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Sample records for adulthood psycinfo database

  1. Facebook: A Bibliographic Analysis of the PsycINFO Database

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrowski, Chris

    2012-01-01

    With the advent of rapidly emerging technologies, researchers need to be cognizant of developments and applications in the area of social media as a topic of investigatory interest. To date, scholarly research on the topic of Facebook, a ubiquitous social media site, is rather extensive. This study on Facebook, using a bibliographic content…

  2. Associations between childhood socioeconomic position and adulthood obesity.

    PubMed

    Senese, Laura C; Almeida, Nisha D; Fath, Anne Kittler; Smith, Brendan T; Loucks, Eric B

    2009-01-01

    Childhood socioeconomic position (SEP) is inversely associated with cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Obesity in adulthood may be a biologic mechanism. Objectives were to systematically review literature published between 1998 and 2008 that examined associations of childhood SEP with adulthood obesity. Five databases (Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Web of Science) were searched for studies from any country, in any language. Forty-eight publications based on 30 studies were identified. In age-adjusted analyses, inverse associations were found between childhood SEP and adulthood obesity in 70% (14 of 20) of studies in females and 27% (4 of 15) in males. In studies of females showing inverse associations between childhood SEP and adulthood obesity, typical effect sizes in age-adjusted analyses for the difference in body mass index between the highest and lowest SEP were 1.0-2.0 kg/m(2); for males, effect sizes were typically 0.2-0.5 kg/m(2). Analyses adjusted for age and adult SEP showed inverse associations in 47% (8 of 17) of studies in females and 14% (2 of 14) of studies in males. When other covariates were additionally adjusted for, inverse associations were found in 4 of 12 studies in females and 2 of 8 studies in males; effect sizes were typically reduced compared with analyses adjusted for age only. In summary, the findings suggest that childhood SEP is inversely related to adulthood obesity in females and not associated in males after adjustment for age. Adulthood SEP and other obesity risk factors may be the mechanisms responsible for the observed associations between childhood SEP and adulthood obesity.

  3. The relocation bump: Memories of middle adulthood are organized around residential moves.

    PubMed

    Enz, Karalyn F; Pillemer, David B; Johnson, Kenneth M

    2016-08-01

    The lifetime temporal distribution of older adults' autobiographical memories peaks during the transitional period of late adolescence and early adulthood, a phenomenon known as the reminiscence bump. This age-specific memory enhancement suggests that transitions may provide a more general organizing structure for autobiographical memory. To test this hypothesis, we examined how older adults' memories of events that occurred between the ages of 40 and 60 were distributed around residential relocations occurring within this same time frame. The temporal distribution of memories showed a marked relocation bump around the age of the most important residential move. Although previous research has focused on the negative effects of relocation, the current findings suggest that transitions could have a positive effect on autobiographical memory. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27454038

  4. Subjective acceleration of time experience in everyday life across adulthood.

    PubMed

    John, Dennis; Lang, Frieder R

    2015-12-01

    Most people believe that time seems to pass more quickly as they age. Building on assumptions of socioemotional selectivity theory, we investigated whether awareness that one's future lifetime is limited is associated with one's experience of time during everyday activities across adulthood in 3 studies. In the first 2 studies (Study 1: N = 608; Study 2: N = 398), participants completed a web-based version of the day reconstruction method. In Study 3 (N = 392) participants took part in a newly developed tomorrow construction method, a web-based experimental method for assessing everyday life plans. Results confirmed that older adults' subjective interpretation of everyday episodes is that these episodes pass more quickly compared with younger adults. The subjective acceleration of time experience in old age was more pronounced during productive activities than during regenerative-consumptive activities. The age differences were partly related to limited time remaining in life. In addition, subjective acceleration of time experience was associated with positive evaluations of everyday activities. Findings suggest that subjective acceleration of time in older adults' daily lives reflects an adaptation to limitations in time remaining in life. (PsycINFO Database Record

  5. Emerging Adulthood in Argentina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Facio, Alicia; Micocci, Fabiana

    2003-01-01

    Examined conceptions of emerging adulthood among Argentinians in their middle twenties. Found wide support for individualistic criteria for adulthood, but also criteria suggesting more collectivistic values. Identified gender, social class origin, and educational attainment differences. Concluded that emerging adulthood is a distinct developmental…

  6. Daily goal progress is facilitated by spousal support and promotes psychological, physical, and relational well-being throughout adulthood.

    PubMed

    Jakubiak, Brittany K; Feeney, Brooke C

    2016-09-01

    In 2 daily diary studies, we tested the consequences and precursors of daily goal progress throughout the adult life span. Attachment theory posits that exploration-including the pursuit of autonomous goals-promotes well-being across the life span and is facilitated by support from close others. For both young-adult newlyweds (Study 1) and married couples in late adulthood (Study 2), daily independent goal progress predicted same-day and next-day improvements in psychological, physical, and relational well-being. Specifically, when participants made more progress on their goals than usual on one day, they reported increases in positive affect, sleep quality, and relationship quality, and decreased physical symptoms, the following day (as well as concurrently). Additionally, spousal support (i.e., availability, encouragement, and noninterference) enabled same-day and next-day goal progress. Mediational analyses showed indirect links between spousal support and well-being through goal progress. Some effects were moderated by attachment orientation in the newlywed sample; individuals with greater insecure attachment benefited most from goal progress, and spousal support enabled goal progress most strongly for individuals with less anxious attachment. Overall, these results support and extend attachment theoretical propositions regarding the importance of the exploration system across the adult life span. They contribute to existing literature by demonstrating wide-ranging consequences of successful exploration for well-being and by providing evidence for the importance of both exploration and support for exploration into late adulthood. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27560610

  7. Passage to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furstenberg, Frank F.

    2010-01-01

    Today, young people are transitioning to adulthood later in life than they were in the 1960s and 70s. Why has this change occurred and what does it mean for young adults, their families, and the larger society? This article discusses the transition to adulthood from an historical perspective. It then explores the challenges of this later…

  8. Medical Perspectives on Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katchadourian, Herant A.

    1976-01-01

    Written for the layman, this article describes the concept of adulthood in human biology as observed from the perspective of the naturally unfolding human life cycle. Specific male and female physical characteristics are examined and psychiatric viewpoints on adulthood are presented. (DDB)

  9. Offenders in emerging adulthood: School maladjustment, childhood adversities, and prediction of aggressive antisocial behaviors.

    PubMed

    Wallinius, Märta; Delfin, Carl; Billstedt, Eva; Nilsson, Thomas; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Hofvander, Björn

    2016-10-01

    Early psychosocial adversities and maladjustment, such as childhood maltreatment and school adjustment problems, have been linked to an increased risk of aggressive antisocial behaviors. Yet, clinical studies of subjects at the highest risk of persistence in such behaviors are rare, especially during the life-changing transition years of emerging adulthood. This study describes early predictors of aggressive antisocial behaviors in a large, nationally representative cohort of Swedish, male violent offenders in emerging adulthood (age range = 18-25 years; N = 270). First, data on psychosocial background characteristics and aggressive antisocial behaviors (including age at onset) are provided. Second, early predictors of aggressive antisocial behaviors are tested in bivariate and multivariate interactive models. The offenders demonstrated a diversity of early onset adversities and disruptive behaviors, in line with established risk factors for subsequent criminality and adverse outcomes in a variety of life domains. Severe school adjustment problems, especially bullying others and early onset truancy, were important and interrelated predictors of aggressive antisocial behaviors over the lifetime, whereas childhood adversities such as parental substance or alcohol abuse and repeated exposure to violence at home during childhood were interrelated predictors of aggressive antisocial behaviors, albeit with less statistical importance. The findings stress the importance of early identification of individuals in the risk zone of developing severe and persistent aggressive antisocial behaviors and of early preventive interventions directed toward families with high-risk profiles. The findings also provide initial guidelines on which psychosocial background risk factors that need to be considered first-hand in early interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record

  10. Offenders in emerging adulthood: School maladjustment, childhood adversities, and prediction of aggressive antisocial behaviors.

    PubMed

    Wallinius, Märta; Delfin, Carl; Billstedt, Eva; Nilsson, Thomas; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Hofvander, Björn

    2016-10-01

    Early psychosocial adversities and maladjustment, such as childhood maltreatment and school adjustment problems, have been linked to an increased risk of aggressive antisocial behaviors. Yet, clinical studies of subjects at the highest risk of persistence in such behaviors are rare, especially during the life-changing transition years of emerging adulthood. This study describes early predictors of aggressive antisocial behaviors in a large, nationally representative cohort of Swedish, male violent offenders in emerging adulthood (age range = 18-25 years; N = 270). First, data on psychosocial background characteristics and aggressive antisocial behaviors (including age at onset) are provided. Second, early predictors of aggressive antisocial behaviors are tested in bivariate and multivariate interactive models. The offenders demonstrated a diversity of early onset adversities and disruptive behaviors, in line with established risk factors for subsequent criminality and adverse outcomes in a variety of life domains. Severe school adjustment problems, especially bullying others and early onset truancy, were important and interrelated predictors of aggressive antisocial behaviors over the lifetime, whereas childhood adversities such as parental substance or alcohol abuse and repeated exposure to violence at home during childhood were interrelated predictors of aggressive antisocial behaviors, albeit with less statistical importance. The findings stress the importance of early identification of individuals in the risk zone of developing severe and persistent aggressive antisocial behaviors and of early preventive interventions directed toward families with high-risk profiles. The findings also provide initial guidelines on which psychosocial background risk factors that need to be considered first-hand in early interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27243360

  11. Adversity, time, and well-being: A longitudinal analysis of time perspective in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Holman, E Alison; Silver, Roxane Cohen; Mogle, Jacqueline A; Scott, Stacey B

    2016-09-01

    Despite the prominence of time in influential aging theories and the ubiquity of stress across the life span, research addressing how time perspective (TP) and adversity are associated with well-being across adulthood is rare. Examining the role of TP in coping with life events over the life span would be best accomplished after large-scale population-based exposure to a specific event, with repeated assessments to examine within- and between-person differences over time. A national sample aged 18-91 years (N = 722, M = 49.4 years) was followed for 3 years after the September 11, 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks. Respondents completed assessments of 9/11-related television (TV) exposure 9-21 days after the attacks, temporal disintegration 2 months post-9/11, and TP, ongoing stress, and well-being at 12, 24, and 36 months post-9/11. Results provided support for measurement invariance of TP across time and across age. Early 9/11-related TV exposure was significantly associated with greater temporal disintegration. Temporal disintegration and ongoing stress, in turn, were associated with between- and within-person variation in past TP. This effect was qualified by an age interaction that indicated a stronger relationship between ongoing stress and past TP for younger compared with older adults. Past and future TP were significantly and independently related to individual differences and within-person variation in psychological well-being, regardless of age. Future work should incorporate adversity as an important correlate of TP across adulthood. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27599020

  12. Identity status change during adolescence and young adulthood: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kroger, Jane; Martinussen, Monica; Marcia, James E

    2010-10-01

    The present study was designed to examine developmental patterns of identity status change during adolescence and young adulthood through meta-analysis. Some 124 studies appearing in PsycINFO, ERIC, Sociological Abstracts, and Dissertation Abstracts International between 1966 and 2005 provided data. All calculations were performed using the software program, Comprehensive Meta-analysis. Results from longitudinal studies showed the mean proportion of adolescents making progressive identity status changes was .36, compared with .15 who made regressive changes and .49 who remained stable. Cross-sectional studies showed the mean proportion of moratoriums rising steadily to age 19 years and declining thereafter, while the mean proportion of the identity achieved rose over late adolescence and young adulthood; foreclosure and diffusion statuses declined over the high school years, but fluctuated throughout late adolescence and young adulthood. Meta-analyses showed that large mean proportions of samples were not identity achieved by young adulthood. Possible reasons for this phenomenon are explored.

  13. Conceptualizing Transitions to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyn, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of theories of the transition to young adulthood. It sets out the argument for conceptual renewal and discusses some implications of new patterns of transition for adult education.

  14. Social play in juvenile hamsters alters dendritic morphology in the medial prefrontal cortex and attenuates effects of social stress in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Burleson, Cody A; Pedersen, Robert W; Seddighi, Sahba; DeBusk, Lauren E; Burghardt, Gordon M; Cooper, Matthew A

    2016-08-01

    Social play is a fundamental aspect of behavioral development in many species. Social play deprivation in rats alters dendritic morphology in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and we have shown that this brain region regulates responses to social defeat stress in Syrian hamsters. In this study, we tested whether play deprivation during the juvenile period disrupts dendritic morphology in the prefrontal cortex and potentiates the effects of social defeat stress. At weaning, male hamsters were either group-housed with peers or pair-housed with their mother, with whom they do not play. In adulthood, animals received acute social defeat stress or no-defeat control treatment. The hamsters were then tested for a conditioned defeat response in a social interaction test with a novel intruder, and were also tested for social avoidance of a familiar opponent. Brains were collected for Golgi-Cox staining and analysis of dendritic morphology in the infralimbic (IL), prelimbic (PL), and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Play-deprived animals showed an increased conditioned defeat response and elevated avoidance of a familiar opponent compared with play-exposed animals. Furthermore, play-deprived animals showed increased total length and branch points in apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons in the IL and PL cortices, but not in the OFC. These findings suggest that social play deprivation in juvenile hamsters disrupts neuronal development in the vmPFC and increases vulnerability to the effects of social stress in adulthood. Overall, these results suggest that social play is necessary for the natural dendritic pruning process during adolescence and promotes coping with stress in adulthood. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27176563

  15. Social play in juvenile hamsters alters dendritic morphology in the medial prefrontal cortex and attenuates effects of social stress in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Burleson, Cody A; Pedersen, Robert W; Seddighi, Sahba; DeBusk, Lauren E; Burghardt, Gordon M; Cooper, Matthew A

    2016-08-01

    Social play is a fundamental aspect of behavioral development in many species. Social play deprivation in rats alters dendritic morphology in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and we have shown that this brain region regulates responses to social defeat stress in Syrian hamsters. In this study, we tested whether play deprivation during the juvenile period disrupts dendritic morphology in the prefrontal cortex and potentiates the effects of social defeat stress. At weaning, male hamsters were either group-housed with peers or pair-housed with their mother, with whom they do not play. In adulthood, animals received acute social defeat stress or no-defeat control treatment. The hamsters were then tested for a conditioned defeat response in a social interaction test with a novel intruder, and were also tested for social avoidance of a familiar opponent. Brains were collected for Golgi-Cox staining and analysis of dendritic morphology in the infralimbic (IL), prelimbic (PL), and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Play-deprived animals showed an increased conditioned defeat response and elevated avoidance of a familiar opponent compared with play-exposed animals. Furthermore, play-deprived animals showed increased total length and branch points in apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons in the IL and PL cortices, but not in the OFC. These findings suggest that social play deprivation in juvenile hamsters disrupts neuronal development in the vmPFC and increases vulnerability to the effects of social stress in adulthood. Overall, these results suggest that social play is necessary for the natural dendritic pruning process during adolescence and promotes coping with stress in adulthood. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. Sibling Relationships in Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Billie H.

    This document contains a brief bibliography of peer-reviewed literature, with abstracts, on sibling relationships in adulthood. It is one of 12 bibliographies on aging prepared by the National Agricultural Library for its "Pathfinders" series of publications. Topics covered by the other 11 bibliographies include aging parents, adult children,…

  17. Antisocial peer affiliation and externalizing disorders in the transition from adolescence to young adulthood: Selection versus socialization effects.

    PubMed

    Samek, Diana R; Goodman, Rebecca J; Erath, Stephen A; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G

    2016-05-01

    Prior research has demonstrated both socialization and selection effects for the relationship between antisocial peer affiliation and externalizing problems in adolescence. Less research has evaluated such effects postadolescence. In this study, a cross-lagged panel analysis was used to evaluate the extent of socialization (i.e., the effect of antisocial peer affiliation on subsequent externalizing disorders) and selection (i.e., the effect of externalizing disorders on subsequent antisocial peer affiliation) in the prospective relationships between antisocial peer affiliation and externalizing disorders from adolescence through young adulthood. Data from a community sample of 2,769 individuals (52% female) with assessments at ages 17, 20, 24, and 29 were used. Analyses with a latent externalizing measure (estimated using clinical symptom counts of nicotine dependence, alcohol use disorder, illicit drug use disorder, and adult antisocial behavior) and self-reported antisocial peer affiliation revealed significantly stronger socialization effects from age 17 to 20, followed by significantly stronger selection effects from age 20 to 24 and 24 to 29. To better understand the impact of college experience, moderation by college status was evaluated at each developmental transition. Results were generally consistent for those who were in or were not in college. Results suggest selection effects are more important in later developmental periods than earlier periods, particularly in relation to an overall liability toward externalizing disorders, likely due to more freedom in peer selection postadolescence. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. The Utility of the BIOSIS PREVIEWS Database in Psychiatric Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perdue, Bob; Piotrowski, Chris

    Designed to evaluate the usefulness of the BIOSIS PREVIEWS database when searching the psychiatric literature, this study compared the effectiveness of this online database with the effectiveness of two other computerized databases, MEDLINE and PsycINFO (Psychological Abstracts), which psychiatric researchers and clinicians usually rely on when…

  19. [Food allergy in adulthood].

    PubMed

    Werfel, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Food allergies can newly arise in adulthood or persist following a food allergy occurring in childhood. The prevalence of primary food allergy is basically higher in children than in adults; however, in the routine practice food allergies in adulthood appear to be increasing and after all a prevalence in Germany of 3.7 % has been published. The clinical spectrum of manifestations of food allergies in adulthood is broad. Allergy symptoms of the immediate type can be observed as well as symptoms occurring after a delay, such as indigestion, triggering of hematogenous contact eczema or flares of atopic dermatitis. The same principles for diagnostics apply in this group as in childhood. In addition to the anamnesis, skin tests and in vitro tests, as a rule elimination diets and in particular provocation tests are employed. Molecular allergy diagnostics represent a major step forward, which allow a better assessment of the risk of systemic reactions to certain foodstuffs (e.g. peanuts) and detection of cross-reactions in cases of apparently multiple sensitivities. Current German and European guidelines from 2015 are available for the practical approach to clarification of food allergies. The most frequent food allergies in adults are nuts, fruit and vegetables, which can cross-react with pollen as well as wheat, shellfish and crustaceans. The therapy of allergies involves a consistent avoidance of the allogen. Detailed dietary plans are available with avoidance strategies and instructions for suitable food substitutes. A detailed counseling of affected patients by specially trained personnel is necessary especially in order to avoid nutritional deficiencies and to enable patients to enjoy a good quality of life. PMID:27207694

  20. [Food allergy in adulthood].

    PubMed

    Werfel, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Food allergies can newly arise in adulthood or persist following a food allergy occurring in childhood. The prevalence of primary food allergy is basically higher in children than in adults; however, in the routine practice food allergies in adulthood appear to be increasing and after all a prevalence in Germany of 3.7 % has been published. The clinical spectrum of manifestations of food allergies in adulthood is broad. Allergy symptoms of the immediate type can be observed as well as symptoms occurring after a delay, such as indigestion, triggering of hematogenous contact eczema or flares of atopic dermatitis. The same principles for diagnostics apply in this group as in childhood. In addition to the anamnesis, skin tests and in vitro tests, as a rule elimination diets and in particular provocation tests are employed. Molecular allergy diagnostics represent a major step forward, which allow a better assessment of the risk of systemic reactions to certain foodstuffs (e.g. peanuts) and detection of cross-reactions in cases of apparently multiple sensitivities. Current German and European guidelines from 2015 are available for the practical approach to clarification of food allergies. The most frequent food allergies in adults are nuts, fruit and vegetables, which can cross-react with pollen as well as wheat, shellfish and crustaceans. The therapy of allergies involves a consistent avoidance of the allogen. Detailed dietary plans are available with avoidance strategies and instructions for suitable food substitutes. A detailed counseling of affected patients by specially trained personnel is necessary especially in order to avoid nutritional deficiencies and to enable patients to enjoy a good quality of life.

  1. Doing Adulthood in Childhood Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, Barbro

    2012-01-01

    Since age and generation first started to be problematized, the focus has been on childhood, while adulthood has attracted less attention. In this article four examples are presented of how adulthood is constructed within the specific context of childhood research. Taking the departure in Deleuzian and actor network theories, four examples are…

  2. Practical Memory Concerns in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Celinda M.; Cherry, Katie E.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, we focus on practical memory concerns in adulthood. Young, middle-aged, and community-dwelling older adults responded to seven open-ended questions covering the topics of memory self-efficacy, memory management, memory remediation, and fears about memory aging in adulthood. The results revealed several similarities among the age…

  3. Emerging Adulthood: Resilience and Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Vanessa; Meyer, Jill

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This article provides an overview of emerging adulthood, recentering, and resilience of youth with disabilities. Emerging adulthood is a developmental period during which individuals experience delays in attainment of adult roles and social expectations. Recentering is a process that emerging adults experience as they make distinct shifts…

  4. A comparison of the short- and long-term effects of corticosterone exposure on extinction in adolescence versus adulthood.

    PubMed

    Den, Miriam Liora; Altmann, Sarah R; Richardson, Rick

    2014-12-01

    Human and nonhuman adolescents have impaired retention of extinction of learned fear, relative to juveniles and adults. It is unknown whether exposure to stress affects extinction differently in adolescents versus adults. These experiments compared the short- and long-term effects of exposure to the stress-related hormone corticosterone (CORT) on the extinction of learned fear in adolescent and adult rats. Across all experiments, adolescent and adult rats were trained to exhibit good extinction retention by giving extinction training across 2 consecutive days. Despite this extra training, adolescents exposed to 1 week of CORT (200 μg/ml) in their drinking water showed impaired extinction retention when trained shortly after the CORT was removed (Experiment 1a). In contrast, adult rats exposed to CORT (200 μg/ml) for the same duration did not exhibit deficits in extinction retention (Experiment 1b). Exposing adolescents to half the amount of CORT (100 μg/ml; Experiment 1c) for 1 week similarly disrupted extinction retention. Extinction impairments in adult rats were only observed after 3 weeks, rather than 1 week, of CORT (200 μg/ml; Experiment 1d). Remarkably, however, adult rats showed impaired extinction retention if they had been exposed to 1 week of CORT (200 μg/ml) during adolescence (Experiment 2). Finally, exposure to 3 weeks of CORT (200 μg/ml) in adulthood led to long-lasting extinction deficits after a 6-week drug-free period (Experiment 3). These findings suggest that although CORT disrupts both short- and long-term extinction retention in adolescents and adults, adolescents may be more vulnerable to these effects because of the maturation of stress-sensitive brain regions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Angelman syndrome in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Larson, Anna M; Shinnick, Julianna E; Shaaya, Elias A; Thiele, Elizabeth A; Thibert, Ronald L

    2015-02-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurogenetic disorder. The goal of this study was to investigate the primary health issues affecting adults with AS and to further characterize the natural history and genotype-phenotype correlations. Standardized phone interviews with caregivers for 110 adolescents and adults with AS were conducted. The impact of age, sex, and genotype on specific outcomes in neurology, orthopedics, internal medicine, and psychiatry were investigated. The mean age of individuals with AS was 24 years (range 16-50y). Active seizures were present in 41% of individuals, and 72% had sleep dysfunction. Significant constipation was present in 85%, and 32% were overweight or obese, with obesity disproportionately affecting women. Scoliosis affected 50% with a mean age at diagnosis of 12 years, and 24% of those diagnosed with scoliosis required surgery, an intervention disproportionately affecting men. Sixty-eight percent were able to walk independently, and 13% were able to speak 5 or more words. Self-injurious behavior was exhibited in 52% of individuals. The results of this study indicate that epilepsy severity may assume a bimodal age distribution: seizures are typically most severe in early childhood but may recur in adulthood. While late-adolescent and adult sleep patterns were improved when compared to the degree of sleep dysfunction present during infancy and childhood, the prevalence of poor sleep in adults remained quite high. Primary areas of clinical management identified include the following: seizures, sleep, aspiration risk, GERD, constipation, dental care, vision, obesity, scoliosis, bone density, mobility, communication, behavior, and anxiety. PMID:25428759

  6. Preterm Birth: Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Marilee C.; Cristofalo, Elizabeth; Kim, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Preterm birth is associated with greater difficulty with transitions from childhood to adolescence to adulthood. Adolescents and young adults born preterm have higher rates of cerebral palsy, intellectual disability, cognitive impairment, learning disability, executive dysfunction, attention deficit disorder, and social-emotional difficulties than…

  7. Promoting Intellectual Growth in Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehle, Thomas J.; Bray, Melissa A.; Chafouleas, Sandra M; McLoughlin, Caven S.

    2002-01-01

    Article discusses problems associated with promoting intellectual growth in adulthood. Defines characteristics of intelligent behavior as incorporating individual attainment of Resources, Intimacy, Competence, and Health (RICH). Presents the RICH theory as a way to define and address the goals of intelligent enhancement. (JDM)

  8. Preterm birth: Transition to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Allen, Marilee C; Cristofalo, Elizabeth; Kim, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Preterm birth is associated with greater difficulty with transitions from childhood to adolescence to adulthood. Adolescents and young adults born preterm have higher rates of cerebral palsy, intellectual disability, cognitive impairment, learning disability, executive dysfunction, attention deficit disorder, and social-emotional difficulties than their peers born fullterm. Compared to individuals born fullterm, more preterm survivors have major neurodevelopmental or psychiatric disability and need financial supports and societal resources. Neuroimaging studies of adolescents and adults born preterm report higher rates of brain injury, differences in regional brain structure, and different brain circuits than in those born fullterm. Making the transition to adulthood is more difficult for young adults who were born preterm than their peers born fullterm, in that fewer complete high school and higher education, find and keep meaningful employment, and live independently from their parents. As a group, they do not tend to be risk-takers, and they have lower rates of alcohol abuse, use of illicit drugs, and criminal offenses than do their peers. Despite their many challenges, the majority of adults born preterm function well, form personal relationships, integrate well into their community, and are as satisfied with their quality of life as are their peers. Concerns regarding current preterm infants, with more extremely preterm survivors, overwhelming our medical, educational, and societal resources should serve as an impetus for research on prevention of preterm births and brain injury, as well as how to support and promote their ongoing neuromaturation and recovery from injury. PMID:25708075

  9. Predictors of Health in Middle Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Sandra P.

    There is increasing acceptance of the premise that growth and development continue throughout adult life and, as life expectancy has lengthened, there is a much expanded mid-life period. Yet, middle adulthood has been neglected as an area of theoretical and empirical examination. Adults (N=251) in middle adulthood (age 35-55) completed instruments…

  10. Vulnerable Youth and Transitions to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Rongbing; Sen, Bisakha; Foster, E. Michael

    2014-01-01

    This chapter focuses on vulnerable youth, the challenges they face during their transitions to adulthood, and the adverse effects of limited support systems on those transitions. The authors offer recommendations on how adult educators can help facilitate smooth transitions into adulthood for vulnerable youth.

  11. Intersection of suicidality and substance abuse among young Asian-American women: implications for developing interventions in young adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Chang, Stephanie Tzu-Han; Tong, Hui Qi; Meneses, Michelle Ann; Yuzbasioglu, Rojda Filiz; Hien, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the current literature uncovering specific factors associated with self-harm and suicidality among young Asian American women, as well as to present the Fractured Identity Model as a framework for understanding these factors. This paper offers concrete suggestions for the development of culturally competent interventions to target suicidality, substance abuse, and mental illness among young Asian American women. Design/methodology/approach Empirical studies and theory-based papers featured in peer-reviewed journals between 1990 and 2014 were identified through scholarly databases, such as PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, JSTOR, and Google Scholar. Findings We identified several factors associated with suicidality among young Asian American women: (1) family dynamics, or having lived in a household where parents practice “disempowering parenting styles,” (2) substance use/abuse, and (3) untreated mental illness(es), which are exacerbated by the stigma and shame attached to seeking out mental health services. The Fractured Identity Model by Hahm et al. (2014) is presented as a possible pathway from disempowering parenting to suicidal and self-harm behaviors among this population, with substance abuse playing a significant mediating role. Research limitations/implications – Our review focused on Asian American women, substance use among Asian Americans, and mental health among Asian Americans. Literature that focused on Asians living in Asia or elsewhere outside of the USA was excluded from this review; the review was limited to research conducted in the USA and written in the English language. Practical implications The complex interplay among Asian American culture, family dynamics, gender roles/expectations, and mental health justifies the development of a suicide and substance abuse intervention that is tailored to the culture- and gender-specific needs of Asian Pacific Islander young women. It is

  12. Special Needs: Planning for Adulthood (Videos)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which Ones & When? Smart School Lunches Emmy-Nominated Video "Cerebral Palsy: Shannon's Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Special Needs: Planning for Adulthood (Video) KidsHealth > ...

  13. Biofuel Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    Biofuel Database (Web, free access)   This database brings together structural, biological, and thermodynamic data for enzymes that are either in current use or are being considered for use in the production of biofuels.

  14. Database Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2010-01-01

    The Internet and electronic commerce (e-commerce) generate lots of data. Data must be stored, organized, and managed. Database administrators, or DBAs, work with database software to find ways to do this. They identify user needs, set up computer databases, and test systems. They ensure that systems perform as they should and add people to the…

  15. Understanding adolescent and family influences on intimate partner psychological violence during emerging adulthood and adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lohman, Brenda J; Neppl, Tricia K; Senia, Jennifer M; Schofield, Thomas J

    2013-04-01

    The intergenerational transmission of violence directed toward intimate partners has been documented for the past three decades. Overall, the literature shows that violence in the family of origin leads to violence in the family of destination. However, this predominately cross-sectional or retrospective literature is limited by self-selection, endogeneity, and reporter biases as it has not been able to assess how individual and family behaviors simultaneously experienced during adolescence influence intimate partner violence throughout adulthood. The present study used data from the Iowa Youth and Families Project (IYFP; N = 392; 52 % Female), a multi-method, multi-trait prospective approach, to overcome this limitation. We focused on psychological intimate partner violence in both emerging adulthood (19-23 years) and adulthood (27-31 years), and include self and partner ratings of violence as well as observational data in a sample of rural non-Hispanic white families. Controlling for a host of individual risk factors as well as interparental psychological violence from adolescence (14-15 years), the results show that exposure to parent-to-child psychological violence during adolescence is a key predictor of intimate partner violence throughout adulthood. In addition, negative emotionality and the number of sexual partners in adolescence predicted intimate partner violence in both emerging adulthood and adulthood. Exposure to family stress was associated positively with intimate partner violence in adulthood but not in emerging adulthood, whereas academic difficulties were found to increase violence in emerging adulthood only. Unlike previous research, results did not support a direct effect of interparental psychological violence on psychological violence in the next generation. Gender differences were found only in emerging adulthood. Implications of these findings are discussed in light of the current literature and future directions. PMID:23430562

  16. Functional outcomes of very premature infants into adulthood.

    PubMed

    Saigal, Saroj

    2014-04-01

    The outcomes of very low birth weight survivors born in the early post-neonatal intensive care era have now been reported to young adulthood in several longitudinal cohort studies, and more recently from large Scandinavian national databases. The latter reports corroborate the findings that despite disabilities, a significant majority of very low birth weight survivors are leading productive lives, and are functioning better than expected. This is reassuring, but there are still concerns about future psychopathology, cardiovascular and metabolic problems as they approach middle age. Although these findings may not be directly applicable to the current survivors of modern neonatal intensive care, they do provide a yardstick by which to project the outcomes of future survivors until more contemporaneous data are available. PMID:24289905

  17. Childhood Poverty and the Transition to Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Kendig, Sarah M; Mattingly, Marybeth J; Bianchi, Suzanne M

    2014-04-01

    The authors used the Panel Study of Income Dynamics 2007 Transition to Adulthood data in combination with the 2002 Child Development Supplement to examine social class bifurcation in young adulthood. Results indicate that poor youth possibly take on adult roles "too early" at the same time that high-income youth may be supported for a long period past their 18(th) birthday. Although not all evidence is consistent with this bifurcated story, childhood poverty does play a key role. Young adults from poor families establish financial independence early (e.g., contributing to family bills during adolescence, considering themselves fully responsible for their finances as young adults), whereas young adults from more affluent homes are more likely to receive financial transfers from their parents (who often help them pay for college and other expenses). These findings highlight the ways in which socioeconomic inequality in childhood can differentiate youth's experiences of adolescence and young adulthood.

  18. Sibling Relationships during the Transition to Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Conger, Katherine Jewsbury; Little, Wendy M.

    2009-01-01

    Recent research has shed new light on individual development during the early adulthood years, yet few investigators have examined sibling relationships during this stage of life. These relationships undergo transformations as individuals enter adult roles and orient their lives towards friends and romantic partners and establish independence from parents and siblings. This review examines major life events and role transitions such as leaving home, completing school, obtaining employment, getting married, and having children that influence individuals and their sibling relationships. In addition, the review considers how sibling relationships may affect individuals during the transition to adulthood, and considers the context of family and culture. The article concludes with suggestions for future research on sibling relationships during early adulthood and beyond. PMID:20700389

  19. The Military and the Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelty, Ryan; Kleykamp, Meredith; Segal, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Ryan Kelty, Meredith Kleykamp, and David Segal examine the effect of military service on the transition to adulthood. They highlight changes since World War II in the role of the military in the lives of young adults, focusing especially on how the move from a conscription to an all-volunteer military has changed the way military service affects…

  20. Perceived Discrimination and Personality Development in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutin, Angelina R.; Stephan, Yannick; Terracciano, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Perceived discrimination is common and a significant source of stress that may have implications for personality development across adulthood. In this study, we examined whether experiences with discrimination were associated with maladaptive changes in the 5 major dimensions of personality using 2 longitudinal samples that differed in age and…

  1. Constructing Adulthood in an Age of Uncertainty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Jennifer M.

    2012-01-01

    Past research in both the transitions to adulthood literature and cultural sociology more broadly suggests that the working class relies on traditional cultural models in their construction of identity. In the contemporary post-industrial world, however, traditional life pathways are now much less available to working-class men and women. I draw…

  2. Predicting Markers of Adulthood among Adolescent Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxford, Monica L.; Lee, Jungeun O.; Lohr, Mary Jane

    2010-01-01

    This prospective longitudinal study examines the antecedents of adolescent mothers' transition into adulthood and their attainment of multiple adult statuses in their early 30s in a nonclinical sample. The distribution, timing, and impact of factors in adolescence (education, employment, marriage, economic status, criminal involvement, and others)…

  3. Predictors of Positive Development in Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Meredith; Sanson, Ann; Hawkins, Mary T.; Letcher, Primrose; Toumbourou, John W.; Smart, Diana; Vassallo, Suzanne; Olsson, Craig A.

    2011-01-01

    This article responds to recent calls for a focus on successful development in young people and examination of its developmental precursors, in order to identify potentially modifiable targets for interventions. The current study examined child and adolescent precursors of positive functioning in emerging adulthood, including individual…

  4. Counterfactual Reasoning: From Childhood to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafetseder, Eva; Schwitalla, Maria; Perner, Josef

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the developmental progression of counterfactual reasoning from childhood to adulthood. In contrast to the traditional view, it was recently reported by Rafetseder and colleagues that even a majority of 6-year-old children do not engage in counterfactual reasoning when asked counterfactual questions…

  5. Vulnerable Populations and the Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osgood, D. Wayne; Foster, E. Michael; Courtney, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    D. Wayne Osgood, E. Michael Foster, and Mark E. Courtney examine the transition to adulthood for youth involved in social service and justice systems during childhood and adolescence. They survey the challenges faced by youth in the mental health system, the foster care system, the juvenile justice system, the criminal justice system, and special…

  6. Normative Beliefs Regarding Aggression in Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, David A.; Springer, Melanie M.; Nelson, Larry J.; Bean, Nathaniel H.

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have examined the nature of aggression in emerging adulthood (ages 18-25), a unique developmental period wherein relationships become increasingly important and intimate. Consistent with a greater emphasis on relationships, relationally manipulative forms of aggression may be particularly salient during this time period. Based on…

  7. Novelty Seeking in Adulthood: Increases Accompany Decline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reio, Thomas G., Jr.; Choi, Namok

    2004-01-01

    Using stereotypes, researchers have predicted that novelty seeking declines in adulthood. Through this cross-sectional study, the authors revealed that only the external sensational type of novelty seeking declined, whereas the internal sensational and internal and external cognitive types remained stable or increased. A population of 233 adults…

  8. Personality-Cognition Relations across Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soubelet, Andrea; Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    Although an increasing number of studies have investigated relations between dimensions of personality and level of cognitive functioning, the research results have been somewhat inconsistent. Furthermore, relatively little is known about whether the personality-cognition relations vary as a function of age in adulthood. The current project…

  9. The Structure of Visuospatial Memory in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mammarella, Irene C.; Borella, Erika; Pastore, Massimiliano; Pazzaglia, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the structure of visuospatial memory in adulthood. Adults 40-89 years of age (n = 160) performed simple storage and complex visuospatial span tasks. Simple storage tasks were distinguished into three presentation formats: (i) visual, which involved maintaining shapes and textures; (ii) spatial-sequential,…

  10. Transition into Adulthood and the Disabled Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Violet Y.

    2011-01-01

    Transitioning in to adult-hood as a special needs youth can be a challenging experience for both disabled youth and their families. IDEA 2004 legislation mandates all special needs individuals receive skill development in the areas of self-determination, self-advocacy, employment, adult service agency access and independent living. School…

  11. Emerging Adulthood in Mexican and Spanish Youth: Theories and Realities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arias, Daniel Fierro; Hernandez, Amparo Moreno

    2007-01-01

    A delay in the end of the adolescent period, and hence the onset of common adult roles, is a trend in most of today's Western industrialized societies. Related to this fact, in recent years emerging adulthood has been proposed as a distinct developmental period between adolescence and young adulthood. Typical normative markers of adulthood are…

  12. Database Manager

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    It is normal practice today for organizations to store large quantities of records of related information as computer-based files or databases. Purposeful information is retrieved by performing queries on the data sets. The purpose of DATABASE MANAGER is to communicate to students the method by which the computer performs these queries. This…

  13. Maize databases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter is a succinct overview of maize data held in the species-specific database MaizeGDB (the Maize Genomics and Genetics Database), and selected multi-species data repositories, such as Gramene/Ensembl Plants, Phytozome, UniProt and the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), ...

  14. Psychiatric Disorders in Adolescence and Early Adulthood and Risk for Child-Rearing Difficulties during Middle Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Cohen, Patricia; Kasen, Stephanie; Brook, Judith S.

    2008-01-01

    Data from a community-based longitudinal study were used to investigate the associations of parental psychiatric disorders evident by early adulthood with child-rearing behavior during middle adulthood. A series of psychiatric assessments was conducted during the adolescence (mean ages 14 and 16) and early adulthood (mean age 22) of 153 males and…

  15. Genome databases

    SciTech Connect

    Courteau, J.

    1991-10-11

    Since the Genome Project began several years ago, a plethora of databases have been developed or are in the works. They range from the massive Genome Data Base at Johns Hopkins University, the central repository of all gene mapping information, to small databases focusing on single chromosomes or organisms. Some are publicly available, others are essentially private electronic lab notebooks. Still others limit access to a consortium of researchers working on, say, a single human chromosome. An increasing number incorporate sophisticated search and analytical software, while others operate as little more than data lists. In consultation with numerous experts in the field, a list has been compiled of some key genome-related databases. The list was not limited to map and sequence databases but also included the tools investigators use to interpret and elucidate genetic data, such as protein sequence and protein structure databases. Because a major goal of the Genome Project is to map and sequence the genomes of several experimental animals, including E. coli, yeast, fruit fly, nematode, and mouse, the available databases for those organisms are listed as well. The author also includes several databases that are still under development - including some ambitious efforts that go beyond data compilation to create what are being called electronic research communities, enabling many users, rather than just one or a few curators, to add or edit the data and tag it as raw or confirmed.

  16. Trends in child labor and the impact on health in adulthood in Brazil from 1998 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Nishijima, Marislei; Souza, André Portela Fernandes de; Sarti, Flávia Mori

    2015-05-01

    There is little evidence in Brazil on the impact of child labor on health status in adulthood. This study aimed to investigate trends in child labor in Brazil and estimate the long-term effects of child labor on the health of Brazilian adults, using nationally representative databases (Brazilian National Household Sample Survey) from three different years (1998, 2003, and 2008). The models were based on a two-stage linear equation and Generalized Method of Moments (GMM). The results suggest that child labor has declined in Brazil, although the data still show patterns of early entry into the country's labor market. Regardless of the type of work, child labor adversely affected health outcomes in adulthood, both directly (impacts on health outcomes) and indirectly (losses in educational attainment). Child labor places a long-term burden on Brazilians, jeopardizing the formation of human capital through negative impacts on health outcomes in adulthood.

  17. Personal effort in social relationships across adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lang, Frieder R; Wagner, Jenny; Wrzus, Cornelia; Neyer, Franz J

    2013-06-01

    We explored age differences in the amount of personal effort that people put forth to maintain relationships across adulthood in diverse family-life contexts. More specifically, we examined how personal effort in social relationships is age-differently related to emotional closeness and perceptions of reciprocity. A total of 658 early-midlife (37 years) and old-age adults (73 years) from three life contexts (biological parents, parents from blended families with at least one stepchild, childless individuals) completed a questionnaire assessing ego-centered social networks, relationship quality, perceived conflict, and personal characteristics. As expected, perceived relationship effort was more pronounced and more strongly associated with emotional closeness in old age than in early midlife. In both age groups, perceived effort was comparably associated with reciprocity and conflict. Such associations were similar across the different life contexts. The findings suggest that perceived personal effort in social relationships contributes to the proactive shaping of social worlds across adulthood. PMID:23586359

  18. Treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Castrén, Eero; Elgersma, Ype; Maffei, Lamberto; Hagerman, Randi

    2012-10-10

    Brain development in neurodevelopmental disorders has been considered to comprise a sequence of critical periods, and abnormalities occurring during early development have been considered irreversible in adulthood. However, findings in mouse models of neurodevelopmental disorders, including fragile X, Rett syndrome, Down syndrome, and neurofibromatosis type I suggest that it is possible to reverse certain molecular, electrophysiological, and behavioral deficits associated with these disorders in adults by genetic or pharmacological manipulations. Furthermore, recent studies have suggested that critical period-like plasticity can be reactivated in the adult brain by environmental manipulations or by pharmacotherapy. These studies open up a tantalizing possibility that targeted pharmacological treatments in combination with regimes of training or rehabilitation might alleviate or reverse the symptoms of neurodevelopmental disorders even after the end of critical developmental periods. Even though translation from animal experimentation to clinical practice is challenging, these results suggest a rational basis for treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders in adulthood.

  19. Narrative and the social construction of adulthood.

    PubMed

    Hammack, Phillip L; Toolis, Erin

    2014-01-01

    This chapter develops three points of elaboration and theoretical expansion upon Cohler's (1982) treatise on personal narrative and life course. First, we highlight Cohler's emphasis on an interpretive, idiographic approach to the study of lives and reveal the radicalism of this approach, particularly in its ability to interrogate the lived experience of social categorization. Second, we link Cohler's position directly to cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT) and consider the link between inner and social speech through the idea of narrative engagement. Finally, following Cohler's life course perspective on human development, we suggest that adulthood is best conceived as a cultural discourse to which individuals orient their personal narratives through a dynamic process of narrative engagement rather than a clearly demarcated life stage. Emerging adulthood is linked to cultural and economic processes of globalization in the 21st century and challenges static notions of social roles traditionally associated with compulsory heterosexuality (e.g., marriage and parenthood). Narrative processes in emerging adulthood occur through both situated storytelling and the formation of a life story that provides coherence and social meaning, both of which have key implications for social stasis and change. PMID:25251509

  20. Childhood and adulthood temperament and problem behaviors and adulthood substance use.

    PubMed

    Ohannessian, C M; Stabenau, J R; Hesselbrock, V M

    1995-01-01

    A sample of 229 adult men and women were assessed to examine the relationships between childhood and adulthood temperament and problem behaviors. The influence of these variables on adult substance use was also assessed. Results indicated that individuals who had "difficult" temperament characteristics (e.g., hyperactivity) and who experienced problem behaviors (e.g., antisocial behaviors) as children were likely to exhibit them as adults. In addition, the continuation of temperament characteristics and problem behaviors from childhood into adulthood did not demonstrate a high degree of specificity. When the relationships between temperament and problem behaviors to substance use were examined, conduct disorder during childhood and antisocial behavior during adulthood were found to be the best predictors of adult substance abuse. Moreover, this relationship became increasingly stronger with more substance involvement. These results underscore the importance of examining substance use in finer detail by assessing the pattern of substance use, instead of overall substance use involvement.

  1. Solubility Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 106 IUPAC-NIST Solubility Database (Web, free access)   These solubilities are compiled from 18 volumes (Click here for List) of the International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry(IUPAC)-NIST Solubility Data Series. The database includes liquid-liquid, solid-liquid, and gas-liquid systems. Typical solvents and solutes include water, seawater, heavy water, inorganic compounds, and a variety of organic compounds such as hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons, alcohols, acids, esters and nitrogen compounds. There are over 67,500 solubility measurements and over 1800 references.

  2. The military and the transition to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Kelty, Ryan; Kleykamp, Meredith; Segal, David R

    2010-01-01

    Ryan Kelty, Meredith Kleykamp, and David Segal examine the effect of military service on the transition to adulthood. They highlight changes since World War II in the role of the military in the lives of young adults, focusing especially on how the move from a conscription to an all-volunteer military has changed the way military service affects youths' approach to adult responsibilities. The authors note that today's all-volunteer military is both career-oriented and family-oriented, and they show how the material and social support the military provides to young servicemen and women promotes responsible membership in family relationships and the wider community. As a result, they argue, the transition to adulthood, including economic independence from parents, is more stable and orderly for military personnel than for their civilian peers. At the same time, they stress that serving in the military in a time of war holds dangers for young adults. The authors examine four broad areas of military service, focusing in each on how men and women in uniform today make the transition to adulthood. They begin by looking at the social characteristics of those who serve, especially at differences in access to the military and its benefits by socio-demographic characteristics, such as age, gender, race and ethnicity, social class, and sexual orientation. Military service also has important effects on family formation, including the timing of marriage and parenthood, family structure, and the influence of military culture on families. Family formation among servicemen and women, the authors observe, is earlier and more stable than among civilians of the same age. The authors then consider the educational and employment consequences of service. Finally, they scrutinize the dangers of military service during times of war and examine the physical and psychological effects of wartime military service. They also note the sexual trauma endured both by male and female military

  3. Substance Use in Adolescence and Early Adulthood: Which Best Predicts Violence in Early Adulthood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcus, Robert F.; Jamison, Eric G., II

    2013-01-01

    Waves I and III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) were used to test the contributions of alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, cocaine, LSD, PCP, and other illicit drugs to violence in early adulthood (e.g., took part in a gang fight, pulled a knife or gun, used a weapon in a fight, used a weapon to get something). The…

  4. Drinking Water Treatability Database (Database)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) will provide data taken from the literature on the control of contaminants in drinking water, and will be housed on an interactive, publicly-available USEPA web site. It can be used for identifying effective treatment processes, rec...

  5. Parental Education Predicts Corticostriatal Functionality in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Manuck, Stephen B.; Sheu, Lei K.; Kuan, Dora C. H.; Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; Craig, Anna E.; Hariri, Ahmad R.

