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Sample records for adulthood postnatal day

  1. Postnatal exposure to predator odor (TMT) enhances spatial learning in mice adulthood.

    PubMed

    Hacquemand, R; Jacquot, L; Brand, G

    2012-04-01

    Adult behavioral and physiological responses are partly dependent on neonatal experiences. In several animal species, enriched/aprovished environments and stressful/appeasing events are crucial in the setting of adaptative behaviors. However, little is known about the effects of postnatal exposure to predator odor (as unconditioned fear-related stimulus) on spatial learning at adulthood. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a postnatal exposure to 2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline (TMT, as a predator odor) on radial arm maze (RAM), Tolman maze (TM) and Morris water maze (MWM) in mice at adulthood. The results showed that a TMT group constituted by mice exposed postnatally during 3 weeks to TMT presented significantly better spatial learning achievements in adulthood compared to a water group, postnatally exposed to water only, as well as compared to a butanol group (butanol used as an odor without ecological significance) exposed postnatally to butanol during 3 weeks. PMID:22245526

  2. Chronic NMDA receptor blockade in early postnatal period, but not in adulthood, impairs methamphetamine-induced conditioned place preference in rats.

    PubMed

    Furuie, Hiroki; Yamada, Kazuo; Ichitani, Yukio

    2016-03-15

    Early postnatal glutamatergic N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor blockade in animals is known to produce various behavioral deficits in adulthood. In the present study rats postnatally (day 7-20) treated chronically with MK-801, an NMDA receptor antagonist, were tested later in adulthood in methamphetamine (MAP)-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) using a unbiased procedure in a three-compartment apparatus. Rats with the same chronic treatment in adulthood were also tested. CPP test consisted of a baseline test before conditioning, place conditioning, and a preference test after conditioning. Rats postnatally treated with MK-801 did not show any evidence of preference for MAP-paired compartment compared with that for unpaired one in the preference test that was shown in rats postnatally treated with saline. On the other hand, rats treated with MK-801 in adulthood were not affected by the treatment and showed significant CPP as was shown in saline-treated control animals. Results suggest the possibility that chronic early postnatal, but not adulthood, NMDA receptor blockade induces persistent deficit of subsequent appetitive classical conditioning. PMID:26748255

  3. Chronic NMDA receptor blockade in early postnatal period, but not in adulthood, impairs methamphetamine-induced conditioned place preference in rats.

    PubMed

    Furuie, Hiroki; Yamada, Kazuo; Ichitani, Yukio

    2016-03-15

    Early postnatal glutamatergic N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor blockade in animals is known to produce various behavioral deficits in adulthood. In the present study rats postnatally (day 7-20) treated chronically with MK-801, an NMDA receptor antagonist, were tested later in adulthood in methamphetamine (MAP)-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) using a unbiased procedure in a three-compartment apparatus. Rats with the same chronic treatment in adulthood were also tested. CPP test consisted of a baseline test before conditioning, place conditioning, and a preference test after conditioning. Rats postnatally treated with MK-801 did not show any evidence of preference for MAP-paired compartment compared with that for unpaired one in the preference test that was shown in rats postnatally treated with saline. On the other hand, rats treated with MK-801 in adulthood were not affected by the treatment and showed significant CPP as was shown in saline-treated control animals. Results suggest the possibility that chronic early postnatal, but not adulthood, NMDA receptor blockade induces persistent deficit of subsequent appetitive classical conditioning.

  4. Postnatal TLR2 activation impairs learning and memory in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Madar, Ravit; Rotter, Aviva; Waldman Ben-Asher, Hiba; Mughal, Mohamed R; Arumugam, Thiruma V; Wood, W H; Becker, K G; Mattson, Mark P; Okun, Eitan

    2015-08-01

    Neuroinflammation in the central nervous system is detrimental for learning and memory, as evident form epidemiological studies linking developmental defects and maternal exposure to harmful pathogens. Postnatal infections can also induce neuroinflammatory responses with long-term consequences. These inflammatory responses can lead to motor deficits and/or behavioral disabilities. Toll like receptors (TLRs) are a family of innate immune receptors best known as sensors of microbial-associated molecular patterns, and are the first responders to infection. TLR2 forms heterodimers with either TLR1 or TLR6, is activated in response to gram-positive bacterial infections, and is expressed in the brain during embryonic development. We hypothesized that early postnatal TLR2-mediated neuroinflammation would adversely affect cognitive behavior in the adult. Our data indicate that postnatal TLR2 activation affects learning and memory in adult mice in a heterodimer-dependent manner. TLR2/6 activation improved motor function and fear learning, while TLR2/1 activation impaired spatial learning and enhanced fear learning. Moreover, developmental TLR2 deficiency significantly impairs spatial learning and enhances fear learning, stressing the involvement of the TLR2 pathway in learning and memory. Analysis of the transcriptional effects of TLR2 activation reveals both common and unique transcriptional programs following heterodimer-specific TLR2 activation. These results imply that adult cognitive behavior could be influenced in part, by activation or alterations in the TLR2 pathway at birth. PMID:26021559

  5. Postnatal TLR2 activation impairs learning and memory in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Madar, Ravit; Rotter, Aviva; Ben-Asher, Hiba Waldman; Mughal, Mohamed R.; Arumugam, Thiruma V.; Wood, WH; Becker, KG; Mattson, Mark P.; Okun, Eitan

    2015-01-01

    Neuroinflammation in the central nervous system is detrimental for learning and memory, as evident form epidemiological studies linking developmental defects and maternal exposure to harmful pathogens. Postnatal infections can also induce neuroinflammatory responses with long-term consequences. These inflammatory responses can lead to motor deficits and/or behavioral disabilities. Toll like receptors (TLRs) are a family of innate immune receptors best known as sensors of microbial-associated molecular patterns, and are the first responders to infection. TLR2 forms heterodimers with either TLR1 or TLR6, is activated in response to gram-positive bacterial infections, and is expressed in the brain during embryonic development. We hypothesized that early postnatal TLR2-mediated neuroinflammation would adversely affect cognitive behavior in the adult. Our data indicate that postnatal TLR2 activation affects learning and memory in adult mice in a heterodimer-dependent manner. TLR2/6 activation improved motor function and fear learning, while TLR2/1 activation impaired spatial learning and enhanced fear learning. Moreover, developmental TLR2 deficiency significantly impairs spatial learning and enhances fear learning, stressing the involvement of the TLR2 pathway in learning and memory. Analysis of the transcriptional effects of TLR2 activation reveals both common and unique transcriptional programs following heterodimer-specific TLR2 activation. These results imply that adult cognitive behavior could be influenced in part, by activation or alterations in the TLR2 pathway at birth. PMID:26021559

  6. Postnatal TLR2 activation impairs learning and memory in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Madar, Ravit; Rotter, Aviva; Waldman Ben-Asher, Hiba; Mughal, Mohamed R; Arumugam, Thiruma V; Wood, W H; Becker, K G; Mattson, Mark P; Okun, Eitan

    2015-08-01

    Neuroinflammation in the central nervous system is detrimental for learning and memory, as evident form epidemiological studies linking developmental defects and maternal exposure to harmful pathogens. Postnatal infections can also induce neuroinflammatory responses with long-term consequences. These inflammatory responses can lead to motor deficits and/or behavioral disabilities. Toll like receptors (TLRs) are a family of innate immune receptors best known as sensors of microbial-associated molecular patterns, and are the first responders to infection. TLR2 forms heterodimers with either TLR1 or TLR6, is activated in response to gram-positive bacterial infections, and is expressed in the brain during embryonic development. We hypothesized that early postnatal TLR2-mediated neuroinflammation would adversely affect cognitive behavior in the adult. Our data indicate that postnatal TLR2 activation affects learning and memory in adult mice in a heterodimer-dependent manner. TLR2/6 activation improved motor function and fear learning, while TLR2/1 activation impaired spatial learning and enhanced fear learning. Moreover, developmental TLR2 deficiency significantly impairs spatial learning and enhances fear learning, stressing the involvement of the TLR2 pathway in learning and memory. Analysis of the transcriptional effects of TLR2 activation reveals both common and unique transcriptional programs following heterodimer-specific TLR2 activation. These results imply that adult cognitive behavior could be influenced in part, by activation or alterations in the TLR2 pathway at birth.

  7. Postnatal overnutrition programs the thyroid hormone metabolism and function in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lisboa, Patricia C; Conceição, Ellen P S; de Oliveira, Elaine; Moura, Egberto G

    2015-09-01

    Early overnutrition (EO) during lactation leads to obesity, leptin resistance and lower thyroid hormone (TH) levels during adulthood. To better understand the biological significance of this thyroid hypofunction, we studied the long-term effects of postnatal EO on both the function of hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis and the metabolism and action of TH. To induce EO, the litter size was reduced to three pups per litter (small litter (SL) group) on the third day of lactation. In the controls (normal litter group), litter size was adjusted to 10 pups per litter. Rats were killed at PN180. TRH content and in vitro TSH were evaluated. Iodothyronine deiodinase (D1 and D2) activities were measured in different tissues. Mitochondrial α-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (mGPD), uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and TH receptor (TRβ1) were evaluated to assess TH action. The SL group presented lower TRH, intra-pituitary and released TSH levels, despite unchanged plasma TSH. They presented lower D1 activity in thyroid, muscle and white adipose tissue (WAT) and higher D2 activity in the hypothalamus, pituitary, brown adipose tissue (BAT) and WAT, which confirmed the hypothyroidism. UCP1 in BAT and TRβ1 in WAT were decreased, which can contribute to a lower catabolic status. Despite the lower TH, the D2 activity in the thyroid, heart and testes was unchanged. Hepatic D1, mGPD and TRβ1 were also unchanged in SL rats, suggesting that the TH conversion and action were preserved in the liver, even with lower TH. Thus, this model indicates that postnatal EO changes thyroid function in adult life in a tissue-specific way, which can help in the understanding of obesogenesis. PMID:26203167

  8. Effect of dietary lipid structure in early postnatal life on mouse adipose tissue development and function in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Oosting, Annemarie; van Vlies, Naomi; Kegler, Diane; Schipper, Lidewij; Abrahamse-Berkeveld, Marieke; Ringler, Silvia; Verkade, Henkjan J; van der Beek, Eline M

    2014-01-28

    Obese individuals have more (hyperplastic) and larger (hypertrophic) adipocytes in their white adipose tissue (WAT) than normal-weight individuals. The difference in cell number emerges early in childhood, suggesting that this is a critical period for being susceptible to obesity. Breast-feeding has been shown to be protective against obesity, and we have previously shown in mice that the physical structure of lipids in human milk may contribute to this protective effect. In the present study, we investigated how differences in the physical structure of lipids in the early diet may modulate adipose tissue development. Male mice were fed a diet containing control infant milk formula (Control IMF; Danone Research) or Nuturis® (Concept IMF with large phospholipid-coated lipid droplets; Danone Research) from postnatal day (PN)16 to 42. Subsequently, mice were challenged with a moderate Western-style diet (WSD) until PN98, and body composition was monitored by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Epididymal WAT was analysed for adipocyte size, number and gene expression of metabolic transcription factors. Early Concept IMF exposure reduced fat accumulation during the WSD challenge by 30 % compared with the Control IMF. It reduced adipocyte size without affecting adipocyte number in adult mice. The Concept IMF decreased the expression of PPARγ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein and retinoid X receptor α in WAT in adulthood, key regulators of metabolic activity. In conclusion, Concept IMF exposure in early life reduced susceptibility to obesity in adult life, by preventing adipocyte hypertrophia upon adult dietary challenge without affecting adipogenesis. These data emphasise the importance of the physical properties of dietary lipids in early life in obesity risk later in life.

  9. Prolactin administration during early postnatal life decreases hippocampal and olfactory bulb neurogenesis and results in depressive-like behavior in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lajud, Naima; Gonzalez-Zapien, Rubén; Roque, Angélica; Tinajero, Eréndira; Valdez, Juan José; Clapp, Carmen; Torner, Luz

    2013-11-01

    Tight regulation of hormone and neurochemical milieu during developmental periods is critical for adequate physiological functions. For instance, activation of peptide systems during early life stress induces morphological changes in the brain resulting in depression and anxiety disorders. Prolactin (PRL) exerts different actions within the brain; it regulates neurogenesis and modulates neuroendocrine functions in the adult. However, PRL effects during early postnatal life are hardly known. Therefore, we examined whether neonatal administration of PRL influences cell survival in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) and in the olfactory bulb (OB) and whether such influence results in behavioral consequences in adulthood. PRL-treated rat pups (13 mg/kg; PND1 to PND14), injected with BrdU at postnatal day 5 (PND5), showed a decrease in the density of DG BrdU/DCX and BrdU/NeuN-positive cells that survive at PND15. Similarly, PRL treatment decreased the density of BrdU+ cells in the OB compared with VEH. Fluorojade B analysis showed no significant changes in the amount of cell death in the DG between the groups. Postnatal PRL administration induced a passive coping strategy in the forced swimming test in male and female adult rats when compared with control and vehicle groups. Corticosterone endogenous levels at PND12 were not affected by PRL or VEH treatment. Altogether, these results suggest that opposed to its effects in the adult, postnatal PRL treatment affects neurogenesis and results in psychopathology later in life. High PRL levels, as observed in neonates under several pathological states, might contribute to detrimental effects on the developing brain.

  10. Postnatal maternal separation modifies the response to an obesogenic diet in adulthood in rats

    PubMed Central

    Paternain, Laura; Martisova, Eva; Milagro, Fermín I.; Ramírez, María J.; Martínez, J. Alfredo; Campión, Javier

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY An early-life adverse environment has been implicated in the susceptibility to different diseases in adulthood, such as mental disorders, diabetes and obesity. We analyzed the effects of a high-fat sucrose (HFS) diet for 35 days in adult female rats that had experienced 180 minutes daily of maternal separation (MS) during lactancy. Changes in the obesity phenotype, biochemical profile, levels of glucocorticoid metabolism biomarkers, and the expression of different obesity- and glucocorticoid-metabolism-related genes were analyzed in periovaric adipose tissue. HFS intake increased body weight, adiposity and serum leptin levels, whereas MS decreased fat pad masses but only in rats fed an HFS diet. MS reduced insulin resistance markers but only in chow-fed rats. Corticosterone and estradiol serum levels did not change in this experimental model. A multiple gene expression analysis revealed that the expression of adiponutrin (Adpn) was increased owing to MS, and an interaction between HFS diet intake and MS was observed in the mRNA levels of leptin (Lep) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (Ppargc1a). These results revealed that early-life stress affects the response to an HFS diet later in life, and that this response can lead to phenotype and transcriptomic changes. PMID:22773756

  11. Rapid Postnatal Weight Gain and Visceral Adiposity in Adulthood: The Fels Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Demerath, Ellen W.; Reed, Derek; Choh, Audrey C.; Soloway, Laura; Lee, Miryoung; Czerwinski, Stefan A.; Chumlea, William C.; Siervogel, Rogers M.; Towne, Bradford

    2009-01-01

    Rapid infant weight gain is associated with increased abdominal adiposity, but there is no published report of the relationship of early infant growth to differences in specific adipose tissue depots in the abdomen, including visceral adipose tissue (VAT). In this study, we tested the associations of birth weight, infant weight gain, and other early life traits with VAT, abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (ASAT), and other body composition measures using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in middle adulthood (mean age = 46.5 years). The sample included 233 appropriate for gestational age singleton white children (114 males) enrolled in the Fels Longitudinal Study. Multivariate-adjusted general linear models were used to test the association of infant weight gain (from 0 to 2 years), maternal BMI, gestational age, parity, maternal age, and other covariates with adulthood body composition. Compared to infants with slow weight gain, rapid weight gain was associated with elevated risk of obesity (adjusted odds ratio = 4.1, 95% confidence interval = 1.4, 11.1), higher total body fat (+7 kg, P = 0.0002), percent body fat (+5%, P = 0.0006), logVAT mass (+0.43 kg, P = 0.02), logASAT mass (+0.47 kg, P = 0.001), and percent abdominal fat (+5%, P = 0.03). There was no evidence that the increased abdominal adipose tissue was due to a preferential deposition of VAT. In conclusion, rapid infant weight gain is associated with increases in both VAT and ASAT, as well as total adiposity and the risk of obesity in middle adulthood. PMID:19373221

  12. Evidence for Hippocampus-Dependent Contextual Learning at Postnatal Day 17 in the Rat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Jennifer A.; Burman, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Long-term memory for fear of an environment (contextual fear conditioning) emerges later in development (postnatal day; PD 23) than long-term memory for fear of discrete stimuli (PD 17). As contextual, but not explicit cue, fear conditioning relies on the hippocampus; this has been interpreted as evidence that the hippocampus is not fully…

  13. Muscle endothelial-dependent microvascular dysfunction in adulthood due to early postnatal overnutrition.

    PubMed

    Leite, Richard Diego; Kraemer-Aguiar, Luiz Guilherme; Boa, Beatriz Costa da Silva; Cyrino, Fatima Z G A; Nivoit, Pierre; Bouskela, Eliete

    2012-07-01

    The aims of our study were to investigate effects of postnatal overnutrition, obtained by restricting the number of pups per litter, on microcirculatory reactivity, fat depots, its total percentage and lipid profile. Microvascular reactivity was evaluated in the cremaster muscle of 24 hamsters divided into four groups, with 6 animals in each one: normal (NL) and restricted (RL) litter groups, both at 6th and 21st weeks of age. The NL group had 8-9 pups and the RL 3 pups per litter and to avoid the litter effect, only one animal was used per litter. The results have shown that the RL group had higher velocity of weight, body mass and fat gain compared to the NL one at weeks 6 and 21. Significant differences were also observed on urogenital fat depot, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein between groups. At the lowest concentration of Ach, the RL group showed smaller arteriolar dilatation at the 21st than at the 6th week [5(3-13) vs 19(8-40)%, p<0.01] while the NL one did not show any difference within the group. The highest concentration of Ach at the 21th week pointed to endothelial-dependent microvascular dysfunction in RL compared to NL [3(8-26) vs. 13(8-26)%, p<0.05]. Endothelial-independent microvascular reactivity was similar between groups. Our data suggest that postnatal overnutrition is associated to muscle endothelial-dependent microvascular dysfunction, greater body mass and total percentage of fat and impaired the lipid profile. In conclusion, the imprinting promoted by this experimental model of obesity was able to influence microvascular reactivity later in life.

  14. Long Non-Coding RNA Expression Profile in the Kidneys of Male, Low Birth Weight Rats Exposed to Maternal Protein Restriction at Postnatal Day 1 and Day 10

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanhong; Wang, Xueqin; Li, Mengxia; Pan, Jian; Jin, Meifang; Wang, Jian; Li, Xiaozhong; Feng, Xing

    2015-01-01

    Background Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), which are involved in a variety of biological functions and aberrantly expressed in many types of diseases, are required for postnatal development. In this study, we aimed to investigate the lncRNA profiles in low birth weight (LBW) rats with reduced nephron endowment induced by the restriction of maternal protein intake. LBW by reduced nephron endowment is a risk factor for hypertension and end-stage renal disease in adulthood. Methods Kidneys were obtained from LBW rats fed a low-protein diet throughout gestation and lactation as well as from normal control rats born from dams fed normal protein diets at postnatal day 1 (p1) and 10 (p10). The total number of glomeruli in the kidneys was counted at p10. LncRNA expression profiles were analyzed by sequencing and screening using the Agilent Rat lncRNA Array. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis of these lncRNAs confirmed the identity of some genes. Results The total number of glomeruli per kidney at p10 was significantly lower in LBW rats than in controls. A total of 42 lncRNAs were identified to be significantly differentially expressed, with fold-changes ≥2.0, between the two groups. According to correlation analysis between the differentially expressed lncRNAs and mRNAs involved in kidney development, we randomly selected a number of lncRNAs for comparison analysis between LBW and control kidneys at the two time-points, p1 and p10, using qRT-PCR. Three lncRNAs (TCONS_00014139, TCONS_00014138, and TCONS_00017119), which were significantly correlated with the mRNA expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase 4, were aberrantly expressed in LBW rats, compared with controls, at both p1 and p10. Conclusions LncRNAs are aberrantly expressed in the kidneys of LBW rats, compared with controls, during nephron development, which indicates that lncRNAs might be involved in impaired nephron endowment. PMID:25826617

  15. Toxicity Evaluation of Bisphenol A Administered by Gavage to Sprague Dawley Rats From Gestation Day 6 Through Postnatal Day 90

    PubMed Central

    Delclos, K. Barry; Camacho, Luísa; Lewis, Sherry M.; Vanlandingham, Michelle M.; Latendresse, John R.; Olson, Greg R.; Davis, Kelly J.; Patton, Ralph E.; da Costa, Gonçalo Gamboa; Woodling, Kellie A.; Bryant, Matthew S.; Chidambaram, Mani; Trbojevich, Raul; Juliar, Beth E.; Felton, Robert P.; Thorn, Brett T.

    2014-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high production volume industrial chemical to which there is widespread human oral exposure. Guideline studies used to set regulatory limits detected adverse effects only at doses well above human exposures and established a no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of 5 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day. However, many reported animal studies link BPA to potentially adverse effects on multiple organ systems at doses below the NOAEL. The primary goals of the subchronic study reported here were to identify adverse effects induced by orally (gavage) administered BPA below the NOAEL, to characterize the dose response for such effects and to determine doses for a subsequent chronic study. Sprague Dawley rat dams were dosed daily from gestation day 6 until the start of labor, and their pups were directly dosed from day 1 after birth to termination. The primary focus was on seven equally spaced BPA doses (2.5–2700 μg/kg bw/day). Also included were a naïve control, two doses of ethinyl estradiol (EE2) to demonstrate the estrogen responsiveness of the animal model, and two high BPA doses (100,000 and 300,000 μg/kg bw/day) expected from guideline studies to produce adverse effects. Clear adverse effects of BPA, including depressed gestational and postnatal body weight gain, effects on the ovary (increased cystic follicles, depleted corpora lutea, and antral follicles), and serum hormones (increased serum estradiol and prolactin and decreased progesterone), were observed only at the two high doses of BPA. BPA-induced effects partially overlapped those induced by EE2, consistent with the known weak estrogenic activity of BPA. PMID:24496637

  16. Effects of one- and three-day binge alcohol exposure in neonatal C57BL/6 mice on spatial learning and memory in adolescence and adulthood.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Jennifer L; Zhou, Feng C; Goodlett, Charles R

    2014-03-01

    Binge-like alcohol exposure during the early postnatal period in rats and mice causes deficits in spatial learning and memory that persist into adulthood. Wozniak et al. (2004) reported that heavy binge alcohol exposure on postnatal day 7 (PD 7) in C57BL/6 (B6) mice produced profound spatial learning deficits in the Morris water maze when tested in adolescence (P30-39); when tested in adulthood, however, the deficits were greatly attenuated. Using a similar PD 7 binge alcohol exposure paradigm in B6 mice, we tested whether a single-day (PD 7 only) alcohol treatment produced place learning deficits in both adolescence and in adulthood, and further tested whether a more extended (3-day, PD 7-9) alcohol exposure would induce more severe and enduring deficits. B6 mice were given either 2 subcutaneous injections of alcohol (2.5 g/kg each) 2 h apart on PD 7 or on PD 7-9, and compared with controls that received saline vehicle injections and controls that received no injections. The alcohol injections on PD 7 produced average peak blood alcohol concentrations of 472 mg/dL and evoked typical patterns of activated caspase-3-positive neurons in the cortex, hippocampal formation, and striatum 6 h after the last injection. Mice were given standard place training or random location training in the Morris water maze either as adolescents (PD 30-39) or adults (PD 70-79). The adolescents acquired the place learning more slowly than adults, and the alcohol treatments produced only modest place acquisition deficits. In contrast, both the PD7 and the PD 7-9 alcohol treatments resulted in large and significant spatial learning impairments in adults. In contrast to the previous findings of Wozniak et al. (2004), these results indicate that binge alcohol exposure in the 3rd trimester equivalent produces significant and enduring deficits in spatial learning in B6 mice.

  17. Early postnatal nutrition determines adult physical activity and energy expenditure in female mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Decades of research in rodent models has shown that early postnatal overnutrition induces excess adiposity and other components of metabolic syndrome that persist into adulthood. The specific biologic mechanisms explaining the persistence of these effects, however, remain unknown. On postnatal day 1...

  18. Pre- and postnatal bisphenol A treatment results in persistent deficits in the sexual behavior of male rats, but not female rats, in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Jones, Bryan A; Shimell, Jordan J; Watson, Neil V

    2011-02-01

    Perinatal administration of the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA) reportedly inhibits the sexual behavior of sexually naïve adult male rats. In order to evaluate the effects of BPA administration during early development on later reproductive behavior, we administered one of five doses of bisphenol A daily to pregnant female rats throughout gestation and lactation, and quantified the appetitive and consummatory sexual behaviors of the resultant male and female offspring over multiple sexual encounters in adulthood. Males receiving low dose perinatal BPA (50 μg/kg bw/day) showed persistent deficits in sexual behavior in adulthood. Males receiving the highest dose (5 mg/kg bw/day), however, were indistinguishable from controls with respect to consummatory sexual behaviors but showed decreased latencies to engage in those behaviors when sexually naïve, with significant non-linear, or U-shaped, dose-response relationships observed on the first and last day of testing. Adult female sexual behavior was not affected by early BPA administration at any dose tested. These results are consistent with previous reports that BPA exerts behavioral effects especially at low doses, and further indicates that BPA can cause lasting impairment of sexual behavior in males, but does not alter the normal development of female appetitive or consummatory sexual behaviors. To our knowledge, this is the first report indicating that adult sexual performance is impaired in sexually experienced animals following perinatal exposure to bisphenol A.

  19. Biological characteristics of muscle-derived satellite cells isolated from rats at different postnatal days.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ren; Haiqing, Wu; Hefei, Wang; Dong, Liu; Xiao, Wang; Yuzhen, Ma; Dongjun, Liu

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the in vitro growth characteristics and differential potential of muscle-derived satellite cells (MDSCs) derived from rats at different postnatal (P) stages, in order to expand the range of source material for tissue engineering. Rat MDSCs were isolated from P5, P10, P15, P21 and P42 rat skeletal muscles using double enzyme digestion and differential adherent culture. Neurogenic, osteogenic and myogenic induction media were used to induce directed differentiation. Differentiated nerve cells, osteoblasts and myotubes were identified by their morphology and immunohistochemical staining. Most cells transformed into spindle-shaped mononuclear cells after 48 h and proliferated rapidly. MDSCs were difficult to isolate from P42 rats. After neurogenesis, four groups MDSCs formed neuron-specific enolase positive polygonal-shaped dendritic cells. After osteogenesis, P5, P10, P15 and P21 MDSCs formed Alizarin red- and osteocalcin-positive bone nodules. After myogenesis, myotubes were formed and were fast muscle myosin-positive. MDSCs derived from P5, P10, P15 and P21 rat skeletal muscle are easy to isolate, culture and amplify in vitro, which increases the range of source material available for tissue engineering.

  20. Estrogen Selectively Mobilizes Neural Stem Cells in the Third Ventricle Stem Cell Niche of Postnatal Day 21 Rats.

    PubMed

    He, Zhen; Cui, Li; Paule, Merle G; Ferguson, Sherry A

    2015-10-01

    The neuroprotective properties of stem cells have been described for various pathophysiological states. Here, we determined the effects of exogenous perinatal estrogen treatment on endogenous neural stem cell activity in the third ventricle stem cell niche (3VSCN) and the caudal third ventricle (C3V). Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were gavaged with ethinyl estradiol (EE2, 10 μg/kg/day) or vehicle on gestational days 6-21, and their offspring were similarly treated from birth to weaning on postnatal day 21. At weaning, neural stem cell activity was investigated using the stem cell markers nestin, Ki-67, phosphohistone H3 (PHH3), and doublecortin (DCX). The 3VSCN was characterized by nestin labeling, but little DCX labeling, while both the subventricular (SVZ) and subgranular zones (SGZ) displayed robust DCX expression. Ki-67 cell counts in the 3VSCN were 2.2 to 6.4 times those of the C3V. In the 3VSCN, EE2 treatment significantly increased Ki-67, PHH3, and co-labeled cell counts by 135-207 %, effects which appeared stronger in females. EE2 treatment had only marginally significant effects in the C3V, mildly increasing PHH3 and co-labeled cell counts. Perinatal estrogen treatment selectively increased and mobilized proliferative cells in the 3VSCN at weaning, potentially providing increased neuroprotection. Because PHH3 cells are thought to be in the mitotic phase of the cell cycle and Ki-67 cells can be found in most phases of the cycle, the effect of estrogen treatment on 3VSCN cells appears to involve enhancement of mitosis.

  1. Postnatal day 2 to 11 constitutes a 5-HT-sensitive period impacting adult mPFC function.

    PubMed

    Rebello, Tahilia J; Yu, Qinghui; Goodfellow, Nathalie M; Caffrey Cagliostro, Martha K; Teissier, Anne; Morelli, Emanuela; Demireva, Elena Y; Chemiakine, Alexei; Rosoklija, Gorazd B; Dwork, Andrew J; Lambe, Evelyn K; Gingrich, Jay A; Ansorge, Mark S

    2014-09-10

    Early-life serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] signaling modulates brain development, which impacts adult behavior, but 5-HT-sensitive periods, neural substrates, and behavioral consequences remain poorly understood. Here we identify the period ranging from postnatal day 2 (P2) to P11 as 5-HT sensitive, with 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) blockade increasing anxiety- and depression-like behavior, and impairing fear extinction learning and memory in adult mice. Concomitantly, P2-P11 5-HTT blockade causes dendritic hypotrophy and reduced excitability of infralimbic (IL) cortex pyramidal neurons that normally promote fear extinction. By contrast, the neighboring prelimbic (PL) pyramidal neurons, which normally inhibit fear extinction, become more excitable. Excitotoxic IL but not PL lesions in adult control mice reproduce the anxiety-related phenotypes. These findings suggest that increased 5-HT signaling during P2-P11 alters adult mPFC function to increase anxiety and impair fear extinction, and imply a differential role for IL and PL neurons in regulating affective behaviors. Together, our results support a developmental mechanism for the etiology and pathophysiology of affective disorders and fear-related behaviors.

  2. Postnatal Day 2 to 11 Constitutes a 5-HT-Sensitive Period Impacting Adult mPFC Function

    PubMed Central

    Rebello, Tahilia J.; Yu, Qinghui; Goodfellow, Nathalie M.; Caffrey Cagliostro, Martha K.; Teissier, Anne; Morelli, Emanuela; Demireva, Elena Y.; Chemiakine, Alexei; Rosoklija, Gorazd B.; Dwork, Andrew J.; Lambe, Evelyn K.; Ansorge, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Early-life serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] signaling modulates brain development, which impacts adult behavior, but 5-HT-sensitive periods, neural substrates, and behavioral consequences remain poorly understood. Here we identify the period ranging from postnatal day 2 (P2) to P11 as 5-HT sensitive, with 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) blockade increasing anxiety- and depression-like behavior, and impairing fear extinction learning and memory in adult mice. Concomitantly, P2–P11 5-HTT blockade causes dendritic hypotrophy and reduced excitability of infralimbic (IL) cortex pyramidal neurons that normally promote fear extinction. By contrast, the neighboring prelimbic (PL) pyramidal neurons, which normally inhibit fear extinction, become more excitable. Excitotoxic IL but not PL lesions in adult control mice reproduce the anxiety-related phenotypes. These findings suggest that increased 5-HT signaling during P2–P11 alters adult mPFC function to increase anxiety and impair fear extinction, and imply a differential role for IL and PL neurons in regulating affective behaviors. Together, our results support a developmental mechanism for the etiology and pathophysiology of affective disorders and fear-related behaviors. PMID:25209278

  3. In utero and lactational exposure to ammonium perchlorate in drinking water: effects on developing deer mice at postnatal day 21.

    PubMed

    Thuett, Kerry A; Roots, Ellen H; Mitchell, Lisa P; Gentles, B Angella; Anderson, Todd A; Smith, Ernest E

    2002-08-01

    The effects of in utero and lactational exposure to ammonium perchlorate (AP), a component of rocket fuel and a thyroid toxicant, on developing deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) were evaluated. Breeding pairs were dosed continuously with 0, 1 nM, 1 micro M, or 1 mM AP in drinking water, from cohabitation until pups were euthanized at postnatal day (PND) 21. Pups from the second litter were used for evaluation in this study. No significant differences were observed in any analysis performed when litter means were used in statistical analysis. All reported significant differences occurred when statistical analysis was performed on individual pup data. Body weights were significantly different between treatments at PND 5 and PND 20, with the 1- micro M body weights being lower than that of controls. Body weight and liver weight in the 1-mM group were significantly higher than the 1- micro M weights at PND 21 when analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA). However, there were no significant differences in liver weights when analyzed with body weight as the covariate. Heart weights were significantly different between males and females. Male heart weights in the 1- microM and 1-mM groups were significantly lower than in controls when analyzed by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with body weight as the covariate. Litter size and survival percentage were not significantly different among treatments. Although significant differences were observed only when the individual pup was used as the experimental unit, these data suggest that AP exposure at different concentrations may variably alter body weight and male heart weight during mammalian development.

  4. Prenatal stimulation and postnatal testosterone affects infanticide in female rats.

    PubMed

    Miley, W M; Blustein, J; Kennedy, K

    1982-04-01

    Prenatal handling, prenatal stress, and early postnatal exogeneous testosterone were examined in female rats for their effects on rat pup-killing and pup retrieval. During each of the last 5 days of pregnancy. Long-Evans rats received either 3 minutes of handling, 45 minutes of restraint and intense illumination or remained untouched. Half of the offspring of each group received testosterone from Day 1 after birth to Day 30. In adulthood, animals that received handling prenatally and testosterone postnatally killed pups more rapidly than any other group and a larger proportion did so than in the control groups. Animals not manipulated at any time retrieved pups more rapidly and a larger proportion did so than the combined other groups. The study suggests that prenatal handling interacts with testosterone presented immediately postnatally to increase infanticide in female rats. A variety of perinatal manipulations seem to suppress pup retrieval. PMID:7200619

  5. Short-term moderate diet restriction in adulthood can reverse oxidative, cardiovascular and metabolic alterations induced by postnatal overfeeding in mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Na; Guenancia, Charles; Rigal, Eve; Hachet, Olivier; Chollet, Pauline; Desmoulins, Lucie; Leloup, Corinne; Rochette, Luc; Vergely, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to determine whether moderate diet restriction could restore cardiac, oxidative and metabolic alterations induced by postnatal overfeeding (PNOF). Litters of C57BL/6 male mice were either maintained at 9 (normal litter, NL), or reduced to 3 (small litter, SL) in order to induce PNOF. At 6 months, half of the NL and SL mice were subjected to 20% calorie-restriction (CR: NLCR, SLCR) for one month, while the other half continued to eat ad libitum (AL: NLAL, SLAL). Six-month old SL mice presented overweight, fat accumulation, hyperleptinemia, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, increased cardiac ROS production and decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). After CR, SL mice body weight was normalized; however, their fat mass and leptinemia were not decreased, glucose metabolism was improved and LVEF was increased. In SL mice, CR increased the cardiac mitochondrial respiratory rate and decreased cardiac ROS production. Hearts from SLCR mice showed better recovery and smaller postischemic infarct size. Intriguingly, no difference was observed between NLAL and NLCR mice for most of the parameters investigated. Short-term moderate CR not only normalized body weight in SL mice but also improved metabolic programming and reversed oxidative and cardiac dysfunction induced by PNOF. PMID:27465434

  6. Short-term moderate diet restriction in adulthood can reverse oxidative, cardiovascular and metabolic alterations induced by postnatal overfeeding in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Guenancia, Charles; Rigal, Eve; Hachet, Olivier; Chollet, Pauline; Desmoulins, Lucie; Leloup, Corinne; Rochette, Luc; Vergely, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to determine whether moderate diet restriction could restore cardiac, oxidative and metabolic alterations induced by postnatal overfeeding (PNOF). Litters of C57BL/6 male mice were either maintained at 9 (normal litter, NL), or reduced to 3 (small litter, SL) in order to induce PNOF. At 6 months, half of the NL and SL mice were subjected to 20% calorie-restriction (CR: NLCR, SLCR) for one month, while the other half continued to eat ad libitum (AL: NLAL, SLAL). Six-month old SL mice presented overweight, fat accumulation, hyperleptinemia, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, increased cardiac ROS production and decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). After CR, SL mice body weight was normalized; however, their fat mass and leptinemia were not decreased, glucose metabolism was improved and LVEF was increased. In SL mice, CR increased the cardiac mitochondrial respiratory rate and decreased cardiac ROS production. Hearts from SLCR mice showed better recovery and smaller postischemic infarct size. Intriguingly, no difference was observed between NLAL and NLCR mice for most of the parameters investigated. Short-term moderate CR not only normalized body weight in SL mice but also improved metabolic programming and reversed oxidative and cardiac dysfunction induced by PNOF. PMID:27465434

  7. Dynamic changes of the neurogenic potential in the rat cochlear nucleus during post-natal development.

    PubMed

    Rak, Kristen; Völker, Johannes; Frenz, Silke; Scherzed, Agmal; Radeloff, Andreas; Hagen, Rudolf; Mlynski, Robert

    2013-05-01

    Neuronal stem cells have been described in the post-natal cochlear nucleus recently. The aim of the study was to analyse the neurogenic potential in the cochlear nucleus from the early post-natal days until adulthood. Cochlear nuclei from Sprague-Dawley rats from post-natal day P3 up to P40 were examined. Neurosphere assays showed persistent neurosphere formation from the early post-natal days until adulthood. The numbers of generated neurospheres were fewer in older ages. Neurospheres were smaller, but displayed the same pattern of neuronal stem cell markers. The markers GFAP, MBP and ß-III Tubulin showed differentiation of dissociated cells from the neurospheres in all cells of the neuronal lineage. BrdU incorporation could be detected, in an age-dependent decrease, in whole-mount experiments of the cochlear nucleus on all examined days. BrdU co-labelled with Atoh1 and ß-III Tubulin. In addition, gene expression and cellular distribution studies of the neuronal stem cell markers displayed an age-dependent reduction in both quantity and numbers. The presented results display a possible neurogenic potential until adulthood in the cochlear nucleus by in vitro and in vivo experiments. The fact that this potential is highest at a critical period of development reveals possible functional importance for the development of the cochlear nucleus and the auditory function. The persistent neurogenic potential displayed until adulthood could be a neurogenic niche in the adult cochlear nucleus, which might be used for potential therapeutic strategies. PMID:23455726

  8. Postnatal day 7 ethanol treatment causes persistent reductions in adult mouse brain volume and cortical neurons with sex specific effects on neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Leon G; Oguz, Ipek; Lee, Joohwi; Styner, Martin; Crews, Fulton T

    2012-09-01

    Ethanol treatment on postnatal day seven (P7) causes robust brain cell death and is a model of late gestational alcohol exposure (Ikonomidou et al., 2000). To investigate the long-term effects of P7 ethanol treatment on adult brain, mice received either two doses of saline or ethanol on P7 (2.5 g/kg, s.c., 2 h apart) and were assessed as adults (P82) for brain volume (using postmortem MRI) and cellular architecture (using immunohistochemistry). Adult mice that received P7 ethanol had reduced MRI total brain volume (4%) with multiple brain regions being reduced in both males and females. Immunohistochemistry indicated reduced frontal cortical parvalbumin immunoreactive (PV + IR) interneurons (18-33%) and reduced Cux1+IR layer II pyramidal neurons (15%) in both sexes. Interestingly, markers of adult hippocampal neurogenesis differed between sexes, with only ethanol treated males showing increased doublecortin and Ki67 expression (52 and 57% respectively) in the dentate gyrus, consistent with increased neurogenesis compared to controls. These findings suggest that P7 ethanol treatment causes persistent reductions in adult brain volume and frontal cortical neurons in both males and females. Increased adult neurogenesis in males, but not females, is consistent with differential adaptive responses to P7 ethanol toxicity between the sexes. One day of ethanol exposure, e.g. P7, causes persistent adult brain dysmorphology.

  9. Critical role of androgen receptor in the postnatal period in male sexual behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Shunji; Ohoya, Miku; Takanami, Keiko; Matsuda, Ken Ichi; Kawata, Mitsuhiro

    2015-11-16

    Gonadal hormones have a developmental role in organization of the nervous system that regulates sexually dimorphic behavior. It is well known that androgen secreted from testes in the perinatal period is converted to estrogen by aromatase in rodent brain, and that estrogen and its receptor play a pivotal role in masculinization of brain structure and function. Treatment with flutamide, an androgen receptor (AR) antagonist, during the perinatal period inhibits development of malespecific brain structure and function, suggesting that androgen signaling via AR also influences brain masculinization. In this study, we investigated which stage during the postnatal period is critical for androgen signaling in brain masculinization. The postnatal period was designated as postnatal days (PD) 0-22, and divided into stages I (PD 0-7), II (PD 8-14), and III (PD 15-22). Newborn male rats were given flutamide subcutaneously in each stage. After adulthood, the effects of postnatal flutamide treatment on brain masculinization were evaluated byanalysis of male sexual behavior. Continuous inhibition of AR throughout stages I and II caused a robust reduction of the intromission ratio and ejaculation frequency compared with other groups. AR inhibition in stage I, II, or III did not cause any change. AR inhibition had no effect onmount behavior. These results show that stage-specific AR activation in the first two postnatal weeks may contribute to brain masculinization mediating male sexual behavior in adulthood.

  10. Critical role of androgen receptor in the postnatal period in male sexual behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Shunji; Ohoya, Miku; Takanami, Keiko; Matsuda, Ken Ichi; Kawata, Mitsuhiro

    2015-11-16

    Gonadal hormones have a developmental role in organization of the nervous system that regulates sexually dimorphic behavior. It is well known that androgen secreted from testes in the perinatal period is converted to estrogen by aromatase in rodent brain, and that estrogen and its receptor play a pivotal role in masculinization of brain structure and function. Treatment with flutamide, an androgen receptor (AR) antagonist, during the perinatal period inhibits development of malespecific brain structure and function, suggesting that androgen signaling via AR also influences brain masculinization. In this study, we investigated which stage during the postnatal period is critical for androgen signaling in brain masculinization. The postnatal period was designated as postnatal days (PD) 0-22, and divided into stages I (PD 0-7), II (PD 8-14), and III (PD 15-22). Newborn male rats were given flutamide subcutaneously in each stage. After adulthood, the effects of postnatal flutamide treatment on brain masculinization were evaluated byanalysis of male sexual behavior. Continuous inhibition of AR throughout stages I and II caused a robust reduction of the intromission ratio and ejaculation frequency compared with other groups. AR inhibition in stage I, II, or III did not cause any change. AR inhibition had no effect onmount behavior. These results show that stage-specific AR activation in the first two postnatal weeks may contribute to brain masculinization mediating male sexual behavior in adulthood. PMID:26493607

  11. Histology Atlas of the Developing Mouse Hepatobiliary Hemolymphatic Vascular System with Emphasis on Embryonic Days 11.5-18.5 and Early Postnatal Development.

    PubMed

    Swartley, Olivia M; Foley, Julie F; Livingston, David P; Cullen, John M; Elmore, Susan A

    2016-07-01

    A critical event in embryo development is the proper formation of the vascular system, of which the hepatobiliary system plays a pivotal role. This has led researchers to use transgenic mice to identify the critical steps involved in developmental disorders associated with the hepatobiliary vascular system. Vascular development is dependent upon normal vasculogenesis, angiogenesis, and the transformation of vessels into their adult counterparts. Any alteration in vascular development has the potential to cause deformities or embryonic death. Numerous publications describe specific stages of vascular development relating to various organs, but a single resource detailing the stage-by-stage development of the vasculature pertaining to the hepatobiliary system has not been available. This comprehensive histology atlas provides hematoxylin & eosin and immunohistochemical-stained sections of the developing mouse blood and lymphatic vasculature with emphasis on the hepatobiliary system between embryonic days (E) 11.5-18.5 and the early postnatal period. Additionally, this atlas includes a 3-dimensional video representation of the E18.5 mouse venous vasculature. One of the most noteworthy findings of this atlas is the identification of the portal sinus within the mouse, which has been erroneously misinterpreted as the ductus venosus in previous publications. Although the primary purpose of this atlas is to identify normal hepatobiliary vascular development, potential embryonic abnormalities are also described.

  12. Sex differences in anxiety-like behavior and locomotor activity following prenatal and postnatal methamphetamine exposure in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Hrubá, L; Schutová, B; Šlamberová, R

    2012-01-18

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of prenatal and postnatal methamphetamine (MA) exposure on behavior and anxiety in adult male and female rats. Mothers were daily exposed to injection of MA (5 mg/kg) or saline (S): prior to impregnation and throughout gestation and lactation periods. On postnatal day 1, pups were cross-fostered so that each mother raised 6 saline-exposed pups and 6 MA-exposed pups. Based on the prenatal and postnatal exposure 4 experimental groups (S/S, S/MA, MA/S, MA/MA) were tested in the Open field (OF) and in the Elevated plus maze (EPM) in adulthood. Locomotion, exploration, immobility and comforting behavior were evaluated in the OF, while anxiety was assessed in the EPM. While prenatal MA exposure did not affect behavior and anxiety in adulthood, postnatal MA exposure (i.e. MA administration to lactating mothers) induced long-term changes. Specifically, adult female rats in diestrus and adult males postnatally exposed to MA via breast milk (S/MA and MA/MA) had decreased locomotion and exploratory behavior in the OF and showed increased anxiety-like behavior in the EPM when compared to female rats in diestrus or males postnatally exposed to saline (S/S and MA/S). In adult females in proestrus, postnatal exposure to MA affected only exploratory behavior in the OF when compared to rats in proestrus postnatally exposed to saline. Thus, the present study shows that postnatal exposure to MA via breast milk impairs behavior in unfamiliar environment and anxiety-like behavior of adult male and female rats more than prenatal MA exposure. PMID:21884713

  13. The first 1000 days of life: prenatal and postnatal risk factors for morbidity and growth in a birth cohort in southern India

    PubMed Central

    Kattula, Deepthi; Sarkar, Rajiv; Sivarathinaswamy, Prabhu; Velusamy, Vasanthakumar; Venugopal, Srinivasan; Naumova, Elena N; Muliyil, Jayaprakash; Ward, Honorine; Kang, Gagandeep

    2014-01-01

    Objective To estimate the burden and assess prenatal and postnatal determinants of illnesses experienced by children residing in a semiurban slum, during the first 1000 days of life. Design Community-based birth cohort Setting Southern India Participants Four hundred and ninety-seven children of 561 pregnant women recruited and followed for 2 years with surveillance and anthropometry. Main outcome measure Incidence rates of illness; rates of clinic visits and hospitalisations; factors associated with low birth weight, various illnesses and growth. Results Data on 10 377.7 child-months of follow-up estimated an average rate of 14.8 illnesses/child-year. Gastrointestinal and respiratory illnesses were 20.6% and 47.8% of the total disease burden, respectively. The hospitalisation rate reduced from 46/100 child-years during infancy to 19/100 child-years in the second year. Anaemia during pregnancy (OR=2.3, 95% CI=1.08 to 5.18), less than four antenatal visits (OR=6.8, 95% CI=2.1 to 22.5) and preterm birth (OR=3.3, 95% CI=1.1 to 9.7) were independent prenatal risk factors for low birth weight. Female gender (HR=0.88, 95% CI=0.79 to 0.99) and 6 months of exclusive breast feeding (HR=0.76, 95% CI=0.66 to 0.88) offered protection against all morbidity. Average monthly height and weight gain were lower in female child and children exclusively breast fed for 6 months. Conclusions The high morbidity in Indian slum children in the first 1000 days of life was mainly due to prenatal factors and gastrointestinal and respiratory illness. Policymakers need disease prevalence and pathways to target high-risk groups with appropriate interventions in the community. PMID:25056979

  14. Prenatal and early postnatal stress exposure influences long bone length in adult rat offspring

    PubMed Central

    Dancause, Kelsey Needham; Cao, Xiu Jing; Veru, Franz; Xu, Susan; Long, Hong; Yu, Chunbo; Laplante, David P.; Walker, Claire Dominique; King, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Stress during the prenatal and early postnatal periods (perinatal stress, PS) is known to impact offspring cognitive, behavioral, and physical development, but effects on skeletal growth are not clear. Our objective was to analyze effects of variable, mild, daily PS exposure on adult offspring long bone length. Twelve pregnant rat dams were randomly assigned to receive variable stress from gestational days 14-21 (Prenatal group), postpartum days 2-9 (Postnatal), both periods (Pre-Post), or no stress (Control). Differences in adult offspring tibia and femur length were analyzed among treatment groups. Mean tibia length differed among groups for males (p=0.016) and females (p=0.009), and differences for femur length approached significance for males (p=0.051). Long bone length was shorter among PS-exposed offspring, especially those exposed to postnatal stress (Postnatal and Pre-Post groups). Results persisted when controlling for nose-tail length. These differences might reflect early stunting that is maintained in adulthood, or delayed growth among PS-exposed offspring. This study suggests that PS results in shorter long bones in adulthood, independently of effects on overall body size. Stunting and growth retardation are major global health burdens. Our study adds to a growing body of evidence suggesting that PS is a risk factor for poor linear growth. PMID:22826037

  15. The nuclear receptor Tlx regulates motor, cognitive and anxiety-related behaviours during adolescence and adulthood.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, James D; Kozareva, Danka A; Hueston, Cara M; O'Leary, Olivia F; Cryan, John F; Nolan, Yvonne M

    2016-06-01

    The nuclear receptor Tlx is a key regulator of embryonic and adult hippocampal neurogenesis and has been genetically linked to bipolar disorder. Mice lacking Tlx (Nr2e1(-/-)) display deficits in adult hippocampal neurogenesis and behavioural abnormalities. However, whether Tlx regulates behaviour during adolescence or in a sex-dependent manner remains unexplored. Therefore, we investigated the role of Tlx in a series of behavioural tasks in adolescent male and female mice with a spontaneous deletion of Tlx (Nr2e1(-/-) mice). Testing commenced at adolescence (postnatal day 28) and continued until adulthood (postnatal day 67). Adolescent male and female Nr2e1(-/-) mice were hyperactive in an open field, an effect that persisted in adulthood. Male but not female Nr2e1(-/-) mice exhibited reduced thigmotaxis during adolescence and adulthood. Impairments in rotarod motor performance developed in male and female Nr2e1(-/-) mice at the onset of adulthood. Spontaneous alternation in the Y-maze, a hippocampus-dependent task, was impaired in adolescent but not adult male and female Nr2e1(-/-) mice. Contextual fear conditioning was impaired in adolescent male Nr2e1(-/-) mice only, but both male and female adolescent Nr2e1(-/-) mice showed impaired cued fear conditioning, a hippocampal-amygdala dependent cognitive process. These deficits persisted into adulthood in males but not females. In conclusion, deletion of Tlx impairs motor, cognitive and anxiety-related behaviours during adolescence and adulthood in male and female mice with most effects occurring during adolescence rather than adulthood, independent of housing conditions. This suggests that Tlx has functions beyond regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, and may be an important target in understanding neurobiological disorders.

  16. LACK OF FUNCTIONAL GABAB RECEPTORS ALTERS Kiss1, Gnrh1 AND Gad1 mRNA EXPRESSION IN THE MEDIAL BASAL HYPOTHALAMUS AT POSTNATAL DAY 4

    PubMed Central

    Di Giorgio, Noelia P.; Catalano, Paolo N.; López, Paula V.; González, Betina; Semaan, Sheila J.; López, Gabriela C.; Kauffman, Alexander S.; Rulli, Susana B.; Somoza, Gustavo M.; Bettler, Bernhard; Libertun, Carlos; Lux-Lantos, Victoria A.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Adult mice lacking functional GABAB receptors (GABAB1KO) show altered Gnrh1 and Gad1 expressions in the preoptic area-anterior hypothalamus (POA-AH) and females display disruption of cyclicity and fertility. Here we addressed whether sexual differentiation of the brain and the proper wiring of the GnRH and kisspeptin systems were already disturbed in postnatal day 4 (PND4) GABAB1KO mice. Methods PND4 wild type (WT) and GABAB1KO mice of both sexes were sacrificed; tissues were collected to determine mRNA expression (qPCR), amino acids (HPLC), and hormones (RIA and/or IHC). Results GnRH neuron number (IHC) did not differ among groups in olfactory bulbs or OVLT-POA. Gnrh1 mRNA (qPCR) in POA-AH was similar among groups. Gnrh1 mRNA in medial basal hypothalamus (MBH) was similar in WTs but was increased in GABAB1KO females compared to GABAB1KO males. Hypothalamic GnRH (RIA) was sexually different in WTs (males > females) but this sex difference was lost in GABAB1KOs; the same pattern was observed when analyzing only the MBH, but not in the POA-AH. Arcuate nucleus Kiss1 mRNA (micropunch-qPCR) was higher in WT females than in WT males and GABAB1KO females. Gad1 mRNA in MBH was increased in GABAB1KO females compared to GABAB1KO males. Serum LH and gonadal estradiol content were also increased in GABAB1KOs. Conclusion We demonstrate that GABABRs participate in the sexual differentiation of the ARC/MBH, because sex differences in several reproductive genes, such as Gad1, Kiss1 and Gnrh1, are critically disturbed in GABAB1KO mice at PND4, probably altering the organization and development of neural circuits governing the reproductive axis. PMID:24080944

  17. Adolescent nicotine exposure disrupts context conditioning in adulthood in rats.

    PubMed

    Spaeth, Andrea M; Barnet, Robert C; Hunt, Pamela S; Burk, Joshua A

    2010-10-01

    Despite the prevalence of smoking among adolescents, few studies have assessed the effects of adolescent nicotine exposure on learning in adulthood. In particular, it remains unclear whether adolescent nicotine exposure has effects on hippocampus-dependent learning that persist into adulthood. The present experiment examined whether there were effects of adolescent nicotine exposure on context conditioning, a form of learning dependent on the integrity of the hippocampus, when tested during adulthood. Rats were exposed to nicotine during adolescence (postnatal days [PD] 28-42) via osmotic minipump (0, 3.0 or 6.0mg/kg/day). Context conditioning occurred in early adulthood (PD 65-70). Animals were exposed to an experimental context and were given 10 unsignaled footshocks or no shock. Additional groups were included to test the effects of adolescent nicotine on delay conditioning, a form of learning that is not dependent upon the hippocampus. Conditioning was assessed using a lick suppression paradigm. For animals in the context conditioning groups, adolescent nicotine resulted in significantly less suppression of drinking in the presence of context cues compared with vehicle-pretreated animals. For animals in the delay conditioning groups, there was a trend for adolescent nicotine (3.0mg/kg/day) to suppress drinking compared to vehicle-pretreated animals. There were no differences in extinction of contextual fear or cued fear between rats previously exposed to vehicle or nicotine. The data indicate that adolescent nicotine administration impairs context conditioning when animals are trained and tested as adults. The present data suggest that adolescent nicotine exposure may disrupt hippocampus-dependent learning when animals are tested during adulthood.

  18. Fluoxetine exposure during adolescence increases preference for cocaine in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Iñiguez, Sergio D.; Riggs, Lace M.; Nieto, Steven J.; Wright, Katherine N.; Zamora, Norma N.; Cruz, Bryan; Zavala, Arturo R.; Robison, Alfred J.; Mazei-Robison, Michelle S.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, there is a high prevalence of antidepressant prescription rates within juvenile populations, yet little is known about the potential long-lasting consequences of such treatments, particularly on subsequent responses to drugs of abuse. To address this issue at the preclinical level, we examined whether adolescent exposure to fluoxetine (FLX), a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, results in changes to the sensitivity of the rewarding properties of cocaine in adulthood. Separate groups of male c57bl/6 mice were exposed to FLX (0 or 20 mg/kg) for 15 consecutive days either during adolescence (postnatal days [PD] 35–49) or adulthood (PD 65–79). Twenty-one days after FLX treatment, behavioral responsivity to cocaine (0, 2.5, 5, 10, or 20 mg/kg) conditioned place preference was assessed. Our data shows that mice pretreated with FLX during adolescence, but not during adulthood, display an enhanced dose-dependent preference to the environment paired with cocaine (5 or 10 mg/kg) when compared to age-matched saline pretreated controls. Taken together, our findings suggest that adolescent exposure to FLX increases sensitivity to the rewarding properties of cocaine, later in life. PMID:26449406

  19. The postnatal origin of adult neural stem cells and the effects of glucocorticoids on their genesis.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Martínez, Sylvia; Trejo, José L

    2015-02-15

    The relevance of adult neurogenesis in hippocampal function is well documented, as is the potential impact stress has on the adult neurogenic niche. Adult born neurons are generated from neural precursors in the dentate gyrus (DG), although the point in postnatal development that these cell precursors originate is not known. This is particularly relevant if we consider the effects stress may have on the development of neural precursors, and whether such effects on adult neurogenesis and behavior may persist in the long-term. We have analyzed the proportion of neural precursors in the adult murine hippocampus born on specific days during postnatal development using a dual birth-dating analysis, and we assessed their sensitivity to dexamethasone (DEX) on the peak day of cell generation. We also studied the consequences of postnatal DEX administration on adult hippocampal-dependent behavior. Postnatal day 6 (P6) is a preferred period for proliferating neural stem cells (NSCs) to become the precursors that remain in a proliferative state throughout adulthood. This window is independent of gender, the cell's location in the DG granule cell layer or their rostro-caudal position. DEX administration at P6 reduces the size of the adult NSC pool in the DG, which is correlated with poor learning/memory capacity and increased anxiety-like behavior. These results indicate that aNSCs are generated non-uniformly during postnatal development, with peak generation on day P6, and that stress receptor activation during the key period of postnatal NSC generation has a profound impact on both adult hippocampal neurogenesis and behavior.

  20. [Parenteral nutrition in premature infants: practical aspects to optimize postnatal growth and development].

    PubMed

    Senterre, T; Rigo, J

    2013-09-01

    Nutrition and growth are still a major challenge in neonatal intensive care. Many studies have demonstrated that premature infants frequently develop severe cumulative nutritional deficit during the first weeks of life. This malnutrition is the primary etiology of postnatal growth restriction, which is still universally described in very premature infants. Furthermore, both postnatal nutritional deficit and postnatal growth restriction have been associated with adverse long-term outcome in adulthood. Due to their immaturity, premature infants are frequently not fed by the enteral route. Therefore, parenteral nutrition remains an essential therapy in neonatology. Most recent recommendations suggest starting parenteral nutrition as soon as possible after birth with a minimum of 40 kcal/kg/day with around 2-3g/kg/day of amino acids and 1g/kg/day of lipids. Afterwards, intake should increase rapidly during the first week of life, up to 90-120 kcal/kg/day with around 3.5 g/kg/day amino acids and 3g/kg/day of lipids. There is great heterogeneity in parenteral nutrition practices among neonatal units, with frequent discrepancies. This article discusses the principal theoretical aspects of parenteral nutrition in premature infants, the guidelines, and the opportunity to optimize nutritional support routinely, especially in very premature infants. PMID:23845601

  1. Postnatal experiences influence the behavior in adult male and female Fischer and Lewis rats.

    PubMed

    Skripuletz, Thomas; Kruschinski, Carsten; Pabst, Reinhard; von Hörsten, Stephan; Stephan, Michael

    2010-11-01

    The postnatal environment with the rat pups' dam as the most important regulator, plays a central role in determining developmental processes of the offspring. Early disturbances of the dam-pup-dyade, like separation from the dam for hours (maternal deprivation, MD), or a short period of separation, and exposure to novelty, like the handling stimulation (HA), might induce long-lasting changes within the individual. To further investigate the susceptibility to these postnatal manipulations with regard to both, sex and genetic background, we used male and female Fischer (F344) and Lewis (LEW) rats. F344 and LEW rats were daily subjected to either HA, MD, or were left undisturbed until weaning. The immediate effects of these manipulations were studied using the mother-pup-interaction-test on postnatal days 3-7. At the age of 4 months, animals were subjected to a behavioral test battery, determining activity, exploration, and anxiety-like behavioral parameters. Postnatal manipulations induced significant alterations of the mother-pup-interaction patterns that were more pronounced in F344 dams. MD and HA F344 dams were longer off pups than LEW dams. MD F344 pups were longer groomed than MD LEW pups and HA F344 pups were longer passive nursed than HA LEW pups. In adulthood, F344 rats showed increased anxiety-like behavior compared to LEW rats. Furthermore, females of both strains exhibited more anxiety-like behavior than males. Test independently, MD led to more anxiety-like behavior and less exploratory responses, while handled rats exhibited an anxiolytic-like behavior and increased exploratory responses. In conclusion, postnatal experiences specifically altered the behavioral phenotype in adulthood. While these changes were co-directional in the two strains and in both sexes, the degree of susceptibility varied.

  2. Pioglitazone in adult rats reverses immediate postnatal overfeeding-induced metabolic, hormonal, and inflammatory alterations.

    PubMed

    Boullu-Ciocca, S; Tassistro, V; Dutour, A; Grino, M

    2015-12-01

    Immediate postnatal overfeeding in rats, obtained by reducing the litter size, results in early-onset obesity. Such experimental paradigm programs overweight, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, increased adipose glucocorticoid metabolism [up-regulation of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1)], and overexpression of proinflammatory cytokines in mesenteric adipose tissue (MAT) in adulthood. We studied the effects of pioglitazone, a PPARγ agonist, treatment on the above-mentioned overfeeding-induced alterations. Nine-month-old rats normofed or overfed during the immediate postnatal period were given pioglitazone (3 mg/kg/day) for 6 weeks. Pioglitazone stimulated weight gain and induced a redistribution of adipose tissue toward epididymal location with enhanced plasma adiponectin. Treatment normalized postnatal overfeeding-induced metabolic alterations (increased fasting insulinemia and free fatty acids) and mesenteric overexpression of GR, 11β-HSD11, CD 68, and proinflammatory cytokines mRNAs, including plasminogen-activator inhibitor type 1. Mesenteric GR mRNA levels correlated positively with mesenteric proinflammatory cytokines mRNA concentrations. In vitro incubation of MAT obtained from overfed rats demonstrated that pioglitazone induced a down-regulation of GR gene expression and normalized glucocorticoid-induced stimulation of 11β-HSD1 and plasminogen-activator inhibitor type 1 mRNAs. Our data show for the first time that the metabolic, endocrine, and inflammatory alterations induced by early-onset postnatal obesity can be reversed by pioglitazone at the adulthood. They demonstrate that pioglitazone, in addition to its well-established effect on adipose tissue redistribution and adiponectin secretion, reverses programing-induced adipose GR, 11β-HSD1, and proinflammatory cytokines overexpression, possibly through a GR-dependent mechanism. PMID:26084260

  3. Environmental tobacco smoke in the early postnatal period induces impairment in brain myelination.

    PubMed

    Torres, Larissa H; Annoni, Raquel; Balestrin, Natalia T; Coleto, Priscila L; Duro, Stephanie O; Garcia, Raphael C T; Pacheco-Neto, Maurílio; Mauad, Thais; Camarini, Rosana; Britto, Luiz R G; Marcourakis, Tania

    2015-11-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is associated with high morbidity and mortality, mainly in children. However, few studies focus on the brain development effects of ETS exposure. Myelination mainly occurs in the early years of life in humans and the first three postnatal weeks in rodents and is sensitive to xenobiotics exposure. This study investigated the effects of early postnatal ETS exposure on myelination. BALB/c mice were exposed to ETS generated from 3R4F reference research cigarettes from the third to the fourteenth days of life. The myelination of nerve fibers in the optic nerve by morphometric analysis and the levels of Olig1 and myelin basic protein (MBP) were evaluated in the cerebellum, diencephalon, telencephalon, and brainstem in infancy, adolescence, and adulthood. Infant mice exposed to ETS showed a decrease in the percentage of myelinated fibers in the optic nerve, compared with controls. ETS induced a decrease in Olig1 protein levels in the cerebellum and brainstem and an increase in MBP levels in the cerebellum at infant. It was also found a decrease in MBP levels in the telencephalon and brainstem at adolescence and in the cerebellum and diencephalon at adulthood. The present study demonstrates that exposure to ETS, in a critical phase of development, affects the percentage of myelinated fibers and myelin-specific proteins in infant mice. Although we did not observe differences in the morphological analysis in adolescence and adulthood, there was a decrease in MBP levels in distinctive brain regions suggesting a delayed effect in adolescence and adulthood.

  4. Acute postnatal exposure to the pentaBDE commercial mixture DE-71 at 5 or 15 mg/kg/day does not produce learning or attention deficits in rats.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Lori L; Kaplan, Joshua; Bucuvalas, Eleni; Allen, Hunter; Kraut, Joshua; Fitzpatrick, Jesse

    2012-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), flame retardant chemicals added to polymer products, have become ubiquitous in the environment, and they are bioaccumulating in humans and wildlife. Therefore, understanding their biological effects is important for public health. We have previously observed learning deficits in rats exposed to DE-71, a commercial PBDE mixture consisting primarily of pentabrominated diphenyl ethers, at a dose of 30 mg/kg/day from postnatal day (PND) 6 to 12. The purpose of the current study was to determine if this effect could be seen with lower doses of DE-71. Long-Evans rats were administered daily oral doses of corn oil alone or DE-71, 5 or 15 mg/kg/day, dissolved in corn oil, from PND 6 to 12. As young adults, the rats were administered a series of five-choice visual learning and attention tasks. No effects of DE-71 were found on learning, attention, or inhibitory control. Given that developmental DE-71 exposure at similar doses and for shorter time periods has been shown in other laboratories to affect locomotion and hyperactivity, the current results suggest that cognitive functions may not be as sensitive as neuromotor functions to the effects of acute DE-71 exposure.

  5. Postnatal Proteasome Inhibition Induces Neurodegeneration and Cognitive Deficiencies in Adult Mice: A New Model of Neurodevelopment Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Granados, Rocío; Fontán-Lozano, Ángela; Aguilar-Montilla, Francisco Javier; Carrión, Ángel Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Defects in the ubiquitin-proteasome system have been related to aging and the development of neurodegenerative disease, although the effects of deficient proteasome activity during early postnatal development are poorly understood. Accordingly, we have assessed how proteasome dysfunction during early postnatal development, induced by administering proteasome inhibitors daily during the first 10 days of life, affects the behaviour of adult mice. We found that this regime of exposure to the proteasome inhibitors MG132 or lactacystin did not produce significant behavioural or morphological changes in the first 15 days of life. However, towards the end of the treatment with proteasome inhibitors, there was a loss of mitochondrial markers and activity, and an increase in DNA oxidation. On reaching adulthood, the memory of mice that were injected with proteasome inhibitors postnatally was impaired in hippocampal and amygdala-dependent tasks, and they suffered motor dysfunction and imbalance. These behavioural deficiencies were correlated with neuronal loss in the hippocampus, amygdala and brainstem, and with diminished adult neurogenesis. Accordingly, impairing proteasome activity at early postnatal ages appears to cause morphological and behavioural alterations in adult mice that resemble those associated with certain neurodegenerative diseases and/or syndromes of mental retardation. PMID:22174927

  6. Noise exposure at young age impairs the auditory object exploration behavior of rats in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiping; Chen, Liang; Gao, Fei; Pu, Qing; Sun, Xinde

    2008-09-01

    Environment noise is ubiquitous in our daily life. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of postnatal exposure to moderate-level noise on the auditory object exploration behavior of adult rats by comparing the ability of three groups of rats to locate a sound source in a water maze. Two groups of rats, either in the critical period of hearing development or in adulthood, were exposed to 80 dB SPL interrupted white noise for 8 h per day for two weeks. The control group of rats was not exposed to the noise. The ability of the rats to locate a hidden platform that was situated near a sound source in a water maze was tested starting on postnatal day 77. A continuous improvement in the performance of control rats and rats exposed to noise in adulthood was observed during training, whereas rats exposed to noise at a young age exhibited a significantly worse performance. These findings indicated that long-term exposure of young rats to moderate-level noise caused significant impairment of their auditory object exploration behavior compared to exposure of adult animals to the same moderate-level noise.

  7. In utero dimethadione exposure causes postnatal disruption in cardiac structure and function in the rat.

    PubMed

    Aasa, Kristiina L; Purssell, Elizabeth; Adams, Michael A; Ozolinš, Terence R S

    2014-12-01

    In utero exposure of rat embryos to dimethadione (DMO), the N-demethylated teratogenic metabolite of the anticonvulsant trimethadione, induces a high incidence of cardiac heart defects including ventricular septal defects (VSDs). The same exposure regimen also leads to in utero cardiac functional deficits, including bradycardia, dysrhythmia, and a reduction in cardiac output (CO) and ejection fraction that persist until parturition (10 days after the final dose). Despite a high rate of spontaneous postnatal VSD closure, we hypothesize that functional sequelae will persist into adulthood. Pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were administered six 300 mg/kg doses of DMO, one every 12 h in mid-pregnancy beginning on the evening of gestation day 8. Postnatal cardiac function was assessed in control (CTL) and DMO-exposed offspring using radiotelemetry and ultrasound at 3 and 11 months of age, respectively. Adult rats exposed to DMO in utero had an increased incidence of arrhythmia, elevated blood pressure and CO, greater left ventricular volume and elevated locomotor activity versus CTL. The mean arterial pressure of DMO-exposed rats was more sensitive to changes in dietary salt load compared with CTL. Importantly, most treated rats had functional deficits in the absence of a persistent structural defect. It was concluded that in utero DMO exposure causes cardiovascular deficits that persist into postnatal life in the rat, despite absence of visible structural anomalies. We speculate this is not unique to DMO, suggesting possible health implications for infants with unrecognized gestational chemical exposures.

  8. Postnatal growth restriction and gene expression changes in a mouse model of fetal alcohol syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kaminen-Ahola, Nina; Ahola, Arttu; Flatscher-Bader, Traute; Wilkins, Sarah J; Anderson, Greg J; Whitelaw, Emma; Chong, Suyinn

    2010-10-01

    Growth restriction, craniofacial dysmorphology, and central nervous system defects are the main diagnostic features of fetal alcohol syndrome. Studies in humans and mice have reported that the growth restriction can be prenatal or postnatal, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown.We recently described a mouse model of moderate gestational ethanol exposure that produces measurable phenotypes in line with fetal alcohol syndrome (e.g., craniofacial changes and growth restriction in adolescent mice). In this study, we characterize in detail the growth restriction phenotype by measuring body weight at gestational day 16.5, cross-fostering from birth to weaning, and by extending our observations into adulthood. Furthermore, in an attempt to unravel the molecular events contributing to the growth phenotype, we have compared gene expression patterns in the liver and kidney of nonfostered, ethanol-exposed and control mice at postnatal day 28.We find that the ethanol-induced growth phenotype is not detectable prior to birth, but is present at weaning, even in mice that have been cross-fostered to unexposed dams. This finding suggests a postnatal growth restriction phenotype that is not due to deficient postpartum care by dams that drank ethanol, but rather a physiologic result of ethanol exposure in utero. We also find that, despite some catch-up growth after 5 weeks of age, the effect extends into adulthood, which is consistent with longitudinal studies in humans.Genome-wide gene expression analysis revealed interesting ethanol-induced changes in the liver, including genes involved in the metabolism of exogenous and endogenous compounds, iron homeostasis, and lipid metabolism.

  9. Postweaning isolation affects responses to incentive contrast in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Cuenya, Lucas; Mustaca, Alba; Kamenetzky, Giselle

    2015-03-01

    Adolescence is a time involving a series of changes in the use of appetitive reinforcers like food, as well as neuroendocrine changes like those taking place in the mesolimbic dopamine function. Social isolation from postnatal day 21 to 36 in rats leads to behavioral and neurophysiological alterations such as increased consumption of appetitive reinforcers. The work is focused on studying how exposure to chronic stress induced by social isolation during adolescence can have a long-lasting effect on responses to reinforcement shifts in adulthood. Two experiments were performed in rats in order to analyze the effect of adolescent isolation on the responses to unanticipated shifts in reinforcement during adulthood, in reinforcement devaluation (32-4% of sucrose solution), increase (4-32% of sucrose solution), and extinction (32-0% of sucrose solution) procedures. Adolescent isolation intensified the intake response resulting from a reinforcement increase (i.e., greater positive contrast), but had no effect on the response to reinforcement devaluation and omission. The implications of this procedure are discussed, along with the underlying behavioral and neurochemical mechanisms.

  10. Pre- and Postnatal Exposure to Low Dose Glufosinate Ammonium Induces Autism-Like Phenotypes in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Laugeray, Anthony; Herzine, Ameziane; Perche, Olivier; Hébert, Betty; Aguillon-Naury, Marine; Richard, Olivier; Menuet, Arnaud; Mazaud-Guittot, Séverine; Lesné, Laurianne; Briault, Sylvain; Jegou, Bernard; Pichon, Jacques; Montécot-Dubourg, Céline; Mortaud, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    Glufosinate ammonium (GLA) is one of the most widely used herbicides in agriculture. As is the case for most pesticides, potential adverse effects of GLA have not been studied from the perspective of developmental neurotoxicity. Early pesticides exposure may weaken the basic structure of the developing brain and cause permanent changes leading to a wide range of lifelong effects on health and/or behavior. Here, we addressed the developmental impact of GLA by exposing female mice to low dose GLA during both pre- and postnatal periods and analyzed potential developmental and behavioral changes of the offspring during infancy and adulthood. A neurobehavioral test battery revealed significant effects of GLA maternal exposure on early reflex development, pup communication, affiliative behaviors, and preference for social olfactory cues, but emotional reactivity and emotional memory remained unaltered. These behavioral alterations showed a striking resemblance to changes seen in animal models of Autistic Spectrum Disorders. At the brain level, GLA maternal exposure caused some increase in relative brain weight of the offspring. In addition, reduced expression of Pten and Peg3 – two genes implicated in autism-like deficits – was observed in the brain of GLA-exposed pups at postnatal day 15. Our work thus provides new data on the link between pre- and postnatal exposure to the herbicide GLA and the onset of autism-like symptoms later in life. It also raises fundamental concerns about the ability of current safety testing to assess risks of pesticide exposure during critical developmental periods. PMID:25477793

  11. Postnatal behavioral and inflammatory alterations in female pups prenatally exposed to valproic acid.

    PubMed

    Kazlauskas, Nadia; Campolongo, Marcos; Lucchina, Luciana; Zappala, Cecilia; Depino, Amaicha Mara

    2016-10-01

    In Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), a bias to a higher incidence in boys than in girls has been reported. With the aim to identify biological mechanisms acting in female animals that could underlie this bias, we used an extensively validated mouse model of ASD: the prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA). We found postnatal behavioral alterations in female VPA pups: a longer latency in righting reflex at postnatal day (P) 3, and a delay in the acquisition of the acoustic startle response. We also analyzed the density of glial cells in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum, in VPA and control animals. Female VPA pups showed alterations in the density of astrocytes and microglial cells between P21 and P42, with specific dynamics in each brain region. We also found a decrease in histone 3 acetylation in the cerebellum of female VPA pups at P14, suggesting that the changes in glial cell density could be due to alterations in the epigenetic developmental program. Finally, no differences in maternal behavior were found. Our results show that female VPA pups exhibit behavioral and inflammatory alterations postnatally, although they have been reported to have normal levels of sociability in adulthood. With our work, we contribute to the understanding of biological mechanisms underlying different effects of VPA on male and female rodents, and we hope to help elucidate whether there are factors increasing susceptibility to ASD in boys and/or resilience in girls.

  12. Postnatal development of the alpha1 containing GABAA receptor subunit in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Tellez, Juan Felix; Vela, Jose; del Rio, Juan Carlos; Ramos, Blanca; Baglietto-Vargas, David; Santa-Maria, Consuelo; Ruano, Diego; Gutierrez, Antonia; Vitorica, Javier

    2004-01-31

    Here we have studied the developmental expression of alpha1 subunit of the GABAA receptor in comparison with the expression of alpha2 subunit and several GABAergic markers (parvalbumin (PV), calretinin (CR), somatostatin (SOM), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)). The alpha1 expression (mRNA and protein) was low at birth and increased progressively until the adulthood. This expression pattern was similar to that observed for PV, opposite to that of CR (high at birth and decreased continuously until the adulthood) and differed from that observed for the alpha2 and neuropeptides (SOM, NPY and VIP) (in all cases, a clear peak in expression was observed at P10). We further investigated the expression of alpha1, PV and CR by immunohistochemistry. As expected, the alpha1 and the PV expression were low at birth and increased progressively until the adulthood. Both alpha1 and PV were co-expressed by the same interneuronal population, however, the maturation of the alpha1 subunit preceded to that of PV. Finally, we observed a gradient of maturation between the different fields of the hippocampus proper (CA2-3 preceded to CA1 and DG). This gradient could be related to the high expression of CR positive cells and fibers during the first 10 postnatal days, located principally in the stratum lacunosum moleculare of the CA2-3 layers.

