with rigidities between 1.44 and 0.054 Tm can be stored. The original Swedish layout has been modified by reconfiguring the sequence of straight sections and by slightly increasing the circumference to ESR/2. Ions can be injected from ESR or from an independent 300 keV/u RFQ test injector. The instrumentation of the ring includes an RF drift tube system for acceleration and deceleration (1 T s-1, with a possibility for an upgrade to 7 T s-1), electron cooling, a free experimental section, and both fast and slow extraction of ions. We report on the present progress of this project, give a prospective timeline, and summarize the new research which will be enabled by this project. First beam for commissioning of the storage ring is expected for 2015, final bakeout to restore ultrahigh vacuum conditions in 2016 and ion beams injected through ESR in ˜2017.

  2. Future Marine Polar Research Capacities - Science Planning and Research Services for a Multi-National Research Icebreaker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biebow, N.; Lembke-Jene, L.; Wolff-Boenisch, B.; Bergamasco, A.; De Santis, L.; Eldholm, O.; Mevel, C.; Willmott, V.; Thiede, J.

    2011-12-01

    Despite significant advances in Arctic and Antarctic marine science over the past years, the polar Southern Ocean remains a formidable frontier due to challenging technical and operational requirements. Thus, key data and observations from this important region are still missing or lack adequate lateral and temporal coverage, especially from time slots outside optimal weather seasons and ice conditions. These barriers combined with the obligation to efficiently use financial resources and funding for expeditions call for new approaches to create optimally equipped, but cost-effective infrastructures. These must serve the international science community in a dedicated long-term mode and enable participation in multi-disciplinary expeditions, with secured access to optimally equipped marine platforms for world-class research in a wide range of Antarctic science topics. The high operational and technical performance capacity of a future joint European Research Icebreaker and Deep-sea Drilling Vessel (the AURORA BOREALIS concept) aims at integrating still separately operating national science programmes with different strategic priorities into joint development of long-term research missions with international cooperation both in Arctic and Antarctica. The icebreaker is planned to enable, as a worldwide first, autonomous year-round operations in the central Arctic and polar Southern Ocean, including severest ice conditions in winter, and serving all polar marine disciplines. It will facilitate the implementation of atmospheric, oceanographic, cryospheric or geophysical observatories for long-term monitoring of the polar environment. Access to the biosphere and hydrosphere e.g. beneath ice shelves or in remote regions is made possible by acting as advanced deployment platform for instruments, robotic and autonomous vehicles and ship-based air operations. In addition to a report on the long-term strategic science and operational planning objectives, we describe foreseen

  3. Research in Online and Blended Learning in the Business Disciplines: Key Findings and Possible Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbaugh, J. B.; Godfrey, Michael R.; Johnson, Marianne; Pollack, Birgit Leisen; Niendorf, Bruce; Wresch, William

    2009-01-01

    In this literature review, we examine and assess the state of research of online and blended learning in the business disciplines with the intent of assessing the state of the field and identifying opportunities for meaningful future research. We review research from business disciplines such as Accounting, Economics, Finance, Information Systems…

  4. The Future of Research Publishing: The eReport and eJournal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krantz, Murray

    2003-01-01

    Considers the future of online publication of scientific journals and how electronic research reports (eReports) and electronic research journals (eJournals) will change the way research is reported, disseminated, consumed, and conducted by the scientific community. Suggests there will be a more interactive dynamic discourse between authors and…

  5. The Past, Present and Future for the Early Childhood Education Researcher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almy, Millie

    This paper reviews past research in the area of early childhood education, points out current realities, and suggests future possibilities for investigation. Description of past research draws on the yearbooks of the National Society for the Study of Education and such sources as the "Handbook of Research in Early Childhood Education," edited by…

  6. The Impact of Learning Disabilities on Adulthood: A Review of the Evidenced-Based Literature for Research and Practice in Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    It is now well established that learning disabilities (LD) persist into the adult years, yet despite a developing literature base in this area, there is a paucity of evidence-based research to guide research and practice. Consistent with the demands of the adult stage of development, autonomy and self-determination are crucial to quality-of-life…

  7. Ecosystem functioning in the Mozambique Channel: Synthesis and future research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsac, F.; Barlow, R.; Ternon, J. F.; Ménard, F.; Roberts, M.

    2014-02-01

    straightforward as adult tunas caught by longline have the ability to explore different foraging habitats over a broad range of depths. Several suggestions for advancing eddy-related research from the current state of knowledge are proposed in the second part of the paper.

  8. "Ames Research Center: Linking our Origins to our Future"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DesMarais, David J.

    2005-01-01

    Our research traces a path from interstellar materials to inhabited worlds and beyond. We examine how protoplanetary disks evolve and form terrestrial planets, the evolutionary paths of habitable planets, and how external factors (e.g., orbital eccentricity) and internal factors (atmospheric circulation) affect habitability. We trace, spectroscopically and chemically, the evolution of organic molecules from the interstellar medium onto habitable bodies. We examine how membranes might form under prebiotic planetary conditions. We evolve proteins capable of sustaining early metabolism, such as synthesis of biopolymers and transport of ions across membranes. We estimate the frequency of finding a functional prebiotic protein that formed spontaneously. We characterize the formation of diagnostic microbial biosignatures in rock-hosted ecosystems in ophiolite springs as an analog for subsurface life within our solar system, and photosynthetic microbial mats as biota that could be detected on extrasolar planets. We develop quantitative models that simulate energy relationships, biogeochemical cycling, trace gas exchange, and biodiversity. We examine the effects of climate variability on a vegetation-rich biosphere over intermediate time scales, using South American ecosystems as a model. We address natural transport of life beyond its planet of origin, such as on a meteorite, where survivors must withstand radiation, desiccation, and time in transit. We fly organisms and ecosystems in low Earth orbit to test their resistance to space. The Ames E&PO program disseminates these themes to national- and international-scale audiences through partnerships with the California Academy of Sciences, Yellow stone National Park, New York Hall of Science, and several K-14 educational organizations.

  9. The Quality-of-Life (QOL) Research Movement: Past, Present, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirgy, M. Joseph; Michalos, Alex C.; Ferriss, Abbott L.; Easterlin, Richard A.; Pavot, William; Patrick, Donald

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to trace the history of the social indicators or quality-of-life (QOL) research movement up to today, forecast future developments, and pave the way for future growth. Broadly speaking, we tried to review historical antecedents from the point of view of different disciplines, with specialists in each discipline…

  10. On a New Schedule: Transitions to Adulthood and Family Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furstenberg, Frank F., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Frank Furstenberg examines how the newly extended timetable for entering adulthood is affecting, and being affected by, the institution of the Western, particularly the American, family. He reviews a growing body of research on the family life of young adults and their parents and draws out important policy implications of the new schedule for the…

  11. Stability and Change in Positive Development during Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Mary T.; Letcher, Primrose; Sanson, Ann; O'Connor, Meredith; Toumbourou, John W.; Olsson, Craig

    2011-01-01

    Calls have been made for a greater focus on successful development and how positive functioning can be conceptualized in theory and empirical research. Drawing on a large Australian community sample (N = 890; 61.7% female), this article examines the structure and stability of positive development at two time points during young adulthood.…

  12. Seeking Social Inventions to Improve the Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Mary Agnes; Hamilton, Stephen F.

    2015-01-01

    Social inventions are new ways of solving human problems. This article reports on an action research project designed to find social inventions to reduce structural lag in four programs that support the transition to adulthood of marginalized youth in Latin America. The investigators engaged youth and staff members in identifying important…

  13. Critical research needs for identifying future changes in Gulf coral reef ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Feary, David A.; Burt, John A.; Bauman, Andrew G.; Al Hazeem, Shaker; Abdel-Moati, Mohamed A.; Al-Khalifa, Khalifa A.; Anderson, Donald M.; Amos, Carl; Baker, Andrew; Bartholomew, Aaron; Bento, Rita; Cavalcante, Geórgenes H.; Chen, Chaolun Allen; Coles, Steve L.; Dab, Koosha; Fowler, Ashley M.; George, David; Grandcourt, Edwin; Hill, Ross; John, David M.; Jones, David A.; Keshavmurthy, Shashank; Mahmoud, Huda; Moradi Och Tapeh, Mahdi; Mostafavi, Pargol Ghavam; Naser, Humood; Pichon, Michel; Purkis, Sam; Riegl, Bernhard; Samimi-Namin, Kaveh; Sheppard, Charles; Vajed Samiei, Jahangir; Voolstra, Christian R.; Wiedenmann, Joerg

    2014-01-01

    Expert opinion was assessed to identify current knowledge gaps in determining future changes in Arabian/ Persian Gulf (thereafter ‘Gulf’) coral reefs. Thirty-one participants submitted 71 research questions that were peer-assessed in terms of scientific importance (i.e., filled a knowledge gap and was a research priority) and efficiency in resource use (i.e., was highly feasible and ecologically broad). Ten research questions, in six major research areas, were highly important for both understanding Gulf coral reef ecosystems and also an efficient use of limited research resources. These questions mirrored global evaluations of the importance of understanding and evaluating biodiversity, determining the potential impacts of climate change, the role of anthropogenic impacts in structuring coral reef communities, and economically evaluating coral reef communities. These questions provide guidance for future research on coral reef ecosystems within the Gulf, and enhance the potential for assessment and management of future changes in this globally significant region. PMID:23643407

  14. Critical research needs for identifying future changes in Gulf coral reef ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Feary, David A; Burt, John A; Bauman, Andrew G; Al Hazeem, Shaker; Abdel-Moati, Mohamed A; Al-Khalifa, Khalifa A; Anderson, Donald M; Amos, Carl; Baker, Andrew; Bartholomew, Aaron; Bento, Rita; Cavalcante, Geórgenes H; Chen, Chaolun Allen; Coles, Steve L; Dab, Koosha; Fowler, Ashley M; George, David; Grandcourt, Edwin; Hill, Ross; John, David M; Jones, David A; Keshavmurthy, Shashank; Mahmoud, Huda; Moradi Och Tapeh, Mahdi; Mostafavi, Pargol Ghavam; Naser, Humood; Pichon, Michel; Purkis, Sam; Riegl, Bernhard; Samimi-Namin, Kaveh; Sheppard, Charles; Vajed Samiei, Jahangir; Voolstra, Christian R; Wiedenmann, Joerg

    2013-07-30

    Expert opinion was assessed to identify current knowledge gaps in determining future changes in Arabian/Persian Gulf (thereafter 'Gulf') coral reefs. Thirty-one participants submitted 71 research questions that were peer-assessed in terms of scientific importance (i.e., filled a knowledge gap and was a research priority) and efficiency in resource use (i.e., was highly feasible and ecologically broad). Ten research questions, in six major research areas, were highly important for both understanding Gulf coral reef ecosystems and also an efficient use of limited research resources. These questions mirrored global evaluations of the importance of understanding and evaluating biodiversity, determining the potential impacts of climate change, the role of anthropogenic impacts in structuring coral reef communities, and economically evaluating coral reef communities. These questions provide guidance for future research on coral reef ecosystems within the Gulf, and enhance the potential for assessment and management of future changes in this globally significant region. PMID:23643407

  15. Adulthood and Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jeanne L.

    This textbook is designed to introduce undergraduates to the scientific study of aging in adults. Among the topics covered in the book's 15 chapters are: approaches to the study of adult development and aging (research methodology and related issues, a life-span perspective, ethical issues); theories in the study of adult development (models of…

  16. Mapping Future Research in Disabilities--Research Initiatives in Intellectual Disabilities in India: Report of a National Interdisciplinary Meeting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Libby; Brown, Roy I.