    2011-01-01

    Socioeconomic disadvantage experienced in early development predicts ill health in adulthood. However, the neurobiological pathways linking early disadvantage to adult health remain unclear. Lower parental education—a presumptive indicator of early socioeconomic disadvantage—predicts health-impairing adult behaviors, including tobacco and alcohol dependencies. These behaviors depend, in part, on the functionality of corticostriatal brain systems that 1) show developmental plasticity and early vulnerability, 2) process reward-related information, and 3) regulate impulsive decisions and actions. Hence, corticostriatal functionality in adulthood may covary directly with indicators of early socioeconomic disadvantage, particularly lower parental education. Here, we tested the covariation between parental education and corticostriatal activation and connectivity in 76 adults without confounding clinical syndromes. Corticostriatal activation and connectivity were assessed during the processing of stimuli signaling monetary gains (positive feedback [PF]) and losses (negative feedback). After accounting for participants’ own education and other explanatory factors, lower parental education predicted reduced activation in anterior cingulate and dorsomedial prefrontal cortices during PF, along with reduced connectivity between these cortices and orbitofrontal and striatal areas implicated in reward processing and impulse regulation. In speculation, adult alterations in corticostriatal functionality may represent facets of a neurobiological endophenotype linked to socioeconomic conditions of early development. PMID:20810623

  6. Type 1 Diabetes in Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Monaghan, Maureen; Helgeson, Vicki; Wiebe, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes has traditionally been studied as a chronic illness of childhood. However, young adulthood is a critical time for the development and integration of lifelong diabetes management skills, and research is starting to identify unique challenges faced by youth with diabetes as they age into adulthood. Most young adults experience multiple transitions during this unstable developmental period, including changes in lifestyle (e.g., education, occupation, living situation), changes in health care, and shifting relationships with family members, friends, and intimate others. Young adults with type 1 diabetes must navigate these transitions while also assuming increasing responsibility for their diabetes care and overall health. Despite these critical health and psychosocial concerns, there is a notable lack of evidence-based clinical services and supports for young adults with type 1 diabetes. We review relevant evolving concerns for young adults with type 1 diabetes, including lifestyle considerations, health care transitions, psychosocial needs, and changes in supportive networks, and how type 1 diabetes impacts and is impacted by these key developmental considerations. Specific avenues for intervention and future research are offered. PMID:25901502

  7. Gratitude From Early Adulthood to Old Age.

    PubMed

    Allemand, Mathias; Hill, Patrick L

    2016-02-01

    Are there age differences in gratitude from early adulthood to old age? The current studies tested several ways by which an association between age and dispositional gratitude may present, by considering multiple measures on both fronts. We used data from three cross-sectional studies (total N = 1,736; total age range: 19-94). The results indicated that (a) age effects in gratitude are more likely to occur for subjective age in terms of future time perspective (i.e., people's perceptions of their remaining opportunities and time) than chronological age; (b) chronological age effects are more domain specific than general in nature; and (c) they are more likely to occur for the instrumental domain as compared to the interpersonal domain. Finally, the results indicated that (d) perceived future time, particularly with respect to remaining opportunities, mediates the relation between chronological age and general gratitude. Overall, the findings suggest that gratitude is subject to a variety of developmental influences across adulthood.

  8. Type 1 diabetes in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Monaghan, Maureen; Helgeson, Vicki; Wiebe, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes has traditionally been studied as a chronic illness of childhood. However, young adulthood is a critical time for the development and integration of lifelong diabetes management skills, and research is starting to identify unique challenges faced by youth with diabetes as they age into adulthood. Most young adults experience multiple transitions during this unstable developmental period, including changes in lifestyle (e.g., education, occupation, living situation), changes in health care, and shifting relationships with family members, friends, and intimate others. Young adults with type 1 diabetes must navigate these transitions while also assuming increasing responsibility for their diabetes care and overall health. Despite these critical health and psychosocial concerns, there is a notable lack of evidence-based clinical services and supports for young adults with type 1 diabetes. We review relevant evolving concerns for young adults with type 1 diabetes, including lifestyle considerations, health care transitions, psychosocial needs, and changes in supportive networks, and how type 1 diabetes impacts and is impacted by these key developmental considerations. Specific avenues for intervention and future research are offered. PMID:25901502

  9. Childhood Maltreatment Predicts Allostatic Load in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Widom, Cathy Spatz; Horan, Jacqueline; Brzustowicz, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment has been linked to numerous negative health outcomes. However, few studies have examined mediating processes using longitudinal designs or objectively measured biological data. This study sought to determine whether child abuse and neglect predicts allostatic load (a composite indicator of accumulated stress-induced biological risk) and to examine potential mediators. Using a prospective cohort design, children (ages 0-11) with documented cases of abuse and neglect were matched with non-maltreated children and followed up into adulthood with in-person interviews and a medical status exam (mean age 41). Allostatic load was assessed with nine physical health indicators. Child abuse and neglect predicted allostatic load, controlling for age, sex, and race. The direct effect of child abuse and neglect persisted despite the introduction of potential mediators of internalizing and externalizing problems in adolescence and social support and risky lifestyle in middle adulthood. These findings reveal the long-term impact of childhood abuse and neglect on physical health over 30 years later. PMID:25700779

  10. Parent-Child Relations and Offending during Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Wendi L.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Manning, Wendy D.; Longmore, Monica A.

    2011-01-01

    There is a long tradition of studying parent-child relationships and adolescent delinquency. However, the association between parent-child relationships and criminal offending during young adulthood is less well understood. Although the developmental tasks of young adulthood tend to focus on intimate relationships, employment, and family…

  11. An Examination of Emerging Adulthood in Romanian College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Larry J.

    2009-01-01

    Little work has been done to examine emerging adulthood in Eastern European countries such as Romania that are making the transition out of communism into the broader free-market economy of Western Europe. The purpose of this study was to (a) examine the criteria that college students in Romania have for adulthood, and (b) explore whether…

  12. Conceptions of Adulthood among Migrant Women Workers in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhong, Juan; Arnett, Jeffrey J.

    2014-01-01

    The experiences of emerging adulthood may vary in different historical and cultural contexts. Little research has been dedicated to how non college students view adulthood in developing countries. Currently, millions of young people are migrating from rural villages to industrial cities in China. The purpose of this study was to investigate…

  13. Inventing Adulthoods: A Biographical Approach to Youth Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Sheila J.; Holland, Janet; McGrellis, Sheena; Sharpe, Sue; Thomson, Rachel

    2006-01-01

    "Inventing Adulthoods: A Biographical Approach to Youth Transitions" is a ground-breaking book that offers a new approach to understanding young people's lives and their transitions to adulthood. Contrary to policy and research approaches that often see young people's lives in a fragmented way, the book argues that a biographical approach to youth…

  14. America's Youth: Transitions to Adulthood. NCES 2012-026

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aud, Susan; KewalRamani, Angelina; Frohlich, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    The transition to adulthood in the United States has changed in recent decades as many of the traditional milestones that mark adulthood, such as household establishment and marriage, have changed or been delayed (McLanahan et al. 2010; Arnett 2000). Among these changes are increased participation and attainment in education; extenuation of…

  15. Adulthood Predictors of Health Promoting Behavior in Later Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holahan, Carole K.; Suzuki, Rie

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated adulthood predictors of health-promoting behavior in later aging. The participants were 162 members of the Terman Study of the Gifted (Terman et al., 1925), who responded in 1999 at an average age of 86 to a mailout questionnaire which included questions concerning their positive health behavior. Adulthood variables were…

  16. Learning Disabilities in Adulthood: Persisting Problems and Evolving Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, Paul J., Ed.; Reiff, Henry B., Ed.

    This book provides a multifaceted view of learning disabilities in adulthood through the efforts of many contributors who offer a diversity of perceptions and expertise. The focus spans from young to late adulthood and reflects state-of-the-art knowledge and the best practices of the field. The topic areas are clustered into psychological,…

  17. Searching for Controlled Trials of Complementary and Alternative Medicine: A Comparison of 15 Databases

    PubMed Central

    Cogo, Elise; Sampson, Margaret; Ajiferuke, Isola; Manheimer, Eric; Campbell, Kaitryn; Daniel, Raymond; Moher, David

    2011-01-01

    This project aims to assess the utility of bibliographic databases beyond the three major ones (MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane CENTRAL) for finding controlled trials of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Fifteen databases were searched to identify controlled clinical trials (CCTs) of CAM not also indexed in MEDLINE. Searches were conducted in May 2006 using the revised Cochrane highly sensitive search strategy (HSSS) and the PubMed CAM Subset. Yield of CAM trials per 100 records was determined, and databases were compared over a standardized period (2005). The Acudoc2 RCT, Acubriefs, Index to Chiropractic Literature (ICL) and Hom-Inform databases had the highest concentrations of non-MEDLINE records, with more than 100 non-MEDLINE records per 500. Other productive databases had ratios between 500 and 1500 records to 100 non-MEDLINE records—these were AMED, MANTIS, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Global Health and Alt HealthWatch. Five databases were found to be unproductive: AGRICOLA, CAIRSS, Datadiwan, Herb Research Foundation and IBIDS. Acudoc2 RCT yielded 100 CAM trials in the most recent 100 records screened. Acubriefs, AMED, Hom-Inform, MANTIS, PsycINFO and CINAHL had more than 25 CAM trials per 100 records screened. Global Health, ICL and Alt HealthWatch were below 25 in yield. There were 255 non-MEDLINE trials from eight databases in 2005, with only 10% indexed in more than one database. Yield varied greatly between databases; the most productive databases from both sampling methods were Acubriefs, Acudoc2 RCT, AMED and CINAHL. Low overlap between databases indicates comprehensive CAM literature searches will require multiple databases. PMID:19468052

  18. Young Adults' Perceived Purposes of Emerging Adulthood: Implications for Cohabitation.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Adam A; Willoughby, Brian J; Nelson, Larry J

    2016-01-01

    The authors investigated associations between young adults' perceived purposes of emerging adulthood and their attitudes toward and participation in cohabitation. In a sample of 775 never married individuals, ages 18-29 (69% female, 69% white) from the United States, young people's perceptions of this period of life were associated with their acceptance of cohabitation, their reasoning for accepting cohabitation, and the likelihood of cohabiting. Results showed that the perception that emerging adulthood is a time to prepare for future family roles was negatively associated with acceptance of cohabitation whereas the perception that emerging adulthood is a time to take risks was positively associated with acceptance of cohabitation. The perception that emerging adulthood is a time to prepare for future family roles was associated with an increased likelihood of having cohabited while the perception that emerging adulthood is a time of possibilities was associated with a decreased likelihood of having cohabited. Implications for future research are discussed.

  19. Debt, cohabitation, and marriage in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Addo, Fenaba R

    2014-10-01

    Despite growing evidence that debt influences pivotal life events in early and young adulthood, the role of debt in the familial lives of young adults has received relatively little attention. Using data from the NLSY 1997 cohort (N = 6,749) and a discrete-time competing risks hazard model framework, I test whether the transition to first union is influenced by a young adult's credit card and education loan debt above and beyond traditional educational and labor market characteristics. I find that credit card debt is positively associated with cohabitation for men and women, and that women with education loan debt are more likely than women without such debt to delay marriage and transition into cohabitation. Single life may be difficult to afford, but marital life is un-affordable as well. Cohabitation presents an alternative to single life, but not necessarily a marital substitute for these young adults.

  20. Adulthood personality correlates of childhood adversity

    PubMed Central

    Carver, Charles S.; Johnson, Sheri L.; McCullough, Michael E.; Forster, Daniel E.; Joormann, Jutta

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Childhood adversity has been linked to internalizing and externalizing disorders and personality disorders in adulthood. This study extends that research by examining several personality measures as correlates of childhood adversity. Method: In a college sample self-reports were collected of childhood adversity, several scales relating to personality, and current depression symptoms as a control variable. The personality-related scales were reduced to four latent variables, which we termed anger/aggression, extrinsic focus, agreeableness, and engagement. Results: Controlling for concurrent depressive symptoms and gender, higher levels of reported childhood adversity related to lower agreeableness and to higher anger/aggression and extrinsic focus. Conclusions: Findings suggest that early adversity is linked to personality variables relevant to the building of social connection. PMID:25484874

  1. Stackfile Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deVarvalho, Robert; Desai, Shailen D.; Haines, Bruce J.; Kruizinga, Gerhard L.; Gilmer, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This software provides storage retrieval and analysis functionality for managing satellite altimetry data. It improves the efficiency and analysis capabilities of existing database software with improved flexibility and documentation. It offers flexibility in the type of data that can be stored. There is efficient retrieval either across the spatial domain or the time domain. Built-in analysis tools are provided for frequently performed altimetry tasks. This software package is used for storing and manipulating satellite measurement data. It was developed with a focus on handling the requirements of repeat-track altimetry missions such as Topex and Jason. It was, however, designed to work with a wide variety of satellite measurement data [e.g., Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment -- GRACE). The software consists of several command-line tools for importing, retrieving, and analyzing satellite measurement data.

  2. Cardiovascular fitness is associated with cognition in young adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Åberg, Maria A. I.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Torén, Kjell; Svartengren, Magnus; Bäckstrand, Björn; Johnsson, Tommy; Cooper-Kuhn, Christiana M.; Åberg, N. David; Nilsson, Michael; Kuhn, H. Georg

    2009-01-01

    During early adulthood, a phase in which the central nervous system displays considerable plasticity and in which important cognitive traits are shaped, the effects of exercise on cognition remain poorly understood. We performed a cohort study of all Swedish men born in 1950 through 1976 who were enlisted for military service at age 18 (N = 1,221,727). Of these, 268,496 were full-sibling pairs, 3,147 twin pairs, and 1,432 monozygotic twin pairs. Physical fitness and intelligence performance data were collected during conscription examinations and linked with other national databases for information on school achievement, socioeconomic status, and sibship. Relationships between cardiovascular fitness and intelligence at age 18 were evaluated by linear models in the total cohort and in subgroups of full-sibling pairs and twin pairs. Cardiovascular fitness, as measured by ergometer cycling, positively associated with intelligence after adjusting for relevant confounders (regression coefficient b = 0.172; 95% CI, 0.168–0.176). Similar results were obtained within monozygotic twin pairs. In contrast, muscle strength was not associated with cognitive performance. Cross-twin cross-trait analyses showed that the associations were primarily explained by individual specific, non-shared environmental influences (≥80%), whereas heritability explained <15% of covariation. Cardiovascular fitness changes between age 15 and 18 y predicted cognitive performance at 18 y. Cox proportional-hazards models showed that cardiovascular fitness at age 18 y predicted educational achievements later in life. These data substantiate that physical exercise could be an important instrument for public health initiatives to optimize educational achievements, cognitive performance, as well as disease prevention at the society level. PMID:19948959

  3. Database Marketplace 2002: The Database Universe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol; Baker, Gayle; Robinson, William

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the database industry over the past year, including new companies and services, company closures, popular database formats, popular access methods, and changes in existing products and services. Lists 33 firms and their database services; 33 firms and their database products; and 61 company profiles. (LRW)

  4. Emerging Adulthood: Developmental Period Facilitative of the Addictions.

    PubMed

    Sussman, Steve; Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen

    2014-06-01

    Following adolescence and prior to young adulthood is a life developmental period that has been referred to as "emerging adulthood." This period of life involves an extended duration of learning and experimentation before settling into a career and stable relationship. Risky behaviors may be most tolerated or even promoted during emerging adulthood. Various substance and behavioral addictions are most likely to be realized during this period. Understanding what differentiates emerging adults that develop or do not develop full-blown addictions will assist in the creation of more efficacious prevention and cessation programs.

  5. Civic engagement and the transition to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Constance; Levine, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Constance Flanagan and Peter Levine survey research on civic engagement among U.S. adolescents and young adults. Civic engagement, they say, is important both for the functioning of democracies and for the growth and maturation it encourages in young adults, but opportunities for civic engagement are not evenly distributed by social class or race and ethnicity. Today's young adults, note the authors, are less likely than those in earlier generations to exhibit many important characteristics of citizenship, raising the question of whether these differences represent a decline or simply a delay in traditional adult patterns of civic engagement. Flanagan and Levine also briefly discuss the civic and political lives of immigrant youth in the United States, noting that because these youth make up a significant share of the current generation of young adults, their civic engagement is an important barometer of the future of democracy. The authors next survey differences in civic participation for youth from different social, racial, and ethnic backgrounds. They explore two sets of factors that contribute to a lower rate of civic engagement among low-income and minority young adults. The first is cumulative disadvantage-unequal opportunities and influences before adulthood, especially parental education. The second is different institutional opportunities for civic engagement among college and non-college youth during the young-adult years. Flanagan and Levine survey various settings where young adults spend time-schools and colleges, community organizations, faith-based institutions, community organizing and activism projects, and military and other voluntary service programs-and examine the opportunities for civic engagement that each affords. As the transition to adulthood has lengthened, say the authors, colleges have become perhaps the central institution for civic incorporation of younger generations. But no comparable institution exists for young adults who do not

  6. The Influence of Culture in Emerging Adulthood: Perspectives of Chinese College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Larry J.; Badger, Sarah; Wu, Bo

    2004-01-01

    Emerging adulthood refers to a time period (18-25 years of age) between adolescence and adulthood. Recent research suggests that it may be a cultural construction. More traditional, non-Western cultures may have a shortened period of emerging adulthood, or no emerging adulthood at all, because these cultures tend to place greater emphasis on…

  7. An Institutional Framework for the Study of the Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, JoAnn S.

    2014-01-01

    The transition to adulthood has received the attention of scholars, practitioners, and policy makers in recent years. For some, the transition is an extended period during which commitments to adulthood institutions are delayed, termed emerging adulthood. For others, the transition is brief and commitments to adulthood institutions begin without…

  8. Social Class, Family Formation, and Delinquency in Early Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Kuhl, Danielle C.; Chavez, Jorge M.; Swisher, Raymond R.; Wilczak, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Recent research suggests increasing heterogeneity in the transition from adolescence to early adulthood. This study considers how this heterogeneity may influence delinquency between these two developmental periods. We focus on the role of family transitions, educational attainment, and employment in predicting risk of nonviolent delinquency and substance use, as well as disparities in transitions across socioeconomic status subgroups. Data are from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health). We find that family and neighborhood advantage are negatively associated with transitions into marriage, cohabitation, and parenthood, yet positively associated with educational attainment. In addition, adolescent family and neighborhood advantage are associated with a continuation of delinquent behavior and substance use during early adulthood. In multivariate analyses, accounting for family transitions in early adulthood largely attenuates the relationship between neighborhood advantage in adolescence and delinquency in early adulthood. We conclude by discussing the implications of our findings for developmental criminology. PMID:27418713

  9. Parenthood and Leaving Home in Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Hofferth, Sandra L.; Curtin, Sally C.

    2014-01-01

    With increases in nonmarital fertility, the sequencing of transitions in early adulthood has become even more complex. Once the primary transition out of the parental home, marriage was first replaced by nonfamily living and cohabitation; more recently, many young adults have become parents before entering a coresidential union. Studies of leaving home, however, have not examined the role of early parenthood. Using the Young Adult Study of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (n = 4,674), we use logistic regression to analyze parenthood both as a correlate of leaving home and as a route from the home. We find that even in mid-adolescence, becoming a parent is linked with leaving home. Coming from a more affluent family is linked with leaving home via routes that do not involve children rather than those that do, and having a warm relationship with either a mother or a father retards leaving home, particularly to nonfamily living, but is not related to parental routes out of the home. PMID:25544790

  10. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: manifestation in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Riccio, Cynthia A; Wolfe, Monica; Davis, Brandon; Romine, Cassandra; George, Carrie; Lee, Donghyung

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the manifestation of ADHD in adults using a combination of structured clinical interview, behavioral self-report, and a range of neuropsychological measures. Symptom criteria that are endorsed by adults with ADHD as compared to non-diagnosed adults and an adult sample with other clinical disorders tend to reflect problems with follow-through, forgetting, organization, and losing things. Notably, adults in the No Diagnosis group endorsed a higher frequency of symptoms than base rates reported elsewhere. Related to sense of time, adults with ADHD endorsed problems with meeting deadlines, not completing tasks, not planning ahead, and having a poorer sense of time significantly more frequently than adults in either the No-Diagnosis or Other Clinical Disorder group. Results highlighted the need for further research specific to the manifestation of ADHD in adulthood and the development of diagnostic criteria that take into account the differences in development as well as age-related differences in contextual demands. PMID:15708734

  11. Counterfactual reasoning: From childhood to adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Rafetseder, Eva; Schwitalla, Maria; Perner, Josef

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the developmental progression of counterfactual reasoning from childhood to adulthood. In contrast to the traditional view, it was recently reported by Rafetseder and colleagues that even a majority of 6-year-old children do not engage in counterfactual reasoning when asked counterfactual questions (Child Development, 2010, Vol. 81, pp. 376–389). By continuing to use the same method, the main result of the current Study 1 was that performance of the 9- to 11-year-olds was comparable to that of the 6-year-olds, whereas the 12- to 14-year-olds approximated adult performance. Study 2, using an intuitively simpler task based on Harris and colleagues (Cognition, 1996, Vol. 61, pp. 233–259), resulted in a similar conclusion, specifically that the ability to apply counterfactual reasoning is not fully developed in all children before 12 years of age. We conclude that children who failed our tasks seem to lack an understanding of what needs to be changed (events that are causally dependent on the counterfactual assumption) and what needs to be left unchanged and so needs to be kept as it actually happened. Alternative explanations, particularly executive functioning, are discussed in detail. PMID:23219156

  12. Structural modeling of contrast sensitivity in adulthood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scialfa, Charles T.; Kline, Donald W.; Wood, Philip K.

    2002-01-01

    Structural equation modeling was used to assess the utility of the sensorineural model of contrast sensitivity proposed by Sekuler et al. [Vision Res. 24, 689 (1984)] to account for spatial vision in adulthood. In Study 1, visual acuity and contrast sensitivity (1.5-18 c/deg) were measured in 84 people between the ages of 19 and 81 yr. No three-filter model fitted the data well. Although a two-filter model was associated with good fit indices, parameter estimates for both filters were inconsistent with physiological and behavioral data. In Study 2, acuity and contrast sensitivity (1.5-18 c/deg) were assessed in 95 observers between the ages of 23 and 73 yr. All measures were gathered once per month over a three-month period. The Sekuler et al. three-filter model did not fit the data from any time of measure, but a two-filter, bandpass model provided a consistent and excellent fit for all three waves. The model suggests that age-related change in the neural mechanisms underlying contrast sensitivity is minimal once acuity is controlled. Discrepancies between this conclusion and that reported by Sekuler et al. may be related to test type, psychophysical method, reliability, and sample selection.

  13. Overlap in Bibliographic Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hood, William W.; Wilson, Concepcion S.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the topic of Fuzzy Set Theory to determine the overlap of coverage in bibliographic databases. Highlights include examples of comparisons of database coverage; frequency distribution of the degree of overlap; records with maximum overlap; records unique to one database; intra-database duplicates; and overlap in the top ten databases.…

  14. Cohort Profile: The Panel Study of Income Dynamics' Child Development Supplement and Transition into Adulthood Study.

    PubMed

    McGonagle, Katherine A; Sastry, Narayan

    2015-04-01

    The Child Development Supplement (CDS) was started in 1997 to collect information on children and caregivers in families in the USA that participated in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), an ongoing national longitudinal household survey that began in 1968. CDS was launched with the goal of creating a comprehensive, nationally representative, prospective database of young children and their families for studying the dynamic process of children's health and development. The same children and their caregivers were interviewed in up to three waves approximately every 5 years (1997, 2002-03, and 2007-08), with a child-based response rate of 90% in the most recent wave. Upon reaching age 18 years and finishing or leaving high school, the children in the CDS cohort shifted to a six-wave follow-up study launched in 2005 called the PSID Transition into Adulthood (TA) study. The TA data have been collected biennially through 2013, with a final wave planned for 2015. Once these young adults form their own economically independent households, they join the PSID. The main categories of data emphasize the major developmental tasks of childhood and young adulthood, including influences on successful development in the domains of family, schools and neighbourhoods. The majority of data and documentation are freely and publicly available through the PSID Online Data Center.

  15. Cohort Profile: The Panel Study of Income Dynamics' Child Development Supplement and Transition into Adulthood Study

    PubMed Central

    McGonagle, Katherine A; Sastry, Narayan

    2015-01-01

    The Child Development Supplement (CDS) was started in 1997 to collect information on children and caregivers in families in the USA that participated in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), an ongoing national longitudinal household survey that began in 1968. CDS was launched with the goal of creating a comprehensive, nationally representative, prospective database of young children and their families for studying the dynamic process of children’s health and development. The same children and their caregivers were interviewed in up to three waves approximately every 5 years (1997, 2002–03, and 2007–08), with a child-based response rate of 90% in the most recent wave. Upon reaching age 18 years and finishing or leaving high school, the children in the CDS cohort shifted to a six-wave follow-up study launched in 2005 called the PSID Transition into Adulthood (TA) study. The TA data have been collected biennially through 2013, with a final wave planned for 2015. Once these young adults form their own economically independent households, they join the PSID. The main categories of data emphasize the major developmental tasks of childhood and young adulthood, including influences on successful development in the domains of family, schools and neighbourhoods. The majority of data and documentation are freely and publicly available through the PSID Online Data Center. PMID:24706732

  16. Mapping brain development during childhood, adolescence and young adulthood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiaojuan; Jin, Zhen; Chen, Kewei; Peng, Danling; Li, Yao

    2009-02-01

    Using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM), this study systematically investigated the differences and similarities of brain structural changes during the early three developmental periods of human lives: childhood, adolescence and young adulthood. These brain changes were discussed in relationship to the corresponding cognitive function development during these three periods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data from 158 Chinese healthy children, adolescents and young adults, aged 7.26 to 22.80 years old, were included in this study. Using the customized brain template together with the gray matter/white matter/cerebrospinal fluid prior probability maps, we found that there were more age-related positive changes in the frontal lobe, less in hippocampus and amygdala during childhood, but more in bilateral hippocampus and amygdala and left fusiform gyrus during adolescence and young adulthood. There were more age-related negative changes near to central sulcus during childhood, but these changes extended to the frontal and parietal lobes, mainly in the parietal lobe, during adolescence and young adulthood, and more in the prefrontal lobe during young adulthood. So gray matter volume in the parietal lobe significantly decreased from childhood and continued to decrease till young adulthood. These findings may aid in understanding the age-related differences in cognitive function.

  17. Pathways to adulthood and their precursors and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Skogbrott Birkeland, Marianne; Leversen, Ingrid; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Wold, Bente

    2014-02-01

    Norway has an extensive welfare system which may provide adolescents with many options and high levels of flexibility in terms of pathways to adulthood. This study aimed to describe Norwegian developmental pathways to adulthood, including changes in role statuses (such as living situations, education, work, marriage/cohabitation and parenthood) from 16 to 30 years of age, and their precursors and outcomes. Repeated measures latent class analysis of longitudinal data from 998 Norwegian individuals indicated three main pathways to adulthood among women and men. In both sexes, most individuals undertook a long period of education and postponed family formation. However, some individuals started working early, a group of women established families with partners and children early, and a group of men remained primarily single between 16 and 30 years of age. Furthermore, the results show that pathways to adulthood in Norway are surprisingly similar to pathways in other countries such as the US, UK and Finland. The results indicate that pathways to adulthood are influenced by social reproduction factors in a country with high levels of welfare benefits as well. In addition, the results suggest that pathways involving living with a partner and either higher education or work are associated with high life satisfaction at age 30.

  18. Entering adulthood in a recession tempers later narcissism.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Emily C

    2014-07-01

    Despite widespread interest in narcissism, relatively little is known about the conditions that encourage or dampen it. Drawing on research showing that macroenvironmental conditions in emerging adulthood can leave a lasting imprint on attitudes and behaviors, I argue that people who enter adulthood during recessions are less likely to be narcissistic later in life than those who come of age in more prosperous times. Using large samples of American adults, Studies 1 and 2 showed that people who entered adulthood during worse economic times endorsed fewer narcissistic items as older adults. Study 3 extended these findings to a behavioral manifestation of narcissism: the relative pay of CEOs. CEOs who came of age in worse economic times paid themselves less relative to other top executives in their firms. These findings suggest that macroenvironmental experiences at a critical life stage can have lasting implications for how unique, special, and deserving people believe themselves to be.

  19. Databases: Beyond the Basics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittaker, Robert

    This presented paper offers an elementary description of database characteristics and then provides a survey of databases that may be useful to the teacher and researcher in Slavic and East European languages and literatures. The survey focuses on commercial databases that are available, usable, and needed. Individual databases discussed include:…

  20. Reflective Database Access Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lars E.

    2009-01-01

    "Reflective Database Access Control" (RDBAC) is a model in which a database privilege is expressed as a database query itself, rather than as a static privilege contained in an access control list. RDBAC aids the management of database access controls by improving the expressiveness of policies. However, such policies introduce new interactions…

  1. Human Mitochondrial Protein Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 131 Human Mitochondrial Protein Database (Web, free access)   The Human Mitochondrial Protein Database (HMPDb) provides comprehensive data on mitochondrial and human nuclear encoded proteins involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and function. This database consolidates information from SwissProt, LocusLink, Protein Data Bank (PDB), GenBank, Genome Database (GDB), Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), Human Mitochondrial Genome Database (mtDB), MITOMAP, Neuromuscular Disease Center and Human 2-D PAGE Databases. This database is intended as a tool not only to aid in studying the mitochondrion but in studying the associated diseases.

  2. Rule-based deduplication of article records from bibliographic databases.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yu; Lin, Can; Meng, Weiyi; Yu, Clement; Cohen, Aaron M; Smalheiser, Neil R

    2014-01-01

    We recently designed and deployed a metasearch engine, Metta, that sends queries and retrieves search results from five leading biomedical databases: PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Because many articles are indexed in more than one of these databases, it is desirable to deduplicate the retrieved article records. This is not a trivial problem because data fields contain a lot of missing and erroneous entries, and because certain types of information are recorded differently (and inconsistently) in the different databases. The present report describes our rule-based method for deduplicating article records across databases and includes an open-source script module that can be deployed freely. Metta was designed to satisfy the particular needs of people who are writing systematic reviews in evidence-based medicine. These users want the highest possible recall in retrieval, so it is important to err on the side of not deduplicating any records that refer to distinct articles, and it is important to perform deduplication online in real time. Our deduplication module is designed with these constraints in mind. Articles that share the same publication year are compared sequentially on parameters including PubMed ID number, digital object identifier, journal name, article title and author list, using text approximation techniques. In a review of Metta searches carried out by public users, we found that the deduplication module was more effective at identifying duplicates than EndNote without making any erroneous assignments.

  3. Psychological Defense Styles, Childhood Adversities and Psychopathology in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickel, R.; Egle, U. T.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The present study explores the link between reported sexual and/or physical abuse and psychological defense styles, as well as the association of both with psychological distress in adulthood. In two patient samples that differ in psychological distress and somatization, we examine whether the adversities reported and immature defense…

  4. Adolescents' Attachment Representations and Developmental Tasks in Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharf, Miri; Mayseless, Ofra; Kivenson-Baron, Inbal

    2004-01-01

    The association between attachment representations and adolescents' coping with 3 developmental tasks of emerging adulthood-leaving home, advancing in the capacity for mature intimacy, and developing individuation-was examined. Israeli male adolescents (N = 88) were administered the Adult Attachment Interview during their high-school senior year.…

  5. Overcoming the Odds: High Risk Children from Birth to Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Emmy E.; Smith, Ruth S.

    The lives of 505 individuals born in 1955 on the island of Kauai (Hawaii) were followed from the prenatal period to adulthood to elucidate their resilience in the face of childhood adversity or their recovery in later years. The Kauai Longitudinal Study monitored the impact of a variety of biological and psychosocial risk factors, stressful life…

  6. Work as a Way to Improve Socialization to Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silberman, Harry F.

    If work experience is a desirable way to improve the socialization of youth to adulthood, there is a need to know the kind of work experience which should be provided, and the ways in which opportunities for such experiences can be increased. Generally, the author believes that young people are less likely to be intimidated by the bureaucratic…

  7. Autism and the Transition to Adulthood: Success beyond the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wehman, Paul; Smith, Marcia Datlow; Schall, Carol

    2009-01-01

    Professionals who work with young adults will get hard-to-find information on how specific social, behavioral, and cognitive characteristics of people with autism affect the transition to adulthood, exploring potential challenges and traits that can be powerful assets. Compelling stories throughout this book illustrate how successful transition…

  8. Social status attainment during the transition to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lui, Camillia K; Chung, Paul J; Wallace, Steven P; Aneshensel, Carol S

    2014-07-01

    The transition from adolescence to adulthood is a critical time for status attainment, with income, education, work experience, and independence from parents accruing at varying speeds and intensities. This study takes an intergenerational life-course perspective that incorporates parents' and one's own social status to examine the status attainment process from adolescence into adulthood in the domains of economic capital (e.g., income) and human capital (e.g., education, occupation). Survey data from three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (analytic n = 8,977) are analyzed using latent class analysis to capture the ebb and flow of social status advantages and disadvantages from adolescence (Wave 1) through young adulthood (Wave 3) into adulthood (Wave 4). The analytic sample is composed of 50.3 % females and 70.2 % Whites, 15.3 % Blacks, 11.0 % Hispanics, and 3.5 % Asians ages 12-18 at Wave 1 and 25-31 at Wave 4. Four latent classes are found for economic capital and five for human capital. The importance of parents' social status is demonstrated by the presence of large groups with persistently low and persistently high social status over time in both domains. The capacity of individuals to determine their own status, however, is shown by equally large groups with upward and downward mobility in both domains. These findings demonstrate the dynamic nature of social status during this critical developmental period.

  9. Men's and Women's Pathways to Adulthood and Their Adolescent Precursors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oesterle, Sabrina; Hawkins, J. David; Hill, Karl G.; Bailey, Jennifer A.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared men's and women's pathways to adulthood by examining how role transitions in education, work, marriage, and parenthood intersect and form developmental pathways from ages 18-30. The study investigated how sociodemographic factors and adolescent experiences were associated with these pathways. We used latent class analysis to…

  10. Diagnostic Transitions from Childhood to Adolescence to Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, William E.; Adair, Carol E.; Smetanin, Paul; Stiff, David; Briante, Carla; Colman, Ian; Fergusson, David; Horwood, John; Poulton, Richie; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Background: Quantifying diagnostic transitions across development is needed to estimate the long-term burden of mental illness. This study estimated patterns of diagnostic transitions from childhood to adolescence and from adolescence to early adulthood. Methods: Patterns of diagnostic transitions were estimated using data from three prospective,…

  11. The Transition to Adulthood of Youth with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandergoot, David; And Others

    The purpose of this paper is to offer new directions for equalizing the opportunities available for youth with disabilities to make a successful transition into adulthood. The first section following the introduction highlights research recommendations and public policies that should be considered as priorities for future development. The next…

  12. Lifestyle changes in the management of adulthood and childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Orio, Francesco; Tafuri, Domenico; Ascione, Antonio; Marciano, Francesca; Savastano, Silvia; Colarieti, Giorgio; Orio, Marcello; Colao, Annamaria; Palomba, Stefano; Muscogiuri, Giovanna

    2016-12-01

    Adulthood and childhood obesity is rapidly becoming an epidemic problem and it has a short and long-term impact on health. Short-term consequences are mostly represented by psychological effects; in fact obese children have more chances to develop psychological or psychiatric problems than non-obese children. The main long-term effect is represented by the fact that childhood obesity continues into adulthood obesity and this results in negative effects in young adult life, since obesity increases the risk to develop morbidity and premature mortality. The obesity-related diseases are mostly represented by hypertension, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular diseases. Medical treatment should be discouraged in childhood because of the side effects and it should be only reserved for obese children with related medical complications. Lifestyle changes should be encouraged in both adulthood and childhood obesity. This review focuses on the management of obesity both in adulthood and in childhood, paying particular attention to lifestyle changes that should be recommended.

  13. Seeking Social Inventions to Improve the Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Mary Agnes; Hamilton, Stephen F.

    2015-01-01

    Social inventions are new ways of solving human problems. This article reports on an action research project designed to find social inventions to reduce structural lag in four programs that support the transition to adulthood of marginalized youth in Latin America. The investigators engaged youth and staff members in identifying important…

  14. Understanding Emerging Adulthood from a Goal-Setting Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman, Shmuel; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2010-01-01

    The chapter first introduces the concept of emerging adulthood as a period of life that is characterized by instabilities and fluctuations. Then, the role of goal setting and aspirations in individual development during this stage of life is discussed. Following this, seven chapters of the present special issue are introduced, and the ways in…

  15. Essentials of Transition Planning. Brookes Transition to Adulthood Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wehman, Paul

    2011-01-01

    For young people with disabilities, crossing the bridge to adulthood will be empowering instead of intimidating--when their support teams know the essentials of effective transition planning. Now all the fundamentals of well-crafted transition plans are collected in one concise quick-guide, straight from one of the top authorities on helping young…

  16. Models and Determinants of Vocabulary Growth from Kindergarten to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beitchman, Joseph H.; Jiang, Hedy; Koyama, Emiko; Johnson, Carla J.; Escobar, Michael; Atkinson, Leslie; Brownlie, E. B.; Vida, Ron

    2008-01-01

    Background: Increasing evidence suggests that childhood language problems persist into early adulthood. Nevertheless, little is known about how individual and environmental characteristics influence the language growth of individuals identified with speech/language problems. Method: Individual growth curve models were utilised to examine how…

  17. Adverse childhood experiences and health anxiety in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Reiser, Sarah J; McMillan, Katherine A; Wright, Kristi D; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2014-03-01

    Childhood experiences are thought to predispose a person to the development of health anxiety later in life. However, there is a lack of research investigating the influence of specific adverse experiences (e.g., childhood abuse, household dysfunction) on this condition. The current study examined the cumulative influence of multiple types of childhood adversities on health anxiety in adulthood. Adults 18-59 years of age (N=264) completed a battery of measures to assess adverse childhood experiences, health anxiety, and associated constructs (i.e., negative affect and trait anxiety). Significant associations were observed between adverse childhood experiences, health anxiety, and associated constructs. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicted that adverse childhood experiences were predictive of health anxiety in adulthood; however, the unique contribution of these experience were no longer significant following the inclusion of the other variables of interest. Subsequently, mediation analyses indicated that both negative affect and trait anxiety independently mediated the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and health anxiety in adulthood. Increased exposure to adverse childhood experiences is associated with higher levels of health anxiety in adulthood; this relationship is mediated through negative affect and trait anxiety. Findings support the long-term negative impact of cumulative adverse childhood experiences and emphasize the importance of addressing negative affect and trait anxiety in efforts to prevent and treat health anxiety. PMID:24011493

  18. Down Syndrome, Birth to Adulthood: Giving Families an EDGE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rynders, John E.; Horrobin, J. Margaret

    This updated book provides a collection of longitudinal perspectives on experiences of individuals with Down Syndrome, from birth to adulthood. The book is an outgrowth of a federally funded early intervention study called Project EDGE (Expanding Developmental Growth through Education). Contents cover the following topics: historical review of…

  19. Unrecognized Learning Disabilities in Adulthood: Implications for Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, John W.

    Unrecognized learning disabilities in adulthood can also be viewed as concepts fundamental to change. These disabilities may include: (1) not being able to make appropriate choices and decisions; (2) not utilizing strategies such as checking things out with people, and monitoring one's own performance; (3) not being able to transfer learning from…

  20. Behavioral Phenotype of Fragile X Syndrome in Adolescence and Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Leann E.; Barker, Erin T.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Abbeduto, Leonard; Greenberg, Jan S.

    2012-01-01

    The present study explored the behavioral profile of individuals with fragile X syndrome during adolescence and adulthood. Individuals with both fragile X syndrome and autism (n = 30) were compared with (a) individuals diagnosed with fragile X syndrome (but not autism; n = 106) and (b) individuals diagnosed with autism (but not fragile X syndrome;…

  1. Genetic and Environmental Stability of Neuroticism From Adolescence to Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Nivard, Michel G; Middeldorp, Christel M; Dolan, Conor V; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2015-12-01

    Longitudinal studies of neuroticism have shown that, on average, neuroticism scores decrease from adolescence to adulthood. The heritability of neuroticism is estimated between 0.30 and 0.60 and does not seem to vary greatly as a function of age. Shared environmental effects are rarely reported. Less is known about the role of genetic and environmental influences on the rank order stability of neuroticism in the period from adolescence to adulthood. We studied the stability of neuroticism in a cohort sequential (classical) twin design, from adolescence (age 14 years) to young adulthood (age 32 years). A genetic simplex model that was fitted to the longitudinal neuroticism data showed that the genetic stability of neuroticism was relatively high (genetic correlations between adjacent age bins >0.9), and increased from adolescence to adulthood. Environmental stability was appreciably lower (environmental correlations between adjacent age bins were between 0.3 and 0.6). This low stability was largely due to age-specific environmental variance, which was dominated by measurement error. This attenuated the age-to-age environmental correlations. We constructed an environmental covariance matrix corrected for this error, under the strong assumption that all age-specific environmental variance is error variance. The environmental (co)variance matrix corrected for attenuation revealed highly stable environmental influences on neuroticism (correlations between adjacent age bins were between 0.7 and 0.9). Our results indicate that both genetic and environmental influences have enduring effects on individual differences in neuroticism.

  2. Psychosocial Predictors of Women's Physical Health in Middle Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Sandra P.

    Although health is a key element in one's experience of middle adulthood as a time of productivity and personal fulfillment, research on psychosocial factors predictive of mid-life health is sparse, especially for women. Psychosocial variables are not only highly salient to health, but also are potentially modifiable by women themselves. This…

  3. The Dynamic Interdependence of Developmental Domains across Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sneed, Joel R.; Hamagami, Fumiaki; McArdle, John J.; Cohen, Patricia; Chen, Henian

    2007-01-01

    Emerging adulthood is a period in which profound role changes take place across a number of life domains including finance, romance, and residence. On the basis of dynamic systems theory, change in one domain should be related to change in another domain, because the concept of development according to this approach is a relational one. To…

  4. Diversity in the Transition to Adulthood. Research Briefing No. 85

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoon, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    While the transition to adulthood has generally been prolonged, not all young people are able to afford further study and delayed entry into paid work. This research examines the diversity in transitions (the different pathways/life choices young people can/may take) in a comparative perspective.

  5. Is Pubertal Timing Associated with Psychopathology in Young Adulthood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graber, Julia A.; Seeley, John R.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This investigation tested whether the timing of puberty continued to be associated with experiences of psychopathology (symptoms and disorders) from mid-adolescence into young adulthood. Method: At age 24, 931 participants from a large community sample, who had been interviewed twice during adolescence, completed a telephone interview…

  6. Suicide Risk at Young Adulthood: Continuities and Discontinuities from Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooven, Carole; Snedker, Karen A.; Thompson, Elaine Adams

    2012-01-01

    Young adult suicide is an important social problem, yet little is known about how risk for young adult suicide develops from earlier life stages. In this study the authors report on 759 young adults who were potential high school dropouts as youth. At both adolescence and young adulthood, measures of suicide risk status and related suicide risk…

  7. Disability and Adulthood in Mexico: An Ethnographic Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skivington, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to better understand the cultural meaning of adulthood and disability in a large city in central Mexico. Using an ethnographic case study research design that included interviews and observations, this study addressed the research question: What is the cultural meaning and accompanying challenges of becoming an adult with…

  8. Stability and Change in Positive Development during Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Mary T.; Letcher, Primrose; Sanson, Ann; O'Connor, Meredith; Toumbourou, John W.; Olsson, Craig

    2011-01-01

    Calls have been made for a greater focus on successful development and how positive functioning can be conceptualized in theory and empirical research. Drawing on a large Australian community sample (N = 890; 61.7% female), this article examines the structure and stability of positive development at two time points during young adulthood.…

  9. Preparing Foster Youth for Adulthood: A Knowledge-Building Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mech, Edmund V.

    1994-01-01

    Introduces articles presenting a cross section of current research activity on preparing foster youth for adulthood. Suggests it is vital to develop a knowledge-building agenda; that research efforts be prospective and programmatic rather than ex post facto, occasional, or sporadic; and that attention be directed toward testing and evaluating…

  10. EMBRYONIC AND FETAL PROGRAMMING OF PHYSIOLOGICAL DISORDERS IN ADULTHOOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the past decade, numerous epidemiological studies have indicated strong inverse associations between birth weight and risk of coronary heart disease, hypertension, type 2-diabetes and other diseases in adulthood. The ¿Barker hypothesis¿ thus postulates that a number of organ ...

  11. Lifestyle changes in the management of adulthood and childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Orio, Francesco; Tafuri, Domenico; Ascione, Antonio; Marciano, Francesca; Savastano, Silvia; Colarieti, Giorgio; Orio, Marcello; Colao, Annamaria; Palomba, Stefano; Muscogiuri, Giovanna

    2016-12-01

    Adulthood and childhood obesity is rapidly becoming an epidemic problem and it has a short and long-term impact on health. Short-term consequences are mostly represented by psychological effects; in fact obese children have more chances to develop psychological or psychiatric problems than non-obese children. The main long-term effect is represented by the fact that childhood obesity continues into adulthood obesity and this results in negative effects in young adult life, since obesity increases the risk to develop morbidity and premature mortality. The obesity-related diseases are mostly represented by hypertension, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular diseases. Medical treatment should be discouraged in childhood because of the side effects and it should be only reserved for obese children with related medical complications. Lifestyle changes should be encouraged in both adulthood and childhood obesity. This review focuses on the management of obesity both in adulthood and in childhood, paying particular attention to lifestyle changes that should be recommended. PMID:27600645

  12. Subjective Acceleration of Time Experience in Everyday Life across Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Dennis; Lang, Frieder R.

    2015-01-01

    Most people believe that time seems to pass more quickly as they age. Building on assumptions of socioemotional selectivity theory, we investigated whether awareness that one's future lifetime is limited is associated with one's experience of time during everyday activities across adulthood in 3 studies. In the first 2 studies (Study 1: N = 608;…

  13. Taxonomy for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus with Onset before Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Clovis A; Avcin, Tadej; Brunner, Hermine I

    2012-01-01

    Objective To propose a common nomenclature to refer to individuals who fulfill the American College of Rheumatology Classification Criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) during childhood or adolescence. Methods The medical literature was reviewed for studies conducted in the target population between 1960 and December of 2011 to obtain information about the terms used to refer to such children and adolescents. We reviewed the threshold ages used and disease features considered to discriminate these individuals from patients with onset of SLE during adulthood. Furthermore, the nomenclature used in other chronic diseases with onset during both childhood and adulthood was assessed. Results There was an astonishing variability in the age cut-offs used to define SLE-onset prior to adulthood, ranging from 14 to 21 years but most studies used 18 years of age. The principal synonyms in the medical literature were SLE without reference to the age at onset of disease, childhood-onset SLE, juvenile SLE, and pediatric (or paediatric) SLE. Conclusions Based on the definition of childhood, in analogy with other complex chronic disease commencing prior to adulthood, and given the current absence of definite genetic variations that discriminate adults from children, the term childhood-onset SLE is proposed when referring to individuals with onset of SLE prior to age 18 years. PMID:22730317

  14. Tracking Club Sport Participation from Childhood to Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Rosalina; Williams, Sheila; Poulton, Richie; Reeder, Anthony I.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the strength of tracking sport participation from childhood to early adulthood among the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study cohort. Participation in sport, dance, or gymnastics as part of a club or group (outside of school) was assessed at ages 7, 9, 15, 18, and 21 years. In addition to the traditionally…

  15. Romantic Relationship Patterns in Young Adulthood and Their Developmental Antecedents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauer, Amy J.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Bates, John E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    The delayed entry into marriage that characterizes modern society raises questions about young adults' romantic relationship trajectories and whether patterns found to characterize adolescent romantic relationships persist into young adulthood. The current study traced developmental transitions into and out of romantic relationships from age…

  16. Power Load Margin Concept: Key Components of Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiman, Elaine R.

    In March 1959, Howard McClusky introduced his Power Load Margin (PLM) theory and proposed that it be used for studying the adult years and for developing and building realistic educational programs for adults. His formula, which states that the key components of adulthood are load (the demands made upon the individual by self and society) and…

  17. Types and Precipitants of Growth and Decline in Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Benjamin H.; Still, Eva; Newby-Clark, Ian R.

    2007-01-01

    To further explore central developmental themes of emerging adulthood, the authors conducted a study that combines qualitative and quantitative data about the types of personal growth and decline reported by a sample of emerging adults, who also described the life events and other experiences that brought about these personal changes. After…

  18. Psychosocial Development During Adulthood: Age and Cohort Comparisons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitbourne, Susan K.; Waterman, Alan S.