  13. Emerging Adulthood in Argentina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Facio, Alicia; Micocci, Fabiana

    2003-01-01

    Examined conceptions of emerging adulthood among Argentinians in their middle twenties. Found wide support for individualistic criteria for adulthood, but also criteria suggesting more collectivistic values. Identified gender, social class origin, and educational attainment differences. Concluded that emerging adulthood is a distinct developmental…

  14. Long-term behavioral effects in a rat model of prolonged postnatal morphine exposure.

    PubMed

    Craig, Michael M; Bajic, Dusica

    2015-10-01

    Prolonged morphine treatment in neonatal pediatric populations is associated with a high incidence of opioid tolerance and dependence. Despite the clinical relevance of this problem, our knowledge of long-term consequences is sparse. The main objective of this study was to investigate whether prolonged morphine administration in a neonatal rat is associated with long-term behavioral changes in adulthood. Newborn animals received either morphine (10 mg/kg) or equal volume of saline subcutaneously twice daily for the first 2 weeks of life. Morphine-treated animals underwent 10 days of morphine weaning to reduce the potential for observable physical signs of withdrawal. Animals were subjected to nonstressful testing (locomotor activity recording and a novel-object recognition test) at a young age (Postnatal Days [PDs] 27-31) or later in adulthood (PDs 55-56), as well as stressful testing (calibrated forceps test, hot plate test, and forced swim test) only in adulthood. Analysis revealed that prolonged neonatal morphine exposure resulted in decreased thermal but not mechanical threshold. Importantly, no differences were found for total locomotor activity (proxy of drug reward/reinforcement behavior), individual forced swim test behaviors (proxy of affective processing), or novel-object recognition test. Performance on the novel-object recognition test was compromised in the morphine-treated group at the young age, but the effect disappeared in adulthood. These novel results provide insight into the long-term consequences of opioid treatment during an early developmental period and suggest long-term neuroplastic differences in sensory processing related to thermal stimuli.

  15. Postnatal manganese exposure alters dopamine transporter function in adult rats: Potential impact on nonassociative and associative processes.

    PubMed

    McDougall, S A; Reichel, C M; Farley, C M; Flesher, M M; Der-Ghazarian, T; Cortez, A M; Wacan, J J; Martinez, C E; Varela, F A; Butt, A E; Crawford, C A

    2008-06-23

    In the present study, we examined whether exposing rats to a high-dose regimen of manganese chloride (Mn) during the postnatal period would depress presynaptic dopamine functioning and alter nonassociative and associative behaviors. To this end, rats were given oral supplements of Mn (750 microg/day) on postnatal days (PD) 1-21. On PD 90, dopamine transporter (DAT) immunoreactivity and [3H]dopamine uptake were assayed in the striatum and nucleus accumbens, while in vivo microdialysis was used to measure dopamine efflux in the same brain regions. The effects of postnatal Mn exposure on nigrostriatal functioning were evaluated by assessing rotorod performance and amphetamine-induced stereotypy in adulthood. In terms of associative processes, both cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) and sucrose-reinforced operant responding were examined. Results showed that postnatal Mn exposure caused persistent declines in DAT protein expression and [3H]dopamine uptake in the striatum and nucleus accumbens, as well as long-term reductions in striatal dopamine efflux. Rotorod performance did not differ according to exposure condition, however Mn-exposed rats did exhibit substantially more amphetamine-induced stereotypy than vehicle controls. Mn exposure did not alter performance on any aspect of the CPP task (preference, extinction, or reinstatement testing), nor did Mn affect progressive ratio responding (a measure of motivation). Interestingly, acquisition of a fixed ratio task was impaired in Mn-exposed rats, suggesting a deficit in procedural learning. In sum, these results indicate that postnatal Mn exposure causes persistent declines in various indices of presynaptic dopaminergic functioning. Mn-induced alterations in striatal functioning may have long-term impact on associative and nonassociative behavior.

  16. Social instability stress in adolescent male rats alters hippocampal neurogenesis and produces deficits in spatial location memory in adulthood.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Cheryl M; Thomas, Catherine M; Sheridan, Cheryl S; Nixon, Feather; Flynn, Jennifer A; Mathews, Iva Z

    2012-06-01

    The ongoing development of the hippocampus in adolescence may be vulnerable to stressors. The effects of social instability stress (SS) in adolescence (daily 1 h isolation and change of cage partner postnatal days 30-45) on cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus (DG) in adolescence (on days 33 and 46, experiment 1) and in adulthood (experiment 2) was examined in Long Evans male rats and compared to nonstressed controls (CTL). Additionally, in experiment 2, a separate group of SS and CTL rats was tested on either a spatial (hippocampal-dependent) or nonspatial (nonhippocampal dependent) version of an object memory test and also were used to investigate hippocampal expression of markers of synaptic plasticity. No memory impairment was evident until the SS rats were adults, and the impairment was only on the spatial test. SS rats initially (postnatal day 33) had increased cell proliferation based on counts of Ki67 immunoreactive (ir) cells and greater survival of immature neurons based on counts of doublecortin ir cells on day 46 and in adulthood, irrespective of behavioral testing. Counts of microglia in the DG did not differ by stress group, but behavioral testing was associated with reduced microglia counts compared to nontested rats. As adults, SS and CTL rats did not differ in hippocampal expression of synaptophysin, but compared to CTL rats, SS rats had higher expression of basal calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CamKII), and lower expression of the phosphorylated CamKII subunit threonine 286, signaling molecules related to synaptic plasticity. The results are contrasted with those from previous reports of chronic stress in adult rats, and we conclude that adolescent stress alters the ongoing development of the hippocampus leading to impaired spatial memory in adulthood, highlighting the heightened vulnerability to stressors in adolescence.

  17. Pre- and postnatal nutrition in sheep affects β-cell secretion and hypothalamic control.

    PubMed

    Kongsted, Anna H; Husted, Sanne V; Thygesen, Malin P; Christensen, Vibeke G; Blache, Dominique; Tolver, Anders; Larsen, Torben; Quistorff, Bjørn; Nielsen, Mette O

    2013-11-01

    Maternal undernutrition increases the risk of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome later in life, particularly upon postnatal exposure to a high-energy diet. However, dysfunctions of, for example, the glucose-insulin axis are not readily detectable by conventional tests early in life, making it difficult to identify individuals at risk. Thus, other methods are required. We hypothesised that prenatally undernourished individuals (but not postnatally overnourished ones) are adapted to a life with limited food availability, which would be evident under conditions reflecting starvation, stress and short-term abundance of food. In this study, twin-pregnant sheep were fed diets meeting 100% (NORM) or 50% (LOW) of energy and protein requirements during the last trimester. Twin offspring were fed either a normal moderate (CONV) diet or a high-carbohydrate-high-fat (HCHF) diet from 3 days to 6 months of age (approximately puberty) and the same moderate diet thereafter until 2 years of age (young adulthood; only females), resulting in four groups: NORM-CONV, LOW-CONV, NORM-HCHF and LOW-HCHF. At the age of 6 months and 2 years respectively, they were subjected to fasting and propionate (nutrient abundance) and adrenalin challenges. At 6 months of age, postnatal HCHF diet exposure caused metabolic alterations, reflecting hypertriglyceridaemia and altered pancreatic β-cell secretion. Irrespective of postnatal diet, prenatal undernutrition was found to be associated with unexpected endocrine responses of leptin, IGF1 and cortisol during fasting (lack of or the opposite response compared with the controls) in 2-year-old adults. In conclusion, a HCHF diet interfered with β-cell function, whereas maternal undernutrition did not lead to any changes in the LOW offspring, except to abnormal hormone responses, suggesting that fetal programming interferes with hypothalamic integration of important endocrine axis.

  18. Epileptic activity during early postnatal life in the AY-9944 model of atypical absence epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Jung, Seungmoon; Jeong, Yong; Jeon, Daejong

    2015-05-01

    Atypical absence epilepsy (AAE) is an intractable disorder characterized by slow spike-and-wave discharges in electroencephalograms (EEGs) and accompanied by severe cognitive dysfunction and neurodevelopmental or neurological deficits in humans. Administration of the cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitor AY-9944 (AY) during the postnatal developmental period induces AAE in animals; however, the neural mechanism of seizure development remains largely unknown. In this study, we characterized the cellular manifestations of AY-induced AAE in the mouse. Treatment of brain slices with AY increased membrane excitability of hippocampal CA1 neurons. AY treatment also increased input resistance of CA1 neurons during early postnatal days (PND) 5-10. However, these effects were not observed during late PND (14-21) or in adulthood (7-10 weeks). Notably, AY treatment elicited paroxysmal depolarizing shift (PDS)-like epileptiform discharges during the early postnatal period, but not during late PND or in adults. The PDS-like events were not compromised by application of glutamate or GABA receptor antagonists. However, the PDS-like events were abolished by blockage of voltage-gated Na(+) channels. Hippocampal neurons isolated from an in vivo AY model of AAE showed similar PDS-like epileptiform discharges. Further, AY-treated neurons from T-type Ca(2+) channel α1G knockout (Cav3.1(-/-)) mice, which do not exhibit typical absence seizures, showed similar PDS-like epileptiform discharges. These results demonstrate that PDS-like epileptiform discharges during the early postnatal period are dependent upon Na(+) channels and are involved in the generation of AY-induced AAE, which is distinct from typical absence epilepsy. Our findings may aid our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of clinical AAE in individuals, such as those with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. PMID:25890840

  19. Practical postnatal care.

    PubMed

    Smibert, J

    1989-05-01

    This second paper by the author presents an experienced obstetrician's viewpoint of a very practical and perhaps provocative approach to postnatal care, especially considering the rights and emotional factors of the new parents.

  20. The metabolic response to postnatal leptin in rats varies with age and may be litter dependent.

    PubMed

    Granado, M; Diaz, F; Fuente-Martín, E; García-Cáceres, C; Argente, J; Chowen, J A

    2014-06-01

    Hyperleptinemia during postnatal life induces long-term effects on metabolism. However, these effects are controversial as both increased and decreased propensity towards obesity has been reported. To further analyze the effects of chronic neonatal hyperleptinemia on the subsequent metabolic profile, male Wistar rats proceeding from 18 different litters (8 pups/litter) received a daily subcutaneous injection of either saline (10 ml/kg, n=36) or leptin (3 μg/g, n=36) from postnatal day (PND) 2 to PND9. Rats were sacrificed at 10, 40, or 150 days of age. At 10 days of age, leptin treated rats had decreased body weight (p<0.001) and body fat (p<0.05). Leptin levels and glycemia were increased (p<0.01), whereas insulin, total lipids, triglycerides and glycerol levels were decreased (p<0.05). At PND40 rats receiving leptin had increased glycemia (p<0.01) and plasma HDL and LDL levels, but decreased total lipids (p<0.05). At PND150 neonatal leptin treatment induced different effects in rats raised in different litters. Rats from litter 1 had increased body weight (p<0.05), body fat (p<0.01), and plasma leptin (p<0.001), cholesterol (p<0.001), triglyceride (p<0.001), total lipid (p<0.001), LDL (p<0.05), and glycerol (p<0.001) levels. In rats from litter 2 these parameters did not differ from controls. Rats from litter 3 had decreased body weight (p<0.05), visceral fat (p<0.01) and plasma leptin (p<0.001), cholesterol (p<0.001), triglyceride (p<0.001), glycerol (p<0.001), and HDL (p<0.001) levels. In conclusion, the metabolic response to postnatal leptin varies with age, with the response in adulthood being variable and most likely influenced by other factors, including the genetic make-up.

  1. Chronic postnatal stress induces voluntary alcohol intake and modifies glutamate transporters in adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Odeon, María Mercedes; Andreu, Marcela; Yamauchi, Laura; Grosman, Mauricio; Acosta, Gabriela Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Postnatal stress alters stress responses for life, with serious consequences on the central nervous system (CNS), involving glutamatergic neurotransmission and development of voluntary alcohol intake. Several drugs of abuse, including alcohol and cocaine, alter glutamate transport (GluT). Here, we evaluated effects of chronic postnatal stress (CPS) on alcohol intake and brain glutamate uptake and transporters in male adolescent Wistar rats. For CPS from postnatal day (PD) 7, pups were separated from their mothers and exposed to cold stress (4 °C) for 1 h daily for 20 days; controls remained with their mothers. Then they were exposed to either voluntary ethanol (6%) or dextrose (1%) intake for 7 days (5-7 rats per group), then killed. CPS: (1) increased voluntary ethanol intake, (2) did not affect body weight gain or produce signs of toxicity with alcohol exposure, (3) increased glutamate uptake by hippocampal synaptosomes in vitro and (4) reduced protein levels (Western measurements) in hippocampus and frontal cortex of glial glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) and excitatory amino-acid transporter-3 (EAAT-3) but increased glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST) levels. We propose that CPS-induced decrements in GLT-1 and EAAT-3 expression levels are opposed by activation of a compensatory mechanism to prevent excitotoxicity. A greater role for GLAST in total glutamate uptake to prevent enlarged extracellular glutamate levels is inferred. Although CPS strongly increased intake of ethanol, this had little impact on effects of CPS on brain glutamate uptake or transporters. However, the impact of early life adverse events on glutamatergic neurotransmission may underlie increased alcohol consumption in adulthood.

  2. Cellular basis of differential limb growth in postnatal gray short-tailed opossums (Monodelphis domestica).

    PubMed

    Beiriger, Anastasia; Sears, Karen E

    2014-06-01

    While growth has been studied extensively in invertebrates, the mechanisms by which it is controlled in vertebrates, particularly in mammals, remain poorly understood. In this study, we investigate the cellular basis of differential limb growth in postnatal Monodelphis domestica, the gray short-tailed opossum, to gain insights into the mechanisms regulating mammalian growth. Opossums are an ideal model for the study of growth because they are born with relatively large, well-developed forelimbs and small hind limbs that must "catch up" to the forelimb before the animal reaches adulthood. Postnatal Days 1-17 were identified as a key period of growth for the hind limbs, during which they undergo accelerated development and nearly quadruple in length. Histology performed on fore- and hind limbs from this period indicates a higher rate of cellular differentiation in the long bones of the hind limbs. Immunohistochemical assays indicate that cellular proliferation is also occurring at a significantly greater rate in the long bones of the hind limb at 6 days after birth. Taken together, these results suggest that a faster rate of cellular proliferation and differentiation in the long bones of the hind limb relative to those of the forelimb generates a period of accelerated growth through which the adult limb phenotype of M. domestica is achieved. Assays for gene expression suggest that the molecular basis of this differential growth differs from that previously identified for differential pre-natal growth in opossum fore- and hind limbs.

  3. Postnatal disappearance of type A intercalated cells in carbonic anhydrase II-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Brion, L P; Suarez, C; Saenger, P

    2001-06-01

    Despite chronic acidosis, collecting ducts in adult carbonic anhydrase II-deficient (CAD mice) are depleted of intercalated cells, including those of type A, which are acid-secreting cells. We hypothesized that this depletion could occur during postnatal development. Principal cells were identified by immunofluorescence using an antibody to rat aquaporin-2 (AQP-2), and type A intercalated cells using an antibody specific for anion exchanger (AE1). In CAD mice the proportion of AQP2-positive cells, normal at 11 days, increased progressively in the cortical (CCD) and outer medullary collecting duct (OMCD), to reach almost 100% in the OMCD in adults. The percentage of AE1-positive cells in the OMCD of CAD mice decreased by half by 6 weeks of age and further by adulthood. In controls, however, the proportion of AQP2-positive cells and that of AE1-positive cells in the OMCD remained stable after 10 days of age. AE1-positive cells accounted for the majority of intercalated cells in the OMCD. The mechanisms leading to selective postnatal cell depletion in the collecting duct in CAD mice remain to be determined.

  4. Passage to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furstenberg, Frank F.

    2010-01-01

    Today, young people are transitioning to adulthood later in life than they were in the 1960s and 70s. Why has this change occurred and what does it mean for young adults, their families, and the larger society? This article discusses the transition to adulthood from an historical perspective. It then explores the challenges of this later…

  5. Medical Perspectives on Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katchadourian, Herant A.

    1976-01-01

    Written for the layman, this article describes the concept of adulthood in human biology as observed from the perspective of the naturally unfolding human life cycle. Specific male and female physical characteristics are examined and psychiatric viewpoints on adulthood are presented. (DDB)

  6. Cannabinoids reverse the effects of early stress on neurocognitive performance in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Alteba, Shirley; Korem, Nachshon; Akirav, Irit

    2016-07-01

    Early life stress (ES) significantly increases predisposition to psychopathologies. Cannabinoids may cause cognitive deficits and exacerbate the effects of ES. Nevertheless, the endocannabinoid system has been suggested as a therapeutic target for the treatment of stress- and anxiety-related disorders. Here we examined whether cannabinoids administered during "late adolescence" (extensive cannabis use in humans at the ages 18-25) could reverse the long-term adverse effects of ES on neurocognitive function in adulthood. Male and female rats were exposed to ES during post-natal days (P) 7-14, injected with the cannabinoid CB1/2 receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (WIN; 1.2 mg/kg, i.p.) for 2 wk during late adolescence (P45-60) and tested in adulthood (P90) for working memory, anxiety, and alterations in CB1 receptors (CB1r), and glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) in the stress circuit [hippocampus, prefrontal cortex (PFC), and basolateral amygdala (BLA)]. ES males and females exhibited impaired performance in short-term memory in adulthood in the spatial location and social recognition tasks; males were also impaired in the novel object recognition task. WIN administered during late adolescence prevented these stress-induced impairments and reduced anxiety levels. WIN normalized the ES-induced up-regulation in PFC-GRs and CA1-CB1r in females. In males, WIN normalized the ES-induced up-regulation in PFC-GR and down-regulation in BLA-CB1r. There is a crucial role of the endocannabinoid system in the effects of early life stress on behavior at adulthood. Differences in recognition memory and in the expression of GRs and CB1r in the fear circuit suggest sex differences in the mechanism underlying coping with stress. PMID:27317195

  7. Adolescent nicotine treatment changes the response of acetylcholine systems to subsequent nicotine administration in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Slotkin, Theodore A; Bodwell, Bethany E; Ryde, Ian T; Seidler, Frederic J

    2008-05-15

    Nicotine alters the developmental trajectory of acetylcholine (ACh) systems in the immature brain, with vulnerability extending from fetal stages through adolescence. We administered nicotine to adolescent rats (postnatal days PN30-47) and then examined the subsequent response to nicotine given in adulthood (PN90-107), simulating plasma levels in smokers, and performing evaluations during nicotine treatment (PN105) and withdrawal (PN110, PN120 and PN130), as well as assessing persistent changes at 6 months of age (PN180). We measured nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) binding, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity, a marker for ACh terminals, and hemicholinium-3 (HC3) binding to the choline transporter, an index of ACh presynaptic activity. By itself, adolescent nicotine exposure evoked sex-selective deficits in cerebrocortical HC3 binding while elevating ChAT in young adulthood in striatum and midbrain. Nicotine given in adulthood produced profound nAChR upregulation lasting 2 weeks after discontinuing treatment, and decrements in cerebrocortical and striatal HC3 binding emerged during withdrawal, indicative of reduced ACh synaptic activity. For all three parameters, adolescent nicotine altered the responses to nicotine given in adulthood, producing both sensitization and desensitization that depended on sex and brain region, effects that parallel the disparate behavioral outcomes reported for these treatments. The interaction seen here for the impact of adolescent nicotine exposure on adult nicotine responses was substantially greater than that found previously for the effects of prenatal nicotine exposure on adult responses. Our findings thus reinforce the importance of adolescence as a critical period in which the future responsiveness to nicotine is programmed.

  8. Adolescent nicotine treatment changes the response of acetylcholine systems to subsequent nicotine administration in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Slotkin, Theodore A; Bodwell, Bethany E; Ryde, Ian T; Seidler, Frederic J

    2008-05-15

    Nicotine alters the developmental trajectory of acetylcholine (ACh) systems in the immature brain, with vulnerability extending from fetal stages through adolescence. We administered nicotine to adolescent rats (postnatal days PN30-47) and then examined the subsequent response to nicotine given in adulthood (PN90-107), simulating plasma levels in smokers, and performing evaluations during nicotine treatment (PN105) and withdrawal (PN110, PN120 and PN130), as well as assessing persistent changes at 6 months of age (PN180). We measured nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) binding, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity, a marker for ACh terminals, and hemicholinium-3 (HC3) binding to the choline transporter, an index of ACh presynaptic activity. By itself, adolescent nicotine exposure evoked sex-selective deficits in cerebrocortical HC3 binding while elevating ChAT in young adulthood in striatum and midbrain. Nicotine given in adulthood produced profound nAChR upregulation lasting 2 weeks after discontinuing treatment, and decrements in cerebrocortical and striatal HC3 binding emerged during withdrawal, indicative of reduced ACh synaptic activity. For all three parameters, adolescent nicotine altered the responses to nicotine given in adulthood, producing both sensitization and desensitization that depended on sex and brain region, effects that parallel the disparate behavioral outcomes reported for these treatments. The interaction seen here for the impact of adolescent nicotine exposure on adult nicotine responses was substantially greater than that found previously for the effects of prenatal nicotine exposure on adult responses. Our findings thus reinforce the importance of adolescence as a critical period in which the future responsiveness to nicotine is programmed. PMID:18395624

  9. Environmental enrichment extends ocular dominance plasticity into adulthood and protects from stroke-induced impairments of plasticity.

    PubMed

    Greifzu, Franziska; Pielecka-Fortuna, Justyna; Kalogeraki, Evgenia; Krempler, Katja; Favaro, Plinio D; Schlüter, Oliver M; Löwel, Siegrid

    2014-01-21

    Ocular dominance (OD) plasticity in mouse primary visual cortex (V1) declines during postnatal development and is absent beyond postnatal day 110 if mice are raised in standard cages (SCs). An enriched environment (EE) promotes OD plasticity in adult rats. Here, we explored cellular mechanisms of EE in mouse V1 and the therapeutic potential of EE to prevent impairments of plasticity after a cortical stroke. Using in vivo optical imaging, we observed that monocular deprivation in adult EE mice (i) caused a very strong OD plasticity previously only observed in 4-wk-old animals, (ii) restored already lost OD plasticity in adult SC-raised mice, and (iii) preserved OD plasticity after a stroke in the primary somatosensory cortex. Using patch-clamp electrophysiology in vitro, we also show that (iv) local inhibition was significantly reduced in V1 slices of adult EE mice and (v) the GABA/AMPA ratio was like that in 4-wk-old SC-raised animals. These observations were corroborated by in vivo analyses showing that diazepam treatment significantly reduced the OD shift of EE mice after monocular deprivation. Taken together, EE extended the sensitive phase for OD plasticity into late adulthood, rejuvenated V1 after 4 mo of SC-rearing, and protected adult mice from stroke-induced impairments of cortical plasticity. The EE effect was mediated most likely by preserving low juvenile levels of inhibition into adulthood, which potentially promoted adaptive changes in cortical circuits. PMID:24395770

  10. Chronic intermittent toluene inhalation initiated during adolescence in rats does not alter voluntary consumption of ethanol in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Dick, Alec L W; Lawrence, Andrew J; Duncan, Jhodie R

    2014-09-01

    Voluntary inhalation of organic solvents, such as toluene, is particularly prevalent in adolescent populations and is considered to be a contributing factor to substance use and dependence later in life. While inhalants are often the initial "drug" experienced during this period, alcohol is another substance readily abused by adolescent populations. Although both substances are thought to have similar actions within the brain, our understanding of the implications of adolescent inhalant abuse upon subsequent exposure to alcohol remains to be investigated. Thus, this study aimed to assess locomotor responses to acute ethanol and voluntary ethanol consumption following a period of toluene inhalation throughout adolescence/early adulthood. Adolescent male Wistar rats (postnatal day [PN] 27) inhaled air or toluene (3000 ppm) for 1 h/day, 3 days/week for 4 (PN 27-52) or 8 weeks (PN 27-80) to mimic the patterns observed in human inhalant abusers. Following the exposure period, cross-sensitization to acute ethanol challenge (0.5 g/kg, intra-peritoneally [i.p.]), and voluntary consumption of 20% ethanol in a chronic intermittent 2-bottle choice paradigm, were assessed. Hepatic ethanol and acetaldehyde metabolism and liver histopathology were also investigated. Chronic intermittent toluene (CIT) exposure throughout adolescence for up to 8 weeks did not alter the behavioral response to acute ethanol or voluntary consumption of ethanol in adulthood, although an age-dependent effect on ethanol consumption was observed (p<0.05). Both liver function and pathology did not differ between treatment groups. Thus, in the paradigm employed, CIT exposure throughout adolescence and early adulthood did not predispose rats to subsequent locomotor sensitivity or voluntary consumption of ethanol in adulthood.

  11. Postnatal care from an international perspective.

    PubMed

    Steinhauer, Suyai

    2016-01-01

    The postnatal period, defined as beginning with birth and ending after six weeks, is a time of major adaptation at all levels physically, emotionally, socially and psychologically. In the United Kingdom (UK), we put a lot of emphasis on birth preparation and how to look after yourself optimally before the birth, but once the new baby has arrived there is little support or emphasis on self-care. The focus after childbirth is primarily on the baby, with not much thought given to the mother, who is usually discharged from midwifery care on day 10, and whose partner is often back at work after a week or two. In other cultures there is much more emphasis on caring for new mothers, and this article will explore some of the different attitudes and approaches to postnatal care around the world, exploring the postnatal period from an international perspective.

  12. Postnatal care from an international perspective.

    PubMed

    Steinhauer, Suyai

    2016-01-01

    The postnatal period, defined as beginning with birth and ending after six weeks, is a time of major adaptation at all levels physically, emotionally, socially and psychologically. In the United Kingdom (UK), we put a lot of emphasis on birth preparation and how to look after yourself optimally before the birth, but once the new baby has arrived there is little support or emphasis on self-care. The focus after childbirth is primarily on the baby, with not much thought given to the mother, who is usually discharged from midwifery care on day 10, and whose partner is often back at work after a week or two. In other cultures there is much more emphasis on caring for new mothers, and this article will explore some of the different attitudes and approaches to postnatal care around the world, exploring the postnatal period from an international perspective. PMID:27652442

  13. Conceptualizing Transitions to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyn, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of theories of the transition to young adulthood. It sets out the argument for conceptual renewal and discusses some implications of new patterns of transition for adult education.

  14. Minimal behavioral effects from developmental cerebellar stunting in young rats induced by postnatal treatment with alpha-difluoromethylornithine.

    PubMed

    Cada, A M; Gray, E P; Ferguson, S A

    2000-01-01

    Postnatal treatment with alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), a potent inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase, reduces polyamine levels in rats. Because polyamines are critically involved in growth and development, body and/or brain weights are often decreased by DFMO treatment. Here, rats were injected subcutaneously with 0, 250, 500, or 750 mg/kg of DFMO on postnatal days (PNDs) 5-10. Behavioral assessments included righting reflex, negative geotaxis, forelimb hanging, open field activity, and rotarod performance. Additionally, day of eye opening was recorded and on PND 28, whole and regional brain weights were measured. Cerebellar/whole-brain ratio was decreased in a dose-dependent manner whereas frontal cortex/whole-brain ratio was increased. Eye opening was delayed to a similar extent in all treated groups whereas body weight was unaffected. alpha-difluoromethylornithine treatment had no significant effects on the assessed behaviors. These results indicate that 6 days of DFMO treatment can substantially impact cerebellar development, but this appears to have few effects on these early assessed behaviors. However, potential behavioral alterations may not be apparent until adulthood. Published by Elsevier Science Inc.

  15. Early Life Exposure to Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia Primes Increased Susceptibility to Hypoxia-Induced Weakness in Rat Sternohyoid Muscle during Adulthood.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Fiona B; Dempsey, Eugene M; O'Halloran, Ken D

    2016-01-01

    Intermittent hypoxia is a feature of apnea of prematurity (AOP), chronic lung disease, and sleep apnea. Despite the clinical relevance, the long-term effects of hypoxic exposure in early life on respiratory control are not well defined. We recently reported that exposure to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) during postnatal development (pCIH) causes upper airway muscle weakness in both sexes, which persists for several weeks. We sought to examine if there are persistent sex-dependent effects of pCIH on respiratory muscle function into adulthood and/or increased susceptibility to re-exposure to CIH in adulthood in animals previously exposed to CIH during postnatal development. We hypothesized that pCIH would cause long-lasting muscle impairment and increased susceptibility to subsequent hypoxia. Within 24 h of delivery, pups and their respective dams were exposed to CIH: 90 s of hypoxia reaching 5% O2 at nadir; once every 5 min, 8 h per day for 3 weeks. Sham groups were exposed to normoxia in parallel. Three groups were studied: sham; pCIH; and pCIH combined with adult CIH (p+aCIH), where a subset of the pCIH-exposed pups were re-exposed to the same CIH paradigm beginning at 13 weeks. Following gas exposures, sternohyoid and diaphragm muscle isometric contractile and endurance properties were examined ex vivo. There was no apparent lasting effect of pCIH on respiratory muscle function in adults. However, in both males and females, re-exposure to CIH in adulthood in pCIH-exposed animals caused sternohyoid (but not diaphragm) weakness. Exposure to this paradigm of CIH in adulthood alone had no effect on muscle function. Persistent susceptibility in pCIH-exposed airway dilator muscle to subsequent hypoxic insult may have implications for the control of airway patency in adult humans exposed to intermittent hypoxic stress during early life.

  16. Effect of Gestational Exposure of Cypermethrin on Postnatal Development of Brain Cytochrome P450 2D1 and 3A1 and Neurotransmitter Receptors.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anshuman; Mudawal, Anubha; Shukla, Rajendra K; Yadav, Sanjay; Khanna, Vinay K; Sethumadhavan, Rao; Parmar, Devendra

    2015-08-01

    Oral administration of low doses (1.25, 2.5, or 5 mg/kg) of cypermethrin to pregnant Wistar rats from gestation days 5 to 21 led to dose-dependent differences in the induction of cytochrome P450 2D1 (CYP2D1) and 3A1 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein in brain regions isolated from the offsprings postnatally at 3 weeks that persisted up to adulthood (12 weeks). Similar alterations were observed in the expression of GABAergic, muscarinic, dopaminergic, and serotonergic neurotransmitter receptors in brain regions of rat offsprings. Rechallenge of the prenatally exposed offsprings at adulthood (12 weeks old) with cypermethrin (p.o., 10 mg/kg for 6 days) led to a greater magnitude of alterations in the expression of CYPs, neurotransmitter receptors, and neurotransmitter receptor binding in the brain regions when compared to the control offsprings treated at adulthood with cypermethrin or prenatally exposed offsprings. A greater magnitude of decrease was also observed in the spontaneous locomotor activity (SLA) in prenatally exposed offsprings rechallenged with cypermethrin. The present data indicating similarities in the alterations in the expression of CYPs (2D1 and 3A1) and neurotransmitter receptors in brain has led us to suggest that endogenous function regulating CYPs is possibly associated with neurotransmission processes. A greater magnitude of alterations in CYP2D1, 3A1, neurotransmitter receptors, and SLA in rechallenged animals has further provided evidence that alterations in CYPs are possibly linked with neurotransmission processes.

  17. Effect of Gestational Exposure of Cypermethrin on Postnatal Development of Brain Cytochrome P450 2D1 and 3A1 and Neurotransmitter Receptors.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anshuman; Mudawal, Anubha; Shukla, Rajendra K; Yadav, Sanjay; Khanna, Vinay K; Sethumadhavan, Rao; Parmar, Devendra

    2015-08-01

    Oral administration of low doses (1.25, 2.5, or 5 mg/kg) of cypermethrin to pregnant Wistar rats from gestation days 5 to 21 led to dose-dependent differences in the induction of cytochrome P450 2D1 (CYP2D1) and 3A1 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein in brain regions isolated from the offsprings postnatally at 3 weeks that persisted up to adulthood (12 weeks). Similar alterations were observed in the expression of GABAergic, muscarinic, dopaminergic, and serotonergic neurotransmitter receptors in brain regions of rat offsprings. Rechallenge of the prenatally exposed offsprings at adulthood (12 weeks old) with cypermethrin (p.o., 10 mg/kg for 6 days) led to a greater magnitude of alterations in the expression of CYPs, neurotransmitter receptors, and neurotransmitter receptor binding in the brain regions when compared to the control offsprings treated at adulthood with cypermethrin or prenatally exposed offsprings. A greater magnitude of decrease was also observed in the spontaneous locomotor activity (SLA) in prenatally exposed offsprings rechallenged with cypermethrin. The present data indicating similarities in the alterations in the expression of CYPs (2D1 and 3A1) and neurotransmitter receptors in brain has led us to suggest that endogenous function regulating CYPs is possibly associated with neurotransmission processes. A greater magnitude of alterations in CYP2D1, 3A1, neurotransmitter receptors, and SLA in rechallenged animals has further provided evidence that alterations in CYPs are possibly linked with neurotransmission processes. PMID:25288152

  18. Alterations in neonatal neurosteroids affect exploration during adolescence and prepulse inhibition in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Darbra, Sònia; Pallarès, Marc

    2010-05-01

    Allopregnanolone (AlloP) is a neurosteroid that plays an important role during neural development. Alterations of endogenous neonatal allopregnanolone levels alter the localisation and function of GABA neurons in the adult brain and affect behaviour in adulthood. We have carried out research into the effects of an increase (AlloP administration) or a decrease (administration of finasteride, inhibitor of the AlloP synthesis) of neonatal AlloP levels during the fifth to ninth postnatal days in male Wistar rats on the novelty exploration (Boissier test) at adolescent ages (40 and 60 days old), and on the prepulse inhibition achievement in adulthood (85 days). We also investigated the role of a GABA(A) modulator (midazolam, 1, 1.75 or 2.5mg/kg body weight) in the long-lasting behavioural changes in adulthood (85 days). Results indicate that neonatal finasteride decreases both novelty-exploration (head-dipping and locomotion) and anxiety-relevant scores (the distance travelled in and the number of entries into the central zone) at adolescent age, along with a reduction in body weight and general locomotion. Also, neonatal AlloP administration decreases prepulse inhibition in adulthood. Prepulse inhibition disruption was only partially reproduced decreasing the neonatal AlloP levels by means of finasteride administration. Although there was no interaction between neonatal neurosteroid manipulation and adult benzodiazepine treatments, the effects of midazolam were dose-dependent: the lowest dose of midazolam increased whereas the highest disrupted the expected progressive reduction of the startle response (and the consequent improvement of the PPI percentage) after the gradual increase in prepulse intensity. Reduced prepulse inhibition of startle provides evidence of deficient sensorimotor gating in several disorders, including schizophrenia. Alterations of AlloP levels during maturation could partly explain the inter-individual differences shown by adult subjects in

  19. Separate or sequential exposure to nicotine prenatally and in adulthood: persistent effects on acetylcholine systems in rat brain regions.

    PubMed

    Slotkin, Theodore A; Ryde, Ian T; Seidler, Frederic J

    2007-09-14

    Nicotine is a developmental neurotoxicant but the proposed "sensitization-homeostasis" model postulates that even in adulthood nicotine permanently reprograms synaptic function. We administered nicotine to rats throughout gestation or in adulthood (postnatal days PN90-107), simulating plasma levels in smokers, with evaluations on PN105, PN110, PN120, PN130 and PN180. We assessed nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) binding, choline acetyltransferase activity, a marker for acetylcholine (ACh) terminals, and hemicholinium-3 (HC3) binding to the choline transporter, an index of ACh presynaptic activity. Prenatal nicotine exposure elicited persistent deficits in HC3 binding in male cerebral cortex and female striatum, but little change in other parameters. Nicotine given in adulthood produced profound nAChR upregulation lasting 2 weeks after discontinuing treatment. Decrements in cerebrocortical and striatal HC3 binding emerged during withdrawal and persisted through PN180, indicative of reduced ACh synaptic activity. Prenatal nicotine did not evoke any major alterations in the response to nicotine given in adulthood. The effects seen here are substantially different from those found previously for nicotine given to adolescent rats, which showed more prolonged nAChR upregulation and profound, widespread and persistent deficits in markers of ACh synaptic function; for adolescents, prenatal nicotine exposure desensitized nAChR responses, exacerbated withdrawal-induced ACh functional deficits, and worsened the long-term outcome. Our results indicate that the effects of nicotine during prenatal or adolescent stages are indeed distinct from the effects in adults, but that even adults show persistent changes after nicotine exposure, commensurate with the sensitization-homeostasis model. These effects may contribute to lifelong vulnerability to readdiction.

  20. Sibling Relationships in Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Billie H.

    This document contains a brief bibliography of peer-reviewed literature, with abstracts, on sibling relationships in adulthood. It is one of 12 bibliographies on aging prepared by the National Agricultural Library for its "Pathfinders" series of publications. Topics covered by the other 11 bibliographies include aging parents, adult children,…

  1. The Reinforcing Properties of Ethanol are Quantitatively Enhanced in Adulthood by Peri-Adolescent Ethanol, but not Saccharin, Consumption in Female Alcohol-Preferring (P) Rats

    PubMed Central

    Toalston, Jamie E.; Deehan, Gerald A.; Hauser, Sheketha R.; Engleman, Eric A.; Bell, Richard L.; Murphy, James M.; McBride, William J.; Rodd, Zachary A.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol drinking during adolescence is associated in adulthood with heavier alcohol drinking and an increased rate of alcohol dependence. Past research in our laboratory has indicated that peri-adolescent ethanol consumption can enhance the acquisition and reduce the rate of extinction of ethanol self-administration in adulthood. Caveats of the past research include reinforcer specificity, increased oral consumption during peri-adolescence, and a lack of quantitative assessment of the reinforcing properties of ethanol. The current experiments were designed to determine the effects of peri-adolescent ethanol or saccharin drinking on acquisition and extinction of oral ethanol self-administration and ethanol seeking, and to quantitatively assess the reinforcing properties of ethanol (progressive ratio). Ethanol or saccharin access by alcohol-preferring (P) rats occurred during postnatal day (PND) 30–60. Animals began operant self-administration of ethanol or saccharin after PND 85. After 10 weeks of daily operant self-administration, rats were tested in a progressive ratio paradigm. Two weeks later, self-administration was extinguished in all rats. Peri-adolescent ethanol consumption specifically enhanced the acquisition of ethanol self-administration, reduced the rate of extinction for ethanol self-administration, and quantitatively increased the reinforcing properties of ethanol during adulthood. Peri-adolescent saccharin consumption was without effect. The data indicate that ethanol consumption during peri-adolescence results in neuroadaptations that may specifically enhance the reinforcing properties of ethanol during adulthood. This increase in the reinforcing properties of ethanol could be a part of biological sequelae that are the basis for the effects of adolescent alcohol consumption on the increase in the rate of alcoholism during adulthood. PMID:26074425

  2. The reinforcing properties of ethanol are quantitatively enhanced in adulthood by peri-adolescent ethanol, but not saccharin, consumption in female alcohol-preferring (P) rats.

    PubMed

    Toalston, Jamie E; Deehan, Gerald A; Hauser, Sheketha R; Engleman, Eric A; Bell, Richard L; Murphy, James M; McBride, William J; Rodd, Zachary A

    2015-08-01

    Alcohol drinking during adolescence is associated in adulthood with heavier alcohol drinking and an increased rate of alcohol dependence. Past research in our laboratory has indicated that peri-adolescent ethanol consumption can enhance the acquisition and reduce the rate of extinction of ethanol self-administration in adulthood. Caveats of the past research include reinforcer specificity, increased oral consumption during peri-adolescence, and a lack of quantitative assessment of the reinforcing properties of ethanol. The current experiments were designed to determine the effects of peri-adolescent ethanol or saccharin drinking on acquisition and extinction of oral ethanol self-administration and ethanol seeking, and to quantitatively assess the reinforcing properties of ethanol (progressive ratio). Ethanol or saccharin access by alcohol-preferring (P) rats occurred during postnatal day (PND) 30-60. Animals began operant self-administration of ethanol or saccharin after PND 85. After 10 weeks of daily operant self-administration, rats were tested in a progressive ratio paradigm. Two weeks later, self-administration was extinguished in all rats. Peri-adolescent ethanol consumption specifically enhanced the acquisition of ethanol self-administration, reduced the rate of extinction for ethanol self-administration, and quantitatively increased the reinforcing properties of ethanol during adulthood. Peri-adolescent saccharin consumption was without effect. The data indicate that ethanol consumption during peri-adolescence results in neuroadaptations that may specifically enhance the reinforcing properties of ethanol during adulthood. This increase in the reinforcing properties of ethanol could be a part of biological sequelae that are the basis for the effects of adolescent alcohol consumption on the increase in the rate of alcoholism during adulthood.

  3. Prenatal nicotine alters the developmental neurotoxicity of postnatal chlorpyrifos directed toward cholinergic systems: better, worse, or just "different?".

    PubMed

    Slotkin, Theodore A; Seidler, Frederic J

    2015-01-01

    This study examines whether prenatal nicotine exposure sensitizes the developing brain to subsequent developmental neurotoxicity evoked by chlorpyrifos, a commonly-used insecticide. We gave nicotine to pregnant rats throughout gestation at a dose (3mg/kg/day) producing plasma levels typical of smokers; offspring were then given chlorpyrifos on postnatal days 1-4, at a dose (1mg/kg) that produces minimally-detectable inhibition of brain cholinesterase activity. We evaluated indices for acetylcholine (ACh) synaptic function throughout adolescence, young adulthood and later adulthood, in brain regions possessing the majority of ACh projections and cell bodies; we measured nicotinic ACh receptor binding, hemicholinium-3 binding to the presynaptic choline transporter and choline acetyltransferase activity, all known targets for the adverse developmental effects of nicotine and chlorpyrifos given individually. By itself nicotine elicited overall upregulation of the ACh markers, albeit with selective differences by sex, region and age. Likewise, chlorpyrifos alone had highly sex-selective effects. Importantly, all the effects showed temporal progression between adolescence and adulthood, pointing to ongoing synaptic changes rather than just persistence after an initial injury. Prenatal nicotine administration altered the responses to chlorpyrifos in a consistent pattern for all three markers, lowering values relative to those of the individual treatments or to those expected from simple additive effects of nicotine and chlorpyrifos. The combination produced global interference with emergence of the ACh phenotype, an effect not seen with nicotine or chlorpyrifos alone. Given that human exposures to nicotine and chlorpyrifos are widespread, our results point to the creation of a subpopulation with heightened vulnerability.

  4. Prenatal nicotine alters the developmental neurotoxicity of postnatal chlorpyrifos directed toward cholinergic systems: better, worse, or just "different?".

    PubMed

    Slotkin, Theodore A; Seidler, Frederic J

    2015-01-01

    This study examines whether prenatal nicotine exposure sensitizes the developing brain to subsequent developmental neurotoxicity evoked by chlorpyrifos, a commonly-used insecticide. We gave nicotine to pregnant rats throughout gestation at a dose (3mg/kg/day) producing plasma levels typical of smokers; offspring were then given chlorpyrifos on postnatal days 1-4, at a dose (1mg/kg) that produces minimally-detectable inhibition of brain cholinesterase activity. We evaluated indices for acetylcholine (ACh) synaptic function throughout adolescence, young adulthood and later adulthood, in brain regions possessing the majority of ACh projections and cell bodies; we measured nicotinic ACh receptor binding, hemicholinium-3 binding to the presynaptic choline transporter and choline acetyltransferase activity, all known targets for the adverse developmental effects of nicotine and chlorpyrifos given individually. By itself nicotine elicited overall upregulation of the ACh markers, albeit with selective differences by sex, region and age. Likewise, chlorpyrifos alone had highly sex-selective effects. Importantly, all the effects showed temporal progression between adolescence and adulthood, pointing to ongoing synaptic changes rather than just persistence after an initial injury. Prenatal nicotine administration altered the responses to chlorpyrifos in a consistent pattern for all three markers, lowering values relative to those of the individual treatments or to those expected from simple additive effects of nicotine and chlorpyrifos. The combination produced global interference with emergence of the ACh phenotype, an effect not seen with nicotine or chlorpyrifos alone. Given that human exposures to nicotine and chlorpyrifos are widespread, our results point to the creation of a subpopulation with heightened vulnerability. PMID:25510202

  5. Prenatal nicotine changes the response to postnatal chlorpyrifos: Interactions targeting serotonergic synaptic function and cognition.

    PubMed

    Slotkin, Theodore A; Skavicus, Samantha; Levin, Edward D; Seidler, Frederic J

    2015-02-01

    Nicotine and chlorpyrifos are developmental neurotoxicants that target serotonin systems. We examined whether prenatal nicotine exposure alters the subsequent response to chlorpyrifos given postnatally. Pregnant rats received nicotine throughout gestation at 3mg/kg/day, a regimen designed to achieve plasma levels seen in smokers; chlorpyrifos was given to pups on postnatal days (PN) 1-4 at 1mg/kg, just above the detection threshold for brain cholinesterase inhibition. We assessed long-term effects from adolescence (PN30) through full adulthood (PN150), measuring the expression of serotonin receptors and serotonin turnover (index of presynaptic impulse activity) in cerebrocortical brain regions encompassing the projections that are known targets for nicotine and chlorpyrifos. Nicotine or chlorpyrifos individually increased the expression of serotonin receptors, with greater effects on males than on females and with distinct temporal and regional patterns indicative of adaptive synaptic changes rather than simply an extension of initial injury. This interpretation was confirmed by our finding an increase in serotonin turnover, connoting presynaptic serotonergic hyperactivity. Animals receiving the combined treatment showed a reduction in these adaptive effects on receptor binding and turnover relative to the individual agents, or even an effect in the opposite direction; further, normal sex differences in serotonin receptor concentrations were dissipated or reversed, an effect that was confirmed by behavioral evaluations in the Novel Objection Recognition Test. In addition to the known liabilities associated with maternal smoking during pregnancy, our results point to additional costs in the form of heightened vulnerability to neurotoxic chemicals encountered later in life. PMID:25592617

  6. Interaction of naltrexone with postnatal administration of testosterone and estrogen on neurobehavioral sexual differentiation in rats.

    PubMed

    McGivern, R F; Henschel, D M

    1990-03-01

    The present study examined whether some effects of gonadal sex hormones on neurobehavioral sexual differentiation might be mediated by endogenous opioids. Male and female pups were administered sesame oil, testosterone propionate (TP; 25 micrograms) or estradiol benzoate (EB; 10 micrograms) on postnatal Days 2 and 3. Half of each group was also administered naltrexone (N; 50 micrograms) twice daily on these two days. Females were studied for effects of the treatments on puberty. Males and females were studied in adulthood for open field behavior, daily water intake, and saccharin consumption and preference for 0.125, 0.25, and 0.50% saccharin solutions. TP treatment significantly delayed the date of vaginal opening, whereas EB treatment significantly accelerated the date. N treatment potentiated this effect of TP, but had no effect in EB treated females, nor did it influence the anovulatory sterility produced by both hormone treatments. N treatment alone had no effect on puberty in females or open field behavior of either sex. The drug produced an overall increase in female saccharin consumption and preference, but no effect was observed in males on these measures. Both TP and EB treatment produced marked increases in daily water consumption in females, an effect which was significantly attenuated by N treatment. Effects of both hormones on saccharin consumption were sex dependent and partially antagonized by N treatment. Finally, we observed a sex difference in daily water intake wherein females were found to consume approximately 20% more water on a body weight basis in a 24-hr period than males. Postnatal TP and EB treatment increased adult daily water consumption in females above the level of controls. This increase was partially antagonized by N. Treatment with N alone had no effect on female water consumption, but produced a small decrease in male consumption. Overall, these results provide preliminary evidence that some organizational effects of TP and EB on

  7. Disentangling prenatal and postnatal maternal genetic effects reveals persistent prenatal effects on offspring growth in mice.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Jason B; Leamy, Larry J; Roseman, Charles C; Cheverud, James M

    2011-11-01

    Mothers are often the most important determinant of traits expressed by their offspring. These "maternal effects" (MEs) are especially crucial in early development, but can also persist into adulthood. They have been shown to play a role in a diversity of evolutionary and ecological processes, especially when genetically based. Although the importance of MEs is becoming widely appreciated, we know little about their underlying genetic basis. We address the dearth of genetic data by providing a simple approach, using combined genotype information from parents and offspring, to identify "maternal genetic effects" (MGEs) contributing to natural variation in complex traits. Combined with experimental cross-fostering, our approach also allows for the separation of pre- and postnatal MGEs, providing rare insights into prenatal effects. Applying this approach to an experimental mouse population, we identified 13 ME loci affecting body weight, most of which (12/13) exhibited prenatal effects, and nearly half (6/13) exhibiting postnatal effects. MGEs contributed more to variation in body weight than the direct effects of the offsprings' own genotypes until mice reached adulthood, but continued to represent a major component of variation through adulthood. Prenatal effects always contributed more variation than postnatal effects, especially for those effects that persisted into adulthood. These results suggest that MGEs may be an important component of genetic architecture that is generally overlooked in studies focused on direct mapping from genotype to phenotype. Our approach can be used in both experimental and natural populations, providing a widely practicable means of expanding our understanding of MGEs.

  8. Hypoxia-Induced Developmental Delays of Inhibitory Interneurons Are Reversed by Environmental Enrichment in the Postnatal Mouse Forebrain

    PubMed Central

    Komitova, Mila; Xenos, Dionysios; Salmaso, Natalina; May Tran, Kathy; Brand, Theresa; Schwartz, Michael L.; Ment, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Infants born premature experience hypoxic episodes due to immaturity of their respiratory and central nervous systems. This profoundly affects brain development and results in cognitive impairments. We used a mouse model to examine the impact of hypoxic rearing (9.5–10.5% O2) from postnatal day 3 to 11 (P3–P11) on GABAergic interneurons and the potential for environmental enrichment to ameliorate these developmental abnormalities. At P15 the numbers of cortical interneurons expressing immunohistochemically detectable levels of parvalbumin (PV), somatostatin (SST), and vasoactive intestinal peptide were decreased in hypoxic-reared mice by 59%, 32%, and 38%, respectively, compared with normoxic controls. Hypoxia also decreased total GABA content in frontal neocortex by 31%. However, GAD67-EGFP knock-in mice reared under hypoxic conditions showed no changes in total number of GAD67-EGFP+ cells and no evidence of increased interneuron death, suggesting that the total number of interneurons was not decreased, but rather, that hypoxic-rearing decreased interneuron marker expression in these cells. In adulthood, PV and SST expression levels were decreased in hypoxic-reared mice. In contrast, intensity of reelin (RLN) expression was significantly increased in adult hypoxic-reared mice compared with normoxic controls. Housing mice in an enriched environment from P21 until adulthood normalized phenotypic interneuron marker expression without affecting total interneuron numbers or leading to increased neurogenesis. Our data show that (1) hypoxia decreases PV and SST and increases RLN expression in cortical interneurons during postnatal cortical development and (2) enriched environment has the capacity to normalize the interneuron abnormalities in cortex. PMID:23946395

  9. Neonatal Colonization of Mice with LGG Promotes Intestinal Development and Decreases Susceptibility to Colitis in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Fang; Liu, Liping; Cao, Hailong; Moore, Daniel J.; Washington, M. Kay; Wang, Bangmao; Peek, Richard M.; Acra, Sari A.; Polk, D. Brent

    2016-01-01

    Development of the intestinal microbiota during early life serves a key regulatory stage in establishing the host-microbial relationship. This symbiotic relationship contributes to developing host immunity and maintaining health throughout the life span. This study was to develop an approach to colonize conventionally raised mice with a model probiotic bacterium, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), and determine the effects of LGG colonization on intestinal development and prevention of colitis in adulthood. LGG colonization in conventionally raised was established by administering LGG to pregnant mice starting at gestational day 18 and pups at postnatal day 1 to day 5. LGG colonization promoted bodyweight gain and increased diversity and richness of the colonic mucosa-associated microbiota prior to weaning. Intestinal epithelial cell proliferation, differentiation, tight junction formation and mucosal IgA production were all significantly enhanced in LGG colonized mice. Adult mice colonized with LGG showed increased IgA production and decreased susceptibility to intestinal injury and inflammation induced in the dextran sodium sulphate model of colitis. Thus, neonatal colonization of mice with LGG enhances intestinal functional maturation and IgA production and confers life long health consequences on protection from intestinal injury and inflammation. This strategy might be applied for benefiting health in the host. PMID:27095077

  10. Early influences of nutrition on postnatal growth.

    PubMed

    Koletzko, Berthold; Beyer, Jeanette; Brands, Brigitte; Demmelmair, Hans; Grote, Veit; Haile, Gudrun; Gruszfeld, Dariusz; Rzehak, Peter; Socha, Piotr; Weber, Martina

    2013-01-01

    Health and nutrition modulate postnatal growth. The availability of amino acids and energy, and insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) regulates early growth through the mTOR pathway. Amino acids and glucose also stimulate the secretion of IGF-I and insulin. Postnatal growth induces lasting, programming effects on later body size and adiposity in animals and in human observational studies. Rapid weight gain in infancy and the first 2 years was shown to predict increased obesity risk in childhood and adulthood. Breastfeeding leads to lesser high weight gain in infancy and reduces obesity risk in later life by about 20%, presumably partly due to the lower protein supply with human milk than conventional infant formula. In a large randomized clinical trial, we tested the hypothesis that reduced infant formula protein contents lower insulin-releasing amino acid concentrations and thereby decrease circulating insulin and IGF-I levels, resulting in lesser early weight gain and reduced later obesity risk (the 'Early Protein Hypothesis'). The results demonstrate that lowered protein in infant formula induces similar - but not equal - metabolic and endocrine responses and normalizes weight and BMI relative to breastfed controls at the age of 2 years. The results available should lead to enhanced efforts to actively promote, protect and support breastfeeding. For infants that are not breastfed or not fully breastfed, the use of infant formulas with lower protein contents but high protein quality appears preferable. Cows' milk as a drink provides high protein intake and should be avoided in infancy.

  11. Early influences of nutrition on postnatal growth.

    PubMed

    Koletzko, Berthold; Beyer, Jeanette; Brands, Brigitte; Demmelmair, Hans; Grote, Veit; Haile, Gudrun; Gruszfeld, Dariusz; Rzehak, Peter; Socha, Piotr; Weber, Martina

    2013-01-01

    Health and nutrition modulate postnatal growth. The availability of amino acids and energy, and insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) regulates early growth through the mTOR pathway. Amino acids and glucose also stimulate the secretion of IGF-I and insulin. Postnatal growth induces lasting, programming effects on later body size and adiposity in animals and in human observational studies. Rapid weight gain in infancy and the first 2 years was shown to predict increased obesity risk in childhood and adulthood. Breastfeeding leads to lesser high weight gain in infancy and reduces obesity risk in later life by about 20%, presumably partly due to the lower protein supply with human milk than conventional infant formula. In a large randomized clinical trial, we tested the hypothesis that reduced infant formula protein contents lower insulin-releasing amino acid concentrations and thereby decrease circulating insulin and IGF-I levels, resulting in lesser early weight gain and reduced later obesity risk (the 'Early Protein Hypothesis'). The results demonstrate that lowered protein in infant formula induces similar - but not equal - metabolic and endocrine responses and normalizes weight and BMI relative to breastfed controls at the age of 2 years. The results available should lead to enhanced efforts to actively promote, protect and support breastfeeding. For infants that are not breastfed or not fully breastfed, the use of infant formulas with lower protein contents but high protein quality appears preferable. Cows' milk as a drink provides high protein intake and should be avoided in infancy. PMID:23502135

  12. Maternal Separation Induces Orofacial Mechanical Allodynia in Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, M; Shinoda, M; Honda, K; Fujita, M; Kawata, A; Nagashima, H; Watanabe, M; Shoji, N; Takahashi, O; Kimoto, S; Iwata, K

    2016-09-01

    It is well known that exposure to maternal separation (MS) in early life causes plastic changes in the nervous system in adulthood, occasionally resulting in ubiquitous chronic pain. However, the pathogenic mechanisms of pain hypersensitivity remain unclear. Here, the authors examined the involvement of corticosterone in orofacial mechanical hypersensitivity induced by MS. To establish a rat model of MS, pups were placed in isolated cages 180 min/d and kept in a temperature-controlled environment at 22 ± 2 °C for 14 d. Mechanical allodynia in the whisker pad skin in adulthood was induced by MS and was significantly suppressed by successive postnatal subcutaneous administration of the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist mifepristone. Corticosterone levels were increased in the serum of MS rats, and successive postnatal administration of subcutaneous corticosterone to naive rats induced mechanical allodynia in the whisker pad skin. The number of P2X3 receptor-immunoreactive (P2X3R-IR) trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons innervating the whisker pad skin was significantly increased in MS rats and decreased following subcutaneous administration of mifepristone. The number of P2X3R-IR TG neurons innervating the whisker pad skin was also significantly increased following successive postnatal administration of subcutaneous corticosterone in naive rats. Moreover, the mechanical allodynia was suppressed 30 min after administration of the P2X3R antagonist A317491 to the whisker pad skin in MS rats. These findings suggest that the increase in P2X3R-IR TG neurons innervating the whisker pad skin via enhanced neonatal corticosterone signaling by MS plays an important role in orofacial mechanical allodynia in adulthood.

  13. Maternal Separation Induces Orofacial Mechanical Allodynia in Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, M; Shinoda, M; Honda, K; Fujita, M; Kawata, A; Nagashima, H; Watanabe, M; Shoji, N; Takahashi, O; Kimoto, S; Iwata, K

    2016-09-01

    It is well known that exposure to maternal separation (MS) in early life causes plastic changes in the nervous system in adulthood, occasionally resulting in ubiquitous chronic pain. However, the pathogenic mechanisms of pain hypersensitivity remain unclear. Here, the authors examined the involvement of corticosterone in orofacial mechanical hypersensitivity induced by MS. To establish a rat model of MS, pups were placed in isolated cages 180 min/d and kept in a temperature-controlled environment at 22 ± 2 °C for 14 d. Mechanical allodynia in the whisker pad skin in adulthood was induced by MS and was significantly suppressed by successive postnatal subcutaneous administration of the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist mifepristone. Corticosterone levels were increased in the serum of MS rats, and successive postnatal administration of subcutaneous corticosterone to naive rats induced mechanical allodynia in the whisker pad skin. The number of P2X3 receptor-immunoreactive (P2X3R-IR) trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons innervating the whisker pad skin was significantly increased in MS rats and decreased following subcutaneous administration of mifepristone. The number of P2X3R-IR TG neurons innervating the whisker pad skin was also significantly increased following successive postnatal administration of subcutaneous corticosterone in naive rats. Moreover, the mechanical allodynia was suppressed 30 min after administration of the P2X3R antagonist A317491 to the whisker pad skin in MS rats. These findings suggest that the increase in P2X3R-IR TG neurons innervating the whisker pad skin via enhanced neonatal corticosterone signaling by MS plays an important role in orofacial mechanical allodynia in adulthood. PMID:27474258

  14. Consequences of ethanol exposure on cued and contextual fear conditioning and extinction differ depending on timing of exposure during adolescence or adulthood.

    PubMed

    Broadwater, Margaret; Spear, Linda P

    2013-11-01

    Some evidence suggests that adolescents are more sensitive than adults to ethanol-induced cognitive deficits and that these effects may be long-lasting. The purpose of Exp 1 was to determine if early-mid adolescent [postnatal day (P) 28-48] intermittent ethanol exposure would affect later learning and memory in a Pavlovian fear conditioning paradigm differently than comparable exposures in adulthood (P70-90). In Exp 2 animals were exposed to ethanol during mid-late adolescence (P35-55) to assess whether age of initiation within the adolescent period would influence learning and memory differentially. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given 4 g/kg i.g. ethanol (25%) or water every 48 h for a total of 11 exposures. After a 22 day non-ethanol period, animals were fear conditioned to a context (relatively hippocampal-dependent task) or tone (amygdala-dependent task), followed by retention tests and extinction (mPFC-dependent) of this conditioning. Despite similar acquisition, a deficit in context fear retention was evident in animals exposed to ethanol in early adolescence, an effect not observed after a comparable ethanol exposure in mid-late adolescence or adulthood. In contrast, animals that were exposed to ethanol in mid-late adolescence or adulthood showed enhanced resistance to context extinction. Together these findings suggest that repeated ethanol imparts long-lasting consequences on learning and memory, with outcomes that differ depending on age of exposure. These results may reflect differential influence of ethanol on the brain as it changes throughout ontogeny and may have implications for alcohol use not only throughout the developmental period of adolescence, but also in adulthood.

  15. Maternal Deprivation of Lewis Rat Pups Increases the Severity of Experi-mental Periodontitis in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Breivik, Torbjørn; Gundersen, Yngvar; Murison, Robert; Turner, Jonathan D; Muller, Claude P; Gjermo, Per; Opstad, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Early life adverse events may influence susceptibility/resistance to chronic inflammatory diseases later in life by permanently dysregulating brain-controlled immune-regulatory systems. We have investigated the impact of infant-mother separation during early postnatal life on the severity of experimental periodontitis, as well as systemic stress and immune responses, in adulthood. Material and Methods: Pups of periodontitis resistant Lewis rats were separated from their mothers for 3 h daily during postnatal days 2-14 (termed maternal deprivation; MD), separated for 15 min daily during the same time period (termed handling; HD), or left undisturbed. As adults, their behaviour was tested in a novel stressful situation, and ligature-induced periodontitis applied for 21 days. Two h before sacrifice all rats were exposed to a gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge to induce a robust immune and stress response. Results: Compared to undisturbed controls, MD rats developed significantly more periodontal bone loss as adults, whereas HD rats showed a tendency to less disease. MD and HD rats exhibited depression-like behaviour in a novel open field test, while MD rats showed higher glucocorticoid receptor (Gr) expression in the hippocampus, and HD rats had altered methylation of genes involved in the expression of hippocampal Gr. LPS provoked a significantly lower increase in circulating levels of the cytokine TGF-1β in MD and HD rats, but there were no significant differences in levels of the stress hormone corticosterone. Conclusion: Stressful environmental exposures in very early life may alter immune responses in a manner that influences susceptibility/resistance to periodontitis. PMID:25713634

  16. Spatiotemporal dynamics of the postnatal developing primate brain transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Bakken, Trygve E; Miller, Jeremy A; Luo, Rui; Bernard, Amy; Bennett, Jeffrey L; Lee, Chang-Kyu; Bertagnolli, Darren; Parikshak, Neelroop N; Smith, Kimberly A; Sunkin, Susan M; Amaral, David G; Geschwind, Daniel H; Lein, Ed S

    2015-08-01

    Developmental changes in the temporal and spatial regulation of gene expression drive the emergence of normal mature brain function, while disruptions in these processes underlie many neurodevelopmental abnormalities. To solidify our foundational knowledge of such changes in a primate brain with an extended period of postnatal maturation like in human, we investigated the whole-genome transcriptional profiles of rhesus monkey brains from birth to adulthood. We found that gene expression dynamics are largest from birth through infancy, after which gene expression profiles transition to a relatively stable state by young adulthood. Biological pathway enrichment analysis revealed that genes more highly expressed at birth are associated with cell adhesion and neuron differentiation, while genes more highly expressed in juveniles and adults are associated with cell death. Neocortex showed significantly greater differential expression over time than subcortical structures, and this trend likely reflects the protracted postnatal development of the cortex. Using network analysis, we identified 27 co-expression modules containing genes with highly correlated expression patterns that are associated with specific brain regions, ages or both. In particular, one module with high expression in neonatal cortex and striatum that decreases during infancy and juvenile development was significantly enriched for autism spectrum disorder (ASD)-related genes. This network was enriched for genes associated with axon guidance and interneuron differentiation, consistent with a disruption in the formation of functional cortical circuitry in ASD.

  17. Spatiotemporal dynamics of the postnatal developing primate brain transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Bakken, Trygve E.; Miller, Jeremy A.; Luo, Rui; Bernard, Amy; Bennett, Jeffrey L.; Lee, Chang-Kyu; Bertagnolli, Darren; Parikshak, Neelroop N.; Smith, Kimberly A.; Sunkin, Susan M.; Amaral, David G.; Geschwind, Daniel H.; Lein, Ed S.

    2015-01-01

    Developmental changes in the temporal and spatial regulation of gene expression drive the emergence of normal mature brain function, while disruptions in these processes underlie many neurodevelopmental abnormalities. To solidify our foundational knowledge of such changes in a primate brain with an extended period of postnatal maturation like in human, we investigated the whole-genome transcriptional profiles of rhesus monkey brains from birth to adulthood. We found that gene expression dynamics are largest from birth through infancy, after which gene expression profiles transition to a relatively stable state by young adulthood. Biological pathway enrichment analysis revealed that genes more highly expressed at birth are associated with cell adhesion and neuron differentiation, while genes more highly expressed in juveniles and adults are associated with cell death. Neocortex showed significantly greater differential expression over time than subcortical structures, and this trend likely reflects the protracted postnatal development of the cortex. Using network analysis, we identified 27 co-expression modules containing genes with highly correlated expression patterns that are associated with specific brain regions, ages or both. In particular, one module with high expression in neonatal cortex and striatum that decreases during infancy and juvenile development was significantly enriched for autism spectrum disorder (ASD)-related genes. This network was enriched for genes associated with axon guidance and interneuron differentiation, consistent with a disruption in the formation of functional cortical circuitry in ASD. PMID:25954031

  18. Oxidative stress in ventral prostate, ovary, and breast by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in pre- and postnatal exposed rats.

    PubMed

    Pochettino, Aristides A; Bongiovanni, Bettina; Duffard, Ricardo O; Evangelista de Duffard, Ana María

    2013-01-01

    The herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) has been widely used in agriculture and forestry since the 1940s. 2,4-D has been shown to produce a wide range of adverse effects-from embryotoxicity and teratogenicity to neurotoxicity-on animal and human health. The purpose of this study was to determine the possible effects of pre- and postnatal exposure to 2,4-D on oxidative stress in ventral prostate, ovary and breast. Pregnant rats were daily exposed to oral doses of 70 mg/kg/day of 2,4-D from 16 days of gestation up to 23 days after delivery. Then, the pups were sacrificed by decapitation at postnatal day (PND) 45, 60, or 90. Antioxidant enzyme activities and some parameters of the oxidative stress were assessed in ventral prostate, breast, and ovary. Results show that 2,4-D produced three different effects. First, it increased the concentration of some radical oxygen species and the rates of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation in ventral prostate, thereby causing oxidative stress at all ages studied. Although an increase in the activity of some antioxidant enzymes was detected, this seemed to have been not enough to counteract the oxidative stress. Second, 2,4-D promoted the oxidative stress in the breasts, mainly during puberty and adulthood, probably because the developing gland is more sensitive to xenobiotics than the adult organ. Third, 2,4-D altered the activity of some antioxidant enzymes and increased lipid peroxide concentration in the ovary. This effect could reflect the variety of ovarian cell types and their different responses to endocrine changes during development.

  19. [Food allergy in adulthood].

    PubMed

    Werfel, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Food allergies can newly arise in adulthood or persist following a food allergy occurring in childhood. The prevalence of primary food allergy is basically higher in children than in adults; however, in the routine practice food allergies in adulthood appear to be increasing and after all a prevalence in Germany of 3.7 % has been published. The clinical spectrum of manifestations of food allergies in adulthood is broad. Allergy symptoms of the immediate type can be observed as well as symptoms occurring after a delay, such as indigestion, triggering of hematogenous contact eczema or flares of atopic dermatitis. The same principles for diagnostics apply in this group as in childhood. In addition to the anamnesis, skin tests and in vitro tests, as a rule elimination diets and in particular provocation tests are employed. Molecular allergy diagnostics represent a major step forward, which allow a better assessment of the risk of systemic reactions to certain foodstuffs (e.g. peanuts) and detection of cross-reactions in cases of apparently multiple sensitivities. Current German and European guidelines from 2015 are available for the practical approach to clarification of food allergies. The most frequent food allergies in adults are nuts, fruit and vegetables, which can cross-react with pollen as well as wheat, shellfish and crustaceans. The therapy of allergies involves a consistent avoidance of the allogen. Detailed dietary plans are available with avoidance strategies and instructions for suitable food substitutes. A detailed counseling of affected patients by specially trained personnel is necessary especially in order to avoid nutritional deficiencies and to enable patients to enjoy a good quality of life. PMID:27207694

  20. [Food allergy in adulthood].

    PubMed

    Werfel, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Food allergies can newly arise in adulthood or persist following a food allergy occurring in childhood. The prevalence of primary food allergy is basically higher in children than in adults; however, in the routine practice food allergies in adulthood appear to be increasing and after all a prevalence in Germany of 3.7 % has been published. The clinical spectrum of manifestations of food allergies in adulthood is broad. Allergy symptoms of the immediate type can be observed as well as symptoms occurring after a delay, such as indigestion, triggering of hematogenous contact eczema or flares of atopic dermatitis. The same principles for diagnostics apply in this group as in childhood. In addition to the anamnesis, skin tests and in vitro tests, as a rule elimination diets and in particular provocation tests are employed. Molecular allergy diagnostics represent a major step forward, which allow a better assessment of the risk of systemic reactions to certain foodstuffs (e.g. peanuts) and detection of cross-reactions in cases of apparently multiple sensitivities. Current German and European guidelines from 2015 are available for the practical approach to clarification of food allergies. The most frequent food allergies in adults are nuts, fruit and vegetables, which can cross-react with pollen as well as wheat, shellfish and crustaceans. The therapy of allergies involves a consistent avoidance of the allogen. Detailed dietary plans are available with avoidance strategies and instructions for suitable food substitutes. A detailed counseling of affected patients by specially trained personnel is necessary especially in order to avoid nutritional deficiencies and to enable patients to enjoy a good quality of life.

  1. Postnatal establishment of allelic Gαs silencing as a plausible explanation for delayed onset of parathyroid hormone-resistance due to heterozygous Gαs disruption

    PubMed Central

    Turan, Serap; Fernandez-Rebollo, Eduardo; Aydin, Cumhur; Zoto, Teuta; Reyes, Monica; Bounoutas, George; Chen, Min; Weinstein, Lee S.; Erben, Reinhold G.; Marshansky, Vladimir; Bastepe, Murat

    2013-01-01

    Pseudohypoparathyroidism type-Ia (PHP-Ia), characterized by renal proximal tubular resistance to parathyroid hormone (PTH), results from maternal mutations of GNAS that lead to loss of Gαs activity. Gαs expression is paternally silenced in the renal proximal tubule, and this genomic event is critical for the development of PTH-resistance, as patients display impaired hormone action only if the mutation is inherited maternally. The primary clinical finding of PHP-Ia is hypocalcemia, which can lead to various neuromuscular defects including seizures. PHP-Ia patients frequently do not present with hypocalcemia until after infancy, but it has remained uncertain whether PTH-resistance occurs in a delayed fashion. Analyzing reported cases of PHP-Ia with documented GNAS mutations and mice heterozygous for disruption of Gnas, we herein determined that the manifestation of PTH-resistance caused by the maternal loss of Gαs, i.e. hypocalcemia and elevated serum PTH, occurs after early postnatal life. To investigate whether this delay could reflect gradual development of paternal Gαs silencing, we then analyzed renal proximal tubules isolated by laser capture microdissection from mice with either maternal or paternal disruption of Gnas. Our results revealed that, whereas expression of Gαs mRNA in this tissue is predominantly from the maternal Gnas allele at weaning (three-weeks postnatal) and in adulthood, the contributions of the maternal and paternal Gnas alleles to Gαs mRNA expression are equal at postnatal day 3. In contrast, we found that paternal Gαs expression is already markedly repressed in brown adipose tissue at birth. Thus, the mechanisms silencing the paternal Gαs allele in renal proximal tubules are not operational during early postnatal development, and this finding correlates well with the latency of PTH-resistance in patients with PHP-Ia. PMID:23956044

  2. Postnatal ontogenesis of molecular clock in mouse striatum.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yanning; Liu, Shu; Li, Ning; Xu, Shengli; Zhang, Yanli; Chan, Piu

    2009-04-01

    Striatum is an important brain area whose function is related to motor, emotion and motivation. Interestingly, biological and physiological circadian rhythms have been found in the striatum extensively, suggesting molecular clock machinery works efficiently therein. However, the striatal expression profiles of clock genes have not been characterized systematically. In addition, little is known about when the expression rhythms start during postnatal ontogenesis. In the present study, 24 h mRNA oscillations of 6 principle clock genes (Bmal1, Clock, Npas2, Cry1, Per1 and Rev-erb alpha) were examined in mouse striatum, at early postnatal stage (postnatal day 3), pre-weaning stage (postnatal day 14) and in adult (postnatal day 60). At P3, no daily oscillation was found for all clock genes. At P14, a significant time effect was identified only for Rev-erb alpha and Npas2. At P60, the daily oscillations of these clock genes were at least borderline significant, with peak time at Circadian time (CT) 01 for Bmal1, Clock, Npas2 and Cry1; at CT 13 for Per1; and at CT 07 for Rev-erb alpha. In addition, the overall mean mRNA levels of these clock genes also underwent a dynamic change postnatally. For Bmal1, Clock, Npas2, Per1 and Rev-erb alpha, the expression level increased throughout the postnatal ontogenesis from P3, P14 to P60. For Cry1, however, the abundance at P3 and P60 were similar while that at P14 was much lower. In conclusion, the striatal molecular clock machinery, although works efficiently in adult, develops gradually after birth in mice.

  3. Postnatal care: a cross-cultural and historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Eberhard-Gran, Malin; Garthus-Niegel, Susan; Garthus-Niegel, Kristian; Eskild, Anne

    2010-12-01

    Childbirth and the immediate postpartum period represent a major transition in a woman's life. This period is considered a vulnerable time for the mother and child in most societies, and rituals for this transition are common. In this study, we present some examples of postpartum customs in a cross-cultural and historical perspective. Also, we present the current knowledge on the possible impact of postnatal care on mental health. Systematic literature searches were performed in Medline, PsycINFO, and the Science Citation Index Expanded (ISI) for the time period 1966 through May 2010. Reference lists in books on pregnancy and childbirth from the University Library in Oslo were used to obtain additional information. We found that the postnatal period seems to be universally defined as 40 days. Most cultures have special postnatal customs, including special diet, isolation, rest, and assistance for the mother. The uniformity of customs across different cultures is striking. However, many postnatal customs that were common before 1950 are no longer existent. The focus on rest and assistance for the mother after delivery has gradually decreased. Studies of associations of postnatal care and mental health in the mother are limited and show inconsistent results. More knowledge is needed on postnatal care and mental health.

  4. Effects of developmental nicotine exposure in rats on decision making in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Marci R; Mendez, Ian A.; Vokes, Colin M.; Damborsky, Joanne C.; Winzer-Serhan, Ursula H.; Setlow, Barry

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy is associated with a range of adverse Outcomes in offspring, including cognitive deficits and increased incidence of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but there is considerable controversy concerning the causal role of tobacco smoke in these outcomes. To determine whether developmental exposure to the primary psychoactive ingredient in tobacco smoke, nicotine, may cause long-lasting behavioral alterations analogous to those in ADHD, male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent a chronic neonatal nicotine administration regimen which models third-trimester human exposure. Male rat pups were administered nicotine (6 mg/kg/day) by oral gastric intubation on postnatal days 1–7. In adulthood, rats were tested in two decision-making tasks (risky decision making and delay discounting) as well as in free-operant responding for food reward and the elevated plus maze (EPM). Chronic neonatal nicotine attenuated weight gain during nicotine exposure, but there were no effects on performance in either decision-making task, and only a modest decrease in arm entries in the EPM in one sub-group of rats. These data are consistent with previous findings that developmental nicotine exposure has no effect on delay-discounting, and they extend these findings to risky decision making as well. They further suggest that at least some neurocognitive alterations associated with prenatal tobacco smoke exposure in humans may be due to genetic or other environmental factors, including non-nicotine components of tobacco smoke. PMID:22123182

  5. Doing Adulthood in Childhood Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, Barbro

    2012-01-01

    Since age and generation first started to be problematized, the focus has been on childhood, while adulthood has attracted less attention. In this article four examples are presented of how adulthood is constructed within the specific context of childhood research. Taking the departure in Deleuzian and actor network theories, four examples are…

  6. Practical Memory Concerns in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Celinda M.; Cherry, Katie E.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, we focus on practical memory concerns in adulthood. Young, middle-aged, and community-dwelling older adults responded to seven open-ended questions covering the topics of memory self-efficacy, memory management, memory remediation, and fears about memory aging in adulthood. The results revealed several similarities among the age…

  7. Emerging Adulthood: Resilience and Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Vanessa; Meyer, Jill

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This article provides an overview of emerging adulthood, recentering, and resilience of youth with disabilities. Emerging adulthood is a developmental period during which individuals experience delays in attainment of adult roles and social expectations. Recentering is a process that emerging adults experience as they make distinct shifts…

  8. Small particles disrupt postnatal airway development

    PubMed Central

    Lee, DongYoub; Wallis, Chris; Schelegle, Edward S.; Van Winkle, Laura S.; Plopper, Charles G.; Fanucchi, Michelle V.; Kumfer, Ben; Kennedy, Ian M.; Chan, Jackie K. W.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing numbers of epidemiologic studies associate air pollution exposure in children with decreased lung function development. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of exposure to combustion-generated fine [230 and 212 nm number mean aerodynamic particle diameter (NMAD)] to ultrafine (73 nm NMAD) particles differing in elemental (EC) and organic (OC) carbon content on postnatal airway development in rats. Neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed from postnatal day 7 through 25, and lung function and airway architecture were evaluated 81 days of age. In a separate group of rats, cell proliferation was examined after a single particle exposure at 7 days of age. Early life exposure to 73 nm high OC/EC particles altered distal airway architecture and resulted in subtle changes in lung mechanics. Early life exposure to 212 nm high OC/EC particles did not alter lung architecture but did alter lung mechanics in a manner suggestive of central airway changes. In contrast, early life exposure to 230 nm low OC/EC particles did not alter lung architecture or mechanics. A single 6-h exposure to 73 nm high OC/EC particle decreased airway cell proliferation, whereas 212 nm high OC/EC particles increased it and 230 nm low OC/EC particles did not. The early life exposure to ultrafine, high OC/EC particles results in persistent alterations in distal airway architecture that is characterized by an initial decrease in airway cell proliferation. PMID:20634362

  9. Early postnatal maternal deprivation in rats induces memory deficits in adult life that can be reversed by donepezil and galantamine.