    2012-01-01

    A meeting organized under the auspices of the International Association for the Scientific Study of Intellectual Disabilities (IASSID) Academy on Education, Teaching and Research was held in March 2011 at the India International Centre in New Delhi, India, with the explicit purpose of helping establish a road map for future research in…

  17. ESP in Applied Linguistics: Refining Research Agenda Implications and Future Directions of Research on Second Language Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrell, Patricia L.

    1987-01-01

    Recent research has shown that effective second-language reading involves an interaction of the reader with the text. This interactive view has relevance for other areas of second-language processing, including listening comprehension, writing, and English for special purposes. Future research is needed in metacognition, relationships among…

  18. McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Company independent research and development: Preparing for the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggerty, Allen C.

    1988-01-01

    During the 1970's and 80's, research has produced the technology that is seen in aircraft such as the LHX and future models. The technology is discussed that is reaching maturity and moving into the application stage of future programs. Technology is discussed in six major areas: advanced concepts, analysis techniques, structures, systems, simulation, and research and development facilities. The partnership of McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Co. and the government in developing these technologies is illustrated in several programs.

  19. Identifying Key Priorities for Future Palliative Care Research Using an Innovative Analytic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Riffin, Catherine; Pillemer, Karl; Chen, Emily K.; Warmington, Marcus; Adelman, Ronald D.; Reid, M. C.

    2015-01-01

    Using an innovative approach, we identified research priorities in palliative care to guide future research initiatives. We searched 7databases (2005–2012) for review articles published on the topics of palliative and hospice–end-of-life care. The identified research recommendations (n = 648) fell into 2 distinct categories: (1) ways to improve methodological approaches and (2) specific topic areas in need of future study. The most commonly cited priority within the theme of methodological approaches was the need for enhanced rigor. Specific topics in need of future study included perspectives and needs of patients, relatives, and providers; underrepresented populations; decision-making; cost-effectiveness; provider education; spirituality; service use; and inter-disciplinary approaches to delivering palliative care. This review underscores the need for additional research on specific topics and methodologically rigorous research to inform health policy and practice. PMID:25393169

  20. Parenting styles and practices in children's obesogenic behaviors: scientific gaps and future research directions.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Heather; Hennessy, Erin; McSpadden, Kate; Oh, April

    2013-08-01

    Given the emerging global childhood obesity epidemic and the specter of a generation of children who will have a shorter life expectancy than that of their parents, recent research has focused on factors that influence children's weight status and obesogenic behaviors (i.e., eating, physical activity, and screen media use). Parents act as primary socializing agents for children, and thus growing evidence supports the role of parenting styles and practices in children's obesity-related behaviors and weight. Studying these processes in children and adolescents is important for several reasons. First, diet and physical activity behaviors and weight status track from childhood and adolescence into adulthood. Furthermore, diet and physical activity behaviors and weight status confer significant risk for cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and other chronic diseases. The purpose of this article is to describe the scientific gaps that need to be addressed to develop a more informed literature on parenting styles and practices in the domains of weight status and obesogenic behaviors, as identified by an expert panel assembled by the National Cancer Institute. PMID:23944926

  1. Parenting Styles and Practices in Children's Obesogenic Behaviors: Scientific Gaps and Future Research Directions

    PubMed Central

    Hennessy, Erin; McSpadden, Kate; Oh, April

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Given the emerging global childhood obesity epidemic and the specter of a generation of children who will have a shorter life expectancy than that of their parents, recent research has focused on factors that influence children's weight status and obesogenic behaviors (i.e., eating, physical activity, and screen media use). Parents act as primary socializing agents for children, and thus growing evidence supports the role of parenting styles and practices in children's obesity-related behaviors and weight. Studying these processes in children and adolescents is important for several reasons. First, diet and physical activity behaviors and weight status track from childhood and adolescence into adulthood. Furthermore, diet and physical activity behaviors and weight status confer significant risk for cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and other chronic diseases. The purpose of this article is to describe the scientific gaps that need to be addressed to develop a more informed literature on parenting styles and practices in the domains of weight status and obesogenic behaviors, as identified by an expert panel assembled by the National Cancer Institute. PMID:23944926

  2. Trajectories of depressive symptoms from adolescence to young adulthood: the role of self-esteem and body-related predictors.

    PubMed

    Rawana, Jennine S; Morgan, Ashley S

    2014-04-01

    Although depression is a common issue among youth, it is unclear how important developmental factors, such as body mass index (BMI), self-esteem, and eating-and weight-related disturbances relate to the development of depression across adolescence and into young adulthood. Gender differences in these relationships and the specific nature of these relationships among adolescent boys and young men require further study. Using multilevel growth curve modeling, this study examined the effects of BMI, self-esteem, and eating- and weight-related disturbances (i.e., body dissatisfaction and weight management effort) and their interactive effects with gender on the developmental trajectory of depressive symptoms using the Canadian-based National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (N = 4,359 ages 12-21, 48.7 % female). On average, depressive symptoms decreased slightly at ages 12 through 14, began to increase from ages 14 through 17, and then began to decrease through age 21. Adolescent girls were at increased risk for depressive symptoms throughout adolescence and young adulthood compared to boys. This effect was compounded by low levels of self-esteem across adolescence and young adulthood. Engaging in weight management effort was associated with lower initial levels of depressive symptoms in early adolescence. The study's findings contribute to basic etiologic research regarding the trajectory of depressive symptoms in adolescence and young adulthood suggesting that mid-adolescents may be most vulnerable to depression compared to other adolescent age groups. The findings also underscore the importance of fostering positive self-esteem among adolescent girls and young women to prevent depression and exploring the protective effect of specific weight management strategies in future research. PMID:23975352

  3. Brief Communication: Future avenues for permafrost science from the perspective of early career researchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, M.; Deshpande, B. N.; Bouchard, F.; Högström, E.; Malenfant-Lepage, J.; Morgenstern, A.; Nieuwendam, A.; Oliva, M.; Paquette, M.; Rudy, A. C. A.; Siewert, M. B.; Sjöberg, Y.; Weege, S.

    2015-08-01

    Accelerating climate change and increased economic and environmental interests in permafrost-affected regions have resulted in an acute need for more directed permafrost research. In June 2014, 88 early career researchers convened to identify future priorities for permafrost research. This multidisciplinary forum concluded that five research topics deserve greatest attention: permafrost landscape dynamics, permafrost thermal modeling, integration of traditional knowledge, spatial distribution of ground ice, and engineering issues. These topics underline the need for integrated research across a spectrum of permafrost-related domains and constitute a contribution to the Third International Conference on Arctic Research Planning (ICARP III).

  4. Brief Communication: Future avenues for permafrost science from the perspective of early career researchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, M.; Deshpande, B. N.; Bouchard, F.; Högtröm, E.; Lepage, J.; Morgenstern, A.; Nieuwendam, A.; Oliva, M.; Paquette, M.; Rudy, A. C. A.; Siewert, M. B.; Sjöberg, Y.; Weege, S.

    2015-02-01

    Accelerating climate change and increased economic and environmental interest in permafrost-affected regions have resulted in an acute need for more directed permafrost research. In June 2014, 88 early career researchers convened to identify future priorities for permafrost research. This multidisciplinary forum concluded that five research topics deserve greatest attention: permafrost landscape dynamics; permafrost thermal modelling; integration of traditional knowledge; spatial analysis of permafrost types and vulnerability; and engineering issues. These topics underline the need for integrated research across a spectrum of permafrost-related domains and constitute a contribution to the Third International Conference on Arctic Research Planning (ICARP III).

  5. What Future for Educational Research in Europe? Political, Epistemological and Ethical Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimaldi, Emiliano

    2015-01-01

    This article reflects on the future of European educational research (EER) and its politics of knowledge. EER is interpreted as a field of power/knowledge, where a hegemonic epistemic framework is raised that assembles an evidence-based epistemology, a "what works" political rationality and a technocratic model of educational research.…

  6. ASSESSMENT OF ALLERGENIC POTENTIAL OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: AN AGENDA FOR FUTURE RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract
    Speakers and participants in the Workshop Assessment of the Allergenic Potential of Genetically Modified Foods met in breakout groups to discuss a number of issues including needs for future research. There was agreement that research should move forward quickly in t...

  7. Information Technology Research: Investing in Our Future. Report to the President.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Coordination Office for Information Technology Research and Development, Arlington, VA.

    This is the final report on future directions for Federal support of research and development (R&D) for information technology. This report adds detail to the findings and recommendations in the interim report dated August 1998, and strengthens previous recommendations regarding the importance of social and economic research on the impacts of…

  8. Our Future Research Agenda: Confronting Challenges...or Our Dying Grasp?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Richard F.

    1990-01-01

    Offers an agenda for the future of mass communication research. Suggests that equating mass communication with mass media invites the risk of economic success for mass media and societal failure for mass communication. Advocates conducting experiments in democratic behavior from a research and development context. (MG)

  9. Equipped for the Future Research Report: Building the Framework, 1993-1997. EFF Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrifield, Juliet

    This report focuses on the research aspects of the Equipped for the Future (EFF) project that works toward system reform for adult literacy and lifelong learning. Section 1 describes the EFF process 1993-97, the impetus for EFF, and approaches to system reform. Section 2 explores the research processes EFF uses to build a framework that could…

  10. Expanding the Teaching Games for Understanding Model: New Avenues for Future Research and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Nicholas L.; Strean, William B.; Bengoechea, Enrique Garcia

    2002-01-01

    Reviews research on the Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) approach in physical education, noting that many discussions of TGfU have focused on cognitive and psychomotor learning outcomes and neglected the affective domain. An extended TGfU model is presented, suggesting new avenues for future research and practice (e.g., consideration of…

  11. A Review of Research on Metacognition in Science Education: Current and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zohar, Anat; Barzilai, Sarit

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study is to map the current state of research in the field of metacognition in science education, to identify key trends, and to discern areas and questions for future research. We conducted a systematic analysis of 178 studies published in peer-reviewed journals in the years 2000-2012 and indexed in the ERIC database. The…

  12. Viewing the Future of University Research Libraries through the Perspectives of Scenarios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawthorne, Jon Edward

    2013-01-01

    This research highlights the scenarios that might serve as a strategic vision to describe a future beyond the current library, one which both guides provosts and creates a map for the transformation of human resources and technology in the university research libraries. The scenarios offer managerial leaders an opportunity to envision new roles…

  13. Governance in the Digital Age: A Research and Action Framework for an Uncertain Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawes, Sharon S.

    2009-01-01

    Research into relationships among government, society and technology has grown substantially over the past 30 years. However, most research and most advances in practice address narrowly defined categories of concern such as government organization, citizen services, interoperability, or personal privacy. By contrast, the future presents complex…

  14. Fidelity in Models-Based Practice Research in Sport Pedagogy: A Guide for Future Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastie, Peter A.; Casey, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a commentary on research on models-based practice within physical education and presents a tutorial that aims to guide the reporting of future research using pedagogical models. Three key elements are presented that could be considered as essential for inclusion in any methods section in order for readers to gain an accurate…

  15. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future)

    SciTech Connect

    JW Voyles

    2008-01-30

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  16. Researching Possible Futures to Guide Leaders towards More Effective Tertiary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Niki; Higgins, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed to inform institutional leaders by producing and disseminating a system wide view of what tertiary education might look like in Aotearoa New Zealand, five years into the future. The researchers were responding to a challenge in a speech at the DEANZ 2010 conference by a highly respected national leader (Dr. Peter Coolbear). The…

  17. "The Future of Scholarly Inquiry in Music Education": 1996 Senior Researcher Award Acceptance Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarbrough, Cornelia

    1996-01-01

    Provides a statistical profile of the current state of music research as well as recommendations for future research. These recommendations explore and define approaches including the acquisition of interdisciplinary knowledge and skills, the importance of philosophical inquiry, and the definition and isolation of variables affecting musical…

  18. Future Atmospheric Research Priorities of the International Arctic Research Committee(IASC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overland, J. E.; Rachold, V.; Bowden, S.