    Ontogenetic personality changes during adulthood were evaluated using the Inventory of Psychosocial Development (IPD) to yield scores corresponding to the first six stages of Erikson's developmental theory. Of the 166 males and 161 females whose undergraduate data from 1966 were available, 76 males and 71 females returned usable data. Analyses of…

  19. Preparation of Youth for Adulthood: Symposium VI A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masud, Jariah Hj; And Others

    Concerned generally with the preparation of youth for adulthood, this symposium presentation provides a paper that discusses the need for consumer education for Malaysian youth, and also two abstracts: the first reports findings of a study of adolescents' buying practices in Malaysia, and the second is a survey of university students' attitudes…

  20. Longitudinal Trajectories of Perceived Body Weight: Adolescence to Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Li, Kaigang

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine longitudinal trajectories of perceived weight from adolescence to early adulthood by gender. Methods: We analyzed 9 waves (1997-2005) of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 8302) using Mplus. Results: Perceived overweight increased over time among girls and did not level off until 23 years of age. Blacks…

  1. Social Status Attainment during the Transition to Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Lui, Camillia K.; Chung, Paul J.; Wallace, Steven P.; Aneshensel, Carol S.

    2013-01-01

    The transition from adolescence to adulthood is a critical time for status attainment, with income, education, work experience, and independence from parents accruing at varying speeds and intensities. This study takes an intergenerational life-course perspective that incorporates parents’ and one’s own social status to examine the status attainment process from adolescence into adulthood in the domains of economic capital (e.g., income) and human capital (e.g., education, occupation). Survey data from three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (analytic n=8,977) are analyzed using latent class analysis to capture the ebb and flow of social status advantages and disadvantages from adolescence (Wave 1) through young adulthood (Wave 3) into adulthood (Wave 4). The analytic sample is composed of 50.3% females and 70.2% Whites, 15.3% Blacks, 11.0% Hispanics, and 3.5% Asians ages 12 to 18 at Wave 1 and 25 to 31 at Wave 4. Four latent classes are found for economic capital and five for human capital. The importance of parents’ social status is demonstrated by the presence of large groups with persistently low and persistently high social status over time in both domains. The capacity of individuals to determine their own status, however, is shown by equally large groups with upward and downward mobility in both domains. These findings demonstrate the dynamic nature of social status during this critical developmental period. PMID:24129883

  2. On a New Schedule: Transitions to Adulthood and Family Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furstenberg, Frank F., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Frank Furstenberg examines how the newly extended timetable for entering adulthood is affecting, and being affected by, the institution of the Western, particularly the American, family. He reviews a growing body of research on the family life of young adults and their parents and draws out important policy implications of the new schedule for the…

  3. Psychosocial outcomes and interventions among cancer survivors diagnosed during adolescence and young adulthood (AYA): a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Marie; McDonnell, Glynnis; DeRosa, Antonio; Schuler, Tammy; Philip, Errol; Peterson, Lisa; Touza, Kaitlin; Jhanwar, Sabrina; Atkinson, Thomas M.; Ford, Jennifer S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose A cancer diagnosis during adolescence or young adulthood (AYA; defined as ages 15–39) generates unique medical and psychosocial needs as developmental milestones are simultaneously impacted. Past research highlights that AYAs’ experiences and psychosocial outcomes are different, and more research and attention is needed. We aimed to identify and synthesize literature regarding psychosocial outcomes, unique needs, and existing psychosocial interventions pertaining to individuals diagnosed with cancer exclusively during AYA, and to highlight areas for future research. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted using MEDLINE (via PubMed), EMBASE, Cochrane, Web of Science, and PsycINFO (via OVID). Grey literature was searched using key term variations and combinations. Overall, 15,301 records were assessed by two independent reviewers, with 38 studies meeting inclusion criteria. Results Data synthesis of the 38 articles was organized by four main themes based on quality of life and survivorship: physical well-being (7 studies), psychological well-being (8 studies), social well-being (9 studies), and survivorship care (14 studies). The paucity of studies for such broad inclusion criteria highlights that this population is often combined or subsumed under other age groups, missing needs unique to these AYAs. Conclusions AYA cancer survivors’ experiences are nuanced, with interacting variables contributing to post-treatment outcomes. AYAs require age-appropriate and flexible care, informational needs and treatment-related education that foster autonomy for long-term survivorship, as well as improved follow-up care and psychological outcomes. Implications for Cancer Survivors By incorporating these findings into practice, the informational and unmet needs of AYAs can be addressed effectively. Education and programming is lacking specific and general subject matter specific to AYAs, incorporating ranging needs at different treatment stages. PMID

  4. Adolescent nicotine exposure disrupts context conditioning in adulthood in rats.

    PubMed

    Spaeth, Andrea M; Barnet, Robert C; Hunt, Pamela S; Burk, Joshua A

    2010-10-01

    Despite the prevalence of smoking among adolescents, few studies have assessed the effects of adolescent nicotine exposure on learning in adulthood. In particular, it remains unclear whether adolescent nicotine exposure has effects on hippocampus-dependent learning that persist into adulthood. The present experiment examined whether there were effects of adolescent nicotine exposure on context conditioning, a form of learning dependent on the integrity of the hippocampus, when tested during adulthood. Rats were exposed to nicotine during adolescence (postnatal days [PD] 28-42) via osmotic minipump (0, 3.0 or 6.0mg/kg/day). Context conditioning occurred in early adulthood (PD 65-70). Animals were exposed to an experimental context and were given 10 unsignaled footshocks or no shock. Additional groups were included to test the effects of adolescent nicotine on delay conditioning, a form of learning that is not dependent upon the hippocampus. Conditioning was assessed using a lick suppression paradigm. For animals in the context conditioning groups, adolescent nicotine resulted in significantly less suppression of drinking in the presence of context cues compared with vehicle-pretreated animals. For animals in the delay conditioning groups, there was a trend for adolescent nicotine (3.0mg/kg/day) to suppress drinking compared to vehicle-pretreated animals. There were no differences in extinction of contextual fear or cued fear between rats previously exposed to vehicle or nicotine. The data indicate that adolescent nicotine administration impairs context conditioning when animals are trained and tested as adults. The present data suggest that adolescent nicotine exposure may disrupt hippocampus-dependent learning when animals are tested during adulthood.

  5. Disorganized attachment in infancy predicts greater amygdala volume in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lyons-Ruth, K; Pechtel, P; Yoon, S A; Anderson, C M; Teicher, M H

    2016-07-15

    Early life stress in rodents is associated with increased amygdala volume in adulthood. In humans, the amygdala develops rapidly during the first two years of life. Thus, disturbed care during this period may be particularly important to amygdala development. In the context of a 30-year longitudinal study of impoverished, highly stressed families, we assessed whether disorganization of the attachment relationship in infancy was related to amygdala volume in adulthood. Amygdala volumes were assessed among 18 low-income young adults (8M/10F, 29.33±0.49years) first observed in infancy (8.5±5.6months) and followed longitudinally to age 29. In infancy (18.58±1.02mos), both disorganized infant attachment behavior and disrupted maternal communication were assessed in the standard Strange Situation Procedure (SSP). Increased left amygdala volume in adulthood was associated with both maternal and infant components of disorganized attachment interactions at 18 months of age (overall r=0.679, p<0.004). Later stressors, including childhood maltreatment and attachment disturbance in adolescence, were not significantly related to left amygdala volume. Left amygdala volume was further associated with dissociation and limbic irritability in adulthood. Finally, left amygdala volume mediated the prediction from attachment disturbance in infancy to limbic irritability in adulthood. Results point to the likely importance of quality of early care for amygdala development in human children as well as in rodents. The long-term prediction found here suggests that the first two years of life may be an early sensitive period for amygdala development during which clinical intervention could have particularly important consequences for later child outcomes.

  6. Disorganized attachment in infancy predicts greater amygdala volume in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lyons-Ruth, K; Pechtel, P; Yoon, S A; Anderson, C M; Teicher, M H

    2016-07-15

    Early life stress in rodents is associated with increased amygdala volume in adulthood. In humans, the amygdala develops rapidly during the first two years of life. Thus, disturbed care during this period may be particularly important to amygdala development. In the context of a 30-year longitudinal study of impoverished, highly stressed families, we assessed whether disorganization of the attachment relationship in infancy was related to amygdala volume in adulthood. Amygdala volumes were assessed among 18 low-income young adults (8M/10F, 29.33±0.49years) first observed in infancy (8.5±5.6months) and followed longitudinally to age 29. In infancy (18.58±1.02mos), both disorganized infant attachment behavior and disrupted maternal communication were assessed in the standard Strange Situation Procedure (SSP). Increased left amygdala volume in adulthood was associated with both maternal and infant components of disorganized attachment interactions at 18 months of age (overall r=0.679, p<0.004). Later stressors, including childhood maltreatment and attachment disturbance in adolescence, were not significantly related to left amygdala volume. Left amygdala volume was further associated with dissociation and limbic irritability in adulthood. Finally, left amygdala volume mediated the prediction from attachment disturbance in infancy to limbic irritability in adulthood. Results point to the likely importance of quality of early care for amygdala development in human children as well as in rodents. The long-term prediction found here suggests that the first two years of life may be an early sensitive period for amygdala development during which clinical intervention could have particularly important consequences for later child outcomes. PMID:27060720

  7. Changes in the Transition to Adulthood in the UK and Canada: The Role of Structure and Agency in Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cote, James; Bynner, John M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper picks up from Bynner's recent critique of the current formulation of emerging adulthood as presented in his recent exchange with Arnett in the "Journal of Youth Studies" (2005, volume 8(4) and 2006, volume 9(1)). It pays particular attention to the exclusion processes in education and the workplace that prevent young people in some…

  8. Physiological Information Database (PID)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has developed a physiological information database (created using Microsoft ACCESS) intended to be used in PBPK modeling. The database contains physiological parameter values for humans from early childhood through senescence as well as similar data for laboratory animal spec...

  9. Network II Database

    1994-11-07

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Rail and Barge Network II Database is a representation of the rail and barge system of the United States. The network is derived from the Federal Rail Administration (FRA) rail database.

  10. THE ECOTOX DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The database provides chemical-specific toxicity information for aquatic life, terrestrial plants, and terrestrial wildlife. ECOTOX is a comprehensive ecotoxicology database and is therefore essential for providing and suppoirting high quality models needed to estimate population...

  11. Household Products Database: Pesticides

    MedlinePlus

    ... Names Types of Products Manufacturers Ingredients About the Database FAQ Product Recalls Help Glossary Contact Us More ... holders. Information is extracted from Consumer Product Information Database ©2001-2015 by DeLima Associates. All rights reserved. ...

  12. Aviation Safety Issues Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morello, Samuel A.; Ricks, Wendell R.

    2009-01-01

    The aviation safety issues database was instrumental in the refinement and substantiation of the National Aviation Safety Strategic Plan (NASSP). The issues database is a comprehensive set of issues from an extremely broad base of aviation functions, personnel, and vehicle categories, both nationally and internationally. Several aviation safety stakeholders such as the Commercial Aviation Safety Team (CAST) have already used the database. This broader interest was the genesis to making the database publically accessible and writing this report.

  13. Scopus database: a review

    PubMed Central

    Burnham, Judy F

    2006-01-01

    The Scopus database provides access to STM journal articles and the references included in those articles, allowing the searcher to search both forward and backward in time. The database can be used for collection development as well as for research. This review provides information on the key points of the database and compares it to Web of Science. Neither database is inclusive, but complements each other. If a library can only afford one, choice must be based in institutional needs. PMID:16522216

  14. Scopus database: a review.

    PubMed

    Burnham, Judy F

    2006-03-08

    The Scopus database provides access to STM journal articles and the references included in those articles, allowing the searcher to search both forward and backward in time. The database can be used for collection development as well as for research. This review provides information on the key points of the database and compares it to Web of Science. Neither database is inclusive, but complements each other. If a library can only afford one, choice must be based in institutional needs.

  15. Mission and Assets Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, John; Zendejas, Silvino; Gutheinz, Sandy; Borden, Chester; Wang, Yeou-Fang

    2009-01-01

    Mission and Assets Database (MADB) Version 1.0 is an SQL database system with a Web user interface to centralize information. The database stores flight project support resource requirements, view periods, antenna information, schedule, and forecast results for use in mid-range and long-term planning of Deep Space Network (DSN) assets.

  16. Testing a dual cascade model linking competence and symptoms over 20 years from childhood to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Obradovic, Jelena; Burt, Keith B; Masten, Ann S

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the unique longitudinal effects linking academic competence, social competence, and internalizing symptoms from childhood to adulthood. A multimethod and multi-informant approach was used to assess psychopathology and competence in 205 participants during four developmental periods. Social competence in childhood had a cascading effect on internalizing symptoms in adolescence, whereas social and academic competence in emerging adulthood had dual cascading effects on internalizing in young adulthood. Results suggested a developmental cascade beginning with externalizing symptoms in childhood, which contributed to lower academic achievement in adolescence, which in turn influenced social competence in emerging adulthood and internalizing symptoms in young adulthood. PMID:20390801

  17. Childhood cognitive ability and body composition in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Kumpulainen, S M; Heinonen, K; Salonen, M K; Andersson, S; Wolke, D; Kajantie, E; Eriksson, J G; Raikkonen, K

    2016-01-01

    Background: Childhood cognitive ability has been identified as a novel risk factor for adulthood overweight and obesity as assessed by adult body mass index (BMI). BMI does not, however, distinguish fat-free and metabolically harmful fat tissue. Hence, we examined the associations between childhood cognitive abilities and body fat percentage (BF%) in young adulthood. Methods: Participants of the Arvo Ylppö Longitudinal Study (n=816) underwent tests of general reasoning, visuomotor integration, verbal competence and language comprehension (M=100; s.d.=15) at the age of 56 months. At the age of 25 years, they underwent a clinical examination, including measurements of BF% by the InBody 3.0 eight-polar tactile electrode system, weight and height from which BMI (kg m−2) was calculated and waist circumference (cm). Results: After adjustments for sex, age and BMI-for-age s.d. score at 56 months, lower general reasoning and visuomotor integration in childhood predicted higher BMI (kg m−2) increase per s.d. unit decrease in cognitive ability (−0.32, 95% confidence interval −0.60,−0.05; −0.45, −0.75,−0.14, respectively) and waist circumference (cm) increase per s.d. unit decrease in cognitive ability (−0.84, −1.56,−0.11; −1.07,−1.88,−0.26, respectively) in adulthood. In addition, lower visuomotor integration predicted higher BF% per s.d. unit decrease in cognitive ability (−0.62,−1.14,−0.09). Associations between general reasoning and BMI/waist were attenuated when adjusted for smoking, alcohol consumption, intake of fruits and vegetables and physical activity in adulthood, and all associations, except for visuomotor integration and BMI, were attenuated when adjusted for parental and/or own attained education and/or birth weight. Conclusions: Of the measured childhood cognitive abilities, only lower visuomotor integration was associated with BF% in adulthood. This challenges the view that cognitive ability, at least when measured in

  18. The NCBI Taxonomy database.

    PubMed

    Federhen, Scott

    2012-01-01

    The NCBI Taxonomy database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/taxonomy) is the standard nomenclature and classification repository for the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration (INSDC), comprising the GenBank, ENA (EMBL) and DDBJ databases. It includes organism names and taxonomic lineages for each of the sequences represented in the INSDC's nucleotide and protein sequence databases. The taxonomy database is manually curated by a small group of scientists at the NCBI who use the current taxonomic literature to maintain a phylogenetic taxonomy for the source organisms represented in the sequence databases. The taxonomy database is a central organizing hub for many of the resources at the NCBI, and provides a means for clustering elements within other domains of NCBI web site, for internal linking between domains of the Entrez system and for linking out to taxon-specific external resources on the web. Our primary purpose is to index the domain of sequences as conveniently as possible for our user community.

  19. Offending, Substance Use, and Cohabitation in Young Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lonardo, Robert A; Manning, Wendy D; Giordano, Peggy C; Longmore, Monica A

    2010-12-01

    Over half of young adults have cohabited, but relatively little is known about the role delinquency and substance use play in youths' odds of cohabiting as well as the implications of cohabitation for early adult offending and substance use. This study focuses on the reciprocal relationship between cohabitation during late adolescence and young adulthood and self-reported offending and substance use. Using longitudinal data, we find that net of traditional predictors delinquency involvement is associated with increased odds of cohabitation and cohabiting at younger ages while substance use is not related to cohabiting during early adulthood. Further analysis indicates that cohabitation is associated with lower reports of substance use. However, cohabitation is not associated with self-reported offending. The results help to unravel the connection between cohabitation experience, offending and substance use, and early adult outcomes.

  20. Family obligation and the transition to young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Fuligni, Andrew J; Pedersen, Sara

    2002-09-01

    Changes in a sense of obligation to assist, support, and respect the family were examined among an ethnically diverse group of 745 American individuals as they began to move from secondary school into young adulthood. A sense of family obligation increased for all young adults, with slight variations according to ethnic and financial backgrounds. Young adults from Filipino and Latin American families reported the strongest sense of familial duty during young adulthood, which partially explained their tendency to live with and contribute financially to their families. The implications of family obligation for employment and educational persistence depended on age and academic performance in high school. Finally, a sense of family obligation was associated with more positive emotional well-being. PMID:12220060

  1. [Adulthood atopic dermatitis: epidemiology, clinical symptoms, provoking and prognostic factors].

    PubMed

    Pónyai, Györgyi; Temesvári, Erzsébet; Kárpáti, Sarolta

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of atopic diseases, including allergic rhinitis, asthma bronchiale and atopic dermatitis is increasing both in children and adults at different parts of the world. Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease affecting mostly children, but the atopic trait continues, not only for later respiratory allergies, but also for skin symptoms in adulthood. In this form dry skin, flexural lichenification, head and neck dermatitis, hand dermatitis are typical. The exact etiology of atopic dermatitis is unknown, in the background interactions of genetical predisposition, skin barrier defects and immunological and environmental factors can be verified. In the complex approach of atopic dermatitis, a pivotal role is ascribed to the evaluation and possibly the elimination of provoking factors, like gender, family structure, clothing, aero-, alimentary and contact allergens, psychosocial stress, migration, infections, and personal home environment. Authors review clinical manifestations, triggering and prognostic factors of the adulthood atopic dermatitis. PMID:17344114

  2. An Introduction to Database Structure and Database Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Detweiler, Karen

    1984-01-01

    Enumerates principal management objectives of database management systems (data independence, quality, security, multiuser access, central control) and criteria for comparison (response time, size, flexibility, other features). Conventional database management systems, relational databases, and database machines used for backend processing are…

  3. The Order of Events in the Transition to Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marini, Margaret Mooney

    The sequencing of four role changes marking the transition from adolescence to adulthood--exit from school, entry into the labor force, marriage, and parenthood--is reported. The research is based on data from a study of 8500 high school students in 10 Illinois high schools in 1957-58 (Coleman, 1961) and a 15-year follow-up survey of 6500 of the…

  4. Changes in Religiosity Across the Transition to Young Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Chan, Melissa; Tsai, Kim M; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2015-08-01

    Social identities, as those pertaining to religion, may change over time as adolescents make the important transition into young adulthood. This 4-year longitudinal study examined developmental changes in religious affiliation, identity, and participation across the transition from adolescence to young adulthood among 584 individuals (from M age  = 17.9 years to M age  = 22.1 years; 55 % female). We also investigated whether changes varied as a function of individual (i.e., gender and ethnicity) and contextual (i.e., college type and residential status) factors, as well as the association between religiosity and well-being (e.g., meaning and purpose in life, depressive symptoms). The results indicated a significant decline in reported affiliation with a particular religious group or faith for all youth. The change in a psychological sense of religious identity varied by gender, and the change in religious participation differed by ethnicity, but other individual-difference factors generally played minor roles in the changes in religiosity across time. Religiosity was more consistently linked with a greater sense of meaning and purpose than with fewer depressive symptoms across the transition to adulthood, suggesting that it may be particularly important for eudaimonic well-being. Overall, the findings suggest that youth generally experience a decrease in religiosity as they transition to young adulthood, but this rate of change may vary between individuals. The results have important implications for the way in which religion is viewed and lived out by young adults in the United States.

  5. Daily physical activity and life satisfaction across adulthood.

    PubMed

    Maher, Jaclyn P; Pincus, Aaron L; Ram, Nilam; Conroy, David E

    2015-10-01

    Physical activity is considered a valuable tool for enhancing life satisfaction. However, the processes linking these constructs likely differ across the adult life span. In older adults the association between physical activity and life satisfaction appears to involve usual levels of physical activity (i.e., a between-person association driven by differences between more and less active people). In younger adults the association has consistently been based on day-to-day physical activity (i.e., a within-person association driven by differences between more and less active days). To resolve this inconsistency, a daily diary study was conducted with a life span sample of community-dwelling adults (age 18-89 years; N = 150) over three 21-day measurement bursts. Usual physical activity was positively associated with life satisfaction in middle and older adulthood; however, this association was not present in young adulthood. When present, this between-person association was mediated by physical and mental health. A within-person association between physical activity and life satisfaction was also present (and did not differ across age). Generally, on days when people were more physically active then was typical for them, they experienced greater life satisfaction. Age differences in life satisfaction followed a cubic trajectory: lower during emerging adulthood, higher during midlife, and lower during older adulthood. This study adds to accumulating evidence that daily fluctuations in physical activity have important implications for well-being regardless of age, and clarifies developmental differences in life satisfaction dynamics that can inform strategies for enhancing life satisfaction.

  6. Daily Physical Activity and Life Satisfaction across Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Maher, Jaclyn P.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Ram, Nilam; Conroy, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity is considered a valuable tool for enhancing life satisfaction. However, the processes linking these constructs likely differ across the adult lifespan. In older adults the association between physical activity and life satisfaction appears to involve usual levels of physical activity (i.e., a between-person association driven by differences between more and less active people). In younger adults the association has consistently been based on day-to-day physical activity (i.e., a within-person association driven by differences between more and less active days). To resolve this inconsistency, a daily diary study was conducted with a lifespan sample of community-dwelling adults (age 18– 89 years; N = 150) over three 21-day measurement bursts. Usual physical activity was positively associated with life satisfaction in middle and older adulthood; however, this association was not present in young adulthood. When present, this between-person association was mediated by physical and mental health. A within-person association between physical activity and life satisfaction was also present (and did not differ across age). Generally, on days when people were more physically active then was typical for them, they experienced greater life satisfaction. Age differences in life satisfaction followed a cubic trajectory: lower during emerging adulthood, higher during midlife, and lower during older adulthood. This study adds to accumulating evidence that daily fluctuations in physical activity have important implications for well-being regardless of age, and clarifies developmental differences in life satisfaction dynamics that can inform strategies for enhancing life satisfaction. PMID:26280838

  7. Reducing central serotonin in adulthood promotes hippocampal neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ning-Ning; Jia, Yun-Fang; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Qiong; Huang, Ying; Liu, Xiao-Zhen; Hu, Ling; Lan, Wei; Chen, Ling; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Chen, Xiaoyan; Xu, Lin; Ding, Yu-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Chronic administration of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which up-regulates central serotonin (5-HT) system function, enhances adult hippocampal neurogenesis. However, the relationship between central 5-HT system and adult neurogenesis has not fully been understood. Here, we report that lowering 5-HT level in adulthood is also able to enhance adult hippocampal neurogenesis. We used tamoxifen (TM)-induced Cre in Pet1-CreERT2 mice to either deplete central serotonergic (5-HTergic) neurons or inactivate 5-HT synthesis in adulthood and explore the role of central 5-HT in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. A dramatic increase in hippocampal neurogenesis is present in these two central 5-HT-deficient mice and it is largely prevented by administration of agonist for 5-HTR2c receptor. In addition, the survival of new-born neurons in the hippocampus is enhanced. Furthermore, the adult 5-HT-deficient mice showed reduced depression-like behaviors but enhanced contextual fear memory. These findings demonstrate that lowering central 5-HT function in adulthood can also enhance adult hippocampal neurogenesis, thus revealing a new aspect of central 5-HT in regulating adult neurogenesis. PMID:26839004

  8. Fluoxetine exposure during adolescence increases preference for cocaine in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Iñiguez, Sergio D.; Riggs, Lace M.; Nieto, Steven J.; Wright, Katherine N.; Zamora, Norma N.; Cruz, Bryan; Zavala, Arturo R.; Robison, Alfred J.; Mazei-Robison, Michelle S.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, there is a high prevalence of antidepressant prescription rates within juvenile populations, yet little is known about the potential long-lasting consequences of such treatments, particularly on subsequent responses to drugs of abuse. To address this issue at the preclinical level, we examined whether adolescent exposure to fluoxetine (FLX), a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, results in changes to the sensitivity of the rewarding properties of cocaine in adulthood. Separate groups of male c57bl/6 mice were exposed to FLX (0 or 20 mg/kg) for 15 consecutive days either during adolescence (postnatal days [PD] 35–49) or adulthood (PD 65–79). Twenty-one days after FLX treatment, behavioral responsivity to cocaine (0, 2.5, 5, 10, or 20 mg/kg) conditioned place preference was assessed. Our data shows that mice pretreated with FLX during adolescence, but not during adulthood, display an enhanced dose-dependent preference to the environment paired with cocaine (5 or 10 mg/kg) when compared to age-matched saline pretreated controls. Taken together, our findings suggest that adolescent exposure to FLX increases sensitivity to the rewarding properties of cocaine, later in life. PMID:26449406

  9. Parent-Child Relations and Offending During Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Wendi L.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Manning, Wendy D.; Longmore, Monica A.

    2011-01-01

    There is a long tradition of studying parent-child relationships and adolescent delinquency. However, the association between parent-child relationships and criminal offending during young adulthood is less well understood. Although the developmental tasks of young adulthood tend to focus on intimate relationships, employment, and family formation, the parent-child bond persists over the life course and likely continues to inform and shape behavior beyond adolescence. Using data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (TARS), the influence of parental involvement on patterns of offending among respondents interviewed first as adolescents and later as young adults is examined. The TARS sample used for our study (N=1,007) is demographically diverse (49.5% female; 25.3% Black; 7.2% Hispanic) and includes youth beyond those enrolled in college. The influences of both early and later parenting factors such as support, monitoring and conflict on young adults’ criminal behavior are examined. Results show that early monitoring and ongoing parental support are associated with lower offending in young adulthood. These effects persist net of peer influence and adolescent delinquency. This suggests the importance of examining multiple ways in which parental resources and support influence early adult behavior and well-being. PMID:20865307

  10. Parent--child relations and offending during young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Wendi L; Giordano, Peggy C; Manning, Wendy D; Longmore, Monica A

    2011-07-01

    There is a long tradition of studying parent-child relationships and adolescent delinquency. However, the association between parent-child relationships and criminal offending during young adulthood is less well understood. Although the developmental tasks of young adulthood tend to focus on intimate relationships, employment, and family formation, the parent-child bond persists over the life course and likely continues to inform and shape behavior beyond adolescence. Using data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (TARS), the influence of parental involvement on patterns of offending among respondents interviewed first as adolescents (mean age of 15 years), and later as young adults (mean age of 20 years), is examined. The TARS sample used for our study (N = 1,007) is demographically diverse (49.5% female; 25.3% Black; 7.2% Hispanic) and includes youth beyond those enrolled in college. The influences of both early and later parenting factors such as support, monitoring and conflict on young adults' criminal behavior are examined. Results show that early monitoring and ongoing parental support are associated with lower offending in young adulthood. These effects persist net of peer influence and adolescent delinquency. This suggests the importance of examining multiple ways in which parental resources and support influence early adult behavior and well-being.

  11. Small for gestational age and adulthood risk of disability pension: the contribution of childhood and adulthood conditions.

    PubMed

    Helgertz, Jonas; Vågerö, Denny

    2014-10-01

    Early exiting from the labor force and into disability pension (DP) represents a major social problem in Sweden and elsewhere. We examined how being asymmetric (A-SGA) or symmetric (S-SGA) small for gestational age predicts transitioning into DP. We analyzed a longitudinal sample of 8125 men and women from the Stockholm Birth Cohort (SBC), born in 1953 and not on DP in 1990. The SBC consists of data from various sources, including self-reported information and data from administrative registers. The follow-up period was from 1991 to 2009. Yearly information on the receipt of DP benefits from register data was operationalized as a dichotomous variable. 13 percent of the sample moved into DP during follow-up. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine whether disadvantageous fetal growth--A-SGA and S-SGA--predicted DP. Men and women born A-SGA had a substantially increased hazard of DP. The full model suggested a hazard ratio of 1.68 (CI: 1.11-2.54), only being affected slightly by adulthood conditions. Several childhood conditions were also associated with DP. Such factors, however, mainly affected DP risk through adulthood conditions. The effect of SGA on DP appeared particularly strong among individuals from socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds. The evidence presented suggests that being A-SGA influences the risk of DP, independent of childhood and adulthood conditions, and similarly for men and women. Due to A-SGA being rather infrequent, reducing the occurrence of A-SGA would, however, only have a marginal impact on the stock of DP pensioners. For the individual affected, the elevation in the risk of DP was nevertheless substantial. Other childhood conditions exercised a larger influence on the stock of DP recipients, but they mostly operated through adulthood attainment. The importance of socioeconomic resources in childhood for the long term health consequences of SGA is interesting from a policy perspective and warrants further research

  12. ITS-90 Thermocouple Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 60 NIST ITS-90 Thermocouple Database (Web, free access)   Web version of Standard Reference Database 60 and NIST Monograph 175. The database gives temperature -- electromotive force (emf) reference functions and tables for the letter-designated thermocouple types B, E, J, K, N, R, S and T. These reference functions have been adopted as standards by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC).

  13. 2010 Worldwide Gasification Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    The 2010 Worldwide Gasification Database describes the current world gasification industry and identifies near-term planned capacity additions. The database lists gasification projects and includes information (e.g., plant location, number and type of gasifiers, syngas capacity, feedstock, and products). The database reveals that the worldwide gasification capacity has continued to grow for the past several decades and is now at 70,817 megawatts thermal (MWth) of syngas output at 144 operating plants with a total of 412 gasifiers.

  14. A prospective cohort study of deficient maternal nurturing attitudes predicting adulthood work stress independent of adulthood hostility and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Hintsanen, M; Kivimäki, M; Hintsa, T; Theorell, T; Elovainio, M; Raitakari, O T; Viikari, J S A; Keltikangas-Järvinen, L

    2010-09-01

    Stressful childhood environments arising from deficient nurturing attitudes are hypothesized to contribute to later stress vulnerability. We examined whether deficient nurturing attitudes predict adulthood work stress. Participants were 443 women and 380 men from the prospective Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Work stress was assessed as job strain and effort-reward imbalance in 2001 when the participants were from 24 to 39 years old. Deficient maternal nurturance (intolerance and low emotional warmth) was assessed based on mothers' reports when the participants were at the age of 3-18 years and again at the age of 6-21 years. Linear regressions showed that deficient emotional warmth in childhood predicted lower adulthood job control and higher job strain. These associations were not explained by age, gender, socioeconomic circumstances, maternal mental problems or participant hostility, and depressive symptoms. Deficient nurturing attitudes in childhood might affect sensitivity to work stress and selection into stressful work conditions in adulthood. More attention should be paid to pre-employment factors in work stress research. PMID:20666648

  15. Databases for Microbiologists

    DOE PAGES

    Zhulin, Igor B.

    2015-05-26

    Databases play an increasingly important role in biology. They archive, store, maintain, and share information on genes, genomes, expression data, protein sequences and structures, metabolites and reactions, interactions, and pathways. All these data are critically important to microbiologists. Furthermore, microbiology has its own databases that deal with model microorganisms, microbial diversity, physiology, and pathogenesis. Thousands of biological databases are currently available, and it becomes increasingly difficult to keep up with their development. Finally, the purpose of this minireview is to provide a brief survey of current databases that are of interest to microbiologists.

  16. Veterans Administration Databases

    Cancer.gov

    The Veterans Administration Information Resource Center provides database and informatics experts, customer service, expert advice, information products, and web technology to VA researchers and others.

  17. Databases for Microbiologists

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Databases play an increasingly important role in biology. They archive, store, maintain, and share information on genes, genomes, expression data, protein sequences and structures, metabolites and reactions, interactions, and pathways. All these data are critically important to microbiologists. Furthermore, microbiology has its own databases that deal with model microorganisms, microbial diversity, physiology, and pathogenesis. Thousands of biological databases are currently available, and it becomes increasingly difficult to keep up with their development. The purpose of this minireview is to provide a brief survey of current databases that are of interest to microbiologists. PMID:26013493

  18. Databases for LDEF results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohnhoff-Hlavacek, Gail

    1992-01-01

    One of the objectives of the team supporting the LDEF Systems and Materials Special Investigative Groups is to develop databases of experimental findings. These databases identify the hardware flown, summarize results and conclusions, and provide a system for acknowledging investigators, tracing sources of data, and future design suggestions. To date, databases covering the optical experiments, and thermal control materials (chromic acid anodized aluminum, silverized Teflon blankets, and paints) have been developed at Boeing. We used the Filemaker Pro software, the database manager for the Macintosh computer produced by the Claris Corporation. It is a flat, text-retrievable database that provides access to the data via an intuitive user interface, without tedious programming. Though this software is available only for the Macintosh computer at this time, copies of the databases can be saved to a format that is readable on a personal computer as well. Further, the data can be exported to more powerful relational databases, capabilities, and use of the LDEF databases and describe how to get copies of the database for your own research.

  19. Database in Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Julia

    1986-01-01

    Describes a specialist bibliographic database of literature in the field of artificial intelligence created by the Turing Institute (Glasgow, Scotland) using the BRS/Search information retrieval software. The subscription method for end-users--i.e., annual fee entitles user to unlimited access to database, document provision, and printed awareness…

  20. BioImaging Database

    SciTech Connect

    David Nix, Lisa Simirenko

    2006-10-25

    The Biolmaging Database (BID) is a relational database developed to store the data and meta-data for the 3D gene expression in early Drosophila embryo development on a cellular level. The schema was written to be used with the MySQL DBMS but with minor modifications can be used on any SQL compliant relational DBMS.

  1. Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 21 Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database (Web, free access)   The Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database and NASA Archive for Protein Crystal Growth Data (BMCD) contains the conditions reported for the crystallization of proteins and nucleic acids used in X-ray structure determinations and archives the results of microgravity macromolecule crystallization studies.

  2. Online Database Searching Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlejohn, Alice C.; Parker, Joan M.

    Designed primarily for use by first-time searchers, this workbook provides an overview of online searching. Following a brief introduction which defines online searching, databases, and database producers, five steps in carrying out a successful search are described: (1) identifying the main concepts of the search statement; (2) selecting a…

  3. Ionic Liquids Database- (ILThermo)

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 147 Ionic Liquids Database- (ILThermo) (Web, free access)   IUPAC Ionic Liquids Database, ILThermo, is a free web research tool that allows users worldwide to access an up-to-date data collection from the publications on experimental investigations of thermodynamic, and transport properties of ionic liquids as well as binary and ternary mixtures containing ionic liquids.

  4. HIV Structural Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 102 HIV Structural Database (Web, free access)   The HIV Protease Structural Database is an archive of experimentally determined 3-D structures of Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1), Human Immunodeficiency Virus 2 (HIV-2) and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) Proteases and their complexes with inhibitors or products of substrate cleavage.

  5. Morchella MLST database

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Welcome to the Morchella MLST database. This dedicated database was set up at the CBS-KNAW Biodiversity Center by Vincent Robert in February 2012, using BioloMICS software (Robert et al., 2011), to facilitate DNA sequence-based identifications of Morchella species via the Internet. The current datab...

  6. Atomic Spectra Database (ASD)

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 78 NIST Atomic Spectra Database (ASD) (Web, free access)   This database provides access and search capability for NIST critically evaluated data on atomic energy levels, wavelengths, and transition probabilities that are reasonably up-to-date. The NIST Atomic Spectroscopy Data Center has carried out these critical compilations.

  7. First Look: TRADEMARKSCAN Database.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Anne Conway; Davidson, Alan B.

    1984-01-01

    Describes database produced by Thomson and Thomson and available on Dialog which contains over 700,000 records representing all active federal trademark registrations and applications for registrations filed in United States Patent and Trademark Office. A typical record, special features, database applications, learning to use TRADEMARKSCAN, and…

  8. Dictionary as Database.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Painter, Derrick

    1996-01-01

    Discussion of dictionaries as databases focuses on the digitizing of The Oxford English dictionary (OED) and the use of Standard Generalized Mark-Up Language (SGML). Topics include the creation of a consortium to digitize the OED, document structure, relational databases, text forms, sequence, and discourse. (LRW)

  9. Structural Ceramics Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 30 NIST Structural Ceramics Database (Web, free access)   The NIST Structural Ceramics Database (WebSCD) provides evaluated materials property data for a wide range of advanced ceramics known variously as structural ceramics, engineering ceramics, and fine ceramics.

  10. Build Your Own Database.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacso, Peter; Lancaster, F. W.

    This book is intended to help librarians and others to produce databases of better value and quality, especially if they have had little previous experience in database construction. Drawing upon almost 40 years of experience in the field of information retrieval, this book emphasizes basic principles and approaches rather than in-depth and…

  11. Knowledge Discovery in Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, M. Jay

    1999-01-01

    Knowledge discovery in databases (KDD) revolves around the investigation and creation of knowledge, processes, algorithms, and mechanisms for retrieving knowledge from data collections. The article is an introductory overview of KDD. The rationale and environment of its development and applications are discussed. Issues related to database design…

  12. Database Searching by Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Stephen E.

    Managers and executives need the easy and quick access to business and management information that online databases can provide, but many have difficulty articulating their search needs to an intermediary. One possible solution would be to encourage managers and their immediate support staff members to search textual databases directly as they now…

  13. A Quality System Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snell, William H.; Turner, Anne M.; Gifford, Luther; Stites, William

    2010-01-01

    A quality system database (QSD), and software to administer the database, were developed to support recording of administrative nonconformance activities that involve requirements for documentation of corrective and/or preventive actions, which can include ISO 9000 internal quality audits and customer complaints.

  14. Assignment to database industy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Kohichiroh

    Various kinds of databases are considered to be essential part in future large sized systems. Information provision only by databases is also considered to be growing as the market becomes mature. This paper discusses how such circumstances have been built and will be developed from now on.

  15. Cascadia Tsunami Deposit Database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, Robert; Jaffe, Bruce; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Peterson, Curt

    2003-01-01

    The Cascadia Tsunami Deposit Database contains data on the location and sedimentological properties of tsunami deposits found along the Cascadia margin. Data have been compiled from 52 studies, documenting 59 sites from northern California to Vancouver Island, British Columbia that contain known or potential tsunami deposits. Bibliographical references are provided for all sites included in the database. Cascadia tsunami deposits are usually seen as anomalous sand layers in coastal marsh or lake sediments. The studies cited in the database use numerous criteria based on sedimentary characteristics to distinguish tsunami deposits from sand layers deposited by other processes, such as river flooding and storm surges. Several studies cited in the database contain evidence for more than one tsunami at a site. Data categories include age, thickness, layering, grainsize, and other sedimentological characteristics of Cascadia tsunami deposits. The database documents the variability observed in tsunami deposits found along the Cascadia margin.

  16. Childhood cognitive measures as predictors of alcohol use and problems by mid-adulthood in a non-Western cohort.

    PubMed

    Luczak, Susan E; Yarnell, Lisa M; Prescott, Carol A; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H; Mednick, Sarnoff A

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the relationship between childhood cognitive functioning and academic achievement and subsequent alcohol use and problems in a non-Western setting. We examined longitudinal data from a birth cohort sample (N = 1,795) who were assessed at age 11 years on cognitive measures and then approximately 25 years later on lifetime alcohol use and alcohol use disorder symptom count. The sample was from Mauritius (eastern Africa), which allowed us to examine these relationships in a non-Western society with a different social structure than is typical of prior cognitive studies on primarily White samples in Western societies. Poorer performance on the Trail Making Test B-A in childhood predicted being a lifetime drinker, even after covarying for gender, childhood psychosocial adversity, and Muslim religion. Lower academic achievement and verbal IQ, but not performance IQ, were predictive of subsequent alcohol problems after including demographic covariates; the relationship between verbal IQ and alcohol problems was stronger in females than males. A nonlinear relationship emerged for Trails, suggesting that only more extreme impairment on this measure was indicative of later alcohol problems. Results of this study provide evidence that verbal deficits and poor academic performance exist in a general cohort sample by age 11 years (when 99% were nondrinkers) for those who go on to develop alcohol problems. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. Life and death in the family: early parental death, parental remarriage, and offspring suicide risk in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Hollingshaus, Michael S; Smith, Ken R

    2015-04-01

    Early-life parental death (PD) may increase suicide and other mortality risk in adulthood. The potential implications of subsequent remarriage of the widowed parent (RWP) for suicide have not been well examined. Data came from the Utah Population Database for birth cohorts between 1886 and 1960, yielding a sample of N = 663,729 individuals, including 4533 suicides. Cox models showed PD was associated with increased adult suicide risk before age 50, and with increased risk of cardiovascular disease deaths (CVD) for adults of all ages. For females, RWP attenuated the suicide relationship before age 50 (though not statistically significant), but significantly exacerbated it after age 50. RWP had no significant impact for males. Further, for females, PD's positive association with suicide was stronger than with CVD before age 50. These findings reinforce the importance of biological and social mechanisms in linking early-life stressors to adult mental and physical health.

  18. Maternal Separation Induces Orofacial Mechanical Allodynia in Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, M; Shinoda, M; Honda, K; Fujita, M; Kawata, A; Nagashima, H; Watanabe, M; Shoji, N; Takahashi, O; Kimoto, S; Iwata, K

    2016-09-01

    It is well known that exposure to maternal separation (MS) in early life causes plastic changes in the nervous system in adulthood, occasionally resulting in ubiquitous chronic pain. However, the pathogenic mechanisms of pain hypersensitivity remain unclear. Here, the authors examined the involvement of corticosterone in orofacial mechanical hypersensitivity induced by MS. To establish a rat model of MS, pups were placed in isolated cages 180 min/d and kept in a temperature-controlled environment at 22 ± 2 °C for 14 d. Mechanical allodynia in the whisker pad skin in adulthood was induced by MS and was significantly suppressed by successive postnatal subcutaneous administration of the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist mifepristone. Corticosterone levels were increased in the serum of MS rats, and successive postnatal administration of subcutaneous corticosterone to naive rats induced mechanical allodynia in the whisker pad skin. The number of P2X3 receptor-immunoreactive (P2X3R-IR) trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons innervating the whisker pad skin was significantly increased in MS rats and decreased following subcutaneous administration of mifepristone. The number of P2X3R-IR TG neurons innervating the whisker pad skin was also significantly increased following successive postnatal administration of subcutaneous corticosterone in naive rats. Moreover, the mechanical allodynia was suppressed 30 min after administration of the P2X3R antagonist A317491 to the whisker pad skin in MS rats. These findings suggest that the increase in P2X3R-IR TG neurons innervating the whisker pad skin via enhanced neonatal corticosterone signaling by MS plays an important role in orofacial mechanical allodynia in adulthood.

  19. Nicotine Dependence and Alcohol Problems from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Dierker, Lisa; Selya, Arielle; Rose, Jennifer; Hedeker, Donald; Mermelstein, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the highly replicated relationship between symptoms associated with both alcohol and nicotine, little is known about this association across time and exposure to both drinking and smoking. In the present study, we evaluate if problems associated with alcohol use are related to emerging nicotine dependence symptoms and whether this relationship varies from adolescence to young adulthood, after accounting for both alcohol and nicotine exposure. Methods The sample was drawn from the Social and Emotional Contexts of Adolescent Smoking Patterns Study which measured smoking, nicotine dependence, alcohol use and alcohol related problems over 6 assessment waves spanning 6 years. Analyses were based on repeated assessment of 864 participants reporting some smoking and drinking 30 days prior to individual assessment waves. Mixed-effects regression models were estimated to examine potential time, smoking and/or alcohol varying effects in the association between alcohol problems and nicotine dependence. Findings Inter-individual differences in mean levels of alcohol problems and within subject changes in alcohol problems from adolescence to young adulthood were each significantly associated with nicotine dependence symptoms over and above levels of smoking and drinking behaviour. This association was consistent across both time and increasing levels of smoking and drinking. Conclusions Alcohol related problems are a consistent risk factor for nicotine dependence over and above measures of drinking and smoking and this association can be demonstrated from the earliest experiences with smoking in adolescents, through the establishment of more regular smoking patterns across the transition to young adulthood. These findings add to accumulating evidence suggesting that smoking and drinking may be related through a mechanism that cannot be wholly accounted for by exposure to either substance. PMID:27610424

  20. Maternal Separation Induces Orofacial Mechanical Allodynia in Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, M; Shinoda, M; Honda, K; Fujita, M; Kawata, A; Nagashima, H; Watanabe, M; Shoji, N; Takahashi, O; Kimoto, S; Iwata, K

    2016-09-01

    It is well known that exposure to maternal separation (MS) in early life causes plastic changes in the nervous system in adulthood, occasionally resulting in ubiquitous chronic pain. However, the pathogenic mechanisms of pain hypersensitivity remain unclear. Here, the authors examined the involvement of corticosterone in orofacial mechanical hypersensitivity induced by MS. To establish a rat model of MS, pups were placed in isolated cages 180 min/d and kept in a temperature-controlled environment at 22 ± 2 °C for 14 d. Mechanical allodynia in the whisker pad skin in adulthood was induced by MS and was significantly suppressed by successive postnatal subcutaneous administration of the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist mifepristone. Corticosterone levels were increased in the serum of MS rats, and successive postnatal administration of subcutaneous corticosterone to naive rats induced mechanical allodynia in the whisker pad skin. The number of P2X3 receptor-immunoreactive (P2X3R-IR) trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons innervating the whisker pad skin was significantly increased in MS rats and decreased following subcutaneous administration of mifepristone. The number of P2X3R-IR TG neurons innervating the whisker pad skin was also significantly increased following successive postnatal administration of subcutaneous corticosterone in naive rats. Moreover, the mechanical allodynia was suppressed 30 min after administration of the P2X3R antagonist A317491 to the whisker pad skin in MS rats. These findings suggest that the increase in P2X3R-IR TG neurons innervating the whisker pad skin via enhanced neonatal corticosterone signaling by MS plays an important role in orofacial mechanical allodynia in adulthood. PMID:27474258

  1. Transitions in Gambling Participation during Late Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Bray, Bethany C.; Lee, Grace P.; Liu, Weiwei; Storr, Carla L.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.; Martins, Silvia S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine transitions in gambling participation from late adolescence into emerging adulthood, and to identify factors (i.e., gender, race, intervention status, lunch status, conduct disorder, parental monitoring, neighborhood environment, and substance use) that might influence these transitions. Methods Markov modeling was used to describe movement between past-year gambling states (i.e., non-gambling and gambling) over five years. Annual data on past-year gambling behavior and substance use were collected from 515 young men and women starting at age 17. Results Past-year gambling declined from 51% prevalence at age 17 to 21% prevalence at age 22. Participants who reported no past-year gambling at a particular annual assessment had more than an 80% probability of also reporting no past-year gambling at the following assessment. Men were 1.07–2.82 times more likely than women to transition from past-year non-gambling to gambling year-to-year, and women were 1.27–5.26 times more likely than men to transition from past-year gambling to non-gambling year-to-year. In addition, gender and past-year tobacco use interacted such that men who used tobacco were most likely (and men who did not use tobacco least likely) to gamble at baseline. Conclusions Transition rates between gambling states appear to be relatively stable over time from late adolescence into emerging adulthood; however, men and those who engage in substance use may be at increased risk for gambling participation. Implications and Contribution The current study provides important information about the naturalistic transitions in gambling behavior during late adolescence and emerging adulthood among an urban, mainly ethnic minority population. The finding that approximately half of past-year gamblers do not gamble during the following year suggests that gambling follows a variable developmental course. PMID:24656449

  2. Cardiovascular Health through Young Adulthood and Cognitive Functioning in Midlife

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Jared P.; Loria, Catherine M.; Launer, Lenore J.; Sidney, Stephen; Liu, Kiang; Jacobs, David R.; Zhu, Na; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M.; He, Ka; Yaffe, Kristine

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between overall cardiovascular health as recently defined by the American Heart Association in young adulthood to middle-age and cognitive function in midlife. Overall ideal cardiovascular health incorporates 7 metrics, including the avoidance of overweight or obesity, a healthful diet, nonsmoking, and physical activity, total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting glucose at goal levels. Methods This analysis of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study, a multicenter community-based study with 25 years of follow-up, included 2,932 participants aged 18 to 30 years at baseline (Year 0) who attended follow-up exams at Years 7 and 25. Cardiovascular health metrics were measured at each examination. The Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), modified Stroop Test, and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) were completed at Year 25. Results A greater number of ideal cardiovascular metrics in young adulthood and middle-age was independently associated with better cognitive function in midlife (p-trend<0.01, for all). Specifically, each additional ideal metric was associated with 1.32 more symbols on the DSST (95% CI: 0.93 to 1.71), a 0.77-point lower interference score on the Stroop Test (−1.03 to −0.45), and 0.12 more words on the RAVLT (0.04 to 0.20). Participants who had ≥5 ideal metrics at a greater number of the 3 examinations over the 25-year period exhibited better performance on each cognitive test in middle-age (p-trend<0.01, for all). Interpretation Ideal cardiovascular health in young adulthood and its maintenance to middle-age is associated with better psychomotor speed, executive function, and verbal memory in midlife. PMID:23443990

  3. Phenylketonuria presenting in adulthood as progressive spastic paraparesis with dementia

    PubMed Central

    Kasim, S; Moo, L; Zschocke, J; Jinnah, H

    2001-01-01

    A 57 year old woman living independently in the community presented with four years of progressive spastic paraparesis and dementia. An extensive evaluation for the usual causes of these difficulties was unrevealing, but her serum phenylalanine concentration was markedly elevated and genetic analysis demonstrated mutations in the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene consistent with classic phenylketonuria. A protein restricted diet was associated with improvement in her condition. Although untreated phenylketonuria is typically associated with severe neurological dysfunction beginning in early childhood, this case shows that disability may be delayed until adulthood.