    PubMed

    Benetti, Fernando; Mello, Pâmela Billig; Bonini, Juliana Sartori; Monteiro, Siomara; Cammarota, Martín; Izquierdo, Iván

    2009-02-01

    Early postnatal maternal deprivation is known to cause long-lasting neurobiological effects. Here, we investigated whether some of the cognitive aspects of these deficits might be related to a disruption of the cholinergic system. Pregnant Wistar rats were individually housed and maintained on a 12:12h light/dark cycle with food and water freely available. The mothers were separated from their pups for 3h per day from postnatal day 1 (PND-1) to PND-10. To do that, the dams were moved to a different cage and the pups maintained in the original home cage, which was transferred to a different room kept at 32 degrees C. After they reached 120-150 days of age, maternal-deprived and non-deprived animals were either sacrificed for brain acetylcholinesterase measurement, or trained and tested in an object recognition task and in a social recognition task as described by Rossato et al. (2007) [Rossato, J.I., Bevilaqua, L. R.M., Myskiw, J.C., Medina, J.H., Izquierdo, I., Cammarota, M. 2007. On the role hippocampal synthesis in the consolidation and reconsolidation of object recognition memory. Learn. Mem. 14, 36-46] and Lévy et al. (2003) [Lévy, F., Melo. A.I., Galef. B.G. Jr., Madden, M., Fleming. A.S. 2003. Complete maternal deprivation affects social, but not spatial, learning in adult rats. Dev. Psychobiol. 43, 177-191], respectively. There was increased acetylcholinesterase activity in hippocampus and perirhinal cortex of the deprived animals. In addition, they showed a clear impairment in memory of the two recognition tasks measured 24h after training. Oral administration of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, donepezil or galantamine (1mg/kg) 30min before training reversed the memory impairments caused by maternal deprivation. The findings suggest that maternal deprivation affects memory processing at adulthood through a change in brain cholinergic systems.

  10. Repeated exposure to amphetamine during adolescence alters inhibitory tone in the medial prefrontal cortex following drug re-exposure in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Paul, Kush; Kang, Shuo; Cox, Charles L; Gulley, Joshua M

    2016-08-01

    Behavioral sensitization following repeated amphetamine (AMPH) exposure is associated with changes in GABA function in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). In rats exposed to AMPH during adolescence compared to adulthood, there are unique patterns of sensitization that may reflect age-dependent differences in drug effects on prefrontal GABAergic function. In the current study, we used a sensitizing regimen of repeated AMPH exposure in adolescent and adult rats to determine if a post-withdrawal AMPH challenge would alter inhibitory transmission in the mPFC in a manner that depends on age of exposure. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with saline or 3mg/kg AMPH (i.p.) during adolescence [postnatal day (P) 27-P45] or adulthood (P85- P103) and were sacrificed either at similar ages in adulthood (∼P133; experiment 1) or after similar withdrawal times (3-4 weeks; experiment 2). Spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) were recorded in vitro from deep layer pyramidal cells in the mPFC using the whole-cell configuration. We found no effect of AMPH pre-exposure on baseline sIPSC frequency. Subsequent application of AMPH (25μM) produced a stable increase in sIPSC frequency in controls, suggesting that AMPH increases inhibitory tone in the mPFC. However, AMPH failed to increase sIPSCs in adolescent- or adult-exposed rats. In experiment 2, where withdrawal period was kept similar for both exposure groups, AMPH induced a suppression of sIPSC activity in adolescent-exposed rats. These results suggest that sensitizing treatment with AMPH during adolescence or adulthood dampens inhibitory influences on mPFC pyramidal cells, but potentially through different mechanisms.

  11. Impulsive choice and anxiety-like behavior in adult rats exposed to chronic intermittent ethanol during adolescence and adulthood.

    PubMed

    Mejia-Toiber, Jana; Boutros, Nathalie; Markou, Athina; Semenova, Svetlana

    2014-06-01

    Binge drinking during adolescence and adulthood may have differential long-term effects on the brain. We investigated the long-term effects of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure during adolescence and adulthood on impulsivity and anxiety-like behavior. Adolescent (adolescent-exposed) and adult (adult-exposed) rats were exposed to CIE/water on postnatal days (PND) 28-53 and PND146-171, respectively, and a 4-day ethanol/water binge on PND181-184 and PND271-274, respectively. During withdrawal from CIE and 4-day binge exposures, anxiety-like behavior and arousal were measured in the light-potentiated startle (LPS) and acoustic startle (ASR) procedures, respectively. Impulsive choice was evaluated in the delay discounting task (DDT) at baseline and after ethanol challenges. Independent of age, ASR and LPS were decreased during withdrawal from CIE exposure. In contrast, LPS was increased in adult-exposed, but not adolescent-exposed, rats during withdrawal from the 4-day ethanol binge. CIE exposure had no effect on preference for the large delayed reward at baseline, independent of age. During DDT acquisition, CIE-exposed, compared with water-exposed rats, omitted more responses, independent of age, suggesting the CIE-induced disruption of cognitive processes. Ethanol challenges decreased preference for the large reward in younger adolescent-exposed rats but had no effect in older adult-exposed rats, independent of previous CIE/water exposure. Taken together, the present studies demonstrate that CIE withdrawal-induced decreases in anxiety and arousal were not age-specific. CIE exposure had no long-term effects on baseline impulsive choice. Subsequent ethanol exposure produced age-dependent effects on impulsivity (increased impulsivity in younger adolescent-exposed rats) and anxiety-like behavior (increased anxiety-like behavior in older adult-exposed rats).

  12. Effects of early postnatal gonadal steroids on extinction of a continuously food-rewarded running response.

    PubMed

    Enriquez, P; Calés, J M; Sánchez-Santed, F; Guillamón, A

    1991-01-01

    In the present work the existence of sex differences (Experiment 1) on the acquisition and extinction of a continuously reinforced response in a short and narrow runway (100 x 9 x 10 cm) were investigated. In addition to the investigation of the basic sex differences in Experiment 1, the effect of postpuberal gonadectomy of male and female rats and the role of the early postnatal gonadal steroids on these situations were also examined in Experiments 2 and 3, respectively. In all experiments, no sex differences were found in acquisition. However, males extinguished faster than female rats. Gonadectomy of both sexes in adulthood, although it increases their latencies in acquisition, did not affect the differences between sexes during extinction. In contrast, in Experiment 3 female androgenization and male orchidectomy on day one after birth reversed the direction of sex differences found between control rats in the extinction period. Our findings suggests that the observed sex differences in extinction may be due to an underlying sexual dimorphism in the response inhibition process.

  13. Exposure to nicotine during periadolescence or early adulthood alters aversive and physiological effects induced by ethanol.

    PubMed

    Rinker, Jennifer A; Hutchison, Mary Anne; Chen, Scott A; Thorsell, Annika; Heilig, Markus; Riley, Anthony L

    2011-07-01

    The majority of smokers begin their habit during adolescence, which often precedes experimentation with alcohol. Interestingly, very little preclinical work has been done examining how exposure to nicotine during periadolescence impacts the affective properties of alcohol in adulthood. Understanding how periadolescent nicotine exposure influences the aversive effects of alcohol might help to explain why it becomes more acceptable to this preexposed population. Thus, Experiment 1 exposed male Sprague Dawley rats to either saline or nicotine (0.4mg/kg, IP) from postnatal days 34 to 43 (periadolescence) and then examined changes in the aversive effects of alcohol (0, 0.56, 1.0 and 1.8g/kg, IP) in adulthood using the conditioned taste aversion (CTA) design. Changes in blood alcohol concentration (BAC) as well as alcohol-induced hypothermia and locomotor suppression were also assessed. To determine if changes seen were specific to nicotine exposure during periadolescence, the procedures were replicated in adults (Experiment 2). Preexposure to nicotine during periadolescence attenuated the acquisition of the alcohol-induced CTAs (at 1.0g/kg) and the hypothermic effects of alcohol (1.0g/kg). Adult nicotine preexposure produced similar attenuation in alcohol's aversive (at 1.8g/kg) and hypothermic (1.8g/kg) effects. Neither adolescent nor adult nicotine preexposure altered BACs or alcohol-induced locomotor suppression. These results suggest that nicotine may alter the aversive and physiological effects of alcohol, regardless of the age at which exposure occurs, possibly increasing its overall reinforcing value and making it more likely to be consumed.

  14. Fluoxetine Exposure during Adolescence Alters Responses to Aversive Stimuli in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Alcantara, Lyonna F.; Warren, Brandon L.; Riggs, Lace M.; Parise, Eric M.; Vialou, Vincent; Wright, Katherine N.; Dayrit, Genesis; Nieto, Steven J.; Wilkinson, Matthew B.; Lobo, Mary K.; Neve, Rachael L.; Nestler, Eric J.; Bolaños-Guzmán, Carlos A.

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the enduring neurobiological consequences of antidepressant exposure during adolescence are poorly understood. Here, we assessed the long-term effects of exposure to fluoxetine (FLX), a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, during adolescence on behavioral reactivity to emotion-eliciting stimuli. We administered FLX (10 mg/kg, bi-daily, for 15 d) to male adolescent [postnatal day 35 (P35) to P49] C57BL/6 mice. Three weeks after treatment (P70), reactivity to aversive stimuli (i.e., social defeat stress, forced swimming, and elevated plus maze) was assessed. We also examined the effects of FLX on the expression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2-related signaling within the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of adolescent mice and Sprague Dawley rats. Adolescent FLX exposure suppressed depression-like behavior, as measured by the social interaction and forced swim tests, while enhancing anxiety-like responses in the elevated plus maze in adulthood. This complex behavioral profile was accompanied by decreases in ERK2 mRNA and protein phosphorylation within the VTA, while stress alone resulted in opposite neurobiological effects. Pharmacological (U0126) inhibition, as well as virus-mediated downregulation of ERK within the VTA mimicked the antidepressant-like profile observed after juvenile FLX treatment. Conversely, overexpression of ERK2 induced a depressive-like response, regardless of FLX pre-exposure. These findings demonstrate that exposure to FLX during adolescence modulates responsiveness to emotion-eliciting stimuli in adulthood, at least partially, via long-lasting adaptations in ERK-related signaling within the VTA. Our results further delineate the role ERK plays in regulating mood-related behaviors across the lifespan. PMID:24431458

  15. Hippocampal cell fate regulation by chronic cocaine during periods of adolescent vulnerability: Consequences of cocaine exposure during adolescence on behavioral despair in adulthood.

    PubMed

    García-Cabrerizo, R; Keller, B; García-Fuster, M J

    2015-09-24

    Given that adolescence represents a critical moment for shaping adult behavior and may predispose to disease vulnerability later in life, the aim of this study was to find a vulnerable period during adolescence in which hippocampal cell fate regulation was altered by cocaine exposure, and to evaluate the long-term consequences of a cocaine experience during adolescence in affecting hippocampal plasticity and behavioral despair in adulthood. Study I: Male rats were treated with cocaine (15mg/kg, i.p.) or saline for 7 consecutive days during adolescence (early post-natal day (PND) 33-39, mid PND 40-46, late PND 47-53). Hippocampal plasticity (i.e., cell fate regulation, cell genesis) was evaluated 24h after the last treatment dose during the course of adolescence (PND 40, PND 47, PND 54). Study II: The consequences of cocaine exposure during adolescence (PND 33-39 or PND 33-46; 7 or 14days) were measured in adulthood at the behavioral (i.e., forced swim test, PND 62-63) and molecular (hippocampal cell markers, PND 64) levels. Chronic cocaine during early adolescence dysregulated FADD forms only in the hippocampus (HC), as compared to other brain regions, and during mid adolescence, impaired cell proliferation (Ki-67) and increased PARP-1 cleavage (a cell death maker) in the HC. Interestingly, chronic cocaine exposure during adolescence did not alter the time adult rats spent immobile in the forced swim test. These results suggest that this paradigm of chronic cocaine administration during adolescence did not contribute to the later manifestation of behavioral despair (i.e., one pro-depressive symptom) as measured by the forced swim test in adulthood.

  16. Hippocampal cell fate regulation by chronic cocaine during periods of adolescent vulnerability: Consequences of cocaine exposure during adolescence on behavioral despair in adulthood.

    PubMed

    García-Cabrerizo, R; Keller, B; García-Fuster, M J

    2015-09-24

    Given that adolescence represents a critical moment for shaping adult behavior and may predispose to disease vulnerability later in life, the aim of this study was to find a vulnerable period during adolescence in which hippocampal cell fate regulation was altered by cocaine exposure, and to evaluate the long-term consequences of a cocaine experience during adolescence in affecting hippocampal plasticity and behavioral despair in adulthood. Study I: Male rats were treated with cocaine (15mg/kg, i.p.) or saline for 7 consecutive days during adolescence (early post-natal day (PND) 33-39, mid PND 40-46, late PND 47-53). Hippocampal plasticity (i.e., cell fate regulation, cell genesis) was evaluated 24h after the last treatment dose during the course of adolescence (PND 40, PND 47, PND 54). Study II: The consequences of cocaine exposure during adolescence (PND 33-39 or PND 33-46; 7 or 14days) were measured in adulthood at the behavioral (i.e., forced swim test, PND 62-63) and molecular (hippocampal cell markers, PND 64) levels. Chronic cocaine during early adolescence dysregulated FADD forms only in the hippocampus (HC), as compared to other brain regions, and during mid adolescence, impaired cell proliferation (Ki-67) and increased PARP-1 cleavage (a cell death maker) in the HC. Interestingly, chronic cocaine exposure during adolescence did not alter the time adult rats spent immobile in the forced swim test. These results suggest that this paradigm of chronic cocaine administration during adolescence did not contribute to the later manifestation of behavioral despair (i.e., one pro-depressive symptom) as measured by the forced swim test in adulthood. PMID:26215918

  17. Early postnatal stress and neural circuit underlying emotional regulation.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Machiko; Yoshioka, Mitsuhiro; Togashi, Hiroko

    2009-01-01

    Several lines of evidence have shown that traumatic events during the early postnatal period precipitate long-lasting alterations in the functional properties underlying emotional expression that are attributable to the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders. In this chapter, we summarize our recent work elucidating whether early postnatal stress alters the neural circuits underlying emotional regulation. Rats exposed to footshock stress (FS) during the second (2W) or the third (3W) postnatal week were subjected to unconditioned and conditioned stresses at the postadolescent period (10-12 weeks). No differences in locomotor activity or hippocampal synaptic changes were observed between the FS-groups and non-FS controls during exposure to open field stress. Fear-related freezing behavior during exposure to contextual fear conditioning (CFC) was markedly attenuated in the 2W-FS group, presumably due to disturbance of the retention for fear memory, an effect that was attributable to synaptic changes in the hippocampal CA1 field. The 3W-FS group exhibited attenuation of the decreases in freezing behavior induced by CFC extinction trials. The deficits in extinction was abolished by repeated treatment with the partial N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor agonist d-cycloserine, suggesting that aversive stress exposure during the third postnatal week impaired extinction of context-dependent fear memory. Taken together, the altered behavior observed in adulthood is likely the result of neurodevelopmental perturbations elicited by early life stress. Thus, a "critical period" exists for neural circuits involved in emotional expression that may contribute to lifelong susceptibility to stress.

  18. The Effects of Maternal Exposure to Bisphenol A on Allergic Lung Inflammation into Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, B. Paige

    2012-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high–production volume chemical classified as an environmental estrogen and used primarily in the plastics industry. BPA’s increased usage correlates with rising BPA levels in people and a corresponding increase in the incidence of asthma. Due to limited studies, the contribution of maternal BPA exposure to allergic asthma pathogenesis is unclear. Using two established mouse models of allergic asthma, we examined whether developmental exposure to BPA alters hallmarks of allergic lung inflammation in adult offspring. Pregnant C57BL/6 dams were gavaged with 0, 0.5, 5, 50, or 500 μg BPA/kg/day from gestational day 6 until postnatal day 21. To induce allergic inflammation, adult offspring were mucosally sensitized with inhaled ovalbumin containing low-dose lipopolysaccharide or ip sensitized using ovalbumin with alum followed by ovalbumin aerosol challenge. In the mucosal sensitization model, female offspring that were maternally exposed to ≥ 50 μg BPA/kg/day displayed enhanced airway lymphocytic and lung inflammation, compared with offspring of control dams. Peritoneally sensitized, female offspring exposed to ≤ 50 μg BPA/kg/day presented dampened lung eosinophilia, compared with vehicle controls. Male offspring did not exhibit these differences in either sensitization model. Our data demonstrate that maternal exposure to BPA has subtle and qualitatively different effects on allergic inflammation, which are critically dependent upon route of allergen sensitization and sex. However, these subtle, yet persistent changes due to developmental exposure to BPA did not lead to significant differences in overall airway responsiveness, suggesting that early life exposure to BPA does not exacerbate allergic inflammation into adulthood. PMID:22821851

  19. Effect of Early Overfeeding on Palatable Food Preference and Brain Dopaminergic Reward System at Adulthood: Role of Calcium Supplementation.

    PubMed

    Conceição, E P S; Carvalho, J C; Manhães, A C; Guarda, D S; Figueiredo, M S; Quitete, F T; Oliveira, E; Moura, E G; Lisboa, P C

    2016-05-01

    Rats raised in small litters (SL) are obese and hyperphagic. In the present study, we evaluated whether obesity is associated with changes in the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic reward system in these animals at adulthood. We also assessed the anti-obesity effects of dietary calcium supplementation. To induce early overfeeding, litters were adjusted to three pups on postnatal day (PN)3 (SL group). Control litters were kept with 10 pups each until weaning (NL group). On PN120, SL animals were subdivided into two groups: SL (standard diet) and SL-Ca [SL with calcium supplementation (10 g calcium carbonate/kg rat chow) for 60 days]. On PN175, animals were subjected to a food challenge: animals could choose between a high-fat (HFD) or a high-sugar diet (HSD). Food intake was recorded after 30 min and 12 h. Euthanasia occurred on PN180. SL rats had higher food intake, body mass and central adiposity. Sixty days of dietary calcium supplementation (SL-Ca) prevented these changes. Only SL animals preferred the HFD at 12 h. Both SL groups had lower tyrosine hydroxylase content in the ventral tegmental area, lower dopaminergic transporter content in the nucleus accumbens, and higher type 2 dopamine receptor (D2R) content in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC). They also had higher neuropeptide Y (NPY) and lower pro-opiomelanocortin contents in the ARC. Calcium treatment normalised only D2R and NPY contents. Precocious obesity induces long-term effects in the brain dopaminergic system, which can be associated with an increased preference for fat at adulthood. Calcium treatment prevents this last alteration, partially through its actions on ARC D2R and NPY proteins.

  20. Congenital salivary gland anlage tumor - in utero and postnatal imaging.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Rupa; Calvo-Garcia, Maria A; Lim, Foong-Yen; Elluru, Ravindhra G; Koch, Bernadette L

    2015-03-01

    We present a case of an infant with congenital salivary gland anlage tumor, with fetal and postnatal imaging. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case describing the in utero imaging findings of salivary gland anlage tumor. A fetal MRI was performed secondary to the clinical finding of polyhydramnios, which identified a nasopharyngeal mass. Because findings were concerning for airway obstruction, the fetus was delivered by ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) to airway procedure. A postnatal CT confirmed the findings of the fetal MRI. The lesion was resected when the baby was 4 days old and recovery was uneventful.

  1. Maternal Dexamethasone Exposure Alters Synaptic Inputs to Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Neurons in the Early Postnatal Rat.

    PubMed

    Lim, Wei Ling; Idris, Marshita Mohd; Kevin, Felix Suresh; Soga, Tomoko; Parhar, Ishwar S

    2016-01-01

    Maternal dexamethasone [(DEX); a glucocorticoid receptor agonist] exposure delays pubertal onset and alters reproductive behavior in the adult offspring. However, little is known whether maternal DEX exposure affects the offspring's reproductive function by disrupting the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal function in the brain. Therefore, this study determined the exposure of maternal DEX on the GnRH neuronal spine development and synaptic cluster inputs to GnRH neurons using transgenic rats expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the control of GnRH promoter. Pregnant females were administered with DEX (0.1 mg/kg) or vehicle (VEH, water) daily during gestation day 13-20. Confocal imaging was used to examine the spine density of EGFP-GnRH neurons by three-dimensional rendering and synaptic cluster inputs to EGFP-GnRH neurons by synapsin I immunohistochemistry on postnatal day 0 (P0) males. The spine morphology and number on GnRH neurons did not change between the P0 males following maternal DEX and VEH treatment. The number of synaptic clusters within the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT) was decreased by maternal DEX exposure in P0 males. Furthermore, the number and levels of synaptic cluster inputs in close apposition with GnRH neurons was decreased following maternal DEX exposure in the OVLT region of P0 males. In addition, the postsynaptic marker molecule, postsynaptic density 95, was observed in GnRH neurons following both DEX and VEH treatment. These results suggest that maternal DEX exposure alters neural afferent inputs to GnRH neurons during early postnatal stage, which could lead to reproductive dysfunction during adulthood. PMID:27630615

  2. Maternal Dexamethasone Exposure Alters Synaptic Inputs to Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Neurons in the Early Postnatal Rat

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Wei Ling; Idris, Marshita Mohd; Kevin, Felix Suresh; Soga, Tomoko; Parhar, Ishwar S.

    2016-01-01

    Maternal dexamethasone [(DEX); a glucocorticoid receptor agonist] exposure delays pubertal onset and alters reproductive behavior in the adult offspring. However, little is known whether maternal DEX exposure affects the offspring’s reproductive function by disrupting the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal function in the brain. Therefore, this study determined the exposure of maternal DEX on the GnRH neuronal spine development and synaptic cluster inputs to GnRH neurons using transgenic rats expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the control of GnRH promoter. Pregnant females were administered with DEX (0.1 mg/kg) or vehicle (VEH, water) daily during gestation day 13–20. Confocal imaging was used to examine the spine density of EGFP–GnRH neurons by three-dimensional rendering and synaptic cluster inputs to EGFP–GnRH neurons by synapsin I immunohistochemistry on postnatal day 0 (P0) males. The spine morphology and number on GnRH neurons did not change between the P0 males following maternal DEX and VEH treatment. The number of synaptic clusters within the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT) was decreased by maternal DEX exposure in P0 males. Furthermore, the number and levels of synaptic cluster inputs in close apposition with GnRH neurons was decreased following maternal DEX exposure in the OVLT region of P0 males. In addition, the postsynaptic marker molecule, postsynaptic density 95, was observed in GnRH neurons following both DEX and VEH treatment. These results suggest that maternal DEX exposure alters neural afferent inputs to GnRH neurons during early postnatal stage, which could lead to reproductive dysfunction during adulthood.

  3. Maternal Dexamethasone Exposure Alters Synaptic Inputs to Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Neurons in the Early Postnatal Rat

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Wei Ling; Idris, Marshita Mohd; Kevin, Felix Suresh; Soga, Tomoko; Parhar, Ishwar S.

    2016-01-01

    Maternal dexamethasone [(DEX); a glucocorticoid receptor agonist] exposure delays pubertal onset and alters reproductive behavior in the adult offspring. However, little is known whether maternal DEX exposure affects the offspring’s reproductive function by disrupting the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal function in the brain. Therefore, this study determined the exposure of maternal DEX on the GnRH neuronal spine development and synaptic cluster inputs to GnRH neurons using transgenic rats expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the control of GnRH promoter. Pregnant females were administered with DEX (0.1 mg/kg) or vehicle (VEH, water) daily during gestation day 13–20. Confocal imaging was used to examine the spine density of EGFP–GnRH neurons by three-dimensional rendering and synaptic cluster inputs to EGFP–GnRH neurons by synapsin I immunohistochemistry on postnatal day 0 (P0) males. The spine morphology and number on GnRH neurons did not change between the P0 males following maternal DEX and VEH treatment. The number of synaptic clusters within the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT) was decreased by maternal DEX exposure in P0 males. Furthermore, the number and levels of synaptic cluster inputs in close apposition with GnRH neurons was decreased following maternal DEX exposure in the OVLT region of P0 males. In addition, the postsynaptic marker molecule, postsynaptic density 95, was observed in GnRH neurons following both DEX and VEH treatment. These results suggest that maternal DEX exposure alters neural afferent inputs to GnRH neurons during early postnatal stage, which could lead to reproductive dysfunction during adulthood. PMID:27630615

  4. Post-natal growth in the rat pineal gland: a stereological study.

    PubMed

    Erbagci, H; Kizilkan, N; Ozbag, D; Erkilic, S; Kervancioglu, P; Canan, S; Gumusburun, E

    2012-10-01

    The purpose was to observe the changes in a rat pineal gland using stereological techniques during lactation and post-weaning periods. Thirty Wistar albino rats were studied during different post-natal periods using light microscopy. Pineal gland volume was estimated using the Cavalieri Method. Additionally, the total number of pinealocytes was estimated using the optical fractionator technique. Pineal gland volume displayed statistically significant changes between lactation and after weaning periods. A significant increase in pineal gland volume was observed from post-natal day 10 to post-natal day 90. The numerical density of pinealocytes became stabilized during lactation and decreased rapidly after weaning. However, the total number of pinealocytes continuously increased during post-natal life of all rats in the study. However, this increment was not statistically significant when comparing the lactation and after weaning periods. The increase in post-natal pineal gland volume may depend on increment of immunoreactive fibres, capsule thickness or new synaptic bodies.

  5. Anxiogenic role of vasopressin during the early postnatal period: maternal separation-induced ultrasound vocalization in vasopressin-deficient Brattleboro rats.

    PubMed

    Varga, János; Fodor, Anna; Klausz, Barbara; Zelena, Dóra

    2015-11-01

    Both animal and human studies suggest that in adulthood, plasma vasopressin level correlates well with anxiety. Little is known about the mood regulation during the perinatal period. Here, we aim to investigate the influence of vasopressin on anxiety during the early postnatal age. As a sign of distress, rat pups emit ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) when they are separated from their mother. This USV was detected in 7- to 8-day-old vasopressin-deficient Brattleboro pups, and they were compared to their heterozygote littermates and wild-type pups. The results were confirmed by V1b antagonist treatment (SSR149415 10 mg/kg ip 30 min before test) in wild-types. Chlordiazepoxide (3 mg/kg ip 30 min before test)-an anxiolytic-was used to test the interaction with the GABAergic system. At the end of the test, stress-hormone levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Vasopressin-deficient pups vocalized substantially less than non-deficient counterparts. Treatment with V1b antagonist resulted in similar effect. Chlordiazepoxide reduced the frequency and duration of the vocalization only in wild-types. Reduced vocalization was accompanied by smaller adrenocorticotropin levels but the level of corticosterone was variable. Our results indicate that the anxiolytic effect of vasopressin deficiency (both genetic and pharmacological) exists already during the early postnatal age. Vasopressin interacts with the GABAergic system. As mood regulation does not go parallel with glucocorticoid levels, we suggest that vasopressin might have a direct effect on special brain areas.

  6. The effects of pre- and postnatal exposure to the nonsteroidal antiandrogen flutamide on testis descent and morphology in the Albino Swiss rat

    PubMed Central

    KASSIM, NORMADIAH M.; McDONALD, S. W.; REID, O.; BENNETT, N. K.; GILMORE, D. P.; PAYNE, A. P.

    1997-01-01

    Exposure of male Albino Swiss rats to the nonsteroidal antiandrogen flutamide during the period from gestational day (d) 10 to birth resulted in feminisation of the external genitalia and the suppression of growth of the male reproductive tract. In adulthood, testes were found to be located in diverse positions. True cryptorchidism occurred in 10% of cases, whereas 50% of testes descended to the scrotum and 40% were located in a suprainguinal ectopic region. Varying degrees of tubule abnormality were seen in the testes of flutamide-treated animals, ranging from completely normal tubules with full spermatogenesis (and the expected frequency of the stages of spermatogenesis) to severely abnormal tubules lined with Sertoli cells only. For each individual testis, the overall severity of tubule damage was strongly correlated with its adult location, with intra-abdominal testes worst affected and scrotally-located testes least; only the latter contained normal tubules. Similarly, intra-abdominal testes were the smallest in weight and contained the least testosterone. By contrast, postnatal treatment of male rats with flutamide from birth to postnatal d 14 did not impair development of the external genitalia, the process of testicular descent or adult spermatogenesis. These findings confirm that androgen blockade during embryonic development interferes with testicular descent but also demonstrate that (1) prenatal flutamide treatment per se has a detrimental effect on adult testis morphology but (2) the degree of abnormality of the testes is strongly influenced by location. PMID:9183680

  7. Birth weight and cognitive function in early adulthood: the Australian Aboriginal birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Pearce, M S; Mann, K D; Singh, G; Sayers, S M

    2014-06-01

    It has been suggested that in addition to genetic factors, fetal and post-natal growth influence cognition in early adulthood. However, most studies have been in developed populations, so it is unclear if the same findings would be seen in other, less developed, settings, and have used testing tools not applicable to an Australia Aboriginal population. This study investigated the relationships between cognitive function in early adulthood and birth weight and contemporary height. Simple reaction time (SRT), choice reaction time (CRT) and working memory (WM) were assessed using the CogState battery. A significant association was seen between birth weight and SRT in early adulthood, but not with the other two cognitive measures. Urban dwellers had significantly shorter SRT and CRT than their remote counterparts. Contemporary body mass index and maternal age were associated with CRT. Only fetal growth restriction was associated with WM, with greater WM in those with restricted growth. No associations were seen with contemporary height. These results suggest that fetal growth may be more important than the factors influencing post-natal growth in terms of cognition in early adulthood in this population, but that the associations may be inconsistent between cognitive outcomes. Further research is required to identify whether similar associations are seen in other, similar, populations and to assess why differences in cognitive outcome measures are seen.

  8. Postnatal Evaluation and Outcome of Prenatal Hydronephrosis

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi-Bojd, Simin; Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad; Ansari-Moghadam, Alireza; Rashidi, Somaye

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prenatal hydronephrosis (PNH) is dilation in urinary collecting system and is the most frequent neonatal urinary tract abnormality with an incidence of 1% to 5% of all pregnancies. PNH is defined as anteroposterior diameter (APD) of renal pelvis ≥ 4 mm at gestational age (GA) of < 33 weeks and APD ≥ 7 mm at GA of ≥ 33 weeks to 2 months after birth. All patients need to be evaluated after birth by postnatal renal ultrasonography (US). In the vast majority of cases, watchful waiting is the only thing to do; others need medical or surgical therapy. Objectives: There is a direct relationship between APD of renal pelvis and outcome of PNH. Therefore we were to find the best cutoff point APD of renal pelvis which leads to surgical outcome. Patients and Methods: In this retrospective cohort study we followed 200 patients 1 to 60 days old with diagnosis of PNH based on before or after birth ultrasonography; as a prenatal or postnatal detected, respectively. These patients were referred to the nephrology clinic in Zahedan Iran during 2011 to 2013. The first step of investigation was a postnatal renal US, by the same expert radiologist and classifying the patients into 3 groups; normal, mild/moderate and severe. The second step was to perform voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) for mild/moderate to severe cases at 4 - 6 weeks of life. Tc-diethylene triamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) was the last step and for those with normal VCUG who did not show improvement in follow-up examination, US to evaluate obstruction and renal function. Finally all patients with mild/moderate to severe PNH received conservative therapy and surgery was preserved only for progressive cases, obstruction or renal function ≤35%. All patients’ data and radiologic information was recorded in separate data forms, and then analyzed by SPSS (version 22). Results: 200 screened PNH patients with male to female ratio 3.5:1 underwent first postnatal control US, of whom 65% had normal, 18% mild

  9. Adolescent mouse takes on an active transcriptomic expression during postnatal cerebral development.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Xin, Chengqi; Lin, Qiang; Ding, Feng; Gong, Wei; Zhou, Yuanyuan; Yu, Jun; Cui, Peng; Hu, Songnian

    2014-06-01

    Postnatal cerebral development is a complicated biological process precisely controlled by multiple genes. To understand the molecular mechanism of cerebral development, we compared dynamics of mouse cerebrum transcriptome through three developmental stages using high-throughput RNA-seq technique. Three libraries were generated from the mouse cerebrum at infancy, adolescence and adulthood, respectively. Consequently, 44,557,729 (infancy), 59,257,530 (adolescence) and 72,729,636 (adulthood) reads were produced, which were assembled into 15,344, 16,048 and 15,775 genes, respectively. We found that the overall gene expression level increased from infancy to adolescence and decreased later on upon reaching adulthood. The adolescence cerebrum has the most active gene expression, with expression of a large number of regulatory genes up-regulated and some crucial pathways activated. Transcription factor (TF) analysis suggested the similar dynamics as expression profiling, especially those TFs functioning in neurogenesis differentiation, oligodendrocyte lineage determination and circadian rhythm regulation. Moreover, our data revealed a drastic increase in myelin basic protein (MBP)-coding gene expression in adolescence and adulthood, suggesting that the brain myelin may be generated since mouse adolescence. In addition, differential gene expression analysis indicated the activation of rhythmic pathway, suggesting the function of rhythmic movement since adolescence; Furthermore, during infancy and adolescence periods, gene expression related to axonrepulsion and attraction showed the opposite trends, indicating that axon repulsion was activated after birth, while axon attraction might be activated at the embryonic stage and declined during the postnatal development. Our results from the present study may shed light on the molecular mechanism underlying the postnatal development of the mammalian cerebrum.

  10. Disentangling Prenatal and Postnatal Maternal Genetic Effects Reveals Persistent Prenatal Effects on Offspring Growth in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Jason B.; Leamy, Larry J.; Roseman, Charles C.; Cheverud, James M.

    2011-01-01

    Mothers are often the most important determinant of traits expressed by their offspring. These “maternal effects” (MEs) are especially crucial in early development, but can also persist into adulthood. They have been shown to play a role in a diversity of evolutionary and ecological processes, especially when genetically based. Although the importance of MEs is becoming widely appreciated, we know little about their underlying genetic basis. We address the dearth of genetic data by providing a simple approach, using combined genotype information from parents and offspring, to identify “maternal genetic effects” (MGEs) contributing to natural variation in complex traits. Combined with experimental cross-fostering, our approach also allows for the separation of pre- and postnatal MGEs, providing rare insights into prenatal effects. Applying this approach to an experimental mouse population, we identified 13 ME loci affecting body weight, most of which (12/13) exhibited prenatal effects, and nearly half (6/13) exhibiting postnatal effects. MGEs contributed more to variation in body weight than the direct effects of the offsprings’ own genotypes until mice reached adulthood, but continued to represent a major component of variation through adulthood. Prenatal effects always contributed more variation than postnatal effects, especially for those effects that persisted into adulthood. These results suggest that MGEs may be an important component of genetic architecture that is generally overlooked in studies focused on direct mapping from genotype to phenotype. Our approach can be used in both experimental and natural populations, providing a widely practicable means of expanding our understanding of MGEs. PMID:21890739

  11. The effects of prenatal and postnatal (via nursing) exposure to alcohol in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Nekvasil, N.; Baggio, C. )

    1992-02-26

    Pregnant and post-partum rats were given daily doses of 20% alcohol during days 13-21 gestation and postnatal days 3-12, respectively. Following exposure, all rat pups, were tested for balance, blood pressure, right and left cerebral hemisphere weights, and cerebellar weight. Results were grouped according to exposure and gender. The postnatal group was the only one to demonstrate difficulties with balance. The mean arterial pressure in males exposed postnatally was significantly lower than the control and prenatal males. Females exposed postnatally had a significantly higher blood pressure than control females. Within the postnatal group, males had a significantly lower blood pressure than the females. Prenatal and control females differed significantly for left cerebral hemisphere (LCH) weight with the prenatal weighing less. Male pups exposed prenatally had significantly heavier LCH than the postnatal and control males. For both males and females, postnatal LCH weights did not differ from those of the control pups. Within the prenatal group, the LCH weight in females was significantly lower than in males. Mean cerebellar weights were significantly lower in postnatal animals compared to control animals. A major finding of this study is that the effect of alcohol exposure on rat pups depends on gender and developmental age.

  12. Angelman syndrome in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Larson, Anna M; Shinnick, Julianna E; Shaaya, Elias A; Thiele, Elizabeth A; Thibert, Ronald L

    2015-02-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurogenetic disorder. The goal of this study was to investigate the primary health issues affecting adults with AS and to further characterize the natural history and genotype-phenotype correlations. Standardized phone interviews with caregivers for 110 adolescents and adults with AS were conducted. The impact of age, sex, and genotype on specific outcomes in neurology, orthopedics, internal medicine, and psychiatry were investigated. The mean age of individuals with AS was 24 years (range 16-50y). Active seizures were present in 41% of individuals, and 72% had sleep dysfunction. Significant constipation was present in 85%, and 32% were overweight or obese, with obesity disproportionately affecting women. Scoliosis affected 50% with a mean age at diagnosis of 12 years, and 24% of those diagnosed with scoliosis required surgery, an intervention disproportionately affecting men. Sixty-eight percent were able to walk independently, and 13% were able to speak 5 or more words. Self-injurious behavior was exhibited in 52% of individuals. The results of this study indicate that epilepsy severity may assume a bimodal age distribution: seizures are typically most severe in early childhood but may recur in adulthood. While late-adolescent and adult sleep patterns were improved when compared to the degree of sleep dysfunction present during infancy and childhood, the prevalence of poor sleep in adults remained quite high. Primary areas of clinical management identified include the following: seizures, sleep, aspiration risk, GERD, constipation, dental care, vision, obesity, scoliosis, bone density, mobility, communication, behavior, and anxiety. PMID:25428759

  13. Reduced linoleic acid intake in early postnatal life improves metabolic outcomes in adult rodents following a Western-style diet challenge.

    PubMed

    Oosting, Annemarie; Kegler, Diane; van de Heijning, Bert J M; Verkade, Henkjan J; van der Beek, Eline M

    2015-09-01

    The global increase in dietary n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake has been suggested to contribute to the rise in obesity incidence. We hypothesized that reduced n-6 PUFA intake during early postnatal life improves adult body composition and metabolic phenotype upon a Western diet challenge. Male offspring of C57Bl/6j mice and Wistar rats were subjected to a control diet (CTRL; 3.16 En% linoleic acid [LA]) or a low n-6 PUFA diet (low LA; 1.36 En% LA) from postnatal days (PNs) 2 to 42. Subsequently, all animals were switched to a Western-style diet (2.54 En% LA) until PN98. We monitored body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and glucose homeostasis by an intravenous glucose and insulin tolerance test in rats and by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in mice. At PN98, plasma lipids, glucose, insulin, and adipokines were measured and adipocyte number and size were analyzed. In mice, the postnatal low-LA diet decreased fat accumulation during the adult Western-style diet challenge (-27% compared with CTRL, P < .001). Simultaneously, it reduced fasting triglyceride levels and lowered fasting resistin and leptin levels. In rats, the low-LA diet did not affect adult body composition, but decreased the number of retroperitoneal adipocytes and increased the number of large adipocytes. In conclusion, lowering dietary n-6 PUFA intake in early life protected against detrimental effects of an obesogenic diet in adulthood on metabolic homeostasis and fat mass accumulation. PMID:26239950

  14. Dorsal Raphe Serotonin Neurons in Mice: Immature Hyperexcitability Transitions to Adult State during First Three Postnatal Weeks Suggesting Sensitive Period for Environmental Perturbation

    PubMed Central

    Rood, Benjamin D.; Calizo, Lyngine H.; Piel, David; Spangler, Zachary P.; Campbell, Kaitlin

    2014-01-01

    Trauma during early life is a major risk factor for the development of anxiety disorders and suggests that the developing brain may be particularly sensitive to perturbation. Increased vulnerability most likely involves altering neural circuits involved in emotional regulation. The role of serotonin in emotional regulation is well established, but little is known about the postnatal development of the raphe where serotonin is made. Using whole-cell patch-clamp recording and immunohistochemistry, we tested whether serotonin circuitry in the dorsal and median raphe was functionally mature during the first 3 postnatal weeks in mice. Serotonin neurons at postnatal day 4 (P4) were hyperexcitable. The increased excitability was due to depolarized resting membrane potential, increased resistance, increased firing rate, lack of 5-HT1A autoreceptor response, and lack of GABA synaptic activity. Over the next 2 weeks, membrane resistance decreased and resting membrane potential hyperpolarized due in part to potassium current activation. The 5-HT1A autoreceptor-mediated inhibition did not develop until P21. The frequency of spontaneous inhibitory and excitatory events increased as neurons extended and refined their dendritic arbor. Serotonin colocalized with vGlut3 at P4 as in adulthood, suggesting enhanced release of glutamate alongside enhanced serotonin release. Because serotonin affects circuit development in other brain regions, altering the developmental trajectory of serotonin neuron excitability and release could have many downstream consequences. We conclude that serotonin neuron structure and function change substantially during the first 3 weeks of life during which external stressors could potentially alter circuit formation. PMID:24695701

  15. Coenzyme Q10 prevents hepatic fibrosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress in a male rat model of poor maternal nutrition and accelerated postnatal growth1

    PubMed Central

    Tarry-Adkins, Jane L; Fernandez-Twinn, Denise S; Hargreaves, Iain P; Neergheen, Viruna; Aiken, Catherine E; Martin-Gronert, Malgorzata S; McConnell, Josie M; Ozanne, Susan E

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is well established that low birth weight and accelerated postnatal growth increase the risk of liver dysfunction in later life. However, molecular mechanisms underlying such developmental programming are not well characterized, and potential intervention strategies are poorly defined. Objectives: We tested the hypotheses that poor maternal nutrition and accelerated postnatal growth would lead to increased hepatic fibrosis (a pathological marker of liver dysfunction) and that postnatal supplementation with the antioxidant coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) would prevent this programmed phenotype. Design: A rat model of maternal protein restriction was used to generate low-birth-weight offspring that underwent accelerated postnatal growth (termed “recuperated”). These were compared with control rats. Offspring were weaned onto standard feed pellets with or without dietary CoQ10 (1 mg/kg body weight per day) supplementation. At 12 mo, hepatic fibrosis, indexes of inflammation, oxidative stress, and insulin signaling were measured by histology, Western blot, ELISA, and reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction. Results: Hepatic collagen deposition (diameter of deposit) was greater in recuperated offspring (mean ± SEM: 12 ± 2 μm) than in controls (5 ± 0.5 μm) (P < 0.001). This was associated with greater inflammation (interleukin 6: 38% ± 24% increase; P < 0.05; tumor necrosis factor α: 64% ± 24% increase; P < 0.05), lipid peroxidation (4-hydroxynonenal, measured by ELISA: 0.30 ± 0.02 compared with 0.19 ± 0.05 μg/mL per μg protein; P < 0.05), and hyperinsulinemia (P < 0.05). CoQ10 supplementation increased (P < 0.01) hepatic CoQ10 concentrations and ameliorated liver fibrosis (P < 0.001), inflammation (P < 0.001), some measures of oxidative stress (P < 0.001), and hyperinsulinemia (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Suboptimal in utero nutrition combined with accelerated postnatal catch-up growth caused more hepatic fibrosis in adulthood, which was

  16. Delayed postnatal neurogenesis in the cerebral cortex of lizards.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Garcia, C; Molowny, A; Garcia-Verdugo, J M; Ferrer, I

    1988-10-01

    Labelled cells were consistently observed in the medial cortex of the lizard brain after i.p. injections of tritiated thymidine (5 microCi/g b. wt.), 1, 7, 18 or 28 days of survival and posterior autoradiographic evaluation. In 3 groups of specimens (postnatal, young and adult) of the species Podarcis hispanica, after one day of survival, labelled cells were located in the ependymal cell layer underlying the medial cortex. After intermediate survival times (7, 18 days), labelled cells were found in 3 zones: the ependymal layer, the inner plexiform layer and the granular layer. After one month of survival, most labelled cells were observed in the granular layer. In the granular layer, these cells were distributed at random. These results show that postnatal neurogenesis in the medial cortex of the lizard occurs following a spatio-temporal pattern reminiscent of that found in the fascia dentata of the mammalian hippocampus.

  17. Analysis of gene-environment interactions in postnatal development of the mammalian intestine.

    PubMed

    Rakoff-Nahoum, Seth; Kong, Yong; Kleinstein, Steven H; Subramanian, Sathish; Ahern, Philip P; Gordon, Jeffrey I; Medzhitov, Ruslan

    2015-02-17

    Unlike mammalian embryogenesis, which takes place in the relatively predictable and stable environment of the uterus, postnatal development can be affected by a multitude of highly variable environmental factors, including diet, exposure to noxious substances, and microorganisms. Microbial colonization of the intestine is thought to play a particularly important role in postnatal development of the gastrointestinal, metabolic, and immune systems. Major changes in environmental exposure occur right after birth, upon weaning, and during pubertal maturation into adulthood. These transitions include dramatic changes in intestinal contents and require appropriate adaptations to meet changes in functional demands. Here, we attempt to both characterize and provide mechanistic insights into postnatal intestinal ontogeny. We investigated changes in global intestinal gene expression through postnatal developmental transitions. We report profound alterations in small and large intestinal transcriptional programs that accompany both weaning and puberty in WT mice. Using myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)/TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF) double knockout littermates, we define the role of toll-like receptors (TLRs) and interleukin (IL)-1 receptor family member signaling in postnatal gene expression programs and select ontogeny-specific phenotypes, such as vascular and smooth muscle development and neonatal epithelial and mast cell homeostasis. Metaanalysis of the effect of the microbiota on intestinal gene expression allowed for mechanistic classification of developmentally regulated genes by TLR/IL-1R (TIR) signaling and/or indigenous microbes. We find that practically every aspect of intestinal physiology is affected by postnatal transitions. Developmental timing, microbial colonization, and TIR signaling seem to play distinct and specific roles in regulation of gene-expression programs throughout postnatal development.

  18. Analysis of gene–environment interactions in postnatal development of the mammalian intestine

    PubMed Central

    Rakoff-Nahoum, Seth; Kong, Yong; Kleinstein, Steven H.; Subramanian, Sathish; Ahern, Philip P.; Gordon, Jeffrey I.; Medzhitov, Ruslan

    2015-01-01

    Unlike mammalian embryogenesis, which takes place in the relatively predictable and stable environment of the uterus, postnatal development can be affected by a multitude of highly variable environmental factors, including diet, exposure to noxious substances, and microorganisms. Microbial colonization of the intestine is thought to play a particularly important role in postnatal development of the gastrointestinal, metabolic, and immune systems. Major changes in environmental exposure occur right after birth, upon weaning, and during pubertal maturation into adulthood. These transitions include dramatic changes in intestinal contents and require appropriate adaptations to meet changes in functional demands. Here, we attempt to both characterize and provide mechanistic insights into postnatal intestinal ontogeny. We investigated changes in global intestinal gene expression through postnatal developmental transitions. We report profound alterations in small and large intestinal transcriptional programs that accompany both weaning and puberty in WT mice. Using myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)/TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF) double knockout littermates, we define the role of toll-like receptors (TLRs) and interleukin (IL)-1 receptor family member signaling in postnatal gene expression programs and select ontogeny-specific phenotypes, such as vascular and smooth muscle development and neonatal epithelial and mast cell homeostasis. Metaanalysis of the effect of the microbiota on intestinal gene expression allowed for mechanistic classification of developmentally regulated genes by TLR/IL-1R (TIR) signaling and/or indigenous microbes. We find that practically every aspect of intestinal physiology is affected by postnatal transitions. Developmental timing, microbial colonization, and TIR signaling seem to play distinct and specific roles in regulation of gene-expression programs throughout postnatal development. PMID:25691701

  19. Postnatal growth hormone deficiency in growing rats causes marked decline in the activity of spinal cord acetylcholinesterase but not butyrylcholinesterase.

    PubMed

    Koohestani, Faezeh; Brown, Chester M; Meisami, Esmail

    2012-11-01

    The effects of growth hormone (GH) deficiency on the developmental changes in the abundance and activity of cholinesterase enzymes were studied in the developing spinal cord (SC) of postnatal rats by measuring the specific activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), a marker for cholinergic neurons and their synaptic compartments, and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), a marker for glial cells and neurovascular cells. Specific activities of these two enzymes were measured in SC tissue of 21- and 90 day-old (P21, weaning age; P90, young adulthood) GH deficient spontaneous dwarf (SpDwf) mutant rats which lack anterior pituitary and circulating plasma GH, and were compared with SC tissue of normal age-matched control animals. Assays were carried out for AChE and BuChE activity in the presence of their specific chemical inhibitors, BW284C51 and iso-OMPA, respectively. Results revealed that mean AChE activity was markedly and significantly reduced [28% at P21, 49% at P90, (p<0.01)] in the SC of GH deficient rats compared to age-matched controls. GH deficiency had a higher and more significant effect on AChE activity of the older (P90) rats than the younger ones (P21) ones. In contrast, BuChE activity in SC showed no significant changes in GH deficient rats at either of the two ages studied. Results imply that, in the absence of pituitary GH, the postnatal proliferation of cholinergic synapses in the rat SC, a CNS structure, where AChE activity is abundant, is markedly reduced during both the pre- and postweaning periods; more so in the postweaning than preweaning ages. In contrast, the absence of any effects on BuChE activity implies that GH does not affect the development of non-neuronal elements, e.g., glia, as much as the neuronal and synaptic compartments of the developing rat SC. PMID:22922167

  20. Postnatal growth hormone deficiency in growing rats causes marked decline in the activity of spinal cord acetylcholinesterase but not butyrylcholinesterase.

    PubMed

    Koohestani, Faezeh; Brown, Chester M; Meisami, Esmail

    2012-11-01

    The effects of growth hormone (GH) deficiency on the developmental changes in the abundance and activity of cholinesterase enzymes were studied in the developing spinal cord (SC) of postnatal rats by measuring the specific activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), a marker for cholinergic neurons and their synaptic compartments, and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), a marker for glial cells and neurovascular cells. Specific activities of these two enzymes were measured in SC tissue of 21- and 90 day-old (P21, weaning age; P90, young adulthood) GH deficient spontaneous dwarf (SpDwf) mutant rats which lack anterior pituitary and circulating plasma GH, and were compared with SC tissue of normal age-matched control animals. Assays were carried out for AChE and BuChE activity in the presence of their specific chemical inhibitors, BW284C51 and iso-OMPA, respectively. Results revealed that mean AChE activity was markedly and significantly reduced [28% at P21, 49% at P90, (p<0.01)] in the SC of GH deficient rats compared to age-matched controls. GH deficiency had a higher and more significant effect on AChE activity of the older (P90) rats than the younger ones (P21) ones. In contrast, BuChE activity in SC showed no significant changes in GH deficient rats at either of the two ages studied. Results imply that, in the absence of pituitary GH, the postnatal proliferation of cholinergic synapses in the rat SC, a CNS structure, where AChE activity is abundant, is markedly reduced during both the pre- and postweaning periods; more so in the postweaning than preweaning ages. In contrast, the absence of any effects on BuChE activity implies that GH does not affect the development of non-neuronal elements, e.g., glia, as much as the neuronal and synaptic compartments of the developing rat SC.

  1. Postnatal maternal separation enhances tonic GABA current of cortical layer 5 pyramidal neurons in juvenile rats and promotes genesis of GABAergic neurons in neocortical molecular layer and subventricular zone in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Feng, Mei; Sheng, Guoxia; Li, Zhongxia; Wang, Jiangping; Ren, Keming; Jin, Xiaoming; Jiang, Kewen

    2014-03-01

    Postnatal maternal separation (PMS) has been shown to be associated with an increased vulnerability to psychiatric illnesses in adulthood. However, the underlying neurological mechanisms are not well understood. Here we evaluated its effects on neurogenesis and tonic GABA currents of cortical layer 5 (L5) pyramidal neurons. PMS not only increased cell proliferation in the subventricular zone, cortical layer 1 and hippocampal dentate gyrus in the adult brain, but also promoted the newly generated cells to differentiate into GABAergic neurons, and PMS adult brain maintained higher ratios of GABAergic neurons in the survival of newly generated cells within 5 days immediately post PMS. Additionally, PMS increased the tonic currents at P7-10 and P30-35 in cortical L5 pyramidal cells. Our results suggest that the newly generated GABAergic neurons and the low GABA concentration-activated tonic currents may be involved in the development of psychiatric disorders after PMS.

  2. Changes in satiety hormones and expression of genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolism in rats weaned onto diets high in fibre or protein reflect susceptibility to increased fat mass in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Maurer, Alannah D; Chen, Qixuan; McPherson, Christine; Reimer, Raylene A

    2009-01-01

    Risk of developing obesity and diabetes may be influenced by the nutritional environment early in life. We examined the effects of high fibre or protein diets on satiety hormones and genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolism during postnatal development and on adult fat mass. At 21 days of age, Wistar rat pups were weaned onto control (C), high fibre (HF) or high protein (HP) diet. Tissue and blood were collected at 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days after birth. A second group of rats consumed the weaning diets until 4 months when they were switched to a high fat–high sugar diet for 6 weeks, after which body and fat mass and plasma glucose were determined. In young rats, HF diet increased plasma glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) compared to C and HP and decreased leptin compared to C at postnatal days 28 and 35. Hepatic fatty acid synthase mRNA was down-regulated by HF and HP compared to C at days 28 and 35. In brown adipose tissue, HF increased uncoupling protein-3 mRNA whereas HP increased mRNA of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6. Body weight, fat mass and glycaemia in adult males and fat mass in females were greater after the high fat challenge in rats that consumed the HP diet from weaning. Increasing fibre or protein in postnatal diets causes rapid change in satiety hormone secretion and genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolism which appear to influence fat mass and glycaemia in adulthood, high protein being associated with increased susceptibility to obesity. PMID:19064620

  3. Reinforcing Properties and Neurochemical Response of Ethanol within the Posterior Ventral Tegmental Area Are Enhanced in Adulthood by Periadolescent Ethanol Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Deehan, Gerald A.; Hauser, Sheketha R.; Engleman, Eric A.; Bell, Richard L.; Murphy, James M.; Truitt, William A.; McBride, William J.; Rodd, Zachary A.

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol drinking during adolescence is associated with increased alcohol drinking and alcohol dependence in adulthood. Research examining the biologic consequences of adolescent ethanol (EtOH) consumption on the response to EtOH in the neurocircuitry shown to regulate drug reinforcement is limited. The experiments were designed to determine the effects of periadolescent alcohol drinking on the reinforcing properties of EtOH within the posterior ventral tegmental area (pVTA) and the ability of EtOH microinjected into the pVTA to stimulate dopamine (DA) release in the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh). EtOH access (24-hour free-choice) by alcohol-preferring rats occurred during postnatal days (PND) 30–60. Animals were tested for their response to EtOH after PND 85. Intracranial self-administration techniques were performed to assess EtOH self-infusion into the pVTA. In the second experiment, rats received microinjections of EtOH into the pVTA, and dialysis samples were collected from the AcbSh. The results indicate that in rats that consumed EtOH during adolescence, the pVTA was more sensitive to the reinforcing effects of EtOH (a lower concentration of EtOH supported self-administration) and the ability of EtOH microinjected into the pVTA to stimulate DA release in the AcbSh was enhanced (sensitivity and magnitude). The data indicate that EtOH consumption during adolescence altered the mesolimbic DA system to be more sensitive and responsive to EtOH. This increase in the response to EtOH within the mesolimbic DA during adulthood could be part of biologic sequelae that are the basis for the deleterious effects of adolescent alcohol consumption on the rate of alcoholism during adulthood. PMID:25150280

  4. Preterm Birth: Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Marilee C.; Cristofalo, Elizabeth; Kim, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Preterm birth is associated with greater difficulty with transitions from childhood to adolescence to adulthood. Adolescents and young adults born preterm have higher rates of cerebral palsy, intellectual disability, cognitive impairment, learning disability, executive dysfunction, attention deficit disorder, and social-emotional difficulties than…

  5. Promoting Intellectual Growth in Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehle, Thomas J.; Bray, Melissa A.; Chafouleas, Sandra M; McLoughlin, Caven S.

    2002-01-01

    Article discusses problems associated with promoting intellectual growth in adulthood. Defines characteristics of intelligent behavior as incorporating individual attainment of Resources, Intimacy, Competence, and Health (RICH). Presents the RICH theory as a way to define and address the goals of intelligent enhancement. (JDM)

  6. Postnatal growth of tracheobronchial airways of Sprague–Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Lee, DongYoub; Srirama, Praveen K; Wallis, Christopher; Wexler, Anthony S

    2011-01-01

    Rats are widely used for the studies of pulmonary toxicology in both juveniles and adults. To facilitate such studies, investigators have developed models of lung architecture based on manual or computerized airway measurements. However, postnatal growth of conducting airways of rat lungs has never been reported. In this paper, we present conducting airway architecture statistics for male Sprague–Dawley rat lungs at ages 15, 28, 40, and 81 days by analyzing CT images from airway silicon casts. Detailed branching characteristics and intersubject variance are presented. This study shows that (i) airway growth in diameter and length is not linear with age, (ii) growth of airway length is faster than that of diameter during the 15–81-day postnatal period, and (iii) asymmetry in airway diameter (ratio of major to minor daughter diameter) increases with age. PMID:21534951

  7. Protein Expression Dynamics During Postnatal Mouse Brain Development

    PubMed Central

    Laeremans, Annelies; Van de Plas, Babs; Clerens, Stefan; Van den Bergh, Gert; Arckens, Lutgarde; Hu, Tjing-Tjing

    2013-01-01

    We explored differential protein expression profiles in the mouse forebrain at different stages of postnatal development, including 10-day (P10), 30-day (P30), and adult (Ad) mice, by large-scale screening of proteome maps using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis. Mass spectrometry analysis resulted in the identification of 251 differentially expressed proteins. Most molecular changes were observed between P10 compared to both P30 and Ad. Computational ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) confirmed these proteins as crucial molecules in the biological function of nervous system development. Moreover, IPA revealed Semaphorin signaling in neurons and the protein ubiquitination pathway as essential canonical pathways in the mouse forebrain during postnatal development. For these main biological pathways, the transcriptional regulation of the age-dependent expression of selected proteins was validated by means of in situ hybridization. In conclusion, we suggest that proteolysis and neurite outgrowth guidance are key biological processes, particularly during early brain maturation. PMID:25157209

  8. Neonatal Dexamethasone Treatment Leads to Alterations in Cell Signaling Cascades Controlling Hepatic and Cardiac Function in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Adigun, Abayomi A.; Wrench, Nicola; Seidler, Frederic J.; Slotkin, Theodore A.

    2009-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that early-life glucocorticoid exposure, either involving stress or the therapy of preterm labor, contributes to metabolic and cardiovascular disorders in adulthood. We investigated cellular mechanisms underlying these effects by administering dexamethasone (DEX) to neonatal rats on postnatal (PN) days 1–3 or 7–9, using doses spanning the threshold for somatic growth impairment: 0.05, 0.2 and 0.8 mg/kg. In adulthood, we assessed the effects on hepatic and cardiac cell function mediated through the adenylyl cyclase (AC) signaling cascade, which controls neuronal and hormonal inputs that regulate hepatic glucose metabolism and cardiac contractility. Treatment on PN1-3 produced heterologous sensitization of hepatic signaling, with upregulation of AC itself leading to parallel increases in the responses to β-adrenergic or glucagon receptor stimulation, or to activation of G-proteins by fluoride. The effects were seen at the lowest dose but increasing DEX past the point of somatic growth impairment led to loss of the effect in females. Nonmonotonic effects were also present in the heart, where males showed AC sensitization at the lowest dose, with decreasing effects as the dose was raised; females showed progressive deficits of cardiac AC activity. Shifting the exposure to PN7-9 still elicited AC sensitization but with a greater offsetting contribution at the higher doses. Our findings show that, in contrast to growth restriction, the glucocorticoids associated with stress or the therapy of preterm labor are more sensitive and more important contributors to the cellular abnormalities underlying subsequent metabolic and cardiovascular dysfunction. PMID:19853034

  9. Sucrose-induced analgesia during early life modulates adulthood learning and memory formation.

    PubMed

    Nuseir, Khawla Q; Alzoubi, Karem H; Alabwaini, Jehad; Khabour, Omar F; Kassab, Manal I

    2015-06-01

    This study is aimed at examining the long-term effects of chronic pain during early life (postnatal day 0 to 8weeks), and intervention using sucrose, on cognitive functions during adulthood in rats. Pain was induced in rat pups via needle pricks of the paws. Sucrose solution or paracetamol was administered for analgesia before the paw prick. Control groups include tactile stimulation to account for handling and touching the paws, and sucrose alone was used. All treatments were started on day one of birth and continued for 8weeks. At the end of the treatments, behavioral studies were conducted to test the spatial learning and memory using radial arm water maze (RAWM), as well as pain threshold via foot-withdrawal response to a hot plate apparatus. Additionally, the hippocampus was dissected, and blood was collected. Levels of neurotrophins (BDNF, IGF-1 and NT-3) and endorphins were assessed using ELISA. The results show that chronic noxious stimulation resulted in comparable foot-withdrawal latency between noxious and tactile groups. On the other hand, pretreatment with sucrose or paracetamol increased pain threshold significantly both in naive rats and noxiously stimulated rats (P<0.05). Chronic pain during early life impaired short-term memory, and sucrose treatment prevented such impairment (P<0.05). Sucrose significantly increased serum levels of endorphin and enkephalin. Chronic pain decreased levels of BDNF in the hippocampus and this decrease was prevented by sucrose and paracetamol treatments. Hippocampal levels of NT-3 and IGF-1 were not affected by any treatment. In conclusion, chronic pain induction during early life induced short memory impairment, and pretreatment with sucrose prevented this impairment via mechanisms that seem to involve BDNF. As evident in the results, sucrose, whether alone or in the presence of pre-noxious stimulation, increases pain threshold in such circumstances; most likely via a mechanism that involves an increase in endogenous

  10. Sucrose-induced analgesia during early life modulates adulthood learning and memory formation.

    PubMed

    Nuseir, Khawla Q; Alzoubi, Karem H; Alabwaini, Jehad; Khabour, Omar F; Kassab, Manal I

    2015-06-01

    This study is aimed at examining the long-term effects of chronic pain during early life (postnatal day 0 to 8weeks), and intervention using sucrose, on cognitive functions during adulthood in rats. Pain was induced in rat pups via needle pricks of the paws. Sucrose solution or paracetamol was administered for analgesia before the paw prick. Control groups include tactile stimulation to account for handling and touching the paws, and sucrose alone was used. All treatments were started on day one of birth and continued for 8weeks. At the end of the treatments, behavioral studies were conducted to test the spatial learning and memory using radial arm water maze (RAWM), as well as pain threshold via foot-withdrawal response to a hot plate apparatus. Additionally, the hippocampus was dissected, and blood was collected. Levels of neurotrophins (BDNF, IGF-1 and NT-3) and endorphins were assessed using ELISA. The results show that chronic noxious stimulation resulted in comparable foot-withdrawal latency between noxious and tactile groups. On the other hand, pretreatment with sucrose or paracetamol increased pain threshold significantly both in naive rats and noxiously stimulated rats (P<0.05). Chronic pain during early life impaired short-term memory, and sucrose treatment prevented such impairment (P<0.05). Sucrose significantly increased serum levels of endorphin and enkephalin. Chronic pain decreased levels of BDNF in the hippocampus and this decrease was prevented by sucrose and paracetamol treatments. Hippocampal levels of NT-3 and IGF-1 were not affected by any treatment. In conclusion, chronic pain induction during early life induced short memory impairment, and pretreatment with sucrose prevented this impairment via mechanisms that seem to involve BDNF. As evident in the results, sucrose, whether alone or in the presence of pre-noxious stimulation, increases pain threshold in such circumstances; most likely via a mechanism that involves an increase in endogenous

  11. Midwives benefit from good postnatal care, too.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Appropriate, timely and responsive postnatal care can help women and families negotiate the major life transition that childbirth brings. However, women's experiences of postnatal care are often negative and our increasingly biomedical approach to birth means that greater emphasis is placed on antenatal and intrapartum care at the expense of postnatal care. Good postnatal care is essential not only for women, but for midwives too, and our failure to acknowledge the significance of birth, and our contribution to that event can diminish us as people and midwives.

  12. Effect of pre- and postnatal manganese exposure on brain histamine content in a rodent model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Brus, Ryszard; Jochem, Jerzy; Nowak, Przemysław; Adwent, Marta; Boroń, Dariusz; Brus, Halina; Kostrzewa, Richard M

    2012-02-01

    Rats lesioned shortly after birth with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA; 134 μg icv) represent a near-ideal model of severe Parkinson's disease because of the near-total destruction of nigrostriatal dopaminergic fibers. There are scarce data that in Parkinson's disease, activity of the central histaminergic system is increased. The element manganese, an essential cofactor for many enzymatic reactions, itself in toxic amount, replicates some clinical features similar to those of Parkinson's disease. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of neonatal manganese exposure on 6-OHDA modeling of Parkinson's disease in rats, and to determine effects on histamine content in the brain of these rats in adulthood. Manganese (MnCl₂·4H₂O; 10,000 ppm) was included in the drinking water of pregnant Wistar rats from the time of conception until the 21st day after delivery, the age when neonatal rats were weaned. Control rats consumed tap water. Other groups of neonatal rat pups, on the 3rd day after birth, were pretreated with desipramine (20 mg/kg ip 1 h) prior to bilateral icv administration of 6-OHDA (60 or 134 μg) or its vehicle saline-ascorbic (0.1%) (control). At 2 months after birth, in rats lesioned with 60 or 134 μg 6-OHDA, endogenous striatal dopamine (DA) content was reduced, respectively, by 92 and 98% (HPLC/ED), while co-exposure of these groups to perinatal manganese did not magnify the DA depletion. However, there was prominent enhancement of histamine content in frontal cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus, and medulla oblongata of adult rat brain after 6-OHDA (60 and 134 μg) injection on the day 3rd postnatal day. These findings indicate that histamine and the central histaminergic system are altered in the brain of rats lesioned to model Parkinson's disease, and that manganese enhances effects of 6-OHDA on histamine in brain. PMID:21822760

  13. Long-term neurobehavioural impact of the postnatal environment in rats: manipulations, effects and mediating mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Pryce, Christopher R; Feldon, Joram

    2003-01-01

    The major characteristics of the postnatal environment of the rat pup are its mother and littermates. The pup, which is poorly developed at birth, matures rapidly in this environment, and regulates the behaviour and physiology of the dam and littermates, as well as vice versa. The study of the impact of the rat's postnatal environment on its long-term neurobehavioural development is of fundamental importance. In fact, it is one of the major examples--at the interface of the biological, social and medical sciences--of animal models for the study of the interaction between the environment and the genome in both the acute and chronic regulation of the phenotype. Specific experimental manipulations of the rat postnatal environment have been demonstrated to exert robust and marked effects on neurobiological, physiological and behavioural phenotypes in adulthood. In the present review we present some of the major findings, including some original data, and discuss what these existing data can tell us about the long-term neurobehavioural effects of the postnatal environment in rats, the external and internal mechanisms that mediate these effects, and the most appropriate directions for future basic and applied research in this area. PMID:12732223

  14. Long-term effects of neonatal methamphetamine exposure in rats on spatial learning in the Barnes maze and on cliff avoidance, corticosterone release, and neurotoxicity in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Williams, Michael T; Blankenmeyer, Tracy L; Schaefer, Tori L; Brown, Carrie A; Gudelsky, Gary A; Vorhees, Charles V

    2003-12-30

    Methamphetamine (MA) is a commonly abused stimulant and because of its addictive properties, abusers may not cease use during pregnancy, thereby exposing the fetus to the drug. The consequences of such exposure remain largely unknown however data from animal models show that long-term deficits in spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze (MWM) occur. In this study we explored the spatial learning ability of rats treated four times daily with MA (5 mg/kg/dose) during the sensitive period for induction of MWM deficits, postnatal days (P) 11-20, using a different maze. In adulthood the animals were tested in a non-swimming spatial task, the Barnes maze, using either aversive (bright light) or appetitive (food reward) motivation. Approximately 30 days after behavioral testing, the pituitary and adrenal response to forced swim was assessed and susceptibility to MA-induced neurotoxicity measured. MA-treated animals tested in the aversive, but not the appetitive, version of the Barnes maze demonstrated spatial learning deficits. An attenuated corticosterone response in MA-treated animals was observed following forced swimming, however no differences in ACTH were found. Following acute MA administration in adulthood to all animals, the neonatally MA-treated animals displayed longer latencies to fall from a cliff than neonatally saline-treated rats given the same acute MA dose. This effect supports previous data showing hypoactivity in neonatally MA-treated animals. Acute MA treatment caused comparable striatal monoamine depletions in all groups, although females treated with MA as neonates displayed increased basal levels of corticosterone three days after the acute dose. These data demonstrate that MA administration during the neonatal period impairs spatial learning in an aversive non-swimming task and alters the adrenal response to a forced swim stressor, suggesting that the adrenal output during learning may contribute to the spatial learning deficits.

  15. Maternal Nutrient Restriction During Late Gestation and Early Postnatal Growth in Sheep Differentially Reset the Control of Energy Metabolism in the Gastric Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Sebert, S. P.; Dellschaft, N. S.; Chan, L. L. Y.; Street, H.; Henry, M.; Francois, C.; Sharma, V.; Fainberg, H. P.; Patel, N.; Roda, J.; Keisler, D.; Budge, H.

    2011-01-01

    Fetal growth restriction followed by accelerated postnatal growth contributes to impaired metabolic function in adulthood. The extent to which these outcomes may be mediated centrally within the hypothalamus, as opposed to in the periphery within the digestive tract, remains unknown. In a sheep model, we achieved intrauterine growth restriction experimentally by maternal nutrient restriction (R) that involved a 40% reduction in food intake through late gestation. R offspring were then either reared singly to accelerate postnatal growth (RA) or as twins and compared with controls also reared singly. From weaning, all offspring were maintained indoors until adulthood. A reduced litter size accelerated postnatal growth for only the first month of lactation. Independently from postnatal weight gain and later fat mass, R animals developed insulin resistance as adults. However, restricted accelerated offspring compared with both the control accelerated and restricted restricted offspring ate less and had higher fasting plasma leptin as adults, an adaptation which was accompanied by changes in energy sensing and cell proliferation within the abomasum. Additionally, although fetal restriction down-regulated gene expression of mammalian target of rapamycin and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1-dependent pathways in the abomasum, RA offspring compensated for this by exhibiting greater activity of AMP-activated kinase-dependent pathways. This study demonstrates a role for perinatal nutrition in the peripheral control of food intake and in energy sensing in the gastric mucosal and emphasizes the importance of diet in early life in regulating energy metabolism during adulthood. PMID:21558318

  16. Long-term effects of methamphetamine exposure in adolescent mice on the future ovarian reserve in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lan; Qu, Guoqiang; Dong, Xiyuan; Huang, Kai; Kumar, Molly; Ji, Licheng; Wang, Ya; Yao, Junning; Yang, Shulin; Wu, Ruxing; Zhang, Hanwang

    2016-02-01

    Currently, there is an increasing prevalence of adolescent exposure to methamphetamine (MA). However, there is a paucity of information concerning the long-term impact of early exposure to MA upon female fertility and ovarian reserve. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of long-term MA exposure in adolescents on their ovarian reserve in adulthood. Adolescent mice received intraperitoneal injections of MA (5mg/kg, three times per week) or saline from the 21st postnatal day for an 8 week period. Morphological, histological, biochemical, hormonal and ethological parameters were evaluated. An impaired ovarian reserve and vitality was found in the group treated with MA, manifesting in morphological-apparent mitochondrial damage, an activated apoptosis pathway in the ovarian tissue, a downward expression of ovarian anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH), a decreased number of primordial and growing follicles, an increased number of atretic follicles, and a depressed secretion of AMH, estradiol and progesterone from granulosa cells. However, no significant difference was noticed regarding the estrous cycle, the mating ability and the fertility outcome in the reproductive age of the mice after a period of non-medication. The present results confirmed that a long term exposure to methamphetamine in adolescent mice does have an adverse impact on their ovarian reserve, which indicates that such an early abuse of MA might influence the fertility lifespan of the female mouse.

  17. Identification of proliferative progenitors associated with prominent postnatal growth of the pons

    PubMed Central

    Lindquist, Robert A.; Guinto, Cristina D.; Rodas-Rodriguez, Jose L.; Fuentealba, Luis C.; Tate, Matthew C.; Rowitch, David H.; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    The pons controls crucial sensorimotor and autonomic functions. In humans, it grows sixfold postnatally and is a site of paediatric gliomas; however, the mechanisms of pontine growth remain poorly understood. We show that the murine pons quadruples in volume postnatally; growth is fastest during postnatal days 0–4 (P0–P4), preceding most myelination. We identify three postnatal proliferative compartments: ventricular, midline and parenchymal. We find no evidence of postnatal neurogenesis in the pons, but each progenitor compartment produces new astroglia and oligodendroglia; the latter expand 10- to 18-fold postnatally, and are derived mostly from the parenchyma. Nearly all parenchymal progenitors at P4 are Sox2+Olig2+, but by P8 a Sox2− subpopulation emerges, suggesting a lineage progression from Sox2+ ‘early' to Sox2− ‘late' oligodendrocyte progenitor. Fate mapping reveals that >90% of adult oligodendrocytes derive from P2–P3 Sox2+ progenitors. These results demonstrate the importance of postnatal Sox2+Olig2+ progenitors in pontine growth and oligodendrogenesis. PMID:27188978

  18. Daily physical activity and life satisfaction across adulthood.

    PubMed

    Maher, Jaclyn P; Pincus, Aaron L; Ram, Nilam; Conroy, David E

    2015-10-01

    Physical activity is considered a valuable tool for enhancing life satisfaction. However, the processes linking these constructs likely differ across the adult life span. In older adults the association between physical activity and life satisfaction appears to involve usual levels of physical activity (i.e., a between-person association driven by differences between more and less active people). In younger adults the association has consistently been based on day-to-day physical activity (i.e., a within-person association driven by differences between more and less active days). To resolve this inconsistency, a daily diary study was conducted with a life span sample of community-dwelling adults (age 18-89 years; N = 150) over three 21-day measurement bursts. Usual physical activity was positively associated with life satisfaction in middle and older adulthood; however, this association was not present in young adulthood. When present, this between-person association was mediated by physical and mental health. A within-person association between physical activity and life satisfaction was also present (and did not differ across age). Generally, on days when people were more physically active then was typical for them, they experienced greater life satisfaction. Age differences in life satisfaction followed a cubic trajectory: lower during emerging adulthood, higher during midlife, and lower during older adulthood. This study adds to accumulating evidence that daily fluctuations in physical activity have important implications for well-being regardless of age, and clarifies developmental differences in life satisfaction dynamics that can inform strategies for enhancing life satisfaction.

  19. Daily Physical Activity and Life Satisfaction across Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Maher, Jaclyn P.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Ram, Nilam; Conroy, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity is considered a valuable tool for enhancing life satisfaction. However, the processes linking these constructs likely differ across the adult lifespan. In older adults the association between physical activity and life satisfaction appears to involve usual levels of physical activity (i.e., a between-person association driven by differences between more and less active people). In younger adults the association has consistently been based on day-to-day physical activity (i.e., a within-person association driven by differences between more and less active days). To resolve this inconsistency, a daily diary study was conducted with a lifespan sample of community-dwelling adults (age 18– 89 years; N = 150) over three 21-day measurement bursts. Usual physical activity was positively associated with life satisfaction in middle and older adulthood; however, this association was not present in young adulthood. When present, this between-person association was mediated by physical and mental health. A within-person association between physical activity and life satisfaction was also present (and did not differ across age). Generally, on days when people were more physically active then was typical for them, they experienced greater life satisfaction. Age differences in life satisfaction followed a cubic trajectory: lower during emerging adulthood, higher during midlife, and lower during older adulthood. This study adds to accumulating evidence that daily fluctuations in physical activity have important implications for well-being regardless of age, and clarifies developmental differences in life satisfaction dynamics that can inform strategies for enhancing life satisfaction. PMID:26280838

  20. Postnatal Exposure History and Airways

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Shannon R.; Schelegle, Edward S.; Edwards, Patricia C.; Miller, Lisa A.; Hyde, Dallas M.

    2012-01-01

    Postnatally, the lung continues to grow and differentiate while interacting with the environment. Exposure to ozone (O3) and allergens during postnatal lung development alters structural elements of conducting airways, including innervation and neurokinin abundance. These changes have been linked with development of asthma in a rhesus monkey model. We hypothesized that O3 exposure resets the ability of the airways to respond to oxidant stress and that this is mediated by changes in the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R). Infant rhesus monkeys received episodic exposure to O3 biweekly with or without house dust mite antigen (HDMA) from 6 to 12 months of age. Age-matched monkeys were exposed to filtered air (FA). Microdissected airway explants from midlevel airways (intrapulmonary generations 5–8) for four to six animals in each of four groups (FA, O3, HDMA, and HDMA+O3) were tested for NK-1R gene responses to acute oxidant stress using exposure to hydrogen peroxide (1.2 mM), a lipid ozonide (10 μM), or sham treatment for 4 hours in vitro. Airway responses were measured using real-time quantitative RT-PCR of NK-1R and IL-8 gene expression. Basal NK-1R gene expression levels were not different between the exposure groups. Treatment with ozonide or hydrogen peroxide did not change NK-1R gene expression in animals exposed to FA, HDMA, or HDMA+O3. However, treatment in vitro with lipid ozonide significantly increased NK-1R gene expression in explants from O3–exposed animals. We conclude that a history of prior O3 exposure resets the steady state of the airways to increase the NK-1R response to subsequent acute oxidant stresses. PMID:22962062

  1. Day to Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurecki, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    A clean, healthy and safe school provides students, faculty and staff with an environment conducive to learning and working. However, budget and staff reductions can lead to substandard cleaning practices and unsanitary conditions. Some school facility managers have been making the switch to a day-schedule to reduce security and energy costs, and…

  2. Postnatal genome editing partially restores dystrophin expression in a mouse model of muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Long, Chengzu; Amoasii, Leonela; Mireault, Alex A.; McAnally, John R.; Li, Hui; Sanchez-Ortiz, Efrain; Bhattacharyya, Samadrita; Shelton, John M.; Bassel-Duby, Rhonda; Olson, Eric N.