    2010-12-01

    Since the founding of IASC, scientific, environmental, economic and political realities of the North have changed dramatically. New problems and challenges ask for new or improved scientific knowledge. In response, IASC has established five new Working Groups (WG): Terrestrial, Cryosphere, Marine, Atmosphere, and Social and Human; they will identify scientific priorities and initiate and stimulate cross-disciplinary initiatives. The Arctic Ocean Sciences Board(ASOB) has merged to become the IASC Marine WG. The scope of the Atmospheric Working Group is to understand and predict Arctic change, including local processes, the Arctic response to global change (Arctic amplification), fate of perennial sea ice, and impacts of Arctic changes on northern hemispheric atmospheric circulation. Approaches include investigation of past climate, Arctic processes across data sets and approaches, and climate model projections of the future. The research direction of the IASC Atmospheric WG can build on the strong results of the IPY Oslo Science Conference (June 2010) and the WCRP Polar Climate Predictability Workshop (October 2010). Changes are underway. Continued loss of sea ice will be a major driver of large changes across the Arctic over the next decades leading to Arctic amplification and mid-latitude teleconnections. Two major surprises were the major loss of sea ice extent in summer 2007 and the strong connectivity between warm Arctic conditions and mid-latitude cold events during winter 2009-2010. Additional ocean heat storage is a major new process in fall. Over the past decade, a newly persistent Arctic atmospheric climate pattern, the Arctic Dipole (AD) with a meridional (north-south) flow direction is now rivaling the well known Arctic Oscillation (AO) climate pattern. The AD pattern was predominate for the whole summer in 2007, but was active only in early summer in 2009 and 2010 which slowed down the sea ice retreat in those years. While the climate of the Arctic is

  19. Patterns of Traffic Offenses from Adolescent Licensure into Early Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Bingham, C. Raymond; Shope, Jean T.; Raghunathan, Trivellore

    2006-01-01

    Purpose This article examines adolescent psychosocial and problem behavior characteristics as predictors of traffic offenses from licensure to early young adulthood. Methods Data for this study were from a school-based sample that was surveyed in 10th and 12th grades, and again in early young adulthood. In addition, state driver history records were obtained for each participant in the study and provided a complete traffic offense history. Results Models adjusted for driving exposure showed varying patterns of prediction for men and women across three types of ticketed moving violations (offenses): minor offenses, serious offenses, and alcohol offenses. Although which predictors were significant varied across gender and type of offense, results suggested that more positive psychosocial adjustment predicted lower numbers, greater decreases, and a lower likelihood of increases in offenses from licensure through the early 20s. Conclusions Based on this research, implications for intervention include providing parents with the tools and knowledge needed to effectively supervise their teens’ driving during the first years of licensure. Also potentially important for their broad positive effects on problem behaviors, including problem driving, are programs that strengthen adolescents’ bonds to conventional social institutions and increase their attachment to the people who represent those institutions. Future research should examine the longitudinal sequencing of associations among psychosocial and problem behavior variables, including problem driving. © 2006 Society for Adolescent Medicine. All rights reserved. PMID:16781959

  20. Links Between Sibling Experiences and Romantic Competence from Adolescence Through Young Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Doughty, Susan E; Lam, Chun Bun; Stanik, Christine E; McHale, Susan M

    2015-11-01

    Although previous research has linked sibling relationship experiences to youth's social competencies with peers, we know little about the role of siblings in youth's romantic relationship experiences. Drawing on data from a longitudinal sample of 190 families, this study examined the links between sibling experiences and the development of perceived romantic competence from early adolescence into young adulthood (ages 12-20). The data were collected from 373 youth (50.7 % female) in home interviews on up to five annual occasions. Multi-level models tested the moderating role of sibling gender constellation in romantic competence development and the links between (changes in) sibling intimacy and conflict, and romantic competence. The results revealed that youth with same-sex siblings showed no change in their perceived romantic competence, but those with opposite-sex siblings exhibited increases in romantic competence over time. Controlling for parent-child intimacy, at times when youth reported more sibling intimacy, they also reported greater romantic competence, and youth with higher cross-time average sibling conflict were lower in romantic competence, on average. This study illustrates that sibling experiences remain important in social development into early adulthood and suggests directions for application and future research. PMID:25183625

  1. Workshop on future directions for plant research at NASA: a report.

    PubMed

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Fundamental Space Biology Division and the Advanced Human Support Technology Program convened a workshop in December 2003 [correction of 2004] at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, to chart future directions for plant research at NASA. The purpose of the workshop was to bring together key managers and principal investigators in NASA's plant research community as well as non-NASA funded researchers to formulate a strategy to guide future plant research for the Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR). Subsequent to the workshop, on Wednesday, January 14, 2004, President George W. Bush announced a proposal for NASA to go back to the moon and later send a manned mission to Mars. The following is a summary of workshop recommendations provided by the plant research community within the framework of the new exploration vision as set for by NASA. PMID:15880904

  2. Viewpoint: the future of research in pediatric allergy: what should the focus be?

    PubMed

    Van Bever, Hugo P S; Lee, Bee Wah; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Shek, Lynette

    2012-02-01

    Allergic diseases have been increasing during the last three decades, and exact reasons for this are still debated. Despite intense ongoing research, a lot of aspects of allergic diseases are still poorly understood, resulting in limitations in current therapeutic approach to allergies. In this viewpoint, important unanswered research questions are raised mainly on novel therapeutic approaches to allergic children, and suggestions for future research are raised. Three aspects of pediatric allergy are distinguished: the prevention, control, and cure. PMID:22283402

  3. Minimizing disparities in surgical care: a research focus for the future.

    PubMed

    Ryoo, Joan J; Ko, Clifford Y

    2008-04-01

    The wide array of questions and opportunities for surgical health services research offers important prospects for inquiry into surgical disparities. In this essay we discuss research that directly or indirectly addresses disparities in surgery, highlighting the strengths and the future directions such research efforts intimate as potential foci of collective attention. We then consider possible research approaches-including community-based participatory models-for confronting disparity and the potential role of research in quality improvement to help achieve the ultimate aim, an optimal level of health care for all. PMID:18204986

  4. Adulthood personality correlates of childhood adversity

    PubMed Central

    Carver, Charles S.; Johnson, Sheri L.; McCullough, Michael E.; Forster, Daniel E.; Joormann, Jutta

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Childhood adversity has been linked to internalizing and externalizing disorders and personality disorders in adulthood. This study extends that research by examining several personality measures as correlates of childhood adversity. Method: In a college sample self-reports were collected of childhood adversity, several scales relating to personality, and current depression symptoms as a control variable. The personality-related scales were reduced to four latent variables, which we termed anger/aggression, extrinsic focus, agreeableness, and engagement. Results: Controlling for concurrent depressive symptoms and gender, higher levels of reported childhood adversity related to lower agreeableness and to higher anger/aggression and extrinsic focus. Conclusions: Findings suggest that early adversity is linked to personality variables relevant to the building of social connection. PMID:25484874

  5. Nursing Informatics Research Priorities for the Future: Recommendations from an International Survey.

    PubMed

    Peltonen, Laura-Maria; Topaz, Maxim; Ronquillo, Charlene; Pruinelli, Lisiane; Sarmiento, Raymond Francis; Badger, Martha K; Ali, Samira; Lewis, Adrienne; Georgsson, Mattias; Jeon, Eunjoo; Tayaben, Jude L; Kuo, Chiu-Hsiang; Islam, Tasneem; Sommer, Janine; Jung, Hyunggu; Eler, Gabrielle Jacklin; Alhuwail, Dari

    2016-01-01

    We present one part of the results of an international survey exploring current and future nursing informatics (NI) research trends. The study was conducted by the International Medical Informatics Association Nursing Informatics Special Interest Group (IMIA-NISIG) Student Working Group. Based on findings from this cross-sectional study, we identified future NI research priorities. We used snowball sampling technique to reach respondents from academia and practice. Data were collected between August and September 2015. Altogether, 373 responses from 44 countries were analyzed. The identified top ten NI trends were big data science, standardized terminologies (clinical evaluation/implementation), education and competencies, clinical decision support, mobile health, usability, patient safety, data exchange and interoperability, patient engagement, and clinical quality measures. Acknowledging these research priorities can enhance successful future development of NI to better support clinicians and promote health internationally. PMID:27332195

  6. Ambiguity tolerance in organizations: definitional clarification and perspectives on future research

    PubMed Central

    McLain, David L.; Kefallonitis, Efstathios; Armani, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Ambiguity tolerance is an increasingly popular subject for study in a wide variety of fields. The definition of ambiguity tolerance has changed since its inception, and accompanying that change are changes in measurement and the research questions that interest researchers. There is a wealth of opportunity for research related to ambiguity tolerance and recent advances in neuroscience, measurement, trait research, perception, problem solving, and other fields highlight areas of interest and point to issues that need further attention. The future of ambiguity tolerance research is promising and it is expected that future studies will yield new insights into individual differences in reactions to the complex, unfamiliar, confusing, indeterminate, and incomplete stimuli that fall within the conceptual domain of ambiguity. PMID:25972818

  7. How can ergonomics influence design? Moving from research findings to future systems.

    PubMed

    Dekker, Sidney W A; Nyce, James M

    2004-12-01

    Ergonomics design is about the creation of future work. So how can ergonomics research support and inform design if its findings are cast in a language oriented towards current work derived from field observations or laboratory settings? In this paper we assess instances of three different strands (experimental, ethnomethodological, and surveys) of ergonomics research on paper flight strips in air traffic control, for how they analytically confront future work and how they make the findings relevant or credible with respect to future work. How these justifications come about, or how valid (or well argued for) they are, is rarely considered in the ergonomics literature. All three strands appear to rely on rhetoric and argument as well as method and analysis, to justify findings in terms of their future applicability. Closing the gap between research results and future work is an important aim of the ergonomic enterprise. Better understanding of the processes necessary to bridge this gap may be critical for progress in ergonomics research and for the use of its findings in actual design processes. PMID:15545236

  8. Tracking of leisure-time physical activity during adolescence and young adulthood: a 10-year longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Kjønniksen, Lise; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Wold, Bente

    2008-01-01

    analyzing physical levels over time, and suggests that multilevel analysis should be used in future research on longitudinal data on physical activity. PMID:19113990

  9. Drinking Behaviors and Life Course Socioeconomic Status During the Transition From Adolescence to Adulthood Among Whites and Blacks

    PubMed Central

    Lui, Camillia K; Chung, Paul J; Ford, Chandra L; Grella, Christine E; Mulia, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study sought to determine how socioeconomic status (SES) changes during the transition from adolescence into adulthood, and to understand the effects of SES on drinking behaviors in early adulthood among U.S. Whites and Blacks. Method: Secondary data analysis was conducted using three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health), a school-based sample of adolescents (Grades 7–12) followed through adulthood (age range: 25–31 years). Through latent class analysis, SES was operationalized as economic (i.e., income, home ownership) and human capital (i.e., education, occupation). Drinking behavior was categorized into no past-year use, current drinking without weekly heavy episodic drinking (HED), and weekly HED. Models were stratified by race: Whites (n = 5,248) and Blacks (n = 1,875). Results: For Whites, four economic capital groups (persistently low, upward, downward, and persistently high) and five human capital groups (persistently low, upward with work, upward with school, downward with work, and persistently high) were found. Blacks had roughly similar SES groups as Whites but with lower economic and human capital levels across all groups and without downward groups in either domain. Among both Whites and Blacks, lower economic and human capital groups reported higher abstinence. Persistently low Blacks, however, reported higher HED, whereas persistently low Whites did not. Moreover, economically upward Whites reported lower HED, whereas upwardly mobile Blacks did not. Conclusions: Racial disparities were evident by economic and human capital during the transition into adulthood. Although abstinence profiles were similar for Whites and Blacks, both persistently low and upward trajectory groups signified differential HED risks. Future research should examine the mechanisms by which SES trajectories affect drinking behaviors. PMID:25486395