 PMID:11723206

  4. Transition to adulthood: mental retardation, families, and culture.

    PubMed

    Blacher, J

    2001-03-01

    A conceptual model was proposed guiding a study of mental retardation and family well-being during the transition from late adolescence into young adulthood. The developmental period from about age 18 to 26 is critical, in that formal schooling ends and changes in residential, vocational, and social status are likely. Furthermore, the proposal was made that the success of transitional experiences in these three realms will influence family well-being, an outcome of primary interest at this stage of the lifecycle of the family. Individual characteristics, environment and culture, and family involvement with programs are hypothesized to influence family well-being, but primarily through their impact on transition success.

  5. ADULTHOOD ANIMAL ABUSE AMONG MEN ARRESTED FOR DOMESTIC VIOLENCE

    PubMed Central

    Febres, Jeniimarie; Brasfield, Hope; Shorey, Ryan C.; Elmquist, Joanna; Ninnemann, Andrew; Schonbrun, Yael C.; Temple, Jeff R.; Recupero, Patricia R.; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2014-01-01

    Learning more about intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators could aid the development of more effective treatments. The prevalence of adulthood animal abuse (AAA) perpetration and its association with IPV perpetration, antisociality, and alcohol use in 307 men arrested for domestic violence was examined. 41% (n = 125) of the men committed at least one act of animal abuse since the age of 18, in contrast to the 3.0% prevalence rate reported by men in the general population. Controlling for antisociality and alcohol use, AAA showed a trend towards a significant association with physical and severe psychological IPV perpetration. PMID:25324474

  6. Understanding emerging adulthood from a goal-setting perspective.

    PubMed

    Shulman, Shmuel; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2010-01-01

    The chapter first introduces the concept of emerging adulthood as a period of life that is characterized by instabilities and fluctuations. Then, the role of goal setting and aspirations in individual development during this stage of life is discussed. Following this, seven chapters of the present special issue are introduced, and the ways in which goal processes affect individual trajectories and outcomes are discussed. The chapter concludes with a discussion of future perspectives in the field, such as the need to investigate the relationships between goals and goal adjustment, the need to carry out cross-cultural comparisons, as well as the need to develop intervention based on goal and aspiration framework.

  7. Adulthood animal abuse among men arrested for domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Febres, Jeniimarie; Brasfield, Hope; Shorey, Ryan C; Elmquist, Joanna; Ninnemann, Andrew; Schonbrun, Yael C; Temple, Jeff R; Recupero, Patricia R; Stuart, Gregory L

    2014-09-01

    Learning more about intimate partner violence (IPV), perpetrators could aid the development of more effective treatments. The prevalence of adulthood animal abuse (AAA) perpetration and its association with IPV perpetration, antisociality, and alcohol use in 307 men arrested for domestic violence were examined. Forty-one percent (n = 125) of the men committed at least one act of animal abuse since the age of 18, in contrast to the 1.5% prevalence rate reported by men in the general population. Controlling for antisociality and alcohol use, AAA showed a trend toward a significant association with physical and severe psychological IPV perpetration.

  8. Hazard Analysis Database Report

    SciTech Connect

    GRAMS, W.H.

    2000-12-28

    The Hazard Analysis Database was developed in conjunction with the hazard analysis activities conducted in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U S . Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, for HNF-SD-WM-SAR-067, Tank Farms Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). The FSAR is part of the approved Authorization Basis (AB) for the River Protection Project (RPP). This document describes, identifies, and defines the contents and structure of the Tank Farms FSAR Hazard Analysis Database and documents the configuration control changes made to the database. The Hazard Analysis Database contains the collection of information generated during the initial hazard evaluations and the subsequent hazard and accident analysis activities. The Hazard Analysis Database supports the preparation of Chapters 3 ,4 , and 5 of the Tank Farms FSAR and the Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) process and consists of two major, interrelated data sets: (1) Hazard Analysis Database: Data from the results of the hazard evaluations, and (2) Hazard Topography Database: Data from the system familiarization and hazard identification.

  9. Hazard Analysis Database Report

    SciTech Connect

    GAULT, G.W.

    1999-10-13

    The Hazard Analysis Database was developed in conjunction with the hazard analysis activities conducted in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for US Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). The FSAR is part of the approved TWRS Authorization Basis (AB). This document describes, identifies, and defines the contents and structure of the TWRS FSAR Hazard Analysis Database and documents the configuration control changes made to the database. The TWRS Hazard Analysis Database contains the collection of information generated during the initial hazard evaluations and the subsequent hazard and accident analysis activities. The database supports the preparation of Chapters 3,4, and 5 of the TWRS FSAR and the USQ process and consists of two major, interrelated data sets: (1) Hazard Evaluation Database--Data from the results of the hazard evaluations; and (2) Hazard Topography Database--Data from the system familiarization and hazard identification.

  10. Database for propagation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kantak, Anil V.

    1991-01-01

    A propagation researcher or a systems engineer who intends to use the results of a propagation experiment is generally faced with various database tasks such as the selection of the computer software, the hardware, and the writing of the programs to pass the data through the models of interest. This task is repeated every time a new experiment is conducted or the same experiment is carried out at a different location generating different data. Thus the users of this data have to spend a considerable portion of their time learning how to implement the computer hardware and the software towards the desired end. This situation may be facilitated considerably if an easily accessible propagation database is created that has all the accepted (standardized) propagation phenomena models approved by the propagation research community. Also, the handling of data will become easier for the user. Such a database construction can only stimulate the growth of the propagation research it if is available to all the researchers, so that the results of the experiment conducted by one researcher can be examined independently by another, without different hardware and software being used. The database may be made flexible so that the researchers need not be confined only to the contents of the database. Another way in which the database may help the researchers is by the fact that they will not have to document the software and hardware tools used in their research since the propagation research community will know the database already. The following sections show a possible database construction, as well as properties of the database for the propagation research.

  11. International Comparisions Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    International Comparisions Database (Web, free access)   The International Comparisons Database (ICDB) serves the U.S. and the Inter-American System of Metrology (SIM) with information based on Appendices B (International Comparisons), C (Calibration and Measurement Capabilities) and D (List of Participating Countries) of the Comit� International des Poids et Mesures (CIPM) Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA). The official source of the data is The BIPM key comparison database. The ICDB provides access to results of comparisons of measurements and standards organized by the consultative committees of the CIPM and the Regional Metrology Organizations.

  12. Phase Equilibria Diagrams Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 31 NIST/ACerS Phase Equilibria Diagrams Database (PC database for purchase)   The Phase Equilibria Diagrams Database contains commentaries and more than 21,000 diagrams for non-organic systems, including those published in all 21 hard-copy volumes produced as part of the ACerS-NIST Phase Equilibria Diagrams Program (formerly titled Phase Diagrams for Ceramists): Volumes I through XIV (blue books); Annuals 91, 92, 93; High Tc Superconductors I & II; Zirconium & Zirconia Systems; and Electronic Ceramics I. Materials covered include oxides as well as non-oxide systems such as chalcogenides and pnictides, phosphates, salt systems, and mixed systems of these classes.

  13. JICST Factual Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Kazuaki; Shimura, Kazuki; Monma, Yoshio; Sakamoto, Masao; Morishita, Hiroshi; Kanazawa, Kenji

    The Japan Information Center of Science and Technology (JICST) has started the on-line service of JICST/NRIM Materials Strength Database for Engineering Steels and Alloys (JICST ME) in this March (1990). This database has been developed under the joint research between JICST and the National Research Institute for Metals (NRIM). It provides material strength data (creep, fatigue, etc.) of engineering steels and alloys. It is able to search and display on-line, and to analyze the searched data statistically and plot the result on graphic display. The database system and the data in JICST ME are described.

  14. Hybrid Terrain Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arthur, Trey

    2006-01-01

    A prototype hybrid terrain database is being developed in conjunction with other databases and with hardware and software that constitute subsystems of aerospace cockpit display systems (known in the art as synthetic vision systems) that generate images to increase pilots' situation awareness and eliminate poor visibility as a cause of aviation accidents. The basic idea is to provide a clear view of the world around an aircraft by displaying computer-generated imagery derived from an onboard database of terrain, obstacle, and airport information.

  15. Obesity and weight gain in adulthood and telomere length.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangmi; Parks, Christine G; DeRoo, Lisa A; Chen, Honglei; Taylor, Jack A; Cawthon, Richard M; Sandler, Dale P

    2009-03-01

    Obesity and weight gain in adulthood are associated with an increased risk of several cancers. Telomeres play a critical role in maintaining genomic integrity and may be involved in carcinogenesis. Using data from 647 women ages 35 to 74 years in the United States and Puerto Rico (2003-2004), we examined the association between current and past anthropometric characteristics and telomere length in blood. In a multivariate linear regression model, higher current body mass index (BMI) and hip circumference were inversely associated with telomere length. Higher BMI in the 30s was associated with shorter telomere length among women ages>or=40 years (Ptrend<0.01). Weight gain since the age 30s (Ptrend=0.07) and weight cycling (Ptrend=0.04) were also inversely associated with telomere length. When current BMI and BMI at ages 30 to 39 years were considered together, the most marked decrease in telomere length was found for women who had overweight or obese BMI at both time points (mean telomere repeat copy number to single-copy gene copy number ratio=1.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.21-1.30) compared with women who had normal BMI at both times (mean telomere repeat copy number to single-copy gene copy number ratio=1.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.30-1.36). These findings support the hypothesis that obesity may accelerate aging, and highlight the importance of maintaining a desirable weight in adulthood.

  16. Postweaning isolation affects responses to incentive contrast in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Cuenya, Lucas; Mustaca, Alba; Kamenetzky, Giselle

    2015-03-01

    Adolescence is a time involving a series of changes in the use of appetitive reinforcers like food, as well as neuroendocrine changes like those taking place in the mesolimbic dopamine function. Social isolation from postnatal day 21 to 36 in rats leads to behavioral and neurophysiological alterations such as increased consumption of appetitive reinforcers. The work is focused on studying how exposure to chronic stress induced by social isolation during adolescence can have a long-lasting effect on responses to reinforcement shifts in adulthood. Two experiments were performed in rats in order to analyze the effect of adolescent isolation on the responses to unanticipated shifts in reinforcement during adulthood, in reinforcement devaluation (32-4% of sucrose solution), increase (4-32% of sucrose solution), and extinction (32-0% of sucrose solution) procedures. Adolescent isolation intensified the intake response resulting from a reinforcement increase (i.e., greater positive contrast), but had no effect on the response to reinforcement devaluation and omission. The implications of this procedure are discussed, along with the underlying behavioral and neurochemical mechanisms.

  17. Moving as a gift: relocation in older adulthood.

    PubMed

    Perry, Tam E

    2014-12-01

    While discussions of accessibility, mobility and activities of daily living frame relocation studies, in older adulthood, the paper explores the emotional motivation of gift giving as a rationale for moving. This ethnographic study investigates the processes of household disbandment and decision-making of older adults in the Midwestern United States relocating in post-Global Financial Crisis contexts. In this study, relationships are created and sustained through the process of moving, linking older adults (n=81), their kin (n=49), and professionals (n=46) in the Midwestern United States. Using Marcel Mauss' The Gift (1925/1990) as a theoretical lens, relocation in older adulthood is conceptualized as a gift in two ways: to one's partner, and one's kin. Partners may consider gift-giving in terms of the act of moving to appease and honor their partner. Kin who were not moving themselves were also recipients of the gift of moving. These gifts enchain others in relationships of reciprocity. However these gifts, like all gifts, are not without costs or danger, so this paper examines some of the challenges that emerge along with gift-giving.

  18. Social Networks of Homeless Youth in Emerging Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Wenzel, Suzanne; Holloway, Ian; Golinelli, Daniela; Ewing, Brett; Bowman, Richard; Tucker, Joan

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the social networks of homeless youth in emerging adulthood despite the importance of this information for interventions to reduce health risks. This study examined the composition of social networks, and the risks and supports present within them, in a random sample of 349 homeless youth (33.4% female, 23.9% African American, 17.7% Hispanic) between the ages of 18 and 24. Social network members who were met on the street were among the most likely to be perceived as engaging in risky sex, as well as to engage in substance use with the youth. Youth were more likely to count on relatives and sex partners for support compared to other network members, but they also were more likely to use substances with sex partners and perceived them as engaging in risky sex. Interventions may need to recognize the importance of intimate relationships during the developmental stage of emerging adulthood by enhancing supportive bonds and reducing substance use and risky sex in these relationships. PMID:21863378

  19. Social networks of homeless youth in emerging adulthood.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, Suzanne; Holloway, Ian; Golinelli, Daniela; Ewing, Brett; Bowman, Richard; Tucker, Joan

    2012-05-01

    Little is known about the social networks of homeless youth in emerging adulthood despite the importance of this information for interventions to reduce health risks. This study examined the composition of social networks, and the risks and supports present within them, in a random sample of 349 homeless youth (33.4% female, 23.9% African American, 17.7% Hispanic) between the ages of 18 and 24. Social network members who were met on the street were among the most likely to be perceived as engaging in risky sex, as well as to engage in substance use with the youth. Youth were more likely to count on relatives and sex partners for support compared to other network members, but they also were more likely to use substances with sex partners and perceived them as engaging in risky sex. Interventions may need to recognize the importance of intimate relationships during the developmental stage of emerging adulthood by enhancing supportive bonds and reducing substance use and risky sex in these relationships.

  20. Moving as a gift: relocation in older adulthood.

    PubMed

    Perry, Tam E

    2014-12-01

    While discussions of accessibility, mobility and activities of daily living frame relocation studies, in older adulthood, the paper explores the emotional motivation of gift giving as a rationale for moving. This ethnographic study investigates the processes of household disbandment and decision-making of older adults in the Midwestern United States relocating in post-Global Financial Crisis contexts. In this study, relationships are created and sustained through the process of moving, linking older adults (n=81), their kin (n=49), and professionals (n=46) in the Midwestern United States. Using Marcel Mauss' The Gift (1925/1990) as a theoretical lens, relocation in older adulthood is conceptualized as a gift in two ways: to one's partner, and one's kin. Partners may consider gift-giving in terms of the act of moving to appease and honor their partner. Kin who were not moving themselves were also recipients of the gift of moving. These gifts enchain others in relationships of reciprocity. However these gifts, like all gifts, are not without costs or danger, so this paper examines some of the challenges that emerge along with gift-giving. PMID:25456616

  1. Tobacco Smoking in Adolescence Predicts Maladaptive Coping Styles in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: To examine the extent to which cigarette smoking in adolescence is associated with maladaptive versus adaptive coping behaviors in adulthood. Method: The data came from a longitudinal study of New Zealand adolescents followed into adulthood at age 32 years. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), we examined the predictive association between daily smoking of cigarettes and symptoms of tobacco dependence from 18 to 26 years of age and later coping at age 32 years. We included pathways from childhood family disadvantage in addition to both adolescent stress–worry and adult coping in the model. Results: SEM revealed that cigarette smoking had a small but direct inverse effect on later adaptive coping (−.14) and a direct effect on maladaptive coping (.23) independent of the relationships between adolescent coping and stress–worry and later adult coping. Conclusions: The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that tobacco smoking may inhibit the development of self-efficacy or one’s ability to act with appropriate coping behaviors in any given situation. PMID:23817581

  2. Empathy development in adolescence predicts social competencies in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Allemand, Mathias; Steiger, Andrea E; Fend, Helmut A

    2015-04-01

    This 23-year study explored the predictive associations between empathy development in adolescence and self-reported social competencies and outcomes in adulthood. Participants were 1,527 adults aged 35 years (48.3% female). The predictor variable (adolescent empathy) was measured yearly at the ages of 12 to 16 years. The outcome variables (adult empathy, communication skills, social integration, relationship satisfaction, and conflicts in relationships) were measured at the age of 35 years. Five important results stand out. First, longitudinal measurement invariance was established for the measure of adolescent empathy. Second, empathy tended to increase during the adolescent years. Third, significant interindividual differences in level and change of adolescent empathy were found. Fourth, gender was related to level of adolescent empathy, favoring girls over boys. Fifth, not only level but also change in adolescent empathy predicted individual differences in social competencies in adulthood two decades later. These findings demonstrate that developmental processes that are relevant for adjustment reveal long-term social consequences beyond the adolescent years.

  3. Moving as a Gift: Relocation in Older Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    While discussions of accessibility, mobility and activities of daily living frame relocation studies, in older adulthood, the paper explores the emotional motivation of gift giving as a rationale for moving. This ethnographic study investigates the processes of household disbandment and decision-making of older adults in the Midwestern United States relocating in post-Global Financial Crisis contexts. In this study, relationships are created and sustained through the process of moving, linking older adults (n=81), their kin (n=49), and professionals (n=46) in the Midwestern United States. Using Marcel Mauss’ The Gift (1925/1990) as a theoretical lens, relocation in older adulthood is conceptualized as a gift in two ways: to one’s partner, and one’s kin. Partners may consider gift-giving in terms of the act of moving to appease and honor their partner. Kin who were not moving themselves were also recipients of the gift of moving. These gifts enchain others in relationships of reciprocity. However these gifts, like all gifts, are not without costs or danger, so this paper examines some of the challenges that emerge along with gift-giving. PMID:25456616

  4. ARTI Refrigerant Database

    SciTech Connect

    Calm, J.M.

    1994-05-27

    The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

  5. Nuclear Science References Database

    SciTech Connect

    Pritychenko, B.; Běták, E.; Singh, B.; Totans, J.

    2014-06-15

    The Nuclear Science References (NSR) database together with its associated Web interface, is the world's only comprehensive source of easily accessible low- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics bibliographic information for more than 210,000 articles since the beginning of nuclear science. The weekly-updated NSR database provides essential support for nuclear data evaluation, compilation and research activities. The principles of the database and Web application development and maintenance are described. Examples of nuclear structure, reaction and decay applications are specifically included. The complete NSR database is freely available at the websites of the National Nuclear Data Center (http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/nsr) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (http://www-nds.iaea.org/nsr)

  6. Hawaii bibliographic database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, T.L.; Takahashi, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Hawaii bibliographic database has been created to contain all of the literature, from 1779 to the present, pertinent to the volcanological history of the Hawaiian-Emperor volcanic chain. References are entered in a PC- and Macintosh-compatible EndNote Plus bibliographic database with keywords and abstracts or (if no abstract) with annotations as to content. Keywords emphasize location, discipline, process, identification of new chemical data or age determinations, and type of publication. The database is updated approximately three times a year and is available to upload from an ftp site. The bibliography contained 8460 references at the time this paper was submitted for publication. Use of the database greatly enhances the power and completeness of library searches for anyone interested in Hawaiian volcanism.

  7. Navigating public microarray databases.

    PubMed

    Penkett, Christopher J; Bähler, Jürg

    2004-01-01

    With the ever-escalating amount of data being produced by genome-wide microarray studies, it is of increasing importance that these data are captured in public databases so that researchers can use this information to complement and enhance their own studies. Many groups have set up databases of expression data, ranging from large repositories, which are designed to comprehensively capture all published data, through to more specialized databases. The public repositories, such as ArrayExpress at the European Bioinformatics Institute contain complete datasets in raw format in addition to processed data, whilst the specialist databases tend to provide downstream analysis of normalized data from more focused studies and data sources. Here we provide a guide to the use of these public microarray resources.

  8. Chemical Kinetics Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 17 NIST Chemical Kinetics Database (Web, free access)   The NIST Chemical Kinetics Database includes essentially all reported kinetics results for thermal gas-phase chemical reactions. The database is designed to be searched for kinetics data based on the specific reactants involved, for reactions resulting in specified products, for all the reactions of a particular species, or for various combinations of these. In addition, the bibliography can be searched by author name or combination of names. The database contains in excess of 38,000 separate reaction records for over 11,700 distinct reactant pairs. These data have been abstracted from over 12,000 papers with literature coverage through early 2000.

  9. TREATABILITY DATABASE DESCRIPTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) presents referenced information on the control of contaminants in drinking water. It allows drinking water utilities, first responders to spills or emergencies, treatment process designers, research organizations, academics, regulato...

  10. THE CTEPP DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The CTEPP (Children's Total Exposure to Persistent Pesticides and Other Persistent Organic Pollutants) database contains a wealth of data on children's aggregate exposures to pollutants in their everyday surroundings. Chemical analysis data for the environmental media and ques...

  11. Requirements Management Database

    2009-08-13

    This application is a simplified and customized version of the RBA and CTS databases to capture federal, site, and facility requirements, link to actions that must be performed to maintain compliance with their contractual and other requirements.

  12. Steam Properties Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 10 NIST/ASME Steam Properties Database (PC database for purchase)   Based upon the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS) 1995 formulation for the thermodynamic properties of water and the most recent IAPWS formulations for transport and other properties, this updated version provides water properties over a wide range of conditions according to the accepted international standards.

  13. Database computing in HEP

    SciTech Connect

    Day, C.T.; Loken, S.; MacFarlane, J.F. ); May, E.; Lifka, D.; Lusk, E.; Price, L.E. ); Baden, A. . Dept. of Physics); Grossman, R.; Qin, X. . Dept. of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science); Cormell, L.; Leibold, P.; Liu, D

    1992-01-01

    The major SSC experiments are expected to produce up to 1 Petabyte of data per year each. Once the primary reconstruction is completed by farms of inexpensive processors. I/O becomes a major factor in further analysis of the data. We believe that the application of database techniques can significantly reduce the I/O performed in these analyses. We present examples of such I/O reductions in prototype based on relational and object-oriented databases of CDF data samples.

  14. Database computing in HEP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, C. T.; Loken, S.; Macfarlane, J. F.; May, E.; Lifka, D.; Lusk, E.; Price, L. E.; Baden, A.; Grossman, R.; Qin, X.

    1992-01-01

    The major SSC experiments are expected to produce up to 1 Petabyte of data per year each. Once the primary reconstruction is completed by farms of inexpensive processors, I/O becomes a major factor in further analysis of the data. We believe that the application of database techniques can significantly reduce the I/O performed in these analyses. We present examples of such I/O reductions in prototypes based on relational and object-oriented databases of CDF data samples.

  15. Querying genomic databases

    SciTech Connect

    Baehr, A.; Hagstrom, R.; Joerg, D.; Overbeek, R.

    1991-09-01

    A natural-language interface has been developed that retrieves genomic information by using a simple subset of English. The interface spares the biologist from the task of learning database-specific query languages and computer programming. Currently, the interface deals with the E. coli genome. It can, however, be readily extended and shows promise as a means of easy access to other sequenced genomic databases as well.

  16. Drinking Water Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, ShaTerea R.

    2004-01-01

    This summer I had the opportunity to work in the Environmental Management Office (EMO) under the Chemical Sampling and Analysis Team or CS&AT. This team s mission is to support Glenn Research Center (GRC) and EM0 by providing chemical sampling and analysis services and expert consulting. Services include sampling and chemical analysis of water, soil, fbels, oils, paint, insulation materials, etc. One of this team s major projects is the Drinking Water Project. This is a project that is done on Glenn s water coolers and ten percent of its sink every two years. For the past two summers an intern had been putting together a database for this team to record the test they had perform. She had successfully created a database but hadn't worked out all the quirks. So this summer William Wilder (an intern from Cleveland State University) and I worked together to perfect her database. We began be finding out exactly what every member of the team thought about the database and what they would change if any. After collecting this data we both had to take some courses in Microsoft Access in order to fix the problems. Next we began looking at what exactly how the database worked from the outside inward. Then we began trying to change the database but we quickly found out that this would be virtually impossible.

  17. The Halophile protein database.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Naveen; Farooqi, Mohammad Samir; Chaturvedi, Krishna Kumar; Lal, Shashi Bhushan; Grover, Monendra; Rai, Anil; Pandey, Pankaj

    2014-01-01

    Halophilic archaea/bacteria adapt to different salt concentration, namely extreme, moderate and low. These type of adaptations may occur as a result of modification of protein structure and other changes in different cell organelles. Thus proteins may play an important role in the adaptation of halophilic archaea/bacteria to saline conditions. The Halophile protein database (HProtDB) is a systematic attempt to document the biochemical and biophysical properties of proteins from halophilic archaea/bacteria which may be involved in adaptation of these organisms to saline conditions. In this database, various physicochemical properties such as molecular weight, theoretical pI, amino acid composition, atomic composition, estimated half-life, instability index, aliphatic index and grand average of hydropathicity (Gravy) have been listed. These physicochemical properties play an important role in identifying the protein structure, bonding pattern and function of the specific proteins. This database is comprehensive, manually curated, non-redundant catalogue of proteins. The database currently contains 59 897 proteins properties extracted from 21 different strains of halophilic archaea/bacteria. The database can be accessed through link. Database URL: http://webapp.cabgrid.res.in/protein/

  18. Crude Oil Analysis Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    Shay, Johanna Y.

    The composition and physical properties of crude oil vary widely from one reservoir to another within an oil field, as well as from one field or region to another. Although all oils consist of hydrocarbons and their derivatives, the proportions of various types of compounds differ greatly. This makes some oils more suitable than others for specific refining processes and uses. To take advantage of this diversity, one needs access to information in a large database of crude oil analyses. The Crude Oil Analysis Database (COADB) currently satisfies this need by offering 9,056 crude oil analyses. Of these, 8,500 are United States domestic oils. The database contains results of analysis of the general properties and chemical composition, as well as the field, formation, and geographic location of the crude oil sample. [Taken from the Introduction to COAMDATA_DESC.pdf, part of the zipped software and database file at http://www.netl.doe.gov/technologies/oil-gas/Software/database.html] Save the zipped file to your PC. When opened, it will contain PDF documents and a large Excel spreadsheet. It will also contain the database in Microsoft Access 2002.

  19. Open systems and databases

    SciTech Connect

    Martire, G.S. ); Nuttall, D.J.H. )

    1993-05-01

    This paper is part of a series of papers invited by the IEEE POWER CONTROL CENTER WORKING GROUP concerning the changing designs of modern control centers. Papers invited by the Working Group discuss the following issues: Benefits of Openness, Criteria for Evaluating Open EMS Systems, Hardware Design, Configuration Management, Security, Project Management, Databases, SCADA, Inter- and Intra-System Communications and Man-Machine Interfaces,'' The goal of this paper is to provide an introduction to the issues pertaining to Open Systems and Databases.'' The intent is to assist understanding of some of the underlying factors that effect choices that must be made when selecting a database system for use in a control room environment. This paper describes and compares the major database information models which are in common use for database systems and provides an overview of SQL. A case for the control center community to follow the workings of the non-formal standards bodies is presented along with possible uses and the benefits of commercially available databases within the control center. The reasons behind the emergence of industry supported standards organizations such as the Open Software Foundation (OSF) and SQL Access are presented.

  20. The comprehensive peptaibiotics database.

    PubMed

    Stoppacher, Norbert; Neumann, Nora K N; Burgstaller, Lukas; Zeilinger, Susanne; Degenkolb, Thomas; Brückner, Hans; Schuhmacher, Rainer

    2013-05-01

    Peptaibiotics are nonribosomally biosynthesized peptides, which - according to definition - contain the marker amino acid α-aminoisobutyric acid (Aib) and possess antibiotic properties. Being known since 1958, a constantly increasing number of peptaibiotics have been described and investigated with a particular emphasis on hypocrealean fungi. Starting from the existing online 'Peptaibol Database', first published in 1997, an exhaustive literature survey of all known peptaibiotics was carried out and resulted in a list of 1043 peptaibiotics. The gathered information was compiled and used to create the new 'The Comprehensive Peptaibiotics Database', which is presented here. The database was devised as a software tool based on Microsoft (MS) Access. It is freely available from the internet at http://peptaibiotics-database.boku.ac.at and can easily be installed and operated on any computer offering a Windows XP/7 environment. It provides useful information on characteristic properties of the peptaibiotics included such as peptide category, group name of the microheterogeneous mixture to which the peptide belongs, amino acid sequence, sequence length, producing fungus, peptide subfamily, molecular formula, and monoisotopic mass. All these characteristics can be used and combined for automated search within the database, which makes The Comprehensive Peptaibiotics Database a versatile tool for the retrieval of valuable information about peptaibiotics. Sequence data have been considered as to December 14, 2012. PMID:23681723

  1. Specialist Bibliographic Databases

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Specialist bibliographic databases offer essential online tools for researchers and authors who work on specific subjects and perform comprehensive and systematic syntheses of evidence. This article presents examples of the established specialist databases, which may be of interest to those engaged in multidisciplinary science communication. Access to most specialist databases is through subscription schemes and membership in professional associations. Several aggregators of information and database vendors, such as EBSCOhost and ProQuest, facilitate advanced searches supported by specialist keyword thesauri. Searches of items through specialist databases are complementary to those through multidisciplinary research platforms, such as PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Familiarizing with the functional characteristics of biomedical and nonbiomedical bibliographic search tools is mandatory for researchers, authors, editors, and publishers. The database users are offered updates of the indexed journal lists, abstracts, author profiles, and links to other metadata. Editors and publishers may find particularly useful source selection criteria and apply for coverage of their peer-reviewed journals and grey literature sources. These criteria are aimed at accepting relevant sources with established editorial policies and quality controls. PMID:27134485

  2. Specialist Bibliographic Databases.

    PubMed

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Yessirkepov, Marlen; Voronov, Alexander A; Trukhachev, Vladimir I; Kostyukova, Elena I; Gerasimov, Alexey N; Kitas, George D

    2016-05-01

    Specialist bibliographic databases offer essential online tools for researchers and authors who work on specific subjects and perform comprehensive and systematic syntheses of evidence. This article presents examples of the established specialist databases, which may be of interest to those engaged in multidisciplinary science communication. Access to most specialist databases is through subscription schemes and membership in professional associations. Several aggregators of information and database vendors, such as EBSCOhost and ProQuest, facilitate advanced searches supported by specialist keyword thesauri. Searches of items through specialist databases are complementary to those through multidisciplinary research platforms, such as PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Familiarizing with the functional characteristics of biomedical and nonbiomedical bibliographic search tools is mandatory for researchers, authors, editors, and publishers. The database users are offered updates of the indexed journal lists, abstracts, author profiles, and links to other metadata. Editors and publishers may find particularly useful source selection criteria and apply for coverage of their peer-reviewed journals and grey literature sources. These criteria are aimed at accepting relevant sources with established editorial policies and quality controls. PMID:27134485

  3. Specialist Bibliographic Databases.

    PubMed

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Yessirkepov, Marlen; Voronov, Alexander A; Trukhachev, Vladimir I; Kostyukova, Elena I; Gerasimov, Alexey N; Kitas, George D

    2016-05-01

    Specialist bibliographic databases offer essential online tools for researchers and authors who work on specific subjects and perform comprehensive and systematic syntheses of evidence. This article presents examples of the established specialist databases, which may be of interest to those engaged in multidisciplinary science communication. Access to most specialist databases is through subscription schemes and membership in professional associations. Several aggregators of information and database vendors, such as EBSCOhost and ProQuest, facilitate advanced searches supported by specialist keyword thesauri. Searches of items through specialist databases are complementary to those through multidisciplinary research platforms, such as PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Familiarizing with the functional characteristics of biomedical and nonbiomedical bibliographic search tools is mandatory for researchers, authors, editors, and publishers. The database users are offered updates of the indexed journal lists, abstracts, author profiles, and links to other metadata. Editors and publishers may find particularly useful source selection criteria and apply for coverage of their peer-reviewed journals and grey literature sources. These criteria are aimed at accepting relevant sources with established editorial policies and quality controls.

  4. Perceptions of the Transition to Adulthood among Chinese and American Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badger, Sarah; Nelson, Larry J.; Barry, Carolyn McNamara

    2006-01-01

    This study explored cultural differences in the criteria young people have for becoming an adult. Specifically, the study sought (a) to compare Chinese and American responses concerning whether they believe they have reached adulthood; (b) to examine whether adulthood criteria could fit a common statistical model for both cultures; and (c) after…

  5. Supporting Homeless Youth during the Transition to Adulthood: Housing-Based Independent Living Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dworsky, Amy

    2010-01-01

    While many young people depend on parental financial and emotional support well past the age of 18, those who are homeless must make the transition to adulthood without that support. This article discusses the needs of homeless youth as they transition to adulthood. It then describes three housing-based independent living programs designed to…

  6. So Close, Yet So Far Away: The Impact of Varying Marital Horizons on Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Jason S.; Willoughby, Brian; Badger, Sarah; Nelson, Larry J.; McNamara Barry, Carolyn; Madsen, Stephanie D.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a marital horizon theory of emerging adulthood that posits that young people's perceptions of marriage are central factors in determining subgroup differences in the length of emerging adulthood as well as the specific behaviors that occur during this period in the family life cycle. The model was tested with a sample of 813…

  7. Associations between Shyness and Internalizing Behaviors, Externalizing Behaviors, and Relationships during Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Larry J.; Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Badger, Sarah; Barry, Carolyn McNamara; Carroll, Jason S.; Madsen, Stephanie D.

    2008-01-01

    Many studies have documented the ways in which shyness can be a barrier to personal well-being and social adjustment throughout childhood and adolescence; however, less is known regarding shyness in emerging adulthood. Shyness as experienced during emerging adulthood may continue to be a risk factor for successful development. The purpose of this…

  8. Witnessing versus Experiencing Direct Violence in Childhood as Correlates of Adulthood PTSD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulkarni, Madhur R.; Graham-Bermann, Sandra; Rauch, Sheila A. M.; Seng, Julia

    2011-01-01

    Research has established that childhood violence exposure plays a considerable role in the development of deleterious outcomes in childhood and adulthood. However, important gaps remain in understanding the complex relationships between early violence exposure, adulthood trauma exposure, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study…

  9. Rethinking the Youth Phase of the Life-Course: The Case for Emerging Adulthood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bynner, John

    2005-01-01

    A whole flurry of new thinking and research about young people in the USA has been stimulated by Jeffery Arnett's theory of 'Emerging Adulthood'. This argues for recognition of a new stage of the life-course between adolescence and adulthood reflecting the extension of youth transitions to independence brought about by globalization and…

  10. The Changing Adolescent Experience: Societal Trends and the Transition to Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortimer, Jeylan T.; Larson, Reed W.

    The path adolescents take from childhood to adulthood is a product of social, economic, political, and technological forces. These forces may facilitate youths preparation to become healthy adults, or they may leave youth unprepared for adulthood. Knowledgeable projections are vital in shaping the agenda for research; for alerting educators,…

  11. Intergenerational Ambivalence in Adolescence and Early Adulthood: Implications for Depressive Symptoms over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tighe, Lauren A.; Birditt, Kira S.; Antonucci, Toni C.

    2016-01-01

    The parent-child relationship is often characterized by ambivalence, defined as the simultaneous experience of positive and negative relationship quality. This study examines reports of intergenerational ambivalence in 3 developmental periods: adolescence, emerging adulthood, and young adulthood, as well as its implications for depressive symptoms…

  12. "You Start Feeling Old": Rock Musicians Reconciling the Dilemmas of Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Using interview data from 38 musicians, this study examines the ways in which the transition to adulthood is complicated by aspirations to a nonstandard line of work. Musicians face a recurring set of obstacles as they move into adulthood and respond by enacting various tactics to reconcile these dilemmas. The "on-time" musicians do so by framing…

  13. Best Friends in Adolescence Show Similar Educational Careers in Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiuru, Noona; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Zettergren, Peter; Andersson, Hakan; Bergman, Lars

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the role of best friends in educational career development from adolescence to adulthood. Participants' (N=476) reciprocal best friendships were identified at age 15, while their educational attainment was investigated in early adulthood (age 26), their intelligence (IQ) at age 13, and parental education, educational…

  14. The Dangerous Myth of Emerging Adulthood: An Evidence-Based Critique of a Flawed Developmental Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Côté, James E.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the theory of emerging adulthood, introduced into the literature by Arnett (2000), in terms of its methodological and evidential basis, and finds it to be unsubstantiated on numerous grounds. Other, more convincing, formulations of variations in the transition to adulthood are examined. Most flawed academic theories are…

  15. Attention Problems in Very Preterm Children from Childhood to Adulthood: The Bavarian Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breeman, Linda D.; Jaekel, Julia; Baumann, Nicole; Bartmann, Peter; Wolke, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Background: Very preterm (VP; gestational age <32 weeks) and very low birth weight (VLBW; <1500 grams) is related to attention problems in childhood and adulthood. The stability of these problems into adulthood is not known. Methods: The Bavarian Longitudinal Study is a prospective cohort study that followed 260 VP/VLBW and 229 term-born…

  16. The Stability of General Intelligence from Early Adulthood to Middle-Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Lars; Hartmann, Peter; Nyborg, Helmuth

    2008-01-01

    Early cross-sectional studies suggested that cognitive functions begin to decline in young adulthood, whereas the first longitudinal studies suggested that they are mainly stable in adulthood. A number of more contemporary longitudinal studies support the stability hypothesis. However, drop out effects have the consequence that most longitudinal…

  17. Does Childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Predict Risk-Taking and Medical Illnesses in Adulthood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos Olazagasti, Maria A.; Klein, Rachel G.; Mannuzza, Salvatore; Belsky, Erica Roizen; Hutchison, Jesse A.; Lashua-Shriftman, Erin C.; Castellanos, F. Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To test whether children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), free of conduct disorder (CD) in childhood (mean = 8 years), have elevated risk-taking, accidents, and medical illnesses in adulthood (mean = 41 years); whether development of CD influences risk-taking during adulthood; and whether exposure to…

  18. Delayed Adulthood, Delayed Desistance? Trends in the Age Distribution of Problem Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayford, Sarah R.; Furstenberg, Frank F., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    As the transition to adulthood becomes more protracted and less orderly, fewer young people occupy adult roles and experience the social control associated with these roles. One might therefore expect behaviors associated with the teenage years to spill over into older age groups, reflecting postponed entrance into full social adulthood. We test…

  19. Learning to Be Illegal: Undocumented Youth and Shifting Legal Contexts in the Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, Roberto G.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the transition to adulthood among 1.5-generation undocumented Latino young adults. For them, the transition to adulthood involves exiting the legally protected status of K to 12 students and entering into adult roles that require legal status as the basis for participation. This collision among contexts makes for a turbulent…

  20. Development of Borderline Personality Disorder in Adolescence and Young Adulthood: Introduction to the Special Section

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stepp, Stephanie D.

    2012-01-01

    Recognizable symptoms and features of borderline personality disorder (BPD) appear during adolescence. However, there has been resistance to diagnose or research this disorder prior to adulthood because of clinical lore that BPD is a long-standing illness and that personality traits are not stable until adulthood. This has resulted in little…

  1. Community and Social Participation among Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder Transitioning to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Emily; Davis, Beth Ellen; Stobbe, Gary; Bjornson, Kristie

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) are at increased risk for poor psychosocial outcomes as adults. We described community and social participation in adolescents with ASDs as they transitioned from adolescence to adulthood, and identified adolescent factors associated with community and social participation outcomes in adulthood. We…

  2. The Prospective Association of Youth Assets with Tobacco Use in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheney, Marshall K.; Oman, Roy F.; Vesely, Sara K.; Aspy, Cheryl B.; Tolma, Eleni L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Youth assets protect adolescents from tobacco use, but their influence in young adulthood is unknown. Purpose: To determine the prospective influence of assets possessed in young adulthood with tobacco use the following year. Methods: Data from waves 4 and 5 from the Youth Asset Study (n = 450, ages 18-22 at wave 5) were used. Logistic…

  3. Differentiating Three Conceptualisations of the Relationship between Positive Development and Psychopathology during the Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Meredith; Sanson, Ann; Hawkins, Mary T.; Toumbourou, John W.; Letcher, Primrose; Frydenberg, Erica

    2011-01-01

    The transition to adulthood is characterised by both great potential for positive change and a relatively high incidence of problem outcomes. A multidimensional model of positive development during the transition to adulthood (at 19-20 years) has recently been proposed. However, an unresolved question regarding the nature of positive development…

  4. What's Going on with Young People Today? The Long and Twisting Path to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Settersten, Richard A., Jr.; Ray, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Richard Settersten and Barbara Ray examine the lengthening transition to adulthood over the past several decades, as well as the challenges the new schedule poses for young people, families, and society. The authors begin with a brief history of becoming an adult, noting that the schedule that youth follow to arrive at adulthood changes to meet…

  5. School Failure in Early Adolescence and Status Attainment in Middle Adulthood: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Zeng-Yin; Kaplan, Howard B.

    2003-01-01

    Specifies how early school failure influences status attainment at midlife. Results demonstrate that years of education completed in early adulthood is not the only mediating pathway. Argues that lower levels of mental health and higher rates of deviant behaviors in early adulthood are additional mediating processes. (CAJ)

  6. Developmental Differences in Structure of Attention-Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) between Childhood and Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martel, Michelle M.; von Eye, Alexander; Nigg, Joel

    2012-01-01

    The current paper utilizes a bifactor modeling approach to evaluate the structure of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adulthood and assess developmental continuity of ADHD structure between childhood and adulthood. The study compared traditional one-factor, two-factor, three-factor, and second-order factor models of ADHD with a…

  7. Developmental Trajectories of Cigarette Smoking and Their Correlates From Early Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orlando, Maria; Tucker, Joan S.; Ellickson, Phyllis L.; Klein, David J.

    2004-01-01

    Smoking initiation typically occurs in adolescence and increases over time into emerging adulthood. Thus adolescence and emerging adulthood compose a critical time period for prevention and intervention efforts. To inform these efforts, this study used latent growth mixture modeling to identify 6 smoking trajectories from ages 13 to 23 among 5,914…

  8. Childhood wrist circumference is not a predictor of insulin resistance in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Ashley N; Kelly, Aaron S; Prineas, Ronald J; Marlatt, Kara L; Dengel, Donald R; Sinaiko, Alan R; Moran, Antoinette; Steinberger, Julia

    2015-04-01

    We sought to determine whether childhood wrist circumference predicts insulin resistance in adulthood. Measures were taken in prepubertal children and then approximately 30 years later in the same subjects as adults. Our findings suggest that wrist circumference in childhood is not a predictor of insulin resistance in adulthood. PMID:25596104

  9. Top Cited Scholars in Multicultural Counseling: A Citation Analysis of Journal Articles in PsycINFO

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrowski, Chris

    2013-01-01

    The area of multicultural counseling is a sub-field of the counseling profession and research in this specialty has proliferated at a rapid pace over the past 20 years. In order to gauge emergent trends in multicultural counseling, researchers have conducted content analyses of scholarly documents like journals and books. A related methodology…

  10. Great Basin paleontological database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, N.; Blodgett, R.B.; Hofstra, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has constructed a paleontological database for the Great Basin physiographic province that can be served over the World Wide Web for data entry, queries, displays, and retrievals. It is similar to the web-database solution that we constructed for Alaskan paleontological data (www.alaskafossil.org). The first phase of this effort was to compile a paleontological bibliography for Nevada and portions of adjacent states in the Great Basin that has recently been completed. In addition, we are also compiling paleontological reports (Known as E&R reports) of the U.S. Geological Survey, which are another extensive source of l,egacy data for this region. Initial population of the database benefited from a recently published conodont data set and is otherwise focused on Devonian and Mississippian localities because strata of this age host important sedimentary exhalative (sedex) Au, Zn, and barite resources and enormons Carlin-type An deposits. In addition, these strata are the most important petroleum source rocks in the region, and record the transition from extension to contraction associated with the Antler orogeny, the Alamo meteorite impact, and biotic crises associated with global oceanic anoxic events. The finished product will provide an invaluable tool for future geologic mapping, paleontological research, and mineral resource investigations in the Great Basin, making paleontological data acquired over nearly the past 150 yr readily available over the World Wide Web. A description of the structure of the database and the web interface developed for this effort are provided herein. This database is being used ws a model for a National Paleontological Database (which we am currently developing for the U.S. Geological Survey) as well as for other paleontological databases now being developed in other parts of the globe. ?? 2008 Geological Society of America.

  11. Impact of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis Associated Uveitis in Early Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Vernie, Lenneke A.; Rothova, Aniki; v. d. Doe, Patricia; Los, Leonoor I.; Schalij-Delfos, Nicoline E.; de Boer, Joke H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Typically juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA)-associated uveitis (further referred as ‘JIA-uveitis’) has its onset in childhood, but some patients suffer its, sometimes visual threatening, complications or ongoing disease activity in adulthood. The objective of this study was to analyze uveitis activity, complications and visual prognosis in adulthood. Methods In this multicenter study, 67 adult patients (129 affected eyes) with JIA-uveitis were retrospectively studied for best corrected visual acuity, visual fields, uveitis activity, topical/systemic treatments, ocular complications, and ocular surgeries during their 18th, 22nd and 30th year of life. Because treatment strategies changed after the year 1990, outcomes were stratified for onset of uveitis before and after 1990. Results Sixty-two of all 67 included patients (93%) had bilateral uveitis. During their 18th life year, 4/52 patients (8%) had complete remission, 28/52 (54%) had uveitis activity and 37/51 patients (73%) were on systemic immunomodulatory treatment. Bilateral visual impairment or legal blindness occurred in 2/51 patients (4%); unilateral visual impairment or legal blindness occurred in 17/51 patients (33%) aged 18 years. The visual prognosis appeared to be slightly better for patients with uveitis onset after the year 1990 (for uveitis onset before 1990 (n = 7) four patients (58%) and for uveitis onset after 1990 (n = 44) 13 patients (30%) were either visual impaired or blind). At least one ocular surgery was performed in 10/24 patients (42%) between their 18th and 22nd year of life. Conclusions Bilateral visual outcome in early adulthood in patients with JIA-uveitis appears to be fairly good, although one third of the patients developed one visually impaired or blind eye. However, a fair amount of the patients suffered from ongoing uveitis activity and needed ongoing treatment as well as surgical interventions. Awareness of these findings is important for ophthalmologists and

  12. FishTraits Database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angermeier, Paul L.; Frimpong, Emmanuel A.

    2009-01-01

    The need for integrated and widely accessible sources of species traits data to facilitate studies of ecology, conservation, and management has motivated development of traits databases for various taxa. In spite of the increasing number of traits-based analyses of freshwater fishes in the United States, no consolidated database of traits of this group exists publicly, and much useful information on these species is documented only in obscure sources. The largely inaccessible and unconsolidated traits information makes large-scale analysis involving many fishes and/or traits particularly challenging. FishTraits is a database of >100 traits for 809 (731 native and 78 exotic) fish species found in freshwaters of the conterminous United States, including 37 native families and 145 native genera. The database contains information on four major categories of traits: (1) trophic ecology, (2) body size and reproductive ecology (life history), (3) habitat associations, and (4) salinity and temperature tolerances. Information on geographic distribution and conservation status is also included. Together, we refer to the traits, distribution, and conservation status information as attributes. Descriptions of attributes are available here. Many sources were consulted to compile attributes, including state and regional species accounts and other databases.