    2016-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing holds clinical potential for treating genetic diseases, such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), which is caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. To correct DMD by skipping mutant dystrophin exons in postnatal muscle tissue in vivo, we used adeno-associated virus–9 (AAV9) to deliver gene-editing components to postnatal mdx mice, a model of DMD. Different modes of AAV9 delivery were systematically tested, including intraperitoneal at postnatal day 1 (P1), intramuscular at P12, and retro-orbital at P18. Each of these methods restored dystrophin protein expression in cardiac and skeletal muscle to varying degrees, and expression increased from 3 to 12 weeks after injection. Postnatal gene editing also enhanced skeletal muscle function, as measured by grip strength tests 4 weeks after injection. This method provides a potential means of correcting mutations responsible for DMD and other monogenic disorders after birth. PMID:26721683

  3. Cellular Distribution of NDRG1 Protein in the Rat Kidney and Brain During Normal Postnatal Development

    PubMed Central

    Wakisaka, Yoshinobu; Furuta, Akiko; Masuda, Katsuaki; Morikawa, Wataru; Kuwano, Michihiko; Iwaki, Toru

    2003-01-01

    N-myc downregulated gene 1 (NDRG1) is a 43-kD protein whose mRNA is induced by DNA damage, hypoxia, or prolonged elevation of intracellular calcium. Although NDRG1 is also upregulated during cell differentiation, there are few studies on NDRG1 expression during postnatal development. Here we investigated the expression and cellular distribution of NDRG1 protein in rat kidney and brain during postnatal development. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the cellular localization of NDRG1 protein in the kidney changed from the proximal convoluted tubules to the collecting ducts between postnatal days 10 and 20. In the brain, a change in cellular expression was also found from the hippocampal pyramidal neurons to the astrocytes in the gray matter during the same postnatal period. These alterations in the cellular distribution of NDRG1 were associated with shifts in the molecular assembly on Western blots. Under non-reduced conditions, the main NDRG1 band was found only around 215 kD in both kidney and brain during the early postnatal stage. After postnatal day 10, the immunoreactive bands shifted to 43 kD in the kidney and 129 kD in the brain. These changes in the cellular distribution and state of assembly may correlate with the functional maturation of both organs. PMID:14566023

  4. Day to day with COPD

    MedlinePlus

    ... day; Chronic obstructive airways disease - day to day; Chronic obstructive lung disease - day to day; Chronic bronchitis - day to day; ... strategy for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of chronic ... disease. Updated 2015. www.goldcopd.it/materiale/2015/GOLD_ ...

  5. Exposure of C57BL/6J mice to long photoperiod during early life stages increases body weight and alters plasma metabolomic profiles in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Uchiwa, Tatsuhiro; Takai, Yusuke; Tashiro, Ayako; Furuse, Mitsuhiro; Yasuo, Shinobu

    2016-09-01

    Perinatal photoperiod is an important regulator of physiological phenotype in adulthood. In this study, we demonstrated that postnatal (0-4 weeks old) exposure of C57BL/6J mice to long photoperiod induced persistent increase in body weight until adulthood, compared with the mice maintained under short photoperiod. The expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ, a gene involved in fatty acid metabolism, was decreased in 10-week-old mice exposed to long photoperiod during 0-4 or 4-8 weeks of age. Plasma metabolomic profiles of adult mice exposed to a long photoperiod during the postnatal period (0-4 LD) were compared to those in the mice exposed to short photoperiod during the same period. Cluster analysis revealed that both carbon metabolic pathway and nucleic acid pathway were altered by the postnatal photoperiod. Levels of metabolites involved in glycolysis were significantly upregulated in 0-4 LD, suggesting that the mice in 0-4 LD use the glycolytic pathway for energy expenditure rather than the fatty acid oxidation pathway. In addition, the mice in 0-4 LD exhibited high levels of purine metabolites, which have a role in neuroprotection. In conclusion, postnatal exposure of C57BL/6J mice to long photoperiod induces increase in body weight and various changes in plasma metabolic profiles during adulthood. PMID:27650252

  6. Postnatal Development of the Craniofacial Skeleton in Male C57BL/6J Mice

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    C57BL/6J is one of the most commonly used inbred mouse strains in biomedical research, including studies of craniofacial development and teratogenic studies of craniofacial malformation. The current study quantitatively assessed the development of the skull in male C57BL/6J mice by using high-resolution 3D imaging of 55 landmarks from 48 male mice over 10 developmental time points from postnatal day 0 to 90. The growth of the skull plateaued at approximately postnatal day 60, and the shape of the skull did not change markedly thereafter. The amount of asymmetry in the craniofacial skeleton seemed to peak at birth, but considerable variation persisted in all age groups. For C57BL/6J male mice, postnatal day 60 is the earliest time point at which the skull achieves its adult shape and proportions. In addition, C57BL/6J male mice appear to have an inherent susceptibility to craniofacial malformation. PMID:27025802

  7. Revealing tact within postnatal care.

    PubMed

    Smythe, Elizabeth; Payne, Deborah; Wilson, Sally; Paddy, Ann; Heard, Kate

    2014-02-01

    In this article, we explore the nature of good postnatal care through a hermeneutic unpacking of the notion of tact, drawing on the philosophical writings of Heidegger, Gadamer, and van Manen. The tactful encounters considered were from a hermeneutic research study within a small, rural birthing center in New Zealand. Insights drawn from the analysis were as follows: the openness of listening, watching and being attuned that builds a positive mode of engagement, recognizing that the distance the woman needs from her nurse/midwife is a call of tact, that tact is underpinned by a spirit of care, within tact there are moods and tact might require firmness, and that all of these factors come together to build trust. We conclude that the attunement of tact requires that the staff member has time to spend with a woman, enough energy to engage, and a spirit of care. Women know that tactful practice builds their confidence and affects their mothering experience. Tact cannot be assumed; it needs to be nurtured and sheltered.

  8. Postnatal growth and age estimation in Scotophilus kuhlii.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shiang-Fan; Huang, Shang-Shang; Lu, Dau-Jye; Shen, Tsung-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Adequate postnatal growth is important for young bats to develop skilled sensory and locomotor abilities, which are highly associated with their survival once independent. This study investigated the postnatal growth and development of Scotophilus kuhlii in captivity. An empirical growth curve was established, and the postnatal growth rate was quantified to derive an age-predictive equation. By further controlling the fostering conditions of twins, the differences in the development patterns between pups that received maternal care or were hand-reared were analyzed to determine whether the latter developed in the same manner as their maternally reared counterparts. Our results indicate that both forearm length and body mass increased rapidly and linearly during the first 4 weeks, after which the growth rate gradually decreased to reach a stable level. The first flight occurred at an average age of 39 days with a mean forearm length and body mass of 92.07% and 70.52% of maternal size, respectively. The developmental pattern of hand-reared pups, although similar to that of their maternally reared twin siblings, displayed a slightly faster growth rate in the 4th and 5th weeks. The heavier body mass of hand-reared pups during the pre-fledging period may cause higher wing loading, potentially influencing the flight performance and survival of the bats once independent. PMID:26600428

  9. Preterm birth: Transition to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Allen, Marilee C; Cristofalo, Elizabeth; Kim, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Preterm birth is associated with greater difficulty with transitions from childhood to adolescence to adulthood. Adolescents and young adults born preterm have higher rates of cerebral palsy, intellectual disability, cognitive impairment, learning disability, executive dysfunction, attention deficit disorder, and social-emotional difficulties than their peers born fullterm. Compared to individuals born fullterm, more preterm survivors have major neurodevelopmental or psychiatric disability and need financial supports and societal resources. Neuroimaging studies of adolescents and adults born preterm report higher rates of brain injury, differences in regional brain structure, and different brain circuits than in those born fullterm. Making the transition to adulthood is more difficult for young adults who were born preterm than their peers born fullterm, in that fewer complete high school and higher education, find and keep meaningful employment, and live independently from their parents. As a group, they do not tend to be risk-takers, and they have lower rates of alcohol abuse, use of illicit drugs, and criminal offenses than do their peers. Despite their many challenges, the majority of adults born preterm function well, form personal relationships, integrate well into their community, and are as satisfied with their quality of life as are their peers. Concerns regarding current preterm infants, with more extremely preterm survivors, overwhelming our medical, educational, and societal resources should serve as an impetus for research on prevention of preterm births and brain injury, as well as how to support and promote their ongoing neuromaturation and recovery from injury. PMID:25708075

  10. Prenatal imprinting of postnatal specific appetites and feeding behavior.

    PubMed

    Nicolaïdis, Stylianos

    2008-10-01

    Epigenetic influences on the fetus's genotype have been shown to occur during intrauterine life. Experimentally imposed extracellular dehydration in pregnant rats (a model for human hyponatremia caused by gravidic vomiting) brings about a dramatic enhancement of salt appetite not only in the dam, but also in offspring when they reach adulthood. This phenomenon has been verified in human newborn infants and adults whose mothers experienced nausea and/or vomiting during pregnancy. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy enhances its palatability for the offspring. Ingestion of olfactory test substances like anise or carrot by the mother during pregnancy gives rise to a preference for the same testants in the offspring. Under- or overnutrition in the pregnant mother appears to play a role in reprogramming the postnatal regulation of both feeding and fat reserves in offspring. Both maternal under- and overnutrition during pregnancy predispose the offspring to later development of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. A careful examination of the systems concerned with the regulation of food intake, and the neurosubstances involved in such regulation, reveals some of the mechanisms by which maternal nutritional status can affect the offspring and their food-related behaviors.

  11. Utilization of postnatal care among Nepalese women.

    PubMed

    Neupane, Subas; Doku, David

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated risk factors associated with the type of birth attendants and timing of postnatal care among a nationally representative sample of Nepalese women. The 2006 Nepalese Demographic and Health Survey on women age 15-49 years old who had delivered within 3 years prior to the survey (N = 4,136) was used. Multivariate logistic regression was employed to study the association between socio-demographic variables and type of birth attendants and timing of postnatal care. Only 23 % deliveries were assisted by skilled attendants. A majority of Nepalese women did not have postnatal check-ups. Education (OR = 1.46, 95 % CI = 1.11-1.92), wealth (OR = 2.57, 95 % CI = 1.59-4.15) and sufficiency of advice during pregnancy (OR = 3.09, 95 % CI = 2.16-4.41), were all independently associated with having postnatal check-ups. Similarly, maternal age, education, parity, wealth, sufficiency of advice and place of delivery were associated with having delivery assisted by a skilled attendant. The utilization of postnatal services is still very low in Nepal. Public health interventions are needed to increase the utilization of postnatal care as well as delivery assisted by skilled attendants. Such interventions should target poor women, the less educated and those in rural areas in Nepal.

  12. Predictors of Health in Middle Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Sandra P.

    There is increasing acceptance of the premise that growth and development continue throughout adult life and, as life expectancy has lengthened, there is a much expanded mid-life period. Yet, middle adulthood has been neglected as an area of theoretical and empirical examination. Adults (N=251) in middle adulthood (age 35-55) completed instruments…

  13. Vulnerable Youth and Transitions to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Rongbing; Sen, Bisakha; Foster, E. Michael

    2014-01-01

    This chapter focuses on vulnerable youth, the challenges they face during their transitions to adulthood, and the adverse effects of limited support systems on those transitions. The authors offer recommendations on how adult educators can help facilitate smooth transitions into adulthood for vulnerable youth.

  14. Transgenic APP expression during postnatal development causes persistent locomotor hyperactivity in the adult

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Transgenic mice expressing disease-associated proteins have become standard tools for studying human neurological disorders. Transgenes are often expressed using promoters chosen to drive continuous high-level expression throughout life rather than temporal and spatial fidelity to the endogenous gene. This approach has allowed us to recapitulate diseases of aging within the two-year lifespan of the laboratory mouse, but has the potential for creating aberrant phenotypes by mechanisms unrelated to the human disorder. Results We show that overexpression of the Alzheimer’s-related amyloid precursor protein (APP) during early postnatal development leads to severe locomotor hyperactivity that can be significantly attenuated by delaying transgene onset until adulthood. Our data suggest that exposure to transgenic APP during maturation influences the development of neuronal circuits controlling motor activity. Both when matched for total duration of APP overexpression and when matched for cortical amyloid burden, animals exposed to transgenic APP as juveniles are more active in locomotor assays than animals in which APP overexpression was delayed until adulthood. In contrast to motor activity, the age of APP onset had no effect on thigmotaxis in the open field as a rough measure of anxiety, suggesting that the interaction between APP overexpression and brain development is not unilateral. Conclusions Our findings indicate that locomotor hyperactivity displayed by the tet-off APP transgenic mice and several other transgenic models of Alzheimer’s disease may result from overexpression of mutant APP during postnatal brain development. Our results serve as a reminder of the potential for unexpected interactions between foreign transgenes and brain development to cause long-lasting effects on neuronal function in the adult. The tet-off APP model provides an easy means of avoiding developmental confounds by allowing transgene expression to be delayed until the

  15. Postnatal epigenetic modification of glucocorticoid receptor gene in preterm infants: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Kantake, Masato; Yoshitake, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Araki, Yoshihiko; Shimizu, Toshiaki

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the environmental effects on cytosine methylation of preterm infant's DNA, because early life experiences are considered to influence the physiological and mental health of an individual through epigenetic modification of DNA. Design A prospective cohort study, comparison of epigenetic differences in the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene between healthy term and preterm infants. Setting Neonatal Intensive Care Unit in a Japanese University Hospital. Participants A cohort of 40 (20 term and 20 preterm) infants was recruited on the day of birth, and peripheral blood was obtained from each infant at birth and on postnatal day 4. Main outcome measures The methylation rates in the 1-F promoter region of the GR gene using the Mquant method. Results The methylation rate increased significantly between postnatal days 0 and 4 in preterm infants but remained stable in term infants. Thus, the methylation rate was significantly higher in preterm than in term infants at postnatal day 4. Several perinatal parameters were significantly correlated with this change in the methylation rate. Logistic regression analysis revealed that methylation rates at postnatal day 4 predicted the occurrence of later complications that required glucocorticoid administration during the neonatal period. No gene polymorphism was detected within the GR promoter region analysed. Conclusions Although further large-scale studies are needed to detect the environmental factors that explain the difference in epigenetic modification among infants after birth, our data show that the postnatal environment influences epigenetic programming of GR expression through methylation of the GR gene promoter in premature infants, which may result in relative glucocorticoid insufficiency during the postnatal period. PMID:25023132

  16. Postnatal change in sulcal length asymmetry in cerebrum of cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Kazuhito; Sawada, Kazuhiko; Fukunishi, Katsuhiro; Noritaka, Imai; Sakata-Haga, Hiromi; Yoshihiro, Fukui

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the timing of the onset of adult-type sulcal length asymmetry during postnatal development of the male cynomolgus monkey cerebrum. The monkey brain has already reached adult size by 3 months of age, although the body weight only represents 1/8 of the adult body weight by that time. The fronto-occipital length and the cerebral width also reached adult levels by that postnatal age with no left/right bias. Consistently, lengths of the major primary sulci reached adult levels by 3 months of age, and then decreased slightly in sexually mature monkeys (4-6.5 years of age). Asymmetry quotient analysis showed that sulcal length asymmetry patterns gradually changed during postnatal development. The male adult pattern of sulcal length asymmetry was acquired after 24 months of age. In particular, age-dependent rightward lateralization of the arcuate sulcal length was revealed during cerebral maturation by three-way ANOVA. The results suggest that the regional difference in cerebral maturation from adolescence to young adulthood modifies the sulcal morphology with characteristic asymmetric patterns in male cynomolgus monkeys.

  17. Developmental programming: interaction between prenatal BPA exposure and postnatal adiposity on metabolic variables in female sheep.

    PubMed

    Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Moeller, Jacob; Sreedharan, Rohit; Singer, Kanakadurga; Lumeng, Carey; Ye, Wen; Pease, Anthony; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2016-02-01

    Among potential contributors for the increased incidence of metabolic diseases is the developmental exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals such as bisphenol A (BPA). BPA is an estrogenic chemical used in a variety of consumer products. Evidence points to interactions of BPA with the prevailing environment. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of prenatal exposure to BPA on postnatal metabolic outcomes, including insulin resistance, adipose tissue distribution, adipocyte morphometry, and expression of inflammatory markers in adipose tissue as well as to assess whether postnatal overfeeding would exacerbate these effects. Findings indicate that prenatal BPA exposure leads to insulin resistance in adulthood in the first breeder cohort (study 1), but not in the second cohort (study 2), which is suggestive of potential differences in genetic susceptibility. BPA exposure induced adipocyte hypertrophy in the visceral fat depot without an accompanying increase in visceral fat mass or increased CD68, a marker of macrophage infiltration, in the subcutaneous fat depot. Cohens effect size analysis found the ratio of visceral to subcutaneous fat depot in the prenatal BPA-treated overfed group to be higher compared with the control-overfed group. Altogether, these results suggest that exposure to BPA during fetal life at levels found in humans can program metabolic outcomes that lead to insulin resistance, a forerunner of type 2 diabetes, with postnatal obesity failing to manifest any interaction with prenatal BPA relative to insulin resistance and adipocyte hypertrophy.

  18. Developmental programming: interaction between prenatal BPA exposure and postnatal adiposity on metabolic variables in female sheep.

    PubMed

    Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Moeller, Jacob; Sreedharan, Rohit; Singer, Kanakadurga; Lumeng, Carey; Ye, Wen; Pease, Anthony; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2016-02-01

    Among potential contributors for the increased incidence of metabolic diseases is the developmental exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals such as bisphenol A (BPA). BPA is an estrogenic chemical used in a variety of consumer products. Evidence points to interactions of BPA with the prevailing environment. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of prenatal exposure to BPA on postnatal metabolic outcomes, including insulin resistance, adipose tissue distribution, adipocyte morphometry, and expression of inflammatory markers in adipose tissue as well as to assess whether postnatal overfeeding would exacerbate these effects. Findings indicate that prenatal BPA exposure leads to insulin resistance in adulthood in the first breeder cohort (study 1), but not in the second cohort (study 2), which is suggestive of potential differences in genetic susceptibility. BPA exposure induced adipocyte hypertrophy in the visceral fat depot without an accompanying increase in visceral fat mass or increased CD68, a marker of macrophage infiltration, in the subcutaneous fat depot. Cohens effect size analysis found the ratio of visceral to subcutaneous fat depot in the prenatal BPA-treated overfed group to be higher compared with the control-overfed group. Altogether, these results suggest that exposure to BPA during fetal life at levels found in humans can program metabolic outcomes that lead to insulin resistance, a forerunner of type 2 diabetes, with postnatal obesity failing to manifest any interaction with prenatal BPA relative to insulin resistance and adipocyte hypertrophy. PMID:26646100

  19. Adult Olfactory Bulb Interneuron Phenotypes Identified by Targeting Embryonic and Postnatal Neural Progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Figueres-Oñate, Maria; López-Mascaraque, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Neurons are generated during embryonic development and in adulthood, although adult neurogenesis is restricted to two main brain regions, the hippocampus and olfactory bulb. The subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles generates neural stem/progenitor cells that continually provide the olfactory bulb (OB) with new granule or periglomerular neurons, cells that arrive from the SVZ via the rostral migratory stream. The continued neurogenesis and the adequate integration of these newly generated interneurons is essential to maintain homeostasis in the olfactory bulb, where the differentiation of these cells into specific neural cell types is strongly influenced by temporal cues. Therefore, identifying the critical features that control the generation of adult OB interneurons at either pre- or post-natal stages is important to understand the dynamic contribution of neural stem cells. Here, we used in utero and neonatal SVZ electroporation along with a transposase-mediated stable integration plasmid, in order to track interneurons and glial lineages in the OB. These plasmids are valuable tools to study the development of OB interneurons from embryonic and post-natal SVZ progenitors. Accordingly, we examined the location and identity of the adult progeny of embryonic and post-natally transfected progenitors by examining neurochemical markers in the adult OB. These data reveal the different cell types in the olfactory bulb that are generated in function of age and different electroporation conditions. PMID:27242400

  20. Zonation of glucokinase in rat liver changes during postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Kirchner, G; Harbers, M; Bünsch, A; Seitz, H J; Höppner, W

    1993-08-01

    In the liver many metabolic pathways are preferentially localized in different zones of the acinus. It is assumed that this zonation allows an efficient adaptation to different states of nutrition, because alternative pathways can be regulated independently. It is reported that the rate limiting enzyme for the glycolytic pathway, glucokinase (EC 2.7.1.2), is predominantly located in the pericentral zone. The gene expression of glucokinase is induced to a maximum level after a carbohydrate-rich diet. In starved or diabetic rats glucokinase gene expression is barely detectable. In postnatal development glucokinase is induced to significant levels only from day 14 onwards. The distribution of the glucokinase protein in the rat liver lobule in the first 4 weeks of postnatal life was investigated by immunohistochemistry and compared to the distribution observed in adult rats. In adult rats considerably high levels of glucokinase are measureable as shown by immunoblotting utilizing a monospecific antibody and a photometric assay of glucokinase enzyme activity, respectively. Immunohistochemically the hepatic glucokinase protein is detected in the perivenous area. During postnatal development, the quantities of hepatic glucokinase protein and glucokinase enzyme activity start to increase significantly from day 15 onwards. Subsequently, glucokinase levels rise further until day 29. In contrast to the results obtained by immunoblotting, glucokinase is already detectable in some liver cells in sections from 6-day-old rats by immunohistochemistry. The liver lobule structure at this age is not completely developed, therefore it is not possible to definitely assign these cells to periportal or pericentral areas. At day 10 post partum the number of glucokinase expressing cells, which appear to be localized preferentially in the periportal zone, increases. In agreement with the immunoblotting, an immense increase in glucokinase activity was observed at day 14. The periportal

  1. Spaceflight affects postnatal development of the aortic wall in rats.

    PubMed

    Katsuda, Shin-ichiro; Yamasaki, Masao; Waki, Hidefumi; Miyake, Masao; O-ishi, Hirotaka; Katahira, Kiyoaki; Nagayama, Tadanori; Miyamoto, Yukako; Hasegawa, Masamitsu; Wago, Haruyuki; Okouchi, Toshiyasu; Shimizu, Tsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    We investigated effect of microgravity environment during spaceflight on postnatal development of the rheological properties of the aorta in rats. The neonate rats were randomly divided at 7 days of age into the spaceflight, asynchronous ground control, and vivarium control groups (8 pups for one dam). The spaceflight group rats at 9 days of age were exposed to microgravity environment for 16 days. A longitudinal wall strip of the proximal descending thoracic aorta was subjected to stress-strain and stress-relaxation tests. Wall tensile force was significantly smaller in the spaceflight group than in the two control groups, whereas there were no significant differences in wall stress or incremental elastic modulus at each strain among the three groups. Wall thickness and number of smooth muscle fibers were significantly smaller in the spaceflight group than in the two control groups, but there were no significant differences in amounts of either the elastin or collagen fibers among the three groups. The decreased thickness was mainly caused by the decreased number of smooth muscle cells. Plastic deformation was observed only in the spaceflight group in the stress-strain test. A microgravity environment during spaceflight could affect postnatal development of the morphological and rheological properties of the aorta. PMID:25210713

  2. Spaceflight Affects Postnatal Development of the Aortic Wall in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yamasaki, Masao; Waki, Hidefumi; Miyake, Masao; Nagayama, Tadanori; Miyamoto, Yukako; Wago, Haruyuki; Okouchi, Toshiyasu; Shimizu, Tsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    We investigated effect of microgravity environment during spaceflight on postnatal development of the rheological properties of the aorta in rats. The neonate rats were randomly divided at 7 days of age into the spaceflight, asynchronous ground control, and vivarium control groups (8 pups for one dam). The spaceflight group rats at 9 days of age were exposed to microgravity environment for 16 days. A longitudinal wall strip of the proximal descending thoracic aorta was subjected to stress-strain and stress-relaxation tests. Wall tensile force was significantly smaller in the spaceflight group than in the two control groups, whereas there were no significant differences in wall stress or incremental elastic modulus at each strain among the three groups. Wall thickness and number of smooth muscle fibers were significantly smaller in the spaceflight group than in the two control groups, but there were no significant differences in amounts of either the elastin or collagen fibers among the three groups. The decreased thickness was mainly caused by the decreased number of smooth muscle cells. Plastic deformation was observed only in the spaceflight group in the stress-strain test. A microgravity environment during spaceflight could affect postnatal development of the morphological and rheological properties of the aorta. PMID:25210713

  3. Associations of birth weight, linear growth and relative weight gain throughout life with abdominal fat depots in adulthood: the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Araújo de França, G V; Lucia Rolfe, E De; Horta, B L; Gigante, D P; Yudkin, J S; Ong, K K; Victora, C G

    2016-01-01

    Background: Several studies have reported on associations of size at birth and early growth with general and central obesity; however, few have examined the potential effects of birth weight and postnatal growth on separate abdominal fat compartments. We investigated the effects of size at birth, linear growth and relative weight gain from birth to adulthood on visceral (VFT) and subcutaneous abdominal (SAFT) fat thicknesses at age 30 years. Methods: A total of 2663 participants from the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study had complete information on ultrasound measures of abdominal fat at age 30 years, and anthropometric measurements for at least five visits (0/2/4/23/30 years). We estimated weight and height Z-score changes, conditional relative weight gain and conditional height at several ages. Results: In both men and women, VFT and SAFT showed positive associations with conditional relative weight gain during all age periods beyond 2 years and birth, respectively (all P⩽0.01). Women born with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) had greater VFT than other women (difference=0.15 s.d., 95% CI: 0.01–0.29), and they showed a stronger positive influence of infant weight gain 0–2 years on VFT (IUGR: β=0.17 s.d., 95% CI: 0.05–0.29; non-IUGR: β=0.01 s.d., 95% CI: −0.04 to 0.06; Pinteraction=0.02). Stunting at 2 years was associated with lower SAFT but not VFT, and it modified the influence of weight gain 2–4 years on SAFT in both sexes (both Pinteraction<0.05). Conclusions: Our findings reinforce the advantages of being born with an appropriate birth weight, and the hazards of rapid postnatal gains in weight relative to linear growth, particularly after the critical window of the first 1000 days. PMID:26395747

  4. Post-weaning Environmental Enrichment, But Not Chronic Maternal Isolation, Enhanced Ethanol Intake during Periadolescence and Early Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Berardo, Luciana R.; Fabio, María C.; Pautassi, Ricardo M.

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed ethanol intake in male and female Wistar rats exposed to maternal separation (MS) during infancy (postnatal days 1–21, PD1–21) and environmental enrichment (EE) during adolescence (PD 21–42). Previous work revealed that MS enhances ethanol consumption during adulthood. It is still unknown if a similar effect is found during adolescence. Several studies, in turn, have revealed that EE reverses stress experiences, and reduces ethanol consumption and reinforcement; although others reported greater ethanol intake after EE. The interactive effects between these treatments upon ethanol’s effects and intake have yet to be explored. We assessed chronic ethanol intake and preference (12 two-bottle daily sessions, spread across 30 days, 1st session on PD46) in rats exposed to MS and EE. The main finding was that male – but not female – rats that had been exposed to EE consumed more ethanol than controls given standard housing, an effect that was not affected by MS. Subsequent experiments assessed several factors associated with heightened ethanol consumption in males exposed to MS and EE; namely taste aversive conditioning and hypnotic-sedative consequences of ethanol. We also measured anxiety response in the light-dark box and in the elevated plus maze tests; and exploratory patterns of novel stimuli and behaviors indicative of risk assessment and risk-taking, via a modified version of the concentric square field (CSF) test. Aversive conditioning, hypnosis and sleep time were similar in males exposed or not to EE. EE males, however, exhibited heightened exploration of novel stimuli and greater risk taking behaviors in the CSF test. It is likely that the promoting effect of EE upon ethanol intake was due to these effects upon exploratory and risk-taking behaviors. PMID:27790100

  5. Exposure to oral methylphenidate from adolescence through young adulthood produces transient effects on hippocampal-sensitive memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Bethancourt, José A; Camarena, Zurislay Z; Britton, Gabrielle B

    2009-08-24

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is the most commonly prescribed medication used to treat the symptoms associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The increase in ADHD diagnosis and MPH use has raised concerns regarding the long-term consequences of early exposure to psychostimulants. Animals studies indicate that early developmental MPH treatment produces enduring changes in hippocampal-sensitive tasks, including novel object recognition (NOR) and long-term retention of contextual fear. We administered oral MPH to male Wistar rats at a therapeutically relevant dose (2 or 5 mg/kg) twice daily for 7 weeks beginning on post-natal day (PN) 27 through PN 71 (i.e., periadolescence through young adulthood). Behavioral tests began 18 days following the last MPH administration. MPH (5 mg/kg) produced an increase in the latency to reach criterion for sample object exploration during the first of two NOR tests, but did not produce memory deficits at either dose. MPH (5 mg/kg) enhanced freezing during the 24 h retention test, but did not affect responding at 48 h. Taken together, the results of both tasks suggest that treatment with MPH in a manner that approximates clinical exposure patterns transiently modifies hippocampal-sensitive learning in rats but does not produce cognitive impairments. We suggest that the effects of prolonged exposure to MPH treatment on cognitive processes vary as a function of the duration and pattern of drug administration, as well as task complexity, which may account for differences among studies regarding its long-term behavioral effects. Future preclinical studies examining the effects of early psychostimulant treatment should include different periods of exposure and assessment, as well as clinically relevant doses and routes of drug administration, in order to better understand the impact of pediatric medications on adult cognition.

  6. Morphological observations on the metanephros in the postnatal opossum, Didelphis virginiana.

    PubMed

    Krause, W J; Cutts, J H; Leeson, C R

    1979-10-01

    The metanephros of the newborn opossum is very immature, consisting only of collecting tubules and a few immature nephrons. Development during the postnatal period can be divided into two distinct phases. The initial phase occurs during the first 60 days of postnatal life and is concerned with nephronogenesis and the differentiation of nephrons that have formed during this period. The second phase lasts through the remainder of the postnatal period and is concerned with further differentiation and growth of established nephrons. During this latter period the tubular portion of the nephron increases in length and the renal corpuscle increases in diameter. Ultrastructural observations suggest that metanephric nephrons are not functional during the first 4 days of postnatal life, while the mesonephros reaches the height of its development during this period: there may be some functional overlap between the mesonephros and metanephros during the latter part of the first week of postnatal life. The pattern of nephron induction and differentiation in the opossum is discussed.

  7. Transient postnatal fluoxetine decreases brain concentrations of 20-HETE and 15-epi-LXA4, arachidonic acid metabolites in adult mice

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Zhi-Xin; Rapoport, Stanley I

    2015-01-01

    Background Transient postnatal exposure of rodents to the selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine alters behavior and brain 5-HT neurotransmission during adulthood, and also reduces brain arachidonic (ARA) metabolic consumption and protein level of the ARA metabolizing enzyme, cytochrome P4504A (CYP4A). Hypothesis Brain 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), converted by CYP4A from ARA, will be reduced in adult mice treated transiently and postnatally with fluoxetine. Methods Male mice pups were injected i.p. daily with fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) or saline during P4-P21. At P90 their brain was high-energy microwaved and analyzed for 20-HETE and six other ARA metabolites by enzyme immunoassay. Results Postnatal fluoxetine vs. saline significantly decreased brain concentrations of 20-HETE (−70.3%) and 15-epi-lipoxin A4 (−60%) in adult mice, but did not change other eicosanoid concentrations. Conclusions Transient postnatal administration of fluoxetine to mice results in reduced brain ARA metabolism involving CYP4A and 20-HETE formation during their adulthood. PMID:26234927

  8. Persistent Cognitive Alterations in Rats after Early Postnatal Exposure to Low Doses of the Organophosphate Pesticide, Diazinon

    PubMed Central

    Timofeeva, Olga A.; Roegge, Cindy S.; Seidler, Frederic J.; Slotkin, Theodore A.; Levin, Edward D.

    2008-01-01

    Background Developmental neurotoxicity of organophosphorous insecticides (OPs) involves multiple mechanisms in addition to cholinesterase inhibition. We have found persisting effects of developmental chlorpyrifos (CPF) and diazinon (DZN) on cholinergic and serotonergic neurotransmitter systems and gene expression as well as behavioral function. Both molecular/neurochemical and behavioral effects of developmental OP exposure have been seen at doses below those which cause appreciable cholinesterase inhibition. Objectives We sought to determine if developmental DZN exposure at doses which do not produce significant acetylcholinesterase inhibition cause cognitive deficits. Methods Rats were exposed to DZN on postnatal days 1-4 at doses (0.5 and 2 mg/kg/d) that span the threshold for cholinesterase inhibition. They were later examined with a cognitive battery tests similar to that used with CPF. Results In the T-maze DZN caused significant hyperactivity in the initial trials of the session, but not later. In a longer assessment of locomotor activity no DZN-induced changes were seen over a 1-hour session. Prepulse inhibition was reduced by DZN exposure selectively in males vs. females; DZN eliminated the sex difference present in controls. In the radial maze, the lower but not higher DZN dose significantly impaired spatial learning. This has previously been seen with CPF as well. The lower dose DZN group also showed significantly greater sensitivity to the memory-impairing effects of the anticholinergic drug scopolamine. Conclusions Neonatal DZN exposure below the threshold for appreciable cholinesterase inhibition caused neurocognitive deficits in adulthood. The addition of some inhibition of AChE with a higher dose reversed the cognitive impairment. This non-monotonic dose-effect function has also been seen with neurochemical effects. Some of the DZN effects on cognition resemble those seen earlier for CPF, some differ. Our data suggest that DZN and CPF affect

  9. Postnatal development of the gastrin-releasing peptide system in the lumbosacral spinal cord controlling male reproductive function in rats

    PubMed Central

    KATAYAMA, Nao; OTI, Takumi; TAKANAMI, Keiko; SAKAMOTO, Tatsuya; SAKAMOTO, Hirotaka

    2016-01-01

    A sexually dimorphic spinal gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) system in the lumbosacral spinal cord, which projects to the lower spinal centers, controls erection and ejaculation in rats. However, little is known about the postnatal development of this system. In this study, we therefore examined the postnatal development of the male-dominant spinal GRP system and its sexual differentiation in rats using immunohistochemistry. Our results show that male-dominant expression of GRP is prominent from the onset of puberty and that sexually dimorphism persists into adulthood. These results suggest that androgen surge during male puberty plays an important role in the development and maintenance of the male-specific GRP function in the rat spinal cord. PMID:26860455

  10. Postnatal growth rate, but not mild preterm birth, influences airway structure in adult sheep challenged with house dust mite.

    PubMed

    Snibson, Ken; Harding, Richard

    2008-02-01

    The authors recently showed that preterm birth per se, in the absence of assisted ventilation or elevated inhaled oxygen levels, alters the structure of the airway walls in young lambs. The initial aim of the present study was to determine whether these changes persist into adulthood. Preterm (P; n = 7) lambs were delivered 14 days before term and compared with control lambs (C; n = 8) born at term ( approximately 147 days). After weaning, the sheep were kept as a flock with daily exposure to pasture until approximately 1.2 years old. All sheep were sensitized to house dust mite extract and then given aerosol challenges with house dust mite 10 to 12 weeks before autopsy. At autopsy, the right lung was fixed in neutral-buffered formalin at an inflation pressure of 20 cm H(2)O. The architecture of the walls of airway generations 4, 6, and 8 and the bronchioles was assessed by computer-aided image analysis of histological sections of airway walls cut in cross-section. Morphometric analysis showed that preterm birth per se had no significant effect on airway wall structure. Within both groups (preterm and term), we identified animals that grew at different growth rates after birth; a second aim, therefore, was to determine the influence of postnatal growth rates on airway structure at maturity. The 15 sheep were divided into 2 groups based on nonoverlapping growth rates between birth and 200 days of age: slower growing sheep (SG; n = 7) gained 102 +/- 5 g/day and faster growing sheep (FG; n = 8) gained 197 +/- 14 g/day (P < .01). In SG sheep, the pulmonary airways had thinner walls and less smooth muscle in relation to basement membrane perimeter. The airway epithelium was also thinner in the SG sheep. In the bronchiolar epithelium, there were fewer goblet cells and Clara cells in SG compared to FG sheep. We conclude that the early effects of preterm birth on the airway epithelium do not persist to maturity. However, slow growth after birth results in altered airway

  11. FGF-2 signal promotes proliferation of cerebellar progenitor cells and their oligodendrocytic differentiation at early postnatal stage

    SciTech Connect

    Naruse, Masae; Shibasaki, Koji; Ishizaki, Yasuki

    2015-08-07

    The origins and developmental regulation of cerebellar oligodendrocytes are largely unknown, although some hypotheses of embryonic origins have been suggested. Neural stem cells exist in the white matter of postnatal cerebellum, but it is unclear whether these neural stem cells generate oligodendrocytes at postnatal stages. We previously showed that cerebellar progenitor cells, including neural stem cells, widely express CD44 at around postnatal day 3. In the present study, we showed that CD44-positive cells prepared from the postnatal day 3 cerebellum gave rise to neurospheres, while CD44-negative cells prepared from the same cerebellum did not. These neurospheres differentiated mainly into oligodendrocytes and astrocytes, suggesting that CD44-positive neural stem/progenitor cells might generate oligodendrocytes in postnatal cerebellum. We cultured CD44-positive cells from the postnatal day 3 cerebellum in the presence of signaling molecules known as mitogens or inductive differentiation factors for oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Of these, only FGF-2 promoted survival and proliferation of CD44-positive cells, and these cells differentiated into O4+ oligodendrocytes. Furthermore, we examined the effect of FGF-2 on cerebellar oligodendrocyte development ex vivo. FGF-2 enhanced proliferation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and increased the number of O4+ and CC1+ oligodendrocytes in slice cultures. These results suggest that CD44-positive cells might be a source of cerebellar oligodendrocytes and that FGF-2 plays important roles in their development at an early postnatal stage. - Highlights: • CD44 is expressed in cerebellar neural stem/progenitor cells at postnatal day 3 (P3). • FGF-2 promoted proliferation of CD44-positive progenitor cells from P3 cerebellum. • FGF-2 promoted oligodendrocytic differentiation of CD44-positive progenitor cells. • FGF-2 increased the number of oligodendrocytes in P3 cerebellar slice culture.

  12. Congenital lung lesions: Postnatal management and outcome.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Dakshesh H; Rasiah, Shree Vishna

    2015-08-01

    Antenatal diagnosis of lung lesion has become more accurate resulting in dilemma and controversies of its antenatal and postnatal management. Majority of antenatally diagnosed congenital lung lesions are asymptomatic in the neonatal age group. Large lung lesions cause respiratory compromise and inevitably require urgent investigations and surgery. The congenital lung lesion presenting with hydrops requires careful postnatal management of lung hypoplasia and persistent pulmonary hypertension. Preoperative stabilization with gentle ventilation with permissive hypercapnia and delayed surgery similar to congenital diaphragmatic hernia management has been shown to result in good outcome. The diagnostic investigations and surgical management of the asymptomatic lung lesions remain controversial. Postnatal management and outcome of congenital cystic lung lesions are discussed. PMID:26051048

  13. Browning attenuates murine white adipose tissue expansion during postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Lasar, D; Julius, A; Fromme, T; Klingenspor, M

    2013-05-01

    During postnatal development of mice distinct white adipose tissue depots display a transient appearance of brown-like adipocytes. These brite (brown in white) adipocytes share characteristics with classical brown adipocytes including a multilocular appearance and the expression of the thermogenic protein uncoupling protein 1. In this study, we compared two inbred mouse strains 129S6sv/ev and C57BL6/N known for their different propensity to diet-induced obesity. We observed transient browning in retroperitoneal and inguinal adipose tissue depots of these two strains. From postnatal day 10 to 20 the increase in the abundance of multilocular adipocytes and uncoupling protein 1 expression was higher in 129S6sv/ev than in C57BL6/N pups. The parallel increase in the mass of the two fat depots was attenuated during this browning period. Conversely, epididymal white and interscapular brown adipose tissue displayed a steady increase in mass during the first 30 days of life. In this period, 129S6sv/ev mice developed a significantly higher total body fat mass than C57BL6/N. Thus, while on a local depot level a high number of brite cells is associated with the attenuation of adipose tissue expansion the strain comparison reveals no support for a systemic impact on energy balance. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Brown and White Fat: From Signaling to Disease.

  14. Exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate during pregnancy in rat and mouse. II: postnatal evaluation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The postnatal effects of in utero exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, C8F17SO3-) were evaluated in the rat and mouse. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given 1, 2, 3, 5, or 10 mg/kg PFOS daily by gavage from gestation day (GD) 2 to GD 21; pregnant CD-1 mice were treated ...

  15. Postnatal developmental changes in the responses of mouse primary vestibular neurons to externally applied galvanic currents.

    PubMed

    Desmadryl, G

    1991-12-17

    The ontogenesis of vestibular primary neuron sensitivity to depolarisation produced by galvanic current stimulations was studied in mouse inner ear explants maintained in vitro. Cathodal galvanic stimulations, which elicit an increase of the discharge frequencies, are assumed to act on the spike initiation site by depolarizing the neuron. The responses of neurons to galvanic currents at various developmental stages were recorded. The pattern of responses reflected the sensitivities of the neurons to depolarization. At birth, about 75% of the vestibular neurons responded weakly to high intensity galvanic currents thus indicating that they were able to generate action potentials. However, the very low gain of the response to the stimulation revealed the immaturity of the neurons at the spike generation site. Between the day of birth and the ninth postnatal day, an increase in the gain of the responses was observed, indicating the enhancement of the sensitivity of the vestibular neurons to the galvanic currents. This increase in sensitivity was more pronounced from the fourth postnatal day. The response of the neurons to galvanic stimulation increased gradually during postnatal development without reaching a plateau at postnatal day 9 indicating that a further physiological maturation occurs after this stage. These results are consistent with the morphological maturation of the vestibular primary afferents and with previous studies showing that the physiological maturation parallels myelination of the afferent fibers.

  16. Nitrergic neurons during early postnatal development of the prefrontal cortex in the rat: histochemical study.

    PubMed

    Hvizdosova, Natalia; Tomasova, Lenka; Bolekova, Adriana; Kolesar, Dalibor; Kluchova, Darina

    2014-06-01

    The presence of nitrergic cells in the prefrontal cortex has been confirmed, however little is known about the postnatal development of these cells. Nitrergic neurons were studied histochemically by using NADPH-diaphorase staining in the prefrontal cortex of male Wistar rats from postnatal day 7-21 (P7-21). Neuronal NADPH-diaphorase is a nitric oxide synthase that provides a specific histochemical marker for neurons producing nitric oxide (NO). NO acts as a neurotransmitter and intracellular signaling molecule in the nervous system. We observed in 7 day old rats NADPH-d containing neurons that were intensely stained. These neurons were bipolar with a short dendrite with average length of 23 μm. During the second postnatal week, the neurons were mainly bipolar and were rarely multipolar. By P14 the cells were located primarily in cortical layers III-VI. Nitrergic neurons of the 21 day old rats were histochemically identified as multipolar cells with long radial extending dendrites. Dendrites of neurons in 14 and 21 day old rats were a similar length with an average of 57 μm. These results suggest that nitrergic neurons differentiate during a relatively short period of time and reach their structural maturity by the end of the second week of postnatal development.

  17. Special Needs: Planning for Adulthood (Videos)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which Ones & When? Smart School Lunches Emmy-Nominated Video "Cerebral Palsy: Shannon's Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Special Needs: Planning for Adulthood (Video) KidsHealth > ...

  18. Prenatal Dexamethasone and Postnatal High-Fat Diet Decrease Interferon Gamma Production through an Age-Dependent Histone Modification in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hong-Ren; Tain, You-Lin; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Tiao, Mao-Meng; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Kuo, Ho-Chang; Hung, Pi-Lien; Hsieh, Kai-Sheng; Huang, Li-Tung

    2016-01-01

    Overexposure to prenatal glucocorticoid (GC) disturbs hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolism and susceptibility to metabolic syndrome. A high-fat (HF) diet is a major environmental factor that can cause metabolic syndrome. We aimed to investigate whether prenatal GC plus a postnatal HF diet could alter immune programming in rat offspring. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given intraperitoneal injections of dexamethasone or saline at 14-21 days of gestation. Male offspring were then divided into four groups: vehicle, prenatal dexamethasone exposure, postnatal HF diet (VHF), and prenatal dexamethasone exposure plus a postnatal HF diet (DHF). The rats were sacrificed and adaptive immune function was evaluated. Compared to the vehicle, the DHF group had lower interferon gamma (IFN-γ) production by splenocytes at postnatal day 120. Decreases in H3K9 acetylation and H3K36me3 levels at the IFN-γ promoter correlated with decreased IFN-γ production. The impaired IFN-γ production and aberrant site-specific histone modification at the IFN-γ promoter by prenatal dexamethasone treatment plus a postnatal HF diet resulted in resilience at postnatal day 180. Prenatal dexamethasone and a postnatal HF diet decreased IFN-γ production through a site-specific and an age-dependent histone modification. These findings suggest a mechanism by which prenatal exposure to GC and a postnatal environment exert effects on fetal immunity programming. PMID:27669212

  19. Prenatal Dexamethasone and Postnatal High-Fat Diet Decrease Interferon Gamma Production through an Age-Dependent Histone Modification in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hong-Ren; Tain, You-Lin; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Tiao, Mao-Meng; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Kuo, Ho-Chang; Hung, Pi-Lien; Hsieh, Kai-Sheng; Huang, Li-Tung

    2016-01-01

    Overexposure to prenatal glucocorticoid (GC) disturbs hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolism and susceptibility to metabolic syndrome. A high-fat (HF) diet is a major environmental factor that can cause metabolic syndrome. We aimed to investigate whether prenatal GC plus a postnatal HF diet could alter immune programming in rat offspring. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given intraperitoneal injections of dexamethasone or saline at 14–21 days of gestation. Male offspring were then divided into four groups: vehicle, prenatal dexamethasone exposure, postnatal HF diet (VHF), and prenatal dexamethasone exposure plus a postnatal HF diet (DHF). The rats were sacrificed and adaptive immune function was evaluated. Compared to the vehicle, the DHF group had lower interferon gamma (IFN-γ) production by splenocytes at postnatal day 120. Decreases in H3K9 acetylation and H3K36me3 levels at the IFN-γ promoter correlated with decreased IFN-γ production. The impaired IFN-γ production and aberrant site-specific histone modification at the IFN-γ promoter by prenatal dexamethasone treatment plus a postnatal HF diet resulted in resilience at postnatal day 180. Prenatal dexamethasone and a postnatal HF diet decreased IFN-γ production through a site-specific and an age-dependent histone modification. These findings suggest a mechanism by which prenatal exposure to GC and a postnatal environment exert effects on fetal immunity programming. PMID:27669212

  20. Severe early life stress hampers spatial learning and neurogenesis, but improves hippocampal synaptic plasticity and emotional learning under high-stress conditions in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Oomen, Charlotte A; Soeters, Heleen; Audureau, Nathalie; Vermunt, Lisa; van Hasselt, Felisa N; Manders, Erik M M; Joëls, Marian; Lucassen, Paul J; Krugers, Harm

    2010-05-12

    Early life stress increases the risk for developing stress-related pathologies later in life. Recent studies in rats suggest that mild early life stress, rather than being overall unfavorable, may program the hippocampus such that it is optimally adapted to a stressful context later in life. Here, we tested whether this principle of "adaptive programming" also holds under severely adverse early life conditions, i.e., 24 h of maternal deprivation (MD), a model for maternal neglect. In young adult male rats subjected to MD on postnatal day 3, we observed reduced levels of adult hippocampal neurogenesis as measured by cell proliferation, cell survival, and neuronal differentiation. Also, mature dentate granule cells showed a change in their dendritic morphology that was most noticeable in the proximal part of the dendritic tree. Lasting structural changes due to MD were paralleled by impaired water maze acquisition but did not affect long-term potentiation in the dentate gyrus. Importantly, in the presence of high levels of the stress hormone corticosterone, even long-term potentiation in the dentate gyrus of MD animals was facilitated. In addition to this, contextual learning in a high-stress environment was enhanced in MD rats. These morphological, electrophysiological, and behavioral observations show that even a severely adverse early life environment does not evolve into overall impaired hippocampal functionality later in life. Rather, adversity early in life can prepare the organism to perform optimally under conditions associated with high corticosteroid levels in adulthood.

  1. High sodium intake during postnatal phases induces an increase in arterial blood pressure in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Moreira, M C S; da Silva, E F; Silveira, L L; de Paiva, Y B; de Castro, C H; Freiria-Oliveira, A H; Rosa, D A; Ferreira, P M; Xavier, C H; Colombari, E; Pedrino, Gustavo R

    2014-12-28

    Epigenetic studies suggest that diseases that develop in adulthood are related to certain conditions to which the individual is exposed during the initial stages of life. Experimental evidence has demonstrated that offspring born to mothers maintained on high-Na diets during pregnancy have higher mean arterial pressure (MAP) in adulthood. Although these studies have demonstrated the importance of prenatal phases to hypertension development, no evidence regarding the role of high Na intake during postnatal phases in the development of this pathology has been reported. Therefore, in the present study, the effects of Na overload during childhood on induced water and Na intakes and on cardiovascular parameters in adulthood were evaluated. Experiments were carried out in two groups of 21-d-old rats: experimental group, maintained on hypertonic saline (0.3 m-NaCl) solution and food for 60 d, and control group, maintained on tap water and food. Later, both groups were given water and food for 15 d (recovery period). After the recovery period, chronic cannulation of the right femoral artery was performed in unanaesthetised rats to record baseline MAP and heart rate (HR). The experimental group was found to have increased basal MAP (98.6 (sem 2.6) v. 118.3 (sem 2.7) mmHg, P< 0.05) and HR (365.4 (sem 12.2) v. 398.2 (sem 7.5) beats per min, P< 0.05). There was a decrease in the baroreflex index in the experimental group when compared with that in the control group. A water and Na intake test was performed using furosemide. Na depletion was found to induce an increase in Na intake in both the control and experimental groups (12.1 (sem 0.6) ml and 7.8 (sem 1.1), respectively, P< 0.05); however, this increase was of lower magnitude in the experimental group. These results demonstrate that postnatal Na overload alters behavioural and cardiovascular regulation in adulthood.

  2. Adolescent alcohol exposure reduces behavioral flexibility, promotes disinhibition, and increases resistance to extinction of ethanol self-administration in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Gass, Justin T; Glen, William Bailey; McGonigal, Justin T; Trantham-Davidson, Heather; Lopez, Marcelo F; Randall, Patrick K; Yaxley, Richard; Floresco, Stan B; Chandler, L Judson

    2014-10-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is a brain region that is critically involved in cognitive function and inhibitory control of behavior, and adolescence represents an important period of continued PFC development that parallels the maturation of these functions. Evidence suggests that this period of continued development of the PFC may render it especially vulnerable to environmental insults that impact PFC function in adulthood. Experimentation with alcohol typically begins during adolescence when binge-like consumption of large quantities is common. In the present study, we investigated the effects of repeated cycles of adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) exposure (postnatal days 28-42) by vapor inhalation on different aspects of executive functioning in the adult rat. In an operant set-shifting task, AIE-exposed rats exhibited deficits in their ability to shift their response strategy when the rules of the task changed, indicating reduced behavioral flexibility. There were no differences in progressive ratio response for the reinforcer suggesting that AIE did not alter reinforcer motivation. Examination of performance on the elevated plus maze under conditions designed to minimize stress revealed that AIE exposure enhanced the number of entries into the open arms, which may reflect either reduced anxiety and/or disinhibition of exploratory-like behavior. In rats that trained to self-administer ethanol in an operant paradigm, AIE increased resistance to extinction of ethanol-seeking behavior. This resistance to extinction was reversed by positive allosteric modulation of mGluR5 during extinction training, an effect that is thought to reflect promotion of extinction learning mechanisms within the medial PFC. Consistent with this, CDPPB was also observed to reverse the deficits in behavioral flexibility. Finally, diffusion tensor imaging with multivariate analysis of 32 brain areas revealed that while there were no differences in the total brain volume, the volume of

  3. Nociceptin and meiosis during spermatogenesis in postnatal testes.

    PubMed

    Eto, Ko

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorylated Rec8, a key component of cohesin, mediates the association and disassociation, "dynamics," of chromosomes occurring in synaptonemal complex formation, crossover recombination, and sister chromatid cohesion during meiosis in germ cells. Yet, the extrinsic factors triggering meiotic chromosome dynamics remained unclear. In postnatal testes, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) acts directly on somatic Sertoli cells to activate gene expression via an intracellular signaling pathway composed of cAMP, cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), and cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB), and promotes germ cell development and spermatogenesis indirectly. Yet, the paracrine factors mediating the FSH effects to germ cells remained elusive. We have shown that nociceptin, known as a neuropeptide, is upregulated by FSH signaling through cAMP/PKA/CREB pathway in Sertoli cells of postnatal murine testes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation from Sertoli cells demonstrated that CREB phosphorylated at Ser133 associates with prepronociceptin gene encoding nociceptin. Analyses with Sertoli cells and testes revealed that both prepronociceptin mRNA and the nociceptin peptide are induced after FSH signaling is activated. In addition, the nociceptin peptide is induced in testes after 9 days post partum following FSH surge. Thus, our findings may identify nociceptin as a novel paracrine mediator of the FSH effects in the regulation of spermatogenesis; however, very little has known about the functional role of nociceptin in spermatogenesis. We have shown that nociceptin induces Rec8 phosphorylation, triggering chromosome dynamics, during meiosis in spermatocytes of postnatal murine testes. The nociceptin receptor Oprl-1 is exclusively expressed in the plasma membrane of testicular germ cells, mostly spermatocytes. Treatment of testes with nociceptin resulted in a rapid phosphorylation of Rec8. Injection of nociceptin into mice stimulated Rec8 phosphorylation and meiotic chromosome

  4. Environmental effects on thermoregulation and breathing patterns during early postnatal development in hand-reared lambs.

    PubMed

    Symonds, M E; Andrews, D C; Buss, D S; Clarke, L; Darby, C J; Johnson, P; Lomax, M A

    1995-09-01

    This study examines the effect of hand-rearing developing lambs in a warm (WR; 25 degrees C) or cool (CR; 10-15 degrees C) ambient temperature on the control of thermoregulation and breathing patterns, when maintained at a fixed level of nutrition over the first month of postnatal life. Measurements were made during non-rapid eye movement sleep whilst lambs were maintained for at least 1 h at warm (28-19 degrees C) and cold (14-5 degrees C) ambient temperatures at 1, 7, 14 and 30 days of age. All lambs were able to maintain normal body temperature, but oxygen consumption was higher in CR lambs at 14 and 30 days of age. At 1 day of age shivering was rarely observed in any lambs, but at 7 and 14 days of age more WR than CR lambs responded to cold exposure via shivering. Plasma concentrations of triiodothyronine were higher at 7 and 14 days of age in CR lambs. Breathing frequencies were similar in WR and CR lambs, and from 7 days of age the incidence of expiratory laryngeal braking was higher in warm compared with cold study temperatures. By 30 days of age the recruitment of this mechanism was greater in CR lambs. Mean growth rate was slower over the first week of postnatal life in CR compared with WR lambs. This difference decreased over the first month of life, as growth rate increased from 83 to 130 g day-1 in the CR group but remained constant at approximately 150 g day-1 in the WR lambs. Total weight of the lungs and heart, but not the liver, were lower at 1 month but not at 1 week of postnatal life in CR lambs. It is concluded that a modest decrease in the ambient temperature in which postnatal lambs are reared, when on a fixed feed intake, alters lung size, the recruitment of laryngeal braking and the control of body temperature.

  5. Maternal Forced Swimming Reduces Cell Proliferation in the Postnatal Dentate Gyrus of Mouse Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Wasinski, Frederick; Estrela, Gabriel R.; Arakaki, Aline M.; Bader, Michael; Alenina, Natalia; Klempin, Friederike; Araújo, Ronaldo C.

    2016-01-01

    Physical exercise positively affects the metabolism and induces proliferation of precursor cells in the adult brain. Maternal exercise likewise provokes adaptations early in the offspring. Using a high-intensity swimming protocol that comprises forced swim training before and during pregnancy, we determined the effect of maternal swimming on the mouse offspring's neurogenesis. Our data demonstrate decreased proliferation in sublayers of the postnatal dentate gyrus in offspring of swimming mother at postnatal day (P) 8 accompanied with decreased survival of newly generated cells 4 weeks later. The reduction in cell numbers was predominantly seen in the hilus and molecular layer. At P35, the reduced amount of cells was also reflected by a decrease in the population of newly generated immature and mature neurons of the granule cell layer. Our data suggest that forced maternal swimming at high-intensity has a negative effect on the neurogenic niche development in postnatal offspring.

  6. Maternal Forced Swimming Reduces Cell Proliferation in the Postnatal Dentate Gyrus of Mouse Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Wasinski, Frederick; Estrela, Gabriel R.; Arakaki, Aline M.; Bader, Michael; Alenina, Natalia; Klempin, Friederike; Araújo, Ronaldo C.

    2016-01-01

    Physical exercise positively affects the metabolism and induces proliferation of precursor cells in the adult brain. Maternal exercise likewise provokes adaptations early in the offspring. Using a high-intensity swimming protocol that comprises forced swim training before and during pregnancy, we determined the effect of maternal swimming on the mouse offspring's neurogenesis. Our data demonstrate decreased proliferation in sublayers of the postnatal dentate gyrus in offspring of swimming mother at postnatal day (P) 8 accompanied with decreased survival of newly generated cells 4 weeks later. The reduction in cell numbers was predominantly seen in the hilus and molecular layer. At P35, the reduced amount of cells was also reflected by a decrease in the population of newly generated immature and mature neurons of the granule cell layer. Our data suggest that forced maternal swimming at high-intensity has a negative effect on the neurogenic niche development in postnatal offspring. PMID:27621701

  7. Postnatal choline supplementation in preweanling mice: sexually dimorphic behavioral and neurochemical effects.

    PubMed

    Ricceri, L; Berger-Sweeney, J

    1998-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of postnatal choline supplementation on neurochemical and behavioral parameters in preweanling BALB/cByJ mice. Mouse pups were injected daily subcutaneously with choline chloride (0.85 mM/g body weight) from Postnatal Day (PND) 1 to PND 16. Pups performed a passive avoidance (PA) learning task on PND 17-18 and a 30-min locomotor activity test on PND 19. The choline treatment affected retention of the PA task on PND 18. The treatment also increased locomotor activity in females, but not in males, on PND 19. Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) enzymatic activity was measured on PND 20 and revealed that choline administration in the first 2 weeks of postnatal life selectively affects male pups. Choline's effect, as seen in previous rat experiments, was to decrease ChAT activity in the hippocampal region.

  8. Maternal Forced Swimming Reduces Cell Proliferation in the Postnatal Dentate Gyrus of Mouse Offspring.

    PubMed

    Wasinski, Frederick; Estrela, Gabriel R; Arakaki, Aline M; Bader, Michael; Alenina, Natalia; Klempin, Friederike; Araújo, Ronaldo C

    2016-01-01

    Physical exercise positively affects the metabolism and induces proliferation of precursor cells in the adult brain. Maternal exercise likewise provokes adaptations early in the offspring. Using a high-intensity swimming protocol that comprises forced swim training before and during pregnancy, we determined the effect of maternal swimming on the mouse offspring's neurogenesis. Our data demonstrate decreased proliferation in sublayers of the postnatal dentate gyrus in offspring of swimming mother at postnatal day (P) 8 accompanied with decreased survival of newly generated cells 4 weeks later. The reduction in cell numbers was predominantly seen in the hilus and molecular layer. At P35, the reduced amount of cells was also reflected by a decrease in the population of newly generated immature and mature neurons of the granule cell layer. Our data suggest that forced maternal swimming at high-intensity has a negative effect on the neurogenic niche development in postnatal offspring. PMID:27621701

  9. Postnatal development of the myenteric glial network and its modulation by butyrate.

    PubMed

    Cossais, François; Durand, Tony; Chevalier, Julien; Boudaud, Marie; Kermarrec, Laetitia; Aubert, Philippe; Neveu, Isabelle; Naveilhan, Philippe; Neunlist, Michel

    2016-06-01

    The postnatal period is crucial for the development of gastrointestinal (GI) functions. The enteric nervous system is a key regulator of GI functions, and increasing evidences indicate that 1) postnatal maturation of enteric neurons affect the development of GI functions, and 2) microbiota-derived short-chain fatty acids can be involved in this maturation. Although enteric glial cells (EGC) are central regulators of GI functions, the postnatal evolution of their phenotype remains poorly defined. We thus characterized the postnatal evolution of EGC phenotype in the colon of rat pups and studied the effect of short-chain fatty acids on their maturation. We showed an increased expression of the glial markers GFAP and S100β during the first postnatal week. As demonstrated by immunohistochemistry, a structured myenteric glial network was observed at 36 days in the rat colons. Butyrate inhibited EGC proliferation in vivo and in vitro but had no effect on glial marker expression. These results indicate that the EGC myenteric network continues to develop after birth, and luminal factors such as butyrate endogenously produced in the colon may affect this development. PMID:27056724

  10. Relation of nitrite to structural and mechanical adaptation of arteries during postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi; Guo, Xiaomei; Kassab, Ghassan S

    2008-12-01

    Mammalian arteries undergo rapid remodeling during postnatal growth and development. The high wall shear stress at birth is an important mediator of postnatal endothelial nitric oxide (NO) and consequently of growth and remodeling. The objective of this study was to quantify the NO production in relation to geometric and mechanical remodeling of aorta and pulmonary artery during postnatal development. Fifty-one C57BL/6 mice aged from 1 to 33 days were divided into 8 age groups for measurements of nitrite (NO(x)). Systematic measurements of NO(x) in each rings were made in the main pulmonary artery and primary branch as well as along the length of aorta using the combination of a diazo coupling method and high-performance liquid chromatography. The NO(x) data on the aorta were correlated with data on the geometry (diameter, wall thickness) and mechanical properties (stress, strain, elastic modulus) in the same strain of mice under the same conditions. Our findings show postnatal age and vessel size affects the NO production; i.e., the NO(x) decreased with age and diameter. Furthermore, there is a significant positive correlation between strain and NO(x) but negative correlation between both wall thickness and elastic modulus and NO(x) levels. These findings suggest an important interplay between NO(x) and geometric and mechanical remodeling during postnatal growth and development. PMID:18807188

  11. Deletion of neurturin impairs development of cholinergic nerves and heart rate control in postnatal mouse hearts.

    PubMed

    Downs, Anthony M; Jalloh, Hawa B; Prater, Kayla J; Fregoso, Santiago P; Bond, Cherie E; Hampton, Thomas G; Hoover, Donald B

    2016-05-01

    The neurotrophic factor neurturin is required for normal cholinergic innervation of adult mouse heart and bradycardic responses to vagal stimulation. Our goals were to determine effects of neurturin deletion on development of cardiac chronotropic and dromotropic functions, vagal baroreflex response, and cholinergic nerve density in nodal regions of postnatal mice. Experiments were performed on postnatal C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) and neurturin knockout (KO) mice. Serial electrocardiograms were recorded noninvasively from conscious pups using an ECGenie apparatus. Mice were treated with atenolol to evaluate and block sympathetic effects on heart rate (HR) and phenylephrine (PE) to stimulate the baroreflex. Immunohistochemistry was used to label cholinergic nerves in paraffin sections. WT and KO mice showed similar age-dependent increases in HR and decreases in PR interval between postnatal days (P) 2.5 and 21. Treatment with atenolol reduced HR significantly in WT and KO pups at P7.5. PE caused a reflex bradycardia that was significantly smaller in KO pups. Cholinergic nerve density was significantly less in nodal regions of P7.5 KO mice. We conclude that cholinergic nerves have minimal influence on developmental changes in HR and PR, QRS, and QTc intervals in mouse pups. However, cholinergic nerves mediate reflex bradycardia by 1 week postnatally. Deletion of neurturin impairs cholinergic innervation of the heart and the vagal efferent component of the baroreflex early during postnatal development.

  12. Coadaptation of prenatal and postnatal maternal effects.

    PubMed

    Lock, Judith E; Smiseth, Per T; Moore, Patricia J; Moore, Allen J

    2007-11-01

    In a wide variety of species, a female's age of first reproduction influences offspring size and survival, suggesting that there exists an optimal timing of reproduction. Mothers in many species also influence offspring size and survival after birth through variation in parental care. We experimentally separated these effects in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides to test for coadaptation between prenatal and postnatal maternal effects associated with age at first reproduction. Females that reproduced early produced offspring with lower birth weight. The amount of parental care depended on the age of first reproduction of the caretaker, as did the extent of offspring begging. As predicted for a coadaptation of maternal effects, prenatal and postnatal effects were opposite for different-aged mothers, and larval weight gain and survival was greatest when the age of the caretaker and birth mother matched. Thus, prenatal effects intrinsically associated with age of first reproduction can be ameliorated by innate plasticity in postnatal care. A coadaptation of prenatal and postnatal maternal effects may evolve to allow variable timing of the first reproductive attempt. Such a coadaptation might be particularly valuable when females are constrained from reproducing at an optimal age, as, for example, in species that breed on scarce and unpredictable resources.

  13. Postnatal Testosterone Concentrations and Male Social Development

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Gerianne M.

    2014-01-01

    Converging evidence from over 40 years of behavioral research indicates that higher testicular androgens in prenatal life and at puberty contribute to the masculinization of human behavior. However, the behavioral significance of the transient activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal (HPG) axis in early postnatal life remains largely unknown. Although early research on non-human primates indicated that suppression of the postnatal surge in testicular androgens had no measurable effects on the later expression of the male behavioral phenotype, recent research from our laboratory suggests that postnatal testosterone concentrations influence male infant preferences for larger social groups and temperament characteristics associated with the later development of aggression. In later assessment of gender-linked behavior in the second year of life, concentrations of testosterone at 3–4 months of age were unrelated to toy choices and activity levels during toy play. However, higher concentrations of testosterone predicted less vocalization in toddlers and higher parental ratings on an established screening measure for autism spectrum disorder. These findings suggest a role of the transient activation of the HPG axis in the development of typical and atypical male social relations and suggest that it may be useful in future research on the exaggerated rise in testosterone secretion in preterm infants or exposure to hormone disruptors in early postnatal life to include assessment of gender-relevant behavioral outcomes, including childhood disorders with sex-biased prevalence rates. PMID:24600437

  14. Post-natal imprinting: evidence from marsupials

    PubMed Central

    Stringer, J M; Pask, A J; Shaw, G; Renfree, M B

    2014-01-01

    Genomic imprinting has been identified in therian (eutherian and marsupial) mammals but not in prototherian (monotreme) mammals. Imprinting has an important role in optimising pre-natal nutrition and growth, and most imprinted genes are expressed and imprinted in the placenta and developing fetus. In marsupials, however, the placental attachment is short-lived, and most growth and development occurs post-natally, supported by a changing milk composition tailor-made for each stage of development. Therefore there is a much greater demand on marsupial females during post-natal lactation than during pre-natal placentation, so there may be greater selection for genomic imprinting in the mammary gland than in the short-lived placenta. Recent studies in the tammar wallaby confirm the presence of genomic imprinting in nutrient-regulatory genes in the adult mammary gland. This suggests that imprinting may influence infant post-natal growth via the mammary gland as it does pre-natally via the placenta. Similarly, an increasing number of imprinted genes have been implicated in regulating feeding and nurturing behaviour in both the adult and the developing neonate/offspring in mice. Together these studies provide evidence that genomic imprinting is critical for regulating growth and subsequently the survival of offspring not only pre-natally but also post-natally. PMID:24595366

  15. Postnatal testosterone concentrations and male social development.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Gerianne M

    2014-01-01

    Converging evidence from over 40 years of behavioral research indicates that higher testicular androgens in prenatal life and at puberty contribute to the masculinization of human behavior. However, the behavioral significance of the transient activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in early postnatal life remains largely unknown. Although early research on non-human primates indicated that suppression of the postnatal surge in testicular androgens had no measurable effects on the later expression of the male behavioral phenotype, recent research from our laboratory suggests that postnatal testosterone concentrations influence male infant preferences for larger social groups and temperament characteristics associated with the later development of aggression. In later assessment of gender-linked behavior in the second year of life, concentrations of testosterone at 3-4 months of age were unrelated to toy choices and activity levels during toy play. However, higher concentrations of testosterone predicted less vocalization in toddlers and higher parental ratings on an established screening measure for autism spectrum disorder. These findings suggest a role of the transient activation of the HPG axis in the development of typical and atypical male social relations and suggest that it may be useful in future research on the exaggerated rise in testosterone secretion in preterm infants or exposure to hormone disruptors in early postnatal life to include assessment of gender-relevant behavioral outcomes, including childhood disorders with sex-biased prevalence rates.

  16. Radiology of postnatal skeletal development. Pt. 7

    SciTech Connect

    Ogden, J.A.; Phillips, S.B.

    1983-02-01

    Twenty-four pairs of scapulae from fetal specimens and 35 pairs of scapulae from postnatal cadavers ranging in age from full-term neonates to 14 years, were studied morphologically and roentgenographically. Air-cartilage interfacing was used to demonstrate both the osseous and cartilaginous contours. When the entire chondro-osseous dimensions, rather than just the osseous dimensions, were measured, the scapula had a height-width ratio ranging from 1.36 to 1.52 (average 1.44) during most of fetal development. The exceptions were three stillborns with camptomelic, thanatophoric, and achondrogenic dwarfism in which the ratio averaged 0.6. At no time during fetal development was the glenoid cavity convex; it always had a concave articular surface. However, the osseous subchrondral countour was often flat or slightly convex. In the postnatal period the height-width ratio averaged 1.49. The ratio remained virtually unchanged throughout skeletal growth and maturation. In a patient with unilateral Sprengel's deformity the ratio for the normal side was 1.5, while the abnormal was 1.0. The cartilaginous glenoid cavity was always concave during postnatal development, even in the specimens with major structural deformities, although the subchondral osseous contour was usually flat or convex during the first few years of postnatal development. Ossification of the coracoid process began with the development of a primary center at three to four months. A bipolar physis was present between the primary coracoid center and the primary scapular center until late adolescence.

  17. Integrative Analysis of the Developing Postnatal Mouse Heart Transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Jingyi; Sonntag, Hans-Joachim; Tang, Mei kuen; Cai, Dongqing; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho

    2015-01-01

    In mammals, cardiomyocytes rapidly proliferate in the fetus and continue to do so for a few more days after birth. These cardiomyocytes then enter into growth arrest but the detailed molecular mechanisms involved have not been fully elucidated. We have addressed this issue by comparing the transcriptomes of 2-day-old (containing dividing cardiomyocytes) with 13-day-old (containing growth arrested cardiomyocytes) postnatal mouse hearts. We performed comparative microarray analysis on the heart tissues and then conducted Functional annotation, Gene ontology, KEGG pathway and Gene Set enrichment analyses on the differentially expressed genes. The bioinformatics analysis revealed that gene ontology categories associated with the “cell cycle”, “DNA replication”, “chromosome segregation” and “microtubule cytoskeleton” were down-regulated. Inversely, “immune response”, “extracellular matrix”, “cell differentiation” and “cell membrane” were up-regulated. Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) has revealed that GATA4, MYH7 and IGF1R were the key drivers of the gene interaction networks. In addition, Regulator Effects network analysis suggested that TASP1, TOB1, C1orf61, AIF1, ROCK1, TFF2 and miR503-5p may be acting on the cardiomyocytes in 13-day-old mouse hearts to inhibit cardiomyocyte proliferation and G1/S phase transition. RT-qPCR was used to validate genes which were differentially expressed and genes that play a prominent role in the pathways and interaction networks that we identified. In sum, our integrative analysis has provided more insights into the transcriptional regulation of cardiomyocyte exit from the cell cycle during postnatal heart development. The results also pinpoint potential regulators that could be used to induce growth arrested cardiomyocytes to proliferate in the infarcted heart. PMID:26200114

  18. Comparison of Birth-and Conception-Based Definitions of Postnatal Age in Developmental and Reproductive Rodent Toxicity Studies: lnfluence of Gestation Length on Measurements of Offspring Body Weight and Puberty in Controls

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most laboratories conducting developmental and reproductive toxicity studies in rodents assign age by defining postnatal day (PND) 0 or 1 as the day of birth (DOB); i.e., gestation length affects PND and the timing of postnatal measurements. Some laboratories, however, define age...

  19. Tandem insults of prenatal ischemia plus postnatal raised intrathoracic pressure in a novel rat model of encephalopathy of prematurity

    PubMed Central

    Koltz, Michael T.; Tosun, Cigdem; Kurland, David B.; Coksaygan, Turhan; Castellani, Rudolph J.; Ivanova, Svetlana; Gerzanich, Volodymyr; Simard, J. Marc

    2012-01-01

    Object Encephalopathy of prematurity (EP) is common in preterm, low birth weight infants who require postnatal mechanical ventilation. The worst types of EP are the hemorrhagic forms, including choroid plexus, germinal matrix, periventricular, and intraventricular hemorrhages. Survivors exhibit life-long cognitive, behavioral, and motor abnormalities. Available preclinical models do not fully recapitulate the salient features of hemorrhagic EP encountered in humans. In this study, the authors evaluated a novel model using rats that featured tandem insults of transient prenatal intrauterine ischemia (IUI) plus transient postnatal raised intrathoracic pressure (RIP). Methods Timed-pregnant Wistar rats were anesthetized and underwent laparotomy on embryonic Day 19. Intrauterine ischemia was induced by clamping the uterine and ovarian vasculature for 20 minutes. Natural birth occurred on embryonic Day 22. Six hours after birth, the pups were subjected to an episode of RIP, induced by injecting glycerol (50%, 13 µl/g intraperitoneally). Control groups included naive, sham surgery, and IUI alone. Pathological, histological, and behavioral analyses were performed on pups up to postnatal Day 52. Results Compared with controls, pups subjected to IUI+RIP exhibited significant increases in postnatal mortality and hemorrhages in the choroid plexus, germinal matrix, and periventricular tissues as well as intraventricularly. On postnatal Days 35–52, they exhibited significant abnormalities involving complex vestibulomotor function and rapid spatial learning. On postnatal Day 52, the brain and body mass were significantly reduced. Conclusions Tandem insults of IUI plus postnatal RIP recapitulate many features of the hemorrhagic forms of EP found in humans, suggesting that these insults in combination may play important roles in pathogenesis. PMID:22132923

  20. Impact of Early Postnatal Androgen Exposure on Voice Development

    PubMed Central

    Grisa, Leila; Leonel, Maria L.; Gonçalves, Maria I. R.; Pletsch, Francisco; Sade, Elis R.; Custódio, Gislaine; Zagonel, Ivete P. S.; Longui, Carlos A.; Figueiredo, Bonald C.

    2012-01-01

    Background The impact of early postnatal androgen exposure on female laryngeal tissue may depend on certain characteristics of this exposure. We assessed the impact of the dose, duration, and timing of early androgen exposure on the vocal development of female subjects who had been treated for adrenocortical tumor (ACT) in childhood. Methods The long-term effects of androgen exposure on the fundamental vocal frequency (F0), vocal pitch, and final height and the presence of virilizing signs were examined in 9 adult (age, 18.4 to 33.5 years) and 10 adolescent (13.6 to 17.8 years) female ACT patients. We also compared the current values with values obtained 0.9 years to 7.4 years after these subjects had undergone ACT surgery, a period during which they had shown normal androgen levels. Results Of the 19 subjects, 17 (89%) had been diagnosed with ACT before 4 years of age, 1 (5%) at 8.16 years, and 1 (5%) at 10.75 years. Androgen exposure (2 to 30 months) was sufficiently strong to cause pubic hair growth in all subjects and clitoromegaly in 74% (14/19) of the subjects, but did not reduce their height from the target value. Although androgen exposure induced a remarkable reduction in F0 (132 Hz) and moderate pitch virilization in 1 subject and partial F0 virilization, resulting in F0 of 165 and 169 Hz, in 2 subjects, the majority had normal F0 ranging from 189 to 245 Hz. Conclusions Female laryngeal tissue is less sensitive to androgen exposure between birth and adrenarche than during other periods. Differential larynx sensitivity to androgen exposure in childhood and F0 irreversibility in adulthood are age-, concentration-, duration-, and timing-dependent events that may also be affected by exposure to inhibitory or stimulatory hormones. Further studies are required to better characterize each of these factors. PMID:23284635

  1. Effects of ethanol exposure during adolescence or in adulthood on Pavlovian conditioned approach in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    McClory, Alexander James; Spear, Linda Patia

    2014-12-01

    Human studies have shown that adolescents who repeatedly use alcohol are more likely to be dependent on alcohol and are more likely to suffer from psychological problems later in life. There has been limited research examining how ethanol exposure in adolescence might contribute to later abuse or addiction in adulthood. The present experiment examined effects of intermittent ethanol exposure during adolescence on sign-tracking behavior in adulthood, indexed by a Pavlovian conditioned approach (PCA) task wherein an 8s lever presentation served as a cue predicting subsequent delivery of a flavored food pellet. Although no response was required for food delivery, after multiple pairings, 1 of 2 different responses often emerged during the lever presentation: goal tracking (head entries into the food trough) or sign tracking (engagement with the lever when presented). Sign tracking is thought to reflect the attribution of incentive salience to reward-paired cues and has been previously correlated with addiction-like behaviors. Following the last PCA session, blood samples were collected for analysis of post-session corticosterone levels. Sixty-two rats (n = 10-12/group) were pseudo-randomly assigned to 1 of 2 intragastric (i.g.) exposure groups (water or 4 g/kg ethanol) or a non-manipulated (NM) control group. Animals were intubated with ethanol or water every other session from postnatal session (PND) 28-48 or PND 70-90. Rats were then tested in adulthood (PND 71-79 or PND 113-122) on the PCA task. Animals exposed chronically to ethanol during adolescence exhibited significantly higher levels of sign-tracking behavior in adulthood than NM and water-treated animals, and showed higher corticosterone than NM control animals. These effects were not seen after comparable ethanol exposure in adulthood. These results suggest that adolescent alcohol exposure has long-term consequences on the expression of potential addiction-relevant behaviors in adulthood.