  10. Adverse childhood experiences and health anxiety in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Reiser, Sarah J; McMillan, Katherine A; Wright, Kristi D; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2014-03-01

    Childhood experiences are thought to predispose a person to the development of health anxiety later in life. However, there is a lack of research investigating the influence of specific adverse experiences (e.g., childhood abuse, household dysfunction) on this condition. The current study examined the cumulative influence of multiple types of childhood adversities on health anxiety in adulthood. Adults 18-59 years of age (N=264) completed a battery of measures to assess adverse childhood experiences, health anxiety, and associated constructs (i.e., negative affect and trait anxiety). Significant associations were observed between adverse childhood experiences, health anxiety, and associated constructs. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicted that adverse childhood experiences were predictive of health anxiety in adulthood; however, the unique contribution of these experience were no longer significant following the inclusion of the other variables of interest. Subsequently, mediation analyses indicated that both negative affect and trait anxiety independently mediated the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and health anxiety in adulthood. Increased exposure to adverse childhood experiences is associated with higher levels of health anxiety in adulthood; this relationship is mediated through negative affect and trait anxiety. Findings support the long-term negative impact of cumulative adverse childhood experiences and emphasize the importance of addressing negative affect and trait anxiety in efforts to prevent and treat health anxiety. PMID:24011493

  11. Future Deltas Utrecht University research focus area: towards sustainable management of sinking deltas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stouthamer, E.; van Asselen, S.

    2015-11-01

    Deltas are increasingly under pressure from human impact and climate change. To deal with these pressures that threat future delta functioning, we need to understand interactions between physical, biological, chemical and social processes in deltas. This requires an integrated approach, in which knowledge on natural system functioning is combined with knowledge on spatial planning, land and water governance and legislative frameworks. In the research focus area Future Deltas of Utrecht University an interdisciplinary team from different research groups therefore works together. This allows developing integrated sustainable and resilient delta management strategies, which is urgently needed to prevent loss of vital delta services.

  12. Current and Future Directions for Cotton Utilization Research at the USDA Southern Regional Research Center

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research directed at discovering and developing new ways to use cotton, new and valuable end use attributes and new functional properties will expand the volume and value of cotton fiber through increased demand for cotton containing products. The Cotton Utilization Research at the USDA Southern Reg...

  13. Research Strategy 2002-5. Influencing the Future: Informing Policy and Improving Practice through Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewsbury, Angela, Ed.

    England's Learning and Skills Research Centre (LSRC) is working to build a strong body of evidence from rigorous research that is focused on critical and innovative thinking and models and solutions for the long-term development of post-16 learning. In 2002-2005, the LSRC will focus on the following activities and goals: identify key priorities;…

  14. The First Big Wave of Astronomy Education Research Dissertations and Some Directions for Future Research Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Timothy F.

    2008-01-01

    The past several years have presented the astronomy education research community with a host of foundational research dissertations in the teaching and learning of astronomy. These PhD candidates have been studying the impact of instructional innovations on student learning and systematically validating astronomy learning assessment instruments,…

  15. Building an ocean research coordination network for Future Earth: an opportunity for innovative collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarincik, K.; Gagosian, R. B.; Cerveny, K.; Zimmermann, L.; Hauser, J.; Morell, M.

    2014-12-01

    Future Earth is an ambitious international and interdisciplinary research program on global change. While the program demands a "step-change" in how we do Earth system research, it will also build on the large suite of projects already established under the Global Environmental Change programs, and the Future Earth framework will need to support these in rising to the challenge of the new research model. Ocean research is deserving of a focused coordination network given: the ocean's scale (71% of the planet) and role in global change and in human society; the numerous existing Global Environmental Change core projects related to ocean science (as many as 19) and numerous other relevant ICSU and international programs to be considered; and the resources and infrastructure required to access the ocean. We propose a model for ocean research coordination that will work with existing Global Environmental Change projects and the Future Earth Secretariat to facilitate research collaboration, communication, and stakeholder co-design of an integrative ocean science program focus beyond the level or responsibility of any individual project, with the goal of building capacity for cross-cutting research and deliverables.

  16. The Future of the Oceans Past: Towards a Global Marine Historical Research Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Schwerdtner Máñez, Kathleen; Holm, Poul; Blight, Louise; Coll, Marta; MacDiarmid, Alison; Ojaveer, Henn; Poulsen, Bo; Tull, Malcolm

    2014-01-01

    Historical research is playing an increasingly important role in marine sciences. Historical data are also used in policy making and marine resource management, and have helped to address the issue of shifting baselines for numerous species and ecosystems. Although many important research questions still remain unanswered, tremendous developments in conceptual and methodological approaches are expected to contribute to a comprehensive understanding of the global history of human interactions with life in the seas. Based on our experiences and knowledge from the “History of Marine Animal Populations” project, this paper identifies the emerging research topics for future historical marine research. It elaborates on concepts and tools which are expected to play a major role in answering these questions, and identifies geographical regions which deserve future attention from marine environmental historians and historical ecologists. PMID:24988080

  17. Vulnerable Youth and Transitions to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Rongbing; Sen, Bisakha; Foster, E. Michael

    2014-01-01

    This chapter focuses on vulnerable youth, the challenges they face during their transitions to adulthood, and the adverse effects of limited support systems on those transitions. The authors offer recommendations on how adult educators can help facilitate smooth transitions into adulthood for vulnerable youth.

  18. Predictors of Health in Middle Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Sandra P.

    There is increasing acceptance of the premise that growth and development continue throughout adult life and, as life expectancy has lengthened, there is a much expanded mid-life period. Yet, middle adulthood has been neglected as an area of theoretical and empirical examination. Adults (N=251) in middle adulthood (age 35-55) completed instruments…

  19. Practitioners' Perceptions of the Soccer Extra-Time Period: Implications for Future Research.

    PubMed

    Harper, Liam D; Fothergill, Melissa; West, Daniel J; Stevenson, Emma; Russell, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative research investigating soccer practitioners' perceptions can allow researchers to create practical research investigations. The extra-time period of soccer is understudied compared to other areas of soccer research. Using an open-ended online survey containing eleven main and nine sub questions, we gathered the perceptions of extra-time from 46 soccer practitioners, all working for different professional soccer clubs. Questions related to current practices, views on extra-time regulations, and ideas for future research. Using inductive content analysis, the following general dimensions were identified: 'importance of extra-time', 'rule changes', 'efficacy of extra-time hydro-nutritional provision', 'nutritional timing', 'future research directions', 'preparatory modulations' and 'recovery'. The majority of practitioners (63%) either agreed or strongly agreed that extra-time is an important period for determining success in knockout football match-play. When asked if a fourth substitution should be permitted in extra-time, 67% agreed. The use of hydro-nutritional strategies prior to extra-time was predominately considered important or very important. However; only 41% of practitioners felt that it was the most important time point for the use of nutritional products. A similar number of practitioners account (50%) and do not (50%) account for the potential of extra-time when training and preparing players and 89% of practitioners stated that extra-time influences recovery practices following matches. In the five minute break prior to extra-time, the following practices (in order of priority) were advocated to players: hydration, energy provision, massage, and tactical preparations. Additionally, 87% of practitioners advocate a particular nutritional supplementation strategy prior to extra-time. In order of importance, practitioners see the following as future research areas: nutritional interventions, fatigue responses, acute injury risk, recovery

  20. STAR: Preparing future science and math teachers through authentic research experiences at national laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, John; Rebar, Bryan

    2012-11-01

    The STEM Teacher and Researcher (STAR) Program provides 9-week paid summer research experiences at national research laboratories for future science and math teachers. The program, run by the Cal Poly Center for Excellence in Science and Mathematics Education (CESaME) on behalf of the entire California State University (CSU) System, has arranged 290 research internships for 230 STEM undergraduates and credential candidates from 43 campuses over the past 6 years. The program has partnered with seven Department of Energy labs, four NASA centers, three NOAA facilities, and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO). Primary components of the summer experience include a) conducting research with a mentor or mentor team, b) participating in weekly 2-3 hour workshops focused on translating lessons learned from summer research into classroom practice, and c) presenting a research poster or oral presentation and providing a lesson plan linked to the summer research experience. The central premise behind the STAR Program is that future science and math teachers can more effectively prepare the next generation of science, math, and engineering students if they themselves have authentic experiences as researchers.

  1. Community-Based Participatory Research: Its Role in Future Cancer Research and Public Health Practice

    PubMed Central

    Simonds, Vanessa W.; Duran, Bonnie; Villegas, Malia

    2013-01-01

    The call for community-based participatory research approaches to address cancer health disparities is increasing as concern grows for the limited effectiveness of existing public health practice and research in communities that experience a disparate burden of disease. A national study of participatory research projects, Research for Improved Health, funded by the National Institutes of Health (2009–2013), identified 64 of 333 projects focused on cancer and demonstrated the potential impact participatory approaches can have in reducing cancer disparities. Several projects highlight the success of participatory approaches to cancer prevention and intervention in addressing many of the challenges of traditional practice and research. Best practices include adapting interventions within local contexts, alleviating mistrust, supporting integration of local cultural knowledge, and training investigators from communities that experience cancer disparities. The national study has implications for expanding our understanding of the impact of participatory approaches on alleviating health disparities and aims to enhance our understanding of the barriers and facilitators to effective community-based participatory research. PMID:23680507

  2. Children Left Alone: Latchkey Problems--Future Research Questions and Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fosarelli, Patricia D.

    A brief discussion of some myths associated with latchkey children is followed by a statement that an insufficient number of after-school care programs for children makes it likely that children will continue in self-care or sibling care. It is suggested that future research endeavors take the following parental/familial variables into account:…

  3. Tour Brookhaven Lab's Future Hub for Energy Research: The Interdisciplinary Science Building

    ScienceCinema

    Gerry Stokes; Jim Misewich

    2013-07-19

    Construction is under way for the Interdisciplinary Science Building (ISB), a future world-class facility for energy research at Brookhaven Lab. Meet two scientists who will develop solutions at the ISB to tackle some of the nation's energy challenges, and tour the construction site.

  4. Research on Technology and Teacher Education: Current Status and Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Jerry; Thompson, Ann; Sadera, William

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the emergence of information technology in teacher education (ITTE) as a discipline; describes paradigms for research and development work, including empiricism, critical theory, and interpretivism; examines literature reviews, policy issues, diffusion of innovation, and component studies; and considers future possibilities. (Contains 89…

  5. The Claims of Games: A Comprehensive Review and Directions for Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishra, Punya; Foster, Aroutis N.