  13. ADANS database specification

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-16

    The purpose of the Air Mobility Command (AMC) Deployment Analysis System (ADANS) Database Specification (DS) is to describe the database organization and storage allocation and to provide the detailed data model of the physical design and information necessary for the construction of the parts of the database (e.g., tables, indexes, rules, defaults). The DS includes entity relationship diagrams, table and field definitions, reports on other database objects, and a description of the ADANS data dictionary. ADANS is the automated system used by Headquarters AMC and the Tanker Airlift Control Center (TACC) for airlift planning and scheduling of peacetime and contingency operations as well as for deliberate planning. ADANS also supports planning and scheduling of Air Refueling Events by the TACC and the unit-level tanker schedulers. ADANS receives input in the form of movement requirements and air refueling requests. It provides a suite of tools for planners to manipulate these requirements/requests against mobility assets and to develop, analyze, and distribute schedules. Analysis tools are provided for assessing the products of the scheduling subsystems, and editing capabilities support the refinement of schedules. A reporting capability provides formatted screen, print, and/or file outputs of various standard reports. An interface subsystem handles message traffic to and from external systems. The database is an integral part of the functionality summarized above.

  14. Using the Reactome Database

    PubMed Central

    Haw, Robin

    2012-01-01

    There is considerable interest in the bioinformatics community in creating pathway databases. The Reactome project (a collaboration between the Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, New York University Medical Center and the European Bioinformatics Institute) is one such pathway database and collects structured information on all the biological pathways and processes in the human. It is an expert-authored and peer-reviewed, curated collection of well-documented molecular reactions that span the gamut from simple intermediate metabolism to signaling pathways and complex cellular events. This information is supplemented with likely orthologous molecular reactions in mouse, rat, zebrafish, worm and other model organisms. This unit describes how to use the Reactome database to learn the steps of a biological pathway; navigate and browse through the Reactome database; identify the pathways in which a molecule of interest is involved; use the Pathway and Expression analysis tools to search the database for and visualize possible connections within user-supplied experimental data set and Reactome pathways; and the Species Comparison tool to compare human and model organism pathways. PMID:22700314

  15. NASA Records Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callac, Christopher; Lunsford, Michelle

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Records Database, comprising a Web-based application program and a database, is used to administer an archive of paper records at Stennis Space Center. The system begins with an electronic form, into which a user enters information about records that the user is sending to the archive. The form is smart : it provides instructions for entering information correctly and prompts the user to enter all required information. Once complete, the form is digitally signed and submitted to the database. The system determines which storage locations are not in use, assigns the user s boxes of records to some of them, and enters these assignments in the database. Thereafter, the software tracks the boxes and can be used to locate them. By use of search capabilities of the software, specific records can be sought by box storage locations, accession numbers, record dates, submitting organizations, or details of the records themselves. Boxes can be marked with such statuses as checked out, lost, transferred, and destroyed. The system can generate reports showing boxes awaiting destruction or transfer. When boxes are transferred to the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), the system can automatically fill out NARA records-transfer forms. Currently, several other NASA Centers are considering deploying the NASA Records Database to help automate their records archives.

  16. Shuttle Hypervelocity Impact Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyde, James L.; Christiansen, Eric L.; Lear, Dana M.

    2011-01-01

    With three missions outstanding, the Shuttle Hypervelocity Impact Database has nearly 3000 entries. The data is divided into tables for crew module windows, payload bay door radiators and thermal protection system regions, with window impacts compromising just over half the records. In general, the database provides dimensions of hypervelocity impact damage, a component level location (i.e., window number or radiator panel number) and the orbiter mission when the impact occurred. Additional detail on the type of particle that produced the damage site is provided when sampling data and definitive analysis results are available. Details and insights on the contents of the database including examples of descriptive statistics will be provided. Post flight impact damage inspection and sampling techniques that were employed during the different observation campaigns will also be discussed. Potential enhancements to the database structure and availability of the data for other researchers will be addressed in the Future Work section. A related database of returned surfaces from the International Space Station will also be introduced.

  17. Shuttle Hypervelocity Impact Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyde, James I.; Christiansen, Eric I.; Lear, Dana M.

    2011-01-01

    With three flights remaining on the manifest, the shuttle impact hypervelocity database has over 2800 entries. The data is currently divided into tables for crew module windows, payload bay door radiators and thermal protection system regions, with window impacts compromising just over half the records. In general, the database provides dimensions of hypervelocity impact damage, a component level location (i.e., window number or radiator panel number) and the orbiter mission when the impact occurred. Additional detail on the type of particle that produced the damage site is provided when sampling data and definitive analysis results are available. The paper will provide details and insights on the contents of the database including examples of descriptive statistics using the impact data. A discussion of post flight impact damage inspection and sampling techniques that were employed during the different observation campaigns will be presented. Future work to be discussed will be possible enhancements to the database structure and availability of the data for other researchers. A related database of ISS returned surfaces that are under development will also be introduced.

  18. Computer Databases: A Survey; Part 1: General and News Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Leary, Mick

    1986-01-01

    Descriptions and evaluations of 13 databases devoted to computer information are presented by type under four headings: bibliographic databases; daily news services; online computer magazines; and specialized computer industry databases. Information on database producers, starting date of file, update frequency, vendors, and prices is summarized…

  19. VIEWCACHE: An incremental database access method for autonomous interoperable databases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roussopoulos, Nick; Sellis, Timoleon

    1991-01-01

    The objective is to illustrate the concept of incremental access to distributed databases. An experimental database management system, ADMS, which has been developed at the University of Maryland, in College Park, uses VIEWCACHE, a database access method based on incremental search. VIEWCACHE is a pointer-based access method that provides a uniform interface for accessing distributed databases and catalogues. The compactness of the pointer structures formed during database browsing and the incremental access method allow the user to search and do inter-database cross-referencing with no actual data movement between database sites. Once the search is complete, the set of collected pointers pointing to the desired data are dereferenced.

  20. [Physical self-perceptions in adulthood and old age].

    PubMed

    Goñi Grandmontagne, Alfredo; Rodríguez Fernández, Arantzazu; Esnaola Etxaniz, Igor

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this work is to confirm the tetra-factorial validity of the Cuestionario de Autoconcepto Físico (CAF [in English, the Physical Self-concept Questionnaire]) in adulthood and old age from the responses of 1,114 people (39.50% men and 60.50% women), divided into four age groups (24 to 34 years, n= 390; 35 to 49 years, n= 277; 50 to 64 years, n= 330; and over 65, n= 117). The correlations between scales (physical skills, physical fitness, physical attractiveness and strength) are lower than those obtained in previous studies, which supports their being different. However, confirmatory factor analysis supported the tetra-factorial structure primarily in the 24-34 age group.

  1. Gainful Activity and Intimate Partner Aggression in Emerging Adulthood*

    PubMed Central

    Alvira-Hammond, Marta; Longmore, Monica A.; Manning, Wendy D.; Giordano, Peggy C.

    2014-01-01

    Although intimate partner aggression crosses social class boundaries, education and income are important predictors. Yet given that emerging adulthood is a transitional period, completed education and employment, as single measures, are not ideal indicators of socioeconomic status for young people. We examined associations between self-reports of gainful activity, defined as enrollment in school or full-time employment, and intimate partner aggression among young adults in dating, cohabiting, or married relationships (N=648). Both men and women's participation in gainful activity was negatively associated with aggression. We found that when neither partner was gainfully active, individuals reported higher frequency of physical aggression. In cases of gainful activity asymmetry, the gender of the gainfully active partner did not predict intimate partner aggression. Additionally, we found no evidence that the association between gainful activity and frequency of intimate partner aggression differed by union type. PMID:25309829

  2. Adolescent family experiences and educational attainment during early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Melby, Janet N; Conger, Rand D; Fang, Shu-Ann; Wickrama, K A S; Conger, Katherine J

    2008-11-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the degree to which a family investment model would help account for the association between family of origin socioeconomic characteristics and the later educational attainment of 451 young adults (age 26) from 2-parent families. Parents' educational level, occupational prestige, and family income in 1989 each had a statistically significant direct relationship with youths' educational attainment in 2002. Consistent with the theoretical model guiding the study, parents' educational level and family income also demonstrated statistically significant indirect effects on later educational attainment through their associations with growth trajectories for supportive parenting, sibling relations, and adolescent academic engagement. Supportive parenting and sibling relations were linked to later educational attainment through their association with adolescent academic engagement. Academic engagement during adolescence was associated with educational attainment in young adulthood. These basic processes operated similarly regardless of youths' gender, target youths' age relative to a near-age sibling, gender composition of the sibling dyad, or gender of parent.

  3. Physical activity and brain plasticity in late adulthood.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Kirk I; Gildengers, Ariel G; Butters, Meryl A

    2013-03-01

    The human brain shrinks with advancing age, but recent research suggests that it is also capable of remarkable plasticity, even in late life. In this review we summarize the research linking greater amounts of physical activity to less cortical atrophy, better brain function, and enhanced cognitive function, and argue that physical activity takes advantage of the brain's natural capacity for plasticity. Further, although the effects of physical activity on the brain are relatively widespread, there is also some specificity, such that prefrontal and hippocampal areas appear to be more influenced than other areas of the brain. The specificity of these effects, we argue, provides a biological basis for understanding the capacity for physical activity to influence neurocognitive and neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression. We conclude that physical activity is a promising intervention that can influence the endogenous pharmacology of the brain to enhance cognitive and emotional function in late adulthood.

  4. Adolescent Family Experiences and Educational Attainment during Early Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Melby, Janet N.; Conger, Rand D.; Fang, Shu-Ann; Wickrama, K. A. S.; Conger, Katherine J.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the degree to which a family investment model would help account for the association between family of origin socioeconomic characteristics and the later educational attainment of 451 young adults (age 26) from two-parent families. Parents’ educational level, occupational prestige, and family income in 1989 each had a statistically significant direct relationship with youths’ educational attainment in 2002. Consistent with the theoretical model guiding the study, parents’ educational level and family income also demonstrated statistically significant indirect effects on later educational attainment through their associations with growth trajectories for supportive parenting, sibling relations, and adolescent academic engagement. Supportive parenting and sibling relations were linked to later educational attainment through their association with adolescent academic engagement. Academic engagement during adolescence was associated with educational attainment in young adulthood. These basic processes operated similarly regardless of youths’ gender, target youths’ age relative to a near-age sibling, gender composition of the sibling dyad, or gender of parent. PMID:18999319

  5. The Transition to Adulthood: Life Course Structures and Subjective Perceptions*

    PubMed Central

    Eliason, Scott R.; Mortimer, Jeylan T.; Vuolo, Mike

    2015-01-01

    We examine the relationships between objective life course structures and the subjective sense of timing of adult roles and acquisition of adult identity. Hierarchical latent class analysis is applied to longitudinal data from the Youth Development Study, describing roles related to school, work, family formation, and living arrangements from age 17 to 30. The transition to adulthood in this cohort is well-represented by five pathways probabilistically mapping the timing and sequencing of these roles and their configurations. Three pathways are characterized by a school-to-work transition with on-time, delayed, or negligible family formation. The remaining pathways involve early parenthood with either a partner and stable full-time work or the lack of a partner and low labor force attachment. We then show that the subjective sense of timing with respect to certain adult roles and adult identity acquisition is empirically tied to these life course structures. PMID:26441473

  6. Understanding Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder From Childhood to Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Wilens, Timothy E.; Spencer, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is among the most common neurobehavioral disorders presenting for treatment in children and adolescents. ADHD is often chronic with prominent symptoms and impairment spanning into adulthood. ADHD is often associated with co-occurring disorders including disruptive, mood, anxiety, and substance abuse. The diagnosis of ADHD is clinically established by review of symptoms and impairment. The biological underpinning of the disorder is supported by genetic, neuroimaging, neurochemistry and neuropsychological data. Consideration of all aspects of an individual’s life needs to be considered in the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD. Multimodal treatment includes educational, family, and individual support. Psychotherapy alone and in combination with medication is helpful for ADHD and comorbid problems. Pharmacotherapy including stimulants, noradrenergic agents, alpha agonists, and antidepressants plays a fundamental role in the long-term management of ADHD across the lifespan. PMID:20861593

  7. The Neurobiology of Childhood Structural Brain Development: Conception Through Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Houston, Suzanne M.; Herting, Megan M.

    2014-01-01

    The study of the function and structure of the human brain dates back centuries, when philosophers and physicians theorized about the localization of specific cognitive functions and the structure and organization of underlying brain tissue. In more recent years, the advent of non-invasive techniques such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has allowed scientists unprecedented opportunities to further our understanding not only of structure and function, but of trajectories of brain development in typical and a-typical child and adult populations. In this chapter, we hope to provide a system-level approach to introduce what we have learned about structural brain development from conception through adulthood. We discuss important findings from MRI studies, and the directions that future imaging studies can take in the concerted effort to enhance our understanding of brain development, and thus to enhance our ability to develop interventions for various neuro developmental disorders. PMID:24357437

  8. Beyond the roadblocks: transitioning to adulthood with Asperger's disorder.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Diane H; Alleckson, Delores A; Bjorklund, Pamela

    2010-08-01

    Growing up with Asperger's disorder is complex and fraught with difficulty. Although the literature includes some research related to the transition of youth with Asperger's disorder to school and employment, none pertains to the transition to adulthood and independent living. Although a marginal number of young adults with Asperger's disorder eventually achieve independence, many of them continue to depend on families for supportive services. Currently, health care organizations and social services lack coherent, integrated systems to assist youth with Asperger's disorder and their families with the out-of-home transition. To better facilitate the process, this article reviews the literature on Asperger's disorder, leading to a comprehensive, evidence-based transition assessment guide framed by A. Maslow's (1972) hierarchy of needs.

  9. Inhibitory Control During Emotional Distraction Across Adolescence and Early Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Cohen-Gilbert, Julia E.; Thomas, Kathleen M.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the changing relation between emotion and inhibitory control during adolescence. One hundred participants between 11 and 25 years of age performed a go-nogo task in which task-relevant stimuli (letters) were presented at the center of large task-irrelevant images depicting negative, positive, or neutral scenes selected from the International Affective Picture System. Longer reaction times for negative trials were found across all age groups, suggesting that negative but not positive emotional images captured attention across this age range. However, age differences in accuracy on inhibitory trials suggest that response inhibition is more readily disrupted by negative emotional distraction in early adolescence relative to late childhood, late adolescence or early adulthood. PMID:23506340

  10. Adolescent home-leaving and the transition to adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Egondi, Thaddaeus; Kabiru, Caroline; Beguy, Donatien; Kanyiva, Muindi; Jessor, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Home-leaving is considered an important marker of the transition to adulthood and is usually framed as an individual decision. We move beyond this limited assumption to examine a broader conceptualization that might better illuminate home-leaving among youth in impoverished circumstances. We adopt the Problem Behavior Theory-framework to investigate the association of home-leaving with behavioral and psychosocial variables and with other transitions. We use data on adolescents aged 14–22 years from a three-wave study conducted between 2007 and 2010. We used variable- and person-centered cross-sectional analyses, as well as predictive analysis of home-leaving by subsequent waves. Parental controls protection predicted home-leaving by subsequent waves. Overall, protective factors moderated the association of problem behavior involvement with leaving home in Nairobi’s slums. PMID:24089582

  11. The Health Consequences of Obesity in Young Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hoi Lun; Medlow, Sharon; Steinbeck, Katharine

    2016-03-01

    Young adults are gaining weight faster than any age group. This weight gain and the appearance of obesity-related comorbidities often commence in adolescence. Psychosocial distress and mental health issues are common and debilitating, and treatment approaches are likely to be similar to those for adolescents. At the same time, young adults may have physical morbidities which will continue and worsen throughout adulthood, such as hypertension, diabetes and polycystic ovarian syndrome. Health consequences of obesity are challenging to manage in young adults as their symptoms may be minimal, they are less likely to engage with healthcare due to other life priorities and their neurocognitive developmental stage makes therapy adherence difficult. Clinicians who manage young adults with obesity need to be aware of these age-specific challenges, as well as the sexual and reproductive health concerns that are present in this age group. PMID:26830309

  12. Poverty in childhood and adverse health outcomes in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Dennis

    2011-05-01

    The experience of poverty during childhood is a potent predictor of a variety of adverse health outcomes during middle and late adulthood. Children who live in poverty are more likely as adults than their peers to develop and die earlier from a range of diseases. These effects are especially strong for cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes. Most disturbingly, these effects appear in large part to be biologically embedded such that later improved life circumstances have only a modest ameliorative effect. Considering these findings and the relatively high rates of child poverty in nations such as Canada, UK, and USA, those concerned with improving the health of citizens should focus their attention on advocating for public policy that will reduce the incidence of child poverty.

  13. Social, behavioral, and genetic linkages from adolescence into adulthood.

    PubMed

    Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Hussey, Jon; Whitsel, Eric A; Killeya-Jones, Ley; Tabor, Joyce; Elder, Glen; Hewitt, John; Shanahan, Michael; Williams, Redford; Siegler, Ilene; Smolen, Andrew

    2013-10-01

    The influence of genetic factors on health and behavior is conditioned by social, cultural, institutional, and physical environments in which individuals live, work, and play. We encourage studies supporting multilevel integrative approaches to understanding these contributions to health, and describe the Add Health study as an exemplar. Add Health is a large sample of US adolescents in grades 7 to 12 in 1994-1995 followed into adulthood with 4 in-home interviews and biomarker collections, including DNA. In addition to sampling multiple environments and measuring diverse social and health behavior, Add Health features a fully articulated behavioral genetic sample (3000 pairs) and ongoing genotyping of 12,000 archived samples. We illustrate approaches to understanding health through investigation of the interplay among biological, psychosocial, and physical, contextual, or cultural experiences. PMID:23927505

  14. Open Geoscience Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashev, A.

    2012-04-01

    Currently there is an enormous amount of various geoscience databases. Unfortunately the only users of the majority of the databases are their elaborators. There are several reasons for that: incompaitability, specificity of tasks and objects and so on. However the main obstacles for wide usage of geoscience databases are complexity for elaborators and complication for users. The complexity of architecture leads to high costs that block the public access. The complication prevents users from understanding when and how to use the database. Only databases, associated with GoogleMaps don't have these drawbacks, but they could be hardly named "geoscience" Nevertheless, open and simple geoscience database is necessary at least for educational purposes (see our abstract for ESSI20/EOS12). We developed a database and web interface to work with them and now it is accessible at maps.sch192.ru. In this database a result is a value of a parameter (no matter which) in a station with a certain position, associated with metadata: the date when the result was obtained; the type of a station (lake, soil etc); the contributor that sent the result. Each contributor has its own profile, that allows to estimate the reliability of the data. The results can be represented on GoogleMaps space image as a point in a certain position, coloured according to the value of the parameter. There are default colour scales and each registered user can create the own scale. The results can be also extracted in *.csv file. For both types of representation one could select the data by date, object type, parameter type, area and contributor. The data are uploaded in *.csv format: Name of the station; Lattitude(dd.dddddd); Longitude(ddd.dddddd); Station type; Parameter type; Parameter value; Date(yyyy-mm-dd). The contributor is recognised while entering. This is the minimal set of features that is required to connect a value of a parameter with a position and see the results. All the complicated data

  15. ARTI Refrigerant Database

    SciTech Connect

    Calm, J.M.

    1992-04-30

    The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air- conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on R-32, R-123, R-124, R- 125, R-134a, R-141b, R142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-290 (propane), R-717 (ammonia), ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses polyalkylene glycol (PAG), ester, and other lubricants. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits.

  16. Enhancing medical database semantics.

    PubMed Central

    Leão, B. de F.; Pavan, A.

    1995-01-01

    Medical Databases deal with dynamic, heterogeneous and fuzzy data. The modeling of such complex domain demands powerful semantic data modeling methodologies. This paper describes GSM-Explorer a Case Tool that allows for the creation of relational databases using semantic data modeling techniques. GSM Explorer fully incorporates the Generic Semantic Data Model-GSM enabling knowledge engineers to model the application domain with the abstraction mechanisms of generalization/specialization, association and aggregation. The tool generates a structure that implements persistent database-objects through the automatic generation of customized SQL ANSI scripts that sustain the semantics defined in the higher lever. This paper emphasizes the system architecture and the mapping of the semantic model into relational tables. The present status of the project and its further developments are discussed in the Conclusions. PMID:8563288

  17. Protein Structure Databases.

    PubMed

    Laskowski, Roman A

    2016-01-01

    Web-based protein structure databases come in a wide variety of types and levels of information content. Those having the most general interest are the various atlases that describe each experimentally determined protein structure and provide useful links, analyses, and schematic diagrams relating to its 3D structure and biological function. Also of great interest are the databases that classify 3D structures by their folds as these can reveal evolutionary relationships which may be hard to detect from sequence comparison alone. Related to these are the numerous servers that compare folds-particularly useful for newly solved structures, and especially those of unknown function. Beyond these are a vast number of databases for the more specialized user, dealing with specific families, diseases, structural features, and so on. PMID:27115626

  18. Mouse genome database 2016.

    PubMed

    Bult, Carol J; Eppig, Janan T; Blake, Judith A; Kadin, James A; Richardson, Joel E

    2016-01-01

    The Mouse Genome Database (MGD; http://www.informatics.jax.org) is the primary community model organism database for the laboratory mouse and serves as the source for key biological reference data related to mouse genes, gene functions, phenotypes and disease models with a strong emphasis on the relationship of these data to human biology and disease. As the cost of genome-scale sequencing continues to decrease and new technologies for genome editing become widely adopted, the laboratory mouse is more important than ever as a model system for understanding the biological significance of human genetic variation and for advancing the basic research needed to support the emergence of genome-guided precision medicine. Recent enhancements to MGD include new graphical summaries of biological annotations for mouse genes, support for mobile access to the database, tools to support the annotation and analysis of sets of genes, and expanded support for comparative biology through the expansion of homology data.

  19. Mouse genome database 2016

    PubMed Central

    Bult, Carol J.; Eppig, Janan T.; Blake, Judith A.; Kadin, James A.; Richardson, Joel E.

    2016-01-01

    The Mouse Genome Database (MGD; http://www.informatics.jax.org) is the primary community model organism database for the laboratory mouse and serves as the source for key biological reference data related to mouse genes, gene functions, phenotypes and disease models with a strong emphasis on the relationship of these data to human biology and disease. As the cost of genome-scale sequencing continues to decrease and new technologies for genome editing become widely adopted, the laboratory mouse is more important than ever as a model system for understanding the biological significance of human genetic variation and for advancing the basic research needed to support the emergence of genome-guided precision medicine. Recent enhancements to MGD include new graphical summaries of biological annotations for mouse genes, support for mobile access to the database, tools to support the annotation and analysis of sets of genes, and expanded support for comparative biology through the expansion of homology data. PMID:26578600

  20. Mouse genome database 2016.

    PubMed

    Bult, Carol J; Eppig, Janan T; Blake, Judith A; Kadin, James A; Richardson, Joel E

    2016-01-01

    The Mouse Genome Database (MGD; http://www.informatics.jax.org) is the primary community model organism database for the laboratory mouse and serves as the source for key biological reference data related to mouse genes, gene functions, phenotypes and disease models with a strong emphasis on the relationship of these data to human biology and disease. As the cost of genome-scale sequencing continues to decrease and new technologies for genome editing become widely adopted, the laboratory mouse is more important than ever as a model system for understanding the biological significance of human genetic variation and for advancing the basic research needed to support the emergence of genome-guided precision medicine. Recent enhancements to MGD include new graphical summaries of biological annotations for mouse genes, support for mobile access to the database, tools to support the annotation and analysis of sets of genes, and expanded support for comparative biology through the expansion of homology data. PMID:26578600

  1. National Ambient Radiation Database

    SciTech Connect

    Dziuban, J.; Sears, R.

    2003-02-25

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently developed a searchable database and website for the Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System (ERAMS) data. This site contains nationwide radiation monitoring data for air particulates, precipitation, drinking water, surface water and pasteurized milk. This site provides location-specific as well as national information on environmental radioactivity across several media. It provides high quality data for assessing public exposure and environmental impacts resulting from nuclear emergencies and provides baseline data during routine conditions. The database and website are accessible at www.epa.gov/enviro/. This site contains (1) a query for the general public which is easy to use--limits the amount of information provided, but includes the ability to graph the data with risk benchmarks and (2) a query for a more technical user which allows access to all of the data in the database, (3) background information on ER AMS.

  2. Developmental PCB Exposure Increases Susceptibility to Audiogenic Seizures in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Poon, Emily; Bandara, Suren B.; Allen, Jont B.; Sadowski, Renee N.; Schantz, Susan L.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) causes auditory deficits. Thus, we recently conducted a study to investigate if developmental PCB exposure would exacerbate noise-induced hearing loss in adulthood. Unexpectedly, some PCB-exposed rats exhibited seizure-like behaviors when exposed to loud noise. Therefore, we conducted the current experiment to determine if adult rats perinatally exposed to PCBs are more susceptible to audiogenic seizures when tested in a standard audiogenic seizure paradigm. Adult male and female rats exposed to PCBs during gestation and lactation (0, 1, 3 or 6 mg/kg/day) and previously tested in the noise-induced hearing loss study were presented with a 100dB noise stimulus. If they did not exhibit clonus in response to the 100dB noise, they were exposed to a 105dB stimulus 24-48 hours later. This was followed by an 110dB stimulus 24-48 hours later if they did not exhibit clonus at 105 dB. Female and male rats exposed to either 3 or 6 mg/kg PCBs exhibited a significantly higher incidence of audiogenic seizures, shorter latency to onset of seizures, and greater severity of seizures compared to controls. Thyroxine measured in littermates at weaning was significantly lower in all PCB groups compared to controls, suggesting a potential mechanism for the increased incidence of audiogenic seizures. This is the first study to show that developmental PCB exposure increases the susceptibility to audiogenic seizures in adulthood. PMID:25543072

  3. Diagnostic Transitions from Childhood to Adolescence to Early Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Copeland, William E.; Adair, Carol E.; Smetanin, Paul; Stiff, David; Briante, Carla; Colman, Ian; Fergusson, David; Horwood, John; Poulton, Richie; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Background Quantifying diagnostic transitions across development is needed to estimate the long-term burden of mental illness. This study estimated patterns of diagnostic transitions from childhood to adolescence and from adolescence to early adulthood. Methods Patterns of diagnostic transitions were estimated using data from three prospective, longitudinal studies involving close to 20,000 observations of 3,722 participants followed across multiple developmental periods covering ages 9 to 30. Common DSM psychiatric disorders were assessed in childhood (ages 9 to 12; two samples), adolescence (ages 13 to 18; three samples), and early adulthood (ages 19 to age 32; three samples) with structured psychiatric interviews and questionnaires. Results Having a disorder at an early period was associated with at least a 3-fold increase in odds for having a disorder at a later period. Homotypic and heterotypic transitions were observed for every disorder category. The strongest evidence of continuity was seen for behavioral disorders (particularly ADHD) with less evidence for emotional disorders such as depression and anxiety. Limited evidence was found in adjusted models for behavioral disorders predicting later emotional disorders. Adult substance disorders were preceded by behavioral disorders, but not anxiety or depression. Conclusions Having a disorder in childhood or adolescence is a potent risk factor for a range of psychiatric problems later in development. These findings provide further support for prevention and early life intervention efforts and suggest that treatment at younger ages, while justified in its own right, may also have potential to reduce the risk for disorders later in development. PMID:23451804

  4. Prevalence and predictors of sexual inexperience in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Haydon, Abigail A; Cheng, Mariah M; Herring, Amy H; McRee, Annie-Laurie; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker

    2014-02-01

    The emergence of partnered sexual behavior represents an important developmental transition. However, little is known about individuals who remain sexually inexperienced well into adulthood. We used data from 2,857 individuals who participated in Waves I-IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) and reported no sexual activity (i.e., oral-genital, vaginal, or anal sex) by age 18 to identify, using discrete-time survival models, adolescent sociodemographic, biosocial, and behavioral characteristics that predicted adult sexual inexperience. The mean age of participants at Wave IV was 28.5 years (SD = 1.92). Over one out of eight participants who did not initiate sexual activity during adolescence remained abstinent as young adults. Sexual non-attraction significantly predicted sexual inexperience among both males (aOR = 0.5) and females (aOR = 0.6). Males also had lower odds of initiating sexual activity after age 18 if they were non-Hispanic Asian, reported later than average pubertal development, or were rated as physically unattractive (aORs = 0.6-0.7). Females who were overweight, had lower cognitive performance, or reported frequent religious attendance had lower odds of sexual experience (aORs = 0.7-0.8) while those who were rated by the interviewers as very attractive or whose parents had lower educational attainment had higher odds of sexual experience (aORs = 1.4-1.8). Our findings underscore the heterogeneity of this unique population and suggest that there are a number of different pathways that may lead to either voluntary or involuntary adult sexual inexperience. Understanding the meaning of sexual inexperience in young adulthood may have important implications for the study of sexuality development across the life course.

  5. Longitudinal Trajectories of Marijuana Use from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Passarotti, A.M.; Crane, Natania A.; Hedeker, Donald; Mermelstein, Robin J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Marijuana use is increasingly widespread among adolescents and young adults; however, few studies have examined longitudinal trajectories of marijuana use during this important developmental period. As such, we examined adolescent trajectories of marijuana use and the psychosocial factors that may differentiate individuals who escalate their marijuana use over adolescence and young adulthood from those who do not. Methods Participants were 1,204 9th and 10th graders at baseline who were over-sampled for cigarette use and were followed over 6-years, as part of an extensive longitudinal study, the Social and Emotional Contexts of Adolescent Smoking Patterns (SECASP) study. Growth Mixture Modeling (GMM) was used to model trajectories of marijuana use and Mixed Effects Regression analyses were used to examine psychosocial correlates of marijuana use escalation over time. Results Our results revealed three trajectories of non-escalating users (low users, medium users, and high users) and one escalating user trajectory. We found that relative to Non-escalators the Escalators had higher cigarette smoking (p<.0001), novelty-seeking (p=.02), aggressive and anti-social behavior (p<.007), and problem behavior related to peer context (p=.04). Moreover, there were important time and group by time interactions in some of these relationships. On the other hand, parental control and depression did not differ between escalators and low and medium non-escalating users. Conclusions Cigarette smoking, novelty-seeking, aggressive and anti-social behavior, and peer influence are related to ‘escalating’ marijuana use throughout adolescence and young adulthood. PMID:25792233

  6. The Neotoma Paleoecology Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimm, E. C.; Ashworth, A. C.; Barnosky, A. D.; Betancourt, J. L.; Bills, B.; Booth, R.; Blois, J.; Charles, D. F.; Graham, R. W.; Goring, S. J.; Hausmann, S.; Smith, A. J.; Williams, J. W.; Buckland, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Neotoma Paleoecology Database (www.neotomadb.org) is a multiproxy, open-access, relational database that includes fossil data for the past 5 million years (the late Neogene and Quaternary Periods). Modern distributional data for various organisms are also being made available for calibration and paleoecological analyses. The project is a collaborative effort among individuals from more than 20 institutions worldwide, including domain scientists representing a spectrum of Pliocene-Quaternary fossil data types, as well as experts in information technology. Working groups are active for diatoms, insects, ostracodes, pollen and plant macroscopic remains, testate amoebae, rodent middens, vertebrates, age models, geochemistry and taphonomy. Groups are also active in developing online tools for data analyses and for developing modules for teaching at different levels. A key design concept of NeotomaDB is that stewards for various data types are able to remotely upload and manage data. Cooperatives for different kinds of paleo data, or from different regions, can appoint their own stewards. Over the past year, much progress has been made on development of the steward software-interface that will enable this capability. The steward interface uses web services that provide access to the database. More generally, these web services enable remote programmatic access to the database, which both desktop and web applications can use and which provide real-time access to the most current data. Use of these services can alleviate the need to download the entire database, which can be out-of-date as soon as new data are entered. In general, the Neotoma web services deliver data either from an entire table or from the results of a view. Upon request, new web services can be quickly generated. Future developments will likely expand the spatial and temporal dimensions of the database. NeotomaDB is open to receiving new datasets and stewards from the global Quaternary community

  7. The Ribosomal Database Project.

    PubMed Central

    Maidak, B L; Larsen, N; McCaughey, M J; Overbeek, R; Olsen, G J; Fogel, K; Blandy, J; Woese, C R

    1994-01-01

    The Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) is a curated database that offers ribosome-related data, analysis services, and associated computer programs. The offerings include phylogenetically ordered alignments of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequences, derived phylogenetic trees, rRNA secondary structure diagrams, and various software for handling, analyzing and displaying alignments and trees. The data are available via anonymous ftp (rdp.life.uiuc.edu), electronic mail (server/rdp.life.uiuc.edu) and gopher (rdpgopher.life.uiuc.edu). The electronic mail server also provides ribosomal probe checking, approximate phylogenetic placement of user-submitted sequences, screening for chimeric nature of newly sequenced rRNAs, and automated alignment. PMID:7524021

  8. Database Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    In 1981 Wayne Erickson founded Microrim, Inc, a company originally focused on marketing a microcomputer version of RIM (Relational Information Manager). Dennis Comfort joined the firm and is now vice president, development. The team developed an advanced spinoff from the NASA system they had originally created, a microcomputer database management system known as R:BASE 4000. Microrim added many enhancements and developed a series of R:BASE products for various environments. R:BASE is now the second largest selling line of microcomputer database management software in the world.

  9. The Genopolis Microarray Database

    PubMed Central

    Splendiani, Andrea; Brandizi, Marco; Even, Gael; Beretta, Ottavio; Pavelka, Norman; Pelizzola, Mattia; Mayhaus, Manuel; Foti, Maria; Mauri, Giancarlo; Ricciardi-Castagnoli, Paola

    2007-01-01

    Background Gene expression databases are key resources for microarray data management and analysis and the importance of a proper annotation of their content is well understood. Public repositories as well as microarray database systems that can be implemented by single laboratories exist. However, there is not yet a tool that can easily support a collaborative environment where different users with different rights of access to data can interact to define a common highly coherent content. The scope of the Genopolis database is to provide a resource that allows different groups performing microarray experiments related to a common subject to create a common coherent knowledge base and to analyse it. The Genopolis database has been implemented as a dedicated system for the scientific community studying dendritic and macrophage cells functions and host-parasite interactions. Results The Genopolis Database system allows the community to build an object based MIAME compliant annotation of their experiments and to store images, raw and processed data from the Affymetrix GeneChip® platform. It supports dynamical definition of controlled vocabularies and provides automated and supervised steps to control the coherence of data and annotations. It allows a precise control of the visibility of the database content to different sub groups in the community and facilitates exports of its content to public repositories. It provides an interactive users interface for data analysis: this allows users to visualize data matrices based on functional lists and sample characterization, and to navigate to other data matrices defined by similarity of expression values as well as functional characterizations of genes involved. A collaborative environment is also provided for the definition and sharing of functional annotation by users. Conclusion The Genopolis Database supports a community in building a common coherent knowledge base and analyse it. This fills a gap between a local

  10. Low-Budget Graphic Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Dan

    1994-01-01

    Explains the use of a standard text-based database program (i.e., dBase III) to run external programs that display graphic files during a database session and reduces costs normally encountered when preparing a computer to run a graphical database. An example is given of a simple database with two fields. (LRW)

  11. TREC Document Database: Disk 4

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST TREC Document Database: Disk 4 (PC database for purchase)   NIST TREC Document Databases (Special Database 22) are distributed for the development and testing of information retrieval (IR) systems and related natural language processing research. The document collections consist of the full text of various newspaper and newswire articles plus government proceedings.

  12. TREC Document Database: Disk 5

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST TREC Document Database: Disk 5 (PC database for purchase)   NIST TREC Document Databases (Special Database 23) are distributed for the development and testing of information retrieval (IR) systems and related natural language processing research. The document collections consist of the full text of various newspaper and newswire articles plus government proceedings.

  13. The CEBAF Element Database

    SciTech Connect

    Theodore Larrieu, Christopher Slominski, Michele Joyce

    2011-03-01

    With the inauguration of the CEBAF Element Database (CED) in Fall 2010, Jefferson Lab computer scientists have taken a step toward the eventual goal of a model-driven accelerator. Once fully populated, the database will be the primary repository of information used for everything from generating lattice decks to booting control computers to building controls screens. A requirement influencing the CED design is that it provide access to not only present, but also future and past configurations of the accelerator. To accomplish this, an introspective database schema was designed that allows new elements, types, and properties to be defined on-the-fly with no changes to table structure. Used in conjunction with Oracle Workspace Manager, it allows users to query data from any time in the database history with the same tools used to query the present configuration. Users can also check-out workspaces to use as staging areas for upcoming machine configurations. All Access to the CED is through a well-documented Application Programming Interface (API) that is translated automatically from original C++ source code into native libraries for scripting languages such as perl, php, and TCL making access to the CED easy and ubiquitous.

  14. Triatomic Spectral Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 117 Triatomic Spectral Database (Web, free access)   All of the rotational spectral lines observed and reported in the open literature for 55 triatomic molecules have been tabulated. The isotopic molecular species, assigned quantum numbers, observed frequency, estimated measurement uncertainty and reference are given for each transition reported.

  15. Hydrocarbon Spectral Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 115 Hydrocarbon Spectral Database (Web, free access)   All of the rotational spectral lines observed and reported in the open literature for 91 hydrocarbon molecules have been tabulated. The isotopic molecular species, assigned quantum numbers, observed frequency, estimated measurement uncertainty and reference are given for each transition reported.

  16. Diatomic Spectral Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 114 Diatomic Spectral Database (Web, free access)   All of the rotational spectral lines observed and reported in the open literature for 121 diatomic molecules have been tabulated. The isotopic molecular species, assigned quantum numbers, observed frequency, estimated measurement uncertainty, and reference are given for each transition reported.

  17. High Performance Buildings Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    The High Performance Buildings Database is a shared resource for the building industry, a unique central repository of in-depth information and data on high-performance, green building projects across the United States and abroad. The database includes information on the energy use, environmental performance, design process, finances, and other aspects of each project. Members of the design and construction teams are listed, as are sources for additional information. In total, up to twelve screens of detailed information are provided for each project profile. Projects range in size from small single-family homes or tenant fit-outs within buildings to large commercial and institutional buildings and even entire campuses. The database is a data repository as well. A series of Web-based data-entry templates allows anyone to enter information about a building project into the database. Once a project has been submitted, each of the partner organizations can review the entry and choose whether or not to publish that particular project on its own Web site.

  18. The Ribosomal Database Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, G. J.; Overbeek, R.; Larsen, N.; Marsh, T. L.; McCaughey, M. J.; Maciukenas, M. A.; Kuan, W. M.; Macke, T. J.; Xing, Y.; Woese, C. R.

    1992-01-01

    The Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) complies ribosomal sequences and related data, and redistributes them in aligned and phylogenetically ordered form to its user community. It also offers various software packages for handling, analyzing and displaying sequences. In addition, the RDP offers (or will offer) certain analytic services. At present the project is in an intermediate stage of development.

  19. Weathering Database Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Collecting weather data is a traditional part of a meteorology unit at the middle level. However, making connections between the data and weather conditions can be a challenge. One way to make these connections clearer is to enter the data into a database. This allows students to quickly compare different fields of data and recognize which…

  20. Patent Family Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Edlyn S.

    1985-01-01

    Reports on retrieval of patent information online and includes definition of patent family, basic and equivalent patents, "parents and children" applications, designated states, patent family databases--International Patent Documentation Center, World Patents Index, APIPAT (American Petroleum Institute), CLAIMS (IFI/Plenum). A table noting country…

  1. LQTS gene LOVD database.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Moss, Arthur; Cong, Peikuan; Pan, Min; Chang, Bingxi; Zheng, Liangrong; Fang, Quan; Zareba, Wojciech; Robinson, Jennifer; Lin, Changsong; Li, Zhongxiang; Wei, Junfang; Zeng, Qiang; Qi, Ming

    2010-11-01

    The Long QT Syndrome (LQTS) is a group of genetically heterogeneous disorders that predisposes young individuals to ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death. LQTS is mainly caused by mutations in genes encoding subunits of cardiac ion channels (KCNQ1, KCNH2,SCN5A, KCNE1, and KCNE2). Many other genes involved in LQTS have been described recently(KCNJ2, AKAP9, ANK2, CACNA1C, SCNA4B, SNTA1, and CAV3). We created an online database(http://www.genomed.org/LOVD/introduction.html) that provides information on variants in LQTS-associated genes. As of February 2010, the database contains 1738 unique variants in 12 genes. A total of 950 variants are considered pathogenic, 265 are possible pathogenic, 131 are unknown/unclassified, and 292 have no known pathogenicity. In addition to these mutations collected from published literature, we also submitted information on gene variants, including one possible novel pathogenic mutation in the KCNH2 splice site found in ten Chinese families with documented arrhythmias. The remote user is able to search the data and is encouraged to submit new mutations into the database. The LQTS database will become a powerful tool for both researchers and clinicians. PMID:20809527

  2. LQTS gene LOVD database.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Moss, Arthur; Cong, Peikuan; Pan, Min; Chang, Bingxi; Zheng, Liangrong; Fang, Quan; Zareba, Wojciech; Robinson, Jennifer; Lin, Changsong; Li, Zhongxiang; Wei, Junfang; Zeng, Qiang; Qi, Ming

    2010-11-01

    The Long QT Syndrome (LQTS) is a group of genetically heterogeneous disorders that predisposes young individuals to ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death. LQTS is mainly caused by mutations in genes encoding subunits of cardiac ion channels (KCNQ1, KCNH2,SCN5A, KCNE1, and KCNE2). Many other genes involved in LQTS have been described recently(KCNJ2, AKAP9, ANK2, CACNA1C, SCNA4B, SNTA1, and CAV3). We created an online database(http://www.genomed.org/LOVD/introduction.html) that provides information on variants in LQTS-associated genes. As of February 2010, the database contains 1738 unique variants in 12 genes. A total of 950 variants are considered pathogenic, 265 are possible pathogenic, 131 are unknown/unclassified, and 292 have no known pathogenicity. In addition to these mutations collected from published literature, we also submitted information on gene variants, including one possible novel pathogenic mutation in the KCNH2 splice site found in ten Chinese families with documented arrhythmias. The remote user is able to search the data and is encouraged to submit new mutations into the database. The LQTS database will become a powerful tool for both researchers and clinicians.

  3. Databases and data mining

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the course of the past decade, the breadth of information that is made available through online resources for plant biology has increased astronomically, as have the interconnectedness among databases, online tools, and methods of data acquisition and analysis. For maize researchers, the numbe...

  4. Redis database administration tool

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, J. J.

    2013-02-13

    MyRedis is a product of the Lorenz subproject under the ASC Scirntific Data Management effort. MyRedis is a web based utility designed to allow easy administration of instances of Redis databases. It can be usedd to view and manipulate data as well as run commands directly against a variety of different Redis hosts.

  5. The AMMA database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boichard, Jean-Luc; Brissebrat, Guillaume; Cloche, Sophie; Eymard, Laurence; Fleury, Laurence; Mastrorillo, Laurence; Moulaye, Oumarou; Ramage, Karim

    2010-05-01

    The AMMA project includes aircraft, ground-based and ocean measurements, an intensive use of satellite data and diverse modelling studies. Therefore, the AMMA database aims at storing a great amount and a large variety of data, and at providing the data as rapidly and safely as possible to the AMMA research community. In order to stimulate the exchange of information and collaboration between researchers from different disciplines or using different tools, the database provides a detailed description of the products and uses standardized formats. The AMMA database contains: - AMMA field campaigns datasets; - historical data in West Africa from 1850 (operational networks and previous scientific programs); - satellite products from past and future satellites, (re-)mapped on a regular latitude/longitude grid and stored in NetCDF format (CF Convention); - model outputs from atmosphere or ocean operational (re-)analysis and forecasts, and from research simulations. The outputs are processed as the satellite products are. Before accessing the data, any user has to sign the AMMA data and publication policy. This chart only covers the use of data in the framework of scientific objectives and categorically excludes the redistribution of data to third parties and the usage for commercial applications. Some collaboration between data producers and users, and the mention of the AMMA project in any publication is also required. The AMMA database and the associated on-line tools have been fully developed and are managed by two teams in France (IPSL Database Centre, Paris and OMP, Toulouse). Users can access data of both data centres using an unique web portal. This website is composed of different modules : - Registration: forms to register, read and sign the data use chart when an user visits for the first time - Data access interface: friendly tool allowing to build a data extraction request by selecting various criteria like location, time, parameters... The request can

  6. JDD, Inc. Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, David A., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    JDD Inc, is a maintenance and custodial contracting company whose mission is to provide their clients in the private and government sectors "quality construction, construction management and cleaning services in the most efficient and cost effective manners, (JDD, Inc. Mission Statement)." This company provides facilities support for Fort Riley in Fo,rt Riley, Kansas and the NASA John H. Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field here in Cleveland, Ohio. JDD, Inc. is owned and operated by James Vaughn, who started as painter at NASA Glenn and has been working here for the past seventeen years. This summer I worked under Devan Anderson, who is the safety manager for JDD Inc. in the Logistics and Technical Information Division at Glenn Research Center The LTID provides all transportation, secretarial, security needs and contract management of these various services for the center. As a safety manager, my mentor provides Occupational Health and Safety Occupation (OSHA) compliance to all JDD, Inc. employees and handles all other issues (Environmental Protection Agency issues, workers compensation, safety and health training) involving to job safety. My summer assignment was not as considered "groundbreaking research" like many other summer interns have done in the past, but it is just as important and beneficial to JDD, Inc. I initially created a database using a Microsoft Excel program to classify and categorize data pertaining to numerous safety training certification courses instructed by our safety manager during the course of the fiscal year. This early portion of the database consisted of only data (training field index, employees who were present at these training courses and who was absent) from the training certification courses. Once I completed this phase of the database, I decided to expand the database and add as many dimensions to it as possible. Throughout the last seven weeks, I have been compiling more data from day to day operations and been adding the

  7. The evolution of headache from childhood to adulthood: a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Headache is one of the most common disorders in childhood, with an estimated 75% of children reporting significant headache by the age of 15 years. Pediatric migraine is the most frequent recurrent headache disorder, occurring in up to 28% of older teenagers. Headaches rank third among the illness-related causes of school absenteeism and result in substantial psychosocial impairment among pediatric patients. The aim of this study was to clarify the evolution of the clinical features of primary headache in the transition from childhood to adulthood through a review of relevant data available in the PubMed and Google Scholar databases for the period 1988 to July 2013. The search strategy identified 15 published articles which were considered eligible for inclusion in the analysis (i.e. relevant to the investigation of pediatric headache outcome). All were carried out after the publication of the first version of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-I). The availability of data on the evolution of primary headaches over a period of time is important from both a clinical and a public health perspective. The identification of prognostic factors of the evolution of headache (remission or evolution into another headache form) over time should be an objective of future headache research for the development of prevention strategies. Given that headache is a major factor contributing to school absenteeism and poorer quality of life not only in childhood but also in adolescence, understanding the natural history and the management of the different headache forms is vital for our future. PMID:24641507

  8. Tautomerism in large databases

    PubMed Central

    Sitzmann, Markus; Ihlenfeldt, Wolf-Dietrich

    2010-01-01

    We have used the Chemical Structure DataBase (CSDB) of the NCI CADD Group, an aggregated collection of over 150 small-molecule databases totaling 103.5 million structure records, to conduct tautomerism analyses on one of the largest currently existing sets of real (i.e. not computer-generated) compounds. This analysis was carried out using calculable chemical structure identifiers developed by the NCI CADD Group, based on hash codes available in the chemoinformatics toolkit CACTVS and a newly developed scoring scheme to define a canonical tautomer for any encountered structure. CACTVS’s tautomerism definition, a set of 21 transform rules expressed in SMIRKS line notation, was used, which takes a comprehensive stance as to the possible types of tautomeric interconversion included. Tautomerism was found to be possible for more than 2/3 of the unique structures in the CSDB. A total of 680 million tautomers were calculated from, and including, the original structure records. Tautomerism overlap within the same individual database (i.e. at least one other entry was present that was really only a different tautomeric representation of the same compound) was found at an average rate of 0.3% of the original structure records, with values as high as nearly 2% for some of the databases in CSDB. Projected onto the set of unique structures (by FICuS identifier), this still occurred in about 1.5% of the cases. Tautomeric overlap across all constituent databases in CSDB was found for nearly 10% of the records in the collection. PMID:20512400

  9. MEROPS: the peptidase database.

    PubMed

    Rawlings, N D; Barrett, A J

    1999-01-01

    The MEROPS database (http://www.bi.bbsrc.ac.uk/Merops/Merops.+ ++htm) provides a catalogue and structure-based classification of peptidases (i.e. all proteolytic enzymes). This is a large group of proteins (approximately 2% of all gene products) that is of particular importance in medicine and biotechnology. An index of the peptidases by name or synonym gives access to a set of files termed PepCards each of which provides information on a single peptidase. Each card file contains information on classification and nomenclature, and hypertext links to the relevant entries in online databases for human genetics, protein and nucleic acid sequence data and tertiary structure. Another index provides access to the PepCards by organism name so that the user can retrieve all known peptidases from a particular species. The peptidases are classified into families on the basis of statistically significant similarities between the protein sequences in the part termed the 'peptidase unit' that is most directly responsible for activity. Families that are thought to have common evolutionary origins and are known or expected to have similar tertiary folds are grouped into clans. The MEROPS database provides sets of files called FamCards and ClanCards describing the individual families and clans. Each FamCard document provides links to other databases for sequence motifs and secondary and tertiary structures, and shows the distribution of the family across the major kingdoms of living creatures. Release 3.03 of MEROPS contains 758 peptidases, 153 families and 22 clans. We suggest that the MEROPS database provides a model for a way in which a system of classification for a functional group of proteins can be developed and used as an organizational framework around which to assemble a variety of related information.