  2. Pre- and Post-Natal Maternal Depressive Symptoms in Relation with Infant Frontal Function, Connectivity, and Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Soe, Ni Ni; Wen, Daniel J.; Poh, Joann S.; Li, Yue; Broekman, Birit F. P.; Chen, Helen; Chong, Yap Seng; Kwek, Kenneth; Saw, Seang-Mei; Gluckman, Peter D.; Meaney, Michael J.; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne; Qiu, Anqi

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between pre- and early post-natal maternal depression and their changes with frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) activity and functional connectivity in 6- and 18-month olds, as well as externalizing and internalizing behaviors in 24-month olds (n = 258). Neither prenatal nor postnatal maternal depressive symptoms independently predicted neither the frontal EEG activity nor functional connectivity in 6- and 18-month infants. However, increasing maternal depressive symptoms from the prenatal to postnatal period predicted greater right frontal activity and relative right frontal asymmetry amongst 6-month infants but these finding were not observed amongst 18-month infants after adjusted for post-conceptual age on the EEG visit day. Subsequently increasing maternal depressive symptoms from the prenatal to postnatal period predicted lower right frontal connectivity within 18-month infants but not among 6-month infants after controlling for post-conceptual age on the EEG visit day. These findings were observed in the full sample and the female sample but not in the male sample. Moreover, both prenatal and early postnatal maternal depressive symptoms independently predicted children’s externalizing and internalizing behaviors at 24 months of age. This suggests that the altered frontal functional connectivity in infants born to mothers whose depressive symptomatology increases in the early postnatal period compared to that during pregnancy may reflect a neural basis for the familial transmission of phenotypes associated with mood disorders, particularly in girls. PMID:27073881

  3. Effects of Postnatal Estrogen Manipulations on Juvenile Alloparental Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Adam N.; Carter, C. Sue; Cushing, Bruce S.

    2015-01-01

    Sex- and species-specific patterns of estrogen receptor (ER)-α expression are established early in development, which may contribute to sexual differentiation of behavior and determine male social organization. The current study investigated the effects of ERα and ERβ activation during the second postnatal week on subsequent alloparental behavior and ERα expression in juvenile prairie voles. Male and female pups were treated daily with 17β-estradiol (E2, ERα/ERβ agonist), PPT (selective ERα agonist), DPN (selective ERβ agonist), or the oil vehicle on postnatal days (PD) 8-14. Alloparental behavior and ERα expression were examined at PD21. PPT treatment inhibited prosocial motivation in males and increased pup-directed aggression in both sexes. E2 and DPN had no apparent effect on behavior in either sex. PPT-treated males had increased ERα expression in the medial preoptic area (MPN), medial amygdala (MEApd) and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTpr). DPN treatment also increased ERα expression in males, but only in the BSTpr. Female ERα expression was unaffected by treatment. These results support the hypothesis that ERα activation in early life is associated with less prosocial patterns of central ERα expression and alloparental behavior in males. The lack of an effect of E2 on behavior suggests that ERβ may antagonize the effects of ERα on alloparental behavior. The results in DPN-treated males suggest that ERα in the MEApd, and not the BSTpr, may be a primary determinant of alloparental behavior in males. PMID:26222494

  4. A postnatal switch in GABAergic control of spinal cutaneous reflexes

    PubMed Central

    Hathway, Gareth; Harrop, Emily; Baccei, Mark; Walker, Suellen; Moss, Andrew; Fitzgerald, Maria

    2007-01-01

    GABAergic signalling exerts powerful inhibitory control over spinal tactile and nociceptive processing but during development GABA can be depolarizing and the functional consequences of this upon neonatal pain processing is unknown. Here we show a postnatal switch in tonic GABAA receptor (GABAAR) modulation of cutaneous tactile and nociceptive reflexes from excitation to inhibition, but only in the intact spinal cord. Neonatal and 21-day old (P21) rats were intrathecally treated with one of the GABAAR antagonists bicuculline and gabazine with both compounds dose-dependently decreasing hindpaw mechanical and thermal withdrawal thresholds in P21 rats but increasing them in P3 neonates. Intrathecal gabazine also produced an increase in the cutaneous evoked EMG response of the biceps femoris in P21 rates while lowering the response in neonates. Injections of 3H-gabazine in the L4-L5 region at P3 confirmed that gabazine binding was restricted to the lumbar spinal cord. Spinalisation of P3 neonates at the upper thoracic level prior to drug application reversed the behavioural and EMG responses to GABA antagonists so that they resembled those of P21 rats. The effects of spinalisation were consistent with gabazine facilitation of ventral root potentials observed in isolated neonatal spinal cord. These data show a marked postnatal developmental switch in GABAergic control of neonatal nociception that is mediated by supraspinal structures and illustrate the importance of studying developmental circuits in the intact nervous system. PMID:16420421

  5. Effects of postnatal estrogen manipulations on juvenile alloparental behavior.

    PubMed

    Perry, Adam N; Sue Carter, C; Cushing, Bruce S

    2015-09-01

    Sex- and species-specific patterns of estrogen receptor (ER)-α expression are established early in development, which may contribute to sexual differentiation of behavior and determine male social organization. The current study investigated the effects of ERα and ERβ activation during the second postnatal week on subsequent alloparental behavior and ERα expression in juvenile prairie voles. Male and female pups were treated daily with 17β-estradiol (E2, ERα/ERβ agonist), PPT (selective ERα agonist), DPN (selective ERβ agonist), or the oil vehicle on postnatal days (PD) 8-14. Alloparental behavior and ERα expression were examined at PD21. PPT treatment inhibited prosocial motivation in males and increased pup-directed aggression in both sexes. E2 and DPN had no apparent effect on behavior in either sex. PPT-treated males had increased ERα expression in the medial preoptic area (MPN), medial amygdala (MEApd) and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTpr). DPN treatment also increased ERα expression in males, but only in the BSTpr. Female ERα expression was unaffected by treatment. These results support the hypothesis that ERα activation in early life is associated with less prosocial patterns of central ERα expression and alloparental behavior in males. The lack of an effect of E2 on behavior suggests that ERβ may antagonize the effects of ERα on alloparental behavior. The results in DPN-treated males suggest that ERα in the MEApd, and not the BSTpr, may be a primary determinant of alloparental behavior in males. PMID:26222494

  6. The septal organ of the rat during postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Weiler, Elke; Farbman, Albert I

    2003-09-01

    The septal organ of Masera (SO) is a small, isolated patch of olfactory epithelium, located in the ventral part of the nasal septum. We investigated in this systematic study the postnatal development of the SO in histological sections of rats at various ages from the day of birth (P1) to P666. The SO-area increases to a maximum at P66-P105, just as the animals reach sexual maturity, and decreases thereafter, significantly however only in males, indicating a limited neurogenetic capacity for regeneration. In contrast, the main olfactory epithelium area continues to expand beyond P300. The modified respiratory epithelium ('zwischen epithelium') separating the SO and the main olfactory epithelium contains a few olfactory neurons up to age P66. Its length increases postnatally so that the SO becomes more ventral to the OE. Although the position of the SO relative to other anatomical landmarks changes with development it is consistently located just posterior to the opening of the nasopalatine duct (NPAL). Thus, a possible function of the SO is in sensing chemicals in fluids entering the mouth by licking and then delivered to the nasal cavity via the NPAL; therefore the SO may be involved in social/sexual behavior as is the vomeronasal organ (VNO). We suggest that the SO is a separate accessory olfactory organ with properties somewhat different from both OE and VNO and may exist only in species where the NPAL does not open into the VNO. PMID:14578120

  7. Understanding adolescent and family influences on intimate partner psychological violence during emerging adulthood and adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lohman, Brenda J; Neppl, Tricia K; Senia, Jennifer M; Schofield, Thomas J

    2013-04-01

    The intergenerational transmission of violence directed toward intimate partners has been documented for the past three decades. Overall, the literature shows that violence in the family of origin leads to violence in the family of destination. However, this predominately cross-sectional or retrospective literature is limited by self-selection, endogeneity, and reporter biases as it has not been able to assess how individual and family behaviors simultaneously experienced during adolescence influence intimate partner violence throughout adulthood. The present study used data from the Iowa Youth and Families Project (IYFP; N = 392; 52 % Female), a multi-method, multi-trait prospective approach, to overcome this limitation. We focused on psychological intimate partner violence in both emerging adulthood (19-23 years) and adulthood (27-31 years), and include self and partner ratings of violence as well as observational data in a sample of rural non-Hispanic white families. Controlling for a host of individual risk factors as well as interparental psychological violence from adolescence (14-15 years), the results show that exposure to parent-to-child psychological violence during adolescence is a key predictor of intimate partner violence throughout adulthood. In addition, negative emotionality and the number of sexual partners in adolescence predicted intimate partner violence in both emerging adulthood and adulthood. Exposure to family stress was associated positively with intimate partner violence in adulthood but not in emerging adulthood, whereas academic difficulties were found to increase violence in emerging adulthood only. Unlike previous research, results did not support a direct effect of interparental psychological violence on psychological violence in the next generation. Gender differences were found only in emerging adulthood. Implications of these findings are discussed in light of the current literature and future directions. PMID:23430562

  8. [Novel calretinin-positive cells with polymorphous spines in the mouse forebrain during early postnatal ontogenesis].

    PubMed

    Revishchin, A V; Okhotin, V E; Pavlova, G V

    2009-01-01

    Using an immunocytochemical method for calretinin (CR) detection, we have earlier described (Morfologiya, 2009 v. 135. No. 3, p. 7-19) the population of previously unknown mono- and bipolar cells with polymorphous spines (PS) covering their cell bodies and processes, in adult mice forebrain structures adjacent to anterior horn of lateral ventricle. CR-positive spiny (CR+PS) cells were negative to GAD67 and were detected in the white matter and in layers V and VI of frontal area of dorsomedial cortex close to the cingulum, in in rostro-dorsal part of the caudate nucleus-putamen complex, anterior olfactory nucleus and in subependymal layer of the dorso-lateral angle of the lateral ventricle. In this work, the distribution of these cells in 7-day-old mice was studied. Comparative topographical analysis of definitive and early CR+PS cells demonstrated that in 7-day-old mice CR+PS cells were absent from the areas of their localization in adult animals - anterior olfactory nucleus, cortical plate and inner portion of neostriatum. Meanwhile, some CR+PS-like cells were detected in 7-day-old mice inside the rostral migratory route, close to neostriatum anterior boundary, along the dorsal border between neostriatum and corpus callosum, subependymal layer of lateral wall of the lateral ventricle, and in the cingulum area. These findings are indicative of the possible postnatal appearance of CR+PS cells. To test this hypothesis, the experiments were conducted in which bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was administered to the mice on their postnatal days 2-4 with the subsequent study of the brain sections of these animals sacrificed on their postnatal day 20. Double immunolabeling of these sections for CR and BrdU has detected the presence of CR+PS cells that contained postnatally administered BrdU. These results strongly suggest that, at least, some portion of CR+PS cells have their mitosis postnatally. It may be assumed, that CR+PS cells migrate to the sites of their distribution in

  9. Docosahexaenoic Acid Rescues Synaptogenesis Impairment and Long-Term Memory Deficits Caused by Postnatal Multiple Sevoflurane Exposures.

    PubMed

    Tao, Guorong; Luo, Yan; Xue, Qingsheng; Li, Guohui; Tan, Yongchang; Xiao, Jinglei; Yu, Buwei

    2016-01-01

    Sevoflurane exposures were demonstrated to induce neurotoxicity in the developing brain in both human and animal studies. However, there is no effective approach to reverse it. The present study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to prevent sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity. P6 (postnatal 6 days) mice were administrated DHA after exposure to 3% sevoflurane for two hours daily in three consecutive days. Molecular expressions of synaptic makers (PSD95, synaptophysin) and synaptic morphological changes were investigated by Western blot analysis and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Meanwhile, Morris water maze test was used to assess spatial memory of mice at P31 (postnatal 31 days). DHA restored sevoflurane-induced decreased level of PSD95 and synaptophysin expressions and increased PSD areas and also improved long-term spatial memory. These results suggest that DHA could rescue synaptogenesis impairment and long-term memory deficits in postnatal caused by multiple sevoflurane exposures. PMID:27597963

  10. Docosahexaenoic Acid Rescues Synaptogenesis Impairment and Long-Term Memory Deficits Caused by Postnatal Multiple Sevoflurane Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Guorong; Luo, Yan; Xue, Qingsheng; Li, Guohui; Tan, Yongchang

    2016-01-01

    Sevoflurane exposures were demonstrated to induce neurotoxicity in the developing brain in both human and animal studies. However, there is no effective approach to reverse it. The present study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to prevent sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity. P6 (postnatal 6 days) mice were administrated DHA after exposure to 3% sevoflurane for two hours daily in three consecutive days. Molecular expressions of synaptic makers (PSD95, synaptophysin) and synaptic morphological changes were investigated by Western blot analysis and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Meanwhile, Morris water maze test was used to assess spatial memory of mice at P31 (postnatal 31 days). DHA restored sevoflurane-induced decreased level of PSD95 and synaptophysin expressions and increased PSD areas and also improved long-term spatial memory. These results suggest that DHA could rescue synaptogenesis impairment and long-term memory deficits in postnatal caused by multiple sevoflurane exposures. PMID:27597963

  11. Docosahexaenoic Acid Rescues Synaptogenesis Impairment and Long-Term Memory Deficits Caused by Postnatal Multiple Sevoflurane Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Guorong; Luo, Yan; Xue, Qingsheng; Li, Guohui; Tan, Yongchang

    2016-01-01

    Sevoflurane exposures were demonstrated to induce neurotoxicity in the developing brain in both human and animal studies. However, there is no effective approach to reverse it. The present study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to prevent sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity. P6 (postnatal 6 days) mice were administrated DHA after exposure to 3% sevoflurane for two hours daily in three consecutive days. Molecular expressions of synaptic makers (PSD95, synaptophysin) and synaptic morphological changes were investigated by Western blot analysis and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Meanwhile, Morris water maze test was used to assess spatial memory of mice at P31 (postnatal 31 days). DHA restored sevoflurane-induced decreased level of PSD95 and synaptophysin expressions and increased PSD areas and also improved long-term spatial memory. These results suggest that DHA could rescue synaptogenesis impairment and long-term memory deficits in postnatal caused by multiple sevoflurane exposures.

  12. Predictors of Maternal Parental Self-Efficacy Among Primiparas in the Early Postnatal Period.

    PubMed

    Shorey, Shefaly; Chan, Sally Wai-Chi; Chong, Yap Seng; He, Hong-Gu

    2015-12-01

    Maternal parental self-efficacy is a crucial factor for facilitating the smooth transition into motherhood, particularly for primiparas. The aims of this study were to examine the predictors of maternal parental self-efficacy and its relationship with social support, postnatal depression (PND), and socio-demographic variables of primiparas during the early postnatal period. A descriptive correlational study design was adopted. The instruments, Perceived Maternal Parental Self-Efficacy, Perinatal Infant Care Social Support, and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, were used to collect data from a purposive sample of 122 primiparas on the day of discharge (1-3 days post delivery) in a tertiary public hospital in Singapore. There were significant correlations among maternal parental self-efficacy, social support, and postnatal depression. The main predictors of maternal parental self-efficacy were social support, ethnicity, maternal age, and family income. The maternal parental self-efficacy, social support, and PND should be routinely assessed to provide necessary support to needy mothers.

  13. The impact of early postnatal environmental enrichment on maternal care and offspring behaviour following weaning.

    PubMed

    Li, Ki Angel; Lund, Emilie Torp; Voigt, Jörg-Peter W

    2016-01-01

    The early postnatal period is a sensitive period in rodents as behavioural systems are developing and maturing during this time. However, relatively little information is available about the impact of environmental enrichment on offspring behaviour if enrichment is implemented only during this period. Here, environmental enrichment was provided from postnatal day 1 until weaning. On post-natal day 9, maternal behaviour and nonmaternal behaviour of the dam was observed. Nursing time in the enriched group was reduced but dams showed more non-maternal appetitive behaviours. Offspring were exposed to either the open field or the elevated plus maze (EPM) after weaning. In the open field, rats from the enriched group approached the more aversive inner zone of the open field later than control rats. Offspring from the enriched group made fewer entries into the inner zone and spent less time in this part of the arena. Enrichment had no impact on behaviour in the EPM. The present study provides evidence that postnatal enrichment can interfere with maternal behaviour in rats and can possibly lead to increased anxiety in the offspring. The findings suggest that enrichment procedures can have potentially unintended effects, interfering with the development of emotional behaviours in rats.

  14. The heterogeneity of hepatocytes during the postnatal development of the mouse.

    PubMed

    Kanamura, S; Asada-Kubota, M

    1980-01-01

    Development of the hepatocyte heterogeneity was studied histochemically during the postnatal period. At birth ornithine carbamoyltransferase (OCT). succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and NADH dehydrogenase (NADHDH) activities were evenly distributed throughout the liver acinus. Slightly uneven distribution within the acinus appeared at 3 days after birth in SDH and at 4 days after birth in OCT and NADHDH, changing to that of adult type at 10 or 12 days after birth which is characterized by a marked difference in the activities between zone 1 and 3. However, in animals of all age groups studied, glycogen was decreased mainly in zone 1 and 2 after 6 or 10 h of fasting and glucose 6-phosphatase activity was markedly reduced or disappeared in zone 3 and often in zone 2 after carbon tetrachloride administration. The results show that so-called "functional and structural heterogeneity among hepatocytes" consists of at least two different components, that formed gradually during the postnatal development and that existing already at birth.

  15. Postnatal Treatment in Antenatally Diagnosed Meconium Peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Ionescu, S; Andrei, B; Oancea, M; Licsandru, E; Ivanov, M; Marcu, V; Popa-Stanila, R; Mocanu, M

    2015-01-01

    Meconium peritonitis is a rare prenatal disease with an increased rate of morbidity and mortality in the neonatal period. Distinctive features revealed by prenatal and postnatal ultrasoundmay be present: abdominal calcifications, ascites, polyhydramnios, meconium pseudocyst, echogenic mass and dilated bowel or intestinal obstruction. Establishing clear postnatal treatment and prognosis is difficult because of the heterogeneity of the results obtained by ultrasound. The aim of the study is to determine how prenatal diagnosis of meconium peritonitis is associated with perinatal management and further evolution. Clinical results are different depending on the presence of antenatal diagnosis of meconium peritonitis and its form, which can be mild or severe. Surgical treatment and management of meconium peritonitis depend on the clinical presentation of the newborn. Meconium peritonitis diagnosed prenatally differs from that of the newborn, not only concerning the mortality rates but also through reduced morbidity and overall better prognosis.

  16. Childhood Poverty and the Transition to Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Kendig, Sarah M; Mattingly, Marybeth J; Bianchi, Suzanne M

    2014-04-01

    The authors used the Panel Study of Income Dynamics 2007 Transition to Adulthood data in combination with the 2002 Child Development Supplement to examine social class bifurcation in young adulthood. Results indicate that poor youth possibly take on adult roles "too early" at the same time that high-income youth may be supported for a long period past their 18(th) birthday. Although not all evidence is consistent with this bifurcated story, childhood poverty does play a key role. Young adults from poor families establish financial independence early (e.g., contributing to family bills during adolescence, considering themselves fully responsible for their finances as young adults), whereas young adults from more affluent homes are more likely to receive financial transfers from their parents (who often help them pay for college and other expenses). These findings highlight the ways in which socioeconomic inequality in childhood can differentiate youth's experiences of adolescence and young adulthood.

  17. Sibling Relationships during the Transition to Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Conger, Katherine Jewsbury; Little, Wendy M.

    2009-01-01

    Recent research has shed new light on individual development during the early adulthood years, yet few investigators have examined sibling relationships during this stage of life. These relationships undergo transformations as individuals enter adult roles and orient their lives towards friends and romantic partners and establish independence from parents and siblings. This review examines major life events and role transitions such as leaving home, completing school, obtaining employment, getting married, and having children that influence individuals and their sibling relationships. In addition, the review considers how sibling relationships may affect individuals during the transition to adulthood, and considers the context of family and culture. The article concludes with suggestions for future research on sibling relationships during early adulthood and beyond. PMID:20700389

  18. Morphological and molecular aspects of immobilization-induced muscle atrophy in rats at different stages of postnatal development: the role of autophagy.

    PubMed

    Foresto, Camila Silva; Paula-Gomes, Sílvia; Silveira, Wilian Assis; Graça, Flávia Aparecida; Kettelhut, Isis do Carmo; Gonçalves, Dawit Albieiro Pinheiro; Mattiello-Sverzut, Ana Claudia

    2016-09-01

    Muscle loss occurs following injury and immobilization in adulthood and childhood, which impairs the rehabilitation process; however, far fewer studies have been conducted analyzing atrophic response in infants. This work investigated first the morphological and molecular mechanisms involved in immobilization-induced atrophy in soleus muscles from rats at different stages of postnatal development [i.e., weanling (WR) and adult (AR) rats] and, second, the role of autophagy in regulating muscle plasticity during immobilization. Hindlimb immobilization for 10 days reduced muscle mass and fiber cross-sectional area, with more pronounced atrophy in WR, and induced slow-to-fast fiber switching. These effects were accompanied by a decrease in markers of protein synthesis and an increase in autophagy. The ubiquitin (Ub)-ligase MuRF1 and the ubiquitinated proteins were upregulated by immobilization in AR while the autolyzed form of μ-calpain was increased in WR. To further explore the role of autophagy in muscle abnormalities, AR were concomitantly immobilized and treated with colchicine, which blocks autophagosome-lysosome fusion. Colchicine-treated immobilized muscles had exacerbated atrophy and presented degenerative features. Despite Igf1/Akt signaling was downregulated in immobilized muscles from both age groups, Foxo1 and 4 phosphorylation was increased in WR. In the same group of animals, Foxo1 acetylation and Foxo1 and 4 content was increased and decreased, respectively. Our data show that muscle disorders induced by 10-day-immobilization occur in both age-dependent and -independent manners, an understanding that may optimize treatment outcomes in infants. We also provide further evidence that the strong inhibition of autophagy may be ineffective for treating muscle atrophy. PMID:27445301

  19. Metabolic programming in the immediate postnatal life.

    PubMed

    Patel, Mulchand S; Srinivasan, Malathi

    2011-01-01

    The metabolic programming effects of nutritional modifications in the immediate postnatal life are increasingly recognized to independently contribute to the development of metabolic syndrome in later life. Adjustment of litter size in rodents has been used to induce either under- or overnourishment in the immediate postnatal life of the offspring. While undernourishment led to growth retardation in the offspring, overnourishment produced increased body weight gains, hyperinsulinemia and hyperleptinemia. Overnourishment during the suckling period induced several adaptations in the energy circuitry in the hypothalamus of the offspring predisposing them for the onset of obesity later in life. Another approach for a nutritional modification in the immediate postnatal period is the artificial rearing of newborn rat pups on a high-carbohydrate (HC) milk formula without changes in the total calorie availability. Hyperinsulinemia, immediately evident in the HC pups, persisted in the post-weaning period even after withdrawal of the HC milk. Significant alterations in pancreatic islets supported chronic hyperinsulinemia in the HC rats. Alterations in the gene expression of hypothalamic neuropeptides predisposing to hyperphagia were evident during the period of the HC dietary modification. The persistence of these hypothalamic adaptations supported the obese phenotype in adult HC rats. A transgenerational effect gave rise to the development of chronic hyperinsulinemia and adult-onset obesity in the offspring of the HC female rats. Other studies have shown that lactation by a diabetic, obese or malnourished mother resulted in predisposition for the onset of metabolic disorders in the offspring. These observations from animal studies on the metabolic programming effects due to altered nutritional experiences in the immediate postnatal life strongly suggest that altered feeding practices for infants (formula feeding and early introduction of infant foods) could contribute to

  20. Early postnatal iron repletion overcomes lasting effects of gestational iron deficiency in rats.

    PubMed

    Beard, John L; Unger, Erica L; Bianco, Laura E; Paul, Tessy; Rundle, Sarah E; Jones, Byron C

    2007-05-01

    Iron deficiency anemia in early childhood causes developmental delays and, very likely, irreversible alterations in neurological functioning. One primary goal for the present study was to determine whether the effects of late gestational iron deficiency on brain monoamine metabolism, iron content, and behavioral phenotypes could be repaired with iron intervention in early lactation. Young pregnant rats were provided iron-deficient or control diets from mid-gestation (G15). At postnatal d 4 (P4), pups from iron-deficient dams were out-fostered either to other ID dams or control dams while pups of control dams were similarly fostered to other control dams. Dietary treatments continued to adulthood (P65) when brain iron and regional monoamines were evaluated. P4 iron repletion normalized body iron status, brain iron concentrations, monoamine concentrations, and monoamine transporter and receptor densities in most brain regions. Dopamine transporter densities in caudate and substantia nigra were lower in ID rats but were normalized with iron repletion. Serotonin transporter levels in most brain regions and open-field exploration were also normalized with iron repletion. The success of this approach of early postnatal iron intervention following iron deficiency in utero contrasts to a relative lack of success when the intervention is performed at weaning. These data suggest that a window of opportunity exists for reversing the detrimental effects of iron deficiency in utero in rats and provides strong support of intervention approaches in humans with iron deficiency during pregnancy.

  1. The structural alteration of gut microbiota in low-birth-weight mice undergoing accelerated postnatal growth.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingjing; Tang, Huang; Wang, Xiaoxin; Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Chenhong; Zhang, Menghui; Zhao, Yufeng; Zhao, Liping; Shen, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The transient disruption of gut microbiota in infancy by antibiotics causes adult adiposity in mice. Accelerated postnatal growth (A) leads to a higher risk of adult metabolic syndrome in low birth-weight (LB) humans than in normal birth-weight (NB) individuals, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we set up an experiment using LB + A mice, NB + A mice, and control mice with NB and normal postnatal growth. At 24 weeks of age (adulthood), while NB + A animals had a normal body fat content and glucose tolerance compared with controls, LB + A mice exhibited excessive adiposity and glucose intolerance. In infancy, more fecal bacteria implicated in obesity were increased in LB + A pups than in NB + A pups, including Desulfovibrionaceae, Enterorhabdus, and Barnesiella. One bacterium from the Lactobacillus genus, which has been implicated in prevention of adult adiposity, was enhanced only in NB + A pups. Besides, LB + A pups, but not NB + A pups, showed disrupted gut microbiota fermentation activity. After weaning, the fecal microbiota composition of LB + A mice, but not that of NB + A animals, became similar to that of controls by 24 weeks. In infancy, LB + A mice have a more dysbiotic gut microbiome compared to NB + A mice, which might increase their risk of adult metabolic syndrome. PMID:27277748

  2. Postnatal accumulation of intermediate filaments in the cat and human primary visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Song, Seoho; Mitchell, Donald E; Crowder, Nathan A; Duffy, Kevin R

    2015-10-01

    A principal characteristic of the mammalian visual system is its high capacity for plasticity in early postnatal development during a time commonly referred to as the critical period. The progressive diminution of plasticity with age is linked to the emergence of a collection of molecules called molecular brakes that reduce plasticity and stabilize neural circuits modified by earlier visual experiences. Manipulation of braking molecules either pharmacologically or though experiential alteration enhances plasticity and promotes recovery from visual impairment. The stability of neural circuitry is increased by intermediate filamentous proteins of the cytoskeleton such as neurofilaments and α-internexin. We examined levels of these intermediate filaments within cat and human primary visual cortex (V1) across development to determine whether they accumulate following a time course consistent with a molecular brake. In both species, levels of intermediate filaments increased considerably throughout early postnatal life beginning shortly after the peak of the critical period, with the highest levels measured in adults. Neurofilament phosphorylation was also observed to increase throughout development, raising the possibility that posttranslational modification by phosphorylation reduces plasticity due to increased protein stability. Finally, an approach to scale developmental time points between species is presented that compares the developmental profiles of intermediate filaments between cats and humans. Although causality between intermediate filaments and plasticity was not directly tested in this study, their accumulation relative to the critical period indicates that they may contribute to the decline in plasticity with age, and may also constrain the success of treatments for visual disorders applied in adulthood.

  3. The structural alteration of gut microbiota in low-birth-weight mice undergoing accelerated postnatal growth

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jingjing; Tang, Huang; Wang, Xiaoxin; Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Chenhong; Zhang, Menghui; Zhao, Yufeng; Zhao, Liping; Shen, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The transient disruption of gut microbiota in infancy by antibiotics causes adult adiposity in mice. Accelerated postnatal growth (A) leads to a higher risk of adult metabolic syndrome in low birth-weight (LB) humans than in normal birth-weight (NB) individuals, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we set up an experiment using LB + A mice, NB + A mice, and control mice with NB and normal postnatal growth. At 24 weeks of age (adulthood), while NB + A animals had a normal body fat content and glucose tolerance compared with controls, LB + A mice exhibited excessive adiposity and glucose intolerance. In infancy, more fecal bacteria implicated in obesity were increased in LB + A pups than in NB + A pups, including Desulfovibrionaceae, Enterorhabdus, and Barnesiella. One bacterium from the Lactobacillus genus, which has been implicated in prevention of adult adiposity, was enhanced only in NB + A pups. Besides, LB + A pups, but not NB + A pups, showed disrupted gut microbiota fermentation activity. After weaning, the fecal microbiota composition of LB + A mice, but not that of NB + A animals, became similar to that of controls by 24 weeks. In infancy, LB + A mice have a more dysbiotic gut microbiome compared to NB + A mice, which might increase their risk of adult metabolic syndrome. PMID:27277748

  4. Crying babies, tired mothers - challenges of the postnatal hospital stay: an interpretive phenomenological study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background According to an old Swiss proverb, "a new mother lazing in childbed is a blessing to her family". Today mothers rarely enjoy restful days after birth, but enter directly into the challenge of combining baby- and self-care. They often face a combination of infant crying and personal tiredness. Yet, routine postnatal care often lacks effective strategies to alleviate these challenges which can adversely affect family health. We explored how new mothers experience and handle postnatal infant crying and their own tiredness in the context of changing hospital care practices in Switzerland. Methods Purposeful sampling was used to enroll 15 mothers of diverse parity and educational backgrounds, all of who had given birth to a full term healthy neonate. Using interpretive phenomenology, we analyzed interview and participant observation data collected during the postnatal hospital stay and at 6 and 12 weeks post birth. This paper reports on the postnatal hospital experience. Results Women's personal beliefs about beneficial childcare practices shaped how they cared for their newborn's and their own needs during the early postnatal period in the hospital. These beliefs ranged from an infant-centered approach focused on the infant's development of a basic sense of trust to an approach that balanced the infants' demands with the mother's personal needs. Getting adequate rest was particularly difficult for mothers striving to provide infant-centered care for an unsettled neonate. These mothers suffered from sleep deprivation and severe tiredness unless they were able to leave the baby with health professionals for several hours during the night. Conclusion New mothers often need permission to attend to their own needs, as well as practical support with childcare to recover from birth especially when neonates are fussy. To strengthen family health from the earliest stage, postnatal care should establish conditions which enable new mothers to balance the care of their

  5. Prenatal Exposure of Cypermethrin Induces Similar Alterations in Xenobiotic-Metabolizing Cytochrome P450s and Rate-Limiting Enzymes of Neurotransmitter Synthesis in Brain Regions of Rat Offsprings During Postnatal Development.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anshuman; Mudawal, Anubha; Maurya, Pratibha; Jain, Rajeev; Nair, Saumya; Shukla, Rajendra K; Yadav, Sanjay; Singh, Dhirendra; Khanna, Vinay Kumar; Chaturvedi, Rajnish Kumar; Mudiam, Mohana K R; Sethumadhavan, Rao; Siddiqi, Mohammad Imran; Parmar, Devendra

    2016-08-01

    Oral administration of low doses of cypermethrin to pregnant Wistar rats led to a dose-dependent differences in the induction of xenobiotic-metabolizing cytochrome P450s (CYPs) messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein in brain regions isolated from the offsprings postnatally at 3 weeks that persisted up to adulthood. Similar alterations were observed in the expression of rate-limiting enzymes of neurotransmitter synthesis in brain regions of rat offsprings. These persistent changes were associated with alterations in circulating levels of growth hormone (GH), cognitive functions, and accumulation of cypermethrin and its metabolites in brain regions of exposed offsprings. Though molecular docking studies failed to identify similarities between the docked conformations of cypermethrin with CYPs and neurotransmitter receptors, in silico analysis identified regulatory sequences of CYPs in the promoter region of rate-limiting enzymes of neurotransmitter synthesis. Further, rechallenge of the prenatally exposed offsprings at adulthood with cypermethrin (p.o. 10 mg/kg × 6 days) led to a greater magnitude of alterations in the expression of CYPs and rate-limiting enzymes of neurotransmitter synthesis in different brain regions. These alterations were associated with a greater magnitude of decrease in the circulating levels of GH and cognitive functions in rechallenged offsprings. Our data has led us to suggest that due to the immaturity of CYPs in fetus or during early development, even the low-level exposure of cypermethrin may be sufficient to interact with the CYPs, which in turn affect the neurotransmission processes and may help in explaining the developmental neurotoxicity of cypermethrin.

  6. Post-natal myogenic and adipogenic developmental

    PubMed Central

    Konings, Gonda; van Weeghel, Michel; van den Hoogenhof, Maarten MG; Gijbels, Marion; van Erk, Arie; Schoonderwoerd, Kees; van den Bosch, Bianca; Dahlmans, Vivian; Calis, Chantal; Houten, Sander M; Misteli, Tom

    2011-01-01

    A-type lamins are a major component of the nuclear lamina. Mutations in the LMNA gene, which encodes the A-type lamins A and C, cause a set of phenotypically diverse diseases collectively called laminopathies. While adult LMNA null mice show various symptoms typically associated with laminopathies, the effect of loss of lamin A/C on early post-natal development is poorly understood. Here we developed a novel LMNA null mouse (LMNAGT−/−) based on genetrap technology and analyzed its early post-natal development. We detect LMNA transcripts in heart, the outflow tract, dorsal aorta, liver and somites during early embryonic development. Loss of A-type lamins results in severe growth retardation and developmental defects of the heart, including impaired myocyte hypertrophy, skeletal muscle hypotrophy, decreased amounts of subcutaneous adipose tissue and impaired ex vivo adipogenic differentiation. These defects cause death at 2 to 3 weeks post partum associated with muscle weakness and metabolic complications, but without the occurrence of dilated cardiomyopathy or an obvious progeroid phenotype. Our results indicate that defective early post-natal development critically contributes to the disease phenotypes in adult laminopathies. PMID:21818413

  7. Genetic disorders associated with postnatal microcephaly.

    PubMed

    Seltzer, Laurie E; Paciorkowski, Alex R

    2014-06-01

    Several genetic disorders are characterized by normal head size at birth, followed by deceleration in head growth resulting in postnatal microcephaly. Among these are classic disorders such as Angelman syndrome and MECP2-related disorder (formerly Rett syndrome), as well as more recently described clinical entities associated with mutations in CASK, CDKL5, CREBBP, and EP300 (Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome), FOXG1, SLC9A6 (Christianson syndrome), and TCF4 (Pitt-Hopkins syndrome). These disorders can be identified clinically by phenotyping across multiple neurodevelopmental and neurobehavioral realms, and enough data are available to recognize these postnatal microcephaly disorders as separate diagnostic entities in their own right. A second diagnostic grouping, comprised of Warburg MICRO syndrome, Cockayne syndrome, and Cerebral-oculo-facial skeletal syndrome, share similar features of somatic growth failure, ophthalmologic, and dysmorphologic features. Many postnatal microcephaly syndromes are caused by mutations in genes important in the regulation of gene expression in the developing forebrain and hindbrain, although important synaptic structural genes also play a role. This is an emerging group of disorders with a fascinating combination of brain malformations, specific epilepsies, movement disorders, and other complex neurobehavioral abnormalities. PMID:24839169

  8. Alterations in central monoamine systems after postnatal lead acetate treatment in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Luthman, J. Univ. of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO ); Lindqvist, E.; Olson, L. ); Gerhardt, G.A.; Hoffer, B.H. )

    1994-04-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of postnatal lead exposure on central monoamine systems. Newborn male Sprague-Dawley rats were given 1 or 8 mg/kg lead acetate intraperitoneally for 20 days postnatally. Two groups of control rats received sodium acetate, or sodium acetate in oversized litters to compensate for lead-induced malnutrition in the high lead dose group, while nontreated animals also served as controls. At Day 21 or 51 regional tissue levels of monoamines were determined using HPLC techniques. No major changes were seen after the lead exposures in the levels of dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin, or metabolites of dopamine and serotonin, when compared to respective control groups. On the other hand, in the control group given sodium acetate in oversized litters some alterations of the monoamine levels were observed in frontal cortex and striatum at Day 21 compared to controls. At Day 51, the striatal homovanillic acid and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels were higher in the low lead dose group compared to those in the controls, No other changes in the monoamine levels were seen at Day 51. At 50-70 days postnatally, potassium-stimulated dopamine overflow was studied in striatum with in vivo chronoamperometry. In the high lead dose group the amplitudes of signals were lower in both the dorsal and ventral striatum compared to the controls, while no difference was seen in the clearance time of dopamine. The capacity of the dopamine terminals to respond to repeated stimulation was not affected by the lead exposure. Thus, the steady-state levels of monoamines were essentially unaltered after postnatal lead exposure in rats, while functional aspects of striatal dopamine transmission were affected after exposure to the higher dose of lead. These findings support the hypothesis that lead-induced changes in motor skills and exploratory behavior may be related to altered dopamine neurotransmission. 77 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Haematopoiesis in snakes (Ophidia) in early postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Dabrowski, Z; Sano Martins, I S; Tabarowski, Z; Witkowska-Pelc, E; Spadacci Morena, D D; Spodaryk, K; Podkowa, D

    2007-05-01

    The occurrence of haematopoiesis has been studied in various parts of the spine and in the ribs in four species of snakes (Boa constrictor L., Elaphe guttata L., Lamprophis fulaginosus Boie., Bothrops jararaca Wied.) from hatching until 150 days of postnatal development. Marrow spaces are formed by chondrolysis with various time frames depending on the studied species. Marrow cells egress to the general circulation in two ways: via migration through the endothelial cells lining the venous sinuses or by the rupture of protrusions. Erythroblasts are present in the lumen of marrow sinuses suggesting their final maturation there. Various relationships of the spleen to the pancreas have been found. No myelopoietic foci occur in the spleen, liver or kidney of any of the studied species. However, erythropoiesis (sparse islets) has been observed in Bothrops jararaca spleen.

  10. A Critical Period for Postnatal Adaptive Plasticity in a Model of Motor Axon Miswiring

    PubMed Central

    Castiblanco-Urbina, Maria A.; Winzeck, Stefan; Sundermeier, Julia; Theis, Fabian J.; Fouad, Karim; Huber, Andrea B.

    2015-01-01

    The correct wiring of neuronal circuits is of crucial importance for precise neuromuscular functionality. Therefore, guidance cues provide tight spatiotemporal control of axon growth and guidance. Mice lacking the guidance cue Semaphorin 3F (Sema3F) display very specific axon wiring deficits of motor neurons in the medial aspect of the lateral motor column (LMCm). While these deficits have been investigated extensively during embryonic development, it remained unclear how Sema3F mutant mice cope with these errors postnatally. We therefore investigated whether these animals provide a suitable model for the exploration of adaptive plasticity in a system of miswired neuronal circuitry. We show that the embryonically developed wiring deficits in Sema3F mutants persist until adulthood. As a consequence, these mutants display impairments in motor coordination that improve during normal postnatal development, but never reach wildtype levels. These improvements in motor coordination were boosted to wildtype levels by housing the animals in an enriched environment starting at birth. In contrast, a delayed start of enriched environment housing, at 4 weeks after birth, did not similarly affect motor performance of Sema3F mutants. These results, which are corroborated by neuroanatomical analyses, suggest a critical period for adaptive plasticity in neuromuscular circuitry. Interestingly, the formation of perineuronal nets, which are known to close the critical period for plastic changes in other systems, was not altered between the different housing groups. However, we found significant changes in the number of excitatory synapses on limb innervating motor neurons. Thus, we propose that during the early postnatal phase, when perineuronal nets have not yet been formed around spinal motor neurons, housing in enriched environment conditions induces adaptive plasticity in the motor system by the formation of additional synaptic contacts, in order to compensate for coordination

  11. Nicotine Dependence and Alcohol Problems from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Dierker, Lisa; Selya, Arielle; Rose, Jennifer; Hedeker, Donald; Mermelstein, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the highly replicated relationship between symptoms associated with both alcohol and nicotine, little is known about this association across time and exposure to both drinking and smoking. In the present study, we evaluate if problems associated with alcohol use are related to emerging nicotine dependence symptoms and whether this relationship varies from adolescence to young adulthood, after accounting for both alcohol and nicotine exposure. Methods The sample was drawn from the Social and Emotional Contexts of Adolescent Smoking Patterns Study which measured smoking, nicotine dependence, alcohol use and alcohol related problems over 6 assessment waves spanning 6 years. Analyses were based on repeated assessment of 864 participants reporting some smoking and drinking 30 days prior to individual assessment waves. Mixed-effects regression models were estimated to examine potential time, smoking and/or alcohol varying effects in the association between alcohol problems and nicotine dependence. Findings Inter-individual differences in mean levels of alcohol problems and within subject changes in alcohol problems from adolescence to young adulthood were each significantly associated with nicotine dependence symptoms over and above levels of smoking and drinking behaviour. This association was consistent across both time and increasing levels of smoking and drinking. Conclusions Alcohol related problems are a consistent risk factor for nicotine dependence over and above measures of drinking and smoking and this association can be demonstrated from the earliest experiences with smoking in adolescents, through the establishment of more regular smoking patterns across the transition to young adulthood. These findings add to accumulating evidence suggesting that smoking and drinking may be related through a mechanism that cannot be wholly accounted for by exposure to either substance. PMID:27610424

  12. CEMI Days

    SciTech Connect

    2015-07-01

    CEMI Days are an important channel of engagement between DOE and the manufacturing industry to identify challenges and opportunities for increasing U.S. manufacturing competitiveness. CEMI Days that are held at manufacturing companies’ facilities can include tours of R&D operations or other points of interest determined by the host company.

  13. Dinosaur Day!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamura, Sandra; Baptiste, H. Prentice

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe how they capitalized on their first-grade students' love of dinosaurs by hosting a fun-filled Dinosaur Day in their classroom. On Dinosaur Day, students rotated through four dinosaur-related learning stations that integrated science content with art, language arts, math, and history in a fun and time-efficient…

  14. Postnatal development of the vallate papilla and taste buds in rats.

    PubMed

    Hosley, M A; Oakley, B

    1987-06-01

    The postnatal maturation of the vallate papilla and its taste buds was quantitatively investigated in rats by ligh microscopy. Specifically, we measured postnatal increases in the size of mature vallate taste buds and the vallate papilla, increases in the thickness of the gustatory epidermis, and increases in the number of mature taste buds and taste cells per bud. Mature taste buds, defined as those having a taste pore, are rare at birth but proliferate rapidly during the first postnatal month until an average of 610 mature taste buds has accumulated by 90 days. Throughout this postnatal period, mature taste buds adjust to the developmental thickening of the epidermis by continuously increasing in length. Mature taste buds also increase in width, in part due to a threefold increase from 10 and 45 days in the number of taste cells per bud. From 10 to 21 days there is an average daily net increase of three cells per mature taste bud. The maturational increase in taste buds and cells may contribute to the functional changes in taste nerve responses known to occur over the course of several generations of taste receptor cells. The dimensions of the vallate papilla and the surface area of the gustatory epithelium increase logarithmically with age. Although mature taste buds continue to increase in number until 90 days, both taste bud density (178/mm2) and the number of cells per mature taste bud (70-75 cells) reach ceilings by 45 days. Thus, density-dependent factors appear to control vallate taste bud maturation. The immaturity of lingual taste buds in newborn rats supports the view that odor, rather than taste, is the chemosensory signal that guides suckling in altricial rodents. PMID:3619089

  15. The Military and the Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelty, Ryan; Kleykamp, Meredith; Segal, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Ryan Kelty, Meredith Kleykamp, and David Segal examine the effect of military service on the transition to adulthood. They highlight changes since World War II in the role of the military in the lives of young adults, focusing especially on how the move from a conscription to an all-volunteer military has changed the way military service affects…

  16. Perceived Discrimination and Personality Development in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutin, Angelina R.; Stephan, Yannick; Terracciano, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Perceived discrimination is common and a significant source of stress that may have implications for personality development across adulthood. In this study, we examined whether experiences with discrimination were associated with maladaptive changes in the 5 major dimensions of personality using 2 longitudinal samples that differed in age and…

  17. Constructing Adulthood in an Age of Uncertainty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Jennifer M.

    2012-01-01

    Past research in both the transitions to adulthood literature and cultural sociology more broadly suggests that the working class relies on traditional cultural models in their construction of identity. In the contemporary post-industrial world, however, traditional life pathways are now much less available to working-class men and women. I draw…

  18. Predicting Markers of Adulthood among Adolescent Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxford, Monica L.; Lee, Jungeun O.; Lohr, Mary Jane

    2010-01-01

    This prospective longitudinal study examines the antecedents of adolescent mothers' transition into adulthood and their attainment of multiple adult statuses in their early 30s in a nonclinical sample. The distribution, timing, and impact of factors in adolescence (education, employment, marriage, economic status, criminal involvement, and others)…

  19. Predictors of Positive Development in Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Meredith; Sanson, Ann; Hawkins, Mary T.; Letcher, Primrose; Toumbourou, John W.; Smart, Diana; Vassallo, Suzanne; Olsson, Craig A.

    2011-01-01

    This article responds to recent calls for a focus on successful development in young people and examination of its developmental precursors, in order to identify potentially modifiable targets for interventions. The current study examined child and adolescent precursors of positive functioning in emerging adulthood, including individual…

  20. Counterfactual Reasoning: From Childhood to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafetseder, Eva; Schwitalla, Maria; Perner, Josef

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the developmental progression of counterfactual reasoning from childhood to adulthood. In contrast to the traditional view, it was recently reported by Rafetseder and colleagues that even a majority of 6-year-old children do not engage in counterfactual reasoning when asked counterfactual questions…

  1. Vulnerable Populations and the Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osgood, D. Wayne; Foster, E. Michael; Courtney, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    D. Wayne Osgood, E. Michael Foster, and Mark E. Courtney examine the transition to adulthood for youth involved in social service and justice systems during childhood and adolescence. They survey the challenges faced by youth in the mental health system, the foster care system, the juvenile justice system, the criminal justice system, and special…

  2. Normative Beliefs Regarding Aggression in Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, David A.; Springer, Melanie M.; Nelson, Larry J.; Bean, Nathaniel H.

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have examined the nature of aggression in emerging adulthood (ages 18-25), a unique developmental period wherein relationships become increasingly important and intimate. Consistent with a greater emphasis on relationships, relationally manipulative forms of aggression may be particularly salient during this time period. Based on…

  3. Novelty Seeking in Adulthood: Increases Accompany Decline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reio, Thomas G., Jr.; Choi, Namok

    2004-01-01

    Using stereotypes, researchers have predicted that novelty seeking declines in adulthood. Through this cross-sectional study, the authors revealed that only the external sensational type of novelty seeking declined, whereas the internal sensational and internal and external cognitive types remained stable or increased. A population of 233 adults…

  4. Personality-Cognition Relations across Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soubelet, Andrea; Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    Although an increasing number of studies have investigated relations between dimensions of personality and level of cognitive functioning, the research results have been somewhat inconsistent. Furthermore, relatively little is known about whether the personality-cognition relations vary as a function of age in adulthood. The current project…

  5. The Structure of Visuospatial Memory in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mammarella, Irene C.; Borella, Erika; Pastore, Massimiliano; Pazzaglia, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the structure of visuospatial memory in adulthood. Adults 40-89 years of age (n = 160) performed simple storage and complex visuospatial span tasks. Simple storage tasks were distinguished into three presentation formats: (i) visual, which involved maintaining shapes and textures; (ii) spatial-sequential,…

  6. Transition into Adulthood and the Disabled Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Violet Y.

    2011-01-01

    Transitioning in to adult-hood as a special needs youth can be a challenging experience for both disabled youth and their families. IDEA 2004 legislation mandates all special needs individuals receive skill development in the areas of self-determination, self-advocacy, employment, adult service agency access and independent living. School…

  7. Emerging Adulthood in Mexican and Spanish Youth: Theories and Realities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arias, Daniel Fierro; Hernandez, Amparo Moreno

    2007-01-01

    A delay in the end of the adolescent period, and hence the onset of common adult roles, is a trend in most of today's Western industrialized societies. Related to this fact, in recent years emerging adulthood has been proposed as a distinct developmental period between adolescence and young adulthood. Typical normative markers of adulthood are…

  8. Oral (gavage), in utero and postnatal exposure of Sprague-Dawley rats to low doses of tributyltin chloride. Part 1: Toxicology, histopathology and clinical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Cooke, G M; Tryphonas, H; Pulido, O; Caldwell, D; Bondy, G S; Forsyth, D

    2004-02-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) is a biocide that contaminates foods, especially shellfish. TBT is an endocrine disrupter in several marine species and is neurotoxic and immunotoxic in mammals. We have examined the effects of exposure to low doses of tributyltin chloride (TBTC) from day 8 of gestation until adulthood. Pregnant rats were gavaged daily with 0, 0.025, 0.25 or 2.5 mg TBTC/kg body weight from day 8 of gestation until weaning. Stomach contents of suckling pups contained undetectable levels of TBT and dibutyltin (DBT) levels were detectable only in the highest TBTC dose used, indicating negligible lactational transfer to pups. Post weaning, pups were gavaged daily with the same dose of TBTC administered to their mothers and sacrificed on post-natal days (PND) 30 (males and females), 60 (females) and 90 (males). TBTC had no effects on dams' body weights, food consumption, litter size, sex ratio or survival of pups to weaning. However, all doses of TBTC significantly affected parameters of the growth profile of the pups (mean body weights, average slope, curvature) and the ratio of weekly food consumption to weekly body weight gain indicated enhanced food conversion to body mass in females but a decreased conversion in males. Liver, spleen and thymus weights were also affected by TBTC. In male pups dosed at 2.5 mg/kg/day, reduced serum thyroxine levels were evident, indicating that the thyroid is a target for TBTC toxicity. No histopathological lesions were seen in the liver but elevated serum alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase and amylase indicated hepatotoxicity. Significant decreases in liver weights in female pups exposed to 0.025 mg/kg/day TBTC were observed at PND 60. Decreases in spleen and thymus weights also pointed towards toxic effects of TBTC on the immune system. The 0.025 mg/kg/day TBTC should have been a no affect dose and yet this dose caused significant effects on growth profiles, decreased liver weights and elevated serum GGT levels in

  9. Postnatal development of the motor representation in primary motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarty, S; Martin, J H

    2000-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine when the muscles and joints of the forelimb become represented in primary motor cortex (M1) during postnatal life and how local representation patterns change. We examined these questions in cats that were anesthetized (45-90 days, n = 14; adults, n = 3) and awake (n = 4; 52-86 days). We used intracortical microstimulation (45 ms duration train, 330 Hz, 0.2-ms balanced biphasic pulses, with a leading cathodic pulse; up to 100 microA). In young animals (less than day 70), we also used stimulus trains and pulses that could produce greater temporal summation (up to 200-ms train duration, down to 143-Hz stimulus frequency, up to 0.8-ms pulse width). Anesthetized animals were areflexic, and muscle tone was similar to that of the awake cats (i.e., relaxed, not weight or load bearing, with minimal resistance to passive stretch). We monitored the kinematic effects of microstimulation and changes in electromyographic (EMG) activity in forelimb muscles. There was an age-dependent reduction in the number of sites where microstimulation did not produce a motor effect (i.e., ineffective sites), from 95% in animals younger than 60 days to 33% between 81 and 90 days. In adults, 24% of sites were ineffective. Median current thresholds for evoking movements dropped from 79 microA in animals younger than day 60 to 38 and 28 microA in day 81-90 animals and adults, respectively. There was a proximal-to-distal development of the somatotopic organization of the motor map. Stimulation at the majority of sites in animals younger than day 71 produced shoulder and elbow movement. Wrist sites were first present by day 71, and digit sites by day 81. Sites at which multiple responses were evoked, between 1.0 and 1.5 times threshold, were present after day 71, and increased with age. A higher percentage of distal joints were co-represented with other joints, rather than being represented alone. We found that effective sites initially were scattered and

  10. Postnatal epithelium and mesenchyme stem/progenitor cells in bioengineered amelogenesis and dentinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Nan; Zhou, Jian; Chen, Mo; Schiff, Michael D.; Lee, Chang H.; Kong, Kimi; Embree, Mildred C.; Zhou, Yanheng; Mao, Jeremy J.

    2014-01-01

    Rodent incisors provide a classic model for studying epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in development. However, postnatal stem/progenitor cells in rodent incisors have not been exploited for tooth regeneration. Here, we characterized postnatal rat incisor epithelium and mesenchyme stem/progenitor cells and found that they formed enamel- and dentin-like tissues in vivo. Epithelium and mesenchyme cells were harvested separately from the apical region of postnatal 4–5 day rat incisors. Epithelial and mesenchymal phenotypes were confirmed by immunocytochemistry, CFU assay and/or multi-lineage differentiation. CK14+, Sox2+ and Lgr5+ epithelium stem cells from the cervical loop significantly enhanced amelogenin and ameloblastin expression upon BMP4 or FGF3 stimulation, signifying their differentiation towards ameloblast-like cells, whereas mesenchyme stem/progenitor cells upon BMP4, BMP7 and Wnt3a treatment robustly expressed Dspp, a hallmark of odontoblastic differentiation. We then control-released microencapsulated BMP4, BMP7 and Wnt3a in transplants of epithelium and mesenchyme stem/progenitor cells in the renal capsule of athymic mice in vivo. Enamel and dentin-like tissues were generated in two integrated layers with specific expression of amelogenin and ameloblastin in the newly formed, de novo enamel-like tissue, and DSP in dentin-like tissue. These findings suggest that postnatal epithelium and mesenchyme stem/progenitor cells can be primed by pivotal signals towards bioengineered tooth regeneration. PMID:24345734

  11. Effects of microgravity on myogenic factor expressions during postnatal development of rat skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inobe, Manabu; Inobe, Ikuko; Adams, Gregory R.; Baldwin, Kenneth M.; Takeda, Shin'Ichi

    2002-01-01

    To clarify the role of gravity in the postnatal development of skeletal muscle, we exposed neonatal rats at 7 days of age to microgravity. After 16 days of spaceflight, tibialis anterior, plantaris, medial gastrocnemius, and soleus muscles were removed from the hindlimb musculature and examined for the expression of MyoD-family transcription factors such as MyoD, myogenin, and MRF4. For this purpose, we established a unique semiquantitative method, based on RT-PCR, using specific primers tagged with infrared fluorescence. The relative expression of MyoD in the tibialis anterior and plantaris muscles and that of myogenin in the plantaris and soleus muscles were significantly reduced (P < 0.001) in the flight animals. In contrast, MRF4 expression was not changed in any muscle. These results suggest that MyoD and myogenin, but not MRF4, are sensitive to gravity-related stimuli in some skeletal muscles during postnatal development.

  12. Developmental changes and regional localization of Dspp, Mepe, Mimecan and Versican in postnatal developing mouse teeth.

    PubMed

    Hou, C; Liu, Z X; Tang, K L; Wang, M G; Sun, J; Wang, J; Li, S

    2012-02-01

    It has been implicated noncollagenous proteins act as important regulators during odontogenesis. To test the hypothesis that the roles of Dspp, Mepe, Versican and Mimecan in the regulation of odontogenesis may be complementary, comparative investigations on the localization of four proteins were performed by immunohistochemical staining using mouse first molar at different developmental stages as a model. In postnatal 1- day-old mice, all the proteins, excluding Mepe, showed co-expression in young odontoblasts. At postnatal 3, strong immunoreactions for all proteins were detected in odontoblasts. Interestingly, Mepe was present within both cytoplasm and nucleus in odontoblasts. In mice older than 5 days, the expression of Dspp, Mimecan and Versican accumulated in subodontoblastic layer of the coronal pulp at high levels while the co-expression of Mepe and Mimecan significantly existed in predentin. The temporal-spatial specific pattern and unique co-localization of Dspp, Mepe, Mimecan and Versican suggest they play complementary roles during odontogenesis.

  13. Career Day

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's 2013 Career Days was a joint collaboration between NASA Langley and the Newport News Shipbuilding where 600 high school students from Virginia took on two design challenges -- designing a ca...

  14. Zoo Day.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warden, Marian

    1978-01-01

    Zoo Day was one of the culminating activities of Art Extravaganza, a pilot summer art program for high ability first-and second-graders. Field trips, art history lessons, box sculpture, and a study of cavemen were included. (SJL)

  15. Prenatal immunotoxicant exposure and postnatal autoimmune disease.

    PubMed Central

    Holladay, S D

    1999-01-01

    Reports in humans and rodents indicate that immune development may be altered following perinatal exposure to immunotoxic compounds, including chemotherapeutics, corticosteroids, polycyclic hydrocarbons, and polyhalogenated hydrocarbons. Effects from such exposure may be more dramatic or persistent than following exposure during adult life. For example, prenatal exposure to the insecticide chlordane or to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benzo[(italic)a(/italic)]pyrene produces what appears to be lifelong immunosuppression in mice. Whether prenatal immunotoxicant exposure may predispose the organism to postnatal autoimmune disease remains largely unknown. In this regard, the therapeutic immunosuppressant cyclosporin A (CsA) crosses the placenta poorly. However, lethally irradiated rodents exposed to CsA postsyngeneic bone marrow transplant (i.e., during re-establishment of the immune system) develop T-cell-mediated autoimmune disease, suggesting this drug may produce a fundamental disruption in development of self-tolerance by T cells. The environmental contaminant 2,3,7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-(italic)p(/italic)-dioxin (TCDD) crosses the placenta and produces fetal thymic effects (italic)in vivo(/italic) similar to effects of CsA in fetal thymic organ culture, including inhibited thymocyte maturation and reduced expression of thymic major histocompatability complex class II molecules. These observations led to the suggestion that gestational exposure to TCDD may interfere with normal development of self-tolerance. Possibly supporting this hypothesis, when mice predisposed to development of autoimmune disease were treated with TCDD during gestation, postnatal autoimmunity was exacerbated. Similar results have been reported for mice exposed to diethylstilbestrol during development. These reports suggest that prenatal exposure to certain immunotoxicants may play a role in postnatal expression of autoimmunity. PMID:10502532

  16. Psychiatric Disorders in Adolescence and Early Adulthood and Risk for Child-Rearing Difficulties during Middle Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Cohen, Patricia; Kasen, Stephanie; Brook, Judith S.

    2008-01-01

    Data from a community-based longitudinal study were used to investigate the associations of parental psychiatric disorders evident by early adulthood with child-rearing behavior during middle adulthood. A series of psychiatric assessments was conducted during the adolescence (mean ages 14 and 16) and early adulthood (mean age 22) of 153 males and…

  17. Postnatal development of adrenergic responsiveness in the rabbit heart.

    PubMed

    Feng, Z P; Dryden, W F; Gordon, T

    1989-08-01

    It is uncertain how changes in the beta-adrenoceptor population influence the contractility of developing heart. To resolve this we have examined postnatal developmental changes in the adrenergic responsiveness of the rabbit heart. The inotropic effect of isoproterenol on isolated left ventricular papillary muscles from rabbits aged 3, 21, and 90 days was compared with the relative number of beta-adrenoceptors at each age measured using [3H]dihydroalprenolol ([3H]DHA) as the specific ligand. The maximum tension developed in response to isoproterenol increases from 37 +/- 7 to 175 +/- 33% above control twitch tension between 3 and 21 days of age; this is followed by a decrease to 68 +/- 12% in the young adult. During this period of development, there is a decline in EC50 towards increased sensitivity. These differences are partially accounted for by an increase in the numbers of specific [3H]DHA binding sites from 17.3 +/- 2.3 to 56.6 +/- 9.9 fmol/mg wet tissue weight from 3 to 21 days, and a subsequent decrease to 32 +/- 4.5 fmol/mg tissue in the young adult. The proportionally larger increase in contractility compared with the number of beta-adrenoceptor binding sites during the first 3 weeks of life is discussed in terms of the developmental changes in the efficacy of coupling between receptor occupancy and contraction.

  18. Innovation:CBT-based support groups for postnatal depression.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Pat

    Postnatal depression can have serious implications for mother/child bonding and damage relationships between parents. Approaches to treat it need to overcome barriers that have led to high attrition in some group or clinic-based postnatal depression treatment studies. This retrospective evaluation explored the benefits of offering postnatally depressed mothers group support based on cognitive behavioural therapy. It helped to improve women's self-esteem and self-worth and to make them feel safe and supported.

  19. Cellular differentiation and proliferation in the ovine lung during gestation and early postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Martineau, H M; Dagleish, M P; Cousens, C; Underwood, C; Forbes, V; Palmarini, M; Griffiths, D J

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates epithelial cell differentiation and proliferation in specific anatomical regions of the ovine lung during prenatal and postnatal development. Immunohistochemistry was used to identify ciliated epithelial cells, Clara cells, neuroepithelial bodies and type II pneumocytes in the lungs of preterm (67, 127 and 140 days of gestation), full-term (147 days) and postnatal (9, 16 and 91 days old) lambs. Differentiation of ciliated epithelial cells was seen at 67 days of gestation and at term for Clara cells. Neuroepithelial bodies were first detected at 127 days of gestation. From 16 to 91 days of age there was a significant (P <0.05) increase in beta-tubulin (present in ciliated epithelial cells) and Clara cell protein (present in Clara cells) in multiple regions of the lung. Detection of Ki67, a marker of proliferation, in preterm lambs showed a reduction in proliferation index in multiple anatomical regions of the lung between 70 days of gestation and term. Cell proliferation increased following parturition, and then decreased between 16 and 91 days of age, with the largest reduction occurring in the alveolar compartment. Knowledge of which cells are present at specific times of lung development provides valuable information on the anatomy of the ovine lung, improving its use as a model for ovine and human neonatal disease. In addition, the antibodies used here will be valuable for future studies requiring the identification and quantification of respiratory epithelial cell phenotypes in the sheep lung.

  20. Core binding factor beta (Cbfβ) controls the balance of chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation by upregulating Indian hedgehog (Ihh) expression and inhibiting parathyroid hormone-related protein receptor (PPR) expression in postnatal cartilage and bone formation.

    PubMed

    Tian, Fei; Wu, Mengrui; Deng, Lianfu; Zhu, Guochun; Ma, Junqing; Gao, Bo; Wang, Lin; Li, Yi-Ping; Chen, Wei

    2014-07-01

    Core binding factor beta (Cbfβ) is essential for embryonic bone morphogenesis. Yet the mechanisms by which Cbfβ regulates chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation as well as postnatal cartilage and bone formation remain unclear. Hence, using paired-related homeobox transcription factor 1-Cre (Prx1-Cre) mice, mesenchymal stem cell-specific Cbfβ-deficient (Cbfβ(f/f) Prx1-Cre) mice were generated to study the role of Cbfβ in postnatal cartilage and bone development. These mutant mice survived to adulthood but exhibited severe sternum and limb malformations. Sternum ossification was largely delayed in the Cbfβ(f/f) Prx1-Cre mice and the xiphoid process was noncalcified and enlarged. In newborn and 7-day-old Cbfβ(f/f) Prx1-Cre mice, the resting zone was dramatically elongated, the proliferation zone and hypertrophic zone of the growth plates were drastically shortened and disorganized, and trabecular bone formation was reduced. Moreover, in 1-month-old Cbfβ(f/f) Prx1-Cre mice, the growth plates were severely deformed and trabecular bone was almost absent. In addition, Cbfβ deficiency impaired intramembranous bone formation both in vivo and in vitro. Interestingly, although the expression of Indian hedgehog (Ihh) was largely reduced, the expression of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) receptor (PPR) was dramatically increased in the Cbfβ(f/f) Prx1-Cre growth plate, indicating that that Cbfβ deficiency disrupted the Ihh-PTHrP negative regulatory loop. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis and promoter luciferase assay demonstrated that the Runx/Cbfβ complex binds putative Runx-binding sites of the Ihh promoter regions, and also the Runx/Cbfβ complex directly upregulates Ihh expression at the transcriptional level. Consistently, the expressions of Ihh target genes, including CyclinD1, Ptc, and Pthlh, were downregulated in Cbfβ-deficient chondrocytes. Taken together, our study reveals not only that Cbfβ is essential for chondrocyte

  1. Changes in oxygen sensitivity of TASK in carotid body glomus cells during early postnatal development

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Donghee; Papreck, Justin R.; Kim, Insook; Donnelly, David F.; Carroll, John L.

    2011-01-01

    A post-natal increase in carotid body (CB) hypoxia responsiveness occurs at the level of carotid sinus nerve activity, intracellular calcium, cell membrane depolarization and hypoxic inhibition of O2-sensitive background K+ conductance. TASK-1, TASK-1/3 and TASK-3 are functionally expressed in CB glomus cells, with TASK-1/3 providing the major part of the O2-sensitive TASK-like background K+ conductance. Here we report the effects of graded hypoxia on TASK-like channel activity in CB glomus cells from rats aged 0-1, 6-7 and 16-18 days; the time frame of postnatal CB functional maturation. TASK was active in nearly all cell-attached patches and TASK activity during normoxia did not differ across ages. Hypoxia produced a progressive decrease in channel opening frequency with graded decreases in O2 level and also produced glomus cell depolarization, as assessed by the shift in reversal potential of TASK single channel current. Hypoxic inhibition of TASK activity was least at P0-P1 and increased with age mainly between 6-7 and 16-18 days. The O2-sensitive TASK activity was significantly greater in glomus cells from P16-P18 when compared to cells from P0-P1 day old rats. These results support the hypothesis that postnatal carotid body functional maturation is due, at least in part, to changes in the sensitivity of TASK to the hypoxic signals generated in glomus cells. PMID:21530688

  2. Effect of postnatal methamphetamine trauma and adolescent methylphenidate treatment on adult hippocampal neurogenesis in gerbils.

    PubMed

    Schaefers, Andrea T; Teuchert-Noodt, Gertraud; Bagorda, Francesco; Brummelte, Susanne

    2009-08-15

    Methylphenidate (e.g. Ritalin) is the most common drug used in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, only a few studies have investigated the neuroanatomical long-term effects of this treatment. Prolonged application of methylphenidate during adolescence causes alterations in dopaminergic fiber or receptor densities in adult rodents. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of adolescent methylphenidate treatment on adult hippocampal neurogenesis in male gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). Animals were first treated with either a single methamphetamine challenge on postnatal day 14 (to cause a disturbance in the dopaminergic system, to mimic the disturbed dopaminergic system seen in ADHD children) or saline and then received a daily oral application of 5 mg/kg methylphenidate or water from postnatal day 30-60 or were left undisturbed. On postnatal 90 gerbils were injected with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU, a DNA synthesis marker) and sacrificed seven days later. Results reveal that the pretreatment with methamphetamine causes a decrease in the number of BrdU-positive cells in the dentate gyrus. Methylphenidate treatment however did not cause any differences in the number of labelled cells in any group. This implies that, despite methylphenidate's efficiency in inducing changes in the dopaminergic system and associated areas, it might be less effective in altering neurogenesis in the hippocampus.

  3. Fetal and postnatal ovine mesenteric vascular reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Jayasree; Gugino, Sylvia F.; Nielsen, Lori C.; Caty, Michael G.; Lakshminrusimha, Satyan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Intestinal circulation and mesenteric arterial (MA) reactivity may play a role in preparing the fetus for enteral nutrition. We hypothesized that MA vasoreactivity changes with gestation and vasodilator pathways predominate in the postnatal period. METHODS Small distal MA rings (0.5-mm diameter) were isolated from fetal (116-d, 128-d, 134-d, and 141-d gestation, term ~ 147 d) and postnatal lambs. Vasoreactivity was evaluated using vasoconstrictors (norepinephrine (NE) after pretreatment with propranolol and endothelin-1(ET-1)) and vasodilators (NO donors A23187 and s-nitrosopenicillamine (SNAP)). Protein and mRNA assays for receptors and enzymes (endothelin receptor A, alpha-adrenergic receptor 1A (ADRA1A), endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), and phosphodiesterase5 (PDE5)) were performed in mesenteric arteries. RESULTS MA constriction to NE and ET-1 peaked at 134 d. Relaxation to A23187 and SNAP was maximal after birth. Basal eNOS activity was low at 134 d. ADRA1A mRNA and protein increasedsignificantlyat134danddecreasedpostnatally.sGC and PDE5 protein increased from 134 to 141 d. CONCLUSION Mesenteric vasoconstriction predominates in late-preterm gestation (134 d; the postconceptional age with the highest incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC)) followed by a conversion to vasodilatory influences near the time of full-term birth. Perturbations in this ontogenic mechanism, including preterm birth, may be a risk factor for NEC. PMID:26672733

  4. Postnatal development of bile secretory physiology in the dog

    SciTech Connect

    Tavoloni, N.; Jones, M.J.; Berk, P.D.

    1985-04-01

    To determine whether bile formation in the dog is an immature process at birth, several determinants of bile secretion were studied in anesthetized, bile duct-cannulated puppies of 0-42 days of age and adult dogs. Basal canalicular bile flow rate, estimated by /sup 14/C-erythritol biliary clearance, averaged 0.182 microliter/min/g liver in 0-3 day-old puppies and increased to 0.324 and 0.461 microliter/min/g in puppies 7-21 and 28-42 days of age, respectively. Calculated ductular bile water reabsorption (/sup 14/C-erythritol biliary clearance-bile flow) was virtually absent in 0-3 day-old puppies, and averaged 0.017 and 0.092 microliter/min/g in puppies of 7-21 and 28-42 days of age, respectively. In adult dogs, ductular bile water reabsorption was 0.132 microliter/min/g. These functional deficiencies of the newborn dog were associated with an increased biliary permeability to /sup 3/H-inulin which could not be accounted for solely by an increased solute diffusion due to the lower rate of canalicular bile flow. Administration of taurocholate up to 2000 nmol/min/kg produced in all animals a similar increase in canalicular bile flow and bile acid excretion, and was not associated with changes in ductular bile water reabsorption rate. These findings are interpreted to indicate that, in the dog, bile secretory function is immature at birth and develops during postnatal life.

  5. Inspire Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohach, Barbara M.; Meade, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    The authors collaborated on hosting a "Spring Inspire Day." planned and delivered by preservice elementary teachers as a social studies/science methods project. Projects that have authentic application opportunities can make learning meaningful for prospective teachers as well as elementary students. With the impetus for an integrated…

  6. Energy Day.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Describes a program in which students present their displays in the normal science-fair style but without the competitive element and more as a "science-share". Describes an "energy day" celebration which included an energy exhibition and engaged students in an "energy decathlon" that challenged them with tasks encompassing many aspects of energy.…

  7. Reduced postnatal cerebral glucose metabolism measured by PET after asphyxia in near term fetal lambs.

    PubMed

    Thorngren-Jerneck, K; Ley, D; Hellström-Westas, L; Hernandez-Andrade, E; Lingman, G; Ohlsson, T; Oskarsson, G; Pesonen, E; Sandell, A; Strand, S E; Werner, O; Marsal, K

    2001-12-01

    The effects of fetal asphyxia on cerebral function and development, involve the transition from fetal to neonatal life. Changes in cerebral glucose metabolism may be an early postnatal indicator of fetal asphyxia. The objective is to develop an experimental lamb model involving the transition from fetal to neonatal life and to examine the effect of fetal asphyxia with cerebral hypoxic ischemia on early postnatal cerebral glucose metabolism. Fetal asphyxia was induced by total umbilical cord occlusion in eight near-term fetal lambs (134-138 days) with the ewe under isoflurane-opiate anesthesia. The mean occlusion time until cardiac arrest was 14.5 (4.2) min (SD). Lambs were immediately delivered and standardized resuscitation was instituted after 2 min asystole. At 4 hr postnatal age, [18-F]Fluoro-2-deoxy-glucose (18-FDG) was injected intravenously in eight asphyxiated lambs and in eight controls. Cerebral glucose metabolism was examined by positron emission tomography (PET). As a result the mean arterial blood pressure, acid-base values, blood glucose and serum lactate at 4 hr postnatal age did not differ significantly between lambs subjected to umbilical cord occlusion and controls. EEG was abnormal in all lambs subjected to cord occlusion and normal in the controls at 4 hr postnatal age. Global cerebral metabolic rate (CMRgl) as determined by PET was significantly lower in lambs subjected to cord occlusion mean/median (SD) 22.2/19.6 (8.4) micromol/min/100 g) than in controls mean/median (SD) 37.8/35.9 (6.1); P < 0.01). Global CMRgl is significantly reduced in newborn lambs 4 hr after fetal asphyxia induced by umbilical cord occlusion. A reduction in CMRgl is an early indicator of global hypoxic cerebral ischemia.

  8. Postnatal changes in the mammalian respiratory network as revealed by the transverse brainstem slice of mice.

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, J M; Quellmalz, U J; Richter, D W

    1996-01-01

    1. Spontaneous rhythmic activity in hypoglossal (XII) rootlets is generated at all postnatal stages from postnatal day (P) 0 to P22 in the transverse brainstem slice of mice containing the pre-Bötzinger complex (PBC). The PBC is known to be a region essential for respiratory rhythm generation. It contains neurones generating periodic bursts that occur in synchrony with rhythmic XII activity. This synchrony indicates that the rhythmic PBC activity generated by the transverse slice is the central respiratory rhythm. 2. The strength of coupling between XII bursts and PBC bursts decreased during early postnatal development. In younger mice (P0-4) each burst in XII rootlets corresponded to one burst in the PBC. In older mice (P5-18) one burst in XII rootlets occurred only every third to fourth burst in PBC neurones. 3. Cycle length and burst duration of rhythmic XII activity did not change significantly during the first three postnatal weeks. However, the pattern of XII bursts changed from decrementing (P0-7) to bell shaped (P8-18) while the rate of rise of XII bursts decreased significantly. 4. The rate of rise of rhythmic depolarizations in neurones of the PBC discharging in phase with XII bursts ('inspiratory neurones') decreased with postnatal development. During interburst intervals, membrane potentials of neurones of older mice (P6-18) were characterized by waves of synaptic input that were not observed in neonatal animals (P0-5). 5. Blockade of glycine receptors by strychnine increased the frequency of rhythmic XII activity in neonatal and older mice (P0-22). Although in expiratory PBC neurones glycinergic transmission was blocked at 10 microM strychnine, in inspiratory PBC neurones and XII rootlets even higher concentrations of up to 50 microM strychnine failed to abolish rhythmic activity. PMID:8815212

  9. Expression of Npas4 mRNA in Telencephalic Areas of Adult and Postnatal Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Damborsky, Joanne C.; Slaton, G. Simona; Winzer-Serhan, Ursula H.

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor neuronal PAS domain-containing protein 4 (Npas4) is an inducible immediate early gene which regulates the formation of inhibitory synapses, and could have a significant regulatory role during cortical circuit formation. However, little is known about basal Npas4 mRNA expression during postnatal development. Here, postnatal and adult mouse brain sections were processed for isotopic in situ hybridization using an Npas4 specific cRNA antisense probe. In adults, Npas4 mRNA was found in the telencephalon with very restricted or no expression in diencephalon or mesencephalon. In most telencephalic areas, including the anterior olfactory nucleus (AON), piriform cortex, neocortex, hippocampus, dorsal caudate putamen (CPu), septum and basolateral amygdala nucleus (BLA), basal Npas4 expression was detected in scattered cells which exhibited strong hybridization signal. In embryonic and neonatal brain sections, Npas4 mRNA expression signals were very low. Starting at postnatal day 5 (P5), transcripts for Npas4 were detected in the AON, CPu and piriform cortex. At P8, additional Npas4 hybridization was found in CA1 and CA3 pyramidal layer, and in primary motor cortex. By P13, robust mRNA expression was located in layers IV and VI of all sensory cortices, frontal cortex and cingulate cortex. After onset of expression, postnatal spatial mRNA distribution was similar to that in adults, with the exception of the CPu, where Npas4 transcripts became gradually restricted to the most dorsal part. In conclusion, the spatial distribution of Npas4 mRNA is mostly restricted to telencephalic areas, and the temporal expression increases with developmental age during postnatal development, which seem to correlate with the onset of activity-driven excitatory transmission. PMID:26633966

  10. Developmental programming: postnatal estradiol modulation of prenatally organized reproductive neuroendocrine function in sheep.