    2007-01-01

    Educational games have become the lightning rod for learning and preparing a future skilled workforce. Both the people, who argue against and for games agree that learning is possible, but what is learned is another issue. However, the claims about games for learning lacks substantial research and for the most part remains merely philosophical…

  6. Future Directions for Research on the Development and Prevention of Early Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes our state of knowledge regarding the development and prevention of conduct problems in early childhood, then identifies directions that would benefit future basic and applied research. Our understanding about the course and risk factors associated with early-developing conduct problems has been significantly enhanced during…

  7. The Changing Marketplace in the Global Economy: Implications for Future Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shim, Soyeon

    1998-01-01

    Outlines a research agenda for family and consumer sciences based on Thurow's five economic forces shaping the future and how they will affect consumers: (1) end of communism; (2) shift to "brainpower" industries; (3) demographic changes; (4) global economy; and (5) no dominant world power. (SK)

  8. SHAPING OUR ENVIRONMENTAL FUTURE: FORESIGHT IN THE OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Futures analysis is a structured process that uses a variety of analytical tools to help organizations to better understand, anticipate, and influence the potential events and conditions of tomorrow. In its 2001 Strategic Plan, EPA’s Office of Research and Development (ORD)...

  9. Future Directions in Etiologic, Prevention, and Treatment Research for Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; South, Kelsey; Shaw, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Significant advances have occurred regarding the understanding of etiologic processes that give rise to eating disorders and the design and evaluation of efficacious prevention programs and treatment interventions. Herein we offer suggestions regarding potentially fruitful directions for future research in these areas. We suggest it would be…

  10. The Future of Teacher Education: Needed Research and Practice. Conference Proceedings (College Station, Texas, May 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrigan, Dean C., Ed.; And Others

    This book contains seven papers presented at a conference on the future of teacher education. Richard M. Hersh examines the social organization of the school and the school's instruction and curriculum in "What Makes Some Schools and Teachers More Effective." In "Teacher Education: Needed Research and Practice for the Preparation of Teaching…

  11. The Idea of a World University: Can Foucauldian Research Offer a Vision of Educational Futures?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Ansgar

    2011-01-01

    Foucauldian research, as it is currently practised, is generally unwilling to offer a vision of alternative futures. This article examines the recent work (2007 and 2009) of Jan Masschelein and Maarten Simons which appears to be an exception. They offer a critique of contemporary trends in higher education and propose an alternative model: the…

  12. ASAS centennial paper: future needs of research and extension in forage utilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forage-animal production agriculture is implementing infrastructure changes and management strategies to adjust to increased energy-related costs of fuel, feed grains, fertilizers, and seeds. The primary objectives of this position paper are to assess future research and extension scientific needs i...

  13. Tour Brookhaven Lab's Future Hub for Energy Research: The Interdisciplinary Science Building

    SciTech Connect

    Gerry Stokes; Jim Misewich

    2012-04-09

    Construction is under way for the Interdisciplinary Science Building (ISB), a future world-class facility for energy research at Brookhaven Lab. Meet two scientists who will develop solutions at the ISB to tackle some of the nation's energy challenges, and tour the construction site.

  14. Current Status and Future Agenda for the Theory, Research, and Practice of Childhood Career Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultheiss, Donna E. Palladino

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews the current status and a future agenda for childhood career development theory, research, and practice. The fragmented nature of the current state of the literature is noted, and a call is made for a reexamination and reconsideration of the childhood developmental pathways of life's work. It is suggested that the study of…

  15. Futures Research and the Strategic Planning Process: Implications for Long-Range Planning in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, James L.; Renfro, William L.

    The concepts of long-range planning and strategic planning are explained, and a planning model is proposed. Attention is directed to an environmental scanning model that is congruent with the concept of strategic planning and that emerges from one portion of the futures research community, issues management. A third planning model, the strategic…

  16. Future Research, Research Futures. Proceedings of the National Conference of the Australian Vocational Education and Training Research Association (AVETRA) (3rd, Canberra, Australia, March 23-24, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Vocational Education and Training Research Association, Alexandria.

    These proceedings consist of 66 conference papers on these themes: changing nature of work; emerging technologies; internationalization of vocational education and training (VET); enterprise and educational innovation; flexible delivery approaches; and research and technology and using technology in research. The papers are "Training Needs of…

  17. Girls' Stable Peer Status and Their Adulthood Adjustment: A Longitudinal Study from Age 10 to Age 43

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zettergren, Peter; Bergman, Lars R.; Wangby, Margit

    2006-01-01

    Stable peer status clusters of rejected, popular, and average girls from ages 10 to 13 were identified and associated to young and middle adulthood adjustment. The study included a representative sample of 445 females from the longitudinal research program Individual Development and Adaptation. Results showed that, by young adulthood, rejected…

  18. "If I Am Not Doing My Own Playing Then I Am Not Able to Truly Share the Gift of Play with Children": Using Poststructuralism and Care Ethics to Examine Future Early Childhood Educators' Relationships with Play in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Julie; Shimpi, Priya Mariana; Rabin, Colette

    2014-01-01

    The current sociopolitical context of schooling is positioning play as incongruous with children's academic learning. As a result, teacher educators must increasingly guide future early childhood professionals to develop the skills and knowledge necessary to become effective play advocates. This includes articulating the value of play across…

  19. The future of human embryonic stem cell research: addressing ethical conflict with responsible scientific research.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, David M

    2004-05-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells have almost unlimited regenerative capacity and can potentially generate any body tissue. Hence they hold great promise for the cure of degenerative human diseases. But their derivation and the potential for misuse have raised a number of ethical issues. These ethical issues threaten to paralyze pubic funding for ES cell research, leaving experimentation in the hands of the private sector and precluding the public's ability to monitor practices, research alternatives, and effectively address the very ethical issues that are cause for concern in the first place. With new technology being inevitable, and the potential for abuse high, government must stay involved if the public is to play a role in shaping the direction of research. In this essay, I will define levels of ethical conflict that can be delineated by the anticipated advances in technology. From the urgent need to derive new ES cell lines with existing technology, to the most far-reaching goal of deriving genetically identical tissues from an adult patients cells, technology-specific ethical dilemmas can be defined and addressed. This staged approach provides a solid ethical framework for moving forward with ES cell research. Moreover, by anticipating the moral conflicts to come, one can predict the types of scientific advances that could overcome these conflicts, and appropriately direct federal funding toward these goals to offset potentially less responsible research directives that will inevitably go forward via private or foreign funding. PMID:15114283

  20. Preschool Personality Antecedents of Narcissism in Adolescence and Emergent Adulthood: A 20-Year Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Kevin S.; Gjerde, Per F.

    2009-01-01

    This prospective study examined relations between preschool personality attributes and narcissism during adolescence and emerging adulthood. We created five a priori preschool scales anticipated to foretell future narcissism. Independent assessors evaluated the participants' personality at ages 14, 18, and 23. Based upon these evaluations, we generated observer-based narcissism scales for each of these three ages. All preschool scales predicted subsequent narcissism, except Interpersonal Antagonism at age 23. According to mean scale and item scores analyses, narcissism increased significantly from age 14 to 18, followed by a slight but non-significant decline from age 18 to 23. The discussion focused on a developmental view of narcissism, the need for research on automatic processing and psychological defenses, and links between narcissism and attachment. PMID:20161614

  1. What childhood characteristics predict psychological resilience to economic shocks in adulthood?

    PubMed Central

    Powdthavee, Nattavudh

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates whether people’s psychological resilience to one of the most important economic shocks – job loss – can be predicted using early childhood characteristics. Using a longitudinal data that tracked almost 3000 children into adulthood, we showed that the negative effect of unemployment on mental well-being and life satisfaction is significantly larger for workers who, as adolescents, had a relatively poor father-child relationship. Maternal unemployment, on the other hand, is a good predictor of how individuals react psychologically to future unemployment. Although the results should be viewed as illustrative and more research is needed, the current article provides new longitudinal evidence that psychological resilience to job loss may be determined early on in the life cycle. PMID:26997688

  2. The impact of childhood sexual abuse and other forms of childhood adversity on adulthood parenting.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Betty

    2009-09-01

    This study investigated the independent impact of child sexual abuse on five dimensions of adulthood parenting after controlling for other forms of childhood adversity in a predominantly African-American sample of mothers receiving public assistance (N = 483). An analysis of data previously collected as part of the Illinois Families Study Child Well-Being Supplement was conducted to address these questions. Data were analyzed using hierarchal multiple regression. Childhood sexual abuse survivors reported significantly lower rates of parental warmth, higher rates of psychological aggression, and more frequent use of corporal punishment than mothers who had not experienced childhood sexual abuse. These effects, however, were nonsignificant when sociodemographic factors and other forms of childhood adversity were considered. Implications for future research are provided. PMID:20183414

  3. Current status and future perspectives for psychiatry/mental health research in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Carla; Tohen, Mauricio

    2010-01-01

    Working towards mentally healthy societies is fundamental for Latin American countries, in order to keep the pace of development. Although awareness about the importance of mental health research is increasing in Latin America, the mismatch between needs and investment (the 10/90 gap) is still present. During recent years, many initiatives have been fostered to promote mental health research in the region. This paper summarizes the information collected through those efforts, in addition to presenting the current state of research in the field of psychiatry and mental health in Latin American countries. Future perspectives for the field in the region are discussed in terms of funding, research priorities and research resources, as well as the potential of Latin American countries to insert themselves within global psychiatry/mental health research efforts. PMID:20874069

  4. Evaluating the Impact of Professional Development on Teaching Practice: Research Findings and Future Research Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, Iain

    2011-01-01

    Continuing professional development for teaching is important for institutional renewal, teacher development and student learning improvement. However, our longitudinal research into provision of continuing professional development has shown that the majority of educators who attend professional development workshops do not put what they have…

  5. Novel Forms of Research Governance and Their Possible Impact on the Future of Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pataki, Gyöngyvér

    2015-01-01

    This article sets out to contribute to the current debate on the transformation of educational research with regard to global transitions and challenges. Nation-centred hierarchical organizations in Europe have increasingly failed to address emergent processes. And in contrast novel forms of governance have gained prevalence in controlling…

  6. Research on Self-Determination in Physical Education: Key Findings and Proposals for Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van den Berghe, Lynn; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Cardon, Greet; Kirk, David; Haerens, Leen

    2014-01-01

    Background: During the last 30 years, several theories of motivation have generated insights into the motives underlying learners' behavior in physical education. Self-determination theory (SDT), a general theory on social development and motivation, has enjoyed increasing popularity in physical education research during the past decade. SDT…

  7. Teacher Emotion Research: Introducing a Conceptual Model to Guide Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fried, Leanne; Mansfield, Caroline; Dobozy, Eva

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on the development of a conceptual model of teacher emotion through a review of teacher emotion research published between 2003 and 2013. By examining 82 publications regarding teacher emotion, the main aim of the review was to identify how teacher emotion was conceptualised in the literature and develop a conceptual model to…

  8. Contributions of Attachment Theory and Research: A Framework for Future Research, Translation, and Policy

    PubMed Central

    Cassidy, Jude; Jones, Jason D.; Shaver, Phillip R.