  10. Observational Study of a French and Belgian Multicenter Cohort of 23 Patients Diagnosed in Adulthood With Mevalonate Kinase Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Durel, Cécile-Audrey; Aouba, Achille; Bienvenu, Boris; Deshayes, Samuel; Coppéré, Brigitte; Gombert, Bruno; Acquaviva-Bourdain, Cécile; Hachulla, Eric; Lecomte, Frédéric; Touitou, Isabelle; Ninet, Jacques; Philit, Jean-Baptiste; Messer, Laurent; Brouillard, Marc; Girard-Madoux, Marie-Hélène; Moutschen, Michel; Raison-Peyron, Nadia; Hutin, Pascal; Duffau, Pierre; Trolliet, Pierre; Hatron, Pierre-Yves; Heudier, Philippe; Cevallos, Ramiro; Lequerré, Thierry; Brousse, Valentine; Lesire, Vincent; Audia, Sylvain; Maucort-Boulch, Delphine; Cuisset, Laurence; Hot, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to describe the clinical and biological features of Mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD) in patients diagnosed in adulthood. This is a French and Belgian observational retrospective study from 2000 to 2014. To constitute the cohort, we cross-check the genetic and biochemical databases. The clinical, enzymatic, and genetic data were gathered from medical records. Twenty-three patients were analyzed. The mean age at diagnosis was 40 years, with a mean age at onset of symptoms of 3 years. All symptomatic patients had fever. Febrile attacks were mostly associated with arthralgia (90.9%); lymphadenopathy, abdominal pain, and skin lesions (86.4%); pharyngitis (63.6%); cough (59.1%); diarrhea, and hepatosplenomegaly (50.0%). Seven patients had psychiatric symptoms (31.8%). One patient developed recurrent seizures. Three patients experienced renal involvement (13.6%). Two patients had angiomyolipoma (9.1%). All but one tested patients had elevated serum immunoglobulin (Ig) D level. Twenty-one patients had genetic diagnosis; most of them were compound heterozygote (76.2%). p.Val377Ile was the most prevalent mutation. Structural articular damages and systemic AA amyloidosis were the 2 most serious complications. More than 65% of patients displayed decrease in severity and frequency of attacks with increasing age, but only 35% achieved remission. MKD diagnosed in adulthood shared clinical and genetic features with classical pediatric disease. An elevated IgD concentration is a good marker for MKD in adults. Despite a decrease of severity and frequency of attacks with age, only one-third of patients achieved spontaneous remission. PMID:26986117

  11. Observational Study of a French and Belgian Multicenter Cohort of 23 Patients Diagnosed in Adulthood With Mevalonate Kinase Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Durel, Cécile-Audrey; Aouba, Achille; Bienvenu, Boris; Deshayes, Samuel; Coppéré, Brigitte; Gombert, Bruno; Acquaviva-Bourdain, Cécile; Hachulla, Eric; Lecomte, Frédéric; Touitou, Isabelle; Ninet, Jacques; Philit, Jean-Baptiste; Messer, Laurent; Brouillard, Marc; Girard-Madoux, Marie-Hélène; Moutschen, Michel; Raison-Peyron, Nadia; Hutin, Pascal; Duffau, Pierre; Trolliet, Pierre; Hatron, Pierre-Yves; Heudier, Philippe; Cevallos, Ramiro; Lequerré, Thierry; Brousse, Valentine; Lesire, Vincent; Audia, Sylvain; Maucort-Boulch, Delphine; Cuisset, Laurence; Hot, Arnaud

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the clinical and biological features of Mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD) in patients diagnosed in adulthood. This is a French and Belgian observational retrospective study from 2000 to 2014. To constitute the cohort, we cross-check the genetic and biochemical databases. The clinical, enzymatic, and genetic data were gathered from medical records. Twenty-three patients were analyzed. The mean age at diagnosis was 40 years, with a mean age at onset of symptoms of 3 years. All symptomatic patients had fever. Febrile attacks were mostly associated with arthralgia (90.9%); lymphadenopathy, abdominal pain, and skin lesions (86.4%); pharyngitis (63.6%); cough (59.1%); diarrhea, and hepatosplenomegaly (50.0%). Seven patients had psychiatric symptoms (31.8%). One patient developed recurrent seizures. Three patients experienced renal involvement (13.6%). Two patients had angiomyolipoma (9.1%). All but one tested patients had elevated serum immunoglobulin (Ig) D level. Twenty-one patients had genetic diagnosis; most of them were compound heterozygote (76.2%). p.Val377Ile was the most prevalent mutation. Structural articular damages and systemic AA amyloidosis were the 2 most serious complications. More than 65% of patients displayed decrease in severity and frequency of attacks with increasing age, but only 35% achieved remission. MKD diagnosed in adulthood shared clinical and genetic features with classical pediatric disease. An elevated IgD concentration is a good marker for MKD in adults. Despite a decrease of severity and frequency of attacks with age, only one-third of patients achieved spontaneous remission. PMID:26986117

  12. The GLIMS Glacier Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raup, B. H.; Khalsa, S. S.; Armstrong, R.

    2007-12-01

    The Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) project has built a geospatial and temporal database of glacier data, composed of glacier outlines and various scalar attributes. These data are being derived primarily from satellite imagery, such as from ASTER and Landsat. Each "snapshot" of a glacier is from a specific time, and the database is designed to store multiple snapshots representative of different times. We have implemented two web-based interfaces to the database; one enables exploration of the data via interactive maps (web map server), while the other allows searches based on text-field constraints. The web map server is an Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) compliant Web Map Server (WMS) and Web Feature Server (WFS). This means that other web sites can display glacier layers from our site over the Internet, or retrieve glacier features in vector format. All components of the system are implemented using Open Source software: Linux, PostgreSQL, PostGIS (geospatial extensions to the database), MapServer (WMS and WFS), and several supporting components such as Proj.4 (a geographic projection library) and PHP. These tools are robust and provide a flexible and powerful framework for web mapping applications. As a service to the GLIMS community, the database contains metadata on all ASTER imagery acquired over glacierized terrain. Reduced-resolution of the images (browse imagery) can be viewed either as a layer in the MapServer application, or overlaid on the virtual globe within Google Earth. The interactive map application allows the user to constrain by time what data appear on the map. For example, ASTER or glacier outlines from 2002 only, or from Autumn in any year, can be displayed. The system allows users to download their selected glacier data in a choice of formats. The results of a query based on spatial selection (using a mouse) or text-field constraints can be downloaded in any of these formats: ESRI shapefiles, KML (Google Earth), Map

  13. Open geochemical database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhilin, Denis; Ilyin, Vladimir; Bashev, Anton

    2010-05-01

    We regard "geochemical data" as data on chemical parameters of the environment, linked with the geographical position of the corresponding point. Boosting development of global positioning system (GPS) and measuring instruments allows fast collecting of huge amounts of geochemical data. Presently they are published in scientific journals in text format, that hampers searching for information about particular places and meta-analysis of the data, collected by different researchers. Part of the information is never published. To make the data available and easy to find, it seems reasonable to elaborate an open database of geochemical information, accessible via Internet. It also seems reasonable to link the data with maps or space images, for example, from GoogleEarth service. For this purpose an open geochemical database is being elaborating (http://maps.sch192.ru). Any user after registration can upload geochemical data (position, type of parameter and value of the parameter) and edit them. Every user (including unregistered) can (a) extract the values of parameters, fulfilling desired conditions and (b) see the points, linked to GoogleEarth space image, colored according to a value of selected parameter. Then he can treat extracted values any way he likes. There are the following data types in the database: authors, points, seasons and parameters. Author is a person, who publishes the data. Every author can declare his own profile. A point is characterized by its geographical position and type of the object (i.e. river, lake etc). Value of parameters are linked to a point, an author and a season, when they were obtained. A user can choose a parameter to place on GoogleEarth space image and a scale to color the points on the image according to the value of a parameter. Currently (December, 2009) the database is under construction, but several functions (uploading data on pH and electrical conductivity and placing colored points onto GoogleEarth space image) are

  14. Labor market outcomes and the transition to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Danziger, Sheldon; Ratner, David

    2010-01-01

    According to Sheldon Danziger and David Ratner, changes in the labor market over the past thirty-five years, such as labor-saving technological changes, increased globalization, declining unionization, and the failure of the minimum wage to keep up with inflation, have made it more difficult for young adults to attain the economic stability and self-sufficiency that are important markers of the transition to adulthood. Young men with no more than a high school degree have difficulty earning enough to support a family. Even though young women have achieved gains in earnings, employment, and schooling relative to men in recent decades, those without a college degree also struggle to achieve economic stability and self-sufficiency. The authors begin by describing trends in labor market outcomes for young adults-median annual earnings, the extent of low-wage work, employment rates, job instability, and the returns to education. Then they examine how these outcomes may contribute to delays in other markers of the transition to adulthood-completing an education, establishing independent living arrangements, and marrying and having children. They conclude that adverse changes in labor market outcomes are related to those delays but have not been shown to be the primary cause. Danziger and Ratner next consider several public policy reforms that might improve the economic outlook for young adults. They recommend policies that would increase the returns to work, especially for less-educated workers. They propose raising the federal minimum wage and adjusting it annually to maintain its value relative to the median wage. Expanding the Earned Income Tax Credit for childless low-wage workers, the authors say, could also raise the take-home pay of many young adult workers, with minimal adverse employment effects. New policies should also provide work opportunities for young adults who cannot find steady employment either because of poor economic conditions or because of physical

  15. ARTI Refrigerant Database

    SciTech Connect

    Calm, J.M.

    1992-11-09

    The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air- conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The database identifies sources of specific information on R-32, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-245ca, R-290 (propane), R- 717 (ammonia), ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, ester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents on compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. A computerized version is available that includes retrieval software.

  16. The apoptosis database.

    PubMed

    Doctor, K S; Reed, J C; Godzik, A; Bourne, P E

    2003-06-01

    The apoptosis database is a public resource for researchers and students interested in the molecular biology of apoptosis. The resource provides functional annotation, literature references, diagrams/images, and alternative nomenclatures on a set of proteins having 'apoptotic domains'. These are the distinctive domains that are often, if not exclusively, found in proteins involved in apoptosis. The initial choice of proteins to be included is defined by apoptosis experts and bioinformatics tools. Users can browse through the web accessible lists of domains, proteins containing these domains and their associated homologs. The database can also be searched by sequence homology using basic local alignment search tool, text word matches of the annotation, and identifiers for specific records. The resource is available at http://www.apoptosis-db.org and is updated on a regular basis.

  17. Medical Image Databases

    PubMed Central

    Tagare, Hemant D.; Jaffe, C. Carl; Duncan, James

    1997-01-01

    Abstract Information contained in medical images differs considerably from that residing in alphanumeric format. The difference can be attributed to four characteristics: (1) the semantics of medical knowledge extractable from images is imprecise; (2) image information contains form and spatial data, which are not expressible in conventional language; (3) a large part of image information is geometric; (4) diagnostic inferences derived from images rest on an incomplete, continuously evolving model of normality. This paper explores the differentiating characteristics of text versus images and their impact on design of a medical image database intended to allow content-based indexing and retrieval. One strategy for implementing medical image databases is presented, which employs object-oriented iconic queries, semantics by association with prototypes, and a generic schema. PMID:9147338

  18. Real Time Baseball Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukue, Yasuhiro

    The author describes the system outline, features and operations of "Nikkan Sports Realtime Basaball Database" which was developed and operated by Nikkan Sports Shimbun, K. K. The system enables to input numerical data of professional baseball games as they proceed simultaneously, and execute data updating at realtime, just-in-time. Other than serving as supporting tool for prepareing newspapers it is also available for broadcasting media, general users through NTT dial Q2 and others.

  19. ARTI refrigerant database

    SciTech Connect

    Calm, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilities access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

  20. Clinical Genomic Database

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Benjamin D.; Nguyen, Anh-Dao; Bear, Kelly A.; Wolfsberg, Tyra G.

    2013-01-01

    Technological advances have greatly increased the availability of human genomic sequencing. However, the capacity to analyze genomic data in a clinically meaningful way lags behind the ability to generate such data. To help address this obstacle, we reviewed all conditions with genetic causes and constructed the Clinical Genomic Database (CGD) (http://research.nhgri.nih.gov/CGD/), a searchable, freely Web-accessible database of conditions based on the clinical utility of genetic diagnosis and the availability of specific medical interventions. The CGD currently includes a total of 2,616 genes organized clinically by affected organ systems and interventions (including preventive measures, disease surveillance, and medical or surgical interventions) that could be reasonably warranted by the identification of pathogenic mutations. To aid independent analysis and optimize new data incorporation, the CGD also includes all genetic conditions for which genetic knowledge may affect the selection of supportive care, informed medical decision-making, prognostic considerations, reproductive decisions, and allow avoidance of unnecessary testing, but for which specific interventions are not otherwise currently available. For each entry, the CGD includes the gene symbol, conditions, allelic conditions, clinical categorization (for both manifestations and interventions), mode of inheritance, affected age group, description of interventions/rationale, links to other complementary databases, including databases of variants and presumed pathogenic mutations, and links to PubMed references (>20,000). The CGD will be regularly maintained and updated to keep pace with scientific discovery. Further content-based expert opinions are actively solicited. Eventually, the CGD may assist the rapid curation of individual genomes as part of active medical care. PMID:23696674

  1. ARTI refrigerant database

    SciTech Connect

    Calm, J.M.

    1996-11-15

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

  2. ARTI refrigerant database

    SciTech Connect

    Calm, J.M.

    1996-07-01

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

  3. The Ribonuclease P Database.

    PubMed

    Brown, J W

    1999-01-01

    Ribonuclease P is responsible for the 5'-maturation of tRNA precursors. Ribonuclease P is a ribonucleoprotein, and in bacteria (and some Archaea) the RNA subunit alone is catalytically active in vitro, i.e. it is a ribozyme. The Ribonuclease P Database is a compilation of ribonuclease P sequences, sequence alignments, secondary structures, three-dimensional models and accessory information, available via the World Wide Web at the following URL: http://www.mbio.ncsu.edu/RNaseP/home .html

  4. The Cambridge Structural Database.

    PubMed

    Groom, Colin R; Bruno, Ian J; Lightfoot, Matthew P; Ward, Suzanna C

    2016-04-01

    The Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) contains a complete record of all published organic and metal-organic small-molecule crystal structures. The database has been in operation for over 50 years and continues to be the primary means of sharing structural chemistry data and knowledge across disciplines. As well as structures that are made public to support scientific articles, it includes many structures published directly as CSD Communications. All structures are processed both computationally and by expert structural chemistry editors prior to entering the database. A key component of this processing is the reliable association of the chemical identity of the structure studied with the experimental data. This important step helps ensure that data is widely discoverable and readily reusable. Content is further enriched through selective inclusion of additional experimental data. Entries are available to anyone through free CSD community web services. Linking services developed and maintained by the CCDC, combined with the use of standard identifiers, facilitate discovery from other resources. Data can also be accessed through CCDC and third party software applications and through an application programming interface.

  5. The Cambridge Structural Database

    PubMed Central

    Groom, Colin R.; Bruno, Ian J.; Lightfoot, Matthew P.; Ward, Suzanna C.

    2016-01-01

    The Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) contains a complete record of all published organic and metal–organic small-molecule crystal structures. The database has been in operation for over 50 years and continues to be the primary means of sharing structural chemistry data and knowledge across disciplines. As well as structures that are made public to support scientific articles, it includes many structures published directly as CSD Communications. All structures are processed both computationally and by expert structural chemistry editors prior to entering the database. A key component of this processing is the reliable association of the chemical identity of the structure studied with the experimental data. This important step helps ensure that data is widely discoverable and readily reusable. Content is further enriched through selective inclusion of additional experimental data. Entries are available to anyone through free CSD community web services. Linking services developed and maintained by the CCDC, combined with the use of standard identifiers, facilitate discovery from other resources. Data can also be accessed through CCDC and third party software applications and through an application programming interface. PMID:27048719

  6. ARTI Refrigerant Database

    SciTech Connect

    Cain, J.M. , Great Falls, VA )

    1993-04-30

    The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included. The database identifies sources of specific information on R-32, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-245ca, R-290 (propane), R-717 (ammonia), ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, ester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates.

  7. ARTI refrigerant database

    SciTech Connect

    Calm, J.M.

    1996-04-15

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on refrigerants. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, polyolester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents. They are included to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates. Citations in this report are divided into the following topics: thermophysical properties; materials compatibility; lubricants and tribology; application data; safety; test and analysis methods; impacts; regulatory actions; substitute refrigerants; identification; absorption and adsorption; research programs; and miscellaneous documents. Information is also presented on ordering instructions for the computerized version.

  8. Curcumin Resource Database

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anil; Chetia, Hasnahana; Sharma, Swagata; Kabiraj, Debajyoti; Talukdar, Narayan Chandra; Bora, Utpal

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin is one of the most intensively studied diarylheptanoid, Curcuma longa being its principal producer. This apart, a class of promising curcumin analogs has been generated in laboratories, aptly named as Curcuminoids which are showing huge potential in the fields of medicine, food technology, etc. The lack of a universal source of data on curcumin as well as curcuminoids has been felt by the curcumin research community for long. Hence, in an attempt to address this stumbling block, we have developed Curcumin Resource Database (CRDB) that aims to perform as a gateway-cum-repository to access all relevant data and related information on curcumin and its analogs. Currently, this database encompasses 1186 curcumin analogs, 195 molecular targets, 9075 peer reviewed publications, 489 patents and 176 varieties of C. longa obtained by extensive data mining and careful curation from numerous sources. Each data entry is identified by a unique CRDB ID (identifier). Furnished with a user-friendly web interface and in-built search engine, CRDB provides well-curated and cross-referenced information that are hyperlinked with external sources. CRDB is expected to be highly useful to the researchers working on structure as well as ligand-based molecular design of curcumin analogs. Database URL: http://www.crdb.in PMID:26220923

  9. The Cambridge Structural Database.

    PubMed

    Groom, Colin R; Bruno, Ian J; Lightfoot, Matthew P; Ward, Suzanna C

    2016-04-01

    The Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) contains a complete record of all published organic and metal-organic small-molecule crystal structures. The database has been in operation for over 50 years and continues to be the primary means of sharing structural chemistry data and knowledge across disciplines. As well as structures that are made public to support scientific articles, it includes many structures published directly as CSD Communications. All structures are processed both computationally and by expert structural chemistry editors prior to entering the database. A key component of this processing is the reliable association of the chemical identity of the structure studied with the experimental data. This important step helps ensure that data is widely discoverable and readily reusable. Content is further enriched through selective inclusion of additional experimental data. Entries are available to anyone through free CSD community web services. Linking services developed and maintained by the CCDC, combined with the use of standard identifiers, facilitate discovery from other resources. Data can also be accessed through CCDC and third party software applications and through an application programming interface. PMID:27048719

  10. ARTI refrigerant database

    SciTech Connect

    Calm, J.M.

    1997-02-01

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alterative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on various refrigerants. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, polyolester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents. They are included to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates.

  11. ARTI refrigerant database

    SciTech Connect

    Calm, J.M.

    1998-08-01

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufactures and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on many refrigerants including propane, ammonia, water, carbon dioxide, propylene, ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, polyolester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents. They are included to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates.

  12. Parental Support, Partner Support, and the Trajectories of Mastery from Adolescence to Early Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Surjadi, Florensia F.; Lorenz, Frederick O.; Wickrama, K. A. S.; Conger, Rand D.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the long-term associations among parental support, extra-familial partner support, and the trajectories of sense of mastery from adolescence to the early adulthood years. Ten waves of panel data collected over a 16-year period from the Iowa Family Transitions Project (N = 527) were used to test the hypotheses. Results indicated that parental support in adolescence was initially associated with higher levels of sense of mastery and with greater extra-familial partner support during the transition to adulthood. Higher extra-familial partner support was subsequently associated with an increase in sense of mastery during the transition to adulthood. Overall, our results underscore the importance of mastery in smoothing the adjustment to adulthood and the importance of supportive relationships in shaping a healthy sense of mastery. PMID:21044798

  13. Purpose in Life in Emerging Adulthood: Development and Validation of a New Brief Measure

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Patrick L.; Edmonds, Grant W.; Peterson, Missy; Luyckx, Koen; Andrews, Judy A.

    2015-01-01

    Accruing evidence points to the value of studying purpose in life across adolescence and emerging adulthood. Research though is needed to understand the unique role of purpose in life in predicting well-being and developmentally relevant outcomes during emerging adulthood. The current studies (total n = 669) found support for the development of a new brief measure of purpose in life using data from American and Canadian samples, while demonstrating evidence for two important findings. First, purpose in life predicted well-being during emerging adulthood, even when controlling for the Big Five personality traits. Second, purpose in life was positively associated with self-image and negatively associated with delinquency, again controlling for personality traits. Findings are discussed with respect to how studying purpose in life can help understand which individuals are more likely to experience positive transitions into adulthood. PMID:26958072

  14. Computer Databases: A Survey. Part 3: Product Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Leary, Mick

    1987-01-01

    Describes five online databases that focus on computer products, primarily software and microcomputing hardware, and compares the databases in terms of record content, product coverage, vertical market coverage, currency, availability, and price. Sample records and searches are provided, as well as a directory of product databases. (CLB)

  15. Childhood Trauma and Its Relation to Chronic Depression in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Negele, Alexa; Kaufhold, Johannes; Kallenbach, Lisa; Leuzinger-Bohleber, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    There is a large consensus indicating that childhood trauma is significantly involved in the development of depression. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of retrospectively recalled childhood trauma in chronically depressed patients and to investigate a more specific relationship between trauma type and depression. We further asked for the influence of multiple experiences of childhood trauma on the vulnerability to a chronic course of depression in adulthood. 349 chronically depressed patients of the German LAC Depression Study completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, a self-report measure of traumatic experiences in childhood. 75.6% of the chronically depressed patients reported clinically significant histories of childhood trauma. 37% of the chronically depressed patients reported multiple childhood traumatization. Experiences of multiple trauma also led to significantly more severe depressive symptoms. Stepwise multiple regression analysis suggested that childhood emotional abuse and sexual abuse were significantly associated with a higher symptom severity in chronically depressed adults. Yet, expanding the regression model for multiple exposures showed that multiplicity was the only remaining significant predictor for symptom severity in chronically depressed patients. Clinical implications suggest a precise assessment of childhood trauma in chronically depressed patients with a focus on emotional abuse, sexual abuse, and multiple exposures to childhood trauma. This trial is registered with registration number ISRCTN91956346. PMID:26693349

  16. Concept analysis of recovery in mental illness in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    McCauley, C O; McKenna, H P; Keeney, S; McLaughlin, D F

    2015-10-01

    Recovery, as a concept, emerged as a core philosophy of the service user movement that began in the late 1960s and 1970s. Previous reviews on recovery in mental health have presented definitions or a conceptual framework; however, over time it has been open to disparate interpretations. The aim of this paper was to conduct the first concept analysis of mental health recovery in young adulthood within various multidisciplinary contexts. Rodgers's (2000) six-stepped evolutionary method enabled the analysis of recovery's conceptual characteristics, the identification of an exemplar and the proposition of a hypothesis with implications for practice. This analysis has revealed the derivation of the term recovery does not convey its identified conceptual characteristics. Identified attributes include the reawakening of hope, reclaiming a positive self and meaning through personal growth. Antecedents include the disruption of illness, stigmatization, internal inventory and contemplative recovery. Identified consequences include the return to normality, reconstruction of self and active social connection. The new conceptual definition is the reawakening of hope and rediscovery of a positive sense of self through finding meaning and purpose within personal growth and connection using creative self-care coping strategies. This paper reveals an apparent disparity between professional and personal interpretations of recovery. Therefore, the implication for mental health nursing is the congruence of recovery-orientated practice with the process of recovery experienced by young adult service users.

  17. Alteration of somatosensory response in adulthood by early life stress.

    PubMed

    Takatsuru, Yusuke; Koibuchi, Noriyuki

    2015-01-01

    Early life stress is well-known as a critical risk factor for mental and cognitive disorders in adulthood. Such disorders are accompanied by altered neuro- (synapto-) genesis and gene expression. Because psychosomatic disorders induced by early life stress (e.g., physical and/or sexual abuse, and neglect) have become a socio-economic problem, it is very important to clarify the mechanisms underlying these changes. However, despite of intensive clinical and animal studies, such mechanisms have not yet been clarified. Although the disturbance of glucocorticoid and glutamate homeostasis by stress has been well-documented, it has not yet been clarified whether such disturbance by early life stress persists for life. Furthermore, since previous studies have focused on the detection of changes in specific brain regions, such as the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, it has not been clarified whether early life stress induced changes in the sensory/motor system. Thus, in this review, we introduce recent studies on functional/structural changes in the somatosensory cortex induced by early life stress. We believe that this review provides new insights into the functional alteration of the somatosensory system induced by early life stress. Such information may have clinical relevance in terms of providing effective therapeutic interventions to early life stressed individuals. PMID:26041988

  18. Remembered Parenting Styles and Adjustment in Middle and Late Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Cooney, Teresa M.; An, Jeong Shin

    2009-01-01

    Background Authoritative parenting is the parenting style often associated with positive outcomes for children and adolescents. This study considers whether remembered parenting styles in childhood predict multiple dimensions of functioning in adulthood. Methods We used the 1995 National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States data set (N = 2,232) to assess the association between parenting behaviors remembered from childhood—classified as authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and uninvolved—and psychological well-being, depressive symptoms, and substance abuse, in a subsample of mid- and later-life adults. Differences in outcomes by sex, race, and childhood socioeconomic status were also examined across parenting styles. Results Adults who remembered authoritative compared with authoritarian and uninvolved parents reported greater psychological well-being and fewer depressive symptoms, and those with uninvolved parents noted greater substance abuse. No outcome differences were found between remembered authoritative and indulgent parenting styles. A few sex and race interactions were identified: Authoritative parenting (compared with uninvolved) was more strongly associated with men's psychological well-being than women's, and authoritative parenting (compared with authoritarian) predicted reduced depressive symptoms for Whites more than non-Whites. Conclusions There is some support that remembered parenting styles continue to be related to functioning across the lifespan. There is also evidence of resiliency, flexibility, and malleability in human development. PMID:19176484

  19. Nutritional recovery promotes hypothalamic inflammation in rats during adulthood.

    PubMed

    Silva, Hellen Barbosa Farias; de Almeida, Ana Paula Carli; Cardoso, Katarine Barbosa; Ignacio-Souza, Letícia Martins; Reis, Silvia Regina de Lima; Reis, Marise Auxiliadora de Barros; Latorraca, Márcia Queiroz; Milanski, Marciane; Arantes, Vanessa Cristina

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated whether protein restriction in fetal life alters food intake and glucose homeostasis in adulthood by interfering with insulin signal transduction through proinflammatory mechanisms in the hypothalamus and peripheral tissues. Rats were divided into the following: a control group (C); a recovered group (R); and a low protein (LP) group. Relative food intake was greater and serum leptin was diminished in LP and R compared to C rats. Proinflammatory genes and POMC mRNA were upregulated in the hypothalamus of R group. Hypothalamic NPY mRNA expression was greater but AKT phosphorylation was diminished in the LP than in the C rats. In muscle, AKT phosphorylation was higher in restricted than in control animals. The HOMA-IR was decreased in R and C compared to the LP group. In contrast, the K(itt) in R was similar to that in C and both were lower than LP rats. Thus, nutritional recovery did not alter glucose homeostasis but produced middle hyperphagia, possibly due to increased anorexigenic neuropeptide expression that counteracted the hypothalamic inflammatory process. In long term protein deprived rats, hyperphagia most likely resulted from increased orexigenic neuropeptide expression, and glucose homeostasis was maintained, at least in part, at the expense of increased muscle insulin sensitivity.

  20. Violence from parents in childhood and obesity in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Greenfield, Emily A.; Marks, Nadine F.

    2009-01-01

    Guided by a life course perspective and concepts from models of stress and coping, this study tested the extent to which self-reported profiles of physical and psychological violence in childhood from parents were associated with greater odds of obesity in adulthood. This study also examined the extent to which adults’ greater use of food in response to stress served as a mediator of potential associations of risk. Multivariate regression models were estimated using data from 1650 respondents in the 1995–2005 National Survey of Midlife in the U.S. (MIDUS). Results indicated that respondents who reported having experienced both psychological and physical violence from parents—with at least one type of violence having reportedly occurred frequently—were more likely to be classified as obese in contrast to respondents who reported never having experienced either type of violence from parents. Evidence from a sequence of models that tested mediation effects indicated that greater use of food in response to stress among respondents with problematic histories of violence explained, in part, their higher risk of adult obesity. Findings contribute to the growing body of evidence regarding psychosocial predictors of obesity, as well as the physical health consequences of childhood family violence. Results further suggest the importance of addressing particular aspects of life course social relationships—such as violence in childhood from parents—and their implications for psycho-behavioral uses of food within efforts to reduce rates of adult obesity. PMID:19185965

  1. Trajectories and Predictors of Sexually Aggressive Behaviors during Emerging Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Martie P.; Swartout, Kevin M.; Koss, Mary P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess longitudinal trajectories of college males’ sexually aggressive behaviors and determine time-varying individual- and peer-level risk factors that differentiate men who follow these different paths. Method Our analytic sample consisted of 795 men who participated in a longitudinal study on high-risk behaviors among college students. The sample was surveyed at the end of each of their four years at university on a variety of measures, including sexual aggression (SA) and its hypothesized risk factors (hostile masculinity, number of sexual partners, alcohol misuse, and peer norms). Results Using latent growth mixture modeling, we found four distinct SA trajectories – (1) consistently high, (2) decreasing, (3) increasing, and (4) consistently low. Multinomial logistic regression revealed that hostile masculinity and peer norms positively predicted trajectory membership at times when each trajectory reflected a high level of SA. Conclusions Our study adds to the knowledge base by elucidating the different ways sexually aggressive behaviors change during emerging adulthood and how confluence model-derived factors predict the different trajectories. The finding that changes over time in these risk factors correspond with SA perpetration risk informs prevention programming by illuminating the importance of continual focus on these risk factors throughout the college years, perhaps through annual self-assessments. PMID:23914305

  2. Munchausen by proxy victims in adulthood: a first look.

    PubMed

    Libow, J A

    1995-09-01

    Very little is known about the long-term impact of Munchausen by Proxy abuse on children, as many victims probably are never identified and most have been lost to follow-up soon after termination of protective services supervision. This exploratory study examined the childhood experiences and long-term psychological outcomes for 10 adults, ranging from 33 to 71 years of age, who were self-identified victims of illness fabrication by a parent. Subjects completed a 33-item questionnaire including demographic and open-ended questions and a checklist of PTSD symptoms, supplemented by telephone interviews. Subjects described a range of experiences from poisonings and induced bone fractures to symptom exaggeration. Subjects generally felt unloved and unsafe in childhood; a few were directly aware of their parent's deceptions. They made limited attempts to alert others, with little success. Subjects reported significant emotional and physical problems in childhood, and problems in adulthood including insecurity, reality-testing issues, avoidance of medical treatment and posttraumatic stress symptoms. Most of their siblings were also abused, physically or medically. Some subjects express considerable residual anger towards the abusing mothers, but a surprising degree of sympathy for the fathers who passively colluded or failed to protect. Some of the MBPS parents have continued fabricating their own medical illnesses or harassing their adult children with fabricated dramas even decades later. PMID:8528818

  3. Nutritional recovery promotes hypothalamic inflammation in rats during adulthood.

    PubMed

    Silva, Hellen Barbosa Farias; de Almeida, Ana Paula Carli; Cardoso, Katarine Barbosa; Ignacio-Souza, Letícia Martins; Reis, Silvia Regina de Lima; Reis, Marise Auxiliadora de Barros; Latorraca, Márcia Queiroz; Milanski, Marciane; Arantes, Vanessa Cristina

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated whether protein restriction in fetal life alters food intake and glucose homeostasis in adulthood by interfering with insulin signal transduction through proinflammatory mechanisms in the hypothalamus and peripheral tissues. Rats were divided into the following: a control group (C); a recovered group (R); and a low protein (LP) group. Relative food intake was greater and serum leptin was diminished in LP and R compared to C rats. Proinflammatory genes and POMC mRNA were upregulated in the hypothalamus of R group. Hypothalamic NPY mRNA expression was greater but AKT phosphorylation was diminished in the LP than in the C rats. In muscle, AKT phosphorylation was higher in restricted than in control animals. The HOMA-IR was decreased in R and C compared to the LP group. In contrast, the K(itt) in R was similar to that in C and both were lower than LP rats. Thus, nutritional recovery did not alter glucose homeostasis but produced middle hyperphagia, possibly due to increased anorexigenic neuropeptide expression that counteracted the hypothalamic inflammatory process. In long term protein deprived rats, hyperphagia most likely resulted from increased orexigenic neuropeptide expression, and glucose homeostasis was maintained, at least in part, at the expense of increased muscle insulin sensitivity. PMID:25258479

  4. Nutritional Recovery Promotes Hypothalamic Inflammation in Rats during Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Hellen Barbosa Farias; de Almeida, Ana Paula Carli; Cardoso, Katarine Barbosa; Ignacio-Souza, Letícia Martins; Reis, Silvia Regina de Lima; Reis, Marise Auxiliadora de Barros; Milanski, Marciane; Arantes, Vanessa Cristina

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated whether protein restriction in fetal life alters food intake and glucose homeostasis in adulthood by interfering with insulin signal transduction through proinflammatory mechanisms in the hypothalamus and peripheral tissues. Rats were divided into the following: a control group (C); a recovered group (R); and a low protein (LP) group. Relative food intake was greater and serum leptin was diminished in LP and R compared to C rats. Proinflammatory genes and POMC mRNA were upregulated in the hypothalamus of R group. Hypothalamic NPY mRNA expression was greater but AKT phosphorylation was diminished in the LP than in the C rats. In muscle, AKT phosphorylation was higher in restricted than in control animals. The HOMA-IR was decreased in R and C compared to the LP group. In contrast, the Kitt in R was similar to that in C and both were lower than LP rats. Thus, nutritional recovery did not alter glucose homeostasis but produced middle hyperphagia, possibly due to increased anorexigenic neuropeptide expression that counteracted the hypothalamic inflammatory process. In long term protein deprived rats, hyperphagia most likely resulted from increased orexigenic neuropeptide expression, and glucose homeostasis was maintained, at least in part, at the expense of increased muscle insulin sensitivity. PMID:25258479

  5. [Diagnosis and Therapeutic Interventions in Autism Spectrum Disorders in Adulthood].

    PubMed

    Krämer, K; Gawronski, A; Vogeley, K

    2016-09-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by disturbed social interaction and communication as well as stereotyped or repetitive behaviors and interests. Although adults with ASD often acquire complex compensatory strategies that help them master social situations in a rule-based fashion, they still show impairments in intuitive processing of social signals and especially nonverbal communication in complex everyday situations. This constitutes a particular challenge for the psychotherapy of ASD. Psychotherapists are required to explicitly inform and act as an agent of the non-autistic world to enable patients to acquire the ability to take different perspectives. The overall aim of cognitive behavioral therapy interventions addressing ASD in adulthood is to extend the patients' behavioral repertoire to improve their quality of life. Thus, besides psychoeducation on ASD and its frequently associated comorbidities, psychotherapy for adults with ASD should focus on the training and development of social-communicative skills. Furthermore, dealing with stress in everyday situations is an important aspect of psychotherapy of these patients. PMID:27607072

  6. Interpersonal Development, Stability, and Change in Early Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Aidan G. C.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Lenzenweger, Mark F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective This goal of this research was to explore the development of the interpersonal system mapped by the interpersonal circumplex in early adulthood (Ages 18-22). Method This study uses the Longitudinal Study of Personality Disorders sample (N = 250; 53% Female). Participants completed the Revised Interpersonal Adjective Scales (Wiggins, Trapnell, & Phillips, 1988) in their freshman, sophomore, and senior years of college. Estimates of structural, rank-order, mean, individual, and ipsative stability were calculated for the broad interpersonal dimensions of Dominance and Affiliation, and also the lower-order octant scales. Additionally, the interpersonal profile parameters of differentiation and prototypicality were calculated at each wave and explored longitudinally, and also used as predictors of interpersonal stability. Results We found excellent structural and high rank-order and ipsative stability in the interpersonal scales over this time period. Mean increases on the Affiliation axis, but not on the Dominance axis, were found to mask differential rates of change among the octant scales, along with significant individual variation in the rates of change. Interpersonal differentiation and prototypicality were related to higher stability in overall interpersonal style. Conclusions Results point to evidence of both stability and nuanced change, illuminating some of the features of the structural variables that can be derived from interpersonal circumplex profiles. PMID:22224462

  7. Respiratory and sniffing behaviors throughout adulthood and aging in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wesson, Daniel W.; Varga-Wesson, Adrienn G.; Borkowski, Anne H.; Wilson, Donald A.

    2011-01-01

    Orienting responses are physiological and active behavioral reactions evoked by novel stimulus perception and are critical for survival. We explored whether odor orienting responses are impacted throughout both adulthood and normal and pathological aging in mice. Novel odor investigation (including duration and bout numbers) and its subsequent habituation as assayed in the odor habituation task were preserved in adult C57BL/6J mice up to 12mo of age with <6% variability between age groups in investigation time. Separately, using whole-body plethysmography we found that both spontaneous respiration and odor-evoked sniffing behaviors were strikingly preserved in wildtype (WT) mice up to 26mo of age. In contrast, mice accumulating amyloid-β protein in the brain by means of overexpressing mutations in the human amyloid precursor protein gene (APP) showed preserved spontaneous respiration up to 12mo, but starting at 14mo showed significant differences from WT. Similar to WTs, odor-evoked sniffing was not impacted in APP mice up to 26mo. These results show that odor-orienting responses are minimally impacted throughout aging in mice, and suggest that the olfactomotor network is mostly spared of insults due to aging. PMID:21524667

  8. A study of the dynamics of sex differences in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Trofimova, Irina

    2013-01-01

    Studies of gender differences using primarily young individuals show that males, on average, perform better than females in physical activities but worse than females on tests of verbal abilities. There is however a controversy about the existence of these sex differences in adulthood. Our study used 1271 participants from four cultural backgrounds (Chinese, multi-generation Canadians, Indu-Canadians, and European-Canadians) divided in five age groups. We measured sex differences in the time required for participants to complete a lexical task experiment, and also assessed their verbal tempo and physical endurance using a validated temperament test (Structure of Temperament Questionnaire). We found a significant female advantage in time on the lexical task and on the temperament scale of social-verbal tempo, and a male advantage on the temperament scale of physical endurance. These sex differences, however, were more pronounced in young age groups (17-24), fading in older groups. This "middle age-middle sex" phenomenon suggests that sex differences in these two types of abilities observed in younger groups might be "a matter of age," and should not be attributed to gender in general. A one-dimensional approach to sex differences (common in meta-analytic studies) therefore overlooks a possible interaction of sex differences with age. PMID:23442018

  9. Frontal glutamate and reward processing in adolescence and adulthood.

    PubMed

    Gleich, Tobias; Lorenz, Robert C; Pöhland, Lydia; Raufelder, Diana; Deserno, Lorenz; Beck, Anne; Heinz, Andreas; Kühn, Simone; Gallinat, Jürgen

    2015-11-01

    The fronto-limbic network interaction, driven by glutamatergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission, represents a core mechanism of motivated behavior and personality traits. Reward seeking behavior undergoes tremendous changes in adolescence paralleled by neurobiological changes of this network including the prefrontal cortex, striatum and amygdala. Since fronto-limbic dysfunctions also underlie major psychiatric diseases beginning in adolescence, this investigation focuses on network characteristics separating adolescents from adults. To investigate differences in network interactions, the brain reward system activity (slot machine task) together with frontal glutamate concentration (anterior cingulate cortex, ACC) was measured in 28 adolescents and 26 adults employing functional magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy, respectively. An inverse coupling of glutamate concentrations in the ACC and activation of the ventral striatum was observed in adolescents. Further, amygdala response in adolescents was negatively correlated with the personality trait impulsivity. For adults, no significant associations of network components or correlations with impulsivity were found. The inverse association between frontal glutamate concentration and striatal activation in adolescents is in line with the triadic model of motivated behavior stressing the important role of frontal top-down inhibition on limbic structures. Our data identified glutamate as the mediating neurotransmitter of this inhibitory process and demonstrates the relevance of glutamate on the reward system and related behavioral traits like impulsivity. This fronto-limbic coupling may represent a vulnerability factor for psychiatric disorders starting in adolescence but not in adulthood.

  10. Experiential reward learning outweighs instruction prior to adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Johannes H.; Lourenco, Frederico S.; Doll, Bradley B.; Hartley, Catherine A.

    2015-01-01

    Throughout our lives, we face the important task of distinguishing rewarding actions from those that are best avoided. Importantly, there are multiple means by which we acquire this information. Through trial and error, we use experiential feedback to evaluate our actions. We also learn which actions are advantageous through explicit instruction from others. Here, we examined whether the influence of these two forms of learning on choice changes across development by placing instruction and experience in competition in a probabilistic-learning task. Whereas inaccurate instruction markedly biased adults’ estimations of a stimulus’s value, children and adolescents were better able to objectively estimate stimulus values through experience. Instructional control of learning is thought to recruit prefrontal–striatal brain circuitry, which continues to mature into adulthood. Our behavioral data suggest that this protracted neurocognitive maturation may cause the motivated actions of children and adolescents to be less influenced by explicit instruction than are those of adults. This absence of a confirmation bias in children and adolescents represents a paradoxical developmental advantage of youth over adults in the unbiased evaluation of actions through positive and negative experience. PMID:25582607

  11. Diabetic Embryopathy: A Developmental Perspective from Fertilization to Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Castori, M.

    2013-01-01

    Maternal diabetes mellitus is one of the strongest human teratogens. Despite recent advances in the fields of clinical embryology, experimental teratology and preventive medicine, diabetes-related perturbations of the maternofetal unit maintain a considerable impact on the Healthcare System. Classic consequences of prenatal exposure to hyperglycemia encompass (early) spontaneous abortions, perinatal death and malformations. The spectrum of related malformations comprises some recurrent blastogenic monotopic patterns, i.e. holoprosencephaly, caudal dysgenesis and oculoauriculovertebral spectrum, as well as pleiotropic syndromes, i.e. femoral hypoplasia-unusual face syndrome. Despite this, most malformed fetuses display multiple blastogenic defects of the VACTERL type, whose (apparently) casual combination preclude recognizing recurrent patterns, but accurately testifies to their developmental stage at onset. With the application of developmental biology in modern medicine, the effects of diabetes on the unborn patient are expanded to include the predisposition to develop insulin resistance in adulthood. The mechanisms underlying the transgenerational correlation between maternal diabetes and proneness to adult disorders in the offspring remain unclear, and the epigenetic plasticity may represent the missing link. In this scenario, a development-driven summary of the multifaced consequences of maternal diabetes on fertility and child health may add a practical resource to the repertoire of available information on early stages of embryogenesis. PMID:23653578

  12. The Association of Alcohol and Drug Use with Persistence of Violent Offending in Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    White, Helene R.; Buckman, Jennifer; Pardini, Dustin; Loeber, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study expanded upon an earlier study, which examined the associations between heavy drinking and persistence of serious violent offending through emerging adulthood (approximate age 25), by examining associations between alcohol, marijuana, and other drug use and disorders and persistence of serious violent offending through young adulthood (approximate age 36). Methods We used official records and self-reported longitudinal data from Black and White men from early adolescence through young adulthood (n = 391). Men were divided into four violence groups: non-violent, desisters, persisters, and very late-onsetters. Multinomial logistic regression analyses controlling for race and incarceration were used to compare these groups in terms of substance use in young adulthood and changes in use from emerging to young adulthood. Results Most previous serious violent offenders did not re-offend in young adulthood. Whereas alcohol use did not differ across groups, persisters and desisters, compared to non-violent men, were more likely to use hard drugs, deal drugs, have a lifetime substance use disorder diagnosis and show larger decreases in alcohol and marijuana frequency from emerging to young adulthood. None of these measures differed between persisters and desisters except that persisters reported larger decreases in alcohol and marijuana use frequency. Conclusions The findings demonstrated reductions in serious violent offending during young adulthood and suggested that after adolescence, illicit drug use, compared to alcohol use, may play a more important role in initiation and maintenance of serious violent offending. Future research that examines the interrelations of drug use, drug culture, and violence is warranted. PMID:26557473

  13. SmallSat Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petropulos, Dolores; Bittner, David; Murawski, Robert; Golden, Bert

    2015-01-01

    The SmallSat has an unrealized potential in both the private industry and in the federal government. Currently over 70 companies, 50 universities and 17 governmental agencies are involved in SmallSat research and development. In 1994, the U.S. Army Missile and Defense mapped the moon using smallSat imagery. Since then Smart Phones have introduced this imagery to the people of the world as diverse industries watched this trend. The deployment cost of smallSats is also greatly reduced compared to traditional satellites due to the fact that multiple units can be deployed in a single mission. Imaging payloads have become more sophisticated, smaller and lighter. In addition, the growth of small technology obtained from private industries has led to the more widespread use of smallSats. This includes greater revisit rates in imagery, significantly lower costs, the ability to update technology more frequently and the ability to decrease vulnerability of enemy attacks. The popularity of smallSats show a changing mentality in this fast paced world of tomorrow. What impact has this created on the NASA communication networks now and in future years? In this project, we are developing the SmallSat Relational Database which can support a simulation of smallSats within the NASA SCaN Compatability Environment for Networks and Integrated Communications (SCENIC) Modeling and Simulation Lab. The NASA Space Communications and Networks (SCaN) Program can use this modeling to project required network support needs in the next 10 to 15 years. The SmallSat Rational Database could model smallSats just as the other SCaN databases model the more traditional larger satellites, with a few exceptions. One being that the smallSat Database is designed to be built-to-order. The SmallSat database holds various hardware configurations that can be used to model a smallSat. It will require significant effort to develop as the research material can only be populated by hand to obtain the unique data

  14. Adolescent cocaine self-administration induces habit behavior in adulthood: sex differences and structural consequences.