    PubMed

    Puttabyatappa, Muraly; Cardoso, Rodolfo C; Herkimer, Carol; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2016-08-01

    Gestational testosterone (TS) excess, acting via both the androgenic and estrogenic pathways, advances puberty and disrupts the neuroendocrine estradiol (E2) feedback and periovulatory hormonal dynamics in female sheep. These prenatally programmed defects may be subject to postnatal modifications by continued organizational and/or activational effects of steroids. This study investigated (1) the organizational contribution of prenatal estrogen excess and (2) the impact of postnatal exposure to E2 in modulating the effects of prenatal androgen excess (TS and dihydrotestosterone (DHT)) on puberty, neuroendocrine feedback mechanisms, and periovulatory hormonal dynamics in sheep. Pregnant Suffolk sheep were treated with TS, DHT, E2, or E2 plus DHT (ED) from days 30 to 90 of gestation. A subset of the control (C), TS, and DHT female offspring received a constant-release E2 implant postnatally. Findings revealed that (1) prenatal E2-treatment failed to reproduce the neuroendocrine disruptions predicted to be programmed by the estrogenic pathway and (2) prenatal E2D-treatment did not adequately replicate the reproductive neuroendocrine defects induced by prenatal TS excess. More importantly, continuous postnatal E2-treatment, while delaying the onset of puberty and reducing the inhibitory effects of E2 on tonic luteinizing hormone (LH) release, failed to amplify the E2-positive feedback and periovulatory defects induced by prenatal TS-treatment. Our results indicate that disruptions in E2-positive feedback mechanisms and periovulatory gonadotropin secretion induced by prenatal TS-treatment are programmed predominantly during the prenatal life with postnatal exposure to E2 excess not contributing further to these disruptions.

  11. Personal effort in social relationships across adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lang, Frieder R; Wagner, Jenny; Wrzus, Cornelia; Neyer, Franz J

    2013-06-01

    We explored age differences in the amount of personal effort that people put forth to maintain relationships across adulthood in diverse family-life contexts. More specifically, we examined how personal effort in social relationships is age-differently related to emotional closeness and perceptions of reciprocity. A total of 658 early-midlife (37 years) and old-age adults (73 years) from three life contexts (biological parents, parents from blended families with at least one stepchild, childless individuals) completed a questionnaire assessing ego-centered social networks, relationship quality, perceived conflict, and personal characteristics. As expected, perceived relationship effort was more pronounced and more strongly associated with emotional closeness in old age than in early midlife. In both age groups, perceived effort was comparably associated with reciprocity and conflict. Such associations were similar across the different life contexts. The findings suggest that perceived personal effort in social relationships contributes to the proactive shaping of social worlds across adulthood. PMID:23586359

  12. Treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Castrén, Eero; Elgersma, Ype; Maffei, Lamberto; Hagerman, Randi

    2012-10-10

    Brain development in neurodevelopmental disorders has been considered to comprise a sequence of critical periods, and abnormalities occurring during early development have been considered irreversible in adulthood. However, findings in mouse models of neurodevelopmental disorders, including fragile X, Rett syndrome, Down syndrome, and neurofibromatosis type I suggest that it is possible to reverse certain molecular, electrophysiological, and behavioral deficits associated with these disorders in adults by genetic or pharmacological manipulations. Furthermore, recent studies have suggested that critical period-like plasticity can be reactivated in the adult brain by environmental manipulations or by pharmacotherapy. These studies open up a tantalizing possibility that targeted pharmacological treatments in combination with regimes of training or rehabilitation might alleviate or reverse the symptoms of neurodevelopmental disorders even after the end of critical developmental periods. Even though translation from animal experimentation to clinical practice is challenging, these results suggest a rational basis for treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders in adulthood.

  13. Supplementation with fish oil and coconut fat prevents prenatal stress-induced changes in early postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Borsonelo, Elizabethe C; Suchecki, Deborah; Calil, Helena Maria; Galduróz, José Carlos F

    2011-08-01

    Adequate development of the central nervous system depends on prenatal and postnatal factors. On one hand, prenatal stress (PNS) has been implicated in impaired development of the offspring. On other hand, nutritional factors during pregnancy and lactation can influence fetal and postnatal growth. This study assessed the postnatal development of rat offspring exposed to PNS, which consisted of restraint and bright lights, 3 times/day, from days 14 to 20 of pregnancy, whose mothers were fed different diets during pregnancy and lactation: regular diet, diet supplemented with coconut fat or fish oil. When pregnancy was confirmed, they were distributed into control (CTL) or PNS groups. At birth, PNS males and females weighed less than those in the group CTL. At 21 days of age, this alteration was no longer observed with fish oil and coconut fat groups. PNS and coconut fat diet induced increased locomotor activity in 13 day old male and female pups, and this effect was prevented by fish oil supplementation only in females. In conclusion, postnatal development from birth to weaning was influenced by PNS and diet and some of those alterations were prevented by coconut fat and fish oil.

  14. 34 CFR 300.11 - Day; business day; school day.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Day; business day; school day. 300.11 Section 300.11... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.11 Day; business day; school day. (a) Day means calendar day unless otherwise indicated as business day or school day. (b) Business...

  15. Catch-up growth after dexamethasone withdrawal occurs in cultured postnatal rat metatarsal bones.

    PubMed

    Chagin, Andrei S; Karimian, Elham; Sundström, Katja; Eriksson, Emma; Sävendahl, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Children exposed to systemic glucocorticoids often exhibit growth retardation and after the cessation of therapy catch-up growth occurs in many, but not all patients. The developmental regulation and underlying cellular mechanisms of catch-up growth are not fully understood. To clarify this issue, we established an in vitro model of catch-up growth. Here we present a protocol for the long-term culture (up to 160 days) of fetal (E20) as well as postnatal (P8) rat metatarsal bones which allowed us to characterize ex vivo the phenomenon of catch-up growth without any influence by systemic factors. The relevance of the model was confirmed by the demonstration that the growth of fetal and postnatal bones were stimulated by IGF1 (100 ng/ml) and inhibited by dexamethasone (Dexa; 1 microM). We found that the capacity to undergo catch-up growth was restricted to postnatal bones. Catch-up growth occurred after postnatal bones had been exposed to Dexa for 7 or 12 days but not after a more prolonged exposure (19 days). Incomplete catch-up growth resulted in compromised bone length when assessed at the end of the 4-month period of culture. While exposure to Dexa was associated with decreased chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation, catch-up growth was only associated with increased cell proliferation. We conclude that the phenomenon of catch-up growth after Dexa treatment is intrinsic to the growth plate and primarily mediated by an upregulation of chondrocyte proliferation.

  16. Narrative and the social construction of adulthood.

    PubMed

    Hammack, Phillip L; Toolis, Erin

    2014-01-01

    This chapter develops three points of elaboration and theoretical expansion upon Cohler's (1982) treatise on personal narrative and life course. First, we highlight Cohler's emphasis on an interpretive, idiographic approach to the study of lives and reveal the radicalism of this approach, particularly in its ability to interrogate the lived experience of social categorization. Second, we link Cohler's position directly to cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT) and consider the link between inner and social speech through the idea of narrative engagement. Finally, following Cohler's life course perspective on human development, we suggest that adulthood is best conceived as a cultural discourse to which individuals orient their personal narratives through a dynamic process of narrative engagement rather than a clearly demarcated life stage. Emerging adulthood is linked to cultural and economic processes of globalization in the 21st century and challenges static notions of social roles traditionally associated with compulsory heterosexuality (e.g., marriage and parenthood). Narrative processes in emerging adulthood occur through both situated storytelling and the formation of a life story that provides coherence and social meaning, both of which have key implications for social stasis and change. PMID:25251509

  17. Cobalt-Induced Ototoxicity in Rat Postnatal Cochlear Organotypic Cultures.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Ding, Dalian; Salvi, Richard; Roth, Jerome A

    2015-10-01

    Cobalt (Co) is a required divalent metal used in the production of metal alloys, batteries, and pigments and is a component of vitamin B12. Excessive uptake of Co is neurotoxic causing temporary or permanent hearing loss; however, its ototoxic effects on the sensory hair cells, neurons, and support cells in the cochlea are poorly understood. Accordingly, we treated postnatal day 3 rat cochlear organotypic cultures with various doses and durations of CoCl2 and quantified the damage to the hair cells, peripheral auditory nerve fibers, and spiral ganglion neurons (SGN). Five-day treatment with 250 μM CoCl2 caused extensive damage to hair cells and neurons which increased with dose and treatment duration. CoCl2 caused greater damage to outer hair cells than inner hair cells; damage was greatest in the base of the cochlea and decreased towards the base. CoCl2 increased expression of superoxide radical in hair cells and SGNs and SGN loss was characterized by nuclear condensation and fragmentation, morphological features of apoptosis. CoCl2 treatment increased the expression of caspase-3 indicative of caspase-mediated programmed cell death. These results identify hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons as the main targets of Co ototoxicity in vitro and implicate the superoxide radical as a trigger of caspase-mediated ototoxicity.

  18. Effect of Lycopersicon esculentum extract on apoptosis in the rat cerebellum, following prenatal and postnatal exposure to an electromagnetic field.

    PubMed

    Köktürk, Sibel; Yardimoglu, Melda; Celikozlu, Saadet D; Dolanbay, Elif Gelenli; Cimbiz, Ali

    2013-07-01

    The expansion of mobile phone technology has raised concerns regarding the effect of 900-MHz electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure on the central nervous system. At present, the developing human brain is regularly exposed to mobile telephones, pre- and postnatally. Several studies have demonstrated the acute effects of EMF exposure during pre- or postnatal periods; however, the chronic effects of EMF exposure are less understood. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the chronic effects of EMF on the pre- and postnatal rat cerebellum. The control group was maintained in the same conditions as the experimental groups, without the exposure to EMF. In the EMF1 group, the rats were exposed to EMF during pre- and postnatal periods (until postnatal day 80). In the EMF2 group, the rats were also exposed to EMF pre- and postnatally; in addition, however, they were provided with a daily oral supplementation of Lycopersicon esculentum extract (∼2 g/kg). The number of caspase-3-labeled Purkinje neurons and granule cells present in the rats in the control and experimental groups were then counted. The neurodegenerative changes were studied using cresyl violet staining, and these changes were evaluated. In comparison with the control animals, the EMF1 group demonstrated a significant increase in the number of caspase-3-labeled Purkinje neurons and granule cells present in the cerebellum (P<0.001). However, in comparison with the EMF1 group, the EMF2 group exhibited significantly fewer caspase-3-labeled Purkinje neurons and granule cells in the cerebellum. In the EMF1 group, the Purkinje neurons were revealed to have undergone dark neuron degenerative changes. However, the presence of dark Purkinje neurons was reduced in the EMF2 group, compared with the EMF1 group. The results indicated that apoptosis and neurodegeneration in rats exposed to EMF during pre- and postnatal periods may be reduced with Lycopersicon esculentum extract therapy. PMID:23935717

  19. New calretinin-positive cells with polymorphous spines in the mouse forebrain during early postnatal ontogeny.

    PubMed

    Revishchin, A V; Okhotin, V E; Pavlova, G V

    2010-10-01

    Immunohistochemical studies of calretinin (CR) in forebrain structures adjacent to the anterior horn of the lateral ventricle in adult mice allowed us to detect a population of previously unknown mono- and bipolar cells whose bodies and processes were coated with polymorphous spines (PS) (Morfologiya, 135, No. 3, 7-19 (2009)). CR-positive spiny (CR(+)PS) cells did not contain GAD67 and were located in the white matter and layers V-VI of the frontal area of the dorsomedial cortex close to the cingulum, the rostrodorsal part of the caudate-putamen, the anterior olfactory nucleus, and the subependyma of the dorsolateral angle of the lateral ventricle. We report here studies of the distribution of these cells in seven-day-old mice. Comparative topographic analysis of definitive and early CR(+)PS cells showed that in seven-day-old mice, CR(+)PS cells were absent from the sites at which they were seen in adults, i.e., the anterior olfactory cortex, the cortical plate, and the inner part of the neostriatum. In addition, small numbers of CR(+)PS-like cells were seen at this age within the dorsal migration pathway, at the anterior margin of the neostriatum, along the dorsal border of the neostriatum with the corpus callosum, in the subependymal layer of the lateral wall of the lateral ventricle, and in the cingulum area. These data demonstrate that CR(+)PS cells may have a postnatal origin. Experiments to verify this hypothesis were performed using postnatal administration of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to mice aged 2-4 days, followed by assessment of brain sections fixed at age 20 days. Double immunolabeling of sections for CR and BrdU demonstrated the presence of CR(+)PS cells containing postnatally supplied BrdU. These data provide evidence that at least some CR(+)PS cells undergo mitosis at postnatal age. In all probability, during the period from 7 to 20 days of postnatal development, CR(+)PS cells migrate to the sites that they occupy in adult animals. PMID:20721693

  20. Prenatal stress increased Snk Polo-like kinase 2, SCF β-TrCP ubiquitin ligase and ubiquitination of SPAR in the hippocampus of the offspring at adulthood.

    PubMed

    Chutabhakdikul, Naunchan; Surakul, Pornprom

    2013-11-01

    Exposure to excessive glucocorticoids during fetal development period contributes to later life psychopathology. Prenatal stress decreases dendritic spine density and impair LTP in the hippocampus of rat pups, however, the mechanisms regulating these changes are still unclear. Glutamate receptors are localized in the postsynaptic density. PSD-95 is a postsynaptic scaffolding protein that plays a role in synaptic maturation and regulation of the synaptic strength and plasticity. PSD-95 interacts with other proteins to form the protein networks that promote dendritic spine formation. The present study investigated the effect of prenatal stress on the levels of scaffolding proteins of NMDA receptor in the hippocampus in order to explain how prenatal stress alters the amount of NMDA receptor in the pups' brain. Pregnant rats were randomly assigned to either the prenatal stress (PS) or the control group (C). The pregnant rats in the PS group were restrained in a plexiglas restrainer for 4h/day during the GD 14-21. Control rats were left undisturbed for the duration of their pregnancies. The amount of PSD-95, SPAR, NR2A and NR2B, as well as the levels of Snk Polo-like kinase 2 and the SCF β-TrCP ubiquitin ligase were measured in the hippocampus of the offspring. The results show that prenatal stress induces a reduction in the amount of NR2B and NR2A subunits in the hippocampus of rat pups, parallel to the decrease in PSD-95 and SPAR at P40 and P60. Moreover, prenatal stress increases Snk and β-TrCP in the hippocampus of rat pups, and the timing correlates with the decrease of SPAR and PSD-95. Prenatal stress also induces a significantly increases in the level of ubiquitinated SPAR in the hippocampus of rat pups at adulthood. The results suggest that degradation of SPAR via UPS system may contribute to the loss of PSD-95 and NMDA receptor subunits in the hippocampus of rat pups at adulthood. In conclusion, the present work demonstrates that the developing brain is

  1. [Effect of ladasten on antenatal and postnatal development].

    PubMed

    Bugaeva, L I; Denisova, T D; Spasov, A A

    2012-01-01

    Positive effects of ladasten on both antenatal and postnatal development have been established in experiments on pregnant female rats. Under the action of this drug, the number of resorption events decreases and process of antenatal development of fetuses is activated. In the postnatal period, increased weight gain and accelerated physical development has been observed in the progeny of rats treated with ladasten. PMID:22702107

  2. Postnatal Depression. A Review. EUR/HFA Target 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    This document contains three reports on postnatal depression. The first, "The Maternity Blues," by Flemming Warborg Larsen, presents a literature review on the topic. It concludes that most women look back at the "blues" as an episode that was brief, unpleasant, and difficult to explain. The second report, "Postnatal Depressions," by Lene Lier,…

  3. Prenatal and Early Postnatal Exposure to Cigarette Smoke Decreases BDNF/TrkB Signaling and Increases Abnormal Behaviors Later in Life

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Lan; Kish, Vincent L.; Benders, Katherine M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoke exposure during prenatal and early postnatal periods increases the incidence of a variety of abnormal behaviors later in life. The purpose of this study was to identify the possible critical period of susceptibility to cigarette smoke exposure and evaluate the possibe effects of cigarette smoke during early life on brain-derived neurotrophic factor/neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor B signaling in the brain. Methods: Three different age of imprinting control region mice were exposed to cigarette smoke or filtered air for 10 consecutive days beginning on either gestational day 7 by maternal exposure, or postnatal days 2 or 21 by direct inhalation. A series of behavioral profiles and neurotrophins in brain were measured 24 hours after mice received acute restraint stress for 1 hour on postnatal day 59. Results: Cigarette smoke exposure in gestational day 7 and postnatal day 2 produced depression-like behaviors as evidenced by significantly increased immobility in both tail suspension and forced-swim test. Increased entry latencies, but not ambulation in the open field test, were also observed in the gestational day 7 and postnatal day 2 cigarette smoke exposure groups. Genetic analysis showed that gestational day 7 cigarette smoke exposure significantly altered mRNA level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor/tyrosine kinase receptor B in the hippocampus. However, behavioral profiles and brain-derived neurotrophic factor/tyrosine kinase receptor B signaling were not significantly changed in PND21 cigarette smoke exposure group compared with FA group. Conclusions: These results suggest that a critical period of susceptibility to cigarette smoke exposure exists in the prenatal and early postnatal period, which results a downregulation in brain-derived neurotrophic factor/tyrosine kinase receptor B signaling in the hippocampus and enhances depression-like behaviors later in life. PMID:26503133

  4. Childhood and adulthood temperament and problem behaviors and adulthood substance use.

    PubMed

    Ohannessian, C M; Stabenau, J R; Hesselbrock, V M

    1995-01-01

    A sample of 229 adult men and women were assessed to examine the relationships between childhood and adulthood temperament and problem behaviors. The influence of these variables on adult substance use was also assessed. Results indicated that individuals who had "difficult" temperament characteristics (e.g., hyperactivity) and who experienced problem behaviors (e.g., antisocial behaviors) as children were likely to exhibit them as adults. In addition, the continuation of temperament characteristics and problem behaviors from childhood into adulthood did not demonstrate a high degree of specificity. When the relationships between temperament and problem behaviors to substance use were examined, conduct disorder during childhood and antisocial behavior during adulthood were found to be the best predictors of adult substance abuse. Moreover, this relationship became increasingly stronger with more substance involvement. These results underscore the importance of examining substance use in finer detail by assessing the pattern of substance use, instead of overall substance use involvement.

  5. Histologic Features of Postnatal Development of Immune System Organs in the Sprague-Dawley Rat.

    PubMed

    Parker, George A; Picut, Catherine A; Swanson, Cynthia; Toot, Jonathan D

    2015-08-01

    The immune system of the rat undergoes substantial functional and morphological development during the postnatal period. Some aspects of this development are genetically predetermined, while other aspects depend on environmental influences. Detailed information on postnatal development is important in the interpretation of histopathologic findings in juvenile toxicology and pubertal assay studies, as well as other studies conducted in juvenile rats. Studies were conducted to provide detailed characterization of histologic features of the major functional compartments of immune system organs in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats at weekly intervals from the day of birth through postnatal day (PND) 42. Maturation of the individual immune system organs occurred across a range of ages, with histologic maturation of T-cell-related compartments typically occurring prior to maturation of B-cell-related compartments. The sequence of histologic maturation was bone marrow and thymus on PND 14, mesenteric lymph node on PND 21, Peyer's patches and bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue on PND 28, mandibular lymph node, nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue, and diffuse mucosal mononuclear cell population of small intestine on PND 35, and spleen on PND 42. An estimation of functional maturation can be made based on the morphological indications of maturity of each compartment of immune system organs, but histologic indications of maturity do not confirm functional immunocompetence.

  6. Postnatal brain and skull growth in an Apert syndrome mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Cheryl A.; Martínez-Abadías, Neus; Motch, Susan M.; Austin, Jordan R.; Wang, Yingli; Jabs, Ethylin Wang; Richtsmeier, Joan T.; Aldridge, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    Craniofacial and neural tissues develop in concert throughout pre- and postnatal growth. FGFR-related craniosynostosis syndromes, such as Apert syndrome (AS), are associated with specific phenotypes involving both the skull and the brain. We analyzed the effects of the FGFR P253R mutation for Apert syndrome using the Fgfr2+/P253R mouse to evaluate the effects of this mutation on these two tissues over the course of development from day of birth (P0) to postnatal day 2 (P2). Three-dimensional magnetic resonance microscopy and computed tomography images were acquired from Fgfr2+/P253R mice and unaffected littermates at P0 (N=28) and P2 (N=23). 3D coordinate data for 23 skull and 15 brain landmarks were statistically compared between groups. Results demonstrate that the Fgfr2+/P253R mice show reduced growth in the facial skeleton and the cerebrum, while the height and width of the neurocranium and caudal regions of the brain show increased growth relative to unaffected littermates. This localized correspondence of differential growth patterns in skull and brain point to their continued interaction through development and suggest that both tissues display divergent postnatal growth patterns relative to unaffected littermates. However, the change in the skull-brain relationship from P0 to P2 implies that each tissue affected by the mutation retains a degree of independence, rather than one tissue directing the development of the other. PMID:23495236

  7. Efficacy of a live attenuated vaccine in classical swine fever virus postnatally persistently infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-González, Sara; Perez-Simó, Marta; Muñoz, Marta; Bohorquez, José Alejandro; Rosell, Rosa; Summerfield, Artur; Domingo, Mariano; Ruggli, Nicolas; Ganges, Llilianne

    2015-07-09

    Classical swine fever (CSF) causes major losses in pig farming, with various degrees of disease severity. Efficient live attenuated vaccines against classical swine fever virus (CSFV) are used routinely in endemic countries. However, despite intensive vaccination programs in these areas for more than 20 years, CSF has not been eradicated. Molecular epidemiology studies in these regions suggests that the virus circulating in the field has evolved under the positive selection pressure exerted by the immune response to the vaccine, leading to new attenuated viral variants. Recent work by our group demonstrated that a high proportion of persistently infected piglets can be generated by early postnatal infection with low and moderately virulent CSFV strains. Here, we studied the immune response to a hog cholera lapinised virus vaccine (HCLV), C-strain, in six-week-old persistently infected pigs following post-natal infection. CSFV-negative pigs were vaccinated as controls. The humoral and interferon gamma responses as well as the CSFV RNA loads were monitored for 21 days post-vaccination. No vaccine viral RNA was detected in the serum samples and tonsils from CSFV postnatally persistently infected pigs for 21 days post-vaccination. Furthermore, no E2-specific antibody response or neutralising antibody titres were shown in CSFV persistently infected vaccinated animals. Likewise, no of IFN-gamma producing cell response against CSFV or PHA was observed. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the absence of a response to vaccination in CSFV persistently infected pigs.

  8. Podophyllum hexandrum prevents radiation-induced neuronal damage in postnatal rats exposed in utero.

    PubMed

    Sajikumar, S; Goel, H C

    2003-08-01

    Podophyllum hexandrum has been shown to mitigate radiation injuries and especially the haemopoietic syndrome in adult mice. To monitor the radiation-induced changes in the nervous system, the neurons of postnatal young mice and their modification by P. hexandrum, were studied histologically for differences in the apical and basal dendritic branching and intersections in the CA1 neurons of the hippocampal region of rats which were delivered a 2 Gy gamma dose while in utero (day 17 of gestation). Irradiation significantly reduced the dendritic branching and intersections but pre-irradiation administration of the extract of P. hexandrum (i.p. 200 mg/kg/b.w., 2 h) reduced the damage in postnatal young mice. These studies indicate that P. hexandrum provides protection to neurons against radiation-induced damage and the mechanism of neuronal damage and its repair need to be investigated further.

  9. [Morphological features of the rat stellate ganglion during early postnatal development].

    PubMed

    Korzina, M B; Korobkin, A A; Vasil'eva, O A; Masliukov, P M

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the anatomical characteristics of the stellate ganglion (SG) and the morphometric characteristics of its neurons in rats of different age groups (newborn, 10-, 20-, 30-, 60- and 180-day-old) using anatomical and histological methods. The results obtained indicated that in rats since birth there were three variants of branch origin from the medial margin of SG. No differences were observed in these variants between right and left SG. The sizes of both SG and its neurons increased during the first two months of postnatal development. The density of neurons in SG sections decreased from the moment of birth until the six months of age. The number of SG neurons did not change significantly in the postnatal ontogenesis. Thus, SG in rats is anatomically formed by the moment of birth, while the sizes and morphometric characteristics of SG neurons become finally stabilized by the second month of age. PMID:20572389

  10. Postnatal Hematopoiesis and Gut Microbiota in NOD Mice Deviate from C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Damlund, Dina Silke Malling; Metzdorff, Stine Broeng; Hasselby, Jane Preuss; Wiese, Maria; Lundsager, Mia; Buschard, Karsten Stig; Hansen, Axel Kornerup; Frøkiær, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal studies in different mouse strains reveal that early life colonization affects the development of adaptive immunity in mice. The nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse spontaneously develops autoimmune diabetes, but neonatal studies of NOD mice are lacking. We hypothesized that NOD mice deviate from another much used mouse strain, C57BL/6, with respect to postnatal microbiota and/or hematopoiesis and compared this in newborn mice of dams housed under the same conditions. A distinct bacteria profile rich in staphylococci was found at postnatal days (PND) 1–4 in NOD mice. Furthermore, a distinct splenic cell profile high in a granulocytic phenotype was evident in the neonatal NOD mice whereas neonatal C57BL/6 mice showed a profile rich in monocytes. Neonatal expression of Reg3g and Muc2 in the gut was deviating in NOD mice and coincided with fewer bacteria attaching to the Mucosal surface in NOD compared to C57BL/6 mice. PMID:26783537

  11. Effects of postnatal environmental tobacco smoke on non-nutritive swallowing-breathing coordination in newborn lambs.

    PubMed

    Duvareille, Charles; St-Hilaire, Marie; Samson, Nathalie; Bakirtzian, Parseh; Brisebois, Simon; Boheimier, Mathieu; Djeddi, Djamal-Dine; Doueik, Alexandre A; Praud, Jean-Paul

    2013-01-15

    While prenatal environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure is a well-known risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome, the effect of postnatal ETS exposure is less clear. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of postnatal ETS exposure on non-nutritive swallowing (NNS) and NNS-breathing coordination, which are crucial to prevent aspiration related-cardiorespiratory events. Eighteen newborn lambs (6 per group) were randomly exposed to either 10 cigarettes/day, 20 cigarettes/day or room air for 15 days. Lambs were instrumented for recording states of alertness, swallowing, electrocardiogram and breathing; recordings were performed in non-sedated lambs at the end of ETS exposure. Urinary cotinine/creatinine ratio confirmed relevant real-life exposure. Postnatal ETS exposure had no effect on NNS frequency but tended to decrease inspiratory NNS (p=0.07) during quiet sleep. No effect on respiratory or heart rate (p>0.6), apnea index (p=0.2) or sleep states (p=0.3) was observed. In conclusion, postnatal ETS exposure in lambs had only mild effects on NNS-breathing coordination. PMID:22947218

  12. Valentine's Day

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA02174 Valentine's Day

    This isolated mesa [lower left center of the image] has an almost heart-shaped margin. Happy Valentine's Day from Mars.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 29.4N, Longitude 79.1E. 18 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  13. Exposure of Neonatal Mice to Tobacco Smoke Disturbs Synaptic Proteins and Spatial Learning and Memory from Late Infancy to Early Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Torres, Larissa Helena; Garcia, Raphael C T; Blois, Anne M M; Dati, Lívia M M; Durão, Ana Carolina; Alves, Adilson Silva; Pacheco-Neto, Maurílio; Mauad, Thais; Britto, Luiz R G; Xavier, Gilberto Fernando; Camarini, Rosana; Marcourakis, Tania

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in the early postnatal period has been associated with several diseases; however, little is known about the brain effects of ETS exposure during this critical developmental period or the long-term consequences of this exposure. This study investigated the effects of the early postnatal ETS exposure on both reference and working memory, synaptic proteins and BDNF from late infancy to early adulthood (P3-P73). BALB/c mice were exposed to ETS generated from 3R4F reference research cigarettes (0.73 mg of nicotine/cigarette) from P3 to P14. Spatial reference and working memory were evaluated in the Morris water maze during infancy (P20-P29), adolescence (P37-P42) and adulthood (P67-P72). Synapsin, synaptophysin, PSD95 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were assessed at P15, P35 and P65 by immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting. Mice that were exposed to ETS during the early postnatal period showed poorer performance in the spatial reference memory task. Specifically, the ETS-exposed mice exhibited a significantly reduced time and distance traveled in the target quadrant and in the platform location area than the controls at all ages evaluated. In the spatial working memory task, ETS disrupted the maintenance but not the acquisition of the critical spatial information in both infancy and adolescence. ETS also induced changes in synaptic components, including decreases in synapsin, synaptophysin, PSD95 and BDNF levels in the hippocampus. Exposure to ETS in the early postnatal period disrupts both spatial reference and working memory; these results may be related to changes in synaptogenesis in the hippocampus. Importantly, most of these effects were not reversed even after a long exposure-free period.

  14. Exposure of Neonatal Mice to Tobacco Smoke Disturbs Synaptic Proteins and Spatial Learning and Memory from Late Infancy to Early Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Larissa Helena; Garcia, Raphael C. T.; Blois, Anne M. M.; Dati, Lívia M. M.; Durão, Ana Carolina; Alves, Adilson Silva; Pacheco-Neto, Maurílio; Mauad, Thais; Britto, Luiz R. G.; Xavier, Gilberto Fernando; Camarini, Rosana; Marcourakis, Tania

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in the early postnatal period has been associated with several diseases; however, little is known about the brain effects of ETS exposure during this critical developmental period or the long-term consequences of this exposure. This study investigated the effects of the early postnatal ETS exposure on both reference and working memory, synaptic proteins and BDNF from late infancy to early adulthood (P3-P73). BALB/c mice were exposed to ETS generated from 3R4F reference research cigarettes (0.73 mg of nicotine/cigarette) from P3 to P14. Spatial reference and working memory were evaluated in the Morris water maze during infancy (P20-P29), adolescence (P37-P42) and adulthood (P67-P72). Synapsin, synaptophysin, PSD95 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were assessed at P15, P35 and P65 by immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting. Mice that were exposed to ETS during the early postnatal period showed poorer performance in the spatial reference memory task. Specifically, the ETS-exposed mice exhibited a significantly reduced time and distance traveled in the target quadrant and in the platform location area than the controls at all ages evaluated. In the spatial working memory task, ETS disrupted the maintenance but not the acquisition of the critical spatial information in both infancy and adolescence. ETS also induced changes in synaptic components, including decreases in synapsin, synaptophysin, PSD95 and BDNF levels in the hippocampus. Exposure to ETS in the early postnatal period disrupts both spatial reference and working memory; these results may be related to changes in synaptogenesis in the hippocampus. Importantly, most of these effects were not reversed even after a long exposure-free period. PMID:26305213

  15. Postnatal accumulation of intermediate filaments in the cat and human primary visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Song, Seoho; Mitchell, Donald E; Crowder, Nathan A; Duffy, Kevin R

    2015-10-01

    A principal characteristic of the mammalian visual system is its high capacity for plasticity in early postnatal development during a time commonly referred to as the critical period. The progressive diminution of plasticity with age is linked to the emergence of a collection of molecules called molecular brakes that reduce plasticity and stabilize neural circuits modified by earlier visual experiences. Manipulation of braking molecules either pharmacologically or though experiential alteration enhances plasticity and promotes recovery from visual impairment. The stability of neural circuitry is increased by intermediate filamentous proteins of the cytoskeleton such as neurofilaments and α-internexin. We examined levels of these intermediate filaments within cat and human primary visual cortex (V1) across development to determine whether they accumulate following a time course consistent with a molecular brake. In both species, levels of intermediate filaments increased considerably throughout early postnatal life beginning shortly after the peak of the critical period, with the highest levels measured in adults. Neurofilament phosphorylation was also observed to increase throughout development, raising the possibility that posttranslational modification by phosphorylation reduces plasticity due to increased protein stability. Finally, an approach to scale developmental time points between species is presented that compares the developmental profiles of intermediate filaments between cats and humans. Although causality between intermediate filaments and plasticity was not directly tested in this study, their accumulation relative to the critical period indicates that they may contribute to the decline in plasticity with age, and may also constrain the success of treatments for visual disorders applied in adulthood. PMID:25823892

  16. Developmental PCB Exposure Increases Susceptibility to Audiogenic Seizures in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Poon, Emily; Bandara, Suren B.; Allen, Jont B.; Sadowski, Renee N.; Schantz, Susan L.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) causes auditory deficits. Thus, we recently conducted a study to investigate if developmental PCB exposure would exacerbate noise-induced hearing loss in adulthood. Unexpectedly, some PCB-exposed rats exhibited seizure-like behaviors when exposed to loud noise. Therefore, we conducted the current experiment to determine if adult rats perinatally exposed to PCBs are more susceptible to audiogenic seizures when tested in a standard audiogenic seizure paradigm. Adult male and female rats exposed to PCBs during gestation and lactation (0, 1, 3 or 6 mg/kg/day) and previously tested in the noise-induced hearing loss study were presented with a 100dB noise stimulus. If they did not exhibit clonus in response to the 100dB noise, they were exposed to a 105dB stimulus 24-48 hours later. This was followed by an 110dB stimulus 24-48 hours later if they did not exhibit clonus at 105 dB. Female and male rats exposed to either 3 or 6 mg/kg PCBs exhibited a significantly higher incidence of audiogenic seizures, shorter latency to onset of seizures, and greater severity of seizures compared to controls. Thyroxine measured in littermates at weaning was significantly lower in all PCB groups compared to controls, suggesting a potential mechanism for the increased incidence of audiogenic seizures. This is the first study to show that developmental PCB exposure increases the susceptibility to audiogenic seizures in adulthood. PMID:25543072

  17. Postnatal Leptin Promotes Organ Maturation and Development in IUGR Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Attig, Linda; Brisard, Daphné; Larcher, Thibaut; Mickiewicz, Michal; Guilloteau, Paul; Boukthir, Samir; Niamba, Claude-Narcisse; Gertler, Arieh; Djiane, Jean; Monniaux, Danielle; Abdennebi-Najar, Latifa

    2013-01-01

    Babies with intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) are at increased risk for experiencing negative neonatal outcomes due to their general developmental delay. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of a short postnatal leptin supply on the growth, structure, and functionality of several organs at weaning. IUGR piglets were injected from day 0 to day 5 with either 0.5 mg/kg/d leptin (IUGRLep) or saline (IUGRSal) and euthanized at day 21. Their organs were collected, weighed, and sampled for histological, biochemical, and immunohistochemical analyses. Leptin induced an increase in body weight and the relative weights of the liver, spleen, pancreas, kidneys, and small intestine without any changes in triglycerides, glucose and cholesterol levels. Notable structural and functional changes occurred in the ovaries, pancreas, and secondary lymphoid organs. The ovaries of IUGRLep piglets contained less oogonia but more oocytes enclosed in primordial and growing follicles than the ovaries of IUGRSal piglets, and FOXO3A staining grade was higher in the germ cells of IUGRLep piglets. Within the exocrine parenchyma of the pancreas, IUGRLep piglets presented a high rate of apoptotic cells associated with a higher trypsin activity. In the spleen and the Peyer’s patches, B lymphocyte follicles were much larger in IUGRLep piglets than in IUGRSal piglets. Moreover, IUGRLep piglets showed numerous CD79+cells in well-differentiated follicle structures, suggesting a more mature immune system. This study highlights a new role for leptin in general developmental processes and may provide new insight into IUGR pathology. PMID:23741353

  18. A review of longitudinal studies on antenatal and postnatal depression.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Lisa; Waldie, Karen; D'Souza, Stephanie; Peterson, Elizabeth R; Morton, Susan

    2016-10-01

    Antenatal depression is a known risk factor for postnatal depression; both are common disorders associated with negative impacts on child development. Few studies have followed up women from pregnancy and through the postnatal period to explore how rates of depression change. This review evaluates recent evidence on depression during pregnancy and after childbirth. A search of Embase, PsychINFO, MEDLINE and Cochrane Reviews was carried out to identify longitudinal studies on antenatal and postnatal depression. Studies that measured depression during pregnancy and up to 1 year after childbirth were evaluated against a set of criteria (e.g. less than 50 % attrition). Of the initial 523 studies identified, 16 studies met the final inclusion criteria with a total of 35,419 women. The average rate of antenatal depression across these studies was 17 and 13 % postnatal depression. The longitudinal nature of the studies revealed that on average 39 % of those who experienced antenatal depression went on to have postnatal depression. Similarly, on average, 47 % of those with postnatal depression had also experienced antenatal depression. On average, almost 7 % of women reported significant depressive symptoms in pregnancy that persisted after childbirth. The review provided evidence that rates of depression tend to be higher during pregnancy than in the first year following childbirth. Furthermore, the longitudinal data show that there is much movement between the groups categorised as depressed or not depressed. There is evidence that postnatal depression is often a continuation of existing antenatal depression.

  19. Maternal reproductive experience enhances early postnatal outcome following gestation and birth of rats in hypergravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ronca, A. E.; Baer, L. A.; Daunton, N. G.; Wade, C. E.

    2001-01-01

    A major goal of space life sciences research is to broaden scientific knowledge of the influence of gravity on living systems. Recent spaceflight and centrifugation studies demonstrate that reproduction and ontogenesis in mammals are amenable to study under gravitational conditions that deviate considerably from those typically experienced on Earth (1 x g). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that maternal reproductive experience determines neonatal outcome following gestation and birth under increased (hyper) gravity. Primigravid and bigravid female rats and their offspring were exposed to 1.5 x g centrifugation from Gestational Day 11 either through birth or through the first postnatal week. On the day of birth, litter sizes were identical across gravity and parity conditions, although significantly fewer live neonates were observed among hypergravity-reared litters born to primigravid dams than among those born to bigravid dams (82% and 94%, respectively; 1.0 x g controls, 99%). Within the hypergravity groups, neonatal mortality was comparable across parity conditions from Postnatal Day 1 through Day 7, at which time litter sizes stabilized. Maternal reproductive experience ameliorated neonatal losses during the first 24 h after birth but not on subsequent days, and neonatal mortality was associated with changes in maternal care patterns. These results indicate that repeated maternal reproductive experience affords protection against neonatal losses during exposure to increased gravity. Differential mortality of neonates born to primigravid versus bigravid dams denotes gravitational load as one environmental mechanism enabling the expression of parity-related variations in birth outcome.

  20. Role of thyroxine on postnatal development of ileal active bile salt transport

    SciTech Connect

    Heubi, J.E.

    1986-08-01

    The role of thyroid hormone on the postnatal development of ileal active taurocholate transport uptake was measured by an in vitro incubation technique in Sprague-Dawley rats. In 16-day-old rats treated with pharmacological doses of L-thyroxine ileal active transport appeared precociously whose K/sub m/ was 1.60 +/- 0.48 mM and V/sub app/ was 8.09 +/- 1.14 nmol min mg dry wt , while age-matched shams had only passive diffusion of taurocholate. To determine whether enhanced endogenous secretion of thyroxine was capable of stimulating development of ileal active taurocholate transport, thyrotrophic stimulating hormone (TSH) was given on days 10-13, with uptake measured on day 16. Following TSH treatment, only passive transport for taurocholate was observed in the ileum; uptake rates were consistently higher than those for untreated controls at each study concentration. Thyroidectomy performed at age 14 days with uptake measured at age 21 days did not ablate development of ileal active transport but resulted in a significant reduction in the V/sub app/ and a significant increase in K/sub m/ compared with age-matched controls. Thyroid hormone does not appear to be obligatory for the postnatal development of ileal active taurocholate transport.

  1. In vitro translation of RNA to lactase during postnatal development of rat intestine.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Jaspreet; Kaur, Kamaljit; Mahmood, Akhtar; Mahmood, Safrun

    2005-03-01

    mRNA levels encoding lactase were detected by Northern blot analysis using two different probes in developing rat intestine. Probe I and probe II corresponding to second half of prolactase gene showed a 6.8 kb mRNA transcript in 7, 14, 21 and 30 day old rat intestine. There was no change in quantity of lactase mRNA detected using probe II, but hybridization with probe I showed a progressive decrease in mRNA transcript encoding lactase with age. At day 7 and 14 of postnatal development, the lactase mRNA was quite high, but it reduced upon weaning. The in vitro translation products of RNA detected by Western blot analysis using brush border lactase antibodies showed several isoforms of lactase antigen with molecular weight ranging from 100-220 kDa. Analysed at days 7 and 30 of postnatal development, lactase isoforms of molecular weight 130 kDa and 220 kDa were similar to those found in purified brush border membranes. The translation of RNA to 220 kDa lactase protein was high in 7 and 14 day old pups, but it was markedly reduced in 30 day old animals. These findings support the contention that translation of mRNA to lactase is impaired in weaned animals, which may also be responsible for the maturational decline in lactase activity in adult rat intestine.

  2. The military and the transition to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Kelty, Ryan; Kleykamp, Meredith; Segal, David R

    2010-01-01

    Ryan Kelty, Meredith Kleykamp, and David Segal examine the effect of military service on the transition to adulthood. They highlight changes since World War II in the role of the military in the lives of young adults, focusing especially on how the move from a conscription to an all-volunteer military has changed the way military service affects youths' approach to adult responsibilities. The authors note that today's all-volunteer military is both career-oriented and family-oriented, and they show how the material and social support the military provides to young servicemen and women promotes responsible membership in family relationships and the wider community. As a result, they argue, the transition to adulthood, including economic independence from parents, is more stable and orderly for military personnel than for their civilian peers. At the same time, they stress that serving in the military in a time of war holds dangers for young adults. The authors examine four broad areas of military service, focusing in each on how men and women in uniform today make the transition to adulthood. They begin by looking at the social characteristics of those who serve, especially at differences in access to the military and its benefits by socio-demographic characteristics, such as age, gender, race and ethnicity, social class, and sexual orientation. Military service also has important effects on family formation, including the timing of marriage and parenthood, family structure, and the influence of military culture on families. Family formation among servicemen and women, the authors observe, is earlier and more stable than among civilians of the same age. The authors then consider the educational and employment consequences of service. Finally, they scrutinize the dangers of military service during times of war and examine the physical and psychological effects of wartime military service. They also note the sexual trauma endured both by male and female military

  3. Substance Use in Adolescence and Early Adulthood: Which Best Predicts Violence in Early Adulthood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcus, Robert F.; Jamison, Eric G., II

    2013-01-01

    Waves I and III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) were used to test the contributions of alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, cocaine, LSD, PCP, and other illicit drugs to violence in early adulthood (e.g., took part in a gang fight, pulled a knife or gun, used a weapon in a fight, used a weapon to get something). The…

  4. A critical postnatal period of heightened vulnerability to lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Rourke, Kyle S; Mayer, Catherine A; MacFarlane, Peter M

    2016-10-01

    Evidence of respiratory abnormalities and vulnerability to infection during a critical period of development have been implicated in Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). Here we investigated whether the acute hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) exhibits a heightened vulnerability to the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) during a critical period of development. The acute HVR was measured 2h after an i.p. injection of saline or LPS (0.1mg/kg) at various postnatal (P) ages (P5, P10, or P20days). LPS attenuated the early (1-2min) and late (4-6min) phase of the acute HVR in P10 but not P5 or P20 rats. The P10 age group exhibited the largest increase in brainstem TNFα and iNOS mRNA expression following LPS. LPS also caused a higher mortality rate in P10 rats (48%) compared to P5 (12%) and P20 (0%) age groups. After stratifying LPS treated P10 rats into survivors vs non-survivors, only the latter exhibited an attenuated HVR (specifically the early phase). Thus, the heightened vulnerability to endotoxin exposure during this critical period of development is characterized by a depression of the ventilatory response to acute hypoxia in association with an increased incidence of mortality. These data share similarities with some of the circumstances surrounding a SIDS scenario, including evidence of infection, increased brainstem cytokine expression, a disturbance in respiratory control, and a peak incidence of mortality during a critical period of development.

  5. Postnatal development under conditions of simulated weightlessness and space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, K.

    1998-01-01

    The adaptability of the developing nervous system to environmental influences and the mechanisms underlying this plasticity has recently become a subject of interest in space neuroscience. Ground studies on neonatal rats using the tail suspension model of weightlessness have shown that the force of gravity clearly influences the events underlying the postnatal development of motor function. These effects depend on the age of the animal, duration of the perturbation and the motor function studied. A nine-day flight study has shown that a dam and neonates can develop under conditions of space flight. The motor function of the flight animals after landing was consistent with that seen in the tail suspension studies, being marked by limb joint extension. However, there were expected differences due to: (1) the unloading of the vestibular system in flight, which did not occur in the ground-based experiments; (2) differences between flight and suspension durations; and (3) the inability to evaluate motor function during the flight. The next step is to conduct experiments in space with the flexibility and rigor that is now limited to ground studies: an opportunity offered by the International Space Station. Copyright 1998 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  6. Postnatal Weight Gain in Preterm Infants with Severe Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Girija; Johnson, Yvette R.; Brozanski, Beverly; Farrow, Kathryn N.; Zaniletti, Isabella; Padula, Michael A.; Asselin, Jeanette M.; Durand, David J.; Short, Billie L.; Pallotto, Eugenia K.; Dykes, Francine D.; Reber, Kristina M.; Evans, Jacquelyn R.; Murthy, Karna

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To characterize postnatal growth failure (PGF), defined as weight < 10th percentile for postmenstrual age (PMA) in preterm (≤27 weeks’ gestation) infants with severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (sBPD) at specified time points during hospitalization, and to compare these in subgroups of infants who died/underwent tracheostomy and others. Study Design Retrospective review of data from the multicenter Children’s Hospital Neonatal Database (CHND). Results Our cohort (n = 375) had a mean ± standard deviation gestation of 25 ± 1.2 weeks and birth weight of 744 ± 196 g. At birth, 20% of infants were small for gestational age (SGA); age at referral to the CHND neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) was 46 ± 50 days. PGF rates at admission and at 36, 40, 44, and 48 weeks’ PMA were 33, 53, 67, 66, and 79% of infants, respectively. Tube feedings were administered to > 70% and parenteral nutrition to a third of infants between 36 and 44 weeks’ PMA. At discharge, 34% of infants required tube feedings and 50% had PGF. A significantly greater (38 versus 17%) proportion of infants who died/underwent tracheostomy (n = 69) were SGA, compared with those who did not (n = 306; p < 0.01). Conclusions Infants with sBPD commonly had progressive PGF during their NICU hospitalization. Fetal growth restriction may be a marker of adverse outcomes in this population. PMID:23690052

  7. Peri- and Postnatal Effects of Prenatal Adenoviral VEGF Gene Therapy in Growth-Restricted Sheep.

    PubMed

    Carr, David J; Wallace, Jacqueline M; Aitken, Raymond P; Milne, John S; Martin, John F; Zachary, Ian C; Peebles, Donald M; David, Anna L

    2016-06-01

    Uterine artery (UtA) adenovirus (Ad) vector-mediated overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) enhances uterine blood flow in normal sheep pregnancy and increases fetal growth in the overnourished adolescent sheep model of fetal growth restriction (FGR). Herein, we examined its impact on gestation length, neonatal survival, early postnatal growth and metabolism. Singleton-bearing ewes were evenly allocated to receive Ad.VEGF-A165 (5 × 10(10) particles/ml, 10 ml, n = 17) or saline (10 ml, n = 16) injected into each UtA at laparotomy (0.6 gestation). Fetal growth was serially monitored (blind) by ultrasound until delivery. Lambs were weighed and blood was sampled weekly and a glucose tolerance test performed (68-day postnatal age). Hepatic DNA/RNA was extracted at necropsy (83-day postnatal age) to examine methylation status of eight somatotropic axis genes. IGF1 mRNA and protein expression were measured by RT-PCR and radioimmunoassay, respectively. All pregnancies remained viable following Ad.VEGF-A165 treatment. Fetal abdominal circumference and renal volume were greater in the Ad.VEGF-A165 group compared with the saline group at 21/28 days (P ≤ 0.04) postinjection. At delivery, gestation length (P = 0.07), lamb birthweight (P = 0.08), umbilical girth (P = 0.06), and plasma glucose (P = 0.09) tended to be greater in Ad.VEGF-A165-treated lambs. Levels of neonatal intervention required to ensure survival was equivalent between groups. Absolute postnatal growth rate (P = 0.02), insulin area under the curve (P = 0.04) and carcass weight at necropsy (P = 0.04) were increased by Ad.VEGF-A165 treatment. There was no impact on markers of insulin sensitivity or methylation/expression of key genes involved in somatic growth. Ad.VEGF-A165 gene therapy increased fetal growth in a sheep FGR model, and lambs continued to thrive during the neonatal and early postnatal period. PMID:27103444

  8. Peri- and Postnatal Effects of Prenatal Adenoviral VEGF Gene Therapy in Growth-Restricted Sheep.

    PubMed

    Carr, David J; Wallace, Jacqueline M; Aitken, Raymond P; Milne, John S; Martin, John F; Zachary, Ian C; Peebles, Donald M; David, Anna L

    2016-06-01

    Uterine artery (UtA) adenovirus (Ad) vector-mediated overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) enhances uterine blood flow in normal sheep pregnancy and increases fetal growth in the overnourished adolescent sheep model of fetal growth restriction (FGR). Herein, we examined its impact on gestation length, neonatal survival, early postnatal growth and metabolism. Singleton-bearing ewes were evenly allocated to receive Ad.VEGF-A165 (5 × 10(10) particles/ml, 10 ml, n = 17) or saline (10 ml, n = 16) injected into each UtA at laparotomy (0.6 gestation). Fetal growth was serially monitored (blind) by ultrasound until delivery. Lambs were weighed and blood was sampled weekly and a glucose tolerance test performed (68-day postnatal age). Hepatic DNA/RNA was extracted at necropsy (83-day postnatal age) to examine methylation status of eight somatotropic axis genes. IGF1 mRNA and protein expression were measured by RT-PCR and radioimmunoassay, respectively. All pregnancies remained viable following Ad.VEGF-A165 treatment. Fetal abdominal circumference and renal volume were greater in the Ad.VEGF-A165 group compared with the saline group at 21/28 days (P ≤ 0.04) postinjection. At delivery, gestation length (P = 0.07), lamb birthweight (P = 0.08), umbilical girth (P = 0.06), and plasma glucose (P = 0.09) tended to be greater in Ad.VEGF-A165-treated lambs. Levels of neonatal intervention required to ensure survival was equivalent between groups. Absolute postnatal growth rate (P = 0.02), insulin area under the curve (P = 0.04) and carcass weight at necropsy (P = 0.04) were increased by Ad.VEGF-A165 treatment. There was no impact on markers of insulin sensitivity or methylation/expression of key genes involved in somatic growth. Ad.VEGF-A165 gene therapy increased fetal growth in a sheep FGR model, and lambs continued to thrive during the neonatal and early postnatal period.

  9. Protracted postnatal development of inhibitory synaptic transmission in rat hippocampal area CA1 neurons.

    PubMed

    Cohen, A S; Lin, D D; Coulter, D A

    2000-11-01

    In the CNS, inhibitory synaptic function undergoes profound transformation during early postnatal development. This is due to variations in the subunit composition of subsynaptic GABA(A) receptors (GABA(A)Rs) at differing developmental stages as well as other factors. These include changes in the driving force for chloride-mediated conductances as well as the quantity and/or cleft lifetime of released neurotransmitter. The present study was undertaken to investigate the nature and time course of developmental maturation of GABAergic synaptic function in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. In neonatal [postnatal day (P) 1-7] and immature (P8-14) CA1 neurons, miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) were significantly larger, were less frequent, and had slower kinetics compared with mIPSCs recorded in more mature neurons. Adult mIPSC kinetics were achieved by the third postnatal week in CA1 neurons. However, despite this apparent maturation of mIPSC kinetics, significant differences in modulation of mIPSCs by allosteric agonists in adolescent (P15-21) neurons were still evident. Diazepam (1-300 nM) and zolpidem (200 nM) increased the amplitude of mIPSCs in adolescent but not adult neurons. Both drugs increased mIPSC decay times equally at both ages. These differential agonist effects on mIPSC amplitude suggest that in adolescent CA1 neurons, inhibitory synapses operate differently than adult synapses and function as if subsynaptic receptors are not fully occupied by quantal release of GABA. Rapid agonist application experiments on perisomatic patches pulled from adolescent neurons provided additional support for this hypothesis. In GABA(A)R currents recorded in these patches, benzodiazepine amplitude augmentation effects were evident only when nonsaturating GABA concentrations were applied. Furthermore nonstationary noise analysis of mIPSCs in P15-21 neurons revealed that zolpidem-induced mIPSC augmentation was not due to an increase in single

  10. Parental Education Predicts Corticostriatal Functionality in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Manuck, Stephen B.; Sheu, Lei K.; Kuan, Dora C. H.; Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; Craig, Anna E.; Hariri, Ahmad R.

    2011-01-01

    Socioeconomic disadvantage experienced in early development predicts ill health in adulthood. However, the neurobiological pathways linking early disadvantage to adult health remain unclear. Lower parental education—a presumptive indicator of early socioeconomic disadvantage—predicts health-impairing adult behaviors, including tobacco and alcohol dependencies. These behaviors depend, in part, on the functionality of corticostriatal brain systems that 1) show developmental plasticity and early vulnerability, 2) process reward-related information, and 3) regulate impulsive decisions and actions. Hence, corticostriatal functionality in adulthood may covary directly with indicators of early socioeconomic disadvantage, particularly lower parental education. Here, we tested the covariation between parental education and corticostriatal activation and connectivity in 76 adults without confounding clinical syndromes. Corticostriatal activation and connectivity were assessed during the processing of stimuli signaling monetary gains (positive feedback [PF]) and losses (negative feedback). After accounting for participants’ own education and other explanatory factors, lower parental education predicted reduced activation in anterior cingulate and dorsomedial prefrontal cortices during PF, along with reduced connectivity between these cortices and orbitofrontal and striatal areas implicated in reward processing and impulse regulation. In speculation, adult alterations in corticostriatal functionality may represent facets of a neurobiological endophenotype linked to socioeconomic conditions of early development. PMID:20810623

  11. Type 1 Diabetes in Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Monaghan, Maureen; Helgeson, Vicki; Wiebe, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes has traditionally been studied as a chronic illness of childhood. However, young adulthood is a critical time for the development and integration of lifelong diabetes management skills, and research is starting to identify unique challenges faced by youth with diabetes as they age into adulthood. Most young adults experience multiple transitions during this unstable developmental period, including changes in lifestyle (e.g., education, occupation, living situation), changes in health care, and shifting relationships with family members, friends, and intimate others. Young adults with type 1 diabetes must navigate these transitions while also assuming increasing responsibility for their diabetes care and overall health. Despite these critical health and psychosocial concerns, there is a notable lack of evidence-based clinical services and supports for young adults with type 1 diabetes. We review relevant evolving concerns for young adults with type 1 diabetes, including lifestyle considerations, health care transitions, psychosocial needs, and changes in supportive networks, and how type 1 diabetes impacts and is impacted by these key developmental considerations. Specific avenues for intervention and future research are offered. PMID:25901502

  12. Gratitude From Early Adulthood to Old Age.

    PubMed

    Allemand, Mathias; Hill, Patrick L

    2016-02-01

    Are there age differences in gratitude from early adulthood to old age? The current studies tested several ways by which an association between age and dispositional gratitude may present, by considering multiple measures on both fronts. We used data from three cross-sectional studies (total N = 1,736; total age range: 19-94). The results indicated that (a) age effects in gratitude are more likely to occur for subjective age in terms of future time perspective (i.e., people's perceptions of their remaining opportunities and time) than chronological age; (b) chronological age effects are more domain specific than general in nature; and (c) they are more likely to occur for the instrumental domain as compared to the interpersonal domain. Finally, the results indicated that (d) perceived future time, particularly with respect to remaining opportunities, mediates the relation between chronological age and general gratitude. Overall, the findings suggest that gratitude is subject to a variety of developmental influences across adulthood.

  13. Type 1 diabetes in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Monaghan, Maureen; Helgeson, Vicki; Wiebe, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes has traditionally been studied as a chronic illness of childhood. However, young adulthood is a critical time for the development and integration of lifelong diabetes management skills, and research is starting to identify unique challenges faced by youth with diabetes as they age into adulthood. Most young adults experience multiple transitions during this unstable developmental period, including changes in lifestyle (e.g., education, occupation, living situation), changes in health care, and shifting relationships with family members, friends, and intimate others. Young adults with type 1 diabetes must navigate these transitions while also assuming increasing responsibility for their diabetes care and overall health. Despite these critical health and psychosocial concerns, there is a notable lack of evidence-based clinical services and supports for young adults with type 1 diabetes. We review relevant evolving concerns for young adults with type 1 diabetes, including lifestyle considerations, health care transitions, psychosocial needs, and changes in supportive networks, and how type 1 diabetes impacts and is impacted by these key developmental considerations. Specific avenues for intervention and future research are offered. PMID:25901502

  14. Childhood Maltreatment Predicts Allostatic Load in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Widom, Cathy Spatz; Horan, Jacqueline; Brzustowicz, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment has been linked to numerous negative health outcomes. However, few studies have examined mediating processes using longitudinal designs or objectively measured biological data. This study sought to determine whether child abuse and neglect predicts allostatic load (a composite indicator of accumulated stress-induced biological risk) and to examine potential mediators. Using a prospective cohort design, children (ages 0-11) with documented cases of abuse and neglect were matched with non-maltreated children and followed up into adulthood with in-person interviews and a medical status exam (mean age 41). Allostatic load was assessed with nine physical health indicators. Child abuse and neglect predicted allostatic load, controlling for age, sex, and race. The direct effect of child abuse and neglect persisted despite the introduction of potential mediators of internalizing and externalizing problems in adolescence and social support and risky lifestyle in middle adulthood. These findings reveal the long-term impact of childhood abuse and neglect on physical health over 30 years later. PMID:25700779

  15. A method for longitudinal, transcranial imaging of blood flow and remodeling of the cerebral vasculature in postnatal mice

    PubMed Central

    Letourneur, Annelise; Chen, Victoria; Waterman, Gar; Drew, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In the weeks following birth, both the brain and the vascular network that supplies it undergo dramatic alteration. While studies of the postnatal evolution of the pial vasculature and blood flow through its vessels have been previously done histologically or acutely, here we describe a neonatal reinforced thin‐skull preparation for longitudinally imaging the development of the pial vasculature in mice using two‐photon laser scanning microscopy. Starting with mice as young as postnatal day 2 (P2), we are able to chronically image cortical areas >1 mm2, repeatedly for several consecutive days, allowing us to observe the remodeling of the pial arterial and venous networks. We used this method to measure blood velocity in individual vessels over multiple days, and show that blood flow through individual pial venules was correlated with subsequent diameter changes. This preparation allows the longitudinal imaging of the developing mammalian cerebral vascular network and its physiology. PMID:25524276

  16. Intrauterine Growth Restriction: Antenatal and Postnatal Aspects.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Deepak; Shastri, Sweta; Sharma, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), a condition that occurs due to various reasons, is an important cause of fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. It has been defined as a rate of fetal growth that is less than normal in light of the growth potential of that specific infant. Usually, IUGR and small for gestational age (SGA) are used interchangeably in literature, even though there exist minute differences between them. SGA has been defined as having birth weight less than two standard deviations below the mean or less than the 10th percentile of a population-specific birth weight for specific gestational age. These infants have many acute neonatal problems that include perinatal asphyxia, hypothermia, hypoglycemia, and polycythemia. The likely long-term complications that are prone to develop when IUGR infants grow up includes growth retardation, major and subtle neurodevelopmental handicaps, and developmental origin of health and disease. In this review, we have covered various antenatal and postnatal aspects of IUGR. PMID:27441006

  17. Intrauterine Growth Restriction: Antenatal and Postnatal Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Deepak; Shastri, Sweta; Sharma, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), a condition that occurs due to various reasons, is an important cause of fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. It has been defined as a rate of fetal growth that is less than normal in light of the growth potential of that specific infant. Usually, IUGR and small for gestational age (SGA) are used interchangeably in literature, even though there exist minute differences between them. SGA has been defined as having birth weight less than two standard deviations below the mean or less than the 10th percentile of a population-specific birth weight for specific gestational age. These infants have many acute neonatal problems that include perinatal asphyxia, hypothermia, hypoglycemia, and polycythemia. The likely long-term complications that are prone to develop when IUGR infants grow up includes growth retardation, major and subtle neurodevelopmental handicaps, and developmental origin of health and disease. In this review, we have covered various antenatal and postnatal aspects of IUGR. PMID:27441006

  18. Spatial and Age-Dependent Hair Cell Generation in the Postnatal Mammalian Utricle.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhen; Kelly, Michael C; Yu, Dehong; Wu, Hao; Lin, Xi; Chi, Fang-lu; Chen, Ping

    2016-04-01

    Loss of vestibular hair cells is a common cause of balance disorders. Current treatment options for bilateral vestibular dysfunction are limited. During development, atonal homolog 1 (Atoh1) is sufficient and necessary for the formation of hair cells and provides a promising gene target to induce hair cell generation in the mammals. In this study, we used a transgenic mouse line to test the age and cell type specificity of hair cell induction in the postnatal utricle in mice. We found that forced Atoh1 expression in vivo can induce hair cell formation in the utricle from postnatal days 1 to 21, while the efficacy of hair cell induction is progressively reduced as the animals become older. In the utricle, the induction of hair cells occurs both within the sensory region and in cells in the transitional epithelium next to the sensory region. Within the sensory epithelium, the central region, known as the striola, is most subjective to the induction of hair cell formation. Furthermore, forced Atoh1 expression can promote proliferation in an age-dependent manner that mirrors the progressively reduced efficacy of hair cell induction in the postnatal utricle. These results suggest that targeting both cell proliferation and Atoh1 in the utricle striolar region may be explored to induce hair cell regeneration in mammals. The study also demonstrates the usefulness of the animal model that provides an in vivo Atoh1 induction model for vestibular regeneration studies.

  19. Postnatal development of retrosplenial projections to the parahippocampal region of the rat.

    PubMed

    Sugar, Jørgen; Witter, Menno P

    2016-01-01

    The rat parahippocampal region (PHR) and retrosplenial cortex (RSC) are cortical areas important for spatial cognition. In PHR, head-direction cells are present before eye-opening, earliest detected in postnatal day (P)11 animals. Border cells have been recorded around eye-opening (P16), while grid cells do not obtain adult-like features until the fourth postnatal week. In view of these developmental time-lines, we aimed to explore when afferents originating in RSC arrive in PHR. To this end, we injected rats aged P0-P28 with anterograde tracers into RSC. First, we characterized the organization of RSC-PHR projections in postnatal rats and compared these results with data obtained in the adult. Second, we described the morphological development of axonal plexus in PHR. We conclude that the first arriving RSC-axons in PHR, present from P1 onwards, already show a topographical organization similar to that seen in adults, although the labeled plexus does not obtain adult-like densities until P12.

  20. Valproic Acid Exposure during Early Postnatal Gliogenesis Leads to Autistic-like Behaviors in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mony, Tamanna Jahan; Lee, Jae Won; Dreyfus, Cheryl; DiCicco-Bloom, Emanuel; Lee, Hee Jae

    2016-01-01

    Objective We reported that postnatal exposure of rats to valproic acid (VPA) stimulated proliferation of glial precursors during cortical gliogenesis. However, there are no reports whether enhanced postnatal gliogenesis affects behaviors related to neuropsychiatric disorders. Methods After VPA treatment during the postnatal day (PND) 2 to PND 4, four behavioral test, such as open field locomotor test, elevated plus maze test, three-chamber social interaction test, and passive avoidance test, were performed at PND 21 or 22. Results VPA treated rats showed significant hyperactive behavior in the open field locomotor test (p<0.05). Moreover, the velocity of movement in the VPA group was increased by 69.5% (p<0.01). In the elevated plus maze test, VPA exposed rats expressed significantly lower percentage of time spent on and of entries into open arms more than the control group (p<0.05). Also, both sociability and social preference indices with strangers in the three-chamber social interaction test were significantly lower in the VPA exposed rats (p<0.05). Conclusion Our results suggest that altered glial cell development is another locus at which pathogenetic factors can operate to contribute to the neurodevelopmental disorder. PMID:27776385

  1. The Postnatal Maternal Environment Affects Autoimmune Disease Susceptibility in A/J mice

    PubMed Central

    Case, Laure K.; Rio, Roxana del; Bonney, Elizabeth A.; Zachary, James F.; Blankenhorn, Elizabeth P.; Tung, Kenneth S. K.; Teuscher, Cory

    2009-01-01

    The postnatal maternal environment is known to increase susceptibility to a number of autoimmune diseases. Here we asked whether the postnatal maternal environment could influence autoimmune disease development to day 3 thymectomy (d3tx)-induced autoimmune ovarian disease (AOD) and experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) in cross-fostered A/J and B6 mice. A/J pups foster-nursed by B6 mothers exhibit an increase in autoimmune disease development while cross-fostering B6 pups on A/J mothers did not alter their susceptibility. The increase in AOD incidence seen in foster-nursed d3tx A/J mice correlated with a decrease in the total number of CD4+ T cells in the lymph nodes of these animals. Analysis of the cellular composition in the milk revealed that B6 mice shed significantly more maternally derived lymphocytes into their milk compared to A/J mothers. These data suggest that there are maternally derived postnatal factors that influence the development of autoimmune disease in A/J mice. PMID:19914609

  2. Behavioral and cognitive changes after early postnatal lesions of the rat mediodorsal thalamus.

    PubMed

    Ouhaz, Zakaria; Ba-M'hamed, Saadia; Mitchell, Anna S; Elidrissi, Abdeslem; Bennis, Mohamed

    2015-10-01

    Early insults to the thalamus result in functional and/or structural abnormalities in the cerebral cortex. However, differences in behavioral and cognitive changes after early insult are not well characterized. The present study assessed whether early postnatal damage to mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus (MD), reciprocally interconnected with the prefrontal cortex, causes behavioral and cognitive alterations in young adult rats. Rat pups at postnatal day 4 received bilateral electrolytic lesion of MD, or a MD Sham lesion or were anesthetized controls; on recovery they were returned to their mothers until weaning. Seven weeks later, all rats were tested with the following behavioral and cognitive paradigms: T-maze test, open field test, actimetry, elevated plus maze test, social interactions test and passive avoidance test. Rats with bilateral MD damage presented with disrupted recognition memory, deficits in shifting response rules, significant hypoactivity, increased anxiety-like behavior, deficits in learning associations as well as decreased locomotor activity, and reduced social interactions compared to MD Sham lesion and anesthetized Control rats. The lesion also caused significant decreases in pyramidal cell density in three frontal cortex regions: medial infralimbic cortex, dorsolateral anterior cortex, and cingulate Cg1 cortex. The present findings suggest a functional role for MD in the postnatal maturation of affective behavior. Further some of the behavioral and cognitive alterations observed in these young adult rats after early MD lesion are reminiscent of those present in major psycho-affective disorders, such as schizophrenia in humans.

  3. Postnatal development of retrosplenial projections to the parahippocampal region of the rat

    PubMed Central

    Sugar, Jørgen; Witter, Menno P

    2016-01-01

    The rat parahippocampal region (PHR) and retrosplenial cortex (RSC) are cortical areas important for spatial cognition. In PHR, head-direction cells are present before eye-opening, earliest detected in postnatal day (P)11 animals. Border cells have been recorded around eye-opening (P16), while grid cells do not obtain adult-like features until the fourth postnatal week. In view of these developmental time-lines, we aimed to explore when afferents originating in RSC arrive in PHR. To this end, we injected rats aged P0-P28 with anterograde tracers into RSC. First, we characterized the organization of RSC-PHR projections in postnatal rats and compared these results with data obtained in the adult. Second, we described the morphological development of axonal plexus in PHR. We conclude that the first arriving RSC-axons in PHR, present from P1 onwards, already show a topographical organization similar to that seen in adults, although the labeled plexus does not obtain adult-like densities until P12. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13925.001 PMID:27008178

  4. Postnatal development of retrosplenial projections to the parahippocampal region of the rat.

    PubMed

    Sugar, Jørgen; Witter, Menno P

    2016-01-01

    The rat parahippocampal region (PHR) and retrosplenial cortex (RSC) are cortical areas important for spatial cognition. In PHR, head-direction cells are present before eye-opening, earliest detected in postnatal day (P)11 animals. Border cells have been recorded around eye-opening (P16), while grid cells do not obtain adult-like features until the fourth postnatal week. In view of these developmental time-lines, we aimed to explore when afferents originating in RSC arrive in PHR. To this end, we injected rats aged P0-P28 with anterograde tracers into RSC. First, we characterized the organization of RSC-PHR projections in postnatal rats and compared these results with data obtained in the adult. Second, we described the morphological development of axonal plexus in PHR. We conclude that the first arriving RSC-axons in PHR, present from P1 onwards, already show a topographical organization similar to that seen in adults, although the labeled plexus does not obtain adult-like densities until P12. PMID:27008178

  5. Behavioral and cognitive changes after early postnatal lesions of the rat mediodorsal thalamus

    PubMed Central

    Ouhaz, Zakaria; Ba-M’hamed, Saadia; Mitchell, Anna S.; Elidrissi, Abdeslem; Bennis, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Early insults to the thalamus result in functional and/or structural abnormalities in the cerebral cortex. However, differences in behavioral and cognitive changes after early insult are not well characterized. The present study assessed whether early postnatal damage to mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus (MD), reciprocally interconnected with the prefrontal cortex, causes behavioral and cognitive alterations in young adult rats. Rat pups at postnatal day 4 received bilateral electrolytic lesion of MD, or a MD Sham lesion or were anesthetized controls; on recovery they were returned to their mothers until weaning. Seven weeks later, all rats were tested with the following behavioral and cognitive paradigms: T-maze test, open field test, actimetry, elevated plus maze test, social interactions test and passive avoidance test. Rats with bilateral MD damage presented with disrupted recognition memory, deficits in shifting response rules, significant hypoactivity, increased anxiety-like behavior, deficits in learning associations as well as decreased locomotor activity, and reduced social interactions compared to MD Sham lesion and anesthetized Control rats. The lesion also caused significant decreases in pyramidal cell density in three frontal cortex regions: medial infralimbic cortex, dorsolateral anterior cortex, and cingulate Cg1 cortex. The present findings suggest a functional role for MD in the postnatal maturation of affective behavior. Further some of the behavioral and cognitive alterations observed in these young adult rats after early MD lesion are reminiscent of those present in major psycho-affective disorders, such as schizophrenia in humans. PMID:26079768

  6. Cell migration in the postnatal subventricular zone.

    PubMed

    Menezes, J R L; Marins, M; Alves, J A J; Froes, M M; Hedin-Pereira, C

    2002-12-01

    New neurons are constantly added to the olfactory bulb of rodents from birth to adulthood. This accretion is not only dependent on sustained neurogenesis, but also on the migration of neuroblasts and immature neurons from the cortical and striatal subventricular zone (SVZ) to the olfactory bulb. Migration along this long tangential pathway, known as the rostral migratory stream (RMS), is in many ways opposite to the classical radial migration of immature neurons: it is faster, spans a longer distance, does not require radial glial guidance, and is not limited to postmitotic neurons. In recent years many molecules have been found to be expressed specifically in this pathway and to directly affect this migration. Soluble factors with inhibitory, attractive and inductive roles in migration have been described, as well as molecules mediating cell-to-cell and cell-substrate interactions. However, it is still unclear how the various molecules and cells interact to account for the special migratory behavior in the RMS. Here we will propose some candidate mechanisms for roles in initiating and stopping SVZ/RMS migration.

  7. Expressions of Sox9, Sox5, and Sox13 transcription factors in mice testis during postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Daigle, Mikella; Roumaud, Pauline; Martin, Luc J

    2015-09-01

    SRY-related box (Sox) transcription factors are conserved among vertebrate species. These proteins regulate multiple processes including sex determination and testis differentiation of the male embryo. Although members of the Sox family have been identified in pre- and postnatal Sertoli cells, they have never been characterized in adult Leydig cells. The objectives of this research were to identify expressions of Sox9, Sox5, and Sox13 in mice Leydig cell cultures and to establish their expression profiles in postnatal mice testes at different developmental stages. Methods used include Western blots and qPCR of stimulated MA-10 cell cultures and whole mice testes. Sox9, Sox5, and Sox13 proteins were detected in MA-10 cells as well as whole mouse testis. Although Sox9, Sox5, and Sox13 mRNA levels from whole mice testes tended to increase according to postnatal development, these results were not significant. Sox members were also detected in whole mice testis by Western Blot. However, Sox9, Sox5, and Sox13 protein expressions remained relatively constant during postnatal development from postnatal (P) day 60 to P365. Being newly characterized in the mouse testis, Sox13 was mainly localized by immunofluorescence within the nuclei of cells from seminiferous tubules, possibly spermatocytes and Sertoli cells. In addition, Sox9, Sox5, and Sox13 proteins were characterized in the nuclei of MA-10 Leydig cell cultures. Their expressions and transcriptional activities remained unaffected by activators of the cAMP/PKA pathway. Thus, Sox9, Sox5, and Sox13 transcription factors are expressed in postnatal testis and may regulate multiple functions such as steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis.

  8. Postnatal persistent infection with classical Swine Fever virus and its immunological implications.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-González, Sara; Ruggli, Nicolas; Rosell, Rosa; Pérez, Lester Josué; Frías-Leuporeau, Maria Teresa; Fraile, Lorenzo; Montoya, Maria; Cordoba, Lorena; Domingo, Mariano; Ehrensperger, Felix; Summerfield, Artur; Ganges, Llilianne

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that trans-placental transmission of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) during mid-gestation can lead to persistently infected offspring. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the ability of CSFV to induce viral persistence upon early postnatal infection. Two litters of 10 piglets each were infected intranasally on the day of birth with low and moderate virulence CSFV isolates, respectively. During six weeks after postnatal infection, most of the piglets remained clinically healthy, despite persistent high virus titres in the serum. Importantly, these animals were unable to mount any detectable humoral and cellular immune response. At necropsy, the most prominent gross pathological lesion was a severe thymus atrophy. Four weeks after infection, PBMCs from the persistently infected seronegative piglets were unresponsive to both, specific CSFV and non-specific PHA stimulation in terms of IFN-γ-producing cells. These results suggested the development of a state of immunosuppression in these postnatally persistently infected pigs. However, IL-10 was undetectable in the sera of the persistently infected animals. Interestingly, CSFV-stimulated PBMCs from the persistently infected piglets produced IL-10. Nevertheless, despite the addition of the anti-IL-10 antibody in the PBMC culture from persistently infected piglets, the response of the IFN-γ producing cells was not restored. Therefore, other factors than IL-10 may be involved in the general suppression of the T-cell responses upon CSFV and mitogen activation. Interestingly, bone marrow immature granulocytes were increased and targeted by the virus in persistently infected piglets. Taken together, we provided the first data demonstrating the feasibility of CSFV in generating a postnatal persistent disease, which has not been shown for other members of the Pestivirus genus yet. Since serological methods are routinely used in CSFV surveillance, persistently infected pigs might go unnoticed

  9. Transient expression of neuropeptide W in postnatal mouse hypothalamus--a putative regulator of energy homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Motoike, T; Skach, A G; Godwin, J K; Sinton, C M; Yamazaki, M; Abe, M; Natsume, R; Sakimura, K; Yanagisawa, M

    2015-08-20

    Neuropeptide B and W (NPB and NPW) are cognate peptide ligands for NPBWR1 (GPR7), a G protein-coupled receptor. In rodents, they have been implicated in the regulation of energy homeostasis, neuroendocrine/autonomic responses, and social interactions. Although localization of these peptides and their receptors in adult rodent brain has been well documented, their expression in mouse brain during development is unknown. Here we demonstrate the transient expression of NPW mRNA in the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) of postnatal mouse brain and its co-localization with neuropeptide Y (NPY) mRNA. Neurons expressing both NPW and NPY mRNAs begin to emerge in the DMH at about postnatal day 0 (P-0) through P-3. Their expression is highest around P-14, declines after P-21, and by P-28 only a faint expression of NPW and NPY mRNA remains. In P-18 brains, we detected NPW neurons in the region spanning the subincertal nucleus (SubI), the lateral hypothalamic (LH) perifornical (PF) areas, and the DMH, where the highest expression of NPW mRNA was observed. The majority of these postnatal hypothalamic NPW neurons co-express NPY mRNA. A cross of NPW-iCre knock-in mice with a Cre-dependent tdTomato reporter line revealed that more than half of the reporter-positive neurons in the adult DMH, which mature from the transiently NPW-expressing neurons, are sensitive to peripherally administrated leptin. These data suggest that the DMH neurons that transiently co-express NPW and NPY in the peri-weaning period might play a role in regulating energy homeostasis during postnatal development.