    2014-01-01

    Attachment theory has been generating creative and impactful research for almost half a century. In this article we focus on the documented antecedents and consequences of individual differences in infant attachment patterns, suggesting topics for further theoretical clarification, research, clinical interventions, and policy applications. We pay particular attention to the concept of cognitive “working models” and to neural and physiological mechanisms through which early attachment experiences contribute to later functioning. We consider adult caregiving behavior that predicts infant attachment patterns, and the still-mysterious “transmission gap” between parental AAI classifications and infant Strange Situation classifications. We also review connections between attachment and (a) child psychopathology, (b) neurobiology, (c) health and immune function, (d) empathy, compassion, and altruism, (e) school readiness, and (f) culture. We conclude with clinical-translational and public policy applications of attachment research that could reduce the occurrence and maintenance of insecure attachment during infancy and beyond. Our goal is to inspire researchers to continue advancing the field by finding new ways to tackle long-standing questions and by generating and testing novel hypotheses. PMID:24342848

  9. Competency Research in Higher Education: Conceptual and Methodological Challenges and Perspectives for Future Interdisciplinary Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zlatkin-Troitschanskaia, Olga; Blömeke, Sigrid; Pant, Hans Anand

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, an increasing number of research projects have been dedicated to competency assessment not only in school and vocational education, but also in higher education (Blömeke, Zlatkin-Troitschanskaia, Kuhn, & Fege, 2013). Compared to competency assessment in schools, competency assessment in higher education still is…

  10. The face, the future, and dental practice: how research in craniofacial biology will influence patient care.

    PubMed

    Townsend, G C; Brook, A H

    2014-06-01

    It has been a privilege to assemble a group of Australian and international researchers to produce a special issue of the Australian Dental Journal that reflects the cutting edge of research in different aspects of craniofacial biology, and also considers how these advances will influence future education and practice within dentistry. The aim of this special issue is to provide a collection of concept papers and critical reviews on key topics that cover both fundamental and applied research in craniofacial biology and to consider the clinical implications. To do this, four questions have been addressed that lead to the four sections of this issue. These are: How have we come to the present exciting position in craniofacial biology with breakthroughs over the past 50 years? What are current fundamental research topics that are helping us to understand more about craniofacial and general development, possibly leading to future clinical developments? What are the current applied research topics that will influence future clinical practice? Looking forward, what new developments in craniofacial biology may come about that will change the face of dental education and practice? The refereed papers in this special issue are grouped into the four sections that seek to respond to these demanding questions. PMID:24646132

  11. The Future of Polycystic Kidney Disease Research--As Seen By the 12 Kaplan Awardees.

    PubMed

    Antignac, Corinne; Calvet, James P; Germino, Gregory G; Grantham, Jared J; Guay-Woodford, Lisa M; Harris, Peter C; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm; Peters, Dorien J M; Somlo, Stefan; Torres, Vicente E; Walz, Gerd; Zhou, Jing; Yu, Alan S L

    2015-09-01

    Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is one of the most common life-threatening genetic diseases. Jared J. Grantham, M.D., has done more than any other individual to promote PKD research around the world. However, despite decades of investigation there is still no approved therapy for PKD in the United States. In May 2014, the University of Kansas Medical Center hosted a symposium in Kansas City honoring the occasion of Dr. Grantham's retirement and invited all the awardees of the Lillian Jean Kaplan International Prize for Advancement in the Understanding of Polycystic Kidney Disease to participate in a forward-thinking and interactive forum focused on future directions and innovations in PKD research. This article summarizes the contributions of the 12 Kaplan awardees and their vision for the future of PKD research. PMID:25952256

  12. The Order of Events in the Transition to Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marini, Margaret Mooney

    The sequencing of four role changes marking the transition from adolescence to adulthood--exit from school, entry into the labor force, marriage, and parenthood--is reported. The research is based on data from a study of 8500 high school students in 10 Illinois high schools in 1957-58 (Coleman, 1961) and a 15-year follow-up survey of 6500 of the…

  13. Cerebellar mature teratoma in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Zavanone, M; Alimehmeti, R; Campanella, R; Ram-Pini, P; Locatelli, M; Egidi, M; Righini, A; Bauer, D

    2002-03-01

    Mature teratoma of the posterior cranial fossa in adults is extremely rare. We report a particularly rare case of medio-lateral cerebellar mature teratoma that became symptomatic in a middle-aged man. The CT revealed the lesion of heterogeneous density with calcifications in the solid medial portion. Only the MRI could reliably define the borders of the cystic component extending into the left cerebellar lobe. Histologically the presence of fully matured representative tissues of the 3 germ layers ensured the diagnosis of mature teratoma. We suggest that the cyst formation from progressive latent hemorrhage and/or secretion from the gland cells of the tumor, may be responsible for the clinical decompensation even in adulthood. PMID:12118223

  14. Treading lightly on shifting ground: The direction and motivation of future geological research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Witt, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    The future of the geosciences and geological research will involve complex scientific challenges, primarily concerning global and regional environmental issues, in the next 20-30 years. It is quite reasonable to suspect, based on current political and socioeconomic events, that young geoscientists will be faced with and involved in helping to resolve some well defined problems: water and energy security, the effects of anthropogenic climate change, coastal sea level rise and development, and the mitigation of geohazards. It is how we choose to approach these challenges that will define our future. Interdisciplinary applied research, improved modeling and prediction augmented with faster and more sophisticated computing, and a greater role in creating and guiding public policy, will help us achieve our goals of a cleaner and safer Earth environment in the next 30 years. In the far future, even grander possibilities for eliminating the risk of certain geohazards and finding sustainable solutions to our energy needs can be envisioned. Looking deeper into the future, the possibilities for geoscience research push the limits of the imagination.

  15. Mass storage system experiences and future needs at the National Center for Atmospheric Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olear, Bernard T.

    1991-01-01

    A summary and viewgraphs of a discussion presented at the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) Mass Storage Workshop is included. Some of the experiences of the Scientific Computing Division at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) dealing the the 'data problem' are discussed. A brief history and a development of some basic mass storage system (MSS) principles are given. An attempt is made to show how these principles apply to the integration of various components into NCAR's MSS. Future MSS needs for future computing environments is discussed.

  16. Epidemiologic research programs at the Department of Energy: Looking to the future

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The secretary of the Department of Energy (DOE) asked the National Research Council in 1989 to establish a Committee on Radiation Epidemiological Research Programs to provide scientific advice on the current status and future direction of DOE`s epidemiologic research program. This report is in response to a request from the National Research Council committee to provide advice regarding the future directions of OEHS`s epidemiologic research. This report begins with some of the background leading to the current activities of OEHS. In 1990, a committee (the Secretarial Panel for the Evaluation of Epidemiological Research Activities, or SPEERA) established by the secretary of the DOE recommended that DOE enter into a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with the Department of Health and Human Services that outlined the responsibilities of the two departments regarding epidemiologic research. The present report points out that the implementation of the SPEERA recommendations and the MoU by DOE have raised issues that have not been satisfactorily resolved.

  17. Narrative synthesis of equine-assisted psychotherapy literature: Current knowledge and future research directions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ping-Tzu; Dakin, Emily; McLure, Merinda

    2016-05-01

    Equine-assisted psychotherapy (EAP) is an innovative emerging approach to mental health treatment. This narrative synthesis explores the current state of knowledge and areas for future research in EAP. Specifically reviewed are qualitative and quantitative empirical studies, including both articles published in peer-reviewed journals and research presented in theses and dissertations. We selected 24 studies for final inclusion in this study, dating between 2005 and 2013, and including the first EAP empirical research completed in 2005. Four of these studies are peer-reviewed journal articles, while 20 are master's theses or doctoral dissertations. The reviewed qualitative research provides initial evidence for the value of EAP for enhancing adolescents' communication and relationship skills. The reviewed experimental and quasi-experimental research provides initial evidence for the value of EAP for enhancing children's and adolescents' emotional, social and behavioural functioning. Yet, conclusions about the effectiveness of EAP must still be considered preliminary due to various methodological limitations in the reviewed research. The narrative review describes these methodological limitations and concludes with recommendations for future research. PMID:25727575

  18. Beyond 2013 - The Future of European Scientific Drilling Research - An introduction.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camoin, G.; Stein, R.

    2009-04-01

    The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) is funded for the period 2003-2013, and is now starting to plan the future of ocean drilling beyond 2013, including the development of new technologies, new emerging research fields as and the societal relevance of this programme. In this context an interdisciplinary and multinational (USA, Europe, Japan, Asian and Oceanian countries), key conference - INVEST IODP New Ventures in Exploring Scientific Targets - addressing all international IODP partners is therefore planned for September 23rd-25th 2009 in Bremen, Germany (more information at http://www.iodp.org and http://marum.de/iodp-invest.html) to discuss future directions of ocean drilling research and related aspects such as ventures with related programmes or with industry. The first critical step of INVEST is to define the scientific research goals of the second phase of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP), which is expected to begin in late 2013. INVEST will be open to all interested scientists and students and will be the principal opportunity for the international science community to help shape the future of scientific ocean drilling. The outcome of the conference will be the base to draft a science plan in 2010 and to define new goals and strategies to effectively meet the challenges of society and future ocean drilling. The current EGU Session and the related two days workshop which will be held at the University of Vienna will specifically address the future of European scientific drilling research. The major objectives of those two events are to sharpen the European interests in the future IODP and to prepare the INVEST Conference and are therefore of prime importance to give weight to the European propositions in the program renewal processes, both on science, technology and management, and to provide the participants with information about the status/process of ongoing discussions and negotiations regarding program structure, and provide them

  19. Prioritization of future research topics for children's hospice care by its key stakeholders: a Delphi study.

    PubMed

    Malcolm, C; Knighting, K; Forbat, L; Kearney, N

    2009-07-01

    The Delphi process, widely used in health research to seek consensus on key issues amongst large stakeholder groups, was adopted to allow families, hospice staff/volunteers and linked professionals to identify and prioritize future research priorities for children's hospice care. In the qualitative Round 1, interviews with families (n = 5), linked professionals (n = 18) and focus groups with hospice staff and volunteers (n = 44) led to the generation of 56 research topics categorised within 14 broad themes. To give a larger number of stakeholders (n = 621) (including families n = 293; hospice staff/volunteers n = 216 and professionals n = 112) the opportunity to rate the importance of each research topic and seek group consensus on the future research priorities for children's hospice care, subsequent Rounds 2 and 3 involved the use of postal questionnaires. Response rates to questionnaires were 44% in Round 2 (274/621) and 83% in Round 3 (204/247). Participants prioritized research topics relating to 1) hospice and respite care needs of young people (aged 16 +), 2) pain and symptom management and 3) bereavement and end-of-life care. There was wide acknowledgement by those took part in the process of the difficulty in rating the topics, and emphasis on the fact that all of the topics raised during the project are of high importance and merit further research. The current salient issues perceived by key stakeholders as being the research priorities for children's hospice care were identified. Addressing these priority topics for research would further contribute to the development of a much needed evidence base in children's hospice and palliative care research and optimise the delivery of children's hospice services that are underpinned by valid and robust research. PMID:19304805

  20. Research on the International Space Station: Understanding Future Potential from Current Accomplishments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Julie A.