    PubMed

    DePoy, L M; Allen, A G; Gourley, S L

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent cocaine use increases the likelihood of drug abuse and addiction in adulthood, and etiological factors may include a cocaine-induced bias towards so-called 'reward-seeking' habits. To determine whether adolescent cocaine exposure indeed impacts decision-making strategies in adulthood, we trained adolescent mice to orally self-administer cocaine. In adulthood, males with a history of escalating self-administration developed a bias towards habit-based behaviors. In contrast, escalating females did not develop habit biases; rather, low response rates were associated with later behavioral inflexibility, independent of cocaine dose. We focused the rest of our report on understanding how individual differences in young-adolescent females predicted long-term behavioral outcomes. Low, 'stable' cocaine-reinforced response rates during adolescence were associated with cocaine-conditioned object preference and enlarged dendritic spine head size in the medial (prelimbic) prefrontal cortex in adulthood. Meanwhile, cocaine resilience was associated with enlarged spine heads in deep-layer orbitofrontal cortex. Re-exposure to the cocaine-associated context in adulthood energized responding in 'stable responders', which could then be reduced by the GABAB agonist baclofen and the putative tyrosine receptor kinase B (trkB) agonist, 7,8-dihydroxyflavone. Together, our findings highlight resilience to cocaine-induced habits in females relative to males when intake escalates. However, failures in instrumental conditioning in adolescent females may precipitate reward-seeking behaviors in adulthood, particularly in the context of cocaine exposure. PMID:27576164

  15. Adolescent Predictors of Alcohol Use in Adulthood: A 22-Year Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Yeon; Brook, Judith S.; Nezia, Nasrat; Brook, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives The excessive consumption of alcohol is a major issue in the United States and elsewhere. It is associated with a number of adverse health consequences, as well as difficulty in relationships and employment. Therefore, the present longitudinal study investigates the direct and indirect adolescent predictors of alcohol use in adulthood. Methods Among the 674 participants (53% African Americans, 47% Puerto Ricans), 60% were females (n=405). Mplus software was used to perform structural equation modeling. Results Parental problems with alcohol use in the participants’ late adolescence were related to low parent-child attachment in late adolescence, which in turn, was related to self delinquency in late adolescence. This was related to peer delinquency in emerging adulthood, which in turn, was associated with alcohol use in emerging adulthood and in adulthood. Low parent-child attachment in late adolescence was also related to low satisfaction for school in late adolescence, which in turn, was related to self delinquency in late adolescence. This was associated with alcohol use in emerging adulthood, which in turn, was associated with alcohol use in adulthood. Conclusions and Scientific Significance One of the key implications of this study is that impaired low parent-child attachment relationship is a determinant of children’s engagement in delinquent behavior and ultimately the use of alcohol in adult life. Implications for social interventions from the findings of the current study were also discussed. PMID:27629987

  16. Adolescent cocaine self-administration induces habit behavior in adulthood: sex differences and structural consequences

    PubMed Central

    DePoy, L M; Allen, A G; Gourley, S L

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent cocaine use increases the likelihood of drug abuse and addiction in adulthood, and etiological factors may include a cocaine-induced bias towards so-called ‘reward-seeking' habits. To determine whether adolescent cocaine exposure indeed impacts decision-making strategies in adulthood, we trained adolescent mice to orally self-administer cocaine. In adulthood, males with a history of escalating self-administration developed a bias towards habit-based behaviors. In contrast, escalating females did not develop habit biases; rather, low response rates were associated with later behavioral inflexibility, independent of cocaine dose. We focused the rest of our report on understanding how individual differences in young-adolescent females predicted long-term behavioral outcomes. Low, ‘stable' cocaine-reinforced response rates during adolescence were associated with cocaine-conditioned object preference and enlarged dendritic spine head size in the medial (prelimbic) prefrontal cortex in adulthood. Meanwhile, cocaine resilience was associated with enlarged spine heads in deep-layer orbitofrontal cortex. Re-exposure to the cocaine-associated context in adulthood energized responding in ‘stable responders', which could then be reduced by the GABAB agonist baclofen and the putative tyrosine receptor kinase B (trkB) agonist, 7,8-dihydroxyflavone. Together, our findings highlight resilience to cocaine-induced habits in females relative to males when intake escalates. However, failures in instrumental conditioning in adolescent females may precipitate reward-seeking behaviors in adulthood, particularly in the context of cocaine exposure. PMID:27576164

  17. Family Socialization, Economic Self-Efficacy, and the Attainment of Financial Independence in Early Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jennifer C; Mortimer, Jeylan T

    2009-01-01

    The attainment of financial independence is a key marker of the contemporary transition to adulthood. In this study we ask, how do young adults gain the capacity to support themselves? We contend that communication about work in the family during adolescence is an important precursor of economic self-efficacy during adolescence, which is positively associated with financial independence in early adulthood. Drawing upon rich longitudinal data that span adolescence and young adulthood, we first ask whether family communication and socialization practices surrounding work and finances influence the development of ways of thinking about oneself that imply self-reliance and confidence in the economic domain (economic self-efficacy). Second, we assess whether economic self-efficacy, measured during adolescence, has a long-term influence on the transition to adulthood, status attainment, and financial independence. Our findings indicate that direct communications about work with parents foster the development of economic self-efficacy. This positive dimension of the self-concept fosters achievement during the transition to adulthood (e.g., educational achievement, employment status, and income attainment), which, in turn, heighten financial independence in early adulthood.

  18. Economic stress in childhood and adulthood, and poor psychological health: three life course hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Martin; Fridh, Maria; Rosvall, Maria

    2014-02-28

    Investigations of mental health in a life course perspective are scarce. The aim is to investigate associations between economic stress in childhood and adulthood, and poor psychological health in adulthood with reference to the accumulation, critical period and social mobility hypotheses in life course epidemiology. The 2008 public health survey in Skåne is a cross-sectional postal questionnaire study. A random sample was invited which yielded 28,198 respondents aged 18-80 (55% participation). Psychological health was assessed with the GHQ12 instrument. Logistic regression models were used to investigate the associations adjusting for age, country of birth, socioeconomic status, emotional support, instrumental support and trust, and stratifying by sex. The accumulation hypothesis was confirmed because combined childhood and adulthood exposures to economic stress were associated with poor psychological health in a graded manner. The social mobility hypothesis was also confirmed. The critical period hypothesis was not confirmed because both childhood and adulthood economic stress remained significantly associated with poor psychological health in adulthood. Economic stress in childhood is associated with mental health in adulthood.

  19. Theorizing alternative pathways through adulthood: unequal social arrangements in the lives of young disadvantaged men.

    PubMed

    Roy, Kevin; Jones, Nikki

    2014-03-01

    This chapter introduces the innovative field-based studies on disadvantaged men that are featured in this volume. Together, these studies of disadvantaged men from diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds and both urban and nonurban settings complement and extend recent discussions of emerging adulthood, which typically conceptualizes the transition to adulthood as a normative and linear process. The authors offer that the research presented here provides a more accurate rendering of the transition to adulthood for young disadvantaged men. For disadvantaged young men, the transition to adulthood is often complex and nonlinear, and features a diversity of pathways that are often overlooked in contemporary research on transitions to adulthood. The chapter ends with a call for research and theory that better reflects the precarious nature of pathways to adulthood for disadvantaged men in urban and nonurban settings. Researchers are encouraged to draw on findings from field-based studies to inform policies and practices directed at minimizing the marginalization of disadvantaged men from mainstream society. PMID:24677645

  20. Long-term effects of child abuse and neglect on emotion processing in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Young, Joanna Cahall; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2014-08-01

    To determine whether child maltreatment has a long-term impact on emotion processing abilities in adulthood and whether IQ, psychopathology, or psychopathy mediate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and emotion processing in adulthood. Using a prospective cohort design, children (ages 0-11) with documented cases of abuse and neglect during 1967-1971 were matched with non-maltreated children and followed up into adulthood. Potential mediators (IQ, Post-Traumatic Stress [PTSD], Generalized Anxiety [GAD], Dysthymia, and Major Depressive [MDD] Disorders, and psychopathy) were assessed in young adulthood with standardized assessment techniques. In middle adulthood (Mage=47), the International Affective Picture System was used to measure emotion processing. Structural equation modeling was used to test mediation models. Individuals with a history of childhood maltreatment were less accurate in emotion processing overall and in processing positive and neutral pictures than matched controls. Childhood physical abuse predicted less accuracy in neutral pictures and childhood sexual abuse and neglect predicted less accuracy in recognizing positive pictures. MDD, GAD, and IQ predicted overall picture recognition accuracy. However, of the mediators examined, only IQ acted to mediate the relationship between child maltreatment and emotion processing deficits. Although research has focused on emotion processing in maltreated children, these new findings show an impact child abuse and neglect on emotion processing in middle adulthood. Research and interventions aimed at improving emotional processing deficiencies in abused and neglected children should consider the role of IQ.

  1. Adulthood stress responses in rats are variably altered as a factor of adolescent stress exposure.

    PubMed

    Moore, Nicole L T; Altman, Daniel E; Gauchan, Sangeeta; Genovese, Raymond F

    2016-05-01

    Stress exposure during development may influence adulthood stress response severity. The present study investigates persisting effects of two adolescent stressors upon adulthood response to predator exposure (PE). Rats were exposed to underwater trauma (UWT) or PE during adolescence, then to PE after reaching adulthood. Rats were then exposed to predator odor (PO) to test responses to predator cues alone. Behavioral and neuroendocrine assessments were conducted to determine acute effects of each stress experience. Adolescent stress altered behavioral response to adulthood PE. Acoustic startle response was blunted. Bidirectional changes in plus maze exploration were revealed as a factor of adolescent stress type. Neuroendocrine response magnitude did not predict severity of adolescent or adult stress response, suggesting that different adolescent stress events may differentially alter developmental outcomes regardless of acute behavioral or neuroendocrine response. We report that exposure to two different stressors in adolescence may differentially affect stress response outcomes in adulthood. Acute response to an adolescent stressor may not be consistent across all stressors or all dependent measures, and may not predict alterations in developmental outcomes pertaining to adulthood stress exposure. Further studies are needed to characterize factors underlying long-term effects of a developmental stressor.

  2. Long-term effects of child abuse and neglect on emotion processing in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Young, Joanna Cahall; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2014-08-01

    To determine whether child maltreatment has a long-term impact on emotion processing abilities in adulthood and whether IQ, psychopathology, or psychopathy mediate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and emotion processing in adulthood. Using a prospective cohort design, children (ages 0-11) with documented cases of abuse and neglect during 1967-1971 were matched with non-maltreated children and followed up into adulthood. Potential mediators (IQ, Post-Traumatic Stress [PTSD], Generalized Anxiety [GAD], Dysthymia, and Major Depressive [MDD] Disorders, and psychopathy) were assessed in young adulthood with standardized assessment techniques. In middle adulthood (Mage=47), the International Affective Picture System was used to measure emotion processing. Structural equation modeling was used to test mediation models. Individuals with a history of childhood maltreatment were less accurate in emotion processing overall and in processing positive and neutral pictures than matched controls. Childhood physical abuse predicted less accuracy in neutral pictures and childhood sexual abuse and neglect predicted less accuracy in recognizing positive pictures. MDD, GAD, and IQ predicted overall picture recognition accuracy. However, of the mediators examined, only IQ acted to mediate the relationship between child maltreatment and emotion processing deficits. Although research has focused on emotion processing in maltreated children, these new findings show an impact child abuse and neglect on emotion processing in middle adulthood. Research and interventions aimed at improving emotional processing deficiencies in abused and neglected children should consider the role of IQ. PMID:24747007

  3. A Case for Database Filesystems

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, P A; Hax, J C

    2009-05-13

    Data intensive science is offering new challenges and opportunities for Information Technology and traditional relational databases in particular. Database filesystems offer the potential to store Level Zero data and analyze Level 1 and Level 3 data within the same database system [2]. Scientific data is typically composed of both unstructured files and scalar data. Oracle SecureFiles is a new database filesystem feature in Oracle Database 11g that is specifically engineered to deliver high performance and scalability for storing unstructured or file data inside the Oracle database. SecureFiles presents the best of both the filesystem and the database worlds for unstructured content. Data stored inside SecureFiles can be queried or written at performance levels comparable to that of traditional filesystems while retaining the advantages of the Oracle database.

  4. High Temperature Superconducting Materials Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 149 NIST High Temperature Superconducting Materials Database (Web, free access)   The NIST High Temperature Superconducting Materials Database (WebHTS) provides evaluated thermal, mechanical, and superconducting property data for oxides and other nonconventional superconductors.

  5. Dietary Supplement Label Database (DSLD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Print Report Error T he Dietary Supplement Label Database (DSLD) is a joint project of the National ... participants in the latest survey in the DSLD database (NHANES): The search options: Quick Search, Browse Dietary ...

  6. ThermoData Engine Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 103 NIST ThermoData Engine Database (PC database for purchase)   ThermoData Engine is the first product fully implementing all major principles of the concept of dynamic data evaluation formulated at NIST/TRC.

  7. Hydrogen Leak Detection Sensor Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Barton D.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the characteristics of the Hydrogen Sensor database. The database is the result of NASA's continuing interest in and improvement of its ability to detect and assess gas leaks in space applications. The database specifics and a snapshot of an entry in the database are reviewed. Attempts were made to determine the applicability of each of the 65 sensors for ground and/or vehicle use.

  8. Scientific and Technical Document Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST Scientific and Technical Document Database (PC database for purchase)   The images in NIST Special Database 20 contain a very rich set of graphic elements from scientific and technical documents, such as graphs, tables, equations, two column text, maps, pictures, footnotes, annotations, and arrays of such elements.

  9. Microbial Properties Database Editor Tutorial

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Microbial Properties Database Editor (MPDBE) has been developed to help consolidate microbial-relevant data to populate a microbial database and support a database editor by which an authorized user can modify physico-microbial properties related to microbial indicators and pat...

  10. EMU Lessons Learned Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, Kevin M., Jr.; Crocker, Lori; Cupples, J. Scott

    2011-01-01

    As manned space exploration takes on the task of traveling beyond low Earth orbit, many problems arise that must be solved in order to make the journey possible. One major task is protecting humans from the harsh space environment. The current method of protecting astronauts during Extravehicular Activity (EVA) is through use of the specially designed Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). As more rigorous EVA conditions need to be endured at new destinations, the suit will need to be tailored and improved in order to accommodate the astronaut. The Objective behind the EMU Lessons Learned Database(LLD) is to be able to create a tool which will assist in the development of next-generation EMUs, along with maintenance and improvement of the current EMU, by compiling data from Failure Investigation and Analysis Reports (FIARs) which have information on past suit failures. FIARs use a system of codes that give more information on the aspects of the failure, but if one is unfamiliar with the EMU they will be unable to decipher the information. A goal of the EMU LLD is to not only compile the information, but to present it in a user-friendly, organized, searchable database accessible to all familiarity levels with the EMU; both newcomers and veterans alike. The EMU LLD originally started as an Excel database, which allowed easy navigation and analysis of the data through pivot charts. Creating an entry requires access to the Problem Reporting And Corrective Action database (PRACA), which contains the original FIAR data for all hardware. FIAR data are then transferred to, defined, and formatted in the LLD. Work is being done to create a web-based version of the LLD in order to increase accessibility to all of Johnson Space Center (JSC), which includes converting entries from Excel to the HTML format. FIARs related to the EMU have been completed in the Excel version, and now focus has shifted to expanding FIAR data in the LLD to include EVA tools and support hardware such as

  11. On a Fast-Track into Adulthood: An Exploration of Transitions into Adulthood for Street-Based Sex Workers in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abel, Gillian Michelle; Fitzgerald, Lisa Jane

    2008-01-01

    There have been many debates in the literature about the extended transition to adulthood many young people are experiencing in late modern times. However, not all young people make this prolonged transition and, for some, resources within their family and community networks are insufficient to enable an extended transition into stable,…

  12. Databases as an information service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    The relationship of databases to information services, and the range of information services users and their needs for information is explored and discussed. It is argued that for database information to be valuable to a broad range of users, it is essential that access methods be provided that are relatively unstructured and natural to information services users who are interested in the information contained in databases, but who are not willing to learn and use traditional structured query languages. Unless this ease of use of databases is considered in the design and application process, the potential benefits from using database systems may not be realized.

  13. Construction of file database management

    SciTech Connect

    MERRILL,KYLE J.

    2000-03-01

    This work created a database for tracking data analysis files from multiple lab techniques and equipment stored on a central file server. Experimental details appropriate for each file type are pulled from the file header and stored in a searchable database. The database also stores specific location and self-directory structure for each data file. Queries can be run on the database according to file type, sample type or other experimental parameters. The database was constructed in Microsoft Access and Visual Basic was used for extraction of information from the file header.

  14. Database-assisted promoter analysis.

    PubMed

    Hehl, R; Wingender, E

    2001-06-01

    The analysis of regulatory sequences is greatly facilitated by database-assisted bioinformatic approaches. The TRANSFAC database contains information on transcription factors and their origins, functional properties and sequence-specific binding activities. Software tools enable us to screen the database with a given DNA sequence for interacting transcription factors. If a regulatory function is already attributed to this sequence then the database-assisted identification of binding sites for proteins or protein classes and subsequent experimental verification might establish functionally relevant sites within this sequence. The binding transcription factors and interacting factors might already be present in the database.

  15. Does Maltreatment in Childhood Affect Sexual Orientation in Adulthood?

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Andrea L.; Glymour, M. Maria; Koenen, Karestan C.

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies find a positive association between physical and sexual abuse, neglect, and witnessing violence in childhood and same-sex sexuality in adulthood, but studies directly assessing the association between these diverse types of maltreatment and sexuality cannot disentangle the causal direction because the sequencing of maltreatment and emerging sexuality is difficult to ascertain. Nascent same-sex orientation may increase risk of maltreatment; alternatively, maltreatment may shape sexual orientation. Our study used instrumental variable models based on family characteristics that predict maltreatment but are not plausibly influenced by sexual orientation (e.g., having a stepparent) as natural experiments to investigate whether maltreatment might increase the likelihood of same-sex sexuality in a nationally representative sample (n = 34,653). In instrumental variable models, history of sexual abuse predicted increased prevalence of same-sex attraction by 2.0 percentage points (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4, 2.5), any same-sex partners by 1.4 percentage points (95% CI = 1.0, 1.9), and same-sex identity by 0.7 percentage points (95% CI = 0.4, 0.9). Effects of sexual abuse on men’s sexual orientation were substantially larger than on women’s. Effects of non-sexual maltreatment were significant only for men and women’s sexual identity and women’s same-sex partners. While point estimates suggest much of the association between maltreatment and sexual orientation may be due to the effects of maltreatment on sexual orientation, confidence intervals were wide. Our results suggest that causal relationships driving the association between sexual orientation and childhood abuse may be bidirectional, may differ by type of abuse, and may differ by sex. Better understanding of this potentially complex causal structure is critical to developing targeted strategies to reduce sexual orientation disparities in exposure to abuse. PMID:22976519

  16. Trajectories of binge drinking and personality change across emerging adulthood.

    PubMed

    Ashenhurst, James R; Harden, Kathryn P; Corbin, William R; Fromme, Kim

    2015-12-01

    College students binge drink more frequently than the broader population, yet most individuals "mature out" of binge drinking. Impulsivity and sensation seeking traits are important for understanding who is at risk for maintaining binge drinking across college and the transition to adult roles. We use latent class growth analysis (LCGA) to examine longitudinal binge-drinking trajectories spanning from the end of high school through 2 years after college (M ages = 18.4 to 23.8). Data were gathered over 10 waves from students at a large Southwestern university (N = 2,245). We use latent factor models to estimate changes in self-reported impulsive (IMP) and sensation-seeking (SS) personality traits across 2 time periods-(a) the end of high school to the end of college and (b) the 2-year transition out of college. LCGA suggested 7 binge-drinking trajectories: frequent, moderate, increasing, occasional, low increasing, decreasing, and rare. Models of personality showed that from high school through college, change in SS and IMP generally paralleled drinking trajectories, with increasing and decreasing individuals showing corresponding changes in SS. Across the transition out of college, only the increasing group demonstrated a developmentally deviant increase in IMP, whereas all other groups showed normative stability or decreases in both IMP and SS. These data indicate that "late bloomers," who begin binge drinking only in the later years of college, are a unique at-risk group for drinking associated with abnormal patterns of personality maturation during emerging adulthood. Our results indicate that personality targeted interventions may benefit college students. PMID:26348219

  17. Child maltreatment, alexithymia, and problematic internet use in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Yates, Tuppett M; Gregor, Margo A; Haviland, Mark G

    2012-04-01

    The goals of this study were to (a) examine the phenomenology and developmental correlates of problematic Internet use (PIU) in a large and diverse college student sample; (b) evaluate a developmental process model of PIU in which the expected association between child maltreatment and PIU would be explained by alexithymia; and (c) explore these relations as a function of gender and race. PIU was assessed in a sample of 1,470 college students (62.9 percent female, 37.1 percent male; M(age)=19.13 years [SD=1.49]; 46.1 percent Asian, 28.2 percent Hispanic, 16.3 percent White, 5.9 percent Black, and 3.5 percent Multiracial/Other) who participated in a larger study of young adult adaptation, which included measures of child maltreatment, alexithymia, self-concept, social support, and psychopathology. Males and Asian students endorsed higher levels of PIU than females and other ethnoracial groups, respectively. PIU was related to contemporaneous maladaptation in the form of decreased self-concept, lower social support, and increased psychopathology across groups. Experiences of child maltreatment were related to increased PIU, and mediation analyses showed that this relation was partially explained by alexithymia. These relations were comparable across males and females and between Asian and non-Asian respondents. The analyses provide evidence for the significant role of child maltreatment and the cognitive-affective deficits it precipitates in understanding pathways toward PIU in young adulthood. Our findings suggest that maltreated youth are at disproportionate risk for PIU, and their capacities to regulate and process emotion are important targets for prevention and therapeutic intervention. PMID:22313343

  18. Does maltreatment in childhood affect sexual orientation in adulthood?

    PubMed

    Roberts, Andrea L; Glymour, M Maria; Koenen, Karestan C

    2013-02-01

    Epidemiological studies find a positive association between physical and sexual abuse, neglect, and witnessing violence in childhood and same-sex sexuality in adulthood, but studies directly assessing the association between these diverse types of maltreatment and sexuality cannot disentangle the causal direction because the sequencing of maltreatment and emerging sexuality is difficult to ascertain. Nascent same-sex orientation may increase risk of maltreatment; alternatively, maltreatment may shape sexual orientation. Our study used instrumental variable models based on family characteristics that predict maltreatment but are not plausibly influenced by sexual orientation (e.g., having a stepparent) as natural experiments to investigate whether maltreatment might increase the likelihood of same-sex sexuality in a nationally representative sample (n = 34,653). In instrumental variable models, history of sexual abuse predicted increased prevalence of same-sex attraction by 2.0 percentage points [95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.4-2.5], any same-sex partners by 1.4 percentage points (95 % CI = 1.0-1.9), and same-sex identity by 0.7 percentage points (95 % CI = 0.4-0.9). Effects of sexual abuse on men's sexual orientation were substantially larger than on women's. Effects of non-sexual maltreatment were significant only for men and women's sexual identity and women's same-sex partners. While point estimates suggest much of the association between maltreatment and sexual orientation may be due to the effects of maltreatment on sexual orientation, confidence intervals were wide. Our results suggest that causal relationships driving the association between sexual orientation and childhood abuse may be bidirectional, may differ by type of abuse, and may differ by sex. Better understanding of this potentially complex causal structure is critical to developing targeted strategies to reduce sexual orientation disparities in exposure to abuse. PMID:22976519

  19. Trajectories of Binge Drinking and Personality Change Across Emerging Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Ashenhurst, James R.; Harden, Kathryn P.; Corbin, William R.; Fromme, Kim

    2015-01-01

    College students binge drink more frequently than the broader population, yet most individuals “mature out” of binge drinking. Impulsivity and sensation seeking traits are important for understanding who is at risk for maintaining binge drinking across college and the transition to adult roles. We use latent class growth analysis (LCGA) to examine longitudinal binge-drinking trajectories spanning from the end of high school through two years after college (mean ages 18.4 to 23.8). Data were gathered over 10 waves from students at a large Southwestern university (N = 2,245). We use latent factor models to estimate changes in self-reported impulsive (IMP) and sensation-seeking (SS) personality traits across two time periods – (1) the end of high school to the end of college, and (2) across the two-year transition out of college. LCGA suggested seven binge drinking trajectories: Frequent, Moderate, Increasing, Occasional, Low Increasing, Decreasing, and Rare. Models of personality showed that from high school through college, change in SS and IMP generally paralleled drinking trajectories, with Increasing and Decreasing individuals showing corresponding changes in SS. Across the transition out of college, only the Increasing group demonstrated a developmentally deviant increase in IMP, whereas all other groups showed normative stability or decreases in both IMP and SS. These data indicate that “late bloomers,” who begin binge drinking only in the later years of college, are a unique at-risk group for drinking associated with abnormal patterns of personality maturation during emerging adulthood. Our results indicate that personality targeted interventions may benefit college students. PMID:26348219

  20. UGTA Photograph Database

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2009-04-20

    One of the advantages of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) is that most of the geologic and hydrologic features such as hydrogeologic units (HGUs), hydrostratigraphic units (HSUs), and faults, which are important aspects of flow and transport modeling, are exposed at the surface somewhere in the vicinity of the NTS and thus are available for direct observation. However, due to access restrictions and the remote locations of many of the features, most Underground Test Area (UGTA) participants cannot observe these features directly in the field. Fortunately, National Security Technologies, LLC, geologists and their predecessors have photographed many of these features through the years. During fiscal year 2009, work was done to develop an online photograph database for use by the UGTA community. Photographs were organized, compiled, and imported into Adobe® Photoshop® Elements 7. The photographs were then assigned keyword tags such as alteration type, HGU, HSU, location, rock feature, rock type, and stratigraphic unit. Some fully tagged photographs were then selected and uploaded to the UGTA website. This online photograph database provides easy access for all UGTA participants and can help “ground truth” their analytical and modeling tasks. It also provides new participants a resource to more quickly learn the geology and hydrogeology of the NTS.

  1. Asbestos Exposure Assessment Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arcot, Divya K.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to particular hazardous materials in a work environment is dangerous to the employees who work directly with or around the materials as well as those who come in contact with them indirectly. In order to maintain a national standard for safe working environments and protect worker health, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set forth numerous precautionary regulations. NASA has been proactive in adhering to these regulations by implementing standards which are often stricter than regulation limits and administering frequent health risk assessments. The primary objective of this project is to create the infrastructure for an Asbestos Exposure Assessment Database specific to NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) which will compile all of the exposure assessment data into a well-organized, navigable format. The data includes Sample Types, Samples Durations, Crafts of those from whom samples were collected, Job Performance Requirements (JPR) numbers, Phased Contrast Microscopy (PCM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) results and qualifiers, Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), and names of industrial hygienists who performed the monitoring. This database will allow NASA to provide OSHA with specific information demonstrating that JSC s work procedures are protective enough to minimize the risk of future disease from the exposures. The data has been collected by the NASA contractors Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC) and Wyle Laboratories. The personal exposure samples were collected from devices worn by laborers working at JSC and by building occupants located in asbestos-containing buildings.

  2. Curcumin Resource Database.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anil; Chetia, Hasnahana; Sharma, Swagata; Kabiraj, Debajyoti; Talukdar, Narayan Chandra; Bora, Utpal

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin is one of the most intensively studied diarylheptanoid, Curcuma longa being its principal producer. This apart, a class of promising curcumin analogs has been generated in laboratories, aptly named as Curcuminoids which are showing huge potential in the fields of medicine, food technology, etc. The lack of a universal source of data on curcumin as well as curcuminoids has been felt by the curcumin research community for long. Hence, in an attempt to address this stumbling block, we have developed Curcumin Resource Database (CRDB) that aims to perform as a gateway-cum-repository to access all relevant data and related information on curcumin and its analogs. Currently, this database encompasses 1186 curcumin analogs, 195 molecular targets, 9075 peer reviewed publications, 489 patents and 176 varieties of C. longa obtained by extensive data mining and careful curation from numerous sources. Each data entry is identified by a unique CRDB ID (identifier). Furnished with a user-friendly web interface and in-built search engine, CRDB provides well-curated and cross-referenced information that are hyperlinked with external sources. CRDB is expected to be highly useful to the researchers working on structure as well as ligand-based molecular design of curcumin analogs.

  3. Curcumin Resource Database.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anil; Chetia, Hasnahana; Sharma, Swagata; Kabiraj, Debajyoti; Talukdar, Narayan Chandra; Bora, Utpal

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin is one of the most intensively studied diarylheptanoid, Curcuma longa being its principal producer. This apart, a class of promising curcumin analogs has been generated in laboratories, aptly named as Curcuminoids which are showing huge potential in the fields of medicine, food technology, etc. The lack of a universal source of data on curcumin as well as curcuminoids has been felt by the curcumin research community for long. Hence, in an attempt to address this stumbling block, we have developed Curcumin Resource Database (CRDB) that aims to perform as a gateway-cum-repository to access all relevant data and related information on curcumin and its analogs. Currently, this database encompasses 1186 curcumin analogs, 195 molecular targets, 9075 peer reviewed publications, 489 patents and 176 varieties of C. longa obtained by extensive data mining and careful curation from numerous sources. Each data entry is identified by a unique CRDB ID (identifier). Furnished with a user-friendly web interface and in-built search engine, CRDB provides well-curated and cross-referenced information that are hyperlinked with external sources. CRDB is expected to be highly useful to the researchers working on structure as well as ligand-based molecular design of curcumin analogs. PMID:26220923

  4. Petrophysical database of Uganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruotoistenmäki, Tapio; Birungi, Nelson R.

    2015-06-01

    The petrophysical database of Uganda contains data on ca. 5800 rock samples collected and analyzed during 2009-2012 in international geological and geophysical projects covering the main part of the land area of Uganda. The parameters included are the susceptibilities and densities of all available field samples. Susceptibilities were measured from the samples from three directions. Using these parameters, we also calculated the ratios of susceptibility maxima/minima reflecting direction homogeneity of magnetic minerals, and estimated the iron content of paramagnetic samples and the magnetite content of ferrimagnetic samples. Statistical and visual analysis of the petrophysical data of Uganda demonstrated their wide variation, thus emphasizing their importance in analyzing the bedrock variations in three dimensions. Using the density-susceptibility diagram, the data can be classified into six main groups: 1. A low density and susceptibility group, consisting of sedimentary and altered rocks. 2. Low-susceptibility, felsic rocks (e.g. quartzites and metasandstones). 3. Paramagnetic, felsic rocks (e.g. granites). 4. Ferrimagnetic, magnetite-containing felsic rocks (e.g. granites). 5. Paramagnetic mafic rocks (e.g. amphibolites and dolerites). 6. Ferrimagnetic, mafic rocks containing magnetite and high-density mafic minerals (mainly dolerites). Moreover, analysis revealed that the parameter distributions of even a single rock type (e.g. granites) can be very variable, forming separate clusters. This demonstrates that the simple calculation of density or susceptibility averages of rock types can be highly erratic. For example, the average can lie between two groups, where only few, if any, samples exist. Therefore, estimation of the representative density and susceptibility must be visually verified from these diagrams. The areal distribution of parameters and their calculated derivatives generally correlate well with the regional distribution of lithological and

  5. The nuclear receptor Tlx regulates motor, cognitive and anxiety-related behaviours during adolescence and adulthood.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, James D; Kozareva, Danka A; Hueston, Cara M; O'Leary, Olivia F; Cryan, John F; Nolan, Yvonne M

    2016-06-01

    The nuclear receptor Tlx is a key regulator of embryonic and adult hippocampal neurogenesis and has been genetically linked to bipolar disorder. Mice lacking Tlx (Nr2e1(-/-)) display deficits in adult hippocampal neurogenesis and behavioural abnormalities. However, whether Tlx regulates behaviour during adolescence or in a sex-dependent manner remains unexplored. Therefore, we investigated the role of Tlx in a series of behavioural tasks in adolescent male and female mice with a spontaneous deletion of Tlx (Nr2e1(-/-) mice). Testing commenced at adolescence (postnatal day 28) and continued until adulthood (postnatal day 67). Adolescent male and female Nr2e1(-/-) mice were hyperactive in an open field, an effect that persisted in adulthood. Male but not female Nr2e1(-/-) mice exhibited reduced thigmotaxis during adolescence and adulthood. Impairments in rotarod motor performance developed in male and female Nr2e1(-/-) mice at the onset of adulthood. Spontaneous alternation in the Y-maze, a hippocampus-dependent task, was impaired in adolescent but not adult male and female Nr2e1(-/-) mice. Contextual fear conditioning was impaired in adolescent male Nr2e1(-/-) mice only, but both male and female adolescent Nr2e1(-/-) mice showed impaired cued fear conditioning, a hippocampal-amygdala dependent cognitive process. These deficits persisted into adulthood in males but not females. In conclusion, deletion of Tlx impairs motor, cognitive and anxiety-related behaviours during adolescence and adulthood in male and female mice with most effects occurring during adolescence rather than adulthood, independent of housing conditions. This suggests that Tlx has functions beyond regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, and may be an important target in understanding neurobiological disorders.

  6. National Geochronological Database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Revised by Sloan, Jan; Henry, Christopher D.; Hopkins, Melanie; Ludington, Steve; Original database by Zartman, Robert E.; Bush, Charles A.; Abston, Carl

    2003-01-01

    The National Geochronological Data Base (NGDB) was established by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) to collect and organize published isotopic (also known as radiometric) ages of rocks in the United States. The NGDB (originally known as the Radioactive Age Data Base, RADB) was started in 1974. A committee appointed by the Director of the USGS was given the mission to investigate the feasibility of compiling the published radiometric ages for the United States into a computerized data bank for ready access by the user community. A successful pilot program, which was conducted in 1975 and 1976 for the State of Wyoming, led to a decision to proceed with the compilation of the entire United States. For each dated rock sample reported in published literature, a record containing information on sample location, rock description, analytical data, age, interpretation, and literature citation was constructed and included in the NGDB. The NGDB was originally constructed and maintained on a mainframe computer, and later converted to a Helix Express relational database maintained on an Apple Macintosh desktop computer. The NGDB and a program to search the data files were published and distributed on Compact Disc-Read Only Memory (CD-ROM) in standard ISO 9660 format as USGS Digital Data Series DDS-14 (Zartman and others, 1995). As of May 1994, the NGDB consisted of more than 18,000 records containing over 30,000 individual ages, which is believed to represent approximately one-half the number of ages published for the United States through 1991. Because the organizational unit responsible for maintaining the database was abolished in 1996, and because we wanted to provide the data in more usable formats, we have reformatted the data, checked and edited the information in some records, and provided this online version of the NGDB. This report describes the changes made to the data and formats, and provides instructions for the use of the database in geographic

  7. The CHIANTI atomic database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, P. R.; Dere, K. P.; Landi, E.; Del Zanna, G.; Mason, H. E.

    2016-04-01

    The freely available CHIANTI atomic database was first released in 1996 and has had a huge impact on the analysis and modeling of emissions from astrophysical plasmas. It contains data and software for modeling optically thin atom and positive ion emission from low density (≲1013 cm-3) plasmas from x-ray to infrared wavelengths. A key feature is that the data are assessed and regularly updated, with version 8 released in 2015. Atomic data for modeling the emissivities of 246 ions and neutrals are contained in CHIANTI, together with data for deriving the ionization fractions of all elements up to zinc. The different types of atomic data are summarized here and their formats discussed. Statistics on the impact of CHIANTI to the astrophysical community are given and examples of the diverse range of applications are presented.

  8. Ribosomal Database Project II

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) provides ribosome related data and services to the scientific community, including online data analysis and aligned and annotated Bacterial small-subunit 16S rRNA sequences. As of March 2008, RDP Release 10 is available and currently (August 2009) contains 1,074,075 aligned 16S rRNA sequences. Data that can be downloaded include zipped GenBank and FASTA alignment files, a histogram (in Excel) of the number of RDP sequences spanning each base position, data in the Functional Gene Pipeline Repository, and various user submitted data. The RDP-II website also provides numerous analysis tools.[From the RDP-II home page at http://rdp.cme.msu.edu/index.jsp

  9. View generated database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downward, James G.

    1992-01-01

    This document represents the final report for the View Generated Database (VGD) project, NAS7-1066. It documents the work done on the project up to the point at which all project work was terminated due to lack of project funds. The VGD was to provide the capability to accurately represent any real-world object or scene as a computer model. Such models include both an accurate spatial/geometric representation of surfaces of the object or scene, as well as any surface detail present on the object. Applications of such models are numerous, including acquisition and maintenance of work models for tele-autonomous systems, generation of accurate 3-D geometric/photometric models for various 3-D vision systems, and graphical models for realistic rendering of 3-D scenes via computer graphics.

  10. The new life stage of emerging adulthood at ages 18-29 years: implications for mental health.

    PubMed

    Arnett, Jeffrey J; Žukauskienė, Rita; Sugimura, Kazumi

    2014-12-01

    Since 1960 demographic trends towards longer time in education and late age to enter into marriage and of parenthood have led to the rise of a new life stage at ages 18-29 years, now widely known as emerging adulthood in developmental psychology. In this review we present some of the demographics of emerging adulthood in high-income countries with respect to the prevalence of tertiary education and the timing of parenthood. We examine the characteristics of emerging adulthood in several regions (with a focus on mental health implications) including distinctive features of emerging adulthood in the USA, unemployment in Europe, and a shift towards greater individualism in Japan. PMID:26361316

  11. Morphometry of the normal human ear: a cross-sectional study from adolescence to mid-adulthood.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, V F; Sforza, C; Ciusa, V; Serrao, G; Tartaglia, G M

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to supply information about: (1) normal gender-based dimensions of ears (linear distances and ratios, area); (2) left right symmetry; and (3) growth changes between adolescence and mid-adulthood. The three-dimensional co-ordinates of several soft-tissue landmarks on the ears and face were obtained by an electromagnetic digitizer in 40 male and 33 female adolescents aged 12-15 years. 73 young female and 89 young male adults aged 19-30 years, and 41 male and 38 female adults aged 31-56 years. From the landmarks, paired car width and length were calculated and averaged for age and gender, as well as the relevant ratios, ear areas and angles relative to the facial midline, and indices of left right symmetry. Comparisons were performed by factorial analysis of variance. All ear dimensions were significantly larger in men than in women (P < 0.005). A significant effect of age was found (P < 0.005), with larger values in older individuals. On average, the three-dimensional position of ears was symmetric, with symmetry coefficients ranging between 94 and 96%. Data collected in the present investigation could serve as a database for the quantitative description of human ear morphology during normal adolescent and adult growth.

  12. Temporary Integration, Resilient Inequality: Race and Neighborhood Change in the Transition to Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Sharkey, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on neighborhood and geographic change arising with the first “selection” of an independent residential setting: the transition out of the family home. Data from two sources—the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, and the Panel Study of Income Dynamics—are used to provide complementary analyses of trajectories of change in geographic location and neighborhood racial and economic composition during young adulthood. Findings indicate that for young adults who originate in segregated urban areas and remain in such areas, the period of young adulthood is characterized by continuity in neighborhood conditions and persistent racial inequality from childhood to adulthood. For young adults who exit highly segregated urban areas, this period is characterized by a substantial leveling of racial inequality, with African Americans moving into less-poor, less-segregated neighborhoods. However, the trend toward racial equality in young adulthood is temporary, as the gaps between whites and blacks grow as the young adults move further into adulthood. Crucial to the reemergence of racial inequality in neighborhood environments is the process of “unselected” change, or change in neighborhood conditions that occurs around young adults after they move to a new neighborhood environment. PMID:22570056

  13. Influence of gestational salt restriction in fetal growth and in development of diseases in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Sakuyama, Hiroe; Katoh, Minami; Wakabayashi, Honoka; Zulli, Anthony; Kruzliak, Peter; Uehara, Yoshio

    2016-01-20

    Recent studies reported the critical role of the intrauterine environment of a fetus in growth or the development of disease in adulthood. In this article we discussed the implications of salt restriction in growth of a fetus and the development of growth-related disease in adulthood. Salt restriction causes retardation of fatal growth or intrauterine death thereby leading to low birth weight or decreased birth rate. Such retardation of growth along with the upregulation of the renin angiotensin system due to salt restriction results in the underdevelopment of cardiovascular organs or decreases the number of the nephron in the kidney and is responsible for onset of hypertension in adulthood. In addition, gestational salt restriction is associated with salt craving after weaning. Moreover, salt restriction is associated with a decrease in insulin sensitivity. A series of alterations in metabolism due to salt restriction are probably mediated by the upregulation of the renin angiotensin system and an epigenetic mechanism including proinflammatory substances or histone methylation. Part of the metabolic disease in adulthood may be programmed through such epigenetic changes. The modification of gene in a fetus may be switched on through environment factors or life style after birth. The benefits of salt restriction have been assumed thus far; however, more precise investigation is required of its influence on the health of fetuses and the onset of various diseases in adulthood.

  14. Temporary integration, resilient inequality: race and neighborhood change in the transition to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Sharkey, Patrick

    2012-08-01

    This article focuses on neighborhood and geographic change arising with the first "selection" of an independent residential setting: the transition out of the family home. Data from two sources-the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, and the Panel Study of Income Dynamics-are used to provide complementary analyses of trajectories of change in geographic location and neighborhood racial and economic composition during young adulthood. Findings indicate that for young adults who originate in segregated urban areas and remain in such areas, the period of young adulthood is characterized by continuity in neighborhood conditions and persistent racial inequality from childhood to adulthood. For young adults who exit highly segregated urban areas, this period is characterized by a substantial leveling of racial inequality, with African Americans moving into less-poor, less-segregated neighborhoods. However, the trend toward racial equality in young adulthood is temporary, as the gaps between whites and blacks grow as the young adults move further into adulthood. Crucial to the reemergence of racial inequality in neighborhood environments is the process of "unselected" change, or change in neighborhood conditions that occurs around young adults after they move to a new neighborhood environment.

  15. Inorganic Crystal Structure Database (ICSD)

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 84 FIZ/NIST Inorganic Crystal Structure Database (ICSD) (PC database for purchase)   The Inorganic Crystal Structure Database (ICSD) is produced cooperatively by the Fachinformationszentrum Karlsruhe(FIZ) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The ICSD is a comprehensive collection of crystal structure data of inorganic compounds containing more than 140,000 entries and covering the literature from 1915 to the present.

  16. Biological Databases for Behavioral Neurobiology

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Erich J.

    2014-01-01

    Databases are, at their core, abstractions of data and their intentionally derived relationships. They serve as a central organizing metaphor and repository, supporting or augmenting nearly all bioinformatics. Behavioral domains provide a unique stage for contemporary databases, as research in this area spans diverse data types, locations, and data relationships. This chapter provides foundational information on the diversity and prevalence of databases, how data structures support the various needs of behavioral neuroscience analysis and interpretation. The focus is on the classes of databases, data curation, and advanced applications in bioinformatics using examples largely drawn from research efforts in behavioral neuroscience. PMID:23195119

  17. Relativistic quantum private database queries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Si-Jia; Yang, Yu-Guang; Zhang, Ming-Ou

    2015-04-01

    Recently, Jakobi et al. (Phys Rev A 83, 022301, 2011) suggested the first practical private database query protocol (J-protocol) based on the Scarani et al. (Phys Rev Lett 92, 057901, 2004) quantum key distribution protocol. Unfortunately, the J-protocol is just a cheat-sensitive private database query protocol. In this paper, we present an idealized relativistic quantum private database query protocol based on Minkowski causality and the properties of quantum information. Also, we prove that the protocol is secure in terms of the user security and the database security.

  18. Settling Down and Aging Out: Toward an Interactionist Theory of Desistance and the Transition to Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Massoglia, Michael; Uggen, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Conceptions of adulthood have changed dramatically in recent decades, with shifts in the timing and sequencing of classic markers such as parenthood and school completion. Despite such changes, however, the notion that young people will eventually “settle down” and desist from delinquent behaviors is remarkably persistent. Uniting life course criminology with classic work on age norms and role behavior, we contend that people who persist in delinquency will be less likely to view themselves as adults, less likely to achieve behavioral markers of adulthood, and less likely to make timely adult transitions than others their age. Our analysis of longitudinal survey data and intensive interview data supports this proposition, with both arrest and self-reported crime blocking the passage to adult status. We conclude that settling down or desisting from delinquency is an important part of the package of role behaviors that define adulthood in the contemporary United States. PMID:21340047

  19. Growing up fast: stress exposure and subjective "weathering" in emerging adulthood.

    PubMed

    Foster, Holly; Hagan, John; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2008-06-01

    We examine "subjective weathering" among females entering adulthood, using three waves of a national study. Subjective weathering is a social psychological component of aging that is associated with "physical weathering" previously observed in research on physical health. We examine the influence of stressors from childhood and adolescence on subjective weathering and depressive symptoms in emerging adulthood. Childhood abuse is associated with early menarche, as anticipated in research on physical weathering. Early menarche and child abuse are in turn associated with intimate partner violence exposure in adolescence. Both early menarche and intimate partner violence are associated with early parenthood and diminish the likelihood of high school graduation. These experiences culminate in subjective weathering associated with depressive symptoms in emerging adulthood. Our findings connect physical and subjective weathering within the stress process paradigm.

  20. The Continuation of Intimate Partner Violence from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Ming; Ueno, Koji; Gordon, Mellissa; Fincham, Frank D.

    2012-01-01

    Little attention has been paid to whether violence in adolescent romantic relationships is associated with relationship violence later in young adulthood. This study examined the continuation of intimate partner violence (IPV) from adolescence to young adulthood. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, results from negative binomial models and propensity score models showed that being victimized by relationship partners in adolescence was significantly associated with both perpetration and victimization in romantic relationships in young adulthood. Women reported higher levels of perpetration and lower levels of victimization than men did. Those who were living together (married or cohabiting) reported higher levels of victimization and perpetration than those who were dating. Further, such associations existed beyond the effects of parent–child violence and general aggression tendencies, suggesting the continuation of relationship-specific violence. Finally, these patterns persisted after controlling for participants’ age, race and ethnicity, parental education, and family structure. PMID:23687386

  1. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Neighborhood Attainments in the Transition to Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Swisher, Raymond R.; Kuhl, Danielle C.; Chavez, Jorge M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines racial and ethnic differences in locational attainments in the transition to adulthood, using longitudinal data about neighborhoods of youth in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. It examines place stratification and life course models of locational attainment during the 1990s, a period during which neighborhood poverty rates were declining for many groups. The analysis reveals durable inequalities in neighborhood poverty from adolescence to young adulthood, particularly for blacks and Hispanic origin subgroups. Family socioeconomic status and emerging educational attainments are associated with decreases in neighborhood poverty, with blacks receiving a stronger return from educational attainments than whites. Despite the benefits of education, racial and ethnic minorities remain more likely to live in considerably more disadvantaged neighborhoods in young adulthood than whites. PMID:24839313

  2. BODY WEIGHT AND HEALTH FROM EARLY TO MID-ADULTHOOD: A LONGITUDINAL ANALYSIS*

    PubMed Central

    Zajacova, Anna; Burgard, Sarah A.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the influence of body weight in early adulthood, and changes in weight over time, on self rated health (SRH) as people age into mid-adulthood. While prior research focused on cross-sectional samples of older adults, we use longitudinal data from the NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study (NHEFS) and double-trajectory latent growth models to study the association between body mass index (BMI) and SRH trajectories over twenty years. Results indicate that high BMI in early adulthood and gaining more weight over time are both associated with a faster decline in health ratings. Among white women only, those with a higher BMI at the baseline also report lower initial SRH. A small part of the weight-health associations is due to sociodemographic factors, but not baseline health behaviors or medical conditions. The findings provide new support for the cumulative disadvantage perspective, documenting the increasing health inequalities in a cohort of young adults. PMID:20420297

  3. From Childhood Maltreatment to Allostatic Load in Adulthood: The Role of Social Support.

    PubMed

    Horan, Jacqueline M; Widom, Cathy S

    2015-11-01

    Although previous research has documented that social support acts as a protective factor for individuals exposed to trauma, most research relies on assessments of social support at one point in time. The present study used data from a prospective cohort design study to examine the stability of social support from childhood through middle adulthood in individuals with documented histories of childhood abuse and neglect and matched controls (aged 0-11) and assessed the impact of social support on allostatic load, a composite measure of physiological stress response assessed through blood tests and physical measurements, in middle adulthood. Maltreated children are more likely to have unstable social support across the life span, compared to matched controls. Social support across the life span partially mediated the relationship between child maltreatment and allostatic load in adulthood, although there were differences by race and sex. These findings have implications for interventions to prevent the negative consequences of child maltreatment.