  10. Effects of synchronous and asynchronous embryo transfer on postnatal development, adult health, and behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    López-Cardona, Angela P; Fernández-González, Raúl; Pérez-Crespo, Miriam; Alén, Francisco; de Fonseca, Fernando Rodriguez; Orio, Laura; Gutierrez-Adan, Alfonso

    2015-10-01

    Asynchronous embryo transfer (ET) is a common assisted reproduction technique used in several species, but its biological effects on postnatal and early development remain unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether asynchronous ET produces long-term effects in mice. Postnatal development, animal weight, systolic blood pressure (SBP), relative organ weight (liver, spleen, kidneys, heart, lungs, brain, and testicles), and behavior (assessed in open-field and elevated plus maze tests) were assessed in CD1 mice produced by different ET procedures: 1) the transfer of Day 3.5 (D3.5) blastocysts to the uterus (BL-UT); 2) the transfer of D3.5 blastocysts to the oviduct (BL-OV); or 3) the transfer of D0.5 zygotes to the oviduct (Z-OV). In vivo conceived animals served as controls (CT). The transfer of blastocysts to the uterus or zygotes to the oviduct was defined as synchronous, and transfer of blastocysts to the oviduct was defined as asynchronous. Both synchronous and asynchronous ET resulted in increased weight at birth that normalized thereafter with the exception of asynchronous ET females. In this group, female BL-OV, a clear lower body weight was recorded along postnatal life when compared with controls (P < 0.05). No effects on animal weight were produced during postnatal development in the synchronous ET groups (BL-UT, Z-OV, and CT). Both synchronous and asynchronous ET had impacts on adult (Wk 30) organ weight. SBP was modified in animals derived from blastocyst but not zygote ET. Effects on behavior (anxiety in the plus maze) were only detected in the BL-UT group (P < 0.05). Our findings indicate that zygotes are less sensitive than blastocysts to ET and that both synchronous and asynchronous blastocyst ET may have long-term consequences on health, with possible impacts on weight, arterial pressure, relative organ weight, and behavior.

  11. Sensory and Motor Characterization in the Post-natal Valproate Rat Model of Autism

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Stacey; Millette, Alexandre; Devine, Darragh P.

    2013-01-01

    Although autism is diagnosed according to three core features of social deficits, communication impairments, and repetitive or stereotyped behaviors, other behavioral features such as sensory and motor impairments are present in more than 70% of individuals with autism spectrum disorders. Exposure of rat pups to the teratogen valproate during sensitive periods of brain development has been shown to elicit behavioral features associated with autism diagnosis and has been proposed as a valid animal model of the disorder. The purpose of this study was to characterize sensory and motor performance in rats post-natally treated with valproate. Thirty four rat pups were injected with either valproate (150 mg/kg) or saline on post-natal days 6–12. Auditory and tactile startle as well as auditory sensory gating was assessed during both the juvenile and adolescent stages of development; motor testing was conducted during late adolescence and included a sunflower seed eating task and a vermicelli-handling task. Valproate-treated rats were under-responsive to auditory stimuli, showed deficits in auditory sensory gating, and demonstrated impairments in motor speed and performance. These findings suggest that post-natal valproate treatment elicits sensory and motor features often seen in individuals with ASD. Further, the hypo-sensitivity seen in post-natally valproate-treated rats contrasted with hyper-sensitivity previously reported in pre-natally valproate-exposed rats. This suggests that timing of teratogenic exposure during early brain development may be important to consider when investigating the neurobiological basis of sensory-motor impairments in ASD. PMID:22627078

  12. Major epigenetic development distinguishing neuronal and non-neuronal cells occurs postnatally in the murine hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Li, Ge; Zhang, Wenjuan; Baker, Maria S; Laritsky, Eleonora; Mattan-Hung, Natalia; Yu, Dahai; Kunde-Ramamoorthy, Govindarajan; Simerly, Richard B; Chen, Rui; Shen, Lanlan; Waterland, Robert A

    2014-03-15

    Prenatal and early postnatal environment can persistently alter one's risk of obesity. Environmental effects on hypothalamic developmental epigenetics constitute a likely mechanism underlying such 'developmental programming' of energy balance regulation. To advance our understanding of these processes, it is essential to develop approaches to disentangle the cellular and regional heterogeneity of hypothalamic developmental epigenetics. We therefore performed genome-scale DNA methylation profiling in hypothalamic neurons and non-neuronal cells at postnatal day 0 (P0) and P21 and found, surprisingly, that most of the DNA methylation differences distinguishing these two cell types are established postnatally. In particular, neuron-specific increases in DNA methylation occurred extensively at genes involved in neuronal development. Quantitative bisulfite pyrosequencing verified our methylation profiling results in all 15 regions examined, and expression differences were associated with DNA methylation at several genes. We also identified extensive methylation differences between the arcuate (ARH) and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH). Integrating these two data sets showed that genomic regions with PVH versus ARH differential methylation strongly overlap with those undergoing neuron-specific increases from P0 to P21, suggesting that these developmental changes occur preferentially in either the ARH or PVH. In particular, neuron-specific methylation increases at the 3' end of Shh localized to the ARH and were positively associated with gene expression. Our data indicate a key role for DNA methylation in establishing the gene expression potential of diverse hypothalamic cell types, and provide the novel insight that early postnatal life is a critical period for cell type-specific epigenetic development in the murine hypothalamus.

  13. Parent-Child Relations and Offending during Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Wendi L.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Manning, Wendy D.; Longmore, Monica A.

    2011-01-01

    There is a long tradition of studying parent-child relationships and adolescent delinquency. However, the association between parent-child relationships and criminal offending during young adulthood is less well understood. Although the developmental tasks of young adulthood tend to focus on intimate relationships, employment, and family…

  14. An Examination of Emerging Adulthood in Romanian College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Larry J.

    2009-01-01

    Little work has been done to examine emerging adulthood in Eastern European countries such as Romania that are making the transition out of communism into the broader free-market economy of Western Europe. The purpose of this study was to (a) examine the criteria that college students in Romania have for adulthood, and (b) explore whether…

  15. Conceptions of Adulthood among Migrant Women Workers in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhong, Juan; Arnett, Jeffrey J.

    2014-01-01

    The experiences of emerging adulthood may vary in different historical and cultural contexts. Little research has been dedicated to how non college students view adulthood in developing countries. Currently, millions of young people are migrating from rural villages to industrial cities in China. The purpose of this study was to investigate…

  16. Inventing Adulthoods: A Biographical Approach to Youth Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Sheila J.; Holland, Janet; McGrellis, Sheena; Sharpe, Sue; Thomson, Rachel

    2006-01-01

    "Inventing Adulthoods: A Biographical Approach to Youth Transitions" is a ground-breaking book that offers a new approach to understanding young people's lives and their transitions to adulthood. Contrary to policy and research approaches that often see young people's lives in a fragmented way, the book argues that a biographical approach to youth…

  17. America's Youth: Transitions to Adulthood. NCES 2012-026

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aud, Susan; KewalRamani, Angelina; Frohlich, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    The transition to adulthood in the United States has changed in recent decades as many of the traditional milestones that mark adulthood, such as household establishment and marriage, have changed or been delayed (McLanahan et al. 2010; Arnett 2000). Among these changes are increased participation and attainment in education; extenuation of…

  18. Adulthood Predictors of Health Promoting Behavior in Later Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holahan, Carole K.; Suzuki, Rie

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated adulthood predictors of health-promoting behavior in later aging. The participants were 162 members of the Terman Study of the Gifted (Terman et al., 1925), who responded in 1999 at an average age of 86 to a mailout questionnaire which included questions concerning their positive health behavior. Adulthood variables were…

  19. Learning Disabilities in Adulthood: Persisting Problems and Evolving Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, Paul J., Ed.; Reiff, Henry B., Ed.

    This book provides a multifaceted view of learning disabilities in adulthood through the efforts of many contributors who offer a diversity of perceptions and expertise. The focus spans from young to late adulthood and reflects state-of-the-art knowledge and the best practices of the field. The topic areas are clustered into psychological,…

  20. Risk factors for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress

    PubMed Central

    Leigh, Bronwyn; Milgrom, Jeannette

    2008-01-01

    Background Given that the prevalence of antenatal and postnatal depression is high, with estimates around 13%, and the consequences serious, efforts have been made to identify risk factors to assist in prevention, identification and treatment. Most risk factors associated with postnatal depression have been well researched, whereas predictors of antenatal depression have been less researched. Risk factors associated with early parenting stress have not been widely researched, despite the strong link with depression. The aim of this study was to further elucidate which of some previously identified risk factors are most predictive of three outcome measures: antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress and to examine the relationship between them. Methods Primipara and multiparae women were recruited antenatally from two major hoitals as part of the beyondblue National Postnatal Depression Program [1]. In this subsidiary study, 367 women completed an additional large battery of validated questionnaires to identify risk factors in the antenatal period at 26–32 weeks gestation. A subsample of these women (N = 161) also completed questionnaires at 10–12 weeks postnatally. Depression level was measured by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Results Regression analyses identified significant risk factors for the three outcome measures. (1). Significant predictors for antenatal depression: low self-esteem, antenatal anxiety, low social support, negative cognitive style, major life events, low income and history of abuse. (2). Significant predictors for postnatal depression: antenatal depression and a history of depression while also controlling for concurrent parenting stress, which was a significant variable. Antenatal depression was identified as a mediator between seven of the risk factors and postnatal depression. (3). Postnatal depression was the only significant predictor for parenting stress and also acted as a mediator for other risk factors

  1. LONG-TERM BEHAVIORAL EFFECTS IN A RAT MODEL OF PROLONGED POSTNATAL MORPHINE EXPOSURE

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Michael M.; Bajic, Dusica

    2015-01-01

    Prolonged morphine treatment in neonatal pediatric populations is associated with a high incidence of opioid tolerance and dependence. Despite the clinical relevance of this problem, our knowledge of the long-term consequences is sparse. The main objective of this study was to investigate whether prolonged morphine administration in a neonatal rat is associated with long-term behavioral changes in adulthood. Newborn animals received either morphine (10mg/kg) or equal volume of saline subcutaneously twice daily for the first 2 weeks of life. Morphine treated animals underwent 10 days of morphine weaning to reduce the potential for observable physical signs of withdrawal. Animals were subjected to non-stressful testing (locomotor activity recording and a Novel-Object Recognition test) at a young age (PD27-31) or later in adulthood (PD55-56), as well as stressful testing (calibrated forceps test, Hot Plate test, and Forced Swim test) only in adulthood. Analysis revealed that prolonged neonatal morphine exposure resulted in decreased thermal, but not mechanical threshold. Importantly, no differences were found for total locomotor activity (proxy of drug reward/reinforcement behavior), individual Forced Swim test behaviors (proxy of affective processing), or Novel-Object Recognition test. Performance on the Novel-Object Recognition test was compromised in the morphine treated group at the young age, however the effect disappeared in adulthood. These novel results provide insight into the long-term consequences of opioid treatment during an early developmental period and suggest long-term neuroplastic differences in sensory processing related to thermal stimuli. PMID:26214209

  2. Postnatal changes in cardiac output and haemorrheology in normal neonates born at full term.

    PubMed Central

    Mandelbaum, V H; Alverson, D C; Kirchgessner, A; Linderkamp, O

    1991-01-01

    Circulatory adaptation was studied serially in 11 healthy term neonates on days 1, 3, and 5 by cross sectional and pulsed Doppler echocardiography. Changes in the determinants of blood viscosity (packed cell volume, plasma viscosity, red cell aggregation, and red cell deformability) were studied on day 1 and day 5. There was a 27% increase in the cardiac output as a result of increasing stroke volume, whereas heart rate did not change significantly. Mean blood pressure increased by nearly the same extent as cardiac output (21%), so that the overall resistance remained unchanged. Packed cell volume, red cell aggregation, and red cell deformability did not change significantly during the first five postnatal days. Plasma viscosity rose significantly (by 12%) so that whole blood viscosity increased during that period. As there was no change in overall systemic vascular resistance the vascular hindrance--calculated as the ratio of resistance: blood viscosity--decreased, thereby indicating vasodilation. PMID:2025030

  3. Neurobehavioral Development following Exposure of Male Mice to Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether 47 on Postnatal Day 10

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are commonly used as commercial flame retardants in a variety of products including plastics and textiles. Previous studies in our laboratory and in the literature have shown that exposure to a specific PBDE congener, PBDE 47, during a crit...

  4. Young Adults' Perceived Purposes of Emerging Adulthood: Implications for Cohabitation.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Adam A; Willoughby, Brian J; Nelson, Larry J

    2016-01-01

    The authors investigated associations between young adults' perceived purposes of emerging adulthood and their attitudes toward and participation in cohabitation. In a sample of 775 never married individuals, ages 18-29 (69% female, 69% white) from the United States, young people's perceptions of this period of life were associated with their acceptance of cohabitation, their reasoning for accepting cohabitation, and the likelihood of cohabiting. Results showed that the perception that emerging adulthood is a time to prepare for future family roles was negatively associated with acceptance of cohabitation whereas the perception that emerging adulthood is a time to take risks was positively associated with acceptance of cohabitation. The perception that emerging adulthood is a time to prepare for future family roles was associated with an increased likelihood of having cohabited while the perception that emerging adulthood is a time of possibilities was associated with a decreased likelihood of having cohabited. Implications for future research are discussed.

  5. Neurodevelopmental sequelae of postnatal maternal care in rodents: clinical and research implications of molecular insights.

    PubMed

    Kaffman, Arie; Meaney, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    Parental care plays an important role in the emotional and cognitive development of the offspring. Children who have been exposed to abuse or neglect are more likely to develop numerous psychopathologies, while good parent-infant bonding is associated with improved resiliency to stress. Similar observations have also been reported in non-human primates and rodents, suggesting that at least some neurodevelopmental aspects of parent-offspring interactions are conserved among mammals and could therefore be studied in animals. We present data to suggest that frequency of licking and grooming provided by the dam during a critical period in development plays an important role in modifying neurodevelopment. These findings are examined in the broader context in which exposure to other sensory modalities such as vision or hearing during a specific period in development shapes brain development with functional consequences that persist into adulthood. We also discuss recent rodent work showing that increased frequency of licking and grooming provided by the dam during the first week of life is associated with changes in DNA methylation of promoter elements that control expression of these genes and behavior. The stability of DNA methylation in postmitotic cells provides a possible molecular scaffold by which changes in gene expression and behavioral traits induced by postnatal maternal care are maintained throughout life. Finally, the relevance of findings reported in rodents to those noted in non-human primates and humans are assessed and the research and clinical implications of these observations for future work are explored. PMID:17355397

  6. Maternal stress affects postnatal growth and the pituitary expression of prolactin in mouse offspring.

    PubMed

    Gao, Pengfei; Ishige, Atsushi; Murakami, Yu; Nakata, Hideyuki; Oka, Jun-Ichiro; Munakata, Kaori; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Nishimura, Ko; Watanabe, Kenji

    2011-03-01

    Maternal stress exerts long-lasting psychiatric and somatic on offspring, which persist into adulthood. However, the effect of maternal stress on the postnatal growth of pups has not been widely reported. In this study, we found that maternal immobilization stress (IS) during lactation resulted in low body weight of male mouse offspring, which persisted after weaning. Despite free access to chow, IS induced maternal malnutrition and decreased the serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels in the mothers and in the pups. mRNA expression analysis of anterior pituitary hormones in the pups revealed that growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL), but no other hormones, were decreased by IS. Expression of the pituitary transcription factor PIT1 and isoforms of PITX2, which are essential for the development and function of GH-producing somatotropes and PRL-producing lactotropes, was decreased, whereas that of PROP1, which is critical for the earlier stages of pituitary development, was unchanged. Immunohistochemistry also showed a decrease in pituitary PRL protein expression. These results suggest that stress in a postpartum mother has persistent effects on the body weight of the offspring. Reduced PRL expression in the offspring's pituitary gland may play a role in these effects.

  7. Postnatal testosterone levels and temperament in early infancy.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Gerianne M; Saenz, Janet

    2011-12-01

    Recent research showing associations between behavior and postnatal testosterone levels in male infants has suggested that the transient activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in early infancy may influence the expression of gender phenotypes in later development (i.e., the postnatal hormone hypothesis). As a further test of the relationship between postnatal hormones and behavior in infancy, we measured digit ratios and salivary testosterone in 76 male and female infants (3-4 months of age) and parents completed the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised, a well-established measure of temperament in the first year of life. Consistent with our earlier findings, there were no significant sex differences in salivary testosterone levels and testosterone levels were unrelated to measures of behavior in female infants. However, in male infants, higher androgen levels predicted greater Negative Affectivity. Further examination of the four scales contributing to the measure of Negative Affectivity showed testosterone levels were a significant predictor of scores on the Distress to Limitations scale, but not of scores on Fear, Sadness, or Reactivity scales. This sex-specific association between salivary testosterone and behavior in infants is consistent with animal research showing higher prenatal androgens associated with typical male development lower the threshold of sensitivity to endogenous testosterone in postnatal life. In sum, these data provide additional support for the postnatal hormone hypothesis and suggest postnatal testosterone levels may influence the development of emotional regulation in male infants.

  8. Postnatal treadmill exercise alleviates short-term memory impairment by enhancing cell proliferation and suppressing apoptosis in the hippocampus of rat pups born to diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Hoon; Sung, Yun-Hee; Lee, Hee-Hyuk; Ko, Il-Gyu; Kim, Sung-Eun; Shin, Mal-Soon; Kim, Bo-Kyun

    2014-08-01

    During pregnancy, diabetes mellitus exerts detrimental effects on the development of the fetus, especially the central nervous system. In the current study, we evaluated the effects of postnatal treadmill exercise on short-term memory in relation with cell proliferation and apoptosis in the hippocampus of rat pups born to streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic maternal rats. Adult female rats were mated with male rats for 24 h. Two weeks after mating, the pregnant female rats were divided into two groups: control group and STZ injection group. The pregnant rats in the STZ injection group were administered 40 mg/kg of STZ intraperitoneally. After birth, the rat pups were divided into the following four groups: control group, control with postnatal exercise group, maternal STZ-injection group, and maternal STZ-injection with postnatal exercise group. The rat pups in the postnatal exercise groups were made to run on a treadmill for 30 min once a day, 5 times per week for 2 weeks beginning 4 weeks after birth. The rat pups born to diabetic rats were shown to have short-term memory impairment with suppressed cell proliferation and increased apoptosis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Postnatal treadmill exercise alleviated short-term memory impairment by increased cell proliferation and suppressed apoptosis in the rat pups born to diabetic rats. These findings indicate that postnatal treadmill exercise may be used as a valuable strategy to ameliorate neurodevelopmental problems in children born to diabetics.

  9. Long-Term Impacts of Foetal Malnutrition Followed by Early Postnatal Obesity on Fat Distribution Pattern and Metabolic Adaptability in Adult Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Khanal, Prabhat; Johnsen, Lærke; Axel, Anne Marie Dixen; Hansen, Pernille Willert; Kongsted, Anna Hauntoft; Lyckegaard, Nette Brinch; Nielsen, Mette Olaf

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate whether over- versus undernutrition in late foetal life combined with obesity development in early postnatal life have differential implications for fat distribution and metabolic adaptability in adulthood. Twin-pregnant ewes were fed NORM (100% of daily energy and protein requirements), LOW (50% of NORM) or HIGH (150%/110% of energy/protein requirements) diets during the last trimester. Postnatally, twin-lambs received obesogenic (HCHF) or moderate (CONV) diets until 6 months of age, and a moderate (obesity correcting) diet thereafter. At 2½ years of age (adulthood), plasma metabolite profiles during fasting, glucose, insulin and propionate (in fed and fasted states) tolerance tests were examined. Organ weights were determined at autopsy. Early obesity development was associated with lack of expansion of perirenal, but not other adipose tissues from adolescence to adulthood, resulting in 10% unit increased proportion of mesenteric of intra-abdominal fat. Prenatal undernutrition had a similar but much less pronounced effect. Across tolerance tests, LOW-HCHF sheep had highest plasma levels of cholesterol, urea-nitrogen, creatinine, and lactate. Sex specific differences were observed, particularly with respect to fat deposition, but direction of responses to early nutrition impacts were similar. However, prenatal undernutrition induced greater metabolic alterations in adult females than males. Foetal undernutrition, but not overnutrition, predisposed for adult hypercholesterolaemia, hyperureaemia, hypercreatinaemia and hyperlactataemia, which became manifested only in combination with early obesity development. Perirenal expandability may play a special role in this context. Differential nutrition recommendations may be advisable for individuals with low versus high birth weights. PMID:27257993

  10. Long-Term Impacts of Foetal Malnutrition Followed by Early Postnatal Obesity on Fat Distribution Pattern and Metabolic Adaptability in Adult Sheep.

    PubMed

    Khanal, Prabhat; Johnsen, Lærke; Axel, Anne Marie Dixen; Hansen, Pernille Willert; Kongsted, Anna Hauntoft; Lyckegaard, Nette Brinch; Nielsen, Mette Olaf

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate whether over- versus undernutrition in late foetal life combined with obesity development in early postnatal life have differential implications for fat distribution and metabolic adaptability in adulthood. Twin-pregnant ewes were fed NORM (100% of daily energy and protein requirements), LOW (50% of NORM) or HIGH (150%/110% of energy/protein requirements) diets during the last trimester. Postnatally, twin-lambs received obesogenic (HCHF) or moderate (CONV) diets until 6 months of age, and a moderate (obesity correcting) diet thereafter. At 2½ years of age (adulthood), plasma metabolite profiles during fasting, glucose, insulin and propionate (in fed and fasted states) tolerance tests were examined. Organ weights were determined at autopsy. Early obesity development was associated with lack of expansion of perirenal, but not other adipose tissues from adolescence to adulthood, resulting in 10% unit increased proportion of mesenteric of intra-abdominal fat. Prenatal undernutrition had a similar but much less pronounced effect. Across tolerance tests, LOW-HCHF sheep had highest plasma levels of cholesterol, urea-nitrogen, creatinine, and lactate. Sex specific differences were observed, particularly with respect to fat deposition, but direction of responses to early nutrition impacts were similar. However, prenatal undernutrition induced greater metabolic alterations in adult females than males. Foetal undernutrition, but not overnutrition, predisposed for adult hypercholesterolaemia, hyperureaemia, hypercreatinaemia and hyperlactataemia, which became manifested only in combination with early obesity development. Perirenal expandability may play a special role in this context. Differential nutrition recommendations may be advisable for individuals with low versus high birth weights. PMID:27257993

  11. Current Topics in Postnatal Behavioral Testing.

    PubMed

    Henck, Judith W; Elayan, Ikram; Vorhees, Charles; Fisher, J Edward; Morford, LaRonda L

    2016-09-01

    The study of developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) continues to be an important component of safety evaluation of candidate therapeutic agents and of industrial and environmental chemicals. Developmental neurotoxicity is considered to be an adverse change in the central and/or peripheral nervous system during development of an organism and has been primarily evaluated by studying functional outcomes, such as changes in behavior, neuropathology, neurochemistry, and/or neurophysiology. Neurobehavioral evaluations are a component of a wide range of toxicology studies in laboratory animal models, whereas neurochemistry and neurophysiology are less commonly employed. Although the primary focus of this article is on neurobehavioral evaluation in pre- and postnatal development and juvenile toxicology studies used in pharmaceutical development, concepts may also apply to adult nonclinical safety studies and Environmental Protection Agency/chemical assessments. This article summarizes the proceedings of a symposium held during the 2015 American College of Toxicology annual meeting and includes a discussion of the current status of DNT testing as well as potential issues and recommendations. Topics include the regulatory context for DNT testing; study design and interpretation; behavioral test selection, including a comparison of core learning and memory systems; age of testing; repeated testing of the same animals; use of alternative animal models; impact of findings; and extrapolation of animal results to humans. Integration of the regulatory experience and scientific concepts presented during this symposium, as well as from subsequent discussion and input, provides a synopsis of the current state of DNT testing in safety assessment, as well as a potential roadmap for future advancement.

  12. Changes in gravity influence rat postnatal motor system development: from simulation to space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, K.; Heffernan, C.; Sulica, D.; Benavides, L.

    1997-01-01

    Our research examines the role of the environment in postnatal nervous system development. Recently we have been studying the effects of changes in gravity on the motor system of rats from postnatal day (P) 2 to 31 using kinematic analysis of swimming, walking, and righting reflexes. Using the tail suspension model of weightlessness we identified sensitive and critical periods of motor system development corresponding to the time during which a motor skill is first achieved. Motor performance in suspended animals was marked by slow swimming, walking, and air-righting, all of which were characterized by hindlimb extension. (Walton et al, Neurosci. 52,763,1992). The critical periods identified in these studies contributed to determining the age of animals for a small payload, NIH.R3. This 9-day mission (STS-72) included 2 litters at P5, P7, or P15 at launch. The P7-16 and P15-24 groups were studied post-flight. On the landing day (R+0) surface righting, swimming and walking were slower in flight compared to control animals. Differences were more marked in the younger animals and the hindlimbs were more affected than the forelimbs with marked, prolonged extension of, at least, the ankle joint angle. Readaptation to 1G was slower in the P7-16 group with righting reflexes adapting first, walking last. We have shown that gravity is an important factor in postnatal nervous system development and that its affect depends on the age of the animal, duration of the perturbation, and the motor function studied.

  13. Effect of pre- and postnatal nicotine exposure on vasopressinergic system in rats.

    PubMed

    Zbuzek, V K; Zbuzek, V

    1999-02-01

    Timed pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were infused subcutaneously either with nicotine (NIC, 6 mg kg-1 day-1; n=17) or saline (control, n=15) on the 3rd day of gestation, via Alzet osmotic pumps, for 28 days. After the parturition, the pups of both, control and NIC infused dams, were each randomly divided into 2 groups and placed to be nursed as following: (1) control dams nursing pups born to control mother (control group); (2) control dams nursing pups born to NIC-infused mother (prenatal NIC group); (3) NIC-infused dams nursing pups born to control mother (postnatal NIC group); (4) NIC-infused dams nursing pups born to NIC-infused mother (pre- and postnatal NIC group). Vasopressin (VP) was measured by RIA in plasma, neurointermediate lobe (NIL) and hypothalamus (HT) in the pups of both sexes, at the following age: 0 (within 24 h after birth); 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 weeks. At the age of 3, 4 and 6 weeks, the isolated NILs were individually superfused and VP was measured as a basal release and the response to a 10-min 56 mM potassium stimulation. A marked suppression in the activity of VP-ergic system was observed in both sexes of offspring exposed to NIC prenatally, being first detectable at the age of 3 weeks, when the HT-NIL system becomes fully developed. However, the significant changes were observed at the age of 6 weeks: decreased serum VP concentration, lower VP contents in the HT and NIL, and suppressed VP release, basal and stimulated, from the isolated NIL. Postnatal exposure to nicotine was ineffective.

  14. Debt, cohabitation, and marriage in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Addo, Fenaba R

    2014-10-01

    Despite growing evidence that debt influences pivotal life events in early and young adulthood, the role of debt in the familial lives of young adults has received relatively little attention. Using data from the NLSY 1997 cohort (N = 6,749) and a discrete-time competing risks hazard model framework, I test whether the transition to first union is influenced by a young adult's credit card and education loan debt above and beyond traditional educational and labor market characteristics. I find that credit card debt is positively associated with cohabitation for men and women, and that women with education loan debt are more likely than women without such debt to delay marriage and transition into cohabitation. Single life may be difficult to afford, but marital life is un-affordable as well. Cohabitation presents an alternative to single life, but not necessarily a marital substitute for these young adults.

  15. Adulthood personality correlates of childhood adversity

    PubMed Central

    Carver, Charles S.; Johnson, Sheri L.; McCullough, Michael E.; Forster, Daniel E.; Joormann, Jutta

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Childhood adversity has been linked to internalizing and externalizing disorders and personality disorders in adulthood. This study extends that research by examining several personality measures as correlates of childhood adversity. Method: In a college sample self-reports were collected of childhood adversity, several scales relating to personality, and current depression symptoms as a control variable. The personality-related scales were reduced to four latent variables, which we termed anger/aggression, extrinsic focus, agreeableness, and engagement. Results: Controlling for concurrent depressive symptoms and gender, higher levels of reported childhood adversity related to lower agreeableness and to higher anger/aggression and extrinsic focus. Conclusions: Findings suggest that early adversity is linked to personality variables relevant to the building of social connection. PMID:25484874

  16. Effect of nebivolol treatment during pregnancy on the genital circulation, fetal growth and postnatal development in the Wistar rat.

    PubMed

    Altoama, Kassem; Yassine Mallem, Mohamed; Thorin, Chantal; Betti, Eric; Desfontis, Jean-Claude

    2015-07-01

    The aim of study was to evaluate the effects of nebivolol, a cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic receptor blocker of the third generation with vasodilatory properties, vs. bisoprolol on the genital circulation, uterine vasculature, fetal growth and postnatal development in pregnant Wistar rats. Non invasive measurements of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) and heart rate (HR), and invasive measurement of genital blood flow (GBF) were taken in pregnant rats, by tail cuff and transonic probe methods respectively, after an oral treatment by gastric gavage with nebivolol (8mg/kg/day) or bisoprolol (10mg/kg/day) from day 11 to day 18 of pregnancy. Other morphometrical and histological measurements were performed on the ovarian and uterine arteries to evaluate the effect of nebivolol on the uterine vasculature. Furthermore, postnatal mortality and pup growth were recorded. The data demonstrated that nebivolol (compared with bisoprolol) induced a significant decrease in SBP, HR and GBF while DBP remained unchanged. Moreover, nebivolol increased the diameter and the length of ovarian and uterine arteries and the number of uterine artery segmental branches. The results also showed that the body weight gain of newborns in the nebivolol group was significantly lower vs. bisoprolol and vs. control with a higher mortality rate. The nebivolol action is not only limited to its favorable hemodynamic effects represented by a decrease in blood pressure, but it also produces adverse effects on fetal growth and postnatal development that may limit its therapeutic use in females during pregnancy.

  17. Developmental iodine deficiency delays the maturation of newborn granule neurons associated with downregulation of p35 in postnatal rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fei; Wang, Yi; Xu, Hongde; Dong, Jing; Wei, Wei; Wang, Yuan; Shan, Zhongyan; Teng, Weiping; Xi, Qi; Chen, Jie

    2014-08-01

    We evaluated the role of p35 in the maturation of hippocampal granule neurons in offspring caused by developmental iodine deficiency. Two developmental rat models were established with either an iodine-deficient diet, or propylthiouracil-adulterated water (5 ppm) to impair thyroid function, in pregnant rats from gestational day 6 until postnatal day 28. The protein levels of p35, cyclin-dependent kinase 5, β-catenin, and N-cadherin were assessed on postnatal day 14, 21, and 28. Dendritic morphogenesis of newborn granule neurons in dentate gyrus was examined. Developmental hypothyroidism induced by iodine deficiency and PTU treatment delayed the maturation of hippocampal granule neurons in the offspring and decreased the percentage of Dcx-positive neurons that expressed β-catenin on postnatal day 21 and 28. In addition, downregulation of p35 was observed in dentate gyrus of hypothyroid groups. Developmental hypothyroidism induced by iodine deficiency and PTU treatment could delay the maturation of newborn granule neurons in dentate gyrus, and this deficit may be attributed to the downregulation of p35.

  18. Age differences in genetic and environmental variations in stress-coping during adulthood: a study of female twins.

    PubMed

    Hur, Yoon-Mi; MacGregor, Alexander J; Cherkas, Lynn; Williams, Frances M K; Spector, Tim D

    2012-07-01

    The way people cope with stressors of day to day living has an important influence on health. The aim of the present study was to explore whether genetic and environmental variations in stress-coping differ over time during adulthood. The brief COPE was mailed to a large sample of the UK female twins (N = 4,736) having a wide range of age (20-87 years). Factor analyses of the items of the brief COPE yielded three coping scales: 'Problem-Solving', 'Support Seeking', and 'Avoidance'. Monozygotic and dizygotic twin correlations tended to become lower with age for all three scales, suggesting that unique environmental factors may become more important with age during adulthood. Model-fitting results showed that relative influences of unique environmental factors increased from 60 % at age 20 years to 74% at age 87 years for 'Problem-Solving' and 56 % at age 20 years to 76% at age 87 years for 'Avoidance'. During the same age period, genetic factors decreased from 40 to 26 % for 'Problem-Solving' and from 44 to 24 % for 'Avoidance'. For 'Seeking Support', the magnitude of genetic and unique environmental factors was not significantly different across the adulthood. For all three scales, shared environmental effects were negligible. Overall, our findings implicate that the effects of environment that stem from idiosyncratic experience of stressful life events accumulate and become increasingly important in adulthood.

  19. Prenatal and Postnatal Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Exposure, Airway Hyperreactivity, and Beta-2 Adrenergic Receptor Function in Sensitized Mouse Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hanjie; Maher, Christina; McDonald, Jacob D.; Zhang, Xiang; Ho, Shuk-Mei; Yan, Beizhan; Chillrud, Steven; Perera, Frederica; Factor, Phillip; Miller, Rachel L.

    2013-01-01

    Despite data associating exposure to traffic-related polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in asthma, mechanistic support has been limited. We hypothesized that both prenatal and early postnatal exposure to PAH would increase airway hyperreactivity (AHR) and that the resulting AHR may be insensitive to treatment with a β2AR agonist drug, procaterol. Further, we hypothesized that these exposures would be associated with altered β2AR gene expression and DNA methylation in mouse lungs. Mice were exposed prenatally or postnatally to a nebulized PAH mixture versus negative control aerosol 5 days a week. Double knockout β2AR mice were exposed postnatally only. Prenatal exposure to PAH was associated with reduced β2AR gene expression among nonsensitized mice offspring, but not increases in DNA methylation or AHR. Postnatal exposure to PAH was borderline associated with increased AHR among sensitized wildtype, but not knockout mice. In the first study that delivers PAH aerosols to mice in a relatively physiological manner, small effects on AHR and β2AR gene expression, but not β2AR agonist drug activity, were observed. If confirmed, the results may suggest that exposure to PAH, common ambient urban pollutants, affects β2AR function, although the impact on the efficacy of β2AR agonist drugs used in treating asthma remains uncertain. PMID:24454363

  20. Immunization of neonatal mice with LAMP/p55 HIV gag DNA elicits robust immune responses that last to adulthood

    SciTech Connect

    Ordonhez Rigato, Paula; Maciel, Milton; Goldoni, Adriana Leticia; Piubelli, Orlando; Alves de Brito, Cyro; Fusaro, Ana Elisa; Eurico de Alencar, Liciana Xavier; August, Thomas; Torres Azevedo Marques, Ernesto; Silva Duarte, Alberto Jose da; Sato, Maria Notomi

    2010-10-10

    Successful T cell priming in early postnatal life that can generate effective long-lasting responses until adulthood is critical in HIV vaccination strategies because it prevents early sexual initiation and breastfeeding transmission of HIV. A chimeric DNA vaccine encoding p55 HIV gag associated with lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP-1; which drives the antigen to the MIIC compartment), has been used to enhance cellular and humoral antigen-specific responses in adult mice and macaques. Herein, we investigated LAMP-1/gag vaccine immunogenicity in the neonatal period in mice and its ability to generate long-lasting effects. Neonatal vaccination with chimeric LAMP/gag generated stronger Gag-specific immune responses, as measured by the breadth of the Gag peptide-specific IFN-{gamma}, proliferative responsiveness, cytokine production and antibody production, all of which revealed activation of CD4+ T cells as well as the generation of a more robust CTL response compared to gag vaccine alone. To induce long-lived T and B cell memory responses, it was necessary to immunize neonates with the chimeric LAMP/gag DNA vaccine. The LAMP/gag DNA vaccine strategy could be particularly useful for generating an anti-HIV immune response in the early postnatal period capable of inducing long-term immunological memory.

  1. Preserving of Postnatal Leptin Signaling in Obesity-Resistant Lou/C Rats following a Perinatal High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Poher, Anne-Laure; Arsenijevic, Denis; Asrih, Mohamed; Dulloo, Abdul G.; Jornayvaz, François R.; Rohner-Jeanrenaud, Françoise; Veyrat-Durebex, Christelle

    2016-01-01

    Physiological processes at adulthood, such as energy metabolism and insulin sensitivity may originate before or weeks after birth. These underlie the concept of fetal and/or neonatal programming of adult diseases, which is particularly relevant in the case of obesity and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a perinatal high fat diet on energy metabolism and on leptin as well as insulin sensitivity, early in life and at adulthood in two strains of rats presenting different susceptibilities to diet-induced obesity. The impact of a perinatal high fat diet on glucose tolerance and diet-induced obesity was also assessed. The development of glucose intolerance and of increased fat mass was confirmed in the obesity-prone Wistar rat, even after 28 days of age. By contrast, in obesity-resistant Lou/C rats, an improved early leptin signaling may be responsible for the lack of deleterious effect of the perinatal high fat diet on glucose tolerance and increased adiposity in response to high fat diet at adulthood. Altogether, this study shows that, even if during the perinatal period adaptation to the environment appears to be genetically determined, adaptive mechanisms to nutritional challenges occurring at adulthood can still be observed in rodents. PMID:27618559

  2. Preserving of Postnatal Leptin Signaling in Obesity-Resistant Lou/C Rats following a Perinatal High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Poher, Anne-Laure; Arsenijevic, Denis; Asrih, Mohamed; Dulloo, Abdul G; Jornayvaz, François R; Rohner-Jeanrenaud, Françoise; Veyrat-Durebex, Christelle

    2016-01-01

    Physiological processes at adulthood, such as energy metabolism and insulin sensitivity may originate before or weeks after birth. These underlie the concept of fetal and/or neonatal programming of adult diseases, which is particularly relevant in the case of obesity and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a perinatal high fat diet on energy metabolism and on leptin as well as insulin sensitivity, early in life and at adulthood in two strains of rats presenting different susceptibilities to diet-induced obesity. The impact of a perinatal high fat diet on glucose tolerance and diet-induced obesity was also assessed. The development of glucose intolerance and of increased fat mass was confirmed in the obesity-prone Wistar rat, even after 28 days of age. By contrast, in obesity-resistant Lou/C rats, an improved early leptin signaling may be responsible for the lack of deleterious effect of the perinatal high fat diet on glucose tolerance and increased adiposity in response to high fat diet at adulthood. Altogether, this study shows that, even if during the perinatal period adaptation to the environment appears to be genetically determined, adaptive mechanisms to nutritional challenges occurring at adulthood can still be observed in rodents. PMID:27618559

  3. The neurogenic competence of progenitors from the postnatal rat retina in vitro.

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, Maren; Wachs, Frank-Peter; Couillard-Despres, Sebastien; Aigner, Ludwig

    2004-05-01

    The mammalian retina develops from stem or progenitor cells that are of neuroectodermal origin and derive from bilateral invaginations of the neuroepithelium, the optic vesicles. Shortly after birth, around 12 days postnatal in rats, the retina is fully developed in its cellular parts. Even though different cell types in the adult might be potential sources for retinal stem cells or progenitor cells, the retina is a non-neurogenic region and the diseased retina is devoid of any spontaneous regeneration. In an attempt to link late developmental processes to the adult situation, we analyzed the presence and the neurogenic potential of retinal progenitors during the postnatal period and compared it to adult ciliary body (CB) derived retinal progenitors and subventricular zone (SVZ) derived neural stem cells. Retinal progenitor properties were identified by the capacity to proliferate and by the expression of the progenitor markers Nestin, Flk-1, Chx10, Pax6 and the radial glia marker BLBP. The neurogenic potential was assayed by the expression of the neuronal markers doublecortin, betaIII Tubulin, Map2 and NSE, the glial makers A2B5, NG2, GalC and GFAP, and by incorporation of BrdU. The number of Flk-1 positive cells and concomitantly the number of newly born betaIII Tubulin-positive cells decreased within the first postnatal week in retinal progenitor cultures and no newly generated betaIII Tubulin, but GFAP positive cells were detected thereafter. In contrast to neural stem cells derived from the adult SVZ, postnatal and adult CB derived progenitors had a lower and a restricted proliferation potential and did not generate oligodendrocytes. The work demonstrates, however, that the existence of retinal progenitor cells is not restricted to embryonic development. In the sensory retina the differentiation potential of late retinal progenitors becomes restricted to the glial lineage, whereas neurogenic progenitor cells are still present in the CB. In addition, major

  4. Subjective acceleration of time experience in everyday life across adulthood.

    PubMed

    John, Dennis; Lang, Frieder R

    2015-12-01

    Most people believe that time seems to pass more quickly as they age. Building on assumptions of socioemotional selectivity theory, we investigated whether awareness that one's future lifetime is limited is associated with one's experience of time during everyday activities across adulthood in 3 studies. In the first 2 studies (Study 1: N = 608; Study 2: N = 398), participants completed a web-based version of the day reconstruction method. In Study 3 (N = 392) participants took part in a newly developed tomorrow construction method, a web-based experimental method for assessing everyday life plans. Results confirmed that older adults' subjective interpretation of everyday episodes is that these episodes pass more quickly compared with younger adults. The subjective acceleration of time experience in old age was more pronounced during productive activities than during regenerative-consumptive activities. The age differences were partly related to limited time remaining in life. In addition, subjective acceleration of time experience was associated with positive evaluations of everyday activities. Findings suggest that subjective acceleration of time in older adults' daily lives reflects an adaptation to limitations in time remaining in life. (PsycINFO Database Record

  5. Expression of glucocorticoid receptor, mineralocorticoid receptor, and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 and 2 in the fetal and postnatal ovine hippocampus: ontogeny and effects of prenatal glucocorticoid exposure.

    PubMed

    Sloboda, Deborah M; Moss, Timothy J M; Li, Shaofu; Matthews, Stephen G; Challis, John R G; Newnham, John P

    2008-05-01

    To determine the expression of glucocorticoid metabolizing and action genes in the hippocampus of fetal, neonatal, and adult sheep. Pregnant ewes (or their fetuses) received intramuscular injections of saline or betamethasone (BETA, 0-5 mg/kg) at 104, 111, 118, and/or 125 days of gestation (dG). Hippocampal tissue was collected prior to (75, 84, and 101 dG), during (109 and 116 dG), or after (121, 132, and 146 dG; 6 and 12 postnatal weeks; 3.5 years of age) saline or BETA injections. Hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor (GR), mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11betaHSD)1 and 11betaHSD2 mRNA levels were determined using qRT-PCR. Control animals late in gestation demonstrated a decrease in mRNA encoding GR and 11betaHSD1, whereas 11betaHSD2 was undetectable, consistent with a damping of the negative feedback influence of circulating or locally produced cortisol on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. BETA-administration had transient effects on fetal GR and MR, and early in postnatal life (12 weeks of age) 11betaHSD1 mRNA was increased. Hippocampal MR mRNA was elevated in adult offspring exposed to either one or four doses of maternal BETA (P<0.001). Four courses of maternal BETA increased 11betaHSD2 (P<0.05) but not 11betaHSD1 mRNA levels. Late in gestation a reduction in hippocampal GR and 11betaHSD1 mRNA suggests lessening of glucocorticoid negative feedback, facilitating increased preterm HPA activity and parturition. Adult offspring of BETA-treated mothers demonstrated increased MR and 11betaHSD2 mRNA, therefore it appears that exposure of fetus to high levels of synthetic glucocorticoids may have long-lasting effects on the hippocampal expression of HPA-related genes into adulthood.

  6. Emerging Adulthood: Developmental Period Facilitative of the Addictions.

    PubMed

    Sussman, Steve; Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen

    2014-06-01

    Following adolescence and prior to young adulthood is a life developmental period that has been referred to as "emerging adulthood." This period of life involves an extended duration of learning and experimentation before settling into a career and stable relationship. Risky behaviors may be most tolerated or even promoted during emerging adulthood. Various substance and behavioral addictions are most likely to be realized during this period. Understanding what differentiates emerging adults that develop or do not develop full-blown addictions will assist in the creation of more efficacious prevention and cessation programs.

  7. Childhood and Adolescent Television Viewing and Antisocial Behavior in Early Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Lindsay A.; McAnally, Helena M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether excessive television viewing throughout childhood and adolescence is associated with increased antisocial behavior in early adulthood. METHODS: We assessed a birth cohort of 1037 individuals born in Dunedin, New Zealand, in 1972–1973, at regular intervals from birth to age 26 years. We used regression analysis to investigate the associations between television viewing hours from ages 5 to 15 years and criminal convictions, violent convictions, diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder, and aggressive personality traits in early adulthood. RESULTS: Young adults who had spent more time watching television during childhood and adolescence were significantly more likely to have a criminal conviction, a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder, and more aggressive personality traits compared with those who viewed less television. The associations were statistically significant after controlling for sex IQ, socioeconomic status, previous antisocial behavior, and parental control. The associations were similar for both sexes, indicating that the relationship between television viewing and antisocial behavior is similar for male and female viewers. CONCLUSIONS: Excessive television viewing in childhood and adolescence is associated with increased antisocial behavior in early adulthood. The findings are consistent with a causal association and support the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendation that children should watch no more than 1 to 2 hours of television each day. PMID:23420910

  8. Life-course socioeconomic trajectories and diurnal cortisol regulation in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Per E; Janlert, Urban; Theorell, Töres; Hammarström, Anne

    2010-05-01

    Although the health risk of socioeconomic disadvantage over the life-course is fairly established, the mechanisms are less studied. One candidate pathway is long-term dysregulation of cortisol. This study assesses whether socioeconomic trajectories from adolescence to adulthood influences the regulation of cortisol in mid-adulthood, and further investigates the importance of adolescence as a critical period and of accumulation of socioeconomic disadvantage. Participants were drawn from a 27-year prospective cohort study (n=732, 68% of the original cohort). Information on socioeconomic status (SES) was collected at the ages of 16 (based on parental occupation), 21, 30 and 43 (based on own occupation) years, and at 43 years participants collected one-day salivary cortisol samples at awakening, after 15min, before lunch and at bedtime. We found that the cortisol awakening response (CAR) differed with respect to SES trajectory; those with stable low or early low/upwardly mobile SES tended to display higher CAR than those with early high/downwardly mobile, highly mobile or stable high trajectories. Further analyses revealed that early low SES was related to higher CAR, and in women low SES was related to lower bedtime cortisol, independently of later SES and potential confounders. We found no support for a linear effect of accumulation of socioeconomic disadvantage. In conclusion, our study gives support for an independent effect of low socioeconomic status early in life, on the regulation of cortisol in adulthood. PMID:19879057

  9. Comparative Analyses between Skeletal Muscle miRNAomes from Large White and Min Pigs Revealed MicroRNAs Associated with Postnatal Muscle Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Hemin; Wang, Lixian; Qi, Xiaolong; Xing, Shuhan; Guo, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The molecular mechanism regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs) that underlies postnatal hypertrophy of skeletal muscle is complex and remains unclear. Here, the miRNAomes of longissimus dorsi muscle collected at five postnatal stages (60, 120, 150, 180, and 210 days after birth) from Large White (commercial breed) and Min pigs (indigenous breed of China) were analyzed by Illumina sequencing. We identified 734 miRNAs comprising 308 annotated miRNAs and 426 novel miRNAs, of which 307 could be considered pig-specific. Comparative analysis between two breeds suggested that 60 and 120 days after birth were important stages for skeletal muscle hypertrophy and intramuscular fat accumulation. A total of 263 miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed between two breeds at one or more developmental stages. In addition, the differentially expressed miRNAs between every two adjacent developmental stages in each breed were determined. Notably, ssc-miR-204 was significantly more highly expressed in Min pig skeletal muscle at all postnatal stages compared with its expression in Large White pig skeletal muscle. Based on gene ontology and KEGG pathway analyses of its predicted target genes, we concluded that ssc-miR-204 may exert an impact on postnatal hypertrophy of skeletal muscle by regulating myoblast proliferation. The results of this study will help in elucidating the mechanism underlying postnatal hypertrophy of skeletal muscle modulated by miRNAs, which could provide valuable information for improvement of pork quality and human myopathy. PMID:27253583

  10. The consequences of prenatal and/or postnatal methamphetamine exposure on neonatal development and behaviour in rat offspring.

    PubMed

    McDonnell-Dowling, Kate; Kelly, John P

    2015-12-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) has become a popular drug of abuse in recent years not only in the general population but also amongst pregnant women. Although there is a growing body of preclinical investigations of MA exposure during pregnancy, there has been little investigation of the consequences of such exposure via the breast milk during the neonatal period. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the consequences of MA exposure during pregnancy and lactation on neurodevelopment and behaviour in the rat offspring. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley dams received MA (3.75 mg/kg) or control (distilled water) once daily via oral gavage from gestation day 7-21, postnatal day 1-21 or gestation day 7- postnatal day 21. A range of well-recognised neurodevelopmental parameters were examined in the offspring. Prenatal MA significantly reduced maternal weight gain, with a concomitant reduction in food intake. A significant increase in neonatal pup mortality was observed, being most marked in the prenatal/postnatal MA group. Significant impairments in neurodevelopmental parameters were also evident in all MA treatment groups including somatic development (e.g. pinna unfolding, fur appearance, eye opening) and behavioural development (e.g. surface righting, inclined plane test, forelimb grip). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that exposure to MA during any of these exposure periods (prenatal and/or postnatal) can have a profound effect on neonatal outcome, suggesting that regardless of the exposure period MA is associated with detrimental consequences in the offspring. These results indicate that in the clinical scenario, exposure during lactation needs to be considered when assessing the potential harmful effects of MA on offspring development. PMID:26391019

  11. The consequences of prenatal and/or postnatal methamphetamine exposure on neonatal development and behaviour in rat offspring.

    PubMed

    McDonnell-Dowling, Kate; Kelly, John P

    2015-12-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) has become a popular drug of abuse in recent years not only in the general population but also amongst pregnant women. Although there is a growing body of preclinical investigations of MA exposure during pregnancy, there has been little investigation of the consequences of such exposure via the breast milk during the neonatal period. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the consequences of MA exposure during pregnancy and lactation on neurodevelopment and behaviour in the rat offspring. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley dams received MA (3.75 mg/kg) or control (distilled water) once daily via oral gavage from gestation day 7-21, postnatal day 1-21 or gestation day 7- postnatal day 21. A range of well-recognised neurodevelopmental parameters were examined in the offspring. Prenatal MA significantly reduced maternal weight gain, with a concomitant reduction in food intake. A significant increase in neonatal pup mortality was observed, being most marked in the prenatal/postnatal MA group. Significant impairments in neurodevelopmental parameters were also evident in all MA treatment groups including somatic development (e.g. pinna unfolding, fur appearance, eye opening) and behavioural development (e.g. surface righting, inclined plane test, forelimb grip). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that exposure to MA during any of these exposure periods (prenatal and/or postnatal) can have a profound effect on neonatal outcome, suggesting that regardless of the exposure period MA is associated with detrimental consequences in the offspring. These results indicate that in the clinical scenario, exposure during lactation needs to be considered when assessing the potential harmful effects of MA on offspring development.

  12. Programming Effects of Prenatal Glucocorticoid Exposure with a Postnatal High-Fat Diet in Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Hsieh, Chih-Sung; Tain, You-Lin; Li, Shih-Wen; Yu, Hong-Ren; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Tiao, Miao-Meng; Chen, Yu-Chieh; Huang, Li-Tung

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence has shown that many chronic diseases originate from early life, even before birth, through what are termed as fetal programming effects. Glucocorticoids are frequently used prenatally to accelerate the maturation of the lungs of premature infants. High-fat diets are associated with insulin resistance, but the effects of prenatal glucocorticoid exposure plus a postnatal high-fat diet in diabetes mellitus remain unclear. We administered pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats’ intraperitoneal dexamethasone (0.1 mg/kg body weight) or vehicle at gestational days 14–20. Male offspring were administered a normal or high-fat diet starting from weaning. We assessed the effects of prenatal steroid exposure plus postnatal high-fat diet on the liver, pancreas, muscle and fat at postnatal day 120. At 15 and 30 min, sugar levels were higher in the dexamethasone plus high-fat diet (DHF) group than the vehicle plus high-fat diet (VHF) group in the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT). Serum insulin levels at 15, 30 and 60 min were significantly higher in the VHF group than in the vehicle and normal diet group. Liver insulin receptor and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase mRNA expressions and protein levels were lower in the DHF group. Insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate-1 mRNA expressions were lower in the epididymal adipose tissue in the VHF and DHF groups. “Programming” of liver or epididymal adipose tissue resulted from prenatal events. Prenatal steroid exposure worsened insulin resistance in animals fed a high-fat diet. PMID:27070590

  13. Programming Effects of Prenatal Glucocorticoid Exposure with a Postnatal High-Fat Diet in Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Hsieh, Chih-Sung; Tain, You-Lin; Li, Shih-Wen; Yu, Hong-Ren; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Tiao, Miao-Meng; Chen, Yu-Chieh; Huang, Li-Tung

    2016-04-08

    Increasing evidence has shown that many chronic diseases originate from early life, even before birth, through what are termed as fetal programming effects. Glucocorticoids are frequently used prenatally to accelerate the maturation of the lungs of premature infants. High-fat diets are associated with insulin resistance, but the effects of prenatal glucocorticoid exposure plus a postnatal high-fat diet in diabetes mellitus remain unclear. We administered pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats' intraperitoneal dexamethasone (0.1 mg/kg body weight) or vehicle at gestational days 14-20. Male offspring were administered a normal or high-fat diet starting from weaning. We assessed the effects of prenatal steroid exposure plus postnatal high-fat diet on the liver, pancreas, muscle and fat at postnatal day 120. At 15 and 30 min, sugar levels were higher in the dexamethasone plus high-fat diet (DHF) group than the vehicle plus high-fat diet (VHF) group in the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT). Serum insulin levels at 15, 30 and 60 min were significantly higher in the VHF group than in the vehicle and normal diet group. Liver insulin receptor and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase mRNA expressions and protein levels were lower in the DHF group. Insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate-1 mRNA expressions were lower in the epididymal adipose tissue in the VHF and DHF groups. "Programming" of liver or epididymal adipose tissue resulted from prenatal events. Prenatal steroid exposure worsened insulin resistance in animals fed a high-fat diet.

  14. Post-natal depression: the relevance of sociological approaches.

    PubMed

    Thurtle, V

    1995-09-01

    Post-natal depression is much discussed yet definitions and approaches are not homogenous, neither in terms of the cause of post-partum mental ill health, its treatment or how further research in the area should proceed. This paper seeks to examine post-natal 'upsets' and to consider the different explanations that have been and could be made of post-partum mental ill health. The paper reviews the dominant biomedical and psychological approaches, evaluating their ability to explain post-natal mental illness. The writer believes biological and psychological approaches are in the ascendance but seeks to demonstrate that they do not present a full picture. Sociological approaches drawing upon stress, labelling and feminist models are examined, exploring new ways of looking at post-natal illness. The paper concludes that biological and psychological approaches do not provide complete explanations and a multidisciplinary approach is needed. Most significantly the woman's own perception of post-natal ill health is largely absent from the literature. The need for an approach using ethnographic methods is highlighted. PMID:7499607

  15. Civic engagement and the transition to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Constance; Levine, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Constance Flanagan and Peter Levine survey research on civic engagement among U.S. adolescents and young adults. Civic engagement, they say, is important both for the functioning of democracies and for the growth and maturation it encourages in young adults, but opportunities for civic engagement are not evenly distributed by social class or race and ethnicity. Today's young adults, note the authors, are less likely than those in earlier generations to exhibit many important characteristics of citizenship, raising the question of whether these differences represent a decline or simply a delay in traditional adult patterns of civic engagement. Flanagan and Levine also briefly discuss the civic and political lives of immigrant youth in the United States, noting that because these youth make up a significant share of the current generation of young adults, their civic engagement is an important barometer of the future of democracy. The authors next survey differences in civic participation for youth from different social, racial, and ethnic backgrounds. They explore two sets of factors that contribute to a lower rate of civic engagement among low-income and minority young adults. The first is cumulative disadvantage-unequal opportunities and influences before adulthood, especially parental education. The second is different institutional opportunities for civic engagement among college and non-college youth during the young-adult years. Flanagan and Levine survey various settings where young adults spend time-schools and colleges, community organizations, faith-based institutions, community organizing and activism projects, and military and other voluntary service programs-and examine the opportunities for civic engagement that each affords. As the transition to adulthood has lengthened, say the authors, colleges have become perhaps the central institution for civic incorporation of younger generations. But no comparable institution exists for young adults who do not

  16. Prenatal testosterone exposure is related to sexually dimorphic facial morphology in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Whitehouse, Andrew J O; Gilani, Syed Zulqarnain; Shafait, Faisal; Mian, Ajmal; Tan, Diana Weiting; Maybery, Murray T; Keelan, Jeffrey A; Hart, Roger; Handelsman, David J; Goonawardene, Mithran; Eastwood, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Prenatal testosterone may have a powerful masculinizing effect on postnatal physical characteristics. However, no study has directly tested this hypothesis. Here, we report a 20-year follow-up study that measured testosterone concentrations from the umbilical cord blood of 97 male and 86 female newborns, and procured three-dimensional facial images on these participants in adulthood (range: 21-24 years). Twenty-three Euclidean and geodesic distances were measured from the facial images and an algorithm identified a set of six distances that most effectively distinguished adult males from females. From these distances, a 'gender score' was calculated for each face, indicating the degree of masculinity or femininity. Higher cord testosterone levels were associated with masculinized facial features when males and females were analysed together (n = 183; r = -0.59), as well as when males (n = 86; r = -0.55) and females (n = 97; r = -0.48) were examined separately (p-values < 0.001). The relationships remained significant and substantial after adjusting for potentially confounding variables. Adult circulating testosterone concentrations were available for males but showed no statistically significant relationship with gendered facial morphology (n = 85, r = 0.01, p = 0.93). This study provides the first direct evidence of a link between prenatal testosterone exposure and human facial structure. PMID:26400740

  17. Early-life stress increases the survival of midbrain neurons during postnatal development and enhances reward-related and anxiolytic-like behaviors in a sex-dependent fashion.

    PubMed

    Chocyk, Agnieszka; Majcher-Maślanka, Iwona; Przyborowska, Aleksandra; Maćkowiak, Marzena; Wędzony, Krzysztof

    2015-08-01

    Clinical studies have suggested that early-life stress (ELS) increases the risk of psychopathologies that are strongly associated with dysfunction of dopaminergic neurotransmission. Thus, ELS may interfere with the development and maturation of the dopaminergic system; however, the mechanisms involved in such interference are poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the effect of ELS on the survival of specific populations of neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) during postnatal development. First, we injected bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) into pregnant rat dams on embryonic days 12, 13 and 14 to permanently label midbrain neurons. Then, after birth, the dams and litters were subjected to a maternal separation (MS) procedure to model ELS conditions. The number of BrdU+ neurons and the total number of neurons (cresyl violet+, CV+) were estimated in both male and female juvenile, adolescent, and adult rats. Moreover, sucrose preference and anxiety-like behaviors were studied during adulthood. We found that MS permanently increased the number of BrdU+ and CV+ neurons in the VTA of males. In the SNc, a temporary increase in the number of BrdU+ neurons was observed in juvenile MS males; however, only adult MS males displayed an increase in the number of CV+ neurons. Immunofluorescence analysis implied that MS affected the fate of non-dopaminergic neurons. MS males displayed anxiolytic-like behavior and an increase in sucrose preference. These results suggest that ELS induces distinct dysregulation in the midbrain circuitry of males, which may lead to sex-specific psychopathology of the reward system.

  18. The Influence of Culture in Emerging Adulthood: Perspectives of Chinese College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Larry J.; Badger, Sarah; Wu, Bo

    2004-01-01

    Emerging adulthood refers to a time period (18-25 years of age) between adolescence and adulthood. Recent research suggests that it may be a cultural construction. More traditional, non-Western cultures may have a shortened period of emerging adulthood, or no emerging adulthood at all, because these cultures tend to place greater emphasis on…

  19. An Institutional Framework for the Study of the Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, JoAnn S.

    2014-01-01

    The transition to adulthood has received the attention of scholars, practitioners, and policy makers in recent years. For some, the transition is an extended period during which commitments to adulthood institutions are delayed, termed emerging adulthood. For others, the transition is brief and commitments to adulthood institutions begin without…

  20. Stress during a Critical Postnatal Period Induces Region-Specific Structural Abnormalities and Dysfunction of the Prefrontal Cortex via CRF1

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiao-Dun; Liao, Xue-Mei; Uribe-Mariño, Andrés; Liu, Rui; Xie, Xiao-Meng; Jia, Jiao; Su, Yun-Ai; Li, Ji-Tao; Schmidt, Mathias V; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Si, Tian-Mei

    2015-01-01

    During the early postnatal period, environmental influences play a pivotal role in shaping the development of the neocortex, including the prefrontal cortex (PFC) that is crucial for working memory and goal-directed actions. Exposure to stressful experiences during this critical period may disrupt the development of PFC pyramidal neurons and impair the wiring and function of related neural circuits. However, the molecular mechanisms of the impact of early-life stress on PFC development and function are not well understood. In this study, we found that repeated stress exposure during the first postnatal week hampered dendritic development in layers II/III and V pyramidal neurons in the dorsal agranular cingulate cortex (ACd) and prelimbic cortex (PL) of neonatal mice. The deleterious effects of early postnatal stress on structural plasticity persisted to adulthood only in ACd layer V pyramidal neurons. Most importantly, concurrent blockade of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1 (CRF1) by systemic antalarmin administration (20 μg/g of body weight) during early-life stress exposure prevented stress-induced apical dendritic retraction and spine loss in ACd layer V neurons and impairments in PFC-dependent cognitive tasks. Moreover, the magnitude of dendritic regression, especially the shrinkage of apical branches, of ACd layer V neurons predicted the degree of cognitive deficits in stressed mice. Our data highlight the region-specific effects of early postnatal stress on the structural plasticity of prefrontal pyramidal neurons, and suggest a critical role of CRF1 in modulating early-life stress-induced prefrontal abnormalities. PMID:25403725

  1. A woman-led approach to improving postnatal care.

    PubMed

    Fryer-Croxall, Claire; Bailey, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    As a large NHS teaching trust we see 6,000 women a year who birth with us. Newly appointed as a modern matron, I noted that poor experience on our postnatal ward has always been a key issue in the complaints we receive and from the feedback that our women give to us. The ImPosE (improving postnatal experience) project was launched in December 2013. This brought together members of the multidisciplinary team who were committed to developing our postnatal ward and improving it for our women and their families. We used a quality management approach, putting 'customer' experience at the core, and implemented a varied package of changes as directed by feedback from service users. PMID:25109071

  2. A woman-led approach to improving postnatal care.

    PubMed

    Fryer-Croxall, Claire; Bailey, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    As a large NHS teaching trust we see 6,000 women a year who birth with us. Newly appointed as a modern matron, I noted that poor experience on our postnatal ward has always been a key issue in the complaints we receive and from the feedback that our women give to us. The ImPosE (improving postnatal experience) project was launched in December 2013. This brought together members of the multidisciplinary team who were committed to developing our postnatal ward and improving it for our women and their families. We used a quality management approach, putting 'customer' experience at the core, and implemented a varied package of changes as directed by feedback from service users.

  3. Social Class, Family Formation, and Delinquency in Early Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Kuhl, Danielle C.; Chavez, Jorge M.; Swisher, Raymond R.; Wilczak, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Recent research suggests increasing heterogeneity in the transition from adolescence to early adulthood. This study considers how this heterogeneity may influence delinquency between these two developmental periods. We focus on the role of family transitions, educational attainment, and employment in predicting risk of nonviolent delinquency and substance use, as well as disparities in transitions across socioeconomic status subgroups. Data are from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health). We find that family and neighborhood advantage are negatively associated with transitions into marriage, cohabitation, and parenthood, yet positively associated with educational attainment. In addition, adolescent family and neighborhood advantage are associated with a continuation of delinquent behavior and substance use during early adulthood. In multivariate analyses, accounting for family transitions in early adulthood largely attenuates the relationship between neighborhood advantage in adolescence and delinquency in early adulthood. We conclude by discussing the implications of our findings for developmental criminology. PMID:27418713

  4. Postnatal corticosteroids to treat or prevent chronic lung disease in preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Jefferies, Ann L

    2012-01-01

    Postnatal corticosteroids have been used for prevention and treatment of neonatal chronic lung disease (CLD) (also know as bronchopulmonary dysplasia), a significant cause of mortality and morbidity in preterm infants. As both dexamethasone and hydrocortisone administration within the first seven days of life is associated with an increased risk of cerebral palsy, early postnatal corticosteroid therapy is not recommended to prevent CLD. After seven days of life, dexamethasone has been shown to decrease the rate of CLD at 36 weeks’ postmenstrual age with less impact on neurodevelopmental outcome. No trials have examined whether the benefits of corticosteroids outweigh the adverse effects for infants at high risk of, or with, severe CLD. While routine dexamethasone therapy of all ventilated infants is not recommended, clinicians may consider a short course of low-dose dexamethasone for individual infants at high risk of or with severe CLD. There is no evidence that hydrocortisone is an effective or safe alternative to dexamethasone and little evidence to support routine use of inhaled corticosteroids for prevention or treatment. Inhaled corticosteroids may be considered as an alternative to dexamethasone for treating individual infants with severe CLD. This revision replaces a statement published jointly with the American Academy of Pediatrics in 2002. PMID:24294068

  5. Running in pregnancy transiently increases postnatal hippocampal neurogenesis in the offspring

    PubMed Central

    Bick-Sander, Anika; Steiner, Barbara; Wolf, Susanne A.; Babu, Harish; Kempermann, Gerd

    2006-01-01

    Voluntary wheel running of mice in pregnancy and lactation led to a twofold increase in hippocampal precursor-cell proliferation and in the number of Prox1-expressing lineage-determined cells at postnatal day 8 (P8). At P36, the number of newly generated granule cells approximately doubled, resulting in a 40% higher total number of granule cells in pups from running dams as compared with controls. Cell proliferation at embryonic day 15 (E15), in contrast, was decreased in the progeny of exercising mice, and the birth weight was reduced. At P49, body weight had normalized, and hippocampal neurogenesis was not different between the two groups. mRNA for FGF2 was expressed at higher levels at E15 and P8 in runner pups, whereas VEGF was increased only at E15. Insulin-like growth factor did not show differences at any time point. At P36, no differences for any of the factors were found. Our data indicate that maternal behavior and physical activity affects infantile growth-factor expression and can transiently stimulate postnatal hippocampal development in the offspring. PMID:16537457

  6. Sampling of prenatal and postnatal offspring from individual rat dams enhances animal use without compromising development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alberts, J. R.; Burden, H. W.; Hawes, N.; Ronca, A. E.

    1996-01-01

    To assess prenatal and postnatal developmental status in the offspring of a group of animals, it is typical to examine fetuses from some of the dams as well as infants born to the remaining dams. Statistical limitations often arise, particularly when the animals are rare or especially precious, because all offspring of the dam represent only a single statistical observation; littermates are not independent observations (biologically or statistically). We describe a study in which pregnant laboratory rats were laparotomized on day 7 of gestation (GD7) to ascertain the number and distribution of uterine implantation sites and were subjected to a simulated experience on a 10-day space shuttle flight. After the simulated landing on GD18, rats were unilaterally hysterectomized, thus providing a sample of fetuses from 10 independent uteruses, followed by successful vaginal delivery on GD22, yielding postnatal samples from 10 uteruses. A broad profile of maternal and offspring morphologic and physiologic measures indicated that these novel sampling procedures did not compromise maternal well-being and maintained normal offspring development and function. Measures included maternal organ weights and hormone concentrations, offspring body size, growth, organ weights, sexual differentiation, and catecholamine concentrations.

  7. Lack of toxic effect of technical azadirachtin during postnatal development of rats.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, M K; Raizada, R B

    2007-03-01

    Azadirachtin, a biopesticide has been evaluated for its possible toxic effects during postnatal development of rats over two generations. Rats were fed 100, 500 and 1000ppm technical azadirachtin through diet which is equivalent to 5, 25 and 50mg/kg body weight of rats. Technical azadirachtin has not produced any adverse effects on reproductive function and data were comparable to control animals over two generations. There were no toxicological effect in parent rats as evidenced by clinical signs of toxicity, enzymatic parameters like AST, ALT, ALP, S. bilirubin, S. cholesterol, total protein and histopathology of liver, brain, kidney and testes/ovary. The litters of F(1B) and F(2B) generations were devoid of any morphological, visceral and teratological changes. The percent cumulative loss and growth index of pups were also comparable to respective controls in successive growth period of 0, 4, 7, 14 and 21 days in two generations. There were no major malformations in fetuses while some insignificant minor skeletal variations like missing 5th sternebrae and bipartite thoracic centre found were not compound or dose related. No significant pathomorphological changes were observed in liver, kidney, brain and gonads of F(2B) pups. In conclusion rats fed technical azadirachtin showed no evidence of cumulative effects on postnatal development and reproductive performance over two generations. Absence of any major adverse reproductive effects in adults as well as in 21 days old pups of F(2B) generation suggest the safe use of technical azadirachtin as a biopesticide. PMID:17084955

  8. Post-natal growth of the gastrointestinal tract of the Siberian hamster: morphometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Wołczuk, K; Kobak, J

    2014-12-01

    Post-natal growth of the gastrointestinal tract of the Siberian hamster was studied in newborn and 3-, 7-, 14-, 21-, 42- and 90-day-old animals. Morphometric measurements and calculations were carried out: length and internal surface of gastrointestinal tract segments, size (height, width, surface) and density of villi as well as allometric growth rate of the length and internal surface of the segments with respect to the body mass. The fastest growth rate of the gastrointestinal tract segments was noticed during the first 3 days of the post-natal life. Nevertheless, significant regional differences in their growth rate were found. The increase in the length and internal surface of the large intestine was fastest, while the smallest increase was observed in the oesophagus. All segments of the gastrointestinal tract except oesophagus exhibited a positive allometric relationship to the body mass from birth till final weaning, whereas during the post-weaning period, the increase was isometric. Thus, at birth, the gastrointestinal tract segments were relatively smaller compared with those observed in adults, but then, the gastrointestinal tract grew faster than the rest of the body and reached its adult proportions just before the transition to solid food. Most probably, reaching the adult structure of the gastrointestinal tract before the final weaning is an essential condition for the proper growth of an organism after the weaning.

  9. Prenatal nicotine exposure alters postnatal cardiorespiratory integration in young male but not female rats

    PubMed Central

    Boychuk, Carie R.; Hayward, Linda F.

    2011-01-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) induces sex specific alternations in indices of cardiorespiratory coupling during early development. Rat pups exposed to either nicotine (6mg/kg/day) or saline (control) in utero were chronically instrumented with ECG electrodes for measurement of heart rate (HR) and respiratory frequency (RF) was monitored by whole body plethysmography on postnatal days (P)13, P16 and P26. PNE had no identifiable effect on resting respiratory frequency (RF) in either sex. There was however a strong trend (p=0.057) for resting HR to be elevated by PNE in male offspring only. Alternatively, the HR response to hypoxia (10% O2), was significantly blunted at P13 but significantly elevated at P26 s in the absence of any significant change in RF in PNE males only. Indicators of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) were also significantly reduced in P26 PNE males. No significant effects of PNE on HR, RF or RSA were identified in female offspring at any age. Our results demonstrate that PNE induces very specific changes in cardiorespiratory integration at select postnatal ages and these changes are more prominent in males. Additionally, alternations in cardiorespiratory integration appear to persist into later development in males only, potentially increasing the risk for cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension later in life. PMID:21945005

  10. Running in pregnancy transiently increases postnatal hippocampal neurogenesis in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Bick-Sander, Anika; Steiner, Barbara; Wolf, Susanne A; Babu, Harish; Kempermann, Gerd

    2006-03-01

    Voluntary wheel running of mice in pregnancy and lactation led to a twofold increase in hippocampal precursor-cell proliferation and in the number of Prox1-expressing lineage-determined cells at postnatal day 8 (P8). At P36, the number of newly generated granule cells approximately doubled, resulting in a 40% higher total number of granule cells in pups from running dams as compared with controls. Cell proliferation at embryonic day 15 (E15), in contrast, was decreased in the progeny of exercising mice, and the birth weight was reduced. At P49, body weight had normalized, and hippocampal neurogenesis was not different between the two groups. mRNA for FGF2 was expressed at higher levels at E15 and P8 in runner pups, whereas VEGF was increased only at E15. Insulin-like growth factor did not show differences at any time point. At P36, no differences for any of the factors were found. Our data indicate that maternal behavior and physical activity affects infantile growth-factor expression and can transiently stimulate postnatal hippocampal development in the offspring. PMID:16537457

  11. In utero and postnatal exposure to arsenic alters pulmonary structure and function

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, R. Clark Chau, Binh; Sarihan, Priyanka; Witten, Mark L.; Pivniouk, Vadim I.; Chen, Guan Jie

    2009-02-15

    In addition to cancer endpoints, arsenic exposures can also lead to non-cancerous chronic lung disease. Exposures during sensitive developmental time points can contribute to the adult disease. Using a mouse model, in utero and early postnatal exposures to arsenic (100 ppb or less in drinking water) were found to alter airway reactivity to methacholine challenge in 28 day old pups. Removal of mice from arsenic exposure 28 days after birth did not reverse the alterations in sensitivity to methacholine. In addition, adult mice exposed to similar levels of arsenic in drinking water did not show alterations. Therefore, alterations in airway reactivity were irreversible and specific to exposures during lung development. These functional changes correlated with protein and gene expression changes as well as morphological structural changes around the airways. Arsenic increased the whole lung levels of smooth muscle actin in a dose dependent manner. The level of smooth muscle mass around airways was increased with arsenic exposure, especially around airways smaller than 100 {mu}m in diameter. This increase in smooth muscle was associated with alterations in extracellular matrix (collagen, elastin) expression. This model system demonstrates that in utero and postnatal exposure to environmentally relevant levels of arsenic can irreversibly alter pulmonary structure and function in the adults.

  12. Effects of tetrabromobisphenol A, brominated flame retardant, in ICR mice after prenatal and postnatal exposure.

    PubMed

    Tada, Y; Fujitani, T; Yano, N; Takahashi, H; Yuzawa, K; Ando, H; Kubo, Y; Nagasawa, A; Ogata, A; Kamimura, H

    2006-08-01

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), brominated flame retardant, is produced in the largest amounts globally for use in plastics or building materials. TBBPA has been detected in sediment, air at the dismantling plant or human serum samples. In the present study, we examined the effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure to TBBPA in mice. TBBPA (99.1% pure) in diet was administered to pregnant ICR mice at doses of 0% (control), 0.01%, 0.1% or 1.0% from gestational day 0 to weaning at postnatal day 27. The average daily food intake and body weight of dams showed no significant differences between the control and treated groups. There were no dose-related effects on reproductive data. Serum concentrations of total-cholesterol and liver weights of treated dams and offspring were higher than those of the control mice. Histological findings in treated dams or offspring showed the increase of focal necrosis of hepatocytes and inflammatory cell infiltration in the liver, and increase of dilation or atrophy of renal tubules and cyst in the kidney. TBBPA was developed as a new, safe class of flame retardant and was not highly toxic. However, the present data suggested that TBBPA caused a lipid metabolic disorder and hepatic or kidney lesion, under these conditions. PMID:16716481

  13. Early postnatal dexamethasone treatment and increased incidence of cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Shinwell, E; Karplus, M; Reich, D; Weintraub, Z; Blazer, S; Bader, D; Yurman, S; Dolfin, T; Kogan, A; Dollberg, S; Arbel, E; Goldberg, M; Gur, I; Naor, N; Sirota, L; Mogilner, S; Zaritsky, A; Barak, M; Gottfried, E

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To study the long term neurodevelopmental outcome of children who participated in a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled study of early postnatal dexamethasone treatment for prevention of chronic lung disease.
METHODS—The original study compared a three day course of dexamethasone (n = 132) with a saline placebo (n = 116) administered from before 12 hours of age in preterm infants, who were ventilated for respiratory distress syndrome and had received surfactant treatment. Dexamethasone treatment was associated with an increased incidence of hypertension, hyperglycaemia, and gastrointestinal haemorrhage and no reduction in either the incidence or severity of chronic lung disease or mortality. A total of 195 infants survived to discharge and five died later. Follow up data were obtained on 159 of 190 survivors at a mean (SD) age of 53 (18) months.
RESULTS—No differences were found between the groups in terms of perinatal or neonatal course, antenatal steroid administration, severity of initial disease, or major neonatal morbidity. Dexamethasone treated children had a significantly higher incidence of cerebral palsy than those receiving placebo (39/80 (49%) v 12/79 (15%) respectively; odds ratio (OR) 4.62, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 2.38 to 8.98). The most common form of cerebral palsy was spastic diplegia (incidence 22/80 (28%) v 5/79 (6%) in dexamethasone and placebo treated infants respectively; OR 4.45, 95% CI 1.95to 10.15). Developmental delay was significantly more common in the dexamethasone treated group (44/80 (55%)) than in the placebo treated group (23/79 (29%); OR 2.87, 95% CI 1.53 to 5.38). Dexamethasone treated infants had more periventricular leucomalacia and less intraventricular haemorrhage in the neonatal period than those in the placebo group, although these differences were not statistically significant. Eleven children with cerebral palsy had normal ultrasound scans in the neonatal period; all 11 had received

  14. Parenthood and Leaving Home in Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Hofferth, Sandra L.; Curtin, Sally C.