    2007-01-01

    In November 2007, the International Space Station (ISS) will have supported seven years of continuous presence in space, with 15 Expeditions completed. These years have been characterized by the numerous technical challenges of assembly as well as operational and logistical challenges related to the availability of transportation by the Space Shuttle. During this period, an active set of early research objectives have also been accomplished alongside the assembly. This paper will review the research accomplishments on ISS to date, with the objective of drawing insights on the potential of future research following completion of ISS assembly. By the end of Expedition 15, an expected 121 U.S.-managed investigations will have been conducted on ISS, with 91 of these completed. Many of these investigations include multiple scientific objectives, with an estimated total of 334 scientists served. Through February 2007, 101 scientific publications have been identified. Another 184 investigations have been sponsored by ISS international partners, which independently track their scientists served and results publication. Through this survey of U.S. research completed on ISS, three different themes will be addressed: (1) How have constraints on transportation of mass to orbit affected the types of research successfully completed on the ISS to date? What lessons can be learned for increasing the success of ISS as a research platform during the period following the retirement of the Space Shuttle? (2) How have constraints on crew time for research during assembly and the active participation of crewmembers as scientists affected the types of research successfully completed on the ISS to date? What lessons can be learned for optimizing research return following the increase in capacity from 3 to 6 crewmembers (planned for 2009)? What lessons can be learned for optimizing research return after assembly is complete? (3) What do early research results indicate about the various

  1. Using Health Care Utilization and Publication Patterns to Characterize the Research Portfolio and to Plan Future Research Investments

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Luba; Fink, Rebecca V.; Bozeman, Samuel R.; McNeil, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Government funders of biomedical research are under increasing pressure to demonstrate societal benefits of their investments. A number of published studies attempted to correlate research funding levels with the societal burden for various diseases, with mixed results. We examined whether research funded by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is well aligned with current and projected veterans’ health needs. The organizational structure of the VA makes it a particularly suitable setting for examining these questions. Methods We used the publication patterns and dollar expenditures of VA-funded researchers to characterize the VA research portfolio by disease. We used health care utilization data from the VA for the same diseases to define veterans’ health needs. We then measured the level of correlation between the two and identified disease groups that were under- or over-represented in the research portfolio relative to disease expenditures. Finally, we used historic health care utilization trends combined with demographic projections to identify diseases and conditions that are increasing in costs and/or patient volume and consequently represent potential targets for future research investments. Results We found a significant correlation between research volume/expenditures and health utilization. Some disease groups were slightly under- or over-represented, but these deviations were relatively small. Diseases and conditions with the increasing utilization trend at the VA included hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, hearing loss, sleeping disorders, complications of pregnancy, and several mental disorders. Conclusions Research investments at the VA are well aligned with veteran health needs. The VA can continue to meet these needs by supporting research on the diseases and conditions with a growing number of patients, costs of care, or both. Our approach can be used by other funders of disease research to characterize their portfolios

  2. Defining Safety in the Nursing Home Setting: Implications for Future Research.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Sandra F; Schnelle, John F; Sathe, Nila A; Slagle, Jason M; Stevenson, David G; Carlo, Maria E; McPheeters, Melissa L

    2016-06-01

    Currently, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) Common Format for nursing homes (NHs) accommodates voluntary reporting for 4 adverse events: falls with injury, pressure ulcers, medication errors, and infections. In 2015, AHRQ funded a technical brief to describe the state of the science related to safety in the NH setting to inform a research agenda. Thirty-six recent systematic reviews evaluated NH safety-related interventions to address these 4 adverse events and reported mostly mixed evidence about effective approaches to ameliorate them. Furthermore, these 4 events are likely inadequate to capture safety issues that are unique to the NH setting and encompass other domains related to residents' quality of care and quality of life. Future research needs include expanding our definition of safety in the NH setting, which differs considerably from that of hospitals, to include contributing factors to adverse events as well as more resident-centered care measures. Second, future research should reflect more rigorous implementation science to include objective measures of care processes related to adverse events, intervention fidelity, and staffing resources for intervention implementation to inform broader uptake of efficacious interventions. Weaknesses in implementation contribute to the current inconclusive and mixed evidence base as well as remaining questions about what outcomes are even achievable in the NH setting, given the complexity of most resident populations. Also related to implementation, future research should determine the effects of specific staffing models on care processes related to safety outcomes. Last, future efforts should explore the potential for safety issues in other care settings for older adults, most notably dementia care within assisted living. PMID:27235760

  3. Recent progress and future direction of cancer epidemiological research in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sobue, Tomotaka

    2015-06-01

    In 2006, the Cancer Control Act was approved and a Basic Plan, to Promote the Cancer Control Program at the national level, was developed in 2007. Cancer research is recognized as a fundamental component to provide evidence in cancer control program. Cancer epidemiology plays central role in connecting research and policy, since it directly deals with data from humans. Research for cancer epidemiology in Japan made substantial progress, in the field of descriptive studies, cohort studies, intervention studies and activities for summarizing evidences. In future, promoting high-quality large-scale intervention studies, individual-level linkage studies, simulation models and studies for elderly population will be of great importance, but at the same time research should be promoted in well-balanced fashion not placing too much emphasis on one particular research field. PMID:25762798

  4. Building electronic data infrastructure for comparative effectiveness research: accomplishments, lessons learned and future steps.

    PubMed

    Randhawa, Gurvaneet S

    2014-11-01

    There are large gaps in our knowledge on the potential impact of diagnostics and therapeutics on outcomes of patients treated in the real world. Comparative effectiveness research aims to fill these gaps to maximize effectiveness of these interventions. Health information technology has the potential to dramatically improve the practice of medicine and of research. This is an overview of about US$100 million of American Recovery and Reinvestment Act investment in 12 projects managed by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality to build an electronic clinical data infrastructure that connects research with healthcare delivery. The achievements and lessons learned from these projects provided a foundation for the National Patient-Centered Clinical Research Network (PCORnet)and will help to guide future infrastructure development needed to build an efficient, scalable and sustainable learning health system. PMID:25494561

  5. Arsenic and Environmental Health: State of the Science and Future Research Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Carlin, Danielle J.; Naujokas, Marisa F.; Bradham, Karen D.; Cowden, John; Heacock, Michelle; Henry, Heather F.; Lee, Janice S.; Thomas, David J.; Thompson, Claudia; Tokar, Erik J.; Waalkes, Michael P.; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Suk, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Exposure to inorganic and organic arsenic compounds is a major public health problem that affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide. Exposure to arsenic is associated with cancer and noncancer effects in nearly every organ in the body, and evidence is mounting for health effects at lower levels of arsenic exposure than previously thought. Building from a tremendous knowledge base with > 1,000 scientific papers published annually with “arsenic” in the title, the question becomes, what questions would best drive future research directions? Objectives: The objective is to discuss emerging issues in arsenic research and identify data gaps across disciplines. Methods: The National Institutes of Health’s National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Superfund Research Program convened a workshop to identify emerging issues and research needs to address the multi-faceted challenges related to arsenic and environmental health. This review summarizes information captured during the workshop. Discussion: More information about aggregate exposure to arsenic is needed, including the amount and forms of arsenic found in foods. New strategies for mitigating arsenic exposures and related health effects range from engineered filtering systems to phytogenetics and nutritional interventions. Furthermore, integration of omics data with mechanistic and epidemiological data is a key step toward the goal of linking biomarkers of exposure and susceptibility to disease mechanisms and outcomes. Conclusions: Promising research strategies and technologies for arsenic exposure and adverse health effect mitigation are being pursued, and future research is moving toward deeper collaborations and integration of information across disciplines to address data gaps. Citation: Carlin DJ, Naujokas MF, Bradham KD, Cowden J, Heacock M, Henry HF, Lee JS, Thomas DJ, Thompson C, Tokar EJ, Waalkes MP, Birnbaum LS, Suk WA. 2016. Arsenic and environmental health: state of the

  6. Enhancing Diversity in the Public Health Research Workforce: The Research and Mentorship Program for Future HIV Vaccine Scientists

    PubMed Central

    Adamson, Blythe Jane S.; Andrasik, Michele P.; Flood, Danna M.; Wakefield, Steven F.; Stoff, David M.; Cook, Ryan S.; Kublin, James G.; Fuchs, Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We developed and evaluated a novel National Institutes of Health–sponsored Research and Mentorship Program for African American and Hispanic medical students embedded within the international, multisite HIV Vaccine Trials Network, and explored its impact on scientific knowledge, acquired skills, and future career plans. Methods. Scholars conducted social, behavioral, clinical, or laboratory-based research projects with HIV Vaccine Trials Network investigators over 8 to 16 weeks (track 1) or 9 to 12 months (track 2). We conducted an in-depth, mixed-methods evaluation of the first 2 cohorts (2011–2013) to identify program strengths, areas for improvement, and influence on professional development. Results. A pre–post program assessment demonstrated increases in self-reported knowledge, professional skills, and interest in future HIV vaccine research. During in-depth interviews, scholars reported that a supportive, centrally administered program; available funding; and highly involved mentors and staff were keys to the program’s early success. Conclusions. A multicomponent, mentored research experience that engages medical students from underrepresented communities and is organized within a clinical trials network may expand the pool of diverse public health scientists. Efforts to sustain scholar interest over time and track career trajectories are warranted. PMID:25122028

  7. Research on aging in Latin America: Present status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Sennott-Miller, L

    1994-01-01

    This essay examines the status of aging research in Latin America. It presents a profile of the aging population in the Region in relation to societal institutions, illustrating how the aged are only marginally served by them. Most of the available information is derived from secondary sources and comes from international and national agencies, and private organizations. Data-based research includes small-sample studies of specific issues and country-specific investigations by both U.S. and Latin American researchers. Paradigms used emphasize successful/productive aging, functional ability, and, to a lesser extent, work focused on health conditions or specific situations such as poverty. The best sources of contextual information are often unpublished or not published in the mainstream literature. Future directions recommended include organizing existing data to inform policy, identifying, with Latin American researchers, the most critical research questions, formalizing collaborative relationships, and holding a working conference of those involved in Latin American aging research to develop a future agenda. PMID:24390003

  8. Aeronautical Communications Research and Development Needs for Future Air Traffic Management Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.

    2002-01-01

    Continuing growth in regional and global air travel has resulted in increasing traffic congestion in the air and on the ground. In spite of occasional temporary downturns due to economic recessions and catastrophic events, average growth rates of air travel have remained high since the 1960s. The resulting congestion, which constrains expansion of the air transportation industry, inflicts schedule delays and decreases overall system efficiency, creating a pressing need to develop more efficient methods of air traffic management (ATM). New ATM techniques, procedures, air space automation methods, and decision support tools are being researched and developed for deployment in time frames stretching from the next few years to the year 2020 and beyond. As these methods become more advanced and increase in complexity, the requirements for information generation, sharing and transfer among the relevant entities in the ATM system increase dramatically. However, current aeronautical communications systems will be inadequate to meet the future information transfer demands created by these advanced ATM systems. Therefore, the NASA Glenn Research Center is undertaking research programs to develop communication, methods and key technologies that can meet these future requirements. As part of this process, studies, workshops, testing and experimentation, and research and analysis have established a number of research and technology development needs. The purpose of this paper is to outline the critical research and technology needs that have been identified in these activities, and explain how these needs have been determined.

  9. Future Directions of Supersonic Combustion Research: Air Force/NASA Workshop on Supersonic Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tishkoff, Julian M.; Drummond, J. Philip; Edwards, Tim; Nejad, Abdollah S.

    1997-01-01

    The Air Force Office of Scientific Research, the Air Force Wright Laboratory Aero Propulsion and Power Directorate, and the NASA Langley Research Center held a joint supersonic combustion workshop on 14-16 May 1996. The intent of this meeting was to: (1) examine the current state-of-the-art in hydrocarbon and/or hydrogen fueled scramjet research; (2) define the future direction and needs of basic research in support of scramjet technology; and (3) when appropriate, help transition basic research findings to solve the needs of developmental engineering programs in the area of supersonic combustion and fuels. A series of topical sessions were planned. Opening presentations were designed to focus and encourage group discussion and scientific exchange. The last half-day of the workshop was set aside for group discussion of the issues that were raised during the meeting for defining future research opportunities and directions. The following text attempts to summarize the discussions that took place at the workshop.

  10. Connecting Ocean Scientists with Future Educators - COSEE Florida's Research Experience for Pre-Service Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, S.; Cetrulo, B.; Capers, J.

    2012-12-01

    To bring real world ocean science into the classroom, COSEE Florida's Research Experience for Pre-Service Teachers (REPT) program provides an opportunity for future science teachers to work with marine scientists on research projects. In 2011 and 2012, eleven middle school education majors at Indian River State College in Fort Pierce, FL, participated in a seven week summer experience. Scientist teams at Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute of Florida Atlantic University, the Smithsonian Marine Station, and the Ocean Research & Conservation Association each mentored two students for 20 hours of research per week with 5 hours of support from Indian River State College (IRSC) faculty. Mentors helped students develop a scientific poster describing their research and guided them in the production of a video vignette called a CSTAR (COSEE Student Teachers as Researchers). The CSTAR videos address a 'nature of science' Florida state standard, have been shown to a variety of audiences in and out of the classroom and are expected to be a more frequently used educational product than a single lesson plan. To showcase the REPT intern accomplishments, an 'end-of-program' symposium open to the COSEE and IRSC communities was held at IRSC. Evaluation data indicate that the first two iterations of the COSEE Florida REPT program have given future teachers an authentic and deeper understanding of scientific practices and have provided ocean scientists with a meaningful opportunity to contribute to ocean science education.