  4. Postnatal exposure to predator odor (TMT) enhances spatial learning in mice adulthood.

    PubMed

    Hacquemand, R; Jacquot, L; Brand, G

    2012-04-01

    Adult behavioral and physiological responses are partly dependent on neonatal experiences. In several animal species, enriched/aprovished environments and stressful/appeasing events are crucial in the setting of adaptative behaviors. However, little is known about the effects of postnatal exposure to predator odor (as unconditioned fear-related stimulus) on spatial learning at adulthood. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a postnatal exposure to 2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline (TMT, as a predator odor) on radial arm maze (RAM), Tolman maze (TM) and Morris water maze (MWM) in mice at adulthood. The results showed that a TMT group constituted by mice exposed postnatally during 3 weeks to TMT presented significantly better spatial learning achievements in adulthood compared to a water group, postnatally exposed to water only, as well as compared to a butanol group (butanol used as an odor without ecological significance) exposed postnatally to butanol during 3 weeks. PMID:22245526

  5. Conceptual Universal Database Language: Moving Up the Database Design Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karanikolas, Nikitas N.; Vassilakopoulos, Michael Gr.

    Today, the simplicity of the relational model types affects Information Systems design. We favor another approach where the Information System designers would be able to portray directly the real world in a database model that provides more powerful and composite data types, as those of the real world. However, more powerful models, like the Frame Database Model (FDB) model, need query and manipulation languages that can handle the features of the new composite data types. We demonstrate that the adoption of such a language, the Conceptual Universal Database Language (CUDL), leads to higher database design levels: a database modeled by Entity-Relationship (ER) diagrams can be first transformed to the CUDL Abstraction Level (CAL), which can be then transformed to the FDB model. Since, the latter transformation has been previously studied, to complete the design process, we present a set of rules for the transformation from ER diagrams to CAL.

  6. The roles of antisocial history and emerging adulthood developmental adaption in predicting adult antisocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Alink, Lenneke R A; Egeland, Byron

    2013-01-01

    Different trajectories of antisocial behavior in childhood and adolescence have been identified by several researchers. However, more needs to be known about the development of antisocial behavior in adulthood and about factors that account for continuity and change. In this study, we investigated the developmental course into adulthood of different trajectories of antisocial behavior in childhood and adolescence. Second, we examined the role of developmental adaptation in emerging adulthood in accounting for the continuity and change of antisocial behavior. The participants (N = 162) were drawn from an ongoing 28-year longitudinal study. Trajectory groups (EOP: Early Onset/Persistent, n = 30; AO: Adolescent Onset, n = 32; Other, n = 100) were based on measures of externalizing behavior assessed at six time points in childhood and adolescence. Through interviews and questionnaires in adulthood, the quality of romantic relationships and the participants' work ethic (age 23), duration of unemployment (between ages 23 and 26 years), the level of externalizing problems (ages 23 and 26), and the number of antisocial personality disorder symptoms (age 28) were assessed. Results indicated that individuals in the EOP group showed the highest levels of antisocial behavior throughout emerging and early adulthood. Negative experiences in the work and romantic relationship domains was related to the continuity of antisocial behavior in the EOP group. For the AO group, a shorter duration of unemployment was related to lower levels of antisocial behavior. This study shows that early history plays an important role in the development of antisocial behavior and in the way developmental adaptation in emerging adulthood accounts for continuity and change of antisocial behavior.

  7. The Protein Ensemble Database.

    PubMed

    Varadi, Mihaly; Tompa, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The scientific community's major conceptual notion of structural biology has recently shifted in emphasis from the classical structure-function paradigm due to the emergence of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). As opposed to their folded cousins, these proteins are defined by the lack of a stable 3D fold and a high degree of inherent structural heterogeneity that is closely tied to their function. Due to their flexible nature, solution techniques such as small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) are particularly well-suited for characterizing their biophysical properties. Computationally derived structural ensembles based on such experimental measurements provide models of the conformational sampling displayed by these proteins, and they may offer valuable insights into the functional consequences of inherent flexibility. The Protein Ensemble Database (http://pedb.vib.be) is the first openly accessible, manually curated online resource storing the ensemble models, protocols used during the calculation procedure, and underlying primary experimental data derived from SAXS and/or NMR measurements. By making this previously inaccessible data freely available to researchers, this novel resource is expected to promote the development of more advanced modelling methodologies, facilitate the design of standardized calculation protocols, and consequently lead to a better understanding of how function arises from the disordered state.

  8. The Mars Observer database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albee, Arden L.

    1988-01-01

    Mars Observer will study the surface, atmosphere, and climate of Mars in a systematic way over an entire Martian year. The observations of the surface will provide a database that will be invaluable to the planning of a future Mars sample return mission. Mars Observer is planned for a September 1992 launch from the Space Shuttle, using an upper-stage. After the one year transit the spacecraft is injected into orbit about Mars and the orbit adjusted to a near-circular, sun-synchronous low-altitude, polar orbit. During the Martian year in this mapping orbit the instruments gather both geoscience data and climatological data by repetitive global mapping. The scientific objectives of the mission are to: (1) determine the global elemental and mineralogical character of the surface material; (2) define globally the topography and gravitational field; (3) establish the nature of the magnetic field; (4) determine the time and space distribution, abundance, sources, and sinks of volatile material and dust over a seasonal cycle; and (5) explore the structure and aspects of the circulation of the atmosphere. The science investigations and instruments for Mars Observer have been chosen with these objectives in mind. These instruments, the principal investigator or team leader and the objectives are discussed.

  9. The sustained impact of adolescent violence histories on early adulthood outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Logan-Greene, Patricia; Nurius, Paula S.; Hooven, Carole; Thompson, Elaine A.

    2013-01-01

    A history of victimization and violence perpetration are well-established risk factors that hamper positive development in early adulthood, yet their separate and overlapping effects are rarely examined simultaneously, confounding understanding of their relative impacts. This study follows a diverse sample of at-risk adolescents (N=570) into early adulthood, comparing roles and resources, stress and distress, and maladaptive behaviors for those with a history of no violence, victimization only, perpetration only, and both perpetration and victimization. Results demonstrate four distinctive profiles, although all violence-exposed youth report more problems in the three assessed domains relative to those with no violence histories. Implications for intervention are discussed. PMID:23772203

  10. Differences in early onset alcohol use and heavy drinking among persons with childhood and adulthood trauma.

    PubMed

    Waldrop, Angela E; Ana, Elizabeth J Santa; Saladin, Michael E; McRae, Aimee L; Brady, Kathleen T

    2007-01-01

    We examined predictors for age at onset of first alcohol use and onset of heaviest alcohol use among men (n = 43) and women (n = 46) with alcohol dependence and PTSD, PTSD only, alcohol dependence only, and controls, with a particular focus on individuals with child versus adult trauma. Using analysis of variance procedures, results showed differences in onset of first alcohol use and heaviest drinking between childhood and adulthood trauma victims. These preliminary results indicate that behavioral mechanisms associated with alcohol use patterns between individuals with childhood and adulthood trauma are dissimilar, suggesting greater psychopathological consequences for individuals with childhood trauma.

  11. Longitudinal Associations Between Substance Use and Violence in Adolescence Through Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    LIM, JUNE Y.; LUI, CAMILLIA K.

    2016-01-01

    Substance use and violence are interrelated behaviors during adolescence and early adulthood. Using National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health data, this study examined the longitudinal relationships between (a) alcohol and violence perpetration, (b) marijuana and perpetration, (c) alcohol and victimization, and (d) marijuana and victimization. Cross-lagged structural equation models showed that longitudinal patterns of violence and substance use vary somewhat and that the ways preceding stages of violence and substance use are associated with subsequent violence, and substance use differ by violence, substance type, and transitional stage. Our findings call for primary and secondary prevention strategies targeting early adulthood. PMID:27366116

  12. XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 8 XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database (Web, free access)   A web database is provided which can be used to calculate photon cross sections for scattering, photoelectric absorption and pair production, as well as total attenuation coefficients, for any element, compound or mixture (Z <= 100) at energies from 1 keV to 100 GeV.

  13. Databases for K-8 Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Terrence E., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Today's elementary school students have been exposed to computers since birth, so it is not surprising that they are so proficient at using them. As a result, they are ready to search databases that include topics and information appropriate for their age level. Subscription databases are digital copies of magazines, newspapers, journals,…

  14. The Yield of Bibliographic Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Kazimierz; Hackett, Timothy P.

    1992-01-01

    Demonstrates a means for estimating the number of retrieved items using well-established selective dissemination of information (SDI) profiles in the SCI, INSPEC, ISMEC, CAS, and PASCAL databases. A correlation between individual database size and number of retrieved documents in technical fields is also examined. (17 references) (LAE)

  15. Mathematical Notation in Bibliographic Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasterczyk, Catherine E.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses ways in which using mathematical symbols to search online bibliographic databases in scientific and technical areas can improve search results. The representations used for Greek letters, relations, binary operators, arrows, and miscellaneous special symbols in the MathSci, Inspec, Compendex, and Chemical Abstracts databases are…

  16. Wind turbine reliability database update.

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Valerie A.; Hill, Roger Ray; Stinebaugh, Jennifer A.; Veers, Paul S.

    2009-03-01

    This report documents the status of the Sandia National Laboratories' Wind Plant Reliability Database. Included in this report are updates on the form and contents of the Database, which stems from a fivestep process of data partnerships, data definition and transfer, data formatting and normalization, analysis, and reporting. Selected observations are also reported.

  17. Marriage and Health in the Transition to Adulthood: Evidence for African Americans in the Add Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Lee, Hedwig; DeLeone, Felicia Yang

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the relationships among early marriage (before age 26 years), cohabitation, and health for African Americans and Whites during the transition to adulthood using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). The study examines three categories of health outcomes relevant to young adulthood: physical…

  18. What Does It Take to Be an Adult in Austria? Views of Adulthood in Austrian Adolescents, Emerging Adults, and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirsch, Ulrike; Dreher, Eva; Mayr, Eva; Willinger, Ulrike

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the defining features of emerging adulthood, subjects' conceptions of the transition to adulthood, and the perceived adult status in Austria. The sample consisted of 775 subjects (226 adolescents, 317 emerging adults, 232 adults). Results showed that most Austrian emerging adults feel themselves to be between adolescence…

  19. Cumulative Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders by Young Adulthood: A Prospective Cohort Analysis From the Great Smoky Mountains Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, William; Shanahan, Lilly; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Objective: No longitudinal studies beginning in childhood have estimated the cumulative prevalence of psychiatric illness from childhood into young adulthood. The objective of this study was to estimate the cumulative prevalence of psychiatric disorders by young adulthood and to assess how inclusion of not otherwise specified diagnoses affects…

  20. Stability and Change in Executive Function Abilities from Late Adolescence to Early Adulthood: A Longitudinal Twin Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Naomi P.; Miyake, Akira; Altamirano, Lee J.; Corley, Robin P.; Young, Susan E.; Rhea, Sally Ann; Hewitt, John K.

    2016-01-01

    Executive functions (EFs)--the higher level cognitive abilities that enable us to control our own thoughts and actions--continue to develop into early adulthood, yet no longitudinal study has examined their stability during the important life transition from late adolescence to young adulthood. In this twin study (total N = 840 individuals from…

  1. The Timing of Entry into Adult Roles and Changes in Trajectories of Problem Behaviors during the Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Monica J.; Blozis, Shelley A.; Boeninger, Daria K.; Masarik, April S.; Conger, Rand D.

    2014-01-01

    This study of a cohort of 451 adolescents examined associations between trajectories of problem behaviors and the timing of entry into work, marriage, and parenthood. We used data from 12 assessments across adolescence, through emerging adulthood and into young adulthood. We employed 2-phase mixed-effects models to estimate growth in substance use…

  2. Girls' Stable Peer Status and Their Adulthood Adjustment: A Longitudinal Study from Age 10 to Age 43

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zettergren, Peter; Bergman, Lars R.; Wangby, Margit

    2006-01-01

    Stable peer status clusters of rejected, popular, and average girls from ages 10 to 13 were identified and associated to young and middle adulthood adjustment. The study included a representative sample of 445 females from the longitudinal research program Individual Development and Adaptation. Results showed that, by young adulthood, rejected…

  3. The Slovenian food composition database.

    PubMed

    Korošec, Mojca; Golob, Terezija; Bertoncelj, Jasna; Stibilj, Vekoslava; Seljak, Barbara Koroušić

    2013-10-01

    The preliminary Slovenian food composition database was created in 2003, through the application of the Data management and Alimenta nutritional software. In the subsequent projects, data on the composition of meat and meat products of Slovenian origin were gathered from analyses, and low-quality data of the preliminary database were discarded. The first volume of the Slovenian food composition database was published in 2006, in both electronic and paper versions. When Slovenia joined the EuroFIR NoE, the LanguaL indexing system was adopted. The Optijed nutritional software was developed, and later upgraded to the OPEN platform. This platform serves as an electronic database that currently comprises 620 foods, and as the Slovenian node in the EuroFIR virtual information platform. With the assimilation of the data on the compositions of foods of plant origin obtained within the latest project, the Slovenian database provides a good source for food compositional values of consistent and compatible quality.

  4. The EMBL nucleotide sequence database.

    PubMed Central

    Stoesser, G; Moseley, M A; Sleep, J; McGowran, M; Garcia-Pastor, M; Sterk, P

    1998-01-01

    The EMBL Nucleotide Sequence Database (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/embl. html ) constitutes Europe's primary nucleotide sequence resource. DNA and RNA sequences are directly submitted from researchers and genome sequencing groups and collected from the scientific literature and patent applications (Fig. 1). In collaboration with DDBJ and GenBank the database is produced, maintained and distributed at the European Bioinformatics Institute. Database releases are produced quarterly and are distributed on CD-ROM. EBI's network services allow access to the most up-to-date data collection via Internet and World Wide Web interface, providing database searching and sequence similarity facilities plus access to a large number of additional databases. PMID:9399791

  5. GOTTCHA Database, Version 1

    2015-08-03

    One major challenge in the field of shotgun metagenomics is the accurate identification of the organisms present within the community, based on classification of short sequence reads. Though microbial community profiling methods have emerged to attempt to rapidly classify the millions of reads output from contemporary sequencers, the combination of incomplete databases, similarity among otherwise divergent genomes, and the large volumes of sequencing data required for metagenome sequencing has led to unacceptably high false discoverymore » rates (FDR). Here we present the application of a novel, gene-independent and signature-based metagenomic taxonomic profiling tool with significantly smaller FDR, which is also capable of classifying never-before seen genomes into the appropriate parent taxa.The algorithm is based upon three primary computational phases: (I) genomic decomposition into bit vectors, (II) bit vector intersections to identify shared regions, and (III) bit vector subtractions to remove shared regions and reveal unique, signature regions.In the Decomposition phase, genomic data is first masked to highlight only the valid (non-ambiguous) regions and then decomposed into overlapping 24-mers. The k-mers are sorted along with their start positions, de-replicated, and then prefixed, to minimize data duplication. The prefixes are indexed and an identical data structure is created for the start positions to mimic that of the k-mer data structure.During the Intersection phase -- which is the most computationally intensive phase -- as an all-vs-all comparison is made, the number of comparisons is first reduced by four methods: (a) Prefix restriction, (b) Overlap detection, (c) Overlap restriction, and (d) Result recording. In Prefix restriction, only k-mers of the same prefix are compared. Within that group, potential overlap of k-mer suffixes that would result in a non-empty set intersection are screened for. If such an overlap exists, the region which

  6. GOTTCHA Database, Version 1

    SciTech Connect

    Freitas, Tracey; Chain, Patrick; Lo, Chien-Chi; Li, Po-E

    2015-08-03

    One major challenge in the field of shotgun metagenomics is the accurate identification of the organisms present within the community, based on classification of short sequence reads. Though microbial community profiling methods have emerged to attempt to rapidly classify the millions of reads output from contemporary sequencers, the combination of incomplete databases, similarity among otherwise divergent genomes, and the large volumes of sequencing data required for metagenome sequencing has led to unacceptably high false discovery rates (FDR). Here we present the application of a novel, gene-independent and signature-based metagenomic taxonomic profiling tool with significantly smaller FDR, which is also capable of classifying never-before seen genomes into the appropriate parent taxa.The algorithm is based upon three primary computational phases: (I) genomic decomposition into bit vectors, (II) bit vector intersections to identify shared regions, and (III) bit vector subtractions to remove shared regions and reveal unique, signature regions.In the Decomposition phase, genomic data is first masked to highlight only the valid (non-ambiguous) regions and then decomposed into overlapping 24-mers. The k-mers are sorted along with their start positions, de-replicated, and then prefixed, to minimize data duplication. The prefixes are indexed and an identical data structure is created for the start positions to mimic that of the k-mer data structure.During the Intersection phase -- which is the most computationally intensive phase -- as an all-vs-all comparison is made, the number of comparisons is first reduced by four methods: (a) Prefix restriction, (b) Overlap detection, (c) Overlap restriction, and (d) Result recording. In Prefix restriction, only k-mers of the same prefix are compared. Within that group, potential overlap of k-mer suffixes that would result in a non-empty set intersection are screened for. If such an overlap exists, the region which intersects is

  7. Cloudsat tropical cyclone database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tourville, Natalie D.

    CloudSat (CS), the first 94 GHz spaceborne cloud profiling radar (CPR), launched in 2006 to study the vertical distribution of clouds. Not only are CS observations revealing inner vertical cloud details of water and ice globally but CS overpasses of tropical cyclones (TC's) are providing a new and exciting opportunity to study the vertical structure of these storm systems. CS TC observations are providing first time vertical views of TC's and demonstrate a unique way to observe TC structure remotely from space. Since December 2009, CS has intersected every globally named TC (within 1000 km of storm center) for a total of 5,278 unique overpasses of tropical systems (disturbance, tropical depression, tropical storm and hurricane/typhoon/cyclone (HTC)). In conjunction with the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), each CS TC overpass is processed into a data file containing observational data from the afternoon constellation of satellites (A-TRAIN), Navy's Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System Model (NOGAPS), European Center for Medium range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) model and best track storm data. This study will describe the components and statistics of the CS TC database, present case studies of CS TC overpasses with complementary A-TRAIN observations and compare average reflectivity stratifications of TC's across different atmospheric regimes (wind shear, SST, latitude, maximum wind speed and basin). Average reflectivity stratifications reveal that characteristics in each basin vary from year to year and are dependent upon eye overpasses of HTC strength storms and ENSO phase. West Pacific (WPAC) basin storms are generally larger in size (horizontally and vertically) and have greater values of reflectivity at a predefined height than all other basins. Storm structure at higher latitudes expands horizontally. Higher vertical wind shear (≥ 9.5 m/s) reduces cloud top height (CTH) and the intensity of precipitation cores, especially in HTC strength storms

  8. The Berlin Emissivity Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helbert, Jorn

    Remote sensing infrared spectroscopy is the principal field of investigation for planetary surfaces composition. Past, present and future missions to the solar system bodies include in their payload instruments measuring the emerging radiation in the infrared range. TES on Mars Global Surveyor and THEMIS on Mars Odyssey have in many ways changed our views of Mars. The PFS instrument on the ESA Mars Express mission has collected spectra since the beginning of 2004. In spring 2006 the VIRTIS experiment started its operation on the ESA Venus Express mission, allowing for the first time to map the surface of Venus using the 1 µm emission from the surface. The MERTIS spectrometer is included in the payload of the ESA BepiColombo mission to Mercury, scheduled for 2013. For the interpretation of the measured data an emissivity spectral library of planetary analogue materials is needed. The Berlin Emissivity Database (BED) presented here is focused on relatively fine-grained size separates, providing a realistic basis for interpretation of thermal emission spectra of planetary regoliths. The BED is therefore complimentary to existing thermal emission libraries, like the ASU library for example. The BED contains currently entries for plagioclase and potassium feldspars, low Ca and high Ca pyroxenes, olivine, elemental sulphur, common martian analogues (JSC Mars-1, Salten Skov, palagonites, montmorillonite) and a lunar highland soil sample measured in the wavelength range from 3 to 50 µm as a function of particle size. For each sample, the spectra of four well defined particle size separates (¡25 µm , 25-63 µm, 63-125 µm, 125-250 µm) are measured with a 4 cm-1 spectral resolution. These size separates have been selected as typical representations for most of the planetary surfaces. Following an ongoing upgrade of the Planetary Emmissivity Laboratory (PEL) at DLR in Berlin measurements can be obtained at temperatures up to 500° C - realistic for the dayside conditions

  9. Population databases in development analysis.

    PubMed

    Chamie, J

    1994-01-01

    Population databases are very important in formulating analyses of social and economic change and development. Since such analyses are often the basis for policy making and program formulation, it is important to have a sound understanding of their strengths and limitations. This paper focuses upon databases which deal with population size, life expectancy at birth, and infant mortality. Considerable progress has been made in producing population databases over the last several decades, but many problems remain with regard to their comparability, completeness of coverage, and accuracy. Governmental and political circumstances greatly influence the availability and quality of population databases. Globally, the comparability of data remains a serious concern due to deviations from standard definitions. The completeness of coverage of databases among less developed countries varies widely by region, while the data for preparing estimates and assessing demographic trends are deficient and problematic. Technological advances and the repackaging of population databases have greatly advanced their production and availability, but confusion and ignorance have become widespread regarding the original source and nature of the data. Database users therefore too often undertake faulty analyses which lead to false conclusions.

  10. Database tomography for commercial application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kostoff, Ronald N.; Eberhart, Henry J.

    1994-01-01

    Database tomography is a method for extracting themes and their relationships from text. The algorithms, employed begin with word frequency and word proximity analysis and build upon these results. When the word 'database' is used, think of medical or police records, patents, journals, or papers, etc. (any text information that can be computer stored). Database tomography features a full text, user interactive technique enabling the user to identify areas of interest, establish relationships, and map trends for a deeper understanding of an area of interest. Database tomography concepts and applications have been reported in journals and presented at conferences. One important feature of the database tomography algorithm is that it can be used on a database of any size, and will facilitate the users ability to understand the volume of content therein. While employing the process to identify research opportunities it became obvious that this promising technology has potential applications for business, science, engineering, law, and academe. Examples include evaluating marketing trends, strategies, relationships and associations. Also, the database tomography process would be a powerful component in the area of competitive intelligence, national security intelligence and patent analysis. User interests and involvement cannot be overemphasized.

  11. Database of Properties of Meteors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suggs, Rob; Anthea, Coster

    2006-01-01

    A database of properties of meteors, and software that provides access to the database, are being developed as a contribution to continuing efforts to model the characteristics of meteors with increasing accuracy. Such modeling is necessary for evaluation of the risk of penetration of spacecraft by meteors. For each meteor in the database, the record will include an identification, date and time, radiant properties, ballistic coefficient, radar cross section, size, density, and orbital elements. The property of primary interest in the present case is density, and one of the primary goals in this case is to derive densities of meteors from their atmospheric decelerations. The database and software are expected to be valid anywhere in the solar system. The database will incorporate new data plus results of meteoroid analyses that, heretofore, have not been readily available to the aerospace community. Taken together, the database and software constitute a model that is expected to provide improved estimates of densities and to result in improved risk analyses for interplanetary spacecraft. It is planned to distribute the database and software on a compact disk.

  12. The YH database: the first Asian diploid genome database.

    PubMed

    Li, Guoqing; Ma, Lijia; Song, Chao; Yang, Zhentao; Wang, Xiulan; Huang, Hui; Li, Yingrui; Li, Ruiqiang; Zhang, Xiuqing; Yang, Huanming; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jun

    2009-01-01

    The YH database is a server that allows the user to easily browse and download data from the first Asian diploid genome. The aim of this platform is to facilitate the study of this Asian genome and to enable improved organization and presentation large-scale personal genome data. Powered by GBrowse, we illustrate here the genome sequences, SNPs, and sequencing reads in the MapView. The relationships between phenotype and genotype can be searched by location, dbSNP ID, HGMD ID, gene symbol and disease name. A BLAST web service is also provided for the purpose of aligning query sequence against YH genome consensus. The YH database is currently one of the three personal genome database, organizing the original data and analysis results in a user-friendly interface, which is an endeavor to achieve fundamental goals for establishing personal medicine. The database is available at http://yh.genomics.org.cn.

  13. The Impact of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Other Forms of Childhood Adversity on Adulthood Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Betty

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the independent impact of child sexual abuse on five dimensions of adulthood parenting after controlling for other forms of childhood adversity in a predominantly African-American sample of mothers receiving public assistance (N = 483). An analysis of data previously collected as part of the Illinois Families Study Child…

  14. Adversity in childhood linked to elevated striatal dopamine function in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Egerton, Alice; Valmaggia, Lucia R; Howes, Oliver D; Day, Fern; Chaddock, Christopher A; Allen, Paul; Winton-Brown, Toby T; Bloomfield, Michael A P; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; Chilcott, Jack; Lappin, Julia M; Murray, Robin M; McGuire, Philip

    2016-10-01

    Childhood adversity increases the risk of psychosis in adulthood. Theoretical and animal models suggest that this effect may be mediated by increased striatal dopamine neurotransmission. The primary objective of this study was to examine the relationship between adversity in childhood and striatal dopamine function in early adulthood. Secondary objectives were to compare exposure to childhood adversity and striatal dopamine function in young people at ultra high risk (UHR) of psychosis and healthy volunteers. Sixty-seven young adults, comprising 47 individuals at UHR for psychosis and 20 healthy volunteers were recruited from the same geographic area and were matched for age, gender and substance use. Presynaptic dopamine function in the associative striatum was assessed using 18F-DOPA positron emission tomography. Childhood adversity was assessed using the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse questionnaire. Within the sample as a whole, both severe physical or sexual abuse (T63=2.92; P=0.005), and unstable family arrangements (T57=2.80; P=0.007) in childhood were associated with elevated dopamine function in the associative striatum in adulthood. Comparison of the UHR and volunteer subgroups revealed similar incidence of childhood adverse experiences, and there was no significant group difference in dopamine function. This study provides evidence that childhood adversity is linked to elevated striatal dopamine function in adulthood. PMID:27344984

  15. Higher Education and Cognitive Developmental Changes in Adulthood: An Integration of Logic and Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papini, Dennis R.; And Others

    One of the issues facing educators is the increasing number of nontraditional students appearing in the college classroom. Recent conceptualizations of adult reasoning have suggested that there are qualitative differences in reasoning from young to late adulthood. The objective of this study was to examine cognitive differences rather than…

  16. Marriage Expectations among African American Couples in Early Adulthood: A Dyadic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Ashley B.; Simons, Ronald L.

    2012-01-01

    Using Family and Community Health Study data consisting of 168 unmarried, primarily African American couples, the current study sought to understand the dyadic interplay among school, work, and partner-specific marriage expectations in early adulthood. Drawing on the economic prospects, adult transitions, and work-family literatures, the authors…

  17. An Experimental Analysis of Dynamic Hypotheses About Cognitive Abilities and Achievement From Childhood to Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrer, Emilio; McArdle, John J.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the dynamics of cognitive abilities and academic achievement from childhood to early adulthood. Predictions about time-dependent "coupling" relations between cognition and achievement based on R. B. Cattell's (1971, 1987) investment hypothesis were evaluated using linear dynamic models applied to longitudinal data (N=672).…

  18. The Development of Narrative Identity in Late Adolescence and Emergent Adulthood: The Continued Importance of Listeners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasupathi, Monisha; Hoyt, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    Research on narrative identity in late adolescence and early adulthood has not extensively examined how conversational storytelling affects the development of narrative identity. This is a major gap, given the importance of this age period for narrative identity development and the clear importance of parent-child conversations in the development…

  19. The "Not Guilty Verdict": Psychological Reactions to a Diagnosis of Asperger Syndrome in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Punshon, C.; Skirrow, P.; Murphy, G.

    2009-01-01

    Asperger syndrome is a relatively new diagnostic classification. A number of factors make receiving a diagnosis of Asperger syndrome in adulthood a unique experience. This study used a phenomenological approach to examine the experiences of 10 adults receiving such a diagnosis. Results suggested that six major themes were associated with receiving…

  20. School Performance in Childhood and Adolescence as a Predictor of Depressive Symptoms in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehtinen, Henri; Raikkonen, Katri; Heinonen, Kati; Raitakari, Olli T.; Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa

    2006-01-01

    The current study examined whether school performance in childhood and adolescence predicts depressive symptoms in adulthood over 12 to 21 years. Questionnaires measuring grade point average (GPA), having remedial education or incurring penalties during the current school term were obtained from parents when the participants were aged 9, 12 and…

  1. Managing the Transition to College: Family Functioning, Emotion Coping, and Adjustment in Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Vanessa Kahen; Gans, Susan E.; Kerr, Sandra; LaValle, William

    2010-01-01

    Using a self-reported assessment of 320 first-time college students, we tested the hypothesis that one's ability to manage emotion moderates the relationship between family environment and college adjustment. Results add to growing evidence that the way one views one's whole family environment during the emerging adulthood years is linked to one's…

  2. Online Narratives by Adults with ADHD Who Were Diagnosed in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleischmann, Amos; Miller, Erez C.

    2013-01-01

    This study systematically analyzed life stories of adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who were diagnosed in adulthood, using an adapted version of Labov's textual-analysis method. These life stories provided an opportunity to examine the processes experienced by these individuals before and after the diagnosis of ADHD,…

  3. Cumulative stress in childhood is associated with blunted reward-related brain activity in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Jamie L; Albert, Dustin; Iselin, Anne-Marie R; Carré, Justin M; Dodge, Kenneth A; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2016-03-01

    Early life stress (ELS) is strongly associated with negative outcomes in adulthood, including reduced motivation and increased negative mood. The mechanisms mediating these relations, however, are poorly understood. We examined the relation between exposure to ELS and reward-related brain activity, which is known to predict motivation and mood, at age 26, in a sample followed since kindergarten with annual assessments. Using functional neuroimaging, we assayed individual differences in the activity of the ventral striatum (VS) during the processing of monetary rewards associated with a simple card-guessing task, in a sample of 72 male participants. We examined associations between a cumulative measure of ELS exposure and VS activity in adulthood. We found that greater levels of cumulative stress during childhood and adolescence predicted lower reward-related VS activity in adulthood. Extending this general developmental pattern, we found that exposure to stress early in development (between kindergarten and grade 3) was significantly associated with variability in adult VS activity. Our results provide an important demonstration that cumulative life stress, especially during this childhood period, is associated with blunted reward-related VS activity in adulthood. These differences suggest neurobiological pathways through which a history of ELS may contribute to reduced motivation and increased negative mood. PMID:26443679

  4. Growing Up Fast: Stress Exposure and Subjective "Weathering" in Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Holly; Hagan, John; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2008-01-01

    We examine "subjective weathering" among females entering adulthood, using three waves of a national study. Subjective weathering is a social psychological component of aging that is associated with "physical weathering" previously observed in research on physical health. We examine the influence of stressors from childhood and adolescence on…

  5. Comparing Growth Trajectories of Risk Behaviors from Late Adolescence through Young Adulthood: An Accelerated Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodbeck, Jeannette; Bachmann, Monica S.; Croudace, Tim J.; Brown, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Risk behaviors such as substance use or deviance are often limited to the early stages of the life course. Whereas the onset of risk behavior is well studied, less is currently known about the decline and timing of cessation of risk behaviors of different domains during young adulthood. Prevalence and longitudinal developmental patterning of…

  6. Neural Correlates of Performance Monitoring during the Transition to Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kneževic, Martina; Veroude, Kim; Jolles, Jelle; Krabbendam, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive challenges during transition to adulthood are generally high and require particular skills, such as self-control, performance evaluation, and behavioral adjustment for success in everyday living. However, age and sex differences in timing and efficiency of brain maturational processes in the early twenties are not well known. We used a…

  7. Early Entries into Adult Roles: Associations with Aggressive Behavior from Early Adolescence into Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roche, Kathleen M.; Ensminger, Margaret E.; Ialongo, Nicholas; Poduska, Jeanne M.; Kellam, Sheppard G.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines how early entries into adult roles are associated with aggressive and violent behavior occurring from early adolescence to young adulthood among 499 males and 578 females living in low-income, central-city neighborhoods. Among males, engagement in adult roles accounted for the relationship between higher levels of aggressive…

  8. Longitudinal Disparities of Hazardous Drinking between Sexual Minority and Heterosexual Individuals from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Dermody, Sarah S.; Marshal, Michael P.; Cheong, JeeWon; Burton, Chad; Hughes, Tonda; Aranda, Frances; Friedman, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual minority (lesbian and gay, bisexual, mostly heterosexual) individuals are at an increased risk for hazardous drinking than heterosexual individuals, but little is known about the nature of the disparities as adolescents reach adulthood. We used four waves of a nationally representative data set, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), to examine disparities of hazardous drinking outcomes between sexual minority and heterosexual men and women from adolescence to young adulthood. Participants were 14 to 18 years old at the first assessment (N = 12,379; 53% female) and 27 to 31 years old at the fourth assessment. At the fourth assessment, 13% self-identified as sexual minority individuals, 16% were Hispanic, and 36% were of minority race, including primarily African Americans (60%) and Asian Americans (18%). There were clear hazardous drinking disparities between sexual minority individuals and heterosexual individuals over time. During adolescence, sexual minority individuals, particularly females, reported higher levels of hazardous drinking. As study participants reached adulthood, the magnitude of the hazardous drinking disparities increased among sexual minorities, sexual minority men in particular. Additional research is needed to better understand the developmental mechanisms that underlie the emerging sexual orientation related disparities of hazardous drinking in young adulthood. PMID:23325141

  9. Transition from School to Adulthood for Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Review and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendricks, Dawn R.; Wehman, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The transition from school services to adulthood can be particularly difficult for many adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Although some individuals with ASD are able to successfully transition, most are faced with significant obstacles in multiple areas as they attempt to negotiate their way into college, work, community…

  10. A Review of Co-Morbid Disorders of Asperger's Disorder and the Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Stephanie; Curwen, Tracey; Ryan, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    This review includes empirical peer-reviewed articles which support the examination of Asperger's Disorder and co-morbid disorders, as well as an analysis of how adolescents with Asperger's Disorder transition to adulthood. Although the focus was on Asperger's Disorder, some studies include Autism Spectrum Disorder samples. It was found that…

  11. Goal Disengagement in Emerging Adulthood: The Adaptive Potential of Action Crises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandstätter, Veronika; Herrmann, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    In emerging adulthood, being committed to and making progress on important personal goals constitutes a source of identity and well-being. Goal striving, however, does not always go without problems. Even though highly committed to a goal, individuals may experience recurring setbacks and, consequently, increasing doubts about the goal that might…

  12. Predictors of the Transition from Experimental to Daily Smoking in Late Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sunhee; Weaver, Terri E.; Romer, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Although smoking initiation is rare in young adulthood, the progression to a higher level of smoking still occurs at this developmental stage. Thus, this study was aimed at exploring predictors of the transition from experimental to daily smoking in late teens and young adults using the 2nd and 3rd waves from the National Longitudinal Study of…

  13. Stability and Change in Educational and Occupational Aspirations: Longitudinal Analyses from Preadolescence to Young Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Frank M.; Frese, Wolfgang

    Using two panel studies which collectively covered the preadolescent-to-young adulthood period in the life cycle, the study focused on the issues of level of aspiration formation, stability, and race-sex subgroup invariance. The panel studies collected data from youths from (1) rural areas with towns of 2,500 or less and urban areas with cities of…

  14. Ten Tips That May Help Ease Your Child's Transition to Adulthood. PHP-c107

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PACER Center, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Planning for a child's transition from adolescence to adulthood is one of the most important things a parent can do to pave the way to a successful future. In Minnesota, special education transition planning and services begin when a child with a disability is fourteen. From then on, parents and their children will start learning new skills…

  15. Emerging Adulthood in Developmental Co-Ordination Disorder: Parent and Young Adult Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, A.; Edwards, L.; Sugden, D.

    2011-01-01

    Recent research widely acknowledges that developmental co-ordination disorder (DCD) is a pervasive and enduring disorder, which persists into adolescence and adulthood ([Cousins and Smyth, 2003] and [Kirby et al., 2008]). However, few studies have given detailed consideration to the range and level of functioning difficulties in emerging adults…

  16. Risk Behaviours in Transition to Adulthood for People with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rydzewska, Ewelina; Pirrie, Anne

    2015-01-01

    This article explores risk behaviour in adults with a diagnosis of Asperger's syndrome (AS) or high-functioning autism (HFA) during the transition to adulthood, drawing on interviews with twelve individuals and on two focus groups comprising members of other families affected by autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The authors examine the subtle…

  17. Cognitive, Linguistic and Adaptive Functioning in Williams Syndrome: Trajectories from Early to Middle Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howlin, Patricia; Elison, Sarah; Udwin, Orlee; Stinton, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Background: Little is known about trajectories of cognitive functioning as individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) move though adulthood. Method: The present study investigated cognitive, linguistic and adaptive functioning in adults with WS aged 19-55 years, using both cross-sectional and longitudinal approaches. Results: Data from the…

  18. "...But that's Just the Stereotype": Gender and Ethnicity in Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basit, Tehmina N.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the role of gender and ethnicity in young minority ethnic British citizens' transition to adulthood. As part of a larger study using a mixed methods approach, in-depth interviews were conducted with 20 young men and women aged 14-24 at different stages of education, employment and non-employment. By employing Bourdieu's…

  19. Prospective Longitudinal Associations between Persistent Sleep Problems in Childhood and Anxiety and Depression Disorders in Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Alice M.; Caspi, Avshalom; Eley, Thalia C.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Poulton, Richie

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the associations between persistent childhood sleep problems and adulthood anxiety and depression. Parents of 943 children (52% male) participating in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study provided information on their children's sleep and internalizing problems at ages 5, 7, and 9…

  20. Re-Examining the Impact of Dropping out on Criminal and Labor Outcomes in Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjerk, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper shows that while high school dropouts fare far worse on average than otherwise similar high school completers in early adulthood outcomes such as success in the labor market and future criminal activity, there are important differences within this group of dropouts. Notably, those who feel "pulled" out of school (i.e., they say they…

  1. Low-Income African American Youth. Vulnerable Youth and the Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuehn, Daniel; McDaniel, Marla

    2009-01-01

    The transition to adulthood could present challenges for African American youth from low-income families. This fact sheet uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 to explore racial differences in adolescent risk behavior, education, employment, and earnings among low income youth age 18 to 24. Differences discussed herein are…

  2. Trajectories of Educational Expectations from Adolescence to Young Adulthood in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tynkkynen, Lotta; Tolvanen, Asko; Salmela-Aro, Katariina

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this person-oriented, 5-wave longitudinal study was to examine the trajectories of educational expectations from adolescence to young adulthood in the context of the expectancy-value theory (Eccles et al., 1983). Altogether, 853 (48% female; M age = 16 years) Finnish adolescents reported their educational expectation, 1st in the…

  3. Continuity of Functional-Somatic Symptoms from Late Childhood to Young Adulthood in a Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Metzke, Christa Winkler

    2007-01-01

    Background: The goal of this study was to assess the course of functional-somatic symptoms from late childhood to young adulthood and the associations of these symptoms with young adult psychopathology. Methods: Data were collected in a large community sample at three different points in time (1994, 1997, and 2001). Functional-somatic symptoms…

  4. Changing Youth? Continuities and Ruptures in Transitions into Adulthood among Catalan Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serracant, Pau

    2012-01-01

    The globalisation process has an impact at the micro-level on life-course patterns: concretely, the trajectories of young people into adulthood are being sharply modified. At a European level, the extension, de-linearisation, reversibility and diversification of youth trajectories have been identified as major changes. However, the extent to which…

  5. Depression in Young and Middle Adulthood: A Summary of the Problem and Treatments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sortland, Theresa K.

    The depressed person is often trapped in a vicious cycle of dysfunctional thoughts and feelings of powerlessness. Young adults are prone to depression because of the intimacy versus isolation conflict. Young adulthood (ages 18-35) focuses on the search for intimacy, establishment of a career, and formation of a lifestyle. The failure to succeed in…

  6. Transitions to Adulthood in a Changing Economy: No Work, No Family, No Future?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Alan, Ed.; Crouter, Ann C., Ed.; Shanahan, Michael J., Ed.

    This book contains 17 papers devoted to the following four aspects of the transition to adulthood: effects of alterations in the structure of opportunity; effects of prior experiences in the family; effects of prior experience in the workplace; and career development and marriage formation during a period of rising inequality. The following papers…

  7. Economic Hardship in the Family of Origin and Children's Psychological Well-Being in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobolewski, Juliana M.; Amato, Paul R.

    2005-01-01

    Past research consistently indicates that poverty and economic hardship have negative consequences for children. Few studies, however, have examined whether these consequences persist into adulthood. This study addresses this gap by assessing whether economic resources in the family of origin have long-term effects on psychological well-being in…

  8. Understanding the Impact of Poverty on Critical Events in Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berzin, Stephanie Cosner; De Marco, Allison C.

    2010-01-01

    Current trends have allowed some youth a lengthened transition to adulthood, in part because of demographic shifts that delay the time until adolescents assume adult roles. Although these trends are well documented, less research has examined how this impacts vulnerable subgroups. Using a sample of predominantly White youth (ages 18-33) from the…

  9. Infancy Parenting and Externalizing Psychopathology from Childhood through Adulthood: Developmental Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorber, Michael F.; Egeland, Byron

    2009-01-01

    Developmental models and previous findings suggest that early parenting is more strongly associated with externalizing problems in early childhood than it is in adolescence. In this article, the authors address whether the association of poor-quality infancy parenting and externalizing problems "rebounds" in adulthood. Poor-quality infancy…

  10. Transition Planning for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Youth. Brookes Transition to Adulthood Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Too often, culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) youth with disabilities have a tougher road to adulthood than their Caucasian peers with disabilities. Reverse the odds with this concise how-to book, the first guide to easing the complex transition process for CLD students with a wide range of special needs. A veteran trainer of transition…

  11. Gender Differences in the Age-Changing Relationship between Instrumentality and Family Contact in Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sneed, Joel R.; Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Cohen, Patricia; Gilligan, Carol; Chen, Henian; Crawford, Thomas N.; Kasen, Stephanie

    2006-01-01

    Data from the Children in the Community Transitions Study were used to examine gender differences in the impact of family contact on the development of finance and romance instrumentality from ages 17 to 27 years. Family contact decreased among both men and women across emerging adulthood, although it decreased more rapidly in men than in women.…

  12. Becoming a Migrant: Aspirations of Youths during Their Transition to Adulthood in Rural Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azaola, Marta Cristina

    2012-01-01

    This article explores young people's transitions to adulthood in a rural community in Mexico. The focus is on participants' migration experiences and the premise is that migration can be understood as an alternative way of inclusion found by the rural youth which is strongly determined by individuals' agency. The article explores the role played…

  13. When the Brady Bunch Grows Up: Step/Half- and Fullsibling Relationships in Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Lynn K.; Riedmann, Agnes

    1992-01-01

    Used data from 1987-88 National Survey of Families and Households to compare contact with full- and step/halfsiblings in adulthood. Found that respondents kept in touch with step/halfsiblings, but saw them significantly less often than fullsiblings. Among stepfamilies, length of time in stepfamily and having stepfather rather than stepmother…

  14. Adaptive Functioning in Autism Spectrum Disorder during the Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Nicole L.; Smith, Christopher J.; Pollard, Elena; Ober-Reynolds, Sharman; Kirwan, Janet; Malligo, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    There is a dearth of research regarding adaptive functioning during the transition to adulthood in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Profiles on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second Edition were examined by age and intellectual ability in 75 participants with ASD (16-58 years). Results extend previous reports of a cognitive advantage over…

  15. Impact of Adolescent Alcohol and Drug Use on Neuropsychological Functioning in Young Adulthood: 10-Year Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Karen L.; Medina, Krista Lisdahl; Padula, Claudia B.; Tapert, Susan F.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2011-01-01

    Because of ongoing neuromaturation, youth with chronic alcohol/substance use disorders (AUD/SUD) are at risk for cognitive decrements during young adulthood. We prospectively examined cognition over 10 years based on AUD/SUD history. Youth (N = 51) with no AUD/SUD history (n = 14), persisting AUD/SUD (n = 18), or remitted AUD/SUD (n = 19) were…

  16. Use of Alcohol and Drugs in the Transitional Phase from Adolescence to Young Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, Torild; Vaglum, Per

    1990-01-01

    Studied use of alcohol and drugs in transitional phase from adolescence to young adulthood by analyzing data from a prospective longitudinal national survey of 2000 young adults. Findings showed a significant impact of this transitional period on both alcohol consumption and use of cannabis and a higher alcohol consumption among those who had left…

  17. Safety Nets and Scaffolds: Parental Support in the Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Teresa Toguchi; Kim, Minzee; Uno, Mayumi; Mortimer, Jeylan; O'Brien, Kirsten Bengtson

    2011-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from the Youth Development Study (analytic sample N = 712), we investigate how age, adult role acquisition and attainments, family resources, parent-child relationship quality, school attendance, and life events influence support received from parents in young adulthood. Parental assistance was found to be less forthcoming…

  18. Trajectories of Antisocial Behavior and Psychosocial Maturity from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan, Kathryn C.; Steinberg, Laurence; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Mulvey, Edward P.

    2009-01-01

    Most theorizing about desistance from antisocial behavior in late adolescence has emphasized the importance of individuals' transition into adult roles. In contrast, little research has examined how psychological development in late adolescence and early adulthood contributes desistance. The present study examined trajectories of antisocial…

  19. Lifespan adversity and later adulthood telomere length in the nationally representative US Health and Retirement Study

    PubMed Central

    Gemmill, Alison; Weir, David; Adler, Nancy E.; Prather, Aric A.

    2016-01-01

    Stress over the lifespan is thought to promote accelerated aging and early disease. Telomere length is a marker of cell aging that appears to be one mediator of this relationship. Telomere length is associated with early adversity and with chronic stressors in adulthood in many studies. Although cumulative lifespan adversity should have bigger impacts than single events, it is also possible that adversity in childhood has larger effects on later life health than adult stressors, as suggested by models of biological embedding in early life. No studies have examined the individual vs. cumulative effects of childhood and adulthood adversities on adult telomere length. Here, we examined the relationship between cumulative childhood and adulthood adversity, adding up a range of severe financial, traumatic, and social exposures, as well as comparing them to each other, in relation to salivary telomere length. We examined 4,598 men and women from the US Health and Retirement Study. Single adversities tended to have nonsignificant relations with telomere length. In adjusted models, lifetime cumulative adversity predicted 6% greater odds of shorter telomere length. This result was mainly due to childhood adversity. In adjusted models for cumulative childhood adversity, the occurrence of each additional childhood event predicted 11% increased odds of having short telomeres. This result appeared mainly because of social/traumatic exposures rather than financial exposures. This study suggests that the shadow of childhood adversity may reach far into later adulthood in part through cellular aging. PMID:27698131

  20. Identifying Experiences of Physical and Psychological Violence in Childhood that Jeopardize Mental Health in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, Emily A.; Marks, Nadine F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined associations between profiles of physical and psychological violence in childhood from parents and two dimensions of mental health in adulthood (negative affect and psychological well-being). Profiles were distinguished by the types of violence retrospectively self-reported (only physical, only psychological, or both…