    2014-01-01

    With increases in nonmarital fertility, the sequencing of transitions in early adulthood has become even more complex. Once the primary transition out of the parental home, marriage was first replaced by nonfamily living and cohabitation; more recently, many young adults have become parents before entering a coresidential union. Studies of leaving home, however, have not examined the role of early parenthood. Using the Young Adult Study of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (n = 4,674), we use logistic regression to analyze parenthood both as a correlate of leaving home and as a route from the home. We find that even in mid-adolescence, becoming a parent is linked with leaving home. Coming from a more affluent family is linked with leaving home via routes that do not involve children rather than those that do, and having a warm relationship with either a mother or a father retards leaving home, particularly to nonfamily living, but is not related to parental routes out of the home. PMID:25544790

  15. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: manifestation in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Riccio, Cynthia A; Wolfe, Monica; Davis, Brandon; Romine, Cassandra; George, Carrie; Lee, Donghyung

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the manifestation of ADHD in adults using a combination of structured clinical interview, behavioral self-report, and a range of neuropsychological measures. Symptom criteria that are endorsed by adults with ADHD as compared to non-diagnosed adults and an adult sample with other clinical disorders tend to reflect problems with follow-through, forgetting, organization, and losing things. Notably, adults in the No Diagnosis group endorsed a higher frequency of symptoms than base rates reported elsewhere. Related to sense of time, adults with ADHD endorsed problems with meeting deadlines, not completing tasks, not planning ahead, and having a poorer sense of time significantly more frequently than adults in either the No-Diagnosis or Other Clinical Disorder group. Results highlighted the need for further research specific to the manifestation of ADHD in adulthood and the development of diagnostic criteria that take into account the differences in development as well as age-related differences in contextual demands. PMID:15708734

  16. Counterfactual reasoning: From childhood to adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Rafetseder, Eva; Schwitalla, Maria; Perner, Josef

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the developmental progression of counterfactual reasoning from childhood to adulthood. In contrast to the traditional view, it was recently reported by Rafetseder and colleagues that even a majority of 6-year-old children do not engage in counterfactual reasoning when asked counterfactual questions (Child Development, 2010, Vol. 81, pp. 376–389). By continuing to use the same method, the main result of the current Study 1 was that performance of the 9- to 11-year-olds was comparable to that of the 6-year-olds, whereas the 12- to 14-year-olds approximated adult performance. Study 2, using an intuitively simpler task based on Harris and colleagues (Cognition, 1996, Vol. 61, pp. 233–259), resulted in a similar conclusion, specifically that the ability to apply counterfactual reasoning is not fully developed in all children before 12 years of age. We conclude that children who failed our tasks seem to lack an understanding of what needs to be changed (events that are causally dependent on the counterfactual assumption) and what needs to be left unchanged and so needs to be kept as it actually happened. Alternative explanations, particularly executive functioning, are discussed in detail. PMID:23219156

  17. Structural modeling of contrast sensitivity in adulthood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scialfa, Charles T.; Kline, Donald W.; Wood, Philip K.

    2002-01-01

    Structural equation modeling was used to assess the utility of the sensorineural model of contrast sensitivity proposed by Sekuler et al. [Vision Res. 24, 689 (1984)] to account for spatial vision in adulthood. In Study 1, visual acuity and contrast sensitivity (1.5-18 c/deg) were measured in 84 people between the ages of 19 and 81 yr. No three-filter model fitted the data well. Although a two-filter model was associated with good fit indices, parameter estimates for both filters were inconsistent with physiological and behavioral data. In Study 2, acuity and contrast sensitivity (1.5-18 c/deg) were assessed in 95 observers between the ages of 23 and 73 yr. All measures were gathered once per month over a three-month period. The Sekuler et al. three-filter model did not fit the data from any time of measure, but a two-filter, bandpass model provided a consistent and excellent fit for all three waves. The model suggests that age-related change in the neural mechanisms underlying contrast sensitivity is minimal once acuity is controlled. Discrepancies between this conclusion and that reported by Sekuler et al. may be related to test type, psychophysical method, reliability, and sample selection.

  18. Anabolic/androgenic steroid administration during adolescence and adulthood differentially modulates aggression and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Thomas R; Ricci, Lesley A; Melloni, Richard H

    2015-03-01

    Anabolic/androgenic steroid (AAS) use remains high in both teens and adults in the U.S. and worldwide despite studies showing that AAS use is associated with a higher incidence of aggression and anxiety. Recently we showed that chronic exposure to AAS through adolescence increases aggression and decreases anxious behaviors, while during AAS-withdrawal aggression is lowered to species-normative levels and anxiety increases. AAS exposure is known to differentially alter behaviors and their underlying neural substrates between adults and adolescents and thus the current study investigated whether exposure to AAS during adulthood affects the relationship between aggression and anxiety in a manner similar to that previously observed in adolescents. Male hamsters were administered a moderate dose of AAS (5.0mg/kg/day×30days) during adolescence (P27-56) or young adulthood (P65-P94) and then tested for aggression and anxiety during AAS exposure (i.e., on P57 or P95) and during AAS withdrawal (i.e., 30days later on P77 or P115). Adolescent exposure to AAS increased aggressive responding during the AAS exposure period and anxiety-like responding during AAS withdrawal. Neither behavior was similarly influenced by adult exposure to AAS. Adult AAS exposure produced no difference in aggressive responding during AAS exposure (P95) or AAS withdrawal (P115); however, while AAS exposure during adulthood produced no difference in anxiety-like responding during AAS exposure, adult hamsters administered AAS were less anxious than vehicle control animals following AAS withdrawal. Together these data suggest that the aggression and anxiety provoking influence of AAS are likely a developmental phenomenon and that adult exposure to AAS may be anxiolytic over the long term.

  19. Anabolic/Androgenic Steroid Administration During Adolescence and Adulthood Differentially Modulates Aggression and Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Thomas R.; Ricci, Lesley A.; Melloni, Richard H.

    2015-01-01

    Anabolic/androgenic steroid (AAS) use remains high in both teens and adults in the U.S. and worldwide despite studies showing that AAS use is associated with a higher incidence of aggression and anxiety. Recently we showed that chronic exposure to AAS through adolescence increases aggression and decreases anxious behaviors, while during AAS-withdrawal aggression is lowered to species-normative levels and anxiety increases. AAS exposure is known to differentially alter behaviors and their underlying neural substrates between adults and adolescents and thus the current study investigated whether exposure to AAS during adulthood affects the relationship between aggression and anxiety in manner similar to that previously observed in adolescents. Male hamsters were administered a moderate dose of AAS (5.0mg/kg/day × 30days) during adolescence (P27–56) or young adulthood (P65–P94) and then tested for aggression and anxiety during AAS exposure (i.e., on P57 or P95) and during AAS withdrawal (i.e., 30 days later on P77 or P115). Adolescent exposure to AAS increased aggressive responding during the AAS exposure period and anxiety-like responding during AAS withdrawal. Neither behavior was similarly influenced by adult exposure to AAS. Adult AAS exposure produced no difference in aggressive responding during AAS exposure (P95) or AAS withdrawal (P115); however, while AAS exposure during adulthood produced no difference in anxiety-like responding during AAS exposure, adult hamsters administered AAS were less anxious than vehicle control animals following AAS withdrawal. Together these data suggest that the aggression and anxiety provoking influence of AAS are likely a developmental phenomenon and that adult exposure to AAS may be anxiolytic over the long term. PMID:25655668

  20. Metabolic changes and DNA hypomethylation in cerebellum are associated with behavioral alterations in mice exposed to trichloroethylene postnatally

    SciTech Connect

    Blossom, Sarah J.; Cooney, Craig A.; Melnyk, Stepan B.; Rau, Jenny L.; Swearingen, Christopher J.; Wessinger, William D.

    2013-06-15

    Previous studies demonstrated that low-level postnatal and early life exposure to the environmental contaminant, trichloroethylene (TCE), in the drinking water of MRL +/+ mice altered glutathione redox homeostasis and increased biomarkers of oxidative stress indicating a more oxidized state. Plasma metabolites along the interrelated transmethylation pathway were also altered indicating impaired methylation capacity. Here we extend these findings to further characterize the impact of TCE exposure in mice exposed to water only or two doses of TCE in the drinking water (0, 2, and 28 mg/kg/day) postnatally from birth until 6 weeks of age on redox homeostasis and biomarkers of oxidative stress in the cerebellum. In addition, pathway intermediates involved in methyl metabolism and global DNA methylation patterns were examined in cerebellar tissue. Because the cerebellum is functionally important for coordinating motor activity, including exploratory and social approach behaviors, these parameters were evaluated in the present study. Mice exposed to 28 mg/kg/day TCE exhibited increased locomotor activity over time as compared with control mice. In the novel object exploration test, these mice were more likely to enter the zone with the novel object as compared to control mice. Similar results were obtained in a second test when an unfamiliar mouse was introduced into the testing arena. The results show for the first time that postnatal exposure to TCE causes key metabolic changes in the cerebellum that may contribute to global DNA methylation deficits and behavioral alterations in TCE-exposed mice. - Highlights: • We exposed male mice to low-level trichloroethylene from postnatal days 1 through 42. • This exposure altered redox potential and increased oxidative stress in cerebellum. • This exposure altered metabolites important in cellular methylation in cerebellum. • This exposure promoted DNA hypomethylation in cerebellum. • This exposure enhanced locomotor

  1. Relevé postnatal Rourke 2014

    PubMed Central

    Riverin, Bruno; Li, Patricia; Rourke, Leslie; Leduc, Denis; Rourke, James

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Mettre à jour la version de 2011 du Relevé postnatal Rourke (RPR) à la suite d’une révision des meilleures données probantes récentes sur le suivi de la santé des nourrissons et des enfants de la naissance jusqu’à l’âge de 5 ans. Qualité des données La qualité des données a été cotée en fonction de l’ancien système de classification du Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs (jusqu’à 2006) et l’approche de détermination, d’élaboration et d’évaluation des recommandations (GRADE). Message principal De nouveaux faits scientifiques ont été pris en compte dans les recommandations du RPR 2014 en ce qui a trait au suivi de la croissance, à la nutrition, à l’éducation et aux conseils, au développement, à l’examen physique et à l’immunisation. La croissance est surveillée à l’aide des courbes de l’Organisation mondiale de la Santé qui ont été révisées en 2014. On devrait introduire les aliments solides en fonction de l’état de préparation du nourrisson et ces produits devraient contenir du fer. Il n’est actuellement plus recommandé de retarder l’introduction des allergènes alimentaires courants pour prévenir les allergies. Il faut promouvoir l’utilisation d’une tasse sans couvercle au lieu d’une tasse à bec dès l’âge de 12 mois. La section sur l’éducation et les conseils porte sur les blessures causées par du mobilier instable, ainsi que l’utilisation d’un siège d’auto orienté vers l’arrière jusqu’à 2 ans. Elle comporte aussi de l’information sur les saines habitudes de sommeil, la prévention de la maltraitance des enfants, la vie saine et active et la sédentarité de la famille, de même que l’hygiène buccale. On a aussi ajouté à cette section une nouvelle catégorie consacrée à la santé environnementale pour tenir compte des effets des dangers environnementaux sur la santé des enfants. Le RPR a recours à une

  2. Evidence of the occurrence of calcitonin cells in the ultimobranchial follicle of the rat postnatal thyroid.

    PubMed

    Martin-Lacave, I; Conde, E; Moreno, A; Utrilla, J C; Galera-Davidson, H

    1992-01-01

    A study on thyroid glands of Wistar rats of ages ranging from 1 to 120 days was carried out. The glands were serially sectioned and stained for calcitonin using the peroxidase antiperoxidase method. All the thyroids contained ultimobranchial follicles (UBF) located partially embedded among the usual follicles but in a 5-day-old rat this structure showed an unusual position in the interstitium of connective tissue between the cartilage of the trachea and the thyroid gland. We have observed in the wall of that UBF the presence not only of resting C cells but also mitotic figures of C cells. Furthermore, on the opposite side of the same UBF an active area of formation of thyroid follicles was found. These observations provided the first evidence of the contribution of the UBF in the formation of C cells during the postnatal life of the rat. Furthermore, it is suggested that some C cells may share a common origin with ultimobranchially derived follicular cells.

  3. Early experience modifies the postnatal assembly of autonomic emotional motor circuits in rats.

    PubMed

    Card, J Patrick; Levitt, Pat; Gluhovsky, Maxim; Rinaman, Linda

    2005-10-01

    Rat pups that are repeatedly handled and separated from their dam exhibit altered adult behavioral, endocrine, and autonomic responses to stress, but the extent to which early handling and/or maternal separation (H/S) alters the development of circuits that underlie these responses is unknown. The present study tested the hypothesis that early H/S alters the postnatal assembly of synapses within preautonomic emotional motor circuits. Circuit development was traced by synapse-dependent retrograde transneuronal transport of pseudorabies virus (PRV) from the stomach wall. Control and H/S rats were analyzed between postnatal day 6 (P6) and P10, a period of rapid synaptic assembly among preautonomic circuit components. Pups in H/S groups were removed from their dam daily for either 15 min or 3 h beginning on P1, and were injected with virus on P8 and perfused on P10. Quantitative analyses of primary and transsynaptic PRV immunolabeling confirmed an age-dependent assembly of hypothalamic, limbic, and cortical inputs to autonomic nuclei. Circuit assembly was significantly altered in H/S pups, in which fewer neurons in the central amygdala, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and visceral cortices were infected compared with age-matched controls. In contrast, H/S did not alter the assembly of paraventricular hypothalamic inputs to gastric autonomic neurons. H/S-related reductions in limbic and cortical transneuronal infection were similar in pups exposed daily to 15 min or 3 h maternal separation. These findings support the view that environmental events during early postnatal life can influence the formation of neural circuits that provide limbic and cortical control over autonomic emotional motor output.

  4. Early postnatal stress alters place conditioning to both mu- and kappa-opioid agonists.

    PubMed

    Michaels, Clifford C; Holtzman, Stephen G

    2008-04-01

    Clinical literature has established a link between early childhood incidents of neglect and trauma and adult problems with substance abuse. In rats, such early life stress has been modeled using a maternal separation (MS) paradigm in which rat pups were removed from their mothers for a few hours daily during the first two postnatal weeks. In this study, we used the MS model to investigate the effects of early postnatal stress on place conditioning to both mu- and kappa-opioid agonists in male and female Long-Evans rats. Offspring of both rearing conditions [MS or nonhandled (NH)] were conditioned using a biased procedure to saline, the mu-opioid agonist morphine (3.0, 5.6, and 10 mg/kg s.c.), or the kappa-opioid agonist spiradoline (0.3, 1.0, and 3.0 mg/kg) for 3 days, followed by a drug-free place-conditioning test 24 h later. Saline was administered in the morning, 30 min before confinement in one compartment, whereas morphine or spiradoline was administered in a similar manner 6 h later in the opposite compartment. MS offspring spent significantly more time in the morphine-paired compartment than NH offspring, indicating a greater place preference for the mu-opioid agonist. In the case of spiradoline, NH offspring spent significantly less time in the spiradoline-paired compartment, indicating a greater aversion to the kappa-opioid agonist in these animals than in MS offspring. These findings indicate that early postnatal stress can significantly alter the rewarding or aversive value of mu- and kappa-opioid agonists when measured using place conditioning. PMID:18203949

  5. Polysialylation of NCAM characterizes the proliferation period of contractile elements during postnatal development of the epididymis.

    PubMed

    Simon, Peter; Feuerstacke, Caroline; Kaese, Miriam; Saboor, Farhan; Middendorff, Ralf; Galuska, Sebastian P

    2015-01-01

    Polysialic acid (polySia) attached to the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) regulates inter alia the proliferation and differentiation via the interactions with neurotrophins. Since in postnatal epididymis neurotrophins and their receptors like the Low-Affinity Nerve Growth Factor Receptor p75 and TrK B receptor are expressed, we wanted to analyze if the polysialylation of NCAM is also involved during the development of the epididymis. To this end, we monitored the developmental changes in the expression of the polysialyltransferases and NCAM polysialylation using murine epididymis at different time points during postnatal development. Our results revealed that during postnatal development of the epididymis both polysialyltransferases, ST8SiaII and ST8SiaIV, were expressed and that the expression levels dropped with increasing age. In agreement with the expression levels of the polysialyltransferases the highest content of polysialylated NCAM was present during the first 10 days after birth. Interestingly, proliferating smooth muscle cell populations prevalently expressed polysialylated NCAM. Furthermore, we observed that inverse to the decrease in polysialylation of smooth muscle cells a strong up-regulation of collagen takes place suggesting a functional relationship since collagen was recently described to induce the turnover of polysialylated NCAM via an induction of endocytosis in cellulo. The same time course of polySia and collagen synthesis was also observed in other regions of the male reproductive system e.g. vas deferens and tunica albuginea (testis). Together, we identified a spatio-temporal expression pattern of polySia-NCAM characterized by high proliferation rate of smooth muscle cells and low collagen content.

  6. POSTNATAL DEVELOPMENT AND GENDER DEPENDENT EXPRESSION OF TIP39 IN THE RAT BRAIN

    PubMed Central

    Dobolyi, Arpád; Wang, Jing; Irwin, Sarah; Usdin, Ted Björn

    2008-01-01

    Tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues (TIP39) is a selective agonist of the parathyroid hormone 2 (PTH2) receptor. The topographical distributions of TIP39 and the PTH2 receptor in the brain, described in young male rats, suggested that TIP39 has limbic and endocrine functions. In the present study, we investigated the expression of TIP39 and the PTH2 receptor in male and female rat brain during postnatal development by means of in situ hybridization histochemistry, quantitative RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry. TIP39’s distribution and expression levels are similar in young female and male brains. TIP39 mRNA levels peak at postnatal day 14 and subsequently decline both in the subparafascicular area and the medial paralemniscal nucleus, the two major sites where TIP39 is synthesized. A greater developmental decrease in TIP39 expression in males leads to greater levels in older females than older males. The decrease is partially reversed by pre-pubertal but not post-pubertal gonadectomy. TIP39 peptide levels in cell bodies change in parallel with mRNA levels, while TIP39 appears and disappears somewhat later in nerve fibers. In addition, TIP39 peptide levels are also sexually dimorphic in older rats. In contrast, PTH2 receptor expression in the brain does not decrease during puberty and is not sexually dimorphic even in old animals. The appearance of TIP39 during early, and decline during late, postnatal development together with the gender dependent levels in mature animals suggest that TIP39 may play a role in sexual maturation or gender specific functions. PMID:16871538

  7. Control of postnatal apoptosis in the neocortex by RhoA-subfamily GTPases determines neuronal density.

    PubMed

    Sanno, Hitomi; Shen, Xiao; Kuru, Nilgün; Bormuth, Ingo; Bobsin, Kristin; Gardner, Humphrey A R; Komljenovic, Dorde; Tarabykin, Victor; Erzurumlu, Reha S; Tucker, Kerry L

    2010-03-24

    Apoptosis of neurons in the maturing neocortex has been recorded in a wide variety of mammals, but very little is known about its effects on cortical differentiation. Recent research has implicated the RhoA GTPase subfamily in the control of apoptosis in the developing nervous system and in other tissue types. Rho GTPases are important components of the signaling pathways linking extracellular signals to the cytoskeleton. To investigate the role of the RhoA GTPase subfamily in neocortical apoptosis and differentiation, we have engineered a mouse line in which a dominant-negative RhoA mutant (N19-RhoA) is expressed from the Mapt locus, such that all neurons of the developing nervous system are expressing the N19-RhoA inhibitor. Postnatal expression of N19-RhoA led to no major changes in neocortical anatomy. Six layers of the neocortex developed and barrels (whisker-related neural modules) formed in layer IV. However, the density and absolute number of neurons in the somatosensory cortex increased by 12-26% compared with wild-type littermates. This was not explained by a change in the migration of neurons during the formation of cortical layers but rather by a large decrease in the amount of neuronal apoptosis at postnatal day 5, the developmental maximum of cortical apoptosis. In addition, overexpression of RhoA in cortical neurons was seen to cause high levels of apoptosis. These results demonstrate that RhoA-subfamily members play a major role in developmental apoptosis in postnatal neocortex of the mouse but that decreased apoptosis does not alter cortical cytoarchitecture and patterning. PMID:20335457

  8. Spontaneous cluster activity in the inferior olivary nucleus in brainstem slices from postnatal mice.

    PubMed

    Rekling, Jens C; Jensen, Kristian H R; Jahnsen, Henrik

    2012-04-01

    A distinctive property of the cerebellar system is olivocerebellar modules, where synchronized electrical activity in neurons in the inferior olivary nucleus (IO) evokes organized activity in the cerebellar cortex. However, the exact function of these modules, and how they are developed, is still largely unknown. Here we show that the IO in in vitro slices from postnatal mice spontaneously generates clusters of neurons with synchronous Ca(2+) transients. Neurons in the principal olive (PO), and the vestibular-related dorsomedial cell column (dmcc), showed an age-dependent increase in spontaneous calcium transients. The spatiotemporal activity pattern was occasionally organized in clusters of co-active neighbouring neurons,with regular (16 min-1) and irregular (2-3 min(-1)) repeating cluster activity in the dmcc and PO, respectively. IO clusters had a diameter of 100-170 μm, lasted~1 s, and increased in occurrence from postnatal day P5.5 to P12.5, followed by a sharp drop to near zero at P15.5. IO clusters were overlapping, and comprised nearly identical neurons at some time points, and a varied subset of neurons at others. Some neurons had hub-like properties, being co-active with many other neighbours, and some were co-active with separate clusters at different times. The coherence between calcium transients in IO neurons decreased with Euclidean distance between the cells reaching low values at 100-200 μm distances. Intracellular recordings from IO neurons during cluster formation revealed the presence of spikelet-like potentials, suggesting that electrical coupling between neighbouring IO neurons may serve as a synchronizing mechanism. In conclusion, the IO shows spontaneous cluster activity under in vitro conditions, coinciding with a critical postnatal period in olivocerebellar development. We propose that these clusters may be forerunners of the ensembles of IO neurons shown to be co-active in adult animals spontaneously and during motor acts.

  9. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase isoforms in late- but not midgestation decreases contractility of the ductus arteriosus and prevents postnatal closure in mice

    PubMed Central

    Reese, Jeff; Anderson, Judy D.; Brown, Naoko; Roman, Christine; Clyman, Ronald I.

    2010-01-01

    Use of cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors to delay preterm birth is complicated by in utero constriction of the ductus arteriosus and delayed postnatal closure. Delayed postnatal closure has been attributed to loss of vasa vasorum flow and ductus wall ischemia resulting from constriction in utero. We used the murine ductus (which does not depend on vasa vasorum flow) to determine whether delayed postnatal closure may be because of mechanisms independent of in utero constriction. Acute inhibition of both COX isoforms constricted the fetal ductus on days 18 and 19 (term) but not earlier in gestation; COX-2 inhibition constricted the fetal ductus more than COX-1 inhibition. In contrast, mice exposed to prolonged inhibition of COX-1, COX-2, or both COX isoforms (starting on day 15, when the ductus does not respond to the inhibitors) had no contractile response to the inhibitors on days 18 or 19. Newborn mice closed their ductus within 4 h of birth. Prolonged COX inhibition on days 11–14 of gestation had no effect on newborn ductal closure; however, prolonged COX inhibition on days 15–19 resulted in delayed ductus closure despite exposure to 80% oxygen after birth. Similarly, targeted deletion of COX-2 alone, or COX-1/COX-2 together, impaired postnatal ductus closure. Nitric oxide inhibition did not prevent the delay in ductus closure. These data show that impaired postnatal ductus closure is not the result of in utero ductus constriction or upregulation of nitric oxide synthesis. They are consistent with a novel role for prostaglandins in ductus arteriosus contractile development. PMID:16857891

  10. Perinatal and early postnatal changes in the expression of monocarboxylate transporters MCT1 and MCT2 in the rat forebrain.

    PubMed

    Baud, Olivier; Fayol, Laurence; Gressens, Pierre; Pellerin, Luc; Magistretti, Pierre; Evrard, Philippe; Verney, Catherine

    2003-10-20

    In addition to glucose, monocarboxylates including lactate represent a major source of energy for the brain, especially during development. We studied the immunocytochemical expression of the monocarboxylate transporters MCT1 and MCT2 in the rat brain between embryonic day (E) 16 and postnatal day (P) 14. At E16-18, MCT1-like immunoreactivity was found throughout the cortical anlage, being particularly marked medially in the hippocampal anlage next to the ventricle. In a complementary pattern, MCT2-like immunoreactivity was expressed along the medial and ventral border of the ventricle in the medial septum and habenula before birth. The hypothalamic area exhibited MCT2 and MCT1 positive areas from E18 on. These transient labelings revealed four main sites of monocarboxylate and/or glucose exchange: the brain parenchyma, the epithelial cells, the ependymocytes, and the glia limitans. During the first postnatal week, MCT1 immunoreactivity extended massively to the vessel walls and moderately to the developing astrocytes in the cortex. In contrast, MCT2 immunoreactivity was faint in blood vessels but massive in developing astrocytes from P3 to P7. Neither MCT2 nor MCT1 colocalized with neuronal, microglial, or oligodendrocytic markers during the first postnatal week. At P14, a part of the scattered punctate MCT2 staining could be associated with astrocytes and postsynaptic dendritic labeling. The transient pattern of expression of MCTs throughout the perinatal period suggests a potential relationship with the maturation of the blood-brain barrier. PMID:12966567

  11. Implications of Post-Natal Cortical Development for Creativity Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Marjory; Dacey, John

    Man's long period of cerebral growth has important implications for education. The brain goes through major developmental changes after birth, and researchers have suggested that this growth process presents an opportunity for fostering the plasticity of genetically determined connections. Animal studies show that postnatal growth of the brain is…

  12. Postnatal histomorphogenesis of the mandible in the house mouse

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Maza, Cayetana; Montes, Laëtitia; Lamrous, Hayat; Ventura, Jacint; Cubo, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    The mandible of the house mouse, Mus musculus, is a model structure for the study of the development and evolution of complex morphological systems. This research describes the histomorphogenesis of the house mouse mandible and analyses its biological significance from the first to the eighth postnatal weeks. Histological data allowed us to test a hypothesis concerning modularity in this structure. We measured the bone growth rates by fluorescent labelling and identified the bone tissue types through microscopic analysis of histological cross-sections of the mandible during its postnatal development. The results provide evidence for a modular structure of the mouse mandible, as the alveolar region and the ascending ramus show histological differences throughout ontogeny. The alveolar region increases in length during the first two postnatal weeks by bone growth in the posterior region, while horizontally positioned incisors preclude bone growth in the anterior region. In the fourth postnatal week, growth dynamics shows a critical change. The alveolar region drifts laterally and the ramus becomes more vertical due to the medial growth direction of the coronoid region and the lateral growth of the ventral region of the ramus. Diet changes after weaning are probably involved in these morphological changes. In this way, the development of the masticatory muscles that insert on the ascending ramus may be particularly related to this shape modeling of the house mouse mandible. PMID:22372819

  13. Overexpression of Dlx2 leads to postnatal condyle degradation

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Jiewen; Si, Jiawen; Zhu, Xiaofang; Zhang, Lei; Wu, Dandan; Lu, Jingting; Ouyang, Ningjuan; Wang, Xudong; Shen, Guofang

    2016-01-01

    Distal-less homeobox 2 (Dlx2), a member of the Dlx family of transcription factors, is important for the development of craniofacial tissues. Previous studies based on knock-out mutant mice revealed that Dlx2 primarily disturbed the development of tissues from maxillary arch. The present study used a transgenic mouse model to specifically overexpress Dlx2 in neural crest cells in order to investigate the role of Dlx2 overexpression in post-natal condyle in mice. The model was constructed and the phenotype observed using gross observation, micro-CT scan and histological examination. The model determined that overexpression of Dlx2 may lead to postnatal condyle malformation, subchondral bone degradation and irregular histological structure of the condylar cartilage. In addition, the expression of osteocalcin in the condyle region was markedly downregulated, whereas expression of msh homeobox 2 was upregulated. The results of the present study suggest that Dlx2 overexpression in cranial neural crest cells would disrupt the development of post-natal condyle, which demonstrates that the expression level and the spatiotemporal expression patterns of Dlx2 may be important in regulating the development of post-natal condyle in mice, and also offered a possible temporal-mandibular joint osteoarthritis model animal for future studies. PMID:27315306

  14. Associations between childhood socioeconomic position and adulthood obesity.

    PubMed

    Senese, Laura C; Almeida, Nisha D; Fath, Anne Kittler; Smith, Brendan T; Loucks, Eric B

    2009-01-01

    Childhood socioeconomic position (SEP) is inversely associated with cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Obesity in adulthood may be a biologic mechanism. Objectives were to systematically review literature published between 1998 and 2008 that examined associations of childhood SEP with adulthood obesity. Five databases (Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Web of Science) were searched for studies from any country, in any language. Forty-eight publications based on 30 studies were identified. In age-adjusted analyses, inverse associations were found between childhood SEP and adulthood obesity in 70% (14 of 20) of studies in females and 27% (4 of 15) in males. In studies of females showing inverse associations between childhood SEP and adulthood obesity, typical effect sizes in age-adjusted analyses for the difference in body mass index between the highest and lowest SEP were 1.0-2.0 kg/m(2); for males, effect sizes were typically 0.2-0.5 kg/m(2). Analyses adjusted for age and adult SEP showed inverse associations in 47% (8 of 17) of studies in females and 14% (2 of 14) of studies in males. When other covariates were additionally adjusted for, inverse associations were found in 4 of 12 studies in females and 2 of 8 studies in males; effect sizes were typically reduced compared with analyses adjusted for age only. In summary, the findings suggest that childhood SEP is inversely related to adulthood obesity in females and not associated in males after adjustment for age. Adulthood SEP and other obesity risk factors may be the mechanisms responsible for the observed associations between childhood SEP and adulthood obesity.

  15. Cytokine gene expression during postnatal small intestinal development: regulation by glucocorticoids

    PubMed Central

    Schaeffer, C; Diab-Assef, M; Plateroti, M; Laurent-Huck, F; Reimund, J; Kedinger, M; Foltzer-Jourdainn..., C

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—In the intestinal mucosa, numerous cytokines produced by the epithelium, fibroblasts, and immune cells were shown to affect epithelial differentiation and proliferation through epithelial-mesenchymal and epithelial-immune cell interactions. To date, the importance of cytokines in postnatal development of the rat small intestine has not been established.
AIM—To investigate the developmental changes in expression of mucosal cytokines in the postnatal maturation of the rat small intestinal epithelium and their regulation by glucocorticoids (GC).
METHODS—Mucosal maturation was assessed by the onset of sucrase-isomaltase (SI) mRNA, analysed by in situ hybridisation. The amount of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), β2 (TGF-β2), tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), and TGF-α was analysed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in mucosal extracts from weaning (14-21 days old) and adult rats, or one day after an injection of hydrocortisone (HC) in 11 day old rats. Similarly, expression of cytokines and the regulatory effect of GC were studied on cultured subepithelial myofibroblasts cloned from postnatal jejunum and ileum cultured in the absence or presence of dexamethasone (DX).
RESULTS—TGF-β1, TGF-β2, and IL-1β decreased during the third week of life while levels of TNF-α increased and TGF-α remained constant. In parallel, SI transcripts increased and showed a progressive accumulation in the apical part of the enterocytes first localised at the base of the villi from 18 days onwards. Interestingly, precocious induction of SI mRNA by HC paralleled the decrease in expression of TGF-β isoforms and of IL-1β. All cytokines were expressed in the myofibroblast cell lines. In addition, the results showed that TNF-α was differentially expressed in basal culture conditions and after DX stimulation in jejunal and ileal myofibroblasts. DX decreased IL-1β but not the TGF-β isoforms, similar

  16. Localization of diacylglycerol lipase alpha and monoacylglycerol lipase during postnatal development of the rat retina

    PubMed Central

    Cécyre, Bruno; Monette, Marjorie; Beudjekian, Liza; Casanova, Christian; Bouchard, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, there has been increased interest in the physiological roles of the endocannabinoid (eCB) system and its receptors, the cannabinoid receptor types 1 (CB1R) and 2 (CB2R). Exposure to cannabinoids during development results in neurofunctional alterations, which implies that the eCB system is involved in the developmental processes of the brain. Because of their lipophilic nature, eCBs are synthesized on demand and are not stored in vesicles. Consequently, the enzymes responsible for their synthesis and degradation are key regulators of their physiological actions. Therefore, knowing the localization of these enzymes during development is crucial for a better understanding of the role played by eCBs during the formation of the central nervous system. In this study, we investigated the developmental protein localization of the synthesizing and catabolic enzymes of the principal eCB, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in the retinas of young and adult rats. The distribution of the enzymes responsible for the synthesis (DAGLα) and the degradation (MAGL) of 2-AG was determined for every retinal cell type from birth to adulthood. Our results indicate that DAGLα is present early in postnatal development. It is highly expressed in photoreceptor, horizontal, amacrine, and ganglion cells. MAGL appears later during the development of the retina and its presence is limited to amacrine and Müller cells. Overall, these results suggest that 2-AG is strongly present in early retinal development and might be involved in the regulation of the structural and functional maturation of the retina. PMID:25565975

  17. Time for Me: the arts as therapy in postnatal depression.

    PubMed

    Perry, Catherine; Thurston, Miranda; Osborn, Thelma

    2008-02-01

    Time for Me describes a creative arts group for mothers with children under two years of age, who were experiencing mild to moderate postnatal depression or anxiety. This paper reports on findings from a small-scale qualitative study designed to explore and evaluate the extent to which the brief intervention of eight weekly sessions of creative arts was able to support these women. Traditionally, severe postnatal depression has been treated with medication or cognitive behavioural therapy and in mild to moderate postnatal depression non-directive counselling ('the listening visit'), extra social and emotional support and group psychological therapies have been used. More recently, the use of complementary therapies in the treatment of depression has been explored and it has been reported that the arts can have positive effects on patients with mental health problems; for example, by helping their relationships, providing new ways of expression and by bringing about behavioural changes. There is, however, limited research relating specifically to postnatal depression and complementary therapies. The study found that the Time for Me programme created a relaxed, safe space which was experienced as supportive by women who participated in the sessions. Work in various areas of mental health care suggests that creative arts can be used to complement conventional therapy and that complementary therapies may a valuable adjunct to conventional interventions for women with postnatal depression and anxiety. It would, however, be naïve to imagine that a brief intervention such as Time for Me could be a solution for women with more severe depression but it does offer an area worth exploring in more detail.

  18. Postnatal nicotine effects on the expression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the developing piglet hippocampus and brainstem.

    PubMed

    Vivekanandarajah, Arunnjah; Waters, Karen A; Machaalani, Rita

    2015-12-01

    Postnatal exposure to cigarette smoke during infancy is associated with increased number of respiratory illnesses, impaired pulmonary function, and the occurrence of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). It is also associated with reduced cognitive functioning and attention deficits in childhood. Nicotine, the major neurotoxic component of cigarette smoke, induces its actions by binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). Using a piglet model of postnatal nicotine exposure, we studied the immunohistochemical expression of nAChR subunits α2, α3, α4, α5, α7, α9, β1 and β2 in the brainstem medulla and the hippocampus, given the role of these structures in cardiorespiratory control and cognition, respectively. We compared piglets exposed postnatally to 2mg/kg/day nicotine for 14 days (n=14: 7 males: 7 females) to controls (n=14: 7 males: 7 females). In the hippocampus, decreased expression was seen for α3 in CA1 (p=0.017), α9 in CA1 (p<0.001) and CA2 (p<0.001), β1 in CA1 (p=0.001) and CA2 (p=0.001) and β2 in CA3 (p=0.036). In the medulla, the nucleus of the spinal trigeminal tract had increased α2 and α4; vestibular nucleus increased α2 and α3, and decreased α4; hypoglossal decreased α3 and β1; dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus decreased α4 and β1. This is the first demonstration that non-classical nAChR subunits are affected by postnatal nicotine in the developing brain, and the implications are discussed. PMID:26440997

  19. Early postnatal GFAP-expressing cells produce multilineage progeny in cerebrum and astrocytes in cerebellum of adult mice.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhibao; Wang, Xijuan; Xiao, Jun; Wang, Yihui; Lu, Hong; Teng, Junfang; Wang, Wei

    2013-09-26

    Early postnatal GFAP-expressing cells are thought to be immature astrocytes. However, it is not clear if they possess multilineage capacity and if they can generate different lineages (astrocytes, neurons and oligodendrocytes) in the brain of adult mice. In order to identify the fate of astroglial cells in the postnatal brain, hGFAP-Cre-ER(T2) transgenic mice were crossed with the R26R Cre reporter mouse strains which exhibit constitutive expression of β-galactosidase (β-gal). Mice carrying the hGFAP-Cre-ER(T2)/R26R transgene were treated with Tamoxifen to induce Cre recombination in astroglial cells at postnatal (P) day 6 and Cre recombinase-expressing cells were identified by X-gal staining. Immunohistochemical staining was used to identify the type(s) of these reporter-tagged cells. Sixty days after recombination, X-gal-positive cells in different cerebral regions of the adult mice expressed the astroglial markers Blbp and GFAP, the neuronal marker NeuN, the oligodendrocyte precursor cell marker NG2 and the mature oligodendrocyte marker CC1. X-gal-positive cells in the cerebellum coexpressed the astroglial marker Blbp, but not the granule cell marker NeuN, Purkinje cell marker Calbindin or oligodendrocyte precursor cell marker NG2. Our genetic fate mapping data demonstrated that early postnatal GFAP-positive cells possessed multilineage potential and eventually differentiated into neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocyte precursor cells in the cerebrum and into astrocytes (including Bergmann glia) in the cerebellum of adult mice.

  20. Diminution of Voltage Threshold Plays a Key Role in Determining Recruitment of Oculomotor Nucleus Motoneurons during Postnatal Development

    PubMed Central

    Carrascal, Livia; Nieto-González, Jose Luis; Torres, Blas; Nunez-Abades, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    The size principle dictates the orderly recruitment of motoneurons (Mns). This principle assumes that Mns of different sizes have a similar voltage threshold, cell size being the crucial property in determining neuronal recruitment. Thus, smaller neurons have higher membrane resistance and require a lower depolarizing current to reach spike threshold. However, the cell size contribution to recruitment in Mns during postnatal development remains unknown. To investigate this subject, rat oculomotor nucleus Mns were intracellularly labeled and their electrophysiological properties recorded in a brain slice preparation. Mns were divided into 2 age groups: neonatal (1–7 postnatal days, n = 14) and adult (20–30 postnatal days, n = 10). The increase in size of Mns led to a decrease in input resistance with a strong linear relationship in both age groups. A well-fitted inverse correlation was also found between input resistance and rheobase in both age groups. However, input resistance versus rheobase did not correlate when data from neonatal and adult Mns were combined in a single group. This lack of correlation is due to the fact that decrease in input resistance of developing Mns did not lead to an increase in rheobase. Indeed, a diminution in rheobase was found, and it was accompanied by an unexpected decrease in voltage threshold. Additionally, the decrease in rheobase co-varied with decrease in voltage threshold in developing Mns. These data support that the size principle governs the recruitment order in neonatal Mns and is maintained in adult Mns of the oculomotor nucleus; but during postnatal development the crucial property in determining recruitment order in these Mns was not the modifications of cell size-input resistance but of voltage threshold. PMID:22174887

  1. Postnatal nicotine effects on the expression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the developing piglet hippocampus and brainstem.

    PubMed

    Vivekanandarajah, Arunnjah; Waters, Karen A; Machaalani, Rita

    2015-12-01

    Postnatal exposure to cigarette smoke during infancy is associated with increased number of respiratory illnesses, impaired pulmonary function, and the occurrence of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). It is also associated with reduced cognitive functioning and attention deficits in childhood. Nicotine, the major neurotoxic component of cigarette smoke, induces its actions by binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). Using a piglet model of postnatal nicotine exposure, we studied the immunohistochemical expression of nAChR subunits α2, α3, α4, α5, α7, α9, β1 and β2 in the brainstem medulla and the hippocampus, given the role of these structures in cardiorespiratory control and cognition, respectively. We compared piglets exposed postnatally to 2mg/kg/day nicotine for 14 days (n=14: 7 males: 7 females) to controls (n=14: 7 males: 7 females). In the hippocampus, decreased expression was seen for α3 in CA1 (p=0.017), α9 in CA1 (p<0.001) and CA2 (p<0.001), β1 in CA1 (p=0.001) and CA2 (p=0.001) and β2 in CA3 (p=0.036). In the medulla, the nucleus of the spinal trigeminal tract had increased α2 and α4; vestibular nucleus increased α2 and α3, and decreased α4; hypoglossal decreased α3 and β1; dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus decreased α4 and β1. This is the first demonstration that non-classical nAChR subunits are affected by postnatal nicotine in the developing brain, and the implications are discussed.

  2. Postnatal donor lymphocytes enhance prenatally-created chimerism at the risk of graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jeng-Chang; Ou, Liang-Shiou; Yu, Hsiu-Yueh; Kuo, Ming-Ling; Chang, Pei-Yeh; Chang, Hsueh-Ling

    2015-01-01

    The major barrier to clinical application of in utero hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is insufficient chimerism for phenotypic correction of target diseases or induction of graft tolerance. Postnatal donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) may enhance donor cell levels so as to further facilitate tolerance induction. We created murine mixed chimeras in utero. Chimeras with <10% donor cells were subjected to postnatal DLI to evaluate the effects of DLI on chimerism augmentation and skin tolerance induction. Within one day after DLI, recipients experienced a transient peaking of donor chimerism, which could be as high as 20~40%. However, the transient chimerism peaking didn't benefit donor skin survivals despite immediate skin placement after DLI. In case of fruitful DLI, chimerism augmentation was usually observed after a latent period of 2~4 weeks. Otherwise, chimerism would return to around pre-DLI levels by days 7~14. Peripheral chimerism of >3% could be consistently boosted up to >10%, whereas chimerism of <0.2% hardly showed any significant enhancement. As for chimerism levels of 0.2~3%, chimerism augmentation up to >10% succeeded in 3(15%) of 20 recipients. Notably, chimerism augmentation by postnatal DLI was often associated with unexpected death or graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). In conclusion, transient chimerism augmentation by DLI played no role in facilitating graft tolerance. Substantial augmentation by DLI demanded a threshold chimerism level and posed a serious risk of GVHD to the recipients. It raised the concern about using postnatal DLI to broaden therapeutic horizons of in utero hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

  3. Postnatal Depression and Infant Health Practices among High-Risk Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajicek-Farber, Michaela L.

    2009-01-01

    Women's postnatal depressive symptoms have been associated with many adverse outcomes for children. The current study examined the frequency association with relative risk between postnatal depressive symptoms and mothers' use of preventative infant health practices. The study used the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and Parental…

  4. Sensory Neural Responses to Ozone Exposure during Early Postnatal Development in Rat Airways

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Dawn D.; Wu, Zhongxin; Dey, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    Airway infections or irritant exposures during early postnatal periods may contribute to the onset of childhood asthma. The purpose of this study was to examine critical periods of postnatal airway development during which ozone (O3) exposure leads to heightened neural responses. Rats were exposed to O3 (2 ppm) or filtered air for 1 hour on specific postnatal days (PDs) between PD1 and PD29, and killed 24 hours after exposure. In a second experiment, rats were exposed to O3 on PD2–PD6, inside a proposed critical period of development, or on PD19–PD23, outside the critical period. Both groups were re-exposed to O3 on PD28, and killed 24 hours later. Airways were removed, fixed, and prepared for substance P (SP) immunocytochemistry. SP nerve fiber density (NFD) in control extrapulmonary (EXP) epithelium/lamina propria (EPLP) increased threefold, from 1% to 3.3% from PD1–PD3 through PD13–PD15, and maintained through PD29. Upon O3 exposure, SP-NFD in EXP–smooth muscle (SM) and intrapulmonary (INT)-SM increased at least twofold at PD1–PD3 through PD13–PD15 in comparison to air exposure. No change was observed at PD21–PD22 or PD28–PD29. In critical period studies, SP-NFD in the INT-SM and EXP-SM of the PD2–PD6 O3 group re-exposed to O3 on PD28 was significantly higher than that of the group exposed at PD19–PD23 and re-exposed at PD28. These findings suggest that O3-mediated changes in sensory innervation of SM are more responsive during earlier postnatal development. Enhanced responsiveness of airway sensory nerves may be a contributing mechanism of increased susceptibility to environmental exposures observed in human infants and children. PMID:20118220

  5. The non-human primate striatum undergoes marked prolonged remodeling during postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Martin, Lee J; Cork, Linda C

    2014-01-01

    We examined the postnatal ontogeny of the striatum in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) to identify temporal and spatial patterns of histological and chemical maturation. Our goal was to determine whether this forebrain structure is developmentally static or dynamic in postnatal life. Brains from monkeys at 1 day, 1, 4, 6, 9, and 12 months of age (N = 12) and adult monkeys (N = 4) were analyzed. Nissl staining was used to assess striatal volume, cytoarchitecture, and apoptosis. Immunohistochemistry was used to localize and measure substance P (SP), leucine-enkephalin (LENK), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and calbindin D28 (CAL) immunoreactivities. Mature brain to body weight ratio was achieved at 4 months of age, and striatal volume increased from ∼1.2 to ∼1.4 cm(3) during the first postnatal year. Nissl staining identified, prominently in the caudate nucleus, developmentally persistent discrete cell islands with neuronal densities greater than the surrounding striatal parenchyma (matrix). Losses in neuronal density were observed in island and matrix regions during maturation, and differential developmental programmed cell death was observed in islands and matrix regions. Immunohistochemistry revealed striking changes occurring postnatally in striatal chemical neuroanatomy. At birth, the immature dopaminergic nigrostriatal innervation was characterized by islands enriched in TH-immunoreactive puncta (putative terminals) in the neuropil; TH-enriched islands aligned completely with areas enriched in SP immunoreactivity but low in LENK immunoreactivity. These areas enriched in SP immunoreactivity but low in LENK immunoreactivity were identified as striosome and matrix areas, respectively, because CAL immunoreactivity clearly delineated these territories. SP, LENK, and CAL immunoreactivities appeared as positive neuronal cell bodies, processes, and puncta. The matrix compartment at birth contained relatively low TH-immunoreactive processes and few SP-positive neurons

  6. The non-human primate striatum undergoes marked prolonged remodeling during postnatal development

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Lee J.; Cork, Linda C.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the postnatal ontogeny of the striatum in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) to identify temporal and spatial patterns of histological and chemical maturation. Our goal was to determine whether this forebrain structure is developmentally static or dynamic in postnatal life. Brains from monkeys at 1 day, 1, 4, 6, 9, and 12 months of age (N = 12) and adult monkeys (N = 4) were analyzed. Nissl staining was used to assess striatal volume, cytoarchitecture, and apoptosis. Immunohistochemistry was used to localize and measure substance P (SP), leucine-enkephalin (LENK), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and calbindin D28 (CAL) immunoreactivities. Mature brain to body weight ratio was achieved at 4 months of age, and striatal volume increased from ∼1.2 to ∼1.4 cm3 during the first postnatal year. Nissl staining identified, prominently in the caudate nucleus, developmentally persistent discrete cell islands with neuronal densities greater than the surrounding striatal parenchyma (matrix). Losses in neuronal density were observed in island and matrix regions during maturation, and differential developmental programmed cell death was observed in islands and matrix regions. Immunohistochemistry revealed striking changes occurring postnatally in striatal chemical neuroanatomy. At birth, the immature dopaminergic nigrostriatal innervation was characterized by islands enriched in TH-immunoreactive puncta (putative terminals) in the neuropil; TH-enriched islands aligned completely with areas enriched in SP immunoreactivity but low in LENK immunoreactivity. These areas enriched in SP immunoreactivity but low in LENK immunoreactivity were identified as striosome and matrix areas, respectively, because CAL immunoreactivity clearly delineated these territories. SP, LENK, and CAL immunoreactivities appeared as positive neuronal cell bodies, processes, and puncta. The matrix compartment at birth contained relatively low TH-immunoreactive processes and few SP-positive neurons but

  7. Mapping brain development during childhood, adolescence and young adulthood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiaojuan; Jin, Zhen; Chen, Kewei; Peng, Danling; Li, Yao

    2009-02-01

    Using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM), this study systematically investigated the differences and similarities of brain structural changes during the early three developmental periods of human lives: childhood, adolescence and young adulthood. These brain changes were discussed in relationship to the corresponding cognitive function development during these three periods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data from 158 Chinese healthy children, adolescents and young adults, aged 7.26 to 22.80 years old, were included in this study. Using the customized brain template together with the gray matter/white matter/cerebrospinal fluid prior probability maps, we found that there were more age-related positive changes in the frontal lobe, less in hippocampus and amygdala during childhood, but more in bilateral hippocampus and amygdala and left fusiform gyrus during adolescence and young adulthood. There were more age-related negative changes near to central sulcus during childhood, but these changes extended to the frontal and parietal lobes, mainly in the parietal lobe, during adolescence and young adulthood, and more in the prefrontal lobe during young adulthood. So gray matter volume in the parietal lobe significantly decreased from childhood and continued to decrease till young adulthood. These findings may aid in understanding the age-related differences in cognitive function.

  8. Pathways to adulthood and their precursors and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Skogbrott Birkeland, Marianne; Leversen, Ingrid; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Wold, Bente

    2014-02-01

    Norway has an extensive welfare system which may provide adolescents with many options and high levels of flexibility in terms of pathways to adulthood. This study aimed to describe Norwegian developmental pathways to adulthood, including changes in role statuses (such as living situations, education, work, marriage/cohabitation and parenthood) from 16 to 30 years of age, and their precursors and outcomes. Repeated measures latent class analysis of longitudinal data from 998 Norwegian individuals indicated three main pathways to adulthood among women and men. In both sexes, most individuals undertook a long period of education and postponed family formation. However, some individuals started working early, a group of women established families with partners and children early, and a group of men remained primarily single between 16 and 30 years of age. Furthermore, the results show that pathways to adulthood in Norway are surprisingly similar to pathways in other countries such as the US, UK and Finland. The results indicate that pathways to adulthood are influenced by social reproduction factors in a country with high levels of welfare benefits as well. In addition, the results suggest that pathways involving living with a partner and either higher education or work are associated with high life satisfaction at age 30.

  9. Transplantation of Neuro2a Cells into the Developing Postnatal Mouse Eye

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun-Shil; Jeong, Se-Jin; Kim, Yeoun-Hee; Jeon, Chang-Jin

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the influence of the host retinal microenvironment on cell migration and differentiation using Neuro2a (N2a) cells transduced with green fluorescent protein. N2a cells were transplanted into the vitreous cavities of developing mouse eyes (C57BL/6) on postnatal days 1, 5, and 10 (P1, 5, and 10). To analyze the effects of the host microenvironment on neural differentiation of N2a cells in vitro, cells were treated with a conditioned medium (CM) collected from retinal cells cultured at each developmental stage. We observed that numerous cells transplanted into P5 mice eyes migrated into all layers of the host retina, and the presence of processes indicated morphological differentiation. Some transplanted N2a cells expressed several neural markers. However, cells transplanted into the P1 and 10 mice eyes only proliferated within the vitreous cavity. Neurite length increased in N2a cells treated with CM collected from the cultured retinal cells from P5 and 10 mice, while western blotting revealed that the levels of proteins related to neural differentiation were not significantly altered in N2a cells treated with CM. We show that the migration and differentiation capacities of transplanted cells were differentially influenced by the microenvironment of the retinal postnatal ontogeny. PMID:26855453

  10. Establishment of an in vivo electroporation method into postnatal newborn neurons in the dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hidenori; Morishita, Rika; Iwamoto, Ikuko; Nagata, Koh-ichi

    2014-12-01

    Electroporation-mediated gene transfer has been developed for the analysis of mammalian brain development in vivo. Indeed, in utero electroporation method is widely used for the investigation of the mouse embryonic cortical development while in vivo electroporation using neonatal mouse brain is employed for the analysis of the rostral migratory stream (RMS) and postnatal olfactory neurogenesis. In the present study, we established a stable gene-transfer method to dentate gyrus (DG) neurons by carefully determining the in vivo electroporation conditions, such as position and direction of electrode, voltage for electric pulses, and interval between electroporation and sample preparation. Consequently, GFP-positive cells in DG were observed to extend branched dendrites and long axons into the molecular layer and the hilus, respectively, 21 days after electrporation. They were morphologically identified as dentate granule neurons with many protrusions on dendrites, and some of them had wide head and thin neck that resembled matured mushroom spines. Expression of GFP in dentate neurons sustained for at least 9 months after electroporation under our experimental conditions. Taken together, the method developed here could be a powerful new tool for the analysis of the postnatal DG development.

  11. Postnatal development of the electrophysiological properties of somatostatin interneurons in the anterior cingulate cortex of mice

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Geng; Yang, Jian-Ming; Hu, Xing-Yue; Li, Xiao-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Somatostatin (SST)-positive interneurons in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) play important roles in neuronal diseases, memory and cognitive functions. However, their development in the ACC remains unclear. Using postnatal day 3 (P3) to P45 GIN mice, we found that most of the intrinsic membrane properties of SST interneurons in the ACC were developmentally mature after the second postnatal week and that the development of these neurons differed from that of parvalbumin (PV) interneurons in the prefrontal cortex. In addition, electrical coupling between SST interneurons appeared primarily between P12–14. The coupling probability plateaued at approximately P21–30, with a non-age-dependent development of coupling strength. The development of excitatory chemical afferents to SST interneurons occurred earlier than the development of inhibitory chemical afferents. Furthermore, eye closure attenuated the development of electrical coupling probability at P21–30 but had no effect on coupling strength. Eye closure also delayed the development of inhibitory chemical afferent frequency but had no effect on the excitatory chemical afferent amplitude, frequency or rise time. Our data suggest that SST interneurons in the ACC exhibit inherent developmental characteristics distinct from other interneuron subtypes, such as PV interneurons, and that some of these characteristics are subject to environmental regulation. PMID:27319800

  12. Conditional overexpression of connective tissue growth factor disrupts postnatal lung development.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shu; Platteau, Astrid; Chen, Shaoyi; McNamara, George; Whitsett, Jeffrey; Bancalari, Eduardo

    2010-05-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a member of an emerging family of immediate-early gene products that coordinates complex biological processes during development, differentiation, and tissue repair. Overexpression of CTGF is associated with mechanical ventilation with high tidal volume and oxygen exposure in newborn lungs. However, the role of CTGF in postnatal lung development and remodeling is not well understood. In the present study, a double-transgenic mouse model was generated with doxycycline-inducible overexpression of CTGF in respiratory epithelial cells. Overexpression of CTGF from Postnatal Days 1-14 resulted in thicker alveolar septa and decreased secondary septal formation. This is correlated with increased myofibroblast differentiation and disorganized elastic fiber deposition in alveolar septa. Overexpression of CTGF also decreased alveolar capillary network formation. There were increased alpha-smooth muscle actin expression and collagen deposition, and dramatic thickening in the peribronchial/peribronchiolar and perivascular regions in the double-transgenic lungs. Furthermore, overexpression of CTGF increased integrin-linked kinase expression, activated its downstream signaling target, Akt, as well as increased mRNA expression of fibronectin. These data demonstrate that overexpression of CTGF disrupts alveologenesis and capillary formation, and induces fibrosis during the critical period of alveolar development. These histologic changes are similar to those observed in lungs of infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

  13. Slower postnatal growth is associated with delayed cerebral cortical maturation in preterm newborns.

    PubMed

    Vinall, Jillian; Grunau, Ruth E; Brant, Rollin; Chau, Vann; Poskitt, Kenneth J; Synnes, Anne R; Miller, Steven P

    2013-01-16

    Slower postnatal growth is an important predictor of adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in infants born preterm. However, the relationship between postnatal growth and cortical development remains largely unknown. Therefore, we examined the association between neonatal growth and diffusion tensor imaging measures of microstructural cortical development in infants born very preterm. Participants were 95 neonates born between 24 and 32 weeks gestational age studied twice with diffusion tensor imaging: scan 1 at a median of 32.1 weeks (interquartile range, 30.4 to 33.6) and scan 2 at a median of 40.3 weeks (interquartile range, 38.7 to 42.7). Fractional anisotropy and eigenvalues were recorded from 15 anatomically defined cortical regions. Weight, head circumference, and length were recorded at birth and at the time of each scan. Growth between scans was examined in relation to diffusion tensor imaging measures at scans 1 and 2, accounting for gestational age, birth weight, sex, postmenstrual age, known brain injury (white matter injury, intraventricular hemorrhage, and cerebellar hemorrhage), and neonatal illness (patent ductus arteriosus, days intubated, infection, and necrotizing enterocolitis). Impaired weight, length, and head growth were associated with delayed microstructural development of the cortical gray matter (fractional anisotropy: P < 0.001), but not white matter (fractional anisotropy: P = 0.529), after accounting for prenatal growth, neonatal illness, and brain injury. Avoiding growth impairment during neonatal care may allow cortical development to proceed optimally and, ultimately, may provide an opportunity to reduce neurological disabilities related to preterm birth.

  14. Detrimental effects of postnatal exposure to propofol on memory and hippocampal LTP in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan-Lin; Chen, Xin; Wang, Zhi-Ping

    2015-10-01

    Acute effects of propofol on memory and hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) in adult animals were reported. However, long-term effect of early postnatal application of propofol on memory was not totally disclosed. In this study, experiments were designed to verify the mechanisms underlying the long-term detrimental effects of propofol on memory and hippocampal synaptic plasticity. A consecutive propofol protocol from postnatal day 7 was applied to model anesthesia, long term memory and hippocampal synaptic plasticity were detected 2 months later. Our results showed that repeated propofol exposure in early phase affect the memory in the adult phase. Through recording the field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) at Schaffer colletaral-CA1 synapses, both of basal synaptic transmission and hippocampal LTP were decreased after propofol application. While LTD induced by low frequency stimulation and 3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (3,5-DHPG) were not affected. Through analyzing the ultrastructure of dendrite in CA1 region, we found that propofol application decreased the spine density, which was consistent with the decrease of PSD-95 expression. In addition, p-AKT level was reduced after first propofol application. Intracerebroventricular injection of Akt inhibitor could mimic the propofol effects on basal synaptic transmission, hippocampal LTP and memory. Taken together, these results suggested that propofol possibly decreased AKT signaling pathway to restrict the spine development, finally leading to hippocampal LTP impairment and memory deficit.

  15. Postnatal leptin is necessary for maturation of numerous organs in newborn rats

    PubMed Central

    Larcher, Thibaut; Gertler, Arieh; Abdennebi-Najar, Latifa

    2011-01-01

    The postnatal leptin surge, described particularly in rodents, has been demonstrated to be crucial for hypothalamic maturation and brain development. In the present study, the possible general effects of this hormone on maturation of numerous peripheral organs have been explored. To test this hypothesis, we used a leptin antagonist (L39A/D40A/F41A) to investigate the effects of the blockage of postnatal leptin action on neonatal growth and maturation of organs involved in metabolism regulation, reproduction and immunity. For that purpose, newborn female pups were subcutaneously injected from days 2–13 with either saline or leptin antagonist and sacrificed at weaning. Organs were submitted to histological and immunohistochemical analyses. Leptin antagonist treatment clearly impaired the maturation of pancreas, kidney, thymus and ovary. All these alterations, at the organ level, occurred without changes in the whole-body mass of the animals. Leptin antagonist treatment induced: (1) a reduction in β cell area and a concomitant increase of α cells in Langherans islets in the pancreas, (2) a reduction in the number of glomeruli and a persistence of immature glomeruli in kidney, (3) an increase in the thymic cortical layer thickness, reflecting an unmatured stage, (4) a drastic reduction of the pool of primordial follicles, in ovaries. All these results strongly argue for a crucial role of leptin for the achievement of organ maturation, opening new perspectives in the field of leptin physiology and organ development. PMID:21378499

  16. Ontogeny of the O2-sensitive pathway in medulla oblongata of postnatal rat.

    PubMed

    White, L D; Lawson, E E; Millhorn, D E

    1994-10-01

    Fos protein, the product of the immediate early gene c-fos, has been used as a metabolic marker to map the O2 chemosensory pathway activated by hypoxia in the adult rat (Erickson and Millhorn, Brain Res. 567: 11-24, 1991). The current study provides evidence that the O2 chemoreceptor pathway develops during the first postnatal month. Rats at postnatal ages (P) 3, 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28 days were exposed for 3 h to 21% (control) or 10% (hypoxia) O2. Pups were transcardially fixed, brain stems were frozen, sectioned, then reacted with Fos primary antibody, a secondary antibody, avidin-biotin peroxidase, then Ni-DAB as chromogen. Cells showing Fos-like immunoreactivity (Fos-LI) under control and hypoxic conditions were counted in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) and the ventrolateral medulla (VLM). In both areas there was initially a low basal level of Fos-LI, a peak at P10 and a decline to P28. At all ages there was a significant increase in the number of Fos-LI cells in pups exposed to hypoxia. The high basal level of Fos expression at P10 and the high induced level at P14 may correlate with periods of terminal differentiation and maximum synaptogenesis, respectively. PMID:7817045

  17. Elevated yolk progesterone moderates prenatal heart rate and postnatal auditory learning in bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Herrington, Joshua A; Rodriguez, Yvette; Lickliter, Robert

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies have established that yolk hormones of maternal origin can influence physiology and behavior in birds. However, few studies have examined the effects of maternal gestagens, like progesterone, on chick behavior and physiology. We tested the effects of experimentally elevated egg yolk progesterone on embryonic heart rate and postnatal auditory learning in bobwhite quail hatchlings. Quail chicks were passively exposed to an individual maternal assembly call for 10 min/hr during the 24 hr following hatching. Preference for the familiarized call was tested at 48 hr following hatching in three experimental groups: chicks that received artificially elevated yolk progesterone (P) prior to incubation, vehicle-only controls (V), and non-manipulated controls (C). Resting heart rate of P, V, and C embryos were also measured on prenatal day 17. The resting heart rate of P embryos was significantly higher than both the V and C embryos. Chicks from the P group also showed an enhanced preference for the familiarized bobwhite maternal call when compared to chicks from the C and V groups. Our results indicate that elevated yolk progesterone in pre-incubated bobwhite quail eggs can influence arousal level in bobwhite embryos and postnatal perceptual learning in bobwhite neonates. PMID:27108924

  18. Ablation of BRaf impairs neuronal differentiation in the postnatal hippocampus and cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Verena; Götz, Rudolf; Xiang, Chaomei; Camarero, Guadelupe; Braun, Attila; Zhang, Yina; Blum, Robert; Heinsen, Helmut; Nieswandt, Bernhard; Rapp, Ulf R

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on the role of the kinase BRaf in postnatal brain development. Mice expressing truncated, non-functional BRaf in neural stem cell-derived brain tissue demonstrate alterations in the cerebellum, with decreased sizes and fuzzy borders of the glomeruli in the granule cell layer. In addition we observed reduced numbers and misplaced ectopic Purkinje cells that showed an altered structure of their dendritic arborizations in the hippocampus, while the overall cornus ammonis architecture appeared to be unchanged. In male mice lacking BRaf in the hippocampus the size of the granule cell layer was normal at postnatal day 12 (P12) but diminished at P21, as compared to control littermates. This defect was caused by a reduced ability of dentate gyrus progenitor cells to differentiate into NeuN positive granule cell neurons. In vitro cell culture of P0/P1 hippocampal cells revealed that BRaf deficient cells were impaired in their ability to form microtubule-associated protein 2 positive neurons. Together with the alterations in behaviour, such as autoaggression and loss of balance fitness, these observations indicate that in the absence of BRaf all neuronal cellular structures develop, but neuronal circuits in the cerebellum and hippocampus are partially disturbed besides impaired neuronal generation in both structures. PMID:23505473

  19. Chronic prenatal ethanol exposure alters glucocorticoid signalling in the hippocampus of the postnatal Guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, U; Brien, J F; Banjanin, S; Andrews, M H; Matthews, S G; Reynolds, J N

    2005-09-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that chronic prenatal ethanol exposure causes long-lasting changes in glucocorticoid signalling in postnatal offspring. Pregnant guinea pigs were treated with ethanol (4 g/kg maternal body weight/day), isocaloric-sucrose/pair-feeding or water throughout gestation, and maternal saliva cortisol concentration was determined 2 h after treatment at different stages of gestation. Electrically-stimulated release of glutamate and GABA, in the presence or absence of dexamethasone, as well as glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptor mRNA expression, was determined in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of adult offspring of treated pregnant guinea pigs. Maternal saliva cortisol concentration increased throughout pregnancy, which was associated with increased foetal plasma and amniotic fluid cortisol concentration. Ethanol administration to pregnant guinea pigs increased maternal saliva cortisol concentration during early and mid-gestation. In late gestation, ethanol administration did not increase saliva cortisol concentration above that induced by pregnancy. Chronic prenatal ethanol exposure had no effect on stimulated glutamate or GABA release, but selectively prevented dexamethasone-mediated suppression of stimulated glutamate release, and decreased expression of mineralocorticoid, but not glucocorticoid, receptor mRNA in the hippocampus of adult offspring. These data indicate that maternal ethanol administration leads to excessively increased maternal cortisol concentration that can impact negatively the developing foetal brain, leading to persistent postnatal deficits in glucocorticoid regulation of glutamate signalling in the adult hippocampus. PMID:16101899

  20. Effects of postnatal alcohol exposure on hippocampal gene expression and learning in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Moon, Jihye; Ryu, Jinhyun; Jeong, Joo Yeon; Roh, Gu Seob; Kim, Hyun Joon; Cho, Gyeong Jae; Choi, Wan Sung; Kang, Sang Soo

    2016-04-28

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a condition resulting from excessive drinking by pregnant women. Symptoms of FAS include abnormal facial features, stunted growth, intellectual deficits and attentional dysfunction. Many studies have investigated FAS, but its underlying mechanisms remain unknown. This study evaluated the relationship between alcohol exposure during the synaptogenesis period in postnatal mice and subsequent cognitive function in adult mice. We delivered two injections, separated by 2 h, of ethanol (3 g/kg, ethanol/saline, 20% v/v) to ICR mice on postnatal day 7. After 10 weeks, we conducted a behavioral test, sacrificed the animals, harvested brain tissue and analyzed hippocampal gene expression using a microarray. In ethanol-treated mice, there was a reduction in brain size and decreased neuronal cell number in the cortex, and also cognitive impairment. cDNA microarray results indicated that 1,548 genes showed a > 2-fold decrease in expression relative to control, whereas 974 genes showed a > 2-fold increase in expression relative to control. Many of these genes were related to signal transduction, synaptogenesis and cell membrane formation, which are highlighted in our findings. PMID:26960969

  1. Morphometric study of the human suprarenal gland in the first postnatal year.

    PubMed

    Bocian-Sobkowska, J

    2000-01-01

    The aim of present, study was to describe adrenal volume, volumes of adrenocortical zones, and stroma volume in 40 adrenals obtained from children between 1st and 370th day during autopsy. The postnatal decrease in adrenal volume was caused mainly by rapid fall of fetal zone (FZ) volume (from 70 to 3% of total adrenal volume), that can be divided into two phases: rapid phase (from birth to the end of the second week) and a slow phase from the 3rd week on. Involution was accompanied by increase of zona glomerulosa (ZG) (from 10 to 25% of total adrenal volume), zona fasciculata ZF (from 10 to 38%) and zona reticularis (ZR), volume (from 1 to 23%). During the whole investigated period the volume of medulla remained constant. The volume fraction of stroma (connective tissue and blood vessels) was highest at the beginning of the first postnatal week and then decreased rapidly at the end of the 2nd week, with the most pronounced changes in the fetal zone and medulla. Performed present stereological study confirms opinion that hemorrhagic mechanisms are involved in the involution process of the human fetal zone.

  2. Postnatal changes in local cerebral blood flow measured by the quantitative autoradiographic ( sup 14 C)iodoantipyrine technique in freely moving rats

    SciTech Connect

    Nehlig, A.; Pereira de Vasconcelos, A.; Boyet, S. )

    1989-10-01

    The postnatal changes in local cerebral blood flow in freely moving rats were measured by means of the quantitative autoradiographic ({sup 14}C)iodoantipyrine method. The animals were studied at 10, 14, 17, 21 and 35 days and at the adult stage. At 10 days after birth, rates of blood flow were very low and quite homogeneous in most cerebral structures except in a few posterior areas. From these relatively uniform levels, values of local cerebral blood flow rose notably to reach a peak at 17 days in all brain regions studied. Rates of blood flow decreased between 17 and 21 days after birth and then increased from weaning time to reach the known characteristic distribution of the adult rat. The postnatal evolution of local cerebral blood in the rat is in good agreement with previous studies in other species such as dog and humans that also show higher rates of cerebral blood flow and glucose utilization at immature stages. However, in the rat, local cerebral blood flow and local cerebral glucose utilization are not coupled over the whole postnatal period studied, since blood flow rates reach peak values at 17 days whereas glucose utilization remains still quite low at that stage. The high rate of cerebral blood flow in the 17-day-old rat may reflect the energetic and biosynthetic needs of the actively developing brain that are completed by the summation of glucose and ketone body utilization.

  3. Entering adulthood in a recession tempers later narcissism.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Emily C

    2014-07-01

    Despite widespread interest in narcissism, relatively little is known about the conditions that encourage or dampen it. Drawing on research showing that macroenvironmental conditions in emerging adulthood can leave a lasting imprint on attitudes and behaviors, I argue that people who enter adulthood during recessions are less likely to be narcissistic later in life than those who come of age in more prosperous times. Using large samples of American adults, Studies 1 and 2 showed that people who entered adulthood during worse economic times endorsed fewer narcissistic items as older adults. Study 3 extended these findings to a behavioral manifestation of narcissism: the relative pay of CEOs. CEOs who came of age in worse economic times paid themselves less relative to other top executives in their firms. These findings suggest that macroenvironmental experiences at a critical life stage can have lasting implications for how unique, special, and deserving people believe themselves to be.

  4. Preparing for adulthood: thousands upon thousands of new cells are born in the hippocampus during puberty, and most survive with effortful learning.

    PubMed

    Curlik, Daniel M; Difeo, Gina; Shors, Tracey J

    2014-01-01

    The dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation generates new granule neurons throughout life. The number of neurons produced each day is inversely related to age, with thousands more produced during puberty than during adulthood, and many fewer produced during senescence. In adulthood, approximately half of these cells undergo apoptosis shortly after they are generated. Most of these cells can be rescued from death by effortful and successful learning experiences (Gould et al., 1999; Waddell and Shors, 2008; Curlik and Shors, 2011). Once rescued, the newly-generated cells differentiate into neurons, and remain in the hippocampus for at least several months (Leuner et al., 2004). Here, we report that many new hippocampal cells also undergo cell death during puberty. Because the juvenile brain is more plastic than during adulthood, and because many experiences are new, we hypothesized that a great number of cells would be rescued by learning during puberty. Indeed, adolescent rats that successfully acquired the trace eyeblink response retained thousands more cells than animals that were not trained, and those that failed to learn. Because the hippocampus generates thousands more cells during puberty than during adulthood, these results support the idea that the adolescent brain is especially responsive to learning. This enhanced response can have significant consequences for the functional integrity of the hippocampus. Such a massive increase in cell proliferation is likely an adaptive response as the young animal must emerge from the care of its mother to face the dangers, challenges, and opportunities of adulthood. PMID:24795549

  5. Effects of Gestational and Postnatal Exposure to Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia on Diaphragm Muscle Contractile Function in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Fiona B.; Dempsey, Eugene M.; O'Halloran, Ken D.

    2016-01-01

    Alterations to the supply of oxygen during early life presents a profound stressor to physiological systems with aberrant remodeling that is often long-lasting. Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) is a feature of apnea of prematurity, chronic lung disease, and sleep apnea. CIH affects respiratory control but there is a dearth of information concerning the effects of CIH on respiratory muscles, including the diaphragm—the major pump muscle of breathing. We investigated the effects of exposure to gestational CIH (gCIH) and postnatal CIH (pCIH) on diaphragm muscle function in male and female rats. CIH consisted of exposure in environmental chambers to 90 s of hypoxia reaching 5% O2 at nadir, once every 5 min, 8 h a day. Exposure to gCIH started within 24 h of identification of a copulation plug and continued until day 20 of gestation; animals were studied on postnatal day 22 or 42. For pCIH, pups were born in normoxia and within 24 h of delivery were exposed with dams to CIH for 3 weeks; animals were studied on postnatal day 22 or 42. Sham groups were exposed to normoxia in parallel. Following gas exposures, diaphragm muscle contractile, and endurance properties were examined ex vivo. Neither gCIH nor pCIH exposure had effects on diaphragm muscle force-generating capacity or endurance in either sex. Similarly, early life exposure to CIH did not affect muscle tolerance of severe hypoxic stress determined ex vivo. The findings contrast with our recent observation of upper airway dilator muscle weakness following exposure to pCIH. Thus, the present study suggests a relative resilience to hypoxic stress in diaphragm muscle. Co-ordinated activity of thoracic pump and upper airway dilator muscles is required for optimal control of upper airway caliber. A mismatch in the force-generating capacity of the complementary muscle groups could have adverse consequences for the control of airway patency and respiratory homeostasis. PMID:27462274

  6. Postnatal epigenetic reprogramming in the germline of a marsupial, the tammar wallaby

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Epigenetic reprogramming is essential to restore totipotency and to reset genomic imprints during mammalian germ cell development and gamete formation. The dynamic DNA methylation change at DMRs (differentially methylated regions) within imprinted domains and of retrotransposons is characteristic of this process. Both marsupials and eutherian mammals have genomic imprinting but these two subgroups have been evolving separately for up to 160 million years. Marsupials have a unique reproductive strategy and deliver tiny, altricial young that complete their development within their mother's pouch. Germ cell proliferation in the genital ridge continues after birth in the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii), and it is only after 25 days postpartum that female germ cells begin to enter meiosis and male germ cells begin to enter mitotic arrest. At least two marsupial imprinted loci (PEG10 and H19) also have DMRs. To investigate the evolution of epigenetic reprogramming in the marsupial germline, here we collected germ cells from male pouch young of the tammar wallaby and analysed the methylation status of PEG10 and H19 DMR, an LTR (long terminal repeat) and a non-LTR retrotransposons. Results Demethylation of the H19 DMR was almost completed by 14 days postpartum and de-novo methylation started from 34 days postpartum. These stages correspond to 14 days after the completion of primordial germ cell migration into genital ridge (demethylation) and 9 days after the first detection of mitotic arrest (re-methylation) in the male germ cells. Interestingly, the PEG10 DMR was already unmethylated at 7 days postpartum, suggesting that the timing of epigenetic reprogramming is not the same at all genomic loci. Retrotransposon methylation was not completely removed after the demethylation event in the germ cells, similar to the situation in the mouse. Conclusions Thus, despite the postnatal occurrence of epigenetic reprogramming and the persistence of genome

  7. The maternal microbiota drives early postnatal innate immune development.

    PubMed

    Gomez de Agüero, Mercedes; Ganal-Vonarburg, Stephanie C; Fuhrer, Tobias; Rupp, Sandra; Uchimura, Yasuhiro; Li, Hai; Steinert, Anna; Heikenwalder, Mathias; Hapfelmeier, Siegfried; Sauer, Uwe; McCoy, Kathy D; Macpherson, Andrew J

    2016-03-18

    Postnatal colonization of the body with microbes is assumed to be the main stimulus to postnatal immune development. By transiently colonizing pregnant female mice, we show that the maternal microbiota shapes the immune system of the offspring. Gestational colonization increases intestinal group 3 innate lymphoid cells and F4/80(+)CD11c(+) mononuclear cells in the pups. Maternal colonization reprograms intestinal transcriptional profiles of the offspring, including increased expression of genes encoding epithelial antibacterial peptides and metabolism of microbial molecules. Some of these effects are dependent on maternal antibodies that potentially retain microbial molecules and transmit them to the offspring during pregnancy and in milk. Pups born to mothers transiently colonized in pregnancy are better able to avoid inflammatory responses to microbial molecules and penetration of intestinal microbes. PMID:26989247

  8. Ontogeny of CX3CR1-EGFP expressing cells unveil microglia as an integral component of the postnatal subventricular zone.

    PubMed

    Xavier, Anna L; Lima, Flavia R S; Nedergaard, Maiken; Menezes, João R L

    2015-01-01

    The full spectrum of cellular interactions within CNS neurogenic niches is still poorly understood. Only recently has the monocyte counterpart of the nervous system, the microglial cells, been described as an integral cellular component of neurogenic niches. The present study sought to characterize the microglia population in the early postnatal subventricular zone (SVZ), the major site of postnatal neurogenesis, as well as in its anterior extension, the rostral migratory stream (RMS), a pathway for neuroblasts during their transit toward the olfactory bulb (OB) layers. Here we show that microglia within the SVZ/RMS pathway are not revealed by phenotypic markers that characterize microglia in other regions. Analysis of the transgenic mice strain that has one locus of the constitutively expressed fractalkine CX3CR1 receptor replaced by the gene encoding the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) circumvented the antigenic plasticity of the microglia, thus allowing us to depict microglia within the SVZ/RMS pathway during early development. Notably, microglia within the early SVZ/RMS are not proliferative and display a protracted development, retaining a more immature morphology than their counterparts outside germinal layers. Furthermore, microglia contact and phagocyte radial glia cells (RG) processes, thereby playing a role on the astroglial transformation that putative stem cells within the SVZ niche undergo during the first postnatal days.

  9. Ontogeny of CX3CR1-EGFP expressing cells unveil microglia as an integral component of the postnatal subventricular zone

    PubMed Central

    Xavier, Anna L.; Lima, Flavia R. S.; Nedergaard, Maiken; Menezes, João R. L.

    2015-01-01

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