  11. Desperately seeking reductions in health inequalities: perspectives of UK researchers on past, present and future directions in health inequalities research.

    PubMed

    Garthwaite, Kayleigh; Smith, Katherine E; Bambra, Clare; Pearce, Jamie

    2016-03-01

    Following government commitments to reducing health inequalities from 1997 onwards, the UK has been recognised as a global leader in health inequalities research and policy. Yet health inequalities have continued to widen by most measures, prompting calls for new research agendas and advocacy to facilitate greater public support for the upstream policies that evidence suggests are required. However, there is currently no agreement as to what new research might involve or precisely what public health egalitarians ought to be advocating. This article presents an analysis of discussions among 52 researchers to consider the feasibility that research-informed advocacy around particular solutions to health inequalities may emerge in the UK. The data indicate there is a consensus that more should be been done to learn from post-1997 efforts to reduce health inequalities, and an obvious desire to provide clearer policy guidance in future.However, discussions as to where researchers should now focus their efforts and with whom researchers ought to be engaging reveal three distinct ways of approaching health inequalities, each of which has its own epistemological foundations. Such differences imply that a consensus on reducing health inequalities is unlikely to materialise. Instead, progress seems most likely if all three approaches are simultaneously enabled. PMID:27358991

  12. Purpose in Life in Emerging Adulthood: Development and Validation of a New Brief Measure

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Patrick L.; Edmonds, Grant W.; Peterson, Missy; Luyckx, Koen; Andrews, Judy A.

    2015-01-01

    Accruing evidence points to the value of studying purpose in life across adolescence and emerging adulthood. Research though is needed to understand the unique role of purpose in life in predicting well-being and developmentally relevant outcomes during emerging adulthood. The current studies (total n = 669) found support for the development of a new brief measure of purpose in life using data from American and Canadian samples, while demonstrating evidence for two important findings. First, purpose in life predicted well-being during emerging adulthood, even when controlling for the Big Five personality traits. Second, purpose in life was positively associated with self-image and negatively associated with delinquency, again controlling for personality traits. Findings are discussed with respect to how studying purpose in life can help understand which individuals are more likely to experience positive transitions into adulthood. PMID:26958072

  13. Family Perspectives on a Successful Transition to Adulthood for Individuals with Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Henninger, Natalie A.; Taylor, Julie Lounds

    2014-01-01

    When researchers evaluate adult outcomes for individuals with intellectual and/or developmental disabilities (ID/DD), the perspective of families is not always considered. Parents of individuals with ID/DD (n=198) answered an online survey about their definition of a successful transition to adulthood. Content analysis was used to describe themes and ideas present in responses. Rather than focusing only on developmental tasks of adulthood, such as living independently, being competitively employed, and maintaining friendships, responses reflected a more varied and dynamic view of success in adulthood, taking into account the fit between the person with ID/DD and his or her environment. As services are developed and implemented for adults with ID/DD, it is important to consider the full range of goals families have for their son or daughter’s successful transition to adulthood. PMID:24725109

  14. NASA Global Hawk Project Update and Future Plans: A New Tool for Earth Science Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naftel, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Science objectives include: First demonstration of the Global Hawk unmanned aircraft system (UAS) for NASA and NOAA Earth science research and applications; Validation of instruments on-board the Aura satellite; Exploration of trace gases, aerosols, and dynamics of remote upper Troposphere/lower Stratosphere regions; Sample polar vortex fragments and atmospheric rivers; Risk reduction for future missions that will study hurricanes and atmospheric rivers.

  15. Contralateral prophylactic mastectomy in women with breast cancer: Trends, predictors, and areas for future research

    PubMed Central

    Tracy, Michaela S.; Rosenberg, Shoshana M.; Dominici, Laura; Partridge, Ann H.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed increasing rates of contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM) among women with unilateral early stage breast cancer. This trend has raised concerns, given the lack of evidence for a survival benefit from CPM and the relatively low risk of contralateral breast cancer for most women in this setting. In this article, we review available data regarding the value of CPM, predictors and outcomes related to CPM, and areas for future research and potential intervention. PMID:23893127

  16. Integrating Research, Teaching and Learning: Preparing the Future National STEM Faculty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooper, E. J.; Pfund, C.; Mathieu, R.

    2010-08-01

    A network of universities (Howard, Michigan State, Texas A&M, University of Colorado at Boulder, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Vanderbilt) have created a National Science Foundation-funded network to prepare a future national STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics) faculty committed to learning, implementing, and advancing teaching techniques that are effective for the wide range of students enrolled in higher education. The Center for the Integration of Research, Teaching and Learning (CIRTL; http://www.cirtl.net) develops, implements and evaluates professional development programs for future and current faculty. The programs comprise graduate courses, internships, and workshops, all integrated within campus learning communities. These elements are unified and guided by adherence to three core principles, or pillars: "Teaching as Research," whereby research skills are applied to evaluating and advancing undergraduate learning; "Learning through Diversity," in which the diversity of students' backgrounds and experiences are used as a rich resource to enhance teaching and learning; and "Learning Communities" that foster shared learning and discovery among students, and between future and current faculty within a department or institution. CIRTL established a laboratory for testing its ideas and practices at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, known as the Delta Program in Research, Teaching and Learning (http://www.delta.wisc.edu). The program offers project-based graduate courses, research mentor training, and workshops for post-docs, staff, and faculty. In addition, graduate students and post-docs can partner with a faculty member in a teaching-as-research internship to define and tackle a specific teaching and learning problem. Finally, students can obtain a Delta Certificate as testimony to their engagement in and commitment to teaching and learning. Delta has proved very

  17. Exploration-Related Research on ISS: Connecting Science Results to Future Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhatigan, Jennifer L.; Robinson, Julie A.; Sawin, Charles F.

    2005-01-01

    In January, 2004, the U.S. President announced The Vision for Space Exploration, and charged the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) with using the International Space Station (ISS) for research and technology targeted at supporting U.S. space exploration goals. This paper describes: What we have learned from the first four years of research on ISS relative to the exploration mission; The on-going research being conducted in this regard; and Our current understanding of the major exploration mission risks that the ISS can be used to address. Specifically, we discuss research carried out on the ISS to determine the mechanisms by which human health is affected on long-duration missions, and to develop countermeasures to protect humans from the space environment. These bioastronautics experiments are key enablers of future long duration human exploration missions. We also discuss how targeted technological developments can enable mission design trade studies. We discuss the relationship between the ultimate number of human test subjects available on the ISS to the quality and quantity of scientific insight that can be used to reduce health risks to future explorers. We discuss the results of NASA's efforts over the past year to realign the ISS research programs to support a product-driven portfolio that is directed towards reducing the major risks of exploration missions. The fundamental challenge to science on ISS is completing experiments that answer key questions in time to shape design decisions for future exploration. In this context, exploration relevant research must do more than be conceptually connected to design decisions - it must become a part of the mission design process.

  18. A review of cervical cancer screening intervention research: implications for public health programs and future research.

    PubMed

    Marcus, A C; Crane, L A

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we review the published literature with respect to cervical cancer screening intervention research. Mass media campaigns appear to work best in promoting cervical cancer screening when multiple media are used, when they promote specific screening programs that eliminate or reduce access barriers, or when they are used in combination with other strategies. Many positive examples of using outreach staff to promote cervical cancer screening, as well as using mobile examination rooms in the community, were found. Substantial evidence that letters mailed to patient populations are efficacious was found, especially in promoting interval screening; however, bulk mailings to nonpatient populations have generally not been successful. Both physician and patient prompts have shown promise as well as opportunistic screenings in both the outpatient and the inpatient settings. In addition, several strategies for reducing loss to follow-up among women with abnormal test results were identified, including telephone follow-up, educational mailouts, audiovisual programs, clinic-based educational presentations and workshops, transportation incentives, and economic vouchers. Of special note is the success of other countries in establishing centralized recall systems to promote interval screening for cervical cancer. Ultimately, such systems could replace the need for opportunistic screening in underserved populations and perhaps many community outreach efforts. It is argued that health departments represent a logical starting point for developing a network of recall systems in the United States for underserved women. PMID:9465350

  19. Long-term effects of child abuse and neglect on emotion processing in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Young, Joanna Cahall; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2014-08-01

    To determine whether child maltreatment has a long-term impact on emotion processing abilities in adulthood and whether IQ, psychopathology, or psychopathy mediate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and emotion processing in adulthood. Using a prospective cohort design, children (ages 0-11) with documented cases of abuse and neglect during 1967-1971 were matched with non-maltreated children and followed up into adulthood. Potential mediators (IQ, Post-Traumatic Stress [PTSD], Generalized Anxiety [GAD], Dysthymia, and Major Depressive [MDD] Disorders, and psychopathy) were assessed in young adulthood with standardized assessment techniques. In middle adulthood (Mage=47), the International Affective Picture System was used to measure emotion processing. Structural equation modeling was used to test mediation models. Individuals with a history of childhood maltreatment were less accurate in emotion processing overall and in processing positive and neutral pictures than matched controls. Childhood physical abuse predicted less accuracy in neutral pictures and childhood sexual abuse and neglect predicted less accuracy in recognizing positive pictures. MDD, GAD, and IQ predicted overall picture recognition accuracy. However, of the mediators examined, only IQ acted to mediate the relationship between child maltreatment and emotion processing deficits. Although research has focused on emotion processing in maltreated children, these new findings show an impact child abuse and neglect on emotion processing in middle adulthood. Research and interventions aimed at improving emotional processing deficiencies in abused and neglected children should consider the role of IQ. PMID:24747007

  20. Practitioners' Perceptions of the Soccer Extra-Time Period: Implications for Future Research

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Liam D.; Fothergill, Melissa; West, Daniel J.; Stevenson, Emma; Russell, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative research investigating soccer practitioners’ perceptions can allow researchers to create practical research investigations. The extra-time period of soccer is understudied compared to other areas of soccer research. Using an open-ended online survey containing eleven main and nine sub questions, we gathered the perceptions of extra-time from 46 soccer practitioners, all working for different professional soccer clubs. Questions related to current practices, views on extra-time regulations, and ideas for future research. Using inductive content analysis, the following general dimensions were identified: ‘importance of extra-time’, ‘rule changes’, ‘efficacy of extra-time hydro-nutritional provision’, ‘nutritional timing’, ‘future research directions’, ‘preparatory modulations’ and ‘recovery’. The majority of practitioners (63%) either agreed or strongly agreed that extra-time is an important period for determining success in knockout football match-play. When asked if a fourth substitution should be permitted in extra-time, 67% agreed. The use of hydro-nutritional strategies prior to extra-time was predominately considered important or very important. However; only 41% of practitioners felt that it was the most important time point for the use of nutritional products. A similar number of practitioners account (50%) and do not (50%) account for the potential of extra-time when training and preparing players and 89% of practitioners stated that extra-time influences recovery practices following matches. In the five minute break prior to extra-time, the following practices (in order of priority) were advocated to players: hydration, energy provision, massage, and tactical preparations. Additionally, 87% of practitioners advocate a particular nutritional supplementation strategy prior to extra-time. In order of importance, practitioners see the following as future research areas: nutritional interventions, fatigue